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Title: Rambles in Rome - An Archaeological and Historical Guide to the Museums, - Galleries, Villas, Churches, and Antiquities of Rome and - the Campagna
Author: Forbes, S. Russell
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Rambles in Rome - An Archaeological and Historical Guide to the Museums, - Galleries, Villas, Churches, and Antiquities of Rome and - the Campagna" ***

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Transcriber's Note:

  Inconsistent hyphenation and spelling in the original document have
  been preserved. Obvious typographical errors have been corrected.

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_ and bold text by =equal

  On page 10, Simononetti was changed to Simonetti.
  On page 20, Attus Naviu was changed to Attus Navius.
  On page 28, SERVUS was changed to SEVERUS.
  On page 54, Prætextate was changed to Prætextata.
  On page 104 Cagliastro was changed to Cagliostro.
  On page 126 Æmon and Antigones was changed to Hæmon and Antigone.


     "If you are visiting Rome, you will find in this book a
     high-class companion and guide. Try it, and see the
     trade to sell, and the chatty, masterly production of a
     writer of ability and taste."--_C. H. Spurgeon._


     An Archæological and Historical Guide
     TO THE

     Archæological and Historical Lecturer on Roman Antiquities.

     Fifth Edition,
     Revised and Enlarged; embracing all the Recent
     Excavations and Discoveries.






Page 9. Some of the columns of the Temple of Neptune have been

Page 45. PLAN.--A is the Shrine of Janus. B, Inscription to
Constantinus II., 357 A.D. C, Pedestal to Statue of Constantine
(Eusebius, E. H., ix. 9, "Life of Constantine I.," 40 and 48). D,
Inscription to Arcadius, Honorius, and Theodosius.

Page 56, sixth line from bottom, _for_ at the same time _read_ in

Page 60, sixth line from bottom, _for_ S. Bonaventura _read_ the Ædem

Page 72, line 19, _for_ inside _read_ outside.

Page 76, line 23, _for_ Scipio _read_ Regulus.

Page 77, sixth line from bottom, _for_ second _read_ third, 299-296.

Page 103. The Apollo Theatre is pulled down.

Page 118, line 21, _for_ Monsignor Macchi _read_ the Maggiordomo; also
at page 124, third line from bottom.

Page 121. VATICAN GALLERIES.--Second line, _for_ 3rd and 4th objects
_read_--3. S. Giovanni della Salle, founder of the Christian Brothers
Schools, by C. Manani, 1888. 4. Jesuits Martyred in Japan, by Peter

_Second Room._--No. 12, _read_ S. Grata of Bergamo, with the head of
her lover, S. Alexander of the Theban legion, by Peter Loverini, 1887.

Page 126. _Hall of Busts._--_For_ 280 _read_ 273, the young Augustus.
_For_ 282 _read_ 272, and _for_ 285 _read_ 292.

Page 127. _Cabinet of Masks._--_For_ 427 _read_ 425. _For_ 428 _read_
427. After Alcamenes, line 10, _read_ 436, Venus of Cnidos, by
Praxiteles. _For_ 436 _read_ 441. _Omit_ 441, Ganymedes, and _for_ 442
_read_ 443.

Page 129. _Chiaramonti Corridor._--_For_ 635 _read_ 636. _Omit_ 416,
Augustus as a Youth. _Insert_ 372_a_, A Fragment from the Parthenon, by
Phidias. _Omit_ 112, Venus of Cnidos. _For_ 484 _read_ 483, Cupid. 639
_read_ Sœmia.

Page 130. _Braccio Nuovo._--_For_ 92 _read_ 38B. _For_ 96A _read_ 97A.
_Insert_ 112, a fine bust of Juno as queen of heaven.

Page 136. Torlonia Museum closed to the public.

Page 140, line 19, _for_ by the new road _read_ Via Luciano Manara.

Page 147. BORGHESE GALLERY.--Permission necessary. To be obtained at
the palace, on the days the gallery is opened, before 1 P.M.

Page 160. KIRCHERIAN MUSEUM.--The objects have been arranged in cases
on the walls instead of down the centre of the rooms. _Third
Room._--_For_ at end on left _read_ in front of the window.

Page 175. CAPITOLINE MUSEUM.--36. _Omit_ whose bust it now supports;
_insert_ a porphyry fragment. 41. _For_ Antoninus Pius _read_
Claudius. 49, 50. _After_ Pius _read_ destroyed in 1665 by Alexander

Page 179. _Omit_ 23. Mercury.

Page 180. _Terra-cotta Room._--_Omit_ a large jar, _down to_ urn.

Page 181. _Omit_ the case, line 21, _down to_ Pia.

Page 183. _Courtyard._--_For_ 2 and 3 _read_ 4 and 6; _for_ 3 and 18
_read_ 5 and 7; _for_ 7 _read_ 9; _for_ 8 and 13 _read_ 18 and 10.

_Lower Corridor._--_For_ 3 _read_ 4; _for_ 5 _read_ 8; _for_ 7 _read_
18; _for_ 8 _read_ 21; _for_ 10 _read_ 23; _for_ 14 _read_ 35; _for_
15 _read_ 36; _for_ 16 _read_ 37; _for_ 17 _read_ 38; _for_ 18.
Porphyry _read_ 39. Original.

No. 3. A votive altar dedicated to the imperial house, on the left
side of which is a personification of the Via Appia reclining on a
wheel, similar to Trajan's Relief on the Arch of Constantine.

No. 6. Egyptian statuette, with the cartouch of Rameses II., found on
Via Nazionale. The base upon which it stands is inscribed to Fabius
Cilone, prefect of Rome under Septimius Severus, who had performed the
annual sacrifice to Hercules at the Ara Maxima, at the entrance to the
Circus Maximus. No. 13 is a companion inscription, a circular vase
offered by Catius Sabinus, prefect of Rome, who performed the annual
sacrifice at the great altar of Hercules. It was found at the back of
S. Maria in Cosmedin.

No. 17. Inscription to Hercules the leader of the Muses by the Consul
M. F. Nobilior, 189 B.C., from the temple which stood in the Portico
of Philip, now S. Ambrogio.

Nos. 2 and 3 in the courtyard are the two Egyptian lions from the
Temple of Isis, which in the sixteenth century were placed at the foot
of the ascent to the Capitol, and removed here in 1885.

Nos. 13 and 14. Two columns from the same temple found in 1883.

No. 32. Sphinx in red granite. 33. Vase in basalt, Villa Hadrian.
Altar sacred to Isis. On the left side is Harpocrates, the god of
silence; on the right, Anubis, the Egyptian Mercury. 34. Sphinx in
basalt, with the cartouch of Amasi II., 550 B.C. 44 and 51.
Monkey-gods of Pharaoh Nectanebus I., 370 B.C. 49. Crocodile in red
granite. With the exception of the vase, all these objects came from
the Temple of Isis and Serapis on the Campus Martius, founded, B.C.
100, by Apuleius II., and rebuilt by Domitian (Suetonius, "Dom." v.).

_Hall of Mosaics._--On right in entering, inscription to Nerva, by
Septimius Severus, A.D. 194, used in 1676 by the city Conservatori to
record their privileges.

8. Mosaic Head of an Athlete. 9. The Sea with fish, and a border of
foliage and birds, from the Baths of Olympia, Viminal Hill. 10. The
Rape of Proserpina (the names of the horses are written in Greek),
from a tomb on the Via Portuense. 12. Representation of a Bath, from
the Prætorian Camp. 14. Hercules conquered by Love. 18. A veiled woman
presenting a statuette to a seated nude figure, probably Mercury: a
beautiful work. 24. Personification of the Month of May. 27. An
Inundation of the Nile. 28. A Ship entering a Port. In the centre of
the room,


In the month of August 1888, on the Via Arenula, the new street
leading to the new Ponte Garibaldi, at the corner of the Via di S.
Bartolomeo dei Vaccinari, the last street on the right which leads up
to the reputed House and School of S. Paul, at the depth of
twenty-seven feet (which shows how the soil has accumulated here),
another of the Lares Compitales of the time of Augustus was
discovered. It is a square marble altar with a beautiful cornice,
which is, unfortunately, broken. On the front is a relief representing
four men at a sacrifice, with bay crowns upon their veiled heads. A
bull and a pig are by assistants being led up to sacrifice--the bull
to the Genius Cæsarum, and the pig to the Lares. On each side of the
altar is the figure of a youth, the titular deities; and at the back a

Above the relief in front is the inscription,--

     CIVS . C. M
     MANIVS C. _l. iu_STVS

It was dedicated to the Lares of Augustus by four officials of a
street nine years after Augustus had restored the street shrines. That
was in 6 B.C. (Dion Cassius, lv. 8); so this altar was erected in A.D.

On the right side under the cornice is inscribed,--

     P . CLODIVS . P

and on the left side,--

     S . L . L . SALVIVS .

evidently the names of two of the officials.

The altar stands on a travertine base, on which is written,--


which is valuable as giving us the name of the street Vicus Æscletus,
Beech Street.

     "Nec rigida mollior æsculo."
          HORACE, _Odes_, iii. 10.

     "Altior ac penitus terræ defigitur arbos,
     Æsculus in primis."
          VIRGIL, _Georgics_, ii. 290.

This is the first mention we have of this street. The victors of the
Pythian games were crowned with a chaplet made of beech leaves before
the bay (laurel) was used; hence Ovid,--

     "Æsculeæ capiebat frondis honorem."
          _Met._ i. 449.

Suetonius ("Augustus," xxx.) says, "He divided the city into regions
and streets, ordaining that the annual magistrates should take by lot
the charge of the former, and that the latter should be superintended
by wardens chosen out of the people of each neighbourhood." Pliny ("N.
H.," iii. 9) says, "The city is divided into fourteen regions, with
two hundred and sixty-five cross streets under the guardianship of the

The pedestal of the Apollo, leader of the Muses (No. 516), in the
Vatican Museum, is an altar dedicated to the Laribus Augustis, Genius
Cæsarum, by four street officials; on the left of which is the Genius
of Augustus, similar to the statue, 555, in the Sala Rotonda.

If the Jewish tradition is correct, that the House of S. Paul was at
the angle of the Via S. Bartolomeo dei Vaccinari and the Via degli
Strengari; and if the Romish Church tradition is true, that he had a
school (room shown) at the Church of S. Paola alla Regola, on the Via
S. Paola alla Regola, a continuation of the Via S. Bartolomeo dei
Vaccinari; then we have at last arrived at the name of the street
where the apostle dwelt for two whole years in his own hired house, 62
to 64,--namely, the Vicus Æscletus, probably so called because it led
to a grove of beech trees, Æsculus being corrupted into Æscletus.

Pliny (xvi. 15) speaks of this grove: "Q. Hortensius, the dictator, on
the secession of the plebeians to the Janiculum (A.U.C. 466), passed a
law in the Æsculetum, that what the plebeians had enacted should be
binding on every Roman citizen."

       *       *       *       *       *

_Second Room._--The walls are encased with inscriptions. _On the left_
is a fragment of a Roman calendar, found in 1888 near S. Martino di
Monti. It represents the 1st to 3rd, 18th to 29th of April, and 1st to
4th of May. _On the door_ is part of a Lex Horreorum of the time of
Hadrian. These magazines were situated near Monte Testaccio. _On the
right_ of window inscription of Lucius Aquilinus Modestus, master of
the guild of timber merchants at Ostia. _On the door opposite_,
inscription dedicated to the imperial house by a college of health
found near Monte Testaccio.

_Third Room._--_In the centre_ is the pedestal of the statue of
Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi, which Pliny (xxxiv. 14) tells us
was erected in the Portico of Octavia, where it was found in 1879. _On
right of door_, fragment of the inscription recording Hadrian burning
the bonds in Trajan's Forum in 118; a part of the inscription is in
Trajan's Forum. _By the window_, inscription to Aulus Septicius
Alexander, a seller of floral wreaths on the Via Sacra. _By the next
window_, a dedication to Concord by Marcus Artorius Geminus, prefect
of the military treasury, from the Temple of Concord in the Forum.
Inscription to Nero and Poppæa, wishing them good health, on behalf of
the governor of the Balearic Islands, A.D. 60. Fragment of a Fasti,
A.D. 220. A fragment of the Maffeiano Calendar. _On the next wall_,
inscription of Lucius Considius Gallus, prætor for the strangers, etc.

Page 184. _Hall of Inscriptions: First Room._--No. 11. Sarcophagus
representing hunting of wild animals. 18. Cippus to Faustina the
elder, erected by an official of the treasury, found near the Temple
of Saturn in the Forum. 19. Head of Giuba II., King of Numidia. 26.
Base dedicated to Hercules Victorious. 28. Sarcophagus of a boar and
stag hunt. 30. Sarcophagus, Hunt of the Calydonian Boar, from third
room. (See at foot of page 183.)

_Near the door_, inscription of a monument to Marcus Calpurnius Piso
Frugi, B.C. 88, restored by Trajan. _Over the door_, inscription of
the guild of bargemen of Ostia, A.D. 193.

Page 185, line 2, _for_ 2 _read_ 3; _for_ 6 _read_ 4; _for_ 12, 13
_read_ 15, 17; _for_ 15 _read_ 19.

Page 186, line 7, _for_ 5 _read_ 20.

Page 187. _Hall of Emperors._--A fine head of Augustus, found, 1889,
on Via Merulana, represents him crowned with a wreath of myrtle in
commemoration of the ovation celebrated by him (Pliny, xv. 38).

Page 192. GHETTO.--The Via Rua and other streets of the Jews' Quarter
have been demolished.

Page 194. The new bridge, Ponte Garibaldi, is approached by the new
Via Arenula.

Page 196. The Spada Palace is closed to the public.

Page 199. The Pons Cestius is being rebuilt.

Page 201. The Ponte Rotto has been destroyed by the municipality, and
a new bridge, Ponte Palatino, has been built alongside the site of the
old one.

Page 208. THE WALL OF THE LATINS.--This is now best seen from the new
road, Via di Porta S. Paolo.

Page 212. THE CLOACA MAXIMA.--_For_ 530 _read_ 615. The exit is now
covered by the new embankment of the Tiber.

Page 222, line 14, _for_ by entering the stonemason's yard, _read_ in
the new excavations.

Page 248. MUSEO URBINO.--Not yet opened to the public.

Page 254, line 11, _for_ close by _read_ in the Via Urbana.

Page 255, tenth line from bottom, _for_ we come to where _read_ at the
junction of the new Via Cavour, the Via Giovanni Lanza; and

Page 258, line 21, _for_ Paul _read_ Pius.


The Government is forming in the old monastery, amidst the ruins of
the Baths of Diocletian, a museum, composed of the objects found on
Government property since 1870. It promises to be one of the most
interesting collections in Rome. Amongst the objects of primary
importance we may mention the Ceres, found in the Stadium of Domitian
on the Palatine, 1878. The Apollo Ægioclus from Hadrian's Villa. The
bronze Meleager by Lysippus, found in February 1885 amidst the ruins
of the Thermæ of Constantine on the Quirinal Hill. The Boxer, also in
bronze, found in the same place in April of the same year. This is the
most realistic statue preserved from ancient days. The youth Bacchus,
in bronze, found in the Tiber, September 1885; probably by Praxiteles,
or of his school.

Page 269. Ludovisi Museum closed to the public.

Page 284, last line but 13, _for_ palace _read_ Prætorian Camp.

Page 299. Sixth line. At the tenth mile carriages _cannot now_ pass
into the Via Appia Nuova. From the eighth to the eleventh mile it is
now practicable to walkers only.


The Government have formed in the Villa of Papa Julio a museum of the
objects recently discovered at Civita Castellana, the ancient Etruscan
city of Falerii. Our young friends will remember the Schoolmaster and
his Pupils. The objects are arranged in cases round the rooms, and are
of great interest; but they are considerably mixed as regards their
epochs. Three periods are represented--Native, Etruscan, and Greek.
Instead of these being arranged in distinct cases, they are mixed up
in nearly every case. Some of the vases are fine works of art, whilst
all are interesting. The wooden coffins, hollowed out of trees, should
be examined; also the skull with the gold band, which formerly
supported four false teeth.

       *       *       *       *       *

Page 315. Dr. Forbes's excursion is on Friday.


     Page 352. The fare for a course is now half a lira.

     Page 355. _For_ Monsignor Macchi _read_ the Maggiordomo.
               Villa Ludovisi destroyed, Museum closed.

     Page 356. Father Gavazzi is dead.

     Page 357. Vansittart's bank is closed.
               British Ambassador, the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava.
               United States Minister, the Hon. Albert G. Porter.
               United States Consul-General, Mr. Augustus Bourne.
               Mosaics--Gallant's is closed.

     Page 358. Chapman's Pension is 76 Via S. Niccolo da Tolentino.
               Tallinback's Pension is at 66 Via due Macelli.
               Population to June 30, 1889, was 408,000.
               Protection of Animals--Office, Via S. Giacomo.
               Theatres--Apollo destroyed; Umberto closed.


The object of our work is to describe in a practical manner the points
of interest in and around the Eternal City. One half of our life has
been spent in studying Rome on the spot. For our guides we have had
the classic authorities and recent excavations; and it has been with
us a labour of love to work out from our authors the meaning of the
ruins uncovered, and impart the information thus obtained to others.

The excavations of the last few years have thrown an entirely new
flood of light upon the existing remains and Roman history, and have
proved beyond doubt that there is a great deal more truth in the early
history of Rome than has generally been supposed. It has been our
privilege to watch the excavations year after year, and elucidate the
remains found; and our labours have been rewarded with some not
unimportant discoveries. We state nothing without citing classic
authority to bear us witness, and the authority so cited agrees in a
marvellous way with the ruins discovered. We feel that our efforts
have been appreciated by the many hundreds whom we have guided to
these classic spots, and we hope our book may be likewise valued by
those who cannot come to Rome.

These Rambles will enable the visitor who is making a brief stay in
Rome to see the principal objects of interest in a short time.

By following the instructions given much time will be saved, and the
Rambler will not have to go over the same ground unnecessarily.

Visitors whose stay is limited to a few days should select the
subjects they are most interested in; whilst others, who have "plenty
of time," are advised to divide the Rambles according to the time at
their disposal.

     S. R. F.
     ROME, _December 1886_.

List of Illustrations.

     PLAN OF ANCIENT ROME,                            xxviii

     PIAZZA DEL POPOLO,                                    3

     COLUMN OF MARCUS AURELIUS,                            7

     TEMPLE OF NEPTUNE,                                    9

     PLAN OF THE ROMAN FORUM,                             17

       HILL,                                              19

     THE ROMAN FORUM FROM THE CAPITOL,                    23

     DUILIAN COLUMN,                                      25

       THE TWELVE GODS,                                   29

     DEATH OF VIRGINIA,                                   34


       JULIA,                                             37


     THE ROSTRA,                                          42

     PLAN OF THE ROSTRA AD PALMAM,                        45

     RELIEF FROM THE ARCH OF CONSTANTINE,                 47

     DEDICATION OF THE TEMPLE,                            51

     PLAN OF THE ATRIUM VESTÆ,                            53


       PEARL-DEALERS,                                     61

       CÆSARS,                                            68

     PLAN OF THE PALACE OF DOMITIAN,                      80

     PLAN OF THE HOUSE OF GERMANICUS,                     81

     PLAN OF THE BASILICA ON THE PALATINE,                82


     BAS-RELIEF ON THE ARCH OF TITUS,                     88

       BASILICÆ OF THE FORUM OF CUPID,                    90

     ARCH OF CONSTANTINE,                                 93

     THE COLOSSEUM,                                       97



     S. PETER'S AND THE VATICAN,                         107

     INTERIOR OF S. PETER'S,                             111

     THE FARNESE PALACE,                                 133

     THE PAULINE FOUNTAIN,                               139

     THE PANTHEON,                                       151

     INTERIOR OF THE PANTHEON,                           153

     BATHS OF AGRIPPA,                                   157

     VIEW OF THE CAPITOL,                                165

     TEMPLE OF JUPITER CAPITOLINUS,                      167

     TARPEIAN ROCK,                                      168


       CHASTITY,                                         203

     FOUNTAIN OF TREVI,                                  215

     PLAN OF THE FORUM OF TRAJAN,                        219

     TRAJAN'S FORUM,                                     221


     THE SCALA SANTA,                                    242

     BASILICA OF S. MARIA MAGGIORE,                      257

     BATHS OF CARACALLA,                                 277

     CIRCUS OF MAXENTIUS,                                295

     TOMB OF CECILIA METELLA,                            297

     MAP OF THE ROMAN CAMPAGNA,                          300

     PLAN OF TIVOLI,                                     316

     GROTTO OF THE SIBYL, TIVOLI,                        319


     PLAN OF HADRIAN'S VILLA AT TIVOLI,                  322

     VILLA OF HADRIAN,                                   323

     PORTA MAGGIORE,                                     325

     CLAUDIAN AQUEDUCT,                                  329




     ROMAN CONSTRUCTION                                  xi-xxvii

     RAMBLE I.


     ARCH OF CONSTANTINE -- THE COLOSSEUM                   1-102



     S. AGOSTINO                                          103-145



     -- CLOACA MAXIMA -- S. TEODORO                       146-213



     NERO -- CHURCH OF S. GREGORIO                        214-248

     RAMBLE V.


     OBELISKS IN ROME                                     249-271





     PORTA DEL POPOLO: -- Villa Borghese -- Villa di Papa
     Giulio -- Acqua Acetosa -- Ponte Molle -- Villa of Livia
     -- Veii -- Monte Mario -- Villas Mellini and Madama. PORTA
     SALARA: -- Villa Albani -- Catacomb of S. Priscilla --
     Antemnæ -- Ponte Salara -- The Anio -- Fidenæ. PORTA PIA:
     -- Porta Nomentana -- Villa Torlonia -- Church and
     Catacomb of S. Agnese -- S. Costanza -- Ponte Nomentana --
     Mons Sacer -- Tomb of Virginia -- Basilica and Catacomb
     of S. Alexander. PORTA S. LORENZO: -- The Roman Cemetery
     -- Basilica of S. Lorenzo -- Ponte Mammolo -- Hannibal's
     Camp -- Castel Arcione -- Aquæ Albulæ -- Ponte Lucano --
     Tomb of the Plautii. TIVOLI: -- Villa D'Este -- Temples of
     Sibyl and Vesta -- The Glen and Falls -- Pons Vopisci --
     Villa of Quintilius Varus -- The Cascades -- Ponte
     dell'Acquoria -- Villa of Mæcenas -- Temple of Hercules --
     Hadrian's Villa. PORTA MAGGIORE: -- The Baker's Tomb --
     The Aqueducts -- Tomb of Helena (?) -- Gabii -- Ponte di
     Nona -- Villa of the Gordian Emperors -- Tomb of Quintus
     Atta. PORTA S. GIOVANNI. _First Excursion_: -- Via Appia
     Nova -- Painted tombs -- S. Stephen's -- The Aqueducts --
     Pompey's Tomb -- Albano -- Ariccia -- Genzano -- Lake and
     Village of Nemi -- Palazzolo -- Lake Albano -- Castel
     Gandolfo -- Site of Alba Longa (?) -- Vallis Ferentina --
     Marino -- Grotta Ferrata -- Cicero's Villa. _Second
     Excursion_: -- Frascati -- Tusculum -- Rocca di Papa --
     Monte Cavo. PORTA S. SEBASTIANO: -- Via Appia. (See page
     258.) PORTA S. PAOLO: -- Pyramid of Caius Cestius -- S.
     Paul's outside the walls -- Remuria Hill -- Tre Fontane --
     The Viaduct of Ancus Martius. OSTIA: -- Street of Tombs --
     Houses -- Warehouses -- Temples -- Docks -- Palace --
     Walls of Ancus Martius -- Museum -- View from Tower of the
     Castle -- Castel Fusano -- Pliny's Villa             302-349


     ROME                                                 350-358


To get a good idea of Rome and its topographical situation, take a
carriage and drive for three hours through the principal streets; more
can be learned in this way than in any other.

_Start from the_ Piazza di Spagna; drive down the Via Babuino to the
Piazza del Popolo, up to the Pincio, for a view of Rome, looking west;
then along the Via Sistina, up the Quattro Fontane, to the right, down
the Via Quirinale; stop in the square for the view. Proceeding to the
Via Nazionale, turn up it to the left as far as the Quattro Fontane;
then turn to the right past S. Maria Maggiore direct to the Lateran,
from the front of which see the view eastwards; then follow the Via S.
Giovanni down to the Colosseum, passing by the most perfect part. By
the Via del Colosseo, Tor di Conti, Via Croce Bianca, Arco dei
Pantani, Forum of Augustus, and Via Bonella, you reach the Forum,
under the Capitoline Hill. Continuing by the Via Consolazione and
Piazza Campitelli, follow the line of streets to the Ponte Sisto;
crossing this, proceed up the Via Garibaldi to S. Peter in Montorio.
Grand view of Rome and the Campagna, looking north, east, and south.

_Return_ to the foot of the hill; turn to the left down the Lungara to
S. Peter's; drive round the square; then down the Borgo Nuovo to the
Castle of S. Angelo. Crossing the bridge, take the Via Coronari to the
Circo Agonale; then on to the Pantheon, and by the Minerva to the
Piazza di Venezia; thence up the Corso as far as the Via Condotti, up
which street you return to the Piazza di Spagna, after having thus
made the most interesting drive in the world.


Rome commences at a point--Piazza del Popolo--and spreads out
southwards like a fan, the western extremity being occupied by the
Vatican, and the eastern by the Lateran; both these head-quarters of
the Papacy are isolated from the rest of the city. Modern Rome
occupies the valley of the Campus Martius, which was outside ancient
Rome, and the hills that abut it. Rome is divided into two unequal
parts by the river Tiber, which enters the line of the walls, with the
Popolo on its left. For a short distance it flows southwards; then it
makes a great bend to the west; then again takes a southerly
direction; and at the island again turns westerly. One mile south of
the Popolo Gate is the Capitoline Hill, the Arx of ancient Rome,
dividing, as it were, Old from New Rome. It rises two hundred yards
east of the Tiber, and from it in an eastern direction lie the other
six hills, curving in a horse-shoe form round the Palatine till the
Aventine abuts the river. Of the hills, the Palatine, Capitoline,
Cœlian, and Aventine were only isolated mounts, the Quirinal,
Viminal, and Esquiline being three spurs jutting out from the high
tableland on the east side of Rome. These hills can easily be
distinguished from the Tower of the Capitol; but the best way to
understand them is to walk round them. Then it will be seen that they
are hills indeed; and if we take into consideration that the valleys
have been filled in from thirty to forty feet, and that the tops of
the hills have been cut down, we may get some idea of their original
height. Rome still occupies four of them; but the Aventine, Cœlian,
and Palatine are left to ruins, gardens, and monks.

The original Rome was on the Palatine, and as the other hills were
added they were fortified; but it was not till the time of Servius
Tullius that the seven were united by one system of fortifications
into one city. The plan was simple. From the Tiber a wall went to the
Capitoline, and from that to the Quirinal; across the necks of the
three tongues the great agger was built, then across the valleys from
hill to hill till the wall again reached the river under the Aventine.
The aggers across the valleys were built right up towards the city, so
that the hills on either side protected the walls and gates commanding
the approach. Of all the maps of Rome that have been published, the
new one accompanying this work is the only one which correctly shows
the line of the Servian fortifications.


From the Piazza del Popolo four great lines of thoroughfare intersect
the city, and passing up one of these for a few hundred yards we may
count five lines. First we take the centre thoroughfare; then the two
lines on its right; then the two upon its left: in this way, by
dividing Rome up into five Rambles, pointing out as we go along every
place of interest to the right and left, we mark out for a day's work
no more than can be thoroughly done. Having thus seen the city, we
take the environs outside each gate, commencing at the Porta del
Popolo and working round by the east, with the exception of the Porta
Appia, which leads out on to the Appian Way. As this Way presents so
many points of interest, and as no visitor should think of leaving
Rome without "doing it," we have made it a special Ramble for their


Perhaps the health of no city in the world is so much talked about by
people who know nothing whatever of the subject, as Rome. We meet with
many visitors entertaining all sorts of curious ideas of the health of
Rome--what they may and may not do; and when we ask them their
authority they cannot give any, but "they have heard so." There seem
to be mysterious ideas and impressions floating about that get lodged
in some minds no one knows how. People get ill in Rome, of course,
just as in any other place; but more than half the sickness is caused
through their own imprudence, such as getting hot and going into cold
places, and going "from early morn till dewy eve" without rest and
refreshment. In all hot climates certain precautions should be
observed, and then there is no fear.

We ourselves have lived many years in this much-abused climate, never
knowing any illness, and enjoying far better health than when residing
in London. O ye rain, mud, and fog!

The well-known Roman physician, Dr. C. Liberali, M.D., in his
"Hygienic Medical Hand-book for Travellers in Italy," says:--"The
climate of Rome is in the highest degree salubrious and favourable to
all, but especially to delicate persons; but they should follow the
advice of a skilful physician of the country."

People rush through Europe at express rate, eat all sorts of things
that they are unused to at unusual hours, over-exert themselves,
change the whole course of the living to which they have been
accustomed, get ill, and then say, "It's the climate of Rome."

There is no doubt that malaria fever does exist in the neighbourhood
of Rome, but only during the three hot months; and as there are no
visitors at Rome then, they are not likely to get it. It does not walk
about the streets seeking whom it may devour, as some people suppose.

The fever visitors get is ague fever, like that known in the Fen
districts, and this is invariably taken through imprudence.


Avoid bad odours.

Do not ride in an open carriage at night.

Take lunch in the middle of the day. This is essential. It is better
to take a light breakfast and lunch, than a heavy breakfast and no

No city in the world is so well supplied with good drinking water as
Rome. The best is the Trevi water. Do _not_ drink Aqua Marcia; it is
too cold.

If out about sunset, throw an extra wrap or coat on, to avoid the
sudden change in the atmosphere. There is no danger beyond being apt
to take a cold. Colds are the root of all evil at Rome.

Do not sit about the ruins at night. It may be very romantic, but it
is very unwise. There is no harm in walking.

Close your windows at night.

If you get into a heat, do not go into the shade or into a building
till you have cooled down.

Do not over-fatigue yourself.

Follow these hints, and you will avoid that great bugbear, Roman

     "A hint on the spot is worth a cart-load of


The work of clearing the bed of the Tiber has at last commenced. It is
proposed to clear away the accumulation of the mud at different parts,
remove some of the old masonry that stands in the bed of the river,
and widen it at certain points. We very much doubt if this will have
any effect upon the floods, as during the republic and empire, when
there was not all this accumulation, Rome was flooded several times.
The valley of the Tiber, in which Rome stands, is very low, forming,
as it were, a basin which is easily overflowed. It would be advisable
if the authorities were to clean out the old drains, and put swing
trap-doors over their mouths, so that the drainage might flow out, and
the river prevented from flowing in. Every winter some part of the
city is under water, which is caused by the river rushing up the
drains into the city, and not by the overflow of the Tiber. This
inpouring might easily be stopped.

Some people think that treasures will be found in the bed of the
Tiber, but this is a delusion. Nothing of any value has ever been
found in the river, and it is not likely that anything of value was
thrown there. Small objects only have been found in the recent
dredging. The story of the seven-branched candlestick being thrown
into the river is a delusion, for we have direct evidence to the
contrary. (See p. 89.)

The piers of the bridges show that the actual bed of the river has not
been much raised; indeed the stream flows so fast that everything is
carried down to the sea.

_Punch_ says anticipations may be entertained of finding the footstool
of Tullia, the jewels of Cornelia, the ivory-headed sceptre of the
senator Papirius, and the golden manger of the horse of Caligula.

The length of the Tiber is 250 miles. It rises due east of Florence,
in the same hills as the Arno. Its bed at the Ripetta in Rome is 5.20
metres above the sea, and it discharges at the rate of 280 cubic
metres a second. The fall from Rome to the sea is 4.20 metres, or
about thirteen feet, and it flows about five miles an hour.

     "'Behold the Tiber!' the vain Roman cried,
     Viewing the ample Tay from Baiglie's side;
     But where's the Scot that would the vaunt repay,
     And hail the puny Tiber for the Tay?"

The river was originally called the Albula, from its colour, and it
was named Tiberis, from King Tiberinus of Alba Longa, who was drowned
in it, and became the river-god (Dionysius, i. 71).

The ancient Romans looked upon their river with veneration; their
poets sang its praises, its banks were lined with the villas of the
wealthy, and its waters brought the produce of the world to Rome.


     "The Goth, the Christian, time, war, flood, and fire,
     Have dealt upon the seven-hilled city's pride."

Rome was founded in the year 753 B.C., and it gradually increased, as
we all know, till it became the capital of the world. By a summary of
dates we will endeavour to give an idea of the manner in which Rome
became ruins.

In July 390 B.C. it was devastated by fire. Up to 120 B.C. it was
subject to numerous raids by the Northerners, who, with the help of
civil war, and a devouring fire in 50 B.C., caused the destruction of
several of its most splendid buildings. In 64 A.D., during the reign
of Nero, a terrible fire ravaged the city for six days; and again in
89 A.D. another fire took place, lasting three days. In the reign of
Commodus a third fire occurred, which consumed a large portion of the
city. In 330 A.D. Constantine took from Rome a number of monuments and
works of art to embellish Constantinople. From 408 to 410 A.D. Rome
was three times besieged by the Goths, under Alaric, who plundered and
fired the city; and in 455 A.D. the Vandals took possession of Rome
and plundered it. On June the 11th, 472 A.D., the city was captured by
the Germans, under Ricimer, and in 476 A.D. the Roman Empire was
broken up.

About 590 A.D. continual wars with the Lombardians devastated the
Campagna. In 607 A.D. the Bishop of Rome was made Pope. In 755 A.D.
the Lombards again desolated Rome; and up to 950 A.D. it was held
successively by the Emperor Louis II., Lambert Duke of Spoleto, the
Saracens, the German king Armilph, and the Hungarians. In 1083 it was
taken by Henry IV. of Germany; and in 1084 it was burned, from the
Lateran to the Capitol, by Robert Guiscard. From the eleventh to the
sixteenth century many of its buildings were turned into fortresses by
the nobles, who made continual war upon each other; and during the
"dark ages" the Romans themselves destroyed many monuments, in order
to make lime for building their new palaces and houses.

Thus we see that when, in 55 B.C., Julius Cæsar, with his "_Veni,
vidi, vici_," conquered the little island now called Great Britain,
Rome contained in ruins many evidences of past splendour, and whilst
the Romans were overrunning the rest of Europe, their empire was
hastening to decay. We, the savages of those days, have ever since
been growing in strength and wisdom, laying the foundations of future
empires, overturning others, but not with the idea of "universal
conquest," but simply for a "balance of power." Ancient Rome, by the
help of invaders, flood, fire, the Popes, and its inhabitants, was
reduced to ruins, which have been in considerable part preserved by an
immense accumulation of soil, which, again, caused them to be
forgotten till recent explorations once more brought them to light.

Modern Rome stands thirty feet above the level of Ancient Rome, and is
a strange mixture of narrow streets, open squares, churches,
fountains, ruins, new palaces, and dirt. Built during the seventeenth
century, the city is situated in a valley which formed part of the
ancient city, and lies to the north of it, being divided from it by
the Capitoline Hill, and offering to the visitor attractions which no
other city can boast. The germ of the old Roman race which civilized
the world is still alive, and is quickly rising to a new life--lifting
itself, after twenty centuries of burial, from the tomb of ignorance
and oppression. Here is the centre of art and of the world's past
recollections; here is spoken in its purity the most beautiful of
languages; here are a fine climate and a fine country; and here are
being strengthened the power and the splendour of united Italy.



The city of Romulus, upon the Palatine Hill, was called from its shape
Roma Quadrata. It occupied the half of what we know as the Palatine,
and was surrounded by a wall built up from the base of the hill, and
on the top of the scarped cliff: this wall can be still traced in
part. It was formed of large blocks of tufa, hard stone, and must not
be confounded with the remains of the Arcadian period, on the
Palatine, composed of soft tufa.

"Romulus called the people to a place appointed, and described a
quadrangular figure about the hill, tracing with a plough, drawn by a
bull and a cow yoked together, one continued furrow" (Dionysius, i.

"He began to mark out the limits of his city from the Forum Boarium,
so as to comprise within its limits the Great Altar of Hercules. The
wall was built with Etruscan rites, being marked out by a furrow, made
by a plough drawn by a cow and a bull, the clods being carefully
thrown inwards, the plough being lifted over the profane places
necessary for the gates" (Tacitus, xii. 24).

When the Sabines were approaching to attack the Romans, in revenge for
carrying off their women, Romulus strengthened the wall of Roma
Quadrata, and the Capitoline Hill was occupied as an outpost.

"He raised the wall of the Palatine Hill by building higher works upon
it, as a farther security to the inhabitants, and surrounded the
adjacent hills--the Aventine, and that now called the Capitoline
Hill--with ditches and strong palisades" (Dionysius, ii. 37).

"The city was difficult of access, having a strong garrison on the
hill where the Capitol now stands" (Plutarch, "Romulus," 18).

This hill was taken by treachery, and was not previously occupied by
the Sabines. It was called the Hill of Saturn, but after its capture
the Tarpeian Hill.

"While the Sabines were passing at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, to
view the place, and see whether any part of the hill could be taken by
surprise or force, they were observed from the eminence by a
virgin"--"Tarpeia, in execution of her promise, opened the gate agreed
upon to the enemy, and calling up the garrison, desired they would
save themselves"--"After the retreat of the garrison, the Sabines,
finding the gates open and the place deserted, possessed themselves of
it" (Dionysius, ii. 38, 39).

After peace was agreed upon, the two kings, Romulus and Titus Tatius,
reigned jointly, and surrounded the Palatine and Capitoline Hills with
a wall. The other hills, at this period, were not walled.


We give it this title because it was built by the two kings jointly;
considerable portions still remain on the Palatine, under S.
Anastasia, and near the Forum of Augustus. The walls of Romulus and
Tatius would naturally be of similar construction to the original wall
of Romulus; there was but little difference in this short time.

"Romulus and Tatius immediately enlarged the city.... Romulus chose
the Palatine and Cœlian Hills, and Tatius the Capitoline, which he
had at first possessed himself of, and the Quirinal Hills" (Dionysius,
ii. 50).

Numa erected the Temple of Vesta "between the Capitoline and Palatine
Hills; for both these hills had already been encompassed with one
wall; the Forum, in which this temple was built, lying between them"
(Dionysius, ii. 66).

The other hills were inhabited, and surrounded at different times with
walls, forming fortresses outside the city for the defence of the city

Numa "enlarged the circuit of the city by the addition of the Quirinal
Hill, for till that time it was not enclosed with a wall" (Dionysius,
ii. 62).

Ancus Martius "made no small addition to the city by enclosing Mount
Aventine within its walls, and encompassing it with a wall and a
ditch. He also surrounded Mount Janiculum with a wall" (Dionysius,
iii. 44).

Florus says: "He [Ancus Martius] encompassed the city with a wall."
Again: "What kind of a king was the architect Ancus? how fitted to
extend the city by means of a colony [Ostia], to unite it by a bridge
[the Sublicius], and secure it by a wall?"

"The Quiritian trench also--no inconsiderable defence to those parts,
which from their situation are of easy access--is a work of King
Ancus" (Livy, i. 33).


These seem to have been commenced by Tarquinius Priscus, and completed
by Servius Tullius, and so called by his name.

"He [Tarquinius Priscus] was the first who built the walls of the city
[of which the structure was extemporary and mean] with stones,
regularly squared, each being a ton weight" (Dionysius, iii. 68).

Tarquinius (616 B.C.) "intended also to have surrounded the city with
a stone wall, but a war with the Sabines interrupted his designs"
(Livy, i. 36).

"He set about surrounding with a wall of stone those parts of the city
which he had not already fortified, which work had been interrupted at
the beginning by a war with the Sabines" (Livy, i. 38).

"He [Servius] surrounded the city with a rampart, trenches, and a
wall, and thus extended the Pomœrium," 578 B.C. (Livy, i. 44).

"As the Esquiline and Viminal Hills were both of easy access from
without, a deep trench was dug outside them, and the earth thrown up
on the inside, thus forming a terrace of six stadia in length along
the inner side of the trench. This terrace Servius faced with a wall,
flanked with towers, extending from the Colline to the Esquiline gate.
Midway along the terrace is a third gate, named after the Viminal
Hill" (Strabo, v. 3).

"Tullius had surrounded the seven hills with one wall" (Dionysius, iv.

The seven hills were not surrounded, strictly speaking. Each hill
formed a bastion, and aggers, or curtains of earth faced with stone,
were built across the valleys, uniting these bastions. The Esquiline,
Viminal, and Quirinal, being ridges jutting out of the table-land and
not isolated hills, had one long agger built across their necks.

"Some parts of these walls, standing on hills, and being fortified by
nature itself with steep rocks, required but few men to defend them,
and others were defended by the Tiber.... The weakest part of the city
is from the gate called Esquilina to that named Collina, which
interval is rendered strong by art; for there is a ditch sunk before
it, one hundred feet in breadth where it is narrowest, and thirty in
depth. On the edge of this ditch stands a wall, supported on the
inside with so high and broad a rampart that it can neither be shaken
by battering-rams nor thrown down by undermining the foundations. This
rampart is about seven stadia in length and fifty feet in breadth"
(Dionysius, ix. 68).

This grand agger can be traced almost in its entire extent, as also
the smaller aggers. There seems to have been no wall--that is, stone
or earth fortification--between the Aventine and Capitoline, the Tiber
being considered a sufficient defence.

"The city, having no walls in that part next the river, was very near
being taken by storm" (Dionysius, v. 23) when Lars Porsena advanced to
attack the city, after having taken the Janiculum, intending to cross
the river by the only bridge, which, as we know, was defended by
Horatius Cocles, and broken down by the Romans in his rear.

The walls of Servius Tullius were strengthened at the time of the war
with Gabii.

"Tarquinius Superbus was particularly active in taking these
precautions, and employed a great number of workmen in strengthening
those parts of the city walls that lay next to the town of Gabii, by
widening the ditch, raising the walls, and increasing the number of
the towers" (Dionysius, iv. 54).

"On the eastern side it is bounded by the Agger of Tarquinius
Superbus, a work of surpassing grandeur; for he raised it so high as
to be on a level with the walls on the side on which the city lay most
exposed to attack from the neighbouring plains. On all the other sides
it has been fortified either with lofty walls or steep or precipitous
hills; but so it is that its buildings, increasing and extending
beyond all bounds, have now united many other cities to it" (Pliny,
iii. 9).

"After Camillus had driven out the Gauls, both the walls of the city
and the streets were rebuilt within a year" (Plutarch, "Cam." 32).

"The legions being brought to Rome, the remainder of the year was
spent in repairing the walls and the towers," 350 B.C. (Livy, vii.

"They received a charge from the senate to strengthen the walls and
towers of the city," 217 B.C. (Livy, xxii. 8).

After the republic was firmly established, and the boundaries of the
state enlarged, the walls of the city became obsolete, and it was to
all intents and purposes an open city until the time of Aurelian.

"All the inhabited parts around it [the city], which are many and
large, are open, and without walls, and very much exposed to the
invasion of an enemy. And whoever considers these buildings, and
desires to examine the extent of Rome, will necessarily be misled, for
want of a certain boundary that might distinguish the spot to which
the city extends, and where it ends. So connected are the buildings
within the walls to those without, that they appear to a spectator
like a city of an immense extent" (Dionysius, iv. 13).


From the time of Servius to Aurelian the city, though much enlarged,
had no new wall, though the boundaries had been extended. To continue
our last quotation from Dionysius, who died 7 B.C., this is evident.

"But if any one is desirous to measure the circumference of it by the
wall--which, though hard to be discovered, by reason of the buildings
that surround it in many places, yet preserves in several parts of it
some traces of the ancient structure--and to compare it with the
circumference of the city of Athens, the circuit of Rome will not
appear much greater than that of the other" (Dionysius, iv. 13).

The Pomœrium, or city bounds, was enlarged, as we know, by several
emperors, some of their _cippi_, or boundary-stones, being still _in
situ_; but there was no wall. Where the roads crossed the line of the
Pomœrium, gates were built, between which there were no walls. The
Romans considered the rivers Tigris, Euphrates, and Danube, the desert
and the ocean, as the walls of Rome.

"When he [Aurelian] saw that it might happen what had occurred under
Gallienus, having obtained the concurrence of the senate, he extended
the walls of the city of Rome" (Vopiscus, in "Aur.," 21).

"Thus also Rome was surrounded by walls which it _had not before_, and
the wall begun by Aurelian was finished by Probus" (Zosimus, i. 49).

Other quotations might be given to show that Aurelian surrounded the
Rome of the empire with walls which it had not before his time. He
incorporated with his wall everything that stood in his way,--tombs,
aqueducts, palaces, camps, and amphitheatre. It was commenced and
finished in nine years, and had twenty-two gates, nineteen of which
still remain.

These present walls have been in part rebuilt, repaired, and
strengthened at different intervals, as occasion might require, from
the time of Honorius, who improved and added to the existing gates, to
that of Totila, who "resolved to raze Rome to the ground. So, of the
circuit of the walls he threw down as much in different places as
would amount to about a third part of the whole" (Procopius, "Bello
Gothico," iii. 22).

Belisarius "made hasty repairs," after which the Popes stepped in and
took up the tale, and put up inscriptions, so that there should be no
mistake about it. Leo IV. built the walls of the Leonine city, to
protect it from the Saracens, besides repairing the Aurelian walls.
The Leonine walls can still be traced, the ruins standing boldly out
in the landscape at the back of the Vatican.

The present wall on the Trastevere side was built by Innocent X. and
Urban VIII. The complete circuit of the present walls is between
twelve and thirteen miles; they contain twenty gates, ancient and
modern, nine of which are closed.

Whilst the Romans considered the defences of the city to be the
Tigris, Euphrates, Danube, desert, and ocean, their power was at its
zenith; but when for the defence of their capital it was necessary to
surround it with a wall, "the decline and fall of the Roman empire"
had already begun.


In the third wall of Rome we learn from different authorities that
there were in all eighteen gates, commencing from the northern point
at the river bank,--Flumentana, Carmentalis or Scelerata, Catularia
(afterwards Ratumena), Fontinalis, Sangualis, Salularis or Salutaris,
Collina or Agonalis or Quirinalis, Viminalis, Esquilina, Mæcia or
Metia, Querquetulana, Cœlimontana, Firentina, Capena, Lavernalis,
Randuscula, Nævia, Trigeminia. The sites of most of these have been
identified. These names are culled from various authors, no one author
having given us a list of them.

Pliny gives us an account of the number of the gates in his
time--thirty-seven in all--which has puzzled a great many writers;
but, studying them on the spot, the description of Pliny is very plain
and easily to be understood. He says (iii. 9):--

"When the Vespasians were emperors and censors, in the year from its
building 827, the circumference of the Mœnia 'boundary' reckoned
thirteen miles and two fifths. Surrounding as it does the seven hills,
the city is divided into fourteen districts, with two hundred and
sixty-five cross-roads, under the guardianship of the Lares. The space
is such that if a line is drawn from the mile column placed at the
head of the Forum to each of the gates, which are at present
thirty-seven in number, so that by that way enumerating only once
twelve gates, and to omit the seven old ones, which no longer exist,
the result will be a straight line of twenty miles and seven hundred
and sixty-five paces. But if we draw a straight line from the same
mile column to the very last of the houses, including therein the
Prætorian encampment, and follow throughout the line of all the
streets, the result will then be something more than seventy miles."

The gates may thus be analyzed:--

     3 in Roma Quadrata }
     4 in City of Two Hills } the 7 old ones to be omitted.

     18 in the Agger of Servius Tullius.

     12 double--that is, 12 in the outer boundary built over the
     roads where they crossed the Pomœrium, corresponding
     with twelve in the line of Servius, thus making in all,--

     37, as mentioned by Pliny.

Of the twelve gates in the outer boundary, eight still remaining are
composed of work of an earlier date than the Wall of Aurelian. The
twelve may thus be named: the four gates of the Prætorian camp (two of
these partially remain, showing brick-work of Tiberius), Porta Chiusa
or Viminalis, Tiburtina, Esquilina now Maggiore, Lateranensis, Latina,
Appia, Ardeatina, Ostiensis.

Pliny (iii. 9) tells us that Tarquinius Superbus raised an outer agger
on the eastern side of Rome. Traces of this still remain, and the tufa
stones have been reused in Aurelian's work, whilst the Porta Chiusa is
partly formed on the inside of these blocks, and was probably the work
of the last of the Tarquins. The Porta S. Lorenzo, or Tiburtina, bears
inscriptions of Augustus and Vespasian; Porta Maggiore, of Claudius,
Vespasian, and Titus; whilst Porta Lateranensis and Porta Ardeatina
were undoubtedly built, as the construction shows, by Nero; and the
inner arch of the Porta S. Paolo, or Ostiensis, is of the time of

Tacitus (xii. 23) says: "The limits of the city were enlarged by
Claudius. The right of directing that business was, by ancient usage,
vested in all such as extended the boundaries of the empire. The
right, however, had not been exercised by any of the Roman commanders
(Sylla and Augustus excepted), though remote and powerful nations had
been subdued by their victorious arms."

"With regard to the enlargement made by Claudius, the curious may be
easily satisfied, as the public records contain an exact description"
(xii. 24).


When we speak of construction, we mean the material used in building
and the way it is put together. The different historical periods of
building are now classed into distinct dates, which have been arrived
at by observing the material used, and the way it is used, in
buildings of which there is no doubt as to the date of erection, and
comparing it with others. The early Greek Period in Italy is marked by
massive walls of masonry--walls built from the stone of the vicinity,
the blocks being rough as hewn out of the quarry,--polygonal. The
later Greek Period and the Etruscan are identical, being formed of
square blocks of stone, headers, and stretchers. In the time of the
kings of Rome the stones were squared, and were of tufa, lapis ruber,
tophus. In the earliest walls they are close jointed; in the second
period the edges are bevelled.

During the Republic the stones were also squared, but the material was
of peperino. Lapis Albanus and other forms of working up the material
were introduced. Pieces of stone, fixed together with cement, gave a
new kind of wall called _opus incertum_. This was improved upon by
facing the outside of the small pieces of stone and making them of one
uniform size--small polygonal. Then the stones were cut into wedge
shapes: the point being inwards, and being laid in regular rows it has
the appearance of network, and is called _opus reticulatum_. This
work, introduced in the last years of the Republic, went out of
fashion after the time of Tiberius, but was revived by Hadrian, who
always set his reticulated work in bands of brick like a picture
frame, thus distinguishing his from the earlier work, the inside of
the walls in those cases being concrete. The earliest brick building
which we have is the Pantheon. Thus it was under Augustus that brick
was first used by the Romans. It was his boast that he found Rome of
brick, and left it marble; which is only true in a certain sense, for
he did not build of solid marble, but cased veneering marble on to the

One period of Roman brickwork can easily be distinguished from the
others by measuring the number of bricks in a foot, and noticing their
uniformity of size. This, of course, does not refer to ornamental
brickwork. The brickwork of Nero is the best in the world--thin narrow
bricks, tiles, with very little mortar between them. Before his time
it was not quite so good; but after, it gradually declined till the
cement is as thick as the bricks.

The stone used during the Empire was travertine, _lapis Tiburtinus_,
but brick was the material generally used then. They are of two
colours, red and yellow, according to the clay from which they were
made. The walls were not of solid brick all through; but the interior
was made of pieces--rubble-work--the outside course being entire
brick, whilst at every four or five feet all through the construction
were laid the great tie-bricks to keep the rubble-work from shifting.
The brickwork was called _opus lateritium_. The great tie-bricks are
usually stamped with the names of the consul or emperor and the maker,
and these date the walls by measuring the number of bricks there are
in a foot. In the fourth century another system--_opera
decadence_--came into vogue, and walls were built with layers of brick
and pieces of tufa-stone a little larger than our English bricks. This
work continued down to the thirteenth century, when _opera
Saracenesca_--tufa-stones without the bricks between--came into use.
In the stone walls no cement was used; one stone was simply placed
upon another, its weight keeping it in its place, and clamps were
inserted to keep it from shifting. In the walls of Roma Quadrata we
know of no clamps having been found; but in the wall of the two kings
wooden clamps were found. In the walls of Servius Tullius iron clamps
were found; and in the Colosseum clamps can still be seen in several
places where pieces of the facing of the stone have been split off.

Tufa is found all over the Campagna, and is of volcanic origin. When
the Alban Hills were active volcanoes, the ashes and scoriæ thrown up
fell into the sea, now the Campagna. The pressure of water on it
formed it into stone: where there has been a great pressure, it is
very hard; where little pressure, it is softer; and where there was no
pressure, it still remains a sort of sand--this mixed with live lime
is the celebrated Roman cement. The softer tufa was used by the Greek
colonists, and the hard stone by the kings of Rome. Some tufa from the
neighbourhood of Gabii is dark gray, the other is brown and reddish.
Peperino is also volcanic. It was ejected in the shape of hot mud from
the volcano, and on cooling formed a good stone: this comes from the
Alban hills, and was used in the time of the Republic.

Travertine comes from Tivoli, and is a petrifaction formed by the
action of lime and sulphur on vegetable decay. This was not used as a
building material to any great extent before the time of Cæsar. It is
white, and becomes yellow on exposure. Silex is another volcanic stone
very little used for building, but entirely for paving the roads both
ancient and modern. This came out of the volcano as a red-hot stream
of lava, and on cooling down became a capital paving material. The bed
of the road was first properly prepared, and then it was paved with
polygonal blocks of blue basalt called silex. The stones fitted close
to one another. Many of the roads are in a good condition to this day;
the best specimen is opposite the Temple of Saturn in the Forum, B.C.
175. This stone is used for _opus reticulatum_ in some of the tombs on
the Appian Way and at the Temple of Hercules; also for concrete.



              STYLE.                   SPECIMEN.                DATE.

     Polygonal                       Tusculum                     ----
                                   { Veii                         ----
     Opus quadratum. First period, { Gabii                        ----
       squared edges               { Palatine Hill            753 B.C.

                                   { Second Wall of Rome      746 B.C.
     Second period, bevelled edges { Aventine Hill            600 B.C.
                                   { Ostia                    600 B.C.


                                   { Tomb of Scipio           298 B.C.
     Opus quadratum                { Temple of Hope           240 B.C.
     Opus incertum                   Temple of Cybele         191 B.C.
     Opus incertum, polygonal        Emporium                 190 B.C.
     Opus quadratum                  Tabularium                78 B.C.


                                   { Tomb of Cecilia Metella   78 B.C.
                                   { Theatre of Marcellus      13 B.C.
     Opus quadratum                { Arch of Dolabella         10 A.D.
                                   { Colosseum                 80 A.D.

                                   { Muro Morto                80 B.C.
                                   { Tomb of Augustus          10 B.C.
     Opus reticulatum              { Palatine Tiberius' House     ----
                                   { Palatine Germanicus' House   ----
                                   { Hadrian's Villa              ----
                                   { Hadrian's Ostia              ----

     Opus lateritium--
                                   { Pantheon                  Augustus.
     Bricks, 6 to foot             { Prætorian Camp            Tiberius.
                                   { Palace                    Caligula.
     Bricks, 8 to foot               Aqueduct                  Nero.
     Bricks, 7 to foot               Palace                    Domitian.
     Bricks, 6 to foot               Temple of Venus and Rome  Hadrian.
     Bricks, 7 to foot               Nymphæum, on Palatine     M. Aurelius.
                                   { Baths                     Caracalla.
                                   { Nymphæum                  Alexander
                                   {                             Severus.
     Bricks, 5 to foot             { Walls of Rome             Aurelian.
                                   { Thermæ                    Diocletian.
                                   { Basilica                  Constantine.

     Bricks and tufa               { Circus of Maxentius       300 A.D.
                                   { House of Gregory          590 A.D.
     Opera Saracenesca               S. Sisto Vecchio          1200 A.D.
     Opus Spicatum                   Herring-bone pavement.
     Opus Signinum                   Cement for reservoirs, etc.

  [Illustration: PLAN OF ANCIENT ROME]





is a circular open space, adorned with fountains, and surrounded with
foliage. From this circle Rome spreads itself out like a fan
southwards. The four principal lines of thoroughfare diverge from this
spot--the Pincio, the Via Sistina, and the Via Quattro Fontane,
leading to the Esquiline, on the extreme left, along the hills; the
Via Babuino, leading into the Piazza di Spagna, on the left; the
Corso, leading into the Forum, in the centre; and the Via Ripetta,
leading into the oldest part of the present city, on the right: at the
corners of the three latter are the twin churches S. MARIA IN MONTE
SANTO, and S. MARIA DEI MIRACOLI, with domes and vestibules designed
by Rinaldi, and completed by Bernini and Fontana. In the centre of the
Piazza is an Egyptian obelisk, supported by a fountain with four
lionesses at the corners spouting water. _On the right_, under the
Terraces of the Pincio, are the statue of Rome by Ceccarini, of
Neptune between two Tritons, and statues of Spring and Summer, by
Laboureur. _On the left_ are the statues of Autumn, by Stocchi, and
Winter, by Baini.


of the Piazza del Popolo was brought to Rome by Augustus, and erected
in the Circus Maximus. It is 78 feet 6 inches high, and was erected on
its present site by Pope Sixtus V. in 1589. This was the first obelisk
erected in Rome, having been brought by Augustus after the death of
Antony and Cleopatra. Pliny (xxxvi. 16) says:--

"But the most difficult enterprise of all was the carriage of these
obelisks by sea to Rome, in vessels which excited the greatest
admiration. Indeed, the late Emperor Augustus consecrated the one
which brought over the first obelisk, as a lasting memorial of this
marvellous undertaking, in the docks at Puteoli; but it was destroyed
by fire.

"And then, besides, there was the necessity of constructing other
vessels to carry these obelisks up the Tiber; by which it became
practically ascertained that the depth of water in that river is not
less than that of the river Nile.

"The one that he erected in the Campus Martius is nine feet less in
height, and was originally made by order of Sesothis. They are both of
them covered with inscriptions which interpret the operations of
Nature according to the philosophy of the Egyptians."

This has the name of two kings upon it: Seti, who went blind, and his
son Rameses, who succeeded him. It stood before the Temple of the Sun
at Heliopolis, and was placed by Augustus on the Spina of the Circus
Maximus, and re-dedicated, 10 B.C., to the Sun, as the inscription

  [Illustration: PIAZZA DEL POPOLO.]

Ammianus Marcellinus (xvii. 4) supplies us with the following
information relative to obelisks:--

"In this city of Thebes, among many works of art and different
structures recording the tales relating to the Egyptian deities, we
saw several obelisks in their places, and others which had been
thrown down and broken, which the ancient kings, when elated at some
victory or at the general prosperity of their affairs, had caused to
be hewn out of mountains in distant parts of the world, and erected in
honour of the gods, to whom they solemnly consecrated them.

"Now, an obelisk is a rough stone, rising to a great height, shaped
like a pillar in the stadium; and it tapers upwards in imitation of a
sunbeam, keeping its quadrilateral shape, till it rises almost to a
point, being made smooth by the hand of a sculptor.

"On these obelisks the ancient authority of elementary wisdom has
caused innumerable marks of strange forms all over them, which are
called hieroglyphics.

"For the workmen, carving many kinds of birds and beasts, some even
such as must belong to another world, in order that the recollection
of the exploits which the obelisk was designed to commemorate might
reach to subsequent ages, showed by them the accomplishment of vows
which the kings had made.

"For it was not the case then, as it is now, that the established
number of letters can distinctly express whatever the human mind
conceives; nor did the ancient Egyptians write in such a manner, but
each separate character served for a separate noun or verb, and
sometimes even for an entire sentence.

"Of which fact the two following may for the present be sufficient
instances:--By the figure of a vulture they indicate the name of
nature; because naturalists declare that no males are found in this
class of bird. And by the figure of a bee making honey they indicate a
king; showing by such a sign that stings as well as sweetness are the
characteristics of a ruler. And there are many similar emblems."

_To the right of the Porta del Popolo is the_


founded by Paschal II. in 1099. Its interior consists of nave, aisles,
transept, and octagonal dome lavishly decorated by Bernini.

In the first chapel, to the right, the picture over the altar, the
Nativity of Jesus Christ, and the frescoes of the lunettes are by
Pinturicchio. The second chapel is that of the Cibo family--rich in
marbles, and adorned with forty-six columns of Sicilian jasper. The
picture of the Conception is by Maratta. The third chapel is painted
by Pinturicchio. In the fourth chapel is an interesting bas-relief of
the fifteenth century. The painting of the Virgin, on the high altar,
is one of those attributed to S. Luke; the paintings of the vault in
the choir are by Pinturicchio. The two monuments in marble ornamented
by statues are by Contucci da S. Savino. The last chapel but one, in
the small nave, is that of the Chigi family, and is one of the most
celebrated in Rome. Raphael gave the design for the dome, for the
paintings of the frieze, and for the picture of the altar, which was
commenced by Sebastiano del Piombo, and terminated by Francesco
Salviati. The statues of Daniel and Habakkuk were executed by Bernini.
The front of the altar and the statues of Elias and Jonah are by
Lorenzetti; but the design of the last is by Raphael.

THE CORSO (Il Corso).

Starting on our first ramble, we will take the line of the principal
street, the Corso, which takes its name from the races held during the
Carnival. It is on the line of the old Via Flaminia, the great
highroad which ran through the Campus Martius to the north. Many
handsome churches and palaces face the street, which is rather narrow
compared with our modern requirements. The Corso is the principal
promenade of the Romans, and possesses many points of interest. At No.
18, _on the left_, lived Goethe; just beyond, _on the right_, in the
short Via S. Giacomo, was Canova's studio. _On the right_, further
down, is the Church of S. Carlo; passing by which, crossing the line
of the Via Condotti, _on our right_ opens out the small square of S.
Lorenzo, in which is the


containing the grand work of Guido Reni, "The Crucifixion." It is said
that, being absorbed in his subject, he crucified his model. The
church contains a monument to Poussin, the relief being a copy of his
landscape of the tomb of Sappho in Arcadia. Opposite this church is
the English Baptist Chapel, under the Rev. James Wall, founded for

_Turning to the right, down the Corso, on the left, the Via Convertite
leads to_


in the Piazza S. Silvestro, _on the left_. It is a new building,
recently opened, and is fitted up with every modern appliance. The
garden in the centre, and the surrounding arcade with its frescoes,
present a refreshing appearance, and give a good idea of what the
court of a palace should be.

_Opposite_, in the right corner of the square, is


being the first Protestant church erected in Rome. It is in the form
of a basilica without aisles, and was designed by the late architect

_Regaining the Corso_, we soon arrive at the Piazza Colonna, in which


On the spot where the Palazzo Chigi now stands (_on our right_) a
temple was erected to M. Aurelius, in front of which was placed a
splendid pillar, with a spiral frieze winding up the shaft, and
representing the chief incidents of the war against the Marcomanni
(A.D. 174).


The shaft of this pillar is of precisely the same height as that of
the Pillar of Trajan. The pedestal, on the other hand, is much higher,
and rises considerably above the level of the modern pavement. The
present marble facing of this pedestal has been employed to strengthen
the foundations of the monument, which had been much injured. The
pillar, after having been frequently struck and much damaged by
lightning, was restored, at the command of Sixtus V., by Fontana and
his nephew Carlo Maderno. Looking up, we perceive the iron cramps used
to keep together the blocks of marble, which had slipped out of their
original position. But for this support, this fine monument would long
since have sunk beneath the pressure of its own weight.

The sculptures are very interesting, but can no more be enjoyed on the
spot than those on the Pillar of Trajan. They represent scenes from
the battles fought in Germany. The column is formed of 28 blocks of
white marble, is 137 feet high, and is crowned with a statue of S.
Paul. Sixtus V., in restoring the Column of Marcus Aurelius, in error
inscribed it to Antoninus Pius.

_Facing_ the Piazza Colonna is a large palace. The columns which form
the portico were found in the ruins of Veii. _Our attention is next
attracted by_


_situated in the Piazza Monte Citorio, behind_ the Palace. Orders for
admission to special seats may be obtained from any deputy, but there
is a compartment in the gallery open to the public.

_Opposite the Parliament House is an_


It was erected originally at Heliopolis to Psammeticus I., of the
twenty-fourth dynasty, more than six centuries B.C. It is 72 feet
high. Its first site in Rome was in the Campus Martius, where is now
the Piazza dell'Impresa, where it was found and taken to its present
site. The Roman pedestal with inscription is in the Church of S.
Lorenzo in Lucina. The obelisk was repaired, and its present pedestal
formed of fragments of the Antonine Column, which stood near by. The
obelisk was brought to Rome by Augustus at the same time as the one in
the Piazza del Popolo, and was put up, according to Pliny (xxxvi. 15),
as a sun-dial:--

"The one that has been erected in the Campus Martius has been applied
to a singular purpose by the late Emperor Augustus--that of marking
the shadows projected by the sun, and so measuring the length of the
days and nights. With this object, a stone pavement was laid, the
extreme length of which corresponded exactly with the length of the
shadow thrown by the obelisk at the sixth hour on the day of the
winter solstice. After this period the shadow would go on day by day
gradually decreasing, and then again would as gradually increase,
correspondingly with certain lines of brass that were inserted in the
stone--a device well deserving to be known, and due to the ingenuity
of Facundus Novus, the mathematician. Upon the apex of the obelisk he
placed a gilded ball, in order that the shadow of the summit might be
condensed and agglomerated, and so prevent the shadow of the apex
itself from running to a fine point of enormous extent, the plan being
first suggested to him, it is said, by the shadow that is projected by
the human head. For nearly the last thirty years, however, the
observations derived from this dial have been found not to
agree,--whether it is that the sun itself has changed its course, in
consequence of some derangement of the heavenly system; or whether
that the whole earth has been in some degree displaced from its
centre--a thing that, I have heard say, has been remarked in other
places as well; or whether that some earthquake, confined to this city
only, has wrenched the dial from its original position; or whether it
is that, in consequence of the inundations of the Tiber, the
foundations of the mass have subsided, in spite of the general
assertion that they are sunk as deep into the earth as the obelisk
erected upon them is high."

_Regaining the Corso, the first turning on the right, Via Pietra,
leads into the_ PIAZZA DI PIETRA, in which are the ruins of


Eleven Corinthian columns, which formed a part of one side of the
temple, still stand, forming the entrance into a building once used as
a custom-house. They are 42½ feet high and 4½ feet in diameter,
supporting an architrave of marble which has been recently restored.
In the interior are some immense blocks of marble which formed part of
the vaulting. The temple, with the Portico of the Argonauts which
surrounded it, was erected by Agrippa. It is now used as a chamber of

  [Illustration: TEMPLE OF NEPTUNE.]

_Continuing our ramble along the Corso, on the right_ is the PALAZZO
SIMONETTI, on the left the PALAZZO SCIARRA. The pictures here have not
been shown to the public for some years. Beyond, _standing back_, is
the CHURCH OF S. MARCELLO, containing the celebrated cherubs of
Pierino del Vaga, the most exquisite things ever done in fresco. The
tomb of Cardinal Weld is also here.

Rienzi's body was hung up by the feet for two days in front of this


was founded in the eighth century, but was rebuilt in 1485, when the
tradition arose that it was on the site of the hired house of S. Paul
in Rome. Dodwell, the English explorer in Greece, was buried here.
There are also tombs of several members of the Bonaparte family. _A
door on the left of_ the portico, built in 1662 from the designs of
Pietro da Cortona, leads down into the subterranean chambers, where a
well is shown said to have been used by S. Paul to baptize his
converts. In an adjoining chamber S. Luke is said to have painted his
Madonna. Here are some remains of the materials of the Arch of
Claudius, which spanned the Via Flaminia at this point; and an old
piece of fresco, said to be by S. Luke. These remains below the church
formed part of


Cicero Ad Atticum (iv. 15) informs us that Julius Cæsar commenced a
septa in the Campus Martius for the Comitia Centuriata and Tributa. It
consisted of a beautiful building of marble, surrounded with a portico
a mile square. It adjoined the Villa Publica. It was completed by
Lepidus the triumvir, and dedicated by Agrippa (Dion Cassius, liii.
23). Frontinus (Aq. xxii.) says the arches of the Aqua Virgo ended in
the Campus Martius, in front of the Septa.

The Comitia Centuriata, when the people assembled in their military
order, to elect their highest magistrates, to pass their laws, and to
vote upon peace or war, always met outside the walls in the Campus

Comitia Tributa, for less important magistrates, tribunes, and ædiles,
met sometimes in the Campus Martius.

The Septa consisted of pens (hence the name), into which the tribes
passed to record their votes, which were given by ballot. Every voter
received a _tabella_ (tablet), on which he wrote the name of the
candidate for whom he voted. He then dropped it into an urn.

Near by, Agrippa built the Diribitorium, a large building used for
distributing and counting the ballot tickets. It was dedicated by
Augustus (Dion Cassius, lv. 8; Pliny, xvi. 40). During a fire Claudius
passed two nights here (Suetonius, "Claudius," xviii.).

These ruins extend under the Doria Palace, and have nothing to do with
any house. There were no houses on the Campus Martius in Paul's time.
(See page 197.)

_Just beyond, on the same side of the way, is_


_open on Tuesday and Friday from 10 till 2. Catalogues in each room.
Fee, half-franc._

FIRST ROOM contains four sarcophagi. A picture of the Deluge, by

SECOND ROOM.--4. Caritas Romana, by Valentin. (See page 191.) 24.
Madonna and Child, by F. Francia. 28. Annunciation, by Lippi. 33. S.
Agnese, by Guercino.

FOURTH ROOM.--Bust of Leo X., Doria.

FIFTH ROOM.--17. Money-Changers, by Quentin Matsys. 25. S. Joseph, by

SIXTH ROOM.--13. Madonna, by Carlo Maratta. 30. Sketch of a Boy.

SEVENTH ROOM.--8. Belisarius in the Desert, by Salvator Rosa. 19.
Slaughter of the Innocents, by Mazzolini.

FIRST GALLERY.--3. Magdalen, by Annibale Caracci. 9. Holy Family, by
Sassoferrato. 14. A Titian. 20. Three Ages of Man, by Titian. 25.
Flight into Egypt, by Claude Lorraine. 45. Madonna, by Guido Reni. 50.
Holy Family, by Giulio Romano.

SECOND GALLERY.--6. Madonna, by Francia. 14. Bartolo and Baldo, by
Raphael. 24. Calvin, Luther, and Catherine, by Giorgione. 40.
Herodias, by Pordenone. 50. Confessor, by Rubens. 53. Joanna of
Arragon, School of Leonardo da Vinci. Bust of Andrea Doria. 80. Wife
and Self, by Titian.

THIRD GALLERY.--5. Landscape, by Claude Lorraine. 12. The Mill, by
same, a most extraordinary complication. 18. Pietà, by Caracci.

CABINET OF GEMS.--1. Portrait of a Letterato, by Lucas van Leyden. 2.
Andrea Doria, by Sebastiano del Piombo. 3. Giannetto Doria, by
Bronzino. 4. S. Philip Neri, by Barocci. 5. Innocent X., by Velasquez.
6. Entombment, by John Emelingk. Bust of Lady Mary Talbot.

_Proceeding down the Corso, we reach the Piazza di Venezia. On the
left_ is the Tolonia Palace, and _on the right_ the Venetian Palace
(now the Austrian Embassy), a building of the middle ages. _On the
right-hand side of the narrow street, in a line with the Corso, Via
Morforio, is the_


converted into a house, the lower part being shops. By descending into
the vault, it will be seen that it is hewn out of the natural rock.
The Claudii family "received, from the state, lands beyond the Anio
for their followers, and a burying-place for themselves near the
Capitol" (Suetonius, "Claudius," i. 1).

Adjoining is the house where Giulio Romano was born.

_A few steps beyond, on the left-hand side of the same street, is the_


The inscription records the virtue and public honour of a Roman
magistrate of the time of the republic. It is supposed to be two
thousand years old.


It is of travertine stone and plain Doric architecture. There is some
talk of pulling the house down, so that this interesting monument may
be better seen.

_Continuing our ramble down the street, we arrive, on the right, at
the Church of S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami. It is built over part of_


erected, according to Livy (i. 33) by Ancus Martius. "In order to
suppress the terror, the boldness which the vicious assumed from hence
(A.U.C. 121),[1] and which gained ground continually, a prison was
built in the middle of the city, adjoining the Forum." Servius Tullius
added a lower cell, called the TULLIANUM, 6½ feet high and 19 feet by
9. Prisoners who were condemned to be strangled or to die of hunger
were thrust down the aperture; hence the phrase, "to cast into
prison." Sallust ("Catiline," lv.) thus describes it:--

"There is a place in the prison which is called the Tullianum Dungeon.
It is about 12 feet deep in the ground when you have ascended a little
to the left.[2] It is secured round the sides by walls, and over it is
a vaulted roof, connected with stone arches; but its appearance is
disgusting and horrible, by reason of the filth, the obscurity, and
the stench. When Lentulus had been let down into this place, certain
men, to whom orders had been given, strangled him with a cord."

The upper part of the Mamertine Prison was partly rebuilt in the time
of Tiberius, as we know from an inscription remaining in the cornice
over the flight of steps under the church.

Consuls A.D. 23.

It seems to have been used exclusively for state prisoners. We have
records of the following, amongst others, who were confined here:--

Manlius, who had defended the Capitol against the Gauls.--B.C. 382.

Quintus Pleminius, a prisoner for sedition.--B.C. 194.

Jugurtha, King of Numidia, who was starved to death B.C. 104. He
exclaimed, when cast in, "By Hercules! how cold is this bath of
yours!" (Plutarch, in "Caius Marius"), evidently speaking of the
spring as existing in those days.

Catiline conspirators, strangled by order of the Consul Cicero.--B.C.

Vercingetorix, King of the Gauls, by order of Julius Cæsar.

Sejanus, the minister of Tiberius.--A.D. 31.

Simon, the son of Giora, the defender of Jerusalem against
Vespasian.--A.D. 69.

In the centre of the upper chamber is the round aperture, covered by a
grate, down which the prisoners were cast.

Juvenal says: "Happy ages of the just, happy centuries, it may be
said, those which saw, formerly under the kings, as under the
tribunes, Rome content with one prison."

One prison may have been enough in those times when it was against the
law to confine a Roman citizen before he was tried. We have records of
other prisons. Appius Claudius constructed a prison for common
offenders near the Forum Olitorium, the scene of "Roman Charity." (See
page 190.) Pliny mentions "_Stationes Municipiorum_"--barracks of the
municipal soldiers--near the Forum of Julius Cæsar. These may likewise
have been prisons. In addition to these, there was the _Lautumiæ_.

_Below_ the church, the Chapel of the Crucifixion occupies part of the
buildings of the prison, and from the sacristy a flight of modern
steps leads down into a lower cell, the Chapel of SS. Peter and Paul.
The entrance and steps from the street are also modern. In this
chamber, to the right of the altar, is a closed-up passage; it
evidently communicated with other chambers. On the tufa, carefully
guarded by iron bars, an indentation is shown which, they say, was
caused by the jailers beating Peter's face against the rock. (He must
have had rather a hard head!)

Another flight of modern stairs leads down into the Tullianum: the
opening down which the prisoners were cast can still be seen. The iron
door is the opening of a sewer leading into the Cloaca Maxima, by
which means the dead bodies, &c., were taken away. This drain is of
the same construction as the Cloaca Maxima, and comes from beyond the
other chambers, mentioned below, with which it also communicates.

The Roman Catholic tradition is, that SS. Peter and Paul were confined
here, and they show the pillar to which they are said to have been
chained, though there are no marks of a staple having been fixed in
the stone, as represented in the bronze bas-relief; and a fountain
which miraculously sprang up when they had converted their keepers,
and they wished to be baptized: this was evidently alluded to by

The name Mamertine Prison is medieval. By the ancients it was called
_the Prison_, or the Tullian Prison.[3] The two chambers are only a
small part of the ancient prison, which extended up the left side of
the Clivus Argentarius, the modern Via Marforio, and evidences of its
extent can be seen in the cellars of the houses. It evidently extended
up as far as No. 68, for under that wine shop we found two chambers
corresponding with the two under the church. The prison was approached
from the Forum by a flight of stairs called


or Stairs of Wailing. Criminals were often put to death on them, and
others were exposed there after death. "Those who were put to death
were exposed on the Scalæ Gemoniæ, and then dragged into the Tiber"
(Suetonius, "Tiberius," lxi.).

_At a short distance from the church in the little lane opposite, Via
Marmorelle, 29_, are some more remains of the Prison, which eventually
became the


"Julius Cæsar, with money raised from the spoils of war, began to
construct a new Forum" (Suetonius, "Cæsar," xxvi.)--the site costing
about £807,291. This new Forum was necessary, on account of the old
Forum becoming too small for the public business. Pliny (xvi. 86)
mentions the barracks of the municipal guards as being between the
Vulcanal and the Forum of Julius Cæsar. These remains consist of a
series of five large chambers; one is forty feet long and fourteen
wide, divided by modern walls and partitions in various ways, and not
easy of access. The walls are of tufa. The vaults are of brick, with
openings for letting down prisoners. These are of later date than the
tufa walls, and one of them is supported by a fine arch of travertine.


_The new excavations are open to the public every day without fee._

To understand the Roman Forum and its surroundings, visitors should
attend the lectures given on the spot by the author of these Rambles,
descend with him to its level, and examine each remaining object in
detail; thus they may learn something of the buildings and the history
that crowded on its space. For particulars, apply at 93 Via Babuino,

Mutilated fragments still speak of the former grandeur of the spot,
dead men of its fame, and living authors of its past and present

In these Rambles we shall only treat of the most important and present
remains, which are classed in the order in which they should be
visited, and not chronologically.

The real foundation of the ancient city has long been covered over by
the heaping up, during ages, of earth, stones, rubbish, &c., to the
depth of thirty feet. The thick crust had lain untouched by shovel
during the long series of popes; especially was this, until recently,
the condition of the Roman Forum. The latter is to be entirely
excavated, and the removal of the superincumbent earth is at this
present moment being made with a vigour never before attempted.

In short, the Forum is dressed up in quite a new attire, and many old
visitors would scarcely recognize it in its modern garb. Crowds of
spectators lean against the barriers every day, anxiously reviewing
the carting of the earth, and awaiting for artistic valuables to "turn

The picturesqueness of the crowds, of the costumes and scenery, the
variety of language and nationality, the past associations, all go to
make up a spectacle quite unique.

_We will follow the modern road, which crosses the Forum, and turning
to the left, proceed along the side of the Basilica Julia to the
Temple of Castor and Pollux, where a flight of steps gives access to
the Forum._

Standing upon the platform of the temple, we propose to explain the
various buildings that surrounded the Forum, and then to descend to
its ancient level to examine the chief points of interest.

The word _forum_, in its simple signification, means market-place; and
the Roman Forum was the market-place when Rome consisted of but two
hills, the Palatine and Capitoline. It soon lost its primitive use,
and became the centre of the religious, civil, and political life of
the Romans. Then other market-places were formed, and called after the
principal commodity sold therein. In the time of Cæsar the Forum was
found too small, and then was commenced the first of the Imperial
Fora. The Forum, from the time of Constantine, gradually fell into
decay, and was finally ruined in the year 1084, when Robert Guiscard,
the Norman chief, burned all Rome from the Lateran to the Capitol.


We may learn from the erection of the Column of Phocas, in A.D. 608,
that the Forum was then unencumbered with soil. Rome having been at
that time deserted for a long period by its emperors, its principal
monuments began to fall into decay, the Romans themselves hastening on
the work for the sake of the marble; the steady hand of time, allied
with the luxuriant vegetation, working slowly but surely, added to the
_débris_; whilst deposits from the Tiber floods, the wind, and the
wash of the rain-shed, helped still more to fill in the valleys.
During a long course of years Rome was almost abandoned; the streets
remained unswept, and the rubbish of the city collected upon them. At
length a new life sprang up, and to the dust of ages was added the
refuse of building materials for the new city, till in the year 1650
we have the Forum presented to us on a level with the modern streets,
under the name of the Campo Vaccino (the Cow-field); and thus was the
Forum filled up. Such are the fluctuations of worldly splendour!

  [Illustration: PLAN OF THE ROMAN FORUM]


The Forum was not, as many have supposed, a building, but an open
space surrounded with buildings, the whole forming the Forum. It was
260 yards long, and 55 yards wide at the bottom. The top, under the
Capitol, was 140 yards wide. The temples were built on lofty platforms
(_podia_), to give them a more commanding appearance.


     1. The Temple of Castor and Pollux.
     2. The Basilica Julia.
     3. Shrine of Venus.
     4. Temple of Saturn.
     5. Tabularium.
     6. Arch of Severus.
     7. Mamertine Prison.
     8. Column of Phocas.
     9. Temple of Vespasian.
     10. Temple-tomb of Cæsar.
     11. Senate House.
     12. Shop.
     13. Via Sacra.
     14. Bases.
     15. Pedestal of Domitian's Statue.
     16. Puteal.
     17. Marsyas.
     18. Attus Navius.
     19. Old Rostra.
     20. Reliefs of M. Aurelius.
     21. Site of Statue.
     22. Portico of the 12 Gods.
     23. Clivus Capitolinus.
     24. Tarpeian Rock.
     25. Tower of Capitol.
     26. Vicus Tuscus.
     27. Street of Ox Heads.
     28. Curtian Lake.]


Founded by Aulus Posthumius, A.U.C. 268-74, in commemoration of the
battle of Lake Regillus. It was afterwards rebuilt by Lucius Metellus.
"Tiberius dedicated the Temple of Castor and Pollux, which had been
rebuilt out of the spoils of the German war, in his own and his
brother's name" (Suetonius, "Tiberius," xx.). "Caligula converted it
into a kind of vestibule to his house" (_Ibid._, "Caligula," xxii.).

The three magnificent pillars still standing belonged to the side
facing the Palatine. They indicate approximately the south-east
boundary of the Forum. The narrower front looked down from a terrace
of considerable elevation upon the Forum, and was connected with it by
means of a double flight of stairs, the remains of which were
discovered during excavations made some time ago. These pillars, as
well as the fragments of the architrave and cornice supported by them,
are among the most beautiful architectural remains of ancient Rome.
The ornaments of the capitals and of the entablature are as rich and
splendid as they are pure and simple. It is therefore probable that
they belong to the time of Tiberius.

Pliny (x. 60) tells us of "a raven that was hatched upon the roof of
the Temple of Castor and Pollux, and flew into a bootmaker's shop
_opposite_. Every morning it used to fly to the Rostra which looked
towards the Forum (the Rostra Julia), where he would salute the
Emperor Tiberius, Germanicus, Drusus, and others, as they passed;
after which he returned to the shop. This the bird did for several
years, till the owner of an opposition shop, through jealousy, killed
him, for which the man was put to death; and such a favourite had the
bird become that he had a public funeral, and was buried in the
field of Rediculus, on the right-hand side of the Via Appia, at the
second milestone. No such crowds had ever escorted the funeral of any
one out of the whole number of Rome's distinguished men."

_The Church of S. Maria Liberatrice, on our right, occupies the site


"Numa erected a palace near the Temple of Vesta, called to this day
Regia" (Plutarch, "Numa"). Horace (O. i. 2) says: "We see the tawny
Tiber, its waves violently forced back from the Tuscan shore, proceed
to demolish the monumental Regia (Numæ) and the Temple of Vesta." It
was the residence of the Pontifex Maximus, or chief priest, down to
the time of Augustus. "Augustus presented the Regia to the Vestal
Virgins, because it adjoined their residence" (Dion Cassius, lxv. 27).
In the sixteenth century twelve inscriptions relative to the Virgins
were found near the church.

_Opposite the church_, on the level of the Forum, is the round podium


"Numa erected the Temple of Vesta (A.U.C. 37) between the Capitoline
and Palatine Hills; the Forum in which this temple was built lying
between them" (Dionysius, ii. 66). "It was made round, as a symbol of
the earth" (Ovid, "Fasti," vi. 265). "The roof was covered with bronze
of Syracuse" (Pliny, xxxiv. 7). It was destroyed by fire under Nero
and Commodus, and rebuilt by Vespasian and Septimius Severus. It was
the conservatory of the Palladium and holy fire. The number of Virgins
was originally four, afterwards increased to six. They were bound to
their ministry for thirty years. If they broke their vow they were
buried alive: they took their vows for thirty years. "Ten years they
were being instructed in their duties, ten years they practised them,
and ten years they passed in instructing others" (Plutarch).

_On the opposite corner of the Forum_ ten columns and the side walls
remain of


Erected by Antoninus Pius, A.D. 160; and dedicated by the Senate on
his death to himself and wife, who were deified, as we learn from the


The vestibule of this edifice, composed of ten Corinthian pillars of
variegated green marble (cipollino) supporting an architrave and part
of the cellæ, built of square blocks of peperino, still remain. The
architrave is adorned at each side with arabesque candelabra guarded,
as it were, by griffins.

The portico was excavated in 1876: the ascent to the Temple from the
Via Sacra was found to be by a flight of twenty-one steps, fifteen
feet in height. The portico now fulfils the same office to the Church
of S. Lorenzo in Miranda, which we understand is to be pulled down.

_Between this temple and our vantage point_ a mass of rubble work
marks the site of


Ovid ("Met." xv., "Let." ii. 2), describes it as "close to Castor and
Pollux, having its aspect towards the Forum and the Capitol." "They
[the Triumvirs] likewise built a tomb to Julius Cæsar in the middle of
the Forum, with an asylum, that should be for ever inviolable" (Dion
Cassius, "Aug."). Before the temple was built, "a column of Numidian
marble, formed of one stone twenty feet high, was erected to Cæsar in
the Forum, inscribed--TO THE FATHER OF HIS COUNTRY" (Suetonius,
"Cæsar," lxxxv.). This gave place to the temple, which had four
columns in front, as we learn from a relief and a coin. It was
decorated with the statues of the Julian line. "About the time of the
death of Nero, the Temple of Cæsar being struck with lightning, the
heads of all the statues in it fell off at once; and Augustus's
sceptre was dashed from his hand" (Suetonius, "Galba").

_We must now call attention to the buildings between the Temple of
Antoninus and the Church of S. Adriano on the line of the houses
shortly to be pulled down; but till the excavations are made, we
cannot be certain of the details. Next to the temple stood_


In B.C. 180, "Marcus Fulvius made contracts for a court of justice
behind the new bankers' shops" (Livy, xl. 51). It was destroyed by
fire, and rebuilt by Paullus Æmilius, B.C. 53.

Plutarch says that Paullus expended on it the large sum of money he
had received from Cæsar as a bribe.

Pliny (xxxvi. 24) tells us it was celebrated for its columns of
Phrygian marble.

_For explanation of the word Basilica, see page 82._

_Between this and the Church of S. Adriano stood_


In B.C. 185, "Cato purchased for the use of the people the two houses,
Mænius and Titius, in the Lautumiæ, and four shops, erecting on that
ground a court of justice, which was called the Porcian" (Livy, xxxix.
44). "The tribunes likewise opposed him very much in his building, at
the public charge, a hall below the Senate House, by the Forum, which
he finished notwithstanding, and called it the Porcian Basilica"
(Plutarch, in "Cato").

This is where the tribunes of the people used to hold their courts. It
was destroyed by fire at the same time as the Curia.

_Behind was_


or Fish-Market. Plautus ("Capteivei," Act iv., Scene 2) says "that the
stench of the fish frequently drove the frequenters of the Basilica
Porcia into the Forum Romanum."

The Market was destroyed by fire B.C. 212 (Livy, xxvi. 27), and
rebuilt B.C. 180 (Livy, xl. 51). "Marcus Fulvius contracted for the
rebuilding of the Fish-Market."

_In this district_ was also


It was not only a district near the Forum, but a prison, as the name
signifies, made out of stone quarries. It is first mentioned (B.C.
212) by Livy (xxvi. 27) in his account of the fire. Livy (xxxii. 26;
xxxvii. 3) says it was a place for the custody of hostages and
prisoners of war. When Q. M. Celer the consul was imprisoned there by
the tribune L. Flavius, Celer attempted to assemble the Senate in it
(Dion Cassius, xxxvii. 50); so we may infer that it was a large
building. The _Lautumiæ_ was _entirely distinct_ from the Mamertine

_The church with the plain front, S. Adriano, and the house with the
green shutters, occupy the site of_


originally built by Tullus Hostilius one hundred years after the
foundation of Rome, and called the Curia Hostilia. "He built a Senate
House, which retained the name Hostilia even within the memory of our
fathers" (Livy, i. 30).


     1. Senate House.
     2. Arch of Septimius Severus.
     3. Monument of Marcus Aurelius.
     4. Rostra ad Palmam.
     5. Comitium.
     6. Column of Phocas.
     7. Temple of Vespasian.
     8. Temple of Saturn.
     9. Basilica Julia.
     10. Sacred Way.
     11. Vicus Tuscus.
     12. Temple of Castor and Pollux.
     13. Palace of Caligula.
     14. Temple of Vesta.
     15. Palatine Hill.
     16. Arch of Titus.
     17. House of Cæsar.
     18. Arcade of the Pearl-Dealers.
     19. S. Francisca, Forum of Cupid.
     20. Colosseum.
     21. Basilica of Constantine.
     22. Temple of Venus and Roma.
     23. Temple of the Penates.
     24. Temple of Romulus.
     25. Temple of Antoninus Pius.
     26. Temple-Tomb of Cæsar.
     27. Site of the Arch of Fabius.
     28. Curtian Lake.
     29. Site of Basilica Æmilia.
     30. Site of Basilica Porcia.
     31. The Janus or Exchange.
     32. Site of Original Rostra.]

It was destroyed by fire when the body of the tribune Clodius was
burned, A.U.C. 702. Rebuilt by Faustus, the son of Sylla. Destroyed a
second time, to do away with the name of Sylla, on pretence of
erecting the Temple of Felicity; rebuilt by Julius Cæsar, A.U.C. 711,
completed by the Triumvirs, and consecrated by Augustus, who named it
the Curia Julia. Again destroyed by fire under Titus, and rebuilt by
Domitian, and called Senatus.

It was approached by a flight of steps; for "Tarquin carried old
Servius out of the Curia, and threw him down the steps to the bottom"
(Livy, i. 48).

This was the proper Senate House; and when we read of the senators
meeting in other places, there was always some special reason for
their so doing. The tradition of the church, S. Adriano, is, that it
was erected out of the remains of the Senate House, the bronze doors
of which were carried off to the Lateran by Alexander VII., where they
still remain.

An anonymous writer, quoted by Eckhard, states that in A.D. 283, under
Carinus, a fire destroyed the Curia Julia, the Græcostasis, the
Basilica Julia, and the Forum of Cæsar, all of which were restored by
Diocletian, 290. The Senate House seems to have been again destroyed,
and rebuilt by Flavianus, prefect of the city, in 399, under the title
of "Secretarium Senatus;" another prefect, Eucharius, restored it in

_The Church of S. Martino occupies the site of_


Varro ("Ling. Lat.," v. 155) says: "The Græcostasis was on the right
of the Curia, and projected in front of it; and here the Senate
received the foreign ambassadors in audience. The Senaculum lay above
the Græcostasis, and towards the Temple of Concord, and the senators
deliberated in this building with the magistrates who were not
entitled to enter the Senate House."

Between S. Martino and S. Adriano the Via Bonella runs out of the
Forum on the line of


which passed through the Fora of Cæsar and Augustus to the Suburra. It
was the Paternoster Row of ancient Rome. "Thou preferrest, little
book, to dwell in the shops in the Argiletum" (Martial, i. 3).

_At its entrance stood_


In A.U.C. 39, "Numa built a shrine to Janus, near the foot of the hill
Argiletum, which was to notify a state either of war or peace" (Livy,
i. 19). Ovid ("Fasti," i. 259) says, "Thou hast a shrine adjoining two
Fora" (the Forum of Cæsar and the Roman Forum). "There was a Janus in
the Forum before the Curia. This temple was made entirely of bronze,
and of a square form; it was hardly large enough to hold the figure of
Janus. The bronze image was four cubits high; in other respects like a
man, except that it had two faces, one looking towards the east and
the other towards the west. There were bronze doors in each front"
(Procopius, "Bel. Got." i. 25). A brick podium under the right end
column of the Arch of Severus marks its site.

_Somewhat in the foreground is_


erected, A.D. 205, in honour of the emperor and his two sons,
Caracalla and Geta, by the senate and people of Rome.[4] The
sculptures adorning it are interesting, and represent his victories
over the Parthians, Arabians, and Adiabenes.

A chariot, containing the statues of the emperor and his sons, drawn
by six horses (now in S. Mark's, Venice), stood on the summit. The
sculptures represent details of the Roman military harangues, sieges,
camps, assaults with battering-rams, and the submission of prisoners.
The front towards the Forum represents the emperor addressing his
troops, the taking of Carrha, the siege of Nisibis. The front facing
the Capitol represents another harangue, the siege of Atra, and the
passage of the Euphrates and Tigris.

_In front of the arch are the bases of_


  [Illustration: DUILIAN COLUMN.]

erected A.U.C. 493. "Caius Duilius was the first to gain a naval
triumph over the Carthaginians: his column still remains in the
Forum" (Pliny, xxxiv. 11). It was of bronze, made out of the rostra of
the captured ships. Being struck by lightning, it was restored by
Germanicus, under Tiberius, and part of his inscription is still to be
seen in the column made to receive it by Michael Angelo in the Palazzo
dei Conservatori, on the Capitol.


"was erected in honour of C. Mænius, who conquered the ancient Latins,
A.U.C. 416, and to whom the Romans gave a third of the spoil" (Pliny,
xxxiv. 11).

_Immediately behind the Arch of Severus are the remains of_


Here was originally a shrine erected by Flavius. Livy (ix. 46) says,
"In A.U.C. 449, to the great displeasure of the nobles, Caius Flavius
performed the dedication of the Temple of Concord, in the area of

Pliny (xxxiii. 6) gives us further particulars, and points out the
exact site:--"Flavius made a vow that he would consecrate a temple to
Concord, if he should succeed in reconciling the privileged orders
with the plebeians; and as no part of the public funds could be voted
for the purpose, he accordingly built a small shrine of bronze near
the Græcostasis, then situated above the Comitium, with the fines
which had been exacted for usury.

"Here, too, he had an inscription engraved upon a tablet of brass, to
the effect that the shrine was dedicated 203 years after the
consecration of the Capitoline Jupiter."

The third temple, Livy (xxii. 33) says, "was erected in the Citadel,
A.U.C. 538, the Temple of Concord vowed by the Prætor Lucius Manlius,
on occasion of the mutiny of some soldiers in Gaul, A.U.C. 536."

The fourth temple was dedicated to Concord by the Consul Lucius
Opimius, after the death of Gracchus, A.U.C. 632. Appianus (i. 26)
says "it was in the Forum." Varro ("L.L." v.) says, "The Senaculum was
above the Græcostasis, towards the Temple of Concord and Basilica
Opimia." Festus says it was "between the Capitoline Hill and the

The Senaculum was distinct from the Curia. Thus Livy (li. 27) says,
"The censors constructed a portico from the Temple of Saturn on the
Capitol to the Senaculum, which was above the Curia." The inscription
has been preserved to us:--



At the back of the ruins of the temple are the remains of the Basilica
Opimia. Part of the ground-plan is shown on a fragment of the marble
map of Rome, with a fragment of a basilica behind. On examination of
the ruins, the two buildings can be distinctly made out.

In front are the ruins of the steps and portico, with the cella
behind. There seems to have been at the back of the cella an entrance
into the basilica, both being closed with independent doors. The
marble threshold of the temple is _in situ_, and upon it is cut a
_caduceus_, the emblem of Concord, which was once filled in with
bronze; parallel to this, but distinct, is the marble threshold of the
basilica, with the holes where the pivots of the doors turned. Under
the podium of the basilica is a long narrow vault of _opus incertum_,
but it does _not_ lead into the Tabularium, that being built long
afterwards, A.U.C. 675, as the old inscription records, B.C. 78. It
was probably the place where the utensils for the temple were
deposited. Some of the marble decorations of the basilica still
remain; and this was no doubt the hall used when the Senate are spoken
of as having sat in the Temple of Concord. "The Senate assembled in
the building near the Temple of Concord" (Dion Cassius, lviii. 2). "In
this temple, in which, whilst I was advising the Senate, you placed
around it armed men" (Cicero, "2 Phil." vii. and viii.). "Here, in
this Cella of Concord, on the slope of the Capitol."

It may be that this is the basilica spoken of in later times as the
Basilica Argentaria, probably taking that name from being frequented
by the silversmiths. It was restored, after a fire, by Septimius
Severus, and the inscription quoted is probably of his date. In A.D.
731-741, Pope Gregory III. turned the remains into a Christian church,
which exists no longer. In 1817, three inscriptions were found here,
referring to the temple and basilica. Cicero ("Per Sest." lxvii.) tell
us "that the monuments of L. Opimius in the Forum were very much

A Temple of Concord seems to have been decorated with many statues,
but there is nothing to show whether it was that of Camillus on the
Capitol, or Opimius's.

"Piston also made the statues of Mars and Mercury, which are in the
Temple of Concord at Rome." "Sthenius made the statues of Ceres,
Jupiter, and Minerva, which are now in the Temple of Concord."
"Augustus consecrated in the Temple of Concord, as something
marvellous, four figures of elephants made of obsidian stone." "Also,
a picture of Marsyas bound by Leuxis" (Pliny, xxxiv. 19, xxxv. 36,
xxxvi. 67).

"Vitellius left the palace to lay down the ensigns of sovereignty in
the Temple of Concord" (Tacitus, "H." iii. 68).

_To the left is_


Vespasian having rendered such services by restoring the Capitol, and
collecting the records in the Tabularium, no more suitable site could
be found for the erection of a temple to the deified emperor than in
front of an old entrance to this latter building. The three pillars,
which are all that remain of the building, stand upon a lofty terrace;
and the skill of the architect in concealing the limited depth of the
space allotted to the temple is shown in his having placed the columns
of the flank nearer to each other than those of the front.

The beauty of this ruin excites universal admiration. It approaches
that of the Temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum. The inscription
on the architrave, copied, whilst still entire, by a monk of the
monastery of Einsiedeln, in the eighth century, refers to the
restoration of the building by Septimius Severus and Caracalla, who
appear to have also restored other sanctuaries in the same


_Looking across the front of this temple is_


"The temple was consecrated to Saturn, upon the ascent leading from
the Forum to the Capitol. Before this, the altar erected by the
followers of Hercules stood there" (Dionysius, vi. 1. See _ibid._, i.

Only eight Ionic columns, with their capitals and architraves, remain.
It was on the steps of this temple that the generals took the oath
that they had given a correct account of their spoil and prisoners. It
contained the public treasury, and, according to Solinus, was called
the Treasury of Saturn. Livy (ii. 21) says, "In the consulate of Aulus
Sempronius and Marcus Minucius, A.U.C. 257, the Temple of Saturn was
dedicated." Plutarch says, "Publicola appointed the Temple of Saturn
to be the treasury, which they still make use of for that purpose, and
empowered the people to choose two young men as quæstors or
treasurers." The inscription is still _in situ_.




or Golden Milestone, set up by Augustus (Dion Cassius, liv. 5), the
site of which is at the angle of the temple on the side of the old
Clivus Capitolinus, the ancient road leading up from the Forum. It was
a gilded stone, on which the distance of all the principal towns was
recorded, the distance being always measured from the city gates.
Suetonius ("Otho," vi.) tells that "Otho gave his accomplices notice
to wait for him in the Forum near the Temple of Saturn, at the Golden
Milestone." Tacitus ("H." i. 27) relates the same; and Plutarch (in
"Galba") agrees with them both, adding, "There terminate all the great
roads in Italy."

_Behind the Temple of Saturn, in the corner, is_


the Schola Xantha, and the portico of the Dii Consentes, restored by
Visconti in 1858, marked by eight Corinthian columns, partly modern,
but with antique capitals and architraves; and the cellæ arranged in
compact masonry behind them. It was called the Schola Xantha, from
Fabius Xanthus, a curator of the monuments, who placed here the images
of the household gods of Rome--Dii Consentes, because admitted to the
council of Jove--Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars,
Mercurius, Jovi', Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo (Ennius). The inscription
tells us they were reinstated under Vettius Pretextatus, A.D. 367.

_Facing towards the Forum, at the back of the line of buildings at its
top, is_


(See page 170.)

_In front of the Senate House, S. Adriano, is_


which formerly supported the statue of that emperor. It faced the
Senate House; and is placed upon a pedestal rising from a pyramidal
basement of steps, the whole evidently the plunder of other edifices.

It was erected by Smaragdus, the Exarch of Italy, in A.D. 608, and
was excavated by the Countess of Devonshire in 1816.

It is thus mentioned by Byron,--

     "Tully was not so eloquent as thou,
     Thou nameless column with the buried base!"
          _Childe Harold_, iv. 90.

_Between the Temples of Saturn and Castor are the remains of_


on the site of the Basilica Sempronia, erected by Sempronius Gracchus,
B.C. 169 (Livy, xliv. 16). This was burned down, and rebuilt by Julius
Cæsar, and called Julia, after his daughter. It was destroyed by fire,
and rebuilt by Augustus (Dion Cassius, "Augustus"). It was again
destroyed by fire, and rebuilt A.D. 283. Suetonius tells us that
Caligula, "during three days successively, scattered money to a
prodigious amount among the people, from the top of the Julian
Basilica" ("Caligula," xxxvii.). It is shown on two pieces of the
marble plan.

In the "Mon. Ancyr.," Augustus says, "He rebuilt the Basilica Julia
between the Temples of Castor and Saturn." Thus we see that the Will
of Augustus, the marble plan, and the ruins, all three exactly agree.
The portico was dedicated to his grandsons, Lucius and Caius
(Suetonius, "Augustus," xxix.). It was the great court of appeal. (See
Pliny, Jr., "Letters," v. 21, vi. 33.)

The old pavement has been well exposed, and put in proper condition
for preservation; the remnants of frieze, and cornices, and columns
found in the diggings have been set up on brick pedestals,--an
innovation of Signor Rossa's. The old bits of pavement have been very
smoothly linked together by the laying of Venetian mosaic cement, and
the contrast between the modern and the antique is very apparent.

The principal streets that ran into the Forum were:--


It commenced on the Palatine Hill at the Ædem Larium. Passing by the
Arch of Titus, it turned to the left: thus far it was called the
Clivus Palatinus and Summa Sacra Via; the slope down to the Forum was
called the Clivus Sacer. It entered the Forum at the Temple of
Antoninus, past which it turned again to the left, passing in front of
the Temple of Cæsar; then turning to the right, passed through the
centre of the Forum to the foot of the Capitol. The ascent here was
called the Clivus Capitolinus. It was paved B.C. 174 (Livy, xli. 27).

Its windings are easily accounted for when we remember that it had to
come from the top of the Palatine to the top of the Capitoline,
passing through a narrow valley. It was called the Sacred Way from the
sacred processions that passed along it, and from the sacred buildings
that lined it.

_Between the Basilica Julia and the Temple of Castor_


ran to the forum of the cattle-dealers and Circus Maximus. "They had
ground allotted to them for building houses, which was afterwards
called the Vicus Tuscus" (Livy, ii. 14). "Verres had caused it to be
paved so badly, that he made a point of never going along the street
that he had taken the contract for paving" (Cicero, "Ver." i. 59). It
was the route for the festal processions to the Circus and Aventine.
Where it entered the Forum was a statue of the Tuscan god Vertumnus,
the base of which statue was found near where the street first touched
the Basilica Julia. This street was sometimes called the Vicus
Thurarius, from the perfumers' shops.


went out of the Via Sacra between the Temple of Saturn and the
Basilica Julia, running under the Capitol to the Porta Carmentalis,
the gate in the wall from the Capitol to the river that led into the
forum of the vegetable-dealers. Where it left the Via Sacra it was
spanned by the Arch of Tiberius, erected A.D. 16 in commemoration of
the lost eagles of Varus being recovered by Germanicus (Tacitus,
"Annals," ii. 41). In this street was the Lacus Servilius.

Under our (right) side of the Temple of Castor are some remains of


From the Porta Romana on the Palatine, a short street went to the
right out of the Via Nova into the Forum, ending between the Temples
of Castor and Vesta. "It chanced that I was returning from the
festival of Vesta by that way by which the Nova Via is _now_ joined to
the Roman Forum" (Ovid, "Fasti," vi. 389.) We wish Mr. Naso had been a
little more explicit, and had given us the name of this short street;
but we will endeavour to demonstrate what the name of this street was.
We know from Suetonius that under the Palatine was the temple to the
deified Augustus, and over it Caligula built his bridge, connecting
the Palatine with the Capitol. Now, at the corner of the Palatine we
have the ascent to this bridge remaining, so that it will not be
difficult to find the probable site of the Temple of Augustus. Horace
(O. iii. 3) implies that it was between the Temples of Castor and
Hercules. Servius says it was near the Tuscan colony. Suetonius tells
us it was on the site of the house in which he was born, and gives us
the name of the street: "In the quarter of the Palatine Hill, and the
street called the Ox-heads, where _now_ stands a temple dedicated to
him, and built a little after his death" ("Aug." v.). We conclude from
the above that the probable name of this short street was AD CAPITA
BUBULA, and in confirmation of this, ox-heads may still be seen
sculptured on the fragments found at the end of this street, between
the Temples of Castor and Vesta.


We must call attention to a cross street that ran from the Clivus
Capitolinus to the Prison and the Clivus Argentarius, the name of
which we cannot determine, unless it was reckoned part of the
Argentarius. When the triumphal processions arrived at this point, the
general and prisoners separated. He went up the Capitol to sacrifice,
they to the Prison to death.

The road passing under the Arch of Severus is of very late date, and
artificially formed. It ran from the cross street down the north side
of the Forum for a short distance, when it turns to the left,
apparently passing out of the Forum between the Curia and the Basilica
Porcia. The roads, as a rule, did not pass under the triumphal arches,
as they are represented on reliefs and coins, with the archways
occupied with statues.

_The open paved space, which was very much larger in the time of the
Republic, was called_


Varro says it was so called "from _coïre_, to meet,--the place of the
ratification of the treaty between the Romans and Sabines." Livy tells
us "it was an open space marked out in the Forum, where the assemblies
called Comitia Curiata took place for the purpose of electing
ministers of religious rites, making laws of a certain description,
and deciding some suits, and inflicting punishment on criminals."

Domitian ordered the gallants of Cornelia, the president of the
Vestal Virgins, to be whipped to death with rods in the Comitium.

A line of seven brick bases for honorary statues occupies one side;
the edge of the paved area marks the top; the remains of a row of
shops, destroyed by Signor Rossa in 1872, the bottom. The line of the
modern road on the right was called


This was the Roman Exchange, where the money-changers transacted their
business, and must not be confounded with the Temple of Janus already
mentioned; nor must it be thought that there were a series of arches
here, as some authors have supposed. Horace says (Sat. ii. 3), "Since
all my fortunes were dissipated at the middle exchange" (Janus). Again
(Ep. i. 1), "O citizens, money is to be sought first; virtue after
riches. This is inculcated from the top to the bottom of 'change." He
here distinguishes the _summus_, _medius_, and _imus_, or the top,
middle, and bottom of the exchange.


Having thus pointed out the principal buildings of the Forum, we will
descend to its level, and identify some of its historical sites.

_At the left-hand corner_ of the Vicus Tuscus and the Via Sacra, a
brick pedestal marks the site of the Shrine of Venus Cloacina, erected
in commemoration of Tarquin making the Cloaca Maxima. _Cloacina_ comes
from _cluere_ = _purgare_, to purge.


  [Illustration: DEATH OF VIRGINIA.]

_Opposite_ this shrine, facing up the Vicus Tuscus, is some
brickwork--remains of a line of shops that faced towards the Temple of
Cæsar, and which were destroyed by Signor Rossa in making the
excavations. The end shop only was saved. This was the site of the
butcher's stall from which Virginius snatched the knife that saved his
daughter's honour.

"Virginius demanded to speak with Virginia; and permission being
granted, he drew the maiden and her nurse aside to the shops near the
shrine of Cloacina, now called the new shops, and there, snatching a
knife from a butcher's stall, plunged it into his daughter's breast"
(Livy, iii. 48).


_At the left-hand corner_, facing the Temple of Castor, the oval basin
of this fountain has been cleared, and the spring which supplied it is
covered with an iron grating, and has been turned into the Cloaca. It
is no doubt the same at which the twin-gods, Castor and Pollux, washed
their horses after fighting for Rome in the battle of Lake Regillus,
when they announced to the people that the battle was won. Similar
stories are told by Florus. When the Romans conquered Perses, king of
Macedonia, the twin-gods washed themselves at the Lake of Juturna; and
when they defeated the Tigurini, the gods were seen to deliver a
letter to the prætor in front of their temple.

Juturna was the sister of Turnus, immortalized by Jupiter, and turned
into a fountain, whose waters were used in Vesta's sacrifices, and had
curative powers.


stood between the Temples of Cæsar and Castor; some slight remains can
still be seen. It was erected to Fabius Maximus, the conqueror of the
Allobroges, now Savoy. It was erected B.C. 121, being the first
triumphal arch in the Forum. The Romans originally called their
triumphal arch _fornix_, not _arcus_.

The pseudo-Ascon says it stood before the Temple of Castor. The
inscription was found in the sixteenth century, and is given by
Gruter, ccccvi. 5--


Another fragment is given in the Vatican Codex, 3368, 4--

     Q . FABIUS . Q . F . MAXIMUS . AED . CVR . REST.

Cicero is the first author who speaks of this arch, and he alludes to
it several times. In "Verres" (i. 7) he says: "He (Caius Curio) sees
Verres in the crowd by the Fornix Fabius. He speaks to the man, and
with a loud voice congratulates him on his victory." Asconius,
commenting on this passage, says: "Fornix Fabius arcus est juxta
Regiam in Sacra Via a Fabio censore constructus, qui a devictis
Allobrogibus Allobrox cognominatus est, ibique statua ejus posita
propterea est."

In "Pro Plancio" (vii.) Cicero says: "When I am hustled in a crowd,
and pushed against the Arch of Fabius, I do not complain to the man
who is at the top of the Sacra Via, but to him who pushes me." Again
("De Orat." ii. 66) he says: "Crassus said in a speech to the people
that Memnius, though himself so great a man, as he came into the
Forum, stooped his head at the Arch of Fabius."

Seneca ("De Constantia Sapientis," i.) says: "Cato was dragged from
the (old) Rostra to the Arch of Fabius"--that is, nearly the whole
length of the Forum. Trebellius Pollio ("Saloninus Gallienus," i. 10)
says: "There was at this time at the foot of the hill Romulus
(Palatine) a statue, that is before the Sacred Way, between the
Temples of Faustina and Vesta, near to the Arch of Fabius." This
exactly describes the site.

We have two views of this arch preserved to us on ancient reliefs. The
first, from the Arch of Marcus Aurelius, now on the stairway of the
Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Capitol, represents the arch on the
left of the Temple-Tomb of the deified Cæsar. The second, a relief on
the monument of Marcus Aurelius on the Comitium, nearest the Arch of
Septimius Severus, depicts the Arch of Fabius to the right of the
Temple of Castor and Pollux.

_Under the bank of earth to the right of Cæsar's Temple-Tomb stood_


Dion Cassius records (liv. 8) that Augustus built an arch in
commemoration of the Parthian treaty near the Temple-Tomb of Cæsar.
This is borne out by Maii, an interpreter of Virgil ("Æn." viii. 606),
who says the Arch of Augustus was near to the temple of the deified
Julius. The "Mirabilia" mentions it, and gives the same site: "Templum
Minervæ cum arcu conjunctum est ei, nunc autem vocatur Sanctus
Laurentius de Mirandi;" that is, the Temple of Antoninus Pius and
Faustina, now the Church of San Lorenzo in Miranda. Accordingly, it
was on the right of the Temple of Cæsar. Between it and the Temple of
Antoninus the following inscription on marble was found in 1540-46:--

          (Gruter, ccxxvi. 5.)

It is doubtful whether this refers to the Arch of Augustus or to the
Temple of Cæsar, both having been built by Augustus. A coin of
Augustus represents this arch, with the legend, CIVIB . ET . SIGN .
MILIT . A . PART . RECVP. In the early part of 1884, on the Via Sacra,
near the Temple of Antoninus, some thirty travertine _voussoirs_--which
formed part of an arch, the diameter of which was 12 feet 17
inches--were brought to light. So far, the excavations do not show
where this arch stood; but when the road between the Temples of Cæsar
and Antoninus is cut away, we may hope to find the site.



We know from Dion Cassius that Cæsar encouraged the popular business
to be carried on at the lower end of the Forum, and that he turned the
steps of the Temple of Castor into a temporary rostra. On this
becoming popular he built a new rostra, which was called the plebeian
rostra or Rostra Julia. We learn from Suetonius that it was before the
Temple of Cæsar. Cicero, speaking from it against Mark Antony, bids
his audience look to the (_their_) left at the gilt equestrian statue
of Antony which stood before the Temple of Castor.


This is one of the most interesting spots in the Forum. Cæsar built
the second rostra with its rear towards the Forum, represented by the
darker lines in the above plan. In front, towards the curved edge,
Antony spoke, Cæsar's body being on the level below. The body was
burnt and buried "in the Forum in that place visible from the old
monumental Regia of the Romans. On the spot was placed an altar _where
now_ is the Temple of Cæsar" (Appian, ii. 42). "The same men were
erecting a tomb in the Forum who had performed that irregular funeral"
(Cicero, "First Phil." ii.).

It was decorated with the rams of the captured ships of Antony and
Cleopatra. It was the custom to speak from the circular edge; but when
the Temple of Cæsar was built, it was erected close up to his rostra,
on the site where the people had previously stood, and so they had to
turn about and address the people from the flat edge. "As he was
seated on the rostra at the festival of Pan, Mark Antony placed upon
his brow a royal diadem" (Velleius Paterculus, ii. 56).


When Cæsar was killed, it was not in the Capitol, as Shakespeare makes
it, nor in the Senate House upon the Forum, but in Pompey's Senate
House (see page 195). From there the body was carried to his house,
and next day into the Forum, on its way to the Campus Martius, and was
placed in front of the Rostra Julia for some friend to make the
funeral oration over it. Mark Antony mounted the rostra, and there
made his famous speech, "which moved the people to that degree that
they immediately burned the body in that very place, and afterwards
interred his ashes" (Dion Cassius, "Cæsar").

Livy ("Epit." xcvi.) says that "Cæsar's body was burned before the
plebeian rostra." Dion Cassius says his temple-tomb was built on the
very spot where his body was burned.

Unfortunately Antony's address has not come down to us, so we must
accept Shakespeare's immortal version.


Crossing the Sacred Way, which passes along the front of Cæsar's Tomb,
we arrive at the space occupied by the shops destroyed in excavating.
The construction remaining shows that they were rebuilt at a late
date. It will be noticed that the soil is damp and sandy. This spot
was once marshy, and took its name from Mettius Curtius, a leader of
the Sabines, getting mired here in the battle which took place about
the carrying off of the women. Plutarch, Livy, Dionysius, and Ovid
agree in this; and not from the fable related by Livy (vii. 16) of the
Forum opening, and Marcus Curtius jumping in, horse, armour, and all.
The former event is commemorated in a relief in stone now in the
Capitol; whilst the latter fable is depicted in the marble relief now
in the Borghese Museum.


The Statue was destroyed by the people after his death, and the base
of the pedestal is all we have left, standing upon the travertine
pavement of the Forum. It is interesting to archæologists as putting
to rest the arguments in reference to the names and positions of the
different buildings in the Forum. The poet Statius ("Silvæ," i. 1, 22)
describes the relative position of the different buildings and this
statue. He tells us that the statue was situated in the middle of the
Forum, near the Curtian Lake. In front of it was the temple of the
deified Julius; behind it were the Temples of Vespasian and Concord;
on one side the Basilica Julia, and on the other the Basilica Æmilia;
whilst the rider looked towards the Temple of Vesta and the Imperial

   (_Relief in the Villa Borghese._)]

Suetonius tells us that the tablet inscribed upon the base of
Domitian's triumphal statue was carried away by the violence of a
storm, and fell upon a neighbouring monument.

_A little beyond this pedestal, to the right_, are the remains of
another pedestal, a deep round hole recently closed, and beyond it a
third pedestal.

_Upon the first we will place_


Servius informs us that this statue was put up in the principal forum
of every city as an emblem of civic liberty and even-handed justice.
It stood in front of the old rostra. Horace and Martial both refer to
it as being near the judge's seat. It had a pig-skin of wine on one
shoulder, denoting the plentiful supply to the city, and had the other
arm extended with the hand open, showing that every one should have
equal justice.

_Over the round hole stood_


or well altar. This is shown on a coin as being round.

"At a small distance from the statue of Attus, both the hone and the
razor are said to be buried under a certain altar; the place is called
_Puteus_ by the Romans" (Dionysius, iii. 72). Cicero ("De Div." i. 17)
says, "It was on the Comitium, and was erected over the spot where the
hone and razor were buried." (See also Horace, Ep. i. 19.)

_Upon the other base we will place_


"Tarquin erected a brazen statue of him in the Forum to eternalize his
memory with posterity. This statue is still remaining, and stands
before the Senate House, near to the holy fig-tree. It is less than a
middle-sized man, and has a veil over the head" (Dionysius, iii. 72).
"The statue of Attus Navius was erected before the Senate House, the
pedestal of which was consumed when the Senate House itself was burned
at the funeral of Publius Clodius" (Pliny, xxxiv. 11). "There was a
statue of Attus, with a fillet on his head, in the place where Tarquin
had the whetstone cut in two with a razor, on the Comitium, or place
of assembly, just by the steps, at the left-hand side of the Senate
House" (Livy, i. 36).


was a fig-tree that, according to Festus, was planted by Tarquin in
commemoration of his having had the whetstone cut in two with a razor,
according to the augury of Attus Navius. It should not be confounded
with the Ruminal fig-tree which grew upon the Palatine, as has been
done by some writers. It is rather a curious incident that since the
excavations were made, a fig-tree sprang up near the pedestal of
Marsyas. This is the tree shown on the reliefs of the monument of
Marcus Aurelius.

_Just beyond these three objects_, a semicircular mark on the pavement
points to the site of


The original Rostra was first called the Suggestum or Pulpit, but in
A.U.C. 416 the name was changed into Rostra (beaks).

"The prows from the six ships captured from the Antiates were ordered
to be placed as decorations on the Suggestum in the Forum, which was
hence called Rostra" (Livy, viii. 14; Florus, i. 11; Pliny, xxiv. 11).

"The Rostra stood on the Comitium in front of the Curia" (Varro), from
which the orators harangued the people assembled in the open air; and
it was evidently only a temporary structure, probably of wood, and not
a building like the other two Rostra. It stood upon a circular
basement, but the top was square; on the outside were fixed the brazen
beaks which belonged to the captive vessels of the Antiates. About the
Rostra were placed the statues of the ambassadors put to death by Lar
Tolumnius, king of Veii, and others who suffered on similar occasions;
the three Fates, Horatius Cocles, Camillus, Hercules, the father of
Vitellius, and others who deserved well of their country.

"When Caius Gracchus brought in his bill to regulate the courts of
judicature, there was one thing very remarkable: whereas the orators
before him, in all addresses to the people, stood with their faces
towards the Senate House and the Comitium, he then, for the first
time, turned the other way,--that is to say, towards the Forum,--and
continued to speak in that position ever after. By this he intimated
that the people ought to be addressed, and not the senate" (Plutarch).

Suetonius tells us that on the death of Augustus "two funeral orations
were pronounced in his praise, one before the Temple of Julius by
Tiberius, and the other before the Rostra, under the old shops, by
Drusus." Some read this passage, "from the old Rostra;" but our
rendering is more correct, though in either case he is referring to
the Rostra that stood in front of the Curia.

The first time Cicero spoke from the Rostra was when he delivered his
oration for the Manilian Law, A.U.C. 687, when in his forty-first
year. After his assassination, the head and hands of Cicero were
placed upon this Rostra, from where he had so often addressed the
Romans--"that very Rostra, which he had made his own; nor was there a
less concourse to see him there than had formerly been to hear him"
(Florus, iv. 6). "That everybody might see them in the very place
where he had formerly harangued with so much vehemence" (Dion Cassius,

The form of this Rostra is preserved to us, being represented on a

There is an important passage in Pliny which shows the exact site of
the Rostra, as it was used to mark the hour of noon. When the summoner
caught sight of the sun passing the edge of the Rostra, he declared
the hour of noon. A man standing on this site will roughly represent
the Rostra, and as the gun fires at mid-day the edge of the sun can be
seen coming past him by a person standing by the pedestal at the bank
in front of S. Adriano, who will roughly represent the summoner. We
have tried this numerous times with our audience, and it is the only
spot on the Forum where it answers.

  [Illustration: THE ROSTRA.]

"The _accensus_ of the consuls proclaiming mid-day aloud, as soon as,
from the Senate House, he caught sight of the sun between the Rostra
and the Græcostasis: he also proclaimed the last hour, when the sun
had gone off the Mænian Column to the Prison" (Pliny, vii. 60).



In excavating the open space of the Comitium upon the Forum in the
summer of 1872, an interesting discovery was made of two marble
screens or balustrades sculptured on each side, the one being some
historic scene, the other representing animals. At the time, and since
their discovery, many suggestions have been offered as to their
signification and use, but none seemed satisfactory, at least to us.
After considerable thought, examination of the ground, and putting
this and that together, we have arrived at an estimate of their use
and meaning entirely different from the hitherto received opinion; in
which we are supported by their construction and the classic passages
relating to them. They are _in situ_ as found, but a new piece of
marble has been put under them.

From this it will be seen that we have made an important discovery
bearing upon the topography of the Forum, which will be of interest
not only to classical students, but to every one interested in the
word Rome.

We have discovered that the reliefs on the screens upon the Comitium
in the Forum portray scenes from the life of Marcus Aurelius, showing
in their backgrounds the buildings occupying two sides of the
Forum--from the Temple of Concord to the Arch of Fabius--and that
these marble balustrades led up to the statue of that emperor. The
space where it stood can be plainly traced upon the pavement; and that
is why these pictures refer to epochs of his life. The statue is still
existing, and now stands in the square of the Capitol, where it was
erected by Michael Angelo, who brought it from the Lateran in 1538,
where it had been placed about 1187, when it was removed from the
Forum, near the Column of Phocas, where it had long been looked upon
as a statue of Constantine, and is so called in the Regiona Catalogue;
hence its preservation.

The whole group was evidently erected in honour of Marcus Aurelius,
and in commemoration of the important events in his life depicted on
the screens, as recorded by Dion Cassius.

The first relief represents a scene upon the Forum between the old
Rostra Marsyas and the fig-tree--burning the forty-six years' arrears
of debts which Marcus Aurelius had forgiven the people.

"After that he remitted all that had been due to the Public and
Imperial Treasuries for the course of forty-six years, without
including therein Hadrian's reign, and ordered all the papers of
claims to be burned in the Forum" (Dion Cassius, "Marcus Aurelius").

This was on the marriage of his son Commodus with Crispina.

It will be noticed that the relief is to the right of the fig-tree and
Marsyas. Now, if we go round to the other relief, we have the same
tree and Marsyas in the same relative positions; but the relief is to
the left, and the scenes are taking place between the Rostra Julia,
the fig-tree, and Marsyas:--

Giving the donation of eight pieces of gold.

Roma, or perhaps Faustina, thanking him for the Puellæ Faustinianæ.

"After he had come back to Rome, as he was one day haranguing the
people, and speaking of the number of years he had spent abroad in his
expeditions, the citizens with a loud voice cried out, 'Eight,' at the
same time extending their hands to receive as many pieces of gold. The
emperor, smiling, repeated, 'Eight,' and ordered every Roman eight
pieces, which was so considerable a sum, that so great a one was never
given before by any emperor" (Dion Cassius, "Marcus Aurelius").

It will be noticed that two men are holding up their hands with
fingers extended, one five, the other three--eight.

The other scene on this relief represents a female figure advancing to
the seated figure of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, leading a child and
carrying another, to thank him for the orphan schools he founded in
Rome in memory of his wife after her death, and which he named after
her. "New Faustinian schools he instituted in honour of his dead wife"
(Julius Capitolinus, "M. Antoninus," xxvi.).


Upon the inner sides of the Avenue are represented on each balustrade
a boar, a ram, and a bull--the animals offered at the triple
sacrifice, or _suovetaurilia_ (from _sus_, _ovis_, _taurus_), which
was performed once every five years, or _lustrum_, for the
purification of the city.

It was an institution of Servius Tullius, the ceremony consisting in
leading the boar, ram, and bull thrice round the assembly of the
people, and then offering them to Mars. There is a similar
representation upon a relief of Trajan on the Arch of Constantine, and
upon a pedestal found near the Arch of Septimius Severus.

_To our left of the Arch of Severus is_


Neither the position nor the construction of this Rostra answers to
that of the original Suggestum, which took the name of Rostra from
having fixed on it the _six_ bronze beaks of the Antiates' ships. The
original Rostra, shown on a coin of Palikanus, the orator mentioned by
Cicero ("Brutus," lxii.)--see page 42--was a wooden pulpit. Its exact
site we have already identified. The last historical notice that we
have of it is in Spartianus's "Life of Didius Julianus" (iv.), A.D.
193. After saying that the emperor addressed the Senate, he adds, "but
the people expressly in the Rostra before the Curia."


Under the Empire the Rostra had lost its use, and only served
occasionally for the emperor to address the people from, or for
reading out edicts and proclamations. The western end of the Forum saw
many changes after the fire under Commodus, and was rearranged under
Septimius Severus, who restored the old edifices, retaining the names
of the founders, and erected others (Spartianus, "Severus," xxiii.).
In 203 an arch was erected to Severus and his two sons, and a new
Rostra was made on the south side of this arch. By cutting away a
piece of the slope of the Capitoline Hill, he formed an escarpment 11
feet high, which was faced with a curved brick wall, and cased with
Porta Santa marble, in panels 3 feet 1 inch wide. Between each pair of
panels there is a space 6½ inches wide, from which a piece of marble
jutted out 3½ inches. Only one of these exists. On it there was fixed
a bronze beak, probably made in imitation of the old ones, for in that
day they had no naval foes from whom to capture ships. If there was
one row only, there were eighteen in all; if two rows, thirty-six.
This in itself is sufficient to show the ridiculousness of calling
this the original Rostra, which had six beaks only. The peculiar
marble casing also shows late work. At the north end of this platform
was erected the Umbilicus (E), and on the south end was placed the
Milliarium Aureum (F). From the level space on the top of this
escarpment the orator would speak; whilst at a short distance in his
rear was the street Clivus Argentarius, leading from the Via Sacra to
the Porta Rutuminia. This Rostra was popularly known as the People's
Rostra, because from it they were addressed--"Deinde ad Rostra Populum
convocarunt" (Capitolinus, "Maximus et Balbinus," iii.). The
narrowness of the level space on the top of this Rostra caused great
inconvenience; and as room could not be gained in the rear, it had to
be taken in front, encroaching on the Comitium. Forty-three and a half
feet in front of the curved wall of Porta Santa a straight wall was
built of travertine and tufa, 78 feet long, with side walls from it
back to the extreme ends of the Rostra, and this was cased with
Carrara white marble, the space between the two walls being filled
with earth, thus making a large platform with a square instead of a
curved front. The blocks of tufa and marble were tied together by iron
clamps, of which fragments remain, of a shape not used in the earlier
days, but used now. [Illustration] That the curved wall and the
straight wall are not contemporary is shown by the construction, as
well as by the fact that the curved wall is faced with coloured
marble, which would not have been the case if it had not at one time
been open to the Forum. The curved wall is on a line with the Arch of
Severus; but the tufa wall comes out 25½ feet beyond the arch, and is
not parallel with the curved wall behind it. The tufa and travertine
wall is erected on the travertine pavement of the Comitium.


We believe these changes on this Rostra were made in the time of
Aurelian (270), after the death of Claudius II., whose statue was
erected on this Rostra. "Illi totius orbis judicio in rostris posita
est columna palmata statua superfixa" (Pollio, "Claudius," iii.). Upon
this Rostra also Aurelian erected a statue of the Genius of the Roman
People. Aurelianus--"Genium Populi Romani in rostra posuit" ("E
Chronicis antiquis excerpta Aurelianus"). The fourth century guides,
"Curiosum Urbis" and "De Regionibus" (in Regio viii.), mention the
Genium Populi Romani, the latter adding "aureum." They both mention
three Rostra in the Forum. The statue of Claudius was not represented
as wearing the Roman toga, but the Greek pallium, from which this
Rostra became known as the Rostra ad Palmam; and this part of the
Forum in later times was called ad Palmam.

Theodoric--"Deinde veniens ingressus urbem venit ad Senatum, et ad
Palmam populo adlocutus" ("Excerpta Valesiana," lxvi.).

"Ligaverunt ei manus a tergo et decollaverunt extra Capitolium et
extrahentes jactaverunt eum juxta arcum triumphi ad Palmam" ("Acta
SS., Mai." vii.).

Ammianus Marcellinus (xvi. x. 13) describes Constantius's visit in 356
to this Rostra: "When he arrived at the Rostra, he gazed with amazed
awe on the Forum, the most renowned monument of ancient power; and
being bewildered with the number of wonders on every side to which he
turned his eyes, having addressed the nobles in the Senate House and
harangued the populace from the Rostra, he retired." This expresses
the feelings of many visitors in our day. The site commands a good
view of the Forum.


The remains of this Rostra are best illustrated by the representation
of it in the relief on the Arch of Constantine; and by no possible
imagination can it be made to agree with the coin of Palikanus.

In the centre is a platform with a straight front, having a lattice
balustrade; on the right is a statue of Claudius II., and on the left
the statue of the Genius of Rome. A group of people stand behind the
railing and surround Constantine, who is addressing the people. Behind
are five Corinthian columns surmounted with statues. The balustrade
stood on the top of the tufa wall, and some of the fallen gray granite
columns still exist. To our right, clear of the Rostra, is the Arch of
Severus, a group of people being in front, looking up to the Rostra.
On the left, in the background, are the Arch of Tiberius, spanning the
Vicus Jugarius, and four of the arches of the Basilica Julia--the
foreground being occupied by a crowd of people facing towards the

The scene here depicted was no doubt that which took place on the
entry of Constantine into Rome: "And with a loud voice and by
inscriptions he made known to all men the salutary standard"
(Eusebius, "Life of Constantine," xl.).

In the relief the head of Constantine is unfortunately missing; but it
seems very appropriate that he should be represented addressing the
Roman people from that Rostra, which was decorated with the statue of
his ancestor Claudius II.

There are no beaks shown on the relief; but along the tufa wall, at
regular intervals of 3 feet 4 inches, are cut grooves 6½ inches wide
and 1½ inch deep: in these grooves are holes which, if they were to
sustain beaks, would give thirty-six for a single row, and seventy-two
for a double row.

We doubt if these grooves and holes were for beaks. They were more
probably for the supports of the marble casing; they do not go
completely through the wall.

Some authorities call these remains on the Clivus the Rostra Vetera,
or the original Rostra. But it does not answer classic description,
and the construction shows it to be of late date. It does not stand
_on_ the Comitium, or _before_ the Curia, nor _under_ the old shops.
Besides, it looks down the Forum; so from here how could Gracchus have
_turned_ from the Senate House and Comitium towards the Forum?


was a monument marking the centre of the Roman world. The ruin of the
Umbilicus is at the side of the Arch of Septimius Severus, at the end
of the Rostra ad Palmam. Its pyramidal shape upon a round base can
easily be distinguished.


This was between the Clivus Capitolinus and the Pass of the Two Groves
(Via Arco di Septimo Severo), under the Capitoline Hill, and served
afterwards as an advanced fort to the citadel. "He opened a sanctuary,
in the place where the enclosure now is, on the road down from the
Capitoline [Temple], called the Pass of the Two Groves" (Livy, i. 8).
"He surrounded it with a high stone wall" (Ovid, "Fasti," iii. 231).
The gate leading into it was called the Porta Pandana--"ever-open
gate" (Solinus, i. 13. See Plutarch, in "Romulus;" Dionysius, ii. 15;
Florus, i. 1; Varro and Festus). The remains of the tufa wall exist on
the left of the Clivus, in front of the Temple of Saturn.


or great drain, begun by Tarquin the Great, containing a large stream
of water rushing along, as it did over two thousand years ago, is
exposed to view at the east end of the Basilica Julia.

It was finished by Tarquin the Proud, B.C. 556 (Livy, i. 38, 55).

"Men spoke in admiration of the public sewers, too, a work more
stupendous than any, as mountains had to be pierced for their
construction, and navigation might be carried on beneath Rome; an
event which happened in the ædileship of M. Agrippa, after he had
filled the office of consul." (See Dion Cassius, "Augustus," A.U.C.

"For this purpose there are seven streams turned into the artificial
channels, and flowing beneath the city. Rushing onward, like so many
impetuous torrents, they are compelled to carry off and sweep away all
the sewerage" (Pliny, xxxvi. 24).


of different buildings lie scattered about; to what edifices they
belonged "pronounce who can." More than two hundred columns, and fifty
capitals of exquisite workmanship, have been discovered in the
excavations of the Forum. Near the reliefs on the Comitium is a
pedestal with the following inscription:--


_Having now made the circuit of the Forum, we will proceed to_


Beyond the Temple of Castor, to the right of the Temple of Vesta, are
remains of these stairs.

"Augustus lived at first near the Roman Forum, above the Ringmaker's
Stairs, in a house which had once been occupied by Calvus the orator"
(Suetonius, "Augustus," lxxii.). Calvus the orator, a friend of
Cicero, lived on the Palatine; and the Scalæ Annulariæ was a flight of
stairs that led from the east end of the Forum up the north side of
the Palatine to the Clivus Victoriæ.

On the 12th of April 1882, a piece of the marble plan was found here
which, curiously enough, represents this part of the Forum, showing
the side of the Temple of Castor and the Ringmaker's Stairs.


Between the Temple of Vesta and the Sacra Via was the original
dwelling-place of the Vestals, of which little remains beyond tufa
walls beneath the more recent level. These walls were again exposed to
view in some excavations made in the spring of 1886. They are marked
in black on our Plan (page 61), being now again covered up.

Martial (i. 70), in addressing his book which he sends to Proculus,
says, "You will pass by the Temple of Castor, near that of ancient
Vesta, and that goddess's virgin home."

Dionysius (ii. 67) says: "They live near by the temple of the


By the side of the temple is a pit four feet square, where the ashes
and sweepings of the temple were deposited; which were cleared out on
the 15th of June, and thrown down the Porta Stercoraria, on the Clivus
Capitolinus, into the Cloaca. (Ovid, "F." vi. 237, 712; Varro, "L. L."
v.; Festus.)


Beyond the Temple of Vesta, on the right, is a small brick shrine. The
base of the statue of this shrine was fortunately found telling us the


On the flank of the base is another inscription, giving us the date of
its erection, April 26, 275 A.D.

The brick podium of the shrine was cased with marble, one piece, one
foot four inches high, being _in situ_ on the side towards the steps.
It supported an entablature of Carrara marble formed by two
half-columns at the rear and two columns in front, of the fluted
composite order. On the frieze is the inscription, in beautifully cut
letters five inches high, recording its erection by the Roman senate
and people--


The podium is 4 feet 7 inches high, 9 feet 9 inches wide, 8 feet 2
inches deep. The fragments found are to be built up in their original
sites, and so the shrine will be preserved. It was originally erected
by Antoninus Pius, and is represented on a bronze coin of his--the
pediment being supported by four Hermes (the Greek name for Mercury)
busts. In the tympanum are the tortoise, cock, ram, winged cap,
caduceus, and the magic purse. When it was restored in the consulship
of Aurelian and Marcellino, columns and composite capitals took the
place of the Hermes busts.

_The travertine steps by the side of the Shrine of Mercury led into_


After the destructive fire of 192, the Forum and edifices on the Sacra
Clivus were rebuilt by Septimius Severus and Julia Domna (Spartianus,
Dion Cassius, Eutropius), the empress taking upon herself the special
work of rebuilding the temple and residence of the Vestal Virgins; and
although the original podium of the temple was used, it was
considerably raised by rubble being placed on the top of the ancient
tufa platform. This was necessary owing to the raising of the level
from _débris_.

For the Atrium Vestæ a different site was selected, more to the south
under the Palatine; in fact the whole disposition of the edifices
about here was changed, as proved by comparing the earlier with the
later classical notices, and the excavations of 1883-4.


To commemorate this rebuilding a silver coin was struck by the
empress, bearing her head on the obverse; and on the reverse is the
Temple of Vesta in the background, in front of which stands an altar,
and on either side are three virgins, two of whom are pouring an
oblation over the altar.

This new arrangement of the buildings is thus exactly described by
Servius (in "Æn." vii. 153): "By the Temple of Vesta was the Regia of
Numa Pompilius, but near to the Atrium of Vesta, which was distinct
from the temple."

Standing just inside, at the top of the steps, we have the whole
Atrium Vestæ, as their residence was named, uncovered before us--a
large peristylium paved with black and white mosaic, 222 feet long by
76 feet wide. Standing out thirteen feet from the boundary wall of the
Atrium, and extending all round the court, were forty-four columns of
various marbles, whilst under the colonnade were the pedestals bearing
honorary inscriptions and statues of High Vestals: sixteen on each
side, six at the top, and six at the bottom. Of these, thirteen
honorary inscriptions have been found dedicated to six different High
Vestal Virgins, the Lady Superiors of the nunnery. Four slight
fragments of other inscriptions were also found, making seventeen in
all. Twelve of the statues, more or less perfect, have also been
found: likewise an honorary pedestal to Caracalla; and a statue to
Vettius Agorius Prætextatus, erected to this champion of paganism, 367
A.D., by Cœlia Concordia, the last of the High Vestal Virgins.

At the east end of the Atrium is the fountain, beyond which is a step
up on to a tesselated pavement, and from that four steps lead into the
tabularium, or reception-room, having on each side three chambers, in
which most probably the Vestals deposited those objects intrusted to
their sacred keeping.

On each side of the Atrium were the residential chambers of the High
Vestals, the simple Virgins, and their domestics, two stories high.
Those on the south side are best preserved.

From the tesselated pavement a door gives access into a corridor, once
paved with white and black mosaic; at the end, on the left, is a
bath-chamber; and opening out from the corridor are several chambers
showing traces of marble pavements, frescoed and marble-cased walls.
In the second chamber are the remains of the mill for grinding the
salt used in sacrifice. (See Virgil, "Buc." viii. 82; Horace, "O."
iii. 23; Festus.) Pliny (xxxi. 41) says, "It is in our sacred rites
more particularly that the high importance of salt is to be
recognized, no offering ever being made unaccompanied by crushed

This corridor does not run the whole length of the Atrium, but turns
off to a flight of stairs leading to the upper chambers. The remainder
of the chambers on this side were reached direct from the Atrium by
steps. The first one contains a hexagonal pedestal to Flavia Publicia.
From the marble and fresco decorations found here, these rooms were
most probably the apartment of the High Vestal Virgin.


The inscriptions to the High Vestals found, date between 180 and 364
A.D., and were erected in return for some advantage derived from the
patronage of the High Vestal. Historically they are of no great
importance, giving us only names of Vestals that were already known.
The most important inscriptions are those found here which do not
refer to the Virgins. Commencing with the first pedestal at the top of
the entry steps, they read as follows:--

Flavia Publicia. Erected July 9, 283 A.D.

Concordiæ. Dedicated June 9, 364. She was the last High Vestal, and
her name was erased because she became a Christian.

Cœlia Claudiana. 253-7 A.D.

Caracalla pedestal. July 2, 114 A.D.

Prætextata Crassi. 180-200 A.D.

Flavia Publicia. 257-284.

Numisia Maximilla. 201-216.

Statue of an unknown Vestal; no head.

Flavia Publicia. 257-84.

Another pedestal to her, with statue adjoining.

Pedestal to Trentia Flavola. About 350.

Blank pedestal, with statue of Ceres adjoining.

Pedestal to Flavia Publicia. September 30, 257.

Statue of Vettius Agorius Prætextatus. 380.

Fragment of a seated statue.

Statue unknown.

Statue and pedestal to Flavia Publicia.

This part of the city was finally destroyed by the great fire, when
Robert Guiscard burned Rome from the Lateran to the Capitol, in 1084.
During this long period of nearly seven hundred years the Atrium Vestæ
underwent many changes and received other tenants, for the new
excavations show that it had been inhabited after the Vestals were

At the rear of the first pedestal a terra-cotta jar was discovered,
containing a brooch bearing the name of Pope Martin III., 943-46; a
gold coin of the Eastern Emperor Theophilus (827-42); and eight
hundred and thirty Anglo-Saxon silver coins of Alfred the Great
(871-900), Edward (900-24), Edgar Athelstan (925-41), and Edmund I.
(941-48)--four kings of Northumbria--and of Plegmund, Archbishop of
Canterbury (889-923). We may presume that this money was brought to
Rome by some English tourist, who left his all and fled when the
building was finally destroyed by fire; or that it formed part of a
donation of "Peter's Pence." Ethelwulf, the English king during the
time of Leo IV. (845-57), was the first English prince who gave
tribute to the See of Rome; and as such his portrait is to be seen in
_chiaro-oscuro_, by Caravaggio, in the Stanze of the Incendio del
Borgo in the Vatican.

After running a course of one thousand and eighty years, Gratian in
367 "refused the office of Pontifex Maximus, and abolished the
functions of the Vestal Virgins" (Zosimus, iv.), which were finally
suppressed by Theodosius in 392. "Theodosius directed his attention
towards the suppression of idolatry, and issued a law commanding the
demolition of idolatrous temples." "The faithful emperor Theodosius
interdicted these rites and consigned them to disuse" (Theodoret, v.

The Bishop of Rome and his clergy came by right, as heads of the
established religion, into the possessions of the defunct faiths, and
inhabited the quarters of the Vestals, assuming the title of the head
of the ancient religion, Pontifex Maximus, a title held to the present
day--a dignity two thousand six hundred and forty years old, the
oldest title in the world.


In the centre of the peristylium, just coming to the surface and
occupying the whole of the width of the open court, are the
foundations of an octagonal edifice in brick, with ribs running from
the angles to a central circle. Here, doubtless, was the shrine in
which was kept the Sacred Palladium, or fatal token of the empire of
the Romans. "Fatale pignus imperii Romani" (Livy, xxvi. 27). "Kept
under the safeguard of Vesta's temple" (_ibid._ v. 52). This was a
statuette of "Minerva, by no male beheld" (Lucan, ix. 994). "The
Vestals alone were permitted to behold the Trojan Minerva" (_ibid._ i.
598). "That fell from heaven" (Dionysius, ii. 67). It seems it was
originally kept in the Temple of Vesta itself (Pliny, vii. 45; Ovid,
"T." iii. 1, 39).

"The sacred image of Minerva, to which the Romans pay uncommon
veneration, and which, as they say, was brought from Troy, was exposed
to public view (during the fire of 192), so that the men of our age
beheld the Palladium, never seen by any before since the time it came
from Ilium into Italy. For the Vestal Virgins laid hold on it in the
hurry and confusion, and carried it openly through the Sacred Way into
the Imperial Palace" (Herodian, in "Commodus").

"Elagabalus, wanting a wife for his sun-god, sent for the sacred image
of Pallas, which the Romans worship in secret from human eyes, and had
it brought into his own bed-room. Thus he dared to displace the
Palladium, that had never been moved since the time it came from
Ilium, except when the temple was destroyed by fire, and they conveyed
the goddess into the Imperial Palace" (_ibid._ in "Antoninus;"
Lampridius, in "Elagabalus," iii.).

Fragments of a statuette of Minerva were found in the excavations.


From the Via Sacra, above the Arch of Titus, a street, passing along a
ledge on the northern side of the Palatine, runs into the Vicus Tuscus
at the back of the Temple of Castor. This was the street of the
Vestals, separating their house from the Imperial Palace. Asconius
("ad Ciceronem pro Scauro,") speaks of it.

We now cross over to the Sacred Way.

_The first object that attracts our attention is the_


_on the left_, occupying the site and built out of the remains of two
temples by Felix IV., 527 A.D. The subterranean church contains a
spring said to have been called forth by S. Felix. Upon the apse of
the upper church is a mosaic of the time of Felix.


son of Maxentius, forms the vestibule of the present church. It was a
circular building, and fronted towards the Via Sacra. The second
temple Felix made into the nave of the church; it was quadrangular,
and built of brick, but the western wall was of blocks of Gabii stone,
forming part of the second wall of Rome, which was here utilized for
the temple. It is thirty feet in diameter, and was erected in 302 A.D.
Ligorio ("Vatican Codex," 3439) has preserved the inscription:--


The two porphyry columns and the cornice belong to the temple; but the
bronze doors are Etruscan, having been sent from Perugia by Urban
VIII. in 1630. The wings on either side of the doorway were added in
772-95 by Hadrian I.; the niches, which still show traces of
frescoing, being for relics of the saints. At the same time the
present flooring of the church was inserted some feet above the
ancient level.

_On the left are slight remains of_


Remains of this temple have been discovered in the recent excavations
on the Sacra Via, between the Temple of Antoninus Pius and the Temple
of Romulus. From the slight remains found, it seems that three of its
sides were formed by deep apses, the fourth side fronting towards the
Via Sacra, and entered by a portico.


Dionysius (v. 19), Plutarch in "Publicola," and Livy (ii. 7) record
that Publius Valerius, surnamed Publicola, built a house on the Velia
overlooking the Forum; but owing to the invidious remarks made he
pulled the house down, and re-erected it at the foot of the Velia.
Plutarch adds, "upon the spot where the Temple of Victory now stands."
Livy also says, "The house was built at the foot of the hill where the
Temple of Victory now stands." Dionysius (v. 48) says, after speaking
of the poverty of Publicola, "The senate decreed that he should be
buried at the expense of the public, and appointed a place in the
city, under the hill called Velia, near the Forum, where his body was
burnt and buried."


     A Temple of Antoninus Pius.
     B Temple of Victory.
     C Temple of Romulus.
     D Temple of Venus and Roma.
     E Temple of the Penates.
     F Mediæval Portico.
     G Arch of Titus.]

This Temple of Victory was dedicated, B.C. 295, by the consul Lucius
Postumus. "He dedicated the Temple of Victory, for the building of
which he had provided, when curule ædile, out of the money arising
from fines" (Livy, x. 33).

This temple is represented on a coin of Gordianus III., 240 A.D., who
restored it after his Persian victories.


erected by Hadrian in 134 A.D. It was the largest and most sumptuous
in Rome. It was designed by Hadrian himself, who sent the drawings to
the celebrated architect Apollodorus, whom he had banished, to ask his
opinion. He replied, "That Hadrian ought to have made it more lofty,
and with subterraneous accommodation for receiving, as occasion might
require, the machinery of the theatre, and for giving it a more
imposing aspect towards the Via Sacra. That as to the statues, they
were so disproportionate, that if the goddesses desired to get up and
walk out, they would not be able" (Dion Cassius; Xiphilinus,

For this criticism Apollodorus lost his head; and we learn that the
temple was _not_ on a lofty platform, that there were _no_
subterranean chambers, and that it was _not_ imposing towards the Via
Sacra. The front was towards the Forum of Peace. What is now the back
of the church, in a stone-cutter's yard, was originally the front of
the temple. It is mentioned by Prudentius as being in the vicinity of
the Via Sacra.

"The Sacred Way resounded (_they say_) with lowings before the shrine
of Rome; for she also herself is worshipped with blood after the
fashion of a goddess, and the name of the place (_Rome_) is regarded
as a divinity. The temples also of the city and of Venus rise with a
like roof; and at one and the same time frankincense is consumed to
the twin-gods."

It could not have faced the Via Sacra, or Maxentius would not have
built the temple of his son against it, 311 A.D.

The bronze doors of the Round Temple were found at Perugia by Urban
VIII. The two columns of porphyry, with the cornice, are supposed to
have been found amongst the ruins when it was turned into a church. On
the right side of the present church is a piece of wall of Gabii tufa
stone of _opus quadratum_. At the back of the church is the brick
front wall of the temple, on which the celebrated _Pianta Capitolina_
was originally attached (see page 185) by means of cement and cramps,
and which was found below the soil under the wall, having been thrown
down by an earthquake.

Suetonius tells us that Nero's colossus stood in the vestibule of his

Martial says, "It was removed by Vespasian, when he built the Temple
of Peace, to where the atrium (a more inward part) was."

It was a second time removed, for Spartianus informs us that "Hadrian
removed it with twenty-four elephants _from_ the place where now
stands the Temple of the City."

Thus we learn that the spot where the Temple of Rome is, was formerly
the atrium of Nero's Golden House, and that the Temple of Peace
occupied the vestibule.

"Maxentius restored the Temple of Venus and Rome, which had been
damaged by fire" (Aur. Victor, "Cæs." xl.).

The Emperor Heraclius gave permission to Pope Honorius I. to remove
the bronze tiles of this temple in order to use them for the roof of
S. Peter's; whence they were stolen by the Saracens in 846.

Dion Cassius (lxxi. 31) tells us that "Cleopatra's statue in gold is
to be seen in the Temple of Venus to this day." Also that "the senate
ordered two statues of silver to be erected in the Temple of Venus;
one in honour of Faustina, and the other in honour of the Emperor
Marcus Aurelius. They likewise ordered an altar to be set up before
it, on which every contracted couple were to sacrifice before

Mr. J. H. Parker, C.B., made some excavations under the wall of Gabii
stone in 1868-9, and found that a street ran from the Sacred Way along
the side of the wall, in which was a small doorway into the temple.
This has now been re-excavated by the Government (1880), who have
taken possession of the Round Temple.

The government have recently pulled down the chapel of the burial
society adjoining the Temple of Romulus, and on the two thousand six
hundred and thirty-third anniversary of the foundation of Rome, April
21st, 1880, the two cipollino columns were found to have belonged to


As the Lares were the departed spirits of the ancestors of each family
who watched over their descendants, so the Penates were the gods
selected by each family as its special protectors. And as there were
the Lares of the city, so there were the Penates, whose chapel was
termed Ædes Deum Penatium, and the gods were called Penates Populi
Romani. These Penates were supposed to have been the gods brought from
Troy by Æneas.

We learn from the "Monumentum Ancyranum," that Augustus rebuilt the
Ædem Deum Penatium in Velia; and Solinus (i.) tells us that Tullus
Hostilius lived on the Velia, where afterwards was the Chapel of the
Penates. Dionysius thus describes it:--"For the things which I myself
know, by having seen them, and concerning which no scruple forbids me
to write, are as follows. They show you a temple at Rome, not far from
the Forum, in the street that leads the nearest way to the Carinæ,
which is small, and darkened by the height of the adjacent buildings.
This place is called by the Romans, in their own language, _Veliæ_; in
this temple are the images of the Trojan gods exposed to public view,
with this inscription, ΔΕΜΑΣ , which signifies Penates. For, in my
opinion, the letter Θ not being yet found out, the ancients expressed
its power by the letter Δ. These are two youths, in a sitting posture,
each of them holding a spear; they are pieces of ancient workmanship"
(Dionysius, i. 68).


In the new excavations upon the line of the Via Sacra a monumental
cippus has been found, with the following inscription,--FABIUS.

He was consul and prefect of the city, A.D. 339 to 341, under the
Emperor Constans I. This was one of three bases recorded as having
stood in front of the Temple of Romulus in the sixteenth century, one
of which is in the Museum of the Villa Borghese, and the other is in
the Naples Museum.

Another base was found, dedicated to the Emperor Constantius II. by
Flavius Leontius, prefect of Rome in 356 A.D. This is similar to the
one in the Capitoline Museum.

The inscription reads,--TOTO. ORBE. VICTORI.--DN. CONSTANTIO.

Remains of Roman and medieval buildings and a fountain have been
uncovered in the course of excavating, also some architectural
fragments. The whole length of the Via Sacra has been now uncovered as
far as the steps leading up to S. Bonaventura.


The recent excavations along the line of the Via Sacra brought to
light some unimportant remains of shops and houses facing towards the
street. These buildings are of the time of Constantine, and agree in
their construction with his Basilica on the opposite side of the
street. This part of Rome was destroyed by fire in the reign of
Commodus, and again under Maxentius (Dion Cassius, Herodian, Galen,
Capitolinus). In this rebuilding they did not clear away the remains
of the older houses, but built on and over them--a not unusual custom
in Rome. Let us carefully examine the older remains. Our attention is
first attracted by different fragments of beautiful mosaic pavements
of the best period of the art, and evidently the flooring of no mean
house. The first piece that we come across is composed of a pattern
made up of several cubes in different colours; in the rebuilding this
was hid by a pavement of herring-bone brickwork. Beyond is a beautiful
black and white octangular and diamond mosaic pavement, which also did
duty to the rebuilt house. In a small room adjoining we notice a
travertine base of a column, which stands near a piece of black mosaic
pavement, in which are inserted small squares of white marble; in
another chamber close by is a white mosaic with a black border, and
near this another, of white and black sexangular and diamond shape.
Near the cube mosaic are two more bases of columns of travertine, and
a travertine well head: travertine stone, from Tivoli, was not used in
Rome as a building material till about 50 B.C. Amongst the
constructions of the older period we notice six distinct pieces of
walls composed of tufa blocks, perhaps old material re-used, some
blocks of peperino, and a small piece of _opus reticulatum_. Tufa was
used during the kingly period, peperino during the republic, and _opus
reticulatum_--net-work wedges of tufa--by the late republic and early
empire. Amidst the later construction, which is of brickwork, we
notice terra-cotta hot-air pipes, and one piece of a lead pipe, and
remains of flights of stairs leading to upper floors. The brick stamps
found were of the second, third, and fourth centuries. Amongst these
remains was found a small altar. On the scroll at the top is a Roman
eagle, and beneath,--


From the line of the bases of the columns we see that the front of the
older house sloped back diagonally from the Via Sacra, the point
farthest from the Forum being nearest to the Via Sacra; whilst the
more recent construction was on a line parallel with, and abutting on
to, the Sacred Way.


This early house, appearing beneath the building of later date, is in
all probability the house in which Julius Cæsar lived. The
construction agrees with that of earlier and contemporary date. It is
the first house on the Via Sacra, and the site coincides with the
notices which we have of Cæsar's house:--

"He first inhabited a small house in the Suburra; but after his
advancement to the pontificate, he occupied a palace belonging to the
state in the Via Sacra. Many writers say that he liked his residence
to be elegant ... and that he carried about in his expeditions
tesselated and marble slabs for the floor of his tent" (Suetonius,
"Cæsar," xlvi.).

"As a mark of distinction he was allowed to have a pediment on his
house" (Florus, iv. 3).

"Julius Cæsar once shaded the whole Forum and Via Sacra from his
house, as far as the Clivus Capitolinus" (Pliny, xix. 6).

"The night before his murder, as he was in bed with his wife, the
doors and windows of the room flew open at once.... Calpurnia dreamed
that the pediment was fallen, which, as Livy tells us (in the lost
books), the senate had ordered to be erected upon Cæsar's house by way
of ornament and distinction; and that it was the fall of it which she
lamented and wept for" (Plutarch, in "Cæsar").

"He lay for some little time after he expired, until three of his
slaves laid the body on a litter and carried it home, with one arm
hanging down over the side" (Suetonius, "Cæsar," lxxxii.).

The house of Cæsar was under the Palatine, on which, above Cæsar's,
stood the house of Cicero. "He (Vettius) did not name me, but
mentioned that a certain speaker, of consular rank (Cicero), and
neighbour to the consul (Cæsar), had suggested to him that some Ahala
Servilius, or Brutus, must be found" (Cicero, "Ad Att." ii. 24).

In Cæsar's fourth consulship, the year before he was killed, for some
reason or other the defence of King Deiotarus by Cicero was heard by
Cæsar in his own house. Cicero says to Cæsar: "I am affected also by
the unusual circumstance of the trial in this place, because I am
pleading so important a cause--one the fellow of which has never been
brought under discussion--within the walls of a private house. I am
pleading it out of the hearing of any court or body of auditors, which
are a great support and encouragement to an orator. I rest on nothing
but your eyes, your person, your countenance. I behold you alone; the
whole of my speech is necessarily confined to you alone.... But since
the walls of a house narrow all these topics, and since the pleading
of the cause is greatly crippled by the place, it behoves you, O
Cæsar," &c. ("Pro Deiot." ii.).

It was in the year of his prætorship (62 B.C.) that the scandal of
Clodius being found in the house whilst they were about to celebrate
the rites of the Bona Dea happened. "When the anniversary of the
festival comes, the consul or prætor (for it is at the house of one of
them that it is kept) goes out, and not a male is left in it"
(Plutarch, "Cæsar"). The trial that such a scene gave rise to caused
Cæsar's celebrated words on being asked why he had divorced his wife:
"Because I would have the chastity of my wife clear even of suspicion"
(Plutarch, "Cæsar").

Plutarch speaks of it as "a great house." Ovid says the house of Numa,
the Regia, was "small," showing that the house of Cæsar and the Regia
were two distinct edifices.

This old house of which we have been speaking fronted towards the
Temple of Vesta, whilst the portico and shops, built at a late period
over its ruins, ran parallel with the Via Sacra. The house side of the
atrium is plainly marked by the fragments of columns, composed of
travertine coated with stucco, and frescoed. There is the base of an
isolated column near what must have been the middle of the house side;
and to its right there is a half column of the same workmanship, and
between these two bases runs a travertine gutter which drained the
atrium. Amidst the shops built over the atrium are remains of
beautiful black and white mosaic pavement, the fragments of the
borders showing that they once belonged to the older edifice. On the
right of the atrium, towards the Via Sacra, was an area-vestibulum,
giving access to the house from the Via Sacra, and, like it, paved
with polygonal blocks of silex.

There was another entrance to the house at the point where it nearly
touched, at its north-eastern corner, the Via Sacra. The bases of two
columns mark the ingress into a small vestibule which has a mosaic
pavement, on the right of which was the entrance to the house, the
threshold of travertine stone being _in situ_. There are the two holes
at the ends where the doors turned on their pivots, and the bolt-hole
in the middle.


After the fire, the site of Cæsar's house was occupied by shops and
dwellings, along the front of which was an arcade. As these shops were
mostly kept by pearl-dealers, the arcade was known as the Porticus
Margaritaria. It is mentioned in the "Curiosum" and the "Notitia" of
the fourth century as in the eighth region, Forum Romanum Magnum.

In the recent excavations along the line of the Via Sacra, the
remains of an arcade 201 feet long by 24 feet wide, and consisting of
two rows of piers, have been found running parallel with the street,
and having shops on either side. This no doubt is the Porticum
Margaritarium of the catalogues. Beneath the arcade and the shops are
the remains of Cæsar's house. Judging from the monumental stones, the
pearl trade was an extensive one in Rome; and from the same authority
we learn that the shops were on the Sacra Via. This is mentioned on
the tomb of Ateilius Evhodus at the sixth mile on the Via Appia.


Horace was wont to come down the Sacred Way ("S." i. 9), and talks of
Britons descending it in chains ("Ep." vii.). Now we are free to
ascend it. Where the Sacred Way ascends the Velia ridge it will be
noticed that the road is extraordinarily wide (45 feet). This was no
doubt made after the great fire under Commodus, for four feet below
the pavement was found the original and narrower street, and beneath
that the drain in the reticulated work of the republic.

The right-hand side of the ascent was bordered with honorary monuments
and inscriptions to Trajan, Hadrian, Titus, Septimius Severus,
Caracalla, and Constantine; but the most interesting, perhaps, was the
monument with Greek inscription of Gordianus, erected to him by the
citizens of Tarsus, St. Paul's city, and interesting as showing that
the close friendship between Rome and Tarsus continued to this late
period. Four columns of Porta Santa marble stood on a podium, 7 feet
by 4 feet, and supported a canopy, under which was the emperor's
statue. On the cornice was the inscription, ΤΑΡϹΕωΝ , filled
in with bronze.


This was the street mentioned by Dionysius as leading into the Carinæ.

In the "Curiosum" and "Notitia" is mentioned the Apollinem
Sandaliarium. This was a statue of Apollo, which gave name to a street
of the fourth region. Suetonius ("Aug." lvii.) says: "With which
donations Augustus purchased some costly images of the gods, which he
erected in several of the streets of the city, as that of Apollo
Sandaliarius." It is mentioned by Aulus Gellius (xviii. 4): "In
Sandaliario forte apud librarios fuimus." Also by Galen ("De Libris
suis," iv. 361).

The marble plan of Rome shows this street by the letters DLARIVS.

This was the street, recently excavated, between the Temple of the
Penates and the Basilica Constantine, and which led into the Suburra.

At the entrance from the Via Sacra there still exists a brick pedestal
on which the statue may have stood. For engraving of this, see Gruter,
cvi. 7, and Dcxxi. 3.

In this street the remains of the Temple of Venus and Rome can be
distinctly seen. A short distance up it is tunnelled over to allow the
Basilica of Constantine to square; but the tunnel is closed about half
way through. From the level of the street the western tribunal of the
Basilica has been built up. The tunnel, called Arco d'Ladroni, and the
street itself, have been used as a burial-place by the monks of the
church; and there is a ninth century fresco of the dead body of the
Saviour over a shrine on the left.

_Beyond is the_


the colossal arches of which have served as models to architects for
building all the larger churches in Rome. This splendid ruin usually
bears the name of the Temple of Peace, erected by Vespasian in this
neighbourhood and partly on this site, and which was destroyed by fire
as early as the time of Commodus, A.D. 191. Herodianus, who saw the
fire, says: "By the slight earthquake and the thunderbolt which
followed it, the whole of the sacred enclosure was consumed." Claudius
Galenus, the celebrated physician, says that the whole edifice was
consumed, as also most of his writings, which were in his shop in the
Via Sacra.

This is one of the most imposing ruins in Rome; the three noble arches
which formed the northern side being almost perfect, rising to the
height of 95 feet, and having a span of 80 feet. The southern side was
similar; whilst a noble vaulted roof, supported from the side piers
and arches, covered the centre. Thus, entering from the Vicus Eros, on
the east, the spectator saw a magnificent hall 333 feet long by 84
feet wide, with aisles 60 feet in width. To the central hall the
tribunal at the west end was added in the rebuilding of Constantine,
when he made the main entry from the Sacra Via, the ruins of which
exist in the porphyry columns. By this entry the nave is 227 feet
long, the tribunal being 24 feet deep, and the aisles 80 feet wide.

Nibby has the merit of having been the first to prove that these ruins
are the last remains of the Basilica erected by Maxentius, and
completed and partially rebuilt by Constantine the Great. In 1828 a
medal of Maxentius was found amongst the ruins of a piece of the
vault which fell down. The principal entrance was originally intended
to have been on the side facing the Colosseum, towards a street that
ran out from the left of the Via Sacra, which, turning to the right,
reached the Colosseum.

At a later period it may have been found more suitable to add a
splendid portal on the side facing the Via Sacra; opposite to which,
in the central side arch, a tribune was erected. So whichever way you
enter it, it is a nave with two aisles. Of the vast vaulted arches
spanning the middle space, only the supports from which the arches
sprang still exist. These, however, suffice to indicate what they must
have been. The Basilica contained many works of art, and the roof was
supported by eight columns. The Via Sacra here passed along the front
of the present Church of S. Francis of the Romans, and the Arch of
Titus, to the Palatine.

_By applying at No. 61 Via del Colosseo, at the back of the Basilica,
permission will be given to ascend to the top, from which a
magnificent view is obtained._

_On our right is the_


Built in the ninth century, and called S. Maria Nuova. The mosaic on
the apse dates from 862. There is a monument to Gregory XI., and a
relief representing the return of the Papal court to Rome from
Avignon. In the transept are the two stones marked with depressions,
said to have been where Peter knelt when he prayed that Simon Magus
might fall. (See picture in S. Peter's, page 115.) The church contains
a beautiful marble _ciborium_, and monuments to Cardinal Vulcani,
1322, and General Rido, 1475.

_In the Via S. Teodoro is the entrance to_


_Open every day. Admission, one lira. Sunday, free. In order to fully
understand these ruins, it is advisable to attend the lectures given
on the spot by the author of these Rambles, Mr. S. Russell Forbes, who
conducts visitors over, describing fully the remains of the Arcadian,
Kingly, Republican, and Imperial Periods. Particulars to be had at 93
Via Babuino._


Itinerary for Visiting the Palatine.

_Turn to the left when through Entrance Gate._

     Nos._        _Subject._                   _Page._

      1.     ENTRANCE.

      2.     Palace of Caligula.                    79

      3.     Palace of Tiberius.                    79

      4.     Temple of Cybele.                      76

      5.     Altar of Apollo.                       75

      6.     Temple of Roma Quadrata.               75

      7.     Arches of Romulus.                     72

      8.     Porta Carmenta.                        73

      9.     Temple of Victory.                     77

    9 A.   Shrine of Maiden Victory.                77

     10.     House of Germanicus.                   78

     11.     Crypto-Portico.                        78

     12.     Site of the Murder of Caligula.        78

     13.     Temple of Jupiter Stator.              76

     14.     Porta Mugonia.                         73

     15.     Lararium.                              71

     16.     Basilica.                              82

     17.     Palace of Domitian.                    81

     18.     House of Augustus.                     78

     19.     Curiæ Veteres.                         76

     20.     Auditorium.                            81

     21.     Temple of Jupiter Victor.              77

     22.     _Path_, down.

     23.     _Path_, left.

     24.     Buildings of Domitian.                 80

     25.     Palace of Commodus.                    84

     26.     Stadium.                               83

     27.     Odeum.                                 83

     28.     _Path_, up, turn right.

     29.     Palace of Septimius Severus.           84

     30.     Nymphæum of Marcus Aurelius.           83

     31.     _Path_, down through garden.

     32.     Gelotiana.                             79

     33.     Piece of the Second Wall of Rome.  xviii.

     34.     _Path_, round base of hill.

     35.     Altar to Aius Loquens.                 77

     36.     Walls of Romulus.                      72

     37.     Reservoir.

 38, 39.     Walls of Romulus.                      71

     40.     Porta Romana.                          73

     41.     Walls of Romulus, cliff.               71

The foundations of most magnificent buildings of the imperial times
lie buried in the gardens. The paintings on the walls are in
themselves sufficient to give us an idea of the splendour of the
internal decorations of the Roman palaces. The streets, temples,
palaces, &c., are full of interest. Some beautiful views may be had
from various parts of the gardens, from the height near the entrance,
as well as looking over the site of the CIRCUS MAXIMUS, which occupied
the valley between the Palatine and Aventine Hills.

_In our description of the Palatine we have classed the remains in
chronological order. In the accompanying plan they are numbered in the
order in which they are best visited. The numbers correspond with
those placed by the title of the different ruins in the Guide; so that
the visitor can follow the numbers consecutively in his ramble, and
turn to the corresponding number for the description. We only treat of
the actual remains._


In studying the Palatine Hill, the topography presents the first
difficulty. It must be borne in mind that the form of the hill has
undergone many important changes since the days of Romulus, and, as
seen by us, is very different from what it was when Romulus built his
city. Now it presents a lozenge-shaped form; then it was oblong and
smaller. Our theory is, that if a line be drawn from about the Arch of
Titus across the hill, that part to the right or west was the extent
of the hill in the time of Romulus; and that to the left or east,
formerly "the pastures round the old town" (Varro), now presenting the
form of a hill, was no hill then. From a careful survey of the part to
the left of our line, we find it to be artificially formed of imperial
ruins upon the top of ruins, rubbish, and accumulation of soil, and
not of rock or solid earth. This new light does away with innumerable
difficulties in studying the form of Roma Quadrata, and presents to us
instead a very simple story.

If the hill had been of the same form then as now, Romulus would have
occupied the whole of it: this he certainly did not do, as his walls
are to the right of our line; and it is not likely that he would have
left part of the hill outside his boundary to command his city or to
be occupied by foes.

Our view agrees with classic authority. Tacitus (xii. 24) describing
the pomœrium or boundary of Roma Quadrata, which went round the
base of the hill on the level below, thus showing its shape, says:
"The first outline began at the Ox-Market, where still is to be seen
the brazen statue of a bull, that animal being commonly employed at
the plough. From that place a furrow was carried on of sufficient
dimensions to include the great Altar of Hercules. By boundary stones,
fixed at proper distances, the circuit was continued along the foot of
Mount Palatine to the Altar of Consus, extending thence to the Old
Curiæ; next, to the Chapel of the Lares." These buildings were built
after Roma Quadrata, with the exception of the Altar of Hercules, and
are mentioned by Tacitus to mark the line; they existed when he wrote.
Ovid ("Fasti," iv. 825) says: "Pressing the tail of the plough, he
traces out the walls with a furrow; a white cow with a snow-white bull
bears the yoke." Dionysius (i. 88) says: "Romulus called the people to
a place appointed, and described a quadrangular figure about the hill,
tracing with a plough, drawn by a bull and a cow yoked together, one
_continued_ furrow." Taking these authors for our guides, we can
easily trace the line of the pomœrium. Commencing at the Forum
Boarium, which site is well known, it went down to the Altar of
Hercules, which must have also been in the Forum Boarium, "in the spot
where a part of the city has its name derived from an ox" (Ovid,
"Fasti," i. 581). Taking in this altar, it passed under the Palatine's
southern side to the Ara Consi, which Tertullian ("De Spec." v.) tells
us was buried in the circus at the first meta. It here turned to the
east, passing along the valley which then existed, along our imaginary
line; for it is ridiculous to suppose that it would have passed right
across the Palatine had the hill been then what it is now. From the
Altar of Consus it extended past the Old Curiæ, which we think may be
seen in the tufa walls under the south end of the Palace of Domitian
(19), then to the Chapel of the Lares, which stands at the head of the
Sacra Via below the Palace of Domitian (17).

"Ædem Larum in Summa Sacra Via" ("Mon. Ancyr."). "Ancus Martius
(habitavit) in Summa Sacra Via, ubi ædes Larum est" (Solinus, i. 24).
"Romulus built a temple to Jupiter, near the gate called Mugonia,
which leads to the Palatine Hill from the Sacra Via" (Dionysius, ii.
30). The Sacred Way did not pass through the Arch of Titus, as is
generally supposed, but passing by it led up to the Palatine--this can
be seen by examining the stones--and was then called Clivus Palatinus.
A large piece of the pavement still exists on the Palatine, leading up
to the Ædem Larum, and which road is miscalled Nova Via. The road
leading from the Arch of Titus to that of Constantine was called the
Clivus Triumphalis.

Hence the furrow must have passed under the north side of the
Palatine, and down the west side to where it began; for Tacitus's
account says, "Hence to the Forum which was added by Tatius." This
furrow marked the bounds of the city, within which were the walls, the
city itself occupying the hill above.

The remains of the walls of Roma Quadrata existing are sufficient to
show us their exact line, for we have remains on four different sides,
and, curious enough, at three of the angles. On the west and east
sides it appears to have been built up to support the scarped cliff
and above it; but on the south it ran along the edge on the top of the
cliff--the valley below, beyond the pomœrium, being then the
Murzian Lake. Along the southern cliff it was not a solid wall, but
had embrasures, through which a _balista_ or _catapult_ might be fired
upon an enemy below--the remains of which are still existing. These
are the oldest Roman arches, being older than the Cloaca of Tarquin or
the arches of Ancus Martius.

"But Romulus had formed the _idea_ of a city rather than a _real_
city; for inhabitants were wanting" (Florus, i. 1).

The principal roadway upon the Palatine was the Nova Via, a new way,
evidently made after the Via Sacra, and simply called Nova Via without
any distinguishing name being given to it. It commenced at the Porta
Mugonia on the east, inside Roma Quadrata, and was here called Summa
Nova Via. "Tarquinius Priscus ad Mugoniam Portam supra Summam Novam
Viam" [habitabat] (Solinus, i. 24). From this point it went along the
north and down the west side past the gate--there being steps down
from the gate to the road. The descent off the hill was called the
Hill of Victory. "Sed Porta Romana instituta est a Romulo infimo Clivo
Victoriæ" (Festus). "Quæ habet gradus in Nova Via" (Varro). Passing by
the Porta Romana it turned to the left, or west, under the Palatine to
the Velabrum, where it ended. This part was called Infima Nova Via.
"Aius Loquens in Infima Nova Via" (Varro, "Ap. Gell." xvi. 17). This
altar still exists at the south-west corner under the Palatine. "Hoc
Sacrificium [to Larentia] fit in Velabro, qua in novam Viam exitur"
(Varro, "Ling. Lat." vi.).


5, 6, 7, 8, 13, 19, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41.

Romulus, the son of Rhea Silvia and Mars, founded Rome on the Palatine
Hill, above the Tiber, 753 B.C., on the site of the Arcadian city of
Evander, near the Lupercal, where the wolf had given him suckle. The
city was built after the Etruscan rites, and surrounded by a massive
wall, in a quadrangular form, whence it was called Roma Quadrata. See
"Walls of Rome," page xvii.


Pliny (iii. 9) informs us that the city was entered by three gates.


situated on the east of the hill, the site of which has been
identified by Varro ("L. L." 164):--

"Moreover, I observe that the gates within the walls are thus named;
that at the Palatine 'Mucionis' (from 'mugitus,' lowing), because
through it they used to drive out the cattle into the pastures around
the old town."


At the middle of the western side, at the commencement of the ascent
on the Via Nova, called the Clivus Victoriæ in commemoration of the
victory of Romulus over Acron. The remains were discovered March 1886.
Varro says:--

"The other, called Romulana, was so called from Rome, the same which
has steps into the Nova Via at the shrine of Volupiæ."

Festus, speaking of the same gate, says:--

"But the Porta Romana was set up by Romulus above the foot of the Hill
of Victory, and this place is formed of tiers of steps disposed in a
square. It is called Romana by the Sabines in particular, because it
is the nearest entrance to Rome from the side of the Sabines."


Authorities on the subject say that the name and position of the third
gate are lost.

Now we contend that the mass of ruins called the Scali Caci are the
remains of the third gate, and that that gate was the Porta Carmenta,
as distinctly stated by Virgil in his description of the meeting of
Æneas and Evander, "without the gates." "Thus, walking on, he spoke,
and showed the gate, _since_ called Carmental by the Roman state; then
stopping, through the narrow gate they pressed" (Virgil, "Æn.,"
viii.). The position corresponds with his description, and is just the
spot where a gate would be required. The remains consist of two
different early periods--immense blocks of soft tufa of the Arcadian
period, and blocks of hard brown tufa of the time of Romulus,
corresponding with the material of which his wall is built.

The Porta Carmenta was to the south, and is thus mentioned by
Propertius (iv. 1):--

"Where rose that house of Remus upon tiers of steps, a single hearth
was once the brothers' modest reign."

We suppose he uses the name of Remus here instead of Romulus on
account of the rhythm.

Solinus gives this description of it:--

"It [Roma Quadrata] begins at the wood which is in the area of Apollo,
and ends at the top of the stairs of Caius, where was [once] the
cottage of Faustulus."

Plutarch says ("Romulus," xx.):--

"Romulus dwelt close by the steps, as they call them, of the fair
shore, near the descent from the Mount Palatine to the Circus Maximus.
There, they say, grew the holy blackthorn tree, of which they report
that Romulus once, to try his strength, threw a dart from Mount
Aventine, which struck so deep that no one could pluck it up, and grew
into a trunk of considerable size, which posterity preserved and
worshipped as one of the most sacred things, and therefore walled it

"But, they say, when Caius Cæsar was repairing the steps about it,
some of the labourers digging too close, the root corrupted, and the
tree quite withered."

Now, in this passage, we think we have an explanation of why it is
called the Stairs of Caius, _not_ Cacus. This name does not refer to
Cacus, the shepherd robber, who had his cave on the Aventine, but, as
we learn from the above passage from Plutarch, to Caius the emperor,
who was nicknamed Caligula from his having worn the sandals so-called
of the Roman troops--he having been brought up in the camp on the
banks of the Rhine, Caius being his proper name. He, as we have seen,
repaired these steps, and so they were called after him; but that was
not their previous name. The question arises, What was that name? Why,
none other than the Porta Carmenta, the missing third gate of Roma
Quadrata, "the gate _since_ called Carmental by the Roman state."

It was up this gateway that the Romans brought the Sabine women when
they ran off with them in the Circus Maximus. Valerius Antias says
they were five hundred and forty-seven in number; Plutarch says there
were six hundred and eighty-three, and that the event took place on
the 18th of August.

But before this the gate had another name, the original name in the
Arcadian period. We know from Virgil and Diodorus Siculus that it
existed before the time of Romulus, and was incorporated by him into
his city. Let us see what that name was.

"Hercules, after he had gone through Liguria and Tuscany, encamped on
the banks of the Tiber, where Rome now stands, built many ages after
by Romulus, the son of Mars. The natural inhabitants at that time
inhabited a little town upon a hill, now called Mount Palatine. Here
Potitius and Pinarius, the most eminent persons of quality among them,
entertained Hercules. There are now at Rome ancient monuments of these
men; for the most noble family, called the Pinarii, remains still
among the Romans, and is accounted the most ancient at this day. And
there are Potitius's stone stairs to go down from Mount Palatine
(called after his name), adjoining to that which was anciently his
house" (Diodorus Siculus, iv. 1). Thus we see that the spot was
originally called the Stairs of Potitius.

Virgil ("Æn.," viii.) informs us that Potitius, the Arcadian high
priest, instituted the worship of Hercules; and that the priests were
selected from the Pinarian house.

"When the new walls were built by Servius Tullius, one of his gates
was named Carmentalis after the above tradition; the original Porta
Carmenta having become obsolete."

The valley between the Palatine and Aventine, the site of the Circus
Maximus, was formerly the Murzian Lake or bay, formed by an arm of the
Tiber, and these stairs led down to the fair shore (Pulcrum Littus,
Καλὴ Ἀκτή)--that is, to the shore of the lake, where Æneas
landed--and this had nothing to do with the banks of the Tiber, which
would hardly be called a fair shore by Plutarch. Virgil calls it "the

_The above name was also given to one of the temples._


"A certain hallowed place on the Palatine before the Altar of Apollo
Rhamnusii (5), which every city built with Etruscan rites contained,
and in which were placed those things considered of good omen in
founding a city" (Festus). This hallowed place, as well as the city,
was called by Romulus Roma Quadrata.


called the Altar of Apollo of the Blackthorn. Erected in commemoration
of the blackthorn tree that sprang from the staff of Romulus. The
large tufa blocks of the altar, and in front of it the Temple of Roma
Quadrata, still remain, and by their side the Porta Carmenta.


Romulus divided the people into three tribes, and each tribe into ten
curiæ (Dionysius, ii. 8), thus making thirty curiæ in all. Each curia
had its own priests and separate dining-room and chapel, which were
also called curiæ (_Ibid._, ii. 23). The only one of these which we
have mentioned as existing at a late period is the one connected with
the Palatine: as we have seen, it is one of the objects Tacitus gives
us for the line of the plough. Now, on the Palatine, on that line, we
have a ruin below the present surface agreeing with the time of
Romulus in its construction, to which no name has been given by the
topographers, but which we consider as the Curiæ Veteres mentioned by
Tacitus. It now supports the Auditorium of Domitian.


"was where the Roma Quadrata ended, at the corner as you turn from the
Palatine Hill to the Circus" (Dionysius). It was upon that part of the
hill called Germalus from the twins being left there when the flood
went down. This would be the shelf at the south-west corner of the


vowed by Romulus when his army was fleeing before the Sabines, if
Jupiter would stay their flight; hence the name. "Romulus built a
temple to Jupiter near the Porta Mugonia" (Dionysius, ii. 30). It was
restored by Scipio, A.U.C. 459 (Livy, x. 37). It was in this temple
that Cicero made his first oration against Catiline (Plutarch). Cicero
says that here the goods of Pompey were offered for sale.


It was not till the glories of the republic outshone the memory of the
kings that the Palatine became the favourite residence of the wealthy.
We have record of the houses inhabited by Vaccus, Catulus, Crassus,
the Gracchi, Ceneus, Cicero, Scaurus, Mark Antony, and other notorious
republicans. Some slight remains of republican walls can be seen at
various points.


Dedicated by M. J. Brutus, B.C. 191, under the name of Mater Idæa,
Mother of the Gods (Livy, xxxvi. 36). "Cybele was not worshipped in
Rome till A.U.C. 550, when the goddess, a stone, was brought from
Pessinus, a city of Phrygia, by Scipio Nasica" (Strabo). The vessel
containing it having grounded at the mouth of the Tiber, remained
immovable till Claudia Quinta, to prove her chastity, after calling
upon the goddess, drew the ship with slight effort to Rome (Ovid,
"Fasti," vi. 300). This event is commemorated upon an altar in the
Capitoline Museum. The form of the temple remains, and part of the
seated statue of the goddess, a beautiful fragment, corresponding with
her figure as represented on coins. The remains are of _opus


The remains of this are just inside the Porta Carmenta. It was founded
originally by the Greek settlers, and restored under the republic; the
construction agrees with this supposition, for here we have the two
different stones used in these periods, soft tufa and peperino.

"Upon the top of the hill they set apart a piece of ground, which they
dedicated to Victory, and instituted annual sacrifices to be offered
up to her also, which the Romans perform even in my time" (Dionysius,
i. 32), A.U.C. 458. "They carried the statue of Cybele into the Temple
of Victory on the Palatine Hill" (Livy, xxix. 14).

_Near this ruin, on the other side of the road, are the remains of_


In A.U.C. 560, "Marcus Portius Cato dedicated a chapel to Maiden
Victory, near the Temple of Victory, two years after he had vowed it"
(Livy, xxxv. 9).


Still standing; was erected 124 B.C., on the site where Camillus had
erected the original, in the undetermined state, to the unknown voice
that warned Marcus Cedicius of the approaching Gauls, 391 B.C.

"In the Via Nova, where now is the shrine, above the Temple of Vesta"
(Livy, v. 23). "A voice was heard in the Grove of Vesta, which skirts
the Nova Via at the foot of the Palatine" (Cicero, "Div." i. 45).


Founded during the second Samnite war by Fabius Maximus (Livy, x.
29)--326-304 B.C.--overlooking the Circus Maximus. The remains consist
of tufa substructions, steps leading up to the temple, and some
peperino fragments.

The circular altar on the steps, found close by, bears an inscription
to Calvinus, consul B.C. 53-40.


(_See plan, page 81_)

called erroneously by various authorities the House of Claudius Nero,
of Livia, of Augustus. It was incorporated into the Imperial Palace by
Tiberius, though for very many years it preserved its distinctive
title. Josephus tells us that "Caligula was killed in a private narrow
passage within the palace as he was going to the bath, having turned
from the direct road along which his servants had gone. The passages
also were narrow wherein the work was done, and crowded with Caius's
attendants, whence it was that they went by other ways, and came to
the house of Germanicus, which house adjoined to the palace." A
crypto-portico still connects this house with the Palace of Caligula,
another going off at right angles to the House of Augustus.

We have here a good specimen of a Roman house. In the vestibulum are
remains of the mosaic floor and frescoed walls. The atrium still shows
the pattern of its pavement. The tricliniarium is ornamented with
frescoes of arabesque work, animals and fountains, also with mosaic
pavement. The tablinium, in three parallel halls, painted with
beautiful arabesque groups; wreaths of flowers and fruit; a group of
Galatea and Polyhymnia; another of Mercury, Io, and Argus; a view of a
Roman house; a lady at her toilet, &c. Behind these is the
peristylium, out of which open the bedrooms, bath, kitchen, &c. In the
centre tablinium are some leaden pipes, found in the excavations,
stamped with the names of Julia, Domitian, and Niger,--the daughter of
Augustus, the emperor, and the insurgent.


gradually incorporated the whole of the Palatine buildings; and when
we speak of the Palace of the Cæesars, it is not meant that it was
one, but different palaces, built by different emperors, called after
them, and connected with those previously erected by crypto-porticoes.


"He resided in a small house formerly belonging to Hortensius. This
was destroyed by fire, and rebuilt by contributions of the public"
(Suetonius). The palace was destroyed by fire, under Titus, A.D. 72;
the ruins were filled in by Domitian in the second year of his reign,
and upon the top he built his celebrated palace. The remains of the
Palace of Augustus--not now accessible, being under the convent--were
explored and partly excavated some years ago.

From the PALACE OF DOMITIAN (17) we can descend into some of the
small chambers, the vault of one being adorned with a fresco
representing Victory.


mentioned by Suetonius as the place from which Caligula viewed the
games in the Circus Maximus, is supposed to have been a house occupied
by the guard and servants of the palace. Its ruin consists of chambers
at the base of the hill, under the convent. It was here that the skit
of the Crucifixion, now in the Museum of the Collegio Romano, was
found. (See page 160.) The walls are still covered with names, &c.,
scratched by the soldiers.


We learn from Suetonius and Tacitus that it was situated on the
western side of the Palatine, overlooking and communicating with the
Velabrum. The remains consist of vast halls and substructions, and a
row of arches supposed to have been the guard's quarters. This palace
has yet to be excavated.


"Having continued part of the Palatine as far as the Forum, he
converted the Temple of Castor and Pollux into the vestibule of his
house." "He built a bridge over the temple of the deified Augustus, by
which he joined the Palatine to the Capitol" (Suetonius). He connected
his palace with that of Tiberius by means of porticoes. The remains
consist of a suite of rooms, portions built over the Clivus Victoriæ,
chambers with fresco and stucco decorations, and mosaic pavements,
also a portion of the beautiful marble balustrade of the solarium.
Suetonius tells us that this palace was destroyed by fire; in fact,
most of the remains show the construction of Hadrian, who must have
rebuilt it and used it as his palace.

The remains of this palace have been recently uncovered at the
northern side of the Palatine. It appears that the palace was built in
a series of terraces against the Palatine Hill, the construction
showing work of Caligula, Trajan, and Septimius Severus. There are
some chambers which were warmed with hot air in terra-cotta pipes, and
containing fragments of statuary on the lowest level excavated. Then,
on the terrace above, there is an arcade paved with blocks of silex,
and on one side shops. A flight of travertine steps conducts to some
small chambers above, with mosaic pavements and frescoes, which were
built by Hadrian against a wall of Caligula having frescoes on yellow
and white grounds. The side walls and vaults are decorated with
frescoes of the time of Hadrian.

  [Illustration: PLAN OF THE PALACE OF DOMITIAN, A.D. 81-96.

     A, Tablinium.
     B, Lararium.
     C, Basilica.
     D, Vestibule.
     E, Tricliniarium.
     F, Nymphæum.
     G, Temple Jupiter Victor.
     H, Vometarium.
     K, Cubiculum.]

  [Illustration: PLAN OF HOUSE OF GERMANICUS, A.D. 1]


He used the remains of Augustus's palace, destroyed by fire in the
second year of the reign of Titus, filling in the chambers of the
earlier buildings with earth, so that they formed a solid foundation.
"He embellished the portico, in which he took his airing, with
polished stone, so that he might observe if any one approached him"
(Suetonius). The remains consist of the tablinium, or summer-parlour;
the lararium, or chapel of the household gods; the bed-chamber where
he was assassinated; the tricliniarium, or dining-room; the
peristylium, or open court; nymphæum, or aquarium; the vometarium;
auditorium; and the crypto-porticoes connecting it with the other


When the Palace of Augustus and the other edifices were burned down,
Domitian filled them in with earth, and on the top of the platform
built his palace. But some of the destroyed edifices were consecrated:
as he could not do away with them, he rebuilt them upon the higher
level, over their old sites. The basilica and chapel of the household
gods were both treated in this way. As this was the only basilica on
the Palatine, we may presume that it was the court of appeal unto
Cæsar himself. If so, on this site S. Paul appeared before Nero; but
not in this identical building, which was erected by Domitian, A.D.
81-96, after Paul's death, A.D. 64.


The Basilica was the hall of justice, coming from a Greek word
signifying "the regal hall." It consisted of a tribunal, nave, and
aisles. The form was oblong; the middle was an open space, called
_testudo_, and which we now call the nave. On each side of this were
rows of pillars, which formed what we should call the aisles, and
which the ancients called _porticus_. The end of the testudo was
curved, and was called the _tribunal_, from causes being heard there.
A rail separating the tribunal from the body of the hall was called
_cancelli_, because it was of open work. Not far from the entrance was
a round stone in the pavement, on which the prisoner stood to be
tried. Between the judge's seat on the tribunal and the rails stood
the altar of Apollo. These halls were likewise used as places of
exchange by business men. Being the largest halls the Romans had, the
form of them was copied by the early Christians for their churches.
The tribunal was called the apse; in some churches it is still called
the tribunal. The judge's seat gave place to the bishop's throne; the
altar of Apollo to the communion table; the cancelli to the chancel;
and the fountain in the court in front to the holy-water basins; and
so the name was handed down and given to Christian churches, though
there is not a single church in Rome that was once a pagan basilica,
or hall of justice. Many of the so-called basilicas are not true
basilicas, for they have introduced the transept to give them the form
of a cross.


On the east side of the Palatine, built by Domitian, and only partly
excavated. Used for races both for men and women. "Young girls ran
races in the Stadium, at which Domitian presided in his sandals,
dressed in a purple robe made after the Grecian fashion, and wearing
upon his head a golden crown bearing the effigies of Jupiter, Juno,
and Minerva; with the flamen of Jupiter and the college of priests
sitting at his side in the same dress, excepting only that their
crowns had also his own image on them" (Suetonius).

The work of excavating the Stadium is not yet completed. It appears
that the portico surrounding it originally consisted of cipollino
columns, with composite capitals. This was rebuilt in the third
century in two tiers, supported with half-columns of brick, coated
with slabs of marble, having Ionic bases and Doric capitals. A brick
stamp informs us that the Imperial tribune was built in the third
consulship of Ursus Servianus, under Hadrian, 134. At the edge of the
foot-course, below the portico, was a marble channel to carry off the
rain-water. Traces of the spina still remain. The Stadium seems to
have been altered into a hippodrome in the time of Diocletian by
building elliptical walls upon its surface. The following stamp was
found on some of the bricks,--A.D. 500 OFFS R. F. MARCI HIPPODROME
repairs ordered by the great king during his six months' visit to


On the right of the Stadium, for musical performances, with three
chambers underneath decorated with fresco work.


We claim the honour of having discovered the use of these imposing
ruins, whose summit is climbed by many visitors to enjoy the fine view
over the Campagna. It was built by the best of the Roman emperors as a
large reservoir for the supply of water to the Palatine Hill, acting
as the Trevi Fountain does at present. We have traced the specus of
the aqueduct to it; and the top is covered with _opus signinum_, the
peculiar cement used by the Romans whenever they conducted water.

The brickwork shows signs of careful construction; the courses of
cement carefully laid between the bricks being of the same thickness
as the bricks themselves, seven of which measure a foot. The Nymphæum
probably took its name from the female statues which decorated it,
handing down the custom of the ancient Romans in peopling the springs
with nymphs.

It is thus mentioned by Marcellinus (xv. vii. 3):--"The Emperor Marcus
built the Nymphæum, an edifice of great magnificence, near the
well-known Septemzodium," which was built by Septimius Severus at the
corner of the Palatine, where slight traces of it remain; it having
been destroyed by Pope Sixtus V.

The spot now forms a pleasant terrace, from which a splendid prospect
of the southern part of ancient Rome, the Campagna, and the distant
Alban Hills may be enjoyed. In fact, a vast study is spread, like a
map, before the visitor.


stood on the south-east side of the hill. He constructed a passage
from the Palatine to the arena of the Colosseum. He was strangled in
his chamber; and his successor, Pertinax, was stabbed in the same
palace. This was destroyed by fire, and on the top of the ruins was
erected the Palace of Septimius Severus, Caracalla, and Alexander
Severus. The remains consist of numerous chambers, corridors, and
vaults, still retaining some of their mosaic pavements and stucco
roofs, with walls built into them in a very confused manner, showing
different alterations. The palace is to be cleared out.


After the death of Alexander Severus, A.D. 235, we have little or no
history of buildings upon the Palatine, and there are no remains the
construction of which shows a later date. Indeed the emperors reigned
but a short time down to Diocletian, except Gallienus, who, we know,
had a palace and gardens on the Esquiline. Fifty years after Alexander
Severus died a great blow was struck at the grandeur of Rome; for the
colleagues in empire, Diocletian and Maximian, made new capitals at
Milan and Nicomedia, and thus divided the seat of power and empire. In
A.D. 302, eighteen years after his declaration, Diocletian came to
Rome for the first time, to celebrate his triumph, making a short stay
of two months. The year 312 witnessed a great change. On October 28
the great Constantine, the first Christian emperor, and a Briton, made
his entry into the imperial city, which for years had ceased to give
rulers to the empire, and was now to be the seat of government no
longer. Constantine did not make a long stay in the city; and, after
he had secured his power, removed in 330 the capital of the empire to
Byzantium, which was named Constantinople, to decorate which Rome was
stripped of statues, marbles, and works of art. In 356 Constantius
visited Rome, which had been abandoned by her rulers and denied the
splendours of the imperial court. "After his entry he retired into the
imperial palace, where he enjoyed the luxury he had wished for." "He
quitted Rome on the thirtieth day after his entry (29th May)"
(Marcellinus). The same historian informs us that, "on the night of
the 18th of March 362, the Temple of Apollo, on the Palatine, was
burned down." Theodosius, in 394, entered Rome in triumph. Honorius,
his son, in 403 celebrated the grandest triumph since that of
Diocletian, one hundred years before. Indeed, during this long period
but four emperors had paid flying visits only to their ancient
capital, and the Palace of the Cæsars was falling into decay, as
Claudian, the last of the Roman poets, sings. Honorius for a short
time revived the glories and memories of the past; the curule chairs
once more surrounded the rostra, and their emperor's voice was once
more heard by the _plebs_, whilst they gazed with awe at the lictors
with their gilt fasces. After Honorius's departure, Alaric, and the
barbarians that were with him, in 410, "took Rome itself, which they
pillaged, burning the greatest part of the magnificent structures and
other admirable works of art it contained" (Socrates, "E. H." v. 10).
In 417 Honorius again entered Rome in triumph, and endeavoured to
restore the city, and invited fugitives from all parts to people it.
This benefactor of the city was buried near the supposed remains of S.
Peter in the Vatican basilica. In 425 Valentinian III., whilst still a
boy, received the imperial purple in the ancient Palace of the Cæsars,
at the hands of an ambassador of Theodosius; and, although Ravenna was
the seat of his government, he frequently visited Rome and inhabited
the imperial palace. During one of these visits, in 454, Aetius, the
general, fell in the imperial palace, stabbed by the hand of the
licentious emperor, who drew his sword for the first time to kill the
general who had saved his empire. In the following year, March 27, he
was himself assassinated in the Campus Martius during a review; and
Petronius Maximus was declared emperor, but was in his turn soon after
murdered. The third day thereafter, Genseric and his Vandals entered
Rome, and plundered it of everything they could carry off, from the
seven-branched candlestick to the common utensils of Cæsar's Palace,
which they completely stripped. Avitus, a Gaul, the successor of
Petronius, visited Rome for a short time, and was murdered on his
return to Auvergne. After the throne had been vacant for ten months,
Majorianus was made emperor by Ricimer, 457. He published an edict
from Ravenna against destroying the ancient monuments of Rome and
using the materials for building. Severus Libius was his successor,
and he was poisoned within the walls of the Palatine, August 465.
Anthemius entered Rome in a triumphal procession in April 467, and
revived the Lupercalia games; he was put to death in the palace by
Ricimer, who captured Rome, July 11, 472. From 472 to 476 there were
four emperors, the last of whom, Romulus Augustus, abdicated in
presence of the senate, who proclaimed the extinction of the Western


In A.D. 500 King Theodoric paid a visit of six months to Rome. After
addressing the people from the Rostra ad Palmam, which stands at the
head of the Forum, he took up his residence at the Palace of the
Cæsars, and appointed officers to take care of the ancient monuments.
After his death, Athalaric and his mother governed till the former's
death in 534. Theodatus, his successor, was murdered on the Flaminian
Way, as he was retreating before Belisarius, the general of the
Eastern emperor Justinian, who fixed his quarters at the Pincian
Palace. In 549 Totila captured the city, and resided in the Palace of
the Cæsars, exhibiting games in the Circus Maximus for the last time.
During the winter of 552-553 Narses, the Eastern general, took Rome,
and resided there, Rome being again united to the Eastern Empire,
governed by an exarch, who generally resided at Ravenna. The history
of the Palatine is a blank till the time of Heraclius I. Though not
present himself, a coronation ceremony was held with great pomp in the
Palace of the Cæsars, 610. A great event for Rome took place in 663.
Then, for the last time, she received within her walls her emperor,
Constans II., who contemplated again making her the capital of the
empire. He was received by Pope Vitalianus at the Porta Appia with a
procession of priests with tapers, banners, and crosses,--a curious
contrast with former usages. Constans was the last emperor who resided
in the Palace of the Cæsars, which was even then in a dilapidated
condition; and his time seems to have been occupied with church
ceremonies. His visit lasted twelve days, when he carried off what
plunder he could, besides the gilt bronze tiles of the roof of the
Pantheon. A blank again occurs till Justinian II., in 709, created the
first Duke of Rome, who was afterwards elected by Pope and people, and
resided in the Palace of the Cæsars. For many years the power of the
Church of Rome had been increasing, and in 772 Pope Adrian I. threw
off the nominal sovereignty of the Eastern Empire, and, calling upon
Charlemagne to free him from the Lombard kings, he entered Rome on
Saturday, April 2, Easter eve. Charlemagne confirmed Pepin's gifts to
the Holy See. He again visited it, and on Christmas day A.D. 800 Pope
Leo III. crowned him emperor in S. Peter's, with the title of Emperor
of the Romans. From thence commenced the Holy Roman Empire.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Leaving the Palatine, we turn to the right, and by the
newly-excavated Vicus Vestæ, on the north side of the hill, reach_


On the ridge of the Velia hill, which forms a continuation of the
Palatine, and separates the hollow of the Forum from that of the
Colosseum, a triumphal arch was erected (though not till after his
death and deification) to Titus, the conqueror of Jerusalem. The
reliefs, still preserved within the arch, are among the most
remarkable of the kind existing in Rome as to the position they occupy
in the history of art and of the world. We find here not only the
emperor standing in the triumphal chariot in which he advanced to the
Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, but also the table of the shewbread,
and the seven-branched candlestick, borne in this triumphal procession
as the most precious spoils of the Jewish temple.


"There was a golden table, which weighed many talents; also a golden
candlestick, which was constructed upon a different principle from
anything in use amongst us now. In the middle was the main stem,
which rose out of the base; from this proceeded smaller branches, very
much resembling the form of a trident; and on the top of them was a
lamp, worked in brass. There were seven such in all, emblematic of the
seven days of the Jewish week. The Law of the Jews was the last of
those spoils in the procession" (Josephus, "Wars of the Jews," viii.
v. 5). "The legs of the table were perfectly finished in the lower
half, like those the Dorians put upon their couches, but the upper
half of them was worked square" (Josephus, "Antiquities of the Jews,"
iii. vi. 6).

Two censers were placed upon the table; in front of the table are two
trumpets crossed. (See Exodus xxv. 26).

These spoils were deposited by Vespasian in the Temple of Peace. After
the sack of Rome, A.D. 455, the Vandal king Genseric carried them to
Carthage. Belisarius recovered them, A.D. 535, and took them to
Constantinople; and they were transferred from there to the Christian
Church in Jerusalem (Procopius, "De Bell. Vand.," i. 5 and ii. 4).

Evagrius (iv. 17) relates that when Khosroes, king of Persia, took
Jerusalem in 614, they passed into his hands; and all trace of them
has been lost since then. It is altogether erroneous to suppose they
were thrown into the Tiber.

_On the opposite side_ is the Emperor Titus in a chariot drawn by four
horses, preceded by Romans wearing laurel wreaths and carrying the
fasces. Behind the chariot, Victory is in the act of placing a crown
on the emperor's head. The vault is ornamented with square coffers and
roses, and in the centre the apotheosis of Titus, in square relief.

At this point the Via Sacra was sometimes called the Clivus Palatinus,
as it led up to the Palatine, _on the right_.

"Clœlia had her statue in the Via Sacra, as you go up to the
Palatine" (Plutarch, in "Publicola").

_Passing through the Arch of Titus,_

_On our right_ are some remains of the Frangipani fortress, a tower of
the middle ages; a piece of the second wall of Rome; some
substructions and walls, as it were supporting the Palatine Hill; and
remains of the Baths and


"built by Elagabalus, on the slopes of the Palatine, for the worship
of the Syro-Phœnician sun-god, which was represented by a black
conical stone, set with gems. Elagabalus broke into the Temple of
Vesta, intending to remove the Palladium to his Temple of the Sun, but
the virgins, by a pious fraud, defeated his object, on discovering
which he broke into their sanctuary, and carried off one of the
virgins to add to his list of wives" (Lampridius).


The temple was built for the worship of the Sun. Around it was the
Lavacrum, or gratuitous baths, A.D. 218-222. The temple was converted
in A.D. 800 into the Church of S. Maria, by Pope Leo III. The remains
of the altar can be seen at the east end; at the west end is the
baptistery, in the form of a Greek cross, with an apse at the top
containing the raised platform with the depressed basin of the font in
which the person about to be baptized stood, whilst the minister
occupied the platform above it and poured the water over his head.

_On our left is_


miscalled the Temple of Venus and Rome. The platform upon which it
stands is partly the Velia ridge and partly artificial.

When a building was inaugurated after consecration it was called a
_templum_. A _delubrum_ was an isolated building, surrounded with an
area, dedicated to religious purposes. This--because it was double,
having two aspects, two distinct apses or tribunals--we call, in the
plural number, _delubra_, or the double basilica.

The remains consist of two large tribunals, back to back, with a
portion of the lateral walls and vaults. The wall in the monastery
gardens is apsidal, the other is rectangular.

The name of this building is entirely lost. All we know about it is,
that it is of the time of Maxentius and Constantine, A.D. 306-337, the
construction showing it to be of that time; besides, Nibby found in
the walls bricks stamped with the name of Maxentius.

Nearly all late authorities have called this ruin the Temple of Venus
and Rome. Now, it could not possibly be that temple, for we are told
distinctly, as we have related, by Apollodorus, that the Temple of
Rome was NOT built on a platform. Again, the Temple of Rome was built
by Hadrian, A.D. 118-138, and these remains are of the time of
Maxentius and Constantine, A.D. 306-337; besides, Roman temples had no
tribunals or apses.

These basilicas were surrounded by a colonnade of gray granite,
numerous fragments of which still lie about, and there was probably
originally a forum or market-place for the sale of fruit and toys.

Varro (L. L. 532, R. R. i. 2), Ovid (A. A. ii. 265), Propertius (iii.
xvii. 11), Terence, Eunuchus, contemporary writers, all speak of a
macellum and forum of Cupid upon the Via Sacra.

Festus, who lived in the fourth century, speaks of them under the same
name; so we may conclude that the ruins before us are the basilicas of
the Forum of Cupid, restored by Maxentius, and dedicated by

The front of this platform, towards the Colosseum, was discovered in
1828 to have been used during the middle ages as a cemetery, several
coffins of terra cotta being exhumed.

At the corners are the remains of steps which led from below up to the
delubra. Near the left-hand steps, in descending, are the remains of


which, as we have seen, first stood in the vestibule of his house;
then where the atrium was; thence it was removed by Hadrian with
twenty-four elephants to this spot, as is shown on a coin of Alexander
Severus. It was 120 feet high. Vespasian radiated the head to make it
represent the sun; Commodus took off Nero's head, and replaced it with
his own. The popular quotation from Bede refers to this Colossus, not
to the Colosseum.

_In a line with Nero's Pedestal is the_


the remains of a fountain, erected by Titus, and repaired by Domitian
and Gordianus, which stood in the centre of a large circular basin.
Popular tradition narrates that the gladiators used to wash here after
combat: it is certainly possible, but not very probable, that they
would come outside to wash at an open fountain. The epithet Meta
Sudans, or "sweating-goal," is supposed to be taken from the perpetual
issue of foaming water, or because it contributed to satisfy the
thirst of the audience at the Colosseum; or _meta_, because it was
built in the form of a goal, and _sudans_, because the water trickled

_To the right is_


dedicated by the senate and people of Rome to commemorate the
victories of the first Christian emperor, to do which they took
reliefs from the Arch of Trajan, and built them into an attic which
they erected upon the top of the Arch of Isis, re-dedicating the
conglomeration as the Triumphal Arch of Constantine. The reliefs
which refer to Trajan can be easily distinguished from those of
Constantine (which are very bad) owing to their superior style and the
subjects represented.

  [Illustration: ARCH OF CONSTANTINE.]

The designs commence, _on the left side_, with the triumphal entrance
of Trajan by the Porta Capena, after the first Dacian war; then,
secondly, commemorate his services in carrying the Appian Way through
the Pontine Marshes; thirdly, founding an asylum for orphan children;
fourthly, his relations with Parthamasiris, king of Armenia. _On the
opposite side_, dedication of the aqueduct built by Trajan (_seen on
the left_); secondly, audience with the Dacian king Decebalus, whose
hired assassins are brought before him; thirdly, with a representation
of the emperor haranguing his soldiers; and, fourthly, the emperor
offering the _suovetaurilia_ sacrifice of a boar, ram, and bull.

Corresponding with these reliefs, two medallions, representing the
private life of the emperor in simple and graceful compositions, are
introduced over each of the side arches. The first represents his
starting for the chase; the second, a sacrifice to Silvanus, the
patron of silvan sports; the third displays the emperor on horseback
at a bear-hunt; and the fourth a thank-offering to the goddess of
hunting. On the side facing the Colosseum, a bear-hunt, a sacrifice to
Apollo, a group contemplating a dead lion, and lastly a consultation
of an oracle. Most of these refer to Trajan; we think some refer to
Hadrian, because on one of them Antinoüs is represented. On the inside
of the arch is a battle-piece, assigned to Constantine by the
inscriptions, "To the founder of peace," "To the deliverer of the
city." They are older than his time. Over the side arches are some
narrow reliefs referring to Constantine, one of which is peculiarly
interesting, as it represents that emperor addressing the people from
the Rostra ad Palmam, with some of the principal monuments in the
Forum in the background.


     "A noble wreck in ruinous perfection."--BYRON.

The vast amphitheatre erected in the centre of ancient Rome by
Vespasian was known to the ancient Romans as the Flavian Amphitheatre.
It was begun by the Flavian emperors A.D. 72, and dedicated A.D. 80.
It is 157 feet high, and is 1900 feet in circumference, and was built
by the captive Jews after the fall of Jerusalem. Originally the upper
story was of wood, but this was burned down, and it was rebuilt with
travertine stone like the rest of the edifice. Martial tells us that
its site was formerly occupied by the artificial lakes of Nero; and
Marcellinus (xvi. x. 14) says, "The vast masses of the amphitheatre so
solidly erected of Tiburtine stone, to the top of which human vision
can scarcely reach." All the brickwork we now see are repairs at
various dates after the dedication; but there is enough travertine
left at different points to show that it was originally built of this
stone, as recorded by the historian. For nearly five hundred years it
was the popular resort of the Roman populace and their betters. There
were eighty arches of entrance, and it held one hundred thousand
people, and could be emptied in ten minutes; such were the order kept
and regulations observed that there was no confusion. It was devoted
to the exhibition of wild beasts, their fighting together, gladiators
fighting together, or with beasts, and naval fights. On these latter
displays the stage or arena was moved, water let in, and naval fights
represented in real earnest.

Suetonius ("Vespasian," vii.), says, "He began an amphitheatre in the
middle of the city, upon finding that Augustus had projected such a
work." _Ibid._ ("Titus," vi.): "He entertained the people with most
magnificent spectacles, and in one day brought into the amphitheatre
five thousand wild beasts of all kinds."

The last display was given by Theodoric in 523; and in 555 the lower
part was destroyed by a flood from the Tiber, when the whole of Rome
was under water for seven days. From then we must date the ruin of the
Flavian Amphitheatre--the Romans themselves hastening on the work,
using the material for building purposes.

     "Which on its public shows unpeopled Rome,
     And held uncrowded nations in its womb."--JUVENAL.

It is held by the Roman Church, on the authority of an inscription
found in the Catacombs, that the architect of the Colosseum was one
Gaudentius; but that inscription only says that he was employed there.
We believe the architect to have been Aterius, whose monument is now
in the Lateran, and upon which several buildings are represented of
which he was no doubt the architect, also the machine used to raise
the stones into their places. He flourished at the end of the first
century, and, no doubt, these buildings shown in relief upon his tomb
were erected by him, the dates agreeing; for if not, why should they
be there represented?

First, we have an arch which says on it, "Arcus ad Isis." Now if we
compare this with the Arch of Constantine, we find it is the same
without the attic. Then we have the amphitheatre without the upper
story; then an arch (query, Arch of Domitian?). Then another arch with
the words, "Arcus in Sacra Via Summa:" compare this with the Arch of
Titus, and, minus the restorations, it will be found to be the same.
Then there is a temple agreeing with the descriptions of that of
Jupiter Stator upon the Palatine. All these buildings were erected or
rebuilt about this time, and from being recorded on this monument of
the Aterii, tend to show that Aterius was the architect of them.

When perfect, the Colosseum consisted of four stories--the lowest, of
the Doric order, 30 feet high; the second, Ionic, 38 feet high; the
third, Corinthian, about the same height; and the fourth, also
Corinthian, 44 feet high. The holes in the cornice with the corbels
below them were to receive the masts that supported the _velaria_ on
the outside.

The numerous holes in the stone were made in the middle ages for the
purpose of extracting the iron cramps that kept the stones from
shifting. The long diameter is 658 feet, the shorter 558 feet; the
arena is 298 feet by 177 in its widest part.

The last performance was a bull-fight, held at the expense of the
Roman nobles, in the year 1332. Many martyrs are said to have perished
in the Colosseum during the persecutions of the early Christians, and
among others S. Ignatius, who was brought from Antioch to be devoured
by wild beasts. Benedict XIV. consecrated the building to the
Christian martyrs, A.D. 1750.

In excavating the Basilica of S. Clement, the Rev. Father Mullooly
found (1870) the remains of S. Ignatius, and had them carried with
great ceremony over the scene on the anniversary of his martyrdom.

At the present day there remains sufficient to indicate the
construction of the building, though but a small portion of the
immense outer shell, which originally both adorned and formed an
impenetrable girdle round the whole, has been preserved. In the
interior, a great deal of rebuilding has been necessary for its

Vast as the building is, its construction is easily understood; a
simple segment of the whole serving to show how all the others succeed
one another like the cells of a bee-hive.

  [Illustration: THE COLOSSEUM.]

The upper part was originally of wood only, and was burned, having
been set on fire by lightning. The three lower stories only are of the
time of the Flavian emperors; the upper story was rebuilt and added in
the third century, and only finished in the time of the Gordiani, as
is shown by the coins representing it. The imperial entrance was from
the Esquiline side, between the arches Nos. 38, 39, which is without
number. Commodus constructed an underground passage from the arena to
the Palatine, which has not yet been discovered, his so-called passage
(_on the right in entering_) being that by which the dead bodies were
carried from the arena. Dion Cassius says: "Upon the last day of the
sports his helmet was taken off and fell through the door where the
dead used to be carried out."

The area, basement, or ground-floor, was flooded for the naval fights.
Surrounding this were the dens, in front of which was a channel for
fresh water for supplying the animals with drink--a spring still
supplies it; about ten feet above was the movable stage, sprinkled
with sand for the combats, and hence called the arena. A few feet
above the arena was the podium, or seat of the emperor, vestal
virgins, &c., protected from the arena by iron bars. Behind the podium
was a double portico, which ran round the whole building. Fragments of
the marble chimeras, with long wings, that ornamented the seats of the
podium have been found.

The three successive tiers were called _cavea_. Above these was a tier
for the people; above this one for the "gods;" thus making six in all.
The amphitheatre seated eighty-seven thousand people, and there was
standing room for thirteen thousand more.

The walls standing upon the area, composed of tufa, travertine, and
brick, old material re-used, were built at a period long after the
building was dedicated, when the naval fights being abandoned there
was no longer any occasion for a movable stage or arena as before.
They contained the machinery for the stage above, and for the lifts or
_pegmata_ to send men or beasts from the area to the arena. Probably
these are the walls thus alluded to by Dion Cassius: "He [Commodus]
divided the theatre into four parts by two partitions that cut through
diametrically, and by right angles, to the end that from the galleries
that were round about he might with greater ease single out the beasts
he aimed at."


"The emperor having employed himself in shooting from above ...
descended afterwards to the bottom of the theatre, and there slew some
other private beasts, whereof some made toward him, others were
brought to him, and others were shut up in dens. Returning after
dinner, he used the exercises of a gladiator, with a shield in his
right hand, and in his left a wooden sword. After him fought those
whom he had chosen in the morning at the bottom of the theatre."
Also, in his life of Septimius Severus, he says: "There was a kind of
cloister made in the amphitheatre, in the form of a ship, to receive
them [the wild beasts]. On a sudden there issued out bears, lions,
ostriches, wild asses, and foreign bulls."

The walls before us are of very bad construction, evidently repairs of
a late date: they are the work of either Lampridius, prefect of Rome
under Valentinian III., 425-455, who repaired the steps and renewed
the arena; or of Basilius, who restored the podium and arena after
their destruction by an earthquake in 486--this we learn from two
inscriptions standing at the entrance. Half way, on each side, two
large passages have been discovered choked up with mud: they were the
aqueducts to bring the water for the _naumachiæ_ from the reservoirs
upon the Esquiline and Cælian Hills respectively; from the small
openings in the blind arches the water also poured out over the top of
the dens, thus forming cascades all round. At the end opposite the
present entrance a long passage has been opened, above the level of
the area floor; below this passage is the great drain, with the
remains of the iron grating[6] to prevent large objects going down:
this and the passage were closed by flood-gates on naval
representations, which can be clearly seen in the construction. On the
right and left of this passage, connected with it, but at a lower
level, two dens have been cleared out, 27 yards long by 5 wide,
containing six holes in the floor, in the centre of square blocks of
stone, and these holes are faced with bronze, evidently the sockets
into which metal posts were fixed to which the beasts were chained. On
the fragments depicting scenes from the arena, the animals are shown
with a long piece of rope or chain dangling from their necks, which
seems to bear out our idea that they were attached to posts fixed in
these sockets, and that as they were wanted the chain or rope was cut,
and they were free to rush upon the arena.

The corbels round the front of the line of arches under the podium are
in pairs, and between them the masts were inserted to support the
awning on the inside, as the holes and corbels supported the masts on
the outside; for we find on examination that those inside are exactly
in a line with those outside at the top of the building. These corbels
are 29 inches deep, and from them to the level of the area is 10 feet,
and to the present surface 11 feet; between each pair of corbels are
chases 19½ inches wide, ending on a block of travertine for the masts
to rest on, the chases coming down 1½ yards below the corbels, which
are 15 feet apart. They probably helped to support the arena, and
show what the height of this wooden arena must have been, and that
from its vast size it must have had a framework and supports: the
numerous holes on the area, in travertine, were for the heels of the
supports; one of these, a square one, has remains of the decayed
timber in it.

In the central passage, resting on the area and extending as far as
the excavations, is an ancient wooden framework in a decomposed state.
Various suggestions have been made as to its use,--we suppose it to be
the framework and joists of the flooring covering the central passage;
others, a sort of tramway for running the cages along,--but till the
whole space has been cleared out it is impossible to arrive at a
correct estimate of its use.

Honorius, A.D. 404, having abolished the gladiatorial combats,
probably the last display of wild beasts was that given by King
Theodoric at the beginning of the sixth century.

The soil cleared out in the passage, dens, galleries, and area was
found to be composed of mud deposited during a flood or floods by the
Tiber, the composition of which may still be seen in parts of the long
passage not yet cleared. The most remarkable of these floods, which
lasted some days and did immense damage to the city, were those of
A.D. 555, 590, 725, 778, 1476, 1530, 1557, and 1598.

We may presume, from the nature of the soil, that at some early date,
probably A.D. 555, one of those terrible floods reached the Colosseum,
and on the waters retiring a great deposit of mud was left, covering
the old area floor and filling up the various passages and galleries,
and that the authorities, instead of clearing out this deposit, added
to it to make a solid floor, and used the arena above; for after that
date we have no record of its being used, with the exception of the

_By applying to the custodian, the visitor can ascend to the top_,
where a most magnificent view is enjoyed, the only way to get a good
idea of its size and oval shape, and where the construction of the
upper galleries can be studied. It will be seen that the arches
forming the tiers of seats have at some date been filled in with
brickwork, of the time of Alexander Severus and the Gordiani. The
water-courses for keeping the building cool in hot weather can also be
traced. The highest wall of all, the inside brick casing of which is
partly gone, is built of fragments evidently not originally intended
for the purpose for which they are used, corresponding to a great
extent with the construction of the walls upon the area.

The Colosseum was for a long time used as a quarry, from which several
of the palaces in Rome were built.

Should the visitor be fortunate enough to see the ruin under
moonlight, or when it is illuminated with Bengal lights, he will see
it in its grandeur, for "it will not bear the brightness of the day."



[1] _Ab urbe condita_, From the foundation of the city (B.C. 753).

[2] From the Forum.

[3] Diodorus Siculus, lib. xxxi., calls it the jail Albinus.

[4] S. P. Q. R., Senatus Populusque Romanus.

[5] For a full detailed account of this important discovery see our
photograph, a panoramic view of the Forum from ancient reliefs, with
descriptive letterpress.

[6] Recently removed to clean out the drain.




(_Over the Tiber._)


_From the Piazza del Popolo the Via Ripetta leads towards S. Peter's,
turning off to the right, past the bridge, by the Via Monte Brianzo._

_From the Piazza di Spagna we take the Via Condotti to the Via Monte
Brianzo and Tor di Nona._

At the right-hand end of the latter street is the Apollo Theatre,
built on the site of the Tor di Nona prison, where Beatrice Cenci was
confined. Passing into the Piazza Ponte S. Angelo, on our left, is the
Italian Free Church of Gavazzi, and in the Palazzo Altoviti, in front,
lived Visconti.

_We turn to the right over_


(_Ponte S. Angelo_,)

which is decorated with ten angels standing on the parapet, bearing
the instruments of our Lord's passion; and SS. Peter and Paul, an
addition made in 1668 by Clement IX. It is the finest bridge in Rome,
and was built by Hadrian.


(_Castel S. Angelo. Permissions required: see page 353._)

It was covered with white Paros marble, and decorated with statues of
the gods and heroes, the works of Praxiteles and Lysippus, which were
hurled upon the heads of the Goths. Erected by Hadrian, A.D. 130. The
porphyry sarcophagus, which is supposed to have contained his remains,
is now used as the font in the chapel on the left in S. Peter's.

Procopius thus describes it: "The tomb of the Emperor Hadrian is
situated outside the Porta Aurelia. It is built of Parian marble, and
the blocks fit close to one another without anything to bind them. It
has four equal sides, about a stone-throw in length; its altitude
rises above the city walls; on the top are statues of the same kind of
marble, admirable figures of men and horses."

Lucius Verus, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Commodus, were all
buried here. It was first turned into a fortress A.D. 423. Popes John
XXIII. and Urban VIII. built the covered way connecting it with the
Vatican. One of the barrack-rooms contains frescoes by Pierino del
Vaga and Sicciolante, another by Giulio Romano. A circular room,
surrounded with carved wood cases, once contained the archives of the
Vatican. A large iron-bound chest contained the treasury. Some dark
cells built in the thickness of the walls are shown as the prisons of
Beatrice Cenci (?), Cellini, Cagliostro, and others. Tradition asserts
that Gregory the Great saw S. Michael standing over the fortress
sheathing his sword as a sign that a pestilence was stayed; to
commemorate which the castle is now surmounted by a figure of the
archangel in the act of sheathing his sword. This old castle served
for a fortress during several ages, and its first cannon were cast out
of part of the bronze taken from the roof of the Pantheon.

_The Borgo Nuovo leads to_ the Cathedral, passing, _on the right_, the
Church of S. Maria, built on the site of a pyramid to Honorius, 423
A.D., which is represented on the doors of S. Peter's.


(_S. Pietro._)


Before the era of railways, the traveller in approaching Rome, across
the Campagna, was generally electrified by the first glimpse of S.
Peter's dome looming in the distance. Then he had full time, in
advance of entering the gates of the city, to ponder over all the
recollections which the magical word "Roma" might suggest to him. At
present he is rapidly borne into the city, and sometimes before he is
aware of having arrived even in its neighbourhood; yet the dome is
plainly visible from afar by the railway approach of to-day. Now, as
then, the first sight of Rome is always her unequalled cathedral; now,
as then, the latter is the great object which the tourist eagerly
hastens to visit. The present Church of S. Peter is relatively modern,
having been first conceived by Pope Nicholas V. about the year 1450.
It is built upon the site of the religious edifice erected in the time
of Constantine, and consecrated as the "Basilica of S. Peter." The old
basilica stood on part of the Circus of Nero, and occupies the spot
consecrated by the blood of the martyrs slaughtered by order of that
tyrant. Tradition supposes that the basilica held possession of the
body of the apostle after his crucifixion,--a circumstance which
reflected high credit upon it, and dignified its entrance with the
appellation of the "limina apostolorum" (threshold of the apostles).
After enjoying the veneration and tributes of all Christendom during
eleven centuries, the walls of the old basilica began to give way, and
its approaching ruin becoming visible about the year above stated,
Nicholas V. conceived the project of taking down the old church, and
erecting in its stead a new and more expensive structure. The project
was begun, and resulted, after a long series of experiments made by
various architects, in the splendid fabric which is now regarded by
the world as the chief glory of modern Rome. The work made slight
progress until the epoch of Julius II., who resumed the great task,
and found in Bramante an architect capable of comprehending and
executing his grandest conceptions. The walls of the ancient basilica
were then wholly removed, and on the 18th of April 1508 the foundation
stone of one of the vast pillars supporting the dome, as we now see
it, was laid by Julius with great pomp and ceremony. From that period
the work, though carried on with ardour and perseverance, continued
during one hundred years to occupy the attention and absorb much of
the incomes of eighteen pontiffs. The most celebrated architects of
the times displayed their talents in its erection--namely, Bramante,
Raphael, San Gallo, Michael Angelo, Vignola, Carlo Maderno, and last,
though not least, Bernini, who gave it the finishing touches of
ornamentation, and who built the enclosing colonnade. It is estimated
that its cost, after completion, was no less than £12,000,000
sterling--a sum representing a far greater value than it does in our
day. Colossal statues of Peter and Paul, erected by Pius IX., guard
the approach at the foot of the steps on either side.

Eustace says: "Entering the piazza, the visitor views four rows of
lofty pillars, 70 feet high, sweeping off to the right and left in a
bold semicircle. ('A tabernacle for a shadow in the day-time from the
heat, and for a place of refuge, and for a covert from storm and from
rain,' Isa. iv. 6.) In the centre of the area formed by this immense
colonnade, an Egyptian obelisk, of one solid piece of granite, ascends
to the height of 130 feet; two perpetual fountains, one on each side,
play in the air, and fall in sheets round the basins of porphyry that
receive them. Raised on three successive flights of marble steps,
extending 379 feet in length, and towering to the elevation of 148,
you see the majestic front of the basilica itself. This front is
supported by a single row of Corinthian pillars and pilasters, and
adorned with an attic, a balustrade, and thirteen colossal statues.
Far behind and above it rises the matchless dome. Two smaller cupolas,
one on each side, add not a little to the majesty of the principal

Five lofty portals open into the vestibule; it is 468 feet in length,
66 in height, and 50 in breadth, paved with variegated marble, covered
with a gilt vault, adorned with pillars, pilasters, mosaic, and
bas-reliefs, and terminated at both ends by equestrian statues, one of
Constantine, the other of Charlemagne.


is the only one near its original site, the _Spina_ of Nero's Circus,
which was near the Sacristy, on the left of S. Peter's. An inscription
in the pavement marks the place. Pliny (xxxvi. 14), says: "The third
obelisk at Rome is in the Vatican Circus, which was constructed by the
emperors Caius [Caligula] and Nero; this being the only one of them
all that has been broken in the carriage. Nuncorcus, the son of
Sesoses, made it [_the original, this is probably a copy_], and there
remains [in Egypt] another by him, 100 cubits in height, which, by
order of an oracle, he consecrated to the sun, after having lost his
sight and recovered it." Herodotus says: "It was dedicated by Phero,
son of Sesostris, in gratitude for his recovery from blindness." It
has no hieroglyphics, so if this was the original how could they know
who erected it? but it bears this inscription of Caligula--


[To the divine Augustus, son of the divine Julius, and to the divine
Tiberius, son of the divine Augustus.]

  [Illustration: S. PETER'S AND THE VATICAN.]

The Nuncorcus of Pliny is supposed to stand for Menophtheus, the king

Pliny (xvi. 76) gives the following particulars of how it was brought

"A fir tree of prodigious size was used in the vessel which, by the
command of Caligula, brought the obelisk from Egypt, which stands in
the Vatican Circus, and four blocks of the same sort of stone to
support it. Nothing certainly ever appeared on the sea more
astonishing than this vessel; 120,000 bushels of lentils served for
its ballast; the length of it nearly equalled all the left side of the
port of Ostia--for it was sent there by the Emperor Claudius. The
thickness of the tree was as much as four men could embrace with their

Suetonius ("Claudius," xx.) says: "He sank the vessel in which the
great obelisk had been brought from Egypt, to secure the foundation of
the mole at Ostia."

Pliny (xvi. 76), says: "As to the one in which, by order of the
Emperor Caius, the other obelisk had been transported to Rome, it was
brought to Ostia, by order of the late Emperor Claudius, and sunk for
the construction of his harbour."

Marcellinus says: "Subsequent ages to Augustus brought also other
obelisks, one of which is in the Vatican."


Over the entrance _outside_ is a relief of Christ giving the keys to
Peter; _inside_ the vestibule is Giotto's (1298) celebrated mosaic,
representing our Lord sustaining Peter when he was about to sink
whilst walking on the sea. Opposite are the great bronze doors, opened
only on special occasions, the work of Antonio Filareto and Simone
Donatello in the fifteenth century. The upper panels represent in
relief our Saviour and the Virgin, below whom are SS. Peter and Paul;
Peter is giving the keys to Pope Eugenius IV. Beneath are the
martyrdoms of Peter and Paul: in the former is represented the
pyramidal tomb which stood in the Borgo Nuovo, and which was destroyed
by Alexander VI. The smaller reliefs represent scenes from the life of
the Emperor Sigismund--his coronation, the council of Florence, and
his entry into Rome. The framework represents satyrs, nymphs, fauns,
Leda and the Swan, Ganymede, the Fox and the Stork, with reliefs of
fruit and flowers, and medallions of Roman emperors. The walled-up
side door, on the right, is the Porta Santa, which was formerly opened
on Christmas-eve of the years of jubilee--every twenty-fifth year.

_The first_ inscription relates the gift of olive-yards to provide oil
for the lamps given by Gregory II.

_The second_, the Bull of Boniface VIII., of the indulgence granted at

_The third_, Panegyric of Charlemagne on Pope Adrian I.


Five portals give access to the edifice, which faces east.

     "Enter, its grandeur overwhelms thee not."--BYRON.

"The most extensive hall ever constructed by human art expands in
magnificent perspective before you. Advancing up the nave, you admire
the beauty of the variegated marble under your feet, and the splendour
of the golden vault overhead, the lofty Corinthian pilasters with
their bold entablature, the intermediate niches with their statues,
the arcades with the graceful figures that recline on the curves of
their arches. But how great your astonishment when you reach the foot
of the altar, and, standing in the centre of the church, contemplate
the four superb vistas that open around you; and then raise your eyes
to the dome, at the prodigious elevation of 440 feet, extended like a
firmament over your head, and presenting, in glowing mosaic, the
companies of the just and the choirs of celestial spirits....

"Around the dome rise four other cupolas, small, indeed, when compared
with its stupendous magnitude, but of great boldness when considered
separately; six more, three on either side, cover the different
divisions of the aisles; and six more of greater dimensions canopy as
many chapels. All these inferior cupolas are, like the grand dome
itself, lined with mosaics. Many, indeed, of the masterpieces of
painting which formerly graced this edifice have been removed [to the
Church of S. Maria degli Angeli, see page 265], and replaced by
mosaics, which retain all the tints and beauties of the originals,
impressed on a more solid and durable substance. The aisles and altars
are adorned with numberless antique pillars that border the churches
all around, and form a secondary order" (Eustace).

The variegated walls are in many places ornamented with festoons,
wreaths, crosses, and medallions representing the effigies of
different pontiffs. Various monuments rise in different parts of the
church, of exquisite sculpture, and form very conspicuous features in
the ornament of this grand temple.

Below the steps of the altar, and, of course, some distance from it,
at the corners, on four massive pedestals, four twisted pillars, 50
feet in height, rise and support an entablature, which bears the
canopy itself, topped with a cross. The whole is 95¼ feet from the
pavement. This brazen edifice--for so it may be called--was
constructed of bronze stripped from the dome of the Pantheon, and is
so disposed as not to obstruct the view by concealing the chancel and
veiling the chair of S. Peter. This ornament is also of bronze, and
consists of a group of four gigantic figures, representing the four
principal doctors of the Greek and Latin Churches, supporting the
chair at an elevation of 70 feet. Under the high altar of S. Peter's
is the tomb of that apostle, the descent to which is in front, where a
large open space leaves room for a double flight of steps. The rails
that surround this space above are adorned with one hundred and twelve
bronze cornucopiæ, which support as many silver lamps, burning during
the day in honour of the apostle. Upon the pavement of the small area
enclosed by the balustrade is the kneeling statue of Pius VI., by



     613½ feet long.
     152½ feet, height of Nave.
      87½ feet, width of Nave.
      33¾ feet, width of Aisles.
     197¾ feet, width of Basilica.
     446½ feet, length of Transepts.
      95¼ feet, height of Baldacchino complete.
     139 feet Cupola, interior diameter.
     179 feet Cupola high.
     277 feet above Floor.
     440 feet from Pavement to Base of Lantern.


     240,000 square feet.

  [Illustration: INTERIOR OF S. PETER'S.]


On entering, the size of objects may be judged by noticing the cherubs
that support the holy water basins; they present no extraordinary
appearance, but stand by them and their immense size will be
appreciated. The first chapel, on the right, contains Michael Angelo's
Mary with the Dead Christ; hence it is called the Chapel of La Pietà.
It was executed by the great master when only twenty-four, and bears
his name across Mary's girdle. This work of art is unfortunately very
badly placed for proper observation. Opening out of this chapel are
two side chapels, kept closed: in that of the left are kept the relics
belonging to the basilica; and in the right, a column, ornamented with
flutings and reliefs, and said to be the column against which Jesus
leaned when disputing with the doctors.

Proceeding up the aisle, on the right, is Fabris's statue of Leo XII.;
and opposite, Carlo Fontana's monument to Christina, Queen of Sweden,
who died in Rome in 1689, after her abjuration of Protestantism. The
chapel beyond contains a beautiful mosaic copy of the Martyrdom of S.
Sebastian; the original was by Domenichino. Next is the monument to
Innocent XII., supported by Charity and Justice, by Filippo Valle; and
opposite is one to the Countess Matilda, by Bernini; the relief is
Gregory VII. giving absolution to Henry IV.

The Chapel of the Sacrament contains, above the altar, a fresco by
Cortona; over the side-altar is a mosaic copy of Caravaggio's
Entombment. The principal altar is formed with a model in lapis lazuli
and gilt bronze of Bramante's chapel; the original is erected over the
spot pointed out as the scene of Peter's martyrdom. Before the
side-altar is the bronze tomb of Sixtus IV., with reliefs by Antonio
del Pollajuolo; near by is interred Julius II., whose monument, now in
S. Pietro in Vincoli, was to have been the grand masterpiece of
Michael Angelo.

Beyond, on the right, is the monument to Gregory XIII., supported by
Religion and Power, with a relief representing the correction of the
calendar, the work of Rusconi. Opposite is Gregory the Fourteenth's
simple marble urn.

The next chapel is named Madonna del Soccorso, containing the monument
to Gregory XVI., erected by the cardinals he had made. On the left is
a mosaic copy of Domenichino's Last Communion of S. Jerome. In the
aisle, proceeding on the right, is the monument to Benedict XIV.
(with figures of Science and Charity), by Pietro Bracci. Opposite is a
mosaic copy of S. Basil Celebrating Mass before the Emperor Valens,
after Subleyra's picture.

In the transept are mosaic copies of S. Wenceslaus, king of Bohemia,
by Caroselli; Martyrdom of SS. Processus and Martinianus, after
Valentin; and that of Erasmus, after Poussin. In the aisle, leading
out, is Canova's celebrated tomb of Clement XIII. It took eight years
to execute. The pope is represented praying: on one side is the genius
of Death with inverted torch (the finest piece of sculpture in S.
Peter's), and on the other Religion with the cross; at the angles are
a wakeful and a sleeping lion. Opposite is a mosaic of S. Peter
Walking on the Sea, after Lanfranco. In the next chapel is a mosaic of
Guido's S. Michael and Guercino's S. Petronilla. On the left, coming
towards the apse, S. Peter Resuscitating Tabitha, from Costanzi's
painting; and opposite is the tomb of Clement X., by Ferrata.

In the centre of the apse is S. Peter's chair. January 18th is the
feast of the chair of S. Peter in Rome. Some remarks on the chair
which does duty for S. Peter's may be of interest to our readers. A
photograph of this famous object was taken in 1867, when it was last
exposed to view, and can be had at any of the shops in Rome. Visitors
must be content with looking at the photograph, for the chair itself
is not to be seen. At present it is enclosed in the bronze covering
which is supported by the four colossal figures of the doctors of the
Church--SS. Gregory, Jerome, Ambrose, and Augustin.

It is encased in a framework, in which are the rings through which the
poles were inserted in order to carry the person seated. This casing,
consisting of four posts and sides, is made of oak, and is very much
decayed. The straight vertical joints are easily distinguished where
the frame is attached to the chair itself, which is composed of dark
acacia wood. The front panel is ornamented with three rows of square
plates of ivory, six in a row, eighteen in all, upon twelve of which
are engraved the labours of Hercules, and on the other six,
constellations, with thin _laminæ_ of gold let into the engraved
lines. Some of the ivories are put on upside down, and had evidently
nothing to do with the original chair: they are Byzantine in style, of
the eleventh century. The ivory band decorations of the back and sides
evidently belonged to the chair, and correspond with its architecture
and fit into the woodwork. They are sculptured in relief,
representing combats of men, wild beasts, and centaurs. The centre
point of the horizontal bars has a portrait of Charlemagne crowned as
emperor. In his right hand is a sceptre (broken), and in his left a
globe; two angels on either side offer him crowns and palms, they
having combatants on each side. The chair is 4 feet 8¾ inches high at
back, 2 feet 10½ inches wide, 2 feet 2⅓ inches deep, and 2 feet 1½
inch high in front. Fancy Peter using such a chair as this!

It is asserted by the Roman Church that this chair was used by S.
Peter as his episcopal throne during his rule over the Church at Rome.
Even if we grant, for argument's sake, that he was bishop in Rome,
there is no evidence to prove that this was his chair; in fact, every
evidence to the contrary. All the primitive episcopal chairs are of
marble, and as unlike this one in construction as possible; for it is
not an episcopal throne, but a _sella gestatoria_ or cathedra, similar
to the chairs introduced into Rome in the time of the Emperor
Claudius, mentioned by Suetonius ("Nero," xxvi.), and Juvenal (i. 64,
vi. 90). It is not unlike in shape the one used to carry the Pope in
grand ceremonies in S. Peter's. Some early authors speak of a _sella
gestatoria_ which was placed in the baptistery of old S. Peter's by
Damasus, and which, formerly on the 22nd of February, was carried
hence to the high altar, where the Pope, with much ceremony, was
enthroned upon it.

The chair which was originally assigned as that of S. Peter was
eventually passed on from one chapel to another, till, it is said,
that, when Rome was sacked by the imperialists in 1527, they stripped
it of its ornaments and covering, for the sake of their value; and
that beneath they found an old carved wooden chair, with the
inscription, "_There is only one God, and Mohammed is his
prophet_"--which same formula is engraved upon the back of the marble
episcopal chair in the Church of S. Pietro in Castello at Venice. In
1558, the feast of the chair of S. Peter was fixed in Rome for the
18th of January, and in Antioch for February 22nd; and in 1655 Pope
Alexander VII. placed this chair where it now stands. The present
chair is medieval, ninth century, and is unlike early representations
in art of the chair used by the Apostle Paul, which we may look upon
as episcopal.

The ivory diptych of St. Paul (A.D. 400), the property of Mr. Carrand
of Lyons, engraved by the Arundel Society, represents Paul seated on a
chair, holding in his left hand a roll, the symbol of apostleship,
whilst the right hand is raised in the act of blessing Linus, who
carries a book in his hand. At the back of the chair is S. Mark,
holding a roll in his left hand. The chair is light, and not unlike a
modern library one in shape. Later art agrees with the present chair.
A fresco at S. Clement's, Rome (1050), represents Peter installing
Clement into the Papal chair--a chair, so far as can be seen, not
unlike the present one of S. Peter, which was made after the
coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (A.D.

Upon our right is the tomb of Urban VIII. His bronze statue is by
Bernini, with Justice and Charity in marble. On our left is Della
Porta's monument to Paul III.; likewise a bronze figure, with Prudence
(the Pope's mother, Giovanna Gaetani) and Justice (his sister, Giulia
Farnese). Justice is a beautiful figure, but the tin drapery put on to
cover its nakedness by Bernini destroys its beauty. It is necessary to
re-paint the tin every now and then. There is a deal of this mock
modesty in S. Peter's.

Turning into the south aisle, on our right, is the tomb of Alexander
VIII. The bronze statue is by Arrigo, and the figures of Religion and
Prudence by Rossi. The relief represents the Pope canonizing five
saints. Opposite is the mosaic of S. Peter at the Gate of the Temple.
It is said that this scene, here represented, gave to President
Lincoln the idea for his proposed motto for the greenbacks. When the
commission applied to him for a motto to put upon the notes, he said,
"I can think of nothing better than what Peter said to the sick man at
the gate of the temple--'Silver and gold have I none, but what I have
that give I unto thee.'"

Beyond, upon the right, is a splendid alto-relief by Algardi,
representing Leo threatening Attila with the vengeance of Peter and
Paul if he should attack the holy city of Rome. It is the largest
relief ever executed. A circular marble slab below it marks the tomb
of Leo XII. Upon the right, coming down the aisle, is the tomb of
Alexander VII., by Bernini. Justice, Prudence, Charity, and Truth
surround the kneeling pontiff. A bronze gilt figure of Death supports
the marble canopy. The naked Truth was clothed in tin by Innocent XI.
Opposite is Vanni's oil-painting, the Fall of Simon Magus. The south
transept contains mosaics of S. Thomas by Camuccini, the Crucifixion
by Guido, and S. Francis by Domenichino. On the left is the chair of
the Grand Penitentiary, where great princes have to make their public
confession as pilgrims. Returning to the aisle, on the right is the
tomb of Pius VIII., by Tenerani. Our Saviour is blessing the Pope;
Peter and Paul are on either side; Justice and Mercy are represented
in relief below. Opposite is a mosaic of Ananias and Sapphira after
Roncalli. Beyond is the Miracle of Gregory the Great, by Sacchi.
Facing us is the tomb of Pius VII., by Thorwaldsen. History and Time
support him on either side, with Power and Wisdom below. On the left,
nearly opposite, is a mosaic copy of Raphael's Transfiguration.
Proceeding down the aisle, on our right, is the tomb of Leo XI., with
a relief, by Algardi, representing the abjuration of Henry IV. of
France. Opposite is the tomb of Innocent XI., with relief of the
raising of the siege of Vienna by John Sobieski, with figures of
Religion and Justice, by Monot.

On our right is the Chapel of the Choir, decorated by Giacomo della
Porta. The mosaic altar-piece of the Conception is after Pietro
Bianchi. Over the door, in the pier on the left of the chapel, is a
niche closed with a wooden sarcophagus; here the body of the Pope is
placed till his tomb is prepared. Opposite is the bronze memorial to
Innocent VIII. by the brothers Pollaiolo. The spear-head held in the
hand of the Pope refers to the spear which pierced our Saviour's side,
it being presented to this Pope by the Emperor Bajazet II. On our
right is a fine mosaic by Romanelli, the Presentation of the Virgin in
the Temple. Beyond, on the left, is Canova's memorial to the "last of
the Stuarts," who died in Rome, and are buried in the crypt below. It
takes the form of an entrance to a tomb, which is guarded by beautiful
genii. Over the door are the words--"BLESSED ARE THE DEAD THAT DIE IN
THE LORD." Above are medallions of the Chevalier S. George, Prince
Charlie, and the Cardinal York, the whole being surmounted by the
British coat-of-arms, in which is quartered that of France. This
monument was erected by George IV. Opposite, over the door leading to
the dome, is the monument to Maria Clementina, wife of the Chevalier
S. George, whose portrait in mosaic is by Barigioni. Beyond is the
baptistery. The font is of red porphyry, which was once the top of the
tomb of Otho II., and originally, it is said, of Hadrian. In front is
Carlo Maratta's Baptism of Christ in mosaic; upon the left Peter
baptizing the jailers in the Mamertine prison, a fiction from Passeri;
and opposite is Procaccini's Baptism of the Centurion. This baptistery
is said to be on the site of a temple to Apollo, upon what authority
we cannot say.

The nave has marked in the centre of its pavement the measurement of
all the principal churches in the world, whereby it can be seen that
S. Peter's is 93 feet longer than S. Paul's, London. The large
porphyry circular slab is that upon which the holy Roman emperors were
crowned, and where the priest who is made judge of ecclesiastical
matters in the Roman Church is ordained. In a niche in each of the
piers supporting the vault are colossal statues, 16 feet high, of the
founders of the various religious orders; and in the piers of the dome
are S. Longinus, the soldier who pierced our Saviour's side, S.
Helena, who found the cross, S. Veronica, who wiped his face, and S.
Andrew. Above are kept the relics of these saints, which are only
shown to those who hold the title of a canon of the church. On the
spandrels of the arches of the dome are four large mosaics,
representing Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, with their emblems. S.
Luke's pen is 7 feet long, and the letters on the frieze are 6 feet

The great piers are 253 feet in circumference; which space is exactly
occupied by the church and house of S. Carlo, in the Via Quattro
Fontane. Near the first pier of the right side is the celebrated
bronze seated statue of S. Peter, with the keys in one hand, the other
raised in the act of blessing, under a canopy erected by Pius IX.,
whose portrait in mosaic surmounts it. It is asserted by some that
this was a statue of Jupiter, supremely good and great, that stood in
the Capitoline temple, and that it was altered into S. Peter; others
say they recast Jupiter into the "Jew Peter."


is connected with S. Peter's by a long gallery, and is adorned with
pillars, statues, paintings, and mosaics. It is entered by passing
through a door under the monument to Pius VIII., in the left aisle.
There is a very rich collection of church plate and vestments kept in
the _guardaroba_, which visitors should not fail to see.


_Orders must be obtained of Cardinal Ledockowski, Palazzo Cancelleria.
It must be visited before 11 A.M._ The entrance is at the side of the
statue of S. Veronica. It contains the tombs of the early Popes, and
also some old bas-reliefs, and some very ancient statues of S. Peter.
Adrian IV., the only English Pope, is buried here, and also several
distinguished historical characters, including "the last of the


_Orders must be obtained of Monsignor Fiorani, in the Sacristy, for
visiting the dome, which is only open without an order on Thursdays,
between 8 and 10 A.M._

It is reached by a winding ascent, the entrance being opposite the
Stuart monument. On the platform of the roof the cupolas, domes, and
pinnacles are seen to advantage; and hence, by different staircases
between the walls of the cupola, the ball is reached. During the
ascent, a fine view may be obtained of the lower parts of the church,
as well as of the mosaics and stuccoes which embellish the interior of
the dome.

On reaching the summit, a panoramic view of Rome and the Campagna is
had, quite repaying the labour of the ascent.


From the vestibule of S. Peter's we see, to the fullest advantage, the
fine piazza, with the Vatican on our left, which presents very much
the appearance of a large factory. Having been erected by different
architects in various eras, it has no systematic design, and is, in
fact, a collection of palaces built by different Popes. The entrance
is at the bend of the colonnade. _Permission to visit the_ MUSEUM,
GALLERIES, LIBRARY, _&c., must be obtained from Monsignor Macchi, at
his office, between the hours of 10 and 1, thus enabling a party of
five to pay a visit any day, except Saturdays, Sundays, and festas,
between 9 and 3, except the Museum of Statues, which is closed every
Thursday, when the Egyptian and Etruscan Museums and the Gallery of
Tapestries are only open_. The galleries are gained by


built in the pontificate of Urban VIII., from the design of Bernini.
The first flight is composed of Ionic columns, the second of
pilasters. The ornamental stucco work is from the designs of Algardi.
The equestrian statue of Constantine is by Bernini. On the first
landing, a passage leads to a small flight of steps. _At the top, on
the right, through a small red baize door, is the entrance to_


built by Sixtus IV. in 1473. It is celebrated for its paintings in
fresco by Michael Angelo; the roof alone occupied twenty months in the

THE ROOF.--On the flat part are nine compartments illustrative of--(1)
The Separation of Light from Darkness; (2) Creation of the Sun and
Moon; (3) Land and Sea; (4) Adam; (5) Eve; (6) the Fall and Expulsion
(the figure of Eve is considered to be the most perfect painting of
the female form in existence); (7) the Sacrifice of Noah; (8) the
Deluge; (9) Noah inebriated. These are bordered by sitting figures of
prophets and sibyls: _over the altar_, Jonah; _on the left_, Joel, the
Sibyl Erithræa, Ezekiel, the Sibyl Persica, Jeremiah and Zechariah;
_on the right_, the Sibyl Lybica, Daniel, the Sibyl Cumæa, Isaiah, and
the Sibyl Delphica. In the four corners are--Moses lifting up the
Brazen Serpent, King Artaxerxes, Esther and Haman, David and Goliath,
Judith and Holofernes. In the arches over the windows, and in the
recesses, Genealogy of Christ from Abraham to Joseph.

THE WALLS.--Behind the altar is the great fresco of Michael Angelo,
representing the Last Judgment, designed by him when in his sixtieth
year, and completed in eight years (1540). _At the top_ is our
Saviour, with the Virgin seated on his right, above angels bearing the
instruments of the passion. _On one side_ of our Lord are saints and
patriarchs, and on the other martyrs. _Below_, a group of angels
sounding the last trump and bearing the books of judgment. _On the
right_ is represented the fall of the condemned; Charon ferrying some
of them across the river Styx, striking the tumultuous with his oar.
The figure in the right-hand corner, representing Midas with ass's
ears, is Messer Biagio of Casena, the Pope's master of the ceremonies,
who said the nude figures were indecent; on which account the Pope
ordered Daniele da Volterra to cover them with drapery, which obtained
for him the cognomen of _Braghettone_ (breeches-maker). Michael Angelo
said, "Let the Pope reform the world, and the pictures will reform
themselves." And to spite Biagio, he represented him in hell, whereat
he complained to the Pope in order to have his figure removed. The
Pope replied that as he was in hell he must stop there, as he had no
power to release from hell, but from purgatory! _On the left_, the
blessed are ascending to heaven assisted by angels and saints.

_Between the windows_, portraits of the Popes of the time, by the
artist of the subject below. The lower part of the walls is painted in
imitation of drapery, over which were hung on grand ceremonies
tapestries from Raphael's cartoons.

_On the side walls_ are scenes from the life of Moses typical of the
life of our Lord. _On entering, to the right_--

     TYPE.                                  FULFILMENT.

     Moses and Zipporah going down     Baptism of Christ in Jordan.
     into Egypt. By Luca Signorelli.   By Perugino.

     Moses slaying the Egyptian.       Our Lord being tempted. By
     Driving away the shepherds.       Sandro Botticelli.
     The Lord appearing in the
     burning bush. By Sandro

     Pharaoh overwhelmed in the Red    Christ calling Peter and
     Sea. By Cosimo Rosselli.          Andrew. By Dom Ghirlandajo.

     Moses receiving the tables of     The Sermon on the Mount. By
     the law. Destruction of the       Cosimo Rosselli.
     Golden Calf. By Cosimo Rosselli.

     Destruction of Korah, Dathan,     Christ giving unto Peter "the
     and Abiram, and the sons          keys of the kingdom of heaven"
     of Aaron. By Sandro Botticelli.   (Matt. xvi. 19). By Perugino.

     Death of Moses. Reading of the    The Last Supper. By Cosimo
     law. By Luca Signorelli.          Rosselli.

     The Archangel contending about    Christ's Resurrection. By Dom
     the body of Moses.[7] By          Ghirlandajo.
     Francesco Salviati.

_Apply to the custodi of the Sistine Chapel to visit the Pauline
Chapel, which is entered from the_


built as an audience hall for the ambassadors to the Papal Court. It
is decorated with frescoes representing different important events in
Papal history.


was erected by Paul III. Its walls are painted in fresco, the
conversion of S. Paul and the execution of S. Peter being by Michael
Angelo. The painted roof and the portraits of twenty-eight Popes are
by Lorenzo Sabatini and Frederigo Zucchero.

_Retracing our steps through the Sistine Chapel, and going up a narrow
stair, we enter, through a small white door, two rooms containing_


(_First Room, right._)

1. Beatitude of Benedict of Urbino (Capuchin).--Guido Guidi, 1865. He
is being presented, with other missionaries, to Clement VIII.

2. Beatitude of John Sarcander, who is led to the torture by the Dutch
Calvinists.--By F. Grandi. 3. S. Chiara of Mount Falconi visits
Cardinal Colonna, who is kneeling.--Raffaele Gagliardi. 4. Alfonso
Rodosko's Vision of the Virgin.--By G. Sereni. 5. John Berchmans'
Vision of the Virgin.--Gagliardi. 6. Peter of Arbues, Grand Inquisitor
of Spain, murdered at the altar.--G. Mauretta. _At the end_ of this
hall is a piece of tapestry designed by Raphael. It represents S. Paul
striking Bar-jesus (Elymas) blind before the pro-consul Sergius Paulus
at Paphos in Cyprus.--Acts xiii. 6. _Returning up the hall._ 7. Paul
of the Cross, founder of the Passionist Order.--Coghetti. 8.
Declaration of the Dogma of Immaculate Conception by C. de Paris. 9.
The Virgin with the Infant Jesus appearing to Maria degli Angeli, a
Carmelite nun.--De Rohden.

The entry and the connection between the first and second hall were
once the chapel of Pius V. The richly-painted window, by Ludovic Gesta
of Toulouse, represents Germana Cousin, the Shepherdess of Pibrac,
crossing a stream, and portraits of Pius IX. and French ecclesiastics.
The cupola is the work of Federico Zuccheri; the subjects are the Fall
of Satan and scenes from the Life of Tobit. In the lunettes below are
the four doctors of the Latin Church, by Paoletti.

(_Second Room, left._) 10. Saints Martyred in Gorcum in the
Netherlands.--Cæsar Fracassini. His masterpiece; a very fine work of
art. 11. A fine large painting, the gift of the Polish Roman
Catholics. It represents John Sobieski, King of Poland, relieving
Vienna from the Turks: the work of Matejko, 1883. 12. S. Lorenzo da
Brindisi leading the Imperial troops against the Turks at the Battle
of Alba-Reale in Hungary.--By F. Grandi. 13. S. Michael de'
Sanctis.--Jojetti. 14. Beatitude of the Canon John de' Rossi.--Dies.
_Passing from these we go into the_ SALOON OF PODESTI, containing
frescoes relating to the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception. _On the
end wall_ is represented the supposed Vision of the Virgin to Pius
IX.; _opposite_, the Discussion of the Dogma; _on the right wall_,
Proclamation of the Dogma. They were done in 1870, in commemoration of
the Vatican Decrees. _Thence we pass into the_


consisting of four rooms designed by Raphael, and completed by his
pupils after his death, to illustrate the triumphs and establishment
of the Catholic Church. The principal frescoes are:--

IN THE FIRST ROOM.--_On the right_, the Incendio del Borgo, A.D. 847;
_over the window_, Justification of Leo III.; _in front_, Victory of
Leo IV. over the Saracens at Ostia; and _opposite_, Coronation of
Charlemagne. The chiaro-oscuro portraits, _below_, by Caravaggio,
represent the princes who first gave tribute to the Church. The roof
is by Perugino, Raphael's master.

SECOND ROOM.--Illustrative of Theology, _on the entry wall_; Poetry,
_over the window_; Philosophy, _in front_; and Jurisprudence, _on the
right_. Representations of the Fall of Man, the Flaying of Marsyas,
the Study of the Globe, the Judgment of Solomon, _on the ceiling_. _On
the walls_ corresponding--the Dispute on the Sacrament, Mount
Parnassus, the School of Athens (a portico crowded with philosophers,
which gives its name to the room), Prudence, Fortitude, and

THIRD ROOM.--_In front_, the Miraculous Expulsion of Heliodorus from
the Temple; _on the right_, the Mass of Bolsena; _on the entry wall_,
Attila driven back from Rome by Leo I.; _over the left window_, S.
Peter's Release from Prison (notice the four different lights here).
_The ceiling_ represents subjects from the Old Testament.

FOURTH ROOM.--_On the right_, Battle between Constantine and Maxentius
at the Ponte Molle; _entry wall_, Baptism of Constantine; _left wall_,
Rome presented by Constantine to Silvester; _in front_, the Cross
appearing to Constantine (the dwarf is Gradasso da Norcia, from
Berni's Poetry); _on the vault_, the pagan statue thrown down
represents the Triumph of Faith, by Lauretti (notice the wonderful bit
of perspective here); _on the right-hand corner, a door leads into
the_ ANTICAMERA OF THE STANZE, originally painted by Raphael, restored
by Carlo Maratta. _Out of this room is_


The frescoes are by Fra Angelico, representing events in the lives of
SS. Stephen and Laurence. _On the ceiling_ are the four Evangelists.
It was built as the private chapel of Nicholas V., and is the oldest
decorated portion of the Vatican. _We now pass into_


_to the right on entering_.

"It is impossible either to execute or imagine a more beautiful work"
(Vasari). It is called Raphael's Bible. It is divided into thirteen
arcades, each containing four subjects of Scripture history--1. The
Creation of the World, by Raphael; 2. History of Adam and Eve; 3. The
History of Noah, by Giulio Romano; 4. Abraham and Lot; 5. History of
Isaac, by Penni; 6. Jacob, by Pellegrino; 7. Joseph; 8. Moses, by
Giulio Romano; 9. Moses, by Raffaello del Colle; 10. Joshua; 11.
David, by Pierino del Vaga; 12. Solomon, by Pellegrino; 13. From the
New Testament, by Giulio Romano. The stucco ornaments and arabesque
work are by Giovanni da Udine, from Raphael's designs, who took the
idea from the Golden House of Nero. The weather has very much damaged
them. Pius IX. put the glass windows in.

_The other sides_ were built by Gregory XIII., and executed by
Giovanni da Udine; they have recently been restored by Mantovani. _The
farther one_, parallel with the Papal apartments, is where his
holiness gives audience.

_A flight of stairs on the left leads to the_ Upper Loggia, painted
with maps and landscapes. _Entrance to the Picture Gallery--ring the
bell at the second door on the left of the Central Loggia._


(_The Pinacotheca._)

Formed by Pius VII. As the artist's name and the subject are painted
on the frame of each picture (a hint some of the other galleries might
adopt), it will be only necessary to mention the most important.

FIRST ROOM.--The Christian Mysteries, one of Raphael's earliest
paintings; Faith, Hope, and Charity, three medallions, by Raphael;
Doubting Thomas, by Guercino; Marriage of S. Catherine of Alexandria
with the Infant Christ, by Murillo; Adoration of the Shepherds, by

SECOND ROOM.--The Last Communion of S. Jerome, by Domenichino; Madonna
di Foligno, by Raphael; The Transfiguration, Raphael's masterpiece.

THIRD ROOM.--S. Sebastian, by Titian; The Assumption of the Virgin, in
two parts--the Crowning, by Giulio Romano, and the Apostles round the
Tomb, by Francesco Penni; Virgin and Child, by Sassoferrato; The
Entombment, by Caravaggio.

FOURTH ROOM.--S. Peter's Crucifixion, by Guido; Annunciation, by
Baroccio; Christ Enthroned, by Correggio.


_Orders must be obtained from the Rev. Monsignor Fiorani, at the

_It is entered by a corridor from the ground floor at the left-hand
corner of the Court of S. Damaso._ The mosaics in S. Peter's, S.
Paul's, and other churches, were manufactured here. Some mosaics take
a long time to execute, as great patience and art are required in
blending the shades, &c., upwards of 27,000 different shades of the
coloured _vetri_ being kept in stock.

A plate, generally of metal, of the required size, is first surrounded
by a margin rising about three-quarters of an inch above the surface.
A mastic cement, composed of powdered stone, lime, and linseed oil, is
then spread over as a coating, perhaps a quarter of an inch in
thickness. When set, this is again covered with plaster-of-Paris
rising to a level with the margin, upon which is traced a very careful
outline of the picture to be copied, and just so much as will admit of
the insertion of the small pieces of smalto or glass is removed from
time to time with a fine chisel. The workman then selects from the
trays, in which are kept thousands of varieties of colour, a piece of
the tint which he wants, and carefully brings it to the necessary
shape. The piece is then moistened with a little cement, and bedded in
a proper situation, the process being repeated until the picture is
finished, when the whole, being ground down to an even face and
polished, becomes an imperishable work of art. The process is the same
for making the small mosaics so much employed at the present day for
boxes, covers, or articles of jewellery, and this work is sometimes
upon almost a microscopic scale. The Florentine mosaic, which is
chiefly used for the decoration of altars and tombs, or for cabinets,
tops of tables, coffers, and the like, is composed of precious
materials, in small slices or veneers, and by taking advantage of the
natural tints which characterize the marble, the agate, or the jasper,
very admirable effects may be produced in imitation of fruits,
flowers, or ornaments. The use of this kind of mosaic is extremely
restricted, on account of the great value and expense, not only of the
materials, but of the labour employed upon them. None but the hardest
stones are used; every separate piece must be backed by thicker slices
of slate or marble to obtain additional strength; and every minute
portion must be ground until it exactly corresponds with the pattern
previously cut.


_Open every day from 9 till 3, except on Thursday and Saturday, when
it is closed. Permission must be obtained of Monsignor Macchi, at his
office in the Vatican, from 10 till 1. Each permit admits a party of
five, and can only be used once._

_Entrance_ is obtained by going round to the back of S. Peter's, thus
enabling us on our way to admire the vast proportions of the latter.
The Vatican Museum was founded by Julius II., and consists of those
objects of art that have been discovered, and which once graced the
principal buildings of ancient Rome. At the entrance the new official
English catalogue by Signor Massi, the conservator of the galleries,
can be purchased; it gives a full account of the objects of art. In so
vast a collection, we call attention to the principal works only.

_Entering on the left by the iron gates, filled in with glass, and
ascending the marble stairs, we enter_


In the centre of the floor is a splendid mosaic, found at the Villa of
Cicero. A bust of Minerva forms the centre, around which are twelve
planets and various phases of the moon. The outer circle (modern) is
composed of masks and figures. The principal statues are 559 and 597,
Augustus; 564, Lucius Verus; 565, Hercules; 574, Venus of Cnidos; 566,
_left_, red porphyry Sarcophagus, which contained the remains of
Constantia, the daughter of Constantine the Great; 589, _opposite_,
generally attributed to Helena, the mother of the Christian emperor.
(See page 327.) Before the door is a fine mosaic representing a faun
watering a flower. At the foot of the stairs, by two sphinxes, is a
beautiful basket of flowers in mosaic. _We now enter_


Erected by Simonetti, by order of Pius VI. In the centre is a
magnificent vase of red porphyry, 46 feet in circumference, found in
the House of Nero. The large mosaic represents combats between
Centaurs and Lapithæ, and nymphs carried on the backs of monsters; in
the centre, under the vase, is the head of Medusa. The border
represents the adventures of Ulysses, Neptune, and monsters. The
principal statues are 537, 538, Tragedy and Comedy; 539, Bust of
Jupiter; 540, Colossal statue of Antinoüs; 546, Statue of Ceres; 545,
Bust of Antinoüs; 544, Hercules, in gilt bronze, found in 1864 during
the restoration of the foundations of the Biscioni Palace, which
occupies the site of the Theatre of Pompey, in the middle of which
stood the Temple of Venus Victrix, which this statue adorned; 542,
Colossal Juno; 547, Bust of Ocean; 548, Nerva, a seated statue crowned
with bronze oak wreath; 550, The Emperor Claudius; 552, Juno; 553, The
Genius of Augustus. _We now pass into_


It contains statues of muses, busts of Greek philosophers, poets, and
statesmen, all of which deserve special attention. _Left._ 525, Bust
of Pericles; 524, Seated Statue of Sappho; 523, Bust of Aspasia.
_Right._ 535, Mnemosyne, the mother of the muses; 511, Erato, muse of
love song; 514, Bust of Socrates; 515, Calliope, muse of epic poetry;
516, Apollo, as leader of the muses; 517, Terpsichore, muse of
dancing; 520, Euterpe, muse of melody. _Left._ 508, Polyhymnia, muse
of sacred poetry; 505, Clio, muse of history; 506, Bust of
Demosthenes; 504, Urania, muse of astronomy; 503, Thalia, comic and
pastoral muse; 499, Melpomene, muse of tragedy. _Beyond, left._ 492,
Sophocles; 491, Silenus; 490, Diogenes. _Right._ 498, Epicurus; 496,
Homer. _Now pass into_


The principal objects of interest are--124, Mithraic Sacrifice found
at Ostia, in the temple dedicated to the worship of the Persian deity;
139, Commodus on Horseback; 143, Sleeping Shepherd; 228, Triton
carrying off a Nereid. _We next enter_


In the centre of the gallery is a magnificent bath of the finest
Oriental alabaster. _Right-hand side on entering._ 248, Clodius
Albinus, governor of Britain under Commodus; 250, Cupid, by
Praxiteles, the "Genius of the Vatican;" 255, Paris; 259, Minerva as
the Peace-bearer; 261, Penelope; 262, Caligula; 264, Apollo with the
Lizard; 267, Drunken Faun; 270, Urania; 271, Posidippus, the master of
Greek comedy. _Entrance to Hall of Busts_ (_see below_). 390,
Menander; 391, Nero as Apollo; 392, Septimius Severus; 393, Dido; 394,
Neptune; 396, Narcissus; 398, Macrinus; 399, Æsculapius and Hygeia;
401, Fragment of Hæmon and Antigone; 402, Seneca; 405, One of the
fifty daughters of Danaus drawing water from Lethe; 406, Faun,
repetition of Praxiteles. _Entrance on left to Cabinet of Masks._ 414,
Sleeping Ariadne; 417, Mercury, by Ingenui; 420, Lucius Verus.


280, Augustus; 282, Cæsar; 285, Caracalla; 307, Saturn, colossal
veiled head; 311, Menelaus; 326, Jupiter seated; 333, Crispina; 352,
Livia as Piety, or Diana, or Surprise; 366, Scipio.


So called from the mosaic pavement found in Hadrian's Villa. The
ceiling is by Domenico de Angelis, representing the marriage of
Bacchus and Ariadne, Diana contemplating Endymion, Paris refusing
Minerva the apple, Adonis and Venus. 427, Replica of the Venus of Cos,
by Praxiteles. The head does not belong to this statue. 428, the
Crouching Venus, a copy after Heliodorus, by Bupalus; 429, the Empress
Sabina, Hadrian's wife, as Venus Genetrix, after Arcesilaus. The head
and arms have been inserted in an older statue; 432, Faun in _rosso
antico_; 433, Venus rising from the Sea, after Alcamenes; 436, Venus
anointing herself, after Polycharmes; 441, Ganymedes; 442, Adonis.

_We now proceed to the Court of the Belvedere_, which is supported by
sixteen columns, having a fountain in the centre. The court is adorned
with baths, urns, sarcophagi, statues, columns, bas-reliefs, and
medallions. The four corners of the court are occupied by cabinets _in
the following order, commencing on the left_:--


A most valuable piece of antique Greek sculpture, found near the Baths
of Titus in 1779. On the walls are bas-reliefs representing a combat
between Amazons and Athenians, and a sacred procession; 56, Priapus,
the god of orchards; 57, Hercules.


It contains three splendid works by this great modern master: Perseus
with the Head of Medusa; the Two Boxers, Kreugas (defence), Damoxenus


One of the finest masterpieces of ancient Greek sculpture, discovered
at Porto d'Anzio towards the close of the fifteenth century--Apollo in
the attitude of turning the army of the Gauls into stone, with the
head of Medusa, B.C. 278, as we are informed by the inscription in
bronze; it was restored erroneously. It is beautifully described by
Byron in "Childe Harold."


Found in the Baths of Titus in 1506. Pliny (xxxvi. 4) thus describes
it:--"A work which may be considered superior to all others both in
painting and statuary. The whole group--the father, the boys, and the
awful folds of the serpents--were formed out of a single block by
Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus, natives of Rhodes. Michael
Angelo said, however, and it has since been proved, that it is in
three pieces."

     "Two serpents ... their destined way they take,
     And to Laocoön and his children make:
     And first around the tender boys they wind,
     Then with their sharpened fangs their limbs and bodies grind.
     The wretched father, running to their aid
     With pious haste, but vain, they next invade;
     Twice round his waist their winding volumes rolled,
     And twice about his gasping throat they fold.
     The priest thus doubly choked, their crests divide,
     And towering o'er his head in triumph ride."
          VIRGIL, "Æn.," ii. 209: DRYDEN.

_We now enter the_


the hero sung of by Greek and Latin poets. Found in the year 1500
outside the Porta Portese. 20, The Loves of Æneas and Dido; 17,
Inscription relating to the foundation of the temple of Hercules
Victor by the consul Mummius.


In the centre is a basin of pavonazzetto; on the balcony a very rare
ancient sun-dial, found in 1770 near the Colosseum. The view from here
has given to this balcony the name


It commands a beautiful panoramic scene of Rome and the Campagna,
bounded by the distant Alban and Sabine Hills.


The gray peperino sarcophagus was discovered in the tomb of the
Scipios on the Via Appia in 1780. It contained the remains of Scipio
Barbatus. When it was opened, two thousand years after his death, the
skeleton was found entire, with a ring upon one of the fingers. The
ring passed into the hands of the Earl of Beverley, and the bones were
removed to Padua by the Venetian senator, Angelo Quirini. On the wall
are inscriptions found in the tomb. A bust of the poet Ennius
surmounts the sarcophagus.


of Hercules. The work of Apollonius, son of Nestor of Athens. Found
near the Theatre of Pompey. It is considered to be the most perfect
resemblance to human flesh, and was greatly admired by Raphael and
Michael Angelo, the latter declaring that he was its pupil.
_Descending the stairs we reach_


containing numerous monuments of Greek and Roman art. _On the left
going down._ 733, Recumbent Statue of Hercules; 683, Hygeia; 682,
Antoninus Pius; 681, Minerva; 635, Hercules with Ajax, found near
Pompey's Theatre; 589, Mercury; 588, Group of Bacchus and Ampelus;
544, Silenus; 495, A Cupid, by Praxiteles; 494, Tiberius; 493,
Diadumenianus; 450, Mercury; 422, Bust of Demosthenes; 419-417, Busts
of Caius and Lucius, nephews of Augustus; 418, Julia, his daughter;
416, Augustus as a Youth; 401, Colossal Head of Augustus; 400,
Tiberius; 399, Head of Tiberius; 353, Nymph on a Rock; 294, Hercules
Resting; 262, A Smiling Child; 242, Apollo Citharœdus; 241, Juno
suckling Mars; 240, Britannicus; 197, Minerva, with modern helmet and
enamelled eyes; 177, Polyhymnia; 175, Niobe in Flight from Diana; 122,
Diana; 121, Clio, the historical muse and guardian of truth; 120,
Priestess of Vesta; 85, The God of Sleep; 62, Hygeia, the goddess of
health; 61, Urania; 15, A consular statue; 6, Autumn.--_Gates to
Corridor of Inscriptions._--_Returning._ 13, Winter; 19, Paris; 18,
Apollo; 17, A Faun. _Entrance to the Nuovo Braccio._ 112, Venus of
Cnidos; 124, Drusus; 181, Hecate; 179, Myth of Alcestis; 245,
Polyhymnia; 244, Ocean; 287, Sleeping Fisher Boy; 298, Bacchus; 297,
Athlete; 343_a_, Brutus who stabbed Cæsar; 355-357, Figures found at
Tusculum; 358, Captive; 453, Meleager; 498, Clotho; 497, Sarcophagus,
with Corn-mills; 484, Diana; 547, Isis; 548, a Vestal; 580, Præfica;
591, Claudius; 627, Venus and Mars; 639, Julia Lœmia; 686, Tuccia,
the vestal virgin, carrying water in a sieve from the Tiber to the
Forum. (See Dionysius, ii. 69.) On the border is S. K. Pello, "By this
proof a sepulchre and a calumny are removed from me." 685,
Sarcophagus, representing the manufacture of oil; 684, Æsculapius.


Built by Pius VII., in 1817, from the designs of Stern. The floor is
composed of ancient mosaics, and is worthy of notice. The chief
objects of interest are--5, Caryatide, supposed to be one of those
which supported the portico of the Pandrosium at Athens, by Phidias;
8, Commodus; 9, Captive Dacian King; 11, Silenus; 14, Augustus, found
in 1863 in the ruins of the Villa of Livia at Prima Porta; 17,
Æsculapius; 20, Nerva; 23, Pudicitia, the goddess of modesty; 26,
Titus; 92, Ganymedes, the cup-bearer of Jupiter; 44, Wounded Amazon;
47, Caryatide; 50, Diana; 53, Euripides; 56, Julia, daughter of Titus;
59, Plenty; 62, Demosthenes; 67, Athlete in the act of cleaning his
arm with a strigil--the die, which he holds in his other hand, is an
erroneous modern addition; 71, Amazon; 74, Clemency; 77, Antonia, the
wife of Drusus the elder; 80, Plotina, wife of Trajan; 83, Ceres; 86,
Fortune; 96, A. Marcus Antonius; 109, The Nile--the sixteen children
are allegorical of the sixteen cubits at which the rise of the river
begins to irrigate the land--one of the finest works of art in the
Vatican, found near the Church of Minerva; 111, Julia, daughter of
Titus; 114, Minerva; 117, Claudius; 120, Faun; 123, Lucius Verus; 126,
Athlete; 129, Domitian; 132, Mercury. _Passing through the iron gates,
we enter_


the walls of which are adorned with three thousand pagan and eleven
hundred Christian inscriptions brought from various catacombs and
cemeteries. _Retracing our way through the Museum, a glass door on the
right at the entrance of the Museum conducts us to_


_Ask the Custodian; fee, 50 cents each._

It was founded by Sixtus V., and contains 120,000 volumes, of which
25,000 are manuscripts. The magnificent great hall is 220 feet long,
and contains many objects of interest, notably two fine candelabra of
Sèvres china presented to Pius VII. by Napoleon I.; a vase of
malachite and another of immense size, presented by Prince Demidoff;
two vases of Meissen porcelain, presented by the Emperor of Germany; a
large vase of porcelain china, presented by Napoleon III. to Pius IX.
after it had been used as the font in the baptism of the Prince
Imperial; a beautiful basin of Aberdeen granite, presented by the Duke
of Northumberland.


The contents comprise a collection of lamps, glass vessels, gems, &c.,
found in the Catacombs. In the room beyond is a very interesting
collection of Byzantine and medieval Italian paintings, a Russian
calendar, and other interesting objects. At the end of this vista of
rooms is a full-length seated portrait of Pius IX., painted on glass
at Aix-la-Chapelle.

_N.B.--The following collections at the Vatican are open only on
Thursdays from nine till three; special permission is required._


Formed by Gregory XVI. from Egypt, and from Egyptian remains dispersed
in the several museums of Rome. It comprises a hall of monuments, hall
of the imitations executed by Roman and Greek artists, and several
cabinets containing many interesting objects.

_Ascending the stairs we reach, on the right_,


adorned with several beautiful works of ancient art, the principal of
which is the Biga or chariot, only the body of which is ancient. The
Biga for a long time served as an episcopal throne in the Church of S.
Mark in Rome. The torso of the right horse was a gift of Prince
Borghese; the additions and restorations are by Franzoni. No. 611,
Alcibiades, after Nycerates; 615, Discobolus, after Naukides; 616,
Phocion; 618, Discobolus, after Myron. _The long corridor is called_


and is divided into six compartments, containing cups, vases,
sarcophagi, statues, candelabra, &c. It has recently been restored by
Leo XIII., the floors and ceilings being masterpieces of modern art.
The most important objects of interest are: 19, a Child Playing at
_Capita et Navim_ (heads or tails); 74, Faun Extracting a Thorn from a
Satyr's Foot; 81, Diana of Ephesus--her sixteen breasts signify the
sixteen cubits at which the Nile overflows; the various half figures
of sphinxes, lions, bulls, stags, bees, and flowers are her attributes
as the nurse of all things living; the disk ornament refers to the
sun; the four seasons, the signs of the zodiac, and a necklace of
acorns adorn her neck: the statue was found at Hadrian's Villa. 88,
Mercury seated amidst his Symbols; 134_a_, a Well Head; 134_c_, statue
of the Sabine God Semoni Sanco, found in 1879 on the slopes of the
Quirinal Hill, presented by Leo XIII.; 134_b_, Well Head; 135, seated
statuette of Sophocles; 177, an Old Fisherman; 183, Saturn (rare);
184, Personification of Antioch on the Orontes, by Eutychides; 222, a
Spartan Virgin Racer, earlier art than that of Phidias; 231, Actor,
with mask; 257, Ganymede and the Eagle. _Returning_--269, a Warrior;
194, Child and Swan; 204, sarcophagus representing Diana and Apollo
Shooting at the Niobides; 149_a_, Somnus (Sleep); 148, a Faun Carrying
the Infant Bacchus; 118_a_, the Eagle carrying off Ganymede, a
replica of the bronze original, by Leochares; 112, sarcophagus
illustrating the Story of Protesilaus and Laodamia. This should be
compared with the relief, No. 269, in the Gallery of Statues. On the
sides are the myths of Ixion, Sisiphus, and Tantalus. 52, a Drunken
Faun, in green basalt.


contains copies of Raphael's cartoons which are at the South
Kensington Museum: they were woven in Flanders by order of Leo X. to
adorn the Sixtine Chapel. _Right side going down._ Our Saviour giving
the Keys to Peter--_the border_ represents the Medici fleeing from
Florence; Peter healing the Man at the Beautiful Gate of the
Temple--_border_, Cardinal Medici at the Battle of Ravenna; Conversion
of Saul--_border_, the Taking of Prato in 1512; in three pieces,
Slaughter of the Innocents; The Resurrection; Stoning of
Stephen--_border_, Cardinal Medici entering Florence, allegorical of
the Papal power; the Earthquake during Paul's imprisonment at
Philippi. _Right in returning._ Descent of the Holy Ghost; Adoration
of the Wise Men; Our Lord's Ascension; Adoration of the Shepherds; The
Presentation in the Temple; Christ as the Gardener; Scenes from our
Lord's Passion; _small_, Paul on Mars' Hill--_border_, Scenes from the
Acts; Paul and Barnabas at Lystra--_border_, Scenes from the Life of
Paul; Miraculous Draught of Fishes; Death of Ananias--_border_, Faith,
Hope, and Charity.

_Retracing our way through the Gallery of the Candelabra, a small
flight of steps at the end leads to a balcony where there is a good
view of the lower halls. On the right is the entrance to_


which contains various works of art brought from the ancient towns of
Etruria and Magna Græcia. These works are generally mixed up in the
Roman museums.

FIRST ROOM.--Three terra-cotta sarcophagi, with reclining figures on
the covers; two horses' heads in tufa from Vulci.

SECOND ROOM.--Cinerary urns from Volterra, in Volterra alabaster.

THIRD ROOM.--A large peperino sarcophagus, found at Corneto, the
ancient Tarquinii: an Etruscan king-priest, _Lucumo_, reclines upon
it, and on its sides are Greek myths. A travertine slab, with a Latin
and Umbrian inscription, from Todi; frieze of terra-cotta from
Cervetri. In the corners of the room cinerary urns, found beneath a
volcanic stratum between Albano and Marino: they are in the form of
huts, and still contain ashes.

FOURTH ROOM.--A Roman Mercury in terra-cotta, found at Tivoli; a
wounded youth reclining on a couch, generally called Adonis.

FIFTH, SIXTH, SEVENTH, and EIGHTH ROOMS contain terra-cotta vases,
glass beads, and ornaments.

NINTH ROOM (_entered from Sixth Room_).--Hall of bronzes and
jewellery; a bronze statue of a warrior, found at Todi in 1835;
shields, arrows, helmets, spurs, mirrors, &c.; a funeral bier from
Cære; a bronze child with a bulla, supposed to represent Tages, the
boy-god who sprang from a clod of earth at Tarquinii; a Roman
war-chariot, found at the Villa of the Quintilii on the Appian Way;
bronze toilet-cases (_cista mistica_); brazier with tongs on wheels; a
rake with a hand for its handle; shovel--two swans bearing a boy and a
girl form the handle. _In the centre of the hall_, Jewel-case of
objects found in the tomb of _Mi Larthial_ ("I, the great lady") and
of an Etruscan priest at Cervetri (Cære), from which town and its
customs we get the word "ceremony."

TENTH ROOM.--Bronze figure of a boy; and Roman lead pipes.

ELEVENTH ROOM.--Copies of the frescoes found in the tombs at Vulci and
Tarquinii; Etruscan vases.

TWELFTH ROOM.--Imitation Tomb, with genuine peperino lions.


Returning from the Museum, on reaching the colonnade of S. Peter's,
_turn off to the right_, through the middle of the colonnade. Opposite
is the Palazzo del S. Uffizio,--the Inquisition, which was established
here in 1536, and abolished by the Roman Republic in 1849. It is now
used as a barrack, and the Inquisition holds its meetings in the

Passing at the back of the columns into the Borgo S. Michaele, and
_turning to the right_, we enter the Borgo S. Spirito. _On the left_
is the fine tower of the Church of S. Michaele in Sassia, in which
Raphael Mengs is buried. This name, Sassia, commemorates the Saxon
settlement founded in 727, and the word "borgo" comes from the Saxon
"burgh." _Beyond is_


a massive gateway built by San Gallo in the walls erected by Leo IV.
round S. Peter's and the Vatican, whence the district inside is called
the Leonine City. _Outside the gate a steep ascent leads up to_


This convent is for ever memorable in the history of Italian
literature as the place where Tasso died. The adjoining church, called
Girolmini, or Brothers of S. Jerome, built for the use of the monks,
was erected in 1429 A.D., during the reign of Eugene IV. Tasso,
summoned to the Capitol to be crowned there as king of bards, died in
1595, a short time after his arrival in Rome. He was buried in the
church without much ceremony, and his remains lay undisturbed in a
simple tomb on the left of the entrance until the year 1857, when they
were transferred to a chapel in the church expressly built for their
reception at the public expense. A fine statue of the poet by Fabris
is shown. In the convent garden is a tree called Tasso's Oak, under
which the author of "Jerusalem Delivered" used to sit in pious
meditation. The view of Rome and of the Sabine and Alban Hills, with
Soracte in the distance, is magnificent. The fresco of the Virgin and
Child over the door of the church, and three paintings under the
portico illustrating the life of S. Jerome, are the work of
Domenichino. In the convent is a Virgin and Child by Leonardo da
Vinci; and in the same building are preserved several relics of Tasso,
in the room where he died--his crucifix, his inkstand, and the leaden
coffin in which his bones reposed for two hundred and sixty-two
years--namely, till the time of his second burial. Two other
distinguished men were buried in S. Onofrio--Guidi, the poet, and
Cardinal Mezzofanti, the famous linguist.

_At the bottom of the ascent, turn to the right, down the Via Lungara.
Some little distance down on the right is the_


(_Formerly Corsini._)

_Open Monday, Thursday, and Saturday, from 9 to 3._

As this palace, now the home of the Academy of the Lincei, is again
open to the public, and as the paintings were generously presented by
Prince Corsini to the city of Rome, it may be of advantage to visitors
in Rome if we enumerate the paintings most worth inspection. At the
same time we would inform our readers that there are full catalogues,
on cards, in Italian and French in each room.

FIRST ROOM.--_In glass case on stand at window_, Birth of Christ, by
Batoni; 6, Sacred Family, by Barocci; 23, S. Catherine of Sienna, by

SECOND ROOM.--_In glass case on stand at first window_, Mater
Dolorosa, by Guido Reni. _In second window_, Madonna and Infant Jesus,
by Carlo Dolci; 11 and 27, Fruit, by Mario di Fiori; 15, a Landscape,
by Poussin; 20, Pietà, by Caracci; 41, Andrea Corsini, by Gessi,
copied in mosaic in the Corsini Chapel in S. John's Lateran.

THIRD ROOM.--89, Ecce Homo, by Guido Reni; 1, Ecce Homo, by Guercino;
9, Madonna, by Sarto; 10, Birth of the Virgin, by Caracci; 15,
Madonna, by Sarto; 17, Madonna, by Caravaggio; 21, Virgin and Child,
by Vandyck; 22, The Players, by Rubens; 23, Sunset, by Botti; 26,
Sacred Family, by Fra Bartolomeo; 27, Peter Paying the Tribute Money,
by Caravaggio; 33, Flight into Egypt, by Perugino; 36, Holy Family, by
Garofalo; 40, The Sleep of Jacob, by Massow; 44, Julius II., by
Raphael; 45, Birth of the Virgin, by Berettini of Cortone. _Under
glass in last window_, a Hare, by Albert Durer; 55, Butcher's Shop, by
Teniers; 82, John the Baptist, by Carlo Maratta; 88, Ecce Homo, by
Carlo Dolci.

FOURTH ROOM.--_In the centre_, an ancient marble chair, with low
reliefs, found at the Lateran. 1, Ancient mosaic, a Man Binding Bulls;
4, Cupid Asleep, by Guido; 11, The Daughter of Herodias, by Guido; 16,
Madonna, by Guido; 20, The Baptist, by Guercino; 31, Peter and Agata,
by Lanfranco; 33, Death of S. Stephen, by Domenichino; 40, Faustina
Maratta, by Carlo Maratta; 41, the Fornarina, by Giulio Romano, after
Raphael; 42, an Old Man, by Guido; 43, Holy Family, by Carlo Maratta;
45, Magdalen, by Carlo Dolci.

FIFTH ROOM.--8, The Annunciation, by Michael Angelo--one of his few
easel pictures; 12, S. Agnese, by Carlo Dolci; 16, The Sacred Family,
by Schidone; 21, Madonna, by Carlo Maratta; 22, Marriage of S.
Caterina, by Domenichino; 24, Christ at the Well, by Guercino; 26,
Madonna, by Sassoferrato; 29, Madonna and Infant, by Guercino; 32-40,
Annunciation, by Guercino; 34, The Forum Romanum, by Pannini; 38, Ecce
Homo, by Guido; 39, S. John, by Guido.

SIXTH ROOM.--21, The Children of Charles V., by Titian; 22, a Woman,
by Rembrandt; 37, Mrs. Martin Luther, by Holbein; 31, Martin Luther,
by Holbein; 47, Rubens's Portrait, by himself; 50, Cardinal Farnese,
by Titian.

SEVENTH ROOM.--11, Landscape, by Poussin; 15, S. Sebastian, by Rubens;
19-27, Annunciation, by Carlo Maratta; 21, The Dispute, by Giordano;
23, 24, Last Judgment and Ascension, by Fra Angelico; 30, "Let him who
is without sin cast the first stone," by Titian; 42, Magdalen, by

EIGHTH ROOM.--2, Sacred Family, by Francia; 8, Christ before Pilate,
by Vandyck; 9, The Baptist, by Caravaggio; 12, St. George and the
Dragon, by Grandi; 13, Contemplation, by Guido; 15, Landscape, by
Poussin; 16, a Sea Piece, by Salvator Rosa; 18, Susanna, by
Domenichino; 19, Seneca Dying in the Bath, by Caravaggio; 24, S.
Jerome, by Guercino; 29, Christ in the Garden, by Correggio; 32, Peter
Raising Tabitha, by Placide Costanzi, copied in mosaic in S. Peter's;
37, Woman and Child, by Murillo.

NINTH ROOM.--2, Village Interior, by Teniers; 9, Triumph of Ovid, by
Velasquez; 10, an Old Man Reading, by Guido; 12, Prometheus, by
Salvator Rosa; 58, Death of S. Joseph, by Giuseppe del Sole. _Opposite


_Open on the 1st and 15th of the month._

It contains the famous frescoes of Raphael. On the ceiling of the
first room that of the fable of Cupid and Psyche, designed by Raphael,
and painted by Giulio Romano. This charming fable is described by
Kugler in his "Handbook on the Italian Painters."

_Commencing on the left_, the first is Venus ordering Cupid to punish
Psyche; second, Cupid showing Psyche to the Three Graces; third, Juno
and Ceres pleading for Psyche; fourth, Venus in her Car going to claim
the interference of Jupiter; fifth, Venus pleading before Jupiter;
sixth, Mercury flying to execute the Order of Jupiter; seventh, Psyche
with the Vase of Beauty-Paint given by Proserpine to appease Venus;
eighth, Psyche giving the Vase to Venus; ninth, Cupid complaining to
Jupiter; tenth, Mercury taking Psyche to Olympus. _On the vault_,
Council of the Gods, by Giulio Romano; Banquet of the Gods, on the
Marriage of Cupid, by Francesco Penni. _On the wall of the second
room_, Raphael's Galatea; on the ceiling, Diana in her Car drawn by
Oxen, by Peruzzi, and the fable of Medusa, by D. Volterra. The
landscapes are by Poussin.

On the opposite side of the street, just beyond the Corsini Palace
entrance, in the Vicolo Stalle d'Corsini, is the


(_Museo Torlonia._)

_Permission must be obtained from Prince Torlonia. Written application
should be made to the prince at his palace in the Piazza di Venezia._

A full catalogue of the Torlonia Museum has been written and printed
by Signor P. E. Visconti. Copies are lent for the use of visitors.
This grand collection of sculptures has been in course of formation by
Prince Torlonia during many years. Some of the objects were found on
his own property, others have been purchased by him, and many of the
most valuable works formerly belonged to the Mosca, Cambral,
Giustiniani, Ruspoli, and Randanini collections. As containing works
of art, it ranks next to the Vatican collection, and is the finest
private gallery in the world.

Amongst so many valuable and beautiful works of art it is almost
impossible to say what the casual observer should more particularly
notice. A day may be well and profitably spent amongst this admirable
collection. The lover of art will gain every information from
Visconti's excellent catalogue, whilst ordinary visitors can stroll
through and consult it for those objects which strike them most.
Venuses, the Muses, gods and goddesses, heroes and tales of mythology,
the emperors and their wives,--all are amply illustrated here. Many of
the objects are unique, and as there is such a good printed catalogue
lent, it is unnecessary for us to enumerate the different objects.

_Continuing down the Via Lungara, at a short distance is_


said to have been an archway leading into a villa of Septimius
Severus. It was incorporated by Aurelian into the line of his walls,
and fortified by Honorius. Passing under the arch, the VIA GARIBALDI
_on the right_ leads to the garden-crowned height of


which commands a magnificent view of Rome, its surroundings, and the
windings of the Tiber. The church was erected by Ferdinand and
Isabella of Spain, and is still under the protection of the crowned
head of Spain. In the court of the monastery is a small temple formed
of sixteen Doric columns, said to be erected over the spot where the
cross on which S. Peter was executed stood. Raphael's Transfiguration
was painted for this church, whence it was taken by the French to
adorn the Louvre. On its restoration to the Papal authorities it was
placed in the Vatican. The tomb of Beatrice Cenci is to our left of
the high altar, but no name is recorded on the stone. The new Spanish
Academy adjoins the church.


The Government has recently acquired and thrown open to the public
these grounds, known as the Corsini Villa, which for its view is one
of the most charming sites in Europe, formerly the villa of Julius
Martialis described by his nephew ("Ep." iv. 64):--

     "The few acres of Julius Martial,
     More blest than the Hesperides' gardens,
     Lie on the long ridge of the Janiculum.

            *       *       *       *       *

     It is possible hence to see the seven ruling mounts,[8]
     And to estimate all Rome,--
     The Alban hills, and those of Tusculum;
     And whatsoever cool shade lies under the city;
     Old Fidenæ,[9] and little Ruba;[10]
     And, that which delights in virgins' blood,
     The apple-bearing grove of Anna Perenna.[11]
     From thence, on the Flaminian and Salarian ways,[12]
     The rider is manifest, his chariot-wheels being silent,
     Whose gentle sleep may not be molested,
     Neither to break it by nautical shouts,
     Nor the clamour of the vigorous bargee,
     Although the Mulvian bridge[13] may be so near,
     And keels glide swiftly on the Sacred Tiber."


The long narrow ridge which commands Rome on its western side took its
name from Janus (Virgil, "Æn." vii. 358), but, although fortified by
Ancus Martius, was not reckoned in the city. It was sometimes called
Mons Aureus, from the golden colour of its sandy soil. From the fort
on the summit a flag flying denoted that all was well; but if the flag
was hauled down, the enemy were in view. It was this fort that Lars
Porsena seized when Horatius defended the bridge below.

  [Illustration: THE PAULINE FOUNTAIN.]

_Above the church of S. Pietro in Montorio is_


(_Fontana Paolina_,)

supplied by the ancient Aqua Trajana, which has its source in the Lago
di Bracciano, thirty-five miles from Rome. The fountain was built out
of the remains of the Temple of Minerva which stood in the Forum of
Domitian. _The road through the_ PORTA S. PANCRAZIO _leads to the_


_Open on Monday and Friday afternoons; one-horse carriages not

The villa--the most extensive and delightful of the Roman villas,
abounding in avenues and woods, fountains and cascades--is situated on
the summit of the Janiculum, it is supposed upon the site of a villa
of Galba. From the ilex-fringed terrace there is one of the best views
of S. Peter's; a lake supporting swans; a temple to the slain amongst
the besiegers of Rome in 1849--all of which must be seen to be
appreciated. "Galba was buried in his gardens, which are situated on
the Aurelian Way, not far from the city" (Eutropius, vii. 16).

_Re-entering the city, and descending the hill by the new road, thence
by the Via delle Fratte, we reach the_


originally the house of the saint. To the right, on entering, is the
tomb of Adam Hereford, Bishop of London, who died in 1398. The second
chapel on the right is said to have been the bath-room, and pipes may
still be seen in the wall. Beneath the high altar is the statue of S.
Cecilia, representing her body as found in the Catacombs of S.
Calixtus, "not lying upon the back, like a body in a tomb, but upon
its right side, like a virgin in her bed, with her knees modestly
drawn together, and offering the appearance of sleep." A golden
circlet conceals the wound in her throat that caused her death. The
inscription is as follows: "Behold the body of the most holy virgin
Cecilia, whom I myself saw lying incorrupt in her tomb. I have in this
marble expressed for thee the same saint in the very same posture of
body.--Stefano Maderno." Thus, when Cardinal Sfondrati restored the
church, in 1599, was the body found in her tomb just as it had been
deposited there eight hundred years before, after being found in the
Catacombs by Paschal I. (See page 290.)

_By the Via de Vascellari and Via Lungaretta we reach the_


Founded by Pope Sylvester, and rebuilt 1623. It has a fine old _opus
Alexandrinum_ pavement, and the aisles are formed by twenty-two
columns, two in porphyry supporting the arch. A mosaic in the tribune
represents the Madonna and Child enthroned between SS. James and
Chrisogono. The ceiling was painted by Arpino. _On the left of the
piazza is the small street_, MONTE DI FIORE, _in which is the_


(Roman firemen), remodelled and formed into seven watches by Augustus.
The building was discovered in 1866. _The custodian conducts the
visitor over, fee half a franc._ Descending the stairs we enter a
mosaic paved courtyard, with a well in the centre, and on the right a
small altar with mural paintings. There are several other chambers,
and a bath, with numerous inscriptions on the walls scratched by the
firemen during their idle moments.

_Going down the_ VIA LUNGARETTA, _we enter the_ PIAZZA OF S. MARIA, in
which are a fine fountain and the


The façade is covered with mosaics representing the Virgin and Child
enthroned, surrounded by ten virgins, and on either side the figure of
a bishop (Innocent II. and Eugenius III.); above this are palms, the
twelve sheep, and the mystic cities, and our Lord enthroned between
angels. The interior contains twenty-two columns. The Assumption, on
the ceiling, is by Domenichino. Beneath the high altar are the remains
of five early popes. In the upper part of the tribune are mosaics of
the Saviour and a female figure (representing the Church, the bride of
Christ, and not the Virgin, as is generally said) seated on thrones;
beneath are lambs, and representations from the life of the Virgin.

_Leaving the church, and going down the_ VIA DELLA SCALA, _hence
turning to the right into the Via di Ponte Sisto_, the house on the
left, a baker's shop, with Gothic upper windows, was the HOUSE OF
RAPHAEL'S FORNARINA. RAPHAEL'S HOUSE was at No. 124 Via dei Coronari,
near the S. Angelo Bridge. _A short distance, and we reach_


The present bridge was built by Pope Sixtus IV., who laid the
foundation stone, April 29, 1473, on the site of an older bridge
which was destroyed in the flood of A.D. 792, it having been built by
Symmachus, prefect of Rome under Valentinian (A.D. 365), "under whose
government the most sacred city enjoyed peace and plenty in an unusual
degree; being also adorned with a magnificent and solid bridge which
he constructed, and opened amid the great joy of his ungrateful
fellow-citizens" (Ammianus Marcellinus, xxvii. iii. 3). In 1878, in
making the new embankment for the Tiber, the remains of the left arch
were found at the bottom of the river, upon which was part of the
inscription, one foot seven inches high--VALENTINIAN. Pedestals which
formed part of the decorations were also found, and part of an
inscription--VALENTINIANI AU COSTI. At the Campus Martius end was a
triumphal arch dedicated to Valens and Valentiniani--


Remains of a bronze statue were also found.

The Via Giulia, _on the left_, and the Via Mascherone, _on the right,
lead to_


In the piazza are two fountains, the granite basins of which were
found in the baths of Caracalla. The palace is not now to be visited,
as it is occupied by the French Embassy. Its architecture is more
admired than that of any other palace in Rome; it was built by Pope
Paul III. with materials taken from the Colosseum. Its rooms are
adorned with frescoes of Annibale Caracci, his finest works,
consisting of mythological subjects. The centre piece represents the
Triumph of Bacchus and Ariadne.

Opening out of the square is the PIAZZA CAMPO DI FIORE. Here every
Wednesday is held a fair of curiosities, &c. _At the left corner is_


(_Palazzo della Cancelleria_,)

one of the finest palaces in Rome, built out of the travertine taken
from the Colosseum: the forty-four red granite columns which support
the portico came from Pompey's Theatre. At the foot of the staircase
Count Rossi was assassinated in November 1848.

  [Illustration: THE FARNESE PALACE.]

Adjoining the palace is the CHURCH OF SS. LORENZO E DAMASO, lately
restored. _A short lane, Vicolo Regis, leads to the Braschi Palace, at
the side of which is_


a mutilated torso found here in the sixteenth century. It took its
name from Pasquino, a tailor, who lived opposite, and whose shop was
the rendezvous of the wits of the city, who wrote their jokes and
stuck them on the statue: these were replied to by the statue of
Marforio, now in the Capitol Museum.

Some of Pasquino's sayings were very witty, and have been published.
Now, under a free government, he seldom speaks.


     What the barbarians did          Barberini family having
     not, the Barberini have done.    destroyed the antiquities.

     Public, thou liest; they         Inscription put up over
     were not public vows, but        the door of the Sacristy
     were vows of thy vain            of S. Peter's.

     Canova has this time made        Statue of Italy by Canova
     a mistake: he has clothed        exhibited during the French
     Italy, and she is stripped.      invasion.

     The Most High above sends        Some decrees of Napoleon's,
     us the tempest; the most         and a severe storm which
     high below takes from us         visited the city.
     that which remains; and
     between the two most highs
     we are very badly off.

     The French are all rogues;       French occupation of Rome.
     not all--but a good part of
     them (Buona parte).

     _Pasquino._ Beware, Cæsar,       Marriage of a man named
     lest thy Rome become a           Cæsar to a girl named Roma.

     _Cæsar._ Cæsar governs.

     _Pasquino._ Therefore he
     will be crowned.

     A heretic had the                Appointment of the
     preference; after him, a         librarians of the Vatican.
     schismatic; but now there
     is a Turk. Good-bye, Peter's

_The Via del Governo Vecchio leads to the_


(_La Chiesa Nuova_,)

containing three paintings by Rubens; they are at the high altar.

_From the Statue of Pasquino, by the side of the Braschi Palace, we
enter the_


one of the finest squares in Rome, sometimes called Piazza Navona. It
takes its name from being the site of the Circus Agonalis. _Fêtes_ are
held here during Carnival, and a fair at the Epiphany.

Notice the three fountains--the centre one by Bernini: four figures,
representing four rivers, recline on a craggy rock; on its top stands
an Egyptian obelisk, at its base a lion and a sea-horse.


This, from the inscription, was either made for, or the inscription
was added to and imitated by, Domitian:--"Sun god. Son of the Sun god.
Supporter of the world. Giver of life to the world. The man-god Horus.
The son of the woman Isis, who is come to avenge the death of his
ancestor Osiris. The king living for ever, Domitianus." From his Alban
Villa, where it originally stood, it was transported, in A.D. 311, to
the spina of the Circus of Maxentius on the Via Appia, thence to its
present site.

_On the left is_


said to have been built on the site where S. Agnes was exposed after
her torture; the high altar in the subterranean chapel is said to
stand on the very spot. In another part is shown her prison, and where
she was beheaded and burned, the church occupying the side vaults of
the circus. The upper church contains eight columns of red Cortanella
marble; it is ornamented with stuccoes, statues, alto-reliefs, and
pictures. Behind the high altar is the sepulchral chapel of Princess
Mary Talbot, wife of Prince Doria, who died in 1857.

_A street on the left leads to the_


containing Raphael's Sibyls--the Cumæan, Persian, Phrygian,
Tiburtine--on the face of the arch in the first chapel on the right.

Some statues in the Cesi Chapel were worked from pilasters found
behind the Palace dei Conservatori, on the Capitol, from the Temple of

_From the right of the Circo Agonale a street leads to the_


It contains a fresco by Raphael, on the third pilaster to the left in
entering,--Isaiah and two angels holding a tablet; also a favourite
statue of the Virgin and Child, by Andrea Sansavino.


[7] "And he buried him in a valley in the land of Moab, over against
Beth-peor: but no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day" (Deut.
xxxiv. 6). "Yet Michael the archangel, _when_ contending with the
devil he _disputed about_ the body of Moses" (Jude 9).

[8] The hills of Rome. She ruled the world.

[9] Five miles on the Salarian Way.

[10] Sax Ruba, eight miles on the Flaminian Way.

[11] On the Ides of May a popular carousal was held to this goddess,
on the fields of Aqua Acetosa, by the banks of the Tiber, whereat many
were espoused. (See Ovid, "F." iii. 523.)

[12] Northern roads, one on either side of the Tiber.

[13] Now Ponte Molle.





From the Piazza del Popolo the line of the Ripetta runs between the
Corso and the Tiber. In the house at the corner lived Ciceruacchio. A
short way down is the Quay of the Ripetta, built in 1707 by Clement
XI., and partly destroyed by the modern iron bridge, over which is a
direct walk to S. Peter's, the site of the fields which formerly
belonged to Cincinnatus (Livy, iii. 26).


_Turning out of the Ripetta on the left into the Via de' Pontefici,
through a gateway on the right_, are the remains of this once handsome
tomb; only the double reticulated wall, on which the tumulus with its
trees formerly stood, remains. This ruin has been converted into a
modern theatre, and thus the original finely-proportioned arrangements
can no longer be traced. A part of the enclosure wall may be best seen
from the court of the Palazzo Valdambrini, _102 Via Ripetta_. The
mausoleum was built by Augustus, B.C. 27. Marcellus, Agrippa, Drusus,
and Germanicus were buried there. Strabo describes it as standing upon
a lofty substruction of white stone, and shaded up to the top with
trees. The summit was crowned with the statue of Augustus in bronze,
and there were two Egyptian obelisks at the entrance, brought over by
Claudius. They are mentioned likewise by Marcellinus.

_It stood in_


which Strabo thus describes: "The plain, adorned by nature and art, is
of wonderful extent, and affords an ample and a clear space for the
running of chariots, and other equestrian and gymnastic exercises. It
is in verdant bloom throughout the year, and is crowned by hills which
rise above the Tiber and slope down to its very banks. The whole
affords a picturesque and beautiful landscape, which you would linger
to behold. Near to this plain is another of less magnitude; and all
around it are innumerable porticoes and shady groves, besides three
theatres, an amphitheatre, and various temples contiguous to each
other, so that the rest of the city appears only an appendage to it."
This lesser plain occupied the space between the Mausoleum of Augustus
and the Theatre of Marcellus--the plain from the tomb to the modern
Ponte Molle. "Sylla's monument stood in the Campus Martius"

_Just past the bridge, a street on the left, by the side of the
Borghese Palace, leads to the entrance of_


_situated in the Piazza Borghese, which is connected with the Corso by
the Via Fontanella Borghese. Catalogues for the use of visitors in
each room. Open on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from 10 till 3._ The
following are the principal objects of interest:--

Perugino; 5. Vanity; 27, 28. Petrarch and Laura; 35. Raphael as a
Boy, by himself; 43. Madonna, by Francia; 49, 57. History of Joseph,
by Pinturicchio; 61. S. Antonio, by Francia; 68. Doubting Thomas, by

SECOND ROOM: SCHOOL OF GAROFALO.--6. Madonna; 9. Mourners over Christ,
both by Garofalo; 22. Portrait of a Cardinal, by Bronzino; 23.
"Madonna col divin' amore," school of Raphael; 26. Cæsar Borgia (?),
by Bronzino; 38. Entombment, by Raphael; 51. S. Stephen, by Francia.

THIRD ROOM.--5. "Noli me tangere," by Bronzino; 24, 28. Madonna, by
Andrea del Sarto; 40. Danae, by Correggio (notice the cupids
sharpening an arrow); 48. The Flagellation, by Sebastiano del Piombo;
46. Reading Magdalene, by Correggio.

FOURTH ROOM: BOLOGNESE SCHOOL.--2. Cumæan Sibyl, by Domenichino; 20.
S. Joseph, by Guido; 36. Madonna, by Carlo Dolci; 42. Head of Christ,
by Carlo Dolci; 43. Madonna, by Sassoferrato.

FIFTH ROOM.--11-14. The Four Seasons, by Albani; 15. The Hunt of
Diana, by Domenichino; 25. The Deposition, by Zuccari.

SIXTH ROOM.--10. S. Stanislaus, by Ribera; 13. The Three Ages of Man,
copied by Sassoferrato from Titian.

SEVENTH ROOM.--Mirrors painted with Cupids and flowers; marble tables.

EIGHTH ROOM.--Mosaic portrait of Pope Paul V.

NINTH ROOM.--1. Fresco, Nuptials of Alexander and Roxana; 2. Fresco,
Nuptials of Vertumnus and Pomona; 3. Fresco, Archers Shooting at a
Target,--all by Raphael or his school.

TENTH ROOM.--13. David with the Head of Goliath, by Giorgione; 21.
Sacred and Profane Love, by Titian.

ELEVENTH ROOM.--11. Venus and Cupid on Dolphins, by Cambiaso; 15.
Christ and the Mother of Zebedee's Children, by Bonifazio; 16. Return
of the Prodigal, by Bonifazio; 17. Samson, by Titian.

TWELFTH ROOM: DUTCH SCHOOL.--1. Crucifixion, by Vandyck; 7.
Entombment, by Vandyck; 8. Tavern Scene, Teniers; 22. Cattle-Piece, by
Paul Potter.

_On leaving the gallery, turn to the right, and take the continuation
of the Via Ripetta on the left. Keeping straight on down the Via della
Scrofa, in the third turning on the right, at Via Portoghesi, is the
Torre della Scimmia_, better known to Hawthorne's readers as


It is one of those medieval watch-towers that come upon one so
unexpectedly in all sorts of out-of-the-way places in Rome. The
Romans call it the Tower of the Monkey, from a legend that years ago
the proprietor kept a monkey. This monkey one day seized upon a baby
in the street below, and carried it to the top of the tower, to the
agony of the parents, who vowed a shrine to the Virgin if the child
were safely restored. No sooner was the vow uttered than the monkey
brought down the baby by means of the water-pipe. The shrine was
forthwith erected, and every evening the lamp is lighted at _Ave
Maria_, and shines like a bright star till dawn.

_A little beyond, on the left, is the_ NEW WESLEYAN CHURCH FOR
ITALIANS; _beyond which the Via Giustiniani, on the left, leads to the
Piazza Rotonda_.


surmounts a fountain. This obelisk and the one in the Piazza Minerva
were erected as pairs in Rome. They stood before the Temple of Isis
and Serapis in the Campus Martius. There is a small relief in the
Villa Ludovisi, representing in its background a temple with four
Ionic columns, and to the left an Egyptian obelisk. In the foreground,
to the left, is the figure of Minerva, fronting a reclining female
figure holding a vessel full of ears of corn (Isis?). By her side is
Cupid, and at their back a figure holding something in a spread-out
cloth. May not the temple in the background represent the Temple of
Isis and Serapis?


This incomparable circular edifice, originally intended by Agrippa to
form the conclusion of his thermæ,[14] with which it is intimately
connected, is one of the noblest and most perfect productions of that
style of architecture specifically denominated Roman. When the first
wonderful creation of this species came into existence, the founder of
this glorious dome appears to have himself shrunk back from it, and to
have felt that it was not adapted to be the every-day residence of
men, but to be a habitation for the gods.

The Church of S. Maria ad Martyres was originally the sudatorium, or
sweating-room, of the baths of Agrippa, being similar in construction
to all the sweating-rooms now existing, notably one in the Villa of
Hadrian at Tivoli. It exactly answers Vetruvius's description of this
department of the baths. It seems afterwards to have been dedicated as
a temple of the gods, or Pantheon of the Julian line, according to
Dion Cassius (liii. 27), when the portico was added in the third
consulship of Agrippa.


The straight vertical joint where the Greek portico has been built up
to the Roman body can be distinctly seen, and the pediment and
entablature can be observed behind the portico. It was burned in the
fire under Titus; and was restored, as the inscription on the
architrave tells us, by Septimius Severus and Caracalla--


Recent explorations have shown that in front of the Pantheon was a
large enclosure surrounded by a covered arcade, somewhat after the
manner of the colonnade at S. Peter's, and entered by an arch of
triumph. Remains of this arch exist under the houses in front of the
Pantheon, which are to be pulled down.


When Agrippa dedicated the Pantheon as a temple, it was consecrated to
Jupiter the Avenger. "Some of the finest works that the world has ever
beheld ... the roofing of the Pantheon of Jupiter Ultor that was built
by Agrippa" (Pliny, "N. H." xxxvi. 24). The repairs commenced by
Septimius Severus and Caracalla were completed by Alexander Severus,
who built his baths close by. We call attention to a coin of this
emperor, which represents the temple and its enclosure on the reverse;
on the obverse is the emperor's portrait, and the legend IMP . C . M .
AVR . SEV . ALEXANDER . AUG. On the coin the columns are placed close
on either flank, and two are omitted, to show the seated statue of
Jupiter in the temple, which statue is now in the Hall of Busts in the
Vatican Museum, and is a copy of the celebrated Jupiter of Phidias.

The fact that the Pantheon was originally built as a sudatorium has
been proved to a certainty by the excavations made in the sudatorium
of the Baths of Caracalla. There we have, as it were, the Pantheon in
ruins. It is slightly smaller, the diameter being 125 feet--17 less
than the Pantheon. Opposite to the entrance is an apse, and on each
side there are three recesses, as at the Pantheon, which were used as
caldaria, but are now, in the Pantheon, chapels of the saints.

  [Illustration: THE PANTHEON.
   (_From a Coin._)]

The portico is 110 feet long, and 44 feet deep. Sixteen Corinthian
columns, 46½ feet high and 5 feet in diameter, support the roof. The
Pantheon was converted into a church by Boniface IV. in 609, by
permission of the Emperor Phocas, and it was dedicated to the martyrs
on November 1st (All Saints' Day), 830. The doors and grating above,
of ancient bronze, with the rim round the circular opening in the
vault of the interior, are all that is left of the ancient metal work.
The interior is 142 feet in diameter, and 143 feet high, and is
lighted by an open space of 28 feet in diameter. It is the
burial-place of Raphael and of Victor Emanuel II.--_right of high

Pliny says ("Nat. Hist." xxxvi. 4): "The Pantheon of Agrippa has been
decorated by Diogenes of Athens, and the caryatides by him, which form
the columns of that temple, are looked upon as masterpieces of
excellence. The same, too, with the statues that are placed upon the
roof, though, in consequence of the height, they have not had an
opportunity of being so well appreciated." "The capitals, too, of the
pillars which were placed by M. Agrippa in the Pantheon, were made of
Syracusan metal" (_ibid._, xxxiv. 7). Marcellinus (xvi. x. 14) says:
"The Pantheon, with its vast extent, its imposing height, and the
solid magnificence of its arches, and the lofty niches rising one
above the other like stairs, is adorned with the images of former

"It is as difficult to reconcile the statements of different authors
respecting the original idea of Agrippa, as it is hazardous to attempt
to prove the successive metamorphoses which the plan sketched by the
artist has undergone. This much, however, is certain, that with
respect to the modern transformation of the whole, the consequences
have been most melancholy and injurious. The combination of the
circular edifice with the rectilinear masses of the vestibule,
notwithstanding all the pains bestowed, and the endless expenditure
of the most costly materials, has been unsuccessful; and the original
design of the Roman architect has lost much of its significance, or,
at all events, of its phrenological expression, by being united with
ordinary Grecian forms of architecture, which in this place lose great
part of their value. No one previously unacquainted with the edifice
could form an idea, from the aspect of the portico, of that wondrous
structure behind, which must ever be considered as one of the noblest
triumphs of the human mind over matter in connection with the law of

"Conflagrations, earthquakes, sacrilegious human hands, and all the
injuries of time, have striven together in vain for the destruction of
this unique structure. It has come off victorious in every trial; and
even now, when it has not only been stripped of its noblest
decorations, but, what is still worse, been decked out with idle and
unsuitable ornaments, it still stands in all its pristine glory and

"In order to obtain a notion of the size and solid excellence of the
work, it will be well first to make the circuit of the entire edifice.
We shall thus have an opportunity of admiring the fine distribution of
the different masses. After the first circular wall or belt, which
rests upon a base of travertine, has attained a height of nearly forty
feet, it is finished off with a simple cornice, serving as a solid
foundation for the second belt. As a preservative against sinking,
this is, moreover, provided with a series of larger and smaller
construction arches, alternating symmetrically with one another. After
rising some thirty feet, further solidity is given to the wall by a
girdle suitably decorated with consoles, and on this the third belt
(which is but a few feet lower) is supported. A similar number of the
arches already mentioned, introduced as frequently as possible,
enables this wall to support the weight pressing upon it, and to raise
the harmoniously rounded cupola boldly aloft.

"In ancient times the whole building, which is composed of brick, was
covered and embellished with a coating of stucco. On the upper
cornice, at the back, between the consoles, portions of terra-cotta
decorations still remain, seeming to have formed part of this
ornamental facing.

"In our examination of the interior, we are, unfortunately, much
hindered in our attempt to investigate the constructive connection of
the whole by the unmeaning ornamental additions, and the thoughtless
transformation of the different organic masses.


"So much, however, may be discovered even on a superficial
survey--namely, that the architect has everywhere endeavoured, not
merely to diminish the pressure on the walls of the lower belt (which
is nearly twenty feet thick) by inserting hollow chambers, but has
given them additional strength by means of the vaulted constructions
thus introduced. A hall, supported on pillars, lies between each of
the eight modern altars, and behind each of them, on the outside, are
niches, reached through the different doors, recurring at regular
distances throughout.

"The slabs of coloured marble belonging to the attica were carried off
some hundred years ago, under Benedict XIV., and their place supplied
by the present coulisse paintings. This polychrome system would have
greatly facilitated our researches into the coloured architecture of
the ancients, and its loss is therefore much to be regretted.

"For, although this portion of the edifice was thus transformed at a
comparatively late period, still the effect of those finely harmonized
masses must have been a remarkable one.

"To judge from the combination of coloured stones still remaining in
this edifice, the effect must have been very rich and beautiful. The
elaborate capitals and bases of white marble must have formed a fine
contrast to the yellow shafts of the pillars and the stripe of
porphyry inserted in the architrave. The largest specimen of this
coloured mode of decoration has been preserved in the pavement;
although here also we must take it for granted that the original
arrangement has been disturbed, the sunken bases of the columns
sufficing to prove that the pavement has been raised in course of
time. This circumstance is not without optical reaction on the
proportions of the different masses. The horse-shoe arch over the
entrance-door is remarkable. It forms a striking contrast to that of
the tribune, where the projecting cornice rests upon two pillars,
whereas the architrave, broken through by the doorway, is supported
only by pilasters.

"The ædiculæ, now converted into altars, are covered in, partly with
gables, partly with arches, the former resting upon fluted pillars of
yellow marble, the latter upon porphyry pillars. The walls behind are
likewise faced with slabs of coloured marble, which, in their original
splendour, must have reflected the magnificence of the pillars.

"The facing of the door is the only considerable portion still
remaining of the rich bronze-work with which this edifice was
formerly fitted up. Simple as the decoration of these massive doors
now appears, it is yet imposing for such persons as are capable of
appreciating pure symmetry and a judicious distribution of the parts
in surfaces so extensive. The nails, with heads in the form of
rosettes, separating the different panels, are the only ornament. The
window above the door is closed by a grating composed of curves placed
one above the other, thus admitting both light and air. The
destruction of the bronze cross-beams which formed the roof of the
vestibule till the time of Urban VIII., is most to be regretted. This
was composed of bronze tubes, on precisely the same principle as that
on which Stephenson, a few years ago, constructed the bridge over the
Menai Straits.

"The cupola is nearly seventy feet in height, and rests on the attica,
corresponding to the second outer belt. This attica has suffered most
severely from modern alterations. The walls behind this afford space
for a series of chambers. The massive wall of the third belt, on the
other hand, surrounding the cupola to a third of its height, is
rendered accessible by a passage running round the whole; and this
again is spanned by frequently recurring arches, and lighted by the
windows visible on the outside.

"The diameter of the cupola is nearly equal to its height. The round
aperture at the top, by means of which the interior is lighted with a
magical effect, measures about twenty-eight feet in diameter. Here is
still to be seen the last and only remnant of the rich bronze
decorations of which this edifice formerly boasted. It consists of a
ring, adorned with eggs and foliage, encircling the aperture, and not
merely strengthening the edge of the wall, but constituting a graceful
and at the same time a simple and judicious ornament.

"It is certain that the five converging rows of gradually diminishing
cassettoni have been decorated in a similar manner, and it is stated
that vestiges of metal were discovered during the process of

"The six niches between the altars are each supported by two fluted
pillars and a corresponding number of pilasters, the greater portion
of them being composed of monoliths of that costly yellow marble
frequently employed by the ancients. They are more than thirty-two
feet in height, and, as regards size, are unique of their kind. It has
been impossible, even for the ancients, to erect, of this rare
material, all the pillars required for the embellishment of this
splendid edifice, for which reason they were obliged to substitute six
of pavonazzetto. These, however, they stained, without injuring the
brilliancy of the marble or the transparency of the grain, in such a
manner as to bring them into harmony with the other yellow masses, and
to deceive even the most practised eye. This circumstance is of great
importance in forming an opinion on the coloured architecture of the
Greeks, as it shows how they contrived to harmonize the white marble
masses without concealing the texture of the noble material.

"It is stated by Pliny that caryatides were placed here by a certain
Diogenes of Athens, corresponding to the pillars which support the

"Apparently they were a free repetition of the caryatides of the
Pandrosium; and probably the statue in the Braccio Nuovo, which was
brought from the Palazzo Paganica, in the immediate neighbourhood of
the Pantheon, was one of these, the scale being precisely adapted to
this situation.

"Some of the large nails used in riveting the bronze plates together
are still preserved in the different museums. We are indebted to
Serlio, an architect of the sixteenth century, who preserved a drawing
of it, for the only information we possess concerning this ingenious
piece of mechanism. The Pope mentioned above, a member of the
Barberini family, had the barbarity to carry off and melt down these
important remains. An inscription on the left of the principal door
celebrates the judicious transformation of these masses of bronze into
cannons, and ornaments for churches" (Braun).

Urban VIII. "That the useless and almost forgotten decorations might
become ornaments of the apostle's tomb in the Vatican temple, and
engines of public safety in the fortress of S. Angelo, he moulded the
ancient relics of the bronze roof into columns and cannons, in the
twelfth year of his pontificate" (Inscription).

"What the barbarians did not the Barberini have done" (Pasquino).

"On each side of the entrance to the Rotunda are two immense niches,
constructed of brick, in which the colossal statues of Augustus and
Agrippa are supposed to have been placed. This opinion seems to me too
hazardous, and contrary to the spirit of these two eminent statesmen.

"Standing among the sixteen granite pillars supporting the vestibule,
we feel that there is something overpowering in the impression it
produces. This, however, diminishes when we step out upon the piazza,
which lies too high. At its original level, a flight of five steps led
up to the building; and the effect when viewed from a distance must
have been essentially different, as we may judge from the portion of
pavement which has been excavated to the right of the Rotunda"

Raphael's tomb is in the third chapel on the left.

     "Living, great Nature feared he might outvie
     Her works; and, dying, fears herself to die."
          CARDINAL BEMBO: _translated by_ POPE.

A bust, by Nardini, of Raphael was originally placed near here, but
was removed in 1820, in consequence of people offering their devotions
to it.


  [Illustration: BATHS OF AGRIPPA.]

The houses built amidst the ruins of the Baths of Agrippa at the back
of the Pantheon have been demolished, and part of a large hall has
been exposed to view. Nothing that has been discovered is new to those
who have studied the subject. It has long been known that these houses
were built on the old walls and vaults of the Thermæ. In fact, the
sacristy of the Pantheon was made out of a vaulted chamber, a floor
being inserted about half-way above its base. Besides the vaults and
walls now cleared, pavements, pipes, and fragments of pavonazzetto
columns have been found; also an earthenware jar containing 1,200
debased silver coins--provincial money of the thirteenth century, with
the motto, _Roma caput mundi_. Portions of a beautiful frieze, formed
with tridents, shells, dolphins, and acanthus leaves, blended
harmoniously together, were found, and skilfully replaced in their
ancient position. It is almost impossible to say for what purpose this
hall was used, as nearly the whole of these baths are buried under the
surrounding houses; but judging from its relative position to the
circular hall, and from the plans of other thermæ, it was most
probably the tepidarium. The hall was 150 feet long by 70 feet wide.
Oriental marbles decorated the floor and walls, the latter being
relieved with niches containing statues. Through the central apse was
the original entry into the circular hall behind. The wall now
exposed to view has a large apse in the centre, with the platform, on
which stood a statue; and on either side are three niches for statues.
Agrippa served his first consulship in A.U.C. 717. He was ædile in
719-20. In this service he built his baths. (Dion Cassius, in
"Augustus;" Pliny, xxxvi. 24.) In 726 he was consul for the second
time. In 727 he was consul for the third time, when the circular hall
of his baths was turned into a temple, as we are informed by the
inscription _in situ_.

These were the first large baths erected in Rome. Only small fragments
of them remain, built into the houses at the back of the Pantheon, and
so difficult to see. In the VIA DELL' ARCO DELLA CIAMBELLA, some
little distance back, are the remains of a circular hall.

_The Via Minerva, to the left of the Pantheon, leads to the Piazza


standing upon an elephant, stood, with the one in the square of the
Pantheon, in front of the Temple of Isis. The elephant upon which it
stands is the work of Ercole Perrata, and of course had nothing to do
originally with the obelisk. _On the left is the_


so named from being on the site of the Temple of Minerva dedicated by
Pompey. It is one of the few Gothic churches in Rome.

The interior is highly decorated in the Gothic style. Second chapel on
right, tomb of Princess Colonna. Fourth, the Chapel of the
Annunciation. Fifth, Aldobrandini Chapel. The Caraffa Chapel contains
a slab to a son of the late Bishop of Winchester, who joined the Roman
Catholic Church, and died at Albano in 1857. The pictures of the
Annunciation over the altar, the S. Thomas, and the Assumption are

The roof represents four sibyls surrounded by angels, by Raffaelino
del Garbo. The Altieri Chapel contains an altar-piece by C. Maratta.
Next is the tomb of Guillaume Durand, with a very fine mosaic.
Interesting to English visitors is the tomb of Cardinal Howard, Great
Almoner of England, who died at Rome in 1694. The body of S. Catherine
of Sienna reposes beneath the high altar. _On the right_ is Obicci's
statue of S. John; and _on the left_ Michael Angelo's celebrated
statue of the Saviour (the bronze drapery is an addition). In the
sacristy is a chapel formed from the walls of the room in which S.
Catherine died (1380). The festivals of S. Thomas Aquinas (March 7th)
and of the Annunciation (March 25th) are celebrated here with great

_On the left of the high altar_ is the tomb of Fra Angelico, a
monumental slab of the artist-monk, standing, with clasped hands,
within an arch, in low relief.


The monument was executed by Nicholas V., who is said to have written
the inscription--

     "Let me not gain praise because I was a second Apelles,
     But because, O Christ, I gave all my gains to the poor.
     Seeing some of my works are extant on earth, others in heaven,
     The City of Flowers of Etruria reared me."

The MONASTERY attached was the headquarters of the Dominicans, and in
it Galileo was tried "for asserting that the world revolved round the
sun, in opposition to Holy Writ."

The LIBRARY is open every day from 7.30 to 11 A.M., and from 3 to 5

On the façade are some curious inscriptions, referring to the height
of the floods caused by the Tiber from 1422.


was erected by Pompey the Great in celebration of his Eastern
victories. The cella was destroyed in the sixteenth century. In making
some alterations, in April 1874, in the houses to the right of the
church above, some remains of walls six feet thick, and having stamps
of repairs A.D. 123, were found. Remains can be seen _in the court of
the shop at the corner of the Piazzetta della Minerva and Via del Piè
de Marmo_.

_Passing along the Via del Piè de Marmo, we reach_ the piazza in which
is situated the COLLEGIO ROMANO, till recently the head-quarters of
the Jesuits. It has been sequestered by the Italian Government, and
the College is now carried on under the Government.

_In the street to the right of the College is the entrance to_ the
LIBRARY VITTOR EMANUELE and Reading-room, open every day to the
public, after the model of the British Museum. _On the floor above is_


_This museum is in a chronic state of being "arranged." The entrance
fee is one lira, and the old custodians follow the visitor about as
though the latter wished to eat the bronzes. On Sundays and Government
festas the entry is free._

ENTRY HALL.--In a case down the centre are many highly interesting
objects, mostly in bronze--early money, gems, styli, etc. The _Glandes
Missiles_, or lead sling-bullets, are unique; many of them have
messages cut upon them. In the cases against the wall are many objects
of interest. The second on the left contains _Silver Cups_ found at
the Aquæ Aureliæ on Lake Bracciano, three of which have itineraries
from Cadiz to Rome engraved upon them. They are of the times of
Augustus, Vespasian, and Nerva, and are supposed to have been thrown
in by people who had made the journey and were cured by the waters, as
an offering to the _genii loci_.

An ancient mosaic forms the floor of the hall, and in a semicircle at
the end statuettes are grouped.

FIRST ROOM, on the left of entry hall, is devoted to bronzes used for
domestic purposes, and to Lares and Penates. In the centre of the room
is the _Bisellium_, or chair of state, formed of bronze inlaid with
silver. It was found at Otimo. The _Cista Mistica_ was a prize given
to gladiators to contain the requisites for their toilets. Three
eagles' claws pressing on toads form the feet. Upon the cylindrical
vase are engravings,--a gladiator stepping out of a galley with the
_cista_ in his hand; Amycus being killed by Pollux, the Argonauts
looking on. It was found at Palestrina, where several similar ones
have recently been found. The handle is formed by three figures with
their arms entwined.

The THIRD ROOM, at end on left, contains the caricature found cut in
the plaster of the Domus Gelotiana of the Palatine--_the Skit of the
Crucifixion_. It represents the body of a man with an ass's head being
crucified. Below, on the left, is the figure of a man in adoration;
beneath, in Greek, "Alexamenos adores his God." The Romans mixed up
the Jews and the Christians; and believing that the former worshipped
a white donkey (Tacitus, "H." v. 3), they applied it to the
Christians, and in this way, because they knew the Christian's God was
crucified. Tertullian ("Apol." xvi.) says it was a common caricature
against the Christians. The date is about 200.

The inscriptions and reliefs are early Christian; also the objects in
the glass case. To the right, at the end of the entry hall, is the
entry to the Natural History and Pre-historic Museums. Passing through
these, or better, returning and passing by the entrance, we enter the
rooms of


Whilst some peasants were recently digging up their plot of ground
near the Church of S. Rocco they came upon a subterranean tomb,
which, upon examination, was found to contain arms, shields,
sacrificial implements, jewellery, utensils, and other objects of
value and interest. We may remind our readers that Præneste was
destroyed by Sulla,--that is, the ancient city founded by the Greeks,
and surrounded by the Pelasgic wall. This tomb is of that period, and
measures five metres by three, and is composed of large blocks of
tufa, without cement. The vault had fallen in, and thus damaged some
of the objects, the principal of which are:--

_Personal Ornaments._--1. An object which might be called a huge
fibula, as without doubt it was sewn on a dress. It is made of a
rectangular piece of solid gold, 0.17 m. long, 0.10 m. wide. The borders
and the central line are ornamented with bands, worked "a meandro,"
ending with lions' heads. On the flat surface _one hundred and
thirty-one_ animals, such as lions, sphinxes, and sirens, stand or
crouch. The skill with which the gold is worked in the most
microscopic details is quite wonderful. 2. A fibula of gold, 0.12 m.
long, not different from the Etrusco-Roman shape. 3. A few yards of a
golden fringe or _fimbria_, which trimmed the edge of the dress, and
in which the movable strings are attached to a band or heading,
ornamented with swallows and crows. 4. A stick of silver, which seems
to have ended with a hand, and might be considered as a sceptre. 5.
Many clasps of gold, on which are fixed couples of lions and sirens of
the same material.

_Utensils: Familiar or Sacred Supellex._--1. The funeral-bed, with the
framework of oak-wood and the ornamentation of bronze. On the junction
of the four poles of the frame are groups of _telamones_, whose heads
are dressed with huge feathers, not unlike South American caciques;
chimeras carrying away human bodies; dogs persecuting lions, &c. 2. A
kind of strong-box, inlaid with exquisite bas-reliefs of ivory, coated
in gold, and representing heads of monsters, lions eating up bodies
dressed in Eastern fashion, Egyptian boats, females in priestly
attire, battle-scenes between horsemen and infantry, &c. 3. Three
cylinders, 0.19 m. long, 0.027 m. in diameter, inside of which are
concealed sticks of palm-wood. 4. Two tripods, with their basins or
_lebetes_, round the lips of which are human figures and monsters
looking inside. 5. Tazza of gold and silver, 0.18 m. in diameter, with
reliefs representing an Eastern king hunting cynocephali, or some
other kind of monkey. 6. Tazza of pure gold, 0.12 m. high, in the shape
of a Greek "skyphos," with handles ending with winged male figures. 7.
Several other cups of blue Phœnician glass, of gold and silver, and
pure silver, one of which is exceedingly interesting, as it bears the
signature of the artist. The paleography of the letters resembles
that of the stones of _Mesa_ and _Esmunazar_; and the text, taken as a
whole, recalls to mind the signatures of the cuneiform contracts
discovered in Assyria, which belong to the seventh century before
Christ. And such is certainly the date of the signature found at
Palestrina, which has been interpreted by Professor Fabiani, "Esmunie
'ar ben 'asta." The same philologist thinks that the artist must be
contemporary with, if not anterior to, Euchyros and Eugrammos; and if
so, Esmunie 'ar would be the earliest goldsmith whose name is
historically known, with the exception of Bezaleel (Ex. xxxi.), B.C.


contains many objects of interest. In it are arranged different
articles from various parts of the world, demonstrating how the same
implements, weapons, and customs were once universally used. The
collection of flints is one of the finest in the world, and to those
interested in this branch of archæology is of special value. Each case
is labelled with the names of the object and the country.

_Thence passing into the Piazza del Gesù_, we can visit the


one of the finest in Rome. Its interior is rich in stuccoes,
paintings, and sculptures. The frescoes of the tribune, the dome, and
the roof are by Baciccio. The Chapel of S. Ignatius is very fine; the
columns and ball over the altar are composed of lapis-lazuli. Beneath
the altar, in an urn of gilt bronze, is the body of the saint. The
small circular chapel close by is rich in paintings and stained-glass

It is well worth a visit there to hear mass, vespers, or one of the
fathers preaching.

The wind generally blows in the piazza, which is thus accounted for.
One day the wind and the devil were out for a ramble; and, on arriving
at this square, the old gentleman asked the wind to stop a moment
while he went into the church. The wind is still stopping for the
devil, who has not yet come out.

_The_ VIA CESARINI, down the new Corso Vittorio Emanuele, leads to the
Piazza of S. Nicola a Cesarini. In the court of No. 56 is


The remains show that it was a circular building. It stood near the
Flaminian Circus. (Vitruvius, iv. 7.) Four fluted tufa columns exist.

_From Piazza del Gesù we proceed up_ VIA ARA CŒLI. _Before us is_


It was originally called the Hill of Saturn (Dionysius, ii. 1), being
occupied by Romulus as a defence for the Palatine Hill (Plutarch, in
"Rom."), and was betrayed to the Sabines by Tarpeia, the daughter of
the commandant of the fortress (Livy, i. 11). When the Palatine and
Capitoline Hills were united into one city, and the two kings reigned
together, the name of the hill was changed and called the Tarpeian
Hill. In the 138th year after the foundation of Rome, when Tarquin the
Great was making the foundations for the great Temple of Jupiter, they
found a human head; and the oracle told them that the spot where the
head was found should become the head of the world; and so they
changed the name of the hill again, and called it the Capitoline
Hill,--from _caput_, a head (Livy, i. 55; Pliny, xxviii. 4). The whole
hill was the Arx or Citadel of Rome, just the same as at Athens, Veii,
Tusculum, &c. Several ancient authors agree in this. The shape of the
hill is a saddle-back,--the centre being depressed, with an eminence
at each end. The one on our left is known as the Ara Cœli height,
and the one on our right as the Caffarella height. On the Ara Cœli
height stood the great Temple of Jupiter, facing south, and approached
from the Area Capitolina (Piazza del Campidoglio) by a flight of
steps. On the opposite or Caffarella height stood the Temple of Juno
Moneta or the Mint, and the Temple of Concord, both built by Camillus;
and the Temple of Jupiter Feretrius, founded by Romulus. Many other
temples, altars, and shrines occupied the space inside the citadel,
which was approached by three ascents upon its eastern side,--the
Clivus Capitolinus, the Pass of the Two Groves, and the Hundred Steps.
The ascents upon its western side date from 1348, when the marble
stairs on our left, leading up to the Ara Cœli, were erected out of
the stairs that led up to the Temple of Quirinus (Romulus) upon the
Quirinal Hill. The ascent to the Square was made in 1536 for the entry
of Charles V. The roadway on its right is quite recent. In forming it
some remains of the tufa walls that protected the arx on this side
were found, and can still be seen inside the iron gate.

On the balustrade at the bottom of the ascent to the Capitol are two
Egyptian lionesses. At the top of the ascent are two colossal statues
of Castor and Pollux, found in the Ghetto, and by their side are the
miscalled Trophies of Marius. They belonged to the decorations of the
Nymphæum of Alexander Severus, the picturesque ruins of which are on
the Esquiline Hill, and which are represented on a coin. They were
placed upon the balustrade of the Capitol, their present site, by Pope
Sixtus V. Originally they formed part of the ornamentation of the
Basilica Ulpia, and were erected in honour of Trajan by the
Apollinarian and Valerian legions. Next to the trophies are two
statues of Cæsar and Augustus Constantine; and in the same row, on the
left, the stone that marked the seventh and, on the right, the stone
that marked the first mile on the Via Appia.

_In the centre of the Square is_


the finest piece of bronze work of ancient times. It now stands upon
the Square of the Capitol, where it was erected by Michael Angelo in
1538. Before that, it stood at the Lateran, where it had been placed
in 1187, having been taken from near the Column of Phocas in the
Forum. It belongs to the canons of the Lateran, who receive yearly, in
the shape of a bouquet of flowers, a peppercorn rent for it from the
mayor of Rome. It is said that Michael Angelo on passing by used to
say, "Gee up, _cammina_;" and that the horse had only to plant the
raised hoof upon the ground to complete the illusion that it was a
living creature.

In front of us is the mayor's residence; on the left the Museum of the
Capitol; and on the right the halls of the town council. These
buildings were erected by Michael Angelo in 1544-1550. The residence
for the senator was first erected on the top of the ruins of the
Tabularium in 1389-1394 by Pope Boniface IX., but this gave place to
the present edifice.

The ascent from the Arch of Severus to the Square of the Capitol was
anciently the Pass of the Two Groves. At the top of the pass was the
Gate of Janus, the gate of the citadel, betrayed by Tarpeia. The
ascent from the Forum, on our right, was the Clivus Capitolinus, a
continuation of the Via Sacra. It is only at its termination that the
present road is on the site of the ancient slope, where some of the
pavement may still be seen. The gate which here gave access to the arx
was called the Gate of Saturn.

_On the right_ of the old museum some steps lead up to


The nave is formed by twenty-two columns, the spoils of ancient
buildings. The third one on the left has engraved upon it--


showing that it came from the Palatine Hill. At the end of the nave
are two Gothic ambones with mosaic work. The altar urn of red porphyry
formerly, it is said, contained the body of Constantine's mother. This
church is rendered famous as being the place where, on the 15th of
October 1764, Gibbon "sat musing amidst the ruins of the Capitol, and
conceived the idea of writing the 'Decline and Fall of the Roman

  [Illustration: VIEW OF THE CAPITOL.]

The church is the residence of the celebrated Santissimo Bambino,
carved out of a tree from the Mount of Olives, and painted by S. Luke.
This image is highly decorated with jewellery, and has a two-horse
carriage at its disposal, with coachmen and footmen, when it pays a
visit to the sick. "As thy faith, so be it unto thee." Apply at the
sacristy to see it. The floor of the church is of the kind called
_opus-Alexandrinum_, tesselated mosaic, and slab tombs of medieval
period. A grand ceremony is held here on Christmas day, and at the
Epiphany children recite the story of Christ.

In the left transept an isolated octagonal chapel, dedicated to S.
Helena, is said by the church authorities to stand on the site of an
altar erected by Augustus--_Ara primogeniti Dei_--to commemorate the
Cumæan sibyl's prophecy of the coming of the Saviour. Its present name
is traceable to this altar. Some traces of Gothic can be seen in the
walls and windows of this church, which stands on the site of


"It stood upon a high rock, and was 800 feet in circuit, each side
containing near 200; the length does not exceed the width by quite 15
feet. For the temple that was built in the time of our fathers, upon
the same foundations with the first, which was consumed by fire, is
found to differ from the ancient temple in nothing but in magnificence
and the richness of the materials, having three rows of columns in the
south front, and two on each side. The body is divided into three
temples, parallel to one another, the partition walls forming their
common sides. The middle temple is dedicated to Jupiter; and on one
side stands that of Juno, and on the other that of Minerva. And all
three have but one pediment and one roof." (Dionysius, iv. 61. See
also Tacitus, "Hist." iii. 72; Livy, i. 55; Plutarch, in "Publicola;"
Tacitus, "Hist." iv. 53.)

Four different temples have been erected on this site, and now it is
occupied by a Christian church. The first, built by Tarquinius
Superbus, and consecrated by Horatius the consul, was burned in the
civil war. The second, erected by Sylla, and consecrated by Catulus,
was destroyed under Vitellius. The third, erected by Vespasian, was
burned before it was consecrated. The fourth was built by Domitian.

Access is now to be had to some curious vaults below the convent,
which were formerly closed by the monks. Supporting these vaults are
some remains of massive tufa walls--one piece in particular being
about 36 feet long and 8 feet high--consisting of single blocks of
stone, of which the other fragments seem to be continuations. These
appear to have been built originally as substructions, and run
parallel with the Via Marforio, and could not have been part of the
city wall, for that is within the city of the two hills. Nibby records
that tufa walls remain under the stairs leading up to the Ara Cœli
Church. We think them to be part of the foundations of the celebrated
Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.

We may mention that among the rubbish contained in the vaults of the
convent are two slender columns of Pentelic marble. May not these have
belonged to the temple?


The strongest evidence of the position of the Temple of Jupiter
"supremely good and great" is pictorial. We have it represented on the
relief in the Palazzo dei Conservatori which formed part of the Arch
of Marcus Aurelius. That emperor is there, after a victory, offering
sacrifice upon the Capitoline Hill; and in the background is a
representation of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus: it has three
doors, and the figures of Minerva, Jupiter, and Juno. This is to the
spectator's left, and faces south, as we are told the temple faced.
This relief is further corroborated by another in the Louvre, in the
background of which is likewise a representation of a temple of the
Corinthian order, facing the same way and to the left of the
spectator, and having over the door the words IOVI CAPITOLINUS. Upon a
relief in the Capitol Museum, another building appears upon a lower
level, ornamented with pilasters, having Doric capitals. This building
corresponds with the front of the Tabularium towards the Capitol.

To the right of the Palazzo dei Conservatori (New Museum) a road,
through a gate, leads to the German Embassy. In the garden Bunsen
found the remains of the Temple of Jupiter Feretrius, which have
lately been covered in; but a fine piece of the wall of the Temple of
Juno may yet be seen. _By applying at the Embassy, permission will be
given to enter the garden._


The first temple built in Rome by Romulus, to receive the spoils
captured from Acron, King of Cænina.

"After the procession and sacrifice, Romulus built a small temple, on
the top of the Capitoline Hill, to Jupiter, whom the Romans call
Feretrius. For the ancient traces of it still remain, of which the
longest sides are less than fifteen feet" (Dionysius, ii. 34. See
Livy, i. 10).

It was enlarged A.U.C. 121 (Livy, i. 33); and was repaired by Augustus
on the advice of Atticus (Nepos. See Livy, iv. 20).

_Opposite the gate leading into the garden_ we can look over the
parapet, down the scarped rock, to the base beneath, which is reached
from below by _taking the Via Tor dei Specchi on the right, looking
towards the Capitol, and the Vicolo Rupe Tarpeia on the left_. It was
here that the terrible scene described in Hawthorne's "Transformation"
took place.

The road leads to the New German Archæological Institute. It was about
here that the messenger from Veii got into the citadel, and where the
Gauls tried to do the same, when the sacred geese in Juno's temple
awoke the garrison. The two bronze "geese" shown in the Hall of the
Conservators are ducks.

_Passing on under the archway, turn to the left; at a little distance
the Via Monte Tarpeia turns off to the right--follow this; at the end,
the house facing us is built up_ against the point of the hill used
for the public executions.


  [Illustration: TARPEIAN ROCK.]

After the name of the hill was changed for the last time, one part, we
are told, retained the name of the Tarpeian Rock, from being the
burial-place of Tarpeia, and the spot from which the traitors were
hurled off in sight of the people assembled in the Forum. The house in
front of us is built upon a ledge of the rock below, and has upon it
the following inscription:--

     "Hinc ad Tarpeiam sedem, et Capitolia ducit,
     Aurea nunc, olim, silvestribus horrida dumis."
          VIRGIL, _Æn._ viii. 347.

                 ANNO DOMINI MDLXXXI.

"The quæstors led the man [Spurius Cassius] to the top of the
precipice that commands the Forum, and in the presence of all the
citizens threw him down from the rock. For this was the established
punishment at that time among the Romans for those who were condemned
to die"--A.U.C. 269--(Dionysius, viii. 78).

_If we look back up_ the street we came down, the height will be seen
in the garden above us. It must be remembered that the top of the hill
has been levelled, and the valley below filled in thirty feet;
allowing for this there would have been a fall of upwards of 160 feet.
The steps on our left formed the third ancient approach to the arx,
the _Centum Gradus_, up which the Vitellians climbed when they took
the citadel. On the site of the garden above stood


The first Temple of Concord of which we have any notice was that
dedicated by Camillus, A.U.C. 388.

"When the dictator was one day sitting on the tribunal in the Forum,
the people called out to drag him from his seat; but he led off the
patricians to the senate house. Previous to his entering it he turned
towards the Capitol [this shows that the senate house was not on the
Capitol, as some would have us believe; for if so, he would not have
turned towards the Capitol before entering the senate house--he would
have already faced it], and besought the gods to put a happy end to
the present disturbances, vowing to build a temple to Concord when the
tumult should be appeased.... Next day they assembled and voted that
the temple which Camillus had vowed to Concord should, on account of
this great event, be built upon a spot viewing from a height the Forum
and place of assembly" (Plutarch, in "Camillus"). Ovid, speaking of
the same temple ("Fasti," i. 640), says: "Fair Concord, the succeeding
day places thee in a snow-white shrine, near where elevated Moneta
raises her steps on high: now with ease wilt thou look down upon the
Latin crowd. Now have the august hands of Cæsar restored
thee,"--referring to its rebuilding by Tiberius, A.D. 11. From both
these authors we learn that it had a commanding prospect, and Ovid
adds that it was near the Temple of Moneta, which was likewise founded
by Camillus, A.U.C. 411, as we learn from Livy (vii. 28, and vi. 20.
See Plutarch). "The site chosen was that spot in the Citadel where the
house of Manlius had stood." The site of the Temple of Concord was on
the Tarpeian Rock, at the top of the Centum Gradus, and Camillus's
Temple of Moneta was near it.

Livy (xxvi. 23) says: "In A.U.C. 542, at the Temple of Concord, a
statue of Victory, which stood on the summit of the roof, being struck
by lightning, and shaken at its base, fell and stuck among the ensigns
of the goddess which were on the pediment." This temple, with a statue
of Victory upon the summit, is represented on a coin of Tiberius, who
restored it.

_Under the_ wall, on our left, which supports the garden, some blocks
of tufa, _in situ_, are the remains of the Temple of Concord, and the
wall in the garden of the German Embassy is part of the Temple of

_Passing down the street on our right, a left half-turn will bring us
to the old entrance of_


(_Public Record Office._)

_Open every day from 10 till 3; fee, half lira._

We have now to speak of a building, the vast remains of which impress
us with the grandeur of the later republic. In the year of the city
675 (B.C. 78) a building was erected against the Capitoline Hill,
and facing the Forum, to contain the public records, which were
engraved on bronze plates. Before that time they had been kept in
various temples.

"A decree was made by the senate that the records should be kept in
the Temple of Ceres with the public ædiles"--A.U.C. 306--(Livy, iii.

"Treaties (such as between Pyrrhus and Rome) were then usual, and the
ædiles had them in their keeping in the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus,
engraved on plates of copper" (Polybius, iii.).

That this was the usual way of keeping the records we learn from the
same author, who saw and copied those which "Hannibal left at
Lacinium--engraved tablets or records on copper of the events of his
stay in Italy."

"The censors went up immediately to the Temple of Liberty, where they
sealed the books of the public records, shut up the office, and
dismissed the clerks, affirming that they should do no kind of public
business until the judgment of the people was passed on them"--A.U.C.
686--(Livy, xliii. 16).

We have no mention in classic history as to when this building was
erected, but fortunately an inscription has been handed down to us, in
which Quintus Lutatius Catulus (who dedicated the temple to Jupiter
Capitolinus) is expressly named, not only as the founder of the
Tabularium, but also of the substructions, the most difficult portion
of the whole, and which claim our fullest admiration.


The remains form the substructions of the present Capitol, or
senator's residence, consisting of a massive wall of Gabii stone 240
feet long and 37 feet high, supporting the portico on the side of the
Forum, which consisted of a series of arches, 23 feet by 15 feet,
ornamented with sixteen Doric columns. Below this portico or arcade
are a series of small chambers, with windows looking into the Forum,
opening out of one another, approached by a short flight of steps, and
probably used to store the records. At the back of the arcade are a
series of large vaulted rooms or offices. At one end a grand flight of
steps (repaired) leads up into what has been a grand arcade on the
side of the Area Capitolina: its piers now partly sustain the modern
building. At the farther end of this arcade is a flight of steep
travertine steps, sixty-seven in number, leading down into the Forum,
the exit to which has been blocked up by the Temple of Vespasian being
built against the entrance.

This building must have presented a grand front to the Forum in the
olden time, though now it only sustains the buildings of Michael
Angelo. In 1389-1394, Pope Boniface IX. first erected on the
Capitoline Hill, on the ruins of the Tabularium, a residence for the
senator and his assessors. The prospect was altered so that what was
the front became the back, and it faced on to what was anciently the
Area Capitolina, now the Piazza del Campidoglio, instead of the Forum.

The north side wall seems to have been cut down when the present
edifice was erected, as outside the present wall are the remains of
the ancient one; thus it was somewhat longer than we now see it. In
the sort of vestibule which gives admittance to the chambers under the
portico are remains of stairs, evidently leading up to some chambers
above the portico. These were probably not very lofty, so that the
view of the temples on the hill was not shut out from the Forum, or
perhaps they only led up to the flat roof above the arcade.

These old remains have been used as a prison and as a salt store,
which latter has eaten the stone away in a curious manner. It is now
used as a museum of fragments. The arches of the portico were filled
in when the great master utilized it. Although we know an arch is as
strong as a wall, it is feared to open them, and one only has been so

Suetonius tells us: "Vespasian undertook to restore the three thousand
tablets of brass which had been destroyed in the fire which consumed
the Capitol; searching in all quarters for copies of those curious and
ancient records, in which were contained the decrees of the senate
almost from the building of the city, as well as the acts of the
people relative to alliances, treaties, and privileges granted to any
person" (Vespasian, viii.).

Pliny (xxxiv. 21) says: "It is upon tablets of brass that our public
enactments are engraved."

_From the Tabularium a new iron stair leads up to_


whence a fine view of Rome and its environs can be enjoyed, standing,
as it were, between ancient and medieval Rome. It is the best position
for study in the world.

From this height the huge mass of the Colosseum appears elegant and
light. The famous Seven Hills may be made out, notwithstanding the
alteration in the soil: on the left is the QUIRINAL, beyond that the
VIMINAL, and beyond that the ESQUILINE; to the extreme right is the
AVENTINE; before us is the PALATINE, with the CŒLIAN beyond it;
whilst we occupy the CAPITOLINE. The contemplation of the city,
however, produces the effect of a vast and solid reading of history.
Each of the great representations of the city, always and differently
mistress of the world, seems to have chosen its respective
quarter--the Rome of the kings and emperors is spread out on the
Palatine, Esquiline, and Quirinal; republican Rome occupies the
Capitol and Aventine; whilst Christian Rome, isolated and solitary,
reigns on the Cœlian and Vatican eminences.


The PALATINE, which has ever had the preference, whether so-called
from the people Palantes, or Palatini, or from the bleating and
strolling of cattle, in Latin, _balare_ and _palare_, or from Pales,
the pastoral goddess, or from the burying-place of Pallas, is disputed
amongst authors. It was on this hill that Romulus, according to
popular tradition, laid the foundations of the city, in a quadrangular
form. Here Romulus and Tullus Hostilius kept their courts, as did
afterwards Augustus, and all the succeeding emperors, on which account
the word Palatium came to signify a royal seat (Rosin, "Antiq." i. 4).

The AVENTINE derives its name from Aventinus, an Alban king (Varro,
"De Ling. Lat." iv.), or from the river Avens (_ibid._), or from
Avibus, from the birds which used to fly thither in great flocks from
the Tiber (_ibid._). It was also called Murcius, from Murcia, the
goddess of sleep, who had a temple here (Sextus Pompeius, Festus).
Also Collis Dianæ, from the Temple of Diana (Martial). Likewise
Remonius, from Remus, who wished the city to be commenced here, and
who was buried here (Plutarch, in "Romulus"). This hill was added by
Ancus Martius ("Eutropius," i.).

The CAPITOLINE, formerly Saturn, then Tarpeian, took its name from
Tarpeia, a Roman virgin, who betrayed the city to the Sabines at this
point (Plutarch, in "Romulus"). It was also called Mons Saturni and
Saturnius, in honour of Saturn, who is reported to have lived here,
and was the titular deity of this part of the city. It was afterwards
called Capitoline, from the head of a man found here when digging the
foundations of the famous Temple of Jupiter. It was added to the city
when the Sabines were permitted by Romulus to incorporate themselves
with the Romans (Dionysius).

The QUIRINAL was either so called from the Temple of Quirinus, another
name of Romulus, or from the Curetes, a people that removed hither
with Tatius from Cures, a Sabine city (Sextus Pompeius, Festus). It
afterwards changed its name to Caballus, from two marble horses, each
having a man holding it, which are still standing, and were the works
of Phidias and Praxiteles ("Fabricii Roma," iii.), made to represent
Alexander the Great and Bucephalus, and presented to Nero by
Tiridates, king of Armenia. Numa added this hill to the city
(Dionysius, ii.).

The ESQUILINE was anciently called Cispius and Oppius ("Fabricii
Roma," 3). The name Esquilinus was varied for the easier pronunciation
from Exquilinus, a corruption of Excubinus, ab Excubiis, from the
watch that Romulus kept there ("Propert." ii. 8). It was taken in by
Servius Tullius, who had his palace here (Livy, i. 44).

The VIMINAL derives its name from Vimina, signifying osiers, which
grew here in large quantities. This hill was added by Servius Tullius
(Dionysius, iv.).

The CŒLIAN owes its name to Cœlius or Cœles, a famous Tuscan
general, who encamped here when he came to assist the Romans against
the Sabines (Varro, "De Ling. Lat." iv.). The other names by which it
was sometimes known were Querculanus or Querquetulanus, and Augustus:
the first, on account of its growth of oaks; and the second, because
the Emperor Tiberius built on it after a fire (Tacit. "Ann." iv.;
Suet. in "Tib." xlviii.). One part was called Cœliolus, and Minor
Cœliolus ("Fabricii Roma," 3). Livy (i. 30) and Dionysius (iii.)
attribute the taking of it into the city to Tullus Hostilius, but
Strabo ("Georg." v.) to Ancus Martius.

Whilst on the subject of the hills of Rome, three others are equally

The JANICULUM, or Janicularis, so called either from an old town of
the same name, said to have been built by Janus, or because Janus
dwelt and was buried here (Ovid, "F." i. 246), or because it was a
_janua_, a sort of gate to the Romans, whence they issued out upon the
Tuscans (Festus). Its yellow sand gave it the name of Mons Aureus,
corrupted into Montorius ("Fabricii Roma," i. 3). From an epigram of
Martial, we may observe that it is the fittest place to take one's
standing for a full prospect of the city (Martial, "Epig." iv. 64). It
is famous for the sepulchres of Numa and Statius the poet ("Fabricii
Roma," i. 3), and in more recent times as the grave of Tasso, and the
spot where tradition holds that S. Peter was executed.

The VATICAN owes its name to the _vates_, or prophets, who used to
give their answers here, or from the god Vaticanus or Vagitanus
(Festus). Formerly celebrated for the Gardens and Circus of Nero, the
scene of the Christian martyrdoms, and in our time for S. Peter's and
the Vatican. It was enclosed in the time of Aurelian, but was
considered as very unhealthy (Tacitus, "H." ii. 93).

The PINCIO (Collis Hortulorum, or Hortorum) took its name from the
gardens of Sallust adjoining it (Rosin, i. 2). It was afterwards
called Pincius, from the Pincii, a noble family who had their seat
here (_ibid._). Aurelian first enclosed it (_ibid._).

The Capitol tower is crowned by a statue of Roma; and the great bell
formerly announced, by a strange contrast, the death of the Pope and
the opening of the Carnival.

_Passing up into the square, in facing the Capitol, on the right, is


(_New Capitoline Museum._)

_Open every day. Fee, half lira. The principal objects in the_
COURTYARD _are, right_:--

1. Statue of Julius Cæsar; the only authentic portrait of him.

2, 4, 9. Colossal fragments, found near the Basilica of Constantine.
Supposed to have belonged to the statue of Apollo brought from Pontus
by Lucullus. Square base, which contained the bones of Agrippina the

11. Lion attacking a horse. Found in the river Almo, outside Porta S.

12, 14. Captive Kings.

13. Large seated statue of Roma.

15. Colossal bronze head of a colossal statue of Apollo, found near
the Colosseum. Reliefs of figures representing provinces; and reliefs
of military trophies, recently found in the Piazza di Pietra.

28. Statue of the Emperor Augustus.

30. Modern rostral column, with ancient inscription. (See page 26.)


36. Base Capitolina, an altar dedicated to Hadrian, whose bust it now
supports, by the inspectors of the streets. On the sides are engraved
the names of the magistrates who presided over the streets, which are
named, of five of the fourteen regions into which Rome was divided. It
has afforded much useful information to archæologists.

41. Alto-relief which formed part of the Arch of Antoninus Pius, found
in the Piazza Sciarra, which spanned the Corso, and was destroyed in

42, 43, 44. Alto-reliefs, part of the Arch of Marcus Aurelius, which
stood at the Via della Vita, in the Corso, and was pulled down in

45. Curious bas-relief, representing Mettus Curtius, on horseback,
floundering in the marsh where is now the Forum. Found near the Church
of S. Maria Liberatrice.

49, 50. Alto-reliefs from an arch which stood in the Corso in honour
of Antoninus Pius.

_At the top of the stairs on this floor are several rooms._ On passing
the turnstile keep straight on. The authorities number these rooms in
the reverse way to ours.


FIRST ROOM contains a collection of majolica from the Cini family.

SECOND ROOM.--The vault is by Caracci. On the right of the door are S.
Luke; S. Alexio, by Romanelli; the Virgin, by Andrea Allovisi, called
L'Ingegno, pupil of Perugino; S. Cecilia, by Romanelli; S. Mark. On
the left are S. John, S. Albertorn, and S. Eustachio, by Romanelli; S.

THIRD ROOM, _turn left_.--Frescoes of the Punic wars by Bonfigli.

FOURTH ROOM.--Frescoes from the wars of Scipio, and tapestries from
the hospital of S. Michael. _Right_, the Boys of Falerii scourging
their Schoolmaster, B.C. 392 (Livy, v. 27); the Vestal Tuccia, B.C.
144 (Dionysius, ii. 69); Romulus and Remus; busts of Italian patriots.

FIFTH ROOM.--Garibaldi Museum. Frescoes of the school of Zuccari,
representing games in the Circus Maximus, etc. There is a bust in
_rosso-antico_ called Appius Claudius, a bronze bust of Michael
Angelo, and other busts. Two ducks in bronze are pointed out as the
geese which saved the Capitol. Between them is a curious bronze vase,
evidently a female portrait. Copy of Raphael's Holy Family.

SIXTH ROOM.--On the wall of this room are preserved the Fasti
Consulares, dating from B.C. 481 to the end of the Republic. These
fragments were found in the Forum, and faced the podium of the
Temple-Tomb of Cæsar. The frescoes are by Benedetto Bonfigli.

SEVENTH ROOM.--Frescoes: Triumph of Marius, and Defeat of the Cimbri,
by Daniele da Volterra. Near the door is a relief, representing the
Temple at Jerusalem; and in front of it a team of oxen drawing on a
car the molten sea (1 Kings vii. 23; 2 Chron. iv. 2).

EIGHTH ROOM.--Scenes of the Roman Republic, by Lauretti.

NINTH ROOM.--Frescoes from the history of the kings, by Arpino.

_Passing through the rooms of the Fasti, from 1540 A.D., we enter the_
HALL OF BUSTS, comprising statesmen, poets, painters, authors,
sculptors, all noted in Italian history. At the end is a monument to

_A door on the right opens into the_


(_For numbers, see plan._)

1, 2. Cases of small bronze articles found at various times. 3. A
bronze biga, or two-horse chariot, with reliefs depicting scenes from
the circus; restored upon a wooden frame, and given by Signor A.
Castellani. 4. A bisellium, or chair of state. 8. Lectica, or sedan
chair. "These infirmities caused him [Claudius] to be carried in a
close chair, which no Roman had ever used before; and from thence have
the emperors and the rest of us consular men taken the custom of
using chairs of that sort, for neither Augustus nor Tiberius used
anything but small litters, which are still in fashion for the women"
(Dion Cassius). 9, 10. Shelves containing household utensils, &c. 11.
Fragments of columns of Bigio marble.


The beautiful alabaster pavement of this room was found, as now fixed,
upon the Esquiline Hill, on Christmas eve, 1874. It formed part of the
House of the Larmæ, where the statues were found. The coins formed
part of the Campana Collection, and are of great value. The small case
of gems is worth looking into; it contains some fragments not unlike
the Portland vase, white reliefs on a blue ground.

_We now enter the new_


(_The order is liable to alteration, as objects are constantly being

This museum is formed of the remains found in the excavations of the
municipality since Rome was made the capital of united Italy. The new
circular hall, designed by Signor Vespignani, presents a light and
elegant effect. Amongst the most important subjects placed in the new
hall, we may mention No. 2, the monument of Quintus Sulpicius Maximus,
found in 1870 in the Old Porta Salaria. The inscription states that he
died at the early age of thirteen years, five months, and twelve days.
He carried off the honours for composing Greek verse against fifty-two
competitors. The poem is engraved on the pilasters. The subject
is--The arguments used by Jove in reproving Phœbus for intrusting
his chariot to Phaeton. Africa's deserts and the negroes' black skins
are ascribed to the careless driving of Phaeton on that occasion. No.
5. Venus. 23. Mercury. 11. A bust of Faustina the elder. 13. A youth
anointing himself. 14 and 16. Tritons. 15. A half statue of the
Emperor Commodus as Hercules, beautifully executed in fine marble,
with the lion's skin over his head and knotted upon his chest: in his
right hand is the club. A bracket of marble, ornamented at its end
with a celestial globe, rested on the pedestal, which formed a shield,
a band running round the centre with the signs of the zodiac. This
bracket is supported by two kneeling figures, holding cornucopias
containing fruit. One is in good preservation; the fragments of the
other were also found. 17. Plotina, wife of Trajan. 18. Apollo. 19.
Bacchus, with a satyr on a leopard at his side. 21. Sarcophagus of the
Calydonian boar hunt. Polyhymnia. 24. Terpsichore. 26. A beautiful
nude statue of a young girl or nymph leaving the bath, of Parian
marble, standing with sandalled feet by a pedestal, which supports
her robe, the left hand fastening up the hair. 28, 29. Two magistrates
about to start the racers by dropping a handkerchief. They represent
L. A. A. Symmachus, prefect of Rome, A.D. 365, and his son; and are
unique. The father was found in one hundred and eighty pieces, and the
son in ninety pieces, which have been carefully put together. 31.
Colossal statue. 33. Fortune. Apollo with the Lyre. Relief, forging
the Shield of Minerva. 38, 42. Athletes starting for the Race. 40_a_.
A Cow. 44. Manlia Scantilla. Marsyas bound to the tree; the finest
statue in the collection, found in 1879. 48. Didia Clara. 49_a_. A
Roman General; a striking statue. 8. The Earth; a sitting statuette in
a niche found in the Roman Cemetery. 9. A Baccante.

_In the inner circle._--A magnificent marble vase, found upon the
Esquiline, called by the Greeks a Rhyton: it is the work of Pontios,
an Athenian sculptor. A vase with figures in relief. The infant
Hercules found at the Cemetery of S. Lorenzo. Another vase. The Muse
of Astronomy. _Exit._ 74, 75. Hercules taming the Horses: part of a
group found in many fragments, and very skilfully put together. Seated
statue of a girl. 133. Minerva. 130. A statue of Silenus, which was
formerly a fountain. A youth carrying a pig for sacrifice. Cupid
playing with a tortoise. 123. Boy with a puppy. 81. Statuette of
Venus. 81_a_. A Sleeping Cupid. 124. A large stone shield sculptured
with the acanthus leaf. 90. Mithras slaying the Bull. 117, 105, 106.
Reliefs relating to the worship of the Persian sun-god Mithras,
recently found on the Esquiline Hill.

_Crossing the Hall of Busts, by Canova's Monument, we enter the_


composed of remains found chiefly in the excavations in building the
new quarter of Rome upon the Esquiline Hill. _The principal objects
are_:--A coffin containing skulls; a large jar containing a leaden
case, in which is enclosed a beautiful alabaster urn; a large and
varied collection of Roman lamps, glass, and terra-cotta; also glass
in various forms, and for windows, pieces of fresco, &c. _A door on
the left leads into the_


In the centre of the first room is the celebrated bronze wolf of the
Capitol (1), thus alluded to by Virgil ("Æn." viii. 630):--

     "By the wolf were laid the martial twins,
     Intrepid on her swelling dugs they hung:
     The foster-dam lolled out her fawning tongue:
     They sucked secure, while, bending back her head,
     She licked their tender limbs, and formed them as they fed."

Cicero (in "Catiline" iii. 8), mentions this object as a small gilt
figure of Romulus sucking the teat of a wolf, which was struck by
lightning, and which his hearers remembered to have seen in the

Dionysius, quoting from an older historian, Quintus Fabius Pictor,
speaks of a temple in which a statue is placed representing the above
incident. It is a wolf suckling two children; they are in brass, and
of ancient workmanship. This latter must not be confounded with the
statue mentioned by Cicero, which is generally believed to be the one
before us. The fracture on the hind leg may have been caused by
lightning, and traces of gilt may still be observed. It is not known
where it was found, but in Cicero's time (B.C. 106-43) it was to be
"seen in the Capitol." The workmanship of the wolf is of an early
period, Etruscan; the twins are Roman.

10. A bull, found in Trastevere in 1849. 4. "Thou seest the faces of
Hecate turned in three directions, that she may watch the cross-roads
cut into three pathways." She was the patroness of magic, and was also
set up before houses to ward off evil. This goddess is often
confounded with Diana. 8. The shepherd Martius, a bronze statue of a
boy extracting a thorn from his foot. 14. Horse found in Trastevere.
13. Foot found near the Colosseum.

The case on the left contains, amongst other objects, a bronze
inscription, with heads in alto-relief, of Septimius Severus,
Caracalla, and Julia Pia. 9. Gilt bronze statue of Hercules, found
amongst the remains of a temple of Hercules, behind the Church of S.
Maria in Cosmedin. 2, 3. Bronze globes, one of which was held in the
hand of Trajan's statue on his column. 15. Diana of the Ephesians in
bronze and marble. 6. A Camillus, one of the twelve youths who
assisted at the sacrifices. 7. Bust of Lucius Junius Brutus, who
expelled the Tarquins. 5. A fluted vase, found in the sea at Porto
d'Anzio; a gift of Mithridates, King of Pontus, to a gymnasium of the

_From the Hall of Bronzes we enter the_


Formed by Signor A. Castellani, and presented by him to the senate and
people of Rome. The objects were mostly found at Cervetri, Tarquinii,
and Veii.

_Passing out into the Hall of Busts, a door on the right leads to the_


_Open every day from 10 till 3._

Founded by Benedict XIV., and composed of several rooms. The
following are the most celebrated pictures, but each picture has the
names of the artist and the subject printed under the frame:--

FIRST ROOM.--_Right_: Romulus and Remus, by Rubens; Holy Family, by
Giorgione; S. Cecilia, by Romanelli; Baptism, by Guercino; Magdalen,
by Guido; Cumæan Sibyl, by Domenichino; Persian Sibyl, by Guercino;
Madonna, by Botticelli; Assumption, by Cola dell'Amatrice; The
Redeemed Spirit, by Guido; Madonna, by Francia.

The frescoes on the walls are from the deserted palace Magliana, the
hunting-seat of Leo X., which has long been utilized as a farm by a
community of nuns, and only inhabited by labourers. The frescoes are
all more or less injured, and the feet of each figure, together with
the lower part of the pictures, are quite obliterated. They represent
the Muses, with Apollo as Musagetes, each figure distinguished by a
motto in verse descriptive of the individual character, from the
epigrams of Ausonius, and consist of the figures of Polyhymnia;
Urania, with a distant view of Florence in the background (perhaps
allusive to the pre-eminence of that city in astronomical science);
Thalia, with the motto, "Comica lasciva gaudet sermone Thalia;" Clio,
who is playing on the double flute; and Apollo, as leader of the Nine,
who is seated, and playing on the violin: in the background of this
picture is introduced a small group of Perseus slaying Medusa, while
Pegasus springs from the blood of the decapitated gorgon. All these
frescoes are ascribed to Giovanni lo Spagna, and there is much in
their conception and sentiment which reminds us of the far superior
works by that pupil of Pietro Perugino.

The CORRIDOR contains views of Rome by Vanvitelli.

SECOND ROOM.--Annunciation, by Garofalo; Madonna, by P. Veronese.
Portraits by Vandyck, etc.

THIRD ROOM.--Baptism, by Titian; Sebastian, by Bellini; S. Barbara, by
Domenichino; Innocence, by Romanelli.

FOURTH ROOM.--_Left_: S. Lucia, by Spagna; Europa, by P. Veronese;
Burial and Assumption of Petronella, by Guercino; Sebastian, by
Caracci; Cleopatra and Augustus, by Guercino; Sebastian, by Guido;
Baptism, by Tintoretto.

_Leaving the Palazzo dei Conservatori, and crossing the Piazza, we


_Open every day from 10 till 3. Entrance half a lira each person._


1. Marforio, a recumbent statue of the Ocean, celebrated as having
been made the medium of replying to Pasquino. It stood near the Arch
of Septimius Severus. 2, 4. Antique columns surmounted by a bust of
Juno (2) and an unknown bust (4). 3, 18. Satyrs. 7. Colossal bust of
Trajan. 8, 13. Sarcophagi found in the Catacombs of S. Sebastian. The
walls are adorned with inscriptions and fragments; also some fragments
from the Temple of Concord in the Forum.


1. Endymion and his dog, found outside Porta S. Giovanni. 3. Minerva.
5. Livia Augusta, standing on a pedestal, found near the pyramid of
Caius Cestius, and relating to him. 7. Head of Cybele. _Entrance to
Hall of Mosaics._ 8. Captive Dacian King, from the Arch of
Constantine. 10. Faustina, Sr., standing on a relief of the arms of
Alba Longa. 14. Polyphemus. 15. Hadrian in sacerdotal costume. 16.
Porphyry fragment. 17. Hercules killing the Hydra. 18. Porphyry
fragment. 19. Colossal statue of a Roman warrior found on the
Aventine, supposed to represent Mars; a very fine work. _Entrance to
Hall of Inscriptions._


(_Left-hand end of Corridor._)

FIRST ROOM.--In the centre is a vase of black basalt sculptured in
relief after the Egyptian style. Along the right wall are three panels
of peperino stone representing two dogs and a stag in an archaic

Several mosaics have been recently placed here, found in the recent
excavations:--A standing male figure spinning. Hercules conquered by
Love, represented in Cupids playing with a bound lion. A group of
figures and fragments from the house of Avidius Quietus, found in
making the new Via Nazionale, notably a galley with sails set and
colours flying approaching a port which is well represented with its

SECOND ROOM.--The walls are covered with inscriptions, and round the
room are sarcophagi, cippi, bases, and urns. Amongst others a
beautiful alabaster cinerary urn (5), which stands on a base inscribed
to Fabius Cilone, prefect of Rome under Septimius Severus, who had
performed the annual sacrifice to Hercules at the Ara Maxima, at the
entrance to the Circus Maximus. 7. Base to Faustina, found near the
Temple of Saturn. 9. Base erected by Nobilior, B.C. 189, to Hercules

THIRD ROOM.--This is decorated in a similar manner to the second. 2.
Sarcophagus, with the hunt of the Calydonian boar; on the lid are
Cupids hunting. Diana sent a boar to ravage the country of Calydon,
for the King Œneus neglecting her divinity. All the princes of the
time assembled to hunt the boar, which was killed by Meleager, the
king's son. This sarcophagus was found on the Via Appia. 4.
Sarcophagus representing deer and boar hunts, found on Via Appia. 9.
Circular base with inscription to the prefect Catius Sabinus, who had
performed the sacrifice to Hercules: interesting, with the one in the
other room, as showing that the rite instituted by Evander was kept up
till a late period. To the right of the door is the fragment recording
the cancelling of the debts of the people throughout Italy in 118 by
Hadrian. Near by is one to Aulus Septicius Alexander, a seller of
floral wreaths on the Sacred Way. At the end of the room an
inscription to S. Severus, 196. It was used by the city Conservatori
in 1676 (see rear) to record their privileges. Placed here in 1886.


(_Right-hand end of Corridor._)

FIRST ROOM.--1. Square altar representing the labours of Hercules;
also busts of no importance.

SECOND ROOM.--3, 4, 6, 11. Monumental cippi, with working tools in
bas-relief; likewise the same emblems on 10, fragment of a column. 6.
Inscription to Marcus Æbutius. 4. Lapis Capponianus. 3. Cossutius. 11.
T. Statilius Aper, and to his wife Orcivia Antides; found on the
Janiculum. He was a surveyor; the verse stating that he died at the
age of twenty-two years, eight months, and fifteen days.

5. Sarcophagus found on the Via Appia, representing a fight between
Roman and Gallic cavalry, when, in 223 B.C., Marcus Marcellus killed
Virdomarus, the chief of the Insubrian Gauls, and so carried off the
third Spolia Opima (Livy, "Ep." xx.; Florus, ii. 4; Eutropius, iii. 6;
Plutarch, in "Marcellus"). The central figure is strikingly like the
figure of the wounded Gaul miscalled the dying gladiator.

12. Inscription to Vettius Agorius Prætextatus, prefect 367, and his
wife, Paolina. 14. Bust of Crispina, wife of Commodus. 13. Inscription
from villa of Herodes Atticus, Via Appia, used afterwards as a
milestone under Maxentius.

2. Monument to Bathyllus, an actor of the time of Augustus, afterwards
custodian of the Temple of the Deified Augustus.

THIRD ROOM.--1. Sarcophagus found in a mound on the road to Frascati,
called Monte del Grano. Inside the sarcophagus was found the Portland
vase now in the British Museum, which contained the ashes. The
sarcophagus is surmounted by the figures of a man and woman in repose.
The reliefs illustrate the life of Achilles. 2. Relief of Priests of
Cybele. 6. Cosimati mosaic, with reliefs from life of Achilles. 12,
13. Portraits in relief of Nero and Poppæa. 15. Pluto and Cerberus,
found in the Baths of Titus, 1812.


On the walls are encased the fragments of the marble plan of Rome
found in 1534-50, 1867, behind the Church of SS. Cosmo and Damiano.
They had originally served for the panelling of the wall that formed
part of the Temple of Rome built by Hadrian. The plan was made in the
third century, in the time of the Emperor Septimius Severus (193-211).
It is called the "Pianta Capitolina," and is of great use to
archæologists in studying the ground plan of the different buildings
marked upon it, though not as showing their relative positions.

After many years of study we have succeeded in putting this puzzle
together, and have published the marble plan, systematically arranged
in ten sheets, price six shillings, with descriptive letterpress.

_The doors at the top of the stairs lead us into the_


     "He leans upon his hand; his manly brow
     Consents to death, but conquers agony;
     And his drooped head sinks gradually low;
     And through his side the last drops, ebbing slow
     From the red gash, fall heavily one by one."

This perfect statue of "a wounded man dying, who perfectly expressed
how much life was remaining in him," has for many years been miscalled
"The Dying Gladiator;" but it has of late years been more correctly
described as a wounded Gaul. It was found, together with the Gallic
group in the Ludovisi Villa, amongst the ruins of the gardens of
Sallust, and with that formed part of a large group representing the
death of Anerœstus, the Gallic chief, who with other leaders killed
themselves after their defeat by the Romans in 226 B.C., near
Orbitello--Attilius, the Roman consul, having been previously killed
in the fight (Polybius, ii. 2). 7. Lycian Apollo, found near the Aquæ
Albulæ on the road to Tivoli. 6. Female carrying a vase, standing on
an altar dedicated to Hercules by C. Ulpius Fronto, A.D. 126; found in
the Forum Boarium. 5. Bust of Bacchus. 4. Amazon, the finest of its
class in existence. 3. Alexander, by Lysippus. 2. Juno. 16. Bust of
_Et tu, Brute_. 15. Isis. 14. Flora (?), found at Hadrian's Villa,
thought to be Sabina, the wife of Hadrian. 12. Antinoüs, found at
Hadrian's Villa. 10. The Faun of Praxiteles, found at Civita Lavinia,
amongst the ruins of the Villa of Antoninus Pius. This is the Marble
Faun of Hawthorne. 9. Girl protecting a dove. 8. Zeno, the Stoic


1. The celebrated and beautiful faun in rosso-antico, found at
Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli. 5. Tydeus, the father of Diomedes--a hollow
mask. 3. The Endymion sarcophagus, found under the high altar of the
Church of S. Eustacio; the cover belongs to another sarcophagus. 8.
Boy with a scenic mask. 16. Boy with a goose, found near S. John's
Lateran. 18. Sarcophagus representing the battle between Amazons and
Athenians. On the wall above is the bronze table on which is engraved
a portion of the Lex Regia conferring the imperial power on Vespasian,
and from which Rienzi demonstrated to the people their political
rights. It was discovered near the Lateran about 1300, and was kept in
the Basilica.


1. Jupiter, in black marble. 2, 4. Cloud-born Centaurs, found at
Hadrian's Villa, the joint work of Aristeas and Papias, sculptors of
Aphrodisium, in bigio-morato marble. Pliny says he saw a Centaur that
had been embalmed in honey, which had been brought from Egypt to Rome
in the time of Claudius. 3. The infant Hercules, in green basalt,
found on the Aventine. 5. Æsculapius, in black marble. _On left of
entry._ 29. Hygeia. 31. Young Apollo. 33. Wounded Amazon. 34. Venus
and Mars, found in the Isola Sacra near Ostia. 36. Minerva. 6. Faun.
7. Apollo. 9. Trajan. 10. Augustus. Two columns of Porta Santa. 17.
Minerva, an archaic statue, B.C. 450. 21. A teacher imparting
instruction, found in Hadrian's Villa. 22. Præfica: a hired mourner at
funerals; a tear-bottle will be noticed in her hand. 28. Harpocrates,
found at Hadrian's Villa. 27. A hunter, by Polytimus.


containing busts of great men arranged round the room on shelves, many
of doubtful identity. The most important are,--

1. Virgil. 4, 5, 6. Socrates. 7, 35. Alcibiades. 10. Seneca. 16.
Marcus Agrippa. 20. Marcus Aurelius. 21. Diogenes. 22. Archimedes. 27.
Pythagoras. 28. Alexander the Great. 30. Aristophanes. 31, 32.
Demosthenes. 33, 34. Sophocles. 37. Hippocrates. 41 to 43. Euripides.
44 to 47. Homer. 48. Domitius Corbulo. 49. Scipio Africanus the elder.
Pompey the Great. 60. Thucydides. 63. Double Hermes of Epicurus and
Metrodorus, friends and philosophers. 72. Julian. 74. Ahenobarbus,
father of Nero. 75. Cicero (?). 76. Terence.

The walls are adorned with bas-reliefs. The seated figure in the
centre of the room is supposed to be Marcus Claudius Marcellus, the
great general of the republic, who died B.C. 208.


and their wives, whose ancient authentic busts are arranged round the
room in chronological order:--

     1. Julius Cæsar.
     2. Augustus.
     4. Tiberius.
     6. Drusus, sen.
     7. Drusus, jun.
     8. Antonia.
     9. Germanicus.
     10. Agrippina, sen.
     11. Caligula.
     12. Claudius.
     13. Messalina.
     14. Agrippina, jun.
     16. Nero.
     17. Poppæa Sabina.
     18. Galba.
     19. Otho.
     20. Vitellius.
     21. Vespasian.
     22. Titus.
     23. Julia.
     24. Domitian.
     25. Domitia Longina.
     27. Trajan.
     28. Plotina.
     31. Hadrian.
     33. Julia Sabina.
     35. Antoninus Pius.
     36. Faustina, sen.
     38. Marcus Aurelius.
     39. Faustina, jun.
     43. Commodus.
     44. Crispina.
     45. Pertinax.
     46. Didius Julianus.
     47. Manlia Scantilla.
     50. Septimius Severus.
     52. Julia Pia.
     53. Caracalla.
     54. Geta.
     55. Macrinus.
     57. Elagabalus.
     60. Alexander Severus.
     62. Maximinus.
     64. Gordianus I.
     65. Gordianus II.
     66. Pupienus.
     67. Balbinus.
     68. Gordianus III.
     69. Philip.
     70. Decius.
     72. Hostilianus.
     73. Gallus.
     76. Gallienus.
     77. Salonina.
     80. Diocletian.
     81. Chlorus.
     82. Julian, the philosopher.
     83. Magnus Decentius.

There are several bas-reliefs round the room. Seated in the centre is
Agrippina, "the glory of the Roman matrons;" daughter of M. V. Agrippa
and Julia, daughter of Augustus; wife of Germanicus, and mother of
Caligula. "It is a statue combining an expression of moral dignity and
of intellectual force, with as much beauty and poetical grace as the
genius of sculpture ever borrowed from breathing nature to work out
its own miracles of art. This statue--a history and an epic in
itself--represents a woman in the prime of life seated in a chair of
state, and in the deep repose of meditative thought. The statue is
lofty, her brow of high capacity, her mouth expressive of love and
wit, and all her features are harmonized by that regularity which is
ever denied to defective organizations. Over the whole of this
simply-draped and noble figure there is an air of tranquil majesty,
which, in its solemn influence, likens it to the statues of the gods"
(Lady Morgan). It may have originally stood on the cinerary base in
the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori.


_In our order of visiting the Museum the subjects in this Corridor
commence at the highest number._

Vase of white marble, found near the tomb of Cecilia Metella; it is
decorated with vine leaves and fruit. The pedestal is a very
interesting Grecian marble well head; on it are the twelve principal
deities. 29. Minerva. 28. Bust of Marcus Aurelius. 25. Jupiter
standing on the altar of Cybele, dedicated in memory of Claudia
drawing the galley up to Rome, which is shown in relief. _Entrance to
Cabinet of Venus._ 20. Psyche. 46. Sarcophagus illustrating the birth
of Bacchus. 47. Jupiter. 49. Juno. 30. Gladiator restored from a
Discobolus. 52. Euterpe. 10. Cinerary urn. 54. Sarcophagus
representing the Rape of Proserpine. 54_a._ Infant Hercules strangling
a serpent. 56. Female statue. 8. Drunken Baccante. _Entrance to Hall
of Doves._ 5. Cupid. 3. A lion. 63. Marcus Aurelius.


The celebrated Venus of the Capitol, found in a walled-up chamber on
the Viminal, is rather the statue of a beautiful woman in full
maturity than of Venus as a goddess. Cupid and Psyche, found on the
Aventine--a beautiful little group. Leda and the Swan.


So called from the beautiful mosaic set _in the wall on the right in
entering_, mentioned by Pliny as the work of Sosus existing at
Pergamos,--"There is a dove greatly admired in the act of drinking,
and throwing the shadow of its head upon the water, while other birds
are to be seen sunning and pluming themselves on the margin of a
drinking bowl." It was found in Hadrian's Villa. Beyond is also a
mosaic representing two scenic masks, found on the Aventine. In the
windows are glass cases containing styli, coins, and lamps. 83. Fixed
on the side of the farther window, the Iliac Table representing the
Fall of Troy as described by Virgil; to each group is attached an
explanatory inscription in Greek: found at Bovillæ. 49. Diana of
Ephesus. 37. Sarcophagus of Gerontia, representing the fable of
Endymion. 13. The Prometheus sarcophagus. On shelves round the room
are placed numerous busts, but these are not of much interest.

_On coming out of the Museum_ cross the square and turn to the left,
by the side of the Tabularium (note the paving-stones at the end of
the Sacra Via), then turn to the right, Via Monte Tarpeia, proceed
along this street, and keep straight on down the steps.


By descending the _Centum Gradus_, and turning to the left, we see the
rock, within the space closed off by the rails. The house on the top
will roughly represent the original height of the rock. If we then add
forty feet to the depth, we shall have some idea of the traitors'
leap, which cured all ambition.


The municipal authorities have lately pulled down a house on the Vicus
Jugarius which obstructed the view of the far end of the Tarpeian Rock
from the Forum. We use the title Tarpeian Rock as applied to the place
of execution and not to the whole hill. They have exposed to view not
only the rock, but likewise one side of the Temple of Ops, composed of
large blocks of tufa stone surmounted by later brick structures. The
earliest mention we have of this temple is in B.C. 183, when Livy says
(xxxix. 22): "By order of the pontiffs a supplication, of one day's
continuance, was added on account of the Temple of Ops, near the
Capitol, having been struck by lightning." This temple is also
mentioned by Cicero, from whom we learn that it was where the clerks
kept the accounts of the treasury: "Would that the money remained in
the Temple of Ops! Bloodstained, indeed, it may be, but still needful
at these times, since it is not restored to those to whom it really
belongs" (First "Philippic," 7). "Who delivered yourself from an
enormous burden of debt at the Temple of Ops; who, by your dealings
with the account-books there, squandered a countless sum of money"
(Second, 14). "Where are the seven hundred millions of sesterces
which were entered in the account-books which are in the Temple of
Ops? A sum lamentable indeed as to the means by which it was procured,
but still one which, if it were not restored to those to whom it
belonged, might save us from taxes" (Second, 37). "And that accounts
of the money in the Temple of Ops are not to be meddled with. That is
to say, that those seven hundred millions of sesterces are not to be
recovered from him; that the Septemviri are to be exempt from blame or
from prosecution for what they have done" (Eighth, 9).

Ops was the daughter of Cœlus and Terra, and the wife of Saturn;
hence her connection with the treasury. The temple was turned into a
church, and called S. Salvatore in Ærario, or in Statera (the Saviour
in the Treasury), which lapsed into S. Maria in Portico. It has now
become a fruit shop; and a small fresco of the Crucifixion, very much
obliterated, marks its former use. The west wall of the temple has
been exposed in the recent changes, and part of the eastern wall can
be seen by entering the court-yard by the flight of steps through the
wall, No. 57, opposite the end of S. Maria di Consolazione.

_The Via Consolazione and the Via Montanara to the right bring us to_


The design of erecting a stone theatre in this quarter had been
entertained by Julius Cæsar (Suetonius, "Cæsar," xliv.), but the
carrying out of his adopted father's plan was reserved for Augustus
(_ibid._, "Aug." xxix.). He did not, however, appropriate the honour
of so great a work to himself, but transferred it to his beloved
son-in-law, Marcellus. Great part of the outer walls of this large and
splendid building still exists. Against these leaned the arches,
supporting the tier of seats destined for the spectators. The greater
portion of the vast halls have also been preserved; but being now
converted into offices belonging to the Palace of the Orsini, which
has insinuated itself into these ruins, they are not accessible to
strangers. The lower story is in the Doric, the second in the Ionic,
and the third was probably in the Corinthian order. It held 20,000


Built by Appius Claudius for common offenders, _near_ the Forum
Olitorium, and which site was afterwards occupied by the Theatre of
Marcellus (Pliny, vii. 37). We have identified this prison, remains of
which can still be seen under the theatre, consisting of chambers
constructed in _opus reticulatum_. There are two splendid open
archways of the same material leading into two large chambers, in the
vaults of which are holes for letting the prisoners down. This we
believe to have been the Decemviral Prisons and the scene of _Caritas

     "Here youth offered to old age the food,
       The milk of his own gift."

Byron visited the chambers under S. Nicola in Carcere, when he was
moved to compose his beautiful lines. He had before him the scene,
though not the site; his words are more applicable to these dungeons,
and we may say with him,--

     "There is a dungeon, in whose dim, drear light
       What do I gaze on?--Nothing."

_Passing the Theatre, a narrow lane on the left leads to the remains


Dedicated to Octavia by her brother Augustus (Suetonius, "Aug."
xxix.). The principal portion still existing belonged to the great
portal leading to the open space surrounded by corridors which gave
the people shelter during rain. In this stood two temples, the one
dedicated to Jupiter, the other to Juno. Pillars belonging to the
latter may be seen in a house in the Via Pescheria, and remains of the
Portico of Octavia at No. 12 Via Teatro di Marcello. The inscription
on the architrave states that the building was restored by Septimius
Severus and Caracalla.

On the removal of two of the columns on which the pediment rested,
their place was supplied by an arch of brickwork, thus preventing the
building from falling in.

Four columns and two piers are still standing of the inner row; of the
outside only two columns remain, in addition to the two piers. The
capitals are ornamented with eagles bearing thunderbolts. A flight of
steps led up to this vestibule.

The stumps of columns built into the walls of several houses in the
vicinity in all probability belonged to the same edifice, which must
originally have presented a most magnificent appearance.

The Portico was ornamented with many statues; and besides the two
temples, there were libraries. It was originally erected by Metellus,
B.C. 146 (Paterculus, i. 11). The temples were built by Mr. Lizard and
Mr. Frog; but the senate would not allow them to put their names on
the buildings, and so to hand down their work they sculptured on the
spirals of the columns lizards and frogs (Pliny, xxxvi. 4). This can
still be seen in the Church of S. Lorenzo on the road to Tivoli, the
columns being taken there from here. The same authority (xxxiv. 15)
gives particulars of the many statues; and amongst others one to
Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi, the base of which was found here
in 1878, and is now in the courtyard of the new Museum of the Capitol.
Pliny also tells us that when they dedicated the temples they by
mistake carried the god into the goddess's temple, and so they let
them remain as the will of the gods.

_On the right_ is the CHURCH OF S. ANGELO IN PESCHERIA. Here Rienzi,
on May 20, 1347, held his meeting for the re-establishment of "the
good estate;" and here he exhibited his allegorical picture, and
thence marched to the Church of S. George to fix up the proclamation.

_From the right-hand corner of this square a little alley leads to the
Via Rua, the principal street of_


or Jews' Quarter. The word "Ghetto" comes from the Hebrew word _chat_,
broken or dispersed. The Jews first settled here in the time of Pompey
the Great; but it was not till 1556 that the Ghetto was enclosed by
Pope Paul IV. putting gates across the streets. The Jews were not
allowed to be out after sunset or before sunrise, and he compelled the
men to wear yellow hats and the women yellow veils. The old
inhabitants, who were not Jews, were turned out, and obliged to give
up their houses to the Jews on perpetual copy-hold leases, which are
handed down in the families to the present day. Pius IX. abolished the
gates, but it was not till the Italian troops entered Rome that the
Jews obtained full liberty like their fellow-citizens. The lower part
of the houses in the Ghetto are of Roman construction, and there is
very little accumulation of soil there. There are about four thousand
Jews in Rome, and notwithstanding the closeness with which they are
packed and the dirt in which they live, the district is entirely free
from fever.

_Proceeding along_ the Via Rua, we enter the Piazza di S. Maria del
Pianto, the Square of Tears. On the right are several old Roman
houses, with the upper part rebuilt, and the following medieval
inscription, put up in the two thousand two hundred and twenty-first
year of Rome, recording that here was the Forum Judæorum:--

     AB . VRB . CON . M. M. CCXXI . L. AN . M. III . D.
     PRI . CAL. AVG.

_A short alley on the left leads to the Piazza Scuole. On the right


(_Palazzo Cenci_,)

the scene of the persecution of Beatrice, which led to her execution
through the murder of her father at Petrella.

"The story is, that an old man having spent his life in debauchery and
wickedness, conceived at length an implacable hatred towards his
children, which showed itself towards one daughter under the form of
an incestuous passion, aggravated by every circumstance of cruelty and
violence. This daughter, after long and vain attempts to escape from
what she considered a perpetual contamination both of body and mind,
at length plotted with her mother-in-law and brother to murder their
common tyrant" (Shelley).

"The Cenci Palace is of great extent; and though in part modernized,
there yet remains a vast and gloomy pile of feudal architecture, in
the same state as during the dreadful scenes which are the subject of
this tragedy--'The Cenci.' The palace is situated in an obscure corner
of Rome, near the quarter of the Jews, and from the upper windows you
see the immense ruins of Mount Palatine, half hidden beneath the
profuse undergrowth of trees. There is a court in one part of the
palace (perhaps that in which Cenci built the chapel to S. Thomas)
supported by granite columns, and adorned with antique friezes of fine
workmanship, and built up, according to the ancient Italian fashion,
with balcony over balcony of open work. One of the gates of the
palace, formed of immense stones, and leading through a passage dark
and lofty, and opening into gloomy subterranean chambers, struck me
particularly" (Shelley).

From an old manuscript recently brought to light, and the reports of
the trial which have been recently published, the story of Beatrice
Cenci appears divested of the fiction of a historical novel; and these
papers prove her to have been anything but the innocent victim she is
represented in the romantic stories we have all read.

_On the left of the Piazza_ is the Jewish Synagogue, once a Christian
church, dedicated to S. Lorenzo in Damaso, and sold to the Jews by
Pope Sixtus V. when he was in need of money.

The Cenci Palace stands upon the substructions of


Erected B.C. 12, as a compliment to Augustus, by L. Cornelius Balbus
(Suetonius, "Aug." xxix.), being the third permanent theatre erected
in Rome. It held twelve thousand spectators. Pliny (xxxiv. 12) says:
"Cornelius Balbus erected four small pillars of onyx in his theatre as
something marvellous." At No. 23 Via Calderari, _to the right of the
Cenci Palace_, some remains can be seen of the PORTICO of the Theatre
of Balbus, which was two stories high. Built into the house are two
Doric columns of travertine stone, supporting an architrave, which is
interspersed with brickwork repairs, by Septimius Severus, after a
fire. Opposite are three pilasters supporting a vault.

In the lane opposite, the Palace of the Cenci can best be seen; this
part has not been restored. _Passing under the archway_, on our left,
is the gateway spoken of by Shelley.

_The first turning on the right, in the Via Calderari, leads to the
Via Catinari; turn to the left, follow the second street on the right
past the church, then take the first turning on the left._ It will be
noticed that the fronts of the houses and the street are circular;
they are built on the ruins of the circular part of


"Pompey also built that magnificent theatre, which is standing at this
day, at whose dedication five hundred lions were killed in five days,
and eighteen elephants having fought against armed men, part of them
died upon the place, and the rest soon after" (Dion Cassius, "Cæsar").
Plutarch relates the same. The same author, in his "Life of Nero,"
speaking of the reception of Tiridates, says: "There was a great
assembly in the Theatre of Pompey by order of the senate. Not only the
scene, but all the inside of the theatre, and everybody that came into
it, were covered with gold, which made that day be named Golden Day.
The covering which was spread over it to defend the spectators from
the heat of the sun, was of rich stuff, the colour of purple,
representing the heavens, in the midst of which was Nero driving a
chariot." (See Pliny, xxxiii. 16.) "Tiberius undertook to restore the
Theatre of Pompey" (Suetonius, "Tiberius," xlvii.). "Tiberius
undertook to rebuild the Theatre of Pompey, which was accidentally
burned, because none of the family was equal to the charge; still,
however, to be called by the name of Pompey" (Tacitus, "Ann." iii.
72). "Caligula completed it" (Suetonius, "Caligula," xxi.). It was
burned; and again rebuilt by Caracalla, as we learn from an
inscription found at Ostia in 1881. "In the games which Claudius
presented at the dedication of Pompey's theatre, which had been burned
down, and was rebuilt by him, he presided upon a tribunal erected for
him in the orchestra; having first paid his devotions in the temple
above, and then coming down through the centre of the circle, while
all the people kept their seats in profound silence" (Suetonius,
"Claudius," xxi.). It accommodated forty thousand (Pliny, xxxvi. 24).
It was built B.C. 55, "in his second consulship" (Vel. Paterculus, ii.
48); but afraid of the criticism of the people, he erected at the top
of the seats a temple to Venus.


In the neighbourhood of his theatre Pompey built a house for himself
(Plutarch); and from the back of the stage a portico (Vitruvius),
which, according to Propertius (ii. 32), must have been a beautiful

"Pompey's portico, I suppose, with its shady columns, and
magnificently ornamented with purple curtains, palls upon you; and the
thickly-planted, even line of plane-trees, and the waters that fall
from a sleeping Maro, and in streams lightly bubbling all over." In
the centre of this portico Pompey erected a large hall, which he
presented to the Roman people for the use of the senate. At the time
of Cæsar's assassination the senate house on the Forum was being
rebuilt. Suetonius ("Cæsar," lxxx.), says: "Public notice had been
given, by proclamation, for the senate to assemble upon the ides of
March (15th) in the senate house built by Pompey: the conspirators
approved both time and place as most fitting for their purpose." "They
killed him in the hall of Pompey, giving him twenty-three wounds"
(Livy, "Ep." cxvi.). "The conspirators having surrounded him in
Pompey's senate house, fell upon him all together, and killed him with
several strokes" (Dion Cassius, "Cæsar." See Suetonius, "Cæsar,"

"The place, too, where the senate was to meet seemed providentially
favourable for their purpose. It was a portico adjoining the theatre;
and in the midst of a saloon, furnished with benches, stood a statue
of Pompey, which had been erected to him by the commonwealth when he
adorned that part of the city with those buildings. The senate being
assembled, and Cæsar entering, the conspirators got close about
Cæsar's chair. Cassius turned his face to Pompey's statue, and invoked
it, as if it had been sensible of his prayers" (Plutarch. See Florus,
iv. 2).

"The senate house in which he was slain was ordered to be shut up, and
a decree was made that the ides of March should be called parricidal,
and that the senate should never more assemble on that day"
(Suetonius, "Cæsar," lxxxviii.).

_After making the circuit of the seats of the theatre, the Via
Chiavari leads to the_ CHURCH OF S. ANDREA DELLE VALLE, built on the
site of Pompey's senate house.

On the marble plan of Rome, in the Capitoline Museum, a fragment shows
Pompey's theatre, portico, and senate house. With the given remains of
the theatre and the plan it is easy to find the site of the Curia,
which is shown on the plan in the form of a basilica: this will bring
the curve exactly at the apse of the Church of S. Andrew. Now, we are
told that Cæsar was seated in the chair where in the morning Brutus
dispensed justice, so he was, no doubt, seated on the tribunal; and as
the tribunal of the church and curia exactly correspond,


The cupola of the church is one of the finest in Rome; the four
evangelists, at the angles, are by Domenichino.

_From here we retrace our steps down the Via Chiavari, crossing the
Via Giubbonari, passing, on our left, the_ MONTE DI PIETA (Uncle to
Rome); _turn to left Via Pettinari; the first turning on the right
leads to the Piazza Capo di Ferri._ On the left, decorated with
statues, is the Spada Palace. In the vestibule of the law court,
upstairs, is


at whose feet great Cæsar fell.

"There was a statue of Pompey, and it was a work which Pompey had
consecrated for an ornament to his theatre."

"Either by accident, or pushed hither by the conspirators, he expired
at the pedestal of Pompey's statue, and dyed it with his blood"

"Augustus removed the statue of Pompey from the senate house, in which
Julius Cæsar had been killed, and placed it under a marble arch,
fronting the curia attached to Pompey's theatre" (Suetonius, "Aug."

The statue is eleven feet high, and was found in 1553 in the Vicolo di
Lentari; it was under two houses, and the proprietors could not agree
as to whom it should belong, when Pope Julius II. gave them five
hundred gold dollars for it, and presented it to Cardinal Capodifero.
In 1798-99 the French carried this statue to the Colosseum, where they
performed Voltaire's "Tragedy of Brutus" to the original statue. To
facilitate moving it, they cut off the extended arm; hence the join.


_Open every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday; fee, half lira each to
Museum and Gallery._

_N.B._--The vestibule where the statue of Pompey stands is public, and
is open all day. Resist the demands of the porter, who is generally
very rude.

The MUSEUM on the ground-floor contains a good seated statue of
Aristotle, and nine reliefs formerly used, reversed, as the pavement
of S. Agnese outside the walls. 1. Paris on Mount Ida; 2. Bellerophon
watering Pegasus; 3. Amphion and Zethus; 4. Ulysses and Diomedes
robbing the Temple of Minerva; 5. Paris and Œnone; 6. Perseus and
Andromeda; 7. Adonis; 8. Adrastus and Hypsipyla finding the body of
Archemorus; 9. Pasiphæ and Dædalus.

The GALLERY upstairs contains few good pictures. Catalogues in each

FIRST ROOM.--32. Lanfranco's Cain and Abel; 45. Guercino's David.

SECOND ROOM.--9. Guido's Judith; 19. Poussin's Joseph and Brethren;
17. Leonardo da Vinci's Dispute with the Doctors; 32. S. John; 33. S.
Lucia, by Guercino.

THIRD ROOM.--20. Rape of Helen, by Guido; 33. Vandyck; 48. Death of
Dido, by Guercino.

COURT ROOM.--Frescoes by Luzio Romano.

_In coming out of the Palace, turn to the right, keep straight on down
the_ VIA S. PAOLA ALLA REGOLA. Some little way down is the church of
that name, on the right, said to have been built on the site where S.
Paul had a school. _Just beyond_, on the right, is the Via degli
Strengari; the house on the left, No. 2, is pointed out by Jewish
tradition as


     "Paul was suffered to dwell by himself with a soldier that
     kept him."

     "Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house, and
     received all that came in unto him."

     Here, "Paul called the chief of the Jews together."

     "When they had appointed him a day, there came many to him
     into _his_ lodging."

The construction of the lower part of the house is brick-work of the
early empire. This agrees with the Jewish tradition, and we can well
understand that S. Paul would lodge somewhere near his kinsmen the
Jews. The doorway has one of its columns still; but it has been turned
from a round headway into a square one. One of the windows on the left
has still a round head; above this the house is medieval. The lower
part of the other houses here are Roman.

_To the left_ of the house, take the VIA DI S. BARTOLOMEO DEI
VACCINARI. On the right, some remains of the columns of the Theatre of
Balbus have been built into a house, and remains exist under the
houses all round. In this street Rienzi was born; the exact house is
not known.

_Keeping straight on, the_ VIA DELLA FIUMARA is one of the dirtiest in
the Ghetto. _At its extremity, on the right, is the_


now called Ponte dei Quattro Capi, from the four-headed Janus upon its
balustrades. From the inscription, and from Dion Cassius (xxxvii. 45),
we learn that it was erected, B.C. 61, by L. Fabricius, Curator
Viarum. Horace (S. ii. 3) says that "Stertinius advised the would-be
suicide Damasippus to return cheerfully from the Fabrician Bridge." It
has two arches. The bridge leads to


"The Tarquins had sacrilegiously converted the best part of the Campus
Martius to their own use. When they were expelled, it happened to be
harvest time, and the sheaves then lay upon the ground; but as it was
consecrated, the people could not make use of it. A great number of
hands, therefore, took it up in baskets and threw it into the river.
The trees were also cut down and thrown in after it, and the ground
left entirely without fruit or produce for the service of the god. A
great quantity of different sorts of things being thus thrown in
together, they were not carried far by the current, but only to the
shallows, where the first heaps had stopped. Finding no further
passage, everything settled there, and the whole was bound still
firmer by the river; for that washed down to it a deal of mud, which
not only added to the mass, but served as a cement to it, and the
current, far from dissolving it, by its gentle pressure gave it the
greater firmness. The bulk and solidity of this mass received
continual additions, most of what was brought down by the Tiber
settling there. It was now an island sacred to religious uses. Several
temples and porticoes have been built upon it; and it is called in
Latin _inter duos pontes_--the island between the two bridges"
(Plutarch, in "Publicola").

The island in the Tiber is an alluvial formation, and thus far the
legend is correct in ascribing its origin to the accumulation of
rubbish and drifted sand. In remembrance of the vessel which bore the
statue of Æsculapius from Epidaurus to Rome, the entire island was
faced with stone, and made to assume the form of a ship, in which was
placed the temple of the god.

Some of the immense blocks of travertine composing the facing, and
representing the hull of the ship, may still be seen in the monastery
garden of the Church of S. Bartolomeo in Isola. _Ladies are not
admitted to the monastery._

"In the island of the Tiber, just prior to the death of Otho, the
statue of Julius Cæsar turned from west to east, a circumstance said
likewise to have happened when Vespasian took on him the empire"

In the Piazza is a monument to SS. John, Francis, Bartholomew, and
Paulinus. The interior of the church is embellished with fourteen
ancient columns, and in the choir are the remains of an early mosaic.

The island on the farther side is connected with the mainland by


now called Ponte S. Bartolomeo. It was erected, B.C. 45, by the Prætor
Lucius Cestius; the inscription records its restoration, A.D. 367, by
the Emperors Valentinian, Valens, and Gratian. It consists of a single
arch. Over the bridge is TRASTEVERE, the inhabitants of which claim to
be descended from the ancient Romans: their manners and customs are
somewhat distinct from those of the inhabitants of the other side of
the river.

_From the bridge_ (_retracing our steps_) _a street leads into the
Piazza Montanara; turn to the right up the Via Montanara; on the right
is the_ CHURCH OF S. NICOLO IN CARCERE, built over three temples.

_Entrance to see the substructions through the sacristy._


Three temples of the time of the republic, situated in one front, and
forming a group. Not only many columns, but also considerable remains
of the substructions have been preserved. The latter have been
rendered accessible by the recent excavations.

The largest of these temples, Piety, situated in the middle, is of
Ionic architecture. It is surrounded by a corridor, and is probably
the same erected to Piety by the son of M. Acilius Glabrio ten years
after the event, in fulfilment of a vow made by his father at the
battle of Thermopylæ, A.U.C. 562, erected 572 (Livy, xl. 34). The
_left hand_ temple is that of Juno Sospita (to keep in health),
founded by Cethægus, B.C. 195 (Livy, xxxii. 30, xxxiv. 53). The Temple
of Hope is _on the right_. It was erected by Atilius Calatinus during
the first Punic War, B.C. 248 (Livy xxi. 62, xxv. 7).

These temples were situated in the Forum Olitorium, the great
vegetable market of Rome, and outside the Servian wall. The custodian
shows a cell which he points out as the scene of the "Caritas Romana."
Visitor! "beware, beware! he's fooling thee." This is not that Temple
of Piety erected on the site of the house of the Roman matron, or,
according to some authorities, on the site of the Decemviral Prisons;
for Pliny and Solinus tell us that the sites of the temple and prison
were occupied by the Theatre of Marcellus. According to Valerius
Maximus (v. 4) and Pliny ("Natural History," vii. 36), it was a
daughter who thus saved her mother's life, and "they were henceforth
provided for by the state." Festus says it was her father.

_Turn to the right, in coming out of the temple; a short distance on
the right the Via di Ponte Rotto turns out to the right. A little way
up on the right is_


     "The Roman of Rome's least mortal mind;"
     The friend of Petrarch and liberty,
     Who died for Rome and Italy.
     Rienzi! the patriotic Roman,
     Close by whose house doth wind
     The Tiber, subservient to the will of no man.

It was built from the remains of one of those medieval towers used by
the Romans as fortresses, and, as such, bore the name of the Torre di
Monzone. It was demolished by Arlotto degli Stefaneschi, in the year
1313, in order to diminish the power of the Orsini, in whose
possession it was. An inscription on the ruin states the founder to
have been a certain Nicolas, the son of Crescentius and Theodora.
Hence it has been supposed that the Crescentius here mentioned is
identical with the celebrated consul who ruled over Rome A.D. 998; an
opinion strengthened by the fact of his wife having really borne the
name of Theodora. Rienzi is said to have been descended from them.
Pope Leo XIII. was descended through his mother from Rienzi.


     "First of the foremost, Nicolas, great from a low estate,
     Raised (_this_) to revive the glory of his fathers.
     There is placed the name of his father and mother, Crescentius
       and Theodora.
     This renowned roof, bore from (_a_) dear pledge:
     The father who displayed it assigned it to David."

Another line says,--

     "In fair places ever remember the grave."

The neighbouring people call this ruin the Casa di Pilato, and the
appellation of the Casa di Cola di Rienzi has been added since the
last century. Rienzi died in 1354 A.D. _A step or two lead to_


anciently the Pons Æmilius. This bridge, intended to unite the nearer
bank of the river with Trastevere, but rendered impassable by the fall
of several arches in 1598, whence its name of the Ponte Rotto, was
commenced in the censorship of M. Æmilius Lepidus and M. Fulvius
Nobilior, in the year of the city 573, and was completed by P. Scipio
Africanus and L. Mummius. From the first of these it took its name.
"Marcus Fulvius made contracts for piers for a bridge over the Tiber;
on which piers Publius Scipio Africanus and Lucius Mummius, censors
many years afterwards, caused the arches to be raised" (Livy, xl. 51).
It is the same from which the body of Elagabalus was thrown with a
stone attached to it, after having been dragged through the Circus.

In January 1886, to the eternal disgrace of the acting mayor, Duke
Torlonia, and the municipal authorities of Rome, the remaining half of
the oldest bridge over the Tiber was wantonly and unnecessarily
destroyed in the works going on for the embankment of the river, the
city fathers leaving one arch in the centre of the river as a monument
of their folly. From this arch a suspension bridge is to be thrown to
the Trastevere side. The Cloaca Maxima has been diverted into the
Tiber below S. Paul's, in order to prevent the back-wash into the
city. _A little lower down was_


in front of which Horatius displayed his valour. It was first erected,
A.U.C. 114, by Ancus Martius. By appointment of the oracle it was
built only of timber fastened with wooden pins; "for the Romans
considered it as an execrable impiety to demolish the wooden bridge,
which, we are told, was built without iron, and put together with pins
of wood only, by the direction of some oracle. The stone bridge was
built many ages after, when Æmilius was quæstor. Some, however, inform
us that the wooden bridge was not constructed in the time of Numa,
having the last hand put to it by Ancus Martius" (Plutarch, in

"Rome was in great danger of being taken, when Horatius Cocles, and
with him two others of the first rank--Herminius and Spurius
Lartius--stopped them at the bridge.... This man [Horatius], standing
at the head of the bridge, defended it against the enemy till the
Romans broke it down behind him. Then he plunged into the Tiber, armed
as he was, and swam to the other side, but was wounded in the hip with
a Tuscan spear" (Plutarch, in "Publicola"). Livy (ii. 10) gives his
prayer before plunging in: "Holy father Tiber, I beseech thee to
receive these arms, and this thy soldier, into thy propitious stream."

         "Still is the story told
     How well Horatius kept the bridge
         In the brave days of old."

Near this spot Clœlia swam across the Tiber on horseback, when
escaping from Lars Porsena.

     "While Cocles kept the bridge and stemmed the flood,
     The captive maids there tempt the raging tide,
     'Scaped from their chains, with Clœlia for their guide."--VIRGIL.

_Returning from the bridge, turn to the right. On our left is_


The Temple of Patrician Chastity stood inside the wall of Servius in
the Forum of the Cattle-dealers. Livy (x. 23) says: "In the year
A.U.C. 456, a quarrel broke out among the matrons in the Temple of
Patrician Chastity, which stands in the cattle-market, near the Round
Temple of Hercules."

It was converted in 880 into the Church of S. MARIA EGIZIACA. It has
four Ionic columns at the front, with four apparent columns at the
end, and seven on one side. A frieze of stucco, representing heads of
oxen, candelabra, and wreaths of flowers borne by children, is on the
entablature; it is 100 feet long by 50 wide. When it was turned into a
church the wall dividing the portico from the cella was pulled down,
and the columns of the portico were filled in to make it longer for a
church. It is the best specimen we have of a republican temple.

_Going down by the side of the temple, we come to_


This is the temple mentioned above by Livy, and we see the positions
agree with his statements. It is formed of twenty beautiful Corinthian
columns, only one of which, on the right side, is missing. Its
circumference is only 156 feet, and that of the cella 26 feet, and
the height of the columns 32 feet. The walls within the portico are
of white marble (much of which still remains), and the pieces of it
were put together so as to have the appearance of one mass. The temple
stands on a base of tufa, showing early construction, but is a
restoration of the time of Vespasian.


This was probably the Temple of Hercules which Vitruvius (iii. 3) says
was erected by Pompey. Pliny (xxxiv. 19) says Myron made the statue of
Hercules which is in the Ædes Herculis, built by Pompey the Great,
near the Circus Maximus. Again (xxxv. 7) he speaks of "the paintings
of the poet Pacuvius, in the Temple of Hercules, situated in the


There were other temples to Hercules in the Forum Boarium, of which we
have some travertine remains behind the Church of S. Maria in Cosmedin
opposite. "The Romans afterwards built a magnificent temple near the
river Tiber, in honour of Hercules, and instituted sacrifices to him
out of the tenths" (Diodorus, iv. 1). "In A.U.C. 534 a supplication
was ordered to be performed by individuals at the Temple of Hercules"
(Livy, xxi. 62). This was destroyed by Pope Adrian I., A.D. 772-795.
"By the infinite labour of the people, employed during a whole year,
Adrian threw down an immense structure of Tiburtine stone to enlarge
the Church of S. Maria in Cosmedin" (Anastasias).


is on the site of a temple to Ceres and Proserpine. "Spurius Cassius
consecrated the Temple of Ceres, Bacchus, and Proserpine, which stands
at the end of the great circus, and is built over the starting-places,
and which Aulus Postumius, the dictator, had vowed when upon the point
of engaging the Latins," A.U.C. 258 (Dionysius, vi. 94). "It was
restored by Augustus, and consecrated by Tiberius" (Tacitus, "Annals,"
ii. 49). The temple fronted north, and in the left-hand aisle of the
church are three of the columns of the portico _in situ_; three of the
side columns are in the portico of the church, and three others in the
sacristy, where there is part of a mosaic from old S. Peter's, A.D.

In the portico is a large mask of stone called the Bocca della Verità
(Mouth of Truth). A suspected person, on making an affirmation, was
required to put his hand in the mouth of this mask, in the belief that
if he told an untruth the mouth would close upon his hand. Several
columns of the old temple are immured in the walls, and the aisles are
formed by twenty ancient marble columns; the pavement is of beautiful
_opus Alexandrinum_. _Behind_ the altar is a fine bishop's chair, and
a Greek picture of the Virgin and Child, also some old frescoing
behind a panel on the left. _Opposite_ the church is a beautiful
fountain of Tritons supporting a basin.

_Resuming our ramble down the_ VIA MARMORATA, _turn left coming out of
the church, passing under_ an archway, the remains of the Porta
Trigemina in the Servian Wall. _The road runs for a short distance by
the Tiber, on the opposite side of which is the_ RIPA GRANDE, _or
quay. Taking the road to the right, past a stone-yard, Marmorata, by
the river, brings us to_


another important building of the time of the Republic, of which we
have considerable remains. The exact date of its foundation is not
recorded, but a porticus, or arcade, was made to it, and it was paved
about the year 560 of Rome, or 193 B.C. It was the great warehouse for
the port of Rome for merchandise brought by vessels coming from the
sea. There was another port at the Ripetta for provisions brought
_down_ the river in boats.

The Emporium was to ancient Rome what the docks are to London and
Liverpool. This great building formed three sides of a quadrangle, the
fourth being open to the quay on the bank of the Tiber, with a zigzag
path down the face of the cliff and surface of the quay. This was
excavated by the Pontifical Government, under the direction of Baron
Visconti. It was remarkably perfect; the walls against the cliff were
faced with _opus reticulatum_ of the time of Hadrian, and a large
number of blocks of valuable marbles were found here. A little further
up the river an _amphora_ is cut in the wall of the quay, to indicate
the place for landing wine and oil. The portion of the Emporium now
remaining belongs to the portico or arcade. There are said to be
extensive cellars under the other remains, forming a lower story of
the buildings. A new quarter is in course of erection here.

The Emporium, and the quay by the side of it, called the MARMORATA, or
Marble Wharf, are situated at the lower end of the great Port of Rome
for sea-going vessels, which port extended about half a mile up the
river, with the Salaria, or Salt Wharf, near the middle of it. Above
this, and nearly opposite the point where the Almo falls into the
Tiber, a little below the Temple of Hercules, are several large stone
corbels with holes through them, through which a pole was passed for
the purpose of fastening a chain across the river for holding vessels
against the force of the stream. There are similar corbels in the wall
of the Marmorata for the same purpose, only these corbels are left
plain; those at the upper end of the port are carved in the form of
lions' heads of the early character called Etruscan. These corbels at
the two ends mark the extent of the Port of Rome, made originally in
the year 577 of Rome, and were discovered by Mr. J. H. Parker, C.B.

_Regaining the main road, at a little distance we pass under an arch
of the aqueduct which supplied the Emporium with water. It is called
the_ ARCO DI S. LAZARO. _We next turn off to the right, and ascend_


formed of fragments of earthenware, chiefly of amphoræ. We know from
those remaining at Pompeii that the amphoræ which formed that branch
of commerce were often six feet high. Great numbers of these got
broken in landing, and all were thrown on this heap, as they were not
allowed to be thrown into the Tiber. There is also said to have been a
manufactory of amphoræ and other earthenware at this spot, many of the
fragments found here being the refuse of a great manufactory. This is
supposed to have been the great manufactory of earthenware for the
city of Rome for several centuries; and this supposition may account
for the enormous quantity of such refuse that has accumulated on the
spot, so as to form a hill. Tombs proving its comparatively recent
origin were discovered beneath it in the year 1696. It is 110 feet
high, and surmounted by a cross. The view from the top is very fine.
_Close by is the_


         "The spirit of the spot shall lead
     Thy footsteps to a slope of green access."

The cemetery is an open space among the ruins, covered in winter with
violets and daisies. "It might make one in love with death, to think
that one should be buried in so sweet a place." So wrote Shelley,
whose heart is contained in a tomb at the top left-hand corner of the
new ground, his body having been burned upon the shore at Lerici,
where it was thrown up by the sea. _Passing into the old ground_, "in
the romantic and lovely cemetery under the pyramid which is the tomb
of Cestius, and the mossy walls and towers, now mouldering and
desolate, which formed the circuit of ancient Rome" (Shelley), here,
on the right of the entrance, "lies one whose name was writ in water,"
Keats desiring this to be engraved upon his tomb. A fellow-poet says,
"You feel an interest here, a sympathy you were not prepared for; you
are yourself in a foreign land, and they are for the most part your
countrymen, Englishmen."

_In returning from the Cemetery, nearly opposite the exit, a lane, Via
S. Maria, leads up to the_ AVENTINE HILL. The square at the top is
decorated with military trophies of the Knights of Malta. _A door on
the left leads to_ their Priory; it contains a key-hole;--look through
it, 'tis worth your while.


(_Open Wednesday and Saturday._)

Built upon the site of the Temple of the Bona Dea, and where,
according to some accounts, Remus took up his position to consult the
flight of birds. On the right in entering is the tomb of Bishop
Spinelli, an antique sarcophagus representing Minerva and the Muses.
The church contains several tombs of the Knights of Malta, to whom it
belonged, and who still exist and hold property in Rome, their
encampment being in the Via Condotti; amongst others, there is a tomb
erected to Brother Bartholomew Caraffa, Grand Master, died 1450.

_Beyond, on the left, is the_


on the site of the Armilustrum, where the Sabine king, Titus Tatius,
was buried. In the left aisle are a well and staircase belonging to
the house of S. Alexius's parents, which formerly stood by the side of
the church, where, after his return from his pilgrimage, he was
allowed to live unrecognized by them. There is a very interesting
fresco of S. Alexius's life on the walls of the underground Church of
S. Clemente. (See page 228.)

_A little further, on the left, is the_


on the site of the saint's house, and formerly of the Temple of Juno
Regina founded by Camillus. The church has been much restored at
different times.

In the chapel on the right of the high altar is Sassoferrato's Virgin,
with the rosary. The Chapel of S. Catherine, painted by Odazzi, is
worthy of note. In the convent garden is an orange-tree planted by S.

_Following on the road, we take the first turning to the right; some
little way down, on the left, is the_


supposed to occupy the site of the house, some remains of which can be
seen in the crypt, in which she was baptized by S. Peter. Only open on
January 18. Supposed to have been formerly the site of the Temple of
Diana founded by Servius Tullius.

_Down the hill, and up the opposite one, leads to the_


built on the site of the house of Silvia, the mother of Gregory the
Great, who used to send every day to her son on the Cœlian a silver
basin containing soup. Uninteresting, and only open on the saint's
day, December 5.

_At the foot of the hill, on the left corner of the two roads, is the_


a large stone quarry, intersected in all directions by aqueducts. Some
of them are cut out of the solid tufa, others built in passages cut
through the tufa; some are blocked up with mud deposit, others with
stalactite; some run for a considerable distance, others being broken
in, in extracting the tufa. They present altogether a curious and
interesting study.

_Opposite S. Prisca, in the vineyard of Prince Torlonia, are remains
of the_


built by the Latins under Ancus Martius, when he added the Aventine to
the city.

The cliff has been scarped to the depth of 60 feet, and a terrace made
on the ledge on which the wall stands, consisting of blocks of tufa.
It was originally 12 feet thick, and in one part an arch is introduced
for catapults, similar to those we have seen in ruins on the Palatine.
The back of this part of the wall is a mass of concrete backing. At
the foot of the wall was a trench, afterwards filled up, in which deep
wells have been made for interments. Under the hill of S. Saba, below
the cottage opposite, are traces of another early fortification formed
of masses of concrete, originally faced with large blocks of tufa.
The road here ran through the Porta Randusculana, in the
fortifications of the seven hills.

_In this vineyard are also some remains of_


cousin of Trajan. These remains have only been partly explored, and
are of great extent.

_On the opposite side of the road, in another vineyard_, are some
massive remains of the aqueduct and reservoir of these baths, from the
top of which there is a most enjoyable view of the city in general and
the Palatine in particular. "Sura, the neighbour of the Aventine
Diana, beholds at less distance than others the contests of the great
circus" (Martial, vi. 64).

_In this vineyard are also some remains called the_


It consists of some chambers of reticulated work and a well of the
early empire; the latter extends under S. Prisca. "Greet Priscilla and
Aquila my helpers in Christ Jesus.... Likewise greet the church that
is in their house" (Rom. xvi. 3, 5).

_From the vineyard turn to the right. Some little way down on the
right is the_ entrance to the Jewish Cemetery. This hill was the
ancient Clivus Publicus, a continuation of the Vicus Tuscus, and up
which the sacred processions used to come to the Aventine.

_In the valley below us was_


"Tarquinius also built the great circus which lies between the
Aventine and Palatine Hills. He was the first who erected covered
seats round it; for till then the spectators stood on scaffolds
supported by poles. And he divided the places between the thirty
curiæ. He assigned to each curia a particular part, so that every
spectator was seated in the place that belonged to him. This work also
became in time one of the most beautiful and most admirable structures
in Rome. The circus is 3½ stadia in length, and 400 feet in breadth.
Round the two greater sides, and one of the lesser, runs a canal, 10
feet deep and as many broad, to receive the water; behind the canal,
porticoes are erected three stories high, of which the lowest has
stone seats, as in the theatres, raised a little above the level of
the ground, and the two upper porticoes have wooden seats. The two
larger porticoes are connected into one, and joined together by means
of the lesser, and, meeting, form a semicircular figure; so that all
three constitute one amphitheatral portico of 8 stadia, capable of
receiving one hundred and fifty thousand persons. The other lesser
side is left uncovered, and contains several arched starting-places
for the horses, which are all opened at one signal. On the outside of
the circus runs another portico of one story, which has shops in it,
and habitations over them. In this portico are entrances and ascents
for the spectators at every shop, contrived in such a manner that so
many thousand persons may go in and out without any molestation"
(Dionysius, iii. 69).

This description is evidently of the building as it stood in the days
of Augustus. Founded by Tarquin, it was extended by Cæsar, and kept in
repair and embellished by Augustus, Claudius, Domitian, Trajan,
Constantine, and Theodoric. (See Suetonius, "Cæsar," xxxix.; Pliny,
xxxv. 24, xxxvi. 15; Livy, vii. 20, i. 35.)

The valley in which it stood was originally called the Murzian Valley.
Here Romulus gave the games when the Romans ran off with the Sabine
women. The stream of the Almo runs through it: this branch of the Almo
was taken from the main stream, about six miles from Rome, and made to
pass through the Circus to supply with water the canal made by Cæsar
which separated the spectators from the arena.

Remains of the curve can be seen at the Cœlian end, and some
fragments of seats exist under the Palatine.

_Crossing the site of the Circus, on our right, standing back, is the_


underneath which is part of two massive tufa towers of the wall of the
kings that surrounded the two hills; and part of the old street called
after Julius Cæsar which passed by the side of the Circus, facing on
to which are a row of shops, behind which are some remains of the
seats of the Circus Maximus.


"was a grotto consecrated to Pan, the most ancient and the most
honoured of all the Arcadian gods. It was surrounded by a wood, and is
contiguous to the Palatine buildings, and is to be seen in the way
that leads to the Circus. Near it stands a temple in which a statue is
placed representing a wolf suckling two children,--they are in brass,
and of ancient workmanship" (Dionysius, i. 76). This grotto, with the
water still flowing out of the rock, still exists under the street at
the corner of the Via de Cerchi, but it is not at present accessible.
It was discovered by Mr. J. H. Parker, C.B., in 1869; and he found
remains of the work of Augustus, who says, in the "Mon. Ancyr.,"
"_Lupercal ... feci._" We have been into it, and it exactly answers
the description of Dionysius.

_From the church we follow the_ VIA DI S. TEODORO. _A decline on the
left leads to_


a double arch of considerable magnitude, believed to be that of the
four-headed Janus, the appearance of the structure involuntarily
recalling the celebrated sanctuary of that god in the Forum, with
which, however, it must not be confounded. There is no authority for
calling it the Arch of Janus; we do not know what it was called by the
Romans. In the sides of the piers which support the arch are twelve
niches, apparently intended for the reception of statues. In one of
these is a doorway leading up a narrow staircase to a chamber in the
interior of the building, probably used as a place for business.

This singular building, which in its present condition has a somewhat
quaint appearance, has evidently been intended for a place of sale.
Being erected over the spot where the two roads intersecting the
cattle-market met, it seems to have marked the central point of the
traffic carried on in this space.

It is of white marble, old material re-used, and probably of the time
of Constantine. Domitian erected several arches to Janus, but this is
not good enough for his time.

_By its side is_


We are indebted to this inconsiderable little monument--stated in the
inscription to have been raised by the silversmiths and cattle-dealers
to the imperial family of Septimius Severus--for the important
information that the Forum Boarium, mentioned in the legends of the
foundation of Rome, was situated on this spot. The sculptures with
which the arch is ornamented are much defaced, and hidden from view on
one side by the Church of S. Giorgio. Those in the interior represent
sacrifices offered by the emperor and his sons. On one of the side
piers is the figure of Hercules, evidently having reference to this
locality, which was consecrated to him, and in the neighbourhood of
which he had actually erected the Ara Maxima. At the back is a
representation of a ploughman with a yoke of oxen, also in allusion
to the myths, the different threads of which all unite at this point.

On the inside _right_ are the effigies of Septimius and his wife
Julia; and opposite them were Caracalla and Geta, but the latter has
been cut out, leaving only his brother. On the pilasters, the capitals
of which are Roman, we discover among various field-badges the
portraits of the emperor, his wife, and one of his sons; that of Geta
having been obliterated after his murder, by the order of Caracalla.

It is rather a misnomer to call this an arch, as it has a flat top.

_Adjoining is the_


founded in the fourth century. The architrave above the portico (of
the thirteenth century) is where Rienzi affixed his proclamation
announcing, "In a short time the Romans will return to their ancient
good estate." It is seldom opened, except on its festival, January
20th. The aisles are formed by sixteen different columns, no doubt the
plunder of some other building. It is dedicated to the patron saint of
England, a piece of whose banner is preserved beneath the altar.

_Proceeding down the low brick archway opposite brings us to_


originally made by Tarquinius Superbus in the year 138 of Rome, or 530
years before Christ: part of the actual construction appears to be
original and of that time. It is built of the larger blocks of tufa,
and has a round-headed vault. The German theory is, that this great
drain was originally open at the top, and not vaulted over till the
time of Camillus, after the capture of Veii in the war with the
Etruscans; but the construction does not agree with this. The
additional branch of the Cloaca made by Agrippa to carry off the water
from his thermæ near the Pantheon (to supply which the Aqua Virgo was
made), is of brick, after the fashion of his time. This can be seen at
the junction near the Church of S. Giorgio in Velabro or the Janus
Quadrifrons. Several natural streams of water are collected in this
great drain, and still run through it. One, from the Quirinal, runs
straight between the Palatine and the Capitol; a second comes from the
eastern side of the Palatine and the Arch of Titus; a third runs from
the Capitol, the spring being in the lower chamber of the Prison of S.
Peter. All these met near the Forum Romanum, and formed the Lake of
Curtius, which was drained by the great Cloaca. But this drain is not
so low down as the lake is deep; consequently there is always a swamp
there, even now, after much rain. Two other streams fall into it near
the Janus,--one from the direction of the Pantheon; the other from the
western side of the Palatine, coming out of the cave called the
Lupercal, where the water gushes out from under the arch with great
force. This is called the Aqua Argentina, or the Silvery Water, either
from its beautiful clearness, or because it went through the
silversmiths' quarter.

_Regaining the_ VIA S. TEODORO, _turn left, under the Palatine. On the
right is the_


founded by Adrian I., 772-795, and rebuilt, A.D. 1451, by Nicholas V.
This church, from being round, has been called after all sorts of
temples, but there is nothing whatever to show that it was once a
pagan temple. It belongs to a burial fraternity. Over the altar is a
mosaic, of the time of Adrian I., of our Saviour between SS. Peter and
Paul. The Roman women bring their children here every Thursday morning
to be blessed, after their recovery from sickness. It is a very
ancient custom, and may have originated from the sick people who used
to resort to the Fountain of Juturna to drink the waters.


[14] Warm baths which were destined for public use only.





_From the Piazza del Popolo we take the left-hand street, the Via
Babuino._ The new English church of All Saints is on the right side.
At No. 89, _on the left_, lived Valadier.

_We now reach_


This square may be considered as the centre of the English and
Americans in Rome. Here they come for most of their requirements, and
here a great many live. At No. 1, _the corner_, is the well-known
Piale's library and reading-room, the most extensive in Rome, where
one may find any information that he requires as to what is going on
in the city, and, through the newspapers, what is passing at home.
Monti, the poet, lived at No. 9. Mr. Hooker's American Bank is No. 20.
Shelley lived at No. 25; and Keats at No. 26, the right-hand corner
house, by the steps, where an inscription has lately been put up. This
square once formed part of "an artificial lake made by Domitian for
the representation of naval fights. The fleets were as numerous as
those employed in real engagements" (Suetonius, "Dom." 4).

  [Illustration: FOUNTAIN OF TREVI.]

The principal objects are the fountain LA BARCACCIA, by Bernini, at
the foot of the Spanish Stairs. It is here that the model and flower
girls most do congregate. The column of the IMMACULATE CONCEPTION,
found in the Campo Marzo, is supported by statues of Moses, David,
Isaiah, and Ezekiel. Its summit is crowned by a statue of the Virgin,
in bronze, designed by Poletti. It was erected in 1854. _Beyond_ is
the Collegio di Propaganda Fide, founded in 1662 by Gregory XV.
_Taking the streets on the right of the Propaganda_, VIAS PROPAGANDA
_and_ S. ANDREA DELLE FRATTE, _then the_ VIA DEL BUFALO _on the right,
turning into the_ VIA POLI _on the left, brings us to_


"which draws its precious water from a source far beyond the walls,
whence it flows hitherward through old subterranean aqueducts, and
sparkles forth as pure as the virgin who first led Agrippa to its
well-spring by her father's door. It is a great palace front, with
niches and many bas-reliefs, out of which looks Agrippa's legendary
virgin and several of the allegoric sisterhood; while at its base
appears Neptune with his floundering steeds, and Tritons blowing their
horns, and other artificial fantasies. At the foot of the palatial
façade is strewn, with careful art and ordered irregularity, a broad
and broken heap of massive rock. Over the central precipice the water
falls in a semicircular cascade; and from a hundred crevices, on all
sides, snowy jets gush up and streams spout out of the mouths and
nostrils of stone monsters; while other rivulets that had run wild
come leaping from one rude step to another, over stones that are mossy
and ferns planted by nature. Finally, the water, tumbling, sparkling,
and dashing, with never-ceasing murmur, pours itself into a great
marble-brimmed reservoir. The tradition is, that by taking a parting
draught, and throwing a sou in, the traveller will return to Rome,
whatever obstacles seem to beset his path." Such is Hawthorne's
description of this beautiful fountain.

_Turn to the right_, Via Muratte, the first on the left, Via della
Vergine, brings us into the Piazza SS. Apostoli. _On the right_ is the
Balestra Palace, where Prince Charlie died in 1788. _On the left is_


Several fragments are built into the portico, the most interesting of
which is the bas-relief of the eagle which once decorated Cæsar's
Forum. The church has been entirely redecorated, and is now reopened.
In the course of the alterations, in 1873, the bodies of SS. Philip
and James the Less were found enclosed in a marble sarcophagus. A new
extensive crypt, decorated after the style of the catacombs, has been
made to receive these remains.

The heart of Maria Clementina Sobieski is preserved here.

_Just beyond is_


_Open Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday, from 11 till 3. Entry, 17 Via Archi
della Pilotta._

The pictures have the names of the artists on them. In the first room
we enter, the collection consists of Colonna portraits; then three
rooms of tapestries, and some ancient draped statues, and a pretty
statue of a dancing girl, "Niobe."

FIRST ROOM.--Early schools. Holy Family, by Luca Longhi; Boy in a Red
Cap, by Giovanni Sanzio, Raphael's father; Crucifixion, by Giacomo di
Avanzi; Moses, by Guercino.

SECOND ROOM.--Throne room.

THIRD ROOM.--Guardian Angel, by Guercino; Peasant Eating, by Annibale
Carraci,--true to life; S. Jerome, by Lo Spagna; Portrait, by Paul
Veronese. _Ceiling_, Apotheosis of Martin V., by Lutti and Battoni.

FOURTH ROOM.--Landscapes, by Poussin; Battle-pieces, by Wouvermans;
Sea-shore, by Rosa; Cabinet, with reliefs in ivory; Subjects from the
Sistine Chapel.

THE GREAT HALL.--Ornamented with statues and mirrors. Assumption, by
Rubens; Roman Charity, by Subtermans; Ecce Homo, by Albano; Narcissus,
by Tintoretto; Venus, by Vasari; Rape of the Sabines, by Ghirlandajo;
S. Peter, Madonna, and Child, by Palma Vecchio; Venus and Cupid, by
Bronzino; another, by Salviati; Madonna Liberating a Child from the
Demon, by Nicolo da Poligno.

SIXTH ROOM.--The _Colonna Bellica_, surmounted by a statue of Mars,
with low reliefs round the column.

In the Via dei Fornari, _on the right_, at No. 21, lived Michael

_Crossing the new Via Nazionale, either of the streets on the sides of
the Prefettura leads into_


This was the largest and grandest of all the fora, being built to one
design by the celebrated architect Apollodorus of Damascus (Dion
Cassius). No author has given us any detailed account of the beautiful
group of buildings that formed this forum, but what passages there are
tend to show its magnificence. There was first of all an open space,
or the forum proper, surrounded by a double row of shops, one above
the other. In the centre of this space was the colossal equestrian
statue of the emperor (Marcellinus, xvi. 10). Beyond this, crossing
the whole width of the forum, was the basilica called, after the
family name of the emperor, Ulpia. Beyond this was the celebrated
pillar, behind which stood the Temple of Trajan, with the libraries on
either side. The portion excavated is only a small piece of the whole,
which extends under the houses all round. The size of the basilica can
be made out from the gray granite pillars which once supported the
roof. It was sometimes called the Hall of Liberty, from the slaves
receiving their freedom here.


A magnificent marble pillar, the pedestal of which concealed the
chamber where the ashes of the emperor were deposited. The bas-reliefs
on the basement are among the most beautiful decorations of ancient or
modern times; they represent the arms taken from the Dacians, against
whom Trajan had made several campaigns. It marks the height of the
Quirinal Hill, cut away to make the open space for the Forum of Trajan
in which it stands. A series of bas-reliefs, representing the Dacian
war, forms a spiral round the shaft of the pillar. Erected A.D. 114.
It is 127 feet high, including the base, and is surmounted by a statue
of S. Peter, 11 feet high, placed there by Sixtus V. in the sixteenth

The pillar is composed of thirty-four blocks of white marble. The
reliefs are two feet high at the bottom, and gradually increase in
size as they go upwards, thus making the figures at the top and bottom
seem of equal size. There are two thousand five hundred figures,
besides animals and other details.

Dion Cassius (Xiphilin, Trajan) says: "He erected in the forum that
bears his name a vast pillar, as well to serve as a receptacle for his
bones as to be a monument of his magnificence to posterity. In good
earnest, it was a piece of work that could not be finished without
extraordinary expense, because it was necessary to cut through a
mountain as high as the pillar, to make the level for the forum."

  [Illustration: PLAN OF THE FORUM OF TRAJAN.]

"The bones of Trajan were put into the pillar we have mentioned; and,
to reverence his memory, sports were celebrated for several years
after, which were called Parthica" (Dion Cassius, "Hadrian").

"Trajan, of all the emperors, was buried within the city. His bones,
being put up in a golden urn, lie in the forum which he built, under a
pillar, whose height is 144 feet, Roman" (Eutropius).

_Going down the_ VIA ALESSANDRINA, _which commences at the left-hand
corner of the above forum, as we come into it, take the first turning
on the left_, VIA CAMPO CARLEO. _The gate on the left leads to the_
double row of shops that surrounded the Forum of Trajan. _Custodi at
the Forum. Following this street, we pass the_ medieval Torre del
Grillo _on our left. On our right_ are massive remains of the SECOND
WALL OF ROME. (See page xviii.) _Turning to the right under the arch,
we are within_


"The reason of his building a new forum was the vast increase in the
population, and the number of cases to be tried in the courts; for
which the two already existing not affording sufficient space, it was
thought necessary to have a third. He placed statues of the great
Roman generals in both the porticoes of his forum. In building his
forum, he restricted himself in the site, not presuming to compel the
owners of the neighbouring houses to give up their property"
(Suetonius, "Augustus," lvi.).

It was restored by the Emperor Hadrian (Spartianus).


the Avenger. Vowed by Augustus at the battle of Philippi, B.C. 42, and
erected by him in the centre of his new forum.

Three beautiful pillars, and part of the wall of the cella and of the
roof of the vestibule, still exist near the Arco dei Pantani, which
owes its medieval name to the marshes caused by the water collecting
in this neighbourhood. They stand upon a substruction only excavated a
few years ago, and present one of the finest specimens extant of a
temple, all the essential parts of which have been preserved. The
gigantic walls of rectangular blocks of tufa, into which the
travertine arch already mentioned was introduced for the purpose of
forming a communication with the other part of the city, are most
imposing, and formed part of the second wall of Rome and the boundary
of the Forum of Augustus.

  [Illustration: TRAJAN'S FORUM.]

"The Temple of Mars was built in fulfilment of a vow made during the
war of Philippi, undertaken by him to avenge his (adopted) father's
murder. He ordained that the senate should always assemble there when
they met to deliberate respecting wars and triumphs; that thence
should be despatched all those who were sent into the provinces in the
command of armies; and that in it those who returned victorious from
the wars should lodge the trophies of their triumphs" (Suetonius,
"Augustus," xxix.).

"The Emperor Augustus, being consul with Caninius Gallus, gratified
the eyes and minds of the Roman people, on the occasion of dedicating
the Temple to Mars, with the most magnificent spectacles of gladiators
and a sea-fight" (Velleius Paterculus, ii. 100).

By entering the stonemason's yard, _opposite_ the temple, we can see
the travertine niches built by Augustus up against the wall of the
kings, to receive the statues which he put up in the porticoes.

_Passing down this street, Via Bonella, in the direction of the Roman
Forum, on our right, No. 44, green door, is_


_Open every day from 9 till 3. Fee, half a franc._ The principal
pictures are:--

_In the Large Hall._--11. Bacchus and Ariadne, by Poussin. 13. Virgin
and Child, by Vandyck. S. Jerome, a sketch, by Titian. 22. Thirty-five
sea-pieces, by Vernet. 40. Vanity, by P. Veronese. 49. Vanity, by
Titian. 54. A Seaport, by Claude.

_Room of Portraits._--A portrait of Virginie Le Brun, by herself;
Iris, by Head; and a portrait of H.R.H. the late Duke of Sussex, in
the costume of an officer of a Highland Regiment. 238. The skull shown
in S. Luca belonged to Don Desiderio de Adintorlo, founder, in 1542,
of the Society of the Virtuosi.

_Saloon of Raphael._--Bacchus and Ariadne, by Guido Reni. 28. Susanna,
by P. Veronese. 29. Calista and Nymphs, by Titian. 22. Venus and
Cupid, by Guercino. 25. Tarquin and Lucretia, by Guido Cagnacci. 26.
The Galatea, copied by Giulio Romano. 27. Fortune, by Guido Reni. 15.
S. Luke Painting the Virgin, by Raphael. A Boy, fresco, by Raphael
(very beautiful and life-like), formerly in a room of the Vatican.

_Resuming our ramble up the Via Bonella, we take the_ VIA
ALESSANDRINA, _on the right; and the_ VIA CROCE BIANCA, _on the left._
This was the site of


"Domitian erected a forum, which is now called Nerva's" (Suetonius,
"Domitian," v.). It was known by several names, being called after
Domitian, because he commenced it; Nerva, because he finished it;
Pervium, because it was a thoroughfare; Pallas and Minerva, from the
temple that stood in it, and which was destroyed by Pope Paul V. to
build the fountain on the Janiculum; it was also called Transitorium,
because a street passed through it for traffic. The only remains left
are, _on the right_,


the prettiest bit of ruin in Rome, consisting of Corinthian columns,
which support an architrave adorned with a frieze, and divided by
ressauts, and an attic above. On the attic is a colossal figure of
Minerva, represented in relief as the patroness of labour; on the
architrave the goddess appears engaged in instructing young girls in
various female occupations, and in punishing the insolence of Arachne,
who had ventured to compete with her in the labours of the loom.

The wall upon which this altar stands was also a piece of the wall of
the kings: in it was evidently a gateway, which was filled in when the
wall was utilized for the altar. In the yard of the large new house
opposite remains of a tower can be seen, probably the tower called
Turris Mamilia. (See Festus.)

_Leaving this ruin on our right, we proceed up the Via Croce Bianca,
into the_ VIA MADONNA DEI MONTI, _the district of the Suburra._
(_Carriages must proceed straight on down the Via di Torre di Conti,
and turn up the first street to the left._)


The TORRE DI CONTI, _on the right_, is a massive tower of the middle
ages, built as a fortress, and supposed to stand on the site of the
Temple of the Earth. "Lenæus, the grammarian, opened a school in the
Carinæ, near the Temple of the Earth, where stood the house of the
Pompeys" (Suetonius, "Grammarians," xv.). "Tiberius removed from
Pompey's house in the Carinæ" (Suetonius, "Tiberius," xv.). "The house
of Cassius was demolished; and to this day the place remains void,
except that part on which they afterwards built the Temple of the
Earth, which stands in the street leading to the Carinæ" (Dionysius,
viii. 79).

_Going up that street_, we come to some old steps, _on our right_, at
the top of which is the lane that led down from the Carinæ to the
Vicus Cyprius, across which was the Sister's Yoke (Dionysius, iii.

The house at the top of the steps was the


Here Cæsar Borgia, Francesco, Duke of Gandia, and Lucrezia, supped with
their mother Vanozza, on the evening that Cæsar assassinated the duke,
and had his body thrown into the Tiber, where it was afterwards found
by a fisherman, pierced with nine wounds. _The dark archway leads to


(_The Chains of Peter._)

It has three aisles, with twenty Doric columns of Greek marble, and
two of granite, which support the middle arch. On the first altar, to
the right, there is S. Augustin, by Guercino. On the right of the high
altar is the famous statue of MOSES, by MICHAEL ANGELO, rendered
hideous by two horns sticking out from the forehead. Although we read
that Moses was a horny man, it does not follow that he had horns, but
that his flesh was hard like horn. The S. Margherita, in the adjacent
chapel, is by Guercino; the tribune of the high altar was painted by
I. Coppi. The new confessional, built by Pius IX., contains the tomb
of the seven Maccabees. Here also are preserved the chains of S.
Peter. The last altar but one of the other aisle has a S. Sebastian, a
mosaic of the seventh century. In the sacristy there are the
Liberation of S. Peter, by Domenichino; a Holy Family and Faith, of
the school of G. Romano. Guido Reni's Hope was in this church, but it
has been replaced by a copy, the original having been sold to an Irish

_From the front of the church a lane on our left_, VIA DELLA
POLVERIERA, _leads, left_ (_carriage right_), _to the_ VIA LABICANE,
_a short distance up which is the entrance to_


_Entrance through a gate on the left; one of the custodi speaks
English. Fee, one lira; Sundays, free._

"He completed his palace by continuing it from the Palatine to the
Esquiline, calling the building at first only 'The Passage;' but after
it was burned down and rebuilt, 'The Golden House.' Of its
dimensions and furniture it may be sufficient to say this much:--The
porch was so high that there stood in it a colossal statue of himself
120 feet in height; and the space included in it was so ample that it
had triple porticoes a mile in length, and a lake like a sea,
surrounded with buildings which had the appearance of a city. Within
its area were corn-fields, vineyards, pastures, and woods, containing
a vast number of animals of various kinds, both wild and tame. In
other parts it was entirely overlaid with gold, and adorned with
jewels and mother-of-pearl. The supper-rooms were vaulted, and
compartments of the ceilings, inlaid with ivory, were made to revolve
and scatter flowers, while they contained pipes which shed scents upon
the guests. The chief banqueting room was circular, and revolved
perpetually, night and day, in imitation of the motion of the
celestial bodies. Upon the dedication of this magnificent house Nero
said, in approval of it, 'that he had now a dwelling fit for a man'"
(Suetonius, "Nero").


"Nero, dressed like a harper, was at the top of a tower in his palace,
from whence he diverted himself with the sight of the fire" (Dion

On the left of the entrance are the remains of the ORATORIO OF S.
FELICITA, a Christian church of the sixth century. The rooms on the
left of the PASSAGE, substructions formed by Hadrian, are supposed to
have been used as private habitations in the middle ages. On one of
the piers are two snakes (_see below_). At the end of this Passage a
part of the pavement of the HOUSE OF NERO can be seen. LONG CORRIDOR,
penetrated into by Raphael and Giovanni da Udine, who copied the
frescoes for the Vatican. On the vault are some beautiful arabesque
paintings of flowers, birds, and animals; and on the walls two snakes,
with a basin placed between them. Above them is an inscription, now
almost obliterated, telling us that it was the notice equal to our
"Commit no nuisance."


_Retracing our steps_ down the corridor, and crossing some chambers,
we come to the TRICLINIARIUM, or summer banqueting room, with the
winter rooms on each side, having a southern aspect. At the end of
this room there was originally a garden; and in the basin of the
fountain was the porphyry vase now in the circular hall of the Vatican
Museum. Beyond this is the CAVÆDIUM, an open court or garden, from
which the surrounding apartments received their light. It was
surrounded on three sides with columns, and in the centre was a
fountain: it was subsequently occupied by the substruction arches of
the baths. Adjoining is the CORRIDOR OF RHEA SYLVIA, so called from
the fresco representing the conception of Romulus and Remus. In
another room is a representation of Venus and the Doves.


On the Plan, the dark lines show the remains of Nero's Palace, which
was nearly destroyed by the Flavian emperors. The remains left were
used by Hadrian for the underground part of his thermæ; and by
building walls over the courts and gardens he formed a large platform.
The light lines show his work. The circular wall in front supported
the seats for the stadium attached to the baths above. Remains of some
of the large halls of the baths can be seen in the vineyards above the
House of Nero. Some remains of these baths exist under the Church of
S. Martino. These baths are generally ascribed to Titus; but the
construction, _opus reticulatum_, within bands of brick, shows that
they are of the time of Hadrian.

_Turn to the left on coming out. A short way up the road, on the
right, is the entrance to the_


belonging to the Irish Dominicans, of which the late Father Mullooly
was prior, to whose instrumentality we are indebted for the discovery
of the ancient church, and the Temple of Mithras beneath it, under the
present edifice. On some occasions (November 23rd, February 2nd, and
the second Monday in Lent) they are illuminated. Father Mullooly has
written a book on his discoveries; it can be purchased of the
sacristan, and will be found very interesting.

The excavations have been carried out by voluntary subscriptions, and
visitors are expected to make a donation in furtherance of this
object. A book for the names and amounts will be found in the


The usual entrance from the street is by a side door, but the proper
entrance is by a gate with a Gothic canopy of the thirteenth century,
which originally formed part of the earlier basilica, thence through
the atrium and quadriporticus, the only perfect ones of Rome. The
aisles are formed by sixteen ancient pillars of different materials
and orders. In the middle of the nave is the choir (514-22) from the
earlier basilica; on each side are the ambones. The walls are adorned
with Christian emblems, and a monogram of Agios--Holy. The nave is
separated from the high altar by an ancient marble screen. Behind is
the presbytery, which contains an ancient episcopal chair, with the
name of Anastasius, who was titular cardinal of the church in 1108,
engraved upon it. Upon the vault is a mosaic of 1297, representing
Christ on the Cross, from the foot of which issue the four rivers of
Paradise, with shepherds and their flocks, and peacocks. On the face
of the arch is a mosaic of the time of Paschal II.--our Saviour; on
either side two angels, and the emblems of the four evangelists; below
are S. Peter, S. Clement, Jeremiah, S. Paul, S. Lawrence, and Isaiah;
at the bottom, Bethlehem and Jerusalem, with the mystic lamb and
sheep. In the chapel, on the right, the statue of S. John is by
Simone; on the left, the picture of the Virgin is by Conca. The
monument composed of two half-columns, with basket-work capitals and
foliage reliefs, is to Cardinal Venerio, who died in 1479. _To the
left on entering_, in the Chapel of the Passion, are the interesting
frescoes by Masaccio (much spoilt by restoration), representing the
Crucifixion, &c., and events from the lives of SS. Clement and
Catherine. _Outside_ the arch, the Annunciation, and S. Christopher
carrying the infant Christ over a stream; _within_, S. Catherine
forced to Idolatry, Instruction of the King's Daughter in Prison,
Dispute with the Doctors, Miracle of her Deliverance, Martyrdom.
Opposite is the history of S. Clement. _Proceeding into the sacristy_,
which is adorned with paintings of various interesting parts of the
more ancient buildings, _a wide stair conducts to the_


founded on the site of S. Clement's house, it is supposed, in the time
of Constantine. S. Jerome says: "The church built to S. Clement keeps
the memory of his name to this day." So that it must have been erected
before A.D. 400.

An inscription found in the excavations, bearing the name of Pope
Nicholas II., shows that this basilica was perfect in 1061, when
Nicholas died, so that it could not have been destroyed, as some
think, by the earthquake of 896; but it was ruined in 1084, when
Robert Guiscard burned all the public buildings from the Lateran to
the Capitol, when he came to the rescue of Pope Gregory VII.

The ruin seems to have been purposely filled in by the builders of the
upper church, and all the fittings possible removed into the latter,
which, from the nature of its walls, was evidently constructed in
haste, and before 1099, as Paschal II. was elected pope there on
August 13th of that year. The lower church was discovered in 1857,
when Father Mullooly was making some repairs in the church above. It
consists of a nave and two aisles, formed by a line of ancient columns
of various marbles: the space between each column has been built up to
support the foundations of the church above.

In descending, the walls are covered with ancient fragments, and a
small statue of the Good Pastor, found in making the excavations; as
also the two sarcophagi and other fragments in the portico of the
ancient basilica. At the entrance, on the left hand, is a painting of
an ancient female figure, and a male head on the opposite wall; a
little further, on the left, Christ surrounded with Saints, giving his
benediction in the Greek manner; opposite, the Miracle at the Tomb of
S. Clement at Cherson.[15]


                                          IN THE NAME OF THE
      Portrait of S. Clement.             LORD, I, BENO DE RAPIZA,[16]
                                          FOR THE LOVE OF BLESSED
                                          HAD IT PAINTED.

Further along, translation of the relics of S. Clement from the
Vatican to this basilica:--

                                   FOR ALL AGES: MAY THE PEACE
                                   OF THE LORD BE EVER WITH YOU.



_Right, north aisle_, right hand wall, painting of S. Catherine;
further on, in a niche, Virgin and Child, with two females, SS.
Catherine and Euphemia; below, Abraham and Isaac; at the top, Head of
our Lord; beyond, a Council; the next, above the steps of the tribune,
Christ in the act of giving the Benediction; just beyond, an


Passing into the _nave_, in the right-hand corner, is a fresco of our
Saviour releasing Adam from Limbo. On the left wall, looking towards
the modern altar (erected beneath the one in the church above, under
which are placed the remains of S. Ignatius and S. Clement. Behind
this a door leads to a space, recently excavated, where a portion of
the first church, once covered with marble slabs, may be seen),
Installation of S. Clement by S. Peter; Clement performing Mass; the
Miracle of Sisinius; and Men drawing a Column--all on one pier.

                                          WITH YOU.


      CARVONCELLE.         ALBERTEL.         COSMARIS.       SISINIUS.

     WITH A               DRAW IT UP.     YOU DESERVE TO     _Pute_ DRAW
     LEVER.                               DRAW STONES.       IT UP.

On the inside of this pier are S. Antoninus, and Daniel in the Lions'
Den. On the same wall, higher up, Life, Death, and Recognition of S.
Alexius; above which is our Lord seated, attended by Gabriel, Michael,
Clement, and Nicholas, holding a book.

                       STRONG AS THE BONDS OF DEATH.

                                        GIVE YOU REST.


The arabesque ornament at the bottom is very beautiful. Beyond this,
at the side of the pier, are S. Giles and S. Blasius; at the end of
the wall, S. Prosperius, the Maries at the Sepulchre, Christ releasing
Adam and Eve from Hades, the Supper at Cana, the Crucifixion; and just
beyond, the Assumption (eighth century).

       MOST HOLY                                SANCTUS VITUS
       OF ROME.


Passing into the _south or left aisle_, on the wall, at this end, is a
painting representing the Miracle of S. Libertinus, and one


At the west end of this aisle, over the stairs, are the remains of a
painting of the Crucifixion of S. Peter; and in the right-hand
corner, S. Cyril's parting audience with Michael III. In the opposite
corner is a baptism of some barbarian by S. Cyril, beyond which the
projecting brickwork marks the site of the tomb of S. Cyril.

The nave is formed by a line of seven columns in their original
places, in a wall of _débris_ built to support the church above. These
columns are of beautiful marbles, and stand upon a wall of the
imperial period, which has been traced for 98 feet.

At the west end of the north aisle a flight of narrow steps leads down
to a passage, 25 inches wide, formed between massive walls: that on
the right is brick of the imperial period, forming the wall of S.
Clement's house; that on the left, tufa, of the kingly period, being
part of the walls of Servius Tullius. This has been heightened by a
travertine wall of the republican period. The tufa wall has been
traced for 500 feet, and the travertine wall upon it for 410 feet.
About 20 feet is still buried, showing how low ancient Rome was in
this valley. At the end of this passage another flight of steps leads
up into the south aisle. In the centre of the passage is an entrance
through the imperial wall (now blocked up on account of the water)


reached from the south aisle by a broad flight of twenty steps. The
Roman Catholic Church has faithfully handed down the tradition that S.
Clement erected an oratory in his own house, between the Cœlian and
Esquiline Hills, which must have been built, as we have seen, close to
the walls of the city--a not unusual thing as the city grew. Several
chambers remain to be excavated at some future time. A long passage
has been cleared out, in which was found a doorway bricked up. This
was broken through, and found to be a


the Persian sun-god, whose mysteries, Plutarch tells us, were first
brought to Rome by the soldiers of Pompey the Great. "They celebrated
certain secret mysteries, among which those of Mithras continue to
this day, being originally instituted by them B.C. 67." This worship
was finally extirpated in A.D. 394. The temple was found filled up
with earth as though done purposely. It is 30 by 20 feet, and has a
vaulted roof, covered with mosaics, in which are several windows. The
continual dripping of water has destroyed the colour, but the mosaics
can still be distinctly seen. The altar on which the sacrifices were
made was found near the two square pilasters in the passage outside,
and a statue of Mithras was found in three pieces. The altar has been
placed within the temple. It represents an allegorical picture of the
sun's influence upon the earth: A bull represents the earth; Mithras
is plunging a sword into the bull's right shoulder; a dog and a
serpent are emblems of animals nourished by the earth through the
influence of the sun; a scorpion gnawing the scrotum is autumn
bringing decay; youths with torches, erect and depressed on either
side, represent the rising and the setting of the sun. Under
Elagabalus (218-22) and Aurelian (270-75) the worship of the sun was
the national religion of the Romans, and its votaries tried in vain to
establish it, to resist the rapid spread of the worship of the only
true God through Jesus Christ his Son.

_From S. Clement's we proceed up the hill Via di S. Giovanni in
Laterano._ Near the top, on the right, is the villa of Mr. Warrington
Wood, the English sculptor, in whose grounds there is a tomb of the
republic. Beyond is the square of the Lateran, in which is the highest


in Rome, which the inscription informs us was thirty-six years in

From Marcellinus (xvii. 4), we get many interesting details of its
voyage and erection:--

"And because the flatterers, who were continually whispering into the
ear of Constantine, kept always affirming that when Augustus
Octavianus had brought two obelisks from Heliopolis, a city of Egypt,
one of which was placed in the Circus Maximus, and the other in the
Campus Martius, he yet did not venture to touch or move this one,
which has just been brought to Rome, being alarmed at the greatness of
such a task,--I would have those who do not know the truth learn that
the ancient emperor, though he moved several obelisks, left this one
untouched because it was especially dedicated to the sun-god, and was
set up within the precincts of his magnificent temple, which it was
impious to profane, and of which it was the most conspicuous ornament.

"But Constantine deeming that a consideration of no importance, had it
torn up from its place, and thinking rightly that he should not be
offering any insult to religion if he removed a splendid work from
some other temple to dedicate it to the gods at Rome, which is the
temple of the whole world, he let it lie on the ground for some time
while arrangements for its removal were being prepared. And when it
had been carried down the Nile, and landed at Alexandria, a ship of
burden hitherto unexampled, requiring three hundred rowers to propel
it, was built to receive it.

"And when these preparations were made, and after the aforenamed
emperor had died, the enterprise began to cool. However, after a time
it was at last put on board ship, and conveyed over sea and up the
stream of the Tiber, which seemed as it were frightened lest its own
winding waters should hardly be equal to conveying a present from the
almost unknown Nile to the walls which itself cherished. At last the
obelisk reached the village of Alexandria, three miles from the city,
and then it was placed in a cradle, and drawn slowly on, and brought
through the Ostia gate and the public fish-market to the Circus

"The only work remaining to be done was to raise it, which was
generally believed to be hardly if at all practicable. And vast beams
having been raised on end in a most dangerous manner, so that they
looked like a grove of machines, long ropes of huge size were fastened
to them, darkening the very sky with their density, as they formed a
web of innumerable threads; and into them the great stone itself,
covered over as it was with elements of writing, was bound, and
gradually raised into the empty air, and long suspended, many
thousands of men turning it round and round like a millstone, till it
was at last placed in the middle of the square. On it was placed a
brazen sphere, made brighter with plates of gold; and as that was
immediately afterwards struck by lightning and destroyed, a brazen
figure like a torch was placed on it, also plated with gold, to look
as if the torch were fully lighted.

"But the writing which is engraven on the old obelisk in the Circus we
have set forth below in Greek characters, following in this the work
of Hermapion:--


"The first line, beginning on the south side, bears this
interpretation:--'The Sun to Ramestes the King--I have given to thee
to reign with joy over the whole earth; to thee whom the Sun and
Apollo love; to thee, the mighty truth-loving son of Heron, the
god-born ruler of the habitable earth, whom the Sun has chosen above
all men, the valiant, warlike King Ramestes, under whose power, by
his valour and might, the whole world is placed. The King Ramestes,
the immortal son of the Sun.'

"The second line is:--'The mighty Apollo, who takes his stand upon
truth, the lord of the diadem, he who has honoured Egypt by becoming
its master, adorning Heliopolis, and having created the rest of the
world, and having greatly honoured the gods who have their shrines in
the city of the Sun, whom the Sun loves.'

"The third line:--'The mighty Apollo, the all-brilliant son of the
Sun, whom the Sun chose above all others, and to whom the valiant Mars
gave gifts. Thou whose good fortune abideth for ever; thou whom Ammon
loves; thou who hast filled the temple of the Phœnix with good
things; thou to whom the gods have given long life. Apollo, the mighty
son of Heron; Ramestes, the king of the world, who has defended Egypt,
having subdued the foreign enemy; whom the Sun loves; to whom the gods
have given long life--the master of the world--the immortal Ramestes.'

"Another second line:--'The Sun, the great God, the master of heaven.
I have given unto thee a life free from satiety. Apollo, the mighty
master of the diadem; to whom nothing is comparable; to whom the lord
of Egypt has erected many statues in this kingdom, and has made the
city of Heliopolis as brilliant as the Sun himself, the master of
heaven,--the son of the Sun, the king living for ever, has co-operated
in the completion of this work.'

"A third line:--'I, the Sun, the god, the master of heaven, have given
to Ramestes the king might and authority over all; whom Apollo, the
truth-lover, the master of time, and Vulcan, the father of the gods,
hath chosen above others by reason of his courage; the all-rejoicing
king, the son of the Sun, and beloved by the Sun.'

"The first line looking towards the east:--'The great god of
Heliopolis, the mighty Apollo, who dwelleth in Heaven, the son of
Heron, whom the Sun hath guided, whom the gods have honoured. He who
ruleth over all the earth, whom the Sun hath chosen before all others.
The king, valiant by the favour of Mars, whom Ammon loveth, and the
all-shining god, who hath chosen him as a king for everlasting.'"

_On our right of the obelisk is_


said to have been erected by Constantine. Eight columns of porphyry
support a cornice, upon which are eight smaller columns; these sustain
the cupola. The font is of green basalt. A tradition says Constantine
was baptized here, though Socrates says he received Christian baptism
at Nicomedia just before his death. Gibbon says Rienzi bathed in the
font on the night before he was made a knight. The two side chapels,
dedicated respectively to John the Baptist and John the Evangelist,
are said to have been made out of the house of Constantine. The
mosaics are of the fifth century, after the arabesque paintings in the
Baths of Titus. _Adjoining_ is the Oratory of S. Venantius, in which
is a mosaic of the seventh century--our Saviour in the act of giving
his blessing. Two grand porphyry columns, supporting an entablature,
formed the portico of the baptistery, opposite side to where we
entered. There is a mosaic vault of the sixteenth century in the left
chapel of this portico, and in the opposite one a good S. Philip Neri
by Guido.

_On our left of the obelisk is_


From the time of Constantine to 1377 this was the palace of the popes.
In 1843 Gregory XVI. founded the museum. The original palace was
destroyed by fire in the time of Clement V., and the present pile was
built from the designs of Fontana in the pontificate of Sixtus V. It
was subsequently used for many years as an hospital.

_On our left is the entrance to_


_Ring the bell on the right in the passage, if the custodian is not at
the door. The custodian will conduct you over, if desired; and he can
give a good account of the objects of interest. It is open every day
from 9 till 3, and is comprised in sixteen rooms. Fee, half a franc
each person. The principal objects are as follows_:--

FIRST ROOM.--Bas-reliefs: Procession of Lictors and Senators, with
figure of Trajan, found in his forum; Dares and Entellus, boxers, a
fragment, found near the Arch of Gallienus; part of a sarcophagus,
with the history of Mars and Rhea Sylvia, Diana and Endymion; a Circus
Race; Helen and Paris; Soldier and Wife Parting; Leucothea feeding the
Infant Bacchus. Bust of Marcus Aurelius; pavement mosaic of Boxers,
from Baths of Caracalla.

SECOND ROOM.--Portions brought from the Forum of Trajan, representing
arabesques, children, chimeras, griffins.

FOURTH ROOM.--Faun of Praxiteles, copy; bust of the Young Tiberius;
bas-reliefs, Medea and Pelias's Daughters; statue of Mars; Germanicus;
sepulchral cippi and bas-reliefs, found on the Via Appia.

FIFTH ROOM.--Stag in gray marble; a Cow; Mithraic group; mutilated
figure of a lynx; bust of Scipio; an altar with bas-reliefs, one
representing cock-fighting.

SIXTH ROOM.--Statues of members of the family of Augustus, found at
Cervetri, 1839: Drusus, Agrippina the elder, and Livia, full figures;
Tiberius and Claudius, sitting; Germanicus and Britannicus, in armour;
Head of Augustus. Inscriptions to the members of the family; a
bas-relief of an altar; recumbent statues of Silenus.

SEVENTH ROOM.--Statue of Sophocles, the best object in the museum; a
Dancing Faun; female draped figure; Apollino; sepulchral inscriptions,
from the Columbaria of the Vigna Codini (see page 283), to Musicus
Scuranus of Lyons, a tourist to Rome, who died there, with the names
of the persons of his suite, on jamb of door.

EIGHTH ROOM.--Statue of Neptune; curious bas-reliefs, a man surrounded
with masks; Cupid and Mars.

NINTH ROOM.--Fragments from the Forum.

TENTH ROOM.--Bas-reliefs from the tomb of the Aterii, representing a
temple, with a crane moved by a tread-wheel for hoisting stones.
_Opposite_, monuments in Rome, the Arch of Isis, Colosseum, Arch of
Titus, and the Temple of Jupiter Stator. (See page 95.) Cupid and

ELEVENTH ROOM.--Bas-reliefs of Boxers; Diana Multimammæ.

TWELFTH ROOM.--Three large sarcophagi; Niobe and her Children; Orestes
and the Furies; festoons and masks. A very interesting well-head, not
unlike that represented on a denarius of Scribonus Lebo, and which
stood in the Forum Romanum.

THIRTEENTH ROOM.--Busts of the Furia family, found on the Via Appia;
statue by Dogmatius; alto-relief of Ulpia Epigoni; fragments of a
colossal porphyry statue; two fluted spiral columns of pavonazzetto

FOURTEENTH ROOM.--Unfinished statue of a captive barbarian, with the
measuring points still in; mosaic masks, with the name of the artist,
HERACLITUS, in Greek. On each side is a distinct mosaic representing
an unswept floor after a banquet, such as Pliny (xxxvi. 60) ascribes
to Sosus, "who laid, at Pergamus, the mosaic pavement known as the
'Asarotos Œcos,' from the fact that he there represented, in small
squares of different colours, the remnants of a banquet lying upon the
pavement, and other things which are usually swept away with the
broom, they having all the appearance of being left there by
accident." In a corner of this room is a terra-cotta siphon.

FIFTEENTH ROOM.--Objects found at Ostia, in the window-cases, between
a mosaic niche of Silvanus and his dog. _Opposite_ are, Agrippina;
Head of Atys; Woman, unknown.

SIXTEENTH ROOM.--Fragments found at Ostia, in case in window;
sepulchral urns; recumbent statue of Atys; leaden water-pipes. On the
walls are frescoes: a pagan funeral banquet, time of Hadrian; Pluto
carrying off Proserpine; Orpheus; Ops giving Saturn stones to swallow
instead of his sons; a guinea-fowl and fruit. There is also a very
beautiful bronze statuette of one of the Three Fates.


_Entrance to the right in the court. Fee, half a franc._

Founded by Pius IX., and composed of Christian antiquities. There are
many bas-reliefs, fragments, inscriptions, mosaics, &c., worthy of

The CORRIDOR, _upstairs_, is decorated with Christian inscriptions
from the Catacombs. The oldest is A.D. 238. They relate to persons,
dogmas, rites, and ranks of the clergy of the early Christians.

From the end of the corridor on the left two rooms open out,
ornamented with copies of frescoes found in the Catacombs.

_Sometimes the entrance is made from the court through the_

LONG HALL.--Sitting statue of S. Hippolitus, found near S. Lorenzo
fuori le mura. On the chair is the Paschal Calendar in Greek, composed
A.D. 223, and a list of Hippolitus's writings.

LANDING OF THE STAIRS.--Bas-relief of Elijah ascending to heaven. This
hall is decorated with a number of sarcophagi of the early Christians,
found in the early churches and catacombs. They are placed so as to
illustrate how the tombs were situated in the vestibules of the

_From the Loggia upstairs we enter the_


FIRST ROOM, or Mosaic Hall.--This beautiful mosaic was found in the
Baths of Caracalla, and represents full length figures and busts of
boxers, each occupying a separate panel, some having the names upon
them. The walls are decorated with scenes from the life of Constantine
the Great.

SECOND ROOM.--Early medieval frescoes from old churches. Frescoes cut
from the walls of the Church of S. Agnese fuori le mura. Paintings of
prophets and birds, from the crypt of the Church of S. Nicolò in

THIRD ROOM.--_We commence with the left-hand wall immediately on
entering the different rooms._ Crowning the Madonna, by Lippi; S.
Thomas receiving the Belt from the Virgin, by Benezoto Gozzoli; Scenes
from Life of the Virgin, by the same; S. Antonio, by Antonio di
Murano; Madonna, by Carlo Crivelli, 1482; Virgin and four Saints, by
Bartolo di Murano, 1481; Assumption, SS. Lawrence and Benedict,
Catherine and Gertrude--all three by Cola di Amatrice, 1515; S.
Jerome, by Santis, _in tempera_; mosaic flooring from the Palazzo
Sorra on the Via Nazionale.

FOURTH ROOM.--Holy Family, by Andrea del Sarto; Annunciation, by
Francia; Virgin and Saints in fresco, by Botticelli; Crucifixion, a
fresco; Baptism of Christ, by Cæsar da Sesto; a panel, by Perugino;
copy of the Transfiguration; copy of Giulio Romano's Coronation;
Deposition, by Luca Signorelli; S. Stephen, a sketch, by Giulio

_From here we enter into two off-rooms containing_ statues, busts, and
reliefs, representing North American Indian life, by Pettrich.

FIFTH ROOM.--Madonna of the Belt, by Spagna; the Virgin with S. John
and S. Jerome, by Marko Palmezzano, 1500; three tapestries; S. Peter,
by Fra Bartolomeo; Sixtus V., by Domenichino; S. Paul, by Bartolomeo;
Madonna and Saints, by Palmezzano; Sixtus V. as Cardinal Peretti, by
Sassoferrato; mythological subject, by Paul Veronese; a Pagan
Sacrifice, by Caravaggio.

SIXTH ROOM.--Cartoons of Volterra; Annunciation, by Arpino; Christ and
the Tribute Money, by Caravaggio; the Supper at Emmaus, by Caravaggio;
copy of Guercino's Assumption, original in Russia; copy of
Domenichino's S. Andrew; "The First Gentleman in Europe," by Lawrence;
S. Thomas, by Cammuccini; a Head, by Vandyck.

SEVENTH ROOM.--Cartoons of Maratta's, for S. Peter's dome; a Greek
Baptism, by Nocchi, 1840. The last room contains plaster casts of
ancient statues.

_On the left coming out of the Museum is the back entrance to the
Church of S. John. Enter here, and pass out to the front._ The bronze
statue on the left of the back portico is that of Henry of Navarre.


     "The mother and head of the churches of the city and of the

This church was founded by Constantine, and took the name of _Lateran_
from its occupying the site of the Palace of Plautus Lateranus, the
senator, who suffered under Nero. After having existed for ten
centuries, it was almost entirely destroyed by fire in 1308. It was
rebuilt by Clement V., and embellished by other popes. Clement XII.
had the façade executed from the design of Galilei. It is of
travertine, with four large columns and six pilasters of the
Composite order, which support a cornice surmounted by a balustrade,
on which are placed colossal statues of Jesus and several saints.
Between the columns and the pilasters there are five balconies; that
in the middle was used for the papal benedictions. Beneath the
balconies are as many entrances, which lead into the magnificent
covered portico (_loggiato_), decorated with twenty-four pilasters of
the Composite order. In this portico is placed the colossal statue of
Constantine found in his baths. Notice the beautiful bronze doors
which came from the Senate House in the Forum.

_The interior_ is divided into a nave and two aisles by four ranges of
pilasters. The architect was Borromini, who covered the ancient
columns which divide the middle aisles from the side ones with
pilasters, forming five arches, corresponding to an equal number of
chapels. Each of these pilasters is decorated, on the side of the
middle aisle, by two fluted pilasters, supporting a cornice which goes
round the church. Between these there are twelve niches, each
ornamented by two columns of verd-antique, containing the statues of
the apostles. The Corsini chapel, _first chapel on left of front
entry_, is one of the richest in Rome. It was executed by Clement XII.
from the design of Galilei, in honour of S. Andrew Corsini. The
porphyry sarcophagus of Clement XII. was brought from the portico of
the Pantheon, and is supposed to have contained the remains of
Agrippa. The subterranean chapel contains the remains of the Corsini
family. On the altar is the beautiful statue "Piety," said to be by
Bernini or Montanti.

This splendid church contains many chapels, decorated with paintings
and statues worthy of attention. On the second pier of the right aisle
is Giotto's Boniface VIII.

The Gothic Tabernacle above the high altar, containing the heads of
Paul and Peter, is a fine piece of workmanship of the fourteenth
century, restored by Pius IX. In front of the Confession is a bronze
tomb of Martin V., by Simone, Donatello's brother. Since 1876 the
transepts and the apse have been closed to the public; but on
Ascension day 1886, with grand religious ceremonies, they were again
thrown open to public view, _having been restored_. The frescoes in
the transept, representing scenes in the life of Constantine by
artists of the seventeenth century, have been touched up; the gold
work has been regilded, and the appearance of newness has been
imparted to the whole. At the end of the right transept, looking
towards the tribunal, is the grand organ and a banner captured from
the Saracens. The left transept contains the altar of the Sacrament
by Paolo Olivieri, the four gilt bronze columns being, it is said,
from the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, made by Augustus out of the
beaks of the fleet of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Above the altar is
the finest fresco in the basilica, the Ascension by Arpino, 1600. To
the right is the Colonna chapel. The altar-piece is by Arpino, the
roof by Croce, whilst the portrait of Martin V. is by S. Gaetano. In
the recent restorations the old choir, tribunal, and the corridor of
Leo I., 440-61, which surrounded it, have been destroyed, and a new
one erected sixty-seven feet longer than the old one--a very
unnecessary piece of work and vandalism. The church was quite large
enough for any ceremonies that take place in it. The whole praise of
_this restoration_ is claimed by Leo XIII.; but it is only just to
Pius IX. to record that he initiated and left money to continue the
work, although he is ignored in the laudations. In the four corners,
above the spring of the arches, are doctors of the Eastern and Roman
Churches--Ambrose, Augustine, Chrysostom, and Anastasius. On the left,
above organ, the Commission submitting the Plans to Leo XIII.; on the
right, Innocent III. approving the Doctrine of Transubstantiation
(1215)--both the work of Francesco Grandi. The mosaic on the vault of
the apse belonged to the old apse, and has been considerably
_restored_ in moving it from one to the other. It is the work of
Jacopo da Turrita and Gaddo Gaddi (1292). At the top is the Almighty's
head surrounded by angels; from the Father proceeds the Holy Spirit (a
dove) to the Cross (which represents the Son) erected on the mountain
from which flow the four rivers of paradise round the heavenly
Jerusalem, the gates of which are guarded by an angel. Two harts and
sheep drink of the waters; saints are on either side; the Virgin has
her hand on the head of Nicholas IV., who had the mosaic done. The
apostles below, between the windows, are by Jacopo di Camerino, of the
same period. The base of the tribunal is inlaid marble imitation
cosimati work of the thirteenth century, as is also the Bishop's
Throne, reached by a flight of steps. The Bishop of Rome takes his
title from S. John's Lateran, hence this church has precedence over
all others. The Bishop of Rome is by right thereof Papa, Pope, or
Father of the Roman Church. Since the death of the last bishop, Pius
IX., February 20, 1878, the chair has been vacant; for some fanciful
reason Leo XIII. has never taken possession of his bishopric.

_The Cloisters_ of the twelfth century are interesting, and contain
many curious architectural remains.

Pope Leo XIII. intends to establish in the Lateran Palace a
university, under Cardinal Mazzella, for the scientific and literary
study of the clergy.

_Passing out into the piazza at the front, on the right are_


PORTA S. GIOVANNI, opening on to the Via Nova Appia, _and near by, to
the right_, the walled-up ancient PORTA ASINARIA, _best seen from the
outside_, through which Belisarius entered Rome, and which the
Isaurian guard betrayed to Totila, December 17, 546. The open we are
now rambling over was anciently called the Mirror. _On the left_ is
the end wall of the dining-hall of the ancient Palace of the Lateran,
on which is a copy of an ancient mosaic of the time of Leo III. _In a
building behind this is the_ SCALA SANTA.


On the right of the Scala Santa, parallel with the Via Tasso, the
Barracks of the Equites Singulares, or Horse Guards of the Emperors,
of the time of Hadrian, were discovered in March 1886. A noble hall 90
feet long, containing many inscriptions, raised by the discharged
veterans, was discovered; also fragments of statues, and one nearly
perfect of the youthful Bacchus, a work that we may class with the
school of Praxiteles.


consists of twenty-eight marble steps, which, it is supposed, our Lord
came down after his mock coronation in the judgment-hall of Pilate.
The blood from his bleeding brow marked certain of the steps, and
these are kissed by the ascending faithful, the knees of whom so wore
away the marble that it is now covered with a wooden staircase, in
which through slits the marble is seen. They are said to have been
brought from Jerusalem (where it formed the stairs to Pilate's house)
by the mother of Constantine. By ascending these stairs on the knees,
a thousand years' indulgence is secured to those who believe it.
Dickens said, "The sight was ridiculous in the absurd incidents
inseparable from it--to see one man with an umbrella unlawfully hoist
himself with it from stair to stair, and a demure old lady of
fifty-five, looking back every now and then to assure herself that her
legs were properly disposed." On the feast of the Assumption, the
sacred picture "Acheirotopeton" (made without hands) is exposed to
view. This picture is said to have been drawn in outline by S. Luke,
and before he commenced to fill the colours in, it was found finished
by invisible hands.

  [Illustration: THE SCALA SANTA.]

From the front of the church a charming prospect of the Campagna is

To the right of the stairs is the Kiss of Judas; on the left, Ecce
Homo, by Giacometti. At the left of the hall, Christ Bound to the
Pillar, _opposite_ Pius IX.

Martin Luther had made the ascent half-way, when he suddenly stood up,
turned about, and walked down. He said that a voice had whispered to
him, "The just shall live by faith." The Sancta Sanctorum at the top
is only open to the Pope, who alone can officiate, and on the day
before Palm Sunday to the canons of the Lateran for adoration. The
stairs can only be ascended on the knees. _Behind is_


_Open on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Permission to be had at the Russian
Consulate, Piazza Feoli Corso._

The grounds are tastefully laid out, and are intersected by the arches
of Nero's aqueduct. From the roof of the casino, to which the gardener
will conduct you (fee, half a franc), a beautiful view may be enjoyed
at sunset, looking far away over the Campagna. In the grounds is the
columbaria of the family of T. Claudius Vitalis, an architect.

_Returning, first turning on the left_, passing over the open space
skirting under the walls, the curve is part of


(_Amphitheatre of the Camp_,)

of the time of Caligula, A.D. 39, and incorporated by Aurelian into
his wall. It is of beautiful brickwork; the columns, of the Corinthian
order, are best seen from outside the wall. It was built near the
camp, that the soldiers might have their games without going into the
city and mixing with the people.

Suetonius ("Caligula," xxxi.) says, "He began an amphitheatre near the
septa or barracks of the soldiers." Dion Cassius records, "That on one
occasion, when the Emperor Caligula was in want of criminals for
combats, he seized a number of citizens, and after tearing out their
tongues that they might not complain, he had them brought into the
arena, where they were compelled to fight."

_Adjoining is the_


erected by S. Helena. The interior has three aisles divided by
pilasters, and with eight columns of Egyptian granite. The high altar
is adorned by four columns of breccia-corallina, which support the
canopy. Under the altar is an ancient urn, which contains the bodies
of the holy martyrs Anastasio and Cesario. The frescoes of the vault
of the tribune are by Pinturicchio. The subterranean chapel of S.
Helena is decorated with paintings by Pomarancio, and with mosaics by
B. Peruzzi. Ladies are not allowed to enter this chapel, except on the
saint's day. The church was erected in


which was built by Sextus Varius, father of Elagabalus. This was
afterwards turned into the Palace of Helena, near which were her
baths, remains of which exist in the adjoining vineyards; also of the
reservoir; which remains are called by some the TEMPLE OF VENUS AND
CUPID, from a statue found there. A Venus with Cupid at her feet,
supposed to be the likeness of Salustia Barbia Orbiana, the wife of
Alexander Severus, from an inscription on the pedestal saying that it
was dedicated to Venus by one Salustia.

In the "Excerpta Valesiana de Odac" (lxix.) it is mentioned as "the
palace called Sessorium." In the buildings at the _back_ of the church
remains of a large palace can be traced. It is said by tradition that
it took its name from a basilica which stood here where the cases of
the slaves were tried. Another is, that here was the Prætorium or
headquarters of the Prætorian prefect of the city. "It is said that
Maximin, the prefect, had a small cord always suspended from a remote
window of the Prætorium, the end of which had a loop which was easily
drawn tight, by means of which he received secret information"
(Marcellinus, xxviii. 7). The ruin to the left of the church has all
the appearance of a basilica.

_Returning past the Lateran, a lane by the side of Mr. Warrington
Wood's, via_ S. STEFANO ROTONDO, following the aqueduct, leads to the


supposed to be formed from the remains of


A coin representing this market agrees with the architecture of the
church. "Then Nero celebrated a feast by way of thanksgiving for his
preservation, and dedicated the market-place where meat is sold" (Dion

The church is open all day on the 26th of December, being the saint's
day. _On other days, ring the bell at the door on the right._ It is
133 feet in diameter. The outer circle consists of thirty-six columns,
and the inner of twenty. There was originally another outer circle:
this was destroyed, and the space between the columns of the second
circle, present outer, filled in to make the walls of the church. In
the centre two Corinthian columns support a cross wall. The tabernacle
contains the relics of S. Stephen. The frescoes by Pomarancio on the
walls, representing martyrdoms, are simply disgusting. In the
vestibule is an ancient episcopal chair, from which S. Gregory read
his fourth homily.

_Left from the church, and left again, we enter the_ PIAZZA DI

_In the piazza_ is a small marble ship, placed here by Leo X., near
where it was found, this place having been the camp of the sailors.
_The church opposite is that of_


or S. Maria in Dominica, only open on the second Sunday in Lent. It
was restored by Leo X. from designs by Raphael. The Doric portico is
by Michael Angelo. It has eighteen fine columns of gray granite. The
mosaics in the tribune are of the ninth century. The frieze over the
windows of the nave is by Giulio Romano and Pierino.

_To the right of the church_ are remains of the Monastery of


founded by Innocent III. as the headquarters of the Trinitarians or
Redemptorists, whose mission was to rescue blacks and whites from
slavery. The mosaic by Cosmati, A.D. 1260, is the coat of arms of the
order. Just beyond is a Gothic arch, part of their buildings. _Beyond
this_ the arch spanning the road is the


Built of travertine, and erected, as the inscription informs us, by
the above consuls, A.D. 10. It was used by Nero to support the
aqueduct to his reservoir. Here is the hermitage of S. Giovanni di
Matha, 1213, who founded the Redemptorists.

_Through the arch on the left is the entrance to_


the residence of Baron Hoffmann, who kindly admits visitors on their
leaving their cards at the iron gate. Many fragments of antiquity are
spread about the grounds, from which there are some fine views.
Remains have been found of a Roman fire-station of the fifth cohort of
Vigili, whose names are on the pedestals dedicated by them to Marcus


was erected by Duke Mattei, but only a very small part of it is
Egyptian. The fragment was found in making the present sloping way up
to the Capitol, and presented by the magistrates to the duke. It is
the only one not re-erected by a pope. It is said that when the
architect was directing its elevation, he forgot to take his hand off
the pedestal, and that the block was lowered on his hand, which was
amputated, the hand being left between the blocks.

At the corner of the grounds, towards the Baths of Caracalla, under a
medieval building, is the FOUNTAIN OF EGERIA. (See page 275.)

_Opposite the entrance to the villa is the_


whence Cardinal Howard takes his title. It was erected in the fourth
century on the site where the martyrdom of the above saints took
place, by Pammachus, the friend of S. Jerome. They were officers of
Constantine's household, and were put to death by Julian. The medieval
portico is formed by eight marble and granite pillars. The aisles are
formed by sixteen ancient columns; the pavement is of _opus
Alexandrinum_; the stone surrounded by a railing is said to be that on
which the martyrs suffered death. The outside of the medieval apse is

_To the left of the church, and beneath the adjoining Passionist
Convent_ (_ring at the door on the right_), are the remains of some
solid unfinished stone arches, supposed to be


Seutonius tells us that Vespasian erected the Temple "of Claudius on
the Cœlian Mount which had been begun by Agrippina, but almost
entirely demolished by Nero."

Frontinus (xx. 76) tells us that the arches of Nero ended at the
Temple of Claudius. Now we have been following these arches for some
distance, and they end here.

_Below the temple was_


or menagerie for the Colosseum. The arches have been laterally closed,
leaving small apertures of communication. The vivarium consists of
eight immense arches two stories high, formed from blocks of
travertine. The substructions occupy a large extent of the convent
gardens. A massive portion supports the elegant medieval campanile, of
the thirteenth century, one of the best preserved in Rome. _Beneath
this_ are some subterranean chambers hewn out of the tufa, supposed to


a prison for condemned gladiators. The younger Pliny says "it was a
cruel receptacle for those adjudged worthy of torture."

The gardens of the convent are built upon the top of


Suetonius tells us "he made a reservoir like unto a sea," which no
doubt was afterwards used to supply the Colosseum with water for the
naval combats. The quadrata of the Cœlian is artificially formed,
and was evidently the great nymphæum connected with the Golden House.
The water was brought from the Claudian Aqueduct at the Porta Maggiore
upon arches, known as Nero's Arches, which ended near the Temple of
Claudius, and these arches end in the gardens now supported by the
walls forming the quadrata. The niches and hemicyclia on the east
side, with their channels of supply behind, were evidently fountains,
and the west side was probably similar in character, some of the
specuses still existing. The front towards the Colosseum formed a
grand cascade, the water falling into the reservoirs, the ruins of
which we see in advance of the north wall of the quadrata, and at a
lower level; from these it poured into the great stagnum or lake
below, now occupied by the Colosseum. Signor Alberto Cassio found
specuses all around the top, and a euripus or channel at the base; and
stalactites and _opus signinum_ can still be seen there.

_Turning to the right_ we pass under some medieval arches--flying
buttresses--to support the church. _On the left_ are some remains of
the house of Gregory; and, _on the right_, the wood of the Cœlian.
_This hill was the ancient Clivus Scauri. To the left_ the steps lead
up to


whence Cardinal Manning takes his title. It is built on the site of
the house of Gregory the Great, and was erected in the seventh
century. Its interior is embellished with sixteen granite columns. The
painting above the altar is by Sacchi, and the _predella_ beneath by
Luca Signorelli. In a small side-chapel on the right is an ancient
marble chair, and in a glass case numerous relics of various saints
_Crossing the atrium_, in which is a monument to Sir Edward Carne,
envoy from Henry VIII., _we come to_ the three detached chapels of--

S. SILVIA, which contains a beautiful fresco of the Father, with
angels playing on instruments, by Guido Reni. It is built on the site
of the house of S. Gregory, remains of which can be seen behind the

S. ANDREW, containing the rival frescoes of Guido Reni and
Domenichino--S. Andrew adoring the cross on his way to execution, and
the Flagellation of S. Andrew.

S. BARBARA, containing the marble table on which S. Gregory feasted
every morning twelve poor pilgrims. On one occasion an angel is said
to have honoured them with his presence. The statue of the saint was
begun by Michael Angelo, and finished by his pupil, Niccolo Cordieri.

Between the church and the chapels is a massive piece of tufa wall,
supposed to have been part of the fortifications of the Cœlian Hill
when it was a separate fortress.


In the wood in front of S. Gregorio, on the right going towards the
Arch of Constantine, is the new City Museum, containing many objects
of high historical interest arranged in chronological order.


[15] The inscriptions are translated and placed on the page to show
their relative positions on the frescoes.

[16] See page 282.





_From the Piazza del Popolo, a sloping, winding road leads up to_ the
favourite promenade of the Romans and Forestieri, who stroll and drive
here every day, and listen to a military band by which the place is
enlivened in the afternoons. _Ascending_, its terraces are
interspersed with fountains and statues, and there is a fine large
bas-relief on the wall opposite the two columnæ rostratæ adorned with
the prows of ships. The name of the hill is derived from the Pincii
family, whose estates were upon it towards the close of the empire. It
was formerly known as the Hill of Gardens, from those of Lucullus,
which passed to Valerius Asiaticus, and were coveted by Messalina. It
abounds in walks and shady nooks, interspersed with fountains and the
busts of Italia's great men. The side farthest from the city
overlooks the Villa Borghese. At the extreme corner is a fragment of
the old wall of Sylla--Muro Torto. From the terrace the scene below,
in the piazza, is quite a study:--beyond is the winding Tiber and its
round fortress of S. Angelo, the roof of the Pantheon, the columns of
Aurelius and Trajan, the Capitol and Milizie Towers, and the Quirinal
Palace; whilst between Monti Mario and the Janiculum is the world's
cathedral, with its vast dome towering high above all: this dome is
best seen at a distance, where the eye can embrace its full
proportions, for immediate proximity dwarfs its immensity.

_In the centre of the grounds is_


which has on it the inscription ANTONINUS OSIRIS ORACLE (Utterer of
truth). It was brought by Hadrian from Egypt, and erected by himself
and his wife Sabina to his favourite Antinoüs, in the Varianus Circus,
amidst which ruins, near S. Croce in Gerusalemme, outside the walls,
it was found.

_Passing out of the grounds by the road that runs parallel to the
city, on our left is_


or Villa Medici, _open every day from 8 till 12, and from 3 till
dusk_. The gardens are tastefully laid out, and several fine views may
be obtained from them. The MUSEUM OF CASTS (of statues not in Rome)
will repay a visit.

_Proceeding up the avenue, just beyond, on the left, is the_


erected by Charles VIII. of France. Visitors should attend vespers
here, the nuns singing choral service; it commences half an hour
before Ave Maria. Over the altar of the side-chapel, in entering, is a
beautiful Descent from the Cross, the masterpiece of Daniele da


was found in the gardens of Sallust, and placed here by Pius VI. in
1789. It is 48 feet high without the pedestal, and is supposed to have
been brought to Rome by Hadrian. It is thought by some to be only a
copy of the original in Egypt. Marcellinus says it stood in the
gardens of Sallust.

At No. 9 Piazza Trinità dei Monti, Poussin lived; and Zuccari lived at
64 Via Sistina, close by. Beyond, the Via Cappo la Casa runs out to
the right: adjoining the Church of S. Giuseppe is the New Museum of
Industrial Art. Open every day from 9 till 3; fee, 50 centesimi. _By
the Via Sistina we reach the_


It has in the centre a beautiful fountain, by Bernini, with four
dolphins supporting a shell, in which is a Triton; it throws water to
a great height. _Proceeding up the Via delle Quattro Fontane, on the
left is the_


(_Palazzo Barberini._)

_Open every day from 12 till 4. Catalogues are lent for the use of

It contains paintings by the first masters. The statue to Thorwaldsen,
in the garden, was lately erected by Mr. Wolff, Thorwaldsen's pupil.
The library is open from 9 till 2 on Thursdays.

FIRST ROOM.--Fresco on vault, Triumph of Glory, by Cortona; 16. Joseph
and Potiphar's Wife, by Beliverti; 21. S. Cecilia, by Lanfranco.

SECOND ROOM.--48. Madonna, by Francia; 63. His Daughter, by Raphael
Mengs; 74. Adam and Eve, by Domenichino.

THIRD ROOM.--73. The Slave, by Palma Vecchio; 81. Portrait, called the
Stepmother of Beatrice Cenci (?) by Caravaggio; 82. The Fornarina, by
Raphael; 83. Lucrezia Cenci, the mother of Beatrice Cenci (?), by
Scipione Gaetani; 85. The so-called Beatrice Cenci, by Guido. This is
nothing more or less than Guido's model, and the same face can be seen
in the Aurora, and in the fresco at S. Gregory's. It could not
possibly be Beatrice, for Guido did not come to Rome till sixteen
years after her death. 86. Death of Germanicus, by Poussin; 90. Holy
Family, by Sarto.

The inscription on the right side of the palace records the campaign
of Claudius in Britain.

_Proceeding up the_ QUATTRO FONTANE, at the top of the hill are four
river gods acting as fountains. The church at the left corner of Via
del Quirinale is S. Carlo, its space being equal to the area of one of
the piers which supports the dome of S. Peter's. _Turning down this
street_, the church on the left is


on the site of the Temple of Quirinus (Romulus). It contains the tomb
of Emanuele IV. of Sardinia, who abdicated in 1802, and died a monk in
1818. The church is a little gem.

_At the end of the street is the square_


In the centre is a fountain, with granite basin 26 feet in diameter,
which formerly stood in the Forum; also two beautiful colossal
horse-tamers in marble, supposed to be Castor and Pollux by some, by
others, Alexander and Bucephalus. The Latin inscriptions state one of
these colossi to be the work of Phidias, the other of Praxiteles. Both
were presented to Nero by Tiridates, king of Armenia. They once
ornamented the Baths of Constantine, and have never been buried. The
whole is surmounted by an Egyptian obelisk found near the Mausoleum of
Augustus. _On the left_ is the king's


It numbers some splendid apartments, containing many works of art; and
the gardens are of considerable extent. It is the residence of King
Humbert, and is accessible to the public; but should the royal family
be at home, the private apartments are not shown; otherwise it may be
readily viewed on presenting your card at the entrance. Guido Reni's
beautiful picture of the Annunciation is in the small private chapel,
as also the frescoes of the life of the Virgin, by Albani. The casino
in the gardens is decorated with frescoes by Oritonti, Battoni, and
Paolini. The palace was founded by Gregory XIII. in the year 1574, and
completed by Clement X., several intermediate popes having done much
for its extension and embellishment, notably Clement VIII. Urban VIII.
enclosed and added the present garden, and Gregory XVI. and Pius IX.
made the palace what it is--that is to say, one of the most sumptuous
and attractive palaces in Italy. Few of our readers will require to be
informed that the Quirinal was the place appointed for the conclave
when the new Pope was elected, and that Pope Pius IX. was the last
successor of S. Peter who was proclaimed from the balcony overhanging
the principal entrance.

_On the left, beyond the fountain, within the high wall, is the_


_Open on Wednesdays and Saturdays from 9 till 3; entrance upstairs to
left of gate._

It is celebrated for its casino, containing Guido Reni's Aurora; it
also contains many pictures, ancient sculptures, and fragments of
frescoes, from the Baths of Constantine, on a portion of the site of
which it is built. The principal paintings in the palace are:--

CENTRE ROOM.--Head of Christ, by Jesse; Vanity, by Titian; Mater
Doloroso, by Sassoferrato.

LEFT ROOM.--Our Saviour Bearing the Cross, by Daniele da Volterra;
Head of Goliath, by Domenichino; the Deposition, a sketch by Rubens;
Perseus Rescuing Andromeda, by Guido Reni.

RIGHT ROOM.--Diana and Venus, by Lawrence Lotto; Adam and Eve, by
Domenichino; Samson's Death, by Caracci.

_Opposite is the entrance to_


They contain several antiques and remains of the cornice of Aurelian's
Temple of the Sun. Looking down a chasm, we see remains of the Baths
of Constantine. Under the cypress trees are several sarcophagi, and
the stem of the pine tree planted on the day Rienzi died. There is
also a fine piece of the tufa wall that made the seven hills one city.


_To the right from the gardens, the_ VIA QUIRINALE brings us to the
new Via Nazionale. Where this winds round is a piece of a wall of the
kings. Plutarch ("Numa," xiv.) and Solinus (i. 21) tell us that Numa
lived upon the Quirinal, where he built an arx (Hieron. i. 298),
called, after the Capitoline Hill was so named, CAPITOLIUM VETUS. In
it was a temple to Jupiter (Varro, "L. L." v.; Martial, v. 22). In
those days a tongue jutted out here towards the Capitoline Hill, and
this piece of wall bars the way to it, so it is probably a piece of
the arx that defended the tongue.

The lofty brick tower is


within the precincts of the Convent of S. Catherina di Sienna,
supposed to have been built upon a cella formerly occupied by Trajan's
soldiers. This tower is called by the Roman _valets de place_ "Nero's
Tower," from his having sat there and fiddled whilst Rome was burning.
Now, as this tower was built in 1210 by Pandolfo della Suburra, the
senator, it could not have been the tower Nero fiddled on. Besides,
Suetonius says, "This fire he [Nero] beheld from a tower in the house
of Mæcenas," which was on the Esquiline, where remains have been
recently found.

The VIA PANISPERNA, to the left, descends into the valley between the
Quirinal and Viminal hills. In the valley _to the left_ of the street


where the heart of O'Connell is deposited. _Keeping straight on, up
the slope of the Viminal_, VIA PANISPERNA, at the top of the hill is


who is said to have been martyred under Claudius II., A.D. 269, having
been cooked to death on a gridiron. Here are also the relics of S.
Crispin and S. Crispinian. The church is on the site of the baths of
the daughter-in-law of Constantine, Olympia. The two seated statues,
Menander and Posidippus, in the Vatican, were found here, and were for
a long time worshipped as saints.

_Close by is the Church of_ S. LORENZO IN FONTE, said to be over the
site of the prison of S. Lawrence, and a fountain is shown where he
baptized his converts.

_Descending_ the slope of the Viminal, we strike the VIA URBANA, on
the line of the ancient VICUS PATRICIUS.

_Proceeding up the Via Urbana, on the left is the_


(_S. Pudenziana._)

The church stands back from the street, with a handsome new front,
restored by Cardinal Buonaparte. Cardinal Wiseman was titular cardinal
of this church. _It is only open at a very early hour--on May 19th all
day, and on the third Tuesday in Lent. The custodian is to be found at
161, next door to the church._ A flight of steps leads down to the
church. The door is formed with ancient spiral columns, and eighth
century Christian reliefs; above are some modern frescoes of Peter,
Pudens, Pudentiana, and Praxedes. There is a picturesque campanile.

The present church was formed out of the great hall of the Baths of
Novatus after A.D. 108; the baths being erected in the time of
Domitian adjoining the house of Pudens, who founded in his house a
Christian oratory before A.D. 96. This oratory exists below the
present church, which was formed by Bishop Pius, who died in A.D. 157.
The church below is the oldest Christian church in the world, and
existed in the time of S. Paul, who, writing to the Romans (xvi. 13),
says, "Salute Rufus chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine." This
Rufus was Aulus Rufus Pudens, who held an official position in the
southern province of Britain, and married Gladys (Claudia), the
daughter of Caractacus, the British chief. He was likewise
half-brother of S. Paul, and the friend of Martial the poet. The
apostle, writing to Timothy from Rome (2 Tim. iv. 21), says, "Eubulus
greeteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the
brethren." Linus was the second son of Caractacus, and was the first
bishop of the Church of Rome ordained by Paul.

From Cyllinus, the eldest son of Caractacus, descended Constantine the
Great, born and bred, and proclaimed emperor, in Britain. Thus the
first Bishop of Rome and the first Christian emperor were undoubtedly
Britons of royal British blood.

In the tribune of the church is a beautiful mosaic of the time of
Adrian I., A.D. 772-795, who built the apse inside the wall of the
large hall. The old wall can be seen on the outside, the mosaic
representing our Saviour on a throne, with four of the apostles on
each side, and Pudentia and Praxedes behind; the paintings above are
by Pomarancio. In the left aisle is a well, containing, it is said,
remains of the martyrs--some remains are shown. At the end of this
aisle is the chapel of S. Peter; the mosaic pavement belonged to the
baths. On the left is a copy of the inscription from the catacomb of
S. Priscilla: "BENE MERENTI CORNELIÆ PUDENZIANÆ." Under the altar is a
sponge said to have been used by the two sisters to collect the blood
of the martyrs. Above is a relief, by Giacomo della Porta, of Peter
receiving the keys from Christ. On the left of this aisle opens the
Chapel of the Gaetani--rich in marbles. The roof is in mosaic,
representing the four Evangelists, and over the door are
representations of the sisters Pudentia and Praxedes collecting the
blood of martyrs. They are by Rossetto, designed by F. Zuccari (1600).
The altar-piece, by Paolo Olivieri, is the Adoration of the Magi. _For
a more detailed account of this interesting church, see our_
"Footsteps of S. Paul in Rome."

Retracing our way down the Via Urbana, we come to where the Via di S.
Lucia in Selci goes off at an angle to the left. Here was


With our face towards the angle, it will be noticed that the Via S.
Lucia divides the Esquiline Hill into two spurs: that on our _left_
was called the CISPIUS, that on our _right_ the OPPIUS. The Via
Leonina Suburra, at our back, was the ancient Vicus Cyprius; the point
of the angle being its summit; the Via S. Lucia was the Clivus Urbius.
Up this latter street, on the right, an ascent, the ancient Clivus
Pullius, leads to S. Martino a Monti. "Tarquinius Superbus lived on
the Esquiline, above the Clivus Pullius, at the Fagutal Grove."
"Servius Tullius lived above the Clivus Urbius" (Solinus, i. 25).

Having thus fixed the topography, we shall see how Livy's account of
the murder and impiety (i. 48) agrees with it. "Servius Tullius had
arrived at the top of the Vicus Cyprius, when he was overtaken and
slain by some sent after him by Tarquinius. Tullia, in returning home
from the Forum, had arrived at the top of the Vicus Cyprius, where the
Temple of Diana lately stood. She was just _turning to the right_ to
ascend the Clivus Urbius, which led to the top of the Esquiline Hill,
when the charioteer stopped and showed her her father's dead body
lying across the street; but she bade him drive over the dead body,
and arrived home bespattered with her father's blood. From this
unnatural deed the name of the street was changed to Vicus Sceleratus,
the wicked street." (See Dionysius iv. 39.)

_From here follow the Via Urbana, turn to the right up the_ VIA S.
MARIA MAGGIORE _to the church, which we enter at the back, and pass


In the foreground is an Egyptian obelisk 63 feet high. The church was
founded A.D. 352. It is 120 yards long by 50 wide. Its columns are of
the Ionic and Corinthian orders. The interior is of three aisles, and
has thirty-six Ionian columns of white marble, from the Villa of
Hadrian at Tivoli. The high altar is formed of a large urn of
porphyry, covered by a slab of marble, which is supported by four
angels in gilt bronze. The canopy, erected by Benedict XIV., is
supported by four columns of porphyry, surrounded by gilt palms. The
four angels in marble were sculptured by P. Bracci. Under the high
altar is the beautiful Confession, done by Vespignani, by order of
Pius IX., in 1863, in which is preserved the relic of the cradle of
the Saviour, and the bodies of S. Matthew and other saints. Here the
late Pope was to be buried; but he would not allow his successor to
ask leave of the Italian government, burial inside the walls being
prohibited, and in his will he directed that his body should be
interred in S. Lorenzo outside the walls. The monument is by

The mosaic pictures over the arches on each side are of the fifth
century--a long series of panels of Scripture subjects, the historical
books of the Old Testament.


The Arch of Triumph over the altar is of the same period. Those on the
vault of the tribune are of the thirteenth century. On the loggia,
over the front entrance, is another very fine mosaic picture of the
fourteenth century. _On the left of the high altar is the_


The altar-piece is of jasper; the painting of the Virgin and Child is
said to be by S. Luke. Above is the bronze bas-relief representing the
miracle of the snow which fell in August A.D. 352 upon the exact space
occupied by the basilica. The frescoes are by Guido, Lanfranco,
Arpino, and Cigoli.

The monuments of Paul V. and Clement VIII. are composed of beautiful
bas-reliefs representing scenes in their lives.

_Opposite is the_


erected by, and containing the tomb of, Sixtus V. It was lately
restored by Pius IX., who was to have had his temporary resting-place
here, behind the altar. The altar is a representation of the tomb of
our Saviour at Jerusalem, and is a splendid piece of workmanship.
Beneath it is preserved part of the manger. Opposite the lower altar
is a statue of S. Gaetano, by Bernini. The frescoes of the dome,
representing the hosts of heaven, are beautifully executed by Podesti.
The monument to Sixtus V. is by Valsoldo; that to Paul V. by L. de
Sarzana. The bas-reliefs represent historical subjects of the two

_Leaving the church by the end opposite to that by which we entered_,
we find ourselves in the piazza, which contains a handsome column,
taken from the Basilica of Constantine by Paul V. It is surmounted by
a figure in bronze representing the Virgin. The column is forty-seven
feet high, without the base and capital. _On the left of the church is


In 1873 the column of an inverted cannon, which stood in front of the
Church of S. Antonio Abate, erected in 1596 to commemorate the
reconciliation of Henry IV. of France to Clement VIII., was removed in
altering the level of the road. At the time of its removal, a majolica
vase was discovered under the base, which on being lately opened was
found to contain a large brass medal, bearing the following


Carolus Anison Galeus, preceptor generalis preceptoriæ ejusdem S.
Antoini prope Albam, terram Petragoricensis Dioceseos et Vicarius in
Prioratu S. Antoini de urbe suis propriis expensis posuit. Sedente
Smo domino nostro Clemente VIII. Pont. Opt. Max. anno domini

The column has now been re-erected, but not inverted, on the east side
of S. Maria Maggiore, and the vase and its coin re-interred beneath

It appears that Louis XIV. caused the original inscription on the base
of the column to be removed, and this has lately been found in the
convent of S. Antony, recording that the column was erected in memory
of the Christian absolution of Henry the Fourth of France and Navarre.

_In front of S. Maria Maggiore, on the right, Via S. Prassede, is_


erected in 823 by Paschal I., and restored by Nicholas V. in 1450, and
more lately by Carlo Borromeo. The main entry from the Via di S.
Martino, consisting of the original portico, sustained by two granite
Ionic columns, is seldom open. The entrance in use is on the side from
the Via S. Praxedes. Sixteen granite columns, with composite capitals,
divide the nave from the aisles. Double flights of steps of _rosso
antico_ lead up to the tribune. On each side of the altar, over choir
gallery, are remarkable columns of white marble, with foliage
ornaments. In the middle of the nave is a so-called well, in which
Praxedes is said to have collected the remains of martyrs.

The MOSAICS are a striking feature of this church. They belong to the
time of Pope Paschal I., and, like those in S. Cecilia and S. Maria in
Navicella, are interesting as illustrating the low depth to which this
art had sunk in Rome at that period.

On the tribunal, our Lord stands on a mound, from which issues the
river of life, JORDANES. On his left are S. Paul, S. Pudentiana, and
S. Zeno; on his right S. Peter, S. Praxedes, and Paschal, the last
carrying a model of the church which he built. He has a square nimbus,
which shows that he was alive when the mosaic was executed. Beneath is
a lamb with a nimbus, and with six sheep on either side, representing
Christ and his apostles; at the extremities, Bethlehem and Jerusalem.
Below is the inscription:--

"_This holy fabric shines decorated with varied metals in honour of
Praxedes, pleasing to our Lord above the heavens, by the care of the
Sovereign Pontiff Paschal, nursling of the apostolic chair; who,
burying many bodies of saints, puts them under these walls, that by
the benefit of their prayers he may merit to enter the gates of

The oil painting of Praxedes is by Maria Dominico Muratori of Bologna.
On the vault of the arch are flowers growing from two pots, and in the
centre the monogram of Paschal. On the face of the tribunal are, in
the centre of the arch, the Lamb, with three candlesticks on one side
and four on the other, allegorical of the seven mysteries; on either
side angels and the emblematical figures of the four apostles; then
the four and twenty elders casting down their golden crowns, as at St.
Paul's. These mosaics are evidently copied from those at SS. Cosmo and
Damiano. On the face of the Arch of Triumph is the vision of S.
John--our Saviour, with angels, Pudentiana, Praxedes, and the
apostles, within the walls of the heavenly Jerusalem, the gates of
which are guarded by angels. Other angels approach leading groups of
the faithful, below whom are the martyrs with their palms. On the
vault of this arch are mosaics similar to those of the tribunal.

The sacristy in the right aisle contains a Crucifixion by the
Florentine artist Augustino Campelli, 1581, and a Flagellation by
Giulio Romano. The second chapel contains Christ Bearing the Cross, by
F. Zucchero, and on the roof the Ascension, Prophets and Sibyls, by
D'Arpino. The next chapel has pictures from the life of Carlo
Borromeo, and his chair and table. By the main door is a slab of
_nero-bianco_ granite, on which S. Praxedes is said to have slept. The
second chapel on the right, coming up, contains the Eternal Father, by
Borgognone, and a Deposition, by Vecchi. The next is the

CHAPEL OF S. ZENO. Two columns of rare gray porphyry support the
sculptured frieze of the doorway, above which are mosaics of heads in
two rows: top row, Christ and the Apostles; second row, Virgin and
Child, with members of the family of Pudens. Over the altar is a piece
of a column, in black and white marble, said to be that to which Jesus
was tied at his flagellation. The mosaic on the roof represents the
Saviour supported by four angels. Over the altar is a Virgin and
Infant, with Pudentiana and Praxedes. Opposite is the Lamb on a Rock,
from which flows a stream, with four harts drinking. Opposite the
entrance is S. John the Baptist and the Virgin. On the left are SS.
Agnes, Pudentiana, and Praxedes, and over the door the throne of God,
with SS. Peter and Paul. On the right are James, Andrew, and John.
Ladies are forbidden to enter this chapel, under pain of
excommunication, except on the first Sunday in Lent, and on Palm

The adjoining chapel contains the tomb of Cardinal Cetivej, 1474, on
which is his recumbent statue, with reliefs of Paul, Peter,
Pudentiana, and Praxedes. The Flagellation is by Francesco Guidi. The
chapel at the end contains the reclining figure of the French Cardinal
Anchera, 1286; signed _Christianus Magister fecit_.

In the crypt, beneath the high altar, are some fourth century
Christian sarcophagi, said to contain Pudentiana, Praxedes, and
others; also a beautiful cosimati altar and a ninth century fresco of
the Madonna and Child.

The custodian will here tell you that there is a subterranean
communication between this crypt and the Catacombs, but that it is now
walled up. This passage exists only in his fertile imagination; the
Catacombs _do not_ communicate with any of the churches in Rome.

The first floor of the tower contains remains of a fresco, time of
Paschal, illustrating the life of S. Anne.

_The Via dello Statuto, on the right of the Via Merulana, contains_


discovered on the right in forming this street in 1884-5. Considerable
remains of a nymphæum were found, and a beautiful ædicula, with its
statues _in situ_; from this some steps led down into a Mithraic cave.
As soon as the building going on here is finished, these remains will
be opened to the public.


Not the least interesting discovery in this neighbourhood was that of
a number of primitive tombs formed with local stone, shaped like the
Campagna huts. It is curious that after upwards of two thousand five
hundred years of burial, the remains of the early inhabitants of the
Palatine, Cœlian, and Quirinal hills, should be brought to light on
the Esquiline, which was the burial-ground till the days of Mæcenas,
and be another confirmation of the truth of early Roman history.


was erected by Symmachus, A.D. 500, on the site of the Church of S.
Silvester, in the time of Constantine. The nave is formed by
twenty-four ancient columns, said to have come from Hadrian's Villa.
The Confession, beneath the high altar, leads to the more ancient
church formed out of part of the Baths of Hadrian. It was here that
the Councils of A.D. 352-356 were held, when the acts of the Council
of Nicæa were condemned and burned. The landscape frescoes in the
upper church are by the brothers Poussin.

_From here we can best visit (No. 10 up the lane, turn round to the


which was a reservoir for the Colosseum. It consists of nine parallel
chambers, communicating with each other by arches placed obliquely, to
prevent the pressure of the water on the walls. Between this and S.
Maria Maggiore was found the Laocoon, now in the Vatican, by Felix de
Freddis, as we are informed by the inscription on his tomb in the
Church of Ara Cœli. It was found in 1506, in the same niche where
Pliny tells us it was admired in his time.

_Returning down the lane into the Via Merulana, turn right. Upon our
left were_


which, we learn from various ancient authors, were situated on the
Esquiline. Horace, speaking of them, says: "Now it is possible to live
on the Esquiline, for it is a healthy spot, especially to wander on
the sunny agger." Suetonius, speaking of the great fire in Nero's
time: "This fire he [Nero] beheld from a tower in the house of Mæcenas
on the Esquiline." "Here was a common burying-place for wretched
paupers" (Horace). Hence it must have been outside the Wall or agger
of Servius Tullius, remains of which have been found on the left-hand
side of the road leading from S. Maria Maggiore to S. Giovanni in
Laterano. Close to this part, and inside the agger, a chamber has been
excavated, evidently


or lecture-hall of Mæcenas, the entrance being formed through the
agger. It is 24 metres 40 centimetres long, by 10 metres 60
centimetres broad. The wall supporting the roof, in which was the
window, is nearly eight metres high. On each side of the hall the
walls contain six niches decorated in the Pompeian style. At the
farther end of the hall is a sort of tribune composed of seven
circular steps in tiers, once faced with marble. From here the author
recited. In the circular wall behind these, which forms the end of the
hall, are five more niches. The floor is below the surrounding level,
probably to keep the building cool during the summer months. Its
height was about forty feet.

It may be that in this auditorium Virgil read his "Georgics" to
Mæcenas, as he says,--

     "I sing, Mæcenas, and I sing to thee....
     O thou! the better part of my renown,
     Inspire thy poet, and thy poem crown;
     Without thee, nothing lofty can I sing."

Or Horace, his Odes recited to Mæcenas' praise,--

     "You that are both my shield and glory dear."

The auditorium now serves as a local museum. It is open every Thursday
from 9 till 11 and 3 till 5. _Permissions_ must be obtained at the
Archæological Office at the Capitol.

_N.B._--Owing to the new quarter of Rome being built here, the roads
are very much cut up and changed in this neighbourhood.

_Retracing our steps towards the Basilica, turn to the right up the_
VIA S. VITO. _At the corner_ is the Gothic Church of the Holy
Redeemer, built by a Mr. Douglas, who went over to the Roman Church.
_Up the street is_


erected in 262 in honour of the emperor, by Marcus Aurelius Victor. It
is plain and unadorned, and only the central arch is preserved.

_Passing under the arch, turn to the left_, there are some remains of
the agger. _Beyond, on the opposite side of the street, is the_


where the animals are blessed on January 17th. The round doorway is
the only one of its sort in Rome.

_To the right we reach the new Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. On our left


of Alexander Severus, called the Trophies of Marius. It derives this
appellation from the marble trophies formerly placed in the two side
niches, and thence transferred to the parapet of the flight of steps
leading up to the Capitol. This splendidly decorated reservoir was the
nymphæum of the Emperor Alexander Severus, and is represented on a
coin. It was to the Aqua Julia what the Trevi Fountain was to the Aqua
Virgo. A portion of the aqueduct which supplied the water is still
standing. _Just beyond are_


The first consists of a sepulchre of rubble work in a circular form,
now surmounted by a cottage; the second, near it, is a stable, with
two columns in front. Horace was buried near Mæcenas. Suetonius tells
us: "He was interred, and lies buried on the skirts of the Esquiline
Hill, near the Tomb of Mæcenas."

These tombs were ruthlessly destroyed by the municipality in 1884.
_From the square the road leads to some remains of_


miscalled the Temple of Minerva Medica, from a statue of the goddess
discovered here. It is a circular building, 80 feet in diameter, and
its walls contain numerous niches for statues; it was surmounted by a
lofty cupola, which fell in a short time ago. This building was no
doubt the sudatorium of the baths of Gallienus, which stood in his
gardens and occupied this ground. In the fragments of chambers
adjoining, terra-cotta pipes for the supply of hot water may still be

_The road from here leads to_


built in commemoration of her martyrdom. At the early age of eighteen,
during the prefecture of Apronianus, she was first scourged, and then
stoned to death. The church contains eight antique columns, and
frescoes from the saint's life by Cortona and Ciampelli. Her statue at
the high altar is the work of Bernini, and is considered to be his
masterpiece. The _fête_ of S. Bibiana is the S. Swithin's day of the
Romans, who have a saying that "if it rain on this day it will
continue to do so for the next forty." We are not superstitious, but
we cannot help wishing that the saint will smile upon us. The Church
of S. Bibiana was built in the fifth century, on the site of the house
where the virgin-martyr is believed to have lived. It was in a great
measure rebuilt by Pope Urban VII., and is only open on the Friday
after the fourth Sunday in Lent, and on the 2nd of December, the
anniversary of the saint.

_Passing by the church, the road leads us through the new quarter of
the town. Passing the remains of a tower in the Agger, we turn to the
right, and pass the railway station through another section of the new
quarter. Behind the custom-house is a fine piece of the Agger and the
Porta Viminalis. Beyond, the barracks occupy the site of_


founded by Sejanus, the minister of Tiberius Cæsar, and destroyed by
Constantine. The walls consist of brickwork, and have corridors on the
inside, decorated with stucco and paintings. The camp was between the
Portæ Viminalis and Nomentana, and forms a square projection in the
present wall. It was outside the agger of Servius Tullius. The north
wall is of the time of Tiberius; the east was rebuilt in the fourth
century; the south has been reconstructed out of old square stones,
probably material taken from the west or city wall (which has never
been found), or from fragments of the Agger of Servius Tullius. To
write the history of the Prætorian Camp would be equivalent to writing
the history of Rome from Tiberius to Constantine. Here murderers were
made emperors, and the empire put up to auction. Hence the Prætorians
sallied out to attack the citizens, who in their turn assailed the
camp. Here the guilty found asylum, and the innocent death.

_Near the camp stood_


Its site is now occupied by the Piazza del Macao. Fragments of the
temple were found in August 1873, and an inscription to the goddess;
also the statue of a female member of the Claudian family.

"Quintus Marcius Ralla, constituted commissioner for the purpose,
dedicated the Temple of Fortuna Primigenia on the Quirinal Hill.
Publius Sempronius Sophus had vowed this temple ten years before, in
the Punic War, and, being afterwards censor, had employed persons to
build it," A.U.C. 558 (Livy, xxxiv. 53).

_Returning past the station, we come to the open space of the_


a rather pleasant garden square, surrounded with trees, in the midst
of which spouts up the Aqua Marcia.

_Passing along our right, we come to the_


The magnificent bathing establishments, called Thermæ, to distinguish
them from the ordinary baths, consisted of a long series of halls,
chambers, and courts, all lying on the same level, so that the extent
of surface required for laying out had to be artificially formed
either by the removal or the elevation of the soil. The thermæ founded
by Diocletian and Maximian, and completed by Constantius and
Maximinus, constituted the largest edifice of this kind. At present,
only the great hall, 350 feet by 80 feet, and 96 feet high, converted
into a church by Michael Angelo, exists in a state of tolerable
preservation. The original massive granite pillars, 40 feet high, and
5 feet in diameter, though so sunk into the ground (imitation
pedestals have been put to them) that their full height is nowhere
visible, are still standing; the antique vaulted roof has also been
preserved entire. This circumstance is of great importance for the
lighting up of this vast space--the masses of light falling upon it
at so favourable an angle, that the mind receives the same pleasing
impression at all hours of the day and at all seasons of the year.

Several considerable portions of the adjoining hall are still to be
seen, but, being included within the buildings of the neighbouring
schools and asylums, and partly converted into hay magazines, a clear
and complete survey of them cannot easily be obtained.

The pictures in the church were brought from S. Peter's, and the court
of the monastery, formed with one hundred columns, was designed by
Michael Angelo. Salvator Rosa and Carlo Maratta were both buried here.
The Government is forming a new museum in these buildings. On the
right of the high altar is Domenichino's S. Sebastian. _Opposite to
it_, Maratta's Baptism of our Lord. The Presentation in the Temple is
by Romanelli; the Death of Ananias by Roncalli. In the transept are
copies of Guido's Crucifixion of S. Peter, and Vanni's Fall of Simon
Magus; S. Peter resuscitating Tabitha, by Mancini; S. Jerome and S.
Francis, by Musciano; Assumption, by Bianchini; Resuscitation of
Tabitha, by Costanzi; Fall of Simon Magus, by Battoni; S. Basil
celebrating Mass before the Emperor Valens, by Subleyras.

_On leaving the church, opposite_ are the remains of the THEATRIDIUM
belonging to the baths, the space in front being the Stadium.


commences here, and runs down to the south end of the Corso. The
street is traversed by a line of tram-cars, which run down to the
Piazza di Venezia. It is the handsomest street in Rome, and is lined
by several fine blocks of buildings. It is on the line of the ancient
Vicus Longus. Upon the _right_ is the Quirinal Hill; and on the
_left_, the Viminal; the street, artificially raised, occupying the
valley between the two hills. A short distance down on the left is the
Quirinal Hotel, the largest in Rome, fitted up with every modern
comfort, and on one of the healthiest sites in the city. Behind is
Costanzi's new theatre.

_Just below is the_


the new American Episcopal Church under Dr. Nevin; designed by Mr.
George Street in the Gothic style. It has a fine campanile, and a
beautiful peal of bells.

The vault of the tribunal in mosaic was designed by Mr. Burne Jones,
and represents Christ surrounded by the celestial company, as
described in Holy Writ.


The new Palace of Fine Arts is on the right, about half-way down. In
it is held an annual exhibition of modern works of art of every
description. Admission, one lira; Sundays, fifty centesimi. It
occupies a space of 22,030 square mètres--the permanent building being
5,280 square mètres; the Crystal Hall, 1,250 square mètres; the
gardens, 5,000 square mètres; and the temporary galleries, 10,500
square mètres. The palace comprises two floors, and may be entered
from the Via Nazionale, Via Genova, and Via del Quirinale. The main
front is 25 mètres high and 60 long. Sixteen statues decorate the top
of the façade, the work of Roman artists.

On the top of the pediment is a group, Italy crowning Art, by
Adalberto Cencetti, the groups in relief on the face being the Finding
of the Laocoon Group, by Filippo Ferrari, and Carrying Cimabue's
Madonna in Triumph, by Puntoni.

Signor Pio Piacentini designed the edifice; and the works have been
carried out with the assistance of the architect Augusto Fallani, at a
cost of two and a half million lire.

On the façade of the entrance is the inscription:--


_From Santa Maria degli Angeli we turn to the right. At the corner of
the Piazza S. Bernardo is the_


_Open free to the public, Tuesday, Thursday, and Sunday, from 10 to 3.
Opposite is_


The Acqua Felice aqueduct was made, A.D. 1587, by Sixtus V. (Felice
Peretti), from whom it took its name. The fountain was designed by

_In the centre_ of the group is seen Moses striking the rock, and the
water issuing forth; _on the left_, Aaron leading the Jews; and _on
the right_, Gideon bringing them to the brink of the stream. Four
lions guard the basins below. It is said that the work of the artist
was so criticised that he put an end to his life.

_Turning down the Via Venti Settembre, on our right_ is the NEW
MINISTRY OF FINANCE, in erecting which remains of the Porta Collina in
the Servian walls were found. Also remains of


erected by Domitian on the site of his parents' house near the PORTA
COLLINA. A marble head of Titus was found in the excavations.

"Whatever Domitian's unconquered hand has erected is imperishable as
heaven" (Martial, ix. 1). "What of the Flavian Temple which towers to
the Roman sky?" (_Ibid._, ix. 3). The following is amusing:--

the Flavian temple rising under the sky of Rome, laughed at the
fabulous tomb erected to himself on Mount Ida; and, having drunk
abundantly of nectar at table, exclaimed, as he was handing the cup to
his son Mars, and addressing himself at the same time to Apollo and
Diana, with whom were seated Hercules and the pious Arcos: 'You gave
me a monument in Crete; see how much better a thing it is to be a
father of Cæsar!'" (Martial, ix. 34).


Livy (xxii. 57) tells us that this was "near the Colline Gate." We
learn from Pliny's "Letters" (iv. 11) that it was "a subterranean
cavern." Plutarch, in "Numa," gives the following interesting

"She that broke her vows of chastity was buried alive at the Colline
Gate. There, within the walls, is raised a little mound of earth,
called in Latin _agger_; near which is prepared a small cell, with
steps to descend into it. In this cell are placed a bed, a lighted
lamp, and some slight provisions, such as bread, water, milk, and
oil, as they thought it impious to take off a person consecrated with
the most awful ceremonies by such a death as that of famine. The
criminal is carried to punishment through the Forum in a litter well
covered without, and bound up in such a manner that her cries cannot
be heard. The people silently make way for the litter, and follow it
with marks of extreme sorrow and dejection. There is no spectacle more
dreadful than this, nor any day which the city passes in a more
melancholy manner. When the litter comes to the place appointed, the
officers loose the cords; the high priest, with hands lifted toward
heaven, offers up some private prayers just before the fatal minute,
then takes out the prisoner, who is covered with a veil, and places
her on the steps which lead down to the cell. After this, he retires
with the rest of the priests; and when she has gone down, the steps
are taken away, and the cell is covered with earth, so that the place
is made level with the rest of the mound. Thus were the vestals
punished who preserved not their chastity."

The remains of the Colline Gate were found in building the present
Ministry of Finance in the Via Venti Settembre. _The Via Servio
Tullio, on the left, leads to the site of_


upon the site of which a new quarter is being erected. Clear of the
houses is an interesting ruin miscalled the Temple of Venus Erycina.

This ruin is octagonal in form, with a domed roof. The interior is
divided into halls, and a vestibule leads into the central hall. The
walls have recesses for sculpture. The building was probably a

Besides the palace, baths, and gardens, there was a portico, called
Milliarensis, from its thousand columns, in which the Emperor Aurelian
used to take exercise on horseback. The buildings were fired by the
soldiers of Alaric, who entered the city at the Salarian gate.

_From the Piazza S. Bernardo we take the_ VIA SUSANNA _into the_ VIA
S. NICCOLO DA TOLENTINO. _The first turning on the right_, VICOLO
FIAMME, _leads into the_ VIA DI S. BASILIO, _which leads to the_


_Open every day from 12 till 4, with permission to be had at the
consuls or bankers._

The beautiful villa has been cut up into building plots, and a new
quarter now occupies its site.

On the left of the entry is the Museum. The principal objects are--1.
Hercules. 4. Pan and Olympus. 11. Venus. 14. The Labours of Hercules.
34. A fine mask.

SECOND ROOM.--Group of Mars and Cupid, found in the portico of
Octavia. 7. Theseus and Æthra, by Menelaos. 9. Satyr. 17. Julius
Cæsar. 28. Gallic group, of which the wounded Gaul in the Capitol
Museum formed a part. 41. Juno, the finest head of the goddess known.
43. Pluto carrying off Proserpine.

Towards the Porta Pinciana is the casino containing Guercino's
beautiful fresco of Aurora driving away Night. A beautiful view is to
be had here.

_Leaving the Museum, we pass down the Basilio into the Piazza
Barberini. On the right, up under the trees, are_


In the first chapel on the right in the church is Guido Reni's
beautiful picture of S. Michael, and in the third chapel two pictures
by Domenichino. But the most interesting part, the cemetery, is
beneath the church, though entirely above ground, and lighted by a row
of iron-grated windows without glass. "A corridor runs along beside
these windows, and gives access to three or four vaulted recesses, or
chapels, of considerable breadth and height, the floor of which
consists of consecrated earth from Jerusalem. It is smoothed
decorously over the deceased brethren of the convent, and is kept
quite free from grass or weeds, such as would grow even in these
gloomy recesses if pains were not bestowed to root them up. But as the
cemetery is small, and it is a precious privilege to sleep in holy
ground, the brotherhood are immemorially accustomed, when one of their
number dies, to take the longest-buried skeleton out of the oldest
grave, and lay the new slumberer there instead. Thus each of the good
friars, in his turn, enjoys the luxury of a consecrated bed, attended
with the slight drawback of being forced to get up long before
daybreak, as it were, and make room for another lodger. The
arrangement of the unearthed skeletons is what makes the special
interest of the cemetery. The arched and vaulted walls of the burial
recesses are supported by massive pillars and pilasters made of
thigh-bones and skulls; the whole material of the structure appears to
be of a similar kind, and the knobs and embossed ornaments of this
strange architecture are represented by the joints of the spine, and
the more delicate tracery of the smaller bones of the human frame. The
summits of the arches are adorned with entire skeletons, looking as if
they were wrought most skilfully in bas-relief. There is no
possibility of describing how ugly and grotesque is the effect,
combined with a certain artistic merit, nor how much perverted
ingenuity has been shown in this queer way; nor what a multitude of
dead monks, through how many hundred years, must have contributed
their bony framework to build up these great arches of mortality. On
some of the skulls there are inscriptions, purporting that such a
monk, who formerly made use of that particular head-piece, died on
such a day and year; but vastly the greater number are piled up
undistinguishably into the architectural design like the many deaths
that make up the one glory of a victory. In the side walls of the
vaults are niches where skeleton monks sit or stand, clad in the brown
habits that they wore in life, and labelled with their names and the
dates of their decease. Their skulls (some quite bare, and others
still covered with yellow skin and the hair that has known the
earth-damps) look out from beneath their hoods, grinning hideously
repulsive. One reverend father has his mouth wide open, as if he had
died in the midst of a howl of terror and remorse, which perhaps is
even now screeching through eternity. As a general thing, however,
these frocked and hooded skeletons seem to take a more cheerful view
of their position, and try with ghastly smiles to turn it into a jest.
There is no disagreeable scent, such as might be expected from the
decay of so many holy persons, in whatever odour of sanctity they may
have taken their departure. The same number of living monks would not
smell half so unexceptionably." Hawthorne gives this graphic


  |  Date of   |            |         |           |          |        |
  | Erection   | Date, and  |         |  Brought  |  First   | Height |
  | on Present | Erector,   |Original |  to Rome  |  Roman   |   of   |
  |   Site.    | in Egypt.  | Site.   |    by     |  Site.   | Shaft. |
  | 1. 1786:   | B.C. 2074  |  ....   | Claudius: | Tomb of  | 45 ft. |
  | Piazza     | to 1975:   |         | A.D. 50.  | Augus-   |        |
  | Monte      | Mœris.     |         |           | tus.     |        |
  | Cavallo.   |            |         |           |          |        |
  |            |            |         |           |          |        |
  | 2. 1587:   |    ....    |  ....   |     "     |     "    | 48 ft. |
  | Piazza     |            |         |           |          | 5 in.  |
  | Esquilino. |            |         |           |          |        |
  |            |            |         |           |          |        |
  | 3. 1588:   | B.C. 1655  | Thebes. | Constan-  | Circus   |105 ft. |
  | Piazza     | to 1600:   |         | tius:     | Maximus. | 7 in.  |
  | Laterano.  | Thothmes   |         | A.D. 357. |          |        |
  |            | III. and   |         |           |          |        |
  |            | IV.        |         |           |          |        |
  |            |            |         |           |          |        |
  | 4. 1589:   | B.C. 1487: | Helio-  | Augustus: |     "    | 78 ft. |
  | Piazza     | Seti and   | polis.  | B.C. 10.  |          | 6 in.  |
  | del Popolo.| Rameses    |         |           |          |        |
  |            | II.        |         |           |          |        |
  |            |            |         |           |          |        |
  | 5. 1789:   | B.C. 1486  |  ....   | Hadrian   | Gardens  | 84 ft. |
  | Trinità    | to 1420:   |         | (?)       | of       |        |
  | dei Monti. | Rameses    |         |           | Sallust. |        |
  |            | II.        |         |           |          |        |
  |            |            |         |           |          |        |
  | 6. 1711:   |   "    "   |  ....   |   ....    | Temple   | 15 ft. |
  | Pantheon.  |            |         |           | of Isis  |        |
  |            |            |         |           | and      |        |
  |            |            |         |           | Serapis. |        |
  |            |            |         |           |          |        |
  | 7. 1563:   |   "    "   |  ....   |   ....    | Capito-  |  ....  |
  | Villa      |            |         |           | line     |        |
  | Cœli-      |            |         |           | Hill.    |        |
  | montana.   |            |         |           |          |        |
  |            |            |         |           |          |        |
  | 8. 1586:   | B.C. 1420  | Copy of | Caligula: | Circus   | 82 ft. |
  | Piazza di  | to 1400:   | one at  | A.D. 40.  | Vatica-  | 6 in.  |
  | S. Pietro. | Mene-      | Helio-  |           | nus.     |        |
  |            | phpthah.   | polis.  |           |          |        |
  |            |            |         |           |          |        |
  | 9. 1792:   | B.C. 594   | Helio-  | Augustus: | Campus   | 72 ft. |
  | Monte      | to 588:    | polis.  | B.C. 10.  | Martius. |        |
  | Citorio.   | Psammeti-  |         |           |          |        |
  |            | cus II.    |         |           |          |        |
  |            |            |         |           |          |        |
  | 10. 1667:  | B.C. 588   |  ....   |   ....    | Temple   | 17 ft. |
  | Piazza     | to 569:    |         |           | of Isis  |        |
  | Minerva.   | Pharaoh    |         |           | and      |        |
  |            | Hophra.    |         |           | Serapis. |        |
  |            |            |         |           |          |        |
  | 11. 1651:  |    ....    |  ....   | Domitian. | Villa at | 51 ft. |
  | Circo      |            |         |           | Albano.  |        |
  | Agonale.   |            |         |           |          |        |
  |            |            |         |           |          |        |
  | 12. 1822:  |    ....    |  ....   | Hadrian:  | Circus   | 30 ft. |
  | Pincian    |            |         | A.D. 112. | Varia-   |        |
  | Hill.      |            |         |           | nus.     |        |




"The Queen of Roads."--_Statius._

The Appian Way was the great southern road from Rome. It led through
Capua to Brundusium, which then as now was the port for the East. It
was first made as a regular roadway in B.C. 312. "The censorship of
Appius Claudius and Caius Plautius for this year (A.U.C. 441) was
remarkable; but the name of Appius has been handed down with more
celebrity to posterity on account of his having made the road, called
after him the Appian" (Livy, ix. 28). But a road existed here before
this, for at least part of the way, evidently to Capua (A.U.C. 414).
"They came in hostile array to the eighth stone on the road which is
now the Appian" (Livy, vii. 39).

Statius gives some particulars as to how it was made. "First they cut
two parallel furrows to indicate the width of the road, and then they
cut down between those until they came to the hard bottom, and then
began the levelling. As the construction proceeded, the road assumed a
slightly convex shape. The middle or top was called the _dorsum_, or
back-bone of the way; or, as it is called in Virgil, "in aggere viæ."
Roads that were left in the rough material were said to be _munitæ_,
but when covered with cut polygonal blocks they were called _stratæ

Procopius, the secretary of Belisarius in the sixth century, thus
describes the Appian Way:--"To traverse the Appian Way is a distance
of five days' journey for a good walker; it leads from Rome to Capua.
Its breadth is such that two chariots may meet upon it and pass each
other without interruption; and its magnificence surpasses that of all
other roads. In constructing this great work, Appius caused the
materials to be brought from a great distance, so as to have all the
stones hard, and of the nature of mill-stones, such as are not to be
found in this part of the country. Having ordered this material to be
smoothed and polished, the stones were cut in corresponding angles, so
as to bite together in jointures without the intervention of copper or
any other material to bind them; and in this manner they were so
firmly united, that on looking at them we would say they had not been
put together by art, but had grown so upon the spot. And,
notwithstanding the wearing of so many ages, being traversed daily by
a multitude of vehicles and all sorts of cattle, they still remain
unmoved; nor can the least trace of ruin or waste be observed upon
these stones, neither do they appear to have lost any of their
beautiful polish. And such is the Appian Way."

The road was lined with temples, villas, and tombs; for it was the
custom of the Romans to bury their dead on either side of the
principal roads leading from the city. It was against the law to bury
inside the walls, which was seldom permitted, and then only as a great

"When thou hast gone out of the Capena Gate, and beholdest the
sepulchres of the Colatini, of the Scipios, of the Servilii, and of
the Metelli, canst thou deem the buried inmates wretched?" (Cicero).

_Passing under the_ Arch of Constantine, _down the_ Via Triumphalis
(Via d' S. Gregorio), _we turn to the left_; passing a rope walk, _the
first gate on the left admits to a vineyard_. The cottage is erected
on the site of


For a long number of years the present Porta S. Sebastiano (Porta
Appia) was considered to be the Porta Capena. This error was
rectified after the stone which marked the first mile was found (1584)
in the Vigna Naro outside the present gate. From it one mile (one
thousand paces) was measured backwards, and the result was the
discovery of the exact site of the Porta Capena by Mr. J. H. Parker in
1868; but the excavations have been filled in. The remains consist of
the sill of the gate, with fragments of the jambs, and the pavement of
the Via Appia with the raised footpath on each side of it. The west
flanking tower of the gate is under the gardener's cottage. This was
reopened in 1877. The gate was crossed by the Aqua Appia (Frontinus),
which Juvenal mentions as dripping, and Martial as showering down

The Porta Capena is represented twice in the reliefs of Trajan built
on to the Arch of Constantine. In the days of Tullus Hostilius, B.C.
668, Horatius killed his sister outside this gate. "A tomb of squared
stone was raised for Horatia, on the spot where she fell" (Livy, i.

We now arrive at the river Almo (Marrana), which flows through


under the Cœlian Hill, in which is the Fountain of Egeria, whence
flowed the perennial fountain by whose waters Numa caught inspiration
from the lips of his lovable nymph. Juvenal describes the spot in his
description of the parting of Umbricius and himself: "This is the
place where Numa consulted his nocturnal friend the nymph: now the
grove of the sacred font is occupied by the remains of Jews." "In the
valley of Egeria we descended into caves unlike the true." They
strolled from the Porta Capena whilst the waggon was loading. At
length Umbricius says: "The sun is getting low--I must depart; for
long ago the muleteer gave me a hint by cracking his whip."

"Numa was commanded by the nymph Egeria to consecrate that place and
the fields about it to the Muses, where he had often entertained a
free intercourse and communication with them; and that the fountain
which watered that place should be made sacred and hallowed for the
use of the vestal virgins, who were to wash and clean the penetralia
of their sanctuary with those holy waters" (Plutarch).

Livy (i. 21) thus describes it: "There was a grove, in the midst of
which, from a dark cavern, gushed a fountain of flowing water, whither
often, because without witness, Numa went to have an interview with
the goddess, and which grove he consecrated to the muses, that their
councils might be held there with Egeria." The fountain may still be
seen under the Cœlian, over the wall on the left;--there is a
bath-house of the middle ages built over it. It is in the grounds of
the villa of Baron Hoffmann, _to whom application must be made to
visit it_.

_Crossing the_ Marrana, _we take the first turning on the right_, VIA
ANTONINA. _This lane leads to the_


_Admission one lira; Sundays free._

A favourite spot of Shelley's--"among the flowery glades and thickets
of odoriferous blossoming trees, which are extended in ever winding
labyrinths upon its immense platforms and dizzy arches suspended in
the air." So the poet wrote of this spot. But now it is all changed:
the hand of the explorer has ruthlessly pulled up the trees, and
scraped the wild flowers and weeds from the ruined walls, exposing
beautiful mosaic pavements, it is true, but which hardly repay for the
loss of nature's verdure.

The magnificent Thermæ of Caracalla display in the clearest and most
complete manner the skeleton of an edifice of this kind--these
glorious ruins standing, as it were, intact before us.

They were begun by Caracalla in the year 212, enlarged by
Heliogabalus, and completed by Alexander Severus; their area being
140,000 square yards--length, 1840 yards by 1476. As many as 1600
persons could, it is said, bathe in them at the same time. The baths,
properly so called, were 1720 feet in length and 375 in width, and
they were surrounded by pleasure-gardens, porticoes, a stadium, &c.
The reservoir was supplied by the Antonine aqueduct, which carried the
water from the Claudian over the Arch of Drusus. The principal
entrance to the baths was from the Via Nova, one of the favourite
promenades of the ancient Romans, made by Caracalla. Among the works
of art discovered in the thermæ may be mentioned the Farnese Hercules,
the Colossal Flora, the Farnese Bull, the Atreus and Thyestes, the Two
Gladiators, and the Venus Callipyge. The bronzes, cameos, bas-reliefs,
medals, &c., found in the thermæ are too numerous to mention. The urns
in green basalt now in the Vatican Museum, and the granite basins of
the Piazza Farnese, formerly belonged to the Baths of Caracalla. The
baths remained entire, both as regards their architecture and their
internal decoration, until the middle of the sixth century, when the
aqueducts were destroyed by Vitiges.

  [Illustration: BATHS OF CARACALLA.]

The portion of this series of main chambers, with which all the others
are connected, like the limbs of an organic body, was a rotunda. The
open space at the foot of the Aventine was intended for a stadium. The
games held in it could be viewed from the tiers of seats, which rose,
as in a theatre, above the reservoir, still in existence, on the
declivity of the hill. From this the building was supplied with water,
conveyed to the different points by means of an aqueduct.

In order to attain a correct idea of the ground-plan, we must proceed
to the space in the centre, enclosed on the side towards the road by a
high wall furnished with window niches for the reception of statues.
This was the great swimming-bath, as is proved by the excavations,
which have revealed the deep level of the original floor. Beyond this
are small rooms where the bathers were oiled and shampooed; beyond
these again is the GRAND PERISTYLIUM, enclosed with pillars and a
portico, in which were performed the athletic exercises; adjoining
were the Women's Baths. Returning through the HEMICYCLIA, we enter the
PINACOTHECA, or Fine Art Gallery. This brings us to the TEPIDARIUM, or
Warm Bath, with four hot baths, CALDARIA, at the corners, from which
the SUDATORIUM, or Sweating Room, was entered. This was called the
CELLA SOLEARIS. The roof was supported by bars of brass interwoven
like the straps of a sandal. Vitruvius tells us that the Sudatorium
ought to be circular, with a circular window in the centre of the
dome, with a shutter to be opened or shut,--thus controlling the
atmosphere as required. The Solearis was considered a great
architectural feat, and inimitable. Of this grand rotunda only four
piers are left, but these are sufficient to give an idea of its size;
and it was to the Baths of Caracalla what the Pantheon was to the
Baths of Agrippa: that is the only perfect part of those baths left;
this is the only part of these baths wanting.

The mosaics of the pavement have sunk down, as it were, in the form of
troughs, in consequence of the piers on which the arches rested, as on
a sort of grating, having been broken when the latter fell in, and not
being properly shored up when excavated.

The remainder of the building recently excavated corresponds with the
parts we have described.

Some of the beautiful mosaic pavements may be seen in the Lateran and
Borghese Villa Palaces.

_Above the baths, on an eminence of the Aventine, is the_


supposed to date from the sixth century. There is nothing of interest
in the church itself, but from the tower a fine prospect is enjoyed of
the surrounding district. The convent and church have been turned into
a penitentiary and a barrack.

_Resuming our ramble along the main road, on the right is the_


founded by Leo III. (795-816). It contains an enclosed choir with
reading-desks. The tribune mosaic is of the founder's time, and
represents the Transfiguration and Annunciation. The episcopal chair
is that from which S. Gregory read his Twenty-eighth Homily.

The church is on the site of the


erected during the Gallic war, B.C. 387 (Livy, vi. 5). "The same day
is a festival of Mars, whom the Capenian Gate beholds, outside the
walls, situated close to the covered way" (Ovid, "Fasti," vi. 191).
"They paved with square stones the road from the Capenian Gate to the
Temple of Mars," A.U.C. 456 (Livy, x. 23). Repaired A.U.C. 563
(_Ibid._, xxxviii. 28). "The Curule Ædiles completed the paving of the
road from the Temple of Mars to Bovillæ," A.U.C. 459 (_Ibid._, xi.
47). Mr. Parker found some remains of this temple in excavating at the
back of the church. From here the Roman knights used to ride to the
Temple of Castor in the Forum, on the anniversary of the battle of
Lake Regillus (Dionysius, xi. 13).

_Nearly opposite is the_ CHURCH OF S. SISTO, belonging to the Irish
Dominican friars of S. Clement, on the site of the


"Marcellus was desirous to dedicate to Honour and Virtue the temple
which he had built out of the Sicilian spoils, but was opposed by the
priests, who would not consent that two deities should be contained in
one temple. Taking this opposition ill, he began another temple"
(Plutarch. See Livy, xxvii. 25; xxix. 11).

"M. Marcellus, the grandson of the conqueror of Syracuse, erected
statues to his father, himself, and grandfather near the Temple of
Honour and Virtue, with this inscription--III. MARCELLI NOVIES COSS"
(Cicero, Asconius).

This temple must not be confounded with the temple erected by Marius
on the Capitoline, and restored by Vespasian. The Temple of Honour
could not be reached without passing through the Temple of Virtue.

_Opposite, in the Vigna Guidi, No. 19_, are the remains of


The chambers occupy three sides of a square peristylium, the walls of
which are painted with frescoes, the pavements being black and white
mosaics forming hippocampi, with rams' heads, Tritons, and nymphs.

Opening out from the peristylium is the Lararium, or room of the
household gods. Here was probably the site of the Villa of Asinius
Pollio, the orator in the time of Augustus; for Pliny mentions that in
his gardens stood the statue now at Naples, called the Farnese Bull,
which was actually found amidst these ruins in 1554. Hence it became
the private house of Hadrian, and was destroyed to build the Baths of

Continuing our ramble, _on the left_, the Via della Ferratella leads
to the Lateran. It has a fourth century SHRINE OF THE LARES, with
niches for statues.

_Beyond, on the right, is_ S. CESAREO, containing a raised presbytery,
surrounded by a marble screen, a marble pulpit, and an ancient
episcopal chair. Adjoining is part of the titular-cardinal's house, of
the twelfth century. _It is on the site of_


erected by Cornelius Scipio, A.U.C. 495.

"Thee too, O Tempest, we acknowledge to have deserved a shrine, at the
time when our fleet was almost overwhelmed by the waves of Corsica"
(Ovid, "Fasti," vi. 193).

_To the left is_


so called because it led through the Latin states. It branched out of
the Via Appia on the left, outside the Porta Capena and within the
Porta S. Sebastiano. A short distance up the Via Latina is the



On the keystone is a Greek cross within a circle. The outside of the
arch is reached by passing through the Porta S. Sebastiano and turning
to the left. It is formed of two round brick towers and a travertine
stone arch, with grooves for a portcullis; on the outside keystone are
the early Christian emblems of the _labarum_. The Roman Catholic
tradition is that S. John the Evangelist was thrown into a caldron of
boiling oil inside this gate, where the circular church now stands.

Opposite is the Church of S. John, Port Latin.

The little round church is called


Mr. G. G. Scott lately discovered, at the Chapter House, Westminster,
some frescoes representing the Visions of S. John, fourteenth century,
which are described in the following inscriptions, translated by Canon

"To the most pious Cæsar, always Augustus, Domitian, the Proconsul of
the Ephesians sends greeting:--We notify to your majesty that a
certain man named John, of the nation of the Hebrews, coming into
Asia, and preaching Jesus crucified, has affirmed him to be the true
God and the Son of God; and he is abolishing the worship of our
invincible deities, and is hastening to destroy the temples erected by
your ancestors. This man, being contrariant--as a magician and a
sacrilegious person--to your imperial edict, is converting almost all
the people of the Ephesian city, by his magical arts and by his
preaching, to the worship of a man who has been crucified and is dead.
But we, having a zeal for the worship of the immortal gods,
endeavoured to prevail upon him by fair words and blandishments, and
also by threats, according to your imperial edict, to deny his Christ,
and to make offerings to the immortal gods. And since we have not been
able to induce him by any methods to do this, we address this letter
to your majesty, in order that you may signify to us what it is your
royal pleasure to be done with him."

"As soon as Domitian had read this letter, being enraged, he sent a
rescript to the proconsul, that he should put the holy John in chains
and bring him with him from Ephesus to Rome, and there assume to
himself the judgment according to the imperial command."

"Then the proconsul, according to the imperial command, bound the
blessed John the Apostle with chains, and brought him with him to
Rome, and announced his arrival to Domitian, who, being indignant,
gave command to the proconsul that the holy John should be placed in a
boiling caldron, in presence of the senate, in front of the gate which
is called the Latin Gate, when he had been scourged, which was done.
But, by the grace of God protecting him, he came forth uninjured and
exempt from corruption of the flesh. And the proconsul, being
astonished that he had come forth from the caldron anointed but not
scorched, was desirous of restoring him to liberty, and would have
done so if he had not feared to contravene the royal command. And when
tidings of these things had been brought to Domitian, he ordered the
holy Apostle John to be banished to the island called Patmos, in which
he saw and wrote the Apocalypse, which bears his name, and is read by


is a lofty concrete tomb of the time of the republic, on the left,
near the Church of S. John. This may be the general who ended the
First Punic War, 242 B.C., or his descendant consul, 102 B.C.,
proscribed by Marius, and who suffocated himself with charcoal fumes.

_Behind the round chapel is_


The columbaria were underground chambers, containing niches in the
walls, in which were placed the urns containing the ashes of those who
were burned. As the niche was like a dove's nest in shape, it was
called a "columbarium," the whole tomb a "columbaria." This one was
discovered by the Marchese Campana, and is carefully preserved. Here
were buried the freedmen of Augustus while Hylas and Vitaline were the

_Returning to the Via Appia_, the second gate on the left admits to


dedicated to S. Gabriel and the Sleepers of Ephesus. It was decorated
in fresco by the same Beno and Maria de Rapiza who did the frescoes in
S. Clement's towards the end of the eleventh century.

Beyond, a tall cypress tree marks the entrance to the (No. 13)


The vaults, hewn in the tufa, with the traces of a cornice over the
entrance arch, and the stump of a Doric column, are all that now
remain. The tomb was discovered in 1780; and the bones of the consul,
found in good preservation, were carried to Padua, where they were
interred by Senator Quirini. Six sarcophagi were found, and several
recesses for more bodies; the original inscriptions were removed to
the Vatican and placed in the vestibule of the Belvedere.

Lucius Scipio Barbatus, his son; Aula Cornelia, wife of Cneius Scipio
Hispanus, a son of Scipio Africanus, senior; Lucius Cornelius, son of
Asiaticus; Cornelius Scipio Hispanus and his son Lucius, were buried
here. Africanus senior was buried at Liternum.

From this tomb we can ascend into a brick tomb of the second century.


This is probably the tomb of the historian, who died about A.D. 130.
The following inscription was found here:--


_Just beyond, in the_ VIGNA CODINI (No. 14), _are the Columbaria of_


(_Memorials of those mentioned by S. Paul._)

Two columbaria lie upon the right of the pathway, and possess
considerable interest, not only as good specimens of the chambers
where the ashes of those who were cremated were deposited, but special
interest is attached to some of the names found therein--names that
are mentioned in the New Testament. The question arises, Are these the
remains of those there mentioned? Can we still look upon the ashes of
those early Christians? Let us see.

In the first columbaria we find this inscription--


     [Tryphænæ Valeria and Valerius Futianus to the memory of
     the mother Tryphæna.]

Just beyond is--


On the stair wall is a Greek inscription to Onesimus.

On the outside of the second columbaria, built into the wall, is--

     ANN . XXX.

     [Varia Tryphosa, patron, and M. Eppius Clemens erected this
     to his well-beloved wife, who lived thirty years.]

Close by is--


Inside the second, _in situ_, is the inscription--


The first columbaria was for the servants or officers of the imperial
family, and dates from Augustus to Nero, both inclusive. The second
dates from Julius Cæsar to Tiberius. The historic notices of some of
those names are valuable.

S. Paul, writing to the Romans from Corinth, A.D. 60, says, "Salute
Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord" (Rom. xvi. 12).

Writing from Rome to the Colossians, A.D. 64, he says, "With Onesimus,
a faithful and beloved brother" (Col. iv. 9); and to Philemon: "I
beseech thee for my son Onesimus, whom I have begotten in my bonds"
(Phil. 10). In Colossians i. 7: "As ye also learned of Epaphras our
dear fellowservant;" and in iv. 12 we have: "Epaphras, who is one of
you, a servant of Christ"--who is again mentioned in Philemon: "There
salute thee Epaphras, my fellow-prisoner in Christ Jesus" (Phil. 23).

Now, these names are uncommon, and we only have them mentioned by S.
Paul, and engraved on these marble slabs, which slabs are in the
columbaria of the freedmen of the Cæsars, agreeing in date with the
time of S. Paul's letters; who himself preached to, and had converts
amongst, the household of Cæsar, in the imperial palace upon the
Palatine Hill. He says, writing to the Philippians, "So that my bonds
in Christ are manifest in all the palace, and in all other places"
(Phil. i. 13). And (iv. 22), "All the saints salute you, chiefly they
that are of Cæsar's household."

The name Valeria was taken, when she obtained her freedom, from her
mistress, the Empress Messalina (whose name was Valeria). These names
do not cover their own ashes--with the exception of that to Onesimus
and Epaphras--but are memorial-stones erected to fellow-servants, who,
if we may judge from the "D.M." over the inscriptions, were not

They record a work of charity and love to fellow-servants, though not
co-religionists; and the names mentioned may well be those likewise
named by S. Paul, with the exception of Onesimus, who was sent back to
his master.

The names Tryphena and Tryphosa occur before the coming of Paul to
Rome, and these, with some others mentioned by him (Rom. xvi.), were
found on slabs in another columbaria, about a mile further on, on the
Via Appia, discovered in 1726, and known as the Columbaria of the
servants of Livia Augusta. It is now a complete ruin--one wall only
remaining--and some of the inscriptions are in the Capitol Museum.

The following names, according to Gruter, p. 1070, No. 1, and p. 656,
No. 1, were there, but they are now lost:--


These are the names probably of some members of the church founded by
Priscilla and Aquila, whom Paul greets in writing to Rome, but who are
not mentioned again by him after his arrival in Rome. They possibly
were no longer living, and the church was dispersed under Claudius,
Aquila and Priscilla, whom Paul salutes in his second letter to
Timothy (iv. 19), going to Corinth (Acts xviii. 2).

Another columbaria, well preserved, lies on the left of the path at
the entrance.


next draws our attention.

The aqueduct which supplied the Thermæ of Caracalla crossed the road a
few steps before the Aurelian Gate of the city, the Porta Appia (now
called the Porta S. Sebastiano), where an arch of travertine, adorned
with white marble and pillars of various colours (still standing) was
employed to convey the aqueduct over the road. The arch itself is
evidently much older than the aqueduct, and has, consequently, been
pronounced by antiquaries to be the triumphal arch awarded to Drusus
by a decree of the senate, and said to have been erected to him on the
Appian Way. It was supported by four columns of African marble,
relieved by four niches and an attic above a small pediment; the whole
was surmounted by an equestrian statue between two trophies, as shown
upon a coin. "The senate likewise decreed for Drusus a triumphal arch
of marble, with trophies, over the Appian Way, and gave him the
cognomen of Germanicus" (Suetonius, "Claudius," i.).

_Passing under, we come to_


(now Sebastiano), opening on the great highway of ancient Rome, the
VIA APPIA. This gate is the finest in the Aurelian walls, and, in its
splendid decorations, regard has evidently been paid to the road over
which it was built. All the rectangular stones of the substruction are
of white marble. It is curious, too, that considerable projections
have been left on most of the stones on the right side, whilst the
others present a smoothly hewn surface, evidently old material

A fresco painting of the Madonna, said to be of the sixth century,
probably the work of a Greek soldier under Belisarius (as the
character of the painting is Byzantine), remains in the corridor of
Aurelian near this gate. It was over the head of the sentinels in the
path and near the third tower on the right side of the gate. The
existence of this painting was not known until it was discovered
accidentally by Mr. J. H. Parker, C.B., in 1870. _Entrance, first gate
on the left, inside the Arch of Drusus._ The gate-house is said to
have been built, in the time of King Theodoric, out of the ruins of
the Temple of Mars, which stood outside this gate. It was necessary
for the Temple of Mars to be outside the gate, and this one was
erected when the one outside the Porta Capena became obsolete, being
within the Aurelian walls.

Behind the right hand wooden gate are a figure of S. Michael and a
Gothic inscription cut in the marble, recording the repulse of Louis
of Bavaria in 1327.

_Descending_ the Hill of Mars, on the left, built into a house, is an
unknown tomb. Beyond, we cross the other branch of the Almo. _Upon the
left is_


the murdered brother of Caracalla. The tomb now only shows a huge mass
of concrete. It was named after its shape, and was like the portico
erected by Septimius Severus to the Palace of the Cæsars (Spartianus).

_On the right, behind the osteria, is the_


Statius sang of the conjugal love of Abascantius, who interred his
wife Priscilla before the city, where the Appian Way branches out, and
where Cybele haunts the stream of the Almo.

To the mouth of the Almo the priests of Cybele brought the statue of
the goddess once a year and washed it in the waters, together with the
sacred utensils used in her worship.

The tower is medieval, showing it to have been turned into a fortress.

_On the left is the_


So called from the legend that S. Peter, when escaping from Rome, was
met by our Saviour at this spot. Peter asked of him, "Domine, quo
vadis?" to which Jesus replied, "Venio iterum crucifigi," which caused
the apostle to return to his doom. They show on a small piece of
marble two footprints, which they say is where the Lord stood--he
having left the imprint of his feet on a piece of white marble in a
road paved with silex. We don't believe it; but our readers may, if
they like. The original is in the Church of S. Sebastiano. _The Via
Ardeatina goes off to the right._ Just beyond, where the lane turns
off to the left, Cardinal Pole erected the little round shrine as the
exact spot where Jesus stood.


_From the Via Appia, just beyond the "Domine quo Vadis," a lane leads
into the valley of the Caffarella. At the end of the lane, upon the
left_, is a beautiful brick tomb of the time of the Antonines. This is
popularly known as the Temple of the Dio Rediculo. We have raised
objections to this: first, because Pliny ("Nat. Hist.," x. 43) says
the Campus Rediculi was at the second mile on the _right_ of the Via
Appia, whilst this ruin is upon the _left_; and secondly, from its
construction, which shows it to have been a tomb. We have always
considered this as the tomb of Annia Regilla, the wife of Herodes
Atticus, consul A.D. 143. It stands upon his estate, where we know he
erected a sepulchre to his wife, consecrating the surrounding land to
Minerva and Nemesis. He was of Greek origin, and the ornaments are of
Greek design; they are beautifully executed and well preserved,
particularly the zigzag border. This view of ours has been recently
confirmed: in digging up the soil at the base of the tomb, the
following portion of the inscription has been found,--it is cut on a
piece of _rosso-antico_:--


     Annia Regilla,
     the wife of Herodes,
     light of the house,
     whose this
     estate was

In an inscription in the Louvre she is called "the light of the house,
the lady of the land,"--these estates came to Herodes through
Annia,--and in the newly found inscription she is called light of the
house. Thus they both refer to the same lady whose tomb is here

The word _rediculo_ is supposed by some to come from _redeo_, I
return, as applied to the spot where Hannibal turned back from Rome;
but from Pliny we know there was a place called Campus Rediculi, and
that it was to the right of the Via Appia in coming out of the city,
so it could have nothing to do with this field. Pompeius Festus, a
Latin critic of the fourth century, ascribes it to the above meaning,
but he would be no authority. Hannibal's camp was on the road to
Tivoli, and from there he returned. "Hannibal moved his camp forward
to the river Anio, three miles from the city. Posting there his
troops, he himself, with two thousand horsemen, proceeded from the
Colline Gate as far as the Temple of Hercules, riding about, and
taking as near a view as possible of the situation and fortifications
of the city" (Livy, xxvi. 10). "Discouraged by all circumstances, he
moved his camp to the river Tutia, six miles from the city" (_Ibid._,

The tomb is built of yellow bricks, with red brick basement,
pilasters, and ornaments: on one side is the pediment of the portico,
which was formed with peperino columns. Over the square doorway is a
decorated niche for the statue. The tomb contained originally two
chambers, but the flooring of the upper one has been destroyed--thus
making one--the vault of which was decorated with stucco ornaments. In
construction it is like the painted tombs on the Via Latina, the
bricks being carefully baked and laid with very little mortar between
them, not unlike the entrance to some of the warehouses at Ostia, and
of the same date--time of Hadrian; for being a tomb, and not cased
with marble, it shows more careful construction than the ordinary
brickwork of the time of that emperor.

Proceeding on our ramble along the Via Appia, _upon the left_ is an
unknown tomb; _on the right_, beyond, another. This is exactly at the
second mile from the Porta Capena. Here was the Campus Rediculi. Was
this the raven's tomb? (See page 18.) The vineyard on the left
contained the Columbaria of Livia, now destroyed. _Beyond_, entrance
to the Catacomb of Prætextatus. _Upon the right_,


a shapeless mass of rubble. Several epitaphs to this family have been
found here.

_Just beyond is the entrance to the_


_Fee, one lira each, which includes guides and lights._

Catacomb is a medieval word, and is said by some authorities to be
derived from the Greek words κατὰ, under, and κύμβος, a hollow. The
Romans called these burial-places cemeteries. They generally consist
of three strata of tufa: _litoide_, of a red conglomeration, hard,
used for building; _pozzolana pura_, a friable sand, for mortar;
and _granolare_, harder, but easily cut, of which the catacombs
were almost exclusively made.

A catacomb consists of passages or long narrow galleries cut with
regularity, so that the roof and floor are at right angles to the
sides, running quite straight, but crossed by others, and these again
by others, forming a complete labyrinth of subterranean
corridors,--the sides are honeycombed with graves. Their narrowness
was to economize space, and to make the most of the limited area.
These corridors, themselves the cemetery, lead into different
chambers. Rome is surrounded by about sixty of these catacombs, each
taking its name from the saint that reposed there.

The catacombs began to be formed at the beginning of the third century
A.D., and originated from a pagan tomb. We find no exception to this
in the early catacombs. Just inside the gate is a pagan tomb, second
century, from which a flight of steps leads into the catacomb. This
tomb belonged to the family, and when it was filled, instead of
building a new tomb or buying another site, they dug down and made
another chamber in the tufa rock below, and so on. In the course of
time the proprietor became a Christian, and probably left his property
to the Church. The tomb became popular, and it was enlarged gradually;
the passages serving for the poor, and the chambers for the family
tombs, which were paid for. They were lighted by means of shafts,
which still exist; and there was no concealment--they were the public
recognized burial-places, and when Christianity was the nominal
religion of the state, pagans and Christians were both buried here. We
find pagan inscriptions, emblems (other than those adopted by the
Christians), and pagan family tombs. The pagan frescoes are much
better works of art than the Christian; for the Christians had to be
educated, whilst the pagans already knew. Early Christian frescoes are
very rude daubs (see those of Jonah), and they gradually advanced till
the ninth century, when we have the Byzantine school (see S. Cecilia).
This latter style was used for the pilgrims after the bodies, all
looked upon as martyrs, were removed to the churches in Rome; which
gave rise to the story that the catacombs lead to Rome, which is not
true. Neither is it correct that the catacombs were old quarries used
up by the Christians, though there was often an entrance into them
from a quarry. Most of the inscriptions are in the Vatican and
Lateran: they would be far more interesting where they were found.

_N.B._--The air is pure; the vaults are dry, and they are not cold.

The entrance is near the ancient church in which Pope Damasus, who
died A.D. 384, was buried. Descending the steps we enter the
vestibule, the walls of which are covered with the names of pilgrims;
a narrow gallery conducts us to the Chapel of the Bishops--Lucius,
A.D. 232; Anterus, A.D. 235; Fabianus, A.D. 236; Eutychianus, A.D.
275. Following the names of Lucius and Fabianus are the words, "Epis,
martyr." Urbanus, A.D. 223, and Sixtus, A.D. 258, were both buried
here. In front of the grave of the latter is the inscription put up by
Damasus, engraved in beautiful characters:--



In front was the altar. From here a gallery leads to the Crypt of S.
Cecilia, where her body was placed after martyrdom by Priest Urban,
A.D. 203. From this resting-place it was removed in 820 by Paschal I.
(See p. 140.) The body was found "fresh and perfect as when it was
first laid in the tomb, and clad in rich garments mixed with gold,
with linen cloths stained with blood rolled up at her feet." On the
wall is a fresco of S. Cecilia attired in a dress of Byzantine
character. Below are two others--on the left, Christ, with a nimbus;
on the right, Urban in full pontifical dress: they are of the ninth
century. After traversing some passages, we enter the cubicula of a
family. On the walls are roughly executed frescoes of the Baptism of
Christ in Jordan by John, the story of Jonah and the Large Fish, Moses
striking the Rock, the Woman at the Well of Samaria, the Paralytic Man
walking with his Bed--doves, emblems of immortality, on the sides. At
the end are two fossori, or grave-diggers, between whom are three
subjects in fresco, representing two men, one on either side of a
tripod on which something is cooking; and next it, seven people seated
at a table, beyond which are two figures and some sheep or lambs.
These frescoes seem to us to represent the scenes at the Lake of
Tiberias, after the resurrection of our Lord, as recorded in the
twenty-first chapter of S. John. They certainly agree with the story:
"There were together Simon Peter, and Thomas called Didymus, and
Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two other
of his disciples" (ver. 2)--"But when the morning was now come, Jesus
stood on the shore: but the disciples knew not that it was Jesus"
(ver. 4)--"As soon as they were come to land, they saw a fire of coals
there, and fish laid thereon, and bread" (ver. 9)--"Jesus saith unto
them, Come and dine. And none of the disciples durst ask him, Who art
thou? knowing that it was the Lord" (ver. 12)--"Jesus then cometh, and
taketh bread, and giveth them, and fish likewise" (ver. 13)--"So when
they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, Simon, son of Jonas,
lovest thou me more than these? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou
knowest that I love thee. He saith unto him, Feed my lambs" (ver. 15;
see also ver. 16, 17). In another sepulchre have been found two
sarcophagi containing remains; the tops are now covered with glass.
Opening out of this sepulchre is another, in which was found a
sarcophagus (fourth century) representing Lazarus being raised from
the dead, the multiplication of the loaves and fishes, Daniel in the
lions' den. Near this is a crypt containing an inscription having
reference to the heresy of Heraclius, on account of which Eusebius
became a voluntary exile. The names of the person who engraved
it--Furius Dionysius Filocalus--and of Bishop Damasus are cut in two
vertical lines down the sides. It had served previously for an
inscription to Caracalla, made by M. Asinius Sabinianus. It was a very
usual thing for the early Christians to re-use the marble of other
times, on account of its cheapness, they being mostly poor.



The Chapel of S. Cornelius was originally distinct from these
catacombs. His tomb is marked "Cornelius Martyr. Ep." on the side-wall
fresco of Cornelius and Cyprian; in front is a pillar on which stood
the lamp burning before the shrine.




Beyond are two crypts, with a fresco of the Good Shepherd, in good
preservation, on the ceiling, and other Christian emblems. We emerge
into daylight by means of the original stairs, of an early

_A little lower down the road, on the left, are the_ JEWISH CATACOMBS,
which, perhaps more than any other, would illustrate that these
catacombs were formerly quarries, because they are rather wide.

_A little further on we turn down a rough road on the left_, leading
to what has been called the "antiquary's despair," the


the site of which is now occupied by the deserted CHURCH OF S. URBANO.
The church was built of brick, and the vestibule is supported by
marble Corinthian pillars. Piranesi saw the name of Faustina stamped
on one of the bricks. The basin in the vestibule containing the holy
water was found near here, and was an altar consecrated to Bacchus.
The inscription says that it was made under the priesthood of
Apronianus. The grove of ilex trees is termed the Sacred Grove of
Bacchus. Tradition says S. Urban, in 222-30, had an oratory here under
the present altar; and that Urban VIII. (1633) turned the oratory into
a church;--the paintings and iron bars are of that date. Below the
altar, entered from its side, is a cell, on the end wall of which is
a fresco, of the eighth century, of the Virgin with Christ, and SS.
John and Urban. The plan of the building is rectangular, and it is of
the time of Antoninus Pius. At the foot of this hill is the valley of
the Almo, or Caffarella, in which is the mossy entrance to a grotto,
for a long time called the Grotto of Egeria, owing to the
misapprehension of the site of the Porta Capena. It is now known to
have been a nymphæum in the


This was proved from finding two pedestals, on which are two Greek
inscriptions, copies of which have been placed on the top of the hill,
close by the artificial ruin in the Villa Borghese; the originals are
in the Louvre. This villa formed part of the dowry of Annia Regilla,
wife of Atticus, as we learn from a column, No. 10 in the second Hall
of Inscriptions in the Capitol Museum, which afterwards marked the
eighth mile on one of the roads. After Regilla's death, he consecrated
a statue to Regilla in the above temple. This is denoted by the above
inscriptions, which speak of her as "the light of the house, the lady
of the land." The wall at the back of the vaulted chamber was
primarily intended to support the declivity of the hill, at the foot
of which this elegant little building stands. The niches in the walls
were for the reception of statues. One of these only, a recumbent
figure of a river god, has been preserved, and is supposed to be a
personification of the Almo, which flows past the spot.

Several channels for pipes, concealed in the wall, justify the
supposition that the water poured forth in numerous streams. The
romantic appearance of this spot has been greatly changed by the
stream being turned into an aqueduct in the summer of 1873. A path
leads to the tomb of Annia Regilla.

_Visitors whose time is limited should continue along the Appian Way
as far as the Tomb of Cecilia Metella, and then retrace their steps to
this road, which leads into the Via Appia Nova (page 328), and so
return to Rome._

_Regaining the Via Appia, at a short distance on the right is the Via
Sette Chiesa. Some distance down, near the Tor Marancia farm, are the_


The tomb at the entrance dates from the reign of Trajan, and contained
the remains of SS. Nereus and Achilleus; also of Petronilla, a member
of the Aurelii family. The saints were the servants of Domitilla, a
daughter or niece of Flavius Clemens, the first of imperial blood who
suffered martyrdom. Domitilla opened this tomb, which afterwards
became a general catacomb, for the remains of her servants. This is
the most ancient Christian catacomb, as may be seen from the paintings
and brickwork of the vestibule. The present entrance is modern; the
catacomb is interesting for its paintings. In 1874 the


supposed to have been built about A.D. 400, was discovered, the top
being only a few feet below the ground. It is supposed to have been
originally built for the devotees who resorted to the tombs of the
martyrs, and was destroyed by the Lombardians. On the wall of the
tribune is a _graffito_ of a priest preaching, probably S. Gregory,
whose chair was removed from here to the church of SS. Nereo e
Achilleo. (See page 279.)

Beneath the floor were discovered many tombs covered over when the
basilica was built. It is being restored as a monument to Monsieur

A fresco was found representing S. Petronilla receiving Veneranda.
Several inscriptions have been found; also the columns which supported
the baldachino, on which are represented the martyrdoms of SS.
Achilleus and Nereus.

The Romans built an altar at the springs of the river Numicius to
Anna, the sister of Dido, who became the wife of the god of the river
Numicius, and was called Anna Perenna. (See Ovid, "Fasti," iii. 542.)
The Roman Church erected a chapel to her on the same spot, under the
title of Santa Petronilla, said, without scriptural authority, to have
been S. Peter's daughter, and to have died in Rome, May 30th, A.D. 98,
in the reign of Domitian. This could not be the case, for Domitian
died A.D. 96, and Trajan was emperor before the last of May A.D. 98,
Nerva having reigned between. _Straight on leads to S. Paul's outside
the walls._

_Returning to the Via Appia, on the right is the_


founded by Constantine, and rebuilt in 1611 from the design of Ponzio.
The front and portico of six granite columns were designed by
Vasanzio. Below the church are the catacombs, open free. A monk acts
as guide. An altar on the right contains Bernini's statue of
Sebastian, and one on the right the famous footprints.

_Opposite the church_ are the extensive remains of the


In front of the Circus of Maxentius, on the Via Appia, stands a square
portico, of which only the high enclosure walls remain. These,
however, are in a state of excellent preservation.

_At the back of_ the modern premises, in the middle of this enclosure,
are the remains of a considerable circular tomb, in front of which was
a colonnade facing the Via Appia. In all probability this is the
identical building erected by Maxentius in honour of his son Romulus,
who died in the year 300. Representations of this tomb are to be met
with on coins. _At the side is the_


erected A.D. 310, the enclosure walls of which have been preserved
almost entire. These display the interesting phenomenon of pots of
earthenware built into them, which not merely expedited the progress
of the work, but allowed of its being more easily repaired than was
possible in any other mode of construction. Its length was 1574 feet,
and breadth 269, and 18,000 spectators could be accommodated within
its vast walls, yet it was a small building compared with the Circus
Maximus (see page 209). In 1825 three inscriptions were found proving
this to be the circus consecrated to Romulus, son of Maxentius. Two
towers flank the entrance, supposed to have been the seats for the
judges. It is the most perfect specimen of a Roman circus remaining.
_On the top of the hill_ is the "stern round fortress of other days,"
known as


  [Illustration: CIRCUS OF MAXENTIUS.]

wife of Lucius Cornelius Sylla, and daughter of Quintus Cæcilius
Metellus (Plutarch). The building consists of a circular tower,
seventy feet in diameter, resting on a quadrangular basement made
chiefly of lava and stone, cemented together by lime and pozzuolana,
and strengthened with key-stones of travertine. This ruin, so long
respected as a tomb, was converted into a fortress by Boniface VIII.,
and used as such by the Gaetani, his near relatives. It now belongs to
archæology. Learned men have made it one of their most sacred
resting-places, and it is a favourite resort of tourists and artists.
The inscription on the side facing the road runs as follows:
"Cæciliæ--Q. Cretici. F.--Metellæ. Crassi." _To the right_ there are
bas-reliefs, well preserved--one representing a trophy of victory,
another a slave or a prisoner; both were brought from a tomb about a
mile further on. The tower was built seventy-nine years before Christ.
The construction is very remarkable, on account of the enormous
thickness of the walls, which are of concrete faced with travertine
and lined with brick in the interior. The enormous massiveness of the
structure indicates a rude and semi-barbarous period. Plutarch speaks
of the extravagance of Sylla in funeral ceremonies. Cecilia Metella
had been previously married to the elder Scaurus (Pliny, xxxvi. 24;
xxxvii. 5). "Sylla dreamed, shortly before his death, that his son
Cornelius, who died before his wife, Cecilia Metella, appeared to him,
and summoned him away to join his mother" (Plutarch).

The inner chamber of the ruin is fifteen feet in diameter, and was at
one time supposed to contain great treasures both of art and coinage.
But the sarcophagus of white marble now in the court of the Farnese
Palace, and _believed_ to have been discovered in or near the Tomb of
Cecilia Metella, is the only treasure it has produced.

     "What was this tower of strength? within its cave
     What treasure lay so locked, so hid?--a woman's grave."

_Opposite are_ the ruins of a Gothic church,--


Built by the Gaetani. Considerable remains of this fortress exist,
showing the strength of the hold by means of which they levied "black
mail" on the passers-by.

  [Illustration: TOMB OF CECILIA METELLA.]

From this point the Via Appia continues in a straight line to
Albano. Considerable remains of tombs exist on each side of the way,
connected with which are many anecdotes and tragedies. Along the Via
Appia a most magnificent prospect of the Campagna is enjoyed, with its
ruined tombs and aqueducts, and the Sabine and Alban Hills in the


From just beyond the tomb of Metella the Via Appia was lost till
excavated by Canina, under Pius IX. (1850-53), when many of the tombs
were restored, as far as possible, with the fragments.

             LEFT.                  |           RIGHT.
        _Fourth Mile._              |      _Fourth Mile._
  Servilius Quartus.                | New fortifications.
  Seneca (relief, uncertainty of    | Plinius Eutychius.
    life).                          | Caius Licinius, B.C. 367.
  Granius, son of Lucius (round     | Doric tomb.
    tomb).                          | Hilarius Fuscus, cos. A.D. 160.
  Inscription to Sextus Pompeius    | Scondi and Scondini, A.D. 100.
   Justus.                          | A. Pamphilius.
  Over the wall, remains of Temple  | Rabirius, Hermodorus, Demaris,
    of Jupiter.                     |   and Usia Prima.
  Brick tomb, containing fragments. | Sextus Pompeius Justus, cos.
                                    |   A.D. 14.
                                    | Doric tomb.
         _Fifth Mile._              |       _Fifth Mile._
  Tomb of the Quintilii, with       | Marcus C. Cerdonus.
    undercourse of stone taken out. | First tumulus of the Curiatii,
  Villa of the Quintilii, off the   |   with medieval tower.
    road, usurped by Commodus, and  | Second and third tumuli of the
    where he was assassinated; with |   Curiatii.
    medieval Church of S. Maria     |     "The sepulchres still remain
    della Gloria.                   |   in the several spots where the
                                    |   combatants fell: those of the
                                    |   two Romans in one place
                                    |   near to Alba; those of the three
                                    |   Albans on the side next to Rome;
                                    |   but in different
                                    |   places, as they fought" (Livy,
                                    |   i. 25).
         _Sixth Mile._              |
  Round tomb of Cotta, consul       |
    A.D. 20.                        |
  [There is a private road here     |
    into the Via Appia Nova. If     |
    the man at the tomb is surly,   |
    and will not let you pass,      |
    half a franc will pave the      |
    way.]                           |
  Tumuli of the Horatii, Tor di     |
    Selce, with a medieval tower,   |
    the place where they fought.    |
        _Seventh Mile._             |      _Seventh Mile._
  Brick tomb of the second century, | Unknown tomb, with medieval
    with fragments of three female  |   tower, off the road on the
    statues.                        |   right.
  Semicircular concrete ruin,       |
    supposed resting-place.         |
  Brick tomb of Persius.            |
  Road to Via Appia Nova.           |
  Return to Rome.                   |

        _Eighth Mile._              |      _Eighth Mile._
  Brick tomb of Persius, "who died  | Area of Silvanus, and Temple of
    Nov. 24th, 61, at his villa at  |   Hercules (Martial, ix. 64,
    the 8th mile on the Via Appia"  |   101).
    (Suetonius).                    |
                                    |         _Ninth Mile._
                                    | Tomb of Gallienus and Flavius
                                    |   Severus.

_The railway to Naples crosses at the tenth mile. Carriages cannot
pass, but can turn into the Via Appia Nova._ (See page 328.)


TRES TABERNÆ was a _mutatio_, or halting-place, 11 miles from the
Porta Capena on the Via Appia, at the place now called Frattocchie. It
is 10 miles from the Porta S. Sebastiano and 11 from the Porta S.
Giovanni on the Via Appia Nova, or 9 English miles 326 yards from the
Porta Appia. Here the four roads from Rome, Tusculum, Alba Longa, and
Antium met and continued southwards as one road. It is still a
halting-place, and taverns necessarily grace it. Its exact location is
explicitly pointed out by Cicero. He says to Atticus (ii. 10), "I had
come out of the Antian way into the Appian way at the Tres Tabernæ, on
the Festival of Ceres. When my Curio, coming from Rome, met me, at the
same place came your servant with letters from you [from Tusculum].
Written at the 10th hour (4 p.m.), Apl. 12th," B.C. 58. Continuing his
journey to Formiæ, Cicero again writes to Atticus: "From Appii Forum,
at the 4th hour (10 p.m.). I wrote a little while before from the Tres
Tabernæ" (ii. 11). So it took him six hours to do the 32 miles between
Tres Tabernæ and Appii Forum. Cicero knew the spot well, for it was
the scene of the murder of Clodius. "Severus was detained a prisoner
at a state villa at the 13th mile on the Appian way, where he was
strangled, and then brought back to the 8th mile [from the Porta
Appia] and buried in the tomb of Gallienus" ("Excerpta Valesiana," iv.
10). "Severus was murdered near to the Tres Tabernæ of Rome by
Maximianus; and his body was placed in the sepulchre of Gallienus,
which is 9 miles from the city [Porta Capena] on the Appian way"
(Aurelius Victor, "Ep." xl. 3). Some have located Tres Tabernæ at
Sermoneta, 23 miles, others at Cisterna, 30 miles from Rome. In the
first case Cicero would have taken five hours to do the 20 miles, and
in the second case five hours to do 13 miles; besides, the Antian
joins the Appian way 11 miles from Rome. These writers were evidently
misled by the medieval forgery known as the Tabula Peutingeriana,
which is in the Vienna Library.

APPII FORUM was a town of the Volsci, 43 miles from Rome, where
travellers embarked or disembarked, passing the Pontine marshes by
means of the canal. Horace ("Sat." i. 5) describes it as "stuffed with
sailors and surly landlords." These places are interesting, being the
meeting-places of the Roman Christians with St. Paul. "And from Rome,
when the brethren heard of us, they came to meet us as far as Appii
Forum and Tres Tabernæ" (Acts xxviii. 15).

  [Illustration: MAP OF THE ROMAN CAMPAGNA.]


[17] Mr. Forbes's Carriage Excursion Lecture every Tuesday.

[18] St. Melchiades.

[19] Paulina, Neo, Marca, &c.


(_Any of these Excursions can be made in one day._)

     PORTA DEL POPOLO: -- Villa Borghese -- Villa di Papa
     Giulio -- Acqua Acetosa -- Ponte Molle -- Villa of Livia
     -- Veii -- Monte Mario -- Villas Mellini and Madama. PORTA
     SALARA: -- Villa Albani -- Catacomb of S. Priscilla --
     Antemnæ -- Ponte Salara -- The Anio -- Fidenæ. PORTA PIA:
     -- Porta Nomentana -- Villa Torlonia -- Church and
     Catacomb of S. Agnese -- S. Costanza -- Ponte Nomentana --
     Mons Sacer -- Tomb of Virginia -- Basilica and Catacomb of
     S. Alexander. PORTA S. LORENZO: -- The Roman Cemetery --
     Basilica of S. Lorenzo -- Ponte Mammolo -- Hannibal's Camp
     -- Castel Arcione -- Aquæ Albulæ -- Ponte Lucano -- Tomb
     of the Plautii. TIVOLI: -- Villa D'Este -- Temples of
     Sibyl and Vesta -- The Glen and Falls -- Pons Vopisci --
     Villa of Quintilius Varus -- The Cascades -- Ponte
     dell'Acquoria -- Villa of Mæcenas -- Temple of Hercules --
     Hadrian's Villa. PORTA MAGGIORE: -- The Baker's Tomb --
     The Aqueducts -- Tomb of Helena (?) -- Gabii -- Ponte di
     Nona -- Villa of the Gordian Emperors -- Tomb of Quintus
     Atta. PORTA S. GIOVANNI. _First Excursion_: -- Via Appia
     Nova -- Painted tombs -- S. Stephen's -- The Aqueducts --
     Pompey's Tomb -- Albano -- Ariccia -- Genzano -- Lake and
     Village of Nemi -- Palazzolo -- Lake Albano -- Castel
     Gandolfo -- Site of Alba Longa (?) -- Vallis Ferentina --
     Marino -- Grotta Ferrata -- Cicero's Villa. _Second
     Excursion_: -- Frascati -- Tusculum -- Rocca di Papa --
     Monte Cavo. PORTA S. SEBASTIANO: -- Via Appia. (See page
     285.) PORTA S. PAOLO: -- Pyramid of Caius Cestius -- S.
     Paul's outside the walls -- Remuria Hill -- Tre Fontane --
     The Viaduct of Ancus Martius. OSTIA: -- Street of Tombs --
     Houses -- Warehouses -- Temples -- Docks -- Palace --
     Walls of Ancus Martius -- Museum -- View from Tower of the
     Castle -- Castel Fusano -- Pliny's Villa.


extends from Mount Soracte (S. Oreste) southwards to the Alban Hills,
and from the Apennines westwards to the sea. It is watered by the
Tiber and numerous smaller streams; but there are no marshes except
the salt ones by the sea. The soil is mostly composed of tufa rock,
covered with a few feet of soil--decayed vegetable matter. This causes
the malaria: for the first rains, after the heat of summer, which has
burned up all the vegetation, pass through the soil and rest upon the
rock; then the hot sun after the rains draws up the noxious gas, which
being dispersed through the air, if inhaled during sleep, or upon an
empty stomach, produces fever.

If the soil, which for many ages has been allowed to lie fallow, were
properly irrigated and cultivated, all this could be obviated. In the
last few years more has been brought under the plough; and if the
government would only plant trees by the road-sides and in the waste
places, the Campagna would soon become as healthy as in the days of
Pliny, who thus describes it:--"Such is the happy and beautiful
amenity of the Campagna that it seems to be the work of a rejoicing
nature. For, truly, so it appears in the vital and perennial salubrity
of its atmosphere; its fertile plains, sunny hills, healthy woods,
thick groves, rich varieties of trees, breezy mountains, fertility in
fruits, vines, and olives; its noble flocks of sheep and abundant
herds of cattle; its numerous lakes, and wealth of rivers and streams
pouring in upon its many seaports, in whose lap the commerce of the
world lies, and which run largely into the sea, as it were to help

The surface is by no means flat, but undulating, like the rolling
prairies of America, and presents many points of interest and study to
the artist and the rambler.

       *       *       *       *       *


(_Porta del Popolo._)

_Passing through the Porta del Popolo_, built in 1561 by Vignola, a
short walk under the walls, to the right, brings us to the Muro Torto,
a piece of masonry of the time of Sylla, and held to be under the
special protection of S. Peter (Procopius, "B. G." i. 13).


_Closed on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays._

_Turning to the right_, just outside the Porta del Popolo, is situated
this the handsomest park in Rome, founded by Cardinal Scipio Borghese.
The grounds are open to all visitors; they cover a wide extent, and
their walks, meadows, and groves are superb and unique in their
general attractions. As a promenade for horsemen, pedestrians, and
carriages, it shares the honours with its neighbour the Pincio. After
an airing on the latter, a turn through the Porta del Popolo into this
splendid villa generally completes the evening drive of Romans and
tourists. The clatter of hoofs in winter begins at 4 P.M., and in
summer at 7 P.M. On Sundays a large crowd is collected within its
limits from all quarters of the city, composed of all classes, from
the _minente_ and Albanian nurses bearing babies, to the duchesses
gliding along in landaus. On those days it becomes the paradise of
children, who flock thither with their guardians, and enjoy a rare
frolic in gathering wild flowers, rolling on the grass, and breathing
a far fresher air than the city affords. In the centre of the villa is
the Museum. _Open on Saturdays only, from 1 till 4 in the winter, and
4 till 7 in the summer. Catalogues are provided for visitors._

GRAND HALL.--1. Diana; 5. Bust of Juno; 9. Augustus. Relief, Curtius
leaping into the Gulf. Mosaics of gladiators.

RIGHT SALOON OF JUNO.--_Centre._ Juno Pronuba. 3. Urania; 4. Ceres; 5.
Venus Genitrix; 20. Relief, Birth of Telephus.

HALL OF HERCULES.--_Centre._ Fighting Amazon on Horseback. 21. Venus.

ROOM OF APOLLO.--_Centre._ Apollo. 3. Scipio Africanus; 4. Daphne
turned into a Laurel; 13. Anacreon; 14. Lucilla.

GREEK GALLERY.--The twelve porphyry Cæsars are modern. Porphyry urn
from Tomb of Hadrian. 32. Bronze statue of Geta.

CABINET.--7. The Hermaphrodite; 11. Martius. Mosaics of fishing
scenes. _Centre._ Alcæus.

CABINET OF TYRTÆUS.--The Greek poet _in the centre_. 2. Minerva; 4.

ROOM NINE.--_Centre._ Boy on a Dolphin. 4. Paris; 8. Ceres; 10. A
Gipsy, _modern_; 20. Venus.

ROOM OF THE FAUN.--_In the centre._ 2. Ceres; 8. Faun; 14. Periander;
6. Seneca.

_Stairs from the great gallery lead to the second floor._

ROOM ONE.--David, Apollo and Daphne, Æneas and Anchises, all by

ROOM FIVE.--Pauline Borghese, sister of the great Napoleon, as Venus
Victrix, by Canova. Pictures--Story of Helen, by Gavin Hamilton.

_Passing out of the villa, and proceeding along the ancient_ VIA
FLAMINIA, _now_ VIA PONTE MOLLE (_which is traversed by a tramway_),
_turning up the lane on the right, at the top we come to the_


_On the left-hand side, at the corner of the lane_, is the Casino,
with sculptured cornices and a fountain. Beyond the Casino, and
formerly connected with it by a corridor, is the villa where Pope
Julius III. best loved to dwell, coming from the Vatican in his barge
upon the Tiber. There remain two rooms with richly decorated ceilings
by Zucchero, and a fine court with a fountain.

_As the road is very dusty and uninteresting, we will take the lane,
which conducts us, after a pleasant stroll, to the_


a mineral spring, enclosed in a fountain by Bernini, and surrounded by
a small grove. The view of the Tiber here is very fine, particularly
when the river has risen. On the opposite bank rises the picturesque
ruin, Tor di Quinto, the tomb of Ovid's family. The hill _to the
right_ was the site of Antemnæ. (See page 309.) _Below, on the left_,


bursts on our sight. It was built by Pius VII. in 1815, on the
foundations of the Pons Milvius, "which the elder Scaurus is said to
have built" (Marcellinus, xxvii. iii. 9), and near which Constantine
defeated Maxentius, October 27th, 312, a victory so graphically
depicted by Raphael on the Vatican walls. "Maxentius endeavouring to
cross the bridge of boats constructed for the use of his army, a
little below the Ponte Molle, was thrown by his frightened horse into
the waters, and eaten up by the quicksands on account of the weight of
his cuirass. Constantine had great difficulty in finding his corpse"
(Aurelius Victor).

_Crossing the bridge, the road_ _Via Flaminia_, _to the right, leads
us to_ PRIMA PORTA, the SAXA RUBRA of the ancient Romans, the first
halting-place from Rome. _On the right, above the Osteria_, was
situated the Veientina


(_custodian next door to the church_), _about four miles from the
bridge_, discovered in 1863. When first excavated, the frescoes and
arabesques were found in a good state of preservation, but they have
since been greatly damaged by atmospheric influences. Livia was the
wife of Augustus, and mother of Tiberius.

"Formerly, when Livia, after her marriage with Augustus, was making a
visit to her villa at Veii, an eagle flying by let drop in her lap a
hen, with a sprig of laurel (bay) in its mouth, just as it had been
seized. Livia gave orders to have the hen taken care of, and the sprig
of laurel set; and the hen reared such a numerous brood of chickens,
that the villa to this day is called THE VILLA OF THE HENS. The laurel
grove flourished so much, that the Cæsars procured thence the boughs
and crowns they bore at their triumphs. It was also their constant
custom to plant others in the same spot, immediately after a triumph;
and it was observed that, a little before the death of each prince,
the tree which had been set by him died away. But in the last year of
Nero, the whole plantation of laurels perished to the very roots, and
the hens all died" (Suetonius, "Galba," i.).

Cavaliere Piacentini has discovered (1879), on his farm at Prima
Porta, the remains of some baths, which probably were connected with
Livia's Villa of the Hens. In the centre is a hemicycle, 29 feet in
diameter, the mosaic of which represents circus races, the victor
receiving the palm of victory for his horse Liber; and the three
chariots racing, Romano, Ilarinus, and Olympio. Surrounding this hall
are twelve others, with mosaic pavements of festoons and geometrical
patterns in _chiaro-oscuro_. One pavement, 26 feet by 20 feet,
represents the sea, in which are numerous fish; while upon the sea
three-winged figures gambol with marine monsters. The boilers for hot
water, furnaces for hot air, and pipes for cold water are in a capital
state of preservation. Brick stamps show that the building was
restored as late as the time of King Theodoric.

Near the bridge over the Fosso di Prima Porta has been found the
circular tomb of Gellius, the freedman of the Emperor Tiberius.

_The road straight on from the Ponte Molle_, VIA CASSIA, _leads to_


(_Mr. Forbes's carriage excursion-lecture at frequent intervals._)

_Turn off to the right beyond_ LA STORTA, _at the tenth mile_, FOR
CARRIAGES; _pedestrians turn off at the fifth mile, near the_ TOMB OF
VIBIUS MARIANUS, VIA VEIENTINA. The site of Veii is surrounded by two
streams, the Cremera and the Fosso de'due Fossi, and is about twelve
miles from Rome. The place was captured after a ten years' siege by
the Romans under Camillus, B.C. 393.

_Descend from the village of_ ISOLA, by the side of the brook, to the
mill; here the torrent forms a picturesque cascade, 80 feet high,
crossed by the ancient Ponte dell' Isola, with a single arch spanning
22 feet. Here was one of the ancient gates, called Porta de' Sette
Pagi. _Opposite_ Isola, down the stream, is the Porta dell' Arce.
Under the rock of Isola are some mineral springs, and another gate,
Porta Campana. In the ravine _beyond_ was the Porta Fidenate. _The
gates on the other side of the city_ may be traced by _ascending_ the
valley of the Cremera, Porta di Pietra Pertusa; _beyond which_, on the
ancient road outside, is a large tumulus, La Vaccareccia. Porta
Spezzeria is higher up, with the remains of a tufa bridge; near by are
the remains of an Etruscan columbaria.[20] Beyond is Porta Capenate,
under which is Ponte Sodo, a tunnel, 240 feet long, 15 feet broad, and
20 feet high, cut in tufa for the brook to pass through. Further on is
Porta del Colombario, near a ruined columbaria. _Beyond_ is the Ponte
di Formello, a Roman bridge upon Etruscan piers; _close by_ is the
last gate, Porta Sutrina.

The so-called Piazza d'Armi, the ancient citadel, stands at the
junction of the two streams.

Under Julius Cæsar, within the walls of the ancient city, an IMPERIAL
MUNICIPIUM was founded. Part of a road, some traces of tombs, and a
columbaria mark the site. It seems to have been founded to occupy the
commanding situation, as Florus the historian, A.D. 116, asks, "Who
now knows the site of Veii?" In the middle ages, for the same reason,
the isolated rock was surmounted by a castle. Cæsar Borgia besieged it
for twelve days, and destroyed it. Isola is considered to have been
the necropolis of Veii, from the sepulchral caves and niches hollowed
in the rock.

A pleasant ramble may be had by _following the Cremera down to the
Tiber, between the sixth and seventh mile on the Via Flaminia, thence
to Rome_.

_Returning beyond_ LA STORTA, _the_ VIA TRIUMPHALIS _leads over_ MONTE
MARIO. On the height overlooking Rome is


This hill is supposed to take its name from the celebrated Marius, and
the slope down to Rome was called the Clivus Cinnæ, from Cinna
(Gruter, mlxxxi. 1). In 998, from the victory of Otto III. over the
Romans, it was called Monte Malus, hence the bridge over the Tiber was
called Ponte Male; by Evelyn, 1650, Mela; now Ponte Molle. The hill
took its present name from the proprietor in 1409. It is now
Government property, and a fort has been erected on the height. In
making the fort the tomb of Minicia Marcella was found. Pliny, jr. (v.
16), speaks of the sweetness and early death of the daughter of
Fundanus, consul 107. The inscription says she lived twelve years,
eleven months, and seven days. From the height a most glorious
panorama of the Tiber valley is enjoyed.

_A path through the woods leads down to_


The villa was built by Giulio Romano, and it contains some of his
frescoes, representing satyrs and loves, Juno and her peacocks,
Jupiter and Ganymede, and other subjects of mythology. There is a fine
fresco upon a ceiling, representing Phœbus driving his heavenly
steeds, by Giovanni da Udine.

_Passing out into the_ VIA TRIUMPHALIS by the oak avenue, pausing a
while at the top of the hill to admire "the vast and wondrous dome,"
and continuing our ramble, we descend the slopes of Monte Mario, the

       *       *       *       *       *


The present gate was built in 1873; outside are some slight remains of
the old one. A short distance down the VIA SALARA, on the _left_,
Cavalier Bertoni has discovered the tomb of Lucilius and his sister
Polla, with their portraits. It is a grand circular tomb, 117 feet in
diameter. Paterculus (ii. 9) speaks of "Lucilius, who in the Numantine
War served in the cavalry under Publius Africanus," B.C. 103.
_Opposite is the_


_Open on Tuesdays from 12 till 4. Permission to be obtained of the
bankers_ Messrs. Spada and Co., 11 Via Condotti. The museum contains a
fine collection of statues, busts, sarcophagi, &c. The grounds are
splendid, and numerous antique statues are dispersed through them.
_Catalogues can be obtained of the custodian._

GRAND PORTICO.--51. Augustus; 79. Agrippina; 61. Faustina (?); 72.
Marcus Aurelius; 82. Hadrian.

VESTIBULE.--19. Caryatid, by Criton and Nicholaus of Athens.

LEFT GALLERY.--48. Alexander; 45. Scipio; 40. Hannibal; 46. Brutus
(?); 110. Faun.

RIGHT GALLERY.--93. Juno; 106. Faun and Bacchus; 120. Son of Augustus;
118. Seneca; 112. Numa; 143. Livia sacrificing. Vase, with the
labours of Hercules, found at his temple on the Via Appia. 222.
Relief--the Nile.

_Staircase from Vestibule._--891. Rome Triumphant; 885. Relief--the
Death of the Children of Niobe; 893. Antoninus Pius Distributing Corn
(?); 894. Orphan Children of Faustina (?). (See page 44.)

UPPER FLOOR, FIRST ROOM.--905. Apollo; 906. An Athlete; 915. Cupid.

NOBLE GALLERY.--Reliefs; 1008. Hercules and the Hesperides; 1009.
Dædalus and Icarus; 1010. A Sacrifice; 1013. Antonius holding a Horse;
1018. Marcus Aurelius, Antoninus, Faustina, and Rome; 1014. Venus,
Diana, Apollo, and Victory sacrificing.

LEFT ROOM.--1013. Relief--Antinoüs Crowned with the Lotus Flower,
_very beautiful_.

SECOND ROOM.--952. Apollo Sauroctonos, by Praxiteles.

_Beyond the villa is the_


Priscilla _is said_ to be the Christian name of the mother of Pudens.
Anastasius (xxxi. 31) says this cemetery was made by Bishop Marcellus,
A.D. 307. There is a burial vault here said to be the tomb of the
family of Pudens; it has some rude frescoes--a woman coming out of a
house; an orante in act of prayer, called a Madonna; a woman between
two men, twice over. Other frescoes, in different chambers, are the
Three Jews in the Fiery Furnace; Good Shepherd; four orantes and
doves; seven men carrying a barrel, whilst two others lie on the
ground. Scratched on the wall is ORATIUS D. NOBILIBUS ANTONIUS BOSIUS;
and underneath was a marble slab--BONAVIÆ CONJUGI SANCTISSIMAE; a Good
Shepherd; a female figure seated, with a child in her lap, looking
towards a male figure with hands extended, called the Virgin and
Isaiah (query, Joseph)--between them is a star. This is the earliest
painting of the Virgin known.

_Leaving the catacomb, the hill on the left, beyond, was the site of_


one of the most ancient cities of the Latin land. It was captured by
the Romans under Romulus, and destroyed by Alaric A.D. 409, who
encamped here when attacking Rome. Near by, the Anio flows into the
Tiber,--"with whirlpools dimpled, and with downward force." A
beautiful prospect of the surrounding country may be enjoyed. The
Tiber rolling his yellow billows to the sea, serpent like, through
green meadows; the blue Apennines, with snow-covered summits, looking
patronizingly down upon the village-crowned hills at their base; the
slopes of Monte Mario, dark with cork-wood foliage, _on our left_. Sir
W. Gell says that the high point nearest the road was the citadel,
below which is a cave that was once a sepulchre. One gate looked
towards Fidenæ, up the Tiber; another towards Rome; perhaps also one
toward Acqua Acetosa; and another in the direction of the meeting

_Beyond, the road crosses the Anio by_


rebuilt in 1878. Upon the old bridge Titus Manlius, in A.U.C. 395,
killed the Gaulish giant, and on account of putting the giant's chain
on his own neck took the title of Torquatus (Livy, vii. 10).

_Beyond_ the bridge is an unknown tomb. Five miles from Rome is Castel
Giubeleo, the site of


"a large and populous city, forty stadia from Rome" (Dionysius, ii.
53; xiii. 28); founded by the Albans, and made a Roman colony by
Romulus, but soon revolted. It was whilst Servius Tullius was fighting
the citizens that he sent and destroyed Alba Longa (Livy). The place
was ultimately taken by Lartius Flavus, the consul, by means of a mine
(Dionysius, v. 70).

There are no remains of the city, but the site is undoubted. The arx
was to the right of the road on the high hill before arriving at
Castel Giubeleo. It is not known when this city was destroyed, but in
A.D. 27, in the time of Tiberius, the temporary amphitheatre fell and
killed a large number of people. (See Suetonius, "Tiberius," xl.;
"Caligula," xxxi.; Tacitus, "Annals," iv. 62.)

       *       *       *       *       *


This gate was built by Michael Angelo in 1564. It was nearly destroyed
by the Italian troops in 1870, but is now restored.

A fine view of the Villa Albani and the Sabine Hills may be had from
this spot.

_To the left_ of the gate a tablet marks where the Italian army
entered Rome on the 20th September 1870.

_To the right_ is the ancient


Porta Pia taking its place. The former is flanked by two round towers.
_Opposite_ is the Villa Patrizi, in which is the small catacomb of S.
Nicomedus. _Beyond, on the right_, is the Villa Lezzani and the Chapel
of S. Giustina.

_Proceeding down the Via Nomentana a little way, on the right_ is the


_open on Thursdays, from 11 till 4, with permission to be obtained of
Messrs. Spada and Co._ The gallery has many fine paintings and
sculptures, and the gardens are adorned with fountains, statues, and
mock ruins.

_About a mile further on is the_


founded by Constantine, on the site where the body of the saint was
found. The aisles are formed by thirty-two columns of fine marble, and
the altar canopy is supported by four columns of porphyry. In the
second chapel on the right is a beautiful altar inlaid with mosaic
work. Pio Nono's escape when the floor fell in, April 15, 1855, is
commemorated by a fresco by Tojetti. The feast of the saint is on the
21st January, when the lambs are blessed with great ceremony. Here we
have the best idea of a basilica.


_Entrance in the church. Open on Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday._

Part of this catacomb under the garden of the monks is well worth a
visit. The entrance to it is through the church, and the exit through
S. Costanza. The original stairs at the entrance were excavated in
1873, and four pagan tombs were found and two openings from them into
the catacomb, showing that the Catacombs were general cemeteries, and
not _exclusively_ Christian. This catacomb is interesting, as it is
left just as it was found in 1871, many of the graves being
unopened.--The neighbouring


was erected to the memory of Constantine's daughter, Constantina, who
was anything but a saint according to Marcellinus. It is worth
visiting on account of its dome, supported by twenty-four clustered
columns in granite, and covered with mosaics. The sarcophagus is now
in the Vatican Museum.

S. Costanza is a mausoleum and a baptistery, not properly a church.
The mosaic pictures of the fourth century are the finest known of that
period. Those over the doors are of the eighth century.

"At this time [A.D. 360] Julian sent the body of his wife Helen,
recently deceased, to Rome, to be buried in the suburb on the road to
Nomentum, where also Constantina, his sister-in-law, the wife of
Gallus, had been buried" (Marcellinus, xxi. i. 5).

_A quarter of a mile beyond the church, on the left, is the entrance


(_Custodian, Valentino._)

Signor Armellini has, it is reported, succeeded in deciphering an
inscription in this catacomb, in which the name of S. Peter occurs.
The supposed inscription is in an archway and on the stucco, the
letters being in red colour. This _cubiculum_ is lighted from the top
by an old _luminarium_, and in shape is not unlike a basilica without
aisles. At a short distance in front of the apse, jutting out from the
right wall, is a chair of tufa, which looks across the chamber;
opposite is a column, coming out in the same manner, above which is a
niche for a lamp. The apse itself is filled up about four feet above
the floor of the chamber, the filling up forming a tomb, the top of
which was probably used as an altar (_arcosolium_). The vault of the
apse is covered with scroll-worked stucco in very low relief, coloured
red; this has fallen off, only some slight traces of it remaining,
presenting in one or two instances the _appearance_ of letters, which,
we should say, it was impossible to make out. This is the inscription
in which Signor Armellini reads the name of Peter. But even supposing
that it is an inscription, and that Peter's name is there, it does not
prove that Peter baptized there; for, in fact, the catacomb was made
long after S. Peter's death. In the acts of the martyrs Liberius and
Damasus, it is mentioned that in this catacomb S. Peter baptized
(query, not the apostle). This is followed by Bosio, Aringhi, and De
Rossi. This catacomb is supposed to have belonged to the descendants
of Ostorius, the pro-prætor in Britain who sent Caractacus and his
wife prisoners to Claudius. Of course the simple mention of S. Peter
in the inscription does not prove that he ever was in Rome, for we
have every evidence to the contrary. This catacomb is about two miles
outside the Porta Pia, on the Via Nomentana, and adjoins that of S.
Agnese, and is also known by the name of "Peter's Fountain," though
there is no water there. Boldetti informs us that a vial of blood
found in the Ostorian Cemetery bore these words: "_Primitius in pace
post multas angustias fortissimus martyr._" This catacomb is also
mentioned by Tertullian.

_Resuming our ramble_ along the Via Nomentana, after a short walk we
reach the railway bridge, from which we obtain a beautiful view of the
Campagna and the distant hills, whilst at our feet is the Anio,
spanned by the


a Roman bridge, very picturesque, rebuilt, A.D. 565, by Narses, the
eunuch, and conqueror of Italy. Its present upper part is, however,
medieval. _Just beyond is the ridge of_


where the plebeians retired when they made their secession, B.C. 492,
and where Menenius Agrippa addressed to them the famous fable of the
"Belly and its Members" (Livy, ii. 32; Dionysius, vi. 86), so
beautifully illustrated by S. Paul: "As the members of a natural body
all tend to the mutual decency, service, and succour of the same body;
so we should do one for another, to make up the mystical body of
Christ" (see 1 Cor. xii.). "They erected an altar upon the summit of
the hill, where they had encamped, which they named the altar of
Jupiter Terribilis" (Dionysius, vi. 90). A second secession here took
place after the death of Virginia, B.C. 449 (Livy, iii. 52).

_Beyond the osteria_ (_inn_), _on the left, is the so-called_


The shepherds have handed down this tradition, but we have no historic
record of where she was buried. Dionysius (xi. 39) gives this account
of her funeral:--

"The relatives of the virgin still increased the disaffection of the
citizens by bringing her bier into the forum, by adorning her body
with all possible magnificence, and carrying it through the most
remarkable and most conspicuous streets of the city: for the matrons
and virgins ran out of their houses lamenting her misfortune, and some
threw flowers upon the bier, some their girdles or ribbons others
their virgin toys, and others even cut off their curls and cast them
upon it. And many of the men, either purchasing ornaments in the
neighbouring shops, or receiving them by the favour of the owners,
contributed to the pomp by presents proper to the occasion: so that
the funeral was celebrated through the whole city."

     "And close around the body gathered a little train
     Of them that were the nearest and dearest to the slain.
     They brought a bier, and hung it with many a cypress crown,
     And gently they uplifted her, and gently laid her down."--MACAULAY.

_About three miles from the bridge are the_


discovered in 1853. S. Alexander suffered under Trajan, A.D. 117. In
the fourth century a church was built over the oratory and catacomb.
In 1867 Pius IX. laid the foundations of a church to be erected over
these remains. _To visit them a permit is necessary from the cardinal
vicar, 70 Via della Scrofa._

       *       *       *       *       *


(_Porta S. Lorenzo._)

This gate was built by Augustus, B.C. 3, over the line of the
Pomœrium, being one of the arches of the Marcian Aqueduct, B.C.
145. The Aquæ Tepula and Julia likewise passed over it. The
inscriptions refer to Augustus, and to repairs by Vespasian,
Caracalla, and Honorius, who added the picturesque brick towers in

_A new road has now been made to the_ CEMETERY, _which is passed by
the tramway to Tivoli. Three quarters of a mile on the road is the_


founded in 308 by Constantine, in the place where was the cemetery of
S. Cyriaca, which contained the body of S. Lorenzo. It was enlarged
and restored at different periods. Finally, in 1864, Pius IX. caused
the architect Vespignani to make great improvements, and it was then
that the column of red granite with the statue of the martyr was
placed in the adjacent square.

The poet Bishop Vida describes the martyrdom of S. Lawrence, and thus
foretells his monument:--

     "As circling years revolve, the day shall come
     When Troy's great progeny, imperial Rome,
     To the blest youth, who, filled with holy pride,
     Tyrants, and flames, and bitter death defied,
     Shall build full many an altar, many a shrine,
     And grace his sepulchre with rites divine."

Under the colonnade, supported by six Ionic columns, and adorned with
frescoes, are two sarcophagi with bas-reliefs; also some curious
frescoes relating to the soul of the Saxon count Henry. The interior
is divided into three aisles by twenty-two columns, the greater part
in Oriental granite. The paving recalls the style of the basilicæ of
the primitive times. The great aisle was painted, by order of Pius
IX., by Cesare Fracassini; in it are two pulpits of marble. A double
staircase of marble conducts to that part of the Basilica
Constantiniana which by Honorius III. was converted into the
presbytery. It is decorated at the upper end by twelve columns of
violet marble, which rise from the level of the primitive basilica
beneath it. At the end is the ancient pontifical seat, adorned with
mosaic and precious marbles. The papal altar is under a canopy in the
Byzantine style. The pavement of the presbytery is worthy of
attention. Descending to the confessional, which is under the high
altar, we find the tomb of the martyred saints--Lawrence, Stephen, and
Justin. Pius IX. is interred here. Returning to the church by the
staircase on the left, we enter the sacristy, where is the altar of
the Holy Sacrament, with a picture by E. Savonanzio, representing S.
Cyriaca, who is having the martyrs buried. Close by is the ROMAN
CEMETERY, opened in 1834. The frescoes here are worth seeing, as well
as the different monuments.


_Mr. Forbes's steam-tramway excursion-lecture to Tivoli and Hadrian's
Villa, every Thursday._

This road is the worst kept, the least interesting, and the most
frequented out of Rome. The new tramway is now open, so it is more
come-at-able than hitherto. Leaving the cemetery, we soon pass the
Florence railway; then a bridge over the Ulmanus stream. The farm on
the right, inside the gateway, is upon the site of the Villa of
Regulus (Martial, i. 13). At the first mile was the monument of Pallas
(Pliny younger, vii. 29; viii. 6). We soon cross the Anio by the
modern bridge: the old one, Ponte Mammolo, can be seen to the right;
it took its name from Mammæa, the mother of Alexander Severus, who
repaired it. In these meadows Hannibal had his first camp (see page
288). Beyond, we pass along the modern causeway over the meadows where
his second camp was, by the Tutia, which stream we cross. We now pass
some of the old pavement, and upon the left CASTEL ARCIONE, a medieval
castle belonging to a family of that name; destroyed by the S. P. Q.
T., it having become a stronghold for brigands.

The calciferous lake of Tartarus formerly existed, just beyond, but
is now dried up. Near by a sulphurous odour indicates the proximity of
the AQUÆ ALBULÆ, baths often frequented in ancient times. A channel,
constructed by Cardinal Este, draws off the water from these
sulphurous lakes to the Tiber. The bath-house was erected in 1880, and
the water is beneficial for skin diseases.

  [Illustration: PLAN OF TIVOLI.
   1 _Via della Sibilla_
   2 _Ponte Gregoriano_
   3 _Porta St. Angelo_
   4 _Grand Falls_
   5 _Glen & Falls_
   6 _Temples of Vesta & Sibyl_
   7 _Temple of Hercules_
   8 _Cascade_
   9 _Cascades_
   10 _Villa S. Antonio_]

In the vicinity are the quarries of travertine--so called from the
stone taking the ancient name _Tiburtians_--which have yielded the
materials for building both ancient and modern Rome, the Colosseum,
and S. Peter's.

_Three miles from Tivoli we cross the picturesque_


which spans the Anio. Near by is the solid and magnificent Tomb of the
Plautii, similar to that of Cecilia Metella. The upper part has been
repaired in medieval times, that it might serve as a fortress.
Erected, 1 B.C., by M. Plautius Silvanus for himself, Lartia his wife,
and Urgularicus his child. The inscription tells us that one of his
descendants served in Britain, and died A.D. 76.

_A little beyond, a road turns off to the right, leading to Hadrian's
Villa, which had better be visited in returning._

_First visit the glen at Tivoli, then take the road round to see the
small falls passing over the Ponte dell' Acquoria. Turn to the right.
This brings us into the main road below the town. A short distance
down we turn off to Hadrian's Villa; or, instead of turning to the
right after passing the bridge, the road to the left leads past the
Tempio della Tosse up to the Villa d'Este._


_Donkey for excursion to the Falls, one and a half lira; guide_ (_not
necessary_), _one franc._

The ALBERGO REGINA is the best in the town; everything clean, good
cookery, and comfortable apartments for those spending a few days upon
the spot. The SIBILLA not so clean or comfortable, but a fair lunch
can be provided in the Temple of Vesta attached to the inn. _Pension
at both houses._


_near the entrance of the town from Rome, first turning left_. It is
ornamented with fountains, ilexes, cypresses, formal plantations and
clipped hedges--all very stiff amidst so much natural beauty. The
casino is decorated with frescoes by F. Zucchero and Muziano.

The villa has been neglected and deserted by its present proprietor,
Cardinal Baroli, and is fast going to ruin and decay: this rather adds
to its picturesque and haunted appearance. If Scott or Dickens had
only made it the scene of one of their tales, it might have become

_If your time be limited, omit this villa._

  [Illustration: GROTTO OF THE SIBYL, TIVOLI.]


was delightfully situated on the Sabine Hills. The modern town, of
7000 inhabitants, has few attractions except its charming situation
and past recollections. It bore the name of Tibur in antiquity, and
during the Augustan age the Roman nobles founded splendid villas
there, among which were those of Augustus himself, Mæcenas, and the
Emperor Hadrian. The beauties of Tivoli and the surrounding country
were recorded in undying verse by Horace, whose Sabine farm was not
far distant, and who seems to have delighted to dwell in retirement in
the neighbourhood rather than in noisy, bustling Rome. The old town
held in high reverence Hercules, the Sibyl, and Vesta, and the remains
of temples dedicated to the latter are still visible immediately above
the cascades on the edge of the present city limits. It is generally
in Vesta's temple that tourists to the locality spread out and partake
of the provisions brought with them from Rome; this is only advisable
in warm weather. This circular Temple of Vesta is surrounded by an
open corridor of Corinthian columns, ten of which still remain. It was
destroyed by Lord Bristol, who wanted to carry it off to his estate
in Norfolk.


The terrace of the temple commands a good view of the falls, which are
formed by the waters of the Anio. A swift torrent, proceeding from the
mountain heights, and leaping down a precipice at the village,
constitutes the celebrated cascades of Tivoli, one of which is three
hundred and forty feet in height. Visitors are conducted to various
spots (on donkeys or on foot) whence they may be able to catch the
finest glimpses of the rising spray, and also in order to visit the
grottoes of Neptune and the Sibyl. The path is often precipitous,
rough, and narrow, but the sight well repays the trouble of parading
over so much ground. Le Cascatelle, or small falls, are formed by a
branch of the Anio. The tunnels through MONTE CATILLO were cut in
1834, to divert the river, as when it followed the old course the town
was frequently flooded; in fact, the inundation of 1826 rendered these
new channels necessary. This flood exposed the remains of two ancient
bridges and several tombs--the one higher up the river, PONS VALERIUS,
and the other near the mouth of the tunnels, PONS VOPISCI, after the
owner of the adjoining ancient villa. The VILLA OF MÆCENAS and TEMPLE
OF HERCULES are now occupied by iron-works; in the garden are remains
of a Doric portico. Below the iron-works is the so-called TEMPIO DELLA
TOSSE, a circular building like the Pantheon, probably the tomb of the
Turcia family.

_Having seen the glen at Tivoli, take a donkey round the bank of the
glen over the Ponte Acquoria to the Villa of Hadrian. Man and donkey,
4 lire._


(_Entrance, one lira_)

stands on the slope of the heights of Tivoli, from which it is only
thirty minutes' walk. It once covered an area of several square miles;
and its magnificent grounds, unequalled in the Roman Empire, were laid
out by Hadrian in order to assemble within them models of everything
that had struck him during his travels, and accordingly they were
filled with the finest statuary, palaces, temples, theatres, circuses,
and academies. Some of the finest antique statues were found here
under the popes. All this sumptuousness was destroyed in the sixth
century by the Goths. Extensive ruins still exist. It is thus
described by Pope Pius II.:--

"About the third of a mile from the city of Tivoli, the Emperor
Hadrian built a very splendid villa, like a great village. The lofty
and vast roofs of the temples still remain; the columns of the
peristyles and sublime porticoes may yet be gazed at with admiration.
There are still the remains of the piscinas and baths, where a canal
derived from the Anio once cooled the summer heats.

"Age deforms all things: the ivy now drapes those walls once covered
with painted hangings and cloths woven with gold; thorns and brambles
have grown where purple-clothed tribunes sat; and snakes inhabit the
chambers of queens. Thus perishable is the nature of all things


  [Illustration: VILLA OF HADRIAN.]

_Entering_ through an avenue of cypresses, we arrive at the ODEUM, the
skeleton of which only remains; this was for musical performances.
_Following the path beyond the modern Casino, to the left_, by the
NYMPHÆUM, then along the brink of the valley, we mount up to some
chambers, formerly a reservoir from which the water poured in a
cascade to the stream Peneas below. _From the edge_ of this ruin we
look down upon a valley, made in imitation of the VALE OF TEMPE. A
stream runs through it, named, after the river in Thessaly, PENEAS.
_On the opposite_ slope of the valley was the LATIN THEATRE. We now
enter the IMPERIAL PALACE, with the ruins of the Temples of Diana and
Venus adjoining; _passing through which_, at the farthest extremity,
is the TEMPLE OF CASTOR AND POLLUX. _Near this_ are some subterranean
passages, called the TARTARUS. _Beyond_ were the ELYSIAN FIELDS.
Elysium, or the Elysian Fields, was the region where the souls of the
dead were supposed to go to if they had been good. There, happiness
was complete, and the pleasures were innocent and refined; the air was
serene and temperate, the bowers ever green, and the meadows watered
with perennial streams, and the birds continually warbled in the

Tartarus was the region of punishment in the nether world of the
ancients. _On the farther side_ of Tartarus is the ROMAN THEATRE;
_beyond_ was the LYCEUM. _Returning_, we come upon the ACADEMY. The
Academy at Athens was an open meadow, given to the city by Academus,
from whom it took its name. It was afterwards formed into a grove. It
was the resort of Plato, and hence his disciples took the name of
_academic_ philosophers.

_Beyond is the_ SERAPEON of CANOPUS, with the SACRARIUM of JUPITER
SERAPIS at the end, built in imitation of the canal connecting
Alexandria with Canopus, a city of Lower Egypt, twelve miles east of
Alexandria, at the west or Canopic mouth of the Nile.

_On the right_ are some remains of the HIPPODROME; _and towards the_
entrance of the Serapeon, the BATHS. _From here we reach_ the STADIUM,
where the foot races were held. _We now come upon_ a lofty wall of
_opus reticulatum_, nearly six hundred feet long. This was one of the
walls of the POECILE STOA, in imitation of the grand portico at Athens
of that name, famed for its fresco-paintings of the battle of Marathon
by Polygnotus, and as the seat of the school of Zeno the philosopher,
who took the name Stoic from frequenting this portico. This portico
was built on an artificial platform, and the wall can be traced all
round; _underneath_ are the HUNDRED CHAMBERS of the GUARDS. _From our
right_ of the wall, we enter the PRYTANEUM, in imitation of the
council hall of that name at Athens, where the fifty deputies of the
republic lived and held office, each five weeks in turn. _Through this
we reach_ the AQUARIUM, a circular edifice with an octagonal platform
in the centre, with openings for fountains and statues; to the left of
this were the GREEK and LATIN LIBRARIES.

Having now rambled over the extent of this famous villa, and picked up
a memento of our visit, we may truly exclaim--"_Sic transit gloria

_The tramway back to Rome is taken from the end of the road leading
from the villa._

       *       *       *       *       *


(_Porta Maggiore._)

Here the Via Prænestina diverged from the Labicana; and Claudius, who
was obliged to convey two new streams--the Aqua Claudia and the Anio
Novus--over these roads, erected for this purpose a massive gateway,
which spanned both roads at once with a double arch. This is the
splendid monument afterwards taken into the Aurelian Wall, in the time
of Honorius and Arcadius, and converted, by the erection of a mound
in front, into a kind of bulwark. It now forms one of the city gates,
under the name of the Porta Maggiore.

In each of the three piers supporting the attics with the channels
concealed in the interior is a small gateway, over which a window,
with a gable roof resting on rustic pillars, is introduced. By this
arrangement, not only is a saving of materials effected, but the six
construction arches thus acquired impart a greater degree of stability
to the structure.

  [Illustration: PORTA MAGGIORE.]

The first inscription on the aqueduct of Claudius mentions the streams
conveyed into the city by the emperor upon these arches. From it we
learn that the water in the channel which bore his name was taken from
two sources,--the Cæruleus and the Curtius, forty-five miles off; and
that the Anio Novus, which flows above the Aqua Claudia, was brought
hither from a distance of sixty-two miles. The second inscription
relates to the restorations of Vespasian; the third to those of Titus.

This gateway is the earliest specimen of the rustic style. It was
named, by those going out, by which arch they passed through on their
way either to Labicum or to Præneste. Coming in, they called it by the
hill to which they were going. "After I had said that he entered by
the Cœlimontane Gate, like a man of mettle he offered to lay a
wager with me that he entered at the Esquiline Gate" (Cicero _v._

Directly in front of the middle pier of the Porta Maggiore lies a
monument, discovered in the year 1838, on the removal of the mound
referred to. It is


The man who erected his own monument on this spot was a baker, who
seems to have made a considerable fortune as a purveyor. According to
the good old custom, he was not ashamed of his calling, but built a
species of trophy for himself out of the utensils of the trade by
means of which he had attained to wealth and respectability. The
hollow drums of pillars, for instance, let into the superstructure,
which rests upon double columns, seem to represent vessels for
measuring fruit; and the inscription found beside them agrees with
this opinion, as it states that the mortal remains of Atistia, the
wife of Eurysaces, were deposited in a bread-basket. In fact,
everything was represented that appertained to a baker's trade.

This is rendered the more interesting from the circumstance of several
of these representations seeming to belong to the present time--people
in this sphere in Italy usually adhering to the customs transmitted to
them by their forefathers.

The inscription on the architrave, stating this monument to be that of
M. Virgilius Eurysaces, purveyor of bread, is repeated three times. A
relief of the baker and his wife, also the remains of the Gate of
Honorius, are to be seen on the right of the road.

To the north of the tomb three old aqueducts, Marcia, Tepula, and
Julia, can be seen passing through the walls of Rome.


is an interesting excursion. _Leaving Rome by the Porta Maggiore, we
take the road on the right_, VIA LABICANA, _as we can return by the
other_, VIA GABINA, or PRÆNESTINA. For the first mile the road runs
parallel with the Claudian Aqueduct; then, bending to the left, there
are some very picturesque remains of the AQUA HADRIANA, A.D. 120,
restored by Alexander Severus, A.D. 225, as recorded by Spartianus. At
the second mile is TOR PIGNATTARA, the so-called


This ascription is altogether a mistake. Helena was buried in the city
of New Rome (Constantinople), and not outside ancient Rome. "Her
remains were conveyed to New Rome, and deposited in the imperial
sepulchres" (Socrates, E. H., i. 17). The sarcophagus found here is
more likely, from its reliefs, to have been that of a soldier than a
woman. The sarcophagus, of red porphyry, is now in the Hall of the
Greek Cross in the Vatican. The remains of the tomb consist of a
circular hall with eight circular recesses. A church, dedicated to SS.
Peter and Marcellinus, stands within it, beneath which are the
catacombs of these saints. At the sixth mile is TORRE NUOVA,
surrounded by pine and mulberry trees. At the Osteria di Finacchio
(ninth mile) a by-road leads to the Osteria dell'Osa, on the Via
Gabina (two miles). _Visitors leave their carriage here, and order it
to go two miles further on, to_ (_opposite_) _Castiglione, on the Via
Prænestina, where they meet it after visiting_


founded by the kings of Alba, and taken by the Romans, under Tarquin,
through the artifice of his son Sextus. It was deserted in the time of
the republic, but recovered under the empire, to fall once more before
the time of Constantine. At the end of the ridge are remains of the
Roman Municipium and Temple of Juno of the time of Hadrian. The
buildings of CASTIGLIONE occupy the site of the ancient city. The
principal ruin is the TEMPLE OF JUNO GABINA. Virgil tells us "it was
situated amidst rugged rocks, on the banks of the cold Anienes." The
cella is composed of blocks of stone four feet by two feet; the
interior is 50 feet long; the pavement is of white mosaic. _Close by
are_ the ruins of the THEATRE, and some Ionic columns. Considerable
remains of the ancient walls can be traced. The fresh, green basin
below the ridge was once a lake, and was drained about twenty-five
years since by Prince Borghese. It is curious that there is no mention
of the lake by classical authors. It is first mentioned in reference
to the martyrdom of S. Primitivus, who was beheaded at Gabii, and
whose head was thrown into the lake. This was in the fifth century.
Perhaps the lake did not exist in Tarquin's time, and was formed by
some freak of nature after the desertion of the city.

_Returning to Rome by the Via Gabina, after passing the stream Osa_,
about two miles, we come to a fine Roman viaduct, PONTE DI NONA,
consisting of seven lofty arches, built of rectangular blocks of
_lapis gabinus_ of the time of the kings. At the eighth mile is the
medieval TOR TRE TESTE, so called from the three heads built in its
walls. Here Camillus overtook the Gauls (Livy, v. 49). _About two and
a half miles from Rome, at the_ Tor dei Schiavi, are extensive ruins
of the VILLA OF THE GORDIAN EMPERORS, consisting of a large reservoir,
the circular hall of the baths, and a circular temple, 43 feet in
diameter, called Apollo. The inside is relieved by alternate round and
square niches; the crypt beneath is supported by one pier. _Between
this and_ Tor dei Schiavi, three rooms at the base of a circular
edifice have been opened; the floors are composed of black and white

_On the right, about a mile further on_, is the circular tomb, 50
yards in diameter, of QUINTUS ATTA, the comic poet (B.C. 55); the
interior is in the form of a Greek cross.

       *       *       *       *       *


(_Mr. Forbes's carriage excursion-lecture at frequent intervals._)



This road was made in the time of the Antonines, to relieve the
traffic on the Via Appia, and was called simply a New Way. Several
tombs of the time of the Antonines line it, but none of earlier date.
At the right of the gate is the ancient Porta Asinara, the best
preserved of the brick gates. At the second mile the road is crossed
by the VIA LATINA, _turning up which, on the left, we can visit_


One, discovered in 1859, is covered with beautiful paintings and
stucco reliefs--eight landscapes, with groups of men and animals, with
small arabesque borders, beautifully finished. The reliefs on the
vault represent the Trojan War, and figures of Hercules, Chitaredes,
Jupiter, with the eagle and centaurs hunting lions, &c.

_Near by_, discovered at the same time, is


founded about A.D. 450 by Demetria, a member of the Anician family. It
was rebuilt by Leo III., A.D. 800. A bell tower was erected by Lupus
Grigarius about thirty years afterwards. The ground plan can be easily
made out, as also the remains of the altar and baptistery. In front of
the tribune is a vault, entered by stairs, similar to those in most of
the Roman Catholic basilicæ, where the martyrs were buried. The
basilica stands amidst the ruins of a large Roman villa of the
Servilii and Asinii, discovered by Signor Fortunati.

_Returning to the main road_, we soon pass the Tor Fiscali, a medieval
tower, and then the Osteria Tovolato; then we get some fine views of
the ruined aqueducts.


  [Illustration: CLAUDIAN AQUEDUCT.]

Sixteen aqueducts supplied the city with water and irrigated the
Campagna. The principal streams were the AQUA APPIA, B.C. 312; ANIO
VETUS, B.C. 272; MARCIA, B.C. 145,--on the top of its arches, near
Rome, were carried the AQUÆ TEPULA and JULIA; VIRGO, B.C. 21; CLAUDIA,
with ANIO NOVUS above, A.D. 38-52. The Romans, finding the water from
the Tiber and the wells sunk in the city unwholesome, built these
aqueducts, to bring the water from the hills that surround the
Campagna; but their situation and purpose rendered them exposed to
attack during war, which partly accounts for their destruction. Four
of them still supply the city with water:--The _Aqua Marcia_, which
has its source near Subiaco. From Tivoli it passes through pipes to
Rome, which it enters at the Porta Pia. It was brought in by a
company, and opened by Pius IX. on the 10th of September 1870. The
_Aqua Virgo_, built by Agrippa, B.C. 21, has its source near the
eighth milestone on the Via Collatina, restored by Nicholas V. It
supplies the Trevi Fountain. The _Aqua Alseatina_, built by Augustus,
A.D. 10, on the other side of the Tiber, has its source thirty-five
miles from Rome, at the Lago Baccano. It was restored by Paul V., and
supplies the Pauline Fountain. _Acqua Felice_, made by Sixtus V., A.D.
1587. Its source is near La Colonna, formerly the source of Hadrian's
Aqueduct. It runs parallel with the Claudian and the Marcian, near
Rome, in some places being built out of their remains and on their
piers. Pliny says: "If any one will diligently estimate the abundance
of water supplied to the public baths, fountains, fish-ponds,
artificial lakes, and galley-fights, to pleasure-gardens, and to
almost every private house in Rome, and then consider the difficulties
that were to be surmounted, and the distance from which these streams
were brought, he will confess that nothing so wonderful as these
aqueducts can be found in the whole world."


We now pass, on the left, a tomb of the Antonines; then an osteria, on
the site of the Temple of Fortuna Muliebris, where Coriolanus was
over-persuaded by his wife and mother. On our right is a ruined
aqueduct, which supplied the Villa of the Quintilii, whose picturesque
ruins we have previously passed.

We now soon reach the ascent to Albano, and strike the old Appian Way
at Frattocchie, where Clodius was murdered by Milo. (See Cicero _pro_
Milo.) At the twelfth mile, _on the right_, are the ruins of Bovillæ.
Several unknown tombs line the road. At the intersection of the Via
Appia with the town limits stands an ancient tomb, formerly considered
to be that of the Horatii and Curiatii, those champions of their age.
Now it is more correctly held to be


For we know from Plutarch that his ashes were carried to Cornelia, who
buried them in his land near Alba, though Lucan (viii. 835) complains
that he had no tomb--

     "And thou, O Rome, by whose forgetful hand
     Altars and temples, reared to tyrants, stand,
     Canst thou neglect to call thy hero home,
     And leave his ghost in banishment to roam?"

The town occupies the site of the ruins of the Villa of Pompey, and
the Albanum of Domitian. The best view of the Mediterranean is to be
had at


_reached by rail in one hour from Rome_. It is a favourite resort in
summer, on account of its pure air, elevated position, and the
delightful rambles that can be made in its neighbourhood. In winter it
is frequented by all the Forestieri, who are to be seen there daily in
carriages and on donkeys, doing all the attractions of the locality.
From this point the tour of the Alban Hills, taking in all places of
interest, can be most conveniently made. The peasants' costumes are
very attractive. The town itself is not a centre of interest; a few
ruins are shown in some of its streets, but they are neither very
visible nor authentic.


In the ascent to the town from the station, on the right is a
beautiful valley, once a lake, but now drained, called the Vale of
Ariccia. It is not known when it was drained. It is thus alluded to by
Ovid ("Fasti," iii. 263):--

     "Deep in Ariccia's vale, and girt around
     With shady trees, a sacred lake is found;
     Here Theseus' son in safe concealment lay,
     When hurried by the violent steeds away."

_Passing through the town_, we come to the Viaduct of Pius IX.

Just before reaching the viaduct, the old Appian Way branches off to
the right, descending the side of the Vale of Ariccia. Several remains
of tombs exist at this point, notably that of Aruns, the son of
Porsena of Clusium.


This ruin agrees exactly with the lower part of the Tomb of Porsena at
Clusium, described by Pliny (xxxvi. 19). He says: "But as the
fabulousness of the story connected with it quite exceeds all bounds,
I shall employ the words given by M. Varro himself in his account of
it. 'Porsena was buried,' says he, 'beneath the city of Clusium, in
the spot where he had constructed a square monument, built of squared
stones. Each side of this monument was 300 feet long and 50 feet high,
and beneath the base, which was also square, was an inextricable
labyrinth.... Above this square building there stood five
pyramids--one at each corner and one in the middle--75 feet broad at
the base and 150 feet in height,'" &c.

The present ruin is 49 feet long on each side and 24 feet high,
surmounted at the angles with four cones, and one larger, in the
centre, 26 feet in diameter, in which the urn was found in the last


The ancient ascent to Ariccia was the Clivus Virbii, so called from
Hippolytus, who, on being restored to life by Diana, took the name of

     "But Trivia kept in secret shades alone
     Her care, Hippolytus, to fate unknown;
     And called him Virbius in the Egerian Grove,
     Where then he lived obscure, but safe from Jove."
          VIRGIL, _Æneid_, vii. 774.

The ascent was a noted place for beggars, as recorded by Persius (Sat.
vi. 55) and Juvenal (Sat. iv.).

The village is three-quarters of a mile west from Albano, surrounded
by beautiful woods. At its entrance is the Palazzo Chigi, built by
Bernini, in the midst of a fine park; fee, half-franc. The ancient
town lay lower down the hill, where some of its remains can still be
traced. Horace (Lib. i. Sat. 5) tells us that for slow travellers it
was the first halting-place from Rome.

     "Leaving imperial Rome, my course I steer
     To poor Ariccia and its moderate cheer."

In the vale, just under the town, was the


which Vitruvius (iv. 7) says was circular. The story of this temple is
given by several classic writers. "Hippolytus came into Italy and
dedicated the Temple of Aricina Diana. In this place, even at present,
those who are victors in a single contest have the office of priest to
the goddess given to them as a reward. This contest, however, is not
offered to any free person, but only to slaves who have fled from
their masters" (Pausanias, ii. 27). In 1791 a relief representing the
scene was found at the circular ruin, and is now at Palma in Majorca.
The temple was near a little stream from a source under the second
viaduct, known as the


which supplies the lake. The nymph was overcome by the death of Numa,
as Ovid tells us: "Other woes, however, did not avail to diminish
Egeria's grief; and, lying down at the very foot of the mountain, she
melted into tears, until the sister of Apollo (Diana), moved to
compassion, made a cool fountain of her body, changed into perennial

                     "His wife the town forsook,
     And in the woods that clothe Ariccia's vale lies hid."
          _Met._ xv. 487.

     "There, at the mountain's base, all drowned in tears,
     She lay, till chaste Diana on her woe
     Compassion took: her altered form became
     A limpid fount; her beauteous limbs dissolved,
     And in perennial waters melt away."
          _Met._ xv. 548.

     "O'er their rough bed hoarse-murmuring waters move;
     A pure but scanty draught is there supplied;
     Egeria's fount, whom all the muses love,
     Sage Numa's counsellor, his friend, and bride."
          _Fasti_, iii. 273.

After two miles of a picturesque and shady road, crossing four
viaducts, and commanding beautiful views, we arrive at


Its excellent wine is renowned, and this, together with its flowers
and beautiful situation, are its sole attractions. The flower
festival, held the eighth day after Corpus Christi, is fully described
in "The Improvisatore." _Up a path_ by the side of the Palazzo
Cesarini we obtain a fine view of the


which occupies an extinct crater. The lake is three miles in
circumference, and 300 feet deep, and passes out by an artificial
_emissarium_, made by Trajan. The water is calm and marvellously

Trajan erected on this lake a floating palace, 500 feet in length, 270
feet in breadth, and 60 feet deep. It was of wood, joined with bronze
nails, and lead plated outside; the inside was lined with marble, and
the ceilings were of bronze. The water for use and ornament was
supplied from the Fount Juturna by means of pipes. Signor Marchi, a
Roman, in 1535 descended in a diving-bell and explored this curious
palace, which had sunk beneath the waters. He left an account of his
discoveries. (See Brotier's "Tacitus," Sup. Ap., and Notes on Trajan.)
A large fragment of the wood-work is preserved in the Kircherian

_On the opposite side_ is the small medieval town of


picturesquely situated upon a hill above the lake. On the sides of the
lake are the remains of villas built of _opus reticulatum_; and in the
sixteenth century some of the wood-work, tiles, &c., of Cæsar's
Villa--begun, but afterwards pulled down because it did not suit his
taste--were found, and are preserved in the Library of the Vatican.

           "Lo, Nemi! navelled in thy woody hills
     So far, that the uprooting wind which tears
     The oak from his foundations, and which spills
     The ocean o'er its boundary, and bears
     Its foam against the skies, reluctant spares
     The oval mirror of thy glassy lake;
     And, calm as cherished hate, its surface wears
     A deep, cold, settled aspect naught can shake,
     All coiled into itself and round, as sleeps the snake."--BYRON.


On the plateau at the east end of the lake, to our left of Nemi, his
excellency Sir John Savile Lumley, the British ambassador, has
recently made some most interesting excavations--uncovering the vast
area of the Temple of Diana at Nemi, and at the same time discovering
numerous objects of interest, which proved without doubt to whom the
shrine was dedicated.

The front of the temple was formed with a portico of fluted columns,
and its rear was towards the lake, so the temple faced east. The whole
Artemisium shows traces of many restorations, not the least
interesting being that made by Marcus Servilius Quartus, consul A.D.
3, whose tomb is on the Via Appia (Tacitus, "A." ii. 48; iii. 22).

When Iphigenia, priestess of the Temple of Diana at Tauris in the
Crimea, fled with her brother Orestes, they carried off the statue of
Diana, to whom all strangers cast on the coast were sacrificed, and
founded a temple near the Lake of Diana, now Nemi, on the Alban Hills
(Ovid, "Ep." iii. 2; "Met." xv. 485). "The temple is in a grove, and
before it is a lake of considerable size. The temple and water are
surrounded by abrupt and lofty precipices, so that they seem to be
situated in a deep and lofty ravine" (Strabo, v. 3, 12).


This issues from the hill under the village, and serves the mill on
the border of the lake. "Tell me, nymph Juturna, thou that wast wont
to minister to the grove and looking-glass of Diana" (Ovid, "F." iii.
260). "The springs by which the lake is filled are visible. One of
them is denominated Juturna, after the name of a certain divinity"
(Strabo v. 3, 12).

_A ramble through the woods brings us to the adjoining lake at
Palazzolo_, which is generally seen in the distance from the opposite
side of the lake.


     "And near, Albano's scarce divided waves
     Shine from a sister valley."

_Situated on Lake Albano, or it may be reached from Albano or Marino
by other roads passing round the Lake Albano._ It is a Franciscan
monastery. In its gardens is a tomb supposed to be that of Cneius
Cornelius Scipio Hispanus, B.C. 176.

_A path through the woods leads up to Monte Cavo._


is 150 feet below Lake Nemi. Its outlet conducts its waters to the
Tiber. This lake also occupies the crater of an extinct volcano; it is
six miles round, and of unknown depth. The outlet was made at the time
the Romans were besieging Veii, B.C. 394, to lower the waters which
threatened to flood the Campagna. It is 1509 yards in length.

_Situated on the bluff overlooking the lake is_


formerly the summer residence of the popes. Its palace was erected by
Urban VIII. This palace, and the charming situation, are its only
features of attraction.

_On the opposite shore, which can be reached either from Palazzolo, or
by a path from the Albano or the Marino end of the lake, is the
supposed site of_


Built by Ascanius 1152 B.C., destroyed by Tullus Hostilius 666 B.C.

Virgil tells us that on Æneas consulting the oracle at Delos, the
oracle replied,--

     "Now mark the signs of future ease and rest,
     And bear them safely treasured in thy breast:
     When, in the shady shelter of a wood,
     And near the margin of a gentle flood,
     Thou shalt behold a sow upon the ground,
     With thirty sucking young encompassed round,
     The dam and offspring white as falling snow,--
     These on thy city shall their name bestow,
     And there shall end thy labours and thy woe."
          _Æneid_, iii. 388.

Again, when Father Tiber appeared to him, he says,--

     "And that this mighty vision may not seem
     Th' effect of fancy, or an idle dream,
     A sow beneath an oak shall lie along,
     All white herself, and white her thirty young.
     When thirty rolling years have run their race,
     Thy son Ascanius, on _this_ empty space,
     Shall build a royal town, of lasting fame,
     Which from this omen shall receive the name."
          _Æneid_, viii. 70.

Again, after Father Tiber had disappeared, and Æneas, having invoked
the god, fitted out two galleys to go up the Tiber to Evander:

     "Now on the shore the fatal swine is found.
     Wondrous to tell, she lay along the ground;
     Her well-fed offspring at her udders hung--
     She white herself, and white her thirty young!"
          _Æneid_, viii. 120.

Thus, according to Virgil's own showing, the sow was found on the
banks of the Tiber; how then could the shores of the Alban Lake be the
site of Alba Longa? Ought we not rather to look for that site on the
banks of the Tiber below Rome, where the sow was found, according to
the voices of the oracle and the river-god, and the record handed down
by Virgil? On the other hand, we are told Alba Longa was "built by
Ascanius, the son of Æneas, thirty years after the building of
Lavinium. Alba stood between a mountain and a lake: the mountain is
extremely strong and high, and the lake deep and large. When one part
of the lake is low upon the retreat of the water, and the bottom
clear, the ruins of porticoes and other traces of habitation appear,
being the remains of the palace of King Alladius, which was destroyed
by the lake rising. Alba Longa was demolished by Marcus Horatius, by
command of Tullus Hostilius" (Dionysius, i. 66. See Livy, i. 29).

From Castel Gandolfo a pleasant road by the lake leads to Marino,
_passing through a wood_ after leaving the lake. _Just before
entering_ the town we come to a wooded glen, the ancient


where the diet of the Latin states assembled to discuss the interests
of peace and war. A stream runs through the valley, and in the spring
which feeds the stream, at the head of the valley, Turnus Herdonius,
Lord of Ariccia, was drowned by the command of Tarquinius Superbus.


celebrated for its wine, is perched on an eminence 1730 feet high. It
was a great stronghold of the Orsini, and afterwards of the Colonnas,
whose towers and palace still stand. The principal street is the
Corso. At the top, on the right hand side, is a house decorated with
curious mosaics and bas-reliefs, surmounted with a Madonna. At the
bottom of the Corso is the Cathedral of S. Barnabas, in which is a
picture of S. Bartholomew, by Guercino. The fountain close by is
picturesque, composed of half female figures supporting the basin, out
of which four figures rise supporting a column.

_Over a beautiful route of four miles we reach_


which is now a Greek monastery, founded in 1002 by S. Ninus. In one of
its chapels are frescoes from the life of the saint, by Domenichino,
restored by Camuccini in 1819. Fairs are held here on the 28th of
March and 8th of September, drawing large crowds from the
neighbourhood as well as from Rome.

The villa stands on the site and is built out of the remains of
Cicero's Villa, which he purchased of Sylla the dictator at a great
price. To the south of the hill upon which the villa stands is a deep
dell, falling into which is the stream of the Aqua Craba, mentioned by
Cicero, now called the Maranna or running stream; and the plane-tree
still flourishes here as it did in his day. Cicero likewise mentions
that he had statues of the muses in his library, and a hermathena in
his academy, and these statues were actually found here. The scenes of
his "De Divinatione" and "Tusculan Disputations" were laid here. They
were not addressed to any public assembly, but he used to retire after
dinner to his so-called academy, and invited his guests to call for
the subject they wished explained, which became the argument of the
debate. These five discussions or conferences he collected and
published as the "Tusculan Disputations" after the name of his villa,
which was in the Tusculan territory, but not at the city itself. The
subjects were,--Contempt of Death; On Bearing Pain; Grief of Mind;
Other Perturbations of the Mind; Whether Virtue be Sufficient for a
Happy Life. It was here that he received news of his proscription.

A pleasant drive soon brings us to the foot of the hills, passing on
our way several tombs, and the ruined castle of the Savellis, a
medieval stronghold of the tenth century, called BORGHETTO, of which
only the outer walls are standing. Two miles below, _on our right_,
are the ruins of an immense reservoir of the aqueducts coming from the
Alban Hills, the TEPULA, 126 B.C.; the JULIA, 34 B.C.; and the
SEVERIANA, 190 A.D. It is known by the name of the CENTRONI. Just
below the bluff on which it stands, the stream of the Aqua Craba,
coming from Rocca di Papa, falls into the Almo coming from Marino;
united, they flow through an old tunnel under the road beyond the

_We now strike the Via Tusculana or Frascati Road._

_On the left_ are the picturesque ruins of the VILLA OF SEPTIMIUS
BASSUS, consul 317 A.D. It is known by the name of Sette Bassi, or
Roma Vecchia. Part of the villa is of the time of Hadrian. About two
miles further on, _on our right_, is a tumulus, Monte del Grano, in
which was found the splendid sarcophagus now in the Capitoline Museum,
which contained the Portland Vase. It is not known to whom it
belonged. We next cross the Naples railway, and pass under PORTA FURBA
(Thieves' Arch), supporting the Acqua Felice. Looking back through the
arch, there is a beautiful view. Here we can see the arches of the
aqueducts distinctly: _on the left_, under the arch by the fountain,
the Claudia and Anio Novus; and _on the right_ the Marcia, Tepula, and
Julia. The stream in sight is the Maranna. From here the lane to the
right, a pleasant drive, leads to the Porta Maggiore, whilst that
straight on strikes the Via Appia Nova, near the Porta S. Giovanni.


(_Mr. Forbes's excursion by rail and donkeys at frequent intervals._)

To return, we take the road above, to the point where the Grotta
Feratta road strikes off to the right; then the road ascends to
Frascati; but there is nothing of interest _en route_. Much time is
saved by taking the rail to Frascati, which brings us into the town,
near the Piazza and Cathedral.


of all the Alban towns, is most frequented, on account of its
proximity to Rome, from which it can be reached by rail in
half-an-hour. The town itself is uninteresting. In the cathedral is a
monument to Prince Charles Edward, erected by his brother, the
Cardinal York, who was bishop of this diocese.

The beautiful villas in the vicinity are well worth visiting,
affording cool retreats in summer. These are, Villa Montalto; Villa
Pallavicini; Villa Conti; Villa Borghese; Villa Ruffinella; Villa
Muti, long the residence of Cardinal York; Villa Sora; Villa
Falconieri; Villa Angelotti; and Villa Mondragone.

_On the road to_ Monte Porzio, _viâ_ Manara, under the town, is the
pretty little Villa Sansoni, once the residence of the Chevalier S.
George, the would-be King James III. of England and VIII. of Scotland.

The antiquities of Frascati are few. _In walking up from_ the station,
opposite the hospital, in a garden, is a grotto called the NYMPHÆUM OF
LUCULLUS; and in a piazza, where the donkeys are usually mounted for
Tusculum, is a circular tomb called the Sepulchre of Lucullus.
Lucullus distinguished himself in the Social War. He was consul 74
B.C., and for seven years conducted the war against Mithridates. He
died 56 B.C., and was buried by his brother on his estate at
Tusculum,--the offer of a public funeral in the Campus Martius being
declined. "Lucullus had the most superb pleasure house in the country
near Tusculum; adorned with grand galleries and open saloons, as well
for the prospect as for walks" (Plutarch). _Opposite_ the house of the
Chevalier S. George are some remains of a villa of the time of

_In ascending the hill from_ Frascati, we pass along by a shady road,
passing through the Villa Ruffinella (the property of Prince
Angelotti, who has made a new road up to it). Under the porch are some
remains brought from Tusculum.


A city of great antiquity, now in ruins, founded by the son of
Ulysses. The remains of the forum, reservoir, and walls can still be
traced. The ancient citadel stood on the artificial rock, which is now
surmounted by a cross, 212 feet above the city. The view is
magnificent. The height is 2400 feet above the sea. Tusculum was
destroyed in 1191, after repeated attacks by the Romans, who razed it
to the ground. It was the birthplace of Cato. Ascending by the old
road, still paved with the blocks of lava stone, passing by an old
tomb, we arrive at the amphitheatre of reticulated work, 225 feet by
167 feet broad. The construction shows it to be of the time of
Hadrian. Above, some massive remains of the same construction have
been dignified by some as the site of Cicero's Villa. We have
thoroughly explored these remains, and proved them to form a large
reservoir for water, of the time of Hadrian. Beyond was the Forum, the
Diurnal Theatre, the Reservoir, and the Citadel. To the left, before
entering the theatre, a short distance down the old road, is a
fountain erected by the ædiles Q. C. Latinus and Marcus Decimus, by
order of the senate. Near it is a reservoir with a roof like a Gothic
arch, formed in the primitive style of one stone resting against
another. From here a specus runs back into the hill to the spring.
Here also can be examined the walls of the city, formed of square
blocks of sperone, evidently rebuilt at a later date, as the walls to
the left in the ditch are polygonal, agreeing with the date of the
city. The hill of Tusculum is formed of volcanic matter, which has in
some parts been so hardened as to form a stone, _sperone lapis
Tusculanus_, and which, from the condition of the ruins, must have
been largely used in the buildings of the city.

The visitor who has come up from Frascati, and wishes to return there,
had better do so by another path through the woods, by the Camaldoli
Monastery, to the Villa Mondragone, then by the Villa Borghese to
Frascati, a pleasant route. From Tusculum, a charming path through the
chestnut groves leads up to Monte Cavo, avoiding Rocca di Papa, the
ancient Fabia, which can be seen on the return.


is situated on the brink of the great crater which, the natives say,
was formerly occupied by the camp of Hannibal. Fabius kept the hills,
and Hannibal the plain. It takes its name from the proprietors,
Annibile, and had nothing to do with Hannibal. It is a small town, but
well suited for a summer residence. _From here we ascend to_


The ascent is made in three-quarters of an hour. There is a wooded
ascent along the Via Triumphalis, by which the Roman generals ascended
in order to celebrate at the Temple of Jupiter Latialis. The ruins of
this temple were converted partly into a monastery by the Cardinal
York, and partly into the Church of S. Peter's at Frascati. The
ancient name of this mountain was Monte Latialis, and the ancient road
that went over it, Via Numinis, the initials V. N. in the pavement
telling us the name. It is 3200 feet above the sea. About three parts
of the way up, from a ledge off the road, a beautiful view of the
Alban Lakes can be had--forming, as it were, a pair of eyes. The view
obtained is unequalled, comprising the sea and coast from Terracina
and Civita Vecchia, Rome and the Campagna, and, immediately beneath
us, the Alban Mountains--one of the most interesting views in the
world, every spot around being full of historical associations. Here,
as it were, we can take in the whole panoramic view of the history of
Rome. The surface of the mountain, on which stood the shrine of the
god, extends to three thousand square yards. Besides its religious and
architectural purposes, this area was used as a collector for rain
water, which first ran into a _piscina limaria_ to be purified, and
then through a subterranean channel to a reservoir, the capacity of
which amounts to one thousand cubic yards, having still some hydraulic
regulators of lead, with their keys and pipes, on which the names of
Maximus and Tubero, consuls in 11 B.C., are engraved.

The return journey is made down the direct road from Rocca di Papa to
Frascati, passing the PONTE DEGLI SQUARCIARELLI, over the Aqua Craba,
at the point where the roads turn off to Marino, Grotta Feratta, and

       *       *       *       *       *


(_Porta S. Paolo._)

This is the most picturesque of the gates of Rome. It consists of a
double gateway, the outer (of the time of Theodoric) with one, the
inner (of the time of Claudius) with two arches, flanked with towers.

_On the right is the_


erected by his heir, Pontius Mela, and his freedman Pothus. This
imposing structure was faced with smoothly hewn slabs of marble, and
stands on a basement of travertine measuring 95 feet in diameter. It
is 115 feet high.

This monument, erected some twenty or thirty years before the
Christian era, was indebted for its preservation to the circumstance
of its having been incorporated by Aurelian with the line of his
fortifications. The confined burial chamber (the paintings on the roof
and walls of which are now almost obliterated) is reached through the
doorway, introduced at some height on the north side. As is usually
the case with tombs, in order to prevent spoliation, there were no
steps leading up to the door. The west entrance is of more modern
origin, dating from the time of Alexander VII., who caused it to be
broken through the wall, although the ancient original doorway already
afforded the means of ingress. The lower portion of the monument was
cleared from the rubbish, which had accumulated to the height of
twenty feet, at the same time; and the two fluted columns, resting
upon travertine bases, were also dug up. Still more remarkable is the
discovery of the remains of the colossal statue of C. Cestius,
consisting of the foot and arm, now in the Hall of Bronzes in the
Capitol Museum.

_Keeping the straight road, we come, on the left, to_


A relief over the door represents their parting, where this chapel now
stands. The inscription says:--

                   SHEPHERD OF THE FLOCK OF CHRIST."


The first church built, in the time of Constantine, to commemorate the
martyrdom of S. Paul. It was destroyed by fire on July 15, 1823; its
restoration was immediately commenced, and it was reopened in 1854 by
Pio Nono. The festa days are January 25th, June 30th, and December
28th. The principal entrance towards the Tiber is still unfinished.
Before the Reformation it was under the protection of the kings of
England. It is the finest of Roman churches, and the visitor cannot
fail to be charmed with its beauty; it is one vast hall of marble,
with eighty Corinthian pillars forming the nave, reflected in the
marble pavement. The grand triumphal arch which separates the nave
from the transept is a relic of the old basilica; and the mosaic,
Christ blessing in the Greek manner, with the twenty-four elders, is
of the fifth century, given by Placidia, sister of Honorius, in 440.
The mosaic of the tribune was erected by Pope Honorius III., 1216-27;
it has been restored since the fire. On either side are statues of S.
Peter and S. Paul; around the church, above the columns, are portraits
of the popes, from S. Peter, in mosaics. The altar canopy is supported
by four pillars of Oriental alabaster, given by Mehemet Ali, Pasha of
Egypt. A marble staircase leads to the subterranean chapel, where are
preserved the relics of the martyrs Paul and Timothy. The altars at
each end of the transept are of malachite, given by the Czar of
Russia. The painted windows are worthy of attention, as also a
beautiful alabaster candelabrum saved from the fire. The walls and
numerous chapels are adorned with paintings and statues of the present
day, giving a good idea of the actual state of art in Rome. By
applying for the key in the sacristy, visitors can see the beautiful
court of the thirteenth century, which will fully repay inspection.

Prudentius, who saw the original basilica in its glory, thus describes

     "Imperial splendour all the roof adorns;
     Whose vaults a monarch built to God. and graced
     With golden pomp the vast circumference.
     With gold the beams he covered, that within
     The light might emulate the beams of morn.
     Beneath the glittering ceiling pillars stood
     Of Parian stone, in fourfold ranks disposed:
     Each curving arch with glass of various dye
     Was decked; so shines with flowers the painted mead
     In spring's prolific day."
          _Passio Beat. Apost._

This description will apply equally well to the present basilica. The
church is 396 feet long from the steps of the tribune; width of aisle
and nave, 222 feet.

The façade of the basilica, the upper part of which has lately been
uncovered, is toward the Tiber; it consists of a beautiful mosaic
which has taken thirteen years to complete, and is the finest
production of the Vatican manufactory. The whole is surmounted by a
cross, under which are the words _Spes Unica_; below it is our Lord
enthroned, with SS. Peter and Paul on either side below the steps of
his throne. A scene symbolic of the New Testament is below. A rock
occupies the centre, from which flow the four rivers of the
Apocalypse; on the summit is the Lamb supporting the cross. The cities
of Jerusalem and Bethlehem are on each side, whilst flocks of sheep
between the palm-trees are symbolic of the apostolic college. Below,
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel typify the Old Testament. The
whole, a triangle, is bordered with a mosaic of fruit and foliage.

_At the back of the church is_


It is altogether a mistake to suppose that Remus took his stand upon
the Aventine and Romulus upon the Palatine; if so, they would both
have commanded nearly the same horizon, and messengers need not have
been sent from one to the other to tell the number of birds seen.
Romulus stood on the Aventine, and Remus on the hill before us, the

"Remus pitched upon the ground now called from him Remuria. This place
is very proper for a city, being a hill not far from the Tiber,
distant from Rome about thirty stadia" (Dionysius, i. 85).

"Romulus buried Remus at Remuria, since, when alive, he had been fond
of building there" (_Ibid._, i. 87).

This hill is called to the present day _La Remuria_.

_The road straight on past S. Paolo leads to the_


or Three Springs, which are said to have sprung forth when S. Paul was
executed on this spot, his head rebounding three times after it was
cut off. Three churches have been built here, but they are not of much

_The rambler can return to the city from S. Paul's by tramway, fare
six sous, to the Piazza Montanara._

_To the left the_ STRADA DELLE SETTE CHISSE _leads to the_ VIA APPIA,
_near the Church of S. Sebastiano._


(_Mr. Forbes's carriage excursion at frequent intervals._)

_Instead of turning to the left to the Three Fountains, keep straight
on._ This is the pleasantest and prettiest road out of Rome, but the
views are not so commanding as on some others. On the hill to the left
was the Vicus Alexandrinus, where the Lateran obelisk was landed; at
Tor di Valle we cross the stream that comes from the Vallis
Ferentina,--the bridge is of the time of the kings; then the Rivus
Albanus, the outlet of Lake Albano; we next cross the Decima stream;
beyond, the Via Laurentina, at the Osteria of Malafede, turns off to
the _left_. We descend to the valley of the Malafede, which is still
crossed by the


called _Ponte della Refolta_. It is worth while to get out of the
carriage here and turn into the field at the gate on the left, over
the bridge, to see this piece of ancient work, formed of great blocks
of tufa stone of the time of the kings, having some repairs in _opus
reticulatum_ of the republic. The paved arch over the stream is in
good preservation, and is older than the Cloaca Maxima, but not so
well known. It is evidently the work of Ancus Martius, who made the
port of Ostia, and consequently the road to get there. At the top of
the hill above we get the first view of the sea and the last of S.
Peter's. We now pass through the woods and along an ancient causeway
through the salt marshes to the modern village of


fourteen miles from Rome. The ancient remains are beyond. Founded by
Ancus Martius, it was the great port and arsenal of ancient Rome, with
which it rose and fell. _Ascending_ the tower of the castle in the
village, an extensive view of the Latin coast and the surrounding
ancient forests may be had. Several rooms in the castle have been
turned into a museum of fragments found in the excavations. The castle
was built by Julius II., 1503-13; and besides this there is nothing of
interest in the miserable village. The Street of Tombs leads to the
ancient city. The principal objects of interest are the Porta Romana
and Guardhouse, houses in the city, tombs and columbaria, Temple of
Cybele, the Temple of Vulcan, street with portico and warehouses, the
Horrea with the Dolia, the Imperial Palace, baths containing many
beautiful specimens of mosaic pavement, Temple of Mithras, in which
the altar is still standing, the Arsenal, &c.


The recent excavations were commenced at Ostia at the close of 1870
upon a system more in accordance with the requirements of
archæological science and the tendencies of topographical discoveries
than had up to that time been practised. All idea of speculating--as
had been until then the chief aim of the popes--in the statues and
precious objects that might be found, was renounced, and instead it
was proposed to uncover, by steady and continued effort, the ruins of
the buried edifices; especial attention was bestowed upon those along
the banks of the Tiber, as they had played an important part in the
career of the city. The earth was first removed round the large
edifice known as the "Imperial Palace," bordering on the Tiber; its
principal entry, upon the bank of the river, although decorated with a
more elegant front, constituted only a common doorway. Three spots,
which bore the aspect of stairs leading down to the river, have been
excavated: firstly, upon the line from the Temple of Vulcan to the
river; secondly, at a basin to the right side of this line; thirdly,
at the other extremity of the basin, adjoining the Imperial Palace. At
the first point was found the street which terminated at the banks of
the river with a flight of steps. Upon removing the soil, a street was
discovered paved with immense flagstones, fifteen yards wide,
including the porticoes that flanked it on both sides. The porticoes
are six yards wide, and are built with pillars of arched brick,
decorated at the lower extremity with bas-reliefs, and at the upper
with cornices of terra-cotta, lace design. In their interior are large
compartments for warehouses, with a depth of six yards below the level
of the pavement. This street leading from the river to the Temple of
Vulcan is one hundred and fifty yards long. The lateral walls subsist
up to the height of seven yards, and the rooms of the porticoes still
preserve their ceilings, the pavement of the first floor being mosaic.
Another street, parallel to the above, was struck at the second
point, also running from the river, and paved with large flagstones;
it has a width of five yards, and on each side large warehouses. On
the left side are a series of pillars adorned with cornices, having a
height of seven yards, and a lateral width of two yards. As the street
advances into the city, along the entire course are shops and
warehouses, conveying the grandest idea of the life, activity, and
commercial traffic that must have prevailed in the city. At the third
spot were found the traces of a large stairway, leading to a terrace
reared above the level of the river. To this stairway two streets
lead, the first six yards wide, and proceeding from the interior of
the city; the second, ten yards, running parallel to the Tiber, each
side being occupied with warehouses. These are the three main streets
lately thoroughly uncovered and examined, and which, while affording
an accurate plan to modern eyes of the time-honoured city, unite, with
its other ruins, tombs, and mosaic pavements, to make Ostia one of the
wonders of the day.


is a seat of Prince Chigi, two miles to the left of modern Ostia, just
inside the pine-forest. There is nothing further to see. There is a
pleasant ramble of about two miles down to the sea.

N.B.--_Permission must be obtained of the prince, before leaving Rome,
to enter the woods._

Seven miles beyond Castel Fusano is Tor Paterno, the site of the


"Seventeen miles from Rome; so that, having finished my affairs in
town, I can pass my evenings here without breaking in upon the
business of the day. There are two different roads to it: if you go by
that of Laurentum, you must turn off at the fourteenth mile; if by
Ostia, at the eleventh." (See Letter to Gallus, ii. 17.) Three miles
inland is Capocotta, the site of Laurentum, the capital of Latium.
Five miles off is Pratica, the ancient Lavinium, founded by Æneas.


[20] The painted tomb, discovered in 1842, is kept locked by the
miller at Isola. _Apply for the key, but resist his demands._ It is
the most ancient Etruscan tomb yet discovered; the furniture has been
left exactly as it was found.



                               _Years._  B.C. A.D.
     =Augustus=                     40       27-14
     =Tiberius=                     23       14-37
     =Caligula=                      4       37-41
     =Claudius=                     13       41-54
     =Nero=                         14       54-68
     =Galba=                                 68-69
     =Otho=                                     69
     =Vitellius=                                69
     =Vespasian=                    10       69-79
     =Titus=                         2       79-81
     =Domitian=                     15       81-96
     =Nerva=                         2       96-98
     =Trajan=                       19      98-117
     =Hadrian=                      21     117-138
     =Antoninus Pius=               23     138-161
     { =M. Aurelius=                19     161-180
     { =L. Verus=                    8     161-169
     =Commodus=                     12     180-192
     =Pertinax=                                193
     =Julianus=                                193
     =Niger=                                   194
     =Septimius Severus=            18     193-211
     =Albinus=                       4     193-197
     { =Caracalla=                   6     211-217
     { =Geta=                        1     211-212
     =Macrinus=                      1     217-218
     =Elagabalus=                    4     218-222
     =Alexander Severus=            13     222-235
     =Uranius=                                 223
     =Maximinus=                     3     235-238
     { =Gordianus I.=          }               238
     { =Gordianus II.=         }
     { =Pupienus Maximus=      }               238
     { =Balbinus=              }
     =Gordianus III.=                6     238-244
     =Philippus=                     5     244-249
     =Marinus=                                 249
     =Jotapinus=                               249
     =Decius=                        2     249-251
     =Trebonianus Gallus=            3     251-254
     =Æmilianus=                               253
     =Volusianus=                              254
     { =Valerian=                    7     253-260
     { =Gallienus=                  15     253-268
     =Macrianus=                     2     260-262
     =Regillianus=                   2     261-263
     =Postumus=                      9     258-267
     =Lælianus=                                267
     =Victorinus=                    2     265-267
     =Marius=                                  268
     =Claudius II.=                  2     268-270
     =Quintillus=                              270
     =Aurelian=                      5     270-275
     =Vabalathus=                    5     266-271
     =Tetricus=                      5     268-273
     =Tacitus=                       1     275-276
     =Florianus=                               276
     =Probus=                        6     276-282
     =Bonosus=                                 280
     =Carus=                         1     282-283
     { =Carinus=               }     1     283-284
     { =Numerianus=            }
     =Julianus=                                284
     { =Diocletian=                 21     284-305
     { =Maximianus=                 19     286-305
     =Carausius=                     6     287-293
     =Allectus=                      4     293-297
     =Constantius I. Chlorus=        1     305-306
     =Galerius=                      6     305-311
     =Severus=                       1     306-307
     =Maximinus=                     5     308-313
     =Maxentius=                     6     306-312
     =Alexander=                               311
     =Constantinus I. (the Great)=  31     306-337
     =Licinius=                     16     307-323
     { =Constantinus II.=            3     337-340
     { =Constantius II.=            24     337-361
     { =Constans I.=                13     337-350
     =Nepotianus=                              350
     =Vetranio=                      1     350-351
     =Magnentius=                    3     350-353
     =Decentius=                     2     351-353
     =Constantius Gallus=            3     351-354
     =Julianus II.=                  2     361-363
     =Jovianus=                      1     363-364


     =Valentinianus I.=             11     364-375
     =Valens=                       14     364-378
     =Procopius=                     1     365-366
     =Gratian=                      16     367-383
     =Valentinianus II.=            17     375-392
     =Theodosius I.= (Emperor
       of the West as well as
       of the East)                  3     392-395
     =Maximus=                       5     383-388
     =Eugenius=                      2     392-394
     =Honorius=                     28     395-423
     =Constantius III.=                        421
     =Constantinus III.=             4     407-411
     =Constans=                      3     408-411
     =Maximus=                       2     409-411
     =Jovinus=                       2     411-413
     =Sebastianus=                   1     412-413
     =Priscus Attalus=               7     409-416
     =Johannes=                      2     423-425
     =Theodosius II.= (Emperor
       of the West as well as of
       the East)                     2     423-425
     =Valentinian III.=             30     425-455
     =Petronius Maximus=                       455
     =Avitus=                        1     455-456
     =Majorianus=                    4     457-461
     =Libius Severus III.=           4     461-465
     =Anthemius=                     5     467-472
     =Olybrius=                                472
     =Glycerius=                     1     473-474
     =Julius Nepos=                  1     474-475
     =Romulus Augustulus=            1     475-476


     =Valens=                       14     364-378
     =Theodosius I.=                17     378-395
     =Arcadius=                     13     395-408
     =Theodosius II.=               42     408-450
     =Marcian=                       7     450-457
     =Leo I. (Thrax)=               17     457-474
     =Leo II.=                                 474
     =Zeno=                         17     474-491


                                    A.U.C.    B.C.
     =Romulus=                   1             753
     =Numa Pompilius=                          716
     =Tullus Hostilius=                        673
     =Ancus Martius=                           640
     =Tarquinius I.=                           616
     =Servius Tullius=                         578
     =Tarquinius II.=                          534


     =Foundation of Rome=            April 21, 753
     =Rome ruled by kings=                 753-510
     =Republican period--consuls=           510-27
     =Dictatorship instituted=                 501
     =Decemvirs governed=                      540
     =Gauls take Rome=                         398
     =Consuls re-established=                  366
     =Rome governs the whole of Italy=         266
     =Carthage destroyed=                      146
     =First Triumvirate=                        60
     =Cæsar assassinated=                       44
     =The Empire ruled from Rome= 27 B.C.-306 A.D.
     =Empire divided=                          337
     =Fall of Western Empire=                  476
     =Rome the capital of United Italy=       1870




Owing to constant changes in the information desired by Visitors, Mr.
S. RUSSELL FORBES publishes _The Directory and Bulletin_ fortnightly,
in which will be found all the latest information required--church
ceremonies, city news, and recent discoveries, etc.

The editor cannot hold himself responsible for any changes, hours of
entry, or arrangements of contents of Museums. The shops recommended
are from personal experience; their prices are fixed. The following
are correct to the moment of going to press:--

     =Archæological Association=--93 Via Babuino, 2º pº
     =Archæological Society (British and American)=--76 Via della Croce.
     =Arts, British Academy=--22A Via S. Nicolò da Tolentino.
     =Artists' Colourman=--DOVIZIELLI, 136 Via Babuino.
     =Articles of Religion=--VALENZI, 76 Piazza di Spagna.


_Artists are invited to send their names and addresses for insertion;
also notice as to change of studio, etc._


     E. BENSON             American     21 Via Quirinale.
     D. BENTON             American     33 Via Margutta.
     C. C. COLEMAN         American     33 Via Margutta.
     HENRY COLEMAN         English      33 Via Margutta.
     F. R. COLEMAN         English      33 Via Margutta.
     MRS. CARSON           American     107B Quattro Fontane.
     W. LANE CONOLLY       English      17 Via Margutta.
     GLENNIE               English      17 Via Margana.
     W. S. HASELTINE       American     Palazzo Altieri.
     C. POINGDESTRE        English      32 Via dei Greci.
     W. A. SHADE           American     123 Via Sistina.
     A. STRUTT             English      81 Via della Croce.
     L. TERRY              American     Vicolo degl' Incurabili.
     J. R. TILTON          American     20 Via S. Basilio.
     E. VEDDER             American   { Villa Fern, outside Porta del
                                      {   Popolo.
     P. WILLIAMS           English      65 Via Babuino.


     E. BATTERSBY          English      10 Via dei Greci.
     H. CARDWELL           English      52 Via Margutta.
     J. DONOGHU            American     19 Via Palestro.
     M. EZEKIEL            American     17 Piazza Termini.
     Mrs. FREEMAN          American     30 Angelo Custodi.
     R. S. GREENOUGH       American     54 Via Margutta.
     A. E. HARNISCH        American     58B Via Sistina.
     C. B. IVES            American     53B Via Margutta.
     E. KEYSER             American     83 Via Margutta.
     Miss LEWIS            American     70 Via Babuino.
     L. MACDONALD          English      2 Piazza Barberini.
     R. ROGERS             American     53 Via Margutta.
     F. SIMMONS            American     73 Via S. Nicolò da Tolentino.
     W. W. STORY           American     2 Via S. Martino.
     C. SUMMERS            English      53 Via Margutta.
     I. SWINERTON          Isle of Man  Palazzo Swinerton, 2 Via
     Miss VARNEY           American     51 Via Margutta.


     ALDI                  Painter      13 Via S. Nicolò da Tolentino.
     ALT                   Painter      72 Via S. Nicolò da Tolentino.
     ALTINI                Sculptor     92 Via 20 Settembre.
     AMICI                 Sculptor     20 Passeggiata di Ripetta.
     ANDERLINI             Sculptor     33 Vicolo Barberini.
     BENZONI               Sculptor     91 Via dei Bastioni.
     BERTACCINI            Painter      72 Via Sistina.
     BIGI                  Sculptor     42 Via Flaminia.
     BOMPIANI              Painter      14 Passeggiata Ripetta.
     BUZZI                 Painter      5 Via Margutta.
     CORRODI               Painter      8 Via Incurabili.
     CURION                Painter      75A Via Quattro Fontani.
     COSTA                 Painter      33 Via Margutta.
     ETHOFER               Painter      16 Passeggiata Ripetta.
     FAUSTINI              Painter      Villa Fern.
     FERRARI               Sculptor     38 Piazza Barberini.
     FRANZ                 Painter      96 Piazza S. Claudio.
     GALLORI               Sculptor     113 Via Margutta.
     GRANDI                Painter      37 Via Porta Pinciana.
     GUGLIELMI             Sculptor     155 Via Babuino.
     LEONARDI              Painter      Via Quattro-Fontane.
     MACCAGNANI            Sculptor     44 Via Flaminia.
     MACCARI               Painter      222 Via Ripetta.
     MANTOVANI             Painter      39 Via dell' Anima.
     MARTENS               Painter      72 Via Sistina.
     MASINI                Sculptor     37 Passeggiata Ripetta.
     MAZZOLINI             Painter      Via S. Nicolò da Tolentino.
     MOLINARI              Painter      13 Vicolo S. Nicolò da Tolentino.
     MONTEVERDI            Sculptor     8 Piazza Indipendenza.
     REGIS EMMA            Painter      33 Via Margutta.
     SCIFONI               Painter      37 Via Tritoni.
     SIMONETTI             Painter      8 Via S. Apollinare.
     TADOLINI              Sculptor     150A Via Babuino.
     VERTUNI               Painter      53 Via Margutta.


  |                              |       ONE HORSE.      |    TWO    |
  |                              |                       |  HORSES.  |
  |                              +-----------+-----------+-----------+
  |                              |   OPEN.   |  COUPE.   |  LANDAU.  |
  |                              +----+------+----+------+----+------+
  |                              |Day.|Night.|Day.|Night.|Day.|Night.|
  |                              |l.c.| l.c. |l.c.| l.c. |l.c.| l.c. |
  |Course or ride inside walls   |1  0|1  20 |1 20|1  30 |2  0|2  50 |
  |In the one-horse carriages    |    |      |    |      |    |      |
  |  more than two Persons pay   |    |      |    |      |    |      |
  |  extra.                      |0 20|0  40 |0 20|0  40 |    |      |
  |Course to Tramway outside     |    |      |    |      |    |      |
  |  Porta S. Lorenzo.           |1 20|1  60 |1 40|2   0 |2 50|2  80 |
  |Calling off the Stand to take |    |      |    |      |    |      |
  |  up, one quarter of a course |    |      |    |      |    |      |
  |  extra.                      |    |      |    |      |    |      |
  |Calling and not engaging,     |    |      |    |      |    |      |
  |  half a course must be paid. |    |      |    |      |    |      |
  |The hour, inside the walls.   |2  0|2  20 |2 25|2  50 |3  0|3  50 |
  |Every quarter over the hours  |0 45|0  50 |0 55|0  60 |0 70|0  85 |
  |Outside the walls up to the   |    |      |    |      |    |      |
  |  second milestone            |2 50|      |3  0|      |4  0|      |
  |Every quarter over the hours  |0 50|      |0 60|      |0 80|      |
  |To the Cemetery of S. Lorenzo |2 20|2  70 |2 50|3   0 |3 50|4   0 |
  |Every quarter over the hours  |0 50|0  65 |0 60|0  70 |0 85|0  95 |




     =Barberini=                       12 till 4
     =Capitol=* (entrance, ½ lira)     10  "   3
     =Lateran=                         10  "   3
     =S. Luke=                         10  "   3
     =Vatican= (permission)             9  "   3
       (_Closed on Saturday._)
     =Monte di Pietà=                   8  "   3


     =Borghese=                         9 till 3
     =Corsini= (at Easter every day)    9  "   3


     =Doria= (on festivals the day
       following)                      10 till 2
     =Spada=                           10  "   1
     =Colonna=                         11  "   3


     =Borghese=                         9 till 3
     =Rospigliosi=                      9  "   3


     =Colonna=                         11 till 3
     =Corsini= (at Easter every day)    9  "   3
     =Spada=                           10  "   1


     =Borghese=                         9 till 3
     =Doria= (on festivals the day
       following)                      10  "   2


     =Colonna=                         11 till 3
     =Rospigliosi=                      9  "   3
     =Corsini= (at Easter every day)    9  "   3
     =Spada= (entrance, ½ lira)        10  "   1
     =Farnese= (by special permission
       of the French Ambassador).



     =Capitol=* (entrance, ½ lira)     10 till 3
     =Lateran=                         10  "   3
     =Vatican= (permission)             9  "   3
       (_Closed on Thursday and
     =Museo Urbino=                    10  "   3
     =Kircherian=* (entrance, 1 lira)   9  "   3
     =Tabularium= (entrance, ½ lira)   10  "   3


     =Auditorium of Mæcenas= (permission).
     =Instruction and Education=,
       Via Capo le Case (ent., 50 c.)   9 till 3
     =Egyptian and Etruscan= (of
       the Vatican)                     9  "   3
     =Ludovisi= (permission)           12  "   4


     =Borghese= (Winter)                1 till 4
        "     (Summer)                  4  "   7

_On Sundays and Festivals the Private Galleries and Museums are
closed; those (*) under the Municipality are opened free._



     =Medici=            9 till 12, 2 till dusk.
     =Pincio=               Sunrise till sunset.


     =Pamphili Doria=               2 till dusk.


     =Borghese=                    12 till dusk.
     =Albani= (permission)         12  "   4.


     =Wolkonsky= (permission)       2 till dusk.


     =Borghese=                    12 till dusk.
     =Torlonia= (permission)        1  "   5.


     =Pamphili Doria=               2 till dusk.


     =Borghese=                    12 till dusk.
     =Wolkonsky= (permission)       2  "   dusk.


     =Borghese=                    12 till dusk.

=Farnesina Villa=--Open on the 1st and 15th of each month.


     =Allemagna=, Via Condotti. Second class; central.
     =Bristol=, Piazza Barberini. First class; central.
     =Capitol=, Corso. Second class; very handy.
     =Centrale=, Piazza Rosa. Third class; central.
     =Continental=, opposite Station exit. First class.
     =Europa=, Piazza di Spagna. First class; central.
     =Inghilterra=, Bocca di Leone. First class; central.
     =Londra=, Piazza di Spagna. First class; central.
     =Molaro=, Via Capo le Case. Very good; central.
     =Paris=, Nicolò da Tolentino. First class; central.
     =Pace=, Via Sistina. Second class; good position.
     =Quirinale=, Via Nazionale. First class; good position.
     =Russie=, Piazza del Popolo. First class; good position.
     =Vittoria=, Via due Macelli. Second class; central.

_Terms--8, 10, and 12 lire, and upwards, per day, according to class
and rooms._


     =S. Augustine=                                 open from  9 to  2
     =Barberini= (Thursday)                             "      9 to  2
     =Capitoline=                                       "      9 to  3
     =Chigiana= (Thursday)                              "     10 to 12
     =Corsini=                                          "      1 to  4
     =Lancisiana= (_Medical_)                           "      8 to  2
     =Minerva=                                          "      8 to  3
     =S. Cecilia= (_Musical_)                           "      9 to  3
     =University=                                       "      8 to  2
                                                            and 6 to 9
     =Vallicelliana= (Tuesday, Thursday, & Saturday)    "      8 to 12
     =Vatican=                                          "      9 to  3
     =Vittor Emanuele=                                  "      9 to  3
                                                           and 7 to 10
     =Frankliana= (circulating), 41 Via dei Ginbonari.  "      9 to  4


The =Masonic Hall= is in the Via Campo Marzio, No. 48. The Most
Worshipful the Grand Master of the Order in Italy is Brother Signor

The =Universo= Lodge meets every Wednesday at 9 p.m. The =Rienzi= and
=Spartico= Lodges meet occasionally.



_The Bankers and Hotel Porters supply these without the Visitor losing
time by going to the proper quarters._

For an interview with =His Holiness the Pope=. Of Monsignor MACCHI, at
the Vatican.

=S. Peter's Dome.= Of Monsignor FIORANI, in the Sacristy.

=S. Peter's Crypt.= Of Cardinal LEDOCKOWSKI, Palazzo Cancelleria.

=Vatican Mosaic Manufactory.= Of Monsignor FIORANI, in the Sacristy.

=Vatican Gallery=, =Loggie=, and =Stanze of Raphael=, =Sistine
Chapel=, =Vatican Museum=, etc. Of Monsignor MACCHI, at the Vatican,
from 10 till 1.

=Borgia Apartment.= Cardinal LEDOCKOWSKI, Palazzo Cancelleria.

=Villa Albani= and =Villa Torlonia=. At the Palazzo Torlonia, Piazza
di Venezia.

=Villa Wolkonsky.= At the Russian Consulate, Palazzo Feoli, Corso.

=House of the Deputies.= From any member.

=Villa Ludovisi.= At the Palazzo Piombino, Piazza Colonna.

=Castle of S. Angelo.= At the Commandant's Office, Via de' Burro.

=Auditorium of Mæcenas.= At the Capitol.


              FROM        (_and vice versa_)        TO

                                  {=St. Peter's.=
     =Piazza di Spagna.=          {=Pantheon and Piazza Montanara.=
     =Piazza in Lucina.=           =Railway Station.=
     =Piazza San Silvestro.=       =Colosseum and Vaile Manzoni.=
                                  {=Corso and Piazza Venezia.=
     =Piazza del Popolo.=         {=Ripetta and S. Pantaleo.=
                                  {=Babuino, Via Cavour, Station.=
                                  {=Porta Angelica, Prati Castello.=
     =Outside Porta del Popolo.=   =Ponte Molle= (Tramway).
     =Piazza S. Eustacchio.=       =Piazza Indipendenza.=
     =Piazza Montanara.=          {=S. Peter's.=
                                  {=S. Paul's= (Tramway).
     =Piazza Cavour.=              =Porta Pia.=
     =Piazza Apollinare.=          =Piazza S. Maria Maggiore.=
                                  {=Corso Vittorio Emanuele, Vatican.=
                                  {=Colosseum, Lateran.=
     =Piazza Venezia.=            {=Via Nazionale, Station= (Tramway).
                                  {=Ponte Sisto, S. Francesco a Ripa.=
                                  {=Via Urbina, Piazza Vittorio
     =Piazza Ara Cœli.=            =Porta Angelica.=
     =Trajan's Forum.=             =Barracks, Prati Castello.=
     =Circo Agonale.=            { =Ponte Sisto, S. Peter's.=
                                 { =Piazza Indipendenza.=
     =Piazza Consolazione.=        =Porta S. Lorenzo.=
     =The Station.=                =S. John's Lateran= (Tramway).
     =Piazza Termini.=             =Cemetery of S. Lorenzo= (Tramway).
     =Piazza del Quirinale.=       =Agnese=, outside Porta Pia.


     =The English Church= (All Saints'), Via Babuino--Rev. H. W. WASSE.
     =Trinity Church= (Church of England), Piazza S. Silvestro.
     =American Church=, Via Nazionale--Rev. Dr. NEVIN.
     =Free Presbyterian Church=, Via Venti Settembre--Rev. GORDON GRAY.
     =Apostolic Church of Rome=, 35 Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina--Mr.
     =Baptist Church=, 27 Via del Teatro Valle--Rev. EAGER.
     =Chiesa Libera=, 43 Via di Panico, Piazza Ponte S. Angelo--
       Father GAVAZZI.
     =English Methodist=, 64 Via della Scrofa--Rev. H. PIGGOTT.
     =American Methodist=, Piazza Poli--Dr. VERNON.
     =Waldensian Church=, Via Nazionale.


_Post Office_--Piazza S. Silvestro.

The English and American Mail is closed at 8 P.M. Letters not
exceeding ½ oz. to England or America, 25 cent.

Postal Cards to any European country in the Postal Union, or to
America, 10 cent. Newspapers to any European country in the Postal
Union, or to America, 5 cent. Registration, 25 cent. in addition to

The English and American Mail is distributed at 9 A.M. and 5.30 P.M.
There are two despatches from England daily, except Sunday.

Letters for Italy not exceeding ½ oz., 20 cent.; one part of a town to
another, 5 cent.; Newspapers for Italy, 2 cent.; Postal Cards, 10

Money Orders are issued to and from all the principal towns of England
and America.

Telegrams not exceeding 15 words (address included), in Italy, 1
franc. Telegrams for England and America at a word rate.

Packages not weighing more than 3 kilos can be sent to Dover or London
for lire 3.75; to any other part of England, for lire 4.85; and to
Scotland and Ireland, for lire 5.70.

=Booksellers=--PIALE, 1 Piazza di Spagna; ALINARI & COOK, 90 Corso;
SPITHOEVER, 85 Piazza di Spagna; LOESCHER, 307 Corso; BOCCA, 216

=Boot-maker=--BALDELLI, 102 Corso.

=Bronzes=--NELLI, 139 Via Babuino; GUTTKORN, 47 Piazza di Spagna;
MORELLI, 91 Via Babuino.

=Bankers= (English and American)--MACQUAY HOOKER, 20 Piazza di Spagna;
M'BEAN, Piazza S. Silvestro; PLOWDEN, 50 Via Mercede; HANDLEY, 81
Piazza di Spagna; VANSITTART, 10 Piazza di Spagna.

=Baths=--151 Via Corso; 96 Via Babuino; 1 Vicolo d'Alibert.

=Bookbinder=--OLIVERI, 87 Piazza di Spagna, and 67 Via Nazionale;
SARROCCHI, 94 Via Babuino, and at the Accademia dei Lincei (Corsini)
Via Lungara.

=Baker=--VALAN, 118 Via Babuino; COLALUCCI, 88 Via della Croce. Good

=Cigars=--240 Corso.

=Chemists= (English)--BAKER, 41 Piazza di Spagna; SININBERGHI & EVANS,
65 Via Condotti; BORIONI, 98 Via Babuino; BERRETTI, 117 Via Frattina;
ROBERTS, 36 Piazza in Lucina.

=Homœopathic Chemist=--ALLEORI, Via S. Claudio.

=Catholic Colleges, English=--Via di Monserrato. =Scotch=--Via Quattro
Fontane. =Irish=--Via del Quirinale. =United States=--Via Umiltà.

=Cook's Tourist Office=--1A Piazza di Spagna.

=Consulate, British=--Mr. FRANZ, Piazza S. Claudio.

=Consulate General, United States, America=--Mr. W. L. ALDEN, 13 Via

=Embassy, United States, America=--Hon. JOHN B. STALLO, 13 Via

=Embassy, British=--Sir JOHN SAVILE LUMLEY, Via Venti Settembre, near
the Porta Pia.

=Cameos, Stone=--DE FELICI, 3 Piazza di Spagna; NERI, 87 Via Babuino.

=Cameos, Shell=--VERGE, 52 Piazza di Spagna.

=Doctors=--Dr. CHARLES, 72 San Niccolo da Tolentino; Dr. YOUNG, 20
Piazza di Spagna; Dr. DRUMMOND, 3 Piazza di Spagna; Dr. THOMSON, 60
Via di Macelli; Dr. SPURWAY, 22 Bocca di Leone; Dr. PIO BLASI (highly
recommended, specially for children), 48 Piazza Rondassini.

=Dentists= (American)--Dr. CHAMBERLAIN, 51 Piazza di Spagna; Dr. VAN
MARTER, 172 Via Nazionale.

=Draper=--TODROSS, 417 Corso.

=Drawing Masters=--DE BONIS, 48 Via del Governo Vecchio; MARCHETTI, 63
Via Fontanella Borghese; MOLINARI, 13 Vicolo Nicolò da Tolentino.

=Forwarding Agents=--PITT & SCOTT, FRANZ, 6A Via Condotti.

=Fox-hounds=--Meet twice a week in the neighbourhood of the city. The
appointments are posted at the libraries. Throw off at 11 o'clock.

=Grocer=--PARENTI, 45 Piazza di Spagna; CASONI, 32 Piazza di Spagna.

=Hairdresser=--PASQUALI, 12 Via Condotti.

=Hatter=--MILLER, 16 Via Condotti.

=House Agent=--CONTINI, 6 Via Condotti.

=Jewellery=--AGOSTINO BONI, 444 Corso; FIORENTINI, 91 Piazza di
Spagna; TOMBINI, 74 Piazza di Spagna; SUSCIPJ, 257 Corso.

=Libraries, Subscription=--_Piale_, Piazza di Spagna (the best in

=Mosaics=--ROCCHEGIANI, 13 Via Condotti; GALLANT, 5 Piazza di Spagna.

=Money-changer=--CORBUCCI, 91 Piazza di Spagna.

=Marbles=--RAINALDI, 51A Via Babuino.

=Music Masters=--GAMBALE, 2 Via della Croce; Dr. ESTE, 4 Via della
Leoncino; Miss LIEBREICHI, 118 Via Sistina; TAMBURINI (harp), 22
Quattro Fontane.

=Nurses for the Sick=--The Little Company of Mary, English nuns, 44
Via Sforza. _Highly recommended._ S. Paul's Home, 62 Via Palestro:
Miss MARTIN, Superintendent.

=Pensions=--SMITH, 93 Piazza di Spagna; CHAPMAN, 76 Via Nazionale;
TALLINBACK, 4 Via S. Martino; MITCHEL, 72 Via Sistina; SKED, 57 Via


=Police-Office, chief=--Palazzo della Prefettura, S. Apostoli.

=Portrait Photographs=--SUSCIPJ, 48 Via Condotti.

=Photographic Views=, etc.--ALINARI & COOK, 90 Corso; ANDERSON, at
Spithöver's, 85 Piazza di Spagna; PARKER, at Piale's, 1 Piazza di
Spagna; TUMINELLO, 21 Via Condotti; MOLENS, 28 Via Condotti.

=Railway Agency=--8 Via Propaganda.

=Roman Pearls=--REY, 121 Via Babuino.

=Roman Silks=--FONTANA, 116 Via Babuino.

=Saddler=--BARFOOT, 152 Via Babuino.

=Stationer=--CALZONE, 346 Corso; COOK, 90 Corso.

=Singing Masters=--BARTOLINI, 109 Via Marforio; NANNI, 50 Via Ripetta.

=Saddle Horses=--JARETT, 3 Piazza del Popolo; CAIROLI, 23 Vicolo

=Society for the Protection of Animals in Rome=--78 Via della Vite.

=Theatres=--_Apollo_, Via Tordinona. _Costanzi_, Via Nazionale.
_Argentina_, Via Torre Argentina. _Nazionale_ for drama, Via
Nazionale. _Umberto_, Via dei Pontefici. _Metastasio_, Via Pallacorda.
_Manzoni_, Via Urbana. _Quirino_, Via delle Vergini. _Valle_, Via
Teatro Valle. _Rossini_, Via di Santa Chiara. Tickets can be bought
and seats secured in the morning. The only way of knowing what will be
performed in the evening is to consult the daily papers and the

=Terra-Cotta=--EUGENIO DELL' ORTO, 309 Piazza S. Apostoli.

=Teachers of Languages=--MENDEL, 75 Via della Croce; MONACHESE, 8 Via
Sebastiano; NALLI, 63 Via Purificazione.

=Tobacco=--_Bring it with you, the Italian is bad._ CORBUCCI, 91
Piazza di Spagna.

=Tailors=--Old England, 114 Via Nazionale.

=Travelling Articles=--BARFOOT, 152 Via Babuino.


     Academy, British, 350;
       French, 250;
       S. Luca, 222;
       Spanish, 137.

     Acqua Acetosa, 305.

     Alba Longa, 335.

     Albano, 330.

     Altar of Aius Loquens, 77;
       Apollo, 75;
       Minerva, 223.

     Amphitheatrum, Castrense, 243;
       Flavian, 94.

     Antemnæ, Site of, 309.

     Appii Forum, 299.

     Aqueduct of Hadrian, 326;
       Julia, 329;
       Virgo Springs, 329.

     Archæological Association, 350;
       Society, 350.

     Arch of Augustus, 36;
       Claudius, 10;
       Constantine, 92;
       Dolabella, 245;
       Drusus, 285;
       Fabius, 35;
       Gallienus, 263;
       Janus, 211;
       S. Lazaro, 206;
       Septimius Severus, 25;
       Silversmiths, 211;
       Tiberius, 32;
       Titus, 88.

     Argiletum, 24.

     Ariccia, 332.

     Artists, English and American, 350;
       Italian and Foreign, 351.

     Asylum, 48.

     Atrium Vesta, 51.

     Auditorium, 262.

     Bankers, 357.

     Baptisteries, 91, 234.

     Barberini Gallery, 251.

     Basilica Æmilia, 21;
       Constantine, 66;
       Cupid, 91;
       Julia, 31;
       Opimia, 27;
       Palatine, 82;
       Porcia, 22.

     Baths of Agrippa, 157;
       Caracalla, 277;
       Constantine, 253;
       Diocletian, 265;
       Gallienus, 264;
       Hadrian, 227, 261;
       Novatus, 254;
       Sura, 209;
       Titus, 235.

     Borghese Gallery, 147;
       Museum, 304.

     Bridge of Æmilius, 201;
       S. Angelo, 104;
       Cestius, 199;
       di Nona, 327;
       Fabricius, 198;
       Lucano, 318;
       Molle, 305;
       Nomentana, 313;
       Quattro Capi, 198;
       Rotto, 201;
       Salara, 310;
       Sisto, 141;
       Sublician (Horatius's), 201.

     Cab Tariff, 352.

     Camere of Raphael, 121.

     Campagna, 302.

     Campus Martius, 147.

     Cancelleria Palace, 142.

     Canova's Studio, 5.

     Capitoline Hill, 163.

     Capitoline Museum, 175.

     Capitolium Vetus, 253.

     Casino di Papa Giulio, 305.

     Castel Arcione, 315.

     Castel Fusano, 347.

     Castel Gandolfo, 335.

     Castle of S. Angelo, 104.

     Catacombs of Domitilla, 293;
       Jewish, 292;
       Nereus and Achilleus, 294;
       Ostorian, 312;
       Prætextatus, 288;
       Priscilla, 309;
       S. Agnese, 309;
       S. Alexander, 314;
       S. Calixtus, 289;
       S. Sebastiano, 294.

     Cave of Aqueducts, 208.

     Cemetery, Capuccini, 270;
       Protestant, 206;
       S. Lorenzo, 314.

     Cenci Palace, 193.

     Chapels--Borghese, 258;
       Pauline, 120;
       S. Lorenzo, 122;
       SS. Peter and Paul, 342;
       Seven Sleepers, 282;
       Sistine, 118;
       Sixtine, 258.

     Chemists, English, 357.

     Churches--Protestant, 6;
       S. Paul's (American), 266.

     Churches--S. Abbate, 263;
       S. Adriano, 22;
       S. Agata, 254;
       S. Agnese, 145;
       S. Agnese fuori le mura, 311;
       S. Agostino, 145;
       S. Alexander, 314;
       S. Alexius, 207;
       S. Anastasia, 210;
       S. Andrea della Valle, 196;
       S. Andrew, 251;
       S. Antonio, 263;
       SS. Apostoli, 217;
       Ara Cœli, 164;
       S. Balbina, 279;
       S. Bartolomeo, 199;
       S. Bibiana, 264;
       S. Capuccini, 270;
       S. Cecilia, 140;
       S. Chrisogono, 141;
       S. Clemente, 227;
       S. Constanza, 311;
       SS. Cosmo e Damiano, 56;
       S. Croce in Gerusalemme, 244;
       "Domine quo vadis," 287;
       S. Francisca Romana, 67;
       S. Giorgio in Velabro, 212;
       SS. Giovanni e Paolo, 246;
       S. Giovanni in Oleo, 281;
       S. Gregorio, 248;
       S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami, 12;
       Il Gesu, 158;
       S. John's, Lateran, 238;
       S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, 314;
       S. Lorenzo in Fonte, 254;
       S. Lorenzo in Lucina, 5;
       S. Lorenzo in Miranda, 21;
       S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, 254;
       S. Maria degli Angeli, 265;
       S. Maria dei Miracoli, 2;
       S. Maria della Navicella, 245;
       S. Maria della Pace, 145;
       S. Maria del Popolo, 4;
       S. Maria in Cosmedin, 204;
       S. Maria in Monte Santo, 1;
       S. Maria in Trastevere, 141;
       S. Maria in Vallicella, 144;
       S. Maria in Via Lata, 10;
       S. Maria Maggiore, 256;
       S. Maria Nuova, 67;
       S. Maria sopra Minerva, 158;
       S. Martino, 24, 261;
       SS. Nereo e Achilleo, 279;
       S. Nicholas of Bari, 294;
       S. Onofrio, 134;
       S. Paolo fuori le mura, 342;
       S. Peter in Vincoli, 224;
       S. Peter's, 105;
       S. Petronilla, 294;
       S. Pietro in Montorio, 137;
       S. Praxedes, 259;
       Il Priorato, 207;
       S. Prisca, 208;
       S. Pudenziana, 254;
       S. Saba, 208;
       S. Sabina, 207;
       S. Sebastiano, 294;
       S. Stefano Rotondo, 244;
       S. Stephen in Via Latina, 328;
       S. Teodoro, 213;
       S. Tommaso in Formis, 245;
       Trinità dei Monti, 250;
       S. Urbano, 292.

     Circo Agonale, 144.

     Circus Agonalis, 144;
       of Maxentius, 295;
       Maximus, 209.

     Climate, xiii.

     Clivus Argentarius, 33;
       Argiletus, 24;
       Capitolinus, 31;
       Cyprius, 255;
       Pullius, 255;
       Sacra, 65;
       Urbius, 256.

     Cloaca Maxima, 49, 212.

     Collegio Romano, 159.

     Colonna Gallery, 217;
       Gardens, 253.

     Colosseum, 94.

     Columbaria, 282, 283.

     Column of Duilius, 25;
       Immaculate Conception, 216;
       Mænius, 26;
       Marcus Aurelius, 6;
       Phocas, 30;
       Trajan, 218.

     Comitium, the, 33.

     Consulates, 357.

     Contents, vii.

     Corsini Gallery, 134.

     Corso, 5.

     Curiæ Veteres, 76.

     Curtian Lake, 38.

     Dates, 348.

     Death of Cæsar, 195.

     Death of Virginia, 34.

     Decemviral Prisons, 190.

     Dentists, 357.

     Directory for Rome, 350.

     Doctors, English and American, 357.

     Doria Gallery, 11.

     Embassies, 357.

     Emperors, list of, 348.

     Emporium, 205.

     English College, 357.

     Environs, 273.

     Exedra, 83.

     Exhibition of Fine Arts, 267.

     Extent of the Forum, 18.

     Farnese Palace, 142.

     Farnesina Palace, 136.

     Ficus Navia, 40.

     Fidenæ, 310.

     First Impressions, xi.

     Fornix. _See Arch._

     Forum of Augustus, 220;
       Boarium, 211;
       Cupid, 91;
       Domitian, 223;
       Julius Cæsar, 15;
       Nerva, 223;
       Olitorium, 190;
       Piscatorium, 22;
       Romanum, 15;
       Trajan, 218;
       Transitorium, 223.

     Fountains--Acqua Acetosa, 305;
       Barcaccia, 216;
       Egeria, 275;
       Felice, 268;
       Juturna, 35;
       Meta Sudans, 92;
       Pauline, 140;
       Termini, 265;
       Trevi, 216.

     Fragments, 49.

     Frascati, 338.

     Gabii, 327.

     Galleries, list of, 353.

     Gardens of Mæcenas, 262.

     Gates, xxii. _See Porta._

     Gelotiana, 79.

     Genzano, 333.

     Ghetto, 192.

     Græcostasis, 24.

     Grotta Ferrata, 337.

     Grotto of Egeria, 275, 332.

     Health and Climate, xiii.

     Hilda's Tower, 148.

     Hills, the Seven, 172.

     Horace's Sabine Farm, 319.

     House Agent, 357.

     House of Aquila and Priscilla, 209;
       Augustus, 78;
       Cæsar, 60;
       Caligula, 79;
       Ciceruacchio, 146;
       Commodus, 84;
       Domitian, 81;
       Fornarina, 141;
       Gelotianus, 79;
       Germanicus, 78;
       Giulio Romano, 12;
       Goethe, 5;
       Hadrian, 79, 280;
       Keats, 216;
       Lucrezia Borgia, 224;
       Mæcenas, 262;
       Michael Angelo, 217;
       Monti, 216;
       Nero, 224;
       Parliament, 6;
       Paul, 197;
       Pompey, 223;
       Poussin, 250;
       Pudens, 254;
       Raphael, 141;
       Republicans, 76;
       Rienzi, 200;
       Romulus, 76;
       Servius Tullius, 256;
       Shelley, 216;
       Tarquinius I., 72;
       Tarquinius II., 255;
       Tiberius, 79;
       Visconti, 103;
       Zuccari, 250.

     How Rome became Ruins, xv.;
       how the soil accumulated, 16.

     Imperial Palace at Ostia, 346.

     Industrial Art Museum, 251.

     Information Guide, 350.

     Inquisition, the, 133.

     Irish College, 357.

     Island in the Tiber, 198.

     Janiculum Hill, 138.

     Janus, the, 33.

     Kings of Rome, 349.

     Kircherian Museum, 159.

     Lake of Albano, 335;
       Nemi, 333;
       Tartarus, 315.

     Lateran Museum, 235;
       Palace, 235.

     Laurentum, 347.

     Lautumiæ, 22.

     Lavinium, 347.

     Lincei dei Palazzo, 134.

     Loggie of Raphael, 122.

     Ludovisi Museum, 269.

     Lupercal, 210.

     Marino, 336.

     Mark Antony's speech, 38.

     Market of Nero, 244.

     Mamertine Prison, 12.

     Marmorata, 205.

     Masonic, 354.

     Mausoleum of Augustus, 147.

     Mausoleum of Hadrian, 104.

     Meta Sudans, 92.

     Milliarium Aureum, 30.

     Ministry of Finance, 268.

     Mons Sacer, 313.

     Mons Testaccio, 206.

     Monte Cavo, 340.

     Monte Citorio, 6.

     Monte Mario, 307.

     Monument of Marcus Aurelius, 42.

     Mosaic Manufactory, Vatican, 123.

     Mosaic of Lateran, 237.

     Muro Torto, 250.

     Museo Urbino, 248.

     Museums, list of, 353.

     Nations, Statues of, 175.

     Nemi, 333.

     Nero's Colossus, 92;
       Golden House, 224;
       Reservoir, 247.

     Nymphæum of Marcus Aurelius, 83;
       of Alexander Severus, 263.

     Obelisks--Circo Agonale, 144;
       Cœlimontana, 246;
       Lateran, 232;
       Minerva, 158;
       Monte Cavallo, 252;
       Monte Citorio, 6;
       Pantheon, 149;
       Piazza dell' Esquilino, 256;
       Pincio, 250;
       Popolo, 2;
       S. Peter's, 105;
       Table of, 272;
       Trinità dei Monti, 250.

     Odeum, 83.

     Omnibuses, 355.

     Orders wanted, and where obtainable, 355.

     Ostia, 344.

     Painters, English and American, 350;
       Italian and Foreign, 351.

     Palace of the Cæsars, 67, 78, 84.

     Palaces. _See under respective title._

     Palatine Hill, 67.

     Palazzolo, 335.

     Palladium, 55.

     Pantheon, 149.

     Parliament House, 6.

     Pasquino, 144.

     Pauline Chapel, 120.

     Piazza Barberini, 251;
       Bernardo, 267;
       Bocca della Verità, 204;
       Campo di Fiore, 142;
       Circo Agonale, 144;
       Colonna, 6;
       Farnese, 142;
       Monte Cavallo, 252;
       Monte Citorio, 6;
       Navona, 144;
       Popolo, 1;
       S. Peter's, 105;
       di Spagna, 214;
       di Termini, 265.

     Pincio, 249.

     Plan of Rambles, xiii.

     Porta Appia, 285;
       Asinaria, 328;
       Capena, 274;
       Carmenta, 73;
       Esquilina (Maggiore), 324;
       Flaminia, 303;
       S. Giovanni, 241;
       Latina, 280;
       Mugonia, 72;
       Nomentana, 311;
       Ostiensis, 341;
       S. Pancrazio, 140;
       S. Paolo, 324;
       Pia, 310;
       del Popolo, 303;
       Romana, 72;
       Salara, 308;
       S. Sebastiano, 285;
       Settimiana, 137;
       S. Spirito, 133;
       Tiburtina, 314;
       Trigeminia, xxii.;
       Viminalis, xxii.

     Portico Margaritaria, 64;
       of Octavia, 191;
       the Twelve Gods, 30.

     Port of Claudius, xxiii.

     Post Office, 5.

     Postal Notices, 356.

     Prætorian Camp, 264.

     Propaganda, 216.

     Protection of animals, 358.

     Puteal Scribonius Libo, 40.

     Pyramid of Caius Cestius, 341.

     Pyramid of Honorius, 104.

     Quirinal Hill, 173;
       Palace, 252.

     Recent excavations, 60.

     Regia Numæ, 20.

     Remuria Hill, 343.

     Reservoir of Nero, 247.

     Rocca di Papa, 340.

     Roman construction, xxiv.

     Roma Quadrata, 70.

     Rospigliosi Palace, 252.

     Rostra, 37, 41, 44.

     Sala Regia, 120.

     Scalæ Annulariæ, 49;
       Gemoniæ, 15;
       Regia, 118;
       Santa, 241.

     School of Xantha, 30.

     Scotch College, 357.

     Sculptors, English and American, 351.

     Senaculum, 24.

     Senate House, 22.

     Septa, 10.

     Sessorium Palace, 244.

     Sette Sale, 262.

     Seven Hills, 172.

     Shops in the Forum, 34.

     Shrine of Janus, 25;
       Maiden Victory, 77;
       Mercury, 50;
       Venus, 34.

     Sistine Chapel, 118.

     Spada Gallery, 197.

     Spanish Stairs, 216.

     Spoliarium, 247.

     Stadium, 83.

     Stanze of Raphael, 121.

     Stationes Municipiorum, 15.

     Station of Firemen, 141.

     Statue of Attus Navius, 40;
       Domitian, 38;
       Marcus Aurelius, 42, 164;
       Mark Antony, 37;
       Marsyas, 39;
       Nero, 92;
       Pasquino, 144;
       Pompey, 196.

     Suovetaurilia, 44.

     Tabularium, 170.

     Tarpeian Rock, 168.

     Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, 20;
       Castor, 162;
       Castor and Pollux, 18;
       Ceres and Faustina, 292;
       Claudius, 246;
       Concord of Camillus, 169;
       Concord of Opimius, 26;
       Cybele, 76;
       Diana Aricina, 332;
       Diana of Aventine, 208;
       Diana Nemorense, 334;
       Flavian Family, 268;
       Fortuna Primigenia, 265;
       Hercules, 202, 204;
       Honour and Virtue, 279;
       Hope, 199;
       Isis and Serapis, 149;
       Julius Cæsar, 21;
       Juno Moneta, 169;
       Juno Sospita, 199;
       Jupiter Capitolinus, 166;
       Jupiter Feretrius, 168;
       Jupiter Stator, 76;
       Jupiter Victor, 77;
       Mars, 279;
       Mars Ultor, 220;
       Minerva Campensis, 159;
       Mithras, 231;
       Mithras at Ostia, 346;
       Neptune, 9;
       Ops, 189;
       Peace, 66;
       Penates, 59;
       Piety, 199;
       Pudicitia Patricia, 202;
       Roma Quadrata, 75;
       Romulus Maxentius, 56;
       Saturn, 28;
       Sun, 89;
       Tempestas, 280;
       Venus and Roma, 58;
       Vespasian, 28;
       Vesta, 20;
       Vicaporta, 56;
       Victory, 77;
       Vulcan at Ostia, 346.

     Theatre of Balbus, 193;
       Marcellus, 190;
       Pompey, 194.

     Theatres, modern, in Rome, 358.

     Thermæ at Ostia, 346.

     The Tiber, xiv.

     Three Taverns, 299.

     Tivoli, 318.

     Tomb of Aterii, 236;
       Annia Regilla, 287;
       Appian Way, 298;
       Aruns, 331;
       Atta, Quintus, 328;
       Attia Claudia, 12;
       Augustus, 147;
       Baker, 326;
       Bibulus, 12;
       Cæcilii, 288;
       Cæsar, 21;
       Cecilia Metella, 296;
       Cestius, 341;
       Geta, 286;
       Hadrian, 104;
       Helena, 327;
       Horace, 263;
       Lucilius, 308;
       Lutatius Catulus, 282;
       Mæcenas, 263;
       Ovid, 305;
       Painted, 328;
       Pompey, 330;
       Primitive, 261;
       Priscilla, 286;
       Romulus Maxentius, 295;
       Scipios, 282;
       Tacitus, 283;
       Tasso, 134;
       Vestals, 268;
       Via Latina, 328;
       Virginia, 313.

     Topography of the Palatine Hill, 70;
      of Rome, xii.

     Tor di Quinto, 305.

     Torlonia Museum, 136.

     Torre dei Conti, 223;
       delle Milizie, 253;
       della Scimmia, 148.

     Tower of Capitol, 172.

     Tramways, 355.

     Trastevere, 103.

     Tre Fontane, 344.

     Tres Tabernæ, 299.

     Tullia's Impiety, 255.

     Tusculum, 339.

     Umbilicus, 48.

     United States College, 319.

     Useful Hints, xiv., 350.

     Vale of Ariccia, 331.

     Valley of the Muses, 275.

     Vallis Ferentina, 336.

     Vatican Galleries, 118, 123.

     Vatican Library, 130.

     Vatican Museums, 124, 131.

     Veii, 306.

     Vesta's Dust-Bin, 50.

     Viaducts, 327, 344.

     Via Appia, 273;
       Appia Nova, 330;
       Babuino, 214;
       Corso, 5;
       Flaminia, 305;
       Gabina, 326;
       Labicana, 326;
       Latina, 280;
       Nazionale, 266;
       Nomentana, 311;
       Numinis, 340;
       Ostiensis, 341;
       Prænestina, 326;
       Ripetta, 146;
       Sacra, 31;
       Tiburtina, 315;
       Triumphalis, 308;
       Tusculana, 338;
       Urbana, 254.

     Vicus ad Capita Bubula, 33;
       Cyprius, 255;
       Jugarius, 32;
       Sandaliarius, 65;
       Vesta, 56;
       Tuscus, 32.

     Vigili dei VII. Cohorti, 141.

     Villas, list of, 353.

     Villas--Albani, 308;
       Borghese, 303;
       Cicero, 337;
       Cœlimontana, 246;
       D'Este, 318;
       Doria, 140;
       Gordian Emperors, 328;
       Hadrian, 321;
       Hens, 306;
       Herodes Atticus, 293;
       Livia, 305;
       Madama, 308;
       Martial, 138;
       Medici, 250;
       Papa Giulio, 305;
       Pliny, 347;
       Roman, 261;
       Torlonia, 311;
       Sallust, 269;
       Volkonsky, 243.

     Visitor's Directory, 350.

     Vivarium, 247.

     Wall of Ancus Martius at Ostia, 346.

     Wall of the Latins, 208.

     Walls of Rome, xvii.

     Way, the Appian, 273.

     Where Cæsar fell, 195.






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This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.