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Title: The Cathedrals of Great Britain - Their History and Architecture
Author: Ditchfield, P. H. (Peter Hampson), 1854-1930
Language: English
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    THE CATHEDRALS
    OF
    GREAT BRITAIN


[Illustration York Minster.]



    THE CATHEDRALS
    OF
    GREAT BRITAIN

    _THEIR HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE_


    BY
    P.H. DITCHFIELD, M.A., F.S.A.

    _Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, Rector of Barkham_


    WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS
    BY
    HERBERT RAILTON, J.A. SYMINGTON, H.M. JAMES, H. CRICKMORE, ETC.


    1902
    LONDON: J.M. DENT & COMPANY
    PHILADELPHIA: J.B. LIPPINCOTT COY.


_All Rights Reserved_



PREFACE


In this volume I have attempted to give an architectural description
of all the cathedral churches of England, Wales, and Scotland,
together with a brief history of each see. In order to include any
adequate account of each church and bishopric in one volume of
portable size, which may be of use to visitors in their travels, much
compression has been necessary, but it is hoped that nothing of
importance has been omitted which might be useful to those who would
read aright the architectural history of our great churches. On
account of their immense importance in the history of Gothic art, it
has been thought well to include in this volume some account of the
churches of Westminster and Beverley. At the close of each history of
a cathedral will be found a record of the principal building dates and
dimensions, and also a brief account of the chief places and churches
of interest in the city or neighbourhood which it is advisable to
visit.

I desire to express my grateful thanks to all who have kindly assisted
in the preparation of this work, to the deans and canons-in-residence
who have often guided me by their counsel during my study of their
cathedrals, and also to the vergers who have readily afforded me much
valuable help. More especially do I wish to thank the Deans of
Lincoln, Ely, Chester and Gloucester, Canon Tristram of Durham, Bishop
Anson of Lichfield, and Archdeacon Richardson of Southwell, for their
courtesy and kindly interest. I have also to record my obligations to
the work of many previous writers. The works of Freeman, Rickman,
Britton, Willis, Winkle, and the Diocesan histories published by
S.P.C.K. have been consulted, as well as the special monographs on
each cathedral, which are too numerous to mention. Prior's _Gothic
Art_ has been of the greatest possible assistance, Addis's _Scottish
Cathedrals and Abbeys_, and also the very valuable and indispensable
handbooks published by the late Mr. John Murray. I have found the
volumes of Bell's Cathedral Series most useful when visiting the
buildings of which they treat, and Messrs. Isbister's volumes written
by the deans of our cathedrals contain picturesque and attractive
accounts of the historic buildings. To all these works I desire to
acknowledge my great indebtedness. And lastly I have to record my
grateful thanks to the artists who have enriched these pages with
their charming drawings, and to Mr. Dent, the publisher of this work,
for much encouragement, valuable advice, and able direction, without
which this volume would have lacked whatever of merit it may possess.

    P.H. DITCHFIELD.

    BARKHAM RECTORY,
    _September 8, 1902_.



                          CONTENTS


                                               PAGE

  THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE CATHEDRALS OF GREAT
  BRITAIN                                        1

  ST. PAUL'S                                     8

  WESTMINSTER                                   35

  ROCHESTER                                     57

  CANTERBURY                                    68

  WINCHESTER                                    85

  CHICHESTER                                    96

  SALISBURY                                    108

  OXFORD                                       125

  BRISTOL                                      138

  WELLS                                        149

  BATH                                         161

  EXETER                                       164

  TRURO                                        177

  GLOUCESTER                                   178

  HEREFORD                                     204

  WORCESTER                                    216

  LICHFIELD                                    230

  CHESTER                                      248

  LIVERPOOL                                    263

  MANCHESTER                                   264

  CARLISLE                                     272

  NEWCASTLE                                    282

  DURHAM                                       283

  RIPON                                        297

  YORK                                         309

  BEVERLEY                                     327

  WAKEFIELD                                    333

  LINCOLN                                      337

  SOUTHWELL                                    351

  PETERBOROUGH                                 360

  ELY                                          377

  NORWICH                                      393

  ST. ALBAN'S                                  409

  ST. ASAPH'S                                  423

  BANGOR                                       426

  LLANDAFF                                     429

  ST. DAVID'S                                  432

  GLASGOW                                      439

  IONA                                         441

  BRECHIN                                      442

  ABERDEEN                                     443

  DUNBLANE                                     444

  DUNKELD                                      445

  ST. ANDREW'S                                 446

  ST. GILES', EDINBURGH                        447

  KIRKWALL                                     448

  GLOSSARY OF ARCHITECTURAL TERMS              450



                LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


                                                           PAGE

  York Minster                                 _Frontispiece_

  St. Paul's from Cheapside                                  11

  The West Front                                             23
  The Nave from the Choir                                    28
  Woodwork, South Choir Aisle                                29
  Johnson's Statue                                           31

  Dean's Yard, Westminster, in 1730                          37

  The North Front                                            40
  Poets' Corner                                              43
  Henry V.'s Chantry                                         47
  Interior from Chapel of St. John                           51

  Rochester Cathedral                                        59

  Canterbury Cathedral                                       71

  Tomb of the Black Prince                                   78
  The Crypt                                                  80

  Winchester Cathedral                                       89

  West Front                                                 93

  Chichester Cathedral                                       99

  The Presbytery                                            105

  Salisbury Cathedral                                       111

  Strengthening Arches, East Transepts                      116

  Oxford Cathedral                                          129

  The Interior                                              133

  Bristol Cathedral, the Central Tower                      143

  Wells Cathedral                                           153

  Entrance to Crypt                                         159

  Exeter Cathedral                                          165

  Detail of Minstrels' Gallery                              170

  Gloucester Cathedral, The Deanery                         179

  From S.E.                                                 183
  Nave Pillars from the West                                187
  The Choir, looking East                                   191
  The Lady Chapel                                           195
  Carrel in South Cloister                                  199

  Hereford Cathedral from the Wye                           207
  The Cantelupe Shrine                                      211

  Worcester Cathedral from the Severn                       219

  Lichfield Cathedral, Distant View of Exterior             235

  St. Oswald's Gate, Chester Cathedral                      249

  Chester Cathedral                                         253

  The Choir                                                 257
  Shrine of St. Werburgh                                    261

  Carlisle Cathedral from S.E.                              275

  Durham Cathedral                                          285

  The Galilee Chapel                                        290
  The Bishop's Throne                                       293

  Ripon Cathedral from North                                299

  The Great Buttresses                                      302
  The Apse                                                  303

  York Cathedral--Tomb of Archbishop Walter de Grey         311

  Chapter House                                             313
  North Aisle of Choir                                      317
  The Ladye Chapel                                          321
  The Crypt                                                 323

  Beverley Minster, the West Front                          328

  Beverley Minster                                          329

  Percy Shrine                                              332

  Wakefield Cathedral                                       334

  Chantry Chapel on Wakefield Bridge                        335

  Lincoln Cathedral Towers and Potter Gate                  338

  Lincoln Cathedral and Exchequer Gate                      342

  The Angel Choir                                           347

  Southwell Central Tower and N. Transept                   355

  Peterborough Cathedral                                    365

  North-west Transept                                       370

  Ely Cathedral--Arm of Abbot's Chair                       378

  West Tower from Deanery Gardens                           379

  The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Lady
  Chapel                                                    381

  Ely Cathedral from South-east                             383
  The Octagon and Lantern from North-west                   384
  St. Catherine's Chapel                                    386
  In South Aisle of Nave looking to North Transept          387
  Carrel in Cloister                                        388

  Norwich Cathedral                                         397

  A Bay, North Side of Nave                                 401
  Ancient Bishop's Throne                                   403
  Bridge, North Aisle of Presbytery                         404

  St. Alban's Cathedral                                     411



                      LIST OF PLANS


                                                         PAGE

  St. Paul's Cathedral                                    34

  Westminster Abbey                                       56

  Canterbury Cathedral                                    83

  Winchester Cathedral                                    95

  Salisbury Cathedral                                    124

  Wells Cathedral                                        163

  Gloucester Cathedral                                   203

  Worcester Cathedral                                    229

  Durham Cathedral                                       296

  York Cathedral                                         326

  Lincoln Cathedral                                      350

  Peterborough Cathedral                                 376

  Ely Cathedral                                          392

  Norwich Cathedral                                      408



Cathedrals of Great Britain



THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE CATHEDRALS OF GREAT BRITAIN


We are endeavouring to follow the traces of the handiwork of the great
master-builders who have filled the English Isle with so many noble
shrines, to mark the growth and development of the various styles and
modes of building, and to endeavour to interpret their meaning. The
story of the rise and fall of English Gothic art has a fascination
that is all its own; and with the intention of endeavouring to realise
its high aims, its strength and beauty, and to understand its true
spirit, we will start on our pilgrimage to those fanes which it has
reared to the honour and glory of the Most High. And as we watch the
rise and progress of English Gothic art, we shall note that it is no
exotic, no alien welcomed to our shores; but a true English native
art, born in the brains and faith of our English forefathers, and
nourished here with a nation's whole-hearted affection. French writers
on architecture are accustomed to state that our English Gothic came
from France, and that each stage and change were wrought by the
influence of foreign masons and were borrowed from them. There could
not be a greater error. The Anglo-Norman style was developed quite as
much in this country as in Normandy, which was then a province of
England. We shall see that English Gothic sprang into being in the
choir of Lincoln. No foreign mason taught our English masons the
secret of their art. Even Westminster, most French of all our
buildings, and designed by a foreigner, is, in the language of Sir
Gilbert Scott, "a great French thought expressed in excellent
English." And while we have a style peculiarly our own, the
Perpendicular of the fifteenth century, at that period the French
with their Flamboyant tracery were only imitating the flowing lines
of our fourteenth-century Decorated. And as we study more carefully
these examples of English Gothic art, we shall admire the great
unknown toilers who built so surely and so well, who put their hearts
and lives, affections and religion into their work; we shall reverence
the relics of their handiwork which time has spared and love them
exceedingly.

For the convenience of classification, mediæval architecture has been
divided into four distinct styles or periods, and we must again
chronicle the oft-told story of their varied peculiarities.

I. The Norman style commenced in the reign of Edward the Confessor,
whose work at Westminster (the sub-structure of the dormitory and the
lower part of the walls of the refectory with the ornamental arcade)
is declared to be the earliest example of the Norman style in England.
This style prevailed to the time of Henry II., when a period of
transition set in, and the style began to approximate to that of the
succeeding century. The main characteristics of the Norman style
are--cylindrical massive piers, round-headed arches, a great variety
of mouldings such as zigzag, billet, double-cone, pellet, lozenge,
beak-head, etc., small and narrow windows splayed only on the inside,
buttresses slightly projecting from the wall. Some of the best
examples of this style are the naves of Ely, Gloucester, Durham, and
much Norman work is seen at Winchester, Exeter, Canterbury, Chester,
Peterborough, Norwich, Rochester, Chichester, Oxford, Worcester, Wells
and Hereford.

II. The Early English style began with the thirteenth century, in the
reign of King John, the choir of Lincoln being the earliest example.
Wearied with the Romanesque uncouth details of Norman art, the English
masons were feeling after and finding a more excellent way, and
discovered the beauties of Gothic architecture. This style flourished
until the time of Edward I.; during his reign another period of
transition set in, and this style gradually developed into the
Decorated.

Its main characteristics are lighter and more elegant forms of
construction and decoration, pointed arches, often shaped like a
surgeon's lancet, whence they derive their name, deeply undercut
mouldings, dog-tooth ornament, piers formed of columns with detached
shafts united under one capital, and bound together by a band,
bell-shaped capitals, stiff-leaved foliage, trefoiled arches,
plate-tracery. Early English work is seen in the choir of Lincoln,
Worcester, Chichester, Salisbury, Exeter, Wells, Rochester, York
(south transept), Southwell, Ripon, Ely, Peterborough, Durham ("nine
altars"), Glasgow.

III. The Decorated style commenced in the fourteenth century, or a few
years earlier, reached its zenith before the middle of the century,
and ended with the reign of the third Edward. The period of transition
between this style and the last is perhaps the era of the greatest
beauty of English art. The characteristics of the style are, more
elaborateness of detail and ornament, much larger windows with
beautiful and complex tracery, heavier buttresses, piers with
closely-joined shafts, not detached as before, sculpture closely
imitating natural foliage, mouldings less deeply cut, the ball-flower
ornament. Decorated work is very plentiful, and may be seen in the
chapter-houses of Wells, Norwich, Winchester, Canterbury, also at
York, Lichfield, Exeter, Carlisle, Lincoln, Southwell, and elsewhere.
A period of transition again followed during the last half of the
fourteenth century, during which the style developed into the
Perpendicular.

IV. The Perpendicular style prevailed during the fifteenth century and
continued until the reign of Henry VIII., when the mediæval period
ceased. This style is, as we have said, peculiar to England. In
Scotland, where French influence was great, there are many examples of
the Flamboyant style, which prevailed in France, and was scarcely
known in England. This style is characterised by more elaborate and
richer work, increased use of ornament and panelled decoration,
peculiar window tracery (the mullions being carried straight up
through the head of the window, while smaller mullions spring from the
heads of the principal lights), much larger windows, depressed arches
(Tudor arch), much heavier buttresses, mouldings carried up the piers
and arches without any break or capital, cavetto (a wide and rather
shallow variety), ogee, bowtell mouldings, the rose ornament, Tudor
flower. The extensive use of panelling is always the hall-mark of the
Perpendicular period. The choir of Gloucester is the earliest known
example of this style, and King's College, Cambridge, St. George's
Chapel, Windsor, and Henry VII.'s Chapel at Westminster, are the most
perfect specimens of Perpendicular art.

Then followed the Renaissance period, when classical and Roman
features were mingled with the latest English style. There was an
attempt to revive the Gothic style in the time of James I., but the
foreign influence was too strong, and not till the close of the
eighteenth century did this revival take place. The love of Gothic
art had never been quite extinguished in this country, and to the
English people belongs the honour of restoring to its rightful place
that style which has created so many superb and magnificent buildings
instinctive of the faith and reverence which first called them into
being.

In our cathedrals we have endless varieties of plan, construction,
style and adornment, as well as in the associations connected with
their histories. They derive their name from the Latin word _Cathedra_
(Greek, [Greek: Kathedra]), signifying a seat, a cathedral church
being that particular church of the diocese where the bishop's seat or
throne is placed. If this church belonged to a monastery it was served
by the monks, but many of our cathedrals were in the hands of secular
canons, who were not monks, and should not be confused with the
"regular" clergy. Monastic churches had always a complete series of
monastic buildings--the cloister-court, the centre of a monk's life,
around which were grouped the chapter-house, dormitory, refectory,
infirmary, hospitium or guest-hall. Churches served by secular canons
sometimes have a cloister, but this was added more as an ornament, and
was not a necessity. The Reformation wrought many changes in our
cathedrals. Out of the spoil of the monasteries Henry VIII. undertook
to endow five new sees, and thus created the sees of Oxford,
Peterborough, Chester, Gloucester and Bristol. These are called the
cathedrals of the New Foundation, and with these are classed the
monastic cathedrals which survived the shock of the Reformation, viz.:
Canterbury, Winchester, Worcester, Rochester, Norwich, Ely, Durham,
Carlisle. The cathedrals of the Old Foundation which survived, with
some changes in their constitution, were York, London, Salisbury,
Wells, Chichester, Hereford, Exeter, Lichfield and Lincoln, and the
Welsh dioceses of St. David's, Llandaff, Bangor and St. Asaph.
Episcopacy was finally banished from the Church of Scotland on the
advent of William III.; hence the cathedrals in the northern country
are so only in name. The Episcopal Church of Scotland has, of course,
cathedrals, but most of these are modern. Since the Reformation in
England, and especially in modern times, many new sees have been
formed; these are Manchester, Liverpool, Ripon, St. Alban's,
Southwell, Truro, Wakefield and Newcastle. The plan of our cathedrals
is usually cruciform, formed by a nave with aisles, north and south
transepts, central tower, choir and presbytery. Sometimes the plan is
that of a double cross, there being a second or eastern transept
towards the eastern end of the choir.

Our inspection of the exterior begins first by trying to obtain a good
general view of the building. We notice the remains of the walls and
gates which guarded the close, or precincts of the cathedral. Within
these walls the bishop's power was supreme. If sanctuary was claimed
by a fugitive from justice, here he was safe; and the clergy and the
serving-men were free from the ordinary law, and could be tried only
by the ecclesiastics.

Then we notice the west front, usually a fine screen of stone-work,
wherein are enshrined in niches weather-worn statues telling of the
men of old who had done well in their days for their Church and realm.

Passing to the north we see the central tower, possibly Norman as
high as the roof, with a superstructure of later times. The pitch of
the roof may have been altered in later times from a high pitch to
a flat one, and the marks of the old roof may often be seen on the
tower walls. Just below the eaves is the range of clerestory windows.
Flying buttresses connecting the buttresses of the outer wall with
those of the inner are frequent and produce a very graceful effect.
Niches for statues are often carved upon the buttresses. Curious
grotesquely-carved heads, called gargoyles, look down upon us from
the gutters of the roof. The tracery of the windows is no indication
of the age of the walls, as they have frequently been inserted in
place of others of an older period. The porch is a large structure,
and sometimes has a chamber, called a parvise, over it. The object of
this chamber cannot always be determined. Sometimes it was the abode
of the sacristan, and occasionally it was set apart for the use of an
anchorite or recluse. The monastic buildings are usually on the south
side in Benedictine monasteries, but sometimes on account of the nature
of the ground they are on the north.

On entering the church we view the nave, which is usually in three
storeys--the main arcade, the triforium, which opens into a gallery or
passage, and the clerestory. Sometimes the choir occupies two bays of
the nave, but usually begins with the screen placed on the east side
of the central tower. This screen was formerly the rood-screen, and a
large crucifix stood on it; but at the Reformation all roods were
destroyed, and sometimes the organ stands in its place.

Entering the choir we see before us the high altar with a fine reredos
behind it, so called from the French _L'arrière-dos_, meaning
"embroidered hangings." On the south of this is the piscina,
consisting of a hollow basin with a stone-drain, wherein the priest
cleansed the sacred vessels after using them in the Holy Eucharist. On
the same side are the sedilia, or stone seats for the clergy,
frequently with richly-carved canopies. Then there are the
beautifully-carved stalls with fine tabernacle work, and the
_sub-sellæ_ or misereres (French, _miséricorde_) with their quaint
carvings. It is a popular error, gravely perpetrated by some cathedral
vergers and others, to suppose these misereres were a kind of
ingenious trap for sleepy monks, who, when the heavy seat fell down
with a loud bang, were detected in slumber and forced to do penance.
They were so placed as a concession to human weakness in order that
the monks or canons might lean against them during the long mediæval
services, when sitting was not allowed. The eastern portion of the
choir is called the presbytery.

We pass to the north aisle of the choir and proceed to the ambulatory,
processional path, or retro-choir. Here, at the back of the altar, was
the chief shrine, where the relics of some great saint were preserved
under a gorgeous cover decorated with gold and silver and precious
jewels, to which crowds of pilgrims flocked, and there prayed and
gazed upon the wondrous shrine, and made their offerings. The steps
and pavement leading to the shrine often still show by their worn
condition the evidence of the tread of countless numbers of pilgrims.
Near the shrine was a watching chamber, where a monk stayed to guard
the shrine and its treasures.

Eastward of the ambulatory is usually the Lady Chapel, where the altar
of the Virgin stood; and here, and in other parts of the church, are
numerous chantry chapels, sometimes built on to the church, or in the
church itself, containing effigies of the founders and altar tombs,
where masses were said by specially-endowed chantry priests for the
repose of the souls of the deceased and their families. Some effigies
of knights and warriors have their legs crossed. It is another popular
error to suppose that this fashion of representing the deceased had
anything to do with the Crusades. Beneath some portion of the church
we find a crypt with the remains of numerous altars, where masses were
said for the souls of those who lie buried here.

A door on the south side of the church leads to the cloister court;
immediately on the left as we traverse the east walk we see the slype
or passage leading to the monks' cemetery. Another door from this walk
leads to the chapter-house, where the monks assembled daily to arrange
the affairs of the monastery, enforce its discipline, assign the
duties of the day and transact other business. On the same side of the
cloister was the dormitory; the refectory was on the south; the uses
of the buildings on the west side varied in different houses.

As we see our cathedrals now, the view that meets us differs much from
that which would have greeted us in mediæval times. Then all was
ablaze with colours. Through the beautiful ancient glass the light
gleamed on tints of gorgeous hues, on rich tapestries and hangings, on
walls bedight with paintings, and every monument, pier and capital
were aglow with coloured decorations. We have lost much, but still
much remains. At the Reformation the avaricious courtiers of Henry
VIII. plundered our sacred shrines, and carried off under the plea of
banishing superstition vast stores of costly plate and jewels,
tapestry and hangings. In the Civil War time riotous fanatical
soldiery wrought havoc everywhere, hacking beautifully-carved tombs
and canopies, destroying brasses, and mutilating all that they could
find. Ages of neglect have also left their marks upon our churches;
and above all, the hand of the ignorant and injudicious "restorer" has
fallen heavily on these legacies of Gothic art, destroying much that
was of singular beauty, and replacing it by the miserable productions
of early nineteenth-century fabrication.

But in spite of all the evils that have been wrought, in spite of
Puritan iconoclasm and Reformation violence, in spite of natural
decay, eighteenth-century lethargy, and the intemperate zeal of unwise
and tasteless modern restorers, our cathedrals still preserve much of
their ancient beauty and attractiveness. They are standing witnesses
to the greatness of the masons and builders who fashioned and
perfected our English Gothic art, "an art that was created here in
this land according to our native instincts, and in accord with the
sober dress of our skies and the simple pleasantness of our
scenery."[1] A man cannot fail to love that English art, whether he
has been born amongst it like ourselves, or has come wonderingly on
its simplicity from all the grandeur over seas.

FOOTNOTE:

[1] _History of Gothic Art in England_, by E.S. Prior.



ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL


The great Cathedral of St. Paul has abundant claims to the love and
veneration of every Englishman. Situated in the heart of the city of
London, it has ever been associated with the religious, social and
civic life of the people; and as the great national Cathedral of
England all the principal events in our country's annals have been
connected with St. Paul's. Without doubt it is the finest and grandest
building in London, if not in the world. Comparing it with St. Peter's
at Rome, we find that its dimensions are, of course, much smaller,
though its grace and beauty are in no way inferior to the magnificent
conception of Michael Angelo. It is the shrine of our national heroes,
the _chef d'oeuvre_ of a great genius; its massive dome surmounted
by a golden cross greets the traveller returning from beyond seas; its
walls have echoed with the strains of high thanksgiving on the
occasion of national victories and blessings, when kings and queens
have come in solemn state to render thanks to Him who is the King of
kings and Lord of lords. Just as Westminster was ever the church of
the king and the government, so St. Paul's was the church of the
citizens.

The prominent place which St. Paul's takes in the national and social
life of England, in the great functions of Church and State, and in
promoting the religious life of the people, is worthy of its best
traditions, and at no time during its long history has it taken a
higher place in the affections of the nation.


THE OLDER CATHEDRALS OF ST. PAUL'S

The present Cathedral, erected by the skill and genius of Sir
Christopher Wren, is the third sacred edifice built upon this site.
Indeed, Camden and certain early fanciful historians tell us of a
Roman temple dedicated to Diana which they assert once stood here,
erected during the time of the Diocletian persecution upon the site of
an early Christian church. It is, however, certain that when Sir
Christopher sank his foundations for the present building, he found
beneath the interred bodies of mediæval times several Saxon stone
coffins, and at a still lower depth Celtic and Roman remains, showing
that the site had been set apart as a cemetery from very early times.

The earliest church of which we have sure records was erected in Saxon
times by good King Ethelbert of Kent in the year 610. St. Mellitus,
the companion of St. Augustine, was the first English Bishop of
London,[2] who came there in order to convert the East Saxons.
Siebert, their king, joined with his uncle, Ethelbert, in building the
Cathedral church, and the former probably founded the monastery of St.
Peter called Westminster on Thorney Island, a place then "terrible
from its desolate aspect--a mass of marsh and brushwood."

But the Londoners loved their Paganism, and took not kindly to the new
faith. The men of the "emporium of many nations" clung to their
worship of Wodin and Thor, and not even the wise words of Mellitus in
the new Cathedral could win them. It was the original design of Pope
Gregory, who sent Augustine to our shores, to make the Cathedral of
London the Metropolitan Church of England--a design which Augustine
could not carry out on account of the violent opposition of the
Pagan-loving people. Hence Canterbury was elevated to the position of
the Metropolitan Church. Thirty-eight years passed away. At length the
fiery spirit of the Londoners was subdued after three great missionary
efforts, and they gradually learned the story of the cross. The
Cathedral was beautified by Bishop Cedd, brother of St. Cedd or Chad
of Lichfield, and Sebbe, King of Essex, and was fortunate in having
St. Erkenwald as the fourth Bishop of London, who wrought great
wonders and attracted many converts, restoring wealth and honour to
his Cathedral. To his memory a golden shrine was erected which was
much frequented by pilgrims. Saxon kings gave of their wealth to the
endowment of the Cathedral, and many rich lands were granted to it, as
the ancient charters bear witness.

Fire has always been a great foe to St. Paul's. A very destructive
conflagration raged in 961 A.D., and again in 1086 the Cathedral was
wholly destroyed. We have no means of knowing what kind of
architecture characterised this earliest fane, but probably it
possessed round arches of stone, massive piers, and the usual
characteristics of the Saxon style.

The energy of the English people is evident to all who study our
national annals. When any alarming catastrophe occurs, immediately
they arise to repair the disaster. As it was in the seventeenth
century when the Great Fire swept over London and laid the city low,
so it was in the eleventh. The Saxon church had no sooner been reduced
to a heap of ruins than the Norman builders began to rear another
noble pile. Bishop Maurice was the designer of this great edifice,
which existed until the time of the Great Fire, though it was greatly
injured by a fire in 1136.

A very noble church it must have been, with its walls ablaze with
colour, richly-canopied tombs, pictures and frescoes, books, and
vestments glittering with gold, silver and precious stones. It was the
largest Cathedral in England.

Old pictures tell us that it was cruciform, with a high tower and
spire in the centre. The nave was long and noble, built in Norman
style, having twelve bays. William of Malmesbury describes it as being
"so stately and beautiful that it was worthily numbered amongst the
most famous buildings." At the west end were two towers for bells, and
sometimes used as prisons. The central tower had flying buttresses.
Besides the high altar there were seventy or eighty chantries, with
their own altars all ablaze with rich draperies. St. Paul's was also
very rich in relics, among the number of which were two arms of St.
Mellitus, a knife of our Lord, some hair of Mary Magdalene, blood of
St. Paul, milk of the Virgin, the hand of St. John, the skull of
Thomas à Becket, the head of King Ethelbert. But "the pride, glory and
fountain of wealth" to St. Paul's was the body of St. Erkenwald,
covered with a golden shrine, behind the high altar. Dean Milman
states that in the year 1344 the offerings made by pilgrims alone
amounted to £9000. The choir was rebuilt in 1221, and the Lady Chapel
added in 1225. There was a very large east window, and a rose window
over it. Buttresses crowned with pinnacles and adorned with niches
supported the walls. The interior view, judging from Hollar's
engraving, must have been very fine. The pillars and arches were Late
Norman. The choir consisted of twelve bays and was finished about the
end of the thirteenth century. We have few records to tell us about
the details of the building of this old St. Paul's. In 1312 the nave
was paved with marble, and two years later a spire of wood was raised
to the height of 460 feet, then the highest in the world. This was
damaged and ultimately destroyed by lightning.

[Illustration ST. PAUL'S FROM CHEAPSIDE]

FOOTNOTE:

[2] There were some British Bishops of London. One of these,
Restitutus, was present at the Council of Arles in A.D. 314, and
Geoffrey mentions Theon, Bishop of London, amongst those who fled into
Wales during the Saxon invasion.


THE PRECINCTS

We will now examine the precincts of the Cathedral. A wall surrounded
the vast space which extended from Carter Lane on the south to Creed
Lane and included Paternoster Row. This wall had six gates, the site
of two of which is marked by St. Paul's Alley and Paul's Chain. The
Bishop's Palace occupied the north-west corner of this space, and on
the north were some cloisters decorated with mural paintings
representing the Dance of Death, a favourite subject of mediæval
painters, of which Holbein's conceptions are best known. This cloister
was on the site of Pardon Churchyard, where a chapel was founded by
Gilbert à Becket, the father of St. Thomas of noted memory. The
chapter-house stood on the south side of the Cathedral, and was a very
beautiful structure, so beautiful that Protector Somerset coveted the
materials for his palace in the Strand, and took down and removed
them.

At the north-east corner of the precincts stood the famous Paul's
Cross, the scene of so many famous preachings and strange events,
where folk-motes were held, Papal bulls promulgated, Royal
proclamations made, excommunications and public penances declared, and
sometimes riots and tumults excited. Paul's Cross played a very
prominent part in the history of old London. Near the Pardon
Churchyard once stood the Parish Church of St. Faith, called the
Chapel of Jesus; but this was destroyed, and the parishioners received
in lieu of it a church in the crypt of the Cathedral. Fuller,
remarking on this and on the existence of the Parish Church of St.
Gregory on the Thames side of the Cathedral, quaintly observed, "St.
Paul's may be called the Mother Church indeed, having one babe in her
body and another in her arms."

St. Paul's was the centre of the life of London. Its great bell
summoned the London citizens to their three annual folk-motes at
Paul's Cross, where all the municipal business of the city was
transacted, disputes settled, grievances stated and rights vindicated.
Very turbulent and jealous of their liberties were these good
citizens, and even the sovereign will of kings and queens must bow
before the noisy clamours of the burghers of London. The bell of St.
Paul's, like that of its famous brother "Roland" at Ghent, seemed
endowed with a human voice when it summoned the multitudes to their
meeting-place at the Cross, and declared in loud tones the will of the
people.


HISTORICAL EVENTS

The citizens might well love to have their church in their midst, for
the ecclesiastical power was very strong, and often enabled them to
defy the will of tyrannical kings or troublesome barons. In the time
of the Conqueror, Bishop William of London obtained from the king a
renewal of their privileges of which the monarch had deprived them. In
gratitude for this benefit, the mayor, aldermen and livery companies
of London used to visit the tomb of the good bishop in grand
procession, in order to pray for his soul, and to commemorate his
great services.

In the reign of Stephen civil war raged, and the country was divided
into hostile camps, one siding with the king and the other with the
Empress Maud. The citizens of London were not doubtful in their
opinions. They rang the great bell of St. Paul's, summoned their
folk-mote, and loudly declared that it was the privilege of the
citizens of their great city to elect a sovereign for England, and
with one voice supported Stephen.

Thomas à Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, was a favourite of the
citizens, though hated by his sovereign. Gilbert à Becket, his father,
had a shop in Cheapside on the site of Mercers' Hall, whither the fair
Saracen is said to have followed him from the Holy Land, where he had
gone on a Crusade. He built a chapel in the churchyard of St. Paul,
and his son, the famous archbishop, was well known to the citizens.
Gilbert Foliot, Bishop of London, however, had taken the side of the
king, Henry II., in the fatal quarrel, and aroused the anger of the
prelate. A curious scene took place in consequence in old St. Paul's.
A priest was celebrating mass, when a man approached, thrust a paper
into his hand, and cried aloud, "Know all men that Gilbert, Bishop of
London, is excommunicated by Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury." The
news spread fast among the citizens. Foliot at first attempted to defy
the dread sentence; but he knew something of the nature of the
citizens of London, and wisely bowed before the decree, which the
people were quite willing to enforce.

St. Paul's was the scene of a memorable council in the reign of
Richard Coeur de Lion, who was crusading in Palestine. The bishops,
together with the king's brother John, met in the nave and condemned
Longchamp to resign the office of justiciary, and to surrender the
castles which he held in the name of the king. During this reign a
factious demagogue, William Fitz-Osbert, equally distinguished by the
length of his beard and the vehemence of his eloquence, called the
people together at Paul's Cross, and excited them to rebel against
their oppressors. Bishop Hubert, however, calmed the multitude on the
eve of a formidable rising. The people deserted their leader, who took
refuge in St. Mary-le-Bow Church, which was set on fire, and
Fitz-Osbert suffered death at the hands of the hangman. Thus from the
tyranny of a Royal favourite, and from that of a mob orator, the
people were saved by the influence of the Church in St. Paul's
Cathedral.

A still greater service did St. Paul's render to England. Here was
assembled a grand concourse of bishops, abbots, deans, priors and
barons, to withstand the oppressive lawlessness of King John. Here
Magna Charta was first devised. Here, at the instigation of Archbishop
Langton, the barons and chief men swore to maintain the principles of
the Charta, and to protect the liberties of Englishmen.

St. Paul's also set itself in opposition to the authority of the Pope;
and when a Papal legate sought to enthrone himself in St. Paul's, he
was openly resisted by Cantelupe, Bishop of Worcester. Boniface of
Savoy, "the handsome Archbishop," brought with him fashions strange
enough to English folk. His armed retainers pillaged the markets, and
he felled to the ground, with his own fist, the prior of St.
Bartholomew, Smithfield, who presumed to oppose his visitation. He
came to St. Paul's to demand first-fruits from the Bishop of London,
but deemed it advisable to wear armour beneath his robes. He found the
gates of the Cathedral closed against him; but he fared better than
two canons of the Papal party, who were killed by the citizens a few
years later when they attempted to enter St. Paul's. London was
aroused by these Italian priests, and the citizens at length besieged
Lambeth Palace and drove the obnoxious archbishop beyond seas.

Again and again the tocsin sounded, as St. Paul's bell rang clear and
loud, and the citizens seized their weapons and formed their
battalions beneath the shadow of the great church. Now it was to help
Simon de Montfort against the king; now to seize the person of the
obnoxious Queen Eleanor, who was trying to escape by water from the
Tower to Windsor, and who was rescued from their hands by the Bishop
of London, and found refuge in his palace. Now the favourites of
Edward II. excited their rage, especially the Bishop of Exeter, the
king's regent, who dared to ask the Lord Mayor for the keys of the
city, and paid for his temerity with his life.

An incident which shows the attachment of the people to their church
and bishop occurred in the reign of the third Edward. Wycliffe was
summoned by Bishop Courtenay to appear before a great council at St.
Paul's. But the reformer did not come alone; to the surprise of his
accusers he arrived attended by a large following of friends, among
whom were John of Gaunt and Lord Percy. These powerful supporters of
Wycliffe attacked the bishop with angry words.

News was flashed among the citizens that John of Gaunt had threatened
their bishop and vowed to drag him out of the church by the hair. They
gathered together in angry crowds, and would have slain the duke and
sacked his palace, the Savoy, in the Strand, if the bishop had not
interfered on behalf of his enemy. Wycliffe and Lollardism did not
then find much favour with the people of London.

There were reformers within the Church who were quite as eager to
correct abuses as those outside the fold. Among these was Bishop
Braybroke of London, who lived in the time of Edward IV. He contended
for the sanctity of the sacred building, inveighed against the
practice of using it as an exchange, of playing at ball within the
precincts or within the church, and of shooting the pigeons which then
as now found sanctuary at St. Paul's.

The chronicles of the Cathedral tell the story of the troublous times
of the Wars of the Roses. We see Henry IV. pretending bitter sorrow
for the death of the murdered Richard, and covering with cloths of
gold the body, which had been exhibited to the people in St. Paul's.
We see Henry V. returning in triumph from the French wars, riding in
state to the Cathedral, attended by "the mayor and brethren of the
city companies, wearing red gowns with hoods of red and white,
well-mounted and gorgeously horsed, with rich collars and great
chains, rejoicing at his victorious returne." Then came Henry VI.,
attended by the bishops, the dean and canons, to make his offering at
the altar. Here the false Duke of York took his oath on the Blessed
Sacrament to be loyal to the king. Here the rival houses swore to lay
aside their differences, and to live at peace. But a few years later
saw the new king, Edward IV., at St. Paul's, attended by great
Warwick, the king-maker, with his bodyguard of 800 men-at-arms.
Strange were the changes of fortune in those days. Soon St. Paul's
saw the exhibition of the dead body of the king-maker, and not long
afterwards that of the poor dethroned Henry, and Richard came in state
here amid the shouts of the populace. After the defeat of the
conspiracy of Lambert Simnel, Henry VII. celebrated a joyous
thanksgiving in the Cathedral, and here, amid much rejoicing, the
youthful marriage of Prince Arthur with Catherine of Arragon took
place, when the conduits at Cheapside and on the west of the Cathedral
ran with wine, and the bells rang joyfully, and all wished happiness
to the Royal children whose wedded life was destined to be so brief.


THE REFORMATION AND AFTER

At the dawn of the Reformation period we will pause in order to try
and realise what kind of scenes took place daily in the great
Cathedral, and what vast numbers were employed on the staff. The
members of the Cathedral body in the year 1450 included the
following:--The Bishop, the Dean, the four Archdeacons, the Treasurer,
the Precentor, the Chancellor, thirty greater Canons, twelve lesser
Canons, about fifty Chaplains or Chantry-Priests and thirty Vicars. Of
inferior rank to these were the Sacrist, the three Vergers, the
Succentor, the Master of the Singing School, the Master of the Grammar
School, the Almoner and his four Vergers, the Servitors, the Surveyor,
the twelve Scribes, the Book Transcriber, the Bookbinder, the
Chamberlain, the Rent-collector, the Baker, the Brewer, the
Singing-men and Choir Boys, of whom priests were made, the Bedesmen
and the poor folk. In addition to these must be added the servants of
all these officers--the brewer, who brewed in the year 1286, 67,814
gallons, must have employed a good many; the baker, who ovened every
year 40,000 loaves, or every day a 100, large and small; the sextons,
grave-diggers, gardeners, bell-ringers, makers and menders of the
ecclesiastical robes, cleaners and sweepers, carpenters, masons,
painters, carvers and gilders. One can very well understand that the
Church of St. Paul alone found a livelihood for thousands.

The inventory of church goods belonging to the Cathedral in 1245
exists, and is worth studying. It enumerates sixteen chalices, five of
gold and the rest of silver-gilt. A chalice of Greek work had lost its
paten, but retained its reed (_calamus_), a relic of the time when
the deacon carried the chalice to the people, and each one drank of
its hallowed contents through a long narrow pipe, which was usually
fastened on a pivot to the bottom of the cup of the chalice. Amongst
other curiosities of the inventory are three _poma_, or hollow balls
of silver, so contrived as to hold hot water or charcoal embers for
the warming of the hands of the celebrant during mass.

Of shrines and relics we have already spoken. There were three
episcopal staves, and also a precentor staff of ivory with silver-gilt
and jewelled enrichments, and a _baculus stultorum_ for use at the
profane travesty called the feast of fools. Among the mitres were two
for the boy-bishop's use on St. Nicholas Day. There were thirty-seven
magnificent copes, and forty-four others, and thirty-four specially
fine chasubles.

The inventory of 1402 supplies some curious information as to the
manner in which the numerous and costly vestments were arranged when
not in use. In the treasury, on the west, stood a wardrobe,
_armariolum_, in which were twenty-four _perticæ_, pegs, or rods, or
frames, from which the copes and chasubles could be suspended, one
_pertica_ holding from three to six copes. The vestments were arranged
according to colour. Three other wardrobes were also stored with
goodly vestments, and there were twenty-six in daily use. The total is
179 copes, fifty-one chasubles and ninety-two tunicles, and the
colours were red, purple, black, white, green, yellow, blue, red mixed
with blue.

We have remarked that St. Paul's was the centre of the social life of
the people in olden days, which led to some abuses.

Francis Osborn says, "It was the fashion in those days, and did so
continue until these, for the principal gentry, lords and courtiers,
and men of all professions, to meet in St. Paul's by eleven of the
clock, and walk in the middle aisle till twelve, and after dinner from
three to six, during which time they discoursed of business, others of
news."

Shakespeare represents Falstaff in _Henry V._ as having "bought
Bardolph in Paul's"; and Dekker thus speaks of the desecration of the
sanctuary, "At one time in one and the same rank, yea, foot by foot,
elbow by elbow, shall you see walking the knight, the gull, the
gallant, the upstart, the gentleman, the clown, the captain, the
apple-squire, the lawyer, the usurer, the citizen, the bankrout, the
scholar, the beggar, the doctor, the idiot, the ruffian, the cheat,
the Puritan, the cut-throat, highman, lowman and thief; of all trades
and professions some; of all countries some. Thus while Devotion
kneels at her prayers, doth Profanation walk under her nose in
contempt of Religion."

Here lawyers received their clients; here men sought service; here
usurers met their victims, and the tombs and font were mightily
convenient for counters for the exchanges of money and the transaction
of bargains, and the rattle of gold and silver was constantly heard
amidst the loud talking of the crowd.

Gallants enter the Cathedral wearing spurs, having just left their
steeds at "The Bell and Savage," and are immediately besieged by the
choristers, who have the right of demanding spur-money from anyone
entering the building wearing spurs.

Nor are the fair sex absent, and Paul's Walk was used as a convenient
place for assignations. Old plays are full of references to this
practice.

Later on the nave was nothing but a public thoroughfare, where men
tramped carrying baskets of bread and fish, flesh and fruit, vessels
of ale, sacks of coal, and even dead mules and horses and other
beasts. Hucksters and pedlars sold their wares.

Duke Humphrey's tomb was the great meeting-place of all beggars and
low rascals, and they euphemistically called their gathering "a dining
with Duke Humphrey."

Much more could be written of this assembly of all sorts and
conditions of men, but we have said enough to show that the Cathedral
had suffered greatly from desecration and abuse. Indeed, an old writer
in 1561 declared that the burning of the steeple in that year was a
judgment for the scenes of profanation which were daily witnessed in
old St. Paul's. He writes, "No place has been more abused than Paul's
has been, nor more against the receiving of Christ's Gospel; wherefore
it is more marvel that God spared it so long, rather than He overthrew
it now. From the top of the spire at coronations, or at other solemn
triumphs, some for vain glory used to throw themselves down by a rope,
and so killed themselves vainly to please other men's eyes," and much
more to the same effect.

But the strictness of the worthy divine did not altogether cure the
evils against which he railed. Eight years later the first great
lottery was drawn before the west doors. There were 10,000 lots at ten
shillings each, and day and night from January 11 to May 6 the drawing
went on. The prizes were pieces of plate, and the profits were devoted
to the repair of the havens of England. So profitable was the lottery
that another took place here in 1586, the prizes being some valuable
armour.

At the dawn of the Reformation we see Henry VIII. in all the pomp and
glory of mediæval pageantry riding in state to the Cathedral to be
adorned with a cap of maintenance and a sword presented to him by the
Pope. There was no sign yet of any breach of alliance between the
Roman Pontiff and him whom he honoured with the title of "Defender of
the Faith." Lollardism in spite of some burnings spread, and the
western tower of the Cathedral earned the name of the Lollards' Tower,
as several were imprisoned there.

Wolsey, the great cardinal, in the height of his prosperity often came
to St. Paul's, and very gorgeous were the scenes which took place
there, when thanksgiving for the peace between England, France and
Spain was celebrated, when Princess Mary was betrothed to the Dauphin
of France, and Charles V. proclaimed emperor. But signs of trouble
were evident. Bishop Fisher thundered forth invectives against the
works of Luther, which were publicly burnt in St. Paul's Churchyard. A
few years later there was a burning in the Cathedral of heretical
books in the presence of the cardinal, who caused some of Luther's
followers to march round the blaze, throw in faggots, and thus to
contemplate what a burning of heretics would be like, and be thankful
that only their books and not their bodies were condemned to the
flames.

During this troubled time and in Mary's reign, St. Paul's was often
used as a place of trial for heretics, but Paul's Cross was a fruitful
breeding place for the principles of the Reformation. Here Latimer,
Ridley, Coverdale, Lever, and a host of others used to inveigh against
the errors of Rome and deny the authority of the Pope. Here they
exhibited the Boxley Rood, with all the tricks whereby it was made to
open its eyes and lips, and seem to speak. The crowd looked on, and
roared with laughter, seized the miraculous Rood, and broke it in
pieces. And then a strange thing happened in the Cathedral. One night
all the images, crucifixes and emblems of Popery were pulled down.
Terrible havoc was wrought, chalices and chasubles, altars and rich
hangings, books and costly vestments, were all seized and sold, and
helped to increase that vast heap of spoil which the greedy ministers
of Edward VI. gathered from the wasting of the Church's goods. Tombs
were pulled down, chantries and chapels devastated, cloisters and
chapter-houses removed bodily to Somerset House by Protector Somerset
for the building of his new palace, and all was wreckage, spoliation
and robbery.

Then came the fitful restoration of the "old religion," and many riots
ensued, many ears were nailed to the pillory nigh Paul's Cross; many
Protestants condemned in the Cathedral to the fires at Smithfield, and
many horrors enacted which Englishmen like not to remember.

With the coming of Elizabeth more peaceful times ensued, but the
Cathedral was in a sorry condition. Desecration reigned within. Then
in 1561 the spire caught fire, blazed and fell, destroying parts of
the roof. The clergy and citizens soon set to work to repair the
damage, but the glory of "old St. Paul's" had departed, and its
ruinous condition was the distress of rulers and the despair of the
citizens and clergy.

Elizabeth often visited the Cathedral, and troubled Dean Nowell by her
plainly-spoken criticisms. Felton was hung at the bishop's gates for
nailing a Papal bull to the palace doors, which declared the queen to
be a heretic and released her subjects from their allegiance. This
attempt of the Pope to dethrone the Virgin Queen was not very
successful. Some other conspirators suffered for their crimes in the
following reign in the precincts, four of the gunpowder conspirators
being hung, drawn and quartered before the west doors. Here also
Garnet, the Jesuit, shared a like fate.

King James attempted to restore the Cathedral, but his efforts came to
nothing. Charles I. did something, and from the designs of Inigo Jones
built a portico at the west end, and made some other improvements, but
the troubles of the Civil War intervened, and the money which had been
collected by Archbishop Laud and the generosity of the citizens of
London was seized by the Parliament and converted to other and baser
uses.


THE CIVIL WARS

Desolation reigned supreme in the once glorious church when Puritan
rage had vented itself on its once hallowed shrines and sacred things.
Cromwell's troopers "did after their kind." Whatever beautiful relics
of ancient worship reforming zeal had left were doomed to speedy
destruction. In the western portico built in the last reign shops were
set up for sempstresses and hucksters; Dr. Burgess, a Puritan divine,
thundered forth in his conventicle set up in the east of the
building; and the rest of the Cathedral was turned into a cavalry
barracks.

The conduct of the rough soldiers created great scandal. They played
games, brawled and drank in the church, prevented people from going
through the nave, and caused such grievous complaints, that an order
was passed forbidding them to play at ninepins from six o'clock in the
morning to nine in the evening.

The _Mercurius Eleneticus_ of 1648 waxes scornful over the misdeeds of
these rough riders, and scoffs sarcastically: "The saints in Paul's
were last week teaching their horses to ride up the great steps that
lead to the Quire, where (as they derided) they might perhaps learn to
chant an anthem; but one of them fell and broke his leg, and the neck
of his rider, which hath spoilt his chanting, for he was buried on
Saturday night last, a just judgment of God on such a profane and
sacrilegious wretch."

The famous Cross in the churchyard, which according to Dugdale, "had
been for many ages the most noted and solemn place in this nation for
the greatest divines and greatest scholars to preach at, was, with the
rest of the crosses about London and Westminster, by further order of
the Parliament, pulled down to the ground."


AFTER THE GREAT FIRE

With the restoration of the monarchy came the restoration of the
Cathedral. Dr. Wren, the great architect, was consulted, plans were
discussed, Wren prepared himself for the great work, and all was in
readiness, when the Great Fire broke out, and completed the ruin which
had already begun. It, however, paved the way for the erection of the
grand church which will ever be associated with the genius of its
great architect.

Both the diarists, Pepys and Evelyn, speak of the melancholy spectacle
of the great ruin. Pepys laments over the "miserable sight of Paul's
church, with all the roof falling, and the body of the nave fallen
into St. Faith."

And Dryden sings:--

    "The daring flames press'd in and saw from far
      The awful beauties of the sacred quire:
    But since it was profaned by civil war
      Heaven thought it fit to have it purged by fire."

[Illustration THE WEST FRONT]

Evelyn, in his diary, describes his visit to the church before the
fire with Dr. Wren, the bishop, dean and several expert workmen. "We
went about to survey the general decay of that ancient and venerable
church, and to set down in writing the particulars of what was fit to
be done. Finding the main building to recede outwards, it was the
opinion of Mr. Chickley and Mr. Prat that it had been so built _ab
origine_ for an effect in perspective, in regard of the height; but I
was, with Dr. Wren, quite of another judgment, and so we entered it:
we plumbed the uprights in several places. When we came to the
steeple, it was deliberated whether it were not well enough to repair
it only on its old foundation, with reservation to the four pillars;
... we persisted that it required a new foundation not only in regard
of the necessity, but that the shape of what stood was very mean, and
we had a mind to build it with a noble cupola, a form of
church-building not as yet known in England, but of wonderful
grace...."

Then came the Great Fire, so graphically described by Evelyn. He
writes: "The stones of Paul's flew like granados, the melting lead
running down the streets in a stream, and the very pavements glowing
with fiery redness, so as no horse or man was able to tread on them,
and the demolition had stopped all the passages, so that no help could
be applied."

This Great Fire roused again the energy and indomitable spirit of
Englishmen. They beheld without alarm the ashes of their houses, and
the destruction of their great city. They felt that the eyes of Europe
were upon them. A new city was to be built worthy of their nation,
worthy of the great centre of the commerce of the world. But to
restore St. Paul's was a stupendous work. Some were for rebuilding on
the old walls. Pepys describes the ruins: "I stopped at St. Paul's,
and then did go into St. Faith's Chapel, and also into the body of the
west part of the church; and do see a hideous sight of the walls of
the church ready to fall, that I was in fear as long as I was in it;
and here I saw the great vaults underneath the body of the church."
And again: "Up betimes, and walked to the Temple, and stopped, viewing
the Exchange, and Paul's, and St. Faith's, where strange how the very
sight of the stones falling from the top of the steeple do make me
sea-sick."

They began to repair the west end for service against the advice of
Wren, and Dean Sancroft was obliged to confess to the architect,--

"What you whispered in my ear at your last coming here is come to
pass. Our work at the west end of St. Paul's is fallen about our
ears."

At last the order was given to take down the walls, clear the ground,
and proceed according to the plans of Wren. He was thwarted and
distressed by the interference of many. His original design was to
build it in the form of a Greek cross, but to this the clergy
objected, and a Latin cross was decided upon.

In 1674 the workmen began to clear away the old ruins, no light task,
but in the end it was accomplished, the first stone of the new
Cathedral being laid on June 21, 1675. In October 1694 the choir was
finished, and on December 2, 1697, Divine service was performed for
the first time in the new edifice. It was a special thanksgiving for
the Peace of Ryswick, a peace which settled our Dutch William more
securely on the throne of England. His Majesty wished to attend the
service, but it was feared that amongst the vast crowds there might be
too many Jacobites, and he was persuaded to remain at his palace.
Bishop Compton preached a great sermon on the occasion from the text,
"I was glad when they said unto me, we will go into the House of the
Lord."

Thirteen years elapsed before the highest stone of the lantern on the
cupola was laid by Wren's son, and the magnificent building was
completed by the skill, genius and determination of one man, whose
memory deserves to be ever honoured by all Englishmen.

The men of his own day did not treat him worthily. During the building
of the Cathedral he was beset by all the annoyances jealousy and spite
could suggest, and at the end of his long and useful career, by the
intrigues of certain German adventurers, he was deprived of his post
of Surveyor-General after the death of Queen Anne. He retired to the
country, and spent the few remaining years of his life in peaceful
seclusion, occasionally giving himself the treat of a journey to
London, in order that he might feast his eyes on that great and
beautiful church which his skill had raised.

His was the first grave sunk in the Cathedral, and it bears the
well-known inscription, than which none could be more fitting:--

    LECTOR, SI MONUMENTUM REQUIRIS CIRCUMSPICE.


THE EXISTING CATHEDRAL--EXTERIOR

The new St. Paul's is without doubt the grandest building in London.
Perhaps the finest view is obtained from the approach by Ludgate
Hill, and the grandeur of its majestic dome is most impressive. The
style is English Renaissance. We will begin our survey with the _West
Front_, which was erected last, and therefore bears the stamp of
Wren's matured genius. There are two storeys. In the lower there is a
row of Corinthian columns arranged in pairs, and in the second storey
a similar series. On the triangular pediment above is a carving of the
Conversion of St. Paul, while a statue of the saint crowns the apex,
the other statues representing SS. Peter and James and the four
Evangelists. Two towers stand, one on each side of the front, and
complete a superb effect. These contain a grand peal of twelve bells,
one of which, called Great Paul, fashioned twenty years ago, is one of
the largest in the world. Rich marbles, brought from Italy and Greece,
adorn the pavement.

Proceeding to the _north side_ we note the two-storied construction,
the graceful Corinthian pilasters,[3] arranged in pairs, with
round-headed windows between them; the entablature; and then, in the
second storey, another row of beautiful pilasters of the Composite
order. Between these are niches where one would have expected windows;
but this storey is simply a screen to hide the flying buttresses
supporting the clerestory, as Wren thought them a disfigurement. The
walls are finished with a cornice, which Wren was compelled by hostile
critics to add, much against his own judgment. There are some
excellently-carved festoons of foliage and birds and cherubs, which
are well worthy of close observation. The _North_ and _South Fronts_
have Corinthian pillars, which support a semi-circular entablature.
Figures of the Apostles adorn the triangular-shaped head and
balustrade. The Royal arms appear on the north side, and a Phoenix
is the suitable ornament on the south, signifying the resurrection of
the building from its ashes.

The south side is almost exactly similar to the north. The east end
has an apse.

The magnificent _Dome_ is composed of an outward and inward shell, and
between these there rises a cone-shaped structure which supports the
lantern, crowned with its golden ball and cross. The arrangement of
this is most complex, and is a witness to the marvellous skill of the
architect. Above the row of Composite columns is a gallery, which
affords a good view to those who are anxious to climb. Above the
actual dome is the Golden Gallery, and then the lantern, roofed with
a dome bearing the ball and cross. The whole height is 365 feet.


INTERIOR OF THE BUILDING

The view on entering the Cathedral at the west is most impressive. The
magnitude of the design, the sense of strength and stability, as well
as the beauty of the majestic proportions, are very striking. Over the
doors we see carvings of St. Paul at Berea. A gallery is over the
central doorway, and here is a good modern window.

[Illustration The Nave from the Choir]

The nave has a large western bay with chapels, three other bays, and a
large space beneath the west wall of the dome. It has three storeys,
the lofty arches, a storey which in a Gothic church would be termed
the triforium, and a clerestory. Grand Corinthian pilasters are
attached to the massive piers, with wonderfully-wrought capitals,
which support the entablature. The arches spring from smaller
pilasters joined to the larger ones. Great arches springing from the
triforium piers span the nave, and between these arches are
dome-shaped roofs. High up there are festoons of carving. The aisles
have three large windows, and Composite pilasters adorn the walls and
support the vault. The north chapel at the west end is the Morning
Chapel, and is adorned with mosaics and modern glass, in memory of
Dean Mansell (1871). The south chapel is called the Consistory, and
once held Wellington's monument, to which the marble sculptures
refer. Here is an unusual _Font_ of Carrara marble.

The _Dome_ is supported by immense and massive masonry. Above the
arches a cornice runs round, supporting the _Whispering Gallery_. Then
the dome begins to curve inward. Above is a row of windows, set in
groups of three, separated by niches recently filled with statues of
the Fathers, and then the dome is completed and painted by Sir James
Thornhill with scenes from the life of St. Paul. These are too faint
and too far distant to be easily observed. The painter nearly lost his
life through stepping backward in order to see the effect of his
brush, and nearly fell from the scaffold. His companion just saved his
life by flinging a brush at the painting, and Thornhill rushed forward
to rescue his work, and thus his life was saved.

The _Pulpit_ is made of rich marble, and the lectern was made in 1720.
The modern _mosaics_ are of unique interest, and add much to the
beauty of the Cathedral. To Sir William Richmond the credit of this
work is mainly due, and for some of earlier portions to Mr. G.F.
Watts, R.A.

The _Transepts_ have good windows, representing (north) the twelve
founders of English Christianity, and south, the first twelve
Christian Saxon kings, and also a window in memory of the recovery
from illness of His Majesty Edward VII. when Prince of Wales.

[Illustration Woodwork South Choir Aisle]

The _Choir_ has some wonderfully-carved stalls by the famous Grinling
Gibbons, and these bear the names of the prebendaries attached to the
Cathedral, with the parts of the Psalter which each one had to say
each day, an arrangement similar to that at Lincoln.

The _Reredos_ is a noble example of modern work, and is worthy of
close examination. Behind it is the Jesus Chapel, containing a
monument of Canon Liddon. The mosaic decorations of the choir are the
work of Sir William Richmond, and are worthy of the highest praise.


MONUMENTS

One feature of St. Paul's especially endears it to us, and that is
that there lie all that is mortal of many of our national heroes.
Westminster is richer in its many monuments of great poets and
writers; but the makers of the Empire and most of our distinguished
painters are entombed in the "citizens' church." We can only point out
the tombs of the most illustrious.

    _Nave_ (North Aisle)--

    Wellington (d. 1852), the hero of Waterloo.
    Gordon (d. 1890), slain at Khartoum.
    Stewart, General (d. 1880), who tried to rescue Gordon.
    Melbourne, Viscount (1848), Queen Victoria's first Prime Minister.

_North Transept_--

    Sir Joshua Reynolds (1792), by Flaxman.
    Rodney, Admiral (1790), the hero of Martinique.
    Picton (1815), slain at Waterloo.
    Napier, General (1860), author of _Peninsular War_.
    Ponsonby, General (1815), killed at Waterloo.
    Hallam, the historian (1859).
    Johnson, Samuel (1784).

_South Transept_--

    Nelson, Admiral.
    Sir John Moore (1806), killed at Corunna.
    Turner, Joseph, R.A. (1851), painter.
    Collingwood, Admiral (1810), Colleague of Nelson.
    Howe, Admiral (1799), Colleague of Nelson.
    Howard, John (1790), the prison reformer, the first monument erected.
    Lawrence, General (1857), killed in Indian Mutiny.
    Cornwallis, General (1805), fought in American War and in India.

_South Choir Aisle_--

    Dean Milman (1868).
    Bloomfield, Bishop (1856).
    Jackson, Bishop (1885).
    Heber, Bishop (1826), of Calcutta.
    Liddon, Canon (1890).

[Illustration Johnson's Statue in St. Paul's Cathedral]


The _Crypt_ contains the Parish Church of St. Faith, Wellington's
funeral car fashioned from captured cannon, and his tomb, Nelson's
tomb (the coffin is made from the wood of one of his ships--the tomb
is sixteenth-century work and was made for Cardinal Wolsey), the grave
of Wren with its famous inscription, and many illustrious painters
sleep in the _Painters' Corner_, amongst whom our modern artists
Leighton and Millais rest with Reynolds, Lawrence, Landseer and
Turner.


DIMENSIONS

    Total length              460 ft.
    Length of nave            200 ft.
    Width of nave             100 ft.
    Height of nave             89 ft.
    Length of choir           160 ft.
    Height of cross on dome   363 ft.
    Height of west towers     222 ft.
    Area               59,700 sq. ft.

    Style--English Renaissance.

    BUILDING DATES

    Begun June 21, 1675.
    Cathedral finished 1710.

[Illustration PLAN OF ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL]

FOOTNOTE:

[3] A pilaster is a column attached to a wall.



WESTMINSTER ABBEY


The famous Abbey Church of Westminster, though not a cathedral, must
be included in our chronicle of the chief ecclesiastical buildings in
this country. It is the coronation church of the sovereigns of
England, the final resting-place of many, the national tomb-house of
our heroes and great men, as well as a triumph of Gothic architecture
of singular beauty and attractiveness. For one brief space at the time
of the Reformation there was a Bishop of Westminster, but the see did
not long continue, and it is for other reasons that Westminster must
find a place in this volume. In early Saxon times a chapel dedicated
to St. Peter was built by Siebert in the seventh century on an island
rising from the marshy ground bordering the Thames. It was called
Thorney, and the eastern portion of the water in St. James's Park is a
part of the arm of the Thames which encircled the sanctuary of the
monks and the palace of the Anglo-Saxon kings. Here was established by
Dunstan a colony of Benedictine monks. In the charters of Edgar (951)
the original boundary of Westminster is clearly defined, though this
charter is esteemed doubtful by Kemble, and the importance of
Westminster gradually increased. Edward the Confessor took a
particular interest in the place, and began his building of the Abbey
in 1050. On Childermas Day (the Feast of the Holy Innocents) 1065 the
choir was finished and consecrated, and on "Twelfth Mass Eve" the king
died and was buried here. The Bayeux tapestry depicts the scene of
this Royal funeral, and gives a representation of the church. The
earlier church still remained as the nave of the new choir. A few
fragments of Edward's work remain beneath the pavement of the present
choir. The work progressed while William Rufus was building his Royal
palace, and at the time of his death the transepts and first bay of
the nave were completed, the first conspicuous example of a great
Benedictine church in England. Henry I. and Matilda were crowned here
with much pomp, and all the monarchs since the time of the Conqueror.
Early in the days of Henry III. a new lady chapel was built, and this
inspired the artistic soul of the young king, who determined to build
an abbey worthy of the honour of God in the best and newest style of
architecture. He was a Frenchman in feeling, and had passed many days
at the Court of St. Louis. So his new monastic church must be
fashioned in the French style; his monks must speak French, and he
chose a French model for his architecture, for the plan of his church
with its French _chevet_, and for the radiating chapels of the choir.
But in spite of this French design our Westminster remains "a great
French thought expressed in excellent English"; it is like "one of
Chaucer's lays, a sweetly English poem inspired by a French romance,"
and is the most finished product of the Early English of the first
half of the thirteenth century. Its French peculiarities may be seen
in the narrowness and height of the bays of the choir, its plan with
regard to the radiating chapels, and in the tracery of the windows.
The work began in 1245 with the east end, and all the building as far
as the fourth bay of the nave was finished in 1269. The noble
re-founder was buried in his glorious minster. Edward I. brought here
the coronation stone of the Scottish kings, and had it placed in the
new throne which he fashioned to enclose it. In the fourteenth century
much building was done to perfect the monastery. In the time of
Richard II. the reconstruction of the old nave was in progress, and
Henry V. took much interest in it. His father died in the Jerusalem
Chamber. The building of the nave continued, and the well-known
Whittington, "thrice Lord Mayor of London," in 1413 helped forward the
work by liberal contributions. The Tudor badges in the vaulting of the
last bays show the later character of that portion of the building.
Henry VII. built the beautiful and famous chapel at the east end in
place of the Lady Chapel built in 1220, which is such a perfect
example of the best Perpendicular work. It was finished about 1520.

[Illustration DEAN'S YARD, WESTMINSTER, IN 1730]

At the dissolution of monasteries Westminster shared the fates of the
rest, and the last abbot, Benson, became the first dean, and for a
brief space there was a bishop. Protector Somerset turned his greedy
eyes upon the noble minster, and was with difficulty induced to
refrain from plundering it overmuch. Indeed, he had thoughts of
pulling it down, but was propitiated by bribes of some manors and many
loads of Caen stone for the building of his new palace, Somerset
House. The services were of course changed, and many goodly treasures
sold; during the brief reign of Mary the Roman Catholic ritual was
restored, and the Confessor's shrine re-erected; but Elizabeth
turned out Abbot Ferkenham, and constituted Westminster a collegiate
church with a dean and twelve prebendaries. The remains of poor Mary
Queen of Scots were brought here by James I. and laid side by side
with Queen Elizabeth. Here in the gatehouse Sir Walter Raleigh was
imprisoned. Soon the tumults of the Civil War arose, but Westminster
happily escaped the fury of the Puritans. The noted Westminster
Assembly was called together in Henry VII.'s Chapel in 1643, for the
purpose of "settling the government and liturgy of the Church of
England and clearing of the doctrine from false aspersions and
interpretations." This Assembly took upon itself to denounce the Book
of Common Prayer and to substitute the Directory for Public Worship.
Many restorations of the fabric have taken place since the Restoration
of the monarchy. Sir Christopher Wren was a wonderful architect, but
he was scarcely the man to tamper with an ancient and beautiful Gothic
building. He set to work to rebuild the western towers, which were
finished after his death in 1739. New stone-work has been erected in
place of the old in most of the exterior of the Abbey, and Sir Gilbert
Scott and Mr. Pearson were responsible for the restoration of the
north front of the north transept. The complete story of the Abbey of
Westminster would tell of all the pageants and coronation festivals
which have taken place therein, to which another has just been added
when King Edward VII. and his queen were crowned; it would tell of the
last solemn rites of monarchs and great men, poets, sages and generals
who sleep within the hallowed precincts. But the story must be left to
others, and we will now examine the details of this ancient pile which
is so closely connected with all the chief events in English history.


THE EXTERIOR

The _West Front_ is flanked by two towers 225 feet high, built by
Wren, and finished by his pupil, Hawksmoor, about 1740. In the centre
of the front is the great Perpendicular window, beneath which is a row
of niches. The entrance porch has a groined roof. The nave is
remarkable for its length and height. On the north side we notice that
there is a wealth of buttresses. Strong buttresses support the aisle
walls, and from these flying buttresses stretch across to the walls
built on the central arcade. The four eastern buttresses comprise the
part of the church finished by Henry III.; the rest of the nave, with
the exception of Wren's towers, was built during the last half of the
fourteenth century and the beginning of the fifteenth. The figures in
the niches are modern.

[Illustration THE NORTH FRONT]

The _North Front_ is new, designed by Sir G. Scott and Mr. Pearson. It
is very elaborate work, and much of it is beautiful, but it does not
seem to harmonise with the rest of the building. There is a large rose
window; on each side tall buttresses crowned with turrets and covered
with niches. There is an arcade of open work below, and then some
deeply-recessed Early English windows, and below three doorways under
one string-course, the centre one having a high gable. This door is
divided by a pier having a finely-carved figure of the Virgin and
Child. The tympanum is divided into three panels. In the highest is
Our Lord in glory surrounded by angels, and below Him are the Twelve
Apostles, while in the lowest tier are figures representing Art,
History, Philosophy, War, Legislation and Science, with the builders
of the Abbey, Edward the Confessor, Henry III. and Richard II. The
niches are filled with figures of persons in some way connected with
the Abbey. The _Choir_ is in the form of an apse, with radiating
chapels, planned on the model of the French _chevet_, according to the
taste of Henry III., which he had cultivated during his sojourn in
France. The _Lady Chapel_ at the east end, commonly called Henry
VII.'s Chapel, is one of the noblest examples of the best
Perpendicular work in the kingdom, and ranks with St. George's Chapel,
Windsor, and King's College, Cambridge. The monastic buildings are on
the south side of the Abbey, and will be approached from the interior.


THE INTERIOR

The view of the interior is very impressive. Standing at the west end
of the nave we cannot fail to admire the magnificent beauty of this
noble shrine. This _Nave_ of twelve bays, with its clustered columns,
its beautiful triforium, and its lofty and firmly-proportioned roof,
soaring to the height of 101 feet, is very striking. A close
inspection will show the difference between the piers of the portion
finished by Henry III. and the newer work of the fourteenth century.
The tracery of the triforium openings is very fine. The
_Choir-Screen_, which crosses the nave at the eighth pier, is modern,
and also the pulpit. The west window is Perpendicular, and has some
Georgian glass containing figures of the Patriarchs. Much
architectural beauty has been sacrificed for the sake of ponderous
monuments, but many of these have much interest, and for many visitors
will prove the most attractive features of the Abbey. A list of the
most important monuments will be found at the close of our account of
the Abbey.

The north-west tower contains the monuments of distinguished members
of the Whig party, and has in the window some ancient glass. The
south-west tower was formerly the Baptistery. The architecture of the
aisles has suffered much from the erection of stupendous monuments.
The gallery at the west of the south aisle was erected at the same
time as Henry VII.'s Chapel by Abbot Islip, and is known as the
_Abbot's Pew_. The door at the east end is Late Early English. The
_South Transept_ is known as the _Poets' Corner_, on account of the
memorials of the votaries of the muses which stand here. The
architecture is of very beautiful design in the style of Early
English, when it was merging into Early Decorated. In the south wall
is the entrance to the Chapel of St. Faith, the door of which was once
covered with the skins of Danes. Two tiers of trefoiled arches are
above this, and higher still the triforium, the spandrels of the
arches being enriched with sculpture. There is no west aisle.
Chaucer's tomb will attract most visitors. In the chapel are some
ancient paintings of the Crucifixion, St. Faith, and a kneeling monk.

The _Choir_, which has been the scene of so many solemn and memorable
services, has no ancient woodwork. The stalls were erected about the
middle of the last century. The altar and reredos are modern. There
are some large figures, and a mosaic of the Last Supper. Here the
coronations of our monarchs take place. The pavement is interesting,
as it was brought from Rome by Abbot Ware in 1268, and beneath it he
rests with other abbots of Westminster. The sedilia are
thirteenth-century work, and were decorated with paintings. The
figures of King Siebert, the first founder, and of Henry III., the
munificent re-founder, remain. Above the base of the tomb of Anne of
Cleves, one of Henry VIII.'s many wives, is a remarkable painting of
Richard II., and behind it some ancient tapestry. A record of the
interesting tombs here will be found later. _Edward the Confessor's
Chapel_ is a mausoleum of Royal personages, wherein our monarchs have
been laid to rest, a portion of the building which always possesses a
solemn and pathetic interest. Here is the shrine of the "miracle
worker," the pious but weak last Saxon king, St. Edward. It was
fashioned in 1269 by order of Henry III., the artificer being one
Peter, a Roman citizen. The style of the oldest part, the base of the
shrine, is of a Byzantine character. The upper part was probably made
by Abbot Feckenham in Mary's reign, in imitation of that which was
destroyed in Reformation times. It is difficult to imagine what must
have been the splendour of this wondrous shrine when it was adorned
with gold and gems, ere the greedy commissioners of Henry VIII.
despoiled it of its treasures. Henry III., Eleanor of Castile, in
whose honour her loving husband, Edward I., raised the Eleanor crosses
wherever her body rested on its last journey to the Abbey, Edward
I., and other monarchs rest here. _Henry V.'s Chantry_ is a splendid
piece of ornate Perpendicular work, with elaborate sculptured figures
representing St. George, St. Denys, and the story of the hero's life,
his fights, his coronation, his court. The effigy has been much
mutilated. Above the tomb is the monarch's achievement, his shield,
saddle and helmet, which were borne in his funeral procession. The
coronation chairs have especial interest at this time, especially the
famous throne of Edward I., which has under the seat the coronation
stone of Scone, brought by him from Scotland. Legends tell us that
this stone was the veritable stone used by Jacob as a pillow when he
dreamt that wondrous dream at Bethel. There is also the throne of
William and Mary, and Edward III.'s sword and shield.

[Illustration Poets' Corner Westminster Abbey]

In the _South Ambulatory_ are three chapels, dedicated to SS.
Benedict, Edmund and Nicholas, all of which have interesting monuments
which will be noticed later. We now enter _Henry VII.'s Chapel_, the
most perfect example of the Perpendicular style at its best in the
country. At the entrance are beautiful bronze doors covered with
designs symbolical of the titles of the Royal founder. It is
impossible to describe in words the richness and beauty of the
interior of this noble chapel. Washington Irving wrote: "The very
walls are wrought into universal ornament, encrusted with tracery and
scooped into niches, crowded with statues of saints and martyrs. Stone
seems, by the cunning labour of the chisel, to have been robbed of its
weight and density, suspended aloft as if by magic, and the fretted
roof achieved with the wonderful minuteness and airy security of a
cobweb." The vault is very beautiful with fan-tracery. The banners of
the Knights of the Order of the Bath hang over their stalls. The
misereres are wonderfully carved, and are worthy of close examination.
The black marble tomb of the founder is considered to be the best
example of the Renaissance style in England. It was fashioned by
Torregiano. Very numerous monuments are found here, which will be
described later. The tombs of Mary Queen of Scots and of Queen
Elizabeth have especial interest. Oliver Cromwell's body once lay in
the most eastern chapel, but the Royalists at the Restoration wrought
vengeance on his corpse, and on that of other regicides, and did not
suffer them to remain in these hallowed precincts.

Returning we traverse the _North Ambulatory_, from which open the
Chapels of SS. Paul, John Baptist, Erasmus and Abbot Islip. St.
Erasmus was a Bishop of Campania, martyred in the time of the
Diocletian persecution. His chapel has a fine, Late Decorated doorway.
Abbot Islip died in 1532, and had previously adorned this chapel for
his tomb, of which only the base remains. A curious eye will discern
his rebus. In the upper chapel are preserved some remarkable wax
effigies of deceased monarchs and others, which were used in ancient
times in funeral processions. Charles II., Elizabeth, William and
Mary, Anne, Duchess of Richmond, General Monk, and a few others have
survived the wreck of time.

The _North Transept_ resembles the south and is remarkable for its
noble architecture. It is part of Henry III.'s construction. The
carving is rich and beautiful, especially the famous sculptures of the
_censing angels_, which are best seen from the triforium. On the east
are the three Chapels of SS. John the Evangelist, Michael and Andrew,
which are now filled with monuments.

We will now visit the _monastic buildings_, which may be entered from
the south aisle of the nave. The east walk of the cloisters was
finished in 1345, and the south and west walks a few years later under
the rule of Abbot Litlington. The north walk is a century earlier.
From the east walk we enter the _Chapter-House_. The doorway is
remarkably fine, with its sculptured figures in the mouldings. This is
one of the finest and largest chapter-houses in England, and was built
by Henry III. in 1250. Its plan is octagonal. There is a central,
slender, clustered shaft from which the vaulting springs. This vault
is a restoration. The windows have beautiful tracery, and are filled
with modern glass. The old paintings representing the Second Advent
are very interesting. This room has been devoted to many uses. Here
the House of Lords used to meet, and here the Records were once kept.
The Chapel of the Pyx, a fine Early Norman structure, where "the trial
of the Pyx" took place, is not open to the public. Above this and the
vestibule was the dormitory, now the library and schoolroom of the
famous Westminster School founded by Henry VIII. The cloisters have
many monuments. On the south-east lies the little cloister formerly
the infirmary, approached by a passage from the east cloister. The
refectory was on the south side of the cloister-court, and on the west
was the abbot's house, now the Deanery. Permission should be obtained
to see the famous _Jerusalem Chamber_, probably so called from the
tapestry which once hung here. Here Henry IV. died, which fact
Shakespeare mentions in his play, _Henry IV._, and many other
historical scenes have these walls witnessed.

[Illustration HENRY V.'S CHANTRY]


KINGS BURIED IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY

    Siebert, King of the East Saxons.
    Edward the Confessor.
    Henry III.
    Edward I.
    Edward III.
    Richard II.
    Henry V.
    Edward V.
    Henry VII.
    Edward VI.
    James I.
    Charles II.
    William III.
    George II.

LIST OF MONUMENTS

_St. Edward's Chapel, or the Chapel of the Kings_--

    Edward the Confessor.
    Henry III.
    Henry V.
    Edward III.
    Edward I.
    Eleanor of Castile.
    Queen Philippa.
    Richard II. and Queen.

    Queen Editha and Queen Matilda (good Queen Maud)
    are buried here.

_Henry VII.'s Chapel_--

    Mary Queen of Scots.
    Queens Elizabeth and Mary.
    Henry VII. and his Queen.
    James I. No monument.

In the "Stuart Vault" are buried--

    Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, and Prince Rupert.
    Lady Arabella Stuart, Anne Hyde, and several Royal children.

In the "Royal Vault" are buried--

    Charles II.
    Queen Mary II.
    William III.
    Queen Anne.
    Prince George of Denmark.

Under the Nave of the Chapel are buried--

    George II. and Caroline of Anspach.
    Edward VI. The old altar by Torregiano under which he was laid has
    been of late years restored.

In "Oliver's Vault" were originally buried--

     _Cromwell_, and other leaders of the Commonwealth; the only
     body that has remained undisturbed is that of the Protector's
     daughter, Elizabeth Claypole.

     A small sarcophagus contains the bones supposed to be those of
     Edward V. and the Duke of York.

In this Chapel are also buried--

    Addison, to whom a statue was raised in 1809 in the _Poets' Corner_.
    George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, an immense tomb.

_Nave and Choir_--

    Charles James Fox.
    Henry Fox, Lord Holland.
    Major-General Charles George Gordon, bronze bust.
    William Pitt.
    William Wordsworth, seated statue. }
    John Keble, bust.                  }
    Frederick D. Maurice, bust.        } Baptistery.
    Charles Kingsley, bust.            }
    Matthew Arnold, bust.              }
    Dr. T. Arnold, bust.               }
    William Congreve.
    Major John André.
    Charles Robert Darwin, medallion portrait.
    (Sir John Herschell, buried next to Darwin).
    Ben Jonson (buried here--monument in Poets' Corner).
    Sir Charles Lyell, bust.
    Sir Isaac Newton.

Buried here are--

    David Livingstone,        }
    Robert Stephenson,        } without monument.
    Dean Trench,              }
    Sir George Gilbert Scott, }
    Lord Lawrence, bust.
    Sir James Outram (a bas-relief of Relief of Lucknow).
    Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde.

    Dr. Isaac Watts.
    John and Charles Wesley (buried elsewhere).
    Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovel.
    Sir Godfrey Kneller, the only painter commemorated in the Abbey.
    William Wilberforce, seated figure.
    Henry Purcell, tablet.
    (Sir William Sterndale Bennett buried here.)

[Illustration INTERIOR FROM CHAPEL OF ST. JOHN]


_North Transept_--

    William Pitt, Earl of Chatham.
    Viscount Palmerston, statue.
    Sir Robert Peel, statue.
    Lord Beaconsfield, statue.
    Gladstone (no monument yet erected).
    Warren Hastings (buried elsewhere).
    Richard Cobden, bust (buried elsewhere).

_Poets' Corner_--

    John Dryden, bust.
    H. Wadsworth Longfellow, bust.
    Abraham Cowley.
    Geoffrey Chaucer.
    Lord Tennyson, bust.
    Robert Browning (no monument).
    Michael Drayton.
    Ben Jonson, monument bears same inscription as stone above grave.
    Edmund Spenser.
    Samuel Butler (buried elsewhere).
    John Milton.
    Thomas Gray (buried elsewhere).
    Matthew Prior.
    Thomas Campbell.
    Robert Southey (buried elsewhere), bust.
    S. Taylor Coleridge (buried elsewhere), bust.
    William Shakespeare.
    Robert Burns (buried elsewhere), bust.
    James Thomson (buried elsewhere).
    John Gay (buried?).
    Oliver Goldsmith, medallion (buried elsewhere).
    Sir W. Scott, replica of bust at Abbotsford.
    John Ruskin, medallion.
    George Frederick Handel, statue.
    Jenny Lind Goldschmidt, portrait head.
    W. Makepeace Thackeray (buried elsewhere), bust.
    Joseph Addison (buried in Henry VII.'s Chapel).
    Lord Macaulay, bust.
    William Camden.
    David Garrick, full-length figure.

Among those buried here without monuments are--

    Sir John and Francis Beaumont.
    Sir John Denham.
    Dr. Samuel Johnson (monument at St. Paul's).
    Richard Brinsley Sheridan.
    Charles Dickens.
    Sir William Davenant.
    Richard Hakluyt.
    Thomas Parr.
    Queen Anne, Richard III.'s wife, is believed to be lying here.

    Monuments to Dr. Busby and Dr. Robert South.
    Portion of tomb of Anne of Cleves.

Within the rails of the Choir are three old tombs--

    Aveline, Countess of Lancaster, married to Henry III.'s son,
    Edmund Crouchback. Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, cousin to
    Edward I., employed as general in wars in Scotland.
    Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster.

_South Ambulatory_--

Supposed tomb of King Siebert.

_Chapel of St. Edmund_--


     William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke (father of above),
     half-brother to Henry III. This is the only existing example in
     England of an effigy in Limoges enamel work.

    Lord Lytton, black marble slab.

    _North Ambulatory_--

    General James Wolfe.

    _Chapel of St. Paul_--

    James Watt, statue.

    _Islip Chapel_--

    Remains of Islip's tomb form a table by the window.

    _St. John's Chapel_--

    Sir John Franklin.

_St. Andrew's Chapel_--

    Sir Humphrey Davy (buried elsewhere), tablet.
    Mrs. Siddons, statue.
    John Kemble, statue.

Among those who are buried in the Cloisters are--

    Thomas Betterton, actor.
    Mrs. Bracegirdle, actress.
    Aphra Behu.
    Samuel Foote.

     A tablet in the Cloisters has been put up in memory of seven of
     the Queen's Westminster Volunteers killed in South Africa,
     1900.

    Monument to Dean Stanley (Henry VII.'s Chapel).
    Archbishop Tait, bust (Poets' Corner).

Window commemorative of--

    George Herbert.
    William Cowper.


DIMENSIONS

    Length of nave                 166 ft.
    Breadth of nave                 38 ft.
    Breadth of nave and aisles      71 ft.
    Height of nave and choir       101 ft.
    Length of choir                155 ft.
    Breadth of choir                38 ft.
    Length of whole church         511 ft.
    Height of central tower        151 ft.
    Height of west towers          225 ft.
    Area                           46,000 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

    1050-1100--Fragments beneath pavement of choir, Chapel of
           the Pyx.
    1245-1269--Choir and four eastern bays of nave, transepts,
           chapter-house, and north and part of east walk of cloister.
    1330-1350--Cloisters, south and west walks.
    1350-1512--West parts of nave, Henry VII.'s Chapel,
           abbot's pew, Henry V.'s Chantry, Jerusalem Chamber.
    1739-1741--West front.
    Modern--North front of north transept.

[Illustration PLAN OF WESTMINSTER ABBEY]



ROCHESTER CATHEDRAL


The city of Rochester has a distinguished past. It lies on the great
high road to London, the Old Watling Street. Hence, all the great and
Royal visitors passed through Rochester, and few events of historical
importance which occurred in the Kentish corner of England were
unconnected with this city. It was a Roman station. The Saxons called
it _Hvof-Cæstre_. Ethelbert founded the Cathedral here in 604, and
this first raised it to importance. Athelstan established a mint here,
and at the beginning of the tenth century it was one of the principal
ports of the kingdom. This was the cause of its undoing, as the Danes
found it a convenient landing-place, and pillaged and ravaged the
city. A Norman castle was built by Bishop Gundulf, of whom we shall
hear more later. This fortress, of which there are extensive remains,
has been frequently besieged. It was granted by the Conqueror to Odo,
Bishop of Bayeaux, who was faithless to William and was besieged in
this castle. Again, King John and Simon de Montfort, and Wat Tyler,
all tried the strength of this mighty fortress. Many scenes of
mediæval pageantry took place here. In the time of Henry III. a grand
tournament was held here, and gay was the city with the presence of
contending knights and squires and all the pomp of ancient chivalry.
It were vain to name all the Royal visitors who have sojourned here.
Here at the Restoration came the "Merry Monarch," and here, when the
fortunes of the Stuarts were very low, came James II. in his secret
flight, and embarked from Rochester on his fatal journey to France.
The story of the city is full of interest; but its Cathedral was the
primary cause of its greatness, and thither we must wend our way, and
try to read its history.

The see was founded by Ethelbert at the instigation of Augustine in
604, Justus, one of the followers of the Apostle of the English, being
its first bishop. He was the builder of the earliest church, some
foundations of which have been recently discovered. Here the great
missionary of the north, Paulinus, came, the Apostle of the North of
England, having been driven away from Northumbria, and was bishop
here till 644, when Ithamar succeeded, the first native bishop of the
English Church. The church was dedicated to St. Andrew. Danish
invasions caused much destruction. Siward, formerly Abbot of Abingdon,
was the last Saxon prelate who preserved his see when the Conqueror
came. But the chroniclers tell of the miserable condition of the
church, "wretched and empty, destitute of all things within and
without." In 1076 came Gundulf of Bec to preside over the fortunes of
the harassed see, and he wrought vast changes. He introduced
Benedictine monks, who replaced the secular canons, rebuilt the
Cathedral, and, not content with that, erected a castle here, and
built parts of Dover Castle and the Tower of London. Soon after his
death Ernulf, whose work at Canterbury we shall see, became bishop
here, and carried on his great building operations, erecting the
dormitory, chapter-house and refectory.

In 1130, in a grand assembly of bishops, nobles, and in the presence
of the king, Henry I., the Cathedral was consecrated.

As with many other cathedrals, fire wrought havoc in the sacred fane,
especially in 1138 and 1177. The later Norman builders added much to
the perfection of the church, carving the capitals of piers of the
nave, recasing them, and building the west front, which Gundulf does
not seem to have accomplished. After the fires the building was
renewed, especially in the monks' quarters, which had suffered much.
Another great misfortune was the plundering and devastation of the
church by King John after his capture of the castle; but happily an
event occurred which helped to fill the treasury of the monks, and
enabled them to adorn their minster. One William of Perth, a baker by
trade, who was of a pious mind, undertook a pilgrimage to the Holy
Land, but was killed by robbers near Chatham, and buried here.
Miracles were said to have been wrought at his tomb; the fame thereof
spread; and crowds of pilgrims began to frequent St. William's shrine,
and bring costly offerings. William de Hoo was sacrist and prior at
the beginning of the thirteenth century, a most active builder, who
rebuilt the choir and aisles, using much of the old Norman work. This
choir was used for the first time in 1227. Another great builder was
Richard de Eastgate, sacrist, who constructed a new west transept, and
began the construction of the central tower. His work was continued,
and before the century was completed there was a new south transept,
and the piers finished for bearing the tower.

[Illustration Rochester Cathedral]

Bishop Glanville (1185-1214) was much hated by the monks, and
continuous disputing arose. "He came from Northumbria," says a monk,
"and is a proof of the saying that out of the north proceedeth all
evil."

In 1264 Simon de Montfort and the barons besieged Rochester, and on
Good Friday "the satellites of the devil entered the Church of St.
Andrew with their drawn swords, and, striking fear and horror into its
children and those also who had taken refuge in it, crucified them
together with the Lord, Who suffereth in His elect. Moreover, they
plundered the gold and silver and precious things. Some of the monks
they imprisoned all the night, and armed men on their horses rode
about the altars, and dragged thence with impious hands certain
persons who had fled to them. The holy places--the chapels, cloisters,
chapter-house, infirmary--were made stalls for their horses, and
filled with filth and uncleanness."

Walter de Merton was bishop here in 1274-1278. He was the noble
founder of Merton College, Oxford, and from his rules which he framed
for his institution it is evident that he liked not monks. At one time
it seems to have been the intention of the builders to pull down the
nave and rebuild it in Gothic style, but in the fourteenth century the
monks seem to have given up the idea, and joined the new work with the
Norman.

The affairs of the monastery did not always go very smoothly. We have
noticed some disputes between the bishop and the monks, and in the
fourteenth century there were endless quarrels between the monks and
the citizens. The latter had the altar of St. Nicholas in the body of
the nave near the screen for their use. Their access to it the monks
tried to control, and scenes of violence resulted. So the monks
encircled the precincts with a wall, and enclosed the choir with
strong gates and screens, and subsequently built a church for the
parishioners.

Bishop Haymo de Hythe (1319-1352) contributed large sums to the
restoration of his Cathedral. He built the central tower and raised a
campanile, in which he placed four bells, named Dunstan, Paulinus,
Ithamar and Lanfranc. He also built the door leading to the
chapter-house. Several alterations were made in Perpendicular times,
new windows inserted, and the Lady Chapel built in the unusual
position on south of the nave, and the fabric of the Cathedral
finished. At the dissolution of monasteries the monks were turned
adrift, and the New Foundation called into being, consisting of a
dean, prebendaries, minor canons, choristers, together with a grammar
school.

At the Civil War the Cathedral fared better than many. The soldiers
changed the position of the altar and broke the rails, and profaned
the church by using it as a stable and a tippling place, while
saw-pits were made here, and carpenters plied their trade.

At the Restoration all churchmen set about repairing their cathedrals,
and the citizens of Rochester lagged not behind. Much money was spent
on the fabric, and many repairs effected. In the eighteenth century
Sloane was the architect who rebuilt the steeple. Very extensive
alterations were made at the beginning of the nineteenth century,
under the direction of Cottingham, which were drastic, and Sir G.
Scott and Mr. Pearson have both been at work on the Cathedral, whose
restorations we will examine when we inspect the Cathedral. The
Bishopric of Rochester since the Reformation has been occupied by
several remarkable men. Bishop Fisher, a learned, brave and saintly
man, was doomed to death on the scaffold by Henry VIII. (1535), and
Barlow, Buckeridge, Warner and Atterbury were all men who achieved
fame in their times.


THE EXTERIOR

The best view can be obtained from the castle. The _West Front_ is a
fine example of Norman work, with the exception of the large
Perpendicular window, and the modern imitation of Norman work. It is a
mistake for architects to destroy the accretions of centuries, and to
substitute a reproduction of what they imagine to have been the
original design. Mr. Pearson had the audacity to take down the
fifteenth-century north turret, and to erect a bran-new Norman turret
in its place. The front, as we see it, consists of a centre flanked by
turrets, and two wings, which form the ends of the aisles. First we
notice the beautiful west door, which is one of the finest Norman
doorways in the kingdom. It has five orders, and is of elaborate
design and profusely adorned with mouldings, the capitals being richly
carved. On the fourth shaft on each side are two curious figures,
supposed to represent Henry I. and his queen. In the tympanum is the
Saviour, with angels and the evangelistic emblems, and below small
mutilated figures of the Apostles. The old doors were said to have
been covered with the skins of Danes, but these have disappeared, and
the new ones have no trace of the epidermis of our destructive
visitors. The great west window was inserted about 1470. Rows of
Norman arcading adorn the front. Two modern statues of Bishops Gundulf
and John have been placed in the niches on each side of the doorway.
The turrets are octagonal, that on the west being modern, and built by
Mr. Pearson on the model of that on the south, in place of a
Perpendicular one erected at the same time as the window. The north
tower has been quite recently erected in imitation of the ancient
design, and the south tower raised to its original height.

The _Nave_ is for the most part Norman. The clerestory is
Perpendicular, also the windows in the north aisle. The _North
Transept_ is Early English, but has been re-roofed at a much higher
pitch by Sir G. Scott, who added the pinnacles and circular windows.
On the east of this is _Gundulf's Tower_, built by the founder of the
Norman church and probably intended for purposes of defence, and as a
treasury. It seems that the only entrance to it was from the top, a
bridge connecting it with a staircase in the neighbouring transept. It
was afterwards used as a belfry. The north side of the choir shows its
Early English character, and the presence of the dog-tooth ornament
bespeaks its style. There is, however, much modern work. The high
gables that call loudly for corresponding roofs were built by Scott,
and perhaps some generous visitor will be willing to grant their
silent appeal. The south side of the presbytery adjoins the
chapter-house and library, built in the eighteenth century in place of
the noble Norman chapter-house, the ruins of which still remain. The
monastic buildings stood in an unusual position on the south side of
the choir, and were mainly constructed by Ernulf. Gundulf's cloisters
were on the south of the nave in the usual place for a Benedictine
abbey, but these have entirely disappeared. In the ruins of Ernulf's
monastic buildings there is much fine Norman work, zigzag and billet
mouldings, his favourite diaper which is found at Canterbury, and a
curious carving of the sacrifice of Isaac. Parts of the wall of the
dormitory and the refectory, with a lavatory, remain. The south side
of the choir and the choir transept were much restored by Cottingham
in 1825. A fine Decorated window has been inserted in the south wall
of the choir transept aisle. The _South Transept_ is Late Early
English work. On its west side is the Lady Chapel, erected in the
Perpendicular style about 1500.

The lower part of the central tower, which is hardly worthy of the
Cathedral, was built by Bishop Haymo de Hythe (1319-1352); all above
the roof was erected by Cottingham in the restoration of 1825.

The remains of the old wall which surrounded the precincts are still
in existence. The Prior's Gate was built about the middle of the
fourteenth century; and the other remaining gates are College Gate,
and the Deanery Gate, both of which belong to the time of Edward IV.


THE INTERIOR

We enter the _Nave_ by the beautiful west doorway and are at once
impressed by the fine Norman character of the building. Much of it is
the work of Gundulf, the first Norman bishop, the companion of
Lanfranc, who fashioned his rising church after the model of
Canterbury, and has thus left us a copy of the appearance of that
church ere it was refashioned by later builders. The two eastern bays
are Early Decorated. The clerestory is Perpendicular work, and the
flat timber roof was erected at the same time. The later Norman
builders, Bishops Ernulf and John (1115-1137), greatly improved the
appearance of Gundulf's nave. They finished the west end, recased the
piers, and carved the zigzag mouldings and the capitals, and seem to
have added a new triforium or enriched the old arcade with diaper
work. There is no triforium gallery, as it opens both into the aisles
as well as into the nave. The fine interior of the west doorway will
be noticed, and also another Norman doorway in the south-west corner.
The windows in the north aisle are Perpendicular. The font is modern,
and also the pulpit, stalls and lectern. On the south of the south
aisle is the Late Perpendicular Chapel of St. Mary, usually called the
Lady Chapel. It was restored in 1852. Here the consistory court used
to meet. It is now used as a chapel for the grammar school. The _South
Transept_ is of later date than the corresponding north transept; its
style is Late Early English, when the style was merging into Early
Decorated. The architect was Richard de Waldene, sacrist. Above in the
south wall there are five single-light windows, and below three double
windows, and the extensive use of Purbeck marble in the shafts will be
noticed. Banded shafts of marble cluster around the great tower-piers.
Cottingham erected the present ceiling in 1840. It will be noticed
that the Purbeck marble shafts on the two western tower-piers stop
some distance from the ground, and a block of intrusive masonry
obtrudes itself on the west of the northern one. Various conjectures
have been made concerning the object of this. Possibly it formed part
of a stone rood loft, or served as a buttress to the arch. The _North
Transept_ is Early English, the work of Richard de Eastgate, sacrist.
The dog-tooth ornament is seen in the clerestory. The carved corbels,
representing monastic heads, are finely executed. In the recess on the
east side there is a piscina which marks the site of an altar.

The _Monuments_ in the nave and transepts are not important. That of
Richard Watts in the south transept is worthy of notice. He
entertained Queen Elizabeth at his house called Satis,[4] and erected
a hostel for six poor travellers, "not being rogues or proctors,"
which in later times has been immortalised by Charles Dickens, as a
tablet sets forth. Near it is the monument of Sir Richard Head, who
sheltered the fugitive monarch James II. when he fled from his
kingdom. The glass is all modern.

The _Choir Screen_ has been restored in memory of Dean Scott, who,
with Dean Liddell of Christ Church, Oxford, compiled the well-known
Greek Lexicon. The doorway is ancient Decorated work; the figures are
(beginning on the north side) St. Andrew, Ethelbert, St. Justus, St.
Paulinus, Gundulf, William de Hoo, Walter de Merton, Bishop Fisher,
all of whom were connected with the See of Rochester. As at
Canterbury, we ascend several steps to gain the choir, rendered
necessary by the height of the crypt below. All the work before us in
the choir is Early English, but fashioned on the old Norman walls. It
was finished sufficiently for use in 1227, in the year of the
accession of Henry de Sandford to the bishopric, and is the work of
William de Hoo. The choir aisles are separated from the choir by stone
walls. Shafts of Purbeck marble support the vault. Some of the
brackets of Early English foliage which support the shafts are
beautifully carved. Some of the windows in the presbytery and south
choir transept are later insertions, and are Decorated. Sir G. Scott
wrought drastic changes here, and substituted two tiers of lancets
instead of a large east window, brought the altar away from the
extreme east end and designed a new reredos. He made new stalls, using
much of the old woodwork. Some fine old fourteenth-century painting he
discovered behind the old stalls, which he carefully reproduced, and
designed a new throne, pulpit and reredos. Amidst so much that is new
and beautiful in its way, it is pleasant to discover some ancient
work. The sedilia are Perpendicular, and an Early English piscina and
aumbry are observable behind the altar. There is a curious and
interesting mural painting on the north wall representing the _Wheel
of Fortune_, which is probably a thirteenth-century production.

The _North Choir Transept_ (Early English) contains the tomb of St.
William, to whom we have already referred, and whose shrine brought
much gain to the treasury. The tomb is of Purbeck marble, with a
floriated cross. A flat stone marked with six crosses in the centre of
the transept is said to be the site of the shrine. The steps leading
to this transept from the north choir aisle are much worn by the feet
of pilgrims. Here is also the tomb of Walter de Merton (1274-1277) of
Early Decorated design, the founder of Merton College, Oxford. The
slab is modern; an alabaster effigy made in 1598 now is placed in the
adjoining recess. Here is also the tomb of Bishop Lowe (1467). In the
aisle (St. John Baptist's Chapel), are tombs of Bishop Warner (1666),
the founder of the college for widows at Bromley, who occupied the see
during the Commonwealth period; of Bishop John de Sheppey (1360), the
sculpture of which is worthy of the highest praise. It was long hidden
away in the wall, and remained so for centuries, until the
restorations of 1825 brought it to light.[5] Here also is a very
ancient statue said to be the figure of Gundulf. In the chancel or
sacrarium are the tombs of Bishop Gilbert de Glanville (1214), a
shrine-shaped monument with medallions containing mitred heads; Bishop
Lawrence de St. Martin (1274), of Early Decorated design; at extreme
east, Sir W. Arundel (1400) and his lady; and on the south side the
supposed coffin of Bishop Gundulf; Bishop Inglethorp (1291), a
thirteenth-century coffin, and another in the south choir transept
(name unknown). The glass in this part of the church is all modern.

The _doorway into the Chapter-House_ is one of the great glories of
the Cathedral. It is Late Decorated work, and was probably erected
during the episcopate of Haymo de Hythe (1319-1352). Cottingham
restored it in 1830, and made the left-hand figure into a grave and
reverend bishop holding a model of a cathedral and a crozier. It is
probably correct that in a more recent restoration the figure should
have been made into that of a female. It is meant to signify the
Christian Church, just as the right-hand figure represents the Jewish
Church, blindfolded, and leaning on a broken reed and holding a
reversed table of the Law. The two seated figures on the right and
left sides represent the four doctors--SS. Jerome, Augustine, Ambrose
and Gregory, while above appear angels who have rescued a pure soul
from purgatorial fires. The crocketed ogee arch and the diaper work
above are worthy of attention; the door is modern.

The _Chapter-House and Library_ occupy a room which is a modern
addition. The library has some treasures, amongst which may be
mentioned _Textus Roffensis_, a collection of records, gifts and
privileges of the Cathedral, compiled under the direction of Bishop
Ernulf (1115-1124). It has passed through many perils, having been
stolen, restored, borrowed, lost in the Thames, recovered, and we
trust its dangers are now over.

_Custumale Roffense_, another valuable MS. of the thirteenth century,
a great collection of _Bibles_, including Coverdale's, Cranmer's or
the Great Bible, and the Bishops' Bible. Above the choir transepts are
two chambers called the Treasury, where the church plate is kept, and
the Indulgence Chamber.

Following the course of the pilgrims, we proceed down the flight of
steps to the south choir aisle, or Chapel of St. Edmund. There is the
mutilated tomb of Bishop John de Bradfield (1278-1283). Following the
second flight of steps we come to the _Crypt_, which extends under the
whole choir and is one of the most perfect in the kingdom. The western
part is Early Norman, and has massive piers and cushion capitals. The
rest is Early English. The altars in the crypt were numerous, and
traces of them remain, as shown by the piscinas. The crypt was
extensively decorated with mural paintings, and some traces of them
may still be seen.


DIMENSIONS

Total length, 306 ft.; length of nave, 126 ft.; width of nave, 65 ft.;
length of choir, 147 ft.; length of west transept, 120 ft.; length of
east transept, 88 ft.; height of tower, 156 ft.; height of vault, 55
ft.; area, 23,300 sq. ft.


DESCRIPTION OF ARCHITECTURE

    Norman--Most of the nave and part of crypt and old chapter-house.
    Early English--The choir and transepts.
    Decorated--Chapter door and some windows at east end.
    Perpendicular--Clerestory of the nave, west window, Lady Chapel.
    Modern--Tower, chapter-house and library, roof of west transept
    and north-west tower.

FOOTNOTES:

[4] When the queen was departing he apologised for his poor
entertainment, but she replied "_Satis_" ("sufficient"), from which
august reply Watts named his house.

[5] Authorities differ as to whether the colouring is ancient or
modern. Mr. Palmer, in his recent and valuable history of the
Cathedral, pronounces in favour of the latter; but Mr. St. John Hope
considers it to be ancient.



CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL


In the minds of readers of English history Canterbury must always rank
first amongst our cathedrals on account of the wealth of historical
associations connected with it. The story of Canterbury is the story
of England, and every record of our annals abounds with allusions to
it, or to the distinguished prelates connected with it. It is the
metropolitan church of the southern province, and is regarded with
veneration as the Mother Church not only of England, but of all the
churches in America and the colonies of the British Empire.

There was probably a Roman or Romano-British church here; when
Augustine converted King Ethelbert to Christianity the monarch gave
him his palace together with an old church which stood near it. This
was on part of the site of the present Cathedral. We need not record
again the tangled story of the conversion of the English, or the names
of all the successors of Augustine. The first seven were buried in the
Monastery of St. Augustine, now St. Augustine's College, Archbishop
Cuthbert (d. 758) being the first to be interred in his own Cathedral.
Archbishop Odo (942-959) known as "the Severe" on account of his
endeavour to restore discipline among the clergy, although born a
heathen Dane, was a zealous prelate, and set himself to restore the
ruinous condition of his Cathedral. For three years the work of
building progressed. The eleventh century brought the Danish ravages,
and with fire and sword the Pagan hosts attacked Canterbury and
murdered the archbishop, Alphege. His successor, Living or Leofing,
was held captive by the Danes for some time, but sought safety beyond
seas, and lived to crown Canute. The Cathedral was restored by the
next prelate, Egelnorth, but a fire destroyed it in 1067, and it was
not till Norman times that a complete restoration was attempted.
Lanfranc, the first Norman archbishop, finding the church utterly
dilapidated, destroyed the old fabric and built a noble minster. We
have a description of the old Saxon church in the writings of Eadmer,
a monk of Canterbury: "At the east end of the church stood the high
altar, which enclosed the body of St. Winifred. This was of rough
stone cemented together. A little before that was an altar where Mass
was said daily; in which altar St. Alphege enclosed the head of St.
Swithun, and many other relics which he brought with him from
Winchester. Descending hence by several steps was the crypt. At the
foot of these steps was a descent into a vault which went under the
east part of the church; and at the east end of it was an altar,
wherein was enclosed the head of St. Fursius. From hence by a winding
passage, at the west end, was the tomb of St. Dunstan, separated from
it by a wall. His body was buried deep in the ground before those
stairs, and over him was a tomb erected in the form of a lofty
pyramid. The hall or body of the church was separated from the choir.
About the middle of the hall were two towers jutting out beyond the
walls--that on the south had an altar dedicated to St. Gregory; and
from this tower was a passage, the principal porch of the church,
anciently called Stuthdore, a large and capacious portico. The tower
on the north side was erected to the honour of St. Martin, having a
passage to it from the cloisters. The end of the church was adorned
with the oratory of the Blessed Virgin. In the eastern part of it was
an altar, consecrated to her, which enclosed the head of a saint."

Lanfranc also built the monastic buildings. The saintly Archbishop
Anselm, who succeeded Lanfranc, took down the east end and rebuilt it
with great magnificence. His chief architect was Ernulf, the prior,
afterwards Bishop of Rochester. Prior Conrad succeeded, who finished
the choir, which was hereafter known as "the glorious choir of
Conrad." Gervase, a monk of Canterbury, describes this church, which
had a central tower, a nave supported on each side by eight pillars,
two western towers with gilt pinnacles, a rood-screen, surmounted by a
great cross with figures of SS. Mary and John. He concludes that the
dedication of this church was "the most famous that had ever been
heard of on the earth since that of the Temple of Solomon."

This church was the scene of the murder of Thomas à Becket, which
convulsed the land, and here Henry II. did penance before the tomb of
the archbishop slain at his instigation. In 1174 a fierce
conflagration raged and destroyed the beautiful choir, and at the
sight of the ruins, Gervase tells us, the people were mad with grief,
and beat the walls and tore their hair, blaspheming the Lord and His
saints. The task of rebuilding was at once commenced, and William of
Sens was appointed architect. He laboured for four years, and then
falling from a scaffold was so much injured that he was obliged to
return to France. An English William then took over the
superintendence of the work. It is not stated that he was a pupil of
William of Sens, or was in any way influenced by French models. In
1184 the choir was finished, and soon new cloisters were added. In
1304 the choir was beautified and a new pulpit erected by Prior
d'Estria, who added the great bell called Thomas. In 1376 Archbishop
Sudbury took down the western transepts and the nave, and began the
rebuilding of the former in the Perpendicular style, the work being
continued by Prior Chillenden during the rule of Archbishop Courtenay,
the oppressor of Lollardism. The cloisters and chapter-house were
finished at this time. Archbishop Arundel (1396-1414), who was
addicted to burning heretics, also added greatly to the beauty of the
church, and his successor, Chichele, spent vast sums on the church,
founded a library, and began the spire on the west tower. In 1449
Prior Goldstone built the beautiful chapel of the Virgin called the
Dean's Chapel, and another prior of the same name in 1495 began the
great central tower, or Angel Steeple, when Archbishop Morton ruled,
whose rebus is inscribed upon it. The same prior also built the Christ
Church Gate in 1517. The troublous times of the Reformation followed,
and we find Cranmer occupying the archiepiscopal throne, who was
ultimately doomed to the stake at Oxford. Fanatical reformers wrought
terrible havoc in the Cathedral. The magnificent shrine of Becket, to
which millions had flocked to pay their devotions, was entirely
destroyed, and numerous other costly shrines shared its fate.
Archbishop Laud attempted to restore the beauty of the sanctuary, and
erected a fine altar with reredos; but soon the pikes of the Puritans
and their wild savagery reduced the interior of the Cathedral to a
ruinous desolation. The usual scenes of mad iconoclasm were enacted,
windows broken, altars thrown down, lead stripped off the roof,
brasses and effigies defaced and broken. A creature nicknamed "Blue
Dick" was the wild leader of this savage crew of spoliators, who left
little but the bare walls and a mass of broken fragments strewing the
pavement.

[Illustration Canterbury Cathedral]

Since then numerous alterations and restorations have taken place. At
the Restoration of the monarchy Bishop Juxon of London, who attended
Charles I. on the scaffold at Whitehall, was made Archbishop of
Canterbury, and he and Archbishop Sheldon, his successor, did much to
restore the fabric and remove the traces of Puritan fanaticism.
Archbishop Tenison (1694-1716) removed the old stalls and substituted
pews. He covered Prior d'Estria's screen with wainscotting, and
erected a fine throne with carving by Grinling Gibbons. Queen Mary
also added to the beauty of the Cathedral by sundry costly gifts. In
1834 a new north-west tower was built. In 1872 a fire broke out in the
roof, but happily no very extensive damage was done, and five years
later Sir G. Scott began his restorations, which have removed some of
the faults committed in the early eighteenth-century alterations.


THE EXTERIOR

The best views are obtained from the mound in the Dane John (or
Donjon--probably a fortified earthwork of Norman times) approached by
St. George's Terrace, adjoining the Cattle Market, from the green or
outer court of the monastery, and from the village of Harbledown. The
_West Front_ is flanked by two towers. That on the north was built in
1840, as the former one, called the Arundel, was in a dangerous
condition; that on the south, called the Dunstan, was finished by
Prior Goldstone (1449-1468), and is in the Perpendicular style, with
characteristic panelling. A large window is in the centre of the
front, and two smaller windows for the aisles, and above, in the
gable, another window with elaborate tracery. The _South Porch_ was
built by Prior Chillenden about 1400. Erasmus tells us that he saw
figures of Becket's murderers here, but these have disappeared. The
niches have been filled with modern figures. Proceeding along the
south side of the church, we notice the Perpendicular style of the
nave and aisles, the work of Prior Chillenden, which replaced the old
Norman nave. There is a close resemblance between this and Winchester,
which was being constructed at the same time. All that remains here of
Lanfranc's nave is the lowest base of the aisle walls. The south-west
transept is of the same date as the nave and has a large window on the
south front with three tiers of panels over it, and an elaborate
turret at the south-west corner. The south-east transept is Late
Norman, the work of William of Sens and William the Englishman. Here
we have Norman round-headed windows with arcades, also a circular
window, and on the west a Norman turret capped with a short spire.
Proceeding eastwards we see Anselm's Tower, and on the extreme east
the corona, the work of English William. On the west Henry IV.'s
Chantry, St. Andrew's Chapel, corresponding to that of St. Anselm,
the treasury, and the range of monastic buildings, consisting of
library, chapter-house and cloisters, which we will examine later. A
wall surrounded the precincts, the principal gate being that called
_Christ Church_ Gate, erected by Goldstone in Perpendicular style in
1517.


THE INTERIOR

We enter the _Nave_ by the south porch. Lanfranc's nave was entirely
removed in 1380 on account of its ruinous state, and the present nave
erected by Prior Chillenden, who was employed and supported by
Archbishops Sudbury, Courtenay and Arundel. As we have said, it
resembled Winchester, built at the same time, but it is lighter in
character, as here the piers were built anew, and not cased with
Perpendicular work as at Winchester. The height of the floor of the
choir necessitated a lofty flight of steps leading to it from the
nave; and this is a peculiar feature of this Cathedral and of much
beauty. The nave is very lofty, being 80 feet high. The great west
window contains the fragments of old glass which have been brought
together here. The rest of the stained glass is modern and hideous. In
the north aisle are monuments of Adrian Saravia, the friend of Hooker
(1612), Orlando Gibbons, organist to Charles I., Sir John Boys (1614),
founder of a hospital, Archbishop Sumner (1862), who crowned Queen
Victoria, and memorials of military men who died for their country. In
the south aisle are monuments of Dr. Broughton, Bishop of Sydney, and
Dean Lyall (1858).

The central tower is supported by original Norman piers, cased with
Perpendicular work at the time when the nave was built. The vault and
all the upper part of the tower above the roof were erected by Prior
Goldstone (1495-1517), and also the arches, which act as buttresses
and bear the Prior's rebus, three golden bars. The screen is
fifteenth-century work and is remarkable for its beauty; formerly the
figures of our Lord and the Twelve Apostles occupied the upper niches,
but these fell victims to Puritan iconoclasm. The devastators spared,
however, the figures of the kings in the lower tier.

The _North-West Transept_, or Chapel of the _Martyrdom of Becket_,
claims our close attention, as the event which occurred here filled
Christendom with amaze.

The martyrdom of Thomas à Becket took place on Tuesday, 29th December
1170. Early in the morning the four barons had an interview with him,
pretending to come on a peaceful visit with messages from the king.
They were shown into the room in the palace where the archbishop
usually remained. Some high words passed between them and they
departed; in the evening they entered the Cathedral, armed. While the
archbishop was ascending the steps, Sir Reginald Fitzurse entered the
door of the church, clad in complete armour, and, waving his sword,
cried, "Come hither, servants of the king!" The other conspirators,
Sir Hugh Morvill, Sir William Tracey and Sir Richard le Breton,
immediately followed him, armed to the teeth, and brandishing their
swords. It was already twilight, which within the walls of the
dimly-lighted church had deepened into the blackest obscurity.
Becket's attendants entreated him to fly to the winding staircase
which led to the roof of the building, or to seek refuge in the vaults
underground. He rejected both of these expedients and still stood to
meet his assailants. "Where is the traitor?" cried a voice. There was
no answer. "Where is the archbishop?" "Here I am," replied Becket;
"but here is no traitor. What do ye in the House of God in warlike
equipment?" One of the knights seized him by the sleeve; he pulled
back his arm violently. They then advised him to go with them, as
though they repented of the evil design. They called upon him to
absolve the bishops. He refused; and Fitzurse, drawing his sword,
struck at his head. The blow was intercepted by the arm of one of the
monks who stepped forward to protect him, but in vain. A second blow
descended, and while the blood was streaming from his face some one of
his assailants whispered to him to fly and save himself. Becket paid
no heed to the speaker, but clasped his hands and bowed his head,
commending his soul to God and the saints. The conspirators now fell
upon him with their swords and quickly despatched him. One of them is
said to have kicked the prostrate body, saying, "So perishes a
traitor." The deed thus accomplished, the conspirators passed out of
the town without hindrance, but no sooner had they done so than the
news spread throughout the city and the inhabitants, in the utmost
excitement and indignation, assembled in crowds in the streets and ran
towards the Cathedral. Seeing the body of their archbishop stretched
before the altar, men and women began to weep, and while some kissed
his hands and feet others dipped linen in the blood with which the
pavement was covered. It was declared by the people that Becket was a
martyr, and although a Royal edict was published forbidding anyone to
express such an opinion, the popular feeling still manifested itself.
Some soldiers attempted to seize the corpse, but the monks, who had
received an intimation of the design, buried it hastily in the crypt
of the Cathedral.

Since that eventful scene the transept has been rebuilt. The stones
around us, except it be the pavement, did not witness that bloody
deed. When the nave was rebuilt by Chillenden this part of the church
was much transformed. Portions of the old Norman walls built by
Lanfranc remain, but the main character of the building is
Perpendicular. The door is the same by which the murderers entered,
part of the wall, and probably the pavement, wherein is a small square
piece which marks the actual spot where Becket fell. The great window
was given by Edward IV., and has figures of his queen, his daughters,
and the two princes who were murdered in the Tower. The west window is
modern, and represents scenes from the life of Becket. There are
monuments here of Archbishop Peckham (1292), the oldest in the
Cathedral, and Archbishop Warham (1532), who crowned Henry VIII., and
was the opponent of Wolsey and the friend of Erasmus. A door at the
east end of this transept leads to the _Dean's Chapel_, formerly the
Lady Chapel, built by Goldstone in Perpendicular style. The monuments
here are to Dean Fotherby, Dr. Bargrave, Dean Boys with his books, and
Dean Turner, a favourite of Charles I.

The daily crowd of pilgrims who visited the scene of the martyrdom in
mediæval times used to pass on to the shrine of St. Thomas by the
north choir aisle, on their way to his shrine, and we will follow in
their steps. In this aisle we see much of the original Norman work of
Archbishop Anselm's choir, erected under the supervision of Prior
Ernulf. William of Sens added many architectural details and made some
alterations, but he seems to have intended to preserve the special
features of the earlier work. The roof was, however, raised, and the
clerestory of Ernulf's building converted into the triforium windows
of William of Sens. The latter brought with him the use of the chisel,
the former carving his ruder ornamentation by means of an axe. William
also introduced the pointed arch. Here is the monument of Archbishop
Tait. Three "squints" will be observed in the west wall. Two apsidal
chapels are at the east end, dedicated to SS. Stephen and Martin. In
the aisle there is some ancient glass of thirteenth-century work,
which is of extreme beauty, also an old desk with ancient Bible. An
ancient mural painting should be noticed, representing the conversion
of St. Hubert. Next we visit the _Chapel of St. Andrew_, now the
vestry, which has some traces of colour decoration. It was built by
Prior Ernulf, and was formerly the sacristy, where relics of Becket
were preserved in a chest, together with a quantity of vestments.
Beyond this, to the north, was the treasury, which was well protected
by a massive door. The treasures of costly plate and jewels at
Canterbury were of enormous value. In the aisle on the south side
there is the splendid tomb of Archbishop Chichele (1443), whom
Shakespeare represents in _Henry V._ as instigating the war with
France, and who was the founder of All Souls', Oxford. Also there are
monuments of Archbishop Howley (1848) and Archbishop Bourchier (1486).

Up lofty steps, climbed by pilgrims on their knees, we ascend to the
_Retro-Choir_, the work of William the Englishman, the successor of
William of Sens. _Holy Trinity Chapel_ occupies the centre, where
stood the wondrous shrine of Becket. Architecturally it is interesting
as showing the triumph of English achievement over the foreign
influence, and the gradual development of the English Gothic style;
and historically it is fascinating as being the goal of pilgrims from
all quarters of the land. The famous shrine has entirely disappeared,
owing to the cupidity of Henry VIII. and his commissioners. Some idea
of what it was like is given by a representation of it in one of the
windows of the chapel. There was a stone base with marble arches, and
above the shrine covered with a wooden canopy, "which at a given
signal was drawn up, and the shrine then appeared, blazing with gold
and damasked with gold wire, and embossed with innumerable pearls and
jewels and rings, cramped together on this gold ground." One great
diamond or carbuncle was as large as a hen's egg, called the _Regale
of France_, and presented by Louis VII. All the monarchs and nobles in
mediæval times came here to worship, and crowds flocked from all
quarters "the holy blissful martyr for to seek"; the pavement is worn
by their knees; cripples begged to rub their limbs against the pillars
of the holy shrine, and perchance were healed--faith plays a wondrous
part in many a cure--and Chaucer sings of the tales and doings of the
not always very austere Canterbury pilgrims. The windows of this
chapel contain some of the best thirteenth-century glass in existence.
They record miracles wrought by Becket. Above the shrine is a gilded
crescent, concerning which many theories have been suggested, none
wholly satisfactory.

[Illustration Tomb of the Black Prince]

In this chapel is the monument of _Edward, the Black Prince_ (1376),
who fought at Creçy and Poictiers, one of the bravest of our national
heroes. The effigy is of brass and was once gilded, and represents the
prince in full armour. The head rests on a casque, and the features of
the Plantagenets are distinctly traceable. Above the tomb is a canopy,
having on it a representation of the Trinity, and above that are the
remains of dress and armour actually worn by the prince--his helmet, a
shield, a velvet surcoat, gauntlets, and the scabbard of the sword. On
the tomb is an inscription in Norman French which, translated, tells:
"Here lies the most noble Prince Edward, eldest son of the most noble
King Edward III., Prince of Aquitaine and Wales, Duke of Cornwall and
Earl of Chester, who died on Trinity Sunday, the 8th of June 1376. To
the soul of whom God grant mercy.--Amen." Then follow some verses
written by the prince, which begin:--

    "Tu que passez ove bouche close pur la ou c'est corps repose,
    Entent ce qe te dirray, sicome te dire la say,"

and proceed to contrast the riches and glory of this present life with
the mouldering and decay of death. Below are seen shields of arms
which bear those of France and England, and the ostrich or Prince of
Wales's feathers, with the motto _Houmont Ich diene_. Both Welsh and
German origin is claimed for the motto. Dean Stanley preferred the
latter, and stated that _Houmont_ meant _high-spirited_, while the
latter words signify _I serve_.

Another interesting tomb is that of Henry IV. (1413), and his second
wife, Joan of Navarre (1437). The tomb was opened in 1832, and the
body of the dead king discovered in wonderful preservation. He founded
the chantry near his tomb. Some vestments taken from a tomb are
preserved in this chapel. Other memorials are those of Dean Wotton, by
Bernini; Cardinal Coligny, whose brother fell in the massacre of St.
Bartholomew, and who was poisoned by his servant; Archbishop
Courtenay, the oppressor of the Lollards, who is represented in
archiepiscopal robes, with his mitre and crosier.

The _Corona_ at the extreme east end is a beautiful piece of work,
accomplished by English William. It is in the form of a circular apse,
and has a triforium and clerestory. For some obscure reason it has
been popularly called "Becket's crown," possibly from the presence
here of some relic of the martyr. Here were the shrines of Archbishop
Odo and St. Wilfrid of York, and here is the tomb of Cardinal Pole,
archbishop in the time of Mary, a plain brick monument, plastered over
with the inscription: "The body of Cardinal Pole."

Turning to the _South Choir_ aisle, which resembles the north, we see
the _Chapel of St. Anselm_, formerly that of SS. Peter and Paul. It
resembles that of St. Andrew, and was built by Ernulf, and probably
restored after the great fire. Behind the altar was buried the great
Anselm, one of the most saintly and renowned prelates who ever
occupied the see of Augustine. The south window is Decorated, inserted
by Prior d'Estria in 1336. There is a monument here of Archbishop
Simon de Mepham (1333), whom we shall hear of again at Exeter, when
his visitation was resisted by the arrogant Bishop Grandisson; and
also of Archbishop Bradwardine (1349). Above this chapel is the
_Watching Chamber_, where a monk was stationed to guard the shrines.
Proceeding along the aisle on the right are monuments of Archbishop
Sudbury (1381), beheaded in the Wat Tyler rebellion; Archbishop
Stratford (1348) and Archbishop Kemp (1454).

The _South-East Transept_ is similar to the northern one. The walls
are the work of Ernulf. It is to William of Sens, however, that we
have to attribute the architectural details. There are apsidal chapels
dedicated to SS. John and Gregory, the remains of Archbishop
Winchelsey's tomb (1313); and the "patriarchal chair," erroneously
called "St. Augustine's." In the aisle on the left are two tombs said
to be those of Archbishop Hubert Walter, who accompanied Richard I.
on a Crusade, and Archbishop Reynolds (1327), the friend of Edward II.

The _South-West Transept_ was rebuilt at the same time as the nave by
Chillenden. On the east of this is the _Warrior Chapel_, dedicated to
St. Michael. Its style is Perpendicular, _circa_ 1370, and was
probably erected by Chillenden. Here is the monument of Stephen
Langton (1228), who wrested from King John the Magna Charta. The
position is curious, only the head of the tomb appearing through the
wall. Other monuments are those of John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset,
half brother of Henry IV. (1409), and Thomas of Clarence, second son
of the same king, killed in battle in 1421, erected by the widow of
both; Lady Thornhurst (1609) and Sir Thomas, Sir John Rooke, one of
the heroes of the capture of Gibraltar, and some military trophies and
memorials.

[Illustration The Crypt.]

The _Crypt_ is one of the finest in England, built before 1085. There
is here some very fine Norman work, the western portion was
constructed mainly by Ernulf, though there is some of the work of
Lanfranc also here. The carving was executed after the stones were set
in their places, and we can see that some of the carving was left
unfinished, the designs having been roughly traced out. The portion of
the crypt east of the Trinity Chapel is the work of English William
(1178-1184). The Chapel of Our Lady Undercroft is enclosed by some
Late Perpendicular open stone-work, and was very magnificent. Only
privileged pilgrims were allowed to see the wealth of precious stones
and costly ornaments with which this wondrous shrine was adorned. In
the crypt is the monument of Lady Mohun of Dunstar (1395), the chantry
founded by the Black Prince, St. John's Chapel, the tomb of Isabel,
Countess of Athole (1229). Here Becket's body was hastily buried by
the monks after his murder; it remained here for fifty years, and was
resorted to by the crowds of pilgrims, and here Henry II. endured his
penance, receiving five strokes of a rod from each bishop and abbot
present, and three from each of the eighty monks, and remaining all
the night fasting, resting against one of the pillars. Queen Elizabeth
gave the Flemish refugees the use of the crypt both as a place of
worship and as a home for their industry. Here they plied their busy
looms, and in their moments of leisure wrote inscriptions on the
walls. The descendants of these settlers still live in Canterbury, and
use part of the crypt as their chapel.

THE MONASTIC BUILDINGS

Canterbury was a Benedictine monastery. We enter the _Cloisters_ from
the north transept, which are mainly Perpendicular in style, though
occupying the site of the old Norman buildings, and containing remains
of earlier work. Chillenden, the builder of the nave, is responsible
for all the Perpendicular work. The _Chapter-House_ was rebuilt on
Norman lines late in the thirteenth century, and re-ceiled and
re-windowed in the fourteenth by Chillenden. The ceiling is composed
of panels of Irish oak. Unfortunately a severe restoration in 1897 has
somewhat vulgarised its former beautiful features. At the east end
there is the beautiful priors' sedilia, with glass mosaics on the
spandrels of the throne. After the Reformation the chapter-house was
used for preachings, and acquired the name of the sermon-house. On the
north of the garth was the refectory, the entrance to which may be
seen, and also the remains of the monks' lavatory.

Passing along we see the Priors', now known as the Green Court, a
large open space surrounded with the remains of the domestic buildings
of the monastery. The Deanery, previously part of the priors'
lodgings, is on the east, and the south was also occupied by the
dormitory and refectory, with kitchens. On the west is the Porter's
Gate, a Norman structure, with curious ornamentation. The very
interesting late _Norman Staircase_ leading to the hall of the
Grammar School should be examined. Returning, we traverse the passage
north of the chapter-house, and come to the _Lavatory Tower_--erroneously
called the baptistry--of Late Norman construction, built by Prior
Wibert for supplying the various buildings with water, and adjoining
this is the _Library_, which possesses a fine collection of books. A
very interesting MS. is the charter of Eadred (949 A.D.), written by
Dunstan; there is an ancient portrait of Queen Edgiva (late fourteenth
century). The remains of the infirmary and the garden of the monastery
may also be seen; and an arched doorway in Palace Street is all that
remains of the once famous Archbishop's Palace, which was inhabited by
so many distinguished prelates, and the scene of so many events in
English history. It was destroyed during the Commonwealth period.


DIMENSIONS

    Total length               522 ft. (inside, 514 ft.)
    Length of nave             178 ft.
    Width of nave               71 ft.
    Length of choir            180 ft.
    Height of nave              80 ft.
    Height of central tower    235 ft.
    Height of west tower       130 ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

    Nave (1378-1411), Prior Chillenden.
    Choir (1174-1184), William of Sens and English William.
    Choir-screen (1304-1305), Prior d'Estria.
    Towers of St. Andrew and Anselm, Prior Ernulf.
    Retro-choir and corona (1178-1184), English William.
    Crypt, west part (1070-1109), Lanfranc and Ernulf.
    Crypt, east part (1178-1184), English William.
    Central tower (1495), Prior Goldstone.

[Illustration PLAN OF CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL]


OTHER CHURCHES AND OBJECTS OF INTEREST

_St. Martin's Church_, traditionally said to be the oldest church in
the kingdom, is certainly of great antiquity. A large number of Roman
bricks are built up in the walls. It contains a stone coffin, in which
it is said that Queen Bertha lies, the wife of King Ethelbert,
converted by Augustine, but this is improbable. The font is Saxon, and
it is, according to tradition, which is not very reliable, the font in
which Ethelbert was baptised.

_St. Augustine's College_ for Missionaries was formerly the Monastery
of St. Augustine. The earliest house was dedicated to SS. Peter and
Paul, said to have been founded by Augustine. Dunstan enlarged it, and
added the founder's name to the dedication. It became very rich and
important. The buildings were destroyed by the Danes, but they arose
again in greater glory, and at the dissolution of monasteries the
house became a Royal palace. The buildings are well worthy of a visit.

    _St. Dunstan's Church._
    The _West Gate_, built by Archbishop Sudbury, _temp._ Richard II.
    _Holy Cross Church._
    _St. Peter's Church._
    _St. Thomas's Hospital_ for Entertainment of Pilgrims.

The remains of the old _Chequers Inn_ at the south-west corner of
Mercery Lane, can be traced, and a portion of it is incorporated in
the house known as Grafton House. There are some fine old houses in
this street, anciently called _La Merceri_, each stone projecting
outwards, so as almost to meet at the top, typical of an old English
city street.



WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL


The city of Winchester, the ancient capital of England, the Caer Gwent
of the Britons, the Venta Belgarum of the Romans, the Royal city of
Alfred the Great and of William the Conqueror, was a place of vast
importance in the annals of England. Under Cnut it was the capital of
a kingdom stretching across the seas to Scandinavia, and under the
Normans a large part of France was in subjection to it. Here kings
were born and Royal weddings celebrated with great pomp in its grand
Cathedral. If Royal patronage could have preserved the glories of
ancient Winchester, it would have remained the capital of England; but
London was the centre of the commercial activity of the country, and
in the end Winchester was forced to yield supremacy to its more
powerful rival.

Its ecclesiastical history is no less important. A British church here
is said to have been destroyed during the Diocletian persecution (A.D.
266) and restored subsequently and dedicated to St. Amphibalus, the
martyr. Heathendom returned with the Saxons, until they were converted
by St. Berinus, and by the baptism of King Kynegils the triumph of
Christianity was assured. He built a new Cathedral, which was again
rebuilt by Bishop Ethelbold (980) and consecrated by Dunstan, and this
church remained until the Norman builders came with the Conqueror, and
began, under his kinsman, Walkelin, to erect that stately fane which
we are now about to visit.

Winchester is unlike Salisbury, which was, for the most part,
completed in one period of architecture; the former was the work of
several builders at different eras. A large part of the Early Norman
Cathedral remains; the crypt and transepts and the core of the walls
being all Norman work. The eastern aisles and chapels are the work of
Bishop de Lucy (1189-1204), built in the Early English style, during
the troubled reigns of Richard I. and John; the noble nave was begun
by Bishop Edingdon in 1345, and not finished until the time of
Waynflete, in 1496, while the dawn of the Reformation saw the building
of the side aisles of the presbytery and the east part of the Lady
Chapel. The celebrated William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester,
Chancellor of Edward III., the founder of the Colleges of Winchester
and New (Oxford), was the chief architect of the nave.

We approach the Cathedral by an avenue of stately elms, and reach the
west door. The best exterior view is obtained from the north side of
the close. The tower is low massive Norman work, built in the time of
the first Henry, the first tower having fallen, as some said, because
William Rufus, the bad king, was buried beneath it. The west front has
been recently restored. It is evidently Perpendicular work, and was
probably constructed by Bishop Edingdon.

On entering we are struck by the grandeur and impressiveness of this
noble nave: Winchester is the largest Cathedral in England. The whole
church is 556 feet in length, and nearly 400 feet of magnificent
stone-vault is visible from the west doorway. This nave presents some
architectural problems. The style is evidently Perpendicular work of
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but the builders of that
period transformed much of the original Norman work, which still
remains in the piers and walls, into that of the later style. They did
not rebuild, but transformed, adding new mouldings, casing, and
concealing, though not obliterating, the ancient Norman features. We
can trace the work of the successive builders. Bishop Edingdon
entirely rebuilt the west front and extreme west portion. Examine the
two west windows of the north aisle, and compare them with the third,
the work of William of Wykeham, and notice their heavy and less
graceful appearance. Wykeham was responsible for the complete
transformation of the nave, but lived only long enough to complete the
south side. Notice the thickness of the piers. This was caused by
casing the Norman piers with Perpendicular stone-work, and the balcony
above the arches was necessitated by the work of reconstruction.
Wykeham's successor, Cardinal Beaufort (uncle of Henry V., the "rich
Cardinal," as men called him, one of Joan of Arc's judges, but withal
not so base a man as Shakespeare depicts), continued, and Bishop
Waynflete, the founder of Magdalen College, Oxford, completed that
magnificent structure which we now see. On each side of the west door
are bronze statues of Charles I. and James I. by Le Sueur.

On the bosses of the roof we see some armorial bearings; the lily (the
arms of Magdalen College) is the device of Waynflete, and the arms of
Wykeham, Beaufort, John of Gaunt and Richard II. (white hart chained)
are there represented.

The Minstrels' Gallery or tribune, erected by Edingdon, is at the
west end of the north aisle, and the oldest piece of iron grill-work
in England of very good design is seen in a neighbouring door. The
font is Norman work, the sculptures representing scenes from the life
of St. Nicholas of Myra, together with doves and the salamander. The
chantry chapels on the south side of the nave are extremely
interesting: (1) Bishop Edingdon's Chantry (1345-1366), (2) William of
Wykeham's Chantry, which is very beautifully designed. We see the
effigy of the distinguished prelate with two angels holding the pillow
under his head, and three monks at his feet praying for his soul. Some
modern statues have been added at the east end and an ingenious
chronogram. In the south aisle there are two monuments by Flaxman
(Henrietta North and Dr. Warton), and one to the once famous Bishop
Hoadley, the founder of the Bangorian controversy, which shows the
Magna Charta by the side of the Bible and the cap of liberty
contending with the pastoral staff. Some heroes of the Crimean War are
also commemorated. There are memorials of Mrs. Montagu, the founder of
the "Blue Stockings," and of Jane Austen.

The pulpit is Jacobean, and was brought here from New College, Oxford.
The screen separating the nave from the choir is modern. The bronze
figures of James I. and Charles I. formed part of an older screen
erected by Inigo Jones. Cromwell's soldiers wrought havoc here as in
many other churches and cathedrals. They broke the windows and
woodwork, desecrated shrines, and paid much attention to this statue
of their king.

On entering the choir we find ourselves immediately beneath the tower,
which, as we have observed, is Late Norman work, and notice the
immense piers which support it. The former tower having fallen, the
builders were determined not to have a similar misfortune, and
therefore built these piers abnormally strong and massive. The ceiling
was erected in the time of Charles I. (1634), and bears medallions of
that ill-fated monarch and his queen. Beyond the tower we see the
piers and arches and clerestory of the presbytery, which belong to the
Late Decorated period. The noble reredos belongs to the fifteenth
century, and has been recently restored, the vacant niches being again
filled with statuary. In the centre is the figure of our Lord upon the
Cross, with the Virgin and St. John. On each side of the altar are SS.
Hedda and Ethelwolf, and in the spandrels of the two doorways some
ancient sculptures of the life of the Virgin. Above are figures of SS.
Swithun and Berinus, and above the doors SS. Benedict and Giles, and
SS. Stephen and Lawrence. In the highest row are SS. Peter and Paul
and the four Latin doctors. There are numerous smaller statues of
kings and prelates. The whole appearance of the screen is very
magnificent.

The woodwork of the stalls is the most perfect in the kingdom, and was
constructed in the closing years of the thirteenth century. The carved
foliage is remarkable for its grace and elegance. Notice the carved
heads and the monkeys and other animals playing amidst the branches.
The _Misereres_ are interesting, and are earlier than the canopies.
The pulpit was presented by one "Thomas Silkstede, prior," whose name
it bears.

In the centre of the presbytery we see the supposed tomb of William
Rufus, who was accidentally killed by an arrow when hunting in the New
Forest. His ashes, however, do not rest beneath this stone, but are
preserved in the chests above the screen, together with the bones of
Canute and some Saxon prelates. Cromwell's soldiers rifled the tomb
and found therein a chalice, which sacred vessel was usually placed in
the coffins of bishops and therefore could not have belonged to the
grave of the red-haired monarch. Bishop Fox (1500-1520) did much for
this part of the Cathedral. He placed the glass in the east window,
which has been much modified. Glass painting at this period had
attained its highest perfection as an art, and in its original
condition this window must have been unrivalled. The stone screens on
each side of the presbytery were also erected by Fox, and six mortuary
chests containing the bones of Saxon kings and bishops are placed upon
them. Amongst the bones of other illustrious men are deposited in a
mingled state the mortal remains of Kynegils, Ethelwolf, the father of
Alfred the Great, Egbert, Canute, and many others. The soldiers of
Cromwell played havoc with these bones of kings, and scattered them
about the Cathedral, hence it is impossible to be certain that these
chests actually contain the mortal remains of those whose names they
bear. The vault of the presbytery is wooden, and the bosses are
interesting.

Behind the reredos is the feretory or place for the shrines of patron
saints, with a stone platform at its east end on which formerly stood
the shrines of St. Swithun[6] and St. Berinus.

[Illustration WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL]

Pilgrims used to pass in procession before these shrines along the
stone passage. A collection of fragments of carved work is shown here.

We now visit the north transept and find ourselves in the earliest
portion of the Cathedral, built by Bishop Walkelin in the old Norman
style. The windows were inserted in the Decorated period, and the
ceiling belongs to the last century. The transepts have aisles on the
east and west sides and also at each end, over which is a gallery.
This is not common in England. At St. Alban's there is a similar
arrangement, and in several Normandy churches. The Norman work of the
transepts is of two periods. The earlier part by Walkelin (1070-1098)
is distinguished by the smaller piers and plain groined vaulting; the
later (1107) by the ribbed vaulting and larger piers. When we visit
Ely Cathedral we shall notice the similarity of design, the transepts
of that building having been erected by Simeon, Walkelin's brother.
Under the organ-loft is the Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre. Notice the
curious mural paintings representing the Passion of our Lord which
date from the thirteenth century, and the Decorated canopies built
against the Norman piers.

We now enter the north aisle of the presbytery and proceed to the
extreme eastern portion of the Cathedral. Here seven chantries and
chapels are seen which record the memory of illustrious prelates. "How
much power and ambition under half-a-dozen stones! I own I grow to
look on tombs as lasting mansions, instead of observing them for
curious pieces of architecture," wrote Walpole. Almost all the east
end was built by Bishop Godfrey de Lucy (1189-1204) at the beginning
of the Early English period and is of exquisite design. The north
chapel is called that of the Guardian Angels, and is so named from
figures of angels in the vaulting. There is a bronze figure of the
Earl of Portland here, the treasurer of Charles I. Notice the figure
holding a heart. It represents Bishop Ethelmar, half-brother of Henry
III., who died in Paris but directed that his heart should be conveyed
to this Cathedral.

The Lady Chapel has work of divers periods--north and south walls
Early English (De Lucy), east wall and window with small eastern parts
of north and south walls Perpendicular (Prior Hunton, 1470-1498, and
Prior Silkstede, 1498-1524). The rebuses of these two priors on the
vault are curious: T. _Hun_ and a ton (Thomas Hunton), and 1 and _Por_
for Prior; T. _Silk_ and a horse (Thomas Silkstede). Mural paintings
by the latter prior representing the legends of the Virgin adorn the
walls. The panelling is the work of Bishop Fox.

The south chapel (Early English) is the Chantry of Bishop Langton, who
died of the plague in 1500, just before he was translated to the
Archbishopric of Canterbury. The woodwork of the stalls is very
beautiful. The pikes of Cromwell's soldiers wrought havoc here, and we
notice that just above the height they could reach with their weapons
the woodwork is uninjured. Mediæval artists were fond of puns and
rebuses, and here we have Langton's name represented by a _long_ (or
musical) note with a _ton_, and a _vine_ and _ton_ for Winton or
Winchester. Winton is also represented by a dragon coming from a ton,
referring to Solomon's warning against the wine that is red which
biteth like a serpent, etc. An object of much interest is preserved
here--Queen Mary's chair upon which she sat when she was married to
Philip of Spain in the Lady Chapel. On that occasion there was much
feasting and rejoicing in Winchester, though the nation liked not the
Spanish marriage, and much ill came to England through that
ill-starred connection. De Lucy's tomb in the centre of the
retro-choir looks upon the noble work which he built for his beloved
Cathedral. On the north of the central aisle is the Chantry of
Waynflete, the founder of Magdalen College, Oxford; on the south that
of Cardinal Beaufort. Both were much injured by the soldiers. Between
these is the effigy of a knight in armour, Sir A. de Gavaston, the
father of the favourite of Edward II.

Notice the wall at the back of the feretory, with its beautiful
tabernacle work of Decorated period, under which images once stood.
The names of the worthies appear below. "The Holy Hole" formerly led
to the crypt but has now been closed. On the north side of this wall
is Bishop Gardiner's Chantry, who was the leader of the Roman Catholic
party at the Reformation and was styled the "Hammer of Heretics." He
took a leading part in the Marian persecutions. On the south side is
the Chantry of Bishop Fox (1500-1528), the founder of Corpus Christi
College, Oxford, who bore the pelican as a device.

The south wall of the south aisle of the presbytery is Late
Perpendicular work. Another instance of heart burial is recorded on
the wall opposite, that of Bishop Nicholas of Ely (1280), and an
inscription tells of the burial of Richard, son of William the
Conqueror, who was killed while hunting in the New Forest.

We now enter the south transept, the architectural features of which
are similar to those of the north transept. Silkstede's Chantry should
be visited. This worthy prior loved a rebus, and here carved a skein
of _silk_ to represent his name, also the letters THOMAS appear on the
screen, the MA being formed differently from the rest to represent his
patroness, MARY the Virgin. Isaac Walton's tomb is here, the author of
the _Angler_. There are some good mural paintings. The monument of
Bishop Wilberforce forms a conspicuous object in the transept.
Adjoining Silkstede's Chapel is the Venerable Chapel, with a fine
screen. On the west side are the chapter-room and the old treasury.
Passing through the chamber on the south we enter the slype.

[Illustration The Cathedral West Front.]

The library has some treasures, notably a Vulgate of the twelfth
century and some valuable MSS. The crypt is entirely Norman work,
except the east part, which is Early English. The cloisters and old
chapter-house were destroyed in 1563. The Deanery was formerly the
home of the prior; its entrance belongs to the time of Henry III.,
and the hall within the house to the fifteenth century. Over the
dean's stables is a long room which was probably the guest-house for
pilgrims; rude carvings can be seen on the beams of the roof probably
made by the pilgrims.


DIMENSIONS

     Total length, 556 ft.; length of nave, 262 ft.; width of nave and
aisles, 88 ft.; height of vault, 78 ft.; area, 53,480 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

1079-1093--Transepts, crypt and cores of piers and wall; 1120--central
tower rebuilt; 1202--retro-choir and eastern chapels; 1320--presbytery
rebuilt; 1360--west front and two bays of nave; 1394-1486--nave
reconstructed; 1487--east end of Lady Chapel; 1520--alterations in
presbytery by Bishop Fox.

     Other objects of interest in Winchester--

     The _School_, founded by William of Wykeham; the _Hospital of St.
Cross_, founded by Henry de Blois in 1136; _Hyde Abbey_, the
resting-place of the body of Alfred the Great; the _County Hall_, with
the so-called Round Table of King Arthur; _Wolvesey Castle_, the
ancient episcopal palace.

[Illustration PLAN OF WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL]

FOOTNOTE:

[6] St. Swithun became bishop in 837; he was "a diligent builder of
churches in places where there were none before, and a repairer of
those that had been destroyed before." In modern times his name is
best known as a weather prophet; according to the tradition that if it
is fine or wet on St. Swithun's day (July 15th) the same weather will
last for the next forty days. The legend arose from the moving of his
body from the lowly grave in the churchyard to its golden shrine in
the Cathedral being delayed on account of continued rain.



CHICHESTER CATHEDRAL


Chichester, like most of our cathedral cities, has a long history
dating back to the time of the Romans. The Roman town stood on the
line of the road now known as Stane Street, and seems to have been a
populous place where trade was carried on, and not merely a military
station. A marble slab discovered in 1713 (preserved at Goodwood)
bears an inscription which tells us much of the Roman city and runs as
follows: _Neptuni et Minervæ templum pro salute domus divinæ ex
auctoritate Tih. Claud. Cogidubni r. leg. aug. in Brit. collegium
fabror. et qui in eo a sacris sunt d. s. d. donante aream Pudente
Pudentini fil_. Much has been made of this inscription, that there was
a temple here dedicated to Neptune and Minerva, that there was a large
body of craftsmen who built this temple, and that Chichester was the
seat of King Cogidubnus mentioned by Tacitus as possessing independent
authority in Britain.

When the Pagan Saxons under Ælla came they destroyed the place. "Ælle
and Cissa," says the chronicle, "beset Anderida[7] and slew all that
were therein, nor was there afterwards one Briton left," and overran
the coast, establishing the kingdom of the South Saxons, or Sussex.
Then Cissa, having captured the old Roman city, made it the capital of
his kingdom, calling the place _Cissan-caestre_, or the fortress of
Cissa, now corrupted to Chichester. This was at the close of the fifth
century. Shut in by the great forest of Anderida, these South Saxons
retained their Paganism long after the advent of Augustine and the
conversion of other parts of the country. St. Wilfrid was shipwrecked
on their coast, but they fiercely attacked the crew of the vessel,
which escaped with difficulty from the perilous coast owing to the
prayers of the saint. Thirty years later he returned and converted
them to Christianity. A famine raged owing to long draught. He taught
them to fish in the sea, and so won their confidence, and on the day
when their chiefs came to be baptised rain fell and the famine ceased.
The Island of Selsey or Seal's Island was given to the saint, where he
founded a monastery and became the first bishop of the South Saxons.
Until the conquest Selsey remained the seat of the bishopric. The last
Saxon prelate, Ethelric, though he was a learned, and moreover a very
aged man, received harsh treatment from William I. He was deprived of
his bishopric and imprisoned. Then came Stigand, who moved the
bishop's throne to Chichester, and made the minster Church of St.
Peter's Monastery his Cathedral. The waves of the sea now roll over
the site of the Early Saxon church. Ralph de Luffa, the third Norman
prelate (1091-1123), began the building of the present Cathedral. Fire
played havoc with the newly-erected church in 1114, four years after
its completion, but Ralph again set to work to restore it. It was
consecrated in 1148, twenty-five years after his death. He was a noble
bishop, and accomplished much for his diocese and for the Church of
England in the time of the tyranny of Norman kings. Fire again raged
in 1186, which prepared the way for the alterations and improvements
of the transitional builders who were developing the beauties of
English Gothic. Bishop Seffrid, the second who bore that name, was the
director of the work, which shows the purist style of the twelfth
century. The triforium, the upper storey of the western towers (the
present north-west tower is a modern imitation of the south-west
tower) and the lower storey of the central tower are mainly his work.
This bishop had the doubtful honour of crowning King John. Bishop
Neville (1224-1244) designed and began to build the spire, and the
Lady Chapel was partly constructed by Bishop Gilbert de St. Leofard
(1288-1304). John de Langton, bishop (1305-1336), who was a skilful
architect, finished the retro-choir and the south wing of the
transept. By this time the Cathedral had assumed much of its present
form. The apsidal chapels in the choir had been made to assume the
more English form of square-ended buildings. The thirteenth-century
bishops who accomplished all this excellent work were remarkable men.
Bishop Simon Fitz Robert (1204-1207) obtained many benefactions for
his see, and grants of stone from the Isle of Purbeck for the
beautifying of his church. Richard Poore, the noble builder of
Salisbury, was here for two years, and Bishop Neville worked hard
during his episcopacy for his church, and built a palace for his see
in London which stood on the site of Lincoln's Inn. St. Richard de
Wych was an excellent bishop (1245-1253), who reformed his diocese
with some severity, and ordered his flock to contribute liberally to
the building fund of his Cathedral. "St. Richard's Pence" afterwards
became a fruitful source of income. Bishop Gilbert de St. Leofard
followed in his steps, and, as we have said, built the main parts of
the Lady Chapel, which is of Decorated style. The work of the
fourteenth century was rather that of adornment than of construction.
We find Bishop Langton (1305-1337), the suppressor of the Templars,
inserting a beautiful window in the south transept, and building the
chapter-house. A little later a noble reredos was erected behind the
altar, the choir stalls added, and some changes made in the window
tracery. The founder of Merton College Library, William Read, was
bishop here in 1369-1385. Lollardism was rampant in the diocese, and
Bishop Robert Rede (1397-1415) took strong steps to uproot the
obnoxious teaching. The beginning of the fifteenth century saw arising
the detached bell tower, called Raymond's Tower, the only existing
detached belfry in the kingdom. Some of the Bishops of Chichester at
this time fared ill. Bishop Moleyns (1446-1450), who helped Henry VI.
to marry Margaret of Anjou, was murdered by some sailors at
Portsmouth, and his successor, Peacocke (1450-1459), was tried on
account of his supposed heretical opinions and deprived. Bishop Storey
(1478-1503) was the builder of the famous Market Cross and the Grammar
School. Bishop Sherbourne (1508-1536) who favoured not the "new
Religion," employed the Bernardi, an Italian family who had previously
settled in Flanders, to decorate his church, and we shall see some of
their work in the Cathedral. Then came the trouble of the Reformation
period, when altars were destroyed, shrines pillaged of their gold and
ornaments, and the whole church ransacked of its treasures. Further
spoliation and destruction were wrought by the Parliamentary soldiers
under Waller, who "plundered the Cathedral, seized upon the vestments
and ornaments of the church, together with the consecrated plate
serving for the altar; they left not so much as a cushion for the
pulpit, nor a chalice for the Blessed Sacraments; the common soldiers
broke down the organs, and dashing the pipes with their poleaxes,
scoffingly said, 'Hark, how the organs go!' ... On the Tuesday
following, after the sermon, possessed and transported by a
Bacchanalian fury, they ran up and down the church with their swords
drawn, defacing the monuments of the dead, hacking and hewing the
seats and stalls, and scraping the painted walls. Sir William Waller
and the rest of the commanders standing by as spectators and approvers
of their barbarous impieties." Bishop King was prelate at this time;
his palace and goods were destroyed, and he was treated with cruel
indignity. In the seventeenth-century the north-west tower fell, and
the central tower was so insecure that the upper part of the spire
was removed and rebuilt by Wren. Since then several attempts at
reparation have been made. At length in 1860 a terrible disaster
befell, and the central tower and spire collapsed. It was rebuilt by
Sir G. Scott with much care, and may be said to be an exact copy of
the old, and in addition to other improvements the north-west tower
has been rebuilt.

[Illustration Chichester]


THE EXTERIOR

The best views may be obtained from the city wall to the north, also
from West Street and East Street, and a fine distant prospect is
observed from the Goodwood Downs. We will begin our inspection as
usual with the _West Front_, which consists of a gable with windows
and porch, flanked by two towers. The upper part of the north-west
tower is a recent construction, made in imitation of the south-west
tower, and built on the ruins of the former tower. The south tower is
of Norman workmanship, the upper part being Early English, and also
the plain and heavy buttresses at the south-west corner. The basement
and next storey are part of the original work of Bishop Ralph, and the
rest of Bishop Seffrid II. The west porch is plain and deep, with
double buttresses at the corners. The doorway consists of a wide arch,
under which are two smaller ones divided by a single clustered column.
These have been restored in imitation of the ancient design. The
interior of the porch is very beautiful Early English work, the
arcading of quatrefoils being very effective. The monuments have
evidently been placed there in later times. Above the porch are three
Early English windows, and above these a large modern window, and in
the gable are two small Early English windows. The cross above is
modern.

The _Bell Tower_, the only instance in England of a detached belfry,
though not unusual abroad, is a massive and plain building, 120 feet
high. The upper storey is octagonal and low, and resembles the great
west tower of Ely, but is much inferior. Both these towers were built
about the same time, at the beginning of the fifteenth century, and
are in the Perpendicular style. The north side of the nave exhibits in
the clerestory the round-headed windows of the original Norman church.
The parapet is fourteenth-century work. Flying buttresses connect the
clerestory with the outer wall. The windows of the chapels are Early
Decorated, and were erected during the reign of Edward III. One of
them is modern. The _North Porch_ is Early English work, and the
dog-tooth ornament is observable in the arches. It has a parvise. The
_North Transept_ on the west side has some of the original Norman wall
and Norman windows, and on the north end there are thirteenth-century
buttresses with octagonal turrets, a large window and a rose window
over it. On the east side there are some Early English windows.
Proceeding eastward we pass the Chapels of St. Edmund and St. John
Baptist, of Early English design, with some Perpendicular windows, the
same style prevailing in the presbytery. Flying buttresses support the
main walls. The old Norman church ended in an apse, and traces of the
curve can still be observed, and other remains of twelfth-century work
can be seen. Two of the windows are Perpendicular in style, but have
been much restored. The low Lady Chapel projects at the east end. Two
western bays are twelfth-century work, the two eastern bays being
added by Bishop Gilbert de St. Leofard at the end of the thirteenth
century, and are Late Decorated. Much restoration has been found
necessary here. Early English work prevails in the chapel on the south
side. The south wall of the choir aisle has several points of interest
and several styles of architecture are shown here. A consecration
cross can be seen in one of the bays. The south transept is very
similar to the north, and on the west of it is the sacristy. Norman
walls are on the north and east, and Early English on south and west.
On the south side of the Cathedral are the _Cloisters_, which are
curiously shaped. The Paradise is not square, the east walk being
longer than the west. These cloisters are fifteenth-century work,
having Perpendicular windows and flat roof. The south side of the nave
is interesting, and resembles somewhat the north side. The arches of
the windows in the aisles are Early Decorated, the tracery is modern.
In the fourteenth century the buttresses were strengthened and
enlarged, the parapet added. The Norman wall and windows remain in the
clerestory, though later tracery has been inserted in two of these.
The south porch leading to the west cloister has been much restored.
The doorway in the south-west tower is Norman, and is adorned with
chevron moulding, and beautifully designed. The window over it is also
of the same date.


THE INTERIOR

The interior is more imposing than the exterior. The best view is
perhaps obtained from north-east corner of the nave. The width of the
nave is the first peculiarity which we notice. It has double aisles on
each side of the nave, a peculiarity shared only with Manchester, and
some parish churches, such as Abingdon, Taunton and Coventry. There
are some grand effects of light and shade, and the nave is well
proportioned, and has a quiet dignity which is all its own. There are
eight circular arches, supported by seven flat piers, isolated and
flanked by half columns of cylindrical character with plain capitals
and cable moulding. Purbeck marble is extensively used in the
string-courses and capitals of the vaulting shafts. The triforium
preserves its Norman character. Here are the Norman circular arches,
containing two smaller arches resting on single shafts. The surface of
the stone in the head is hatched as at Rochester. There is a striking
analogy between Chichester and Peterborough, both in the nave and
choir. Both were destroyed by fire, and both rebuilt about the same
time. The main arcade and triforium are the work of Bishop Ralph de
Luffa (1091-1124).

Bishop Seffrid II. (1180-1204) rebuilt the clerestory, and made it
loftier than the triforium. The style is Early English. It will be
noticed that the middle arch of the windows is round and higher than
the side arches, which are pointed. The windows are separated by small
shafts of Petworth marble, and the capitals are carved with leaves of
palm trees. The Cathedral is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and the
builders seem to have wished to express symbolically the threefold
nature of the Deity by the triplicity of the work. Triple clustered
shafts appear everywhere. The vaulting is of stone, and is a little
later than Seffrid's work. Alarmed by the fires, the architect
determined to build a stone and chalk roof instead of wood. In the
sixteenth century this vaulting was painted in gaudy colours by Bishop
Sherbourne.

Two storeys of the south-west tower are original Norman work, with
rude cushion capitals, and formed part of the first church finished by
Bishop Ralph. This is used as a baptistry, and has a modern font, an
imitation of that at Shoreham.

In the _South Aisle_ are the Chapels of St. George and St. Clement.
The latter has been restored in memory of the last good bishop,
Durnford. The figures placed in the old wall arcade are SS. Anselm,
Clement and Alphege. The old piscina and aumbrey remain, as also in
the other chapel. The chapels were added in the second half of the
thirteenth century. The _North Aisle_ resembles the south. Here were
the Chapels of St. Anne, St. Theobald or the Four Virgins, and SS.
Thomas and Edmund. The screen, pulpit and lectern are all modern, and
also the glass. The _monuments_ here are:--in the south aisle, Bishop
Durnford (1895), and Captain Cromwell (Flaxman); and in the north
aisle, Poet Collins, Richard Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel and his wife
[the earl was a supporter of the Duke of Gloucester, uncle of Richard
II., and was beheaded in 1397], an unknown lady, supposed to be
Countess of Arundel (1270). This tomb is of Decorated design, and is
beautifully executed.

[Illustration The Presbytery.]

The _North Transept_ was once the Parish Church of St. Peter the
Great. The main walls are part of Bishop Ralph's Norman church, and
there are Norman windows on the west and arches of the same style on
the east. These open into the old Chapel of St. John Baptist and St.
Edmund, which has now been converted into the _Library_. The north and
east walls are Early English, the vaulting is very beautiful, the ribs
being ornamented with zigzag. The library has some early MSS., but is
not particularly rich in its treasures. Entering the north choir aisle
we see the monuments of Bishop Storey (1503), the builder of the
Market Cross; Bishop King (1670), who suffered much from the
Parliamentary soldiers; Carleton (1685); Grove (1691); Otter (1840),
and an early slab of thirteenth century representing a heart burial.
Formerly an inscription could be deciphered which told in Norman
French: "Here lies the heart of Maud." At the end of this aisle is the
Chapel of St. Katherine. This eastern end of the aisle is all Early
English work. Here are preserved the paintings of the Bishops of
Chichester and Kings of England made by Bernardi, which were much
injured by the soldiers and restored by an indifferent artist. The
_Retro-Choir_ is early thirteenth century, and has a fine vault which
in style resembles that of some French churches. The piers are
curious, and the shafts are further detached from the main piers than
in any other known example. The capitals are most beautifully carved.
The triforium is ornamented with rich tracery and carving and
clustered shafts of Purbeck. It somewhat resembles Ely, the work of
Bishop Hotham in 1235. The clerestory is later. Here stood the
magnificent shrine of St. Richard, the glory of Chichester, and the
resort of pilgrims. This St. Richard de la Wyche, who was the friend
of Becket, died in 1245. He was remarkable for his zeal and charity.
On his death his body was found wrapped in a shirt of horse hair and
bound with rings of iron. Miracles being reported to have taken place
at his tomb, he was canonised. The _Lady Chapel_ in Norman times
extended two bays eastward, and was extended by two bays by Bishop
Gilbert de St. Leofard at the end of the thirteenth century
(1288-1305). It was formerly used as the library, and Willis speaks of
it as "having nothing to recommend it except a good collection of
books." The east window has five lights, and all the windows have been
restored. The vaulting is good and the fittings are modern. In the
vault is a beautifully-painted design by Bernardi (1519). The _South
Choir Aisle_ resembles the north. The Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene is
at the east end, which has been restored. St. Richard's head was
preserved here as a precious relic. Some modern paintings here
represent scenes from the life of St. Richard and our Lord. Passing by
the door into the cloisters we see on the north the tombs of Dean Hook
(1875), and Bishop Daye (1552); and on the south, Bishop Sherbourne
(1536). Here are two carved panels of very early character, which
legendary lore tells were brought from Selsey when the bishop's stool
was transferred to Chichester. It is quite possible that they are
Saxon, and the style of art has a Byzantine appearance. The subjects
are the Raising of Lazarus and Our Lord at Bethany with Mary and
Martha. A door on the left leads to the vicar's vestry, and then we
come to the _South Transept_, which resembles the north. The walls on
both west and east are Norman. On the south is a very beautiful window
inserted by Bishop Langton (1305-1337), one of the finest Early
Decorated windows in England. The glass is modern and hideous. The
paintings here on the back of the choir stalls are interesting. They
are the work of Theodore Bernardi, an Italian artist, who settled in
Flanders and afterwards came to England, and with his son lived at
Chichester. Bishop Sherbourne employed him to decorate his Cathedral.
The paintings here represent the foundation of the see at Selsey by
Caedwalla, and the foundation of four prebends by the bishop and Henry
VIII. The soldiers much injured the paintings, which were restored by
Bishop Mawson, who employed an inferior artist and thus destroyed much
of their merit. The saintly Bishop Richard has a monument here. On the
east is the Chapel of St. Pantaleon, a Nicomedian martyr, which
retains its piscina. It is now used as the canons' vestry. On the west
is the entrance to the _Sacristy_, a large room, now used as a music
room, with a vaulted ceiling. Above this is the old consistory court
where heretics were tried. Lollards were often examined and condemned
here, and behind the seats there is a sliding door leading to what is
commonly known as the Lollards' prison. It was probably either a
treasury or evidence chamber. Langton's tomb, the builder of the
beautiful window, is below that fine structure. He died in 1336.

The _Choir_ is long and narrow and has been much restored. The design
is Early English, though much of the old Norman piers was retained.
The carving in the triforium is very beautiful. The screen is modern.
The stalls were erected in Bishop Sherbourne's time, and are of carved
oak and inferior to many. The dean's and precentor's stalls are new.
The old throne was much defaced by the soldiers under Waller. A new
one was given by Bishop Mawson (1740-1754) and this has given place to
a modern one. The reredos and altar are modern.


DIMENSIONS

    Total length                393 ft.
    Length of nave              155 ft.
    Width of nave                90 ft.
    Height of nave               61 ft.
    Length of choir             115 ft.
    Length of transept          131 ft.
    Height of spire             277 ft.
    Area                 28,000 sq. ft.


BUILDING DATES

     Norman (Twelfth Century)--South-west tower and part of west
     front, piers of nave and triforium, part of transepts, parts of
     walls of choir aisles and piers of choir, and parts of Lady
     Chapel. The upper part of south-west tower late twelfth
     century.

     Early English (Thirteenth Century)--Remodelling of the nave and
     choir, chapels, porches, and Lady Chapel begun.

     Decorated (Fourteenth Century)--Retro-choir and south window in
     south transept. Lady Chapel finished.

     Perpendicular (Fifteenth Century)--Bell tower, choir walls,
     paintings, cloisters.

     Modern--Tower and spire and north-west tower.

FOOTNOTE:

[7] The modern Pevensey.



SALISBURY CATHEDRAL


Salisbury is one of the finest examples of Early English architecture
in England. It was built for the most part in one style and at one
period, and therefore does not present to us that varied
conglomeration of the art of different ages which we see in most of
our ecclesiastical edifices. The story of its building is full of
interest, and we must look for the original home of the Salisbury
diocese on the wind-swept fortified heights of Old Sarum, where Bishop
Herman fixed his episcopal seat in Early Norman times. The early
history of the sees of Southern England is somewhat complicated. When
the Story of the Cross was first proclaimed here, and the savage
Saxons became Christianised, the whole of Wessex and Sussex were
comprised in the see of Dorchester, a small village in Oxfordshire.
This huge bishopric was then divided into the two sees of Winchester
and Sherborne. Then Selsey (afterwards Chichester) was taken out of
Winchester, which diocese was again divided, and Ramsbury formed. Out
of the diocese of Sherborne, Wells and Crediton were constituted, and
then Bishop Herman in 1058 united the sees of Ramsbury and Sherborne,
and formed the diocese of Salisbury, fixing his seat at Old Sarum, the
Saxon town of Searobyrig. On this hill fortress seven prelates ruled,
amongst whom were the saintly Osmund (1078-1099), who completed the
first Cathedral, of which no stone remains, and compiled the famous
"Use of Sarum," the model of all service-books in the South of
England; Bishop Roger (1102-1107), a most powerful prelate and
castle-builder; Jocelyn de Bohun (1142-1184), the opponent of Becket;
Hubert Walter (1188-1193), a crusading bishop, the companion of
Richard Coeur de Lion; Herbert le Poer or Poore (1194-1216), and
then his brother or kinsman, Richard Poore (1217-1228), the founder of
the present Cathedral. Various reasons are assigned for the
transference of the see. Old Sarum lacked water. It was a lofty,
barren height, swept by every wind of heaven, and "when the wind did
blow they could not hear the priest say Mass." But the real reason was
the quarrel between the clergy and the soldiers who guarded the
castle of the king. On one occasion, when during Rogationtide the
ecclesiastics went in solemn procession to the Church of St. Martin,
on their return they found the gates closed against them, and had to
remain without shelter during a long winter's night. Similar insults
frequently being offered them, the bishop and his clergy determined to
seek a new home. Whither should they go? Legends tell us of the arrow
shot at random from the heights of Old Sarum, of the bishop's
mysterious dream, wherein the Virgin appeared and told him to seek for
the spot Moerfield, of his talking with the Abbess of Wilton, and
her reply that he had plenty of land of his own without seeking to
spoil her. At any rate the bishop gave the land for his new Cathedral
out of his own domain, and he began to build the stately edifice which
we now see. The first stones were laid on the feast of St. Vitalis,
April 28, 1220; one Elias of Dereham was the master-mason, and the
work progressed rapidly until Bishop Poore was translated to Durham in
1228. There his "Chapel of the Nine Altars" attests to the love of
building which he acquired at Salisbury, and the similarity of the
styles of architecture. His successors continued to build with much
zeal, and in the time of Bishop Giles de Bridport (1257-1262) the
church was consecrated by Archbishop Boniface, of Savoy, in the
presence of Henry III. and his court. The church was now complete.
Only forty-six years were spent in its building--a marvellous
achievement. The monastic buildings were begun by Bishop Walter
Delawyle (1262-1270). As yet the tower was not so high as it is now,
and there was no spire; but the fourteenth century had scarcely begun
before the two upper storeys were added, and the lofty spire, which
forms such a glorious crown of this beautiful structure. It was the
work of the mason, Richard of Farleigh, who was at the same time
engaged on work at Bath and Reading. In the time of Bishop Wyvil
(1329-1375) Edward III. granted permission to fortify the close, and
to use the stones from the Cathedral of Old Sarum for this purpose.
Hence in the walls which surround the close we see Norman carvings
which once adorned the ancient edifice. Of this Bishop Fuller says
that "it is hard to say whether he was more dunce than dwarf, more
unlearned or unhandsome, insomuch that Walsingham tells us that had
the Pope ever _seen_ him (as he no doubt _felt_ him in his large fees)
he would never have conferred the place upon him." His curious brass
tells of his recovering for his see the Castle of Sherborne and the
Chase of Bere, of which the bishopric had been wrongfully despoiled.
Prominent among its bishops was Robert Hallam (1408-1417), who was
present at the Council of Constance, which saw the burning of Huss and
Jerome of Prague, and strove hard to avert their fate. Bishop Ayscough
(1438-1450) was murdered by the rebel followers of Jack Cade at
Edingdon. Bishop Beauchamp (1450-1481) built the great hall of the
palace, and his chantry (destroyed by Wyatt). Here one of the unhappy
Woodvilles, brother of Edward IV.'s queen, was bishop (1482-1485), and
he had the unhappiness of seeing his brother-in-law, the Duke of
Buckingham, beheaded at Salisbury, just before the battle of Bosworth
(_cf._ Shakespeare's _Richard III._). Cardinal Campeggio was bishop
just before the Reformation, and after Wolsey's disgrace was deprived
of his see. There are no records to show what damage was done during
that stormy period, but probably the niches of the west front were
deprived of many of their images at this time, the windows broken, and
the treasury shorn of its plate and relics. One of the best of the
Salisbury bishops was Jewel, the author of the _Apology of the Church
of England_ (1560-1571), who built the library over the cloisters.
During the Civil War Ludlow's soldiers were quartered here, and
garrisoned the belfry, but they seem to have behaved with
extraordinary mildness. The Cathedral had powerful protectors, and
when some of Waller's men carried off some church goods, the
Parliament ordered that these should be restored. Bishop Seth Ward
(1667-1688), one of the founders of the Royal Society, did much to
repair his Cathedral, and restored the palace, which was ruinous,
having been bought by one Van Ling from the Parliament, and partly
converted into cottages. Unhappily the arch-destroyer, Wyatt, was
turned loose on the building at the end of the eighteenth century, who
wrought vast and irreparable destruction, which it is pitiable to see.
Since his day there have been many efforts to obliterate his work;
vast sums have been spent, and the Cathedral restored to much of its
ancient glory and beauty.


THE EXTERIOR

[Illustration Salisbury Cathedral]

As we enter the Cathedral precincts we are at once struck with the
wondrous beauty and charm of this peaceful close, which surrounds,
with its circling green sward, the magnificent Gothic pile. All
writers have vied with each other in singing the praises of this
grand achievement of Gothic art, and nowhere can we gain a better view
of the grand proportions of this church, with its noble spire, than
from the south-east or north-east corner of the close. Around us are
the venerable walls of the fortifications, erected in the time of
Edward III., who granted a license for this purpose, and gave leave to
the bishop to pull down the walls of Old Sarum, in order to provide
the stone. Embedded in the wall we find some stones with Norman
carving, which bespeak their former location in the Norman buildings
on the old stronghold of Sarum. The grand _Spire_ is the highest in
England (400 feet). The tower on which it stands is Early English as
far as the first storey; the two higher storeys were added in the
early part of the fourteenth century, and are Early Decorated. The
whole structure is magnificent. On each side there is an arcade,
richly canopied, and having double windows. At each angle there is a
turret, with a small crocketed spire, and from a mass of
richly-decorated pinnacles the great spire rises. In the capstone
still remains a small leaden box containing a fragment of decayed silk
or fine linen, doubtless a relic of the Virgin. The spire has
sometimes caused anxiety, and has been strengthened by metal bands,
but the Early English sub-structure has sustained with wonderful
constancy the weight of the two higher storeys and the spire which the
somewhat venturesome builders of the time of Edward III. forced them
to bear.

The _West Front_ it is the fashion to abuse. It has been censured for
its "parcellings" and "raggedness." Professor Freeman denies the
honesty of such fronts, because they extend beyond the walls of the
aisles and nave, and are what the professors of "true principles" call
"shams." Such criticisms fail to recognise the real object of such
screens, which was to set forth a chronicle in stone of the history of
the church, and people the niches with figures of the great men and
benefactors, the saints and heroes, whose memories are here enshrined.
It is no "sham," and we must try to imagine it as it really was, not
shorn of half its beauties, bereft of its images, or supplied with the
works of modern art which do not always harmonise with their
surroundings. Inferior it may be to the fronts of Wells or Lincoln,
but it still possesses many merits, and is certainly impressive. It
was the last completed portion of the Cathedral, as in the mouldings
we see the ball-flower which is the sign-manual of the Decorated
period. There is a central portion with a gable and buttresses, and a
compartment on each side flanked by small towers with small spires.
There are five storeys. In the lowest there is a triple porch, deeply
recessed with canopies. The west window is large, and is a triplet
divided by slender clustered shafts. There are about 100 niches which
have been filled with some of the best examples of modern art by Mr.
Redfern. Above all we see our Lord in glory, to whom all the others
are offering their praise.

Mr. Armfield in his _Legend of Christian Art_ gives us the following
detailed account of the various figures in the west front and the
meaning of their several emblems:--

_The Tier of Angels._--The celestial hierarchy have been divided into
three classes, each class containing three grades. The first class
consists of Seraphim, Cherubim and Thrones; the second of Dominions,
Powers and Authorities; the third of Principalities, Archangels and
Angels, Angels being thus the lowest order of celestial creation.

_The Tier of Old Testament Worthies._--David, with the harp; Moses,
carrying the Tables of the Law; Abraham, with the knife in his hand;
Noah, with the ark in his left hand; Samuel; Solomon, with the sceptre
in his right hand and the Church in his left hand.

_The Tier of Apostles._--St. Jude, with the halberd; St. Simon
Zelotes, with the saw; St. Andrew, with the cross; St. Thomas, with
the builder's square; St. Peter, with the keys in his right hand; St.
Paul, with the sword in his right hand; St. Luke and St. John. The
figures of St. Peter and St. Paul are restorations of ancient figures
which had been mutilated. St. James the Less, with the fuller's club;
St. James the Greater, with the pilgrim's staff; St. Bartholomew, with
the knife; St. Matthias, with the lance.

_The Tier of the Doctors, Virgins and Martyrs._--St. Ambrose, Bishop
of Milan; St. Jerome, in a Cardinal's hat; St. Gregory the Great, with
the tiara of the Papacy; St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, in Africa;
St. Augustine, of Canterbury; St. Mary the Virgin, St. Barbara, St.
Catherine, St. Roch, St. Nicholas, St. George, the patron Saint of
England; St. Christopher, St. Sebastian, St. Cosmo, St. Damian, St.
Margaret, St. Ursula, St. John the Baptist; St. Stephen, the
proto-martyr; and the four virgins--St. Lucy, St. Agatha, St. Agnes
and St. Cecilia.

_The Tier of Worthies distinctively belonging to the English
Church._--Bishop Giles de Bridport, bishop of the diocese at the time
of the consecration of the Cathedral; Bishop Richard Poore, founder
of the present Cathedral; King Henry III., the monarch who granted the
Charter for the building of the Cathedral; Bishop Odo; Bishop Osmund,
who built the first Cathedral of Sarum; Bishop Brithwold; St. Alban,
holding sword and cross; St. Alphege, Archbishop of Canterbury; St.
Edmund, king and martyr; St. Thomas of Canterbury. A mutilated figure
on the west side of north turret is probably that of St. Berinus. We
notice several consecration crosses on the walls of the church.

The _North Porch_ is large and massive, and has a parvise in the upper
storey. On the inside there is a double arcade with foliated arches,
and the pinnacles on each side of the gable are very fine. The _Nave_
presents a perfect example of Early English workmanship. Notice the
regularity of the masonry, which is one of its great peculiarities.
The stones run in even bands throughout. The aisle windows have two
lights; the clerestory has triple lancets, and each pair is flanked by
flying buttresses. The fronts of the transepts are graced by
beautifully-designed windows and are divided into four storeys. The
porch on the north side was removed by Wyatt. The east front of the
choir is a fine arrangement of lancets. There is great similarity
between the north and south sides of the Cathedral. On the north side
of the Lady Chapel formerly stood the Hungerford Chapel, ruthlessly
destroyed by Wyatt; the Beauchamp Chapel on the south side shared the
same fate. Bishop Beauchamp erected the flying buttresses on the south
of the choir in 1450. The gates of the close are:--High Street Gate,
built at the same time as the walls; St. Anne's Gate, and Harnham
Gate, of which little remains. On the south of the nave is the
cloister-court, which we will visit after seeing the interior.
Salisbury possessed at one time a separate belfry at the north-west
corner of the close. It was entirely destroyed and removed by Wyatt.
The _Palace_ is on the south-east. It was commenced by Poore. The hall
was built by Bishop Beauchamp in the fifteenth century.


THE INTERIOR

Entering the building by the west door we obtain a grand view of the
interior. The beautiful clustered columns of the fine arches, wrought
of Purbeck marble, the fine triforium and clerestory, the distant view
of the choir, all combine to make a very impressive scene. The
oft-quoted lines tell us that

    "As many days as in one year there be,
    So many windows in this church we see;
    As many marble pillars here appear
    As there are hours throughout the fleeting year;
    As many gates as moons one year does view--
    Strange tale to tell! yet not more strange than true."

[Illustration Strengthening Arches. East Transepts.]

The uniformity of the architecture in the first beauty of Gothic
conception, the long rows of sepulchral monuments of warriors and
bishops, and the noble proportions of the building, add greatly to the
charm of this building; and yet it lacks much of the beauty which once
shone here. Little of its stained glass, which once shed wondrous
light on all we see, has been saved from the wreck caused by
Reformation zeal and the wanton destruction of Wyatt. The triforium
with its flat-pointed arches, sub-divided into four smaller ones,
ornamented with trefoils and quatrefoils, alternating with cinquefoils
and octofoils, greatly resembles that at Westminster. The clerestory
windows are triple lancets. The vaulting is plain, the arches rising
from clustered shafts with foliated capitals, and resting on
corbel-heads. The west wall has a triple-lancet window, and beneath
this is an arcade of four arches, each of which contains two
sub-arches. In the west window has been collected fragments of old
glass saved from the wreck. It is possible to discover the figure of
our Lord in Majesty, the Virgin, Zacharias in the Temple, the
Adoration of the Magi. There is some Flemish glass also here. The
glass in the west windows of the aisles is ancient (1240-1270), and we
see here the arms of Bishop Jewell (1562) and John Aprice (1558). The
aisles have double-lancet windows. There is a curious stone bench on
each side of the nave, upon which the piers stand. This was so placed
in order to distribute the great weight of the building resting on
these piers, as the foundations were not laid upon any very firm
ground, the nature of the soil being formerly marshy, and the
situation liable to floods. This ingenious plan has evidently had the
desired effect, as the building has stood for nigh 700 years. The nave
contains a fine series of monuments which were arranged here by Wyatt
in a barbarous fashion. This vandal was guilty of every enormity. Not
only did he remove the monuments from their original positions, but he
seems to have mixed up the effigies and put them on tombs to which
they did not belong. Beginning at west end of south side, leaving the
figure of Hibernia, which graces Lord Wyndham's monument (1745), we
see the monuments of the following:--

     1. Bishop Herman (1078), which was brought from Old Sarum.

     2. Bishop Jocelyn (1184), which was brought from Old Sarum (the
     head is later than the rest).

     3. Bishop Roger (1139), which was brought from Old Sarum.
     (There is some uncertainty about the identity of these.)

     4. Incised slab to an unknown personage.

     5. Bishop Beauchamp (1481), whose chantry was destroyed by
     Wyatt.

     6. Robert, Lord Hungerford (1459), whose chantry was destroyed
     by Wyatt. Notice the plate armour and collar of saints, also
     sword and dagger.

     7. Lord Stourton, hung in the market-place in 1556 for the
     murder of the Hartgills, accomplished in a brutal fashion. He
     was hung, as a concession to his noble birth, with a silken
     cord. The "wells" on each side allude to the six heads of the
     Stour river, which rise near the Stourton mansion.

     8. Bishop de la Wyle (1271), mutilated. The base is made up of
     fragments of much later date.

     9. William Longespée, first Earl of Salisbury of that name,
     son of Henry II. by Fair Rosamond (1226). Notice the
     chain-armour and surcoat, shield with arms of Anjou, and the
     decoration of the tomb--silver diaper work. He fought in the
     Crusades and in France, and was present at the signing of Magna
     Charta.

Crossing to the north side we see the monuments of--

     10. Sir John Cheyney (1509), standard-bearer of Henry of
     Richmond at battle of Bosworth, unhorsed by Richard III.

     11.} Walter, Lord Hungerford, and his wife.
     12.}

     13. Sir John de Montacute (1389), fought at Creçy and in
     Scotland under Richard II. Notice armour, especially gauntlets.

     14. Chancellor Geoffrey.

     15. Person unknown.

     16. Longespée, Earl of Salisbury (1250), son of the
     above-mentioned earl, a Crusader killed by the Saracens. The
     fact that this is a cross-legged effigy does not prove that all
     cross-legged effigies represent Crusaders.

     17. "Boy Bishop," the great attraction of the ordinary visitor
     and tourist. The ceremony of the boy bishop is well known. One
     of the choir boys was elected on St. Nicholas Day, and presided
     until Innocents' Day, and a special service and procession took
     place during his rule. The old idea was that this boy died
     during his brief episcopacy, and was thus honoured with an
     effigy. It is now generally believed that such small figures
     represent heart burials. In bygone times the body was usually
     buried at the place where the person died, and not infrequently
     the heart was conveyed to the special church associated with
     the family or life of the deceased. The library, however,
     contains the order of service of boy bishop, and the ceremony
     lingered on until the time of Elizabeth.

     18. Person unknown.

Near the entrance is a monument to Dr. Turburville, an oculist of
Salisbury (1696).

The _North Transept_ is entered by a Perpendicular arch, by Bishop
Beauchamp (1450-1481). It was designed to support the tower. The style
of this transept resembles that of the nave. The two-light windows,
which take the place of the triforium on the north side, and the
beautiful clerestory windows, with their slender pilasters, should be
noticed. There is an eastern aisle, divided into chapels, which Wyatt
robbed of their screens. The monuments here are:--Brass to John
Britton, the eminent antiquary; James Harris, author of _Hermes_, by
Bacon; Earl of Malmesbury, by Chantrey; W.B. Earle, by Flaxman; Bishop
John Blythe (?) (1499); Sir R. Hoare, the Wilts historian, by Lucas;
Richard Jefferies, the charming modern writer on country life; Walter
and William Long, by Flaxman; Bishop Woodville (1484).

The _South Transept_ resembles the north. Here are monuments
of:--Bishop Mitford (1407), a fine tomb of white marble; Bishop Fisher
(1825); Edward Poore (1780).

The _Choir-Screen_ is good modern work, and replaced a patchwork
structure of Wyatt's handiwork, made up of spoil taken from his
destroyed chantries. The organ is modern.

The _Choir and Presbytery_ differ in no way from the architecture of
the nave. The east end is beautifully designed. At the base of the
reredos are three arches, and above five arches, with cinquefoil
headings, and above these a triplet window. The roof is painted with
an interesting series of designs, which are modern reproductions of
thirteenth-century work. First there are series of Old Testament
saints, the Forerunner of our Lord being ranked with the prophets.
Then come the Apostles, with the figures of our Lord and the
Evangelists; and further east are representations of the months, which
are curious and interesting. January is represented by a man warming
his hands; February, a man drinking wine; March, digging; April,
sowing; May, hawking; June, flowers; July, reaping; August, threshing;
September, gathering fruit; October, brewing; November,
timber-felling; December, killing a pig.

The _Choir Stalls_ are a patchwork composition. There is some old
Perpendicular work; some of the work is by Wren. Happily Wyatt's
productions have been removed. The reredos is modern, is a very
elaborate piece of work. All the other fittings of the choir are new.
In the choir are the chantries of Bishop Audley (1524), a fine piece
of Late Perpendicular work, which has a fan-vault and some traces of
colour, and of Walter, Lord Hungerford (1429), removed here from the
nave, and made into a family pew by Lord Radnor. The iron-work is
good, and such chapels are rare, the Chantry of Edward IV. at Windsor
being the finest of its kind.

In the _North Choir Aisle_ and _Transept_ there are two monuments of
the _memento mori_ type, the large tomb of a thirteenth-century
bishop, either Bingham or Scammel, Bishop Wyvill (1375), Gheast
(1576), and Jewell (1571), and the curious brass of Bishop Wyvill, who
recovered for the see Sherborne Castle and the Bere Chase, seized by
Stephen, and granted by Edward III. to the Earl of Salisbury. To
decide the right the wager of battle was resorted to, and both bishop
and earl chose a champion. The king, however, caused the matter to be
settled amicably. The bishop is here shown in his castle, praying for
his champion, and below are the hares and rabbits representing the
chase. In this north-east transept is a fine Early Perpendicular
lavatory, which is evidently not in its original position, part of an
Early English screen, removed by Wyatt, and a curious aumbrey. In the
aisle toward the east we see an effigy, said to be that of Bishop
Poore, the founder of the Cathedral, and at the east end is the
monument of Sir Thomas Gorges and his lady, who was a maid of honour
to Queen Elizabeth. It is a cumbrous piece of work.

The _Retro-Choir_ or processional path has beautiful clustered shafts
and fine vault, and forms a graceful entrance to the _Lady Chapel_, a
most perfect piece of Early English building, and the oldest part of
the church. At the east end is a triple lancet, with another lancet on
each side, filled with modern glass. There is a new altar here, and
modern colouring adorns the walls and ceiling. The canopies of the
niches under the windows on the north and south were brought here from
the Beauchamp Chapel destroyed by Wyatt. Here in former days stood the
shrine of St. Osmund, the second Norman bishop, the saintly man to
whom the diocese and the English Church owe much. His tomb remains
here, but his shrine was plundered and destroyed at the Reformation.
At the east end of the south choir aisle is the stately tomb of the
unhappy Earl of Hertford (1621), who married Catherine, the sister of
Lady Jane Grey, and thus incurred Queen Elizabeth's resentment, and
was imprisoned. The poor lady, when released from the Tower, was
separated from her husband, and died of grief. He survived her sixty
years. Near here are the modern tombs of Bishops Moberly and Hamilton,
and the Perpendicular tomb of William Wilton, Chancellor of Sarum
(1506-1523). The old sacristy, now the vestry, is on the south of this
transept; above this is the muniment room, the ancient treasury. In
the transept is the remarkable monument of Bishop Giles de Bridport
(1262), under whose rule the church was finished. It is the most
interesting tomb in the church. The carvings in the spandrels record
the chief events in the bishop's life--his birth, confirmation,
education, and possibly his first preferment, his homage, a procession
(probably referring to the dedication of this church), his death, and
the presentation of his soul for judgment. Here are monuments also of
Canon Bowles (1850); Bishop Burgess (1837); Bishop Seth Ward (1689),
Hooker, the famous divine; Young, the father of the poet; Isaak
Walton, the son of the angler; Bishop Davenant (1641); Mrs.
Wordsworth, the wife of the bishop; and a brass to Canon Liddon's
memory. Further on are the monuments of Bishop Salcot (1557), and Sir
Richard Mompesson and his wife (1627). Notice the inverted
strengthening arches in both choir transepts.

Passing through the south transept we enter the _Cloisters_, which are
considered to be "among the finest in England," and without doubt they
can lay claim to be a great and beautiful architectural triumph. They
are a little later than the Cathedral, having been begun directly
after its completion, and finished during the rule of Bishop Wyvill,
about 1340. The windows are finely constructed, and consist of
double-arched openings, each arch having two sub-arches, while in the
head is a large six-foiled opening. On the wall side is a blind arcade
of graceful arches. An unfortunate restoration in 1854 did not improve
the appearance of the cloisters. On the north side, between the
cloister and the church, is the plumbery. The monuments here do not
possess much interest. The _Library_, over part of the east walk, was
built by Bishop Jewell, and contains about 5000 volumes, and a
valuable collection of MSS. One of the most interesting is a Gallican
version of the Psalter (969 A.D.), Geoffrey of Monmouth's Chronicles
(twelfth century), a copy of Magna Charter (now in muniment room), and
many others of much value and importance. The _Chapter-House_ was
built early in the reign of Edward I. It is a noble octagonal
building, and can scarcely be surpassed by any other. The roof is
modern. There is a central pillar, from which the vaulting springs. On
each side there is a large window, resembling in tracery those in the
cloisters. Below the windows is an arcade, and beneath this a stone
bench, and at the east end a raised seat for the bishop and his
officials. There is a remarkable series of sculptures above the
arcade, which are extremely interesting and merit close study. The
following are the subjects represented:--

    WEST BAY

     1. Description of Chaos.
     2. Creation of the Firmament.

    NORTH-WEST BAY

     3. Creation of the Earth.
     4. Creation of the Sun and Moon.
     5. Creation of the Birds and Fishes.
     6. Creation of Adam and Eve.
     7. The Sabbath.
     8. The Institution of Marriage.
     9. The Temptation.
    10. The Hiding in the Garden.

    NORTH BAY

    11. The Expulsion.
    12. Adam tilling the Ground.
    13. Cain and Abel's Offering.
    14. Murder of Abel.
    15. God sentencing Cain.
    16. God commanding Noah to build the Ark.
    17. The Ark.
    18. Noah's Vineyard.

    NORTH-EAST BAY

    19. The Drunkenness of Noah.
    20. Building of the Tower of Babel.
    21. The Angels appearing to Abraham.
    22. Abraham entertaining Angels.
    23. Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.
    24. The Escape of Lot.
    25. Abraham and Isaac journeying to the Mount.
    26. The Sacrifice of Isaac.

    EAST BAY

    27. Isaac blessing Jacob.
    28. Blessing of Esau.
    29. Rebecca sending Jacob to Padanaram.
    30. Meeting of Jacob and Rachel.
    31. Rachel introducing Jacob to Laban.
    32. Jacob wrestling with the Angel, and Jacob's Dream.
    33. The Angel touching Jacob's Thigh.
    34. Meeting of Jacob and Esau.

    SOUTH-EAST BAY

    35. Joseph's Dream.
    36. Joseph relating his Dream.
    37. Joseph being placed in a Well.
    38. Joseph sold into Egypt.
    39. Joseph's Coat brought to Jacob.
    40. Joseph brought to Potiphar.
    41. Joseph tempted by Potiphar's Wife.
    42. Joseph accused before Potiphar.

    SOUTH BAY

    43. Joseph placed in Prison.
    44. The fate of Pharaoh's Baker and Butler.
    45. Pharaoh's Dream.
    46. Pharaoh's Perplexity.
    47. Joseph taken from Prison, and interpreting the Dream.
    48. Joseph ruling in Egypt.
    49. The Brethren journeying into Egypt.
    50. The Cup placed in Benjamin's Sack.

    SOUTH-WEST BAY

    51. The Discovery of the Cup.
    52. The Brethren pleading before Joseph.
    53. Jacob and Family journeying to Egypt.
    54. The Brethren pleading before Joseph after the Death of Jacob.
    55. Joseph assuring his Brethren of his Protection.
    56. Moses in the Presence of God.
    57. The Passage of the Red Sea.
    58. Destruction of the Egyptians.

    WEST BAY

    59. Moses striking the Rock.
    60. The Declaring of the Law.

In the vestibule the doorway is remarkable for its great beauty. In
the voussoirs of the arch is another series of sculptures representing
moralities, the triumph of virtue over vice. We see Concordia
trampling on Discordia, Temperantia pouring liquor down the throat of
Drunkenness, Bravery trampling on Cowardice, Faith on Infidelity,
Virtue covering Vice with a cloak, while Vice embraces her knee with
one hand and stabs her with the other. Truth pulls out the tongue of
Falsehood, Modesty scourges Lust, and Charity pours coin into the
throat of Avarice. These sculptures are of the very highest class of
art, and are among the most interesting remains of Early Gothic
carving in the world. All the glass in the chapter-house is modern,
and also the tiling. A fine old specimen of fourteenth-century
furniture is seen in the ancient table preserved here.


DIMENSIONS

    Total length                        473 ft.
    Length of nave                      229 ft.
    Width                                82 ft.
    Height                               84 ft.
    Height of spire                     404 ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     Early English (1220-1260)--The main buildings of the
           church were completed at this time.
     (1262-1270)--Monastic buildings.
    Decorated (1330-1350)--Two upper storeys of tower and
           spire.
     Perpendicular (1460)--Arches supporting tower in north and
           south transepts. Flying buttresses on south side of choir.

Other buildings of interest in Salisbury--

    The Guild Hall.
    Market Cross, called the Poultry.
    Churches of St. Martin, St. Edmund, St. Thomas à Becket.

In the neighbourhood are--

    Old Sarum.
    Stonehenge.

[Illustration PLAN OF SALISBURY CATHEDRAL]



OXFORD CATHEDRAL


Oxford is so full of varied interest that we must leave our readers to
gain knowledge of its history from other sources, and confine
ourselves to its Cathedral records. This see was one of those founded
by Henry VIII. out of the proceeds of his spoliation of the
monasteries. The Cathedral was originally the Church of the Priory of
St. Frideswide. This lady was the daughter of Didan, the chief man of
the town. At an early age she took the veil, and her father built for
her a convent; but Algar, King of Mercia, wished to marry her, and
swore that he would carry her off. She fled for refuge, and on her
return to Oxford was gallantly defended by the men of her city against
Algar, who was struck blind. She was buried in her convent, and many
miracles were wrought at her shrine. Such was the beginning of what
ultimately became the Cathedral of Oxford. Terrible was the scene
which took place in this little church. The Danes were in Oxford.
There was peace between the Saxon king, Ethelred, and their foes; but
on St. Brice's Day, 1002, the folk of Wessex were excited to slaughter
the Danes, who fled for sanctuary to the little church. The Saxons
respected no more the sacredness of the building than the laws of
hospitality, and set fire to the place and massacred the helpless
Danes. The remains of this Early Saxon church are said to have been
discovered, which we shall examine later.[8]

Ethelred, repenting of his crime, determined to rebuild the church,
which he accomplished, and recent authorities assure us that the
present church is in plan and main substance the Saxon church of
Ethelred, erected in 1004, and not the later Norman church about which
the older writers tell us. He seems to have established a community of
secular canons. The work was interrupted by the later Danish
invasions, and perhaps never finished. At any rate it was ruinous in
the time of the Early Normans kings.

In 1111 A.D., it was granted by either Roger, Bishop of Salisbury, or
by Henry I., to Prior Guimond and his fellow canons. This prior began
to restore the ruined church and monastery, but his successor, Robert
de Cricklade (1141-1180), did most of the work, and restored the nave,
choir, central tower and transepts. All the later Norman work is due
to him. In 1180, in the presence of Henry II., his nobles and a goodly
company of bishops, the relics of St. Frideswide were translated to a
place of honour in the restored building on the north side of the
choir, to which there was great resort of pilgrims on account of the
miraculous healings which took place there. Fire played havoc with the
city of Oxford in 1190, but the church escaped without much injury.
The monastic buildings suffered, and the traces of fire can still be
seen on the old Norman doorway in the cloisters. In the thirteenth
century the Lady Chapel was built adjoining the north side of the
choir, some of the old walls being used, the spire raised above the
tower, the chapter-house and part of the Latin Chapel added, which was
completed in the fourteenth century. A few Decorated details were
added at this period, and windows in this style inserted. The
fifteenth century witnessed sundry alterations in the cloisters, the
building of St. Frideswide's latest shrine, the insertion of some
Perpendicular windows, and the erection of the fine vaulting of the
choir.

Then a mighty change dawned on the old monastery. Cardinal Wolsey
obtained a bull from Pope Clement VII. for its suppression and
determined to convert it into a college, which was designed to be the
largest in Oxford. He played sad havoc with the fabric of the church.
A great part of the nave he destroyed altogether in order to make room
for his great "Tom Quad," so named after the famous bell which still
rings each night at five minutes past nine, and is the signal for the
closing of the gates of all Oxford colleges. Part of the old cloisters
disappeared also. Wolsey contemplated the building of another church
for his college, and indeed began its construction; but his fall in
1529 put an end to the carrying out of his great conception, and the
college fell into the hands of King Henry VIII. Here the monarch
established one of his newly-formed sees (the bishop's seat was first
fixed at Oseney Abbey, just outside Oxford), and with characteristic
parsimony applied the revenues of the college to the support of the
see. The dean of the Cathedral is still the head of the college, and
the canons are university professors. As was usual at this time, the
Cathedral was shorn of all its costly ornaments, vestments, plate and
other treasures, but the fabric remained intact.

Dean Brian Duppa in 1630 wrought much evil in the way of restoring his
Cathedral, destroying the old glass and woodwork, tearing up the
brasses, and "improving" the windows by cutting away the old tracery.
He was rewarded for his zeal by being made Bishop of Salisbury. His
loyalty to the fallen fortunes of his sovereign, Charles I., somewhat
atones for his wanton destruction of much that was beautiful in Christ
Church Cathedral. In the Civil War, Oxford was the great centre of the
Royalists. Here King Charles held his court. Students flocked to his
standard, and the Cathedral was the scene of several thanksgiving
services on the occasion of victories. Cromwell's soldiers at length
captured Oxford, and did some damage in the Cathedral, breaking much
of the glass. Bishop Fell (1676-1686) was a munificent benefactor of
the college. His father when dean had built the fine staircase to the
hall with its fan-tracery vault, and commenced the buildings on north
and west of the quadrangle. This Bishop Fell finished the buildings of
the college together with the west belfry, designed by Sir C. Wren,
but he does not appear to have done much for the Cathedral. Neglect
and the hard hand of time wrought much mischief, and it seems to have
been in a deplorable state when the restorations of the last half of
the nineteenth century were inaugurated. To rescue it from its
wretched condition Dean Liddell, whose name is familiar to every
student of Greek, set himself with much energy, and the work was
entrusted to Sir G. Scott. His restoration was carried out with much
wisdom and careful regard for antiquity. The author of _Alice in
Wonderland_, a fellow of the college, published a satirical pamphlet
on _The Three T's_, the tunnel, the tower (the third we forget), and
compared the new entrance with a railway tunnel, representing a
railway train emerging from the portal, and scoffing at the new tower,
which arose above the grand staircase to the hall. But it is easy to
criticise, and Sir G. Scott's work at Oxford compares favourably with
most restorations, and for this posterity will thank him.


THE EXTERIOR

Oxford Cathedral is so hidden away behind the obtrusive walls of
Wolsey's college that it is difficult to obtain any good exterior
views. The best is that seen from the garden of one of the canons, to
enter which permission may be obtained. The view from the cloister is
also satisfactory. The principal entrance is from "Tom Quad" by the
"tunnel," as Lewis Carroll termed the passage or porch situated a
little to the north of the entrance to the hall. As we have said, the
west front and the greater part of the nave were destroyed by Wolsey
when he erected the college buildings. He also destroyed the west walk
of the cloister, which we enter by a passage leading from the entrance
to the hall. The cloisters are Perpendicular work of the latter part
of the fifteenth century. The north walk was at one time converted
into a muniment room, but has recently been restored to its original
form, and has a modern imitation of the old vaulting. The old
refectory stood on the south side, but has been converted into college
rooms. Its large Perpendicular windows still remain looking on to the
cloister. The entrance to the chapter-house is in the east walk, and a
fine Norman doorway it is. It belongs to the later Norman period. It
has four orders, richly ornamented with zigzag. A round-headed window
is on each side of the door. The chapter-house is one of the best
examples of the Early English style in the kingdom, and may be
compared with those of Lincoln, Salisbury and Chester. The east end is
very fine, and consists of an arcade of five arches which are double.
Slender clustered shafts with capitals adorned with foliage support
the inner arches. The three central arches are pierced for windows.
Similar arcades are at the east end of north and south sides. The
sculpture in this chamber is extremely fine. Grotesque corbels, carved
capitals and the bosses in the vault, are all beautiful and
interesting. One of the bosses represents the Virgin giving an apple
to the infant Christ. There is also some old glass and interesting
mural paintings. Diocesan meetings are held in this delightful room.
The foundation stone of Wolsey's college at Ipswich is preserved here.
In the room on the south are some fine paintings, an Elizabethan table
and an old chest. Another door in this cloister leads to the old
slype, a passage to the monastic burial-ground. On the left is St.
Lucy's Chapel, mainly of Norman construction, the east window being
much later. It is of Decorated character, and the tracery is
flamboyant and of very beautiful design. The south choir aisle
adjoins, and is part of the original church. The windows are modern
imitations of Norman work. The windows in the clerestory of the choir
are Perpendicular. The east end is modern, having been reconstructed
by Scott. On the north side of the Cathedral, viewed from the canon's
garden, we see the north transept with its large Perpendicular
window, erected at the beginning of the sixteenth century, flanked by
two turrets crowned with pinnacles; the Latin Chapel of beautiful
Decorated design, erected in the fourteenth century, and the Lady
Chapel, the east wall of which is part of the old Saxon church, and
Mr. Park Harrison has discovered the remains of three Saxon apses
which are perhaps the remains of the earliest Saxon church, the Church
of St. Frideswide, built by Didan early in the eighth century.[9] A
Decorated window has been inserted here. We must now notice the
_Tower_ and _Spire_, a beautiful feature of the Cathedral. The lower
storey is Late Norman, similar to the style of the nave; the belfry
and the spire are Early English. This spire ranks with that of
Barnock, Northants, and New Romsey, Surrey, as being one of the
earliest in the kingdom. It was restored by Scott. The pinnacles at
the angles of the tower are modern but accurate copies of the ancient
ones. The spire is octagonal, and is what is termed a broach spire,
_i.e._, it rises from the exterior of the tower walls and not from the
interior of a parapet as in the later spires.

[Illustration Oxford Cathedral]


THE INTERIOR

Entering by the new porch from the quadrangle and passing under the
organ-screen we see a Cathedral, small, indeed, but possessing
features of peculiar interest. In its main plan it is possibly the
church of Ethelred begun in 1004, but finished in Late Norman times
when Robert de Cricklade or Canutus was prior (1141-1180).[10] The
piers of the _Nave_ are alternatively circular and octagonal. There is
a very unusual triforium. Arches spring from the capitals of the
piers, and in the tympana are set the triforium arcade. From half
capitals set against the piers spring another series of arches at a
lower level than the others we have mentioned, and above the curve of
these is the triforium arcade. Very few examples of this curious
construction are found in this country. The carving of the capitals is
graceful, and though it differs somewhat from the stiff-leaved foliage
of Early English style, it somewhat resembles that character. The
clerestory belongs to the period of transition between Norman and
Early English. The central arch of the triple windows is pointed, and
the others, which are blocked up, round. The corbels and shafts which
support the roof are Norman, but the brackets are Perpendicular,
erected by Wolsey, who intended to build a stone vault. The present
fine timber roof belongs to his time, or a little later. The stalls
and seats are modern. The screen is Jacobean, above which is the
organ, a fine instrument enclosed in a Jacobean case. The pulpit
belongs to the same period and is very interesting, especially its
grotesque carving. The central tower has fine and lofty arches, and
its appearance has been improved by the removal of the ceiling which
formerly existed here. A curious subterranean chamber was discovered
here in 1856. It contained two aumbries, and was evidently intended
for the keeping of some treasure, possibly of the monastery, or of the
university. It is known that the university chest during the
thirteenth century was deposited in a secret place within the Church
of St. Frideswide, and this, doubtless, was the spot. The _Choir_ is
of the same character as the nave. The piers are more massive, and the
style of the carving of the capitals differs. We are told that we have
distinct evidence here that this is part of Ethelred's church, that
the sculpture is Saxon, copied from Saxon MSS., that it has been worn
by weather which could only have been done during the ruinous
condition of the church prior to its Late Norman restoration. Possibly
this may be true, and the carving is certainly peculiar, but at
present we cannot quite agree to accept this view. The triforium is
Late Norman, and the roof is a fine example of fan-tracery begun in
the fifteenth century. Wolsey changed the appearance of the
clerestory, and introduced Perpendicular details.

[Illustration Oxford Cathedral (Herbert Railton)]

The _East End_ is modern, and is a fine conception of Sir G. Scott
based upon early models. The _Reredos_ is a fine modern work, and the
altar, lectern and throne are also new. Turning to the north we enter
the _North Choir Aisle_, where we stand upon debatable ground. Perhaps
we are in the Early Saxon church built for St. Frideswide, or the
later Saxon church of Ethelred. Authorities differ, and it is
impossible to decide. At any rate, there in the east wall are the
remains of the three Saxon arches which lead to the apses discovered
on the outside. And here, too, is the noted _Shrine of St.
Frideswide_, of which Mr. Ruskin said that every stone was worth its
weight in silver, if not in gold. It has been gradually collected from
odd corners of the precincts, as the shrine was destroyed by Henry
VIII. The carved foliage is very beautiful, and when this base of
the shrine was complete and crowned with the jewelled cover, beneath
which reposed the relics of the saints, it must have been very
imposing. There is a curious story in connection with these relics.
When the tomb was destroyed these were carefully preserved in secret
by "the faithful," and in the meantime the body of the wife of Peter
Martyr, a Protestant professor, was laid near the saint's shrine. As
this poor lady was an ex-nun, in the time of Mary and Cardinal Pole
her body was cast out into a cesspool, and the relics of the saint
restored to their place of honour. In Elizabeth's time the saint's
bones were again removed. The queen ordered the decent re-burial of
the remains of Peter Martyr's wife, and while this was being done the
sacred box containing the relics was produced, and "the married nun
and the virgin saint were buried together, and the dust of the two
still remains under the pavement beneath our feet inextricably
blended."[11] The exact spot is conjecturable, but a brass has been
placed where the mingled remains are supposed to lie.

The _Lady Chapel_ is on the west of the choir aisle, and is of Early
English construction. It was added about 1250, when the present piers
and vault were built. The east wall, as we have said, is manifestly
earlier, and is part of one of the earlier Saxon churches. The east
window is restored Decorated. The west arch is round-headed, and shows
that this part of the chapel was the east aisle of the north transept.
There are extensive remains of colouring. Here is the remarkable
"Watching Chamber," supposed by some to be a later shrine of St.
Frideswide, and by Professor Willis and others to be the chamber where
watch was kept for guarding the gold and jewels which adorned the
actual shrine. It has three stages, and is very beautiful
Perpendicular work. In this chapel there are some interesting
monuments--Sir George Nowers (1425) (with good example of armour);
Prior Guymond (?) (1149), or Prior Alexander de Sutton (1316), with
Decorated canopy and effigy; Lady Montacute (1353), the supposed
founder of the Latin Chapel; Robert Burton, author of _Anatomy of
Melancholy_ (1639). Some "Morris" windows have been inserted here
designed by Burne-Jones, very beautiful in themselves, but perhaps
scarcely in keeping with their surroundings. The St. Cecilia window is
extremely fine. The _Latin Chapel_ is mainly Decorated work of the
time of Edward III., the western parts being earlier. The vault has
some richly-foliated bosses, on which appear the waterlily and the
roses, and heads surmounted with crown and mitre. The east window has
strange Venetian tracery, but some excellent modern glass designed by
Burne-Jones and representing incidents in the life of St. Frideswide.
The other windows have some fine old fourteenth-century glass; the
north-east window is modern. The woodwork is very fine; it is later
than the chapel, and was not designed for it. The cardinal's hat,
supported by angels on one of the carved poppy-heads, shows that this
was prepared for Wolsey's choir. Some of the work is much older. In
this chapel the writer used to listen to the lectures of the divinity
professor, and was often distracted from the discourse by the
architectural beauties around him. Beautiful vistas may be obtained
here of "long-drawn aisles and fretted vault," and he became very
conversant with the history of St. Frideswide as depicted in the fine
east window.

The _North Transept_ is similar to the nave in style. The north window
is a modern restoration, and the glass is not very pleasing modern
work. Here is the Perpendicular tomb of a monk, Zouch (1503), and some
good brasses in the aisle. The north aisle has Norman vaulting. The
windows are restored Perpendicular, and the glass is modern. The
window at the west end of the aisle was refashioned by Dean Brian
Duppa in his usual barbarous manner, but it has some good Flemish
glass by Van Ling representing Jonah and the Gourd, with Nineveh in
the background.

Crossing to the south side of the church we pass several monuments in
the vestibule at the west end and reach the _South Aisle_, which is
later in style than the north. At the west end is a Burne-Jones
window, representing "Faith, Hope and Charity." The south transept
preserves its Late Norman character, but has been shorn of its length.
On the east side is the Chapel of St. Lucy. At the back of the wall on
the south is the slype, and above this the vestry. One of the windows
here is said to be Saxon. _St. Lucy's Chapel_ is Norman, and is now
used as a baptistry. The east window has flamboyant tracery and some
fine old glass. Several monuments of distinguished Cavaliers who died
for the Royal cause in the Civil War are in this part of the church.
The _South Choir Aisle_ resembles that on the north. The south windows
are in the Norman style, but are modern imitations. The glass of the
east window was designed by Burne-Jones and portrays St. Catherine. It
was erected in memory of a daughter of Dean Liddell. The monument of
Prince Leopold, brother of the king, formerly a student of Christ
Church, has a pathetic interest, and the tomb of Bishop King,
Oxford's first bishop (1557), is a fine piece of Perpendicular work.
The window to his memory is on the south and shows a representation of
the Abbey of Oseney, where his episcopal throne was first established,
before it migrated to the Church of St. Frideswide.


DIMENSIONS

    Extreme length                          175 ft.
    Length from screen to reredos           132 ft.
    Extreme breadth                         108 ft.
    Height of spire                         144 ft.


DATES OF BUILDING

     Saxon--East wall of Lady Chapel and north choir aisle, and
     possibly window in south transept.

     Norman--Nave, choir, transept, aisles, door of chapter-house
     St. Lucy's Chapel.

     Early English--Lady Chapel.

     Decorated--Latin Chapel and several windows.

     Perpendicular--Cloisters, windows and vault of choir.

FOOTNOTES:

[8] Mr. Micklethwaite considers these remains to have belonged to
Ethelred's church.

[9] Mr. Micklethwaite believes these apses to have been part of
Ethelred's church.

[10] Although Mr. Park Harrison's theory is attractive, we are unable
to accept all his conclusions as to the pre-Norman character of the
details of the church.

[11] Froude, _Hist. Engl._, vi. 468.



BRISTOL CATHEDRAL


Bristol, the great western port of England, has a history which tells
of the ancient glories of English seamanship. From this port sailed
the first Englishman who landed in America, Sebastian Cabot, who was
born in Bristol, and was the first to discover that which is now known
as the United States. A Bristol chronicle states, "this year 1497, on
St. John the Baptist's day, the land of America was found by the
merchants of Bristowe, in a ship of Bristol, called _The Matthew_, the
which said ship departed from the port of Bristowe the 2nd of May, and
came home again 6th August following." It was a Bristol ship which
brought home the real Robinson Crusoe (Juan Fernandez) from his island
home. Very famous were the great merchants of Bristol, such as William
Cannynge, who founded the noble Church of St. Mary Redcliffe, whom his
king, Henry VI., delighted to honour, and styled "his beloved and
honourable merchant." Vast was his fleet--his shipping, amounting to
2470 tons, was seized by the victorious Yorkist monarch--and vast were
his commercial enterprises, whereby he made Bristol a large and
flourishing port.

But we must go back to earlier days. In Saxon times the port was
famous, or infamous, for its slave-dealing, which the coming of the
Conqueror scarcely suppressed. Here Harold's three sons made a vain
attempt to rescue the kingdom from his iron grasp. A famous Norman
castle destroyed in the Civil War was built here, where Stephen was
kept a prisoner. Pleasanter visits were frequently paid by other
monarchs. The city was besieged and taken by Henry Bolingbroke, and
Shakespeare in _Richard II._ tells of the beheading of four supporters
of the luckless king in the city market-place. Here, too, five martyrs
were burnt, and in the first year of Elizabeth's reign a mass of roods
and images shared the same fate. The imposition of the ship-money tax
was so distasteful that the Royal cause was not very popular at
Bristol. The citizens opened their gates to the troopers of Cromwell,
who held it from 1642 to the following year. Prince Rupert stormed the
place, and held it till it was wrested from him in 1645. The "Bloody
Assize" of Judge Jefferies left its mark on this western port; six
prisoners were executed, and hundreds sent across the sea to serve in
the plantations. The darkest spot in the history of Bristol is the
story of the Reform riots of 1831, sometimes called "the Bristol
Revolution," when the dregs of the population pillaged and plundered,
burnt the bishop's palace, and were guilty of much vandalism. Of the
old churches we shall write subsequently. The old quaint houses are
very attractive, especially the old Norman hall and Tudor windows of
the house of Edward Colston, one of Bristol's merchant princes,
Cannynge's house, with its fine Perpendicular roof, and the old
Hospital of St. Peter.


THE HISTORY OF THE SEE

Bristol was one of the sees founded by Henry VIII. in 1542, after the
destruction of the monasteries. There is, however, in the British
Museum, a MS. copy of a Papal Bull of 1551, for the refounding of the
see, directed by Pope Paul IV. to Cardinal Pole. In 1836 the Sees of
Bristol and Gloucester were united, and remained so until 1897, when
they were again separated.

The church has a history long before it became a Cathedral. It was the
church of the monastery of Augustinian canons, founded in 1142 by
Robert Fitzhardinge, afterwards Lord of Berkeley, on the site of
Augustine's oak (so tradition says), where Augustine met the British
bishops in conference and offended them by his haughty demeanour. The
consecration of probably the chancel took place six years later. In
1155 Fitzhardinge received from the king the forfeited estates of
Roger de Berkeley, and was thus enabled to extend his building
operations, which were continued until the time of his death in 1170.
The church consisted of a nave with north and south aisles, a central
tower with north and south transepts, a presbytery with north and
south aisles, and a processional path. The choir had a square ending,
and consisted of three bays, the altar being at the east of the second
bay, the last bay forming a _via processionum_. The chapter-house and
vestibule are also Norman. The Early English builders erected the
Elder Lady Chapel, Bristol Cathedral being rich in Lady Chapels, and
possessing two. Abbot John (1196-1215) or his successor, David, was
doubtless the builder. Later Early English work is evident in portions
of the north and south transepts and in the Berkeley Chapel, but much
of the work of this period has been destroyed. Serious complaints
were made at this time concerning the conduct of the monks, and sundry
visitations were made and orders issued for the reform of the
monastery. During the Early Decorated period the roof and east window
of the Elder Lady Chapel were added, and a little later (1306-1332)
Abbot Knowle reconstructed the choir and choir aisles. With his work
came the beginning of Perpendicular aspiration, and it is an earnest
of the course of the later English Gothic which first manifested
itself in the choir of Gloucester. Bristol nearly had the lucrative
honour of receiving the body of the murdered King Edward II., slain at
Berkeley Castle. But for fear of offending his patrons Abbot Knowle
declined to have the burial here; hence the corpse was taken to
Gloucester, where it caused a great concourse of pilgrims, and brought
many offerings. Knowle's successor, Abbot Snow (1332-1341), was made a
mitred abbot, and had a seat in Parliament. He continued the work of
his predecessor, erected a chantry, and built the Newton Chapel. Soon
after his death terrible misfortunes happened to the city and
monastery. The Black Death invaded the land, and so great were its
ravages that in Bristol the living were hardly able to bury the dead,
and few monks survived the awful malady. The effects were disastrous.
For over a hundred years no building was attempted, and the monastery
was in a deplorable condition. In the time of Abbot Newbury
(1428-1473) the great tower was begun, and finished by his successor,
Hunt (1473-1481), who re-roofed the church. Abbot Newland (1481-1515)
rebuilt the upper part of the abbey gateway in Perpendicular style,
and began to rebuild the ruinous nave. As the power of the town
increased the citizens often had disputes with the monks over rights
of fairs and markets and other matters, and the burghers of Bristol
were not more submissive than those of other places. Hence the usual
quarrels arose and disturbed the peace of the city. Some of the
succeeding abbots wrought some minor improvements, but in 1543 a most
drastic remedy was applied to the ruinous nave. It was entirely pulled
down, and not rebuilt until recent times. The monastery was dissolved
like other similar institutions, and Paul Bush became the first bishop
of the new see founded by Henry VIII. For a brief space during Mary's
reign the old worship was restored, and Her Majesty and Philip
bestowed costly gifts of copes and altar frontals and vestments. But
in Elizabeth's reign all "relics of Popery" were ordered to be
destroyed, such as the rood-lofts, tabernacles for images, and
scripture texts and the table of the commandments to be painted in
large characters on the wall. Beyond purloining the lead from the roof
neither the besiegers nor the besieged did much damage to the church
during the Civil War.

On the site of the destroyed nave some houses were erected, but after
the great riots these were taken down. The building seems to have been
kept in fairly good order. Edward Colston, the benefactor of Bristol,
repaired the pavement. Sundry restorations were taken in hand during
the last century, and finally in 1865 it was decided to undertake the
stupendous task of rebuilding the nave. The work was begun in 1868 and
finished in 1888. Since then the Elder Lady Chapel and the tower have
been restored, and the church is now complete. It contains much of
unusual value and interest, and the completion of the nave is a
triumph of nineteenth-century achievement.


THE EXTERIOR

As we have said, the whole nave is new work, and therefore need not be
examined very closely. The _West Front_ is flanked by two towers,
which bear the honoured names of Bishop Butler and Edward Colston. The
style is an imitation of fourteenth-century work. There is a crocketed
gable above the door, a rose window of good design, and some
delicately-carved work surmounted by a cross. The face of the towers
has three storeys; on the first a large window; on the second some
lancets; and above two windows with louvres, the heads of which have
crockets and finials. There are pinnacles at the four corners.

On the _South Side_ we see the remains of the monastic buildings. The
north and east walks of the cloisters alone remain, except a few
traces of the western walk, and the north is a restoration. We will
visit the east walk from the Cathedral. Passing round to the _North
Side_ we notice the _North Porch_ built in 1873. We have often noticed
the figures of the four great doctors of the church--SS. Gregory,
Ambrose, Jerome and Augustine. They appear in the sculptures of many
of our cathedrals. A great storm of indignation arose at Bristol when
it was proposed to place these figures here, and the four Evangelists
were substituted. We can pass over the modern work, which is not
wholly satisfactory, and notice the interesting character of the
eastern portion. The north transept has some remains of Norman work in
the north wall. The north window is modern in memory of Colston, and
replaces an Early English window. The building adjoining is the Elder
Lady Chapel, which is Early English work of the early thirteenth
century. The east window is Decorated and is rather earlier than the
choir built by Abbot Knowle (1306-1332). The battlemented parapet is,
of course, a later addition. The buttresses of the chapel are
Decorated, and there are curious little flying buttresses connecting
the two pinnacles. The Lady Chapel at the east end of the Cathedral is
of the same date as the choir, and has a large, noble and graceful
window. Passing round to the south we see the outside of the Berkeley
Chapel, of Decorated design, and adjoining it the sacristy and
external walls of the Newton Chapel, chapter-house and modern vestry.
Here, too, is the old churchyard. The _Central Tower_ is Perpendicular
and was constructed by Abbot Newland (1481-1515) or his successor,
Abbot Elliot (1515-1526).


THE INTERIOR

Retracing our steps, we enter the Cathedral by the north porch and
view the new _Nave_ from the west end. The slender piers and fine
vaulting are striking, and the work is in many ways very beautiful.
The surface of the walls in the aisles is broken by canopied recesses
for tombs, one only being occupied by a marble figure of Dean Elliot.
The baptistry is in the south-west or Colston Tower, and is decorated
in memory of Bishop Monk. Already there are many memorial windows of
good modern glass.

The _North Transept_ has some original Norman work in the core of the
buttresses and in the wall below the north window. Some alterations
were made during the Decorated period, probably by Abbot Snow
(1332-1341), and the arch leading to north choir aisle is
Perpendicular work constructed by Abbot Newland (1481-1515), called
"the good abbot." Either he or his successor, Elliot, constructed the
groined roof, which has on the bosses sculptured representations of
the instruments of the Passion. The north window is modern, in memory
of Colston. The well-known writer, "Hugh Conway" (F. Fargus), has a
memorial here, and also Jane Porter of literary fame, Sterne's "Maria"
(Mrs. Draper), and the parents of Macready, the actor.

[Illustration Bristol The
Central Tower from S E]

The _South Transept_ has much Norman work in the lower part of the
walls. Part was rebuilt in Early English times. Abbot Snow (1332-1341)
continued the work and constructed the arch leading to the south choir
aisle. The vault is Perpendicular work by Abbot Elliot (1515-1526).
On the south is a staircase now leading to the consistory court, but
which formerly echoed with the tread of the monks as they came here to
their midnight services from the dormitory. In this transept there are
monuments to Lady Hesketh (1807), the friend of Cowper; William
Phillips, the sub-sacrist or verger who prevented the rioters from
profaning the Cathedral in 1831; Chantrey's monument of Mrs. Crawford;
and most famous of all, _Bishop Butler_ (1752), one of the most
honoured of English divines, the author of _The Analogy of Religion_.
The inscription was written by Southey.

It is deplorable that a beautiful stone screen of Tudor architecture,
which separated the choir from the transept, was ruthlessly destroyed
in 1860, and another one erected. This also has been removed, and the
view of the east end, with its Decorated piers and arches and the rich
glass of the windows, is extremely fine. All the work before us was
constructed by Abbot Knowle (1306-1332) and is Decorated. The Norman
choir had two bays with a third for a processional path. Knowle added
two bays to the choir and built the Lady Chapel. The clustered piers
have triple shafts which support the vaulting. The capitals on these
shafts have very graceful foliage. The piers have no capitals, but the
mouldings run round the arches continuously, as is not unusual in
Decorated work. The vaulting is what is known as lierne. Iron screen
work divides the aisles from the choir. The reredos is modern, erected
in 1899, and has some fine carving. The _Stalls_ were originally
Decorated, but "restoration" has destroyed much, and little of the old
work remains. There are some curious _Misereres_: a fox preaching to
geese, a tilting with brooms between a man and a woman, one mounted on
a pig, the other on a turkey-cock, the story of Reynard the Fox. The
pavement is new, and not altogether successful. The organ is a noble
instrument placed on the west side, and has been often reconstructed.
The _Throne_ is modern and has some fine carving. Passing into the
north aisle we notice the peculiar vaulting. It will be seen that the
roof of the choir and aisles is the same height, and in order to
support the weight of the choir-vault transoms are thrown across the
aisles supported on arches, and above a vaulting shaft springs from
the centre of the transom. This ingenious plan produces the same
effect as a flying buttress and is most ingeniously arranged. The
windows have beautiful Decorated tracery and the ball-flower is
extensively used in the string-course beneath them. The east window
has seventeenth-century glass, said to have been given by Nell Gwynne,
more probably by Dean Glemham (1661-1667). It treats of the
Resurrection, with Jonah and Abraham's sacrifice as types of the same,
the Ascension with Elijah as a type. There are monuments here of
Robert Codrington (1618); Harriet Middleton (1826); Paul Bush (1558),
the first bishop; Robert Southey, the poet; Bishop Westfield (1644);
Bishop Howell (1649); and Mary Mason, wife of the poet, with some
touching lines (1767).

Between the aisle and the Elder Lady Chapel are the effigies of
Maurice, Lord Berkeley (1368), and his wife, Elizabeth. There is a
tablet to the memory of Robert Fitzhardinge, the founder of the
Cathedral and also of the house of Berkeley. Some Norman corbels will
be noticed in the door leading to a staircase in the third bay.

The _Elder Lady Chapel_ is Early English and therefore earlier than
the choir, and was probably built by Abbot John (1196-1215); it is
therefore, as the architectural details testify, very early work. The
east window is Decorated. There are some curious grotesques in the
spandrels of the arcade--a hunter-goat blowing a horn and carrying a
hare on his back, a ram and an ape playing musical instruments, St.
Michael with the dragon, and a fox carrying off a goose. The foliage
is what is known as stiff leaved, and opposed to the more natural
foliage of the Decorated period. The roof is Early Decorated. The
eastern _Lady Chapel_, formerly the chancel of the choir, was built by
Abbot Knowle and is Decorated like the rest of the eastern part of the
Cathedral. It has a magnificent east window with beautiful tracery.
This is a Jesse window, showing the descent of our Lord from Jesse,
the father of David, and the glass is in the upper parts of the same
date as the stone-work. Above we see the arms of many distinguished
families--the Berkeleys, Mowbrays, Beauchamps and others. The glass in
the other windows is also of the same period and is of much interest.
The parapet under the windows is modern. The reredos is ancient, of
the same date as the chapel, and designed by Knowle, but it has been
much altered in Perpendicular times. The _Sedilia_ have been much
restored. A characteristic feature of this Cathedral is the
star-shaped recesses designed by Knowle, which are very beautiful. In
one of these is Abbot Newbury's tomb with ball-flower ornament; in
another Abbot Hunt (1473). Here, too, is Abbot Newland's tomb, and a
modern brass to the memory of Bishop Butler, and at the back of the
reredos a brass to Bishop Ellicott.

The _South Choir Aisle_ resembles the north. It has a very similar
east window, and the same curious vaulting. Two very interesting
chapels adjoin this aisle. The _Berkeley Chapel_ is entered by a
richly-ornamented doorway which leads into the old sacristy, with its
chests for relics and plate, and a hearth for baking sacramental
bread. Abbot Knowle was a student of nature and loved to reproduce in
stone the fruits and flowers which he saw growing around him. In the
ornaments of the doorway we see the ammonite and medlar. The chapel
had two altars, as we see the remains of two piscinæ, beneath the two
east windows, separated by a screen. There is an altar tomb of Thomas,
Lord Berkeley (1321). The lower part of the tomb is Early English. The
other chapel is the _Newton Chapel_, which is Late Decorated and
almost Perpendicular in some of its details. The ball-flower has
ceased to be used as an ornament. There are many memorials of the
Newton family here, and one to Bishop Gray (1834). Returning to the
south choir aisle we notice another of the curious recesses adorned
with oak leaves, acorns and mistletoe. There are some more Berkeley
tombs which furnish interesting studies of the armour of the period.

We now enter the _Cloisters_. As we have said, only the north and east
walks remain; the north is entirely new, and the east has been much
restored. The vestibule and chapter-house are, however, part of the
original Norman building, and the work is of Transitional character.
It is oblong in shape. The east wall is modern and has three windows.
The north and south walls have beautiful arcades, and above lattice
work and zigzag mouldings. The west wall has three rows of arcading.
Twelve stone coffins were found here and a curious piece of ancient
sculpture representing our Lord wounding the head of Satan and
rescuing a child by means of the Cross. Adjoining the chapter-house
was the dormitory. The refectory was on the south side of the cloister
garth. It still exists after many transformations and is the house of
the master of the Cathedral School.

The _Great Gateway_ should be visited. The lower part is of Norman
character, and was part of the founder's work; the upper is
Perpendicular and was the work of Abbot Elliot. He probably renewed
the rich Norman ornamentation, so much so that in the opinion of Mr.
Godwin, the great authority on Bristol architecture, "the so-called
Norman gateway of College Green is no Norman gateway, but a
Perpendicular restoration of the old work."

Another gateway, which formerly led to the palace destroyed in 1831,
exists, which is part of the original Norman work of the Cathedral. At
the south-west corner of the cloister is an Early English doorway,
which formerly led to the refectory. It is a sad pity that so much of
the old monastery has been destroyed.


DIMENSIONS

    Total length                300 ft.
    Length of nave              125 ft.
    Width of nave                69 ft.
    Height                       52 ft.
    Area                     22,500 sq. ft.

PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

    Norman (1142-1170)--Part of transepts, chapter-house,
        lower part of gateway.
    Early English (1196-1215)--Elder Lady Chapel, parts of
        transepts and Berkeley Chapel.
    Decorated (1306-1332)--Choir, Lady Chapel and stalls.
        (1332-1341)--Newton Chapel.
    Perpendicular (1428-1481)--Great Tower, upper part of
        gateway, roof.
    Modern--The nave.

The city has a large number of interesting churches. The noble Church
of St. Mary, Redcliffe, one of the finest in England, chiefly
fourteenth century; All Hallows' (Norman and Perpendicular); Temple
Church (Decorated and Perpendicular); St. Philip's, St. Stephen's, St.
John's, are the most important.



WELLS CATHEDRAL


The beautiful city of Wells entirely owes its origin to the noble
church and palace built here in early times, around which the houses
and population grew. It is one of the most picturesque in England,
situated in the most delightful country, and possessing the most
perfect ecclesiastical buildings which can be conceived. History tells
us that Ina in 704 built a church here, near a spring dedicated to St.
Andrew and known as "The Wells," and Edward the Elder, son of Alfred
the Great, formed a bishopric for Somerset and set the bishop's throne
here. Three Abbots of Glastonbury became Bishops of Wells, which was
richly endowed. The first Norman prelate was Giso, who built some
dwellings for the secular canons which were destroyed by his
successor, John de Villula, a native of Tours, who erected a palace in
their stead. Moreover, he moved the seat of the see to Bath, where he
had formerly practised medicine, and Wells was allowed to become
ruinous. Bath minster we shall visit presently. There was much ancient
rivalry between the two places and sore disputings, which were only
partially settled by the conjoining of the title "Bath and Wells."
Bishop Robert (1135-1166) had pity on the ruinous state of Wells and
rebuilt the church. This took place while Stephen and Matilda were
fighting for the crown, and Bishop Robert scorned not to take up arms
on behalf of Stephen, and was moreover imprisoned by the adherents of
his rival. Almost all of Robert's work has disappeared in subsequent
alterations. Jocelyn de Wells (1206-1239) has for many years had the
credit of building the main part of this beautiful House of God. It is
hard to have one's beliefs and early traditions upset, but modern
authorities with much reason tell us that we are wrong, and that
another Jocelyn--one Reginald Fitz-Jocelyn (1171-1191)--was the main
builder of Wells. Old documents recently discovered decide the
question, and moreover the style of the architecture is certainly
earlier than the fully-developed Early English of Jocelyn de Wells.
The latter, and also Bishop Savaricus (1192-1205) carried out the
work, but the whole design and a considerable part of the building are
due to Bishop Reginald. Savarac or Savaricus was concerned with the
release of Richard I. from his prison in Germany, and was one of the
hostages for the payment of his ransom. He styled himself Bishop of
Bath and Glastonbury, and when the monks objected he stormed the abbey
and beat and imprisoned them. Jocelyn de Wells found his church
unfinished and dilapidated. His was a grand era for church-building;
moreover, he was a friend of Hugh of Lincoln and Bishop Poore of
Salisbury, both consummate architects. So he set to work to finish and
repair Reginald's rising church, completed the nave and added that
wonderful west front which is one of the glories of this Cathedral.
Bishop Burnell (1275-1292) erected in later Early English style the
crypt of the chapter-house, which was itself partly built some time
late in the Decorated period, probably by Bishop William de la March,
a favourite of Edward I., who is said to have advised the plundering
of the monasteries. During the episcopate of Drokensford (1309-1329)
the central tower was raised, the choir was begun and the Lady Chapel
and chapter-house finished. Dean Godelee at this time was a great
builder and seems to have devised these additions. Bishop Ralph of
Shrewsbury (1329-1363) continued to perfect the Cathedral, enlarging
the presbytery and building the fine east end. He did much work
outside his church, founding the college, restoring his palaces and
fortifying his palace at Wells. The upper part of the Harewell Tower
was built by the bishop of that name (1366-1386). This is the
south-west tower. The north-west tower was built later still by Bishop
Bubwith (1407-1424). This prelate built the east walk of the cloister,
the west and south walks being finished by Bishop Beckington
(1443-1464) in the Perpendicular style. Wells was then in its full
glory. The church, the out-buildings, the episcopal palace, the
deanery all combined to form a wonderful architectural triumph, a
group of buildings which represented the best achievement of English
Gothic art. It was shorn of some of its glory at the Reformation. The
church was plundered of the treasures which the piety of many
generations had heaped together; the beautiful Lady Chapel in the
cloisters was pulled down, and the infamous Duke of Somerset robbed it
of its wealth and meditated further sacrilege.

Amongst these despoilers and desecrators of churches there was a
mighty hunger for lead ("I would that they had found it scalding,"
exclaims an old chaplain of Wells). Once the richest of sees, it would
probably have been suppressed altogether, but for the advent of Queen
Mary to the throne, who appointed Bishop Bourn and restored the
palace. In the Civil War it escaped. Some damage was done, the palace
was despoiled, and at the Restoration much repair was found needful.
Monmouth's rebellion wrought havoc here. The rebels came here in no
amiable temper, defaced the statues on the west front, and did much
wanton mischief, and would have caroused about the altar had not Lord
Grey stood before it with his sword drawn and thus preserved it from
the insults of ruffians. Then came the evils of "restoration." A
terrible renewing was begun in 1848, when the old stalls were
destroyed and much damage done. Better things were accomplished in
1868, save that the grandeur of the west front was belittled by a pipy
restoration, when Irish limestone with its harsh hue was used to
embellish it. In the palace, too, modern ideas have effaced much of
the refinement of its thirteenth-century beauty.


THE EXTERIOR

Fergusson declares that though Wells is one of the smallest it is
perhaps, taken altogether, the most beautiful of English cathedrals.
Some of the distant prospects are perhaps the best. There is a fine
view from the Shepton-Mallett Road. We enter the precincts by Browne's
Gate at the end of Sadler Street, and see before us the magnificent
_West Front_, a masterpiece of art superior to any in this country or
abroad. It is 150 feet in width and 70 feet high. Six deep buttresses
project from its face. There are six tiers of sculpture. The doors are
small. Not for the living throng, but to the dead was this front
dedicated who lie in the cemetery at its feet.[12] Here is the history
of God's Church on earth expressing its faith and pointing to the hope
of the Resurrection. Its style is Early English and is intermediate
between the west front of Lincoln and Salisbury. The upper part of the
towers is Perpendicular, that on the north being finished by Bishop
Bubwith (1407-1424), that on the south by Harewell (1366-1386). In the
lowest tier the sculptures have nearly all gone. In the second are
angels in small quatrefoils. In the third subjects from the Old and
New Testaments. In the fourth and fifth there are 120 statues of kings
and bishops and heroes of English history from Egbert to Henry II. The
sixth is called the Resurrection tier. And above are the angels and
Apostles, and finally the Lord in glory. It is difficult to identify
the statues with any feeling of certainty, though many lists have been
published which may, or may not, be correct. There can be no doubt
about the excellence of the sculpture, and all authorities unite in
praising them as being the perfection of design and execution. Flaxman
said of them that in them there is a beautiful simplicity, an
irresistible sentiment, and sometimes a grace excelling more modern
productions.

The _North Porch_ is earlier than the west front and possesses
transitional features. The zigzag ornament is used, and shows that
Norman traditions have not yet passed away; though Early English
foliage appears on the weather moulding. On the capitals on the east
side are representations of the martyrdom of St. Edmund, who shared
the fate of St. Sebastian and was afterwards beheaded. Mystic animals
appear in the panels on either side of the arch--one is a cockatrice.
Above, three lancets light the parvise.

The _Central Tower_ is 182 feet high, and is Early English as far as
the height of the roof. In the Decorated period the upper part was
added, which caused much disaster, as the foundations were unable to
bear the additional weight. Very skilful treatment was required, as we
shall see when we enter the church.

The _Nave_ is Early English, but Perpendicular tracery has been
inserted in the windows, and the walls of both the aisles and
clerestory have been crowned with a parapet of Decorated work. The
_North Transept_ is rather earlier than the nave, and retains much of
the Transitional character. It has two aisles, and is not so richly
ornamented as the nave. The windows are pointed and have Perpendicular
tracery. Passing on we come to the _Chain Gate_, a very beautiful
structure erected by Bishop Beckington (1443-1465) in Perpendicular
style. Figures of St. Andrew and other saints appear in the niches.
The gallery over the Chain Gate connects the Cathedral with the
Vicar's College. After passing under the gate we see the beautiful
_Chapter-House_, which is octagonal, we are surprised to find the
chapter-house in this position and far removed from the cloisters, but
this is accounted for by the fact that secular canons served this
Cathedral, and not monks; hence the cloisters were an ornamental
appendant rather than the centre of the monastic life. The
chapter-house was finished in 1319 in Decorated style under the
guidance of Dean John de Godilee, who employed one William Joy as the
master-mason. There are some curious gargoyles here. The _Choir_ and
_Lady Chapel_ form a beautiful composition. The western portion of the
choir was until recently attributed to Jocelyn.

[Illustration Wells Cathedral]

It is now generally believed to have been the work of Bishop Reginald,
Jocelyn's predecessor. The eastern portion is the work of Bishop Ralph
(1329-1363), the Lady Chapel was finished in 1326. All this is
therefore Decorated, and windows of the same style have been inserted
in the earlier western portion. There were two Lady Chapels adjoining
the cloisters, but these were ruthlessly destroyed by Bishop Barlow in
1552. The _Cloister_ does not possess the usual features of a monastic
church. It is unusually large, and there are only three walks, the
north being absent. The wall of the east walk is Early English, built
by Jocelyn, but the rest was rebuilt by Bishop Bubwith; the west and
south walks by Bishop Beckington and finished soon after his death.
The style is Perpendicular. The grotesque bosses are interesting. An
Early English doorway leads to the palace. Over the west walk is the
singing-school, and over the east the library. Beckington's rebus (a
_beacon_ and a _tun_) occurs in the bosses. The garth is known as
"Palm Churchyard" from the yew tree in the centre. Branches of yews
were carried in processions on Palm Sunday, and this probably accounts
for the prevalence of yew trees in churchyards. The cloisters have
been made the receptacle of many monuments removed from the Cathedral.
The _Library_ over the east walk, built by Bubwith, has about 3000
volumes, and contains the books belonging to Bishop Ken. An Aldine
edition of Aristotle has the autograph and notes of Erasmus, and there
are several important MSS., the chains which formerly attached the
books to the desks, a thirteenth-century pyx-cover, and a crozier of
the same period.

The _Bishop's Palace_, unfortunately much restored in 1846, is one of
the finest examples of a thirteenth-century house existing in England.
It was begun by Jocelyn. The great hall, now in ruins, built by Bishop
Burnell (1275-1292) for the purpose of great entertainments, was
destroyed by Barlow. The chapel is Decorated. The gatehouse, moat and
fortifications were constructed by Bishop Ralph of Shrewsbury. The
_Deanery_ was built by Dean Gunthorpe in 1475, chaplain to Edward IV.
On the north is the famous _Vicar's Close_, which has forty-two
houses, constructed mainly by Bishop Beckington (1443-1464), with a
common hall erected by Bishop Ralph (1340), and chapel by Bubwith, but
altered a century later for the use of the Vicars-Choral. We notice
the old fireplace, the pulpit from which one of the brethren read
aloud during meals, and an ancient painting representing Bishop Ralph
making his grant to the kneeling vicars, and some additional figures
painted in the time of Elizabeth.


THE INTERIOR

Few will fail to be impressed by the many beauties of this glorious
_Nave_, which we will gaze at from the west end. It is rather narrow,
but the proportions are good, and the magnificent clustered columns
and enriched capitals, the groups of bearing shafts, grotesque
carvings, and the fine vault, all combine to form a noble structure.
The curious inverted arches at the east end of the nave are
remarkable. These were added early in the fourteenth century to save
the collapsing central tower; and so skilfully was the work done that
the object of the builders was completely accomplished. The nave has
generally been assigned to Jocelyn, but architects have noticed that
it is only a little removed from the Norman style, and recent
investigators have shown that the greater part is the work of Bishop
Reginald (1171-1191). The four eastern bays are assigned to him, and
the rest to Jocelyn. A close inspection will reveal several points of
difference between the earlier and later work. The heads of a king and
bishop between the fourth and fifth piers (counting from the west)
mark the change. The difference may be thus tabulated[13]--

    EAST                         | WEST
                                 |
    Masonry in small courses of  | The blocks are larger.
      stone.                     |
                                 |
    Small human heads at angles  | No heads.
      of piers.                  |
                                 |
    Grotesque animals in tympana | Foliage and larger heads.
      of triforium.              |
                                 |
    Medallions above triforium   | Flush with the wall.
      sunk in the wall.          |
                                 |
    Capitals plainer.            | More ornamented and richer.

The piers are octagonal with clustered shafts. The capitals are
enriched with foliage. Birds, animals and monsters twine and perch
among the foliage. The triforium arcade is continuous, and composed of
lancet openings. The clerestory windows have Perpendicular tracery
inserted by Beckington. The roof is vaulted, with bosses of foliage.
The _Music Gallery_ stands in the central bay on the south side
erected in Perpendicular style, and near it formerly was another
gallery supported by two brackets, on which are carved the heads of a
king and bishop. The curious and grotesque carvings should be
carefully studied. The west end has an arcade of five arches. Above
are three lancets with dog-tooth moulding and Perpendicular tracery.
The glass was collected by Dean Creyghton on the Continent during his
exile with Charles II., and represents the life of St. John Baptist.
Its date is 1507. The other windows have the figures of King Ina and
Bishop Ralph. The north and south aisles correspond with the nave in
their architecture. Perpendicular tracery has been inserted in the
windows. Under the north-west tower is the Chapel of the Holy Cross,
now used as a vestry, and the opposite Chapel is now used by the
ringers. There are two beautiful chantries in the nave--one is Bishop
Bubwith's Chapel (1421), with much mutilated east end; the other is
Sugar's Chantry, formerly dedicated to St. Edmund. Hugh Sugar, dean of
Wells, died in 1489. The fan-tracery of the roof, the niches and the
cornice of angels are worthy of notice. The _Pulpit_ was erected by
Bishop Knight (1541-1547). The lectern is by Bishop Creyghton, who
erected the west window, and shared Charles II.'s exile. The
_Transepts_ are rather earlier than the nave, and are part of
Reginald's work. They have aisles, and the capitals of the piers are
richly sculptured. In the _South Transept_ we see on the west Elias, a
woman extracting a thorn from her foot, a man with toothache, the
grape-stealers and their fate. On the east there is only foliage and
no figures. The Chapel of St. Calixtus is on the east, containing the
beautiful monument of Dean Husse (1305), with its finely-carved
panels. The subjects are the Annunciation, God the Father, and some
ecclesiastics. The other Chapel is that of St. Martin, now a vestry,
and has the tomb of a Chancellor of Wells (1454). In the transept are
the monuments of Lady Lisle (1464), wife of the Earl of Shrewsbury,
and of Bishop William de la Marchia (1302). The _Font_ is Norman, and
probably the only remaining link with the early church built by Bishop
Robert (1136-1166). The cover is Jacobean. The _North Transept_
resembles the south. Here we see again a series of strange carvings,
amongst which are Moses and Aaron, man with goose, woman with
toothache. The reason why so many representations of this distressing
malady occur is that the shrine of St. William Bytton (1274) was
famous for its cures of persons so suffering. On the east are the
Chapels of St. David, with tomb of Bishop Still (1607), and Holy Cross
with tomb of Bishop Kidder (1703). Another tomb is that of Bishop
Cornish (1513). The famous _Clock_ is here with its tilting knights
and human-shaped striker, who perform wondrous things when the
expiration of each hour summons them to action. We will not dispel the
curiosity of the visitor by any description of the performance, which
is popular, and should not be missed.

The _Tower_ is of Early English date as far as the roofs, and has a
fine fan-tracery vault. As we have said, it was raised in the
Decorated period, and the superstructure caused a dangerous
settlement, which was counteracted by the inverted arches, and some
flying buttresses.

The _Choir-Screen_ is Decorated, and has not been improved by modern
restorers. Above it is the organ, a modern instrument, which replaces
the old organ erected by Dean Creyghton.

The _Choir_ is very beautiful, but it is only a shadow of what it was
before the evil hand of the restorer rested heavily upon it. It is
terrible to contemplate the mischief which has been accomplished here
in the fatal restoration of 1848. However, it would have been
difficult to efface all its beauties, and some of these happily
remain. The three west bays are probably Reginald's work, and were
formerly attributed to Jocelyn; the rest is Decorated, and two of the
west piers have been converted into this style. There is no triforium,
its place being taken by rich tabernacle work. At the east end there
are three graceful arches; and above these rich tabernacle work, and a
large window of seven lights with Late Decorated tracery. There is a
lierne vault. The vandals of the nineteenth century destroyed nearly
all of the old woodwork, and substituted canopies of Doulting stone.
The pulpit is modern; the throne was erected by Beckington, but has
unfortunately been much restored. The _Misereres_ have happily been
saved, and are very remarkable. They are Early Decorated, and can
scarcely be surpassed. Amongst the many curious subjects are a
mermaid, griffin and various monsters, two goats butting, cats,
peacock, cock, fox and geese, lions, rabbits, etc.

[Illustration Entrance to Crypt.]

The glass of the east window, and of those on each side of it, is
fourteenth-century work (_circa_ 1330). The east window is very fine,
and is a Jesse window, showing the genealogy of our Lord from the
"Stem of Jesse," with figures of kings and prophets, the Virgin, and
finally the Crucifixion and the Judgment. In the north-east window is
a figure of St. George. The _South Choir Aisle_ is of the same
character as the choir; the windows are Decorated. Here is the famous
monument of Bishop Bytton (1274), who was canonised, and whose tomb
was much resorted to by pilgrims, especially by those who suffered
from toothache. This is the most ancient example of an incised slab in
England. Near the saint lie Bishop Beckington (1464), (who did so much
for this Cathedral), and Bishop Hervey (1894). Below the effigy is a
skeleton-like figure, which was intended to proclaim the moral maxim,
_memento mori_. The iron-work should be noticed. Here also are the
tombs of Bishop Harewell (1386), Bishop Hooper (1727), and Bishop Lake
(1626). In the Chapel of St. John the Evangelist are buried Dean
Gunthorpe (1498), the builder of the Deanery, and Dean Jenkyns (1854),
who was responsible for the "restoration" of the choir. There is a
fine Decorated piscina here. The _Retro-Choir_ is very beautiful.
Slender piers of Purbeck marble support the fine vault. The carving of
the capitals and bosses is very excellent. All is in the Decorated
style. The _Lady Chapel_ is of the same date and style, finished in
1326. Its shape is pentagonal, and it is of rare beauty. The glass is
of the same date as that of the choir, but has been restored. Angels
bearing the instruments of the Passion appear in the east window, and
in the tracery of the other windows are the Evangelistic emblems and
heads of patriarchs and saints. At the south-east corner of the
retro-choir was St. Catherine's Chapel. The glass is old and rich.
There is a monument by Chantrey of John Phelips, and that of Bishop
Drokensford (1329), who was bishop during the building of the Lady
Chapel, and part of the choir is a graceful structure. At the opposite
corner is St. Stephen's Chapel, and then we enter the north-east
transept or Chapel of St. John Baptist, which contains Bishop
Creyghton's tomb (1672), also monuments of John de Myddleton (1337),
Bishop Berkeley (1581), Dean Forrest (1446). The _North Choir Aisle_
has the tomb of Bishop Ralph (1363), and an effigy, attributed to
Bishop Giso (1088). Bishop Jocelyn caused several of these effigies to
be executed, in memory of his predecessors. On the north is a door
leading to a vaulted passage, which conducts us to the crypt of the
chapter-house. Notice the curious carved heads in this passage. There
is a curious stone lantern in the wall near the inner door. This crypt
or undercroft is on the same level as the floor of the church, and was
used as a treasury. It was finished about 1286, and is Late Early
English. There is a massive octagonal pier in the centre, and eight
other round piers, which support the vaulting. A piscina in the
doorway has a curious sculptured dog gnawing a bone. Here are
preserved a cope chest, some stone coffins, and other treasures.
Retracing our steps to the aisle, we enter the noble _Staircase_
leading to the chapter-house. It is Early Decorated, the door at the
upper end being added in the Perpendicular period, when the Chain Gate
was erected. Two Decorated windows light the staircase. The
_Chapter-House_, octagonal in plan, is entered by a fine doorway
composed of double arches. There is a curious boss here, composed of
four bearded heads. There is a central pillar, with clustered shafts
of Purbeck marble, from which the beautiful ribs of the vaulted roof
spring. There are eight windows, the mouldings of the arches being
ornamented with ball-flower, and retaining some old glass. An arcade
runs round the wall under the windows, with ornamented canopies, and
beneath this are the stone benches. Sculptured heads and grotesques
appear in the ornamentation of the arches. This chapter-house is later
than the staircase, and was probably built by Bishop William de la
Marchia (1293-1302), the vault being added after his time, and
finished in 1319.

DIMENSIONS

    Total length             383 ft.
    Length of nave           161 ft.
    Breadth of nave           82 ft.
    Height of nave            67 ft.
    Length of choir          103 ft.
    Length of transepts      135 ft.
    Height of towers         160 ft.
    Area              29,070 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

    Early Norman--Font.
    Transition (1174-1191)--Eastern bays of nave, transepts,
           north porch, and west bays of choir.
    Early English (1218-1286)--West front, western part of
           nave, undercroft of chapter-house, palace.
    Early Decorated--Staircase to chapter-house.
    Decorated (1293-1363)--Chapter-house, Lady Chapel,
           central tower, inverted arches, east part of choir.
    Perpendicular (1386-1400)--Western towers, gateways,
           Chain Gate, Deanery.


BATH ABBEY

For some time Bath was the rival of Wells, and hot and fierce was the
contention between the monks of St. Peter and the canons of St. Andrew
at Wells. The monastery was founded here in Saxon times by Offa in
775. In Early Norman times, John de Villula of Tours, who is said to
have practised medicine at Bath, became Bishop of Wells, and, by grant
from William II., removed the seat of the bishopric to Bath, and
rebuilt the Abbey Church, which now became a Cathedral. But the monks
liked not this arrangement. In the time of Bishop Robert (1135-1166),
in order to settle their disputes, it was decided that the bishop
should be styled "of Bath and Wells." But even this did not produce
peace. When Jocelyn died the monks of Bath elected Roger without the
consent of the canons of Wells, and both chapters nearly ruined
themselves by appeals to the Pope and costly litigation. The church at
Bath fell much into decay, and was entirely rebuilt by Bishop Oliver
King of Wells (1495-1503). He is said to have seen a vision somewhat
resembling Jacob's dream, a ladder reaching from earth to heaven, and
a voice saying, "Let an Oliver stablish the Crown and a King build the
church." A representation of this dream appears on the west front of
Bath minster, and an inscription referring to the Parable of the Trees
(Judges ix. 8):--

    "Trees going to choose their king
    Said, Be to us the Olive(r) King."

The style of the church is Late Perpendicular, and was scarcely
completed before the monastery was seized and dissolved. It was left
in a sorry condition, roofless and ruinous, until it was restored by
Bishop Montague in the seventeenth century. It has been restored in
modern times, and has lost that dilapidated appearance which long
distinguished it. It is a small and not very interesting building,
though it lacks not some striking features, and certainly contains
some fine tombs and interesting memorials of the fashionable folk who
flocked to Bath in the days of its splendour.

[Illustration PLAN OF WELLS CATHEDRAL]

FOOTNOTES:

[12] Prior's _Gothic Art_.

[13] Murray's _Cathedrals_.



EXETER CATHEDRAL


Exeter, the noble city of the west, which proudly bears the motto
granted to it by Queen Elizabeth, _Semper Fidelis_--"Always Faithful,"
has a venerable Cathedral, which was commenced in Norman times on the
site of a Saxon church, entirely removed. The principal feature of
Exeter is its Decorated work. A large portion of the Cathedral was
erected during that period; and as Salisbury is the most perfect
example of Early English architecture, Exeter represents the most
beautiful specimen of the Decorated style.

Southey's judgment on the Cathedral was that "it looked finest when
you could only see half of it." Indeed, it is difficult to obtain a
good view, and the north side is the only one which presents a
favourable prospect. The historian of Exeter Cathedral, Mr. Hewett,
wrote: "As we walk round this, we cannot but consider that the
Cathedral, though far from lofty, and presenting none of the majestic
features of several of its sister churches, is nevertheless a fine
composition. The aisles of the choir and nave, intercepted by the
stately Norman towers, further broken by the prominence of their
chantries, and spanned by flying buttresses richly pinnacled; the
large, pure windows, which pierce both aisles and clerestory; the
roof, highly pitched, and finished with crest-tiles, form a decidedly
graceful and pleasing whole." With this excellent description all
visitors will agree.

Glancing back at the early history of the see, we find that Crediton
was the ancient seat of the bishop, where was born in 680 St. Winfrid,
called Boniface, the apostle of the Germans. There was a monastery at
Exeter in the time of Athelstan, which was much plundered by the
Danes. In 1050 Bishop Leofric, the favourite of Edward the Confessor,
removed his episcopal seat to Exeter, and continued to hold it when
William the Conqueror came. Osbern was appointed in 1072, but he
contented himself with the old Saxon church, and it was not until
William Warelwast (1107-1136), nephew of William the Conqueror, became
bishop that the present Cathedral was begun. The Norman work was
continued by Bishop Marshall (1194-1206), who is said to have
"finished the building according to the plot and foundation which his
predecessors laid."

[Illustration Exeter Cathedral]

Exeter has suffered many sieges, and during that of Stephen, in 1136,
the Cathedral was much injured by fire. The two towers at the end of
the transepts are all the portions that remain of Warelwast's
building, and one of these (that on the north) has been much altered,
until it has assumed the features of Perpendicular style. This was
done by Bishop Courtenay (1478-1487), when he transferred here a great
bell from Llandaff.

In 1258 a poor man's son, one Walter Bronescombe, though not in
priests' orders, was elected bishop, and set to work to rebuild his
Cathedral, his labours being continued by his successor. The Lady
Chapel with adjoining chapels was partly built by this bishop. His
successor, Bishop Quivil, the foe of the Franciscans (1280-1291),
finished it, and erected the north and south transepts. The choir,
nave, porches and west front were built by Bishops Stapledon
(1308-1326) and Grandisson (1327-1369). Stapledon was a great
statesman, and in the troubles of the second Edward's reign took the
side of the king against the queen and Mortimer, and was murdered by
the citizens of London in Cheapside. Grandisson was also a mighty
prelate who refused to allow the Archbishop of Canterbury to visit his
Cathedral as his ecclesiastical superior. He, with a band of armed
men, met the intruding archbishop at the west door and forbade him to
enter, and an armed conflict was with difficulty averted. These
mediæval bishops were very powerful. They usually built a strong wall
with gates around the precincts of the Cathedral, and ruled their
clergy, their servants and dependants quite independently of any
external control. The conflicts between the clergy and the townsfolk
were very numerous, and the struggle severe in nearly all our cities
and monastic towns.

When Queen Elizabeth came to the throne, "visitors" were appointed to
examine churches and to remove all that savoured of "superstition."
Their zeal outran their discretion, and much mischief was wrought in
Exeter and elsewhere by their iconoclastic violence. Strange events
took place during the Commonwealth period. The Cathedral was divided
into two portions by a brick wall, and in one called "West Peter's" an
independent preacher thundered forth his declamation, while in the
other, "East Peter's," a Presbyterian divine conducted his form of
service. Happily the Restoration put an end to these curious
proceedings, and the wall was taken down, and the Church of England
service renewed.

We will now examine the west front erected at the close of the
fourteenth century. The screen is very remarkable and beautiful, and
has three rows of figures of saints and kings and warriors. In the
first row appear angels; the second has figures of kings and knights,
and the third saints, and figures of Athelstan and Edward the
Confessor stand above them. Some of the ancient figures have crumbled
away and been replaced by modern sculptures. Bishop Brantyngham was
the builder of this screen, who lived in the time of Richard II., and
the crowns and armour represented on the figures belong to that
period. The figures in the lower row, beginning on the left, are:--

    1.  Canute.
    2.  Edgar.
    3.  Ethelred.
    4.  Justice,   } small figures
    5.  Fortitude, } above north
    6.  Discipline,} door.
    7.  Edward II.
    8.  Henry III.
    9.  } Unknown bishops.
    10. }
    11. Richard I.
    12. Henry II.
    13. Stephen.
    14. Henry I.
    15. William I.,{ a modern
                   { imitation.
    16. Robert of Normandy.
    17. William II.
    18. A king unknown.
    19. } Bishops.
    20. }
    21. John.
    22. Edward I.
    23. Edward III.,     { over
    24. The Black Prince,{ south
                         { door.
    25. Godfrey de Bouillon.
    26. Stephen, Count of Blois.
    27. Guy de Lusignan.
    28. Ethelwold.
    29. Alfred.
    30. Edward the Elder.

In the upper row, beginning at the left hand, are:--

    1.  Samuel.
    2.  Samson.
    3.  Jephtha.
    4.  Gideon.
    5.  Barak.
    6.  Deborah.
    7.  Noah.
    8.  St. Matthew.
    9.  St. John.
    10. St. Jude.
    11. St. Bartholomew.
    12. St. Matthias.
    13. St. Philip.
    14. St. Andrew.
    15. St. Peter.
    16. King Richard II.
    17. King Athelstan.
    18. St. Paul.

    19. St. John.
    20. St. James the Greater.
    21. St. Thomas.
                           { a
    22. St. James the Less,{ modern
                           { statue.
    23. St. Simon.
    24. St. Luke.
    25. St. Mark.
    26. St. Augustine.
    27. King Ethelbert.
    28. St. Berinus.
    29. St. Boniface.
    30. Kynigils, }
    31. Cwichelm, }
    32. Kenwalch, } Kings of
    33. Kentwald, } Wessex.
    34. Caedwalla,}
    35. Ina,      }

The sculpture has been pronounced "remarkable, characteristic and
beautiful," but that at Wells and Lincoln is earlier and perhaps
better.

Above the screen is a platform on which the bishop used to stand when
he blessed the people, and also the choristers and minstrels when they
hailed with song the advent of distinguished persons.

The three doorways should be noticed. The central one has a moulding
of carved foliage, and on the central boss of the groined roof is a
representation of the Crucifixion. The south doorway has two
sculptures, the appearance of an angel to Joseph in a dream, and the
Adoration of the Shepherds. Between the south and central doorways is
the Chantry of St. Radegunde, which we will examine on entering the
Cathedral. The north porch was built by Grandisson, and is very
beautiful with its triple canopy. The Puritan soldiers have mutilated
the Crucifixion scene on the east wall. On the central boss is a
well-carved Agnus Dei. Notice the cresting of the roof in a
_fleur-de-lis_ pattern, which somewhat relieves the long, unbroken
stretch of leaden roofing.

We now enter the Cathedral. Though the nave is less lofty than many,
it is most beautiful, and the richness of the architectural details
abundantly atones for the lack of height, which is 70 feet. The roof
springs from slender vaulting shafts and is studded with
beautifully-carved bosses, representing foliage, animals, strange
figures and heraldic shields. The murder of Thomas à Becket occurs in
one of these bosses. Clustered pillars of Purbeck marble support the
roof and separate the nave from the aisles. Notice the sculptured
corbels between the arches, which are peculiar, and the exquisite
carving of the leaves and figures. In the triforium on the north side
is the _Minstrels' Gallery_, the most perfect in England, where the
musicians played on high festivals, or on the occasion of some Royal
visitor. The figures are represented as playing on various
instruments--cittern, bagpipes, flageolet, violin, harp, trumpet,
organ, guitar, some unknown wind instrument, tambour and cymbals. The
heads of Edward III. and his queen, Philippa, support two niches. This
gallery is a very beautiful example of mediæval art.

Instead of the usual triforium we have a blind arcade, the height of
which is much less than in most cathedrals, but above this there is a
very lofty clerestory. The windows of the nave are Decorated, and have
a great variety of most beautiful and elaborate tracery. They are
arranged in pairs, one window corresponding to its opposite. The glass
of the west window, erected in 1766, is a great eyesore, and spoils
the beauty of the stone tracery.

[Illustration Detail of Minstrels' Gallery]

We have abundant evidence that this noble nave was constructed almost
entirely in Norman times, and subsequently transformed into the
Decorated style, just as Winchester was changed from Norman to
Perpendicular work. Disturbances of masonry in both north and south
walls indicate the position of Norman pilasters, and outside flat
buttresses of Norman type are observed which correspond to the
position of these. We gather that the nave was finished in Norman
times by Bishop Marshall, and that Stapledon (1308-1326) began the
transformation, which was carried on and completed by Grandisson
(1327-1369).

Nor must the work of our modern men be disregarded. The nave was in a
very dilapidated state. The Purbeck marble columns were fallen into
decay, and hideous high pews disfigured the view. Sir Gilbert Scott in
recent times most judiciously restored the Cathedral, and made it
again one of the finest in the land.

We will now examine the chapels and monuments in the nave. On the left
of the west door is the _Chapel of St. Radegunde_, which contained
formerly the body of Bishop Grandisson; but in the time of Queen Bess
the tomb was plundered and his remains scattered no one knows whither.
St. Radegunde was a Frankish princess, the wife of Chlotar, the son of
King Clovis. Notice the carved figure of our Lord on the roof, His
hand outstretched to bless, and the holes in the stone for suspending
lamps.

On the north side is the Chapel of St. Edmund, which is earlier than
the nave itself, and was connected with it by Bishop Grandisson.

The following monuments in the nave should be examined:--

_North Aisle_--

    Tablet memorial of Lieutenant Allen, and window to memory of one
    of the Earls of Devon.
    Brass memorial of men of North Devon Regiment slain in Afghan war
    (1880-1881), with regimental flags.
    Memorial of 9th Lancers who died in India.
    Tablet to the musician Samuel Wesley.

_South Side of Nave_--

     High tomb of Hugh Courtenay (d. 1377), second Earl of Devon,
     and of his Countess, Margaret (d. 1391), a connection of Edward
     I. The effigies have been much mutilated.

    Brass to memory of General Elphinstone, V.C. (d. 1890).
    Brass to Hugh, second Earl of Devon.
    Window to Thomas Latimer.
    Window to Dean Cowie.

We now pass into the north transept. The Norman towers at each end of
the transepts were originally separated from the church. Bishop
Quivil, however, wishing to enlarge the building, took down the
massive walls which divided the interior of the towers from the body
of nave, and constructed arches to sustain the sides of the tower. The
original Norman walls remain, and in the north transept one Norman
window and two narrow, circular-headed doorways. Quivil also erected
the two galleries. On the east of north transept is _St. Paul's
Chapel_, used as a vestry for lay choral vicars; there are here some
interesting old tiles with heraldic devices, and amongst them the arms
of Richard, Duke of Cornwall, brother of Henry III. Near this is the
_Sylke Chantry_, founded in 1485 by William Sylke, sub-chanter, whose
skeleton effigy proclaims the message--_Sum quod eris, fueram quod es,
pro me, precor, ora_. An interesting mural painting has been
discovered representing the Resurrection.

The old clock is very remarkable, which is about 700 years old. The
historian of the Cathedral thus describes it:--

"On the face or dial, which is about 7 feet in diameter, are two
circles: one marked from one to thirty for the moon's age; the other
figured from one to twelve twice over for the hours. In the centre is
fixed a semi-globe representing the earth, round which a smaller ball,
the moon, painted half white and half black, revolves monthly, and by
turning on its axis shows the varying phases of the luminary which it
represents. Between the two circles is a third ball, representing the
sun, with a _fleur-de-lis_, which points to the hours as it daily
revolves round the earth."

The maker of the clock was a believer in the old-fashioned astronomy
which recognised the earth, and not the sun, as the centre of the
solar system. Below the clock is a door leading to the tower, which
contains the great bell called "Peter," which is only exceeded in
weight by the Great Tom of Oxford. It was brought from Llandaff by
Bishop Courtenay at the end of the fifteenth century, and weighs
12,500 tons. It was cracked on 5th November 1611, "from a too violent
ringing in commemoration of the Gunpowder Plot."

We now enter the south transept, which is similar to the north. The
monuments here are interesting. There is the supposed tomb of Bishop
John the Chaunter (1185-1191), but is of later date; a sixteenth
century monument of Leofric, the first Bishop of Exeter; a mural
tablet to the memory of Sir Peter Carew, who played an important part
in the rebellion of the Devon men, caused by the changes introduced
into the Prayer-Book at the Reformation, when they besieged Exeter and
well-nigh gained an entrance. Sir John Gilbert has a monument, a
relative of Sir Walter Raleigh, one of the brave discoverers of the
Elizabethan age and founders of our maritime supremacy. The colours of
the Cornwall Light Infantry hang here, which were carried at Waterloo
and in the Indian Mutiny.

The Chantry of the Holy Ghost in the south-west corner of this
transept is a Norman structure. It has a font which was first used at
the baptism of Henrietta, daughter of Charles I., who was born in
Exeter in 1644. The Chapel of St. John the Baptist, on the east side,
is similar to that of St. Paul in the north transept. Bishop Oldham,
whose chantry is in the south choir aisle, erected the screen of this
chapel. Beyond the Chapel of the Holy Ghost is the chapter-house. The
cloisters were destroyed by the Puritans. The chapter-house has been
recently restored. Notice the Early English character of the arcade
(thirteenth century) in the lower part; the upper part has
Perpendicular niches. The Chapter Library has about 8000 volumes.

Retracing our steps we approach the choir, entered by a door in the
beautiful screen supporting the organ. This was the old rood-screen,
on which formerly stood the rood or figure of our Lord on the Cross.
It was erected in the fourteenth century. The rose and thistle in the
carvings were inserted later, in the time of James I., to mark the
Union of England and Scotland under one monarch, but these have
happily been removed, and probably the worthless paintings belong to
the same period. The organ was built by Loosemore in 1665 (one of the
oldest in England), rebuilt in 1819, and has been so much renovated
that very little of the old work remains.

The choir is remarkably fine. The style is now Decorated. The original
Norman choir extended to the third arch. Bishop Marshall completed
this by adding four more bays. Then came the builders of the early
fourteenth century who transformed the Norman pillars and other
details, and converted the choir into Decorated work. The bishops who
accomplished all this were De Bytton (1292-1306) and Walter de
Stapledon (1306-1329) and Bishop Grandisson (1327-1369). The last
dedicated the high altar in 1328. The bosses of the vaulted roof are
worthy of especial examination, so remarkable are they for the
delicacy of the carved foliage. The choir has been carefully restored
in recent years, and the stalls, pulpit and reredos are modern, and
were designed by Sir Gilbert Scott. Notice the interesting old
misereres, which are very remarkable, and probably the oldest and most
curious in England. The foliage denotes the Early English period, and
they were probably designed by Bishop Bruere (1224-1244). Notice the
mermaid and merman on the south side, the elephant, knight slaying a
leopard, a minstrel, etc. The lofty bishop's throne was erected by
Stapledon, and is said to have been taken down and hidden away during
the civil war period. The painted figures represent the four great
building bishops--Warelwast, Quivil, Stapledon and Grandisson. The
sedilia by Stapledon are very fine. Notice the carved lions' heads,
and the heads of Leofric, Edward the Confessor and his wife Editha.
The east window is Early Perpendicular, inserted by Bishop Brantyngham
in 1390, and contains much old glass. The tombs in the choir are:--

_On North Side_--

    Bishop Stapledon (holding a crozier and a book).
    Bishop Marshall (d. 1206).
    Bishop Lacey (d. 1455), to which tomb pilgrimages used to be made
    on account of the reported miracles wrought there.
    Bishop Bradbridge (d. 1578).

_On South Side_--

    Bishop Chichester (d. 1155).
    Bishop Wolton (1594).

Entering the north choir aisle we see the Chapel of St. Andrew,
renovated by Stapledon, having an upper chamber containing the
archives, the Fabric Rolls, MSS. of Roger Bacon, Leofric's book of
Saxon poetry, and many other valuable treasures.

Next in order we see the Chantry of St. George, or Speke's Chantry
(Perpendicular style), containing the monument of Sir John Speke, who
endowed this chantry for the good of his soul. When the Cathedral was
divided into two portions in the days of the Puritans, a doorway was
made through the east window as an entrance to "East Peter's." At the
east end of this aisle is the Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene, erected
originally by Bronescombe, transformed by Quivil, but has
Perpendicular screen. The east window has good fifteenth-century
glass. Notice the noble monuments of Sir Gawain Carew (1589, restored
in 1857), his wife and nephew, Sir Peter Carew (_see_ p. 172). The
latter is remarkable as a very late example of cross-legged effigy.
The monuments in this north choir are--a cross-legged effigy of Sir
Richard de Stapledon, brother of the bishop (d. 1330). [It need not be
stated that this fashion of crossing the legs has nothing to do with
the Crusades]; effigy of Bishop Carey (d. 1626); a tablet to Robert
Hall, son of the bishop; tablet to Canon Rogers (d. 1856); an
emaciated sepulchral figure; Elizabethan tomb of Anthony Harvey
(1564), who gained great wealth from the dissolution of monasteries.

Passing behind the high altar we come to the ambulatory, or
"procession path." The style is Early Decorated. Notice the ancient
Bible-boxes and the two Jacobean tablets. The windows contain good
modern glass.

The Lady Chapel was entirely transformed by Bishop Quivil (1280-1291)
into the Decorated style. The bosses in the east bay show the
Saviour's head and the emblems of the Evangelists. The reredos was
erected by Grandisson, but only the central portion is ancient, the
rest has been severely "restored." This chapel contains the tombs
of:--

     1. Bishop Peter Quivil (d. 1291), a slab with the
     inscription--_Petra tegit Petrum nihil officiat sibi tetrum_.

     2. Bishop Bartholomaus Iscanus (d. 1184), a bearded figure, of
     military type.

     3. Bishop Simon of Apulia (d. 1223). This effigy, when compared
     with the last, shows the advance of art made in a century.

     4. Bishop Bronescombe (d. 1280). The canopy is older than the
     monument, and is Perpendicular.

     5. Bishop Stafford (d. 1419). A fine monument, much defaced.

     6. Sir John and Lady Doddridge. Sir John (d. 1628) was one of
     the judges of James I., called by Fuller the "sleepy judge,
     because he would sit on the bench with his eyes shut to
     sequester his sight from distracting objects." The dress of
     Lady Doddridge is remarkable.

In the south choir aisle we see first the Chapel of St. Gabriel,
similar to that of St. Mary Magdalene on the north. This was built by
Bishop Bronescombe, whose patron saint was St. Gabriel. The colouring
of the roof has been carefully restored. Some early glass is in the
windows. Then we enter Bishop Oldham's Chantry, or the Chapel of St.
Saviour. This bishop died in 1519. His chantry resembles the Speke
Chantry in the opposite aisle. Notice the effigy of the bishop, with
the owls in the panels, referring to the first syllable of his name,
"old," or "owld." The bishop was a Lancashire man, and in that county
_old_ is usually pronounced _owld_.

The third chapel in the south choir aisle is that of St. James, built
by Bishop Marshall, and renovated by Bishop Bronescombe in very Early
Decorated style. It contains a beautiful monument, raised in the
fifteenth century to the memory of Leofric, first Bishop of Exeter.
There are two cross-legged effigies in this aisle, which are usually
said to represent Crusaders.

With this chapel our tour of the Cathedral closes. Of some of the
great men who have been Bishops of Exeter we have already spoken. The
names Warelwast, Marshall, Bronescombe, Quivil, Stapledon, Grandisson,
have often been mentioned, and of others whose tombs still adorn their
mighty resting-place. Others there are whose memory remains. Miles
Coverdale, the well-known reformer; Joseph Hall, the famous
theologian; John Gauden, the supposed author of the _Eikon Basilike_
(though modern scholars have come round to the belief that the book
was really written by Charles I.); the learned Seth Ward; Trelawny,
one of the seven bishops committed to the Tower by James II.;
Phillpots and Temple, have all added lustre to the See of Exeter.

       *       *       *       *       *

The city of Exeter is full of interest. The old Guild Hall and scanty
remains of Rougemont Castle should be visited, and fifteen miles away
is the noble collegiate Church of Ottery St. Mary, which well repays a
minute examination. In construction it somewhat resembles the
Cathedral of Exeter, and the main part of the building belongs to the
fourteenth century.


DIMENSIONS

     Total length, 383 ft.; length of nave, 140 ft.; breadth of nave,
72 ft.; height of nave, 66 ft.; area, 29,000 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     1107-1200--Part of towers in transept and core of walls of nave;
1224-1244--stalls; 1258-1291--Lady Chapel and transepts;
1308-1369--choir, nave, porches and west front; 1390-1519--east
window, part of chapter-house, Oldham's Chantry, Speke's Chantry.



TRURO CATHEDRAL


Truro is one of the oldest towns in England. The courts of the Duchy
of Cornwall are held here, and it once enjoyed the privilege of a
mint. In the time of Elizabeth it had jurisdiction over the port of
Falmouth. Norden, in his survey of England, in 1574, wrote of
Truro:--"There is not a towne in the west part of the shire more
commendable for neatness of buyldinges, nor discommendable for the
pride of the people." It showed its loyalty by furnishing a large body
of soldiers for the king in 1642, commanded by Sir Ralph Hopton.

In 1876 the See of Truro was formed, and a new Cathedral was built,
Mr. Pearson being the architect. It is one of the most important
modern ecclesiastical buildings in England, and is a fine imitation of
the Early English style at its best period. The south wall of the old
Church of St. Mary, which formerly stood on this site, has been
incorporated in the new Cathedral. The newness of this Cathedral and
the entire absence of any historical traditions and associations will
perhaps hardly tempt travellers to journey so far west to see the
creation of modern architects and builders. The whole plan of the
Cathedral has not yet been completely carried out, and the church
still lacks its towers. Whether our modern architects can build so
surely and so well as our ancient monks and priors time will show; but
reports speak none too well of the substantial nature of all that has
been done at Truro.



GLOUCESTER CATHEDRAL


Gloucester is a very venerable city. It was a Roman station, and was
known as Glevum. Remains of the old Roman wall of the city exist in
various places, under the house, 36 Westgate Street, under a furniture
shop (Messrs. Lea) in Northgate Street, at "Symond's Arms," in Hare
Lane. Roman pavements and pottery, coins and altars have also been
found, and the four straight streets crossing in the centre are the
modern forms of the old Roman roads which intersected the city,
forming _insulæ_, as the sections were called. It was an important
place in Saxon times, and Bede called it one of the noblest cities in
the land. The first monastery was founded by Osric in 681 for monks
and nuns. Of the history of this we shall treat presently. The Danes,
of course, ravaged and burnt the city. Saxon and Norman kings loved
the fair city of the west. We seem to see a procession of monarchs who
held their courts here--Alfred, Athelstan, Edgar, Hardicanute, Edward
the Confessor, and then the stark Conqueror, who here ordered the
compilation of that important survey, the _Domesday Book_. "In the
reign of Rufus," wrote a great historian, "everything that happened at
all somehow contrived to happen at Gloucester." Here Anselm was
consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury. It is famous for lampreys, for
which Henry I., when feasting here, acquired a liking, which unhappily
proved fatal to him, as he died of a surfeit of them. Here Henry II.
held a great council, and Henry III. was crowned, "who loved
Gloucester better than London." The Statutes of Gloucester were passed
here in an Edwardian Parliament, and the murdered king, Edward II.,
found here his last resting-place. Numerous Parliaments were held
here, and monarchs visited the city. In the Civil War period
Gloucester was held by the Parliamentarians, and subjected to a
protracted siege, which was eventually raised by the advent of Earl of
Essex. The city retains many of its old houses. The house of Robert
Raikes, the founder of Sunday Schools, is a fine old building. The
Deanery, formerly the prior's lodging, has many interesting
associations. Here Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn sojourned. The inns are
famous, especially "New Inn," which was used by the pilgrims to the
shrine of Edward II., and "The Old Raven." Colonel Massey, the
governor during the siege, sojourned at 154 Westgate Street. Before
the dissolution of monasteries there were many religious houses, and
the friars were numerous; there were colleges of Grey, White and Black
Friars, some remains of which still exist. There are several
interesting churches--St. Mary de Crypt, a cruciform building of
twelfth century, with some Decorated and Perpendicular work; St. Mary
de Lode, built on the site of a Roman temple, with an old chancel and
tower; St. Michael, from the tower of which the curfew sounds each
night; St. Nicholas, of Norman construction.

[Illustration The Deanery Herbert Railton]


HISTORY OF THE CATHEDRAL

Gloucester was one of the sees founded by Henry VIII.; its episcopal
life, therefore, does not extend further back than 1541, when the last
Abbot of Tewkesbury became the first Bishop of Gloucester. The story
of the minster, however, carries us back to very early times. The
first Abbey, as we have said, was founded by Osric, nephew of King
Ethelred, in 689, and was designed for both monks and nuns. It was not
long-lived, and in a century was deserted and fell into decay. The
Mercian kingdom was much distracted, and confusion reigned until
Beornwulph restored the ruined walls of St. Peter's Abbey, and
introduced secular canons, who seem to have lived as they pleased, and
loved not discipline. So Canute in 1022 turned them out and
established Benedictine monks. These did no better. Their abbot,
Eadric, was a waster of the goods of the Abbey, and the pious
chronicler saw in the destruction of the monastery by fire the
vengeance of God for their sins. Then Bishop Ealdred of Worcester, who
brought back the Black monks of St. Benedict, began to build a new
church. Then came Abbot Wulfstan from the Worcester Monastery in 1072,
and Abbot Serlo, a worthy monk of Mont St. Michel, who found
desolation, an almost empty monastery, a poor, mean building, and
began to raise that glorious pile which we see now. It was dedicated
in 1100, when there was a mighty concourse of bishops and great men. A
remarkable sermon was preached here by Abbot Fulcher of Shrewsbury,
prophetic of the death of the cruel king, Rufus. Abbot Serlo sent to
warn him, but in vain, and soon the news of his death in the New
Forest rang throughout the country.

Fire frequently played havoc with the minster. In 1102 it suffered
much, and again in 1122, when "in Lent-tide the town was burnt while
the monks were singing their Mass, and the deacon had begun the Gospel
_Præteriens Jesus_," and the fire came in the upper part of the
steeple, and burnt all the monastery and the treasures except a few
books and three Mass robes. Again in 1179 and 1190 fires raged. The
Early English builders set to work to repair the damage, and the
church was re-dedicated by Walter de Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester,
in 1239. The monks were now very busy building, and in 1242 they had
finished the stone vaulting of the nave, which replaced the old Norman
wood vault; in 1246 the south-west tower was completed, and they had
begun to rear for themselves a new refectory. Yet another fire in 1300
wrought havoc in the cloisters, and deprived the monks of their
dormitory. Abbot Thokey was a noble prelate who did much building,
erected some of the beautiful Decorated windows in the aisles and
choir triforium, and was the means of enriching his Abbey "beyond the
dreams of avarice." When Edward II. lay dead, foully murdered at
Berkeley Castle, unlike the time-serving Abbot of Bristol, who feared
the anger of Queen Isabella and her party, he boldly demanded the body
of the dead king and gave it honoured burial in his minster. Then
arose that strange cult, the worship at the dead king's shrine.
Thousands came from far and near, and their offerings so enriched the
monastic treasury that the monks were able to adorn and beautify their
church and monastery, and make it one of the glories of English
architectural achievement. The fearless abbot felt himself too old to
carry on the work; so he resigned in favour of his friend, Abbot
Wygmore (1331-1337), who began to erect that "veil of stone" which
covers the old Norman work, and is such a characteristic feature of
Gloucester.

The south transept was the first recased, a noble screen erected, and
the work was carried on by succeeding abbots. Abbot de Stanton
(1337-1351) constructed the vaulting of the choir and the stalls on
the prior's side, which Abbot Horton completed on the abbot's side,
together with the altar and choir and north transept, and also began
the great cloister, which Abbot Froucester finished. The west front,
south porch and two western bays of the nave are Abbot Morwent's work
(1420-1437). The tower was built by Abbot Seabrooke (1450-1457), and
Abbots Hanley (1457-1472) and Farley (1472-1498) built the Lady
Chapel.

[Illustration Cathedral from S E Herbert Railton GLOUCESTER]

At length the day of dissolution came. Abbot Malvern, the last
abbot, was offered the bishopric which Henry VIII. had just founded;
but he declined, and died of a broken heart. The continued progress of
adornment was checked by the appropriation of much of the wealth of
the monastery by the king, and the building began to fall into decay.
It did not suffer much during the Civil War, in spite of the long
siege. The Lady Chapel was mutilated and defaced, and some other
damage done, but the burghers seem to have acted well, took a pride in
their church, and suffered it not to be destroyed. There have since
been frequent "restorations," and some damage done by destructive
architects; but, on the whole, Gloucester has escaped with less scars
than many of our cathedrals, and retains much of its original beauty
and delicate attractiveness.


THE EXTERIOR

The plan is cruciform, and consists of a nave with two aisles; north
and south transepts, with apsidal chapels on the east side of each; a
tower rises at the crossing. The eastern portion consists of choir
with aisles, forming a processional path, with four apsidal chapels
opening from them, and a Lady Chapel. With the exception of the Lady
Chapel this plan is exactly the same as that of the original Norman
church built by Abbot Serlo. We approach the Cathedral from the
south-east and obtain a good view of its beauties across the close.
The _West Front_, built by Abbot Morwent (1420-1437), is not very rich
or striking when compared with many others. There is a large
Perpendicular window, and another on each side, and a rather small
doorway. The flanking buttresses are crowned with pinnacles, and a
cross crowns the centre of the embattled parapet. The pierced
buttresses, designed so as not to darken the west window, and the
parapets of open-work below and above, are distinguishing features.
The south aisle is Abbot Thokey's work, and is very beautiful with its
fine Decorated work. The buttresses are very massive, and are
surmounted by figures, and the windows deeply recessed.

The _South Porch_ is rich Perpendicular work, built by Abbot Morwent.
The figures are modern, and represent SS. Peter and Paul, and the four
Evangelists, Osric and Abbot Serlo, the founders of the earlier and
Norman Church--SS. Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine and Gregory--against
whose figures the fanatics of Bristol manifested such unreasonable
hate. There is an upper chamber or parvise. The doors are contemporary
with the building. The _South Transept_ shows the remodelling of the
Perpendicular period. Norman work may be seen in the arcading, the
turrets, and traces of an original window; while the capping of the
turrets, the windows and battlement belong to the Perpendicular style.

Passing on to the east we notice the beautiful lofty choir. The main
part of the walls are Norman, and we notice the unusual polygonal
radiating chapels, which are part of the original Norman plan. The
windows are Decorated and Perpendicular, inserted in Norman openings.
The great east window is the largest and finest in England. The _Lady
Chapel_ was originally Early English work, built in 1225, but it was
rebuilt in 1457-1499, during the rule of Abbots Hanley and Farley. It
has four bays, each bay being filled with a lofty Perpendicular
window. There is a passage beneath the chapel, which was necessary in
order to reach the northern side. The chapel is one of the most
beautiful in England. The central _Tower_ is remarkable for its grace
and grandeur. The present one is the work of Abbot Seabrooke
(1450-1457), and belongs to the Perpendicular period. The bells are
ancient, and happily were saved, when the monastery was dissolved,
from the greedy hands of the commissioners of Henry VIII. The monastic
buildings are on the north side, which we shall examine later. There
is a fine view of the Cathedral from the north-west. On the north-west
is the Deanery, formerly the prior's lodging, a very interesting
house; and between it and the north aisle is a passage, the old Norman
slype communicating between the cloisters and the close.


THE INTERIOR

[Illustration NAVE PILLARS FROM THE WEST]

Entering by the south porch we note its Norman character. The old
Norman wooden roof has been replaced by a stone vault, and Decorated
windows of the time of the second Edward have been inserted, but
otherwise there has been little change. The west end, with two bays of
the nave, is Abbot Morwent's work (1420-1437). He destroyed two
western towers or turrets, which were built in 1222-1243 in place of
two similar Norman structures. The height of the Norman piers is
unusual, leaving a small space for the triforium and clerestory. The
zigzag and double cable moulding appear on the main arches. Abbot
Serlo was the builder of the original nave. The stone vault was
erected by the monks in the thirteenth century (1242), when the
clerestory was altered in the Early English style by Abbot Foliot
(1228-1243). Morwent inserted Perpendicular tracery in these windows.
The remains of coloured decoration were discovered during the
restoration. We have mentioned the numerous fires which wrought havoc
here. Traces of the fire may still be seen in the reddened surface of
the piers. The contrast between the Norman piers and the Perpendicular
piers at the west end is noticeable, also the disappearance of the
triforium in the last bay and the lierne vault. The west window
contains some modern glass inserted in memory of Bishop Monk (1856).
There is a curious series of grotesque heads on the arches of the nave
showing the mummeries of gleemen. The story of the _North Aisle_ is
similar to that of the nave. We have the same Norman work and the
Perpendicular western bays of Abbot Morwent. Perpendicular tracery
fills the Norman windows which have zigzag mouldings, and the vault is
Norman. The monks' entrance to the cloisters is at the west end of the
north wall, and is richly ornamented in Perpendicular style. Another
Perpendicular doorway, called the Abbot's Door, is at the east end of
the wall. The history of the mythical King Lucius is the subject of
the west window. There are memorials of Bishop Warburton (1779), the
friend of Pope, a learned divine; Flaxman's monument of Sarah Morley
and Thomas Machen (1614).

The _South Aisle_ retains some of its Norman style, but was remodelled
by Abbot Thokey (1306-1329) in the Decorated style. The ball-flower
ornament is much used on the windows. The vault is Decorated work
erected by Thokey, and the windows have been more effectually
transformed than in the north aisle. There are monuments to John
Jones, M.P. for Gloucester at the time of the Gunpowder Plot, with his
deeds and documents; Sir G.O. Paul (1820), a prison reformer; Dr.
Jenner, the discoverer of vaccination. The Chantry of Abbot Seabrooke
(1457), the builder of the tower, is at the east of this aisle, much
mutilated. The chantry has been restored. The effigy is a good study
of ecclesiastical dress of the period. Near at hand are the effigies
of a knight and his lady, supposed at one time to represent one of the
Bohun Earls of Hereford, but they are now declared to be members of
the Brydges family, perhaps Sir John Brydges, who fought at Agincourt,
more probably a descendant of his. We notice the SS. on the collar,
and the study of the armour shows that at that time chain armour was
being supplanted by plate armour. On north side of entrance to
transept we see a canopied bracket with remains of blue colouring.
Entering the _South Transept_ we see the first part of the Cathedral
which was recased, and may be said with truth to be the birthplace of
the Perpendicular style. This example is quite the earliest which can
be traced, and was finished in 1337 when the treasury of the Abbey was
being filled by the offerings of pilgrims at the shrine of Edward II.
This part of the church has therefore peculiar interest. The designer
was Abbot Wygmore (1329-1337). All the walls are covered with the
panel work, which is the "sign-manual" of the Perpendicular style. The
clustered shafts form very beautiful groups. On the south is a large
Perpendicular window, and below it a passage behind an open arcade.
Two doorways should be noticed, one called the _Confessional_, with
figures on each side said to represent angels, and the other, now
blocked up, with a grotesque monster over it. The angel-guarded door
is sometimes called the Pilgrims' Door, by which they entered to
worship at the shrine of King Edward. Another story is that penitents
entered beneath the monster emblematical of sin, and returned by the
other door protected by the guardianship of angels. The curious
_Prentice's Bracket_, said to be the memorial of a master-builder and
his 'prentice, was probably intended as bracket for a lamp. The roof
is a lierne vault without bosses. The flying arches or buttresses
which support the tower are very graceful. The effigies of Alderman
Blackleech and his wife (1639) are remarkable as studies of the
costume of the period. Other monuments are to the memory of Richard
Pates (1588) and Canon Evan Evans (1891). The _Chapel of St. Andrew_
is on the east side, adorned with paintings by Gambier Parry. Above
this is the east window, which has some beautiful old glass
contemporary with the remodelling of the building. On the north is the
curious Chantry of Abbot John Browne (1510-1514), dedicated to St.
John Baptist because of the similarity of the initials. The floor has
some interesting tiles and the reredos has been painted.

[Illustration THE CHOIR, LOOKING EAST]

In the _North Transept_ we see the further development of the
Perpendicular style in the recasing by Abbot Horton (1351-1377). Here
is the remarkably interesting _Reliquary_, of Early Decorated work,
said by some to be a lavatory. The carved foliage is very beautiful
and also the figures, though mutilated. A chapel is at the east side
of this transept, similar to that in the south transept, dedicated to
St. Paul. A door opens to the north choir aisle. At the entrance from
the transept there is a curious desk which was used by a monk
appointed to check the pilgrims as they went to the shrine of Edward.
The chapel was repaired in 1870, and the niches supplied with figures
of SS. Peter, Paul and Luke. A good Perpendicular doorway is on the
north side, with carved angels in the moulding. The _Chapel of St.
Anthony_ is on the south of this transept, now used as a vestry. There
is a curious painting here of St. Anthony rescuing a female from the
mouth of hell. The transept has a monument of John Bower (1615), which
bears the words: "Vayne, Vanytie. All is Vayne. Witnesse Solomon."

The _Screen_ supporting the organ was erected in 1823 and replaced an
earlier one. The story of the screens is a long one which Mr. St. John
Hope has told so well that we need not repeat it. It appears there
were two screens, one called the _Pulpitum_ and the other a stone
screen supporting the rood-loft. But these have disappeared, and we
have instead an early nineteenth-century structure which need not be
described. The original organ was built at the time of the
Restoration, and some of the pipes bear the monogram of the Merry
Monarch. The _Choir_ is remarkable for its extreme beauty. From the
lofty traceried roof down to the elaborately-tiled floor the walls are
covered with richly-carved panelled work, broken here and there with
delicate screens of stone. Behind this veiled work of stone stand the
old Norman walls and piers. This casing was done by Abbots Staunton
(1337-1351) and Horton (1351-1377). The lierne vault is one of the
finest in England, with its multitudinous ribs, and ranks with King's
College Chapel, Cambridge, and Westminster. The vaults of the tower
and choir both belong to the same period. The _Stalls_ were erected by
the builders of the choir and have fine canopies. The _Misereres_ are
curious and well carved. Some of them represent hunting scenes, St.
George slaying a giant, etc. Before us is the grand _East Window_, the
finest in Christendom. Its date is 1345-1350, and is part of Abbot
Horton's work. The Coronation of the Virgin is the subject, and the
figures consist of angels, apostles, saints, kings and abbots. The
arms of Edward III., the Black Prince, and the lords of Berkeley,
Arundel, Warwick, Talbot and others appear, who took part in the
campaign against France when Creçy was fought. It is thought by some
that the window is a memorial of that famous victory. The clerestory
windows retain some of their old glass, which is of the same date as
that of the east window, but has been restored. The _Reredos_ is
modern, designed by Sir G. Scott. The Birth, Burial and Ascension of
Our Lord are represented. The floor of the presbytery is paved with
some remarkable old _Tiles_, which record the names of some of the
abbots, the arms of knights, and other interesting devices. The
sedilia are adorned with modern sculptured figures, and the
restoration has been accomplished with much care and taste. There are
five principal historic _Monuments_ in the choir. Near the altar is
the canopied tomb of Osric, the founder of the first Abbey, said to
have been erected by Abbot Parker (1515-1539). Guided by the
description of the tomb told by Leland, Dean Spence opened the
cenotaph and found the grey dust and bones of this ancient benefactor.
Near at hand is the beautiful _Tomb of King Edward II._, murdered at
Berkeley Castle. It was erected by Edward III. The effigy is of
alabaster, and the features are thought to have been reproduced from a
waxen mask taken after death. The tomb is a forest of pinnacles and
rich tabernacle work. It has been much restored at various times, but
the extreme beauty of the work has in no way been impaired. The white
hart, chained and collared, the badge of Richard II., is painted on
the pillars. The Chantry of Abbot Parker, or Malverne (1515-1539), has
a much mutilated effigy of this, the last Abbot of Gloucester. Vine
leaves and grapes adorn the screen, and the base has some heraldic
devices and the emblems of the Passion. On the south side is a
projecting bracket which Leland tells us marks the grave of Abbot
Serlo, the founder of the Norman Church. The bracket is Perpendicular,
the effigy Early English, both much mutilated. The figure has a model
of a church in his hand, and therefore denotes that the abbot was a
founder, but the Early English character of the effigy points to it
representing a later abbot than Serlo, and possibly Abbot Foliot
(1243).

The _North Choir Aisle_, or ambulatory, is original Norman, the
windows being filled with Perpendicular tracery. At the north-east
corner is Abbot Boteler's Chantry (1433-1450). The old tiles are
interesting, amongst which we see some representing the arms of the
Boteler or Butler family (three cups). The decoration of the chapel is
all Perpendicular work, screens, windows and reredos. This last is
very fine, and has some well-carved figures of the Apostles. Here is
the effigy of Robert, Duke of Normandy, eldest son of William I.,
whose wild youth was atoned for by his prowess in the Crusades. He,
however, had to endure twenty years' imprisonment, inflicted by his
father. The effigy was probably made not long after his death. The
chest on which it rests is fifteenth-century work. The effigy was
hacked to pieces by Cromwell's soldiers, but the fragments were put
together by Sir Humphrey Tracy, and replaced in the Cathedral.

[Illustration THE LADY CHAPEL]

The _Ante-Chapel_, or vestibule, leading to the Lady Chapel, is the
meeting-place of the old and new work, and is ingeniously contrived.
The Norman apse is pierced by a doorway and two Perpendicular windows.
It is separated from the Lady Chapel by an open-work screen, which is
very beautiful, and has a fine lierne vault. This, and the _Lady
Chapel_, are the work of Abbots Hanley and Farley, who presided over
the Abbey during the last half of the fifteenth century. The Lady
Chapel ranks with Ely as the largest in England, and certainly it is a
triumph of Perpendicular architecture. It has lofty Perpendicular
windows, which seem to produce the effect of a wall of glass with
panelled tracery. The head of each panel is much ornamented, and panel
work, with niches, covers the walls. The lierne vault is very fine,
and the bosses carved with beautiful foliage. At one time the walls
were painted, and traces of colour remain. The east window has much
old glass, which is also visible in the heads of the other windows.
There is a very poor modern reredos, which might be removed without
much regret, as it hides a very interesting, though much mutilated,
mass of rich tabernacle work. The altar rails belong to the time of
Laud, who was dean here, and are said to be the first introduced into
churches. Many of the original tiles remain, and bear inscriptions:
_Ave Maria grâ plê, Dñe Jhû Miserere_. There are two side chapels,
with fan-tracery vaulting. In the north chapel is the monument of
Bishop Goldsbrough (1604). There is an upper chapel, or oratory, and
the same arrangement obtains on the south side. This chapel has a
monument of Th. Fitz-williams (1579). The marks on the walls of these
upper oratories show that the love of recording names by visitors in
historic places is not confined to modern times, and dates as far back
as the sixteenth century.

Returning to the entrance, we follow the ambulatory to the south,
which retains its northern features. _St. Philip's Chapel_ is at the
south-east corner, and has been restored in memory of Sir C.
Codrington, Bart. (1864). There are Norman arches, and fourteenth
century tracery inserted in the windows. The spacious chests for copes
are interesting records of the rich ecclesiastical vestments in use in
former times.

The _Triforium_ is unusually fine, and now extends over the north and
south choir aisles, but not over the east end. That part was removed
when the choir was reconstructed, and in order to connect the severed
portions of the triforium together, the Whispering Gallery was
constructed. This part of the church retains its Norman features, and
is full of interest. The first chapel on the south has Decorated
windows, with ball-flower ornament. There is a double piscina. A very
ancient painting of a Doom or Last Judgment, discovered in 1718, is a
very remarkable example of early art. It was probably painted towards
the end of the reign of Henry VIII. The view of the choir is very
beautiful, and the way in which the later builders cased the Norman
work with a veil of stone can best be observed from the triforium. The
next chapel (south-east) is Norman, with later windows inserted. There
are some fragments of an old choir-screen stored here.

The _Whispering Gallery_ is built out at the back of the great east
window, and in its construction old Norman stone-work has been
re-used. It happens to possess the curious acoustic property of the
famous gallery of St. Paul's, London. The next chapel is over the
ante-chapel of the choir, and has a stone altar, with the usual five
crosses carved on it. The north-east chapel has a Decorated window,
and the north-west a double piscina of the same period.

We will now descend to the _Crypt_ (entrance in south-east transept),
which is very Early Norman, founded before 1085. The walls and piers
are very strong and massive, the former being 10 feet thick. There is
a central apse, an ambulatory, out of which radiate five chapels. The
half columns in the ambulatory have been strengthened and recased in
later Norman times. The chapels have little of interest except their
own intrinsic architectural merits. There are some good piscinæ, and
some memorial slabs.

[Illustration CARREL IN SOUTH CLOISTER]

The _Monastic Buildings_ are some of the finest in England, especially
the cloisters, which are remarkable for their excellent preservation
and for the beauty of the fan-traceried vault. It is thought that this
kind of vaulting, peculiar to this country, originated here. The outer
walls are Norman, and have been recased with Perpendicular panelling.
This work was begun by Abbot Horton (1351-1377), and finished by his
successors, Abbot Boyfield (1377-1381) and Abbot Froucester
(1381-1412). The south walk possesses a very interesting feature in
the _Carrels_ or studies of the monks. The glass of the windows is
modern. The passage or slype, of Norman date, at the west end, was the
main entrance to the cloister from the outer court. At the north
end was the door to the refectory. A window has been placed there
instead, but Mr. Hope points out "the iron hooks on which the doors
were hung." Little of the refectory, which was on the north of the
garth, remains, except the south wall, preserved by the cloister, and
part of the east end. The action of the fire of 1540, which destroyed
this noble hall, is observed on the walls. In the north walk are the
monks' lavatories, the most perfect in England; opposite is the
_Manutergia_, or recess for towels. This walk was reserved for
novices, and Mr. Hope shows us the tables for games which they played
scratched on the stone bench, the "Nine Men's Morris" and "Fox and
Geese" being their favourite pastimes. The east walk gives entrance to
the chapter-house. The doorway is Norman, with zigzag ornament. The
chapter-house is Norman, with a Perpendicular east end. At the west
end is a Norman doorway and an unglazed window (the corresponding one
being covered up when the south-east staircase was added), and three
Norman windows. Traces of fire may be seen here. The seats of the
monks under the arcading may be traced. The vault of the Perpendicular
part is finely groined, and there is a large Perpendicular window at
the east end. The names of several illustrious leaders under William
I. appear on the walls.

The _Locutorium_, or monks' parlour, lies between the chapter-house
and the north transept of the church. This passage is often
erroneously called the "Abbot's Cloister." Here the monks met to
converse when talking was prohibited in the cloister. Above is the
vestry and library. The latter is a long room, of Perpendicular
character. The library at Gloucester has had many migrations and
vicissitudes; the books of the old monastic library were dispersed. A
new collection was begun in 1624 by Bishop Goodman. The books have
been stored in the chapter-house, and elsewhere, and have now found a
permanent resting-place. Its principal treasure is Abbot Froucester's
_Lives of the Abbots of Gloucester to 1381_. This copy was lost at the
beginning of the nineteenth century, and discovered again at Berlin,
and restored to the library. The dormitory has been destroyed. It
probably stood on the north of the chapter-house. The remains of the
infirmary and little cloisters are on the north of the cloister.

The Cathedral close was surrounded by a wall. Some of the gateways
remain. St. Mary's Gate, on the west, is a fine thirteenth-century
structure; the Inner Gate, of fourteenth-century work, leading to
Miller's Green, the site of the old Abbey Mill and outhouses; the
south, or King Edward's Gate, built by Edward I., of which only
fragments remain; and the Westgate Street Gate. The Deanery, as we
have said, has many interesting features, and remains of the work of
eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The Bishop's
Palace is modern, built on the site of the abbot's house, erected in
the early part of the fourteenth century. Previous to that period the
abbot lived at the present Deanery.


DIMENSIONS

    Nave, length                        174 ft.
    Nave, width                          34 ft.
    Nave, height                         68 ft.
    Transepts, length                    46 ft.
    Transepts, width                     34 ft.
    Choir, length                       140 ft.
    Choir, width                         33 ft.
    Lady Chapel, length                  90 ft.
    Lady Chapel, width                   25 ft.
    Tower, height                       225 ft.
    Total length                        407 ft.
    Area                         30,600 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     Norman (1089-1100)--Piers, arches, triforium of the nave,
           walls and vault of north aisle and pilasters of south aisle,
           walls of choir and presbytery, chapels and ambulatory,
           north transept, west end of chapter-house and abbot's
           cloister.
     Early English (1242)--Vault of nave.
     Decorated (1307-1329)--Windows and vault of south aisle,
           south transept, windows of ambulatory and chapels.
     Perpendicular (1337-1500)--Windows of nave and north
           aisle, casing north transept, choir and presbytery, Lady
           Chapel, cloisters, tower, west end, south porch, and east
           end of chapter-house.

[Illustration PLAN OF GLOUCESTER CATHEDRAL]



HEREFORD CATHEDRAL


The story of the See of Hereford takes us back to very early times, to
the days of the British, and shows the connection and identity of the
Church of England of the twentieth century with that which existed
even prior to the landing of Augustine. The see was in existence in
the sixth century, and was subject to the Archbishop of Caerleon.
Legends tell us of Dubricius, who crowned King Arthur at Cirencester.
One Bishop of Hereford represented the old British bishops at the
famous conference with Augustine, when, by his want of tact and
haughty demeanour, the Roman missionary alienated the native British
Church. A very tragic event enhanced the glories of the see. King Offa
slew Ethelbert, King of the East Angles, who was a suitor for his
daughter's hand, and buried him at Hereford. On the night of the
funeral, "a column of light, brighter than the sun, arose towards
heaven," according to the monkish chronicler, and miracles were
wrought at the tomb of the martyred monarch. This distressed Offa, who
tried to expiate his crime by erecting a noble monument, founding the
monastery at St. Alban's, and devoting costly gifts to the church of
Hereford. One Mildred, Offa's viceroy, built "an admirable stone
church," dedicated to the martyr Ethelbert. This was rebuilt by Bishop
Ethelstan in 1012. Then followed sad times when the Welsh tribes
invaded the land and destroyed the city and church by fire. When the
Normans came Bishop de Losinga (1079-1095) began to rebuild the ruined
church, and the work was continued by his successor, Raynhelm
(1107-1115). During the troubles of Stephen's reign Hereford suffered
much. The Cathedral was deserted and desecrated, and Bishop Robert de
Bethune, a worthy prelate, was forced to seek safety in flight.
Stephen entered the Castle of Hereford with great pomp, and occupied
during service the episcopal chair, which still remains. On his return
he cleansed and repaired the building. Then we see Gilbert Foliot,
Bishop of Hereford, the stern opponent of Becket, who preached the
sermon at Canterbury, when Henry II. did penance for the murder of
the archbishop. Bishop William de Vere (1189-1199) is said to have
built much, removed the apsidal terminations at the east end, and made
other alterations. His work was continued by the erection of the Early
English Lady Chapel. Probably he built the Palace. Bishop Giles de
Bruce (1200-1215) took part with the barons against King John, and was
a very warlike prelate, who allied himself with Prince Llewellyn, and
destroyed the castle of Earl Mortimer, an adherent of the king. He was
driven from his see, but afterwards made peace with John, and died at
Gloucester when he was returning to his see. Writers commonly assign
to him the building of the tower, on the ground that his effigy has a
model of the church in its hand. But this effigy was erected long
after his death, and cannot be taken as any evidence of the truth of
the statement. The profusion of ball-flower ornament certainly points
out that the tower belongs to the fourteenth and not to the thirteenth
century.

Peter d'Acquablanca in Savoy (1240-1268) was one of the foreign
favourites of Henry III., who fought in the Crusades. He was a
simoniacal prelate who tried to gain the See of Bordeaux, and was much
ridiculed when, after paying the money, the Archbishop of Bordeaux was
found to be alive. He was expelled from England, but returned, and
then went off to Ireland to collect tithes. Unfortunately King Henry
visited Hereford during his absence, and found that no clergy were
there, and the church in ruin and decay. He therefore wrote a
strongly-worded remonstrance to the absent bishop, who returned in
time to be seized by Simon de Montfort and put into prison, while his
hoards of wealth were divided amongst his captors. He died soon after
this. His tomb remains, but his heart is buried in Savoy, his native
land. He is said to have rebuilt the north transept.

Thomas de Cantilupe (1275-1282) was a noted bishop, who attained to
the honour of canonisation, and was, moreover, Chancellor of England.
He was by no means a meek-spirited saint, excommunicated an earl for
capturing his game, and made another lord walk barefoot to the altar
of the Cathedral, after chastising him for interfering with his
tenants. On his death in Italy his flesh was buried at Florence, his
heart at Ashridge, Bucks, and his bones at Hereford. Various miracles
were said to have been wrought at his tomb. His successor Swinfield
(1283-1317), built, or began, the eastern transept, the clerestory of
the choir, the central tower above the roof, and probably the nave
aisles. Adam de Orleton (1316-1327) espoused the cause of the queen
against Edward II., and involved Hereford in the troubles of that
disastrous time. He is said to have instigated the murder of the king;
at any rate he captured the fugitive monarch, and Hugh Despenser, the
king's favourite, was brought here and hanged. He obtained from the
Pope a grant of the tithes of two Berkshire parishes, Shinfield and
Swallowfield, for the repair of his Cathedral. The fifteenth century
saw several additions to the fabric, the cloisters in 1418-1448, the
great west window by W. Lochard, the precentor, some chantry chapels
which we shall notice later, and the enlargement of the north porch.
At the Reformation an ardent reformer, Edward Fox, was appointed
bishop, and Hereford, like other cathedrals, was despoiled of its
valuables and treasures. Fox's successor, Skip, was a liturgical
scholar, and helped in compiling our liturgies. Another learned
prelate was Francis Godwin (1617-1633), the author of the Lives of
English Bishops (_de Præsulibus Anglicæ_). At the Civil War period
Hereford suffered the usual misfortunes. Both bishop and people
espoused the cause of the king. The city was taken and retaken without
much damage being done, until Lord Leven with the Scottish army
besieged it in 1645, when the church suffered considerably; and when,
by the treachery of the governor, Colonel Birch, the city was again
taken, it was plundered and the Cathedral ransacked. Brasses were torn
up, monuments defaced, old windows broken, the library pillaged, and
when the dean courageously preached to the riotous soldiers on their
sacrilege, they levelled their muskets at him, and were scarcely
restrained from firing.

Injudicious "restorers" have worked their wicked will on the fabric;
amongst these was Bishop Bisse (1713-1721) who spent much money,
erected several monstrosities, which have happily been removed, and
destroyed the half-ruined chapter-house in order to restore the
Palace. In 1786 the western tower fell, and carried with it the west
front. Then Wyatt, of evil memory, was let loose on the Cathedral. He
made a new west front, shortened the nave, and took down the Norman
work in triforium and clerestory, substituting his own designing.
Plaster was used unsparingly. The old spire was removed, the roofs
lowered, and much other vandalism perpetrated. From 1837 to 1863
continued restoration took place, and in spite of the havoc which has
been wrought the church retains much of its ancient and interesting
character, and is well worthy of accurate study.

[Illustration HEREFORD CATHEDRAL FROM THE WYE]


THE EXTERIOR

A good view is obtained from the close on the south side. On the banks
of the Wye is the Palace and College of Vicars Choral; on the east was
the old castle, one of the strongest on the Welsh marches. The _West
Front_ is an erection of Wyatt's, and need not be noticed. Formerly
there was a great tower here, which fell in 1786 and destroyed the old
west front. The _Central Tower_ is very fine. The abundance of
ball-flower ornament proclaims its Decorated style. The date is about
1300. It has two stages. The pinnacles are modern. As we have said, a
wooden spire which once capped it has been removed. On the west side
there is a noble _Porch_ of Perpendicular style, built by Bishop Booth
in 1530. There is a parvise in the second storey with Perpendicular
windows. This porch joins on to an inner one of the Decorated period.
Octagonal turrets containing staircases stand at the angles. The
iron-work of the doors is excellent modern work. The walls and windows
of the aisles are Late Decorated, about 1360. The clerestory is
Wyatt's construction, who destroyed the original Norman work. The
_North Transept_ is worthy of attention. The buttresses are very
massive. It was built about 1285 for the reception of the shrine of
Bishop Cantilupe. The windows are very lofty, of three lights under
triangular-headed arches. The window on the north is similar, but
double. On the east side there is an aisle, with triforium windows of
three lancets, and above the clerestory windows are triangular.

The Lady Chapel is fine Early English work, and belongs to the first
half of the thirteenth century. We notice especially the tall and
graceful lancets and elegant arcades of interesting arches.

The east end was rebuilt in 1850. On the south is the Audley Chapel.
It is difficult to approach the south side, as walls and gardens
prevent easy access. The _Vicar's Cloister_, connecting the Cathedral
with the College of the Vicars Choral (incorporated in 1396), is
Perpendicular work. The oak beams are finely carved. The quadrangle of
the college is well worthy of notice. The _Bishop's Cloister_ is on
the south of the nave. Two walks remain, and the west walk is
partially restored and contains the library. Their style is
Perpendicular. The chapter-house was pulled down by Bishop Bisse; only
the double doorway remains. We notice the grotesque heads over the
windows, the richly-groined roof, and the Lady's Arbour, a small room
in the tower at the south-east angle, which may possibly have
obtained its name from the Virgin, our Lady. The Chapels of SS.
Katherine and Mary Magdalene, of Norman construction, formerly stood
against south wall, and some remains are evident.


THE INTERIOR

We enter the nave by the north porch, and proceeding to the west end
we notice the grand Norman piers and arches. Wyatt's hand was heavily
laid upon this structure, and the triforium, clerestory and vault are
all his handiwork. Moreover, he took away one bay entirely. The view
eastward is very impressive. The arches are adorned with the billet
and other Norman mouldings, and are remarkable for their richness. The
_Font_ is curious and of Late Norman design. It has figures of the
Apostles, and at the base projecting lions. The aisles are Late
Decorated, except the lower part of the walls, which is original
Norman. The chief monuments in the nave and aisle are, on the
south:--Sir Richard Pembridge (1375), who fought at Poictiers. The
effigy is a good study of the armour of the period. The right leg is a
restoration. Two unknown figures of ecclesiastics. On the
north--Bishop Booth (1535), the builder of the porch; a fine tomb,
protected by original iron-work.

The _Screen_ is a magnificent work, designed by Sir G. Scott. The
lectern is modern.

The _Central Tower_ has passed through many vicissitudes. The original
Norman piers being unable to support the heavy Early English shaft,
they were cased with new stone-work, and the Norman arches were
blocked up. In Dean Mereweather's time extensive restoration was found
necessary. All the parts above the arches is fourteenth-century work.
The vaulting has been removed, and the tower is now open to the belfry
floor.

The _North Transept_ is particularly fine and remarkable, and is Late
Early English or Early Decorated (1282-1287). It was built for the
shrine of Bishop Cantilupe. The arches are sharply-pointed and
unusual. On the west are two windows of two narrow lights under
sharply-pointed arches, the tracery of the heads being in the form of
three circles enclosing trefoils. On the north is a double window of
the same character. On the east is an aisle with clerestory and
triforium. Dog-tooth ornament appears in the mouldings. The arches of
the triforium are very beautiful, and the diaper of leaf-ornament in
the spandrels is effective. The windows above are octofoils.

[Illustration The Cantilupe Shrine]

This aisle contains the remains of the Cantilupe shrine, which was a
source of much revenue to the church, derived from the pilgrims who
flocked hither. The date of the tomb is 1287, and the details are
worthy of study. It is made of Purbeck marble. The lower part has
fifteen figures of Knights Templar, of which order the bishop was
Provincial Grand Master. The details of the armour are very exact.
Curious monsters appear at the feet of the knights. The foliage is
excellent Early Decorated, retaining some of Early English features.
Other monuments are Bishop Westfayling (1602), John Philips, author of
_The Splendid Shilling_ (1708), Bishop Charlton (1329), Bishop Field
(1639), Dean D'Acquablanca (1320), and brasses to Dean Frowcester
(1529) and Richard Delamare and his wife (1435). Near at hand is the
beautiful monument of Bishop D'Acquablanca (1240-1268), the finest in
the Cathedral. (Concerning the unenviable repute of this bishop, _see_
the history of the see). The tomb was originally elaborately coloured.

_The South Transept_ has much Norman work. The east wall is entirely
Norman, and has five ranges of arcades. Perpendicular windows have
been inserted in south and west walls, and the lierne vaulting belongs
to the same period. Bishop Trevenant (1389-1404) is said to have been
responsible for this later work.

The monuments in this transept are:--Sir Alexander Denton and his wife
(1566), an altar tomb with alabaster effigies. The latter died with
her infant, who is represented as a "chrysome" child, i.e., one who
dies within a month of its baptism, and wears its white baptismal
robe. Bishop Trevenant, who was responsible for the Perpendicular
alterations, is buried here; his effigy has been much mutilated.
Masons' marks are observable, and the Norman fireplace is said to be
unique.

The _Choir_ is full of interest. The main arches and triforium are
Norman, the clerestory and vaulting Early English (_circa_ 1250). The
carving of the capitals exhibits foliage and grotesque heads, and the
lozenge ornament appears round the arches. The headings of the
pilasters between the piers are Early English. The clerestory windows
consist of one lofty pointed window and a small trefoiled one on each
side. The reredos was designed by Cottingham, the architect at the
restoration in 1850, and represents the Passion of Christ. A curious
effect is produced by the central pillar and arches in the retro-choir
appearing through the arch at the east of the choir, and presenting a
broad spandrel, on which are carved some modern figures of our Lord
and St. Ethelbert. The stalls are good Decorated work with rich
canopies and some curious misereres, with carvings representing a pair
of wrestlers with ropes round their necks, an irate cook throwing a
dish at a troublesome guest, etc. Some are modern. The _Throne_ is
also Decorated, and there is the remarkable old chair already
mentioned, on which Stephen is said to have sat on the occasion of his
visit here. The _Organ_ has some parts of the instrument presented by
Charles II. The monuments in the choir are those of--

Bishop Trilleck (1360), an excellent brass; Bishop Stanbery (1474),
whose chantry we shall see in the west choir aisle; Bishop Giles de
Bruce (1215), with model of church in his hand; Bishop Bennett (1617).
We notice the small figure of St. Ethelbert on a bracket on east pier
on south side, of fourteenth century.

In the _North Choir Aisle_ the wall has Decorated arched recesses,
which contain the effigies of Bishop Godfred de Clive (1120) (executed
in Perpendicular period); Bishop Hugh de Mapenore (1219); Bishop
Richard de Capella (1127). Bishop Stanbery's Chantry (1453-1474) is
entered from this aisle, and is Late Perpendicular. It is very richly
ornamented with tracery and panelling and shields and has a groined
roof. It is a good example of the over-elaborateness of Late
Perpendicular work.

The _North-East Transept_ is Early Decorated, the original apsidal
termination being altered in the latter part of the thirteenth
century. Traces of Norman work are still evident. There is a central
octagonal pier which supports the vaulting. There are monuments here
of Dean Dawes (1867); Bishop Godwin? (1633) (the tomb is certainly
earlier and cannot be his); and the altar tomb of Bishop Swinfield
(1316), though the effigy upon it is not his. The ball-flower moulding
is plentifully used. Proceeding onwards we come to the _Retro-Choir_
or ambulatory, which is Transitional Norman. The chevron and diamond
moulding on the ribs of the vaulting point to its Late Norman date.
There was evidently an ambulatory and Lady Chapel in Norman times, and
the windows on each side of the vestibule show that formerly these
walls were outside walls, and the windows were glazed. Here is a
monument of Dean Beaurieu (1462), which is of some interest on account
of the accurate carving of the dress, and the rebus _boar_ and _rue_
leaves; and there are some late brasses.

The _Lady Chapel_ is remarkably fine, being very rich Early English.
Its story is difficult to read, as the architect Cottingham redressed
the old stone-work and made complications in 1840-1850. He rebuilt the
east gable. Five narrow lancets form the east window, and above are
five quatrefoil openings. The glass was erected to the memory of Dean
Mereweather, to whom the Cathedral owes so much. The subject is the
life of the Virgin. The aumbrey and piscina are reproductions. On the
north there is an interesting but somewhat conglomerate tomb. The
effigy is supposed to be Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, in the
reign of Edward III., but the canopy is Perpendicular, and the figures
in the arches were discovered elsewhere and placed here, except the
two mutilated central ones, our Lord and the Virgin. The others are
SS. John Baptist, Cantilupe and Thomas of Canterbury. The Countess of
Hereford, Johanna de Bohun (1327), lies here, a great benefactress,
whose effigy and tomb are worthy of study. On the south is the _Audley
Chantry_, erected by Bishop Audley (1492-1502), who constructed
another chantry at Salisbury, whither he was translated, and where he
was buried. It has two storeys, and a curious and interesting screen
separates it from the Lady Chapel. There are traces of considerable
colour decoration. The chapel has five sides, with two windows in the
lower and five in the upper storey. The central boss of the vaulting
in the upper chamber or oratory has a figure of the Virgin crowned.
The window west of this chapel has some good fourteenth-century glass.
Beneath the choir is the crypt, of Early English date, and is the only
example of a crypt constructed later than the end of the eleventh
century. It is called "Golgotha," on account of its being used as a
charnel-house.

The _South-East Transept_ is similar to its opposite. It has monuments
of Bishop Charlton (1369); Bishop Coke (1646); Bishop Ironside, who
died in London, 1701, and was buried in a city church, which was
destroyed in 1863, and the body brought here. This was the bishop who,
as Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, resisted the action of James II. in
regard to the expulsion of the Fellows of Magdalen College.

In the _South Choir Aisle_ are four Perpendicular tombs under
Decorated arched recesses, supposed to represent Bishop William de
Vere (1199); Bishop Hugh Foliot (d. 1234); Bishop Robert de Betun
(1148); and Bishop Robert de Melun (1167). There is a brass of Dean
Frowsetown (1529), an effigy of Bishop Mayew (1516), who conducted
Catherine of Arragon to England from Spain; and an effigy
of Bishop de Losinga (1096), erected in Perpendicular period. The
vestries are of Norman construction; the vaulting is the only example
of Norman vaulting in the Cathedral. Here in this south choir aisle is
preserved the famous _Map of the World_, as known in 1300. It was
designed by Richard de Haldingham, Prebendary of Hereford. This was
generally supposed to be the most ancient of its size in the world;
but another map has been discovered at Ebstorp, near Hanover, which is
larger, more highly coloured, and about the same age. The library of
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, has an earlier map of Henry of
Mainz, and there is a small Psalter map in the British Museum. The
world is shown to be round; at the top is Paradise, with its rivers
and trees, Eve's transgression, etc. Above is the last Judgment with
the Virgin interceding for mankind. Jerusalem is in the centre. Rome
proclaims itself the head of the world, and Troy the most warlike
city. The British Isles have much space, and most of the cathedrals
are mentioned. Monstrous animals, birds and fish abound. The monkey
appears to live in Norway, the scorpion on the Rhine. There is very
much that is strange and curious to be seen in this wonderful map.

_The Library_ has a splendid collection of chained books. The building
is modern, having been opened in 1897, and built on the site of the
old west cloister. There is an ancient copy of the Gospels at least
1000 years old, written in Anglo-Saxon characters, a beautiful
twelfth-century MS., a copy of the "Hereford Use" of thirteenth
century, Wycliffe's Bible (1420), "Bangor Use" (1400), with a curious
charm for toothache inserted in the book, _Decreta Gratiani_, of
twelfth century. There are many _Incunabula_, Nicholas de Lyra's Bible
and Commentary (1485), _Polychronycon_, by R. Higden, with additions
by Caxton (1495); Caxton's _Golden Legend_, a very fine copy.

Here is an ancient _Reliquary_, with representation of the martyrdom
of St. Thomas of Canterbury, a pre-Reformation chalice and paten,
taken from the coffin of Bishop Swinfield (1316), and some episcopal
rings. This collection of chained books is the finest in England.


DIMENSIONS

    Total length (exterior)                  342 ft.
    Length of nave to screen                 158 ft.
    Breadth of nave                           31 ft.
    Breadth of nave and aisles                73 ft.
    Height of nave                            64 ft.
    Height of lantern                         96 ft.
    Height of tower with pinnacles           165 ft.
    Length of choir to reredos                75 ft.
    Length of Lady Chapel and retro-choir     93 ft.
    Width of central transepts               146 ft.
    Width of eastern transepts               110 ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     Norman (1079-1115)--Main arcade of nave, arcade and
           triforium of choir, font, east wall of south transept,
           vestry.
        (1189-1199)--Retro-choir.
     Early English (1200-1250)--Lady Chapel, crypt.
        (1282-1287)--North transept.
     Decorated (1300-1360)--Walls and windows of aisles, choir
           transepts, upper part of tower, stalls and throne.
     Perpendicular (1400-1530)--Cloisters, windows in south
           transept, north porch, Audley and Stanbery Chantries.
     Modern--West front, triforium and clerestory of nave, east
           front, library.



WORCESTER CATHEDRAL


Worcester has many points of interest outside its Cathedral. All round
the city is historic ground. It was the battlefield of Briton, Roman,
Saxon, Dane and Norman. It heard the sounds of fighting in the wars of
the barons and in the wars of the Roses, and in the great Civil War
Worcester repeatedly suffered, and within its boundaries the great
battle of Worcester was fought, the last effort of a dying cause. The
half-timbered houses of the Elizabethan and early Stuart times, the
interesting churches, and streets that by their names record many a
curious custom and phase of old English life, all remind us of ancient
times and the manners of our forefathers.

We will walk round the town and note its chief points of interest. We
notice the old houses in New Street, the remains of the old city wall,
"the Cross," the old centre of civic life, the Guild Hall, designed by
a pupil of Wren in 1721; St. Helen's Church, from the tower of which
still nightly sounds the curfew. Along Sidbury the tide of battle
rolled in 1651, when Charles II. was making his last gallant struggle
against the army of the Protector. The old Edgar Gate is near at hand,
which leads to the castle and Monastery of St. Mary.

The Commandery in Sidbury was a hospital founded by St. Wulfstan,
Bishop of Worcester about 1085, for a Master, Priests and Brethren
under the rule of St. Augustine. The house is a wonderful example of
mediæval architecture, and is kept in its ancient state by the present
occupier, Mr. Littlebury, who allows it to be inspected. Here in 1300
Hugh le de Spencer held a court. The great hall is of Tudor
architecture. King Charles I. stayed a night here, and the Duke of
Hamilton died here, after wounds received in the fatal battle. "Fort
Royal," fortified by Charles I., is seen from the garden, and cannon
were placed here at the battle of Worcester; but Cromwell captured the
stronghold. Charles II. withdrew with difficulty, and the house in the
old Corn Market is shewn where he took refuge, and effected his escape
at the back door as Colonel Cobbett, his pursuer, entered at the
front. Over the entrance is the inscription: "Love God. Honour the
Kinge."


HISTORY OF THE CATHEDRAL

The See of Worcester was first formed in 680, when the unwieldy
Diocese of Mercia was divided, and Bosel was its first bishop. The
successive Kings of Mercia poured wealth into the episcopal treasury,
and endowed the see with many a rich manor. St. Dunstan was bishop
here (957-961), and then came Oswald, subsequently Archbishop of York,
the reformer of monasteries, who is said to have replaced the secular
priests by a community of monks, and built the Church and Monastery of
St. Mary on the site of the present Cathedral. This sacred fane was
destroyed by the Danes, under Hardicanute, in 1041. Bishop Wulfstan,
the second prelate of that name who held the see, was appointed in
1062, a holy, simple and earnest prelate, who, though a Saxon, held
his see in spite of Norman opposition and prejudice. He laid the
foundations of the existing Cathedral, and some of his work remains in
the crypt and monastic buildings. When he saw the workmen pulling down
the ruins of the old Church of St. Oswald he wept, saying, "We destroy
the works of our forefathers only to get praise.... We neglect the
care of souls and labour only to heap up stones." He was canonised,
and many miracles were reported to have taken place at his tomb, to
which there was great resort. In 1113 fire destroyed part of the
Cathedral, as well as the city and castle. In the troublous times of
Stephen, Florence, a monk of Worcester, tells us that when a raid was
made on the city the people took their chests and sacks of goods and
deposited them in the great church, while all the church goods, the
curtains and palls, albs and copes were hidden away in recesses in the
walls. The west bays of the nave were built about 1160. In 1175 the
"new tower" fell, a misfortune common to so many cathedrals; in 1189
another great fire raged, and the troubles of John's evil reign were
felt heavily here, when the city was taken by the king's forces, the
church pillaged and the monks compelled to pay a heavy fine, to defray
which they even melted down the shrine of the saint. Soon John was
buried here, and could do no further mischief.

In 1218 the church was dedicated, when Henry III. and a goodly number
of bishops and nobles were present.

In a storm is 1221 the two "lesser towers" fell. Happily the
offerings at the shrine of St. Wulfstan, which was soon repaired, were
very numerous, and in 1224 the present choir and Lady Chapel were
begun by Bishop William de Blois in the Early English style, and
doubtless continued by Bishop Walter Cantilupe, uncle of the sainted
Bishop of Hereford. He was a sturdy Englishman who upheld the rights
of the English Church against the Pope, and was excommunicated by the
Roman Pontiff. The work of rebuilding the church gradually progressed.
The nave was built in the Decorated style on the north side
(1317-1327), and Bishop Thomas Cobham, styled "the good clerk," made
the vault of the north aisle; so Leland informs us. The south side of
the nave is a little later, about 1360, when traces of Perpendicular
work are evident, blended with the Decorated. In this century also was
built the Guesten Hall, now, alas! destroyed, the roof of which is now
seen in Holy Trinity Church.

Henry de Wakefield was a vigorous builder (1376-1394). During his time
the refectory and cloister, the tower, the stone vault over the choir,
under the belfry, over the nave, library, treasury and dormitory, the
water-gate, infirmary, the stalls in the choir, the west window and
the north porch were erected.

At the Reformation Worcester had a very zealous reforming bishop in
the person of Hugh Latimer, who was subsequently burnt at Oxford.
Under his rule the costly shrines of St. Oswald and St. Wulfstan were
destroyed, and the relics buried near the high altar. During the Civil
War Worcester fared badly, and terrible scenes took place in the
sacred building. In 1642 Cromwell's soldiers under the Earl of Essex
entered the town and did after their kind. They pulled down altars,
destroyed vestments and furniture, and carried off stores of treasure
concealed in the crypt and deposited there for safety. The bishop at
this time, John Prideaux, was a vigorous Royalist, who excommunicated
freely all who fought against the king. In return the soldiers
pillaged his palace, and the poor bishop was reduced to selling his
books in order to gain a livelihood. But this was not all the evil
that befell the "faithful city." It was besieged four years later from
March 26 to July 23, but when the Roundheads gained the day and
entered the city they behaved in most becoming manner, and did less
damage than the soldiers of the Royalist garrison. But even this was
not all. In 1651 was fought the battle of Worcester. We can see
Charles II. watching the issues of the fight from the top of the
tower, and then the divers fortunes of the fight (to which allusion
has already been made), the final victory of Cromwell, the capture of
6000 prisoners, who were confined in this sacred building. Then
followed one of the most terrible scenes in the war, when the soldiers
of Cromwell were let loose on the helpless citizens, and ravaged and
plundered without mercy in the streets and lanes and houses of this
unhappy city.

[Illustration WORCESTER CATHEDRAL FROM THE SEVERN]

At the Restoration of the Monarchy it does not seem that any extensive
repairs were immediately undertaken. In the eighteenth century some
unfortunate "restoration" was carried out which disfigured the
building, and did not materially contribute to its strength. As most
of these disfigurements have been removed, we need not record them. A
great restoration was begun in 1857 by Mr. Perkins, the architect, and
continued by Sir Gilbert Scott, and the church was re-opened in 1874.
Opinions differ with regard to the severity of this restoration.
Certainly it has destroyed all appearance of antiquity in the exterior
of the choir and Lady Chapel, but Professor Willis thinks that we have
now a reproduction of its original aspect, as far as that can be
determined. However, the attempt to reproduce the original should not
be the entire aim of restoration. We want to have the whole story of
the building before us, and not its opening chapters interpreted for
us, and often mangled and distorted by the modern restorer.


THE EXTERIOR

We approach the Cathedral from the west and obtain a good view. At the
foot of the west end the river flows. The _West Front_ need not detain
us; it is plain and unpretentious. There is a large modern window in
Decorated style, and above three lancets, and a cross crowns the
gable. The doorway is Norman much restored, and has figures of our
Lord in glory, angels and the Virgin and Holy Child. The _North Porch_
was built by Bishop Wakefield (1375-1394), and belongs to the period
when the Decorated style was merging into the Perpendicular. There is
a parvise over it with Perpendicular battlements, and figures of our
Lord and the twelve Apostles in niches. Above is a row of small
figures. Between the porch and the west front was formerly the
charnel-house, built by Bishop William de Blois in the thirteenth
century and demolished in the seventeenth. The crypt still exists. The
two west bays are Transition Norman. The rest is Decorated work. A
small Decorated chapel, called _Jesus Chapel_, juts out from the
aisle on this side. The lower part of the walls of the north transept
is Norman work, but the transept was much repaired in the fourteenth
century and the windows are Perpendicular, and that in the north wall
is a modern antique. Strong flying buttresses support the main walls
on the east of this transept. There is a choir transept. The east end
is plain. The east window is of Early English design but modern
workmanship. The south side is very similar to the north, but
enclosures and buildings prevent us from a close inspection. The
cloisters are as usual in Benedictine monasteries on the south side,
and these we shall enter from the church. The _Tower_ dates from 1374,
but the details are modern, as the tower was very much restored. It is
of good proportion, has two storeys with crocketed pinnacles, a
parapet adorned with lesser spires, and the whole effect is not
unpleasing.


THE INTERIOR

We enter by the north porch. The _Nave_ covers the same ground as the
original Norman Cathedral, and some remains of the old building are
left. At the west end the door entering into the north aisle, at the
north-east angle of the north aisle, and the great Norman shafts
running up the centre of the second piers from the west, are pure
Norman. The two _Western Bays_ are Transition Norman, and are an
interesting study. We see here almost the earliest advance of Gothic
art and the earliest traces of the Early English feeling which
manifested itself for the first time in its developed form in the
choir of Lincoln. It will be observed that the arches are pointed, but
the capitals are Late Norman. The triforium is peculiar, and has a
series of pointed arches over three round-headed openings, the centre
one being much higher than the rest, and the ornaments are the zigzag,
lozenge and curious knots of carved leafage. The clerestory consists
of groups of three windows under round arches, the tracery at the back
being Perpendicular insertions. The date of this portion is about
1160. The vault was fashioned by Bishop Wakefield (1375-1394). There
are seven remaining bays. Those on the south are later than those on
the north, and the earlier work is the richer and more beautiful. On
the north the five eastern bays and the pier arches of the other two
are Decorated (1317-1327), while the rest of these two bays and all
the south side are Early Perpendicular. The great west window is
modern, erected in 1865 in Early Decorated style. Sculptured figures
of characters from the Old Testament appear in the tympana of the
triforium.

The _South Aisle_ has two west bays of Transition Norman work like the
nave, quadripartite vaulting, Late Decorated windows, high in the wall
on account of the cloister on the other side, and two doorways called
the monks' and the prior's. The wall is original Norman. Here is a
large modern font. The _North Aisle_ has also the two west bays of
Transition Norman. The vaulting is Decorated, the work of Bishop
Cobham (1317-1321), and the rest of the aisle belongs to the same
period. The _Jesus Chapel_ opens from this aisle, separated by a
modern screen in Perpendicular style. This chapel has been recently
restored by the Hon. Percy Alsop, and the scheme of decoration is very
elaborate and beautiful. The _Pulpit_ is a very handsome and elaborate
structure made of marble and alabaster, with some excellent carving.

The principal monuments in the nave and aisles are:--Sir John
Beauchamp (1388), much defaced, in alabaster, and his lady, whose head
rests on a swan, the Beauchamp crest; Robert Wylde (1608) and his
lady--the sides of the tomb are adorned with sunflowers rising from
vases; Dean Eedes (1608); Bishop Thornborough (1641). In the south
aisle--an ecclesiastic (late fourteenth century); Bishop Parry (1616);
altar tomb unknown; Thomas Littleton, judge (1481), learned law
writer; Bishop Freke (1591); Sir Henry Ellis, who fell at Waterloo;
Richard Solly (1804); Bishop Gauden (1662), the supposed writer of
_Eikon Basilike_, a work usually attributed to Charles I. In the north
aisle--Earl of Strafford and soldiers of the Worcestershire regiment
who fell in India; Bishop Goldsborough of Gloucester (1613); the Moore
family (1613); and curious effigy of Bishop Bullingham (1576).

Very little ancient glass is left; the windows of the south aisle have
a few fragments, but all the rest is modern.

The _North Transept_ is Norman as high as the clerestory and is
without aisles. A Norman staircase turret is in the north-west corner.
The different coloured stones used in the building is remarkable and
gives a pleasing effect. Perpendicular work is evident. In the east
wall is a Norman arch recently discovered. Traces of colour are
evident above the arch leading to the north aisle of the choir. The
north window is a modern insertion. The monuments here are Bishop
Fleetwood (1683), Bishop Hough (1743), the Magdalen President who
withstood James II., Bishop Stillingfleet and others.

The _South Transept_ is somewhat similar to the north. There are some
fine Norman window arches now blocked up, and a beautiful Norman arch
opening to the Chapel of St. John. The builders of the fifteenth
century cased the Norman walls with a screen of Perpendicular tracery
somewhat similar to the work at Gloucester. The great organ is placed
here. Here is a monument of Bishop Philpott (1892).

We now enter the _Choir_ and eastern portion of the Cathedral. The
screen is of oak and open metal work designed by Sir Gilbert Scott. A
figure of the Saviour is over the centre and a figure of the Virgin
looks eastward. This part of the building is certainly the most
interesting. It is of Early English design and was begun in 1224, that
is four years after Salisbury, and some twenty-four years after
Lincoln. Worcester was one of the earliest churches in England in
which English Gothic was developed, and therefore has a peculiar
interest for us. We notice that the span of the arches is wider than
in the nave, and that in consequence the arches rise to a higher
level. The triforium is, however, less in height than that of the
nave. The piers are composed of clustered shafts of Purbeck marble,
and these have curious brass rings which were placed there by Bishop
Gifford. The dog-tooth ornament is much used. The whole choir was
restored by Mr. Perkins and Sir G. Scott. The _Stalls_, which contain
some finely-carved _Misereres_, have seen many vicissitudes. Puritan
soldiers destroyed the ancient canopies. The carvings were placed on a
hideous screen, at the beginning of the last century, which separated
the nave from the choir. The subjects are curious--an old man stirring
a pot over a fire, knights tilting, huntsmen, hawking scene, and many
others. The _Stone Pulpit_ was brought here from the nave; the upper
part is Late Perpendicular. The sculpture represents Evangelistic
emblems--Heavenly Jerusalem with Tree of Life, Tables of the Law, etc.
The _Throne_ is modern and is elaborately carved with figures,
foliage, animals, birds and Scriptural subjects. It was presented by
Bishop Philpott. The modern _Reredos_ is of alabaster enriched with
gold, mosaic, lapis-lazuli and malachite. Over the altar are statues
of our Lord and the Evangelists, and there are figures of Apostles,
prophets, David and Solomon and angels. The organ is divided into
three separate parts connected by electricity.

There are two Royal tombs; in the centre of the choir is that of King
John, who died at Newark in 1216, whence his body was conveyed here
for burial. The effigy is the earliest of an English king in this
country. The Royal garments are the tunic reaching to the ankles, and
over this the dalmatic with wide sleeves and a girdle buckled in
front. On the feet are sandals with spurs; on the hands are jewelled
gloves, and there is part of a sceptre. The head has a crown, and the
face has moustache and beard. The figures on each side are SS. Oswald
and Wulstan. Recently the figure has unfortunately been covered with
gilt. The tomb on which the effigy rests is sixteenth-century work.
The other Royal tomb is that of Prince Arthur, eldest son of Henry
VII., who died at Ludlow Castle in 1502. His death was fraught with
great consequence to English history. The tomb is a very fine example
of Late Perpendicular work, in which the Tudor emblems, the rose and
portcullis, are evident. The exterior consists of open tracery, niches
and panelled work, crowned with a battlement and pinnacles. Within
there is a flat groined roof, a rich mass of tabernacle work at the
east end with figures in niches, in the centre a plain altar tomb, and
at the west end a small figure of the mourning father, Henry VII.

The _South Choir Aisle_ is Early English similar to the choir, as is
the rest of this portion of the Cathedral, and therefore this need not
be again mentioned. The _Chapel of St. John_, restored by Earl
Beauchamp, is very fine. The glass is all modern. Passing into the
eastern transept we notice a piscina and aumbries and some remarkable
sculptures in the spandrels of the arcade which are reproductions of
ancient work. They are supposed to represent the present and future
life. The subjects are: Knights fighting with lions and centaurs (the
world and its temptations); St. Michael weighing souls, and the devil
pulling down the scale; demons torturing souls over flames
(purgatory); hell's mouth; a burial (of Adam?); expulsion from
Paradise; an angel leading soul to heaven; the Resurrection; angels
sounding a trumpet and bearing the Cross and Christ enthroned. Other
subjects are monks building, Annunciation, Nativity, Crucifixion, etc.
In this transept is the effigy of a knight in full armour of the
fourteenth century of ringed mail. The shield has Harcourt arms, and
below is the inscription--_Ici gist sur Guilliamme de Harcourt_. Guide
books usually point him out as a Crusader because he has his legs
crossed. As we have already stated, there is no special signification
in crossed-legged effigies. There is a tomb of Sir Gryffyth Ryce
(1523), "a noble knight," and his wife, daughter of Sir John St. John,
and near Prince Arthur's Chantry the tomb of Bishop Gifford (1302),
and Maude de Clifford, wife of Earl of Salisbury, beautifully
executed. It is a wonderful study of the dress of the period (1301).
Here is a fine statue of Mrs. Digby by Chantrey; this lady was maid of
honour to Queen Charlotte (1820).

The _Lady Chapel_, which has two aisles, is earlier than the west end
of the choir. The wall arcade is very rich and beautiful. We notice
the brass rings supposed to have been placed round the columns by
Bishop Gifford. The east wall is entirely new, and the tracery of the
windows is a modern restoration of ancient work. There are some
curious grotesque carvings. The _North Choir Aisle_ has some beautiful
capitals and bosses; a small oval window of Perpendicular date looks
on to this aisle, and was formerly the window of the sacrist's
chamber, through which he could watch the great shrines. There is a
curious carving under one of the windows.

The principal _Monuments_ in the Lady Chapel are:--

     A mural slab to the memory of Anne, wife of _Isaac Walton_, the
     prince of anglers, who probably wrote the inscription:

     "_Ex-terris._--M.S. Here lyeth buried so much as could die of
     Anne, the wife of Isaac Walton, who was a woman of remarkable
     prudence, and of Primitive Piety. Her great and generale
     knowledge being adorned with such true humility, and blest with
     so much Christian meeknesse as made her worthy of a more
     memorable monument. She died (alas that she is dead!) the 17th
     of April 1662, aged 52. Study to be like her."

     Bishop John Jenkinson (1840) of St. David's.

     Prebendary Davison (1834), who wrote his famous work on
     _Prophecy_.

     An unknown lady of the fourteenth century, one of the most
     beautiful mediæval relics in the Cathedral.

     William, first Earl of Dudley (1885).

     George William, fourth Baron Lyttelton (1886).

     Bishop William de Blois (1236).

     Bishop Walter de Cantelupe (1265).

     Mutilated effigy of Bishop Brian (1361) or Lynn (1373).

     Bishop Cobham (1327).

     Bishop Walter de Bransford (1349).

     An unknown lady of the thirteenth century.

     An unknown knight, _temp._ Henry III.

     Last Abbot of Evesham.

The _Crypt_ is a very interesting part of the Cathedral, the work of
St. Wulstan, begun in 1084. We notice the fine Norman piers with
cushion capitals and square abaci. It is apsidal with aisles, and is
remarkable for the numerous pillars. Here in this crypt Wulstan
assembled a synod in 1092, when were assembled all the wisest men from
the counties of Worcester, Gloucester and Warwick. Here used to be
preserved the old fourteenth-century doors of the Cathedral, which
were said to be covered with human skin, which tradition says was
flayed from the body of a man who stole the sanctus bell.

The _Cloisters_ are Perpendicular in decoration, though the outer
walls are Norman. We pass through the Prior's Door, and notice how
perfect the monastic arrangements remain. The vaulting is good lierne,
and the bosses are beautifully carved with foliage and other devices.
We see the ancient slype or arched passage of Norman character and the
_Chapter-House_, with its beautiful central pillar and vaulted roof.
It is one of the few Norman ones left, though much altered in the
early fifteenth century. Its vault is Perpendicular. A Norman arcade
runs round the wall, and the central pillar is Transition Norman. The
windows and doorway are Perpendicular and the exterior was coated with
masonry of that period. Here are preserved some fragments of ancient
vestments, a paten of Bishop Blois', some good bindings and other
treasures. On the south is the _Refectory_ with Norman crypt. The room
is Decorated, _temp._ Edward III., and is now part of the school
called the King's School, founded by Henry VIII. A sculptured reredos
of great beauty, with traces of coloured decoration, has recently been
discovered here. In the west is an interesting lavatory and entrance
to the dormitory, both Perpendicular. The dormitory has disappeared,
but its foundations have been traced. We return to the Cathedral by
the Monks' Door, or go by a vaulted Norman passage to the west front.

In the north-west cloister is a stone inscribed MISERRIMUS, which is
said to mark the grave of a non-juror, the Rev. Thomas Morris, or
Maurice. Wordsworth wrote the following lines on this subject:--

    "'Miserrimus!' and neither name nor date,
    Prayer, text, or symbol, graven upon the stone;
    Nought but that word assigned to the unknown,
    That solitary word--to separate
    From all, and cast a cloud around the fate
    Of him who lies beneath. Most wretched one!

    _Who_ chose his epitaph? Himself alone
    Could thus have dared the grave to agitate,
    And claim, among the dead, this awful crown;
    Nor doubt that he marked also for his own
    Close to these cloistral steps a burial-place,
    That every foot might fall with heavier tread,
    Tramping upon his vileness. Stranger, pass
    Softly! To save the contrite, Jesus bled."


DIMENSIONS

Length (exterior) 425 ft. Length (interior) 387 ft. Nave, length 170
ft. Nave, height 68 ft. Nave, width 78 ft. Choir, length 180 ft.
Tower, height 196 ft. Area 33,200 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     Norman (1084-1160)--Crypt, chapter-house, and parts of
           other monastic buildings, west bays of nave with aisles,
           parts of north and south transepts.
     Early English (1224)--Choir with aisles and Lady Chapel.
     Decorated (1317-1327)--North side of nave, vault of north
           aisle.
        (1360)--South side of nave.
        (1376-1394)--Refectory, cloisters recased, tower, nave
           and choir vault, library, treasury, stalls and north porch.
     Perpendicular--Windows in north transept, Prince Arthur's
           tomb.
     Modern--West window in nave, north window in north
           transept, east window in nave, reredos, etc.

[Illustration PLAN OF WORCESTER CATHEDRAL]



LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL


Lichfield has been the victim of Puritan rage and of the over-zeal of
modern restorers, but in spite of this it retains much of its ancient
beauty and its picturesqueness is evident to all. It is one of the
smallest of our cathedrals, but when one sees the three graceful
spires of Lichfield, known as the "Ladies of the Vale," the glories of
its west front and the richness of the carving, one cannot but retain
a warm place in one's heart for this wonderful building which has
passed through such strange vicissitudes of fortune. It has been
be-pinnacled by our modern Gothic confectioners, who have produced
much unnatural "naturalism" in their sculpture; but if we can forget
that much that we see is new, we shall perhaps form some conception of
what the Cathedral was like ere innovators and destroyers laid their
hands upon it.

The history of the Cathedral is full of interest, and carries us back
to the early days of Christianity in England. The heathen King of
Mercia, Penda, long withstood the teachers of the Gospel, but when his
son, Peada, was about to marry the daughter of the Christian King Oswi
of Northumbria, the latter made it a condition that Peada should be
baptised. Forthwith four priests were introduced into Mercia, Diuma
became the first bishop (656), and on the death of Bishop Jaruman, the
fourth bishop, the famous St. Chad was appointed to the vacant see,
who fixed his seat at Lichfield. He was a very holy and humble man,
and became the patron saint of the church. Beautiful tales are told of
him. Near the Church of St. Mary he built a dwelling for himself and
seven brethren. He was deeply affected by the convulsions of nature,
and when the wind blew strongly and the thunder rolled he would always
retire into the church and pray to God to spare His people; and when a
pestilence broke out and his end was near, angel voices were heard
which called him to his heavenly reward. The little Church of St. Chad
was near the well that bears his name. Another Saxon church was built
by Bishop Hedda (691-721) near the present Cathedral, but this has
passed away. The diocese was sub-divided at the close of the seventh
century, and Hereford, Worcester, Lincoln and Leicester were all
separated from the Lichfield See. In the time of Offa, King of Mercia,
Lichfield became an archbishopric, when Higbert was bishop, but this
distinction did not last long. At the Conquest William made his
chaplain, Peter, Bishop of Lichfield, who removed his seat to Chester.
Then Coventry was made the city of the diocese by Bishop Robert de
Lymesey (1087-1117). History is silent concerning the church at
Lichfield, nor does it tell us with any degree of certainty who built
the Norman church which certainly existed here, as its remains were
discovered by Professor Willis. It had an apse, of which the
foundations lie below the present choir, and also a long, square-ended
chapel of twelfth century, destroyed when the Early English choir was
built in the thirteenth. Professor Willis compares the building of
York and Lichfield, and points out the close parallelism.

Unfortunately the soldiers in the Civil War destroyed all the records;
hence we have little to guide us except the history written in the
stones of the Cathedral. A Norman prelate, Roger de Clinton, did much
for the church, but all his work has perished. The diocese was then
called that of Lichfield and Coventry. He died in one of the Crusades.

The Early English builders began to build a new choir about 1200 A.D.,
of which only the lower part of the three westernmost bays and the
sacristy on the south side remain. About 1220 they began to replace
the Norman transepts with Early English work, beginning with the south
transept and ending with the north. The nave was constructed about the
middle of this century and central tower added, and the chapter-house
belongs to the same period of architectural activity. In the last
quarter of the century the west front was begun. At the end of the
century a notable bishop was appointed, one Walter de Langton, Keeper
of the Great Seal and Treasurer of England in the reign of Edward I.,
who incurred the hatred of Prince Edward, afterwards Edward II., and
was several times imprisoned by him. He led a very stormy life, but
found time to begin the building of the beautiful Lady Chapel at
Lichfield, surrounded the close with a wall and a fosse, thus making
it a fortress, erected a grand shrine for the relics of St. Chad and
built the Palace. This chapel was finished by Bishop Northburgh, who
had fought at Bannockburn and been taken prisoner by the Scots, and at
the same time the presbytery and clerestory of the choir were rebuilt
in the Decorated style.

The church was now complete, and very perfect must it have been,
glorious with the best achievements of true English Gothic art when
that art was at its best. Quaint Thomas Fuller describes it as "the
neatest pile in England," and tells us that Bishop Heyworth "deserved
not ill of his Cathedral Church of Lichfield, which was in the
vertical heights thereof, being, though not augmented in the
essentials, beautified in the ornamentals thereof. Indeed the west
front thereof is a stately fabric, adorned with exquisite imagery, of
which I suspect our age is so far from being able to imitate the
workmanship, that it understandeth not the history thereof." Quoting a
saying of Charles V. of Florence, "that it was fit that so fair a city
should have a case and cover for it to keep it from wind and weather,"
he adds, "so in some sort this fabric may seem to deserve a shelter to
secure it." It was also a church rich in relics and costly ornaments,
and kings and nobles loved to adorn it with bounteous offerings, while
the shrine of St. Chad brought many a pilgrim to fill its treasury
when they paid their vows. The fifteenth century made few alterations
to the fabric. Dean Heywood built a library, which has now
disappeared. Some Perpendicular windows were inserted.

At the Reformation Henry's commissioners carried off a vast store of
plate and jewels for "the king's use," and during the Civil War the
Cathedral actually endured a siege, the results of which were most
disastrous. We have recorded how Bishop Langton surrounded the close
with fortifications. The sacred precincts were garrisoned by the
Royalists, who awaited the attack of the Parliamentarians, led by Lord
Brooke, a fierce fanatic, who longed to pull down all cathedrals as
relics of Popery, and extirpate Episcopacy. On St. Chad's day they
began the siege, and Brooke prayed in the presence of his men that
"God would by some special token manifest unto them His approbation of
their design." The "special token" was manifested, but not in favour
of the Roundheads; on the second day of the siege a bullet fired by
"Dumb Dyott," the son of Sir Richard, one of the leaders of the
Royalists, struck Brooke in the eye, and caused his death. This signal
act did not save the Cathedral. The spire was struck by cannon balls,
and fell, and after three days the garrison made terms of surrender.
Desecration and spoliation raged in the once beautiful church. Carved
stalls, organ, stained glass windows--all shared the same fate. Images
were torn from their niches and broken; tombs were rifled, and the
ashes of holy men scattered about with barbarous indecency. Bishop
Scrope's tomb yielded a silver chalice and crozier of much value, and
a pandemonium of ruthless rage filled the church. Prince Rupert came
to Lichfield, and laid siege to the Cathedral, and after ten days
turned out the Roundheads. Here the luckless King Charles came, after
the disastrous fight of Naseby, and again, when the Royal cause was
well-nigh lost, the Parliamentarians besieged the place, and the
king's troops were forced to yield.

The Restoration of the monarchy brought about the restoration of the
Cathedral, which, according to Fuller, "was now in a pitiful case,
indeed almost beaten down to the ground in our civil dissensions."
Bishop Hacket, a worthy and zealous man, was appointed to the see, who
immediately began the stupendous work, and in eight years completed
it, when the church was reconsecrated with much solemnity. King
Charles II. gave "100 fair timber trees" for the restoration, and a
poor statue of the monarch was placed at the west end, and the Duke of
York gave the large window beneath it. Both have now been removed.

Too soon the ruthless hand of the arch-destroyer, Wyatt, was laid on
the luckless Cathedral, who wrought mischief second only to that of
the Puritan fanatics. As the canons felt cold, he walled up the pier
arches of the choir and closed the eastern tower arch with a glass
screen, removed the altar to east end of the Lady Chapel, patched the
piers with Roman cement, hacked away the old stone-work, in order to
make this cement stick, and fixed up a large organ screen between the
nave and the choir. Roman cement became the passion of the hour.
Statues were made of it, old stone-work repaired with it; arches,
mouldings, niches and pinnacles were coated with it. Happily its reign
is over. Sir Gilbert Scott began his restoration in 1856. The
difficulty of the work was enormous. He endeavoured to imitate the
ancient sculpture and stone-work, and restore the Cathedral to the
condition of its Early Gothic purity. Though some of the work has been
severely criticised, we must take into consideration the difficulties
caused by Wyatt and Roman cement which he had to encounter; we must
remember that Gothic revival had not reached its highest development
in 1856, and be thankful that so much has been spared to us of this
once magnificent Cathedral.


EXTERIOR

When we enter the _Close_ we notice that little is left of the
fortifications that once made Lichfield into a fortress. Here and
there a few traces of the walls remain. Lichfield was never a
monastery, so there are no cloisters. The view of the Cathedral upon
entering the close is very striking and beautiful. The colour of the
stone is remarkable, as it is built of red sandstone. The three spires
are extremely graceful. A fine view of them is obtained from the south
side across the lake. The two west spires were built by Bishop
Northbury (1322-1359), and are Decorated. The upper part of the
north-western one was rebuilt, and there has been some renovation of
the other. The old central tower fell during the siege, and was
rebuilt by Bishop Hacket at the Restoration. The style is
Perpendicular, having been built in the fashion of the west tower.

The _West Front_ must have been one of the most beautiful in England,
and has passed through many vicissitudes. It was commenced in 1275,
and completed by degrees, the work being protracted for more than a
century. The ball-flower ornament in the upper stages points to the
later date of the highest part. There are three principal stages. In
the lowest are three doorways, the wall being covered with a rich
arcade of brackets and canopies and statues. The next stage has three
rows of arcading, the lowest extending completely across the front.
The west window divides the two upper arcades. There are windows in
the tower fronts in the third stage, and the wall is covered with rich
canopied arcade. The Puritan soldiers did much injury to the statues
which filled these niches. In 1820 the broken figures were restored
with Roman cement in a barbarous fashion. Sir Gilbert Scott in 1877
began to reconstruct the west front, and placed new statues in the
niches, and endeavoured to reproduce an exact copy of its appearance
in the days of its early beauty. A study of the figures will not be
without interest.

Small figures in central west doorway--on north side--genealogy of
Christ according to St. Matthew from Abraham to the Virgin; on the
south, according to St. Luke from Adam to Joseph. Notice
fourteenth-century carving of Our Lord in Glory inside the porch.


NORTH-WEST DOORWAY

_On North_--

    1. Ethelbert, angel, with emblem of the Passion.
    2. Edwin, orb.
    3. Oswald, dove, with letter, and cross in his left hand.
    4. Oswy, casket, with key and cross.

[Illustration Lichfield Cathedral Herbert Railton Distant view of
exterior]

    5. Peada, embracing a cross.
    6. Wulphere, model of a Saxon church, and a shield.

_On South_--

    1. Bertha, cross in her hand, and her daughter kneeling at an altar.
    2. Ethelburga, glass and comb.
    3. Hilda, angel hovering over her, and pastoral staff in her hand.
    4. Eanfled, priest with letter.
    5. Ermenilda, laying down crown.
    6. Werburga, pastoral staff, and crown at her feet.


SOUTH-WEST DOORWAY

The figures represent the two sources of English Christianity, the
Celtic and Roman missionaries.

_North Side_--

    1. St. Aidan, pastoral staff, and St. Chad as a boy in St. Aidan's
         School at Lindisfarne.
    2. Finan, pastoral staff.
    3. Diuma, pastoral staff and banner.
    4. Ceollach, pastoral staff, and mitre at his feet, indicating
         that he resigned his bishopric.
    5. Trumhere, pastoral staff.
    6. Jaruman, pastoral staff, and model of a Saxon church.

_South Side_--

    1. Gregory, young Saxon slaves at his feet, in the Market Place at
         Rome.
    2. Augustine, crozier and model of Canterbury Monastery.
    3. Paulinus, crozier.
    4. Theodore, crozier and scroll.
    5. Cuthbert, pastoral staff, and head of St. Oswald in his hand.
    6. Wilfrid, pastoral staff, and treading on an idol.


CENTRAL GABLE

    1. Our Lord in Glory, in the act of benediction.
    2. Moses, the two tables of stone.
    3. Elijah, a book.
    4. St. Gabriel, holding a lily, the emblem of purity.
    5. St. Uriel, open book.
    6. St. Michael, in armour, with spear and shield.
    7. St. Raphael, pilgrim's staff.

_Highest Stage--South Side_--

    8. Adam, clothed with skins, and with a lion at his feet.
    9. Abel, shepherd's crook and a lamb.
    10. Abraham, fire and knife.
    11. Isaac.
    12. Jacob.
    13. Melchisedec, royal and priestly robes and censer.
    14. Enoch, prophesying, with uplifted hand.
    15. Methuselah, old man's staff.
    16. Noah, ark and olive branch.
    17. Daniel.
    18. Job, staff, and prophesying the Resurrection.
    19. Shem.

_Middle Stage--Upper Tier_--

    20. Isaiah, a saw.
    21. Hosea, skull at his feet, and scroll, "O death, I will be thy
          plagues."
    22. Jonah, a fish at his feet, and scroll in his hand, "Salvation
          is of the Lord."
    23. Zephaniah, holding a torch and scroll, "The great day of the
          Lord is near."
    24. St. Michael, in armour, with spear and shield.
    25. Bishop Hacket, holding the open Bible.
    26. Bishop Lonsdale, model of Eton College Chapel at his feet.
    27. Bishop Selwyn, his hand resting on the head of a Melanesian
          boy. Bishop of New Zealand, 1841 to 1867. Bishop of
          Lichfield, 1868 to 1878.
    28. Vacant.

_Middle Stage--Lower Tier_--

    29. Ezekiel, wheel, with Evangelistic emblems.
    30. Joel, locust at his feet, and scroll in his hand, "Jehovah is
          God."
    31. Micah, with foot upon an idol; and the words, "Who is God like
          unto Thee," in a scroll.
    32. Haggai, unfinished temple at his feet, and pointing upwards,
          and scroll, "Go up to the mountain."
    33. St. Raphael, a pilgrim's staff, as a messenger of God.
    34. Bishop Clinton, A.D. 1129, model of a Norman church.
    35. Bishop Patteshull, A.D. 1240, wearing a chasuble, as shown on
          his effigy in the Cathedral.
    36. Bishop Langton, A.D. 1296, model of the Lady Chapel at his feet.
    37. Vacant.

_Lower Stage of Kings_--

    38. St. Chad, A.D. 669, pastoral staff, first Bishop of Lichfield.
    39. Peada, A.D. 665, embracing the cross.
    40. Wulphere, A.D. 657, shield, and model of Peterborough Monastery.
    41. Ethelred, A.D. 657, four scrolls, indicating the four
          sub-divisions of the great Mercian Diocese, Lichfield,
          Worcester, Hereford and Chester.
    42. Offa, A.D. 755, archiepiscopal mitre.
    43. Egbert, A.D. 827, orb and sceptre. First sole monarch of Saxon
          Britain.
    44. Ethelwolf, A.D. 836.
    45. Ethelbert, A.D. 860, crown and sword.
    46. Ethelred, A.D. 866, holding a book to his breast.
    47. Alfred, A.D. 871, a harp.
    48. Edgar, A.D. 958, wolf's head; alluding to tribute of wolves'
          heads in lieu of money.
    49. Canute, A.D. 1017, orb, and looking to the sea; in reference
          to his rebuke of his courtiers.
    50. Edward the Confessor, A.D. 1042, a dove, and a ring in his
          left hand.
    51. William the Conqueror, A.D. 1066, _Doomsday Book_ and sword.
    52. William Rufus, A.D. 1087, bow and arrow, and hunting horn;
          alluding to his death.
    53. Henry I., A.D. 1100, holding a book.
    54. Stephen, A.D. 1135, orb, dove and sword.
    55. Henry II., A.D. 1154, sceptre and sword.
    56. Richard I., A.D. 1189, with banneret and battle axe.
    57. John, A.D. 1199, signing Magna Charta.
    58. Henry III., A.D. 1216, model of Westminster Abbey.
    59. Edward I., A.D. 1272, the poisoned arrow.
    60. Edward II., A.D. 1307, reversed sceptre; alluding to his
         deposition and murder.
    61. Edward III., A.D. 1327, the Garter and sceptre.
    62. Richard II., A.D. 1377, orb, cross and sceptre.

_Lowest Stage--North to South_--

    63. St. Cyprian, sword and book. Archbishop of Carthage.
    64. St. Bartholomew, knife.
    65. St. Simon, saw.
    66. St. James the Less, club and book.
    67. St. Thomas, the carpenter's square.
    68. St. Philip, cross.
    69. St. Andrew, a transverse cross.
    70. St. John, pen and book.
    71. Vacant.
    72. Mary Magdalene, the alabaster box of ointment.
    73. The Virgin and Child.
    74. Mary, wife of Cleophas.
    75. Vacant.
    76. St. Peter, keys.
    77. St. Paul, sword and book.
    78. St. Matthew, wallet.
    79. St. James the Greater, staff, book and scallop shell.
    80. St. Jude, scroll.
    81. St. Stephen, stones and the martyr's palm.
    82. St. Clement, anchor and open book.
    83. St. Werburga, pastoral staff, clasped book and crown at her feet.


NORTH-WEST TOWER

_Middle Stage--Lower Tier_--

    84. Daniel, scroll and flames of fire at his feet.
    85. Obadiah, hands lifted up and scroll, "The kingdom shall be the
          Lord's."
    86. Habakkuk, writing the vision.
    87. Malachi, fiery oven at his feet and scroll.
    88. St. Uriel, a spear.
    89. St. Luke, staff with serpent entwined.
    90. Queen Victoria.
    91. St. Mark, lion at his feet.
    92. Dean Bickersteth.
    93. Jeremiah, lamenting destruction of Jerusalem.
    94. Amos.
    95. Nahum, scroll and an Assyrian idol.
    96. Zechariah, candlestick and scroll.
    97. St. Gabriel, shield and sceptre.
    98. Solomon, sceptre and model of the Temple.
    99. St. Helena, the cross, and a model of a Basilica.
    100. David, harp.
    101. St. Editha, foot upon a crown.

_North-West Tower--Upper Tier_--

    102. Eve, a distaff in her hand.
    103. Old Figure. This and four others are the only remaining
            fourteenth-century figures which have survived the wear of
            time and the violence of the Civil War.
    104. Sarah, three cakes in her hand.
    105. Old Figure. Fourteenth century.
    106. Rachel, crook.
    107. Deborah, scroll.
    108. Old Figure. Fourteenth century.
    109. Hannah, with the boy Samuel at her side.
    110. Samuel, anointing horn and scroll.
    111. Aaron, scroll.
    112. Old Figure. Fourteenth century.
    113. Old Figure. Fourteenth century.

St. Anthony over the belfry window on south side of south-west tower.

The west window presented by James II. when Duke of York has been
removed and a Decorated window inserted.

Passing round to the north side we see the interesting north doorway,
which is a double one, with five orders, and of Early English style
(1240 A.D.). The dog-tooth ornament is evident. Carved figures appear
in the mouldings. The genealogy of our Lord, beginning with Jesse, is
on the east side; on the west St. Chad and the Apostles. Kings and
prophets appear on the middle moulding, and angels on the inner. These
are good specimens of Early English carving, and are original, though
somewhat restored. A modern figure of St. Anne is in the central
niche, and above a figure of our Lord. The figures of SS. James and
Jude are examples of the hideous Roman cement work which once was so
plentiful here.

Continuing our pilgrimage round the church we see the chapter-house
and the Lady Chapel, which has been too much restored with new niches
and statues of holy women mentioned in the Bible. The lower row (New
Testament) has figures of Priscilla, Anna, Dorcas, Mary of Bethany
with box of ointment, Martha with a dish and cloth, Lydia, Phebe and
Elizabeth; above Esther, Ruth with corn, Naomi, Rizpah, Deborah,
Miriam, Rachel and Rebecca. Passing the so-called mortuary chapels,
probably vestries, we notice a noble figure of the Madonna on south
side, and though the head has been defaced, and the child knocked
away, it remains a beautiful study of fourteenth-century pose and
drapery. On the corners of the sacristy are figures of Godefroi de
Bouillon and St. Chad. The south portal has been much restored. It is
similar to the north doorway, but not so rich in architectural
details. On the tympanum are shields with arms of the diocese, and on
the west the arms of Lady Catherine Leveson, a benefactress of the
time of Bishop Hacket, and an inscription recording her munificence on
the east. A row of niches is over the door, formerly filled with
figures of Roman cement. Happily they have disappeared. The rose
window is very fine.


INTERIOR

We enter the church by the west door, and are struck with the richness
and beauty of the view of the nave and choir, the clustered columns
with richly-carved capitals, the elaborate reredos of marble and
alabaster, and the stained glass of the Lady Chapel. It will be
noticed that the choir inclines considerably to the north. This
difference in orientation is observable in many churches, and has been
interpreted as a figurative representation of the bending of our
Lord's head upon the Cross. We believe that this beautiful fancy has
no authority, and most probably the inclination was accidental. No
records tell us when this nave was built. It is earlier than the west
front, and was begun about 1250, at the time when the Early English
style was being merged in that of the Decorated. There are eight bays.
The piers are octagonal, with many shafts, the capitals enriched with
foliage of Early English type. The triforium has two arches in each
bay, each arch has two sub-arches, with cusped heads, and a quatrefoil
in the tympanum. Dog-tooth ornament is used copiously. The clerestory
windows are triangular, with three circles in each, and a trefoil in
each circle. Mr. Petit stated, "Nothing can exceed this nave in beauty
and gracefulness." The roof was originally of stone. This the
besiegers damaged, and after its restoration the stone vaulting was
found too heavy for the walls and piers; hence it was removed, except
the portions at the immediate east and west end. Wyatt covered the
rest with plaster to imitate the original work. The roof has now been
coloured, so that it is impossible to discover any difference between
the stone and plaster ceiling.

The _Aisles_ are similar in style to the nave, and are very narrow.
The wall arcading is very fine Early Decorated work. The windows have
three lights, with three foliated circles in their heads. In the north
aisle are tablets to the memory of Gilbert Walmesley, the friend of
Dr. Johnson and David Garrick; to Lady Mary Montagu, the introducer of
the inoculation for small-pox; to Ann Seward, the "Swan of Lichfield"
(1809), a window; brass to the memory of officers of the Staffordshire
regiment, and its colours. In the _South Aisle_ are two curious
semi-effigies of ancient date--the heads and the feet are carved, the
rest of the body is left a blank in the stone; a good brass of the
Earl of Lichfield (d. 1854); and the monument of Dean Addison (1703),
the father of a more famous son--the essayist.

We now pass to the _South Transept_, which is earlier than the north,
and was begun about 1220. The north transept and chapter-house were
built twenty years later. Doubtless for the building of the transepts
Henry III. in 1235 and 1238 granted licence to the dean and chapter to
take stone from the Royal Forest of Hopwas, south of Lichfield.[14]
Both transepts have east aisles. All is Early English work, except the
windows. The large south window is Perpendicular, probably inserted by
Bishop Blyth (1503-1533). The stone vault is also Perpendicular,
erected in place of a wooden one, which served as a model of that at
St. George's Chapel, Windsor, according to the order of Henry III.
There is some Flemish glass in the south window of the aisle, similar
to that in the Lady Chapel. It was brought from Herckenrode. We notice
the memorial of one of Nelson's men--Admiral Sir W. Parker. The south
window is fitted with good modern glass. In the _North Transept_ we
see that the style has advanced since the construction of the south
transept, twenty years earlier. The arcading here has trefoiled
arches. The windows have Perpendicular tracery, and a large north
window was inserted in Perpendicular times, but it has recently been
removed and the Early English window restored. The curious monument is
of Dean Heywood, representing his skeleton. The organ occupies the
aisle.

Standing beneath the _Tower_, at the entrance of the choir, we notice
the conjunction of styles--the large piers with banded shafts of the
Early English of the choir blended with later work of the transept and
the Early Decorated of the nave. A modern metal screen of graceful
design separates the transept from the choir, and was designed by Sir
G. Scott. Above are bronze angels playing instruments of music.

The _Choir_, which succeeded the Norman apsidal choir, was begun in
1200, and the Lady Chapel about 1300, when the choir was lengthened by
one bay. Then the Early English choir was removed as far as the third
pier east of the tower, and the present choir built in the Decorated
style; the upper part of the three western bays was also removed, and
a Decorated clerestory added. Thus we have the arches and piers of the
first three bays Early English, clerestory Decorated, and three other
bays Decorated. Wyatt wrought havoc here, but his plans have now been
altered, and the arrangements been made to conform to the original
design. It will be observed that the tracery of the clerestory windows
is Perpendicular, inserted at the restoration after the siege; only
one original being left. There is no triforium, there being only two
storeys. The spandrels have cusped circles, and in the older part
niches with statues: on south, SS. Christopher, James and Philip; and
on north, SS. Peter, Mary Magdelene and the Virgin. The stalls and
bishop's throne are modern. The _Reredos_ is very magnificent,
designed by Sir G. Scott. The pavement contains a veritable history of
the Cathedral, while the space before the altar contains Old Testament
types of the sacrifice of our Lord. The canopies of the _Sedilia_ are
ancient and Late Decorated.

The _Choir Aisles_ resemble in style the parts of the choir to which
they are adjacent. In the north there is Chantrey's monument of Bishop
Ryder, and G.F. Watts's effigy of Bishop Lonsdale (d. 1867). The _Lady
Chapel_ is full of interest, and especially noticeable is the stained
glass of sixteenth century, brought from the destroyed Abbey of
Herckenrode, having been concealed from the destructive zeal of
French revolutionists. The subjects are scenes from the life of our
Lord and figures of the benefactors of the Abbey, and are the work of
Lambert Lombard, the first, and by far the best, of the Italianised
Flemish School of the sixteenth century. The architecture of the
chapel was begun by Bishop Langton (1296-1321), and finished by
Northburg; the style is Decorated. It has an octagonal apse--an unique
arrangement. Beneath the windows is an arcade, resting on a stone
bench, and between the windows are niches, which have recently been
filled with statues of excellent execution. These are:--St. Werburgh,
St. Cecilia, St. Prisca, St. Faith, St. Catherine, St. Margaret, St.
Lucy, St. Agnes, St. Ethelreda. The triptych which forms the reredos
was carved at Ober Ammergau. The altar rails are of alabaster. Looking
back we have a good view of the Cathedral, and note the considerable
inclination of the choir. On the south side are the so-called mortuary
chapels, which have been restored in memory of Bishop Selwyn, and
contain his effigy and some mural paintings recording scenes from the
adventurous life of this great missionary-bishop, who did so much to
plant the Church in Melanesia. The shrine of St. Chad formerly stood
in the retro-choir behind the high altar.

In the south choir aisle is the consistory court, formerly the
sacristy. The walls are the oldest part of the Cathedral, being of the
same date as the Early English portion of the choir. We notice the old
tile and coal pavement, and the old Jacobean choir stalls. Above is
the minstrels' gallery, so-called, of Perpendicular work, opening into
St. Chad's Chapel, chiefly intended for the exhibition of relics to
the pilgrims in the aisle below, and amongst these those of St. Chad.
This chapel, formerly used as a muniment room, has been beautifully
restored by Dean Luckock, and has good lancet windows, noble reredos
of alabaster, old piscina and aumbrey which probably once held the
skull of St. Chad. Carved figures in bosses and corbels tell the story
of the saint. The old treasury has been beautifully restored, and we
see the old aumbreys which once contained such a store of treasures
and relics, and some of the cannon balls which wrought such havoc
during the siege. There are many interesting monuments in this
aisle--notably the famous "Sleeping Children," by Chantrey (1817),
daughters of Prebendary Robinson; the monuments of Archdeacon Hodson
and his son of "Hodson's Horse" fame, who distinguished himself so
much in the Indian Mutiny; Erasmus Darwin (1802), grandfather of
Charles Darwin, a writer of botanical poems; Bishop Langton (1296),
much mutilated; Bishop Patteshull (1241), of Purbeck marble; Sir John
Stanley (1515), a curious effigy of a knight naked to the waist as if
prepared for scourging. It is supposed that he was excommunicated for
some offence, and was not ashamed to have his penance recorded on his
tomb. Other monuments are those of Archdeacon Moon (1876); Dean Howard
(1868); Bishop Hacket, the restorer of the Cathedral after the siege;
one of the semi-effigies mentioned above, and at the east end is a
curious fourteenth-century mural painting.

We now visit the _Chapter-House_, passing through the vestibule which
is of Late Early English design. We notice the beautiful arcading in
the latter; on the west side there are seats where, it is said, that
the feet of beggars were washed on Maundy Thursday. The dog-tooth
ornament is extensively used in the arcading. The doorway to the
chapter-house is very fine and is a double one with a figure of our
Lord in the tympanum. Clustered shafts are at the sides with capitals
carved with foliage. The chapter-house is octagonal, having the north
and south sides longer than the others. The central pillar is
surrounded by banded shafts with richly-carved capitals. The windows
are Early English, with two lights. An arcade of forty-nine arches
with rich canopies surrounds the chamber. Traces of mural painting may
be seen over the door. All the ancient glass was destroyed, and modern
artists are depicting in glass the history of the see. Over the
chapter-house is the _Library_. It contains many treasures, in spite
of the Puritan destruction, the most valuable being the Gospels of St.
Chad (preserved in a glass case in the retro-choir), containing the
Gospels of SS. Matthew and Mark and part of St. Luke. It has 700
miniatures. Other treasures are Chaucer's _Canterbury Tales_, which
has all except that of the _Ploughman's_, supposed by some to be
spurious; Caxton's _Life of King Arthur_, the MS. Household-book of
Prince Henry, eldest son of James I., and many rare Bibles. The copy
of South's Sermons is interesting, as it belonged to Dr. Johnson, and
contains MS. notes for his Dictionary.


DIMENSIONS

    Total length                                    371 ft.
    Length of nave                                  140 ft.

    Width of the nave and its aisles                 67 ft.
    Width of the choir and aisles                    66 ft.
    Width of the Lady Chapel                         29 ft.
    Length of the transepts from north to south     149 ft.
    Height of the vaulting                           57 ft.
    Height of the central spire                     258 ft.
    Height of the two western spires                198 ft.
    Area                                         27,720 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     Early English (1220-1250)--Lower part of three west bays
           of choir and sacristy, south transept.
       (1250-1275)--Nave and aisles, central tower, chapter
           house, north and south doorways of transepts.
     Decorated (1275-1357)--Lady Chapel, west front, and west
           spires.
     Perpendicular--South window of south transept and vault,
           north window of west transept, some other windows,
           minstrels' gallery.
       (1661-1671)--Central tower, spire rebuilt.

FOOTNOTE:

[14] _Rot. Lit. Clans._, 19, Henry III.; quoted by Britton and Murray.



CHESTER CATHEDRAL


Royal Chester is one of the most ancient and interesting cities in the
kingdom. It was an important Roman station. It was called the "City of
Legions," and the twentieth Legion of the Roman army was stationed
here, and left behind it many traces of its occupation. Saxons and
Danes also held the place. The warlike daughter of Alfred the Great,
and wife of Ethelred of Mercia, drove out the Danes and rebuilt the
walls, but the Welsh again gained the mastery until the first Saxon
Edward reconquered it, and later Edgar subdued the Britons, and in 973
was rowed in his victorious vessel on the Dee by eight British
chieftains. William the Conqueror made his nephew Earl of Chester, and
for years he and his successors ruled as kings in this corner of
England, until Henry III. bestowed the title on his eldest son, and
since that time the earldom has always been held by the king's
first-born. Edward I. often came here when he was waging war against
Llewellyn and the Welsh, and worshipped in the great church. Here
Henry IV. brought as a captive the luckless King Richard II. and
imprisoned him in the castle. Of Royal visits old Chester had
abundance. The city was famous for its "miracle plays," which were
performed in the streets. Frequently the dread visitor plague made its
presence felt, and grass grew in the neglected streets. Tradition
states that the name "God's Providence House" was given to a house in
Watergate Street, because that was the only dwelling which the plague
passed over. Chester played an important part in the Civil War, and
bravely resisted a siege and frequently repelled formidable attacks,
and the inhabitants were reduced to great straits and much ruin
wrought. The walls of the city are quite complete, and on one of the
towers called the Phoenix is the inscription: "King Charles stood on
this tower September 24th" (27th it should be) "1645, and saw his army
defeated at Rowton Moor."

Chester retains many of its historical associations, its extensive
Roman remains, its walls and ancient houses, its wonderful Rows, "like
which there is nothing else in the world," the quaint street names,
the interesting churches, all contribute to make Chester one of the
most delightful cities in England. Although the great church is
ancient, the present see is not. Chester was one of the dioceses
founded by Henry VIII. in return for some of the great stores of
treasure which he and his courtiers filched from the church. It
appears, however, that just after the Norman Conquest there were
Bishops of Chester. In 1075 the Bishop of Lichfield removed the seat
of the bishopric to Chester, and the Church of St. John the Baptist
was his Cathedral. Then Coventry became the centre of the diocese, but
the title of Bishop of Chester was frequently used, but fell into
disuse in later time, until Henry VIII. constituted the new see.

[Illustration ST. OSWALD'S GATE]

The church has, however, a very interesting history. Possibly there
may have been a Christian church here in Roman times. An old
chronicler tells us of an early church dedicated to SS. Peter and
Paul, and that in the time of the Saxons it was re-dedicated to St.
Werburgh and St. Oswald. St. Oswald we have met before at Durham and
elsewhere. St. Werburgh was the daughter of Walphur, King of Mercia,
A.D. 660, who, perceiving that his daughter was much disposed to a
religious life, caused her to take the veil. Her aunt, St. Ethelreda
of Ely, was her spiritual mother, and when St. Werburgh died her body
was conveyed to Chester, where a monastic house was built, dedicated
to her. The early history of this house is somewhat uncertain.
Ormerod, the historian of Chester, states that it continued a nunnery
until the time of the Norman Conquest, when secular canons were
installed in their stead, but this change took place in the time of
King Athelstan (925). Leofric, the husband of Lady Godiva, is also
recorded as a great benefactor of the church and monastery. When Hugh
Lupus, the nephew of the Conqueror, became Earl of Chester, in the
time of William Rufus he founded a new monastery of Benedictine monks,
and endowed it with rich possessions. He introduced the famous Anselm,
Abbot of Bec, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, who made his
chaplain, Richard, the first abbot. The Norman church was begun in his
time, and some of the features of the Norman Abbey of Bec were
introduced at Chester, especially the stone roof of the apse in the
south-east of the Cathedral. Some fragments of this church remain in
spite of the changes which time has wrought, notably the small arches
in the east wall of north transept, and an arch in the canons' vestry,
the north wall of the nave, the doorway between the east cloister and
the nave, the lower part of the north-west tower and the crypt. Fire
played havoc here as elsewhere, and we find Abbot Geoffrey lamenting
over the intolerable ruin of his church. This was at the close of the
twelfth century, and some reparation was affected, while, during the
time of his successor, Hugh Grylle, prosperity dawned upon the Abbey,
and the number of monks was soon after increased. Increased wealth
tempted the rapacious, and the abbey had to withstand a siege. A noted
abbot was Simon de Albo Monasterio, or Whitchurch, who did much for
his monastery. He rebuilt the Lady Chapel, enlarged the chapter-house,
and began the present choir. The refectory, with its beautiful pulpit,
must have been constructed about this time, the close of the
thirteenth century, when the king, Edward I., gave grants of venison
from his forests for the support of the monks, "who were engaged on
the work of building the church." No records tell of any work being
done by succeeding abbots until the time of Simon Ripley (1472-1493);
but where records are silent the stone-work tells us that in the
fourteenth century some beautiful work was accomplished, notably the
shrine of St. Werburgh, the sedilia and choir stalls. Simon Ripley was
an energetic abbot, and rebuilt the nave, tower and south transept.
This south transept was claimed as the Parish Church of the
parishioners of St. Oswald, and there were much disputings, but the
people had their way, and retained their rights until 1881. We also
find that the usual quarrels took place between the monks and citizens
about the rights to hold fairs and markets. Abbot Birkenshawe
continued Ripley's work, and completed the west front and part of the
west tower. An unfortunate alteration was made at this time. The vault
of the cloisters was raised, tradition says, by Cardinal Wolsey, and
mars the beauty of the earlier work. Then came the dissolution of
monasteries, and the Abbey of St. Werburgh shared the fate of the
rest. The See of Chester was created in 1541, the last abbot becoming
the first dean, and John Byrde the first bishop. Most of the lands and
wealth of the church were seized by the king and his courtiers. But,
shorn of its wealth, the Cathedral itself was at this time one of the
most beautiful in England. Dire troubles were, however, in store. The
waves of the Civil War beat fiercely on Royal Chester; and when, after
the protracted siege, the victorious Puritan soldiers entered the
city, they defaced the Cathedral choir, injured the organ, and
demolished the font, broke all the painted windows, and used the
church as a stable. Randle Holme, the historian of Chester, utters a
sad lament over the condition of the city which he loved so well, and
compares it with Jerusalem, "the beloved citie of God, with not a
stone left upon another." Since then the story of the Cathedral has
been one of continual reparation and restoration. The exterior of the
choir was recased by Bishop Stratford (1689-1707). Bishop Law, in
1818, effected some considerable repairs, and other efforts were made,
until at length Sir G. Scott was engaged in 1868, when Dean Howson
ruled, and a very "thorough" restoration was made. A modern authority
on Gothic architecture states that Sir G. Scott's was "a rebuilding of
every external feature of this Cathedral in the style of his own
Victorian Gothic." Perhaps this criticism is a little too severe. It
must be remembered that the stone of Chester Cathedral was very soft
and perishable, that the state of the fabric was so bad that it was
almost dangerous, and that the difficulties of the architect were
great. However, in spite of what has been done, there is still much to
admire, and we will proceed to examine the details of this ancient
church.


THE EXTERIOR

To examine the exterior we must avoid the narrow streets in its
vicinity, and ascend the old walls of the city, from which we can
obtain an excellent view. Starting at the east gate, we get a good
view of the south-east of the Cathedral, including the tower, the east
side of the south transept, choir and Lady Chapel. We notice the
colour of the stone--red sandstone. The plan of the church is
cruciform. The _Tower_ is Perpendicular in style, and was probably
built by Abbot Ripley. Two windows of Perpendicular character look out
from each side. It has been much restored, and was only just saved
from destruction by this process. Sir G. Scott devised the turrets and
pinnacles out of his inner consciousness, and also the parapet; but
the effect, though differing, doubtless, from the original design, is
not unpleasing. The _Lady Chapel_ is a simple and beautiful
construction of Early English design. On the south side there are
three triple lancets under a pointed arch, separated by buttresses
crowned with pinnacles, and a parapet above. The south aisle of the
choir is Early Decorated, and there is a modern apsidal termination,
with a curious steep roof, almost resembling the spire of a church,
which Sir G. Scott constructed, and for which he found justification
in the remains of the earlier roof. This example is unique in England,
but not unusual in France. The south transept is unusually large,
which is accounted for by its being the Church of St. Oswald. There
are some curious modern sculptures in a corbel here, representing
modern statesmen, and the features of Mr. Gladstone and Lord
Beaconsfield are not difficult to discover. Passing along the wall of
the city, at the east of Abbey Street we see the north-east view. Near
at hand, on the right, is the refectory, and on the left the
chapter-house, which is Early English. The north transept is Norman
work. The north choir aisle, which extends along the side of the Lady
Chapel, is, in its eastern part, Perpendicular; further west it is
Early Decorated, while by the canons' vestry we see unmistakable
Norman work. In this wall much of the old stone remains, as it has not
suffered so much from the weather as on the south side. We see the
long expanse of the nave roof, and then pass along Abbey Street, and
have a fine view of this north side. Then houses interfere with the
prospect. Then we see the old Abbey gateway, a fourteenth-century
structure, and the new buildings of the King's School, which occupies
the site of the old Palace, and soon stand opposite the _West Front_,
which lacks the grandeur of this feature of many cathedrals. It has a
large Perpendicular window of good design and rich tracery; beneath it
is a Tudor doorway, and canopied niches, and on the south the base of
a tower which was never completed. Passing along we have a grand view
of the south side.

[Illustration Chester Cathedral]

There is a porch, with a parvise over it, of Late Perpendicular
design, with Tudor doorway, and battlements and pinnacles. The vault
is modern; the windows of the aisle are Decorated, and those of the
clerestory Perpendicular. This concludes our survey of the exterior,
and we now enter the Cathedral and examine the principal features of
the interior.


THE INTERIOR

Entering by the south porch or the west door, we examine first the
_Nave_, which is small and not very striking in appearance. There are
six bays, but the southern arcade is much earlier than the north. The
piers consist of groups of attached shafts, with capitals of foliage.
The southern arcade is Decorated, while the northern is later. The
initials S.R. appear on the capital of the first northern pier. These
letters stand for Simon Ripley, abbot (1485-1492). He probably built
the upper part of the northern arcade, but the lower part is earlier.
The clerestory was finished by Abbot Birkenshawe. The last bay
eastward is more ornamented than the rest, and has cusped windows in
the clerestory and tracery in the triforium opening. This is earlier,
and is perhaps more ornate, because the choir included this bay. The
roof is modern, and has a good specimen of fan-tracery vault. Some of
the bosses are noticeable, and record the benefactors--the Prince of
Wales, Duke of Westminster, and others.

Under the south tower is the _Consistory Court_, which is separated
from the nave by some curious Jacobean stone-work, and contains some
good woodwork of the same period. The south aisle has Decorated
windows; the north aisle contains some interesting remains of the old
Norman church. The north wall is entirely Norman. A Norman doorway
leads to the cloisters at the east end, and at the west there are some
remains of the Norman tower built by the nephew of the Conqueror. This
is now the baptistry, which has a curious _font_, presented by Earl
Egerton in 1885. The dean states that "it came from a ruined church in
the Romagna, but it is not known whence it was brought to Venice. It
is of a rectangular form, of white marble; and in all probability it
was originally a village well-head in early Roman times, and
afterwards taken by the Christians and carved with symbols for a font.
The work is of the Ravenna type, of the sixth or seventh century."
Near here is hung an ancient piece of tapestry, which has been in the
Cathedral since 1668. The subject is Raphael's cartoon of Elymas the
Sorcerer. The vault of this aisle is modern. The old wall is covered
with rich mosaics, representing Abraham, Sarah, Moses, David, Elijah,
and other Old Testament characters.

The _North Transept_ is small, and is of the same size as the original
church, there being no room for expansion on this side because of the
monastic buildings. The lower walls are original Norman, the upper
Late Norman. A Norman arch, now blocked up, leads to the canons'
vestry on the east. The arches of the triforium are very early, and
are rude and massive. On the west there are three Norman windows
blocked up. Perpendicular tracery has been inserted in some of the
windows. That of the north window is modern. The roof is
Perpendicular, and on one of the bosses are the arms of Cardinal
Wolsey. A conspicuous monument here is that of Bishop Pearson (1686),
the author of the famous work on _the Creed_. The initiation of the
erection of this magnificent memorial of one of the greatest of
English divines was due to an American bishop, Dr. Whittingham of
Maryland. The organ-loft is very rich, and the instrument itself is a
very noble one, and replete with every modern contrivance. Crossing to
the _South Transept_, which until 1881 was the Parish Church of St.
Oswald, we notice its great size when compared with that on the north.
It was undergoing restoration when we last visited the Cathedral. It
has Decorated windows, and Perpendicular in the west aisle. The
monuments in the naves and transepts do not possess many features of
interest, and may be passed over.

[Illustration THE CHOIR]

We now enter the _Choir_, and can admire the modern screen, designed
by Sir G. Scott, and beautifully executed. The choir is remarkable for
the great beauty of the woodwork which it contains, as well as for its
architectural merits. The style is that of the transition between the
Early English and Decorated. The north side differs from the south,
especially in regard to the mouldings. The north side is earlier than
the south, the building having been commenced at the east end of that
side. The mouldings on the north are bold rounds, while those on the
south are shallow and small hollows. The triforium has a series of
elaborately-carved cusped arches, and the clerestory windows are light
and graceful, with geometrical tracery. The vault is modern,
constructed of good English oak. At the east there are figures of the
sixteen prophets, and at the west are angels playing musical
instruments. There are some curious grotesque corbels, from which the
vaulting shafts spring. The carving of the _Choir Stalls_ is equal,
if not superior, to anything in England. These are fourteenth-century
work, and rival the noble stalls of Amiens. They have been restored
with much accuracy and taste. The carving of the dean's stall should
be noticed, as it represents the Jesse tree, surmounted by the
Coronation of the Virgin. That representing Jacob's dream is modern.
The _Misereres_ are extremely interesting and curious, and full of
religious instruction, though often conveyed in the way of sarcastic
reproof. There are forty-eight, of which three are modern. Some of the
most curious are: a pelican feeding her young; St. Werburgh and the
stolen goose; a wife beating her husband; the strategy of the fox;
stag hunt; Richard I. pulling out the heart of a lion; a fox in the
garb of a monk presenting a gift to a nun; various wild men;
wrestlers; unicorn resting its head on a virgin's knee, and numerous
grotesques. The _Throne_ is a handsome modern work, and also the
_Pulpit_, presented by the Freemasons of Cheshire, who restored also
the ancient sedilia, which, tradition states, came from the old Church
of St. John without the city walls. The altar is made of wood grown in
Palestine. The oak of Bashan, olive wood from the Mount of Olives, and
the cedar of Lebanon, are all used, and the carvings represent palm,
vine, wheat, olive, thorn, bulrush, hyssop, myrrh and flax, all of
which are included in the _flora_ of Palestine. The reredos is a
mosaic of the Last Supper. The magnificent candelabra of Italian
_cinque cento_ work are the gift of the late Duke of Westminster. Over
the altar is an arch, through which the window of the Early English
Lady Chapel can be seen, and above is a window with Decorated tracery.

The _North Aisle_ of the choir is interesting. Traces of Norman work
are seen in the base of a massive round pillar at the west entrance,
in the inverted capital of a Norman pier, with an Early Decorated pier
constructed on it, and the Norman apse is marked on the pavement by a
line of dark marble. The canons' vestry is architecturally a very
important building, as it contains work of the eleventh, twelfth,
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The arch in east wall of the
transept is Early Norman; the Norman apsidal termination can be
traced. It was rebuilt in the Early English period, and made to
terminate in a square form, and the doorway from the north aisle is
fourteenth-century work. There is an old chest or reliquary here with
very good iron-work and lock of the thirteenth century. Re-entering
the aisle we can trace the abandonment of the apse and the extension
eastward in the Early English period, as shown in the character of the
vaulting and in the piscina, which belongs to this period. In
Perpendicular times a further extension took place, in order to gain
an entrance to the Lady Chapel. The gates of both aisles are old
Spanish work of 1558, presented by the late Duke of Westminster.

The _South Aisle_ has passed through somewhat similar vicissitudes,
but "restoration" has removed some of their traces, and it is now
terminated by the apse, the erection of which we recorded when
examining the exterior, and which is conjectured to be an exact
reproduction of the appearance of this end of the Cathedral in the
time of Edward I. The apse has been fitted up as a memorial to Thomas
Brassey, the great contractor.

The _Lady Chapel_ is of Early English design, and was built about
1266, previous to the present choir. Many alterations were made
subsequently, including the removal of the ancient steep and lofty
roof and the substitution of a flat roof, and the insertion of
Perpendicular windows. Most of these additions have been removed and
the Early English character restored. The east window of five lights
was designed by Scott, and the original form of the roof has been
restored. The vault, which is original Early English, has a boss
representing the murder of Thomas à Becket. The mosaics were designed
by Sir A. Blomfield. Here the consistory court was held at the time of
the Reformation, and George Marsh, the Chester martyr, was condemned
to be burnt.

The _Monuments_ in the choir and Lady Chapel are to the memory of Dean
Howson, Bishop Graham (1865), Dean Arderne, an altar tomb to an
unknown person, and the famous shrine of St. Werburgh, of
fourteenth-century work, which is of exquisite design and
construction. It was richly ornamented by figures. There was a great
resort of pilgrims to this shrine in mediæval times. The pavement of
the choir is worthy of attention. It is modern; around the lectern are
the heads of the twelve Apostles, and of the four doctors of the
Church--SS. Ambrose, Augustine, Athanasius and Chrysostom. On the east
end are representations of the Passover, and some fragments of
tesselated pavement are inserted here which came from the Temple at
Jerusalem. The stained glass is all modern. The Cathedral has a rare
treasure of the seventeenth century, a carved narwhal tusk,
beautifully carved by a Flemish artist. It is thus described by the
dean: "The leading subject is the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus
Christ, passing on to the exaltation of the Cross.... A Jesse tree
occupies about 3 feet, and above is seated the Blessed Virgin with the
Holy Child. Higher up is the Cross with the figure of our Saviour,
whose countenance is full of compassion.... St. Michael thrusting down
Lucifer with a cross; the figures of SS. Peter and Paul and the four
Evangelists; St. Anthony of Padua and another monk holding up a cross,
and figures of angels, each holding in uplifted hands a cross."

[Illustration SHRINE OF ST. WERBURGH]

We will now proceed to the _Monastic Buildings_, which are of great
importance. They are situated on the north side of the Cathedral, and
are approached through a Norman doorway in the north aisle. Turning to
the left we see some good Norman arcading. The tombstones of some of
the earlier abbots are seen here. The south walk is entirely new,
having been restored by Scott. The west walk adjoins a fine Early
Norman chamber, probably the great cellar of the abbot's house. The
cloisters are Perpendicular work. In the south and west walks there is
a double arcade on the cloister-garth side, which contained the
_Carrels_ or enclosed studies of wainscot, where the monks read or
wrote, and on the opposite side are recesses which are not tombs, but
_Armaria_ or cupboards, where their books and materials for
illuminations were stored. In the Perpendicular period the roof of the
cloisters was raised, which was not an advantage, as it caused the
aisle windows and those of the refectory to be partly blocked up, and
the vaulting cuts into the earlier work. The _Lavatorium_ is near the
entrance to the _Refectory_, an Early English building with
Perpendicular windows. It is a noble structure, shorn of some of its
length, and now used as a music room. The stone pulpit is remarkably
fine, of Early English design, which rivals the famous pulpit of
Beaulieu Abbey. In the east walk we see the doorway leading to the
_Vestibule_ of the chapter-house. It consists of a cusped arch, and
three small windows are above it; on the centre one the dog-tooth
ornament is used. Both the vestibule and the chapter-house are fine
examples of Early English. In the former light, graceful piers support
the vaulting without capitals, the mouldings being continued along the
piers and vaulting in a very beautiful manner. The _Chapter-House_ is
a noble chamber. Its shape is oblong, and it was built about 1240.
There is a fine east window of five lights; and windows of three
lights are on the north and south sides, and have detached shafts. The
glass is modern, and represents the chief persons associated with the
history of the Cathedral. Here is stored the library, which is not
rich in treasures of bibliography. There is a fair collection of the
Fathers and liturgical works, a book which belonged to Bishop Pearson
and Higden's _Polyolbion_.


DIMENSIONS

     Length, 355 ft.; length of nave, 145 ft.; width of nave, 75 ft.;
height, 78 ft.; height of tower, 127 ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     Norman (1093-1140)--north wall of north aisle and doorways, part
of north-west tower, north transept, part of canons' vestry, cellar in
monastic buildings; Early English (1266-1300)--Lady Chapel, choir,
part of north choir aisle, chapter-house, refectory; Decorated
(1300-1400)--Abbey Gate, south and lower part of north nave, windows
of south aisle, part of south transept; Perpendicular (1472-1500)--
tower, upper part of north of nave, east of north choir aisle, west
front, south porch, part of south transept and some windows; Choir
recased (1689-1707).

       *       *       *       *       *

St. John's Church is well worthy of a visit. It has an important
history, and was once the Cathedral of the first Norman bishop. It is
mainly of Norman construction. The massive piers are very early
(1067-1105), the triforium and clerestory are Transitional. A good
history of the church has been written by the Rev. Cooper Scott.



LIVERPOOL CATHEDRAL


Liverpool is a very modern see, the bishopric having been formed in
1880. It has at length been possible to take steps to found a
Cathedral, and many architectural problems have to be solved by the
citizens with regard to the site and the style of the new church. We
trust that these will be solved satisfactorily, and that the Cathedral
of Liverpool will be made worthy of the city. If wealth can accomplish
this great achievement, there should be no difficulty in this place.
The Church of St. Peter is at present used as the Cathedral, but it
has no feature of either architectural or historical interest.



MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL


Other objects of interest rather than those of history or architecture
usually attract the stranger to Manchester. The great centre of modern
industry, the city that brings the sea to its walls, that finds
employment for tens of thousands, where the pulse of life beats
fast--that is the Manchester we all know. But there is another
Manchester of quiet and sedate ways, which is not devoid of history,
which we will endeavour to read amidst the din and turmoil of this
hive of industry. It is difficult to imagine that the parish "was
originally a wild, unfrequented tract of woodland, inhabited merely by
the boar, the bull, and the wolf, and traversed only by the hunters of
the neighbouring country." Under Agricola, Manchester became a Roman
station. Camden tells of Roman inscriptions, and many other Roman
remains have been found. Edwin of Northumbria came here, and Paulinus
brought Christianity and thousands were baptised by him. Two Saxon
churches were built, St. Michael's and St. Mary's. Ina and his queen,
Ethelburga, sojourned here. The Danes ravaged it, and Edward the Elder
re-edified the town in 924. We find that Canute came here, and the
historian of the town derives Knot, or Knut, Mill from his name. The
Conqueror gave the manor to Roger de Poictiers, but it appears to have
been regranted to the Greslie family. It is unnecessary to follow the
history of the manor and barony. In 1235 Manchester is said to have
had a Deanery, and Peter de Greleigh (Greslie) held the Rectory in
1261. Hugh de Manchester, a favourite of Edward I., went on an
embassage to Philip of France to recover certain lands for his king.
Other distinguished rectors were William de Marchia (1284), afterwards
Bishop of Bath and Wells, and William de Langton, afterwards Bishop of
Lichfield, the builder of the beautiful Lady Chapel of that Cathedral;
Otto de Grandisson, Geoffrey de Stoke, afterwards Dean of St. Paul's,
London. In 1373 Thomas de la Warre was presented to the living, and he
obtained Royal licence in 1422 to found a collegiate church,
consisting of one warden, eight fellows, four clerks and six
choristers. The parishioners cheerfully agreed to build the new
church. John Huntingdon, the first warden, built the choir, and
several leading families, the Radcliffes, Stanleys, Traffords, Byrons
and Strangeways erected chantries. The college was founded at the same
time as the residence of the warden and fellows. The right of
sanctuary was granted to the collegiate church, the sanctuary men
bearing a cross on their hand. The college has a chequered career. In
the reign of Edward VI. it was dissolved and its possessions seized.
Under Mary it was re-established, together with the chantries in the
church. In the time of Elizabeth the college had prolonged disputes
with the town, the clergy were beaten by the populace, and one of them
stabbed, and the plate and ornaments stolen. In 1578 the charter was
renewed. A famous warden was Dr. Dee, who is well known as a dealer in
magical arts, and his successor, Murray, was not a very learned
divine; when preaching before James I. from the text, "I am not
ashamed of the Gospel of Christ," the monarch said the Gospel of
Christ might well be ashamed of him. In 1617 a gallery was erected in
the church, which was much dilapidated and the income impoverished. In
the time of the Civil War, Richard Heyrick was warden and sided with
the Parliament, the Independents setting up a meeting-house at the
college. Manchester underwent a siege during the war, and in 1649 the
chapter-house and chest were broken into by soldiers and the deeds
carried off to London, where it is thought that they perished in the
great fire. The college was dissolved. Heyrick was a veritable "Vicar
of Bray," and embraced all the opinions in turn of all the parties in
that troublous period. The collegiate buildings were in much decay
during the Commonwealth period, when Humphrey Chetham, one of the
worthiest of benefactors, conceived the idea of converting them into a
school and library, and left a large sum of money for this purpose.
Chetham's Hospital is quite the most interesting building in the city,
which has retained few of its ancient edifices. Lancashire folk were
very faithful to the House of Stuart, and in both the rebellions of
1715 and 1745 Manchester took part. The young Pretender was proclaimed
here King James III., and the "Manchester Regiment" was formed to
fight in the prince's cause, and subsequently many lost their heads,
some being stuck upon the Exchange. The Diocese of Manchester was
formed in 1847, and has only had three bishops--James Prince Lee,
Fraser, and the present Bishop Moorhouse, formerly Bishop of
Melbourne.


THE EXTERIOR

Manchester smoke soon causes stone-work to assume a venerable
appearance, and although much of the Cathedral is new, its first
appearance is one of an ancient edifice. Manchester is a modern see,
founded in 1847, but its church, as we have seen, dates back to a very
respectable antiquity and has many features of special interest. It
stands out well amidst the surrounding mass of modern buildings, of
shops and railway stations, and seems to raise the thoughts of all who
behold its beauties above the buying and selling in this busy mart of
human enterprise.

The present generation of merchants of Manchester and the Cathedral
authorities have done much for their Cathedral, and striven to make it
worthy of its name and position as the Mother Church of the diocese,
and all the resources of modern art have been lavished on the
building. We shall see this better in the interior. The exterior also
shows that very much has been done in building and decoration. There
is first the new _West Porch_, which has just been finished with a
statue of Queen Victoria in the niche over the doorway. Just as the
burghers of the Middle Ages loved to enrich their churches with the
triumphs of architectural art, so do the modern merchants of
Manchester strive to adorn their Cathedral with elaborate handiwork.
This new piece of work is richly carved. The style follows that of the
Cathedral and is mainly Perpendicular. There is rich panel work, an
open-work battlemented parapet, and a richly-crocketed pinnacle crowns
a turret on the south side. The door itself is a very handsome piece
of work. On each side of the main porch there are rooms. The _Tower_
stands at the west end above the porch. There is a good west window in
the lowest stage with an ogee label richly crocketed. Above is the
clock. In former days this clock was not noted for keeping correct
time. An old gentleman was observed each morning setting his watch by
it. "Excuse me," said a bystander, "that clock is five minutes late."
"Sir," he replied, "I have set my watch by that clock for forty years,
and right or wrong, I shall go by it for the rest of my life." At each
corner of the tower there are three pinnacles. The windows of the
church, we observe, as we pass to the south, are all Perpendicular,
but there is a pleasing variety in the tracery. The _South Porch_ has
a parvise, and was built by Mr. James Jardine, a distinguished citizen
of Manchester, in 1891. On this side there are several chapels--the
Brown Chapel, St. George's, St. Nicholas or Trafford Chapel, Jesus
Chapel, the chapter-house with its pyramidal roof, the Fraser Chapel,
a new building erected in memory of Bishop Fraser. The battlemented
parapet on this side of the church is modern. On the east side is a
tiny Lady Chapel with a Decorated east window, which has been
reproduced from the earlier design. Proceeding onwards we notice the
Ely Chapel, the Derby or John the Baptist's Chapel, the St. James's
Chapel, and that dedicated to the Holy Trinity. The _North Porch_ is
similar in character to that on the south, and was erected in memory
of James Craven in 1888.


THE INTERIOR

The interior of the Cathedral is full of interest. We enter by the
south porch, and we are at once struck by the extraordinary width of
the church. On each side of the nave there are two aisles. The outer
aisles both on the north and south sides were formerly separated from
the rest of the church by screens, and were occupied by chapels or
chantries. By a somewhat drastic restoration at the beginning of the
nineteenth century these screens were removed, and the outer aisles
thrown open. This procedure rendered the church more useful for
congregational purposes, though we may regret the disappearance of the
historic chapels, a few piscinæ being the only remains. We will
commence our pilgrimage at the west end, and from this point view the
length of the church, which is shrouded in "a divine religious light,"
perhaps a little too dim. Most of the windows are filled with modern
glass which is generally of beautiful design; but modern glass lacks
that transparency which ancient glass has. The sunlight streams
through the old glass, and it is quite possible, as at Fairford, to
read the smallest print; while modern glass effectually shuts out the
light, and at the best too much sunlight is not usually observable in
this region of smoky chimneys and polluted atmosphere. The piers of
the nave are modern imitations of the original Perpendicular ones, and
are lofty and graceful. There is no triforium, and the clerestory is
somewhat contracted. The windows have five lights of Perpendicular
tracery, and most of them are filled with modern glass. The roof is
ancient, but has been much restored. In the distance we see the
handsome choir-screen with the organ over it. The spandrels of the
chancel arch are richly carved with shields in quatrefoils, and above
is the Tudor rose. Shields adorn the spandrels of the main arches.
Above us is the ceiling of the tower, which is a good example of
fan-tracery. The modern baptistry is on our right. Passing the south
porch, erected in memory of Mr. James Jardine, we see the extreme
south aisle, formerly consisting of chantries separated from the rest
of the church by screens. In a recess east of the porch was the Brown
Chapel, and north of this St. George's Chantry (to which saint,
together with St. Mary and St. Denis, the church was formerly
dedicated) founded by W. Galley in 1508. At the dissolution of the
collegiate institution John Barlow and Edward Smyth, priests of this
chantry, received pensions of £6 and £4, 12s. 6d. respectively. Then
comes the Trafford or St. Nicholas Chantry, the priest of which
received a pension of £5. The Traffords of Trafford are an ancient
Lancastrian family who have held the manor, near Manchester, since the
Conquest, and the name of Edmund Trafford appears upon the list of
parishioners given in the licence to erect the collegiate church. A
piscina shows the position of the altar of this chantry. Next follows
the Jesus Chapel which has a fine sixteenth-century screen. It was
founded by Richard Bexwick in 1506, being granted to him "to enjoy its
privileges by James Stanley, warden, and the fellows." His daughter
Isabel gave it to Francis Pendleton and Cicely his wife, daughter of
Isabel. In 1652 it was in a ruinous condition. It is now used as the
library and vestry. From this chapel another chapel founded by Ralph
Hulme in 1507 opened, but it has been destroyed. One of this family of
Hulme founded in 1691 the Hulmeian scholarships at Oxford. Next we see
the entrance to the chapter-house built by James Stanley (1485-1509),
which is good Perpendicular work. Under the arch, which has panelled
work in the soffit, there are two doors having four-centred arches,
and above panelling. The Fraser Chapel, erected in memory of Bishop
Fraser of Manchester (1870-1885), "a man of singular gifts both of
nature and the spirit," who won all hearts and whose memory will ever
be venerated in the Manchester Diocese, stands on the south at the
extreme east end of this aisle. It contains an admirable effigy of the
bishop, who was buried in the little Parish Church of Ufton Nervet,
Berks, where he passed the early years of his clerical life, and for
which he had tender memories. This was a college living to which he
was presented by Oriel College. Turning to the north we enter the
retro-choir and the Lady Chapel, originally founded by George West,
youngest brother of Lord Delaware, who was warden of the college in
1518-1535. The last historian of the Cathedral, Mr. Perkins, considers
that West reconstructed a more ancient building, and that the style of
the windows inserted in the eighteenth century in imitation of earlier
ones point to an earlier date than 1518. This chapel was once known as
the Byron Chapel, and then the Chetham Chapel, as it contains several
memorials of that family. There is a modern statue of Humphrey
Chetham, the founder of Chetham's Hospital (which we shall presently
visit), who was born in 1580, and by trade "acquired opulence, while
his strict integrity, his piety, his works of charity and benevolence
secured him the respect and esteem of those around him."[15] He
founded the school, and clothed, fed and instructed twenty-two boys,
and, though never married, thus became a father of the fatherless and
destitute. At the base of his statue is seated a figure of one of
these youths. Near this statue is the tomb of Hugh Birley, a member of
a distinguished Manchester family and a representative of the city in
Parliament. An ancient organ, more than two centuries old, also is in
this aisle. On the north is the St. John the Baptist or Derby Chapel,
formerly called the Stanley Chapel, separated by an old screen from
the aisle. The Stanleys belong to the same family as the Earls of
Derby. The office of warden was held by two members of the Stanley
family, both having the Christian name of James. The second James
Stanley became Bishop of Ely, and by virtue of his will (he died 1515)
this chapel and the Ely Chapel were built. His tomb remains, of grey
marble, with a small brass figure of the bishop in his robes, with the
inscription:--"Off yur charite pray for the soul of James Stanley,
sutyme Bushype of Ely and Warden of this College of Manchestir, which
decessed out of this transitore world the xxxi. daye of March, the yer
of our Lord MCCCCC. and XV., on whos soul and all Christian souls
Jhesu have mercy."

Westward of this Derby Chapel stands the Ducie Chapel, dedicated to
St. James, founded in 1507, and next comes the Radcliffe Chantry,
dedicated to the Holy Trinity, founded by W. Radcliffe in 1498. The
Radcliffes of Radcliffe, near Manchester, were an ancient race, and
the ballad of "Fair Ellen," the daughter of one member of this family,
who was slain by a cruel stepmother and her body cooked in a pie, is a
gruesome legend of old Lancashire.

The east end of the nave is used for services, and there is a fine
modern pulpit. Manchester Cathedral possesses some very fine carved
woodwork, of which the ancient rood-screen is a good example. The
organ is placed above it. On entering the _Choir_ we notice the
magnificently-carved stalls with rich tabernacle work, and quaint
_misereres_. This is the work of James Stanley (1485-1509) afterwards
Bishop of Ely, assisted by a Manchester merchant named Beck. The
bishop's throne is modern, and also the reredos. The three Patron
Saints-SS. Mary, George and Denys--appear in the niches. In accounting
for this triple dedication Randle Holme states that to St. Mary was
the earlier church dedicated, and that Thomas Delaware, "being partly
a Frenchman, and partly an Englishman," selected St. Dionysee, ye
Patron Saint of France, and St. George, the Patron Saint of England,
as patrons of his new Cathedral. This does not seem probable, and it
is more likely that the claim of Henry V. to the crown of France at
the time of the founding of the college suggested the additional
dedication.

The windows have all modern glass. Formerly there was some curious
ancient glass; in the east window of the south aisle, Michael and his
angels fighting with the dragon; in the east window of the north
aisle, SS. Augustine and Ambrose chanting the _Te Deum Laudamus_; in
the clerestory were pictures of the Virgin; and then there were some
curious representations of the Trinity. These have all disappeared. Of
the modern ones, the most interesting, perhaps, is the Gordon window
in the north aisle.

John Huntingdon, the builder of the present choir (1422-1459), lies
buried in it, and formerly his tomb was inscribed with the words:
_Domine, dilexi decorem domus tuæ_, and there was a brass with this
inscription: _Hic jacet Johan Huntingdon Bacc in Decr. Prim. Magister
sive custos istius collegii qui de novo construxit istam cancellam,
qui obiit ix. mo die xi. bris MCCCCLVIII., cujus animæ proprietur
Deus_. We could not discover this brass, but on each side of the Lady
Chapel entrance is the rebus of the founder, on one side a man
hunting, on the other a tun, which "hieroglyphical quiddity" makes
Hunting-ton.

       *       *       *       *       *

Crossing the street to the north is a profoundly interesting building,
known as the _Chetham Library and Hospital_, of which Manchester may
be justly proud. Its chequered history has already been partially
told, and carries us back to the days when the college of warden and
fellows, chaplain and choir-boys, lived here. Now, as we have seen,
it is the school, with a noble library attached, founded by that
worthy merchant, Humphrey Chetham. As a baron's hall, an
ecclesiastical establishment, and a remarkable school, the building
presents many features of unique interest, and the grand library is
worthy of minute inspection.


DIMENSIONS

    Length of nave and choir                    172 ft.
    Width of nave and aisles                    114 ft.
    Length of choir and Lady Chapel              88 ft.
    Height of roof                               50 ft.
    Height of tower                             140 ft.
    Area                                 18,000 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     (1422-1458)--Choir.
     (1465-1509)--Nave rebuilt, stalls and canopies, chapter-house,
           chantries of St. George, St. Nicholas, Jesus, Ducie and
           Radcliffe.
     (1518-1535)--Lady Chapel, Ely Chapel.
     Modern--Baptistry, north and south and west porches, Fraser
           Chapel, throne, reredos and glass.

FOOTNOTE:

[15] Baine's _Lancashire_, Vol. II., p. 365.



CARLISLE CATHEDRAL


This northern city has had a noted history. It was a town of
considerable importance under the Romans, and on their departure was
captured by the furious Picts. It has been a city of sieges. Egfrid of
Northumbria rebuilt it in the seventh century, and granted it to St.
Cuthbert, but the Danes sacked and plundered it. William Rufus again
rebuilt and fortified it, but David, King of Scotland, captured the
place, and died within its walls in 1153. Two more sieges it again
endured, and was at length taken in 1217. Here came Edward I.
frequently on his marches to conquer the Scots, and held Parliaments
here, and near here he died. A goodly company of nobles hastened here
to do homage to his son. After the disaster of Bannockburn Robert
Bruce besieged Carlisle, and had his quarters in the Cathedral, which
is outside the city walls, but he failed to gain the city. The Bishops
of Carlisle were sometimes warlike men, and took the field against the
dread invaders from the north. The old castle has seen much of
fighting, and it had a notable prisoner in the person of ill-fated
Mary Queen of Scots. A long siege, lasting eight months, took place in
the Civil War time, and in that time terrible damage was done to the
Cathedral, as we shall see. Again, in the rebellion of 1745, "Bonnie
Prince Charlie" captured the place, and there was a great flourish of
trumpets, or rather bagpipes, until the king's forces came and put an
end to the poor campaign. The Cathedral was again used as military
quarters, and the prisons of the castle tell the sad story of the fate
of the rebels.

The ecclesiastical history of Carlisle reflects its civil history. As
we have said, St. Cuthbert of Lindisfarne and his successors ruled
over this city and district for many years. When William II. restored
the city and raised the castle, one Walter, a noble and wealthy
priest, who was left as governor by the king, set to work to build a
church and priory. But death stayed his hand, and Henry I. completed
the task, and established here a monastery of Augustinian canons in
1121. In 1133, on the advice of Thurstan, Archbishop of York, he
established a see here, and Udelulf became the first bishop. The
Cathedral, begun by Walter and finished by Henry I., was of the usual
Norman character. Its plan was cruciform, and it had a nave with
aisles, transepts with a low tower at the crossing. The architect was
Hugh, Bishop (1218-1223), formerly Abbot of Beaulieu, Hants, who
brought with him to Carlisle the traditions of a splendid style of
architecture. In the early part of the thirteenth century the Norman
choir was taken down, and rebuilt in the Early English style. Two
fires did much damage, especially the one that raged in 1292. The work
of rebuilding was at once commenced, and a more imposing plan was
projected, but a long time elapsed before it was completely carried
out. At length, about the middle of the fourteenth century, the choir
was completed in the Decorated style, a new triforium, clerestory roof
and east end being erected. The Late Decorated east window, which was
finished at this time, is one of the most beautiful in the world. Fire
again injured the Cathedral in 1392, especially the north transept,
which was restored by Bishop Strickland (1400-1419), who also rebuilt
the tower above the roof, and crowned it with a wooden spire. The
monastery was dissolved at the Reformation, and a Cathedral
establishment formed, consisting of a dean and canons. In Mary's reign
Owen Oglethorpe was made bishop, who, "being a good-natured man and
pliable," according to Fuller, crowned Queen Elizabeth, "which the
rest of his order refused to do." He was, however, deprived on account
of "certain principles of stubbornness instilled into him." The Civil
War did terrible damage to the Cathedral. During the siege Puritan
soldiers were quartered in the sacred building, "who did after their
kind," and, moreover, after the capture of the city, in order to
repair the fortifications, they pulled down a great portion of the
nave, and used the stones for that purpose. In the rising of 1745
Charles Edward, the Pretender, as we have said, occupied Carlisle, and
installed in the Cathedral, as bishop of the see, a Romanist named
James Cappoch. When the Duke of Cumberland arrived and recaptured the
city, Cappoch allowed himself to be taken prisoner, and was hanged.
The church was again used as a barracks, and many of the poor Jacobite
prisoners were confined here.

Since then there have been sundry restorations, some very deplorable,
one about the middle of the eighteenth century, which were happily
effaced, as far as possible, by the work of the middle of the
nineteenth. But the hand of the restorers has fallen rather heavily
upon the beautiful work of the choir, and destroyed much of its
delicate beauty. The architects of 1850 had not yet learned to respect
the antiquity of the buildings which fell into their hands to restore,
and Carlisle and many other churches have suffered much from their
drastic treatment.


THE EXTERIOR

A good view is obtained from the castle. The usual approach is from
the east end, whence we observed the grand east window with its
beautiful Late Decorated tracery. It is flanked by buttresses, with
niches and crocketed pinnacles. In the niches are statues of SS.
Peter, Paul, James and John. A floriated cross crowns the gable, and
on each side are four similar crosses. In the gable is a triangular
window, having three trefoils, and below is a niche with figure of the
Virgin. The _Central Tower_, built by Bishop Strickland (1400-1419) on
the old Norman piers, is too small for the huge choir, and lacks
dignity. Formerly it was crowned with a wooden spire, but this has
been removed. There is a turret set at the north-east angle, and in
the north side is a niche with the figure of an angel. The lower part
of the _Choir_ is Early English, with the exception of a Perpendicular
window at the west, and a Decorated one in the east bay. The
_Clerestory_ is Late Decorated, and the windows have flowing tracery.
The ball-flower ornament is extensively used in the cornice. The
sculpture at Carlisle is worthy of notice. Carved heads and curious
gargoyles abound. The _North Transept_ is nearly all modern. It was
rebuilt by Strickland in the fifteenth century, and again rebuilt when
the church was restored. There is, however, an Early English window in
the west wall. On the east side there was formerly a chapel, which has
not survived the repeated alterations. The greater part of the _Nave_
was taken down by Cromwell's soldiers. What is left is of unmistakable
Norman character. There is some modern imitation work, and late
architectural detail. Most of the windows are modern, and also the
doorway. The west end is the result of modern restoration. The south
side is similar to the north. The _South Transept_ preserves the old
Norman walls. On the south is a modern doorway with a window over it.
On the east is _St. Catherine's Chapel_, a Late Early English or Early
Decorated building. The south side of the choir is similar to the
north, and presents Early English details of construction. The
monastic buildings once stood on the south side of the church, but
they have been pulled down with the exception of the fratry and
gatehouse, the stone being used for repairing the fortifications of
the city by Puritan soldiery. The refectory, or fratry, was rebuilt in
the fifteenth century, and is now used as a chapter-house. There is a
fine reader's pulpit here. The gateway was erected by Prior Slee in
1527. The Deanery is a fine old house, and was formerly the prior's
lodging. It was rebuilt in 1507.

[Illustration
    Carlisle
    from S E]


THE INTERIOR

The _Nave_ was formerly used as the Parish Church of St. Mary, and was
filled with high pews and galleries. These have all been cleared away,
and it is possible to admire the plain and massive Norman building,
which now, alas! consists of only two bays, the rest having been
destroyed in the Civil War period. Before that act of vandalism there
were eight bays. The work before us, for the most part, belongs to the
earliest church, begun by Walter, finished by Henry I. about 1130.
Formerly a low ceiling shut out the triforium and clerestory from our
view, but this, too, has happily been removed. The piers are low (14
feet high, 17 feet in girth), the arches being semi-circular, some of
the capitals having evidently been carved later with some Early
English foliage. The triforium consists of plain, open, round-headed
arches, and is a little later than the main arcade. The clerestory has
in each bay three arches, resting on shafts with carved capitals. The
west end is modern. The tattered colours of the Cumberland Regiment
tell of the Indian Mutiny, and there is a window in the south aisle to
the memory of the men who died in that melancholy time. Sir Walter
Scott was married in this nave, when it was a church, in 1797, to Miss
Margaret Charlotte Carpenter. The font is modern and also the organ.

The _North Transept_ was rebuilt by Bishop Strickland in the fifteenth
century, and its north end was again rebuilt in modern times. Here a
large modern window of Decorated design has been erected in memory of
five children of Archbishop Tait, who died here of scarlet fever when
Dr. Tait was dean. In the west wall is an Early English window, which
is a good example of plate-tracery. The arch of the choir aisle is
Decorated; the roof is modern. Crossing over to the south transept we
notice the piers which support the _Tower_. These are Norman, and
have additional columns erected by Bishop Strickland when he rebuilt
the tower. The latter have foliated capitals, and are in the
Perpendicular style. On the capitals of the eastern arch are the
badges of the Percy family--the crescent and fetterlock. The most
famous scion of this house--Hotspur--was governor of Carlisle. On the
western side are the rose and escallop shell, badges of the Dacres and
Nevilles.

The _South Transept_ is both narrow and shallow, being only one bay in
length. The east side is Norman work; there is an arch with zigzag
ornament and cushion capitals, opening into the choir aisle. A second
Norman arch opens to St. Catherine's Chapel. The window and door on
the south are both modern, and have much elaborate decoration, which
is scarcely in keeping with the Norman work surrounding it. The
triforium and clerestory resemble those of the nave. _St. Catherine's
Chapel_ stands on the site of a Norman chapel, and is in the Early
Decorated style or Late Early English. It was founded by John de
Capella, a wealthy citizen, and is now used as a vestry. The screen is
Late Decorated, and is of great beauty. The doorway between the aisle
and chapel formerly led to a well, now closed. "A similar well exists
in the north transept, but has been long covered. Besides supplying
water for the use of the church, such wells may have been of special
service in border churches, which, like this of Carlisle, served as
places of refuge for the inhabitants in cases of sudden alarm or
foray" (Murray's Handbooks). The following monuments are in the
transepts:--

Robert Anderson, "the Cumberland Bard" (1833); Bishop Fleming (1747):
Prior Senhouse (_temp._ Henry VII.); and there is a curious Runic
inscription, written in Norse, which, being translated, is: "Tolfihn
wrote these runes on this stone."

We now enter the _Choir_ by the door in organ-screen. This is one of
the finest in England--spacious, lofty, well-proportioned and rich in
all its details. The arches of the main arcade are Early English, as
the mouldings and dog-tooth ornament testify. These remained after the
fire of 1292, and were retained. The piers are Early Decorated, and
were evidently built to support the arches after the fire. The
capitals were carved later in the Late Decorated period, when the
upper parts of the choir, triforium, clerestory, roof and east end
were rebuilt. The builders were probably Bishops Welton and Appleby
(1353-1395). When the choir was rebuilt in Early English times, the
architect determined to enlarge it, and as the monastic buildings on
the south prevented any expansion in that direction, the south piers
of the choir retained their old position, while the north were moved
further northward, and a new north aisle added. Thus the choir and the
tower and nave are not quite symmetrical, and there is a blank wall at
the north-west end of the choir which is thus accounted for. The
details of the architecture of the choir merit close attention,
especially the sculpture. Small figures of men, animals and monsters
are mingled with the foliage. There are some admirable representations
of the seasons, beginning with the second capital on the south,
counting from the east end. There is a very fine timber roof,
constructed about the middle of the fourteenth century. The scheme of
colour decoration is, unfortunately, not original. The _East Window_
is one of the finest Decorated windows in the kingdom. The stone-work
is new, but it is believed to be an exact reproduction of the
original. It has nine lights. The glass of the upper portion is
ancient, dating from the reign of Richard II. It represents the
Resurrection, Final Judgment and the New Jerusalem. Hell is depicted
with the usual mediæval realism. Below is modern glass, representing
scenes from the life of our Lord. The _Stalls_ are Late Perpendicular,
erected by Bishop Strickland, and are excellently carved. The
tabernacle work is generally attributed to Prior Haithwaite (_circa_
1433). There are some quaint and curious _misereres_, the carvings
representing grotesque monsters, such as dragons and griffins, fables
such as the Fox and the Goose, and a great variety of subjects. A
Renaissance screen, erected by Salkeld, the last prior, divides the
west bay of the presbytery from the north choir aisle. The altar,
throne, lectern and pulpit are modern. There is a fine brass to the
memory of Bishop Bell (1495) on the floor of the choir.

Passing to the _North Choir Aisle_ we notice the Early English
character of the arcade and windows. The latter have two lights, and
have deep mouldings and dog-tooth ornament. The wall arcade is
particularly graceful. The last bay eastward was built when the east
window was erected, and is Late Decorated, and in the last bay
west-ward there is a Perpendicular window. The vault was constructed
after the fire of 1292. The two sepulchral recesses in the north wall
are remarkable. They are of Early English character, and have a
chevron moulding which is said to be unique. It is conjectured that
the effigy in one of these recesses is that of Silvester of Everdon
(1254), and that the other was intended for Bishop Hugh of Beaulieu,
who died in Burgundy. In another bay is an aumbrey wherein treasures
of plate and other valuables were stored. There is a late brass to the
memory of Bishop Robinson (1416), formerly Provost of Queen's College,
Oxford. Archdeacon Paley (1791), the learned divine whose _Evidences
of Christianity_ is still a divinity text-book at Cambridge, lies
buried here. The curious paintings on the back of the stalls, of late
fifteenth-century execution, always interest visitors to the
Cathedral. They illustrate the lives of St. Anthony and St. Cuthbert,
with descriptive verses under each scene, and there is a set of
figures of the Apostles with the words of the Apostles' creed
traditionally assigned to each. The _Retro-Choir_ is very narrow and
is of the same date as the window. Bishop Law's monument is here
(1787), carved by T. Banks, R.A. The _South Choir Aisle_ resembles
that on the north. The two western windows are later than the Early
English ones in the opposite aisle. There are monuments here of Bishop
Waldegrave (1869), Bishop Barrow (1429) (or Welton, 1362), Bishop
Goodwin (1891), Dean Close (1882).

The screen here is like that opposite by Prior Gondibour, who did so
much to decorate his Cathedral, and to whom the paintings are
assigned. The back of the stalls on this side has a representation of
scenes from the life of St. Augustine, or, as curious descriptive
verses call him, the "gret doctor Austyne."


DIMENSIONS

    Length of nave                            39 ft.
    Breadth of nave                           60 ft.
    Height of nave                            65 ft.
    Length of choir                          134 ft.
    Breadth of choir                          72 ft.
    Height of choir                           72 ft.
    Height of tower                          112 ft.
    Area                              15,270 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     Norman (1092-1130)--South transept, piers of central tower,
           part of nave.
     Early English (1219-1260)--Walls and windows of choir aisles,
           part of main arcade of choir, St. Catherine's Chapel.
     Early Decorated (1292)--Part of main arcade of choir.
     Late Decorated (1353-1395)--Upper part of choir, east end and
           roof.
     Perpendicular (1400-1419)--Upper part of tower.



NEWCASTLE CATHEDRAL


The See of Newcastle was created in 1882, as the result of the
spiritual expansion of the Church of England which caused the
formation of so many new sees. In the days when England and Scotland
were separate kingdoms, and when wars between the two countries were
not infrequent, Newcastle occupied a position of great strategic
importance. Here was a strong castle--the "new castle"--founded by
Henry II. on the site of an older structure built in 1080 by the son
of the Conqueror. It was the mightiest castle in the north of England,
and its keep is one of the finest specimens of Norman military
architecture remaining in the country. In this fortress Baliol was
brought to do homage for the crown of Scotland to Edward I. The keep
is still standing, and also the chapel, a fine specimen of Late Norman
architecture. Many Roman remains have been found here.

The Cathedral was formerly the old Parish Church of St. Nicholas. The
style is principally Late Decorated. An older church was burned down
in 1216. It consists of nave, aisles, chancel and transept. The total
length is 245 feet, and the width 128 feet. The transept is
Perpendicular in style, and so is the fine tower with spire built in
1474, which is the principal feature of the church. Frequent
restorations have taken place and a very extensive renovation was
effected in 1876 at a cost of £30,000. Admiral Collingwood, the
comrade of Nelson, is buried here.

The Norman Church of St. Andrew and the Church of St. John of the
fourteenth century, with an ancient font, are the principal old
churches in the town, and also the chapel of 1491 attached to Trinity
House. The old Saxon churches of Jarrow and Monk Wearmouth are in the
neighbourhood.



DURHAM CATHEDRAL


Durham Cathedral is one of the grandest buildings in the world.
Standing upon the summit of a lofty hill, which rises abruptly from
the River Wear, its position is one of surpassing beauty, and the
dignity of the building, its massive walls and towers, and the
interesting associations which cluster round the venerable pile, make
it one of the most superb edifices in this or any other country.

The story of Durham carries us back to the very early days of
Christianity. In spite of the efforts of Paulinus the Saxons of
Northumbria were still heathen until Oswald became king in 634, who
was converted to Christianity by the monks of Iona, where a monastery
had been founded by Columba, an Irish saint. Desiring to benefit his
people, Oswald sent to Iona, and under St. Aidan a colony of monks was
founded at Lindisfarne, or Holy Island. St. Cuthbert, the Patron Saint
of Durham, succeeded, who died in 687. After the lapse of nearly two
centuries the coast was harassed by the attacks of the Danes, and the
monks fled from Lindisfarne, bearing with them their most precious
relics and with these the body of St. Cuthbert. They wandered far and
wide with their holy burden; a hundred years elapsed; generations of
monks passed away; but the bones of the saint knew no rest. For a long
time they tarried at Chester-le-Street, which became the seat of the
Northumbrian bishopric; but still the savage Northmen threatened them
with danger, and at last in 995 the wearied monks found a shelter on
the lofty and impregnable rock where the Cathedral now stands, the
abiding resting-place of St. Cuthbert's bones. On the outside of the
church there is the figure of the Dun Cow, which is associated with
their wanderings. It was revealed to one of the monks that Dunholme
was to be their final home; but not knowing where this place was, they
were in much distress. However, they heard a woman inquiring about her
lost cow, to whom her companion replied that it was at Dunholme. "That
was a happy and heavenly sound to the distressed monks," says the
chronicler, "and thereupon with great joy they arrived with the
saint's body at Dunholme in the year 997." Here they raised a church
of boughs to cover their precious treasure and then a stone building,
and then Bishop Aldwin "raised no small building of stone-work for his
Cathedral church, when all the people between the Coquet and Tees
three years were at work, and were paid for their pains with treasure
in heaven, than which there was never a dearer or cheaper way to build
churches." Around this holy house the city began to grow, which owes
its importance and very existence to the monastery.

Troublous times followed the advent of the Conqueror. Exasperated by
the tyranny of the favourites of Walcher, the first Norman prelate,
the people set fire to the church and slew the bishop. Then followed
William de St. Carileph, who founded the present church. He expelled
the secular clergy, and introduced the Benedictine rule. For the part
he took in the rebellion against William Rufus he was exiled for three
years, and lived in Normandy. Animated by the sight of the beautiful
churches which there abounded he resolved to erect a more glorious
edifice on the rugged hill of Durham, and on his return commenced the
work. The foundation stone was laid in 1093. He began to build the
east end of the choir, and continued the walls as far as the first
arch of the nave. After his death in 1096, the prior and convent
continued the building until the advent of Bishop Flambard
(1099-1128), who carried on the work and nearly finished the nave,
aisles, western towers and doorway. The chapter-house was erected by
the next bishop, Galfrid Rufus (1133-1140). Bishop Hugh Pudsey
(1153-1195) built the Galilee Chapel. In 1229 Bishop Poore, the
builder of Salisbury, was translated to Durham; he discovered the
unsafe condition of the eastern apsidal walls of his church, and
determined to erect the beautiful Chapel of the Nine Altars, which is
such a charming specimen of Early English architecture. He did not
live to carry out his design, which was continued after his death
under the rule of Prior Melsanby. The priors of Durham rivalled the
bishops in their zeal for perfecting their noble Cathedral. Prior
Darlington erected a belfry, and Prior Fossor part of the monastic
buildings and the west windows of the nave in 1342. Bishop Skirlaw
(1388-1405) was the chief builder of the present cloisters. In 1429
the tower was struck by lightning, and was rebuilt under the direction
of Prior Bell.

[Illustration Durham Cathedral]

The church was now complete, but like most of our cathedrals it has
suffered from the evils of "restoration," and Wyatt, the
destructive architect of the eighteenth century, was allowed to do
much damage. We shall notice his handiwork as we examine the details
of the building. There seem to have been great disputes between the
bishop and the monks, and the peace of this solemn sanctuary was often
disturbed by angry quarrels and open violence. Sometimes the Scots
made incursions, and on one occasion William Cumin seized the castle
and committed great ravages. In the time of Bishop Hatfield was fought
the great battle of Neville's Cross, when, by the aid of St. Cuthbert
and his banner, the English won the day, and a hymn of thanksgiving is
still sung every year on the top of the tower. The choir used to sing
on all the four sides, but on one occasion a choir-boy fell, and ever
since they only chant the hymn from three sides.

The Bishops of Durham were great men, holding the rank of temporal
princes or Counts Palatine. Their courts were independent of the king,
and they could coin money and live as they listed. Moreover, many of
them were mighty warriors. Bishop Anthony Bek took part in the
Scottish wars, and had a vast army of knights and men-at-arms. It was
not until the year 1836 that the dignity of Count Palatine was removed
from the holders of the Durham See. Cardinal Wolsey was bishop here
for six years, but never set foot in his diocese. The monastery was
suppressed by Henry VIII., and a dean and chapter appointed. Many
learned and good men have held the See of Durham, and the names of the
last two bishops--Lightfoot and Westcott--will always be held in
esteem.


THE EXTERIOR

As we approach the church from the Palace Green we notice the grand
Norman building, which is much the same as when Bishop Carileph left
it. At the east end there is the Early English Nine Altar Chapel, at
the west the Galilee; the upper portions of the towers, the north
porch and a few windows are the only additions, and the whole
appearance of the church is at once bold, stern and commanding.

The _Central Tower_, the work of Prior Bell, was built in 1471. The
Bell Ringer's Gallery divides it into two portions, with two windows
in each, the lower ones being glazed and the upper louvred. The
panelled work, the ogee-shaped labels and the surmounting parapet
proclaim their Perpendicular style.

Two _Octagonal Towers_ of Norman character rise at the north corners
of the north transept. The _Western Towers_ are Norman as far as the
level of the nave roof, the upper portion being added in the
thirteenth century, and the pinnacles and parapets at the end of the
eighteenth. We have already alluded to the construction of the east
end, which replaced the apsidal termination of the original building.
The famous rose window is in the gable of the east end, and beneath
are nine lofty lancet windows. Notice the sculpture of the Dun Cow in
the north angle of the Nine Altars, placed there in 1775.

The _Porch_ was built by Wyatt, and we can endorse the decision of
Canon Greenwell, Durham's great historian, that "in its present
condition it is a most unworthy and discreditable portal for so
magnificent a temple as that into which it ushers the worshipper." The
woodwork is ancient, and here we see the famous sanctuary knocker,
which criminals used when they wished to gain an entrance and secure
the rights of sanctuary from mob violence or secular law. Two porters
were employed in watching for fugitives, and directly the refugee
knocked he was admitted, clad in a black cloth gown, with a yellow
cross on his left shoulder, conducted to a chamber near the south door
of the Galilee Chapel, and given shelter for thirty-seven days.

At the west end there is the _Galilee Chapel_, of Late Norman work,
which covers the west door, over the main entrance. This door, walled
up by Cardinal Langley in the fifteenth century, and re-opened in
1845, was made by Flambard (1099-1128). It has thirteen detached
cartouches, each having an animal or flower within it, and is adorned
with chevron ornament. The window was inserted by Prior Fossor
(1342-1374), and contained coloured glass, represented "the Stem of
Jesse," which was destroyed at the Reformation. In 1867 Dean
Waddington restored the glass, reproducing the old design. The
arch-destroyer, Wyatt, actually proposed to remove the Galilee Chapel,
and make a carriage drive to the west door; but happily his nefarious
design was frustrated.

There are two south doorways; the one opposite the north door, known
as the Monks' Door, was erected by Bishop Pudsey, and has fine
carvings of floral and other designs upon the arches and columns. The
mouldings and sculptures are most profuse, the zigzag and double
chevron and diaper being extensively employed. The leaf pattern is
observed on the arch, and the iron-work of the door is a fine specimen
of Norman workmanship. The other doorway, known as the Prior's Door,
is of the same date, but the carving is much decayed.

We will now examine the _Cloisters_, enclosed on the north by the
walls of the Cathedral, on the south by the refectory, on the east by
the chapter-house, deanery and south transept, and on the west by the
dormitory, now, together with the refectory, used as the library, and
beneath it the so-called crypt, which was the common hall of the
monks. The present buildings were erected by Bishop Skirlaw in the
early years of the fifteenth century, the refectory being restored at
the Restoration. A stone laver or conduit stood in the centre of the
cloister erected in 1432, the basin only remaining.

The _Chapter-House_ was a victim to Wyatt's misdoings, and the greater
part was pulled down by him. It has, however, been recently restored
in memory of Bishop Lightfoot, and is a noble chamber, having an
apsidal termination at the east end, an arcade of interlacing arches
running round the wall, and round-headed windows.

The library and museum contains many objects of great interest,
including a number of Roman altars and tablets, Saxon crosses and
carved stones, remarkable for their beautiful scroll-work. There is
the famous Ruthwell cross, memorial crosses of the four last Saxon
bishops, Hadrian stone from the Roman wall, the monastic dining-table,
a remarkable treasure-chest, with five different locks and keys,
and--most interesting of all--the remains of St. Cuthbert's coffin,
his robes, and other relics taken from his tomb. Amongst these we
notice his stole and maniple and pectoral cross. In another case we
see three rings of the first Norman bishops, and the crozier of Bishop
Flambard. Durham has many interesting MSS., amongst others the Book of
the Landisfarne Gospels, brought away by the monks when they fled from
Holy Island, which fell into the waves and still retains the stains of
sea water; a MS. of the seventh century, which once belonged to the
Venerable Bede, and the Bede Roll (1456 and 1468), containing a list
of all the religious houses in England and abroad which were asked for
prayers for the souls of Priors Ebchester and Burnaby. The roof is
remarkably fine.


THE INTERIOR

As we stand at the west door we get a magnificent view of this noble
edifice, with its grand Norman cylindrical pillars, 23 feet in
circumference, some adorned with zigzag furrows, others
lozenge-shaped, with narrow ribs, or spiral, and arches round and
carved, with rolls and chevron moulding. The capitals are cushioned,
and cut octagonally. Above is the triforium, composed of large arches,
enclosing two smaller ones, with cushioned capitals; and higher still
the clerestory, composed of single round-headed windows, surmounted by
the vaulting ribs, adorned with chevrons. This nave and aisles were
built by Bishop Flambard (1099-1128). The roof of stone vaulting was
finished in 1133, and Durham is said to be the only Cathedral in
England which retains the original stone Norman vaulting over the
nave.

[Illustration The Galilee Chapel]

The _Sanctuary Chamber_, wherein the hunted fugitives from justice
found a shelter, formerly stood near the south door of the Galilee
Chapel, but all traces have been removed. The font is modern, the
subjects carved on it representing scenes from the life of St.
Cuthbert. The canopy was erected by Bishop Cosin in 1663.

The internal north doorway should be examined, especially the
beautiful foliage-work. In the lozenges and mouldings there are some
strange creatures represented--a centaur shooting with bow and arrow,
a boy being whipped, a man riding a lion, and other curious subjects.

Before proceeding eastward we will see the Galilee Chapel, which was
the Lady Chapel, a beautiful specimen of Late Norman work, erected by
Bishop Pudsey in 1175. Lady chapels usually stand at the east end, but
no women were allowed to enter churches dedicated to St. Cuthbert, who
has been accused of misogyny. We notice in the nave a boundary stone,
beyond which no female foot might go in the direction of the high
altar. We mark a change in the style of architecture from that used in
the nave. The arches and columns are lighter, with graceful capitals,
on which the volute appears. The style is approaching that of the
graceful period of Early English. Cardinal Langley (1406-1437) made
extensive alterations in this chapel, heightening the walls, erecting
a new roof, inserting Perpendicular windows, closing the west door of
the church, and making two other entrances. All visitors will approach
with reverence and interest the tomb of the Venerable Bede, the great
Anglo-Saxon scholar, and the father of English history. His bones were
once covered with a splendid shrine, which the iniquitous
commissioners of Henry VIII. destroyed. Now a plain marble slab, with
the inscription:

    "_Hac sunt in fossa Bædæ Venerabilis ossa,_"

alone marks the grave of this illustrious man. The altar of the Virgin
stood in the great western doorway, which was then walled up, of which
the stone slab carved with the five crosses, the aumbrey and some
colouring alone remain. The builder of this chapel, Cardinal Langley,
lies buried here, and his monument remains. Some much-damaged mural
paintings mark the site of the Altar of Our Lady of Pity. The
paintings are supposed to represent St. Oswald and St. Cuthbert. There
is some uncertainty about the origin of the name "Galilee." Most
probably it arose from the custom of the monks to go in procession at
certain times around the church, and to halt at certain stations in
memory of our Lord's appearance after His Resurrection. His last
appearance was on a mountain in Galilee; it is therefore not
improbable that the place where the procession made its final halt
should receive that name. Here in ancient times the consistory court
held its sittings, and here the commissioners of Henry VIII. met and
destroyed, or appropriated, the rich store of treasures, the
vestments, plate and ornaments which had been given to the Cathedral
by countless generations of pious benefactors. Again entering the nave
in the south aisle, we see the Neville monuments, which have been much
mutilated by the Scottish prisoners, or during the Reformation period.
Between the fifth and sixth pillars is an altar tomb to the memory of
Lord John Neville and his wife Matilda (1386), daughter of Hotspur.
The matrix of the brass of Bishop Robert Neville (1438-1457) is in
front of this. In the next bay is the altar tomb of Lord Ralph
Neville and his wife, Lady Alice (1374), who founded the Neville
Chapel. Holes in the pillar show where the iron grating stood which
divided the chapel from the rest of the church, and in this enclosure
there was "an altar with a fair alabaster table above it, where Mass
was daily celebrated." Traces of the colouring which once adorned this
beautiful chapel can still be seen.

Leaving the nave, we enter the _Transepts_, which were part of
Carileph's work. The large window in the north transept was inserted
by Prior Fossor (1341-1374), and is in the Decorated style. Prior
Castell in 1512 restored the window, and filled it with coloured glass
representing the four doctors--SS. Augustine, Ambrose, Gregory and
Jerome. Hence it is known as the Window of the Four Doctors. In the
south transept is the large Perpendicular _Te Deum_ window, erected
about 1450. Some of the glass is ancient, but the greater part was
inserted in 1869 in memory of Archdeacon Thorp. Altars stood formerly
in the aisles at the north and south extremities of the transepts.
Traces of colour may still be seen, and the remains of some brackets
which contained sculptured figures. Chantrey's fine monument of Bishop
Barrington (1791-1826) stands in the south transept.

The whole of the lantern _Tower_ is of the Perpendicular style, and
was probably built by Prior Bell (1464-1478). A gallery surrounds the
lower stage, supported by grotesque heads. The Tudor flower ornament
may be observed on the string-course over the panelling. The screen is
modern, and was designed by Sir Gilbert Scott. Passing into the choir,
the earliest part of the building, we see the Norman work of Carileph
blended with the later Early English style. As we have already
noticed, the east end of the Norman church terminated with apses.
These were subsequently removed. The whole choir comprehends four
pillars on each side, two of them clustered and two round, the latter
of which are cut in a spiral form. The roof was new vaulted by Prior
Horton, who succeeded in 1289, the ribs of the vaulting being
decorated with the dog-tooth mouldings. The work around the altar is
all Early English. Clustered pillars divide the nine altars from the
choir, decorated with foliage.

In the year 1650 a large number of Scottish prisoners were confined in
the Cathedral, who did much damage to the internal fittings. In order
to gain fresh air, or for love of mischief, they broke most of the
windows, and the holes in the floor in the south transept show where
they made their fires for cooking their meals. Another mark of their
presence was the destruction of the woodwork of the choir, which they
doubtless used for firewood. At the Restoration Bishop Cosin erected
the present stalls. The _misereres_ are worthy of remark--lions,
mermaids, monsters, apes, peacocks and dolphins being the most
striking subjects. The modern lectern and pulpit are both very
beautiful, the former being designed after the ancient lectern
described in the _Rites of Durham_.

The altar-screen is very graceful and beautiful, and was originally
erected by Lord Neville of Raby in 1380, and much restored in 1876. It
was originally painted, and the 107 niches were filled with images.
The matrix of an immense brass to the memory of Bishop Beaumont
(1318-1333) is seen near the altar steps. It must have been one of the
largest brasses in England, and resembles the immense one at Lynn,
Norfolk. The choir is paved with mosaics similar to those of the
Confessor's Chapel at Westminster.

[Illustration The Bishop's Throne]

The magnificent tomb of Bishop Hatfield (d. 1381) is on the south side
of the choir. He is habited in his episcopal dress. The outer garment
is the chasuble, and beneath it the linen alb or surplice. His hands
are covered with episcopal gloves, embroidered on the back; on his
left arm is the maniple. The tomb was originally gilded and coloured.
Above is the throne erected by him, the highest in England. The
monument of Bishop Lightfoot stands opposite.

The _North and South Aisles of the Choir_ are similar in their
architectural features to the choir itself, showing the blending of
the stately Norman with the graceful Early English work. The monks
used frequently to resort to the north aisle, where was a porch having
an altar, with a rood and pictures of St. Mary and St. John, where
they sang Mass daily. Certain holes in the stone mark the place of the
porch, sometimes called the anchorage. Bishop Skirlaw's tomb stood
between the third and fourth piers, before the old altar of St. Blaze.
His monument has disappeared, but the stone bench remains, erected by
him for his almsmen to sit upon. In the _South Aisle_ the doorway of
the great vestry remains, though the building was destroyed in 1802.
The grave cover of the Prior of Lytham, a cell belonging to Durham, is
preserved here. Here also stood the famous Black Rood of Scotland,
captured from King David Bruce of Scotland at Neville's Cross (1346).

And now we will enter the _Chapel of the Nine Altars_, at the extreme
east of the building. It was commenced in 1242, and the architect was
Richard de Farnham, probably a relation of Nicholas de Farnham, then
bishop. Prior Melsanby (1233-1244) presided over the erection of the
building, and the name of the master-mason is preserved on an
inscription: _Thomas Moises_. We notice the nine-lancet windows (under
each of which stood an altar separated from its neighbour by screens
and partitions of wainscot); the large rose window, "restored" by
Wyatt; the beautiful arcade, with its trefoiled arches and deeply-cut
mouldings, raised on slender shafts of marble, and surmounted by
capitals. The altars were dedicated (beginning on the south side) to
St. Andrew and St. Mary Magdalene; St. John the Baptist and St.
Margaret; St. Thomas à Becket and St. Catherine; St. Oswald and St.
Lawrence; St. Cuthbert and St. Bede; St. Martin and St. Edmund; St.
Peter and St. Paul; St. Aidan and St. Helen; St. Michael, the
Archangel.

Forty years were consumed in building this chapel, and the style
developed as the work progressed. The north end was finished last, as
we see from the noble double-traceried window, one of the finest in
existence. The south windows are Perpendicular. Among the monuments
are those of Bishop Bury, tutor of Edward III. (1345), and Bishop Bek
(1310), and Bishop Van Mildert (1836), the last of the prince
bishops.

Behind the high altar is all that remains of the famous shrine of St.
Cuthbert, once the glory of Durham, where countless pilgrims came to
pay their devotions and offerings, and seek the protection of the
saint. The cavities in the floor are said to have been worn by their
feet. The grave of the saint was opened in 1827, and the vestments and
other relics taken from it are kept in the library, and have already
been described.

On the south of the church is _the College_, containing the Deanery
and prebendal houses. The gate is an interesting structure, built by
Prior Castell in 1515.


THE CASTLE

William the Conqueror in 1072, when Walcher was bishop, on his return
from Scotland, ordered the castle to be built, which was continued by
Carileph and Flambard. Bishop Pudsey erected a new wall and a hall
which bears his name, and Bishop Bek built the hall on the west of the
courtyard. Bishop Hatfield rebuilt the keep. Tunstall's Gallery
(1530-1558) connects the great hall and clock tower, and his chapel is
remarkable for its beautifully-carved stalls. At the Restoration the
castle was in a ruinous condition. It had been sold to the Lord Mayor
of London. The Scots had plundered it; and Bishop Cosin set to work to
rebuild and repair the home of his predecessors. In 1840 the keep was
rebuilt, and the castle is now the seat of the University of Durham.

The most interesting _Churches_ in the city are St. Mary le Bow
(rebuilt 1685); St. Mary the Less (Norman, but much "restored"); St.
Oswald (1190, with many subsequent rebuildings); St. Margaret (1154);
St. Giles (1112).

About four miles from Durham are the beautiful ruins of Finchale
Priory, which was commenced in 1240 and finished about a century
later. The Priory was suppressed at the Reformation.


DIMENSIONS OF THE CATHEDRAL

    Total length, 470 ft.; length of nave, 201 ft.; width of nave with
aisles, 60 ft.; height of nave, 72 ft.; length of choir, 133 ft.;
length of Nine Altars Chapel, 131 ft.; height of west towers, 144 ft.;
height of central tower, 218 ft.; area, 44,400 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     Norman (1093-1140)--nave, choir, aisles, west towers, doorways,
chapter-house; (1153-1195)--Galilee Chapel. Early English
(1238-1275)--Nine Altars Chapel, choir vault. Decorated
(1342-1346)--window in north transept and west windows of nave.
Perpendicular (1386-1500)--cloisters, dormitory, central tower;
(1661-1684)--library.

[Illustration PLAN OF DURHAM CATHEDRAL]



RIPON CATHEDRAL


The historical associations of Ripon carry us back to very early
times. Alcfrid, Prince of Deira, was lord of the soil in the seventh
century, and in 660 bestowed on Eata, Abbot of Melrose, a portion of
the ground at Ripon whereon to erect a monastic foundation. After the
expulsion of the Scottish monks the same prince gave the monastery to
St. Wilfrid, who, after he became archbishop, erected a church. This
was of the basilican type, with which St. Wilfrid had made himself
familiar during his sojourn in Italy. With the earlier monastery was
associated the holy Cuthbert, who was the Hostillar. Wilfrid was
ordained at Ripon, and here he resided when his episcopal seat was
usurped by Ceadda (or Chad). The site of the old monastery was on the
north-east side of the present Cathedral, bounded by Stammer Gate and
Priest Lane. Wilfrid built his new monastery about 200 yards west of
the old buildings. There is some doubt about the position of his
church. It is the pronounced opinion of the learned that the famous
Saxon crypt under the present church is really his work. Did he build
an earlier church, and that which stood over this crypt later?
Possibly so--but, in all probability, we may conclude that the
monastic buildings only occupied the site on the west of Stammer Lane,
and that his church stood over his crypt. This church was a very
famous one. It is recorded that he brought workmen from Italy, who
wrought in the Roman manner. It was fashioned after the model of a
basilica, and constructed with wrought stones from the foundation, and
had divers pillars and porticoes. It was dedicated to St. Peter, and
splendid was the feast of the dedication. Here St. Wilfrid, after all
the trials of his wandering life, was buried. For a brief space Ripon
enjoyed the rank of an episcopal city, being so raised by Archbishop
Theodore, and then for a thousand years the see was in abeyance, until
in 1836 another Bishop of Ripon was appointed.

But much happened during this long interval. When the Danes terrified
the land, in 995, came Bishop Aldune, bearing the body of St.
Cuthbert, and stayed here three months until they set out and found
peace at Durham. Before this Odo of Canterbury, coming into these
northern parts, had pity on the desolation of Ripon Church, wrought by
the "harrying" of Eadred of Northumbria in 948, and caused a new work
to be edified where the minster now is. After the Conquest hard was
the hand of William pressed upon his northern subjects, who liked not
his yoke, and all this land was devastated by the Norman conquerors.
But with the Conquest came peace, and soon some building was evidently
set on foot here, though the chroniclers are silent. In later Norman
times Archbishop Roger de Pont l'Evêque (1154-1181) began the building
of the existing church, incorporating some portion of the older
structure. His work is Transitional, and furnishes a good example of
the gradual development of Early English style. Archbishop Walter de
Grey (1216-1255) carried on the good work and built the west front
with its flanking towers, adorned with lofty spires of timber and
lead. The next alteration was carried out at the end of the thirteenth
century, when Archbishop John Romanus determined to rebuild the
eastern part of the choir, and for this purpose granted an indulgence
of forty days to those who should help forward the work. This work was
in all the glory of the Decorated style. The Scots made a ferocious
raid in 1319, when the people of Ripon took refuge in the church,
which suffered much from the attacks of the enemy. Archbishop de
Melton repaired some of this damage, which was chiefly confined to the
roofs, screens, stalls, and other woodwork, and Archbishop Thoresby
(1352-1373) was very eager to continue this restoration and beautify
the minster. He probably built the Lady Chapel. A century elapsed,
during which the clergy do not seem to have been remarkable for zeal
or earnestness, and then the lantern tower was so much shaken and
broken that the greatest part thereof had already fallen, and the rest
expected to follow, and speedy remedy was found immediately necessary.
Archbishop Booth in 1459 adopted the usual and efficacious plan of
granting an indulgence of forty days to all who should assist in
re-edifying the steeple. The work was immediately begun, and a great
era of church building was inaugurated. The canons awoke from their
lethargy and worked vigorously. They rebuilt much of the tower, and
then set themselves to entirely rebuild the Norman nave, which was in
great decay and ruin. It was a great work, and nobly done. The fall of
the tower had broken much of the woodwork of the stalls; so these
indefatigable canons made new ones. It was only the dissolution of
the Establishment which checked their progress, and prevented them
from finishing their work. The church was despoiled of all its wealth,
and in Elizabeth's time, when Archbishop Sandys applied for an
endowment, he could obtain "nothing but fair and unperformed
promises." Elizabeth loved not this northern town, the people of which
clung to the "old Religion," and took an active part in the rising of
1569. Many of them were hung for their pains. James I., however,
restored the constitution of the collegiate chapter, and granted to it
many of its old privileges and an assured income. During the Civil War
Ripon escaped fairly well, save that the Puritan soldiers broke much
of the beautiful glass in the east window, and perhaps were guilty of
causing other damage, of which history telleth not. In 1660 the wooden
spire, which had suffered by lightning in 1593, fell, and damaged the
roof of the choir. This was repaired, and the other wooden spires on
the west towers removed lest they, too, should fall. Since then there
have been several restorations. In 1861 the church was placed in the
hands of Mr. Scott, afterwards Sir Gilbert, who made a very complete
renovation of the building, the details of which we will examine when
we inspect the Cathedral.

[Illustration Ripon Cathedral from North Evening]

In 1836 an episcopal see was erected at Ripon, and Charles Langley,
afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, became its first bishop.


THE EXTERIOR

Although Ripon is not a Cathedral of the first magnitude or splendour,
yet it is a stately structure, and greatly superior to many of our
ecclesiastical buildings. It possesses also some features of profound
interest, and the story of its building is attractive. Approaching the
church from the market-place by Kirkgate we see the beautiful _West
Front_, which compares favourably with most others, except perhaps
York, Lincoln, Peterborough and Wells. It has much dignity and beauty.
It consists of a gable between two square towers. The nave, built by
Archbishop Roger, was Late Norman or Transitional, and to this
Archbishop Grey added this façade in the best and purest period of the
Early English style. In the lowest storey are three deeply-recessed
doorways, with detached shafts. Round and hollow mouldings are used,
and the dog-tooth ornament, the hall-mark of the Early English style,
is plentiful. The doors are old. Above are five-lancet windows, and
above them another row of five lancets of unequal height. The
dog-tooth is used in the mouldings. The towers have four stages. In
the lowest is an arcade of trefoiled arches, and above lancets.
Nail-head moulding is used in the string-courses. When the spires were
pulled down in 1660, battlemented parapets were added, and later the
pinnacles. The whole front has been much restored. There is a fine
peal of ten bells in the south tower. There were formerly some old
bells, one of which is said to have been brought from Fountains Abbey,
but these have all been recast, and their interest has vanished. The
nave has six bays, and was built in Perpendicular style in 1503. The
south side is earlier than and superior to the north. The arches of
the windows are less acutely pointed, and the buttresses have three
stages, are crocketed, and have large finials. The pitch of the roof
has been lowered since the nave was built.

[Illustration The Great Buttresses Ripon]

The _Central Tower_ was rebuilt on the south and east sides in
Perpendicular times, while the north and west retain Roger's work. It
was formerly capped by a spire. Returning to the north side we see the
north side of the nave, which is later than the south. There are six
buttresses, which project widely and have two stages with crockets and
finials, and grotesques. The arches of the windows both in the aisles
and clerestory are very acute, and those of the latter have five
lights. From this point we see the original faces of the central
tower, built by Roger (1154-1181), which has round-headed windows. The
presence of dog-tooth shows the approach of the Early English style.
The _North Transept_ is also part of Roger's church and the best
example of his work; it has round-headed windows. The parapet is
later. We notice two sculptured stones in the north-west buttress,
with rich scroll-work, evidently Saxon, and probably taken from
Wilfrid's church. The doorway in the north side is remarkable, having
a plain trefoil head rising from a corbel-like projection, and is
flanked by three receding detached shafts with foliated capitals. The
_Choir_ has three bays of Transitional Norman work, but the windows
are Decorated. The remainder of this side was built late in the
thirteenth century and is Decorated. The east end, with its grand
window, is very fine. Massive buttresses stand on each side of the
front with octagonal turrets. In the north turret there is a small
chamber which was probably a reclusorium. The east window is flanked
by heavy buttresses. The gable was rebuilt by Scott. The window (51
feet by 25 feet) is a magnificent specimen of Early Decorated work,
one of the finest in England. On the south side we see the three
eastern windows are Decorated as on the north, but the rest are
Perpendicular. On this side is a building which retains some of the
earliest Norman work in the Cathedral, probably built by Thomas of
Bayeaux, archbishop (1069-1100). This building has three storeys--a
crypt, the chapter-house and the Lady Chapel (erected in the
fourteenth century), which we shall examine later. The _South
Transept_ retains much of Roger's Transitional work, but the east side
was altered and rebuilt in Perpendicular times. On the south side is a
fine doorway contemporary with the transept and resembling somewhat
that on the north.

[Illustration The Apse Ripon Cathedral]


THE INTERIOR

Entering by the west door we see a fine and imposing _Nave_, with tall
and graceful piers that support without any intermediate triforium a
range of lofty windows of elaborate tracery. This nave was constructed
in the Perpendicular period, as we have said, and the main arcades
stand on the foundation of Roger's earlier church. The latter had no
aisles. These the sixteenth-century builders added, taking as their
western starting-point the northern and southern extremities of the
west tower. Hence the nave is unusually wide (87 feet), and exceeds
all other cathedrals except York, Chichester, Winchester and St.
Paul's. There are many points of architectural interest. The west bays
opening into the tower are Early English. On either side is a lofty
thirteenth-century arch, with plain mouldings, and capitals deeply
undercut. Above is a blind arcade of four arches enclosed in a
circular arch--this occupies the triforium stage; and the clerestory
has a triple window, the centre round-headed, the side ones pointed.
The west end, with its ranges of lancets, is most effective. The glass
is modern. The next bay shows us clearly the character of Roger's
church, and eastward we come to the Perpendicular work of the early
sixteenth century, which appears to be earlier than it really is. The
traditions of the earlier style lingered on amid the hills and dales
of Yorkshire, while the architects and townsfolk of less remote places
had developed the more familiar details of the Perpendicular period.
The roof is modern. The arch of the tower facing us is part of Roger's
church, but there is a curious mass of masonry on the south pier which
was erected by the Perpendicular builders, when want of funds or the
dissolution of the chapter prevented the completion of the design. The
contrast between the materials of the old building and the new in the
nave will be noticed. The former is fashioned of yellow gritstone, the
latter of white limestone. The aisles are Perpendicular work erected
about 1503. The vaulting is modern. In the south aisle is the font, or
rather there are two fonts. The earlier one reposes in the corner, and
is Roger's work; the later is Perpendicular. Ripon is not very rich in
monuments. In this same aisle there is a curious altar tomb with a
slab of grey marble, upon which is carved the figure of a lion and
near it that of a man kneeling. Tradition states that it covered the
body of an Irish prince, who died here on his return from Palestine,
whence he had brought a lion that followed him like a dog. There is
some old glass, fragments of which have been collected in the window
near the font. In the _North Aisle_ at the west end is the consistory
court. The old _Saxon Crypt_ deserves close attention and has
occasioned many conjectures and much antiquarian disputing. It is
undoubtedly very early, and may with safety be assumed to have been
part of St. Wilfrid's church. After descending several steps and
passing along passages, which have two niches in the wall, we arrive
at a cylindrically vaulted chamber (7 feet by 11 feet), and on the
north side is the famous "St. Wilfrid's Needle." Formerly the
superstition attached to it was that no unchaste woman could with
safety pass through it; now we are told that if a virgin "threads the
needle" she will be married within a year. This needle is only an
enlargement of one of the niches which were doubtless used for lights.
Recent excavations have been made here, which revealed the remains of
an altar, a passage round the chamber, and a quantity of bones which
were probably relics. It is conjectured that this was a relic chamber,
and was built under the church of Wilfrid. It is impossible to touch
upon all the interesting problems which this curious chamber suggests,
especially as affecting the position and form of Wilfrid's early Saxon
church.

The _Transepts_ retain, with the exception of the east wall of the
southern member, Archbishop Roger's Transitional work, when Norman
architecture was slowly developing into Early English. There is a
niche on the east side of each transept. A Perpendicular arch forms an
entrance to the _North Transept_ from the north aisle, and on the
north of this is a round-headed window. The triforium has two broad
arches in each bay with a central detached shaft, while the clerestory
has three arches, the centre round, the others pointed. In the north
wall there are three round-headed windows in the highest stage. The
mullions in the windows in the second stage are later insertions. On
the east is the Chantry of St. Andrew, the Markenfields' Chapel.
Outside the aisle is the effigy of Sir Thomas (1497), with that of his
lady, and another Sir Thomas lies in the chapel (notice the armour and
collar). This family lost its estates in the rising in the time of
Elizabeth. Also there is the monument of Sir Edward Blackett of Newby
(1718). The _South Transept_ resembles the north, except that its east
side is Perpendicular. The aisle is called the Mallorie Chapel, and
there is a tablet to the memory of Sir John Mallorie of Studley, who
defended Skipton Castle for Charles I. There are some ancient mural
paintings, which may be seen when going to the library.

The _Choir-Screen_ is Perpendicular, and has beautiful enriched
tabernacle work. Above the door is a representation of God the Father
with angels. Above the screen is the organ. The _Choir_ is a
delightful architectural study, as the work of three periods are
blended here--Transition Norman, Decorated and Perpendicular. The
three western bays on the north are Roger's work, Transitional Norman.
The three bays opposite were injured by the fall of the tower and
renewed in Perpendicular style. The rest of the choir was renewed in
the Decorated style of the fourteenth century. The three bays on the
north resemble the work in the transept. The group of vaulting shafts
is very fine. The triforium openings are glazed like the clerestory. A
change was made in Perpendicular times. Before the triforium arches
opened into the aisles, but the roof of these was lowered in 1459, and
the openings filled with glass.

There is some of Roger's work in the other bays, the earlier work
being altered and converted into that of the Decorated style. In the
clerestory there is tracery on the inner side of the opening as well
as the outer. The foliage of the carving is very beautiful. The roof
is modern, but some very interesting ancient bosses have been
re-inserted. Some of the subjects are:--the Good Samaritan, the
expulsion from Paradise, the Virgin with lilies, the crucifixion
(modern), a bishop, a king, an angel. The east window is remarkably
fine, one of the best Decorated windows in England. All the old glass
was destroyed by Cromwell's soldiers, and the modern glass is but a
sorry substitute.

The woodwork of the _Stalls_ is for the most part of excellent
fifteenth-century execution. Rich tabernacle work rises at the back of
the stalls. Several of the eastern canopies are modern. The finials
are curious; some represent an elephant and castle with figures of men
fighting, and a monkey. The _misereres_ are interesting; the carvings
represent many curious grotesques, fables and Scripture subjects. We
notice Samson carrying the gates, Jonah and the whale, fox and geese,
lion and dogs, griffins and rabbits, etc. The _sedilia_ should be
noticed. They have been restored, but much old work remains of Late
Decorated style. A close examination of the grotesques should not be
omitted. The pulpit and lectern are modern.

The _North Choir Aisle_ follows the architecture of the choir. Here
once stood the famous shrine of St. Wilfrid. The _South Choir Aisle_
is very similar to the opposite one. Here is a lavatory, and a piscina
at the east end marks the site of a former altar. Above the west bay
was a chantry chapel, now used for part of the organ. There is a
monument in this aisle to Dean Fowler (1608). On the south is the
_Chapter-House_ and _Vestry_. The _Crypt_ below formed part of the
Early Norman church existing here before the rebuilding by Archbishop
Roger. It is generally attributed to Thomas of Bayeaux (1070-1100).
The vault is supported by square pillars with plain capitals. The
windows have a double splay, which is a sign of almost Saxon work. The
east end is apsidal. This crypt was formerly filled with bones. There
are some interesting stone coffins preserved here.

Returning to the _Chapter-House_ we notice the stone benches where the
canons once sat in conclave. The vaulting is very fine, of Late
Transitional work, almost Early English. This chamber was built by
Roger. An arcade runs along the north wall. The windows are circular,
the piers round, and have circular bosses and capitals. Some curious
fifteenth-century alabaster carvings are preserved here, the subjects
being St. Wilfrid, the Coronation of the Virgin and the Resurrection.
The _Vestry_ is evidently of the same date as the chapter-house, and
once formed part of the same building, the partition wall being much
later. It has an apse with the remains of an altar and the treasury
occupied the apse on the south. Above these chambers is the _Lady
Loft_, the date of which is uncertain; it was probably built about
1330, and is Decorated in style. It is strange to find a Lady Chapel
in this position. The room is now the library. It possesses some
interesting incunabula and a few MSS.


Dimensions

    Total length                            270 ft.
    Length of nave                          133 ft.
    Breadth of nave                          87 ft.
    Height of nave                           88 ft.
    Length of choir                          95 ft.
    Height of tower                         110 ft.
    Length of transept                      130 ft.
    Area                             25,280 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     Saxon--Wilfrid's crypt.
     Norman (1070-1100)--Portions of chapter-house, vestry and
           crypt below.
     Transition (1154-1181)--Three bays of north side of choir,
           portions of nave, piers adjoining west and central towers,
           transepts.
     Early English (1215-1255)--West front and west tower, vaulting
           of chapter-house and windows.
     Early Decorated--Two eastern bays of choir and east window.
     Perpendicular--South and east sides of central tower, east side
           of wall of south transept, two bays south side of choir, nave.

Ripon has some other important and interesting ancient buildings.
There is the _Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene_, rebuilt in 1674, with
an old chapel of the twelfth century. The Hospital of St. Anne,
founded in the fifteenth century, though rebuilt in 1869, has its old
chapel, with piscina and altar stone, and there are many other old
houses in this city. Near here is the famous Fountains Abbey.



YORK CATHEDRAL


Few cities can rival York in interest, dignity and importance. The
ancient city of Roman Cæsars, the centre of Saxon Christianity, of
Danish supremacy, of mercantile enterprise, the abode of kings, the
seat of an archbishopric that long contended for supremacy with
Canterbury, York may well claim a foremost place in English history,
and possesses features of peculiar interest. Professor Freeman stated
that "Eboracum (York) holds a place which is unique in the history of
Britain, which is shared only by one other city in the lands north of
the Alps (Treves)." Here the Emperor Constantius died, here
Constantine the Great was crowned. Bishops of York were present at the
Councils of Arles (314), Nicæa and Sardica, and when the Christian
faith died out, killed by Pagan Saxons, Paulinus taught again the
lessons of the holy Cross, and baptised Edwin, the king, in a little
wooden church which stood on the site of the present Cathedral. Then
Christianity died down, killed by the onslaughts of fierce Paganism,
until at length, under the influence of Oswald and the monks of Iona
and Lindisfarne, the Cross again triumphed. There was much contention
between the Roman faction, led by Wilfrid, and the upholders of the
native church, as regards customs and observances, and the influence
of Wilfrid predominated. Wilfrid was a great builder, restored the
Cathedral at York and erected large churches at Ripon and Hexham. The
Danes overran Northumbria, and under their rule York increased its
importance and became a large and flourishing city.

Then came the Norman Conquest, and we find Ældred, Archbishop of York,
crowning William at Westminster, but his people liked not the change
of rulers and rebelled. The Conqueror came and ruthlessly crushed the
revolt, and after his wont erected a castle to overawe his subjects.
Again they rebelled; the king swore deep vengeance, and terrible was
the punishment inflicted on the northern kingdom. He appointed Thomas
of Bayeaux archbishop, who set about repairing the ruined church, and
built a new nave with side aisles and transepts, using the old church
as a choir for the new. For years the question of the supremacy of
York or Canterbury disturbed the ecclesiastical affairs of England,
and on one occasion at a council the Metropolitan of York, finding his
brother of Canterbury occupying the seat of honour at the right of the
Papal legate, gravely sat down on the latter's lap. In the reign of
Henry II. came Roger de Pont l'Evêque, who built the new choir and
crypt, removing the remains of the old Saxon church.

The people of York have ever been eager for fighting, revolt and riot.
Sometimes we find them killing Jews; now disputing with the monks of
St. Mary's Abbey, because some offending citizen had escaped their
vengeance by claiming the right of sanctuary; now fighting against the
Scots, and even rebelling against rulers who were obnoxious to them.
Kings of the House of Lancaster were especially hateful, and nowhere
in the kingdom did reformers of religion find more bitter opponents.

During the rule of Walter de Grey, archbishop (1216-1255), the Norman
transepts were removed and the present ones built, and in the reign of
the Edwards the old Norman nave was replaced by the present one, and
the chapter-house built. At this period York enjoyed much prosperity.
The Scottish wars brought kings here who made it the military and
civil capital of the whole country. Parliaments were held here. York
Minster saw the marriage of Edward III., and the burial of his infant
son. But rebellions against the kings of the House of Lancaster, the
famous Pilgrimage of Grace against the reformed doctrines, and other
risings, diminished its influence and deprived it of many privileges.
York was besieged for six weeks during the Civil War, and suffered
much; but happily General Fairfax exercised a restraining influence on
his soldiers and prevented them from damaging the Cathedral. Although
the citizens at the Reformation rebelled against the "new Religion,"
at the Restoration they rebelled against the overthrow of Puritanism;
and again, when James II. endeavoured to restore Roman Catholicism,
they rebelled again, attacked the Roman Catholic prelate whom the king
sent to them, wrested from him his silver-gilt crozier, and took it in
triumph to the minster, where it remains until this day.

We will now briefly trace the history of the building, which has been
rightly called "the King of Cathedrals." In 627 Paulinus built his
little wooden church for the baptism of King Edwin. A year later a
stone church was begun, which was finished by Oswald and repaired by
Wilfrid. In the crypt are some of the walls of this early church,
which show the "herring-bone" work of Saxon builders. When the
Conqueror besieged York much destruction was wrought on this church.

[Illustration Tomb of Archbishop Walter de Grey]

In 1070 Archbishop Thomas of Bayeaux built the Norman nave and
transepts, and used the old church as the choir. The apse in the crypt
and the core of the tower piers are the remains of this work.

In 1154-1181 choir and crypt were rebuilt by Roger in Late Norman
style.

In 1230-1260 the present transepts were built.

In 1291-1324 Norman nave was taken down and the new nave built, and
also the chapter-house, vestibule, sacristy and treasury. In 1338 the
west front of nave was erected.

In 1361-1400 choir rebuilt and Lady Chapel.

In 1400-1423 central tower built in place of Early English lantern.

In 1433-1474 north and south-western towers built.

The Cathedral was now complete. At the beginning of the sixteenth
century the organ-screen was erected, and two disastrous fires in 1829
and 1840 necessitated considerable repairs, and in 1875 some needful
restoration of the south transept was carried out.


THE EXTERIOR

The _West Front_ is "more architecturally perfect as a composition and
in its details than that of any other English cathedral," and is
unquestionably the best cathedral façade in this country. The lower
part, with the entrances and lower windows, belongs to the Early
Decorated period. Above the windows the work is Late Decorated, and
the towers above the roof Perpendicular. Numerous niches cover the
surface. It is doubtful whether they ever contained statues. The
principal entrance is divided by a clustered pier, and above it is a
circle filled with cusped tracery. Over the whole doorway is a
deeply-recessed arch, and over that a gable with niches, one of which
contains the statue of an archbishop, supposed to be John le Romeyn,
who began the nave in 1291, and other niches have figures of a Percy
and a Vavasour, who gave the wood and stone for the building. The
favourite ball-flower ornament of the Decorated style is seen on the
gable, and the mouldings in the arches have figures representing the
history of Adam and Eve. Above the entrance is a large eight-light
window, pronounced by many to be too large even for York Minster,
containing very elaborate and beautiful tracery, and over it is a
pointed gable. On each side of the west window are buttresses covered
with panelling and niches. The noble towers, rising on each side of
the west front, have buttresses similarly adorned, and each three
windows, and over the second an open battlement forms a walk along the
whole front. The towers have battlements and pinnacles. The south-west
tower (1433-1457) was injured by fire in 1840; and the north tower
(1470-1474) has the largest bell in the kingdom.

[Illustration Chapter House Herbert Railton]

The _Nave_ is divided into seven bays by high buttresses, on the south
side crowned with pinnacles. It was evidently originally intended to
connect them with the clerestory wall by flying buttresses to support
a stone vaulted roof. But the builders were alarmed by the great span
of the roof and substituted a wooden vault. Hence the flying
buttresses were not needed. There are some curious gargoyles. The
north side is plainer, as formerly the Palace would conceal any
elaborate carving. The style is Decorated.

The _South Transept_ (1216-1241) is of Early English design. The
central porch is not remarkable, though the clustered shafts are very
fine, ornamented with dog-tooth ornament. On each side are lancet
windows, and above similar windows; higher still a large rose window,
and in the gable a cusped triangular light. Arcaded buttresses with
octagonal turrets rise on each side. Extensive restoration took place
in 1871, when the old clock was removed.

The _Choir_ and _Lady Chapel_ are Perpendicular work. The four eastern
bays, constituting the Lady Chapel, are earlier than the later ones of
the choir, and vary in detail. The triforium passage in the former is
outside the building, and the windows are recessed. Strange gargoyles,
with figures of apes and demons, adorn the buttresses. The east end is
mainly filled with the huge window, the largest in England, which does
not leave much space for architectural detail. Above it is the figure
of Archbishop Thoresby, the builder of this part of the Cathedral.
Panelling covers the surface of the stone, and below the window is a
row of seventeen busts, representing our Lord and His Apostles, Edward
III. and Archbishop Thoresby. There are two aisle windows; buttresses
adorned with niches separate the aisles from the central portion, and
others, capped with spires, stand on the north and south of this
front.

The _Chapter-House_ (Early Decorated) is octagonal, and connected with
the north transept by a vestibule, which shows by its architectural
details that it was built after the completion of the chapter-house.
These constitute the finest examples of Decorated Gothic in England.
Buttresses project at each angle, crowned with pinnacles. Curious
grotesque gargoyles are seen, and amongst them some strange-looking
bears. The roof is in the form of a pyramid, and there is a battlement
surrounding it.

The _North Transept_ (1241-1260) is a beautiful specimen of Early
English work. The five long lancet windows, called the "Five Sisters,"
surmounted by the seven lancets in the gable, are most effective.

The _Central Tower_ is the largest in England, and is in the
Perpendicular style (1410-1433). It is 200 feet high. It has windows
ornamented with ogee gables, and its surface is covered with niches
and panelling. A pair of narrow buttresses support each angle of the
tower, decorated with panelling. This tower is one of the greatest
achievements of the fifteenth-century builders, and is one of the
finest in the world.


THE INTERIOR

_The Nave._--The first impression on viewing this nave is a sense of
its magnitude. Archbishop Romeyn and his builders determined to build
a vast church which would eclipse all other rivals. They would have
large windows, high, towering piers, a huge, vaulted roof, and
everything that was grand and impressive. Edward I. was then fighting
with the Scots, and made York his chief city. It was immensely
prosperous, and the ecclesiastical treasury was replete with the
offerings of knights and nobles, kings and pilgrims. Nowhere should
there be so mighty a church as York Minster. In order to have space
for large windows they made the triforium unusually small, which is
formed only by a continuation of the arches of the clerestory windows.
The design for the stone vaulted roof was never carried out. The
builders feared that the great weight of a roof with so large a span
would be too much for the walls, so a wooden vault was substituted.
The piers have octagonal bases, and consist of various sized shafts
closely connected. The capitals are beautifully enriched with foliage
of oak and thorn, and sometimes a figure is seen amidst the foliage.
We notice thirty-two sculptured busts at the intersection of the hood
moulding with the vaulting shafts. Coats of arms of the benefactors of
York appear on each side of the main arches. The clerestory windows
have each five lights. The old roof was destroyed by fire in 1840. The
present one has a vast number of bosses representing the Annunciation,
Nativity, Magi, Resurrection, besides a quantity of smaller ones. The
whole scheme of decoration is most elaborate.

[Illustration North Aisle of Choir Herbert Railton]

The west window is a noble specimen of Decorated work, with its
curvilinear tracery, one of the finest in the kingdom. It has been
entirely restored. There are eight lights. It was glazed by
Archbishop Melton (1317-1340). Niches and arcading cover the west
wall. The pinnacles are carved with figures of men and animals, and
also the brackets of the niches. The aisles have stone vaulting,
windows Decorated like the west window, carved panels and arcading
work. Over the north doorway are some sculptured figures of doubtful
signification. The walled-up door which led to the Chapel of the Holy
Sepulchre has a headless figure of the Virgin. Here is a tomb of an
archbishop of Late Perpendicular work, with Tudor flower cornice. All
the other monuments have been destroyed. Over the south aisle door are
three sculptured representations of David killing the lion, Samson and
the lion with Delilah cutting his hair, and a man and woman fighting.
The glass of the windows should be especially noticed. Most of it is
either Decorated or Early English.

The _South Transept_ is the earliest part of the present Cathedral
(1230-1241). The finest view is obtained on entering by the south
door. The extraordinary magnitude of the transepts, the five lancets
with their old glass, and the beauty of the Early English
architecture, are most striking. The triforium is not dwarfed as in
the nave, but assumes large proportions, whereas the clerestory is
small. The former consists of semi-circular moulded arches, with
dog-tooth ornament, each enclosing two pointed arches, and sub-divided
into two similar arches. Five pointed arches in each bay constitute
the clerestory, with sculptured heads. Clustered shafts of stone and
Purbeck marble form the piers. The vaulting is of wood of the
fifteenth century, and the bosses are curious. A mermaid and merman, a
monk and a nun, look down upon us; an arcade of pointed arches lines
the walls. Chantry chapels were formerly in the east aisle. On the
south was Ludham's Chantry, archbishop (1258-1265). It contains the
large modern monument of Dean Duncombe. Next we see the Chapel of St.
Michael with the tomb of its founder, Archbishop Grey (1216-1255), the
builder of this transept, and near it the monument of Archbishop Sewal
de Bovill (1256-1258).

The _North Transept_ resembles the south, but differs in details.
Especially noticeable is the profusion of dog-tooth ornament, the
magnificent lancet windows, called the "Five Sisters," with the five
smaller ones over it. These are the largest ancient lancets in
England.[16] Curious grotesques are seen in the triforium moulding.
The monuments here are:--(1) a brass to the memory of soldiers slain
in India; (2) Archbishop Harcourt's tomb (1808-1843); (3) a skeleton
memorial of Thomas Huxby, treasurer (1418-1424); (4) Archbishop
Greenfield's tomb (d. 1315), which lies before the place where the
altar of St. Nicholas stood; (5) effigy of Dr. Beckwith (d. 1847).

In 1829 a disastrous fire occurred in the Cathedral, caused by a
lunatic incendiary named Martin. He hid himself on the night of the
fire behind the tomb of Archbishop Greenfield. There is a curious
doorway leading to the vestibule of the chapter-house of Decorated
style.

Entering the _Vestibule_ we notice the exact place where the Early
English builders finished their work, and the Decorated style begins.
The difference between the styles in the chapter-house and vestibule
shows that the former was erected first. It has a wall arcade, and
above are windows of curious tracery, filled with beautiful old glass.
The shafts of the arcade support trefoiled arches, with a cinquefoil
ornamented with a sculptured boss. Each boss and capital is
beautifully carved with foliage, amidst which the heads of men and
dragons appear. The glass is Early Decorated, and contains
representations of Royal personages.

The _Chapter-House_ is one of the most beautiful in England. The
entrance is an arch, divided into two arches by a canopied pier, which
bears a mutilated statue of the Virgin and Child. Clustered shafts,
with capitals, are on each side of the doors, which have remarkably
good scrolled iron-work. The chamber itself is very magnificent. It is
octagonal, and in each bay there are six canopied stalls under a
five-light window. The window tracery is superb. Clustered shafts
support the vaulted roof. Everywhere we see richly-carved stone-work,
the finest in any cathedral, the foliage of maple, oak, vine, and
other trees. Here are pigs and squirrels feeding on acorns, men
gathering grapes, birds, and coiled dragons and reptiles. The
grotesques are most curious and interesting. In 1845, unfortunately,
the building was restored, and the painted figures of kings and
bishops were destroyed, a poor tiled floor laid down; but, in spite of
all, it can still maintain its proud boast:--

    "_Ut Rosa flos florum,
    Sic est Domus ista Domorum._"

["As the Rose is the flower of flowers, so is this House the chief of
Houses."]

[Illustration The Ladye Chapel Herbert Railton 1899]

The _Choir-Screen_, erected in 1500, is good Perpendicular work,
and has figures of kings from William I. to Henry VI. The rebus of
the master-mason, Hyndeley (a hind lying) occurs in the capitals. The
canopies are richly carved. There is an ogee pediment, and a niche
with angels on each side, with censers. The Tudor flower is used as an
ornament, and plaster angels by Bernasconi were added in 1810. The
organ was erected in 1632.

[Illustration THE CRYPT]

_The Choir and Lady Chapel._--The Lady Chapel, occupying the four east
bays, was built in 1361-1405, the choir in 1407-1420. The style is
Perpendicular, though it follows the design of the nave; yet the
builders endeavoured to improve upon the earlier work and remedy its
defects. They were eminently successful, and produced one of the most
stately and magnificent choirs in England. The roof is made of wood,
like the nave, and has a large number of foliated bosses. A disastrous
fire in 1829 destroyed all the old carved stalls and _misereres_, and
the modern substitutes are fairly successful. The altar-screen is a
good reproduction of the ancient one, and the reredos was designed by
Street, with reliefs by Tinworth. The lectern was given by T. Cracroft
in 1686. The differences in the style of the clerestory windows in
the east and west portions will be readily noticed. Only in the
western part is the Perpendicular style fully developed. The east
window is the largest window in England, retaining its original
glazing, but in actual size it is surpassed by that at Gloucester. Its
height is 75 feet, and breadth 32 feet, and each compartment is a yard
square. The artist of the glass was one Thornton, of Coventry.

The Altar of the Virgin stood under this window, and here was a
chantry, founded by the Percys. There is a curious ancient carving,
much mutilated, of the Virgin and Child. Archbishop Bowet's Chantry
(1407-1423) was at the east of the south aisle, and his tomb is here,
the finest in the Cathedral, though much mutilated. There are many
monuments in the choir, which are too numerous to mention--the second
son of Edward III. (d. 1344), Archbishop Savage (d. 1507), Archbishop
Sterne (1689), Archbishop Scrope, beheaded by Henry IV., to whose tomb
there was great resort by pilgrims.

The _Crypt_ was mainly discovered after the fire of 1829. It has fine
Norman piers, part of Roger's Cathedral (d. 1181), and contains some
"herring-bone" work of Saxon architecture, the remains of Edwin's
church. The vestry has some very interesting antiquities: an old
Installation Chair, used at the consecration and enthronement of the
archbishops; an old treasury-chest; Prayer-Book and Bible, presented
by Charles I.; an old chained Bible; two _misereres_, left after the
fire; a pastoral staff of 1686; the famous Horn of Alphus, presented
before the Conquest, the title-deed to several acres of land held by
horn tenure; chalices and patens of the fourteenth and fifteenth
centuries; episcopal rings, and the bowl of the Cordwainers' Company,
formerly belonging to Archbishop Scrope.

The vastness of York Minster, with its forest of clustered pillars,
its unrivalled ancient stained glass, its importance as the
metropolitan church of Northern England, combine to make this splendid
Cathedral one of the most interesting in the kingdom.


OTHER OBJECTS OF INTEREST IN THE CITY

_St. Mary's Abbey_, in the Museum Gardens, founded by Earl Sward in
1050. The present buildings were erected, after a fire in 1137, in
1270, and the Abbey grew to become one of great wealth and
importance. The style is Decorated. On the site of the abbot's house
is the _King's Manor_, or _Royal Palace_, now used as a Blind School.
Near at hand is the _Multangular Tower_, which formed part of the old
Roman wall, and _St. Leonard's Hospital_, founded by King Athelstan in
936 A.D., and rebuilt by Stephen. The Museum is worthy of a visit, and
the _Hospitium_ of the old Abbey, which now contains a good collection
of Roman antiquities and carved stones from the Abbey.

_St. William's College_ (College Street), the famous abode of the
chantry priests of the Cathedral, founded in 1460, is now a series of
cottages.

The city walls should be visited, and the old gates--Mickelgate,
Walmgate, Monkgate, and Bootham Bar. The hall of the Merchant
Adventurers' Company is interesting, and Clifford's Tower, the keep of
the Conqueror's castle, celebrated for the Massacre of the Jews in
1190. Many of the churches are ancient, and have beautifully-carved
doors and interesting old glass. The Church of St. Mary the Younger
has a Saxon tower.

DIMENSIONS

    Total length                     486 ft.
    Length of nave                   262 ft.
    Breadth of nave and aisles       104 ft.
    Height of nave                    99 ft.
    Length of choir                  224 ft.
    Length of transept               223 ft.
    Height of central tower          198 ft.
    Height of western towers         196 ft.
    Area                      63,800 sq. ft.

For Building Dates _see_ page 312.

[Illustration PLAN OF YORK CATHEDRAL]

FOOTNOTE:

[16] We must except Lord Grimthorpe's modern innovations at St.
Albans.



BEVERLEY MINSTER


[Illustration Beverley Minster, the West Front]

Although Beverley is not a cathedral, its Minster is certainly worthy
of being ranked as such, and perhaps some day, when our dioceses are
again divided, it may have a bishop of its own. Of John of Beverley's
foundation want of space forbids us to write, or of the great
Æthelstan, who conferred great privileges on the place. Ælfric and
Archbishop Aldred were great builders, and did much for the Minster;
but in 1188 a great part of the church was destroyed by fire. The nave
seems to have escaped without much serious injury, and the monks set
about repairing the east end and building a central tower; but, after
the manner of towers, this one fell, and reduced the eastern arm of
the church to ruins. Then came the era of the great Gothic builders,
and early in the thirteenth century the monks began to rebuild the
east end of the church, the tower, and one bay of the nave, and nobly
did they accomplish their undertaking. They accomplished a work which
caused their Minster to rank with the best achievements of Early
English Gothic art, and we must look to Salisbury or the choir of
Lincoln to find anything equal to it. For many years the old Norman
nave remained. Nearly 100 years passed away, and then a new era of
building dawned. At the end of the first quarter of the fourteenth
century the monks set to work to rebuild the nave. Quickly the work
progressed, until the Black Death, which seems to have been especially
virulent in monasteries, laid low many of the builders. The noise of
the chisel ceased, until at length the monks resumed their work, and
built that crowning glory of their Minster, the noble west front. Such
was the history of the building of Beverley Minster. Since that time
little has been done, except to preserve the exquisite workmanship of
these early builders. The church suffered from neglect, and from the
evil genius and vile taste of the Georgian architects; but happily all
their monstrosities have been removed by Sir Gilbert Scott, who
restored the Minster to its ancient beauty.

[Illustration BEVERLEY MINSTER]

The _West Front_ is one of the finest examples of the Perpendicular
style in England. It consists of two towers, flanking a large window,
above which is a high gable, and below a deeply-recessed door. The
window has nine lights. The whole front is panelled, and the
buttresses are ornamented with various tiers of niche-work of
excellent composition and most delicate execution. These niches are
about to be filled with figures. We enter the Minster by the north
porch, which is a fine piece of Perpendicular work, with a parvise
over it. On entering the building we are struck with its great
loftiness and the consummate beauty of its architectural details.
As we have said, the _Nave_ is later than the choir, with the
exception of the first bay adjoining the tower. That one bay is Early
English; the rest is superb Decorated work. The ball-flower moulding
is conspicuous in the latter, the dog-tooth in the former; but there
seems to have been some attempt to assimilate the later work with the
earlier. The west end is Perpendicular, and the west window is a fine
example of the work of that period. The glass is modern. There is some
beautiful arcading in the aisles, that in the north aisle being more
developed Decorated than that in the south. The tomb of the "Sisters
of Beverley" in the south aisle should be noticed. It belongs to the
Decorated period, and possesses many features of interest. History is
silent as to the names of these sisters, who are supposed to have been
benefactors to the townsfolk. The tracery of the windows in the aisles
should be noticed, as it is remarkable for its gracefulness and
variety. The only relic of Norman work in the church is the font, near
the south door, which is of a somewhat late character. The _Transepts_
are of noble Early English construction. Tall lancets shed light upon
the exquisite architectural details displayed here. Each transept has
double aisles. The arcading of the triforium is curious, but
effective. In the tympanum of each trefoil arch there is a quatrefoil
and two semi-arches, which are completed by similar ones under the
next arch. The effigy and monument of a priest in the north transept
(fourteenth century) have some exquisite carving, and afford an
excellent study of ecclesiastical vestments. The _East End_ of the
church is entirely composed of Early English work, and without doubt
contains some of the best and most perfect architectural achievements
of the thirteenth century. The piers are composed of eight massive
columns. There is no triforium gallery, a very exquisite arcade taking
its place, similar to that in the transepts, consisting of trefoil
arches, ornamented with dog-tooth. Purbeck marble is extensively used
throughout the choir. The screen is modern. The choir stalls and
_misereres_ are scarcely surpassed by any in England. They belong to
the sixteenth century, and the designs represented on the latter are
extremely quaint and curious. Few churches have such a superb
_Altar-Screen_ as Beverley. It is Early English, but has been much
mutilated and robbed of its images, which now have been replaced by
good modern sculpture. It has also been decorated with glass mosaic
work. Near it, on the north, is the famous _Percy Tomb_, which is well
known to all students of architecture. It is very beautiful Decorated
work, and is generally considered to have no equal. It was erected
about 1338, and is to the memory of Lady Eleanor Percy, the wife of
the first Lord Percy. The carving is quite superb, the details of the
figure-sculpture being worthy of the closest attention. In the gable
is a figure of the Almighty receiving the soul of the deceased, who is
represented as being held up by a sheet supported by two angels. The
east transepts and retro-choir possess also some fine Early English
work, and is similar to that which has been described. In this
retro-choir stood the shrine of St. John of Beverley, which was
watched by a monk stationed in the watching chamber over the
altar-screen. Notice the frith-stool, seated in which the person who
sought sanctuary could defy the approach of his enemies and escape the
justice which doubtless he deserved. Beverley was a noted place for
sanctuary, and the records relating to this privilege are full of
curious interest. The _Staircase_ leading to the chapter-house, now
destroyed, is remarkably fine, and is certainly a very beautiful
feature of this wonderful church. The great east window is
Perpendicular, and has some ancient glass. On the north is the Percy
Chapel, founded in the fifteenth century; in it lies the body of one
of the Earls of Percy, who was cruelly murdered at the close of that
century.

[Illustration Percy Shrine Beverley Minster]



WAKEFIELD CATHEDRAL


The See of Wakefield was created in 1888. The enormous increase of the
population of England and the growth of the Church's work have
necessitated the multiplication of bishoprics and the division of many
of the ancient enormous dioceses. This is one of the sees which it was
found necessary to form. The old Parish Church of All Saints was
converted into the Cathedral, but it possesses few of the associations
and architectural beauties of our ancient minsters. It is, however, a
fine parish church. It was consecrated by Archbishop William de Melton
of York in 1329, but almost wholly rebuilt in the fifteenth century.
Its main features are, therefore, Perpendicular. It consists of a
chancel and large nave, with aisles. There is a clerestory, but no
triforium. At the west end there is a tower, surmounted by a fine
spire, rebuilt in 1860, the total height being 247 feet. A heavy
screen separated the nave from the chancel of Jacobean style, and the
organ and font belong to the seventeenth century. The whole building
was restored by Sir G. Scott at a cost of £30,000.

On the bridge across the Calder there is a beautiful little chapel or
chantry, dedicated to St. Mary (30 feet by 24 feet). This was built
and endowed by Edward IV. in memory of his father, Richard, Duke of
York, killed at the battle of Wakefield in 1460. It was restored in
1847. Near here was fought the famous battle between Queen Margaret,
wife of Henry VI., and the Duke of York, whom this chantry
commemorates. Wakefield was an ancient seat of manufacture, foreign
weavers being established here by Henry VII.

[Illustration Wakefield Cathedral Herbert Railton]

[Illustration Chantry Chapel on Wakefield Bridge Herbert Railton]



LINCOLN CATHEDRAL


The city of Lincoln has a history of profound interest. The first view
of its mighty minster rising above the lower houses of the city is
most impressive, and the whole place teems with historical
association. Professor Freeman states that Lincoln has "kept up its
continuous being through Roman, English, Danish and Norman conquests."
Before the advent of the Romans it was a British stronghold, and bore
a Celtic name--Lindum; and when the conquering legions came they made
it one of the chief towns of the empire, and honoured it with the rank
of a "colony"--hence Lin_coln_, "the colony of Lindum," thus
preserving its ancient name, and adding the title of its dignity. The
only existing Roman gateway in England is here, and the remains of a
basilica, mosaic pavements, altars, sepulchral monuments, testify to
the greatness of Roman Lincoln. The Anglo-Saxons wrought much havoc,
and devastated the city. Here came St. Paulinus in 627 A.D., and
converted the Pagan Saxons to Christianity. The fierce Danes attacked
Lincoln and made it their chief town, the principal member of their
League of the Five Towns (Leicester, Stamford, Derby, Nottingham and
Lincoln). Before the Norman Conquest it ranked fourth among the cities
of England. Then came William the Conqueror, who raised a castle and
made it the base of his operations against the northern counties.
Lincoln soon was raised to a position of great ecclesiastical
pre-eminence, when Remigius of Fécamp became the first Norman bishop,
and ruled the vastest diocese in England, extending from the Humber to
the Thames. The city was in the eleventh and twelfth centuries one of
the greatest trading towns in the country, the resort of traders both
of land and sea. Here King Stephen was vanquished and carried off a
prisoner to Bristol. Here King John received the homage of William the
Lion of Scotland. The din of wars and battles has often been heard in
the streets of Lincoln; in the Wars of the Barons against the young
King Henry III., the Wars of the Roses, and above all in the great
Civil War, when the city was stormed and sacked by the Roundheads.
Here Edward I. summoned his first Parliament. Here kings have held
their court and worshipped in the minster, and here a most formidable
insurrection arose in consequence of the arbitrary acts of Henry VIII.
and the destruction of the monasteries. The Bishops of Lincoln have
been men of great power and influence, and have played prominent parts
in the history of England. Such prelates as St. Hugh, Robert
Grosseteste, and many others have conferred honour on the see over
which they presided.

[Illustration The Potter Gate & Towers of Lincoln Cathedral]


HISTORY OF THE CATHEDRAL

The first Cathedral of Lincoln was built by Remigius, the earliest
Norman bishop, on the removal of the see from Dorchesteron-the-Thames
about 1074. Previous to this Paulinus had preached here, and converted
its prefect, Blaecca, who built a church of stone, which was probably
on the site of St. Paul's Church, the name being corrupted from
Paulinus. Stow village was the seat of the Lindsay Diocese until the
Danish invasion. Then Dorchester was the bishop's residence until
Remigius transferred his throne to Lincoln, and built a church "strong
as the place was strong and fair as the place was fair, dedicated to
the Virgin of Virgins." This church was ready for consecration on the
founder's death in 1092 A.D. It was cruciform, with a semi-circular
apse at the east end. The parts remaining are the central portion of
the west front with its three recesses, a fragment of the first bay of
the nave, and the foundations of the apse beneath the floor of the
choir. It was a massive stern Norman building.

The third Norman bishop, Alexander, called "the magnificent," after a
disastrous fire in 1141, restored the Cathedral "to more than its
former beauty." This Alexander was a nephew of Bishop Roger of
Salisbury, and during his time raged the war between Stephen and the
Empress Maud. The adherents of the latter held the Castle of Lincoln;
so Stephen seized the Cathedral and used it as a fortress. The
chroniclers tell us that Alexander "remodelled the church by his
subtle artifice," and made it the most beautiful in England. All that
remains of his work are the three western doorways inserted in the
arches built by Remigius, the intersecting arcade above the two side
recesses of the west front, and the three lower storeys of the west
tower, with their elaborately-ornamented gables facing north and
south. These were all in the Late Norman or Transition style.

A terrible earthquake wrought much damage in 1185, and grievous was
the condition of the church after this deplorable visitation. But
happily in the following year the famous St. Hugh of Avalon, near
Grenoble, was made Bishop of Lincoln by Henry II. He determined to
restore the ruined House of God, and began to build in 1192. Freeman
states that "St. Hugh was strictly the first to design a building in
which the pointed arch should be allowed full play, and should be
accomplished by an appropriate system of detail." Before his death in
1200 he built the choir and aisles and east (or smaller) transept,
with a portion of the east wall of the great transept. All architects
praise this beautiful work, the first development of the Early English
style, the earliest building of that style in the world.

The great transept was completed and the nave gradually carried
west-wards in the Early English style during the successive
episcopates of William de Blois, Hugh de Wells and Robert Grosseteste
(1203-1253). Of the nave, Freeman wrote: "There are few grander works
in the style of the thirteenth century than Lincoln nave, few that
show greater boldness of construction and greater elegance of detail."
To the same period we may assign the two western chapels, the arcaded
screen wall of the west front and its flanking turrets, the Galilee
Porch and the vestry, the two lower storeys of the tower, and
chapter-house. During the rule of Grosseteste, the two lower storeys
of the tower were built. This Grosseteste was a remarkable man, of
great learning and ability, defended the rights of the English Church
against the claims of the Papacy, and reformed many abuses in his
diocese.

Great sanctity was attached to the body of St. Hugh, which caused many
miracles. It was buried according to the wishes of this holy and
humble-minded man in an obscure corner of the Cathedral. In such
honour were his remains held that it was resolved to transport them to
a more distinguished place; hence it was decided to erect a large and
costly shrine, and the beautiful "Angel Choir" was erected for its
accommodation. This magnificent structure was built in 1255-1280, and
belongs to the period of Transition between the Early English and
Decorated styles, just when Gothic architecture was touching its point
of highest development. It is simply perfect in its proportion and
details. The translation of the body of St. Hugh was performed with
much pomp, and the ceremony was attended by the highest in the land,
King Edward I. himself being one of the bearers of the revered saint's
remains. The cloisters and vestibule belong to the Decorated period,
1296 A.D., of which they present a small but beautiful example. The
"Bishop's Eye," the large circular window of the south transept, was
erected in 1350. About the same period much was done to adorn the
interior. John de Welbourn, treasurer of the Cathedral, 1350-1380, set
up the beautiful choir stalls, erected the vaulting of the central and
west towers, with the internal panelling of the latter, and the row of
niches and regal statues over the great west door. The three western
windows and the upper stages of the west towers belong to a closely
subsequent period. In these works we see the transition from the
Decorated to Perpendicular style. Some of the chantry chapels are
purely Perpendicular.

At the Reformation great spoils of treasure were carried off by the
infamous Commissioners of Henry VIII., who purloined a goodly store of
jewels and nearly 9000 oz. of precious metals. They plundered the
gold shrine of St. Hugh and the silver shrine of Bishop Dalderby, and
left the Cathedral bare of all the treasures which the piety of
centuries had accumulated. The people of Lincoln liked not these
proceedings, and there was a formidable insurrection, during which the
church was used as a garrison. The advent of the Royal troops and the
execution of some of the leaders and several abbots suppressed the
revolt. A reforming bishop of evil memory, Henry Holbech, further
desecrated the church, destroying images and monuments, so that in
1548 there was scarcely a whole figure or tomb remaining. Further
terrible destruction took place in the Civil War, when the soldiers
broke the beautiful glass windows, tore up the brass memorials of the
dead, wrecked the Palace, and even threatened to pull down the
Cathedral, but were happily stayed from their mad enterprise by the
intercession of the Mayor, Mr. Original Peart, with Cromwell. After
the Restoration Bishop Fuller set to work to repair the destruction
which vandalism had caused, and although the hand of the "restorer"
has been felt on the fabric of this noble building, Lincoln still
maintains most of its ancient features, and remains one of the most
interesting cathedrals in the kingdom.


THE EXTERIOR

We will now walk round the building and note its chief architectural
features. Standing at the west end we will examine first the imposing
_West Front_. The central portion with its three recesses are parts of
the earliest Norman church of Remigius. It will be noticed that the
middle arch has been subsequently raised and pointed. A band of
curious sculpture runs across the front, representing scenes from
Bible history. They are of Norman character. Noah and the ark, the
Deluge, the expulsion from Paradise, scenes from the life of our Lord
and Hades are the most curious. The doorways are later than the
recesses, and were inserted by Bishop Alexander, "the magnificent,"
who also built the arcade of intersecting arches above the two side
recesses, and the three lower storeys of the towers, in the style of
Late Norman. The rest of the screen is Early English work, erected
1200-1250. Bishop St. Hugh had sketched the outline of the new church,
and his successors carried it out. Amongst them Bishop Grosseteste did
much good work, and his portion is distinguished by the lattice-work
ornament which appears in the gable of this front, proclaiming its
author. There is a row of Royal statues (William I. to Edward III.)
above the central door, which were erected by the treasurer, John de
Welbourn (1350-1380). The statue of St. Hugh surmounts the south
turret, and the Swineherd of Stow[17] the north turret. The three
large windows belong to the time of Henry VI., and at this time the
towers were completed, which are Perpendicular work, above the Norman
three storeys.

[Illustration Lincoln Cathedral Exchequer Gate.]

Turning to the south side of the church we see the unique chapel and
consistory court, and the curious grotesque popularly known as "the
Devil looking over Lincoln." Heavy buttresses support the nave, and
flying buttresses connect these with the clerestory. The _Galilee
Porch_ was built in 1230, and is cruciform. The name Galilee is
attached to chapels at Durham and Ely, and we have already referred to
the most probable conjecture with regard to its origin.[18] A
profusion of dog-tooth ornament appears here, the characteristic
moulding of Early English period. The muniment room is above the
porch. The _Central Tower_ is the finest in England, as it is the
highest (271 feet), though the spires of Salisbury and Norwich exceed
this altitude. Formerly it was capped by an immense timber spire,
blown down in the first year of the sixth Edward's reign. Lincoln has
suffered from falling towers as have other cathedrals. The two lower
storeys were built by Grosseteste in Early English style on the fall
of its predecessor in 1237. The lattice-work ornament so freely
employed in the work of this bishop is observable here. The upper
storey was begun by Bishop Dalderby in 1307 and finished in 1311 in
the Decorated style. The timber spire covered with lead rose to a
height of 524 feet, and was destroyed by a tempest. Storms and
tempests have beat upon this tower for centuries, and occasionally
have wrought mischief, but this has been from time to time remedied,
and it remains the grandest and most majestic in the world. It is the
abode of the famous "Great Tom of Lincoln," the fourth largest bell in
the kingdom, recast in 1835. It weighs over five tons, and is 21 feet
6 inches in circumference. The _Choir_ is the work of St. Hugh, the
earliest example of Early English. In the _Presbytery_ we see the
style developed to his most perfect form, and merging into the
Decorated period. The south doorway is especially worthy of notice,
with its fine sculpture and splendid tympanum representing the Last
Judgment. The Russell and Longland Chapels (Perpendicular) are on each
side of this doorway. We notice the magnificent Decorated window of
the Angel Choir, on the north side the Chapel of Bishop Fleming
(Perpendicular), a doorway of good design; and then we see the
chapter-house with its flying buttresses and pyramidal roof. On the
north side is the cloister garth and Deanery. The cloisters are
usually on the south side, and this position is uncommon. Lincoln was
not a monastic church, being served by secular canons, and therefore
had no necessity for a cloister court. However, this was built in the
thirteenth century, the colonnade on the north side being erected in
1674 by Sir Christopher Wren, together with the library over it, which
we shall visit presently. By an act of vandalism the old Deanery was
pulled down in 1847 and the present house built, which is devoid of
many of the interesting associations of its predecessor. The Cathedral
close was surrounded by a wall and protected by strong gateways. Two
of these remain, the "Exchequer Gate," opposite the west end, and the
"Potter Gate." The old Bishop's Palace on the south of the close was
destroyed during the Civil War, and quite recently a new episcopal
residence has been erected near the ruins of the ancient house.


THE INTERIOR.

As we have already stated, the nave of Lincoln was designed by Bishop
Hugh in the Early English style, gradually carried west-ward by his
successors, and completed before the death of Grosseteste in 1253. It
consists of seven bays. Eight circular shafts of Purbeck marble
surround each pier. The mouldings of the arches are deeply cut. Above
is the triforium, consisting of two arches, each divided into three
sub-arches. Clustered shafts with capitals carved with foliage support
the arches. Above each main triforium arch in the clerestory are three
lancet windows, and the roof is a fine specimen of English vaulting.
Sir Gilbert Scott says that this nave "exhibits an Early English style
in its highest stage of development: massive without heaviness, rich
in detail without exuberance, its parts symmetrically proportioned and
carefully studied throughout, the foliated carving bold and effective,
there seems no deficiency in any way to deteriorate from its
merits"--an opinion with which few visitors to Lincoln will be
inclined to differ.

Under the towers will be noticed the Norman character of the first
bay, which is part of the original church of Remigius. The west
window, in its present form, is Perpendicular, and was inserted in the
place of an earlier one. The _Font_ also belongs to the time of
Remigius, and is a fine example of the Norman period. It is of black
basalt, square in shape, and has been recently placed upon three steps
of Derbyshire marble. Grotesque monsters are carved on the sides of
the font. The aisles have lancet windows, and below a beautiful arcade
of trefoiled arches, the south side being more elaborate than the
north. The bosses have figures carved on them. On the north-west
corner is the Morning Chapel, having a central column of Purbeck
marble supporting a stone vaulted roof. Here is the pastoral staff of
Archbishop Benson of Canterbury, who, when Chancellor of Lincoln,
restored this chapel. Opposite to this chapel, in the south-west, is
the consistory court. None of the old glass has survived in the nave,
and most of the shrines and tombs have been destroyed. The fanatics of
the Reformation and Cromwell's soldiers left little of the sepulchral
brasses and gorgeous tombs and effigies which once were here. A marble
slab, carved with Scriptural subjects, is supposed to represent the
tomb of the founder, Remigius. The memory of Dean Hoywood (d. 1681),
the founder of the library, is recorded on a tablet, and three slabs
preserve the names of Bishops Smyth (d. 1514), Alnwick (d. 1449), and
Atwater (d. 1521). The _Pulpit_ is seventeenth-century work, and the
lectern is a memorial of Dean Butler (d. 1894).

The great transept contains some of St. Hugh's work. He devised a
beautiful double arcade, and his work ends half-way on the east wall
in north transept, and half-way the east wall in south transept,
measuring from the centre of the building. The rest was built by his
successors in the Early English style. The magnificent circular
windows at the north and south ends are very striking, and extremely
beautiful. The former is known as the _Dean's Eye_, the latter as the
_Bishop's Eye_, which, with the gable and window above, is in the
curvilinear style, and was erected about 1350. The Dean's Eye was
placed there about 1220, and has some exquisite ancient glass of that
period representing our Saviour in Glory. In the east of this transept
are six chapels, dedicated to SS. Nicholas, Denis, James, Edward the
Martyr, John the Evangelist and Giles.

The stone screen before the Chapel of St. Edward should be examined,
with its curious sculpture. Before the Reformation there seems to have
been some laxity of conduct among the chaplains and choristers, who
were accused of playing games in the church, and here in one of these
chapels we see nine holes, which were probably used for the favourite
pastime of "Nine Men's Morris."

In the south transept there are the slender remains of the once famous
tomb of Bishop Dalderby (d. 1320), to which there was great resort of
pilgrims in mediæval times. His shrine was destroyed at the
Reformation. This bishop built the upper part of the tower.

The _Screen_ is good Decorated work, and consists of arches ornamented
with figures of ecclesiastics and grotesques. It has been somewhat
severely handled by fanatical destroyers, but, in spite of mutilation
and restoration, it remains a noble example of the workmanship of the
period. The organ stands above this screen. The doorways on each side
of the screen are Early English, and are very beautiful.

Entering the _Choir_, we see the earliest known example of pure Lancet
Gothic or Early English, free from the trace of Norman influence. It
was built by Bishop St. Hugh. The first stone was laid in 1192. The
perfection of the ornament is wonderful. This part of the church
suffered severely from the fall of the tower in 1237, and many traces
of the disaster may still be seen. Screens divide the choir from the
aisles, and were erected to strengthen the building. The _Choir
Stalls_ are very fine, and were erected by Treasurer Welbourn in 1370.
The carving is most elaborate and beautiful, and the _misereres_ are
extremely curious and interesting. Behind each stall is a list of the
Psalms which, according to the constitution of Lincoln, each
prebendary is bound to repeat daily. The pulpit and bishop's throne
are fairly modern. The brass lectern bears the date 1667. The
_Reredos_ was restored about the middle of the eighteenth century, but
contains some thirteenth-century work. A very interesting feature of
the north side is the _Easter Sepulchre_, fashioned for the deposition
of the consecrated elements of the Eucharist from the evening of Good
Friday until the morning of Easter day; during which time it was
watched by a quasi-guard. Three figures of sleeping soldiers appear in
the carving. The style is Decorated. This tomb has been very
doubtfully assigned to Remigius. There are the monuments of Katherine
Swinford, third wife of John of Gaunt (d. 1403), from whom King Edward
is descended in a direct line, and of her daughter, the Countess of
Westmoreland (d. 1440), much mutilated by the soldiers. In the _North
Aisle_ of the choir the beautiful double arcade work of Bishop Hugh is
seen on the wall. In the _South Aisle_ are the remains of the _Shrine
of Little St. Hugh_, the Christian boy with whose crucifixion the Jews
were charged in 1255. The style is Decorated, but the shrine was
mutilated by the soldiers in the Civil War. The great chronicler,
Henry of Huntingdon, also lies buried here.

The eastern transept is part of Bishop Hugh's church. In each arm, on
the east side, there are two apsidal chapels, with arcading round the
walls. The style of the construction resembles that of the choir. On
the south of the north arm is the so-called _Dean's Chapel_, the use
of which can only be conjectured. The iron-work of the door is worthy
of notice, and also the faded paintings of some Lincoln prelates, by
Vincenzo Damini (1728). It is sad to see the fragments of the tomb of
Grosseteste, to whom the Cathedral of Lincoln and the whole Church of
England owe so much, stored away in one of the chapels. Respect for
his memory and gratitude for his work might suggest the restoration of
this tomb. The southern arm of this east transept has been much
altered, and most of the present work is later than the choir. In one
of the chapels the sub-dean was murdered by one of the vicars in 1205.
Here is the tomb of Bishop Kaye (d. 1853). The screen and lavatory of
the choristers' vestry are beautiful examples of Decorated work.

[Illustration The Angel Choir]

We now enter the _Angel Choir_ (1256-1280), pronounced by Sir Gilbert
Scott to be "the most splendid work of that period which we possess,
and did it not lack internal height, I do not think it could be
exceeded in beauty by any existing church." It is the latest portion
of the main fabric, and was built when the Early English style was
developing into the Decorated. The piers are beautiful clustered
shafts, with carved capitals of Purbeck marble. The east window of
eight lights is very fine (the glass is modern), and is said to be the
noblest example of Geometrical Decorated in the kingdom. The choir
takes its name from the carved angels in the spandrels of the
triforium, which exhibit combined grace and dignity. The famous
_Lincoln Imp_ can with difficulty be distinguished on the north side,
above the most eastern pier. Early English glass fills the east
windows of the north and south aisles. On the north of the Angel Choir
is the _Fleming Chantry_, which contains the double effigy of the
bishop (d. 1431), the founder of Lincoln College, Oxford, first in his
episcopal robes, and then of his corpse in a state of decay. Bishop
Fleming exhumed and burnt the bones of Wyclif. Opposite this chantry
is the _Russell Chantry_, founded by Bishop Russell (d. 1494),
Chancellor of Richard III., and near this the Chantry of Bishop
Longland (d. 1547).

Here in the Angel Choir stood, in former days, the rich shrine of St.
Hugh, plundered at the Reformation, and a monument of Queen Eleanor,
the beloved wife of Edward I., who caused to be erected the famous
Eleanor crosses at every place where her body rested, as it was borne
to its final resting-place at Westminster. This monument was destroyed
by Cromwell's soldiers, and recently a modern copy of the original has
been erected. The Burghersh monuments are worthy of careful study. The
family played an important part in history, and held high honours.
Also we notice the tombs of Nicholas de Cantelupe (much mutilated),
the artists Peter De Wint (d. 1849) and W. Hilton (d. 1839); Bishop
Fuller's memorial of St. Hugh, Bishop Fuller (d. 1675), Bishop
Gardiner (d. 1705) and Sub-Dean Gardiner (d. 1732), Bishop Wordsworth
(d. 1885), Dean Butler (d. 1894), Bishop Sutton (d. 1299) and Robert
Dymoke (d. 1735), whose family held the office of King's Champion.

The _Cloisters_ were erected in the thirteenth century, with the
exception of the north colonnade, which was built by Sir Christopher
Wren. Over this is the _Library_, which contains many treasures: an
original copy of Magna Charta, a letter of Edward I.; a chalice of
Bishop Grosseteste (1254) and his ring; Bishop Sutton's ring and
chalice and paten (1299); a Roman mile-stone (260 A.D.). Of books
there is a large collection, including a MS. copy of the Vulgate
(1106), other valuable MSS., and many versions of the Bible in
English. The old desks are curious and interesting.

The beautiful _Chapter-House_ is of Early English design, and was
completed about 1230. It is ten-sided, and has a central pillar girt
with Purbeck marble shafts, and a stone vaulted roof; lancet windows,
filled with good modern glass enlighten the chamber, two in each side.
An arcade runs round the walls beneath the windows, and in the carving
we see the tooth ornament. There is a very ancient Chair of State
here, which is said to have been the throne of Edward I. when he held
his Parliament in this room.

       *       *       *       *       *

[My grateful thanks are due to the Very Reverend the Dean of Lincoln
for the great assistance which he has kindly rendered me in
investigating the history of his Cathedral.]


DIMENSIONS

    Total length                      482 ft.
    Length of nave                    252 ft.
    Breadth of nave with aisles        80 ft.
    Height of nave                     82 ft.
    Length of choir                   158 ft.
    Length of presbytery               72 ft.
    Height of central tower           271 ft.
    Height of west towers             200 ft.
    Area                       44,400 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     Norman (1074-1092)--Central part of west front, fragments of
           first bay of nave.
        (1123-1183)--West doors, arcade of west front, three lower
           storeys of west towers.
     Early English (1192-1253)--Choir and presbytery, nave, transept
           to west chapels, turrets and screen of west front, Galilee,
           vestries, two lower stages of tower and chapter-house.
        (1255-1296)--Angel Choir, cloisters.
     Decorated (1307-1380)--Upper storeys of tower, "Bishop's Eye,"
           stalls, statues over west door, upper stages of west towers.
        (1450-1500)--Chapels.
        (1674)--North colonnade of cloister and library.

[Illustration PLAN OF LINCOLN CATHEDRAL]

FOOTNOTES:

[17] This swineherd is said to have given a peck of silver pennies to
the building of the Cathedral.

[18] Page 291.



SOUTHWELL CATHEDRAL


The ancient and interesting Church of St. Mary, Southwell, became a
Cathedral in 1884, when the bishopric was founded, and the building is
worthy of its high honour. In the time of Henry VIII. it nearly
attained that rank, Southwell being one of the sees which that monarch
proposed to found out of the spoils of the monasteries, but his good
intentions were not fulfilled. For centuries it was in the large
Diocese of York, and was esteemed as the Mother Church of the
district, and enjoyed many rights and privileges.

With the exception of a few fragments, no part of the present church
dates further back than the twelfth century. There was an early Saxon
church here, which was probably founded by Paulinus when he converted
the wild folk of Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire to the Christian
faith. Then came the savage Danes, who swept away all traces of
Christianity. The next church is said to have been built by the Saxon
King Edgar, in 960 A.D., which was one of much importance before the
Conquest; and in 1061 Aldred, Archbishop of York, founded prebends
here, and built refectories for the canons. In the time of Henry I. it
was raised to the dignity of Mother Church of the district, and the
church was entirely rebuilt in the Norman style. When Walter de Grey
was Archbishop of York (1216-1255), he was very energetic in improving
the condition of his diocese and in erecting churches. He rebuilt the
nave of Southwell, granting an indulgence of thirty days' pardon to
all who should assist the work. John de Romeyn, sub-dean, whose son
was afterwards Archbishop of York, assisted him in the work. There is
a close resemblance between the nave of York Cathedral and the earlier
choir of Southwell, and it is not improbable that the latter served as
a model for the former. There is also a very close resemblance between
the chapter-house of the two Cathedrals, which are evidences of the
same designer and workmanship. Archbishop John de Romeyn was doubtless
the architect of both buildings.

The community of clergy at Southwell consisted of the prebendaries,
who formed the chapter, the vicars-choral and chantry priests and
choristers. The prebendaries had much power and many privileges. They
held property, and each had a large house, hunted in neighbouring
forests, and lived as country gentlemen as well as canons of
Southwell. At the Reformation they surrendered their goods to Henry
VIII., who contemplated making Southwell a Cathedral. He despoiled the
church of vast quantities of plate and other valuables. In 1574,
however, the college, like other similar institutions, was seized by
the unscrupulous advisers of Edward VI. In Mary's reign it reverted to
the Crown, and she restored the college to its former owners and uses,
and this arrangement was happily left undisturbed by her successors.
During the Civil War Cromwell's soldiers stabled their horses in the
nave of the church. Charles I. stayed in the town at the "Saracen's
Head," and here he delivered himself up to the Scotch commissioners,
who stayed at the Palace. Cromwell wished to destroy the nave, but was
stayed in his fanatical design by the intercession of one of his
officers. The story is told of the wife of a hunted Royalist, named
William Clay, registrar of the minster, hiding herself in the parvise,
or room over the porch, and there giving birth to a child, while the
soldiers lived in the church. A general pillage took place in the
church at this time; the font was destroyed, lead torn from the roofs,
brasses from the tombs, and every vestige of an image swept away.

The College of Southwell has suffered in many other ways, sometimes
from the carelessness of the prebendaries and their lack of zeal,
sometimes from the effects of unwise and revolutionary legislation. In
1846 its position as a peculiar ceased to exist. Southwell is now a
Cathedral with a diocese of its own, and if the ecclesiastical
commissioners and the friends of the Church could see their way to
granting an adequate endowment and means for carrying on its great
work, Southwell would be able to maintain the dignity of an important
see, and fulfil its mission to the Church and nation.


EXTERIOR

The finest view of this noble minster is obtained from the north-west
corner of the churchyard. We notice the general Norman character of
the building. The massive western towers, capped with spires, the
lantern tower, the north transept and beautiful chapter-house, the
noble roof, all combine to form a magnificent example of dignified and
noble building.

The _West Front_ has been altered in character from its original
Norman work. We see a huge Perpendicular window with an embattled
parapet over it, an alteration made in the fifteenth century. The
windows in the lower stages of the towers are modern imitation of
Norman work. The towers have seven stages, and the sixth is enriched
with fine arcading composed of intersecting arches. The present spires
are modern imitations of the originals destroyed by fire in 1711.
These were immediately restored, but removed in 1802, and have now
again been replaced. The old Norman doorway is remarkably fine. It has
five orders, the zigzag and filleted edge roll being the chief
mouldings.

Passing to the south side we see the wall of the nave pierced by
apparent Norman windows, but these are modern imitations. The most
western window in the north side is the only original Norman window;
the rest are copied from it, and were erected in 1847.

Four Perpendicular windows were inserted in the fifteenth century.
There is a row of small square windows above which light the
triforium, and the clerestory has a curious series of circular windows
which are unique in this country. The roof is high pitched, having
been erected in modern times by the architect Christian, and the
parapets are Perpendicular in style.

The south doorway should be noticed, of Norman workmanship with zigzag
string-course over it. Near here are the remains of the old Palace.
The banqueting hall has been recently restored. The kitchens belong to
the time of Henry VI. On the east of the transepts there were formerly
apsidal chapels, which were removed when the present choir was built
in the Early English period.

The _Choir_ is a noble specimen of Early English work and "seems to be
an emanation from Lincoln," wrote Sir Gilbert Scott, which it much
resembles. We notice the extensive use of the dog-tooth ornament.
Lancet windows give light to the interior. Two flying buttresses
support the walls on the south side, and were added subsequently in
the Decorated period to help them to bear the weight of the vaulted
roof.

The _Chapter-House_ is on the north side, and was built in the
Decorated period during the reign of Edward I., when York was
extremely prosperous and profited by the presence of the court. The
resemblance between the chapter-houses of York and Southwell is very
striking, and both were evidently designed by the same architect.
This one is octagonal, and has windows of three lights with trefoil
and circular ones in the heads. The roof is modern. A vestibule
connects it with the church. An Early English wall with an arcade of
lancets connects the vestibule with the north transept. The _North
Porch_ is good Norman work, and has a parvise which is very unusual in
a porch of this date. This parvise was the scene of the story of the
hiding of Mistress Clay in the troublous times of the Civil War. The
inner doorway is very fine with its zigzag and beak-head moulding.


THE INTERIOR

We now enter the church by the west door, and looking down the nave
(1110-1150) we are impressed by the massive appearance of the
interior. The piers are rather short, only 19 feet high, six on each
side, with square bases and round capitals. The triforium is large,
and above is the clerestory with its unique plain circular windows.
The Norman mouldings, zigzag, billet, hatchet, etc., are easily
recognised. The present roof was erected in 1881.

The _Font_, erected in 1661, is a poor substitute for the one
destroyed by the soldiers of Cromwell. The _Pulpit_ is modern; the
figures represent the Virgin and Child, King Edwin and his queen,
Augustine and Paulinus. The second pillar from the east on the south
side is called Pike's Pillar, and retains faint traces of a mural
painting of the Annunciation; the nave aisles have some good vaulting.
A plain stone bench runs along the walls. This was common in old
churches, and was the origin of the saying, "let the weakest go to the
wall," where they could sit and rest, as the days of pews were not
yet. The only original Norman window which remains is at the west end
of the north aisle. Formerly there were several chantry chapels in the
aisles, but all have been destroyed. The marble slab in the north
aisle marks the site of one.

The _Tower_ is a lantern, and also has a peal of bells. The chimes
were given by Wymondesole in 1693. This tower is part of the original
Norman church, and was built in 1150. The cable moulding round the
four large arches should be noticed. It is composed of a series of
double cones.

[Illustration Southwell Central Tower & N Transept]

The _Transepts_ are beautiful specimens of the work of Norman
builders, and are full of interest. Originally there were apsidal
chapels on the east side of both transepts. One has been destroyed,
but the arch which connected it with the church can be seen in the
wall, with its zigzag and cable mouldings. The Norman chapel on the
east of the north transept has been replaced by a Late Early English
building which will repay careful study. There were formerly two
altars here, as the piscinæ and aumbreys show. The old Norman arch is
replaced by two pointed arches of unequal width. The windows are later
insertions, and belong to the Decorated period. There is an upper
storey, formerly the treasury, now the library. The chapel has been
recently restored, and is a most interesting architectural study.
Returning to the north transept we see a curious tympanum over the
belfry doorway, with strange carving representing the teaching of
Psalm xci. 13: "The lion and the dragon shalt Thou tread under Thy
feet." Other interpretations are given of this subject, but this is
the one usually accepted by scholars. It is also said by some to be
Saxon, but this is incorrect. There is a very similar sculpture in the
church of Charney Bassett, Berks. Here is the fine alabaster tomb of
Archbishop Sandys (d. 1588). He is represented in his episcopal robes,
and the details of his dress are important, as they show what the
vestments of a bishop really were in the time of Elizabeth, a point
often disputed by English Churchmen of to-day. The east arch of the
central tower has some curious sculptured capitals hidden by the organ
which belong to the twelfth century. Beginning on the south side, the
subjects are lamb and dove, Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem, Nativity
or Resurrection, Last Supper, bishop saying Mass, the Blessed Trinity,
and the Virgin and Child.

A stone _Screen_ of rich Decorated work separates the transept from
the choir, over which is now the organ (a modern instrument). The
screen is richly ornamented, and a noble specimen of the work of the
period. There are three arches opening to the space beneath the tower,
separated by slight piers of clustered shafts, the capitals carved
with foliage of a Late Decorated character. The walls of the screen
support the old rood-loft, access to which is gained by two
staircases.

Entering the _Choir_ we see on each side of the doorway three
prebendal stalls with _misereres_, on which are carved some foliage.
The bishop's stall was once occupied by Cardinal Wolsey. The choir, as
we have said, was built by Archbishop Grey in Early English style
(1230-1250). There are six arches, with piers of eight clustered
shafts. The dog-tooth moulding is conspicuous in the arches, and on
the vaulting of the roof. It will be noticed that the triforium and
clerestory are blended together. The east window consists of two rows
of lancets, the lower ones containing old glass brought from Paris in
1815, where it was formerly in the Chapel of the Knights Templar. The
Baptism of our Lord; Raising of Lazarus (Francis I. is to be seen in a
crimson cap); Christ entering Jerusalem (Luther is near our Lord,
Louis XI. and the Duke of Orleans); the Mocking of our Lord (the
figure of Dante appears).

The _Sedilia_ were erected in 1350, and are good Decorated work. They
have the unusual number of five seats on the same level. The arches
are ogee-shaped, and are richly carved. The sculptured figures are
remarkable, and represent the Creation and the Redemption. Beginning
at the east we see the Father holding the world (two groups
uncertain), Joseph's Dream, the Nativity and Flight into Egypt.

The _Lectern_ belonged to the monks of Newstead Abbey, who threw it
into the lake to hide it from the commissioners of Henry VIII. Its
date is about 1500. The choir aisles had several altars, as we see
from the piscinæ and aumbreys which are left. We will now visit the
_Chapter-House_, and pass through the vestibule which leads to it,
entering by a beautiful doorway in the north aisle. The transition
between the Early English work of the choir and the Decorated style of
the chapter-house is very gradual. The doorway, with its two arches
and shafts of Purbeck marble, is remarkably fine. There is a small
cloister court, with a stone-covered well. In the vestibule we see the
walls covered with beautiful arcading of lancet arches of an Early
English character. The capitals are beautifully carved with foliage.
There is a curious boss of sculpture representing a secular priest
shaking the regular monk by his hair, which figuratively depicts the
supremacy of the former in the church of Southwell.

The _Chapter-House_ (1285-1300) is described by Ruskin as "the gem of
English architecture," and all architects agree in singing the praises
of this noble building. It much resembles that of York, but is smaller
and perhaps more beautiful. It is octagonal, has no central pillar,
and is remarkable for its fine sculpture. The historian of Southwell
says: "The foliage everywhere is most beautiful: the oak, the vine,
the maple, the white-thorn, the rose, with a vast variety of other
plants, are sculptured with exquisite freedom and delicacy; and no two
capitals or bosses or spandrels are found alike. Everywhere we meet,
in ever-changing and ever-charming variety, with some fresh object of
interest and admiration. Figures are introduced amid the foliage,
heads with branches issuing out of their mouths, birds and lizard-like
monsters. In the capitals a man reclines beneath a tree, puffing
lustily at a horn, or a goat is gnawing the leaves, or a bird pecking
the berries, or a pair of pigs are grunting up the acorns, or a brace
of hounds just grabbing a hare. All this is the work of no mere
chiseller of stone, but of a consummate artist; than whom it may be
doubted whether any sculptor, of any age or country, ever produced
anything more life-like and exquisitely graceful." The entrance
doorway is remarkably fine and is worthy of close study. The main arch
is divided into two by a slender shaft, and over them is a
quatrefoiled circle, of beautiful design. The leaf ornament is largely
used, both in the smaller arches and in the main arch. Filleted rounds
and hollows are the other mouldings used.

Southwell once contained the shrine of a Saxon saint--St. Eadburgh,
Abbess of Repton (d. 714). "The Pilgrim's guide to the Saints of
England" (a MS. in the British Museum, written in 1013) states that
"the shrine of St. Eadburgh is still at Southwell," but no trace of it
can now be found. There are several incised monumental slabs in the
minster which have been cut and set in the floor. There is a Latin
inscription to the memory of William Thorton, a chorister of the
church, and the humble epitaph of William Talbot, who was a shining
light in his day and died 1497, is of pathetic interest:--

    "Here lies William Talbot, wretched
    and unworthy priest, awaiting
    the resurrection of the dead under the sign of the Cross."

[My thanks are due to the kindness of Archdeacon Richardson, Rector of
Southwell Minster, for his kindness in explaining to me the
interesting features of his church. I am also indebted to the works of
Mr. Dimock, Mr. Livett and Mrs. Trebeck for much valuable
information.]


DIMENSIONS

Length, 306 ft.; breadth, 61 ft.; length of transept, 123 ft.; height
of central tower, 105 ft.; height of west towers and spires, 150 ft.



PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL


The towns and cities of England owe their origin to various causes.
Some arose around the walls of great castles, some as trading centres
or harbours, some clustered around the palace of a bishop, and others
sheltered themselves beneath the shadow of a monastery.

Peterborough, or Medeshamstede, is of this last class. It is a
monastic town, and owes its existence to the great fenland Monastery
of St. Peter, the minster church of which is now this beautiful
Cathedral. Peada, the son of Panda, King of Mercia, first founded a
monastery here in 654, of which Saxulph was the first abbot. The Pagan
Danes came in 870 with fire and sword, and wrought fearful havoc in
all this region, burning the holy house of Medeshamstede, and
slaughtering the monks. For a hundred years the monastery lay in
ruins; then came the religious revival under the rule of Dunstan and
King Edgar. Monastic houses increased in number greatly, and Bishop
Ethelwold of Winchester began to rebuild the waste places of the
ruined Saxon Medeshamstede, and constructed a minster, some
foundations of which still remain. The Abbey flourished for nearly a
century, but sad misfortunes befell. Hereward the Wake, the hero of
Kingsley's story, the gallant "last of the English," was making his
last brave stand against William the Norman, and in conjunction with
the Danes attacked the Abbey, and wrought much destruction. Fires and
robbers were also occasionally dread visitants, and at last, in the
time of Henry I., a great fire destroyed the whole buildings. The then
abbot was John de Sais, who set to work immediately to erect a new
monastery. This was in 1117. Then was begun the glorious minster which
is the pride and glory of the fenlands. Subsequent abbots continued
the work. Abbots Martin de Vecti and William de Waterville completed
the transepts and tower and part of the nave, which was finished by
Abbot Benedict (1177-1193). There is a striking uniformity of design
throughout all this Norman work, which shows that the builders
followed one plan, and imitated the work of their predecessors. The
western transept, however, shows evidences of the coming change, and
when we come to the beautiful west front we find unmistakable Early
English work. This part was probably finished in 1238, in the time of
Abbot Walter of St. Edmunds, when the church was dedicated by Bishop
Grosseteste of Lincoln. Abbot Robert de Lindsay, who liked not the
windows of his monastery "stuffed with straw" to keep out wind and
rain, filled many of them with glass, and built the lavatory in the
cloister. Gradually the erection of the monastic buildings was being
completed, and refectory and infirmary added, and Prior Parys built
the Lady Chapel and one of the steeples at the close of the thirteenth
century, which also saw the removal of the Norman windows from the
aisles and the substitution of Early Decorated ones. This was a time
of much splendour and magnificence for the Abbey, when Godfrey was
abbot, and King Edward often visited it and received aid for his
Scottish wars. This Godfrey built the large gateway. A century later
the abbot was endowed with the privilege of a mitre, and thus took his
seat in the House of Peers; and during this fourteenth century the
lantern tower was erected with an octagon framed of wood, the
triforium windows changed into the Decorated style, and the west front
improved by the erection of the spire and the central porch. During
the fifteenth century we hear sad complaints of the relaxation of the
discipline of the monks, who too often frequented taverns and "the
vulgar company of dancers and ballad singers." Abbot Kirton was a
notable man, who built, or rather finished, "that goodly building at
the east end of the church, now commonly known by the name of the new
building," begun by his predecessor Ashton; and his rebus--a _kirk_
and a _tun_--appears on the grand gate, now leading to the Deanery. At
this time several Norman windows were filled with Perpendicular
tracery. We see Cardinal Wolsey visiting the Abbey, and on Maundy
Thursday washing the feet of poor persons, and the luckless Catherine
of Arragon being buried here in 1535.

Then came the dissolution of monasteries, and Peterborough shared the
fate of the rest. Whether it was on account of the subservience of the
abbot, or because it contained the ashes of his queen, Henry VIII.
spared the church, and made it a Cathedral, the last abbot being the
first bishop. The burial of Mary Queen of Scots in 1587 is the next
historical event which was here witnessed. We can imagine the scene of
the torchlight procession bearing the executed body of the frail but
fair queen into the church, and the last solemn obsequies of that sad
and stormy life. Cromwell's soldiers "did after their kind," and Dean
Patrick tells us of "the rifling and defacing" that ensued:--

     "The next day after their arrival, early in the morning, they
     break open the church doors, pull down the organs, of which
     there were two pair.

     "Then the souldiers enter the quire, and their first business
     was to tear in pieces all the common-prayer books that could be
     found. The great bible indeed, that lay upon a brass eagle for
     reading the lessons, had the good hap to escape with the loss
     only of the apocrypha.

     "Next they break down all the seats, stalls and wainscot that
     was behind them, being adorned with several historical passages
     out of the old testament.

     "When they had thus defaced and spoilt the quire, they march up
     next to the east end of the church, and there break and cut in
     pieces, and afterwards burn the rails that were about the
     communion table. The table itself was thrown down, the
     table-cloth taken away, with two fair books in velvet covers;
     the one a bible, the other a common-prayer book, with a silver
     bason gilt, and a pair of silver candlesticks beside. But upon
     request made to Colonel Hubbert, the books, bason and all else,
     save the candlesticks, were restored again.

     "Now behind the communion table there stood a curious piece of
     stone-work, admired much by strangers and travellers: a stately
     skreen it was, well wrought, painted and gilt, which rose up as
     high almost as the roof of the church, in a row of three lofty
     spires, with other lesser spires growing out of each of them.
     This now had no imagery work upon it, or anything else that
     might justly give offence, and yet because it bore the name of
     the high altar, was pulled all down with ropes, lay'd low and
     level with the ground.

     "Over this place, in the roof of the church, in a large oval
     yet to be seen, was the picture of Our Saviour seated on a
     throne; one hand erected, and holding a globe in the other,
     attended with the four evangelists and saints on each side,
     with crowns in their hands, intended, I suppose, for a
     representation of Our Saviour's coming to judgment. This was
     defaced and spoilt by the discharge of muskets.

     "Then they rob and rifle the tombs, and violate the monuments
     of the dead. First then they demolish Queen Katherin's tomb:
     they break down the rails that enclosed the place, and take
     away the black velvet pall which covered the herse: overthrow
     the herse itself, displace the gravestone that lay over her
     body, and have left nothing now remaining of that tomb, but
     only a monument of their own shame and villany. What did remain
     [of the herse of Mary Queen of Scots] that is, her royal arms
     and escutcheons which hung upon a pillar near the place where
     she had been interr'd, were most rudely pulled down, defaced
     and torn.

     "In the north isle of the church there was a stately tomb in
     memory of Bishop Dove, who had been thirty years bishop of the
     place. He lay there in portraicture in his episcopal robes, on
     a large bed under a fair table of black marble, with a library
     of books about him. These men soon destroy'd all the tomb.

     "The like they do to two other monuments standing in that isle.

     "In a place then called the new building, and since converted
     to a library, there was a fair monument, which Sir Humphrey
     Orm (to save his heir that charge and trouble),
     thought fit to erect in his own life time, where he and his
     lady, his son and wife and all their children were lively
     represented in statues, under which were certain English verses
     written:--

    "_Mistake not, Reader, I thee crave,
    This is an Altar not a Grave,
    Where fire raked up in Ashes lyes,
    And hearts are made the Sacrifice, &c._

     "Which two words, altar and sacrifice, 'tis said, did so
     provoke and kindle the zealots' indignation, that they resolve
     to make the tomb itself a sacrifice: and with axes, poleaxes,
     and hammers, destroy and break down all that curious monument,
     save only two pilasters still remaining, which shew and
     testifie the elegancy of the rest of the work.

     "When they had thus demolished the chief monuments, at length
     the very gravestones and marbles on the floor did not escape
     their sacrilegious hands. For where there was any thing on them
     of sculptures or inscriptions in brass, these they force and
     tear off.

     "Having thus done their work on the floor below, they are now
     at leisure to look up to the windows above.

     "Now the windows of this church were very fair, being adorned
     and beautified with several historical passages out of
     scripture and ecclesiastical story; such were those in the body
     of the church, in the isles, in the new building, and
     elsewhere. But the cloister windows were most famed of all, for
     their great art and pleasing variety. One side of the
     quadrangle containing the history of the Old Testament;
     another, that of the new; a third, the founding and founders of
     the church; a fourth, all the kings of England downwards from
     the first Saxon king. All which notwithstanding were most
     shamefully broken and destroyed. Yea, to encourage them the
     more in this trade of breaking and battering windows down,
     Cromwell himself, (as 'twas reported,) espying a little
     crucifix in a window aloft, which none perhaps before had
     scarce observed, gets a ladder, and breaks it down zealously
     with his own hand.

     "But before I conclude the narrative, I must not forget to
     tell, how they likewise broke open the chapter-house, ransack'd
     the records, broke the seals, tore the writings in pieces,
     specially such as had great seals annexed unto them, which they
     took or mistook rather for the popes' bulls.

     "Thus, in a short time, a fair and goodly structure was quite
     stript of all its ornamental beauty, and made a ruthful
     spectacle, a very chaos of desolation and confusion, nothing
     scarce remaining but only bare walls, broken seats, and
     shatter'd windows on every side.

     "Many fair buildings adjoyning to the minster, were likewise
     pulled down and sold by publick order and authority, such were
     the cloysters, the old chapter-house, the library, the bishop's
     hall and chapel at the end of it: the hall was as fair a room
     as most in England; and another call'd the green-chamber, not
     much inferior to it. These all were then pull'd down and
     destroyed; and the materials, lead, timber and stone exposed to
     sale, for any that would buy them. But some of the bargains
     proved not very prosperous; the lead especially that came off
     the palace was as fatal as the gold of Tholouse; for to my
     knowledge, the merchant that bought it, lost it all, and the
     ship which carried it, in her voyage to Holland."

[Illustration Peterborough Cathedral]

And thus the church continued for some time ruined and desolate. A
relative of Cromwell, Oliver St. John, was granted the possession of
it, and converted it into a parish church. The Lady Chapel was pulled
down in order to obtain material for repairing the main building; the
painted boards of the ceiling they found useful for making the backs
for the choir. At the Restoration Dean Cosin was recalled, and since
that time many alterations and much reparation have been undertaken,
though often with more zeal than good taste. Dean Tarrant (1764-1791)
collected the fragments of stained glass, and placed them together in
two windows at the east end. Dean Kipling removed the octagon, and
erected four hideous turrets, which no longer disfigure the tower.
Dean Monk (1822-1830) did much for the Cathedral, though little of his
work remains. Since then the tower has been rebuilt (finished in
1886), much internal decoration added, and the west front rendered
secure. Much controversy has raged about the restoration of this west
front. Experts on both sides have expressed divers opinions, the
relative merits of which it is difficult to decide. Certainly to take
down a building stone by stone and rebuild it again is not legitimate
restoration. But whether it was possible to make the north gable
secure without this drastic treatment it is for experts to decide, and
it is presumptuous for others to express an opinion or attempt to
arbitrate when these experts puzzle us with the variety of their
judgments.


THE EXTERIOR

We enter the precincts by the western gateway, built by Abbot Benedict
in Norman style, but subsequently altered at the end of the fourteenth
century. There is a Late Decorated arch, and two arcades of the same
date built over the Norman wall; but the Norman arcades proclaim its
ancient origin. The upper room was the home of the Peterborough branch
of the Spalding "Society of Gentlemen," who advanced learning and
published papers at the beginning of the eighteenth century.
Previously it was the Chapel of St. Nicholas. On the left of the close
is an old building, also erected by Benedict, the remains of the
Chapel of St. Thomas of Canterbury. The old Grammar School, founded by
Henry VIII., utilised the building until recent years. The style of
the present building is Decorated.

Immediately before us we see the noble _West Front_, "the pride and
glory of Peterborough," the finest portico in Europe. With the
exception of the porch, the style is pure Early English. On the north
and south are two lofty turrets, flanked at the angles with clustered
shafts and crowned with spires. Between these are three pointed
arches, supported by clustered shafts, six on each side, with
floriated capitals. The central arch is narrower than the rest, but
its mouldings are ornamented with crockets and dog-tooth. A
string-course runs along the top of the arches, and the spandrels have
trefoils, quatrefoils and niches with statues. Above the string-course
is a series of trefoiled arches, some of which have statues. Between
the three gables are pinnacles much ornamented. The gables have
circular windows of beautiful design and a cross at the apex; they are
ornamented with dog-tooth and have niches with statues--St. Peter in
the centre, with SS. John and Andrew on either side. The turrets on
the north and south have six stages panelled with arches. The spires
are good examples of the difference between those of the Early
Decorated and Perpendicular periods. The south spire is connected with
the pinnacles of the tower by clustered pinnacles springing from an
arch; these are decorated with crockets, and the spire belongs to the
early fourteenth century; whereas the spire on the north has no such
connection, and is Early Perpendicular.

We now notice the _Porch_ with parvise over it. This was built late in
the fourteenth century in order to give additional strength to the
west front and act as a kind of buttress to the piers of the central
arch. The design is very beautiful. The entrance has an obtuse arch,
and above a Perpendicular window with elliptical arch. Buttresses
empanelled with niches stand on each side. It has a stone vault of
good design. One boss is curious, representing the Trinity. The
attitude of the Saviour shows that the figure was designed by a
freemason, and bears witness to the antiquity of that fraternity. The
parvise is now a library.

A Late Perpendicular gateway at the north-east, erected by Abbot
Kirton, whose rebus appears over the side door, leads to the Deanery.
It has a Tudor arch, with the arms of the see in spandrels, and is
ornamented with Tudor rose and portcullis, and Prince of Wales's
feathers. Here is the old burial-ground, and a fine view of the
Cathedral is obtained from the north-east. The Norman character of the
building is evident, though there have been many changes. The Norman
windows in the clerestory have been filled with Perpendicular tracery.
The low Norman aisles have been raised, the windows taken out and
replaced by thirteenth-century substitutes in the lowest range and by
Decorated ones in the triforium. Below this the old Norman arcade
remains. A good Norman door, called the Dean's Door, is in the centre
of this north wall. An Early English parapet crowns the aisle walls,
and a Decorated one surmounts the clerestory, which is continued in
the _North Transept_, where similar alterations have taken place, and
Perpendicular tracery inserted in Norman windows.

The central _Tower_ was rebuilt in 1884. The necessity for continued
rebuilding and restoration at Peterborough is much to be deplored.
Probably the cause is the draining of the fens, which makes the clay
to contract and thus produces insecure foundations. It has some good
windows. We have already recorded the history of the previous
structures. As much of the old work as possible was preserved in the
rebuilding of the present tower.

Walking around the church we come to the east of transept, where
formerly stood the Lady Chapel, pulled down at the Restoration by the
townspeople, and its materials sold in order to provide funds for
restoring the church after Puritan destruction. Notice the marks of
the gable of Lady Chapel in the transept wall. The thirteenth-century
builders pierced the Norman wall with lancets.

The east end of Peterborough is rather peculiar. There remains the old
Norman apse, with Decorated windows inserted, and this is surrounded
by what is called the _New Building_, though it is 400 years old,
formed by extending the walls of the choir and building a square end
to the Cathedral. This was erected by Abbot Kirton. His work possesses
the best features of Perpendicular style. It is richly ornamented, and
when we examine his work we cannot say that the glories of Gothic
achievement had quite departed. We see the twelve buttresses, each
terminated with a seated figure, usually said to be one of the
Apostles.

On the south-east of the Cathedral are the ruins of the infirmary of
the monks, always a pleasant place in a monastery. It is a
thirteenth-century building, and consisted of a hall, with aisles and
a chancel. The aisles were used as cells or couches for the sick
monks, and the religious services of the infirmary were performed in
the chancel. On the south are the remains of the monastery. Only the
south and west walls of the cloister court remain. There is a good
thirteenth-century doorway and Perpendicular lavatory. The south view
of the Cathedral is very fine. Passing through the cloisters, which
once echoed with the tread of the monks, or saw them poring over their
tomes and writing their beautiful MSS., we retrace our steps to the
west front and so enter the Cathedral.


THE INTERIOR

As we enter we notice the distinctive character of the Norman work of
which this Cathedral is a notable and excellent example. In the
extreme west there is a blending of the two styles of Norman and Early
English, but the monks of Peterborough clung tenaciously to their old
ideas and to Norman and Romanesque models, and right up to the end of
the twelfth century built in this style, not from any desire to
imitate the work of their predecessors (as some writers assert) but
from an obstinate adherence to conservative tradition. Even when the
glorious tide of English Gothic was rising, and they could no longer
resist the flood, they clung to the old zigzag mouldings. It is
evident from the construction of the third column that they intended
to end their church there; but happily the thirteenth-century brethren
decided to rear the noble twin-towered front and the perfect portico.
Some of the later columns show Transition work; on one side we see a
Norman base or capital, on the other an Early English.

There is a grand uninterrupted view of the whole length of the
Cathedral from west to east. It will be observed that the tower arch
is Decorated, and this adds to the beauty of this view. Before leaving
the west we notice some dog-tooth carved in wood, which is somewhat
rare. The south end of this west transept is the baptistry, the font
of which has a thirteenth-century bowl. The north end is now used as a
vestry. The west window has Perpendicular tracery.

[Illustration NORTH-WEST TRANSEPT]

The nave has ten bays with Norman arches; the triforium has likewise
Norman arches, but each of these has two sub-arches. The windows of
the clerestory have Perpendicular tracery. The _Ceiling_ is intensely
interesting, and is original Norman work. It has various figures
within lozenge-shaped medallions, viz.:--Agnus Dei, SS. Peter, Paul,
Edward the Martyr, Edward the Confessor, Moses, and other kings,
archbishops, bishops and allegorical and grotesque figures. As we
have seen from the exterior, the walls of the aisles have been raised,
and later windows inserted. The roofs of the aisles were vaulted by
Norman builders. The visitor may discover for himself some mason marks
in the south aisle.

As at Norwich the _Choir_ begins with the two east bays of the nave,
which was the original arrangement, and not unusual in Benedictine
minsters, and extends over the space under the tower, and besides the
apse occupies four bays east of the tower. The gates are good modern
iron-work. The erection of a screen is in contemplation. Two pillars
have been placed in position; but the scheme presents difficulties
which have not yet been solved. The piers are alternately round or
polygonal. This portion was the earliest part of the Cathedral, and
was constructed by Abbot de Sais (1114-1125). The hatchet moulding is
conspicuous. The triforium arches are double, like the nave, and the
clerestory has triple arches, the centre one being the highest. The
apse is particularly fine. The Decorated style is evident in the
windows, which were inserted in the fourteenth century instead of the
old Norman ones, and the hanging tracery of graceful design was then
added. The roof of the choir is late fourteenth-century work except at
the east end where the roof is flat. Here Cromwell's soldiers
discharged their muskets at the figure of our Lord in glory, which
they deemed to be an idol. This ceiling was decorated in 1884 by Sir
Gilbert Scott. The bosses of the rest of the roof are curious. Nearly
all the old glass was destroyed in the Puritan desecration; the
remaining fragments have been placed in the two highest east windows.
The fittings of the choir are modern, except an ancient lectern of
fifteenth-century date given by Abbot Ramsay and Prior Malden, as the
inscription testifies, though it is now scarcely legible. The choir
stalls are remarkably fine, and as the carved figures contain a
history of the Cathedral written in wood, it may be well to record
their names. We will begin with the dean's stall and proceed
eastward:--

    1. St. Peter, the Patron Saint.
    2. Saxulph (656), first Abbot, afterwards Bishop of Lichfield.
    3. Adulph (971), Abbot Chancellor to King Edgar, afterwards
         Bishop of Worcester, and Archbishop of York.
    4. Kenulph (992), Abbot, afterwards Bishop of Winchester.
    5. Leofric (1057), Abbot.

    6. Turold (1069), Abbot, appointed by William the Conqueror.
    7. Ernulph (1107), Abbot, afterwards Bishop of Rochester.
    8. Martin de Vecti or Bec (1133), Abbot. During his time the choir
         and transept aisles were finished, and solemnly dedicated.
    9. Benedict (1175), Abbot, Keeper of the Great Seal for Richard I.
         He built the greater part, if not all, of the nave.
    10. Martin de Ramsey (1226), Abbot.
    11. John de Caleto or Calais (1249), Abbot, one of the King's
          Justices. He built the infirmary, and probably the refectory
          and part of the cloisters.
    12. Richard de London (1274), Abbot. He built the north-western
          tower.
    13. Adam de Boothby (1321), Abbot.
    14. William Genge (1296), first mitred Abbot.
    15. Richard Ashton (1438), Abbot.
    16. Robert Kirton (1496), Abbot. He built the Deanery Gateway, and
          the new building; his rebus, a church on a tun, carved in
          stone, is to be seen on most of his work.
    17. John Towers (1638), Bishop, previously Dean.
    18. Thomas White (1685), Bishop. He was one of the seven bishops
          committed by James II.; and also one of the seven non-juring
          bishops.
    19. William Connor Magee (1868), Bishop, afterwards Archbishop of
          York.
    20. Simon Patrick (1679), Dean, afterwards Bishop of Chichester,
          and finally of Ely.
    21. Augustus Page Saunders (1853), Dean.
    22. John James Stewart Perowne (1878), Dean, afterwards Bishop of
         Worcester.

The upper figures on the north side represent the following:--

    1. Peada (655), King of Mercia, founder of the monastery.
    2. Cuthbald (675), second Abbot.
    3. King Edgar and his Queen.
    4. Ethelfleda.
    5. Brando (1066), Abbot.
    6. Hereward, the Saxon Patriot (1070), nephew of Abbot Brando,
         and knighted by him.
    7. John de Sais (1114), Abbot. He commenced the building of the
         existing choir.
    8. Hedda (d. 870), Abbot murdered by Danes.
    9. Robert de Lindsay (1214), Abbot, with model of west front.
    10. Godfrey of Crowland (1299), Abbot. Gateway.
    11. William Ramsay (1471), Abbot.
    12. William Parys (1286), Prior, builder of Lady Chapel.
    13. St. Giles, with hart.
    14. Hugo Candidus, historian of Abbey.
    15. Henry de Overton (1361), Abbot.
    16. Queen Catherine of Arragon.
    17. Dean Cosin, afterwards Bishop of Durham.
    18. Simon Gunton (1546), historian of the church.
    19. Herbert March (1819), Bishop.
    20. George Davys (1839), Bishop.
    21. Dean Monk, afterwards Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol.
    22. Dean Argles (1891).

Much history is also contained in the carvings of the pulpit and
bishop's throne. The altar has a marble canopy over it, which is a
magnificent piece of work, but perhaps hardly suitable for its
position. The mosaic pavement is remarkably fine. We now pass into the
_Choir Aisles_, which have Norman vaulted roofs, and formerly had
apsidal ends, but these were removed when Abbots Ashton and Kirton
built the _New Building_ or square end to the church, or perhaps
earlier, as there are some aumbreys and double piscinæ of the
thirteenth century, and also on the south wall some painted shields
and a scroll border of the same date. The windows are later insertions
as in the nave. Traces of the old entrance to the destroyed Lady
Chapel may be seen in the north wall.

We have noticed the building of the ambulatory called the New Building
from the exterior of excellent Perpendicular work. Perhaps the most
striking features of the interior is the fan-tracery of the roof, the
curious bosses, the rebuses of the two Abbots Ashton and Kirton, and
the monuments. The principal ones in the choir and aisles are a modern
memorial stone of Catherine of Arragon (the old tomb was destroyed by
the Puritans, of which fragments have been discovered); the tablet in
memory of Mary Queen of Scots; Archbishop Magee's marble monument;
Sir Humprey Orme's mutilated tomb; several abbots' tombs and tablets
to bishops; Late Saxon tombs of two Archbishops of York, and the
famous Monks' Stone which popular tradition associates with the
massacre of the Peterborough monks by the Danes in 870. Recent
investigators have assigned a later date, and attribute it to Norman
work, but we are inclined to favour the Saxon theory.

We will now visit the _Transepts_, which are of Norman character.
Norman fish-scale ornament and cable and saw-tooth mouldings are
plentiful. In both north and south transepts there is an eastern aisle
separated by pillars and forming several chapels, which are divided
off by Perpendicular screens. The Morning Chapel occupies the aisle of
the north transept, formerly the Chapels of SS. John and James, and
here is preserved two pieces of old Flemish tapestry, and portions of
the old nave screen, and ancient tiles. In this transept are some
interesting Saxon coffin lids. In the south transept are the Chapels
of SS. Oswald and Benedict. In the former the relics were kept. Here
Abbot Sutton's heart was buried. The window is modern. A
pre-Reformation inscription is carved round the edge of a stone much
worn by time. The old chapter-house, now a music-room, is on the west
of this transept. It is Late Norman. A Perpendicular doorway has been
inserted here instead of the old Norman door.

A very interesting discovery was made here during the alterations a
few years ago, and that is the remains of the actual original Saxon
church which was sacked by the Danes, rebuilt by Bishop Ethelwold and
visited by King Edgar and Dunstan, and then destroyed by fire.
Evidences of this destruction were not wanting when the discovery was
made. The east wall of the chancel stood just where the piers of the
aisle of the transept stand. The church was cruciform. This discovery
is of great interest and importance.

Old Scarlett's memory must not be forgotten, the aged sexton, who
lived ninety-eight years, and buried two queens in the Cathedral,
dying in 1594. The painting is a copy of the original made in 1747.
The well-known rhymes beneath are:--

    "You see old Scarlett's picture stand on hie,
    But at your feet there doth his body lye;
    His gravestone doth his age and death-time show,
    His office by these tokens you may know.
    Second to none for strength and sturdye limm,
    A scarbabe mighty voice, with visage grim,
    He had inter'd two queens within this place
    And this towne's householders in his live's space

    Twice over; but at length his own turne came,
    What he for others did for him the same
    Was done; no doubt his soul doth live for aye
    In heaven: though here his body clad in clay."


DIMENSIONS

    Total length of interior       426 ft.
    Nave, length                   228 ft.
    Nave, width                     35 ft.
    Transept, length               185 ft.
    Transept, width                 58 ft.
    Height of interior              78 ft.
    Area                    41,090 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     Norman (1117-1193)--Choir, transepts, central tower (rebuilt in
           1886), nave, ceiling of nave, chapter-house.
     Early English (1214-1295)--West front, font, infirmary,
           refectory and part of cloisters, north-west tower, windows and
           parapet in aisles of nave.
     Decorated (1299-1400)--Large gateway, west porch, roof of
           choir, south-west choir, parapet of clerestory, inserted
           windows.
     Perpendicular (1400-1528)--New building, north-west spire,
           north-east gateway, Perpendicular tracery in windows, and west
           window.

[Illustration PLAN OF PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL]



ELY CATHEDRAL


Ely is one of the monastic towns of England, and owes its existence to
the famous church and monastery which were built here in Early Saxon
days. The patriotic monkish chronicler of Ely, who compiled the _Liber
Eliensis_, wishing to add glory to his church, states that in 607 St.
Augustine founded a church at Cratendune, a mile south of the present
site. The first monastery on the Isle of Ely was founded by St.
Etheldreda, daughter of Anna, King of the East Angles. She received
the Isle of Ely as her dowry from her first husband, an Earldorman of
the South Girvii or Fenmen, and when she married Egfrid, afterwards
King of Northumbria, feeling the call to a religious life, she left
her court and retired to the lonely isle, and there founded a
monastery, of which she was the abbess. As was not unusual at that
time, the house was a double one, for both monks and nuns. St. Wilfrid
assisted her considerably in carrying out her plans, but no fragment
of this early church and monastery remains. The saintly queen died in
679, and was buried in the nuns' resting-place. Some years later her
body, placed in a marble sarcophagus, was translated to the Saxon
church. In 870 the isle was ravaged by the Danes, who destroyed the
church and monastery, slaying both monks and nuns, plundering the
town, and returned loaded with the spoils of the pillaged island. Some
of the monks who escaped returned to their ruined house, and King
Alfred is said to have confirmed them in their possessions. King
Edgar, by the advice of Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, and
Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, reorganised the monastery under the
Benedictine rule, restored to it all its lands, and made Brihtnoth the
first abbot.

The Norman Conquest brought many troubles to the Isle of Ely. The
monks espoused the cause of Hereward, "the last of the English," the
hero of Charles Kingsley's romance, and here he made his last great
stand against the Norman invaders; but the monks "did after their
kind," and surrendered to the Conqueror in 1071. Little harm was done
to the monastic buildings by the warriors of either side, and twelve
years later the building of the present Cathedral was begun by Abbot
Simeon, brother of Walkelin, Bishop of Winchester. He commenced with
the transepts, some parts of which still declare themselves to be his
work. Abbot Richard (1100-1107) continued the building, and finished
the east end, where the body of St. Etheldreda was conveyed and
reburied before the high altar.

Ely was now raised to the dignity of a bishopric, the revenues of the
abbot being used for the endowment of the see, and henceforth the
prior was the head of the monastery. The building of the church
proceeded gradually. The nave was growing by degrees during the
twelfth century, and Bishop Riddell (1174-1189), by his energy, did
much towards its completion and that of the great west tower. The isle
was much disturbed during the troublous time of Stephen's reign, and
the bishop took the part of the enemies of the king, who exacted heavy
fines from the prelate and his monks. Bishop Eustace (1198-1215)
accomplished much, and erected the beautiful Galilee Porch. In 1235
the building of the noble presbytery was begun by Bishop Northwold
(1229-1254), and here, in the presence of King Henry III. and his
court, the shrines of the founders and of three other abbesses were
removed, and the whole church in ground plan completed as we see it
to-day.

[Illustration ARM OF ABBOT'S CHAIR]

Having finished their church, the monks turned their attention to
their domestic buildings, and to the Lady Chapel, which stands here in
an unusual position. It was erected by Alan de Walsingham (the
sub-prior) in 1321, and finished in 1349. In 1322 a sad calamity
happened--the central tower fell, and caused much destruction. But the
catastrophe called forth the constructive genius of Alan de
Walsingham, a prince among architects, who built the beautiful octagon
and lantern tower, which add so much grace and beauty to the building.
The superb Lady Chapel, with its marvellous sculptured work, the
sub-structure of St. Etheldreda's shrine, and Prior Crauden's
Chapel--a perfect gem of beauty and originality--are all Alan de
Walsingham's work. The monks elected this great builder Bishop of Ely,
but the Pope refused to ratify the election. He is admirably described
on his tomb as the _Flos Operatorum_, or "flower of craftsmen."

[Illustration WEST TOWER FROM DEANERY GARDENS]

In this period Decorated windows were inserted in the triforium of the
presbytery, the outside walls being raised for this purpose, and
flying buttresses added. The Cathedral then appeared externally much
as we see it to-day. The Perpendicular style finds few examples in Ely
except in some of the smaller chapels and one or two windows.

[Illustration The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary Lady Chapel.]

At the Reformation the monastery shared the fate of similar
institutions, and a dean and chapter were appointed. The fact that the
bishop occupied the place of the abbot of the monastery is observable
in the position of the bishop's seat, which is south of the entrance
to the choir. He has not a throne, which most bishops have in their
cathedrals. Ely was spared much destruction in the Civil War. The
Parliamentarians pulled down some of the cloisters, and broke a few
windows, but the Cathedral fared better than most others at the hands
of Cromwell. It has suffered, however, from the fancies of
"restorers." In 1770 the ritual choir, with the stalls, was moved from
under the octagon to the extreme east end, to be again moved to its
present position in 1847. About the same time the massive Norman stone
screen, which for eight centuries had stood across the nave, was
ruthlessly destroyed, and the roof of the upper hall of the Galilee
Porch removed, and the western opening of the tower arch filled with a
modern window. Wyatt's destructive hand was only just restrained from
working further mischief, though some authorities make him responsible
for the removal of the screen and the destruction of the roof of the
Galilee. A vast amount of money has during the last century been spent
upon the fabric, and happily the restorers have been, in the main,
governed by good taste and sounder architectural knowledge than that
of their destructive predecessors.


THE EXTERIOR

As you ascend the hill from the station you will undoubtedly be struck
by the external appearance of this magnificent pile. Professor Freeman
remarked that the first glimpse of Ely overwhelmed us, not only by its
stateliness and variety of outline, but by its utter strangeness and
unlikeness to anything else. Its huge western tower, its beautiful but
curious central octagon, are quite peculiar, and the general view,
especially from the north-west, is extremely fine, and can never be
forgotten.

We will begin our survey, as usual, with the _West Front_, which has
been much altered, but remains a very imposing structure. It will be
noticed that the north side differs from the south, and either was
never completed or fell into decay. They both belong to the Late
Norman or Transitional period. The _Galilee Porch_ is a perfect gem of
exquisite architecture. It has been pronounced "the most gorgeous
porch of this style in existence, combining the most elegant general
forms with the richest detail." The style is Early English, and is the
work of Bishop Eustace (1198-1215), who was ordered by the Pope to
excommunicate King John, and had to fly from England in consequence.
It will be seen that this porch is one of the earliest examples of
good Early English work, and for its excellence and perfection rivals
the choir at Lincoln. There is a profusion of dog-tooth ornament. The
doorways are most graceful. The main arch is divided into two
cinquefoiled sub-arches, separated by a slender shaft, and in the head
there is very beautiful tracery. The walls are covered with arcading,
of lancet-shaped arches cinquefoiled. In the interior there is a
beautiful double arcading, similar to that which we have seen at
Lincoln.

[Illustration ELY CATHEDRAL FROM SOUTH-EAST]

The _West Tower_ is earlier than the porch, and its lower stages are
Transition Norman. The upper stages are Early English, except the
highest octagonal stage, which is Decorated. Bishops Riddell and
Northwold were the builders of earlier stages, and the octagonal
summit was built during the bishopric of John Fordham (1388-1425).
This magnificent tower has been a source of continual anxiety to the
monks and masons of Ely, on account of the great weight of the
superstructure, and continual repairs and strengthening operations
have been needed.

[Illustration THE OCTAGON AND LANTERN FROM NORTH-WEST]

The _North Side_ of the nave preserves its Norman character, but
Perpendicular windows with ogee arches have been inserted. Formerly
the Church of St. Cross stood on this side, erected by Walsingham,
but it fell into decay and was pulled down in 1566. We can still see
the walled-up door in the north wall of the Cathedral which led to
this parish church. Norman mouldings (such as the billet) may be seen
round the arches of the windows in the clerestory. The curious and
beautiful _Octagon_ is a striking feature of Ely. It consists of an
eight-sided tower crowned with an octagonal lantern, the dimensions of
which are much smaller than those of the tower which supports it.
Decorated windows of large size occupy the sides facing north-west,
north-east, south-west and south-east, which are narrower than the
other sides. Turrets crowned with pinnacles stand at each corner of
the lower tower, and quadrangular turrets at each corner of the
lantern, which is made of wood. The whole has been recently restored
with the greatest possible success.

The _North Transept_ is Norman. Some Perpendicular and Decorated
windows have been inserted, and the north-west corner, which fell in
1699, was rebuilt by the builder of St. Paul's, London, Sir
Christopher Wren, who inserted the Renaissance door in the north side.

The _Lady Chapel_ has been pronounced to be one of the finest
specimens of Decorated architecture in the kingdom. It is the work of
Walsingham, and was finished in 1349. The east and west windows are
later insertions, but belong to the same century. The building is
oblong, and is enriched with much beautiful carving; niches destitute
of figures appear in the buttresses, and at the east and west ends.
The tracery of the side windows should be noticed.

The _Presbytery_ is fine Early English work, built by Bishop Northwold
(1229-1254), and has been scarcely altered by succeeding builders. The
windows are double lancets in each bay, and in the clerestory three
lancets under an arch, the centre one higher than the others. The
arrangement of the east end is as follows:--In the lower stage three
tall lancets with dog-tooth moulding, above them five lancets of
unequal height, and in the gable three lancets of the same height.
Buttresses carved with niches stand on each side, and flying
buttresses springing from the side buttresses support the roof.
Alterations have been made in the triforium in order to increase the
light in the church.

The _South Transept_ is Norman, with some later windows inserted.
Notice the curious Perpendicular window on the south side. The
_Cloister Court_ was on the south side of the church, but was
destroyed by the Commissioners of Cromwell. Two doorways are
remarkable, named the _Monks' Door_ and _Prior's Door_, both Late
Norman work, and enriched with much carving. The tympanum over the
Prior's Door contains a representation of our Lord in glory.


THE INTERIOR

We now enter the church at the west end, and are struck by the noble
character of this magnificent Norman work. It consists of twelve bays
(there were thirteen before the central tower fell). The two eastern
bays were finished by Abbot Richard (1100-1107), and the rest
completed by Bishop Riddell (1147-1189). The earlier character of the
five bays nearer the central tower is discoverable. The ceiling was
painted forty years ago by Mr. le Strange and Mr. Gambier Parry, whose
artistic work can also be seen at Gloucester. The subjects are the
Creation, the Fall, Noah Sacrificing, the Sacrifice of Isaac, Jacob's
Dream, Marriage of Ruth, Jesse, David, Annunciation, Nativity,
Adoration of the Shepherds and Magi, the Lord in Glory. We see also
representations of the patriarchs and prophets, and in the medallions
at the sides the heads of the human ancestors of our Lord. The west
window was inserted at the close of the eighteenth century and filled
with modern glass (when the roof of the upper hall of the porch was
removed), thus effectively blocking the view of the three great
lancets, 40 feet further west, through which, up to that time, the
setting sun must day by day, through so many centuries, have flooded
the nave with its evening light.

[Illustration ST. CATHERINE'S CHAPEL]

At the west end, under the tower, we notice the strengthening of the
original pillars with additional Perpendicular work. The arches of the
tower, though Norman, are pointed, showing that they were erected at
the end of that period, and the richness of ornament and detail of the
southern portion of the west transept bears out the same conclusion.
_St. Catherine's Chapel_ is in the south corner, rebuilt in the old
style, and the font is modern.

The _Nave Aisles_ have arcades of Norman arches, and the chevron
moulding appears about them in several parts where it has not been cut
away. In the south aisle is an interesting memorial of Ovin, the
steward of St. Etheldreda, which has been recovered from a
neighbouring village. It is part of a cross, with the inscription on
the base--"_Lucem tuam Ovino da Deus et requiem. Amen._" (O God, give
light and rest to Ovin. Amen).

The _Octagon_ would require a volume adequately to record its many
beauties and perfections. We have already described its construction.
It is pronounced by all architects as the gem of the Cathedral, and
one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. The vault is of
wood, and a remarkable series of paintings appears on the boarding.
The Crucifixion and the Apostles are here represented. Large corbels
have sculptured scenes of the life of St. Etheldreda. The vault has
been painted by Mr. Gambier Parry.

[Illustration IN SOUTH AISLE OF NAVE LOOKING TO NORTH TRANSEPT]

The _Transepts_ were the portions of the church first begun by Abbot
Simeon when he first commenced the present Norman Cathedral. The lower
part of the walls and part of the triforium were built by him and
finished by Abbot Richard (1100-1107). The arcading in the south
transept is Transitional, and the upper windows Late Decorated.

[Illustration CARROL IN CLOISTER]

Perpendicular windows have been inserted in the north transept. There
are three chapels at the east of the north transept, one of which
bears the name of St. Edmund, and is divided off by a wooden screen of
the middle of the fourteenth century. The east aisle of the south
transept is walled off and used as the library, and the west as the
vestry.

A modern oak screen of graceful design, replacing a massive Norman
screen ruthlessly destroyed in 1760, separates the octagon from the
_Choir_, which we now enter. It will be remembered that the central
tower fell and carried away three bays of the choir. Hence the work of
these bays is later than the more eastern portion forming the
presbytery, which was built by Bishop Northwold (1229-1254) in Early
English style. The choir was erected by Bishop Hotham (1316-1337), and
is a noble specimen of Decorated work. Between the choir and
presbytery are fine Norman piers of the earlier choir. On the bosses
of the roof we see figures of St. Etheldreda and the Virgin. The east
wall is pierced by lancet windows, which are grouped in a most perfect
manner. The stalls are splendid examples of Decorated work, and the
_misereres_ have some curious grotesques. The fifty carved panels of
scenes from the Old and New Testament are by Abeloos of Louvain, a
modern wood-carver. The lectern is modern, and also the reredos. Of
this eastern part Freeman says:--"Nowhere can we better study the
boldly clustered marble pier with its detached shafts, the richly
foliated capitals with their round abaci, the yet richer corbels which
bear up the marble vaulting shafts, the bold and deeply cut mouldings
of every arch great and small. Lovelier detail was surely never
wrought by the hand of man."

On each side of the presbytery are some ancient monuments of especial
interest. On the south side, beginning at the west, we see Bishop
William de Louth (1298), a fine tomb of Early Decorated character;
Bishop Barnet (1373), translated from Bath and Wells (the effigy has
been lost); Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester, with his two wives, one of
whom was the sister of "the King-maker," Earl of Warwick (this earl
was one of the victims of Edward IV., and lost his head in 1470. He
was a great patron of learning and art, and Fuller exclaims, "The axe
did at one blow cut off more learning than was left in the heads of
all the surviving nobility"); Bishop Hotham (1337), much mutilated. On
the opposite side are the monuments of--Bishop Northwold (1254), which
affords a good illustration of the ecclesiastical dress of the period
(at the foot of the tomb is an interesting representation of the
martyrdom of King Edmund, who shared the fate of St. Sebastian.
Northwold was abbot of St. Edmundsbury before he came to Ely, hence
the origin of the carving); a shrine, believed to be that of St.
Etheldreda, of Decorated design, probably constructed by Walsingham
about 1340; Bishop Kilkenny (1286), who died in Spain, his heart being
buried here; Bishop Redman (1505), a fine Perpendicular structure.

At the end of the north aisle is the chantry of Bishop Alcock (1500),
a fine Perpendicular work in good preservation, though the figures
which once adorned it were destroyed at the Reformation. He founded
Jesus College, Cambridge, and built Ely Palace. On the east is the
inscription, "_Johannes Alkoc Epus Eliensis hanc fabriciam fieri fecit
1488_." In this aisle are the supposed arm of Northwold's chair, which
he brought from his abbey (the sculpture represents the wolf with St.
Edmund's head in his paws), and the tombs of Bishop Marson (1771),
Bishop Patrick (1707), and Basevi, architect of the Fitzwilliam
Museum, Cambridge.

In the retro-choir are the monuments of Bishop Allen (1845), Canon
Fardell (1819), Cardinal Louis de Luxembourg, Bishop, 1444, and an
early muniment chest.

At the east end of the south aisle is Bishop West's chantry (1534), a
beautiful chapel in the Late Perpendicular and Renaissance style. The
carving is very elaborate, with delicate tracery. This Bishop was the
champion and chaplain of Catherine of Arragon, Henry VIII.'s queen.
Above his tomb, in seven small niches, are deposited the bones of six
Saxon bishops and of Earl Bryhtnoth, killed by the Danes in 991, who
exclaimed when he died, "God of Nations, I thank Thee for all the joy
I have had in life." Here are the tombs of Bishops Woodford (1885),
Sparke (1836), Keene (1781). In the south aisle are--an ancient
gravestone of Norman date, representing Michael carrying to heaven the
soul of a bishop, with the inscription, "_St. Michael oret pro me_";
Bishop Hotham (1337), Canon Selwyn (1875), Dean Steward (1557), last
prior and first dean of Ely; Bishop Gunning (1684), author of _The
Prayer for All Conditions of Men_; Bishop Goodrich (1554), a zealous
reformer, destroyer of images and shrines, compiler of "Duties to God
and Neighbour," in the _Catechism_; Bishop Heton (1609), Dean Tyndall
(1614), and other monuments.

The _Lady Chapel_ is a superb structure, with its beautiful sculptured
work, one of the finest specimens of Decorated architecture in the
kingdom in spite of the cruel mutilation to which it was subjected at
the Reformation. It was completed in 1349, but the east window is a
little later and shows evidence of the approach of the Perpendicular
period. An arcade of sculptured canopies runs round the walls, of
extremely delicate carving. The mythical history of the Virgin and of
Julian the Apostate appear in the spandrels, and the bosses of the
roof have some sculptured figures representing the Crucifixion,
Ascension, Annunciation, the Virgin crowned, the Virgin and Elizabeth,
and some which cannot be distinguished.

       *       *       *       *       *

[My thanks are due to the Dean of Ely for his kind assistance in
interpreting the history of the Cathedral which he knows and loves so
well.]


DIMENSIONS

    Total length                517 ft.
    Length of nave              230 ft.
    Breadth of nave              78 ft.
    Height of vault              70 ft.
    Length of transept          190 ft.
    Diameter of octagon          65 ft.
    Height of west tower        215 ft.
    Area                 46,000 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     1083-1189--Transepts, nave, lower stages of tower, monks' and
           prior's doorways.
     1189-1254--Galilee porch, presbytery, upper stages of
           tower.
     1316-1349--Lady chapel, octagon, choir, windows of triforium of
           presbytery, buttresses, Prior Crauden's Chapel, stalls.
     1388-1534--Highest stage of tower, chapel and some
           windows.
     1699--North-west corner of north transept and doorway.

[Illustration PLAN OF ELY CATHEDRAL]



NORWICH CATHEDRAL


Norwich, the capital of East Anglia, is a delightful city, beautifully
situated on the winding Wensum and full of the charm of the
associations of mediæval times. The hill on which the castle stands
carries our thoughts back to Saxon days, to King Uffa in the sixth
century. Saxon, Dane and Norman held sway here. It was also the city
of the Dutch. The cruelties of Alva sent Flemings and Walloons, who
came with their silks and threads and worsteds and implements, and
made the textile manufactures the glory and fortune of the county.
Here kings kept their Christmas feasts, and in no less royal fashion
did the old Dukes of Norfolk, when Norwich was the gayest of episcopal
cities. Very independent were the turbulent burghers, who often
contended with the monks and bishops for rights and privileges, as
when in 1272 they quarrelled over the tolls of a fair, and sacked the
Cathedral, and in 1549 when Kett the tanner raised his formidable
rebellion, which was with difficulty subdued. Few cities can rival
Norwich in the interest of its associations and the treasures of
antiquity which here abound.


THE CATHEDRAL--ITS HISTORY

The See of Norwich was created in Norman times, Dunwich, Elmham and
Thetford having previously been the episcopal seats. In the time of
Rufus there was a general transference of bishoprics to the larger
towns, in accordance with a decree of a church synod, hence in 1094
Norwich had the honour conferred on it by Bishop Herbert de Losinga,
who two years later commenced his Cathedral. This bishop obtained his
preferment by simony, and it is said built the church in expiation of
his crime. Beginning at the east end "he finished the church as far as
the altar of St. William,"[19] which was on the north side of the
present screen. This included the choir and transepts with the two
chapels and two bays of the nave. His successor, Bishop Eborard,
finished the nave. Herbert built also a Bishop's Palace, and a
monastery of Benedictine monks was attached to the Cathedral. A
curious scene was witnessed here in 1144 when a number of Jews were
tried for the ritual murder of the boy saint, St. William of Norwich,
in Thorpe Wood, whom they cruelly tortured. The houses of the Jews
were plundered, and in memory of the miracle-working boy a chapel was
built on the scene of his murder, and a shrine erected in the
Cathedral.

Fire played its usual destructive part here, as elsewhere, in 1171,
and the church was repaired and perfected by Bishop John of Oxford in
1197. In the Early English period there seems to have been little
progress, except the building of the Lady Chapel at the east end by
Walter de Suffield (1244-1257), which was destroyed in the time of
Queen Elizabeth. The entrance only remains.

Very stormy times befell the Cathedral at the end of the thirteenth
century. The city was sacked by the revolting barons in 1266, and a
few years later a dispute arose between the citizens and the prior
about the right of tolls to a fair held in the Tombland at
Whitsuntide, which were of much profit to the monastery. It was the
same story which is told of many towns, the quarrels of the burghers
and the ecclesiastics. In 1272 the disputants fell to blows, and some
of the citizens were slain. They arrested some of the men of the
monastery for murder, and an interdict was hurled by the prior against
them. Moreover, he imported three barges-full of mercenaries who
plundered the burghers' houses and killed and wounded many. Reprisals
followed. The citizens stormed the Priory and Cathedral, routed and
slew the monks and their mercenaries, set fire to the buildings, and
pillaged the church. Such violence against the Church was then unheard
of, and dire punishment was inflicted on the citizens of Norwich. The
Pope excommunicated them, Henry III. deprived them of their liberties,
and ordered 3000 marks to be paid towards the restoration of the
Cathedral. New gates and gatehouses were erected by order of the Pope
in order to prevent the renewal of such sacrilege, and St. Ethelbert's
Gate was built at the close of the thirteenth century to guard the
precincts. History concludes that the violence of the fierce prior was
the main cause of the trouble, and not the obstinacy of the people.
The work of restoration was immediately begun and the church
reconsecrated in 1278 in the presence of King Edward I. and his queen
and a grand assembly of bishops, knights and nobles, when Bishop
Middleton was raised to the see. His successor, Bishop Ralph de
Walpole, began to rebuild the cloisters, which were continued by
Bishop Salmon, and form some of the largest and most beautiful in the
country. Their style is mainly Decorated, but there is some
Perpendicular work constructed in Bishop Wakering's time, who was a
great persecutor of the Lollards (1416-1425). The chapter-house was
erected by Walpole.

In the time of Edward IV. troubles sore oppressed the diocese. Bishop
Anthony, who was of a violent and imperious spirit, rendered himself
very obnoxious to the monks, and was poisoned by his servants, and six
years later the Black Death is said to have carried off 50,000
inhabitants. This was in the time of Bishop Bateman, buried at
Avignon, a mighty prelate who compelled the powerful Lord Morley to do
penance in the Cathedral for killing the bishop's deer.

The lofty spire was blown down by a fierce hurricane in 1361, and
rebuilt by Bishop Percy, who rebuilt also the clerestory. His
successor, Henry de Despencer, was a very warlike prelate, who ruled
with an iron hand. He crushed the revolting peasants in 1381, and
fought in the Netherlands for Pope Urban VI. against the adherents of
his rival, Clement. The vicissitudes of prelates were great in those
days; both he and his successor, Totington, were imprisoned by the
king. Bishop Alnwick (1426-1449) began to alter the west front, and
Bishop Lyhart put in the large west window and built the rood-screen
and vaulted the nave. During the rule of Bishop Browne (1436-1445) the
quarrel between the burghers and the monks again broke out, and the
former besieged the monastery, for which conduct the king deprived
them of their rights and liberties. A fire occurred in 1463, caused by
lightning striking the spire, and did much damage to the presbytery,
which was restored by Bishop Goldwell (1472-1499), who also finished
the spire. Fire again did much damage in 1509 during the rule of
Bishop Nykke or Nix (1501-1536), whose reputation was not so
unblemished as his name (_snow_). The transept roof was destroyed,
which Nykke rebuilt in stone. The dissolution of monasteries soon
followed in 1538, and Norwich shared the fate of the rest. The
Cathedral foundation was renewed, the last prior being made the first
dean. The church suffered from the usual acts of spoliation and
desecration at the hands of the Commissioners of Edward VI. and the
Puritans. Dean Gardiner (1573-1589) destroyed the chapter-house and
the beautiful Lady Chapel. Bishop Hall (1641-1656) thus alludes to the
misdeeds of the Puritans:--

     "It is tragical to relate the furious sacrilege committed under
     the authority of Lindsey, Tofts the sheriff, and Greenwood;
     what clattering of glasses, what beating down of walls, what
     tearing down of monuments, what pulling down of seats, and
     wresting out of irons and brass from the windows and graves;
     what defacing of arms, what demolishing of curious stone-work,
     that had not any representation in the world but the cost of
     the founder and the skill of the mason; what piping on the
     destroyed organ pipes; vestments, both copes and surplices,
     together with the leaden cross, which had been newly sawn down
     from over the green yard pulpit, and the singing books and
     service books were carried to the fire in the public market
     place; a lewd wretch walking before the train, in his cope,
     trailing in the dirt, with a service book in his hand,
     imitating in an impious scorn the tune, and usurping the words
     of the Litany; the ordnance being discharged on the guild day,
     the cathedral was filled with musketeers, drinking and
     tobaccoing, as freely as if it had turned ale-house."

The citizens joined eagerly in the work of spoliation and burned in
the open market, by order of the court of assembly, "Moses and Aaron,
and four Evangelists that came from the Cathedral, and some other
superstitious pictures."

The Restoration of the Monarchy caused the restoration of the
Cathedral. A new organ and church plate were presented, and since that
time much restoration has taken place, which has greatly enhanced the
glory and beauty of this ancient House of God.


THE EXTERIOR

We enter the Cathedral precincts by the Erpingham Gate, built by Sir
Thomas Erpingham, a knight who fought at Agincourt, and is mentioned
by Shakespeare (_Henry V._, Act IV). The style is Early Perpendicular.
Notice the figures of saints in the arch moulding, the donor's
kneeling figure in the niche above the arch, his arms and those of his
two wives on the buttresses, and the word _Yenk_ (think) on the
shafts. The other gates are that of St. Ethelbert, Early Decorated,
much restored, built by the citizens in expiation of their sacrilege
in 1272, and the Bishop's Gate leading to the Palace, built by Bishop
Alnwyck in Early Perpendicular style.

[Illustration EXTERIOR VIEW OF NORWICH CATHEDRAL]

Entering by the Erpingham Gate, on the left is the Grammar School,
formerly the Chapel of St. John the Evangelist, founded by Bishop
Salmon in 1315. Below was a charnel-house, now used as a gymnasium.
The porch was added by Lyhart at the end of the fifteenth century.
Here Nelson was educated, and George Borrow and many other
distinguished men.

The _West Front_, in spite of its noble window, is far from being a
satisfactory compilation. The injudicious restoration of 1875 has had
much to do with this. Portions of the original Norman work remain in a
great part of the wall, two side doors, arcades and windows above. The
main doorway was erected by Bishop Alnwyck, who seems to have cased
the old Norman with Perpendicular work--an arch of the old work was
uncovered by Dean Goulburn. The same bishop left money for the great
Perpendicular window of nine lights, which was erected by Bishop
Lyhart. We can see the result of perverse modern restoration by
comparing the present front with those shown in earlier illustrations,
and discover that the towers flanking the great window have been cut
down and shorn of their cupolas, and also the turrets at the extreme
north and south have suffered a like deprivation, and some inelegant
pinnacles erected instead, while the battlemented parapet has been
removed, and some ridiculous little round windows inserted. Certainly
the efforts of modern architects have not been crowned with success.

The best view of the long nave is obtained from the upper close, or
from the cloister garth. The wall is divided into three storeys.
Behind the cloisters some late windows have been inserted in the
aisle. Above the cloisters we see a Norman arcade with Norman windows
over it, which have been blocked up; above them a row of Perpendicular
windows, with a battlemented parapet, and above this a row of Norman
windows, and parapet added later. Two Perpendicular windows were
inserted at the west end by Bishop Nykke. Norman buttresses divide the
windows. The north side resembles the south, and is enclosed by the
bishop's garden.

The south transept is Norman, but it has been recased with new stone,
and pyramid caps set on the turrets in imitation of Norman work,
instead of some Perpendicular turrets which these replaced. Why will
architects and restorers thus destroy the history of a building
written in stone by trying to imitate what they imagine to have been
the original form? On the east is the dean's vestry, formerly a
chapel. The chapter-house and ancient slype have been destroyed, also
an apse-shaped chapel on the east side of the south transept.

The _Choir_ in its lower storeys resembles the nave, with its Norman
arcade, windows, and inserted Perpendicular windows, but it has a
lofty clerestory of Late Decorated style supported by flying
buttresses, erected by Bishop Percy, when the fall of the spire
destroyed the old Norman clerestory. Carved figures surmount the
summits of the exterior buttresses. There are projecting Chapels of
St. Mary-the-Less (Decorated), St. Luke and the Jesus Chapel
(Norman).[20] The Lady Chapel was destroyed by iconoclastic Dean
Gardiner, as we have mentioned, who regarded Lady Chapels as relics of
Popery. The north front is very similar to the south, and needs no
separate description.

The chief glory of Norwich is its _Tower_ and _Spire_. The tower is a
very fine example of Norman work. At the four corners are noble Norman
buttresses, crowned with crocketed pinnacles, added in Early
Perpendicular times, when the fall of the old wooden spire had carried
away the original Norman ones. On the surface of each wall are three
Norman arcades, and in the upper and lower three of the arches have
been pierced with windows, and above are two rows of small circular
windows. The spire is Perpendicular work, erected by Bishops Lyhart
and Goldwell towards the end of the fifteenth century. May it long
escape the fate of its predecessors, one of which was blown down in
1361, and the other struck by lightning, on each occasion causing
considerable damage to the church.

The _Bishop's Palace_ is on the north, founded by Bishop Herbert, but
subsequent alterations have left little of the original structure.
Some of the original vaulting is in the basement, and the ruin in the
garden is the remains of the great hall built by Bishop Salmon in
1318. In the chapel are monuments to Bishop Reynolds (1661-1676) and
Bishop Sparrow, a learned divine, who assisted in the revision of the
Prayer Book in 1661.

There was a curious open-air pulpit, with a cross over it, somewhat
similar to Paul's Cross in London, on the north, in what was known as
Green Yard. Galleries were erected around it, and good accommodation
provided for the mayor and his officers, with their ladies, who came
in summer time to hear the sermons.


THE INTERIOR

The view of the nave from the west end is magnificent. A long vista
of Norman arches, and beautiful expanse of vaulted lierne roofing, is
most impressive. A fine screen, with organ above it, prevents a full
view of the whole interior, but this detracts nothing from the
grandeur of the view.

The nave has fourteen piers on each side, divided into seven bays, two
arches to each bay. The lower arches, and those in the triforium, are
about equal. Each pier has several shafts attached. A lofty shaft runs
up the face of the main arch to support the roof. The zigzag and
billet mouldings will be observed on the arches. The clerestory is
Norman, and has triple arches. The first Norman prelate, Herbert,
built the nave as far as the two most eastern bays, and his successor,
Eborard, finished it. The old Norman roof was destroyed by fire in
1463, when Bishop Lyhart, who loved to display his punning rebus, a
stag lying in water, erected the lierne stone vaulted roof, which is a
noble specimen of its kind. The bosses are very interesting, and
contain a full epitome of Bible history from the Creation to the
Descent of the Holy Spirit, and include the terrors of Hades and the
Final Judgment. One boss is absent, and through the hole in the roof
it is conjectured that on Whitsunday a white pigeon was released and a
burning censer swung, as an eyewitness testifies to a similar
representation in old St. Paul's. There is a somewhat similar custom
in Florence at the present time.

[Illustration A Bay N side of Nave.]

We notice in the west the large window erected by Lyhart, with modern
glass, and the Norman arch over the door. The north aisle has
Decorated windows inserted in the Norman walls. A reconstruction of
the roof was made in the fifteenth century, when the walls were raised
and Perpendicular windows added, and the slope of the roof changed
into one much less steep. The _South Aisle_ differs little from the
north. In the centre was Bishop Nykke's Chapel, which he devised for
himself, to perpetuate a not very desirable memory. Here we have Late
Perpendicular work in the vaulting and windows. Few monuments or
brasses escaped the destructive hands of the Puritans. In the aisles
there are a few--the altar tomb of Sir T. Wyndham and four wives; Dean
Prideaux (d. 1724), a distinguished divine, the author of _The
Connection between the Old and New Testament_, Sir John Hobart,
Attorney-General to Henry VII. (1507); Bishop Parkhurst (1574).

The _Choir_ occupies the space between the two last arches of the
nave, being shut off from it by an interesting stone _Screen_. The
lower part of this structure is ancient, having been erected by Bishop
Lyhart in Perpendicular style. The upper portion was added about 1830.
Two altars stood near the central door, one dedicated to the boy saint
of Norwich, St. William, slain by the Jews. The scanty remains of
these altars mark the site of two chapels, over which were the
rood-loft and organ, destroyed by the iconoclastic Puritans, whose
sacrilege and abominable riotings have been already mentioned in the
records left us by Bishop Hall. At the Restoration Dean Croft
endeavoured to remedy the result of their evil deeds, and fashioned a
new organ which, with additions and improvements, remains and stands
over the screen.

Modern taste has removed some of the obstructions erected in times
when the ideas of beauty and fitness were defective, and the
alterations and improvements of the east end were not concluded till a
few years ago. The stalls are very good Perpendicular work, fashioned
at the time when the art of wood-carving had attained its highest
development. The _misereres_ are specially worthy of examination. The
old popular legend is often repeated concerning them, that if one of
the monks fell asleep during service, and caused the bench to fall, he
was condemned to severe penance. This idea has no foundation in fact,
as the raised seat was designed, as its name implies, out of _pity_
for the infirmities of the brethren, and not for any idea of
punishment. The bishop's throne and pulpit are modern, and the lectern
is good Decorated work.

The presbytery was damaged on two occasions by the fall of the tower,
and these accidents obliged subsequent repairs and alterations, which
were constructed in the style then in use. Hence we have blended with
the old Norman work the Decorated clerestory of Bishop Percy
(1355-1369), and the Perpendicular roof of Bishop Goldwell, erected a
century later. The lower arches were altered by the same bishop into
the Perpendicular style, and his name is preserved in the canting
rebus--gold and a well. The old Norman triforium remains. The vaulting
of the roof is curious. Between each pair of clerestory windows is a
niche, and from the heads of these spring the ribs, which form a
beautiful example of lierne vaulting. The eastern termination is the
original Norman apse, built by Bishop Herbert. The old bishop's throne
is particularly interesting, chiefly from its position in the centre
of the apse, with the presbyters' seats on each side. This idea was
probably derived from Rome, where this position was not uncommon,
though unusual in this country. The bishop's throne at Torcelli is a
well-known example of this use. The present altar is modern, and also
the present floor, designed by Sir Arthur Blomfield.

[Illustration Ancient Bishop's Throne]

The following are the principal _Monuments_:--

A slab marks the resting place of Bishop Herbert, the founder;
Goldwell's Chantry and tomb; Bishop Wakering's tomb (d. 1425); Bishop
Overall (d. 1619); Sir W. Boleyn (d. 1505).

The _North Transept_, built by Herbert, has good Norman arcading, and
a vault erected by Nykke. The clerestory resembles the nave. There was
at the east an apsidal chapel dedicated to St. Anne, but it is now
closed and used for baser purposes. A processional path runs round the
presbytery. On the north side is a curious bridge, which was connected
with the Reliquary Chapel, now destroyed, situated on the exterior of
the church. This bridge was an ante-chapel to that in which the
relics were stored, and is adorned with mural paintings. Probably
relics were exhibited here for the worship of the pilgrims, who went
in procession along the path below.

[Illustration Bridge North Aisle of Presbytery.]

The curiously-shaped _Chapels_--the _Jesus_ and _St. Luke's_--with
their Norman arcading are next seen. In the former there is some mural
painting much restored--a facsimile of the ancient picture--and over
the chapel is a museum. The latter is a parish church for the
precincts. The windows are sham Norman, having been inserted in the
last century. There is a mutilated font of fifteenth century, carved
with Crucifixion and Seven Sacraments. Above it is the treasury. Here
is a curious oil painting accidentally discovered by Professor Willis,
which was part of a reredos, converted into a table after the Puritan
outbreak. It is sometimes attributed to an Italian artist of 1370, but
there is no reason to suppose that it was not the production of
genuine English art of that period. Even Dean Stanley attributes the
Eleanor bronze to an Italian, Torel, and Professor Freeman calls De
Noyer of Lincoln a "crazy Frenchman," and others ascribe the Exeter
chancel-screen to French workmen. This error of attributing pure
English work to foreign artists has caused a very unjust depreciation
of the skill and genius of our native craftsmen. The subjects of these
paintings are the last scenes of our Lord's life. Other mural
paintings are:--On ceiling of sacrist's room of late thirteenth
century--subjects: Virgin, SS. Catherine, Margaret, Andrew, Peter,
Paul, and Richard of Chichester. On south wall of south aisle--SS.
Wulstan, Edward the Confessor, and others.

The Lady Chapel has been destroyed, as we have said, by Dean Gardiner
in Elizabeth's reign, but happily the doorway remains, the only part
of the Cathedral of Early English workmanship. The profusion of the
dog-tooth ornament is evident. The doorway is formed of a double arch,
with clustered shafts, and was built, together with the Lady Chapel,
about the middle of the thirteenth century by Bishop Walter de
Suffield. Stone was brought from Caen and Barnack for the purpose. The
destruction of these Lady Chapels was a sign of the decay in the
worship of the Virgin, which was so extensively followed in mediæval
times.

There is another chapel on the south; that of St. Mary-the-Less, now
used as the consistory court, built by one Bauchun in the fourteenth
century. An ecclesiastical lawyer, Seckington, added the groined roof
in the fifteenth century. The altar has been displaced by a doorway.
The sculptured bosses represent the legendary history of the Virgin.

We enter the _South Transept_ by a Tudor doorway, over which is some
rich open screen work of fifteenth-century design, under the original
Norman arch. This transept, built by Herbert, is fine Norman work,
with good arcading, the vault being added by Bishop Nykke. This
transept has the oldest coloured glass in the Cathedral, a copy of
Raphael's Ascension, erected by Dean Lloyd in 1790. Here we see the
following _Monuments_:--

Bishop Bathurst (d. 1837), by Chantrey; and memorial tablets to East
Anglian heroes who fell in China and Afghanistan.

The _Cloisters_ are extremely interesting and beautiful. We enter them
by the Prior's Door, a fine Decorated work, having four columns on
each side, with archivolt mouldings, in front of which are seven
canopied niches, with richly-sculptured crockets, containing figures.
The Norman cloisters, probably constructed of wood, were destroyed in
1272, at the time of the citizens' revolt. The east walk was rebuilt
by Bishop Walpole (1289-1299) in Early Decorated style. His successor,
Bishop Salmon, built the south walk, the windows of which show a great
advance in the same style, the windows having flowing tracery. The
west walk has also Late Decorated work, and the north walk has at the
east end an Early Decorated window, at the west end two Late
Decorated, while the other five are Perpendicular in their tracery.
This part was finished by Bishop Alnwyck (1426-1436). The slype and
chapter-house have both been destroyed. The usual plan of Benedictine
monasteries was followed here. The dormitory was on the east side, the
refectory on the south, with entrance at south-west corner, and near
to this is the monks' lavatory, the kitchen being further west. Carved
figures representing the Temptation of Adam and Eve are above this
door leading to the refectory. The locutory or parlour of the monks
was on the west side of the cloisters and the hospitium, and from this
walk the _Monks' Door_ leads us back to the Cathedral. The bosses are
extremely interesting. In the east walk the subjects are foliage, the
four Evangelists, the Scourging, Crucifixion and Resurrection of
Christ, and Nebuchadnezzar eating grass. In the south and west, scenes
from the Book of the Revelation of St. John; and in the north, legends
of the saints--Christopher, Laurence (being burnt on a gridiron); the
dancing of Herodias's daughter before Herod, which represents her as
tumbling rather than dancing, in accordance with the usual conceptions
of mediæval artists.


DIMENSIONS

    Length of church                        407 ft.
    Nave length                             252 ft.
    Nave to choir-screen                    204 ft.
    Width of nave                            72 ft.
    Height of roof                           95 ft.
    Height of spire (from ground)           315 ft.
    Height of tower                         140 ft.
    Height of spire from tower              174 ft.
    Area                                 34,800 sq. ft.


OBJECTS OF INTEREST IN NORWICH

     The _Castle_, of which I have already written.

     _Guild Hall_, parts of which were built in 1407, and contains
     much that is interesting--portraits of Norwich worthies,
     regalia, etc.

     _St. Andrew's Hall_, once the Church of the Dominicans, in
     Perpendicular style, which has passed through many
     vicissitudes, and has some good pictures.

Norwich abounds in interesting churches--

     St. John of Timberhill--Norman font, squint; parvise,
     principally Decorated.

     All Saints--fine Perpendicular font.

     St. Michael-at-Thorn--Norman doorway, curious registers.

     St. Peter, Mancroft; St. Gregory, Pottergate; St. Giles, St.
     Helen's, St. John the Baptist, St. Michael-at-Plea.

     The Stranger's Hall is well worthy of a visit, and Norwich
     abounds in objects of the greatest interest.

     The old "Maid's Head" hotel is one of the most ancient and
     interesting hostels in the kingdom.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     Norman (1091-1145)--Choir, transept with chapels, nave and
           tower.
     Early English (1244-1257)--Door of Lady Chapel.
        (1278-1299)--Ethelbert's gate, east walk of cloisters.
     Decorated (1299-1369)--Chapter-house and cloisters, clerestory
           of presbytery, Chapel of St. Mary-the-Less, some windows.
     Perpendicular (1420-1538)--West front altered, Erpingham Gate,
           presbytery restored, vault of nave and transepts, spire,
           screen, stalls, some windows, Bishop's Gate.
        (1573-1859)--Chapter-house and Lady Chapel destroyed.

[Illustration PLAN OF NORWICH CATHEDRAL]

FOOTNOTES:

[19] _Registrum Primum._

[20] The restorers have been very busy here, and most of the windows
are imitations of Norman work.



ST. ALBAN'S CATHEDRAL


St. Albans, the ancient Verulam, is one of the most ancient towns in
England, and is replete with historical associations. It was the home
of the British chieftain Cassivellaunus before the Romans came.
Boadicea killed many of the people for loving the Romans; and soon
came Christianity, and then the record of the slaying of St. Alban,
Britain's proto-martyr. It was during the Diocletian persecution that
Alban sheltered a deacon named Amphibalus from the fury of the
oppressors, and was himself converted to the Christian faith. Alban
enabled his guest to escape, and was himself seized and slain, many
miracles taking place at his execution. Offa founded a monastery here
in 793, near his manor-house--of which the earthworks remain--and
dedicated it to the saint, finding the remains of the martyr, which he
placed in a reliquary and deposited in the church. The monks
introduced here were Benedictine, of which order this was the chief
house in the kingdom. The town increased, and Ulsi, the sixth abbot,
founded the three churches of SS. Peter, Michael, and Stephen. We need
not dwell on the records of Saxon abbots, many of whom were of Royal
descent. When the Normans came, Paul of Caen, a relative of Lanfranc,
was made abbot in 1077, and rebuilt the church, using the Roman town
of Verulam as a quarry. He found much material collected by the last
two Saxon abbots, who intended to build a new church, but were
prevented by the troubles of the time. The large amount of Roman tiles
used in the construction of the building is apparent. Much of his work
remains in the eastern portion of the nave and in the tower and
transepts. The church was dedicated during the rule of Abbot Richard
D'Aubeny, in the presence of the king, Henry I., his court, and a
goodly number of bishops, in 1115, and a little later we read of the
relics of the saint being deposited in a beautiful shrine and conveyed
to a place of honour in the minster. One Ralph de Gobion, seventeenth
abbot, plundered the shrine in order to increase the territorial
possessions of the Abbey, but his successor, Robert de Gorham
(1151-1167), restored the shrine, and built anew some of the monastic
buildings. This monastery had the high honour of producing the only
English Pope, Nicholas Breakspeare, who was a monk here, and who, in
the time of his prosperity, forgot not his early monastic home. The
noble west front that once adorned this church, ruined by modern
"restoration," was begun by Abbot John de Cella (1195-1214), but the
troubles of John's reign prevented him from finishing it. His work was
continued by William de Trumpington (1214-1235), who placed a lantern
on the tower and rebuilt the west end of the nave. St. Alban's was
fortunate in having a historian among its monks. Matthew Paris lived
here, and died in 1259. He tells us much in his chronicles about the
Abbey he loved so well, of royal visits, of dread plagues, and of the
abbots who ruled here. Here came Edward I. on his way to Scotland,
here his queen's body lay on its last sad journey, and here one of the
Eleanor crosses was raised--alas! now destroyed. There was here a
famous school of chroniclers, who did much for the history of England,
and amongst them were Roger of Wendover, Matthew of Westminster,
Thomas of Walsingham, and many others. A great work was begun in 1256
by Abbot John de Hertford (1235-1260), the successor of Trumpington,
and this was the rebuilding and extension of the eastern arm. The
apsidal termination was removed, the aisles lengthened two bays, a
square-ended central chapel placed at the end, and the Lady Chapel
begun. The work lasted until almost the end of the century, and is
pronounced to be the most perfect example of the art of the age. A
terrible disaster befell the Abbey in the rule of Hugh de Eversden
(1308-1326). A great part of the south aisle gave way, two piers, with
triforium and clerestory roof and south wall, being involved in a
mighty ruin. The abbot set to work to restore the church; he built in
the Decorated style, and finished also the Lady Chapel. The usual
disputes between the monks and townsfolk raged at St. Albans, as in
most places where there was a powerful abbot and a growing town. In
Eversden's time the lordly abbot was compelled by the king to give
way, but his successor regained all his power over the town. He was a
wonderful man, this Richard de Wallingford (1326-1335), who made a
marvellous astronomical clock, and could manage to tell the ways of
the stars and the course of the sun as easily as he could manage the
people of St. Albans. But all disputes did not cease for many a long
year, and frequently the abbot's servants and the townsfolk came to
blows. The work of restoring the south aisle progressed, and was
finished by Abbot Mentmore (1335-1349), who also repaired the north
walk of the cloister, damaged by the fall of the adjoining aisle.
Abbot Thomas de la Mare (1349-1396) was the son of a noble house, and
a favourite of Edward III. After Poictiers the French King John was
brought here, and kept as an honourable prisoner, and afterwards
expressed his gratitude to the courtly abbot for his care. Edward III.
granted leave to the abbot to fortify his monastery, and walls and
gates were much needed a few years later when Wat Tyler and his rebels
besieged it and frightened the abbot and caused much damage. The
rebels suffered here later when the king came, and some he hanged.
Then was the Great Gate, with its prisons and vaults, constructed,
which still stands, mightily convincing of the power of the abbot. Nor
did he forget his church. He paved all the west part at great cost,
and spent large sums on the services. The abbot, John de la Moote
(1396-1401), took some part in dethroning Richard II., and it is said
that the conspiracy was hatched at the abbot's dinner-table. Here they
brought as a prisoner the Bishop of Carlisle, who stoutly defended
Richard at Westminster. The rivalry of the Houses of York and
Lancaster brought trouble to St. Albans. Here was fought the first
battle, and here, in the house of a tanner, Henry VI. was found and
conveyed to London. The second battle of St. Albans was fought here in
1461, when the king's party were victorious, and the Abbey was the
scene of a great thanksgiving service. Great privileges were granted
to the Abbey by Edward IV. Several alterations were made in
Perpendicular times. The walls of the nave aisles were lowered and
their roofs flattened, so that the backs of the Norman triforia were
exposed, and their openings made into windows. Several Perpendicular
windows were also inserted. St. Albans played a great part in the
introduction of printing, and a press was set up in the Abbey. The
earliest book printed here was in 1480, and many other incunabula came
from this renowned press. The era of the Reformation is at hand.
Cardinal Wolsey was abbot here in 1521. The fate of the monastery was
doomed. In 1539 it was surrendered to the king by his creature Abbot
Boreman, and the manors, goods and possessions were soon seized by the
courtiers. Much damage was done in the church; of course, the
beautiful shrines were destroyed. The Abbey church and buildings were
granted to Sir Richard Lee, who soon began to uproot and destroy. The
cloisters were levelled to the ground. Abbot Boreman did good service
in buying the site of the monastery from Sir R. Lee. Then the
townsfolk did nobly. They bought the church from the Crown, and made
it the Parish Church of St. Andrew, and moreover established a Grammar
School in the Lady Chapel. The eastern ante-chapel was walled up, and
a public passage made across the church west of the Lady Chapel. The
knives of the schoolboys improved not the ancient stone-work of this
once beautiful building. Various attempts have been made in successive
ages to keep this Abbey in repair. In 1832 and 1856 much was
accomplished, and the story of the reparation of 1870 under Sir G.
Scott tells of the triumphs of the skill of modern builders, and their
bravery and resolution in saving the fall of the great tower. This
mighty mass began to give way, and the architect discovered that some
dastard attempt had been made to destroy it, after the dissolution of
the monastery, by digging a great hole under one of the piers. The
greatest credit is due to all concerned in the hazardous and most
difficult task of saving the falling tower. The Grammar School was
removed from the Lady Chapel, and much done to restore the building to
its ancient beauty. In 1871 it was raised to the dignity of a
Cathedral; and surely no church more worthily deserved this honour. In
quite recent times injudicious "restoration" has wrought terrible
mischief. The west front has been entirely modernised, and much else
has been "restored" beyond all knowledge of English Gothic art; but,
in spite of all this, St. Albans remains one of the most interesting
buildings in the kingdom, and one can only regret that time has dealt
so hardly with this venerable pile.

[Illustration S^t Albans from the N W]


THE EXTERIOR

As we approach the Cathedral from the south we get a fine view and
notice the great length of the building, its great central tower, and
large amount of Roman tiles used in the construction. These tiles are
1-1/2 inches thick and measure 16 inches by 12. In addition much flint
is used. The piers, arches, towers and staircases are mainly composed
of tiles. Originally the building was covered with cement, which has
almost entirely disappeared. Its plan is that of a Latin Cross, and
originally there were no less than seven parallel apses, all of which
have disappeared. The grand _Tower_ is Norman. Formerly there were
turrets at the four angles, and in the thirteenth century an octagonal
lantern was added; but these have disappeared, and the tower is very
much the same as it was in Norman times. The embattled parapet is
recent. The _West Front_ creates sad reflections, and words are
powerless to convey a sufficiently strong protest against the evils
which have been wrought by the injudicious though well-meaning efforts
of modern restorers. The original Norman west front was removed by
Abbot John de Cella (1195-1214), who began to erect a new one. It was
a magnificent intention, but it was too ambitious for the resources of
the monastery, and the levies of Richard I. for his crusading
exploits, and the confiscations of John, were too much for the abbot,
and put a stop to his enterprise. He intended to build two western
towers, but got no further than the foundations. The front would have
been 160 feet in width, 40 feet wider than Salisbury. Abbot William de
Trumpington proceeded to finish the work, and rebuilt five bays on the
south side of the nave and four on the north. John de Cella's three
deep porches are left to us in some small fragments; the rest is
modern, and owes its erection to Lord Grimthorpe. The _Nave_ shows
three periods of architecture. The eastern portion is the work of Paul
de Caen (1077-1097). On the south side the three easternmost bays are
Norman and were constructed by him. The next five bays are Decorated.
These were begun by Abbot Hugh de Eversden (1308-1326), in whose time
during Divine service two great piers on the south fell, and all the
roof and beams of the south part were ruined. The rebuilding was
finished by Abbot Michael de Mentmore (1335-1349). The four remaining
bays are the Early English work of William de Trumpington (1214-1235).
In Perpendicular times the roof of the aisle was lowered and made
flat, disclosing the triforium openings, but in the recent restoration
the original pitch has been renewed. On this side stood the cloister
court, and against the south wall of the church are seen the remains
of the arches of the north cloister walk. Part of the east walk
cloister left its marks on the west wall of the south transept, but
recent restoration has obliterated them. The south transept is Norman,
the work of Paul de Caen, except the south wall, which has been
entirely rebuilt by Lord Grimthorpe. The tall lancets are an imitation
of "the Five Sisters" of York Minster. Turrets crowned with small caps
stand at each angle of the transept. Below the window are the remains
of the slype, or passage from the cloister to the monks'
burial-ground. The south wall is all that remains of the
chapter-house. On the east side of the transept were formerly two
apsidal chapels, but all traces of these have been removed. They were
destroyed in the time of Edward II. to make room for a sacristy. On
the south of the south chancel aisle is a fine Norman arch leading to
these apsidal chapels. When they were removed the arch was contracted
by the insertion of a pointed arch. A vestry was constructed here in
1846.

This eastern part of the church beyond the third bay from the tower
was built in the latter half of the thirteenth century under the rule
of Abbot John de Hertford, and completed by Abbot Roger Norton
(1260-1290). The Lady Chapel was mainly built under the rule of Abbot
Hugh de Eversden (1308-1326), one Reginald of St. Albans being the
master-mason. It is in the Decorated style, and was begun as early as
1280. Abbot Wheathampstead (1420-1464) embellished it with much
decoration in the Perpendicular style. It was with the ambulatory long
separated from the church by a wall, and used as a Grammar School. A
public path passed through the building here. The north side of the
chapel and presbytery resembles the south. The north door is much
later. The most western part of the wall is Norman. The north transept
is entirely Norman, the work of Abbot Paul. On the east side were two
apsidal chapels, removed in the fifteenth century. The upper part of
the north front was rebuilt by Lord Grimthorpe. The north side of the
nave preserves its Norman character, both in the clerestory and aisle,
except at the west end, where it has been reconstructed in the Early
English style.

On the west of the Abbey is the _Great Gateway_, which is an unusually
important building. The greater part of the present structure was
built by Abbot Thomas de la Mare (1349-1396), but there seems to be
some thirteenth century incorporated with it. Here the abbot held his
court, and dealt out justice to the townsfolk and received his rents,
and transacted other business; and here there were prisons for
rebellious clerks and others. The gateway was stormed by Wat Tyler's
rebels in 1381, who broke into the Abbey and terribly frightened the
abbot and his monks. But vengeance was in store for the rioters,
several of whom were imprisoned here and afterward hanged. After the
dissolution it was used as the Assize Court, and subsequently as a
prison. Then the Grammar School, evicted from the Lady Chapel, found a
home here. All the other monastic buildings have been destroyed.


THE INTERIOR

We enter the church by the west door, and are at once struck by its
immense length. It is the longest in England, and consists of thirteen
bays. Originally the Norman style prevailed throughout the building,
but in the course of ages numerous alterations have been made, and its
architectural history is somewhat complicated. The five bays on the
north and the three bays on the south are the work of Trumpington, who
left the great piers standing, removed the Norman arches, triforium
and clerestory, and began his reconstruction with all the gracefulness
of the Early English style. He cased the piers with stone-work, which
are octagonal and have attached shafts. The triforium has in each bay
an arch enclosing two sub-arches with a quatrefoil in the head. The
dog-tooth appears in the string-courses. The clerestory windows have
two lights. The roof is modern. It was evidently intended to have a
stone vault, but this was abandoned apparently for want of means. The
work in the aisles corresponds to that in the nave as far as
Trumpington's building extends. There is a remarkable juncture of this
Early English work with the Norman on the north side of the nave. This
Norman work is that of Paul de Caen. It is simple and plain, and not
dissimilar from that at Caen, whence the abbot came. On the south side
the five bays next to Trumpington's work were rebuilt by Abbots Hugh
de Eversden (1308-1326) and Michael de Montmore (1335-1349), owing to
the fall already alluded to. Here we see rich Decorated work, and
though it differs in detail, it follows the lines of the earlier work
on the west. Instead of dog-tooth, we have the ball-flower alternating
with lilies. There is more sculpture, some of the heads being
beautifully carved. The aisle here is similar in character to the
nave. The cloister court having been on the south side of this wall,
the windows here are high up. The next three bays on the south side
are Norman, and also the nine eastern bays on the north side. The
piers are very massive and are square-edged. The arches have three
orders. The triforium arches are plain, but less lofty than those of
the nave, and the clerestory arches are of the same character. We will
now examine the mural paintings in the nave, which are of Norman date.
Upon the west side of the six Norman piers are examples of the same
subject, the Crucifixion, with St. John and the Virgin. Beginning with
westernmost Norman pier we notice a representation of our Lord, and
below is the Annunciation. On the south is St. Christopher, on the
next pier is the same subject, and on the south the figure of St.
Thomas of Canterbury. The figures of St. Syth, Edward the Confessor,
Coronation of the Virgin, and the Virgin and Child also appear. The
nave has been shorn of most of its monuments, but on the second pier
on the north side is the monument of Sir John Mandeville, the great
traveller, with this inscription:--

    "_Siste gradum propcrans, requiescit Mandevil urnâ
    Hic humili; norunt et monumenta mori._

    "'Lo, in this Inn of Travellers doth lie
    One rich in nothing but in memory;
    His name was Sir John Mandeville; content,
    Having seen much, with a final continent,
    Toward which he travelled ever since his birth
    And at last pawned his body for y^e earth,
    Which by a statute must in morgage be
    Till a Redeemer come to set it free.'"

There is another monument which records the undying fame of one John
Jones, who wrote a poem on "the Shrine of St. Albans." But time has
been unkind to the poet, and his poem no longer exists. The massive
stone pulpit was designed by Lord Grimthorpe. An inscription at the
west end informs us that in the time of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, on
account of the Plague in London, the Courts of Justice were held in
this nave. Dividing the choir from the nave is the fine Decorated
screen commonly but erroneously called that of St. Cuthbert, erected
about 1350 by Abbot de la Mare. It is not the rood-screen as it is
commonly described. That with its great, high, towering rood stood a
little further east. This is excellent Decorated work. It has suffered
from iconoclastic reformers. Over the screen is the modern organ. The
extensions of the screen over the aisles are the work of Lord
Grimthorpe. Notice the rich tabernacle work of the screen.

The _South Aisle of the Choir_ beyond the screen is all Norman, except
the modern vault. Here on the south is the tomb of two famous
hermits--Roger and Sigar--who lived in the time of King Stephen,
though the tomb is later. Roger lived near Dunstable, and Sigar in the
wood of Northaw, of whom it is said that he banished all nightingales
from his retreat, as their sweet song prevented him from saying his
prayers. Next we notice the Abbot's Door, which is rich Decorated
work, built by the fashioner of the screen, Abbot de la Mare
(1349-1396). The _Transepts_ and _Central Tower_ are plain Norman, the
work of Paul de Caen. The south wall of the south transept, however,
with its Five Sisters' Window, copied from York Minster, was entirely
rebuilt by Lord Grimthorpe. The eastern triforium arches are extremely
interesting, as they have curious baluster shafts which are
recognised as Saxon work. These doubtless are the sole remaining
relics of the ancient church built by Offa in 793, and were inserted
here by Abbot Paul. The capitals are, however, Norman. The small
window on the opposite side was an opening into a watching chamber,
whence a monk could keep guard over the treasures in the transept.
This chamber was not a reclusorium as the legends tell. On the east
side were two apsidal chapels, destroyed in order to make room for a
sacristy, which has now shared their fate. The altars of SS. Stephen
and John the Evangelist stood here. On the west side are three ancient
Jacobean cupboards, fashioned for the distribution of bread to the
poor on Sundays. On the south is a fine Norman doorway, brought here
from the slype, which is now entered through it. The south wall of
this passage is all that remains of the old chapter-house. Here are
some Norman arcading, and as the modern verses tell us, "fragments
brought together from all sides." We enter the _Choir_, which occupies
the three eastern bays of the nave and the space under the tower. The
stalls are modern. The ceiling is extremely interesting and dates from
the time of Edward III., the painted panels being adorned with the
sacred monogram, numerous shields with royal arms supported by angels,
the _Te Deum_, and invocations to the Virgin. The Roses of York and
Lancaster appear on the lofty ceiling of the tower. The choir pulpit
here was given by the English Freemasons. The _North Transept_
resembles the south, and is mainly Norman. Here is another Saxon
baluster-shafted arch in the triforium, a relic of Offa's church. The
old painted ceiling has been replaced by a modern roof. The upper part
of the north wall was rebuilt by Lord Grimthorpe, who inserted here a
huge rose window which has received some very severe criticism. He has
also placed beneath it an inscription which records the fact that he
("Edmund") has built anew the work of Abbot "John" Wheathampstead
which had perished while that of Abbot Paul remains. On the east were
formerly apsidal chapels, which have been removed, and altars
dedicated to the Holy Trinity, St. Osyth, and the Holy Cross of Pity.
Near the last is a painting on the wall, the subject being the
Incredulity of St. Thomas. On the floor are some remarkable ancient
tiles. On the splay of one of the Norman windows a vine is
represented, and there is a small Norman door. Bishop Claughton's fine
monument is here (1892) and Bishop Blomfield of Colchester (1894).

The presbytery occupies the space between the tower and the
Wallingford screen, and retains its Norman walls as far as the third
bay. The rest is the work of Abbot John de Hertford (1235-1260). The
style is Early English. Before us is the famous Wallingford screen or
reredos, erected by Abbot William Wallingford (1476-1484), which
resembles that at Winchester. It was much mutilated, and has very
recently been thoroughly restored, and the niches filled with
statuary. There is a fine figure of our Lord in the centre, with the
Virgin and St. John on either side, surrounded by angels. Below are
the twelve Apostles with our Lord in the midst. On either side are
figures of saints and kings connected with the history of the Abbey.
On the north is the Chantry of Abbot Ramryge (1521), which has some
rich Perpendicular work; the abbot's rebus--_rams_ with _ryge_ on the
necks--may be discovered. Notice the representation of the martyrdom
of St. Alban over the door. On the south is the Chantry of Abbot
Wheathampstead (1464), which has a fine brass (that of Abbot Thomas de
la Mare), and bears his arms (three ears of corn with the motto
_Valles habundabunt_). Some attribute this tomb to Abbot Wallingford,
but the details seem to point to Wheathampstead. This abbot caused the
ceiling to be painted whereon are depicted the _Agnus Dei_ and the
Eagle of St. John. There are numerous tombs and brasses of other
abbots here. The south door has some fine Early English tabernacle
work. The architecture of the adjoining _North Aisle_ corresponds with
that of the presbytery, and through it we pass to the _Saints'
Chapel_, which is the work of Abbot John de Hertford and his
successors, and may well be described by Sir G. Scott as being "among
the finest productions of that period." On the east side of the
reredos are some fine modern statues of the Virgin and other saints.
Here is the famous _Shrine of St. Alban_, broken and destroyed at the
Reformation, and now happily built up again, the fragments having been
collected by careful hands from many parts of the building. It was
first erected by Abbot John de Marynis (1302-1308), and is of
Decorated style. Gorgeous must have been its original appearance; but
though shorn of all its jewels, gold and silver, it remains a noble
piece of work. The holes in the panels of the base were intended for
the insertion of diseased limbs, in order that they might be healed by
the merits of the saint. The carved leafage in the tympana of the
canopied niches is admirable. Only two carved figures remain, those of
Offa and St. Oswin. On the west we see a representation of the
martyrdom of the saint, and at the east his scourging. On the north
side of the chapel is the _Watching Tower_, a wooden structure,
probably erected by Abbot John de Wheathampstead. This and a similar
one at Christ Church, Oxford, are the only watching towers remaining.
A monk was stationed here to guard the treasures of the shrine. There
are some curious carvings on the frieze. Treasures were preserved in
aumbreys which now contain some curios. The famous Humphrey, Duke of
Gloucester, son of Henry IV., murdered by order of Queen Margaret
(1446), lies buried here in a tomb on the south. The sculpture of the
numerous figures is very bold and vigorous. Some painting is observed
on the piers, and there is a figure of St. William of York. In the
_North Aisle_ is part of the _Shrine of St. Amphibalus_, which shares
the history of its neighbour, and has been now partially recovered. It
belongs to the last half of the fourteenth century. On the sides are
the initials of Ralph Whitechurch, sacrist of the Abbey.

The _Ante-Chapel_ and _Lady Chapel_ have been extensively restored.
Indeed, their condition was deplorable. A public path ran through the
former, and the latter was used as a Grammar School, and suffered in
consequence. The story of the architecture is rather complex. The
ante-chapel was begun by De Hertford and finished by his successor,
Roger Norton (1260-1290), who continued to build the Lady Chapel,
which was finished by Hugh de Eversden (1308-1326). The style is
Decorated. The whole of the chapel has been most completely restored
by Lord Grimthorpe. The modern carving is exquisite. We now pass to
the _South Aisle_, which follows the architecture of the rest of the
east end. Here we see an iron trellis screen of thirteenth-century
work. There is here some good arcading, and an interesting panel taken
from the old ceiling of the north transept representing the martyrdom
of St. Alban. At the east end of this aisle was the Altar of St. Mary
of the Four Tapers, and numerous other altars existed in the aisles
and ante-chapel. In the wall above the old poor box is a curious
figure of a pensioner carved by a sexton about 100 years ago.

An ascent of the tower reveals many interesting features of that
ancient structure, and helps one to realise the formidable nature of
the task which the skilful architect and builders of 1870 accomplished
when they saved this massive pile from destruction.


DIMENSIONS

    Total length                    550 ft.
    Length of nave to tower         284 ft.
    Length of nave to screen        215 ft.
    Width of transepts              189 ft.
    Width of tower                  144 ft.
    Total area                   40,000 sq. ft.


PRINCIPAL BUILDING DATES

     Saxon--Baluster shafts of windows in triforium of transepts.
     Norman (1077-1115)--Nine bays on north of nave, and three bays
           on south, transept, and three bays of presbytery.
     Early English (1195-1260)--Western end of nave, presbytery,
           Saints' Chapel with aisles.
     Transition (1260-1290)--Foundations of Lady Chapel and
           ante-chapel.
     Decorated--Lady Chapel and five bays of nave.
     Perpendicular--South buttresses of choir; windows inserted
           which have since been removed.

The city possesses many objects of interest:--

     The Roman city of Verulamium.

     The Churches of St. Michael, St. Peter, St. Stephen.

     Sopwell Nunnery.

     The old Moot Hall.

     And the old inn called the "Fighting Cocks," said to be one of
     the oldest inns, and the oldest inhabited house in England, but
     this reputation is somewhat legendary.


NOTE

The Welsh Cathedrals of Llandaff and St. David's should be approached
from Gloucester; and Chester is the most convenient starting-point for
St. Asaph and Bangor.



ST. ASAPH'S CATHEDRAL


This Cathedral, like that of Bangor, is small, but its history is not
unimportant. It owed its origin to Kentigern, otherwise called St.
Mungo, the founder and Bishop of Glasgow, who, being driven from his
northern see in the sixth century, found a refuge here, and enjoyed
the protection of Prince Cadwallon. This prince aided him in building
a church and founding a monastery here, and fabulous records tell of
the amazing number of the monks. His biographer assures us that there
was no less than 965 dwellers in this monastery, which number must be
an extraordinary exaggeration. When Kentigern returned to Scotland, he
left one of his followers, St. Asaph, to act as bishop of the diocese.
The chroniclers are silent about the names of the subsequent bishops,
until they record the doings of Norman times. In 1143 one Gilbert was
consecrated bishop. The church in existence during his rule was burnt
down in 1283, during the fierce wars between Edward I. and the Welsh.
Anian II. was bishop during that time, and contemplated the
transferring of the seat of the bishopric to Rhuddlan; but, on the
advice of the Archbishop of Canterbury, he determined to rebuild the
ruined church, and most of the present building is his work, or that
of his two successors, Leoline and David. The work extended from 1284
to 1350. Owen Glendower, after his fashion, set fire to the church and
burned the roof in 1404, and for a century the church remained in a
roofless ruined state. Bishop Redman, in 1490, began to rebuild and
restore the ruined church. He raised walls, erected a new roof, added
the east window, and placed in the choir the stalls and a throne.
Bishop Owen Jones, in 1631, made some further alterations, and
repaired the steeple and belfry. Then came the disasters of the Civil
War, when terrible desecration ensued, principally caused by a wretch
named Miller, who turned the Palace into a wine-shop, and the church
into a stable and cow-house, and the font into a hog-trough. Since the
Restoration there have been several learned and devout prelates,
amongst others, Isaac Barrow, William Beveridge, Thomas Tanner, author
of _Notitia Monastica_; Samuel Horsley; but they were more learned in
theology and their books than in the study of the correct principles
of architecture. Hence they disfigured the church, and destroyed many
of its most interesting features. In 1780 the choir was remodelled, a
plaster ceiling erected, and much further damage done. "Oh,
_Restoration!_ what evils have been wrought in your name."

The church is cruciform. At the west end is a large Decorated window,
and a deeply-recessed doorway of six orders, with buttresses on either
side, which have crocketed pinnacles; a wooden cross surmounts the
gable. It will be noticed that the shafts supporting the arch of the
doorway have no capitals, the wave moulding making a complete sweep
round the arch, with no capitals intervening. This arrangement we
shall notice in the church. The great central tower was the latest
addition to the mediæval church, and was constructed late in the
fourteenth century. The embattled parapets were added in 1714.
It is 93 feet high. The nave consists of five bays, and at once we
notice the same peculiarity observable in the west doorway. The
mouldings are carried up the piers and round the arches without any
break. They are very plain, and of two orders, and are of the Early
Decorated style, the work of Bishop Anian. Formerly there was a
clerestory, but during one of the tasteless restorations a ceiling was
erected, which shuts it out from view. The windows of the clerestory
were in the Perpendicular style, and exist still in the south.
Grotesque carvings appear on the brackets supporting the roof. The
windows of the aisles have been much restored, and are in the style of
the Early Decorated. The south transept was once the Lady Chapel, the
consistory court and chapter-house. The windows are of five lights,
and were finished about 1336. Here is a much mutilated effigy of a
bishop, which is of great beauty, especially the figures of censing
angels. It is supposed to represent Bishop Anian.

The north transept has the monument of Bishop Luxmore (1830). In the
south aisle are some monuments of the relatives of Mrs. Hemans, the
poetess, and a tablet has been erected to the memory of that lady, who
died in 1835. Under the central tower stand the old finely-canopied
stalls. The throne is modern.

The style of the old choir was almost entirely changed at the
eighteenth-century "restoration." It was of Early English design, and
Sir G. Scott wisely resolved to restore it to its primitive form. This
proceeding was somewhat drastic, but such was the condition of the
choir, and so severe was the treatment it received in 1780, that
perhaps no other course could with advantage have been taken. He
discovered the old sedilia, and the door leading to the old
chapter-house. The east window has entirely modern tracery, and the
reredos is modern. Bishop Barrow's tomb outside the west door is
worthy of notice.

The Bishop's Palace is a large modern building. At the foot of the
hill is the parish church. From the summit of the tower of the
Cathedral a fine view can be obtained of the Vale of Clwyd, with the
Castles of Denbigh and Rhuddlan, and a long line of sea coast. Robert
Montgomery sang sweetly of this wondrous view:--

                  "Thy heart might beat
    In thrilling answer to the strain I sing,
    Hadst thou beside me, from the sacred tower,
    Beheld this beauteous vale."



BANGOR CATHEDRAL


The early Bishops of Bangor are shadowy beings. We read of Bishop
Daniel in the sixth century, concerning whom the records are misty,
although he was canonised. Godwin says that there were no bishops here
before the Norman Conquest. At any rate Hervey, or Harvé, was
consecrated bishop in 1092, but he was so rigid in his discipline, and
so severe upon the Welsh, that they rebelled, murdered his brother,
and threatened him with a like fate. So he fled for refuge to the
court of Henry I., and was ultimately appointed to the See of Ely. The
early Celtic church was destroyed by the Normans in 1071. A second
church was at once built, and here, in 1188, Archbishop Baldwin
preached the Crusades, and so moved the heart of the Bishop of Bangor
that he joined the army of Crusaders to rescue the Holy City from the
Saracens. This church was destroyed in 1211 by a great fire. It was,
however, partly restored, and again fell a prey to destruction in the
wars of Edward I. and the Welsh. Bishop Anian, however, seemed to have
been a favourite of the king, who helped him to rebuild his church.
This bishop baptised the first Prince of Wales, born at Carnarvon
Castle. He also drew up the Bangor Use, or Service Book, which ranked
highly among the Cathedral uses of the mediæval church.

During the wars of Owen Glendower in 1402 the church was completely
gutted, and for nearly a century it lay in ruins. A new church was
begun by Henry Deane in 1496, who finished the choir, and the
Cathedral was completed by Bishop Skeffington, Abbot of Beaulieu,
Hants, who was appointed to the See of Bangor in 1509. The style of
the architecture was therefore entirely Perpendicular. Though the body
of this benefactor was buried in his Hampshire Abbey, his heart was
conveyed for sepulchre to the church he loved so well. The church
suffered at the Reformation, when the see was held by Bishop Bulkely,
who cared not for his church, and sold its store of vestments, plate,
ornaments, and the bells given by his predecessor. Bishop Rowlands, in
1598, put a new roof on the church, and gave four new bells. In the
Civil War it suffered much; the soldiers destroyed all the woodwork
and broke the glass. At the Restoration the church was renovated and
beautified, and Brown Willis gives a good account of "its lightsome"
appearance. In the early nineteenth century some terrible
"restorations" took place, and the church was divided into two
portions, one for the Welsh and the other for the English service. The
general appearance of the church was stunted and low, and was much
inferior to many parish churches, possessing neither dignity nor
beauty. In 1866 a very thorough restoration was undertaken by Sir G.
Scott, which practically amounted to a rebuilding. He, however,
carefully collected all the old materials found built up in the wall,
and from these he endeavoured to reconstruct the church as it
originally stood.

The plan of the church consists of a west tower, a nave with aisles, a
central tower, transepts and choir, and on the north a muniment room,
and above it the chapter-house. The _West Tower_ was built by Bishop
Skeffington (1509-1533), and is a good example of Late Perpendicular
work. It has three stages, and is 60 feet high. The door is of the
usual character of the style, and above it is the inscription:--
"_Thomas Skevynton, episcopus Bangorie hoc campanele et
ecclesiam fieri fecit, A^o Partus Virginei, 1532._" In each of the
other stages there is a window of three lights. The _Nave_ has six
bays, and the Perpendicular style is evident in the arches, octagonal
piers and characteristic bases. The windows in the south aisle are
Decorated, and those in the north Perpendicular. The masonry of the
walls seems to have survived the various fires and other accidents
which befell this ill-fated Cathedral, and probably are the remains of
Bishop Anian's work. The font was probably erected by Skeffington, and
is good Perpendicular. The _Transepts_ have been almost entirely
rebuilt, and the Perpendicular work, which was much decayed, was
replaced by Decorated, authority for which was discovered by Sir G.
Scott in the fragments of old stone-work built up in the walls. Some
very fine thirteenth-century piers stood at the crossing until an
unfortunate restoration in 1824, when they were replaced by imitation
Perpendicular. These have now been removed, and new piers and arches
constructed in accordance with the conjectured design of the
originals. There was no central tower in the Perpendicular church, but
the relics of earlier work prove that the original church had such a
tower. Hence Scott added this to his design, and when completed it
will enhance the dignity of the building.

The _Choir_ has had a chequered history, which, as Sir G. Scott
states, is of a threefold nature. The Norman choir had an apsidal
termination. This apse was removed, and the length of the choir or
presbytery greatly increased in Early Decorated times. After the
destruction wrought by Owen Glendower, Bishop Deane (1496-1500)
restored it, and the main object of Scott's restoration was to make
the present choir conform to the condition in which Bishop Deane left
it. The Civil War brought much destruction to this excellent work of
the Perpendicular period, and decay had also left its marks upon it;
but during the recent restorations all has been again renewed, and all
that we see conforms as nearly as possible to that produced in the
days of Henry VII. Cromwell's soldiers left none of the fittings
untouched. The stalls were destroyed. Now all has been restored, and
most of the fittings are new. The modern tiles of the floor are worthy
of notice. Some mural paintings have been added at the east end. The
tombs on either side are probably those of Bishop Anian (1328), the
rebuilder of the church, and one Tudor ap Tudor (1365). In the south
transept is recorded the burial of Owen Gwynedh (1169), the son of the
last King of Wales, Gryffydh ap Gynan, who also was buried here. A
rude representation of our Lord upon the Cross appears over the
supposed Royal tomb. In the north transept is a memorial to a Welsh
bard, Gronovil Owen (1722).

Sir G. Scott entirely rebuilt the old chapter-house and muniment room
on the north side of the choir in the Early Decorated style.

The Bishop's Palace is a large mansion, but has no great architectural
merits. The Deanery and some old almshouses and an Elizabethan school
are all near the Cathedral.



LLANDAFF CATHEDRAL


The history of the Welsh sees carries us back to the early days of
British Christianity. When the Saxon tribes swept over the land they
destroyed the churches and monasteries, and drove the British
west-ward, who found a refuge in the hills of Wales, in Devon,
Cornwall and Somerset, and in the regions north of the Mersey, and
there the British Church continued to exist and flourish, though the
rest of England was submerged in the flood of Paganism. When Augustine
came he found in these parts of England a church governed by its
bishops, who did not recognise the authority of the Pope, and whose
customs differed somewhat from those of Rome. He summoned them to a
conference, which was held at a place called "Augustine's oak," where
by his haughty demeanour he offended the representatives of the
ancient native church, who refused to abandon their accustomed usages,
especially in the matter of the time for observing Easter and the
forms of the tonsure.

In Roman times Caerleon was a see, which seems to have embraced the
whole of Wales. Then there were five principalities, each of which had
a bishop. These were Bangor, Llanelwy (St. Asaph's), St. David's,
Llandaff and Llanbadarn, afterwards incorporated with St. David's.
Judging from the number of the names of saints which occur in Welsh
nomenclature, we may conclude that the Welsh Church was famous for its
zeal and activity and for the holiness of its members. It sent
preachers and missionaries to Ireland, to Brittany, and Cornwall and
Devon. It founded colleges and schools, and the great Celtic Church
assisted in the conversion of the Northern Saxons of England, and even
sent missionaries to the Continent. By degrees the British Church
became merged in the English, founded by Augustine, and with the
appointment of Norman prelates in the time of the Conqueror, any
lingering survivals of ancient customs and usages were lost, and the
unity of the church fully established.

The earliest bishop of the See of Llandaff whose name is recorded was
St. Dubricius. He is reputed to have founded the see in 612 A.D., but
his successor, St. Teilo, seems to have had the chief credit of
accomplishing the work. Of course the mythical King Lucius is dragged
in as the earliest founder, but we have always neglected the legends
connected with him. Of the early Welsh bishops we have no sure
information, though there is the famous _Book of Llandaff_, which does
not afford much certain knowledge, and is full of inaccuracies. Bishop
Urban was consecrated in 1107, conveyed here the relics of Dubricius,
and began to rebuild his Cathedral, for which an indulgence was
granted by the Archbishop of Canterbury to all who should assist him
in the work. Possibly it was finished in his time, but we have no
certain information, and the stones of the church can alone tell the
story of its building. During the thirteenth century the western part
of the nave was erected, and also the chapter-house, which is of Early
English design. During the Decorated period the Lady Chapel was added
and the presbytery rebuilt, and the walls of the aisles also renewed.
The north-west tower was erected in the Perpendicular period by the
Earl of Pembroke, uncle of Henry VII. Thus the church was completed.
It was not a very beautiful structure, and time has dealt hardly with
it. The spoilers at the Reformation plundered it; decay and desolation
reigned in the deserted "long-drawn aisle." Some bishops seem to have
attempted to do something, but the whole condition of the church was
deplorable. Then the troubles of the Civil War period fell upon this
Job-like structure, and in spite of some attempts to improve its
condition at the Restoration, and at subsequent periods, it still
remained in a ruinous state. Then in 1723, when the taste for Italian
models was rampant, the authorities erected an Italian temple-like
building at the east end. This happily has been entirely removed
during the restorations, which commenced in the middle of the last
century, when the church was completely renovated, and all the old
portions which had escaped the action of time, or the barbarous
efforts of the followers of Christopher Wren, restored to their
original state. The work was finished in 1869. Although much of the
church is new, on close inspection we can discover some ancient work
that lacks not interest.

The _West Front_ is very beautiful. The doorway is a fine example of
Early English work. It consists of a round arch, with two sub-arches,
and in the tympanum there is an episcopal figure, probably that of St.
Dubricius. The shafts at the sides of the doorway are Early English.
Above them are lancet windows, and in the gable a figure of our Lord
in glory. The cross above the gable is modern. The front is flanked on
each side by two towers. The north-west tower is Perpendicular, the
work of Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke, uncle of Henry VII.; the
south-west tower is modern.

The _Nave_ consists of five bays, and is of Early English design.
There is no triforium. The clerestory windows are lancets, and a
passage runs in front of them. We notice the graceful foliage on the
pier capitals, of Late Early English design, when the stiff-leaved
foliage was giving way to the more natural foliage of the Decorated
period. The aisles were rebuilt in the Late Decorated period, but two
Norman doorways on the north and south sides were preserved. The choir
is of the same character as the nave, but in the presbytery we see
some of the Norman work of Urban's church, mixed with that of the
Decorated period. Here stood the Italian temple, until happily this
monstrosity was removed. The clerestory was destroyed when the temple
was erected, but in the restoration of Sir Gilbert Scott it was
rebuilt. On the south side we notice the curious blending of the
Norman with the Decorated work. One of the most striking features of
this Cathedral is the Late Norman arch at the east end. It is very
richly ornamented, and has four orders, being adorned with zigzag,
roll, and a curious row of flower-like circles. The reredos is modern,
and has some fine paintings by Rosetti. The sedilia are modern.

The _Lady Chapel_ has a stone vault, the ribs rising from Purbeck
marble shafts. The windows are of good design, having two lights with
a circle in the head. The east window is modern. The chapter-house is
Early English, and is almost unique in having a square plan with a
central pier.

Few of the monuments possess much interest. We notice that of St.
Dubricius; a brass memorial of Bishop Copleston (1849); Bishop William
de Bruce (1287); Bishop St. Teilo; Bishop Bromfield (1393); Bishop
Marshall (1496), a skeleton figure of the _memento mori_ type; Sir
David Matthew, standard-bearer to Edward IV. (1461); Sir William
Matthew; Lady Audley. The old reredos discovered during the
restoration has been placed in the north aisle of the choir.



ST. DAVID'S CATHEDRAL


Far away on the most western point of Southern Wales stands the
ancient Cathedral of St. David's, the most inaccessible, but the most
interesting of the four Welsh Episcopal churches. The see was founded
in the sixth century, and was known by the name Menevia. St. David was
the reputed founder of the see, concerning whom there are many
legends. He founded a monastery at Glyn Rhosyn, which became a
fruitful school of saints and Celtic worthies, wrought divers
miracles, and through him the Welsh Church extended its influence to
Ireland, and also to Scotland and Northumbria. After his death
troubles befell the monastery. It was plundered in 645, but recovered
from the disaster. Here Asser, the biographer of Alfred the Great,
acquired his wisdom. Then the Norse pirates frequently attacked the
place, and on one occasion, in 1011, Eadric of Mercia wrought havoc
here. But the see survived all these misfortunes, and here came
William the Conqueror, who made an offering at St. David's shrine. For
a time Welsh prelates continued to hold the see, but in 1115 Bernard,
the first Norman prelate, chaplain of the queen of Henry I., was
appointed to the see. Although he altered the constitution of the
chapter, he made no alterations in the old church. The rebuilding was
begun by Bishop Peter de Leia (1177-1198), but it is doubtful whether
he personally did much to forward the work, as on account of his
unpopularity he spent most of his time in England. However, the work
progressed rapidly during his episcopacy, and was finished in the
early years of the thirteenth century. After the fashion of cathedral
towers, the tower of St. David's fell in 1220, and was immediately
rebuilt. But it showed signs of again collapsing, and for centuries
was a cause of anxiety, until it was made secure by Sir G. Scott in
the restoration of 1866.

The greater part of the present building is Transitional Norman, but
there was much architectural activity in later periods. Owing to the
fall of the tower and the action of an earthquake in 1248, much
rebuilding was found necessary. The thirteenth century witnessed the
reconstruction of the north transept, together with the building of
the east chapels, which incline at so great an angle, much reparation
of the choir, and the commencement of the Lady Chapel and eastern
portion of the presbytery. During the Decorated period much work was
accomplished. Bishop Martyn (1290-1328) finished the Lady Chapel, and
Bishop Gower (1328-1347) did much for the fabric of the Cathedral, and
built the noble Palace, which is still beautiful in decay. His work is
seen in the upper portion of the walls of the nave and eastern part of
the choir and presbytery, the inserted Decorated windows, the eastern
chapel of the south transept, the alterations in the corresponding
chapel of the north transept, the south porch, the second stage of the
tower, and the famous rood-screen. During the fifteenth century and
the latter years of the fourteenth century, new roofs were added, the
south window in the south transept constructed, heavy buttresses
placed against the north wall of the nave, which had shown signs of
giving way, and during the early years of the sixteenth century the
tower was raised, and a stone vault erected over the Lady Chapel and
the chapels behind the high altar.

During the Civil War sad havoc was wrought; lead was torn from the
roof, and this caused the eastern chapels and the Lady Chapel to fall
into decay. The once noble Cathedral, in consequence of the treatment
which it received during the strife of King and Parliament, and of
subsequent neglect, was shorn of its ancient glory, and ruin and
desolation reigned. At the beginning of the nineteenth century some
efforts were made to improve this state of things, and the west front
was rebuilt in a debased and miserable style, and during the course of
the century sundry alterations were made, and at length, in 1862, Sir
G. Scott commenced a thorough restoration. Vast sums have been
expended upon the fabric of the Cathedral, and though the eastern
chapels remain in their ruined state, the rest of the building has
been repaired and renewed, and preserved from destruction. "It
remains," wrote Sir G. Scott, "a wonderfully interesting and valuable
landmark in architectural history, taking in the extreme west a
position parallel to that held by Canterbury in the extreme east of
the island."


THE EXTERIOR

The _West Front_ is entirely modern, the work of Sir G. Scott, but it
is designed after the fashion of the ancient front which existed
before the hideous construction of the early eighteenth-century
architect. As we walk around the Cathedral we must remember that
nearly all the work is Transitional Norman, although its character is
much disguised by later alterations and the insertion of Decorated
windows. The _North Doorway_, with its curious ornamentation, is
Transitional Norman, but time and weather have destroyed much of its
beauty. The walls of the aisles were raised in the time of Bishop
Gower (1328-1347), who inserted Decorated windows. The massive flying
buttresses were added about 1500 A.D. On this side was the cloister
court of the College of St. Mary, the ruined walls of which appear on
the north. This college was founded by John of Gaunt in 1377 for the
maintenance of a master and seven priests. The _North Transept_ has
been much altered. During the recent restoration the low Perpendicular
roof has been removed, and one with a high pitch erected. The north
window was inserted by Butterfield in 1846 in place of one which had
been blocked up. A curious building is seen on the east side of this
transept, which has three storeys, and is higher than the roof of the
main building. It contains the Chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr, built
mainly by Sir Richard Symonds in 1329, and above it the old
chapter-house, and in the highest storey the treasury. The east end of
the church was extensively restored by Scott. The Perpendicular roof
was retained, but finding amongst the _débris_ the evidence of lancet
windows at the east end, Scott reproduced these with excellent effect.
The _Lady Chapel_, built by Bishop Martyn (1296-1328), is still in
ruins. The south transept has a Transitional Norman west wall, and the
rest was built about 1220, after the fall of the tower. Large
Perpendicular windows were inserted in the south wall. The old vestry
is on the east side. On the south side is the beautiful _Porch_, built
by Bishop Gower (1328-1347) in the Decorated style. There is a parvise
chamber above. The doorway is remarkable; the sculptures represent the
Root of Jesse, with Adam and Eve on the west side and the Patriarch
Jesse on the other; above it a representation of the Holy Trinity,
with censing angels.

The _Tower_ was erected originally by Bishop de Leia, and fell in
1220. It was then rebuilt. Bishop Gower added a second storey in the
Decorated style, and above this a Perpendicular storey was raised in
Perpendicular times. The wonder is that all this extra weight did not
cause the tower to collapse again. It certainly caused continual
anxiety, and produced bulges in the neighbouring walls. However, the
restoration of Sir G. Scott has secured safety and removed anxiety.
The Perpendicular parapet is curious and not very beautiful.

Only one gateway remains, though there were four in the great wall
which surrounded the precincts. The _Tower Gate_ is a fine structure,
flanked by two towers, one of which is octagonal and the other
semi-circular. The ruins of the _Bishop's Palace_, a magnificent
structure, should be visited. It was built by Bishop Gower, and must
have been one of the finest residences in the whole kingdom.


THE INTERIOR

The _Nave_ is the work of Peter de Leia (1176-1198), and is
Transitional Norman. The elaborate carving and the richness of the
ornamentation are remarkable, and the colour of the stone adds a
wonderful effect. St. David's has many peculiar features, and is
unlike any other church in the kingdom. The arches are round, the
triforium and clerestory are blended together under one arch. The
piers are round and octagonal, with attached shafts. It was evidently
intended to vault the nave, but this was abandoned. A Perpendicular
roof of intricate and unusual design was constructed about 1500. The
capitals afford an interesting study. The west end is modern, the work
of Scott. Traces of coloured decoration may be seen on some of the
piers of the nave; among the designs are figures of the Virgin, our
Lord, and some monarch. The font in the south aisle is, with the
exception of the shaft, of the same date as the nave. It is octagonal,
and is carved with an arcade of pointed arches. The aisles do not
possess any special features of interest. The architectural changes
which have taken place there have already been mentioned. In the north
aisle is the Transitional Norman doorway, and in the south the
Decorated door of Bishop Gower.

The _Rood-Screen_ is very remarkable, the work of Bishop Gower in the
Decorated style. It is very massive and elaborate, and contains
several tombs and monuments, has a groined roof, and is a very unusual
and noble structure. The organ, which is modern, stands above this
screen. The iron gates leading to the choir are also modern. Before
entering the choir we will visit the _Transepts_, which are entered
through Late Norman doorways from the nave. The western walls are Late
Norman, built by De Leia, the rest were erected after the fall of the
tower in 1220. In the _North Transept_ the large north window was
erected in 1846 in the Decorated style. This transept was dedicated to
St. Andrew. On the east side is the Chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr,
begun in 1220, refounded by Sir R. Symonds in 1329, and used for a
variety of purposes. We notice a fine Early English piscina in the
south wall. Above is the library and the old treasury. The _South
Transept_, formerly known as the "Chanter's Chapel," had altars
dedicated to the Holy Innocents and St. David, and was once used as a
parish church. The east side of this transept has passed through
several vicissitudes, and has now been restored to its original form.

The _Choir_ is entered through the gates of the rood-screen, and
occupies the space beneath the tower and half a bay beyond. The
presbytery occupies the rest of the space beyond the parclose screen
to the east wall behind the altar. All this is the work of Bishop de
Leia, or that of his immediate successors, who rebuilt the tower after
its fall in 1220. First, we examine the tower itself, and wonder at
the marvellous skill of our modern architects and masons who could
rebuild from their foundation two out of the four piers, each
sustaining a weight of 1150 tons. Rich ornamentation is observed on
the east and west arches, one of which is round, the rest pointed.
Scott raised the wooden ceiling, and greatly improved the appearance
of the interior of the tower. The _Stalls_ were erected at the end of
the fifteenth century, and are the work of Bishop Tully. There are a
number of curious _misereres_ with strange grotesques, amongst
others--three men in a boat with a fourth rowing, one of the
passengers being very sea-sick; a cowled fox offering a wafer to a
goose with a human head; a carpenter building a boat, etc. The fox is
doubtless a satire on the monks, and possibly also the sea-sick
passenger. The _Bishop's Throne_ is an elaborate structure erected by
Bishop Morgan (1496-1505), and is of great height. It is a blend of
the Perpendicular and Decorated styles; probably Bishop Morgan used
some older materials in its construction. The _Parclose Screen_,
separating the choir from the presbytery, is a peculiar feature of
this Cathedral. It is of Decorated design. Passing through it we enter
the _Presbytery_. At the east end above the altar are two rows of
lancets, the lower lights being blocked, and filled with rich mosaics.
The glass in the upper lights is modern, of good design and execution,
erected by the Rev. John Lucy in memory of his ancestor, Bishop Lucy
(1660-1677). The subjects of the mosaics are the Crucifixion, and
figures representing the Christian and Jewish Churches. The type of
our Lord upon the Cross, the brazen serpent, appears below the central
figure. Scenes from the life of St. David also are represented. The
roof of the presbytery dates from about 1500, and on the bosses and in
the panels are heraldic shields. The altar is modern. The floor is
paved with old tiles, and the five crosses cut on some of the slabs in
the sanctuary show that these stones were formerly altars. On the
north of the presbytery is the famous _Shrine of St. David_, to which
pilgrims flocked from all parts of Great Britain and Ireland. Kings
and queens, nobles and princes came to pay their devotions at this
shrine of the great Welsh saint, and bestowed many offerings on St.
David's Church. Only the base of the shrine remains, and above this
once stood the _feretrum_, which was doubtless covered with gold and
jewels. The base is of Late Early English design, and was probably
constructed in 1275 by Bishop Richard de Carew. The lowest part
consists of three pointed arches with quatrefoils in the spandrels.
The two inner quatrefoils communicate with lockers at the back, and
were evidently intended for offerings. The upper portion consists of
three arches with Early English capitals to the shafts, and under the
arches were paintings of SS. David, Patrick, and probably Denis, but
these have disappeared.

Another shrine is in the Cathedral, that of _St. Caradoc_, on the
south side of the north transept. He was a Welsh saint, who was
ordained and ministered in the Cathedral of St. David, and dying in
1124 was canonised by Innocent III. Here too are seen two
quatrefoil openings for the reception of offerings.

We need not linger in the choir aisles except to observe the
monuments, and will at once pass to the part of the east end behind
the altar. This part consists of Bishop Vaughan's Chantry on the east
of the presbytery, the ante-chapel, with two chapel aisles, and the
Lady Chapel. This part of the church awaits restoration, for which
funds are needed. With the exception of Vaughan's Chantry and the
ante-chapel, all the building is roofless, exposed to the storms and
rains of this exposed headland, and pitifully beseeches a new roof and
shelter. Several architectural puzzles are presented by this portion
of the Cathedral, which have not yet been entirely satisfactorily
solved. Examining first Vaughan's Chantry or Trinity Chapel, we find a
very beautiful example of Perpendicular work. The roof is a fine
example of fan-tracery, and the whole structure rivals King's College
Chapel, Cambridge, or Henry VII.'s Chapel at Westminster. Before the
construction of this chapel the space occupied by it was left waste,
and was described by Vaughan as _Vilissimus sive sordidissimus locus
in totâ ecclesiâ_. A curious recess of Late Norman work has been
discovered behind the high altar with beautifully-carved crosses.
Above the recess is the figure of an angel, and some relics were found
in the cill embedded in mortar, where they had doubtless been placed
for the purpose of preservation at the Reformation. Recent discovery
has revealed at the east end a beautifully-carved niche and two fine
windows. Here are preserved some interesting Celtic crosses. On the
south is the Chapel of King Edward the Conqueror, and on the north the
Chapel of St. Nicholas. The _Ante-Chapel_ has Early English arches
with a Perpendicular roof. The _Lady Chapel_ in its present form
belongs to the transition from Early English to Decorated. Bishop
Gower added the sedilia, founded a chantry here, and made sundry other
alterations of a Decorated character.

The Cathedral is rich in monuments. The most important are:--

    Bishop Gower, south of rood-screen.
    Bishop Morgan (1564), south of nave.
    Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, father of Henry VII. (1456),
    presbytery.
    Bishop Anselm le Gras (1247), presbytery.
    Two tombs of Knights, on each side of presbytery.
    A Priest (Decorated period), in presbytery.

Two ancient Celtic slabs, one of which records the name of Bishop
Abraham (1078), and is in memory of his two sons.

In the ruined eastern chapels are the monuments of Bishop Vaughan, Sir
J. Wogan (_temp._ Edward I.), Archdeacon Hoit (1319), an unknown
knight, Bishop Martyn, and the fine tomb of a priest under a
beautifully-carved canopy.



SCOTTISH CATHEDRALS


Although the Church of Scotland is Presbyterian, it was not until the
stirring events of the Revolution of 1688 that this form of church
government was adopted. From that day forward the Church of Scotland
knew no bishops, and hence the application of the term cathedral to a
church belonging to that communion is a misnomer. The Episcopal Church
of Scotland has its cathedrals, but these for the most part are
modern. But Scotland still possesses many of its ancient fanes, which
are usually preserved with much care and solicitude, and retain much
of the splendour of their Gothic architecture, and are rich with
historical associations and tradition.



GLASGOW CATHEDRAL


The Cathedral of St. Mungo in this city has vast treasures of
architectural beauty. Its Patron Saint was the contemporary of St.
Columba, a devout, miracle-working apostle, who converted the King of
the Strathclyde Britons to Christianity and gained a victory for the
Cross of Christ over the wild people who inhabited these parts. A
cathedral was built here in Norman times. It was begun in 1124 and
consecrated in 1192 in the presence of King David of Scotland. Before
the century had closed fire destroyed this ancient church. But a new
one was immediately begun, and five years later a portion of the
building was so far finished that it was fit for consecration. About
1258 the fine Early English choir was completed. It is one of the best
works of the thirteenth century in Scotland. The style of architecture
followed closely the Early English of the northern type. The windows
are deeply moulded on both sides, and the piers are strong and massive
without clustering shafts. But Scotland at an early date developed
peculiarities in her architecture which differed from English art. We
see this in the use of the double lancet and simple tracery, whereas
in England the lancets were widened. The influence of French
architecture was not yet felt, though there was a distinct difference
from the English usage. We see also that the choir has two storeys,
the lower or crypt being entirely above the ground. Mr. Watson has
recently published a learned work on this double choir, and gives
excellent reasons for assuming that the vault of the "lower church"
was built at five different periods, extending over half a century.
His first period (_circa_ 1220) includes only the south-east
compartment. Then followed the north and south aisles with the
springers of the south middle portion. The lower church was then left
unfinished until the upper church had been built. The central portion
of the lower church was then vaulted (_circa_ 1260), and later still
the eastern aisle and chapel. Mr. Watson's conclusions have not been
universally accepted, but they are certainly worthy of credence. A few
years later the tower and transepts were finished. Bishop Wishart took
the part of Bruce as a loyal Scot against Edward I. and his attempted
conquest, and suffered a long imprisonment. A disaster happened to the
steeple in 1400, when it was struck by lightning. Bishop Lauder
erected a stone one. The chapter-house was built by Bishop Cameron in
the Perpendicular style. The rood-screen, with its curious sculpture,
was the work of Bishop Blackadder, and also the great staircase
leading to the crypt or lower church. At the close of the fifteenth
century Glasgow became the seat of an archbishopric. Beaton, the
nephew of the more famous Cardinal, finding that he lived in times
dangerous for prelates, fortified his Palace and stored therein all
the plate and precious things he could find, and then carried them off
to Paris. The Cathedral happily was spared when the storm of
contending forces at the Reformation raged, though it was long
disused. The archbishop was in France, and Episcopacy was not in
favour. With the advent of James VI. of Scotland to the throne of
England Episcopacy was restored, and Spottiswood became Bishop of
Glasgow. Then during the civil war Cromwell came here during the
Presbyterian rule, but Episcopacy was restored with the monarchy,
until it vanished again with the coming of Dutch William.

Much has been done during the past century in the way of
"restoration." Two western towers have been bodily removed. The glass
is modern and is almost entirely the work of foreign artists. The
great east window was the gift of Queen Victoria. From the close we
gain a fine view of the necropolis, which abounds in the sculptured
tombs and monuments so dear to Scotland's sons.



IONA CATHEDRAL


We must now journey to the ruined shrine of Iona, the cradle of
Western Christianity, the place whence flowed the stream of missionary
enterprise which watered the dry furrows of northern England as well
as Scotland, and caused Christianity to flourish throughout the
country. We owe much to this lonely isle where St. Columba landed in
563 and built his rude monastery, the forerunner of the ruined
buildings which now greet us. This isle could tell us of many a scene
of carnage when the wild Norse pirates came. The Cathedral was begun
in the Early English period, and is cruciform. The tower, 75 feet
high, has two fine windows. The capitals are beautifully carved,
though they are much weather-worn owing to the roofless condition of
the church. On the north side are the remains of the monastery; a
Norman arcade shows that it is older than the present Cathedral; and
on the south is the Chapel of St. Oran, the companion of St. Columba.
It is of early date, probably founded in the eleventh century by Queen
Margaret when the isles were wrested by Scotland from the Norsemen.
Its western doorway is Norman with beak-head ornament. In the _Reilig
Oiran_, or cemetery of kings, lie buried forty-eight Scottish, four
Irish, and eight Scandinavian monarchs, together with many abbots and
monks and chieftains, a veritable Valhalla of the great. The carved
sepulchral stones and crosses of Iona are noble examples of early art,
the interlacing work sculptured upon them being wonderfully intricate
and beautiful. The two most perfect crosses are Maclean's cross and
St. Martin's, one of the most beautiful and perfect in Christendom. A
nunnery was founded here in Norman times, and traces of Norman
architecture are evident in the ruins. In 1208 a colony of Benedictine
monks was established here by one Reginald, the heir of the Abbot of
Derry, who handed over the nunnery to the guidance of his sister
Beatrice. There was a close connection between Iona and Norway, and
for a long time the bishopric of the Isles was united with that of the
Isle of Man. At the present time the bishop of that island is known as
the Bishop of Sodor and Man, Sodor being a corruption of Sud Ja, or
southern island, so called by the Norwegian Vikings, who long held
rule here. The monastery was destroyed in 1561. Iona was a
much-esteemed seat of learning, and was much frequented by pilgrims.
It was long regarded as the isle of special sanctity, and kings and
warriors from far and near were brought here to be laid in their last
resting-place near the sacred tomb of Columba. Few places have so
great a fascination as this sacred isle.



BRECHIN CATHEDRAL


Brechin has many interesting features, notably its half-finished
Cathedral, the famous round tower which was undoubtedly connected with
it, or an earlier shrine, and the ruins of the _Maison Dieu_ or
hospitium founded by William of Brechin in 1256. The old Cathedral was
founded by King David of Scotland in 1150. It is a plain and
unpretentious building, now used as a parish church, and it has
suffered much from restorers and renovators. Its plan was originally
cruciform, but some vandals at the beginning of the eighteenth century
entirely destroyed the transepts. The west window and doorway are
thirteenth-century work. Most drastic treatment did this church
receive in 1806, when besides the destruction of the transepts, the
aisles were removed, and new and larger ones erected. The renovators
were not satisfied with the old arches of the nave; so they built new
and wider ones, and raised the walls, so that one roof could span the
whole, and thus eclipsing the clerestory windows. The south side of
the nave seems later than the north. Its piers are lighter than those
on the opposite side. At the north side of the choir are three lancet
windows. The church is disfigured by galleries and pews. The ruins of
the chapel of the _Maison Dieu_ are small but interesting. An Early
English doorway and a few lancet windows remain. The _Round Tower_ is
the principal architectural feature of Brechin. Ireland possesses many
of these curious structures, and besides this one Scotland has only
one other, the tower at Abernethy. Its date is about 980. The object
of such towers is mainly to provide a place of refuge in times of
attack, where the monks could store their treasures and protect
themselves. They may also have been used as belfries, and their origin
is certainly ecclesiastical. There is no staircase, access to the top
being gained by ladders resting on wooden floors. The height is 86
feet, the thickness of the wall near the base 4 feet, and the inner
diameter 8 feet. An octagonal spire crowns the summit. There is a
doorway on the west which is adorned with rude carvings. Over the
doorway is a carved representation of the Crucifixion, and on either
side of the door are ecclesiastics, and below are strange creatures
realistically carved. These figures are interesting memorials of
Celtic art.



ABERDEEN CATHEDRAL


One mile north of the large and flourishing city is the quiet, ancient
town of Old Aberdeen. Here is the Cathedral of St. Machar, built
entirely of granite. It is not remarkable for its sculptured elegance
or vast dimensions, but it has an interesting history, and its flat
panelled ceiling, adorned with numerous heraldic shields, is a
distinguishing feature. The church is small, and is only 200 feet in
length. Its Patron Saint was a companion of St. Columba, who journeyed
here on his missionary work, and founded a church about the year 597.
A second church was begun in 1183, but this was not equal to the
ambition of Bishop Cheyne, and was destroyed by him in order to make
way for a better. This again was superseded by a church begun by
Bishop Kinnimond, in 1357, but the work progressed slowly, and not
until the rule of Bishop Leighton (1422-1440) was the nave finished
with the north transept and west towers. The roof was added by his
successor, Bishop Lindsay, and the central tower and spire by Bishop
Elphinstone, who began the ill-fated choir. Bishop Stewart built the
chapter-house. The troubles of the Reformation and of the Civil War
wrought much havoc. The lead was torn from the roof; the bells were
shipped off to Holland and lost at sea. The stones of the choir were
used for fortifications by Cromwell's troops; the great tower fell and
destroyed the transepts, and all that remains of this church is the
nave. The west front is an imposing piece of work. The west window
consists of seven lofty narrow openings, with cusped arches at the
head. The towers, capped with spires, are very massive in their
granite ruggedness. There are five bays in the nave, with round piers,
Decorated arches, no triforium, and small clerestory windows. On the
ceiling are forty-eight heraldic shields of princes, nobles and
bishops who aided in the erection of the church.

King's College, founded by Bishop Elphinstone in 1498, should be
visited. The original oak canopied stalls, _misereres_, and lofty open
screen in the chapel, are some of the finest work of the period. The
influence of the French Flamboyant style is evident in their
execution. These beautiful works of art were saved from destruction
by the bravery of the Principal, who summoned his people, and
protected his treasures from the fury of the barons of Mearns, after
they had sacked the Cathedral.



DUNBLANE CATHEDRAL


This Cathedral is one of the few specimens of Gothic art in Scotland
which escaped destruction at the Reformation. Nearly all the building
is Early English, except the tower, which is Early Norman. Ruskin
wrote his praise of this edifice:--

     "He was no uncommon man who designed the Cathedral of Dunblane.
     I know nothing so perfect in its simplicity, and so beautiful,
     so far as it reaches, in all the Gothic with which I am
     acquainted. And just in proportion to his power of mind, that
     man was content to work under Nature's teaching, and instead of
     putting merely formal dog-tooth, as everybody else did at that
     time, he went down to the woody banks of the sweet river,
     beneath the rocks of which he was building, and took up a few
     of the fallen leaves that lay by it, and he set them on his
     arch, side by side for ever."

There was an early church on this site founded by St. Blane. This
early church was superseded in 1150 by one erected by King David of
Scotland. All that remains of this church is the fine Norman tower.
The rest of the church fell into ruin and neglect, until the time of
Bishop Clement, who, about 1240, began to build this beautiful church
in Early English style. At the Reformation great damage was done, when
over-zealous Protestants pulled down the roof and carried off much
plate and treasure. For centuries the nave remained in this condition;
the choir and chapter-house were roofed over, in order to form a
parish church; and now a great restoration of the church has recently
taken place. A new roof has been erected, after the fashion of the
Cathedral church of Aberdeen, with its heraldic devices, and the whole
church repaired and beautified.

The west front is Early English in design, with lancet windows, a
deeply-recessed doorway, and in the gable a window with the leaf
decoration praised by Ruskin. The nave has eight bays, and is Late
Early English. The pulpit is modern, and also the screen. The choir
has no aisles, and has six lancet windows, with a large east window.
The stall-work of sixteenth-century is beautifully carved, and there
are some interesting grotesques. On the west side of the choir is the
chapter-house, which is the earliest part of the present church, with
the exception of the tower, and has an upper room, possibly used as a
treasury or _Reclusorium_. The tower is an important structure, of
Early Norman character, and doubtless served the same purpose as the
round towers of Ireland and Brechin, affording shelter in case of
attack. There are good reasons for believing that originally it was
separate from the church. The upper portion was added later. A fine
view can be obtained from the summit. There are some interesting
monuments in the Cathedral, and in the churchyard is the tomb of the
heroine of the song, "Charming young Jessie, the flower of Dunblane."



DUNKELD CATHEDRAL


The first church was founded by Constantin, King of the Picts, about
800 A.D., and the Culdees were established in a monastery here. In
1107 it became the seat of a bishopric, and a colony of Augustinian
canons replaced the former dwellers. A new choir was built in
1220-1250, in the Early English style. During the wars with England,
in 1380, it was burnt, but almost immediately restored. The nave was
finished by Bishop Lauder in 1465. He was a most munificent prelate,
who did much for his Cathedral, began the tower and chapter-house, and
furnished the Cathedral with gifts of much valuable church plate.
There is a curious story[21] of a Highlanders' raid, and of their
entry to the church, and of the bishop's perilous escape to the
rafters of his church, in order to escape their hands. On another
occasion the church was besieged in the time of the famous Bishop
Gavin Douglas, the translator of the _Æneid_ (1576). His election to
the see was opposed by the Stewarts, the inveterate enemies of his
house; and Andrew Stewart barred the door against him, and fought
against him from his stronghold in the tower. Douglas soon gathered
his friendly clans together, and forced an entrance. It is uncertain
when the nave lost its roof, probably when certain lairds at the
Reformation went on their base crusade, plundering and destroying
churches, and seizing their goods and valuables.

After the battle of Killiecrankie there was a great fight here, and an
asylum of refuge was found here by the people, who fortified their
position with the seats, and did much damage. The roof was destroyed,
and the nave has been ever since exposed to the storms of wind and
rain. The choir is now used as the parish church, having been rebuilt.
The nave has seven bays, and measures 120 feet by 60 feet. The piers
are of massive Norman character, and there is a somewhat poor
triforium and clerestory. The original choir was built by Bishop
Sinclair in 1350. The tower, 96 feet high, is Perpendicular, the work
of Bishop Lauder (1469), and finished by Bishop Brown in 1501, and is
a very good example of the style. The south porch was built by Lauder,
but it is now in ruins. The chapter-house is the work of the same
bishop. It contains the vault of the Dukes of Athol. Here, near the
porch, is buried Alexander Stuart, Earl of Buchan, better known as the
"Wolf of Badenoch" (1394), who burned down Elgin Cathedral and
devastated the place. Few churches have passed through such stormy
scenes as Dunkeld, and its ruined state is a melancholy testimony to
the lawlessness of the tumultuous times, which have left their mark
upon its desecrated walls.

FOOTNOTE:

[21] _Scottish Cathedrals and Abbeys_, by M.E. Leicester Addis.



ST. ANDREW'S CATHEDRAL


Of the once great Cathedral of St. Andrew, the Primatical See of
Scotland, few traces are left. Its consecration in the time of Robert
Bruce was marked by unparalleled pomp and circumstance. All the most
distinguished in Church and State were present, no less than seven
bishops and fifteen abbots, the king and well-nigh all the flower of
his nobility. It was originally founded by Bishop Arnold (1159-1162).
Its plan was cruciform, and was 355 feet in length, and the nave 200
feet, and there was a Lady Chapel at the east end. It had a grand
central tower, and six turrets, of which three remain. A fire partly
destroyed it in 1378, but it was restored and embellished, and
finished in 1440. In 1559 John Knox preached a fiery sermon in the
town church, which led the magistrates and inhabitants of the city to
plunder the Cathedral and strip it of its altars and ornaments. The
whole church was ransacked and left to fall into ruin. Soon the
central tower fell, and carried with it the north wall; and since then
the church has been used as a quarry. The ruins are picturesque in
their decay. All that remain are the east and west gables, part of
the south wall of the nave and the west wall of the south transept.
The style of these ruins is partly Norman and partly Early English.
Under the east window, built up in the wall, is a curious Runic
inscription. The Castle at St. Andrews is closely connected with the
Cathedral, as it was built by Bishop Roger in the thirteenth century
as an episcopal residence. The old Castle was destroyed in the
fourteenth century, and soon afterwards rebuilt. Here Cardinal Beaton
was murdered, who had witnessed the burning of Wishart in front of his
Castle. The Bottle Dungeon is a curious place of incarceration, and,
besides the towers and walls, there is an interesting subterranean
passage which enabled persons to escape from the Castle in time of
siege.



ST. GILES' CATHEDRAL, EDINBURGH


Edinburgh was not raised to episcopal rank until the time of Charles
I. The church has a great history, though it is popularly remembered
as the place where Jenny Geddes threw her stool at the dean, when the
English service book was introduced in the time of Charles I. The
first Church of St. Giles was consecrated in 1243, but it was burnt
down during the English wars, when most of the city shared the same
fate. Indeed, signs of fire may still be detected on the piers of the
choir and elsewhere. The church is remarkable for its numerous
chapels. On the south of the nave two were built in 1387, but these
have been destroyed by drastic "restoration." There are the Chambers's
Memorial Chapel, the Preston Aisle, named after one William Preston,
who brought from France a relic of the Patron Saint; the Chapman
Aisle, named after Chapman, the "Scottish Caxton," who introduced
printing into Scotland, and the Moray Aisle. During the fifteenth
century much building was in progress. The choir was lengthened, a
clerestory added and the roof raised, and ere the century had elapsed
it was raised to the dignity of a collegiate church. The choir is a
fine example of fifteenth-century work, and the Gothic crown which
surmounts the central tower forms a very distinguishing feature. It is
unlike anything else we know. Few scenes and events in Scottish
history have not in some way been connected with this church. We see
John Knox preaching violently here against the iniquities of the
court, and especially of the unfortunate Queen Mary. Knox was
appointed minister of the church. It was divided into three
portions--the Great and Little Kirk and the Tolbooth. Then in the time
of James I. Episcopacy was restored, and in 1633 Charles I. made St.
Giles into a Cathedral. Here Jenny Geddes, as we have said, expressed
her displeasure at the new English liturgy by throwing her stool at
the clergyman, and commenced the famous riot which had lamentable
results. Later on we see the struggle between the Covenanters and the
Royal Party, and the head of the Duke of Argyll stuck on a spike on a
gable of the Cathedral, the advent of "Bonny Prince Charlie," and all
the events of Scottish history seem to be associated in some way with
St. Giles'. Its war-worn banners, its monuments of national heroes,
all combine to add a peculiar interest to the building. The church
owes much of its present beauty to the munificence of Dr. William
Chambers, who rescued the building from neglect, and renewed and
beautified it. He was one of the firm of the great Edinburgh
publishers. Amongst other memorials of recent worthies we find a
window to R.L. Stevenson, and in the Moray Chapel a monument to
General Wauchope, who was killed gallantly leading his troops in the
recent war in South Africa. Although the choir is fifteenth-century
work, it differs much from that of the same period in England. In
Scotland French influence was much felt in the development of
architecture, and the builders inclined more to the French Flamboyant
rather than to the English Perpendicular.

The new Cathedral of the Episcopal Church of Scotland at Edinburgh,
designed by Sir G. Scott, is one of the finest and largest of our
modern Gothic buildings.



KIRKWALL CATHEDRAL


If we journey to the remote Orkneys we shall see a noble Cathedral at
Kirkwall, which is of peculiar interest. Until the year 1472 these
islands belonged to Norway, and were under the episcopal supervision
of the Archbishop of Drontheim in that kingdom. The Cathedral is
therefore connected with the rule of Norwegian earls and bishops, and
has many features differing from those types which are more familiar
to us. It was founded by the Norwegian Earl Ronald in 1137, and was
designed and constructed by the Norwegian Kol. Here were buried many
Scandinavian jarls and bishops, but their tombs have disappeared.
There is a fine nave of eight bays, which is of the Norman character,
and a choir of six bays, screened off so as to form a parish church.
The piers are all round and massive, and the arches round-headed, both
in the main arcade and in the triforium and clerestory. There is some
fine Norman arcading, with intersecting arches on the side walls. The
church is dedicated to St. Magnus, and is 226 feet long by 56 feet
wide. The original choir ended in an apse, but it was lengthened by
Bishop Stewart in 1511, and the west end of the nave was finished by
Bishop Reid in 1540. Different coloured stone is used extensively in
the building, principally the red and yellow sandstone, and these
varied hues add greatly to the architectural effect. The three west
doors are particularly fine. The tower has fifteenth-century windows,
and the bells were given by Bishop Maxwell at the end of the fifteenth
century. Near the church are the ruins of the Bishop's Palace, where
King Haco died in 1263, and also the Earl's Palace, which, after the
incorporation of the islands with Scotland, was assigned to the
bishops for a residence. The church has been much restored during the
last century.



GLOSSARY OF ARCHITECTURAL TERMS


     _Abacus._--The uppermost division of the capital, or head of a
     column, originally square and plain, in later styles more or
     less decorated with moulding, and in the Early English and
     Decorated periods generally circular or polygonal. In classic
     architecture it supported the horizontal superstructure of the
     entablature, but in Gothic architecture the arch rises directly
     from it.

     _Apse._--The round or polygonal end of a chancel.

     _Architrave._--The lowest division of the entablature in
     classic architecture; ornamental moulding round the exterior
     curve of an arch or round the openings of doors and windows,
     etc.

     _Ashlar._--Hewn stone.

     _Aumbrey or Almery._--A cupboard for containing the sacred
     vessels.

     _Ball-Flower Moulding._--Ornament resembling a ball enclosed in
     a globular flower of three petals.

     _Baluster._--A small turned wooden pillar, generally circular.

     _Bay._--The compartment of a church formed by the buttresses or
     pilasters on the walls, the main arches or pillars, the ribs of
     the vaulting, or other features which separate the building
     into corresponding portions.

     _Campanile._--A bell tower.

     _Cavetto._--A concave moulding of a quarter of a circle, used
     in classical and other styles of architecture.

     _Chamfer._--To cut off angles.

     _Clerestory or Clear-Story._--An upper storey, or row of
     windows in a Gothic church; so called to distinguish it from
     the blind-storey, or triforium.

     _Corbel._--A projecting stone or piece of timber supporting a
     weight.

     _Corbel-Table._--A row of corbels.

     _Credence._--A small table or shelf near the altar on which the
     bread and wine were placed before they were consecrated.

     _Crocket._--A bunch of projecting flowers or foliage decorating
     pinnacles, arches, etc.

     _Cusps._--The projecting points in Gothic tracery, or inside an
     arch; sometimes worked at the ends with leaves, flowers, or
     heads.

     _Dog-Tooth Moulding._--Ornaments usually consisting of four
     plain leaves, arranged so as to form a point.

     _Dripstone._--Projecting tablet or moulding over heads of
     archways, windows, doorways, etc.

     _Fan-Vaulting._--Vaulting in which the ribs rise with the same
     curve and diverge equally in every direction from the springing
     of the vault.

     _Finial._--A foliated ornament ending a pinnacle or gable, etc.

     _Flamboyant._--A name given to Late Decorated style of
     architecture from the flame-like wavings of its tracery.

     _Gargoyle._--A projecting spout, often carved in a grotesque
     form.

     _Groin._--The angle formed by the intersection of vaults.

     _Herring-Bone Work._--Masonry in which the stones are placed
     aslant, forming a fish-bone pattern.

     _Jamb._--The side of a window or door, etc.

     _Miserere._--A projecting bracket on the under side of the
     seats of stalls, which were made to turn up; the monks were
     allowed to lean on these brackets during the long services,
     which were performed standing.

     _Mullion._--Perpendicular bar between the lights of windows in
     Gothic architecture.

     _Nail-headed Moulding._--Moulding in imitation of ornamental
     nail-heads.

     _Newell._--The column round which a spiral staircase winds.

     _Ogee._--A moulding partly concave and partly convex, forming a
     round and a hollow. Term also applied to an arch formed of
     contrasted curves.

     _Orders._--The recesses of a divided arch.

     _Parvise._--A small room over the porch.

     _Pilaster._--A pillar, sometimes disengaged but generally
     attached to a wall.

     _Piscina._--A basin attached to the wall near the altar of a
     church, where the priest washed his hands and rinsed the
     chalice.

     _Plate-Tracery._--Tracery which appears as if formed by
     piercing a flat surface with ornamental patterns.

     _Plinth._--The lowest division of the base of a column, or
     projecting face at the bottom of a wall.

     _Presbytery._--The part of a church where the high altar
     stands.

     _Reredos._--A screen at the back of an altar.

     _Rood-Loft._--A gallery over the screen separating the nave
     from the chancel, on which the great cross or _rood_ was fixed.

     _Sedilia._--The seats for the officiating clergy.

     _Soffit._--The under side of an arch, cornice, etc.

     _Spandrel._--The triangular space between arches.

     _Splay._--The expansion given to windows and other openings by
     slanting the sides.

     _Springing._--The point at which an arch unites with its
     support.

     _Squint._--An oblique opening in the wall of a church.

     _Stoup._--A vessel or stone basin formed in the wall, serving
     as a receptacle for holy water.

     _String-Course._--A horizontal moulding running along a wall.

     _Transom._--A horizontal cross-bar in a window.

     _Triforium._--A gallery in the wall over the arches which
     separates the body of the church from the aisles.

     _Tympanum._--The space above the horizontal opening of a
     doorway and the arch above; the space between an arch and the
     triangular drip-stone or hood-mould which surmounts it.



INDEX


    Aberdeen, 443


    Bangor, 426

    Bath, 161

    Beverley, 327

    Brechin, 442

    Bristol, 138


    Canterbury, 68

    Carlisle, 272

    Chester, 248

    Chichester, 96


    Dunblane, 444

    Dunkeld, 445

    Durham, 283


    Ely, 377

    Exeter, 164


    Glasgow, 439

    Glossary of Architectural Terms, 450

    Gloucester, 178


    Hereford, 204


    Iona, 441


    Kirkwall, 448


    Lichfield, 230

    Lincoln, 337

    Liverpool, 263

    Llandaff, 429


    Manchester, 264


    Newcastle, 282

    Norwich, 393


    Oxford, 125


    Peterborough, 360


    Ripon, 297

    Rochester, 57


    Salisbury, 108

    Southwell, 351

    St. Alban's, 409

    St. Andrew's, 446

    St. Asaph's, 423

    St. David's, 432

    St. Giles', Edinburgh, 447

    St. Paul's, 8


    The Architecture of the Cathedrals of Great Britain, 1

    Truro, 177


    Wakefield, 333

    Wells, 149

    Westminster, 35

    Winchester, 85

    Worcester, 216


    York, 309


       *       *       *       *       *



    Transcriber's Notes

    Punctuation and spelling errors and inconsistent hyphenation have
    been corrected.

    Italic text is denoted by _underscore_ and bold text by =equal signs=.

    In the inscriptions described on page 197, the letters a, e and u
    which have macrons in the original text, have been represented in
    this version using circumflexes, i.e. grâ, plê and Jhû.

    In this version of the text, superscripts are represented using the
    caret character, e.g. y^e.

    The oe ligatures in the text are shown as separate oe characters.

    In ambiguous cases, the text has been left as it appears in the
    original book.





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