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Title: A Syllabus of Hispanic-American History
Author: Pierson, William Whatley
Language: English
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                              A SYLLABUS


                 WILLIAM WHATLEY PIERSON, Jr., Ph. D.

                     PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN THE

                     [Illustration: printer logo]

                           (THIRD EDITION)
                            PRICE 50 CENTS

                             PUBLISHED BY

                        COPYRIGHT, 1916, 1920
                                by the
                       (Revised and Reprinted)

                          INTRODUCTORY NOTE

     "In the establishment of the independence of Spanish America
     the United States have the deepest interest. I have no
     hesitation in asserting my firm belief that there is no
     question in the foreign policy of this country, which has ever
     arisen, or which I can conceive as ever occurring, in the
     decision of which we have had or can have so much at
     stake."--Henry Clay, _The Emancipation of South America_.

This syllabus is designed primarily for the use of students of the
University of North Carolina as a guide to the introductory study of
Hispanic-American history. In it an effort has been made to provide
for as general and comprehensive a study of Hispanic-American
civilization as the time limits of a single one year's course would
permit. In such a process, of course, selection and rejection of data
were necessary. The student seeking to specialize will, therefore,
find it possible and easy to elaborate and amplify each of the
chapters and sections into which the outline has been divided. Despite
such comprehensiveness as was mentioned, the writer has endeavored to
emphasize the institutional and economic aspects. The necessity of
elimination and the effort at emphasis have resulted in the relegation
of political history, particularly that of the colonial period, to a
position of comparatively less prominence and significance than some
might expect. For this the writer must plead necessity.

In view of the great contemporary interest in Hispanic America no case
for the study of its history need be made--if such, indeed, is
required for any field of history. That interest in the United States
has been in part due to the construction of the Panama Canal and to
the increasing importance in diplomacy of the Caribbean area, and in
part it may be ascribed to the exigencies and effects of the World War
which have made people conscious of trade opportunities formerly
non-existent or, if existent, not fully recognized; and many have thus
concluded that the diplomatic, political, and economic importance of
Hispanic America has made of prime necessity a thorough study and a
sympathetic understanding of its past history and institutions. These
facts and this new consciousness may indicate the opening of another
period in the history of the Western Hemisphere, which will doubtless
have a distinctly inter-American emphasis. The field of
Hispanic-American history has until recent years been little known to
and too often neglected by the undergraduate student in the
universities,--if, indeed, courses in such history have been offered.
It is, in the opinion of the writer, however, a field not lacking in
comparative importance, interest, and cultural value with those better
known. It is hoped and confidently expected that the interest in the
history and institutions of the Hispanic-American countries recently
engendered by the consciousness that these countries have become
potent economic and political factors in the modern world will be
abiding. Hispanic-American history as a standard course will have much
justification, for the part which the peoples of the southern
republics will play in the future, as Viscount Bryce recently said,
"must henceforth be one of growing significance for the Old World as
well as for the New."

The course as outlined in this syllabus provides for the study of the
history, geography, political and social institutions, and the
economic development and possibilities of Hispanic-American countries.
A careful analysis and investigation will thus be made of the Spanish
and Portuguese colonial systems and colonial experience in order to
explain the wars of independence and the existing political and social
conditions. Attention will then be directed to the development of
republics, the struggle for political stability, and the exploitation
of resources. The course will also include some study of the
international relations--political and economic--and diplomatic
problems which have arisen in recent Hispanic-American history.

At the outset the prospective student is warned that as yet there
exists no single text-book devoted to the Hispanic-American republics
which satisfactorily and adequately presents their history, describes
their present conditions and discusses their institutions. This
absence, of necessity, determines that the course will be based
largely upon material to be found only in a number of books, public
documents, and scientific reports. An effort has been made in this
syllabus to meet this difficult situation. Lectures following the
outline of the syllabus and explanatory of it, and recitations based
on assigned readings, will constitute the class work. On these
lectures and readings the students will be expected to take notes. In
addition, they will be required to make certain class reports and at
least once during the year to prepare, after consultation with the
instructor, an essay on some topic of the syllabus or allied phase of
the work.

Students will be required to provide themselves individually with a
copy of this syllabus and with W. R. Shepherd's _Latin America_ (Holt
& Company). It is strongly recommended that they purchase also F.
Garcia Calderon's _Latin America: Its Rise and Progress_ (Scribners).
For the general student and reader the following list of books,
written in English, may be found useful:

For description, geography, travel, peoples and social conditions:

     James Bryce, _South America: Observations and Impressions_.

     G. E. Church, _Aborigines of South America_. (Chapman and

     C. R. Enock, _The Republics of Central and South America_.
     (Dent & Sons).

     A. H. Keane, _Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel:
     Central and South America_. (2 Vols., Lippincott.)

     _Atlas America Latina_, (English, Spanish, Portuguese; General
     Drafting Co.).

     R. Reyes, _The Two Americas_. (Stokes.)

     A. Ruhl, _The Other Americans_. (Scribners.)

     H. Bingham, _Across South America_. (Houghton Mifflin Co.)

For history:

     T. C. Dawson, _The South American Republics_. (3 Vols.,

     A. H. Noll, _A Short History of Mexico_. (McClurg.)

     F. Palmer, _Central America and its Problems_. (Moffat, Yard &

For institutions and history:

     E. G. Bourne, _Spain in America_. (American Nation Series,

     B. Moses, _The Establishment of Spanish Rule in America_.

     ----, _South America on the Eve of Emancipation_. (Putnam.)

     ----, _Spanish Dependencies in South America_. (Harpers.)

     F. L. Paxson, _The Independence of the South American
     Republics_. (2nd Ed., Ferris and Leach.)

     W. S. Robertson, _The Rise of the Spanish American Republics_.

     W. R. Shepherd, _Hispanic Nations of the New World; A Chronicle
     of Our Southern Neighbors_. (Yale Press.)

For literature:

     Alfred Coester, _The Literary History of Spanish America_.

     Isaac Goldberg, _Studies in Spanish American Literature_.

For trade relations:

     W. E. Aughinbaugh, _Selling Latin America_. (Small, Maynard &

     E. B. Filsinger, _Exporting to Latin America_. (Appleton.)

     A. H. Verrill, _South and Central American Trade Conditions of
     Today_. (Dodd, Mead & Company.)

For individual countries:

     P. Denis, _Brazil_. (Scribners.)

     P. J. Eder, _Columbia_. (Unwin or Scribners.)

     G. F. S. Elliott, _Chile_. (Scribners.)

     C. R. Enock, _Mexico_. (Scribners.)

     W. A. Hirst, _Argentina_. (Scribners.)

     W. H. Koebel, _Argentina, Past and Present_. (Dodd, Mead & Co.)

     ----, _Paraguay_. (Scribners.)

     ----, _Uruguay_. (Scribners.)

     ----, _Central America_. (Scribners.)

     W. L. Scruggs, _The Colombian and Venezuelan Republics_.
     (Little, Brown & Co.)

     M. R. Wright's Books on _Bolivia_; _Brazil_; _Chile_; and
     _Peru_. (Cazenove & Son.)

The monthly _Bulletin_ and other publications of the Pan-American
Union (Washington, D. C.), offer excellent and reliable information
respecting all of these divisions, and are recommended.

Students wishing to make a more detailed study than this brief list
would provide for can easily find extensive bibliographies on the
subject in English, Portuguese and Spanish which are of great value.
They will do well to consult P. H. Goldsmith, _A Brief Bibliography_
(Macmillan), although it is admittedly incomplete in its list of books
and contemptuously harsh in its judgment of many of those included.
More comprehensive and valuable are the _Bibliographie Hispanique_
(annual, New York) published by the Hispanic Society of America, and
the lists and catalogues of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and maps
prepared by the Pan-American Union and printed by the United States
Government,--first, the list relating to Central America by P. Lee
Phillips, 1902; secondly, the catalogue of books, periodicals, etc.,
in the Columbus Library, which appeared successively in 1905, 1907,
1909, and 1914. Many lists respecting individual Hispanic-American
countries have been published, including Argentina, Brazil, Chile,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Paraguay.
Reference also must necessarily be made to the exhaustive and
scholarly _Biblioteca Hispano-Americana_ and other compilations of
José Toribio Medina, the great bibliographer of Chile. _The Hispanic
American Historical Review_ is commended to the student not only for
its own articles and reviews, but for the great service rendered to
the bibliography of this subject by publishing with each issue a list
of books and articles pertaining to the field which have recently

The writer would anticipate the criticism that the list of books
specified in the syllabus for reading is incomplete. Since these
readings are designed for class purposes and are selected as being
practicable, the incompleteness was scarcely avoidable. The specialist
will again find it easy to enlarge. In the list of readings, in order
to conserve space, the author's name and full title of the book are
stated when the first reference is made; thereafter only the author's
name is employed, except in such cases in which the author has written
more than one book or in which clearness seems to demand complete or
partial repetition.

The author wishes to make acknowledgment of his indebtedness to
Professor William R. Shepherd, of Columbia University, whose advice
and inspiration have been of incalculable service to him. Professor
Shepherd generously made suggestions for this edition of the syllabus.
Chapel Hill, N. C., June, 1920.



=I. The Political Situation in Europe at Opening of the 16th Century.=

     1. The National States: England, France, Spain and Portugal.

     2. The Holy Roman Empire.

     3. The city states of Italy.

     4. Other European States.

     Readings: Hayes, _A Political and Social History of Modern
     Europe_, Vol. I, 3-25.

=II. Scientific and intellectual progress.=

     1. Medieval travels; the crusades.

     2. The Renaissance.

     3. Invention of the compass and improvement of the astrolabe.

     4. Improvement and increase of maps.

     Readings: Cheyney, _European Background of American History_,

=III. European Commerce at the Opening of the 16th Century.=

     1. Trade and trade routes between Europe and the Far East.

     2. The Mediterranean and the Italian cities.

     3. Conquests of the Ottoman Turks; closing of old routes.

     4. Decline of the Italian cities.

     5. Need of new routes; Battle of the Nile, 1516.

     Readings: Cheyney, 3-40; Shepherd, _Historical Atlas_, 98-99,
     107-110; Hayes, I, 27-49.

=IV. The Commercial Revolution.=

     1. The geographic position of Spain and Portugal.

     2. The circumnavigation of Africa: Prince Henry the Navigator;
     Diaz; Vasco da Gama.

     3. The Western passage; sought by Spain.

     4. The commercial revolution; effects.

     5. Creation of trade companies; new methods of commerce.

     6. Expansion and colonization; motives.

     Readings: Bourne, _Spain in America_, 104-132; Cheyney,
     123-146; Hayes, I, 27-69.

=V. Spain and Portugal at the Opening of the 16th Century.=

     A. Background of Spanish history.

         Spanish Society:

          1. Geographic influences in Spanish history.

          2. The evolution of the Spanish nationality:

               a. The earliest historic inhabitants of the Iberian

               b. The invasions: Phoenician; Carthaginian; Roman;
               Visigothic; Vandal; Moorish.

               c. Immigration of Jews and Berbers.

               d. Contact and conflict with the Moors, 710-1492.

               e. Expulsion of the Moors and the Jews.

               f. Establishment of union and central government.

          3. The individualism of the people.

          4. Militarist spirit engendered by long wars.

          5. Evolution of types.

          6. Governmental system:

               a. The king and his powers.

               b. The executive and advisory councils.

               c. The Spanish Cortes.

               d. Legal codes and other systems of law.

               e. Administrative machinery.

               f. Local and municipal government.

               g. System of taxation.

               h. Efforts of Ferdinand and Isabella to unify Spain and
               centralize powers of government.

          7. The Church and morals:

               a. The Spanish clergy.

               b. Inquisition.

               c. Influences of Moors and Jews upon church and faith.

          8. Industries and agriculture; attitude toward labor: The
          _Mesta_; wheat, vine, and olive culture.

          9. Condition of social classes.
          10. Intellectual development in Spain:

               a. Formative influences on languages and literature.

               b. Contributions of the Moors.

               c. Ecclesiastical and philosophical writings.

          11. Motives of colonization.

     Required Readings: Chapman, _The History of Spain_, 1-286;
     Hume, _Spain, its Greatness and Decay_, 1479-1788, 1-64; _The
     Spanish People_, 144-404; Cheyney, 79-114; Ellis, _The Soul of
     Spain_, 29-105.

     Additional Readings: Lea, _History of the Inquisition in
     Spain_; ----, _The Moriscos of Spain_; ----, _History of
     Sarcedotal Celibacy_, 80-85; 300-311; Milman, _History of the
     Jews_, Vol. III, 264-309; Altamira, _Historia de España y de la
     Civilizacion española_; Colmeiro, _Derecho administrativo
     español_; Plunkett, _Isabel of Castile_; Sempere, _Histoire des
     Cortes d' Espagne_; Lowery, _The Spanish Settlements in the
     United States_, Vol. I, 79-101; Walton, _Civil Law in Spain and
     Spanish America_; Lane-Poole, _The Story of the Moors in
     Spain_; Scott, _History of the Moorish Empire in Europe_;
     Danvila y Collado, _El Poder Civil en España_; Lafuente and
     Valera, _Historia general de España_; Salazar, _Monarchia de
     España_, Vol. I; Sacristian y Martinez, _Municipalidades de
     Castilla y Leon_; Merriman, _The Rise of the Spanish Empire in
     the Old World and in the New_, Vols. I and II.

B. Background of Portuguese history.

     Portuguese society:

         1. General characteristics.

         2. Influence of climate in Portugal.

         3. Position as European power in the 16th Century.

         4. Portugal as a national state.

         5. Political institutions.

         6. Motives of colonization.

     Required Readings: Cheyney, 60-74; Stephens, _The Story of

     Additional Readings: Busk, _History of Spain and Portugal_;
     Martins, _The Golden Age of Prince Henry the Navigator_; ----,
     _Historia de Portugal_; Jayne, _Vasco da Gama and His
     Successors_; Major, _Life of Prince Henry the Navigator_;
     Hakluyt Society Publications.

=Chapter I. The Period of Discovery.=

     A. Tracing the coast line by Spanish navigators.

         1. The achievement of Columbus.

         2. Achievements of: Hojeda, Cosa, Vespucci, Pinzon, Piñeda,
         Bastidas, Grijalva, Balboa, Magellan and Elcano, Guevara, and

     Readings: Shepherd, _Historical Atlas_, 106-111; Morris,
     _History of Colonization_, I, 230-243; Bourne, _Spain in
     America_, 67-174; Payne, _European Colonies_, 35-53; ----,
     _History of America_, Vol. I; Helps, _Spanish Conquest in
     America_; Koebel, _South America_; Thacher, _Columbus_;
     Vignaud, _Historie critique de la grande entreprise de
     Christopher Colomb_; Guillemard, _Magellan_; Bancroft, _Central
     Mexico_, Vol. I; Brittain, _Discovery and Exploration_, 56-296;
     Benzoni, _History of the New World_ (Hakluyt Society Pub.);
     Zahm, _Up the Orinoco and Down the Magdelena_; ----, _Along
     the Andes and Down the Amazon_.

     B. Internal exploration and settlement.

         1. Achievements of: Cortes; Pizarro; Cabeza de Vaca; Almagro;
         Orellana; Ursúa; Mendoza; Ayolas; Irala, and others.

         2. Explorations of Portuguese in Brazil.

         3. Settlement of the West Indies.

         4. Settlement of Mexico and Central America.

         5. Settlement of Spanish South America.

     Readings: To those of Section A, add _Cambridge Modern
     History_, I, ch. xv.; Prescott, _Conquest of Mexico_; Bancroft,
     _History of Mexico_; MacNutt, _Fernando Cortes and the Conquest
     of Mexico_; Solis, _Historia de la Conquista de Mexico_;
     Bandelier, _Contributions to the History of the Southwestern
     Portions of the United States_; De Lannoy and Van der Linden,
     _Historie de L'Expansion Coloniale des Peuples Europeens_
     (Portugal et Espagne); Bolton, _Spanish Exploration in the
     Southwest_; Daenell, _Die Spanier in Nord Amerika_; Altamira,
     _The Share of Spain in the History of the Pacific Ocean_,
     (_Pacific Ocean in History_, 34-75); Groat, _Historia de la
     Nueva Granada_; Wright, _The Early History of Cuba_;
     Amunategui, _Descubrimientos_; _Conquista de Chile_; Ojeda,
     _Los Conquistadores de Chile_ (2v.)

     C. Relations of Spain and Portugal in 16th Century.

         1. Rivalry for trade supremacy.

         2. Appeal to the Pope.

             Line of Demarcation, 1493.

         3. The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494.

         4. Boundary commissions and disputes.

         5. Treaty of Saragossa, 1529.

         6. Mid-century relations.

         7. Union of Portugal and Spain, 1580.

         8. Attitude of Europe toward Spanish and Portuguese claims of

         9. New doctrines relative to the control of the seas and the
         ownership of territory.

     Required Readings: Shepherd, _Latin America_, 9-19; Chapman,
     229-271; Bourne, 31-33; 131-132; ----, _Essays in Historical
     Criticism_, 193-217; Keller, _Colonization_, 175-176; 197-200;
     Merriman, II, 219-239.

     Additional Readings: Altamira, _Historia de España_.

=Chapter II. The Spanish Colonial System.=

     A. Imperial Control.

         1. Early methods of colonization.

             Spanish inexperience; government aid and activities;
             private enterprize; rapid evolution of a system.

         2. The _capitulation_; that of Columbus compared with later

         3. The _Casa de Contratacion_.

         4. The Council of the Indies:

             a. Organization; powers; duties; methods of administration;

             b. Notable members.

         5. Control of emigration:

             a. Laws of restriction.

             b. Inducements offered approved immigrants.

         6. Exclusion of foreign influences from Colonies; Spanish

         7. Interference in colonial affairs.

         8. Means of control; special commissions; the _visitador_; the
         _residencia_; recall.

         9. Difficulties of administration:

             a. Distance between colonies and home government.

             b. Defective means of communication.

         10. Decline of the system; changes effected in the 18th
         Century; red tape and routine.

         11. Comparison of the Spanish system of colonization with the
         systems of other colonizing countries.

         12. Influences of the colonial empire upon Spain.

     Required Readings: Shepherd, 19-26; Bourne, 220-242; Morris,
     244-259; Keller, 168-206; 210-215; Bancroft, _History of
     Central America_, I, 285 _et seq._; Roscher, _The Spanish
     Colonial System_; Moses, _Establishment of Spanish Rule in
     America_; _Cambridge Modern History_, Vol X, 244 et. seq.;
     Robertson, _Rise of the Spanish American Republics_,

     Additional Readings: Root, _Spain and Its Colonies_; Zimmerman,
     _Die Kolonialpolitik Portugal und Spaniens_; Leroy-Beaulieu,
     _De la Colonisation chez les Peuples Modernes_, 1-40; Puente y
     Olea, _Los Trabajos Geographicos de la Casa de Contratacion_;
     Colmeiro, _Historia de la Economia Politica en España_, Vol.
     II; Cappa, _Estudios Criticos Acerca de la dominacion española
     en America_; _Recopilacion de Leyes de los Reinos de las
     Indias_, (a collection of legislation respecting the colonies
     made first in 1681).

     B. Spanish Administrative System in the Colonies.

         1. No distinct separation of powers; the executive,
         legislative, judicial, and ecclesiastical powers of government.

         2. Office of _Viceroy_ in Spanish America.

             a. History of the office.

             b. Appointment; powers in the various departments of the
             government; dignity of office; perquisites and reward.

         3. Offices of _Adelantado_; _gobernador_; _captain-general_;
         minor officials.

         4. The _Audiencia_; _presidencia_.

         5. The system of intendants instituted; its effects.

         6. Local government: the _alcalde_; the _cabildo_;

         7. Extraordinary political bodies in the colonies: the _Cabildo

         8. Minor courts of law; position of lawyers.

         9. Conduct of government.

         10. Operation of the system; discretionary powers as to
         enforcement or non-enforcement of laws--"Se obedece pero no se
         ejecuta"; opportunities of local officials to evade imperial

         11. Relations of officials with the home government.

     Required Readings: Shepherd, 25-29; Moses, _Establishment of
     Spanish Rule_; ----, _Spanish Dependencies of South America_,
     263-275; Morris, I, 244-259; Smith, _The Viceroy of New Spain_,
     100-248; Bourne, 202-242; ----, _A Trained Colonial Civil
     Service_, (North American Review, Vol. 169, 528 _et seq._);
     Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Vol. XIX; Hill, _Office of
     Adelantado_, (Political Science Quarterly, Vol. XXVIII);
     Roscher, _The Spanish Colonial System_; Humboldt, _Political
     Essay on New Spain_; Cunningham, _The Audiencia in the Spanish
     Colonies_; ----, _Institutional Background of
     Spanish-American History_ (Hisp. Am. Hist. Rev. 1918).

     Additional Readings: Bancroft, _Central America_, Vol. I,
     Chapter V; Cambridge Modern History, Vol. X, 244 _et seq._;
     Desdevises du Dezert, _L'Espagne de L'Ancien Régime_ (Les
     Institutions) 122-163; Solorzano, _Politica Indiana_, Vol. II;
     Haebler, _Amerika_ (Helmolt's _Weltgeschichte_, Vol. I) 384,
     _et seq._

     C. The Church. _Real Patronato._

         1. Royal control of the Church in oversea dominions.

             a. Bull of Alexander VI, 1493.

             b. The bull of Julius II, 1508.

             c. The system as perfected.

         2. The clergy in the colonies.

         3. The priest as a colonizer.

         4. Jesuits and other clerical orders.

         5. Relations of Church and State.

         6. The church and education.

         7. The right of sanctuary in the colonies.

         8. The mission system; the Church and the Indian.

         9. The Inquisition in Spanish America.

         10. The Church in Spanish and Portuguese colonies compared.

         11. Some notable priests and monks; Las Casas, Zumarraga;
         Cardenas, etc.

         12. Expulsion of Jesuits, 1767, (Portugal, 1759).

     Required Readings: Shepherd, 49-59; Bourne, 302-319; Keller,
     283-305; Ayme, _Ancient Temples and Cities of the New World_;
     Moses, _Establishment of Spanish Rule_, Chap. IV; ----, _South
     America on the Eve of Emancipation_, 119-142; ----, _Spanish
     Dependencies in South America_, Vol. I, 338-349; 364-380; Vol.
     II, 143-153; 206-232; Smith, 229-248.

     Additional Readings: Acosta, _The Natural and Moral History of
     the Indies_, Vol. II; Lea, _The Inquisition in the Spanish
     Dependencies_; Graham, _A Vanished Arcadia_; Koebel, _In Jesuit
     Land_; Escriche, _Diccionario Razonado de Legislacion_; Palma,
     _Anales de la inquisicion de Lima_; Lowery, _Spanish
     Settlements in the United States_, Vol. I, 339-366; Calle,
     _Memorial y Noticias Sacras_; Chapman, _The Founding of Spanish
     California_ (cf. Index, "Religious Conquest"); Medina,
     _Historia de Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisicion en
     Mexico_; _Cambridge Modern History_, Vol. X, 253, _et seq._

     D. The Indians and the Labor System.

         1. The aborigines: tribes; number.

             a. Most important families: Araucanians; Arawak; Aymara;
             Aztec; Carib; Charrua; Chibcha; Coconuco; Guarani; Inca;
             Maya; Mojos; Puelche; Quechua; Tapuya; Tupi, etc.

         2. Indian civilization:

             a. The Aztecs of Mexico.

             b. The Incas of Peru.

         3. Treatment of Indians by the Spanish; comparison of this
         treatment with that by other nations.

         4. Reputation of Spaniards for cruelty.

         5. Laws of Spain relative to Indians:

             a. Early regulations; instructions to Columbus; laws of
             Burgos, 1512; laws of 1530.

             b. The "New Laws," 1542.

             c. Labor laws and customs:

                 1. _Encomienda._

                 2. _Repartimiento._

                 3. _Mita._

                 4. Office of _corregidor_.

             d. Indian slavery; service in _obrages_ and _trapiches_;
             effect of labor system on Indians.

             e. Law and practice.

         6. Taxation of Indians.

         7. Work of Las Casas, Nobrega, and Anchieta.

         8. Indian resistance against Spanish system; Tupac-Amaru, II,

         9. Importation of negro slaves:

             a. The Spanish theory.

             b. The asiento.

             c. Laws governing negro slave labor.

     Required Readings: Shepherd, 29-32; Morris, I, 239-241;
     245-251; Keller, 257-282; Moses, _South America on the Eve of
     Emancipation_, 167-217; ----, _Spanish Dependencies_, Vol. I,
     204-229; Barros Arana, _Compendio de historia de America_, part
     I; Watson, _Spanish and Portuguese South America_, Vol. I,
     65-85; 209-249; Means, _The Rebellion of Tupac-Amaru_ II,
     1780-1781, (His. Am. Hist. Rev., 1919); Church, _The Aborigines
     of South America_; Hrdlicka, _Early Man in South America_;
     Nordenskiold, _Indianerleben_.

     Additional Readings: Gage, _New Survey of the West Indies_;
     MacNutt, _Bartholomew de las Casas_; Prescott, _Conquest of
     Mexico_; ----, _Conquest of Peru_; Robertson, _History of
     America_, Book VIII; Helps, _Spanish Conquest in America_;
     Saco, _Revista de Cuba_; Markham, _The Incas of Peru_; Spinden,
     _Ancient Civilizations of Mexico and Central America_.

     E. Social Classes and Colonial Society.

         1. Spanish types in the colonies:

             Basque; Gallego; Catalan; Andalusian.

         2. Classes and race distinctions:

             Chapeton (gachupines); Creole; Mestizo; Mulatto; Zambo.

         3. Classes and the government; the _divide et impera_ policy.

         4. Legacy of class distinction.

         5. Spanish recognition of Creoles and natives; numbers

         6. Colonial society; diversions; pursuits; occupations.

         7. The towns; _pueblos_; the cercados.

     Required Readings: Shepherd, 29-38; Morris, 252-254; Garcia
     Calderon, _Latin America: Its Rise and Progress_, 44-58;
     Bourne, 253-268; Keller, 211-220; Moses, _Establishment of
     Spanish Rule_, Chapter II; ----, _South America on the Eve of
     Emancipation_, 100-118.

     Additional Readings: Humboldt, _Personal Narrative of Travels_;
     Reclus, _The Earth and Its Inhabitants--South America_;
     Frezier, _Voyage a la Mer de Sud_; Ulloa, _A Voyage to South

     F. Colonial Agriculture, Manufacturing, and Mining.

         1. The land system:

             a. Primogeniture, entails, and mortmain.

             b. Spanish _repartimientos_ and _encomiendas_; Portuguese
             _capitanias_ and _prazos_.

         2. Methods of acquiring real estate.

         3. Attitude of home government toward colonial manufactures.

         4. Stock raising; the Mesta; agricultural products introduced
         by the Spanish.

         5. Mines and mining in South and North America.

     Readings: Bourne, 282-301; Payne, _History of America_, Vol. I,
     254-362; Shepherd, 38-49; Moses, _South America on the Eve of
     Emancipation_, 328-340; Keller, 221-225.

     G. Trade System and Means of Transportation.

         1. The Spanish trade regulations; mercantilism; the staple

         2. Trade routes; oceanic; inland.

         3. Convoys and fleet system; taxes levied; concessions of 1620.

         4. Depots and staple cities; fairs.

         5. Means of transportation in colonial Spanish America.

         6. The _Consulado_; guilds; _cofradias_.

         7. Trade companies:

             The Guipuzcoa company, 1728-1778.

         8. The War of Spanish Succession; Treaty of Utrecht.

         9. The Anglo-Spanish relations at Porto Bello.

         10. Obstacles to success of system:

             a. Smuggling.

             b. Buccaneers, pirates, and public enemies.

         11. Final changes in system, 1740, 1748, 1765, 1778; work of
         Charles III, Aranda, and Galvez.

         12. Portuguese trade regulations.

     Required Readings: Shepherd, 43-47; Bourne, 282-301; Morris,
     260-277; Moses, _Spanish Dependencies_, Vol. II, 244-365;
     Cambridge Modern History, Vol. X, 254-257; Keller, 226-241;
     244-249; Smith, 248-254; Priestley, _Reforms of Jose de Galvez
     in New Spain_ (The Pacific Ocean in History); Mimms, _Colbert's
     West India Policy_; Koebel, _British Exploits in South
     America_, 47-98; Haring, _The Buccaneers in the West Indies in
     the Seventeenth Century_; Colmeiro, II, 401-463; Alberdi,
     _Estudios Economicos_, 100-101.

     Additional Readings: Blackmar, _Spanish Institutions in the
     Southwest_; Stevens, _Spanish Rule of Trade in the West
     Indies_; Esquemeling, _History of the Buccaneers_; Rubalcava,
     _Tratado Historico Politico y Legal del Commercio_; Walton,
     _Spanish Colonies_, Vol. II, 153-181.

     H. The Colonial Taxation System.

         1. The sources of revenue.

         2. Taxes: _Alcabala_; _Armada_ and _armadilla_; _media anata_;
         royal ninths; Indian tribute; taxes on: salt; mineral products;

         3. Sale of offices.

     Readings: Moses, _South America on the Eve of Emancipation_,

     I. Education and Thought.

         1. The universities.

             Institutions established at Lima, Mexico City, Bogota,
             Cordoba, Cuzco, Caracas, Santiago de Chile, Quito, etc.

         2. The clergy and education.

         3. Colonial literature:

             a. Clerical influences.

             b. Early tendencies and schools.

             c. Writers: Zumarraga, Las Casas, Ercilla, Balbuena, Juana
             Ines de la Cruz, Espejo.

         4. The press.

         5. Transplantation of European civilization:

             Language; customs; education; religion; political theories
             and institutions.

         6. Cultural influence of colonies upon Spain and Europe.

     Required Readings: Shepherd, 59-68; Moses, _South America on
     the Eve of Emancipation_, 143-166; Coester, _The Literary
     History of Spanish America_, 1-38.

     Additional Readings: Humboldt, _Personal Narrative of Travels_;
     Ingenieros, _La Revolucion_, 29-78; Bunge, _Nuestra America_.

     J. Political History.

         1. Diplomatic relations of Spain and Portugal in 17th and 18th

         2. The Viceroyalties:

             a. New Spain, 1534.

             b. Peru, 1542.

             c. New Granada, 1739.

             d. La Plata, 1776.

         3. Indian Wars and political insurrections.

         4. The favored and the neglected colonies.

         5. Colonial defence--military and naval.

     Readings: Keller, 316-325; Watson, _Spanish and Portuguese
     South America_; Moses, _The Spanish Dependencies in South

=Chapter III. Settlement of Brazil and Portuguese Institutions.=

         1. The voyage of Cabral; Portuguese claims; Correia, Coelho, de

         2. Early settlements; attitude of Portuguese toward Brazil;
         founding of cities.

         3. Portuguese system of colonization in Brazil.

             a. The captaincies.

             b. The "desembargo do paco."

             c. Theory and practice; frequent changes in the
             administrative service.

         d. Comparison with Portuguese colonial system in the East

             e. The church in colonial Brazil; the _aldeias_; work of
             Anchieta, Nobrega, Vieyra.

         4. Treatment of the natives; intermarriage; regulations as to
         labor system.

         5. Importation of negro slaves, 1502; slave trade; the
         _Companhia do Grao Para_; slave codes.

         6. The Portuguese commercial system:

             a. The "India House" and the "Guinea House."

             b. Mercantilism and monopoly.

             c. Participation of the English in the Portuguese trade.

             d. Colonial products of Brazil.

         7. Beginning of Westward Movement in Brazil.

             a. Settlement of Sao Paulo.

             b. Government of the frontier; the _Paulistas_;

             c. Discovery of Gold, 1693; diamonds, 1730.

         8. Society and thought in Brazil.

         9. Conflict with the French and Dutch.

         10. Relations of Brazil and Portugal.

     Required Readings: Denis, _Brazil_, 27-78; Morris, I, 214-220;
     Keller, 131-167; Watson, Vol. II, 1-26; Rio Branco, _Esquisse
     de l'Histoire du Brésil_, 105-152.

     Additional Readings: De Lannoy and Van der Linden, 11-26;
     172-181; 225-238; Merivale, _Lectures_, 47 _et seq._; Pinheiro,
     _Historia do Brazil_; Southey, _History of Brazil_; Varnhagen,
     _Historia Geral do Brazil_, Vol. I.

=Chapter IV. Geography and Resources of Hispanic America.=

         1. Geographic situation of South America.

         2. Area of states in comparison with that of the United States
         and Europe.

         3. Climate.

             a. Seasons and temperature.

             b. Rainfall.

         4. Mountain ranges; rivers; water power.

         5. Harbors.

         6. Forests; commercial value of forest products.

         7. Mineral deposits.

         8. Animal life; introduction of animals and plants by Spanish.

         9. Drugs and medicines.

         10. Agricultural possibilities. Products in general: fruits;
         rubber; coffee; cacao; yerba; sugar; grasses; tobacco.

     Required Readings: Shepherd, 107-121; _Atlas America Latina_;
     Koebel, _The South Americans_, 184-304; Bryce, _South America_,
     37-483; books on individual countries listed in Chapter VIII;
     Keane, _Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel--Central
     and South America_; Boero, _Geografia de America_.

      Additional Readings: Tschudi, _Travels in Peru_; Whymper,
      _Travels amongst the Great Andes of the Equator_; Schanz,
      _Quer durch Sud-America_; Darwin, _Journal of
      Researches_--(Voyage of the _Beagle_); Zahm's works.

=Chapter V. The Struggle for Independence, 1806-1826.=

         1. Sources and elements of discontent in Latin America;
         political and economic.

         2. Influence of the American War of Independence; new economic
         doctrines, French Revolution; English political philosophy.

         3. Pre-revolutionary revolts; foreign stimulation.

         4. Diffusion of new ideas; decline in effectiveness of the
         Spanish policy of exclusion; the expedition of Miranda, 1806;
         representative Hispanic-Americans in Europe and United States;
         English expeditions against Buenos Aires and Montevideo,

         5. Invasion of Spain by Napoleon; overthrow of the legitimate
         government; establishment of the Napoleonic government and of
         Spanish _juntas_.

         6. Disturbance in the colonies; attitude of the cities;
         Caracas, Buenos Aires, Bogota, Cordoba, Santiago de Chile, etc.

         7. The interregnum; development of local _juntas_;
         manifestations of loyalty to Spain; theories applied to the
         relations with Spain.

         8. Gradual growth of desire and formation of plans for
         independence; refusal of Spanish terms; character of the
         revolutionary movement.

         9. The revolution in the North, 1809-1821:

             a. Formation of _juntas_; collaboration of Miranda and

             b. General character of the struggle; atrocities and
             reprisals; Monteverde, Boves, and Morillo; the fate of
             Miranda, the campaigns.

             c. The constitution of Angostura.

             d. The crossing of the Andes and the battle of Boyaca.

             e. Services of Santander, Paez, Sucre, and others.

             f. Altered character of the war after the Spanish
             revolution of 1820.

             g. Battle of Carabobo; the invasion of Ecuador.

             h. Bolivar as organizer, military leader, liberator.

         10. Attitude of foreign countries; aid of Great Britain:

             a. Englishmen and Irish in the war.

             b. Citizens of the United States in the northern campaigns.

         11. The revolution in the South, 1809-1821:

             a. Conditions in Buenos Aires and the South which produced
             revolution; political services of Mariano Moreno, Castelli,
             Belgrano, Pueyrredon, Rivadavia, Monteagudo, etc.

             b. Campaigns: Belgrano at Tucuman; revolutionizing of
             Paraguay; Artigas in Uruguay.

             c. San Martin as soldier in Argentina and as governor of
             Cuyo; preparation for the campaign in Chile; crossing of
             the Andes.

             d. Liberation of Chile; battles of Chacabuco and Maipu;
             work of O'Higgins and Lord Cochrane; foreigners in San
             Martin's service.

             e. Campaign for Peru--Naval and Military.

         12. Relations of Bolivar and San Martin; political theories of
         each; the conference at Guayaquil; retirement of San Martin.

         13. Final Stages in the war of independence, 1822-1826:

             a. Bolivar's invasion of Peru; relations with political

             b. Battles of Junin and Ayacucho.

             c. The campaign in Upper Peru; the Bolivian constitution.

             d. Surrender of Callao.

         14. The part of the Indians in the wars; the part of the
         loyalists, their treatment; emigration of loyalists.

         15. Early evidences of national aspiration on the part of
         various communities.

         16. Prosperity; free trade; interest of England and the United

         17. Unity versus sectionalism.

         18. The Confederation of New Granada; Bolivar as an executive
         and political theorist; revolutionary legislation.

         19. Political theories and conflicting ambitions of the
         generals; radicalism and conservatism in the revolution.

         20. Establishment of states.

         21. Revolutionary society in South America.

         22. Comparison of the revolutions in South America with that in
         the United States.

         23. Mexico and Central America:

             a. Hidalgo, Morelos, Mina, Guerrero.

             b. Iturbide and the Plan of Iguala.

             c. Part of the church; the land issue; social questions.

             d. Revolutionizing of Central America.

         24. Saint Domingue: Toussaint L'Ouverture.

     Required Readings: Shepherd, 69-81; Garcia Calderon, 58-86;
     Bryce, 423-448; _Cambridge Modern History_, Vol. X, 280-309;
     Herrera, _La Revolution Francesa y Sud America_; Robertson,
     _Francisco de Miranda and the Revolutionising of
     Spanish-America_ (Amer. Hist. Assn. reports, 1907); _Rise of
     Spanish-American Republics_; Moses, _Spain's Declining Power in
     South America, 1730-1806_.

     Additional Readings: Bancroft, _Mexico_; Pilling, _The
     Emancipation of South America_; Paxson, _The Independence of
     South American Republics_; Moses, _South America on the Eve of
     Emancipation_; Filisola, _La Cooperacion de Mexico en la
     independencia de Centro America_; Mitre, _The Emancipation of
     South America_; Petre, _Bolivar_; Mancini, _Bolivar et
     l'emancipation des colonies espagnoles_; Decoudray-Holstein,
     _Memoirs of Simon Bolivar_; Rene-Moreno, _Ultimas Dias
     Coloniales en el Alto Peru_; Ingenieros, _La Evolucion de las
     Ideas Argentinas: La Revolucion_; Calvo, _Annales historiques
     de la revolution de l'Amerique latine_; Torrente, _Historia de
     la revolucion hispano-Americana_; Chandler, _Inter-American
     Acquaintances_; Walton, _Present State of the Spanish

=Chapter VI. Early Relations of Hispanic America with the United
States; the Monroe Doctrine.=

         1. Diffusion of revolutionary ideas and political opinions in
         South America.

         2. Part of Spanish-Americans in the American war of

         3. Part of the United States in the Hispanic-American wars of
         independence; diplomatic relations of United States and the _de
         facto_ governments and people of Hispanic America.

         4. Early ideas as to American concert.

         5. Jefferson and John Adams on South America.

         6. Early statements of the Monroe Doctrine.

         7. Evolution of Monroe Doctrine during the Revolutionary War;
         the part of Hispanic America.

         8. Attitude of European States toward Hispanic America after
         the Congress of Vienna.

             a. Effects of revolutionary wars upon European politics and

             b. The policy of intervention.

             c. The Holy Alliance and the Concert of Europe.

             d. Applications of policy of intervention.

             e. The Congress of Verona.

             f. The position of England.

         9. Recognition by the United States.

         10. The Canning-Rush-Adams correspondence.

         11. The Monroe message.

         12. Reception of Monroe Doctrine in South America and in

         13. The Monroe Doctrine, 1823-1828.

         14. Recognition by Great Britain, Spain, and other European

     Required Readings: Edgington, _History of the Monroe Doctrine_;
     Bingham, _The Monroe Doctrine, an Obsolete Shibboleth_; Garcia
     Calderon, 58-85; Bryce, 422-451; Koebel, _British Exploits_,
     163-254; Shepherd, _Bolivar and the United States_ (Hisp. Am.
     Hist. Rev. 1918); Moore, _Digest of International Law_
     (Sections on Monroe Doctrine); The New International
     Encyclopaedia; _Annals of the American Academy of Political
     Science_, July, 1914; Robertson, _Reception of the Monroe
     Doctrine_ (Political Science Quarterly, 1915); Manning, _Early
     Diplomatic Relations between the United States and Mexico_.

     Additional Readings: Gilman, _James Monroe_; Bigelow, _American
     Policy_; Coolidge, _United States as a World Power_; Hart, _The
     Monroe Doctrine_; Torres, _An Exposition of the Commerce of
     South America_; Chadwick, _The Relations of Spain and the
     United States_.

=Chapter VII. Political Theories and Early Republican Institutions.=

         1. The monarchical idea _versus_ the republican; opinions of
         the revolutionary leaders: Bolivar, San Martin, Rivadavia,
         Belgrano, etc.

         2. Early political parties or groups and their theories:

             a. Unitary; federalist; conservative; and radical.

             b. Liberal and conservative writers on politics: Lastarria,
             Bilbao, Echeverria, Montalvo, Vigil, Sarmiento; Bello,
             Alberdi, Herrera, Acosta.

             c. Influence of France upon political theorists.

         3. Political factions:

         Military; clerical; civilian; and lay.

         4. Party methods and politics.

         5. Ballot and elections; restrictions of the suffrage.

         6. Popular apathy in political affairs; personal politics.

         7. Character of governments:

         Federal and unitary.

         8. Early constitutions; separation of powers.

         9. The office of executive.

             a. Constitutional powers in various countries.

             b. Prestige and dignity of office.

             c. Early types of executives: tyrants; dictators;
             liberators; restorers; caudillos.

         10. Character and powers of Congress; congress _versus_
         president; experiments with unicameral legislatures.

         11. Influence of English and French cabinet systems of

         12. The judiciary in Latin America:

             a. Constitutional powers and position in administration.

             b. Judicial review of legislation.

         13. Early conventions and platforms.

         14. Municipal government:

             a. General characteristics.

             b. Police systems.

             c. Public service.

             d. Prisons.

     Readings: Shepherd, 81-96; Garcia Calderon, 100-350;
     Crichfield, _American Supremacy_; Alberdi, _Bases ..._; ----,
     _Estudios economicos_; ----, _Del Gobierno en Sud America_;
     Sarmiento, _El Facundo_; Lastarria, _Lecciones de politica
     positiva en la Academia de bellas letras_; Balbin de Unquera,
     _Andres Bello, su epoca y sus obras_; books on individual

=Chapter VIII. Political History, 1826-1920; Political Heritage of
Colonial Times.=

         1. The three phases:

             a. 1826-1850, Age of Dictators.

             b. 1850-1876, Struggle for Stability.

             c. 1876----, Rise of Great States and Economic Progress.

         2. Typical dictators:

             a. Garcia Moreno,--Ecuador.

             b. Ramon Castilla,--Peru.

             c. Rosas,--Argentina.

             d. Paez and Guzman Blanco,--Venezuela.

             e. Santa Anna and Diaz,--Mexico.

         3. Progressive States of South America:

             A. Argentina:

                 1. The presidency of Rivadavia; War with Brazil;
                 conflict between Buenos Aires and provinces.

                 2. Rosas and Urquiza.

                 3. Mitre and Sarmiento.

                 4. Political program and stability; President Roca.

                 5. Economic development and growth of population.

                 6. The southward movement in Argentina.

                 7. Contemporary government and politics.

     Suggested Readings: Koebel, _Argentina, Past and Present_;
     ----, _The South Americans_; Hirst, _Argentina_; Hammerton,
     _The Real Argentine_; Chandler, _The Argentine Southward
     Movement_, (Bulletin Pan. Am. Un., 1914).

     Additional Readings: Martinez and Lewandowski, _Argentina in
     the Twentieth Century_; Merou, _Historia de la Republica
     Argentina_; V. F. Lopez, _Historia de la Republica Argentina_
     (Vols IX and X).

             B. Brazil.

                 1. Brazil and Portugal, 1807-1822.

                 2. The empire: Pedro I and Pedro II.

                 3. Economic development; international relations.

                 4. Emancipation of slaves.

                 5. The Republic: early disorders; progress toward

                 6. The westward movement in Brazil.

                 7. Colonization experiments--State and National.

                 8. Contemporary government and politics.

     Readings: Denis, _Brasil_; Watson, Vol. II, 256-270; _Cambridge
     Modern History_, Vol. X, 310-339; Vol. XII, 674-676; Varnhagen,
     Vol. II; Pinheiro, _Historia do Brasil_; Bennett, _Forty Years
     in Brazil_; Buley, _North Brazil_; ----, _South Brasil_;
     Winter, _Brazil and her people of today_; Domville-Fife, _The
     United States of Brasil_; Grossi, _Storia della Colonizazione
     Europea al Brasile_.

             C. Chile:

                 1. Dictatorship of O'Higgins.

                 2. Work of Portales and the _pelucones_.

                 3. The conservative regime; ten year presidents.

                 4. War with Spain.

                 5. The problem of the Araucanians.

                 6. War with Peru and Bolivia.

                 7. Balmaceda and the congress.

                 8. Relations with the United States; with Argentina;
                 the "Christ of the Andes."

                 9. Contemporary government and politics.

                     a. Operation of the cabinet system in Chile.

                     b. Contemporary political parties.

                     c. Local government.

     Readings: Elliot, _Chile_; Garcia Calderon, 164-179; Hancock,
     _A History of Chile_; Amunategui and Vicuña MacKenna, _La
     dictadura de O'Higgins_; Bulnes, _Las Causas de la Guerra entre
     Chile y Peru_; Markham, _The War between Peru and Chile_;
     Olivares, _Historia de Chile_; Guiterez, _La Guerra de 1879_;
     Barros Arana, _La Guerre du Pacifique_; ----, _Historia
     general de Chile_; Egaña, _The Tacna and Arica Question_; Macy
     and Gannaway, _Comparative Free Government_, 663-672; Reinsch,
     _Parliamentary Government in Chile_ (Am. Pol. Science Rev.,
     III, 507, _et seq._)

             D. Uruguay.

                 1. Relations with Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay.

                 2. Political organization and progress.

                 3. Economic, educational, and religious developments.

                 4. Contemporary government and politics.

     Readings: Koebel, _Uruguay_; Roxlo, _Uruguay en 1904_; Acevedo,
     _Historia de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay_; Zorilla de San
     Martin, _La Epopeya de Artigas_.

     4. Less Progressive and Backward States of South America.

         A. Venezuela:

             1. Revolutions and tyrants: Guzman Blanco; Castro.

             2. Foreign relations.

             3. Contemporary government and politics.

     Readings: Dalton, _Venezuela_; Scruggs, _The Colombian and
     Venezuelan Republics_.

         B. Colombia:

             1. Political record.

             2. Foreign relations.

     Readings: Scruggs, _The Colombian and Venezuelan Republics_;
     Levine, _Colombia_; Eder, _Columbia_; Arboleda, _Historia
     contemporanea de Colombia_.

         C. Ecuador.

     Readings: Enock, _Ecuador_; Mejia, _Ecuador_; Cevalles,
     _Compendio de la historia del Ecuador_.

         D. Peru.

             1. Political record.

             2. Foreign relations.

             3. Contemporary government and politics.

     Readings: Enock, _Peru_; Wright, _Peru_; Markham, _A History of
     Peru_; Llorente, _Historia de Peru_.

         E. Bolivia.

             1. Presidency of Sucre and dictatorship of Santa Cruz.

             2. Political disorder.

             3. Foreign relations; part of Bolivia in war, 1879-83.

             4. Constitution of 1880.

     Readings: Wright, _Bolivia_; Walle, _Bolivia_; Valdes, _Estudio
     historico de Bolivia_.

         F. Paraguay.

             1. Period of Francia.

             2. The Lopez group.

             3. War with Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.

             4. Contemporary government and politics.

     Readings: Washburn, _History of Paraguay_; Hardy, _Paraguay_;
     Decoud, _Paraguay_; Funes, _Historia civil del Paraguay_;
     Mitre, _Guerra del Paraguay_; Yubero, _El Paraguay moderno_.

     5. Mexico.

         a. Empire and early republic: Iturbide and Santa Anna.

         b. Relations with Texas.

         c. The war with the United States.

         d. Struggle with the church: Juarez.

         e. Maximilian.

         f. The Diaz regime; economic development.

         g. Contemporary period: the revolution.

             Madero; Huerta; Carranza; Villa; Obregon.

         h. Relations with the United States; with Japan; with Germany.

         i. Constitution and politics.

     Suggested Readings: Enock, _Mexico_; Noll, _From Empire to
     Republic_; ----, _History of Mexico_; Fortier and Ficklen,
     _Central America and Mexico_; Bancroft, _History of Mexico_;
     Rives, _Relations of Mexico and the United States_; Bancroft,
     _Porfirio Diaz_; Pinchon and de Lara, _Mexico_; Stevenson,
     _Maximilian in Mexico_; Martin, _Maximilian_; ----, _Mexico
     of the XXth Century_; Prida, _From Despotism to Anarchy_;
     Fornaro, _Carranza and Mexico_; Trowbridge, _Mexico Today and

     Additional Readings: Alaman, _Historia de Mexico_; Esquivel,
     _Democracia y personalismo_; Estrada, _La Revolution y
     Francisco I. Madero_; Gonzalez, _La Revolucion y sus heroes_;
     Zamacois, _Historia de Mexico_; Planchet, _La Cuestion
     religiosa en Mexico_.

     6. The Central American States:

         First Class: Costa Rica and Guatemala.

         Second Class: Honduras, Salvador, and Nicaragua.

             1. Race distribution.

             2. Projects of union: 1824-1838; 1842; 1848; 1852; 1862;
             1872; 1876; 1887; 1889; 1895; 1897.

             3. The peace conference of 1907; the court.

             4. Political and economic conditions.

             5. Foreign relations.

     Readings: Villafranca, _Costa Rica_; Winter, _Guatemala_;
     Guardia, _Costa Rica_; Squier, _States of Central America_;
     Palmer, _Central America_; Fortier and Ficklen, _Central
     America and Mexico_; Martin, _Salvador_; Koebel, _Central
     America_; Munro, _The Five Central American Republics_;
     Shepherd, _Central and South America_.

     7. The Insular Republics.

         A. Cuba.

             1. Cuba in the early part of the 19th century.

             2. Plans made in South America for the revolutionizing of

             3. Cuba in diplomacy; attitude of the United States and

             4. Slavery in Cuba.

             5. Filibusters.

             6. The ten year war; the problem of reform.

             7. The Spanish-American War; status of Cuba after the

             8. American occupation; the Platt Amendment.

             9. Republican government in Cuba; interventions by the
             United States; diplomatic and economic relations with the
             United States.

     Readings: Callahan, _Cuba and International Relations_;
     Leroy-Beaulieu, 251-268; Cabrera, _Cuba and the Cubans_;
     Porter, _Industrial Cuba_; Lindsay, _Cuba and her People of
     Today_; Quesada, _The War in Cuba_; Guiteras, _Historia de la
     Isla de Cuba_; Ramon de la Sagra, _Historia de la Isla de Cuba_
     (13t); Canini, _Four Centuries of Spanish Rule in Cuba_;
     Johnson, _The History of Cuba_ (5v); Hill, _Cuba and Porto

         B. Haiti and Santo Domingo:

             1. Monarchy and republicanism in Haiti and Santo Domingo.

             2. Social and racial problems.

             3. Political disorders.

             4. International relations:

                 a. Financial conditions; foreign claims.

                 b. Interventions.

                 c. Relations of Santo Domingo and the United States.

                 d. Haiti and the United States.

             5. Attitude toward the United States.

             6. Contemporary government and politics.

     Readings: Fiske, _West Indies_; Eves, _West Indies_; St. John,
     _Haiti, the Black Republic_; Schoenrich, _Santo Domingo_;
     Hazard, _Santo Domingo, Past and Present_; Hollander, _Report
     on the Debt of Santo Domingo_ (Sen. Ex. Document, 59th Cong.);
     Garcia, _Compendio de la Historia de Santo Domingo_.

         8. Panama:

             a. Secessionist tendencies in Panama.

             b. The revolution.

             c. The republic.

             d. Relations with Colombia and the United States.

     Required Readings: Bishop, _Panama, Past and Present_; Gause
     and Carr, _The Story of Panama_; Bunau-Varilla, _Panama; the
     Creation, Destruction and Resurrection_; Villegas, _The
     Republic of Panama_.

     Readings in general for political history: Dawson, _The South
     American Republics_; Akers, _History of South America_; Dodd,
     _Modern Constitutions_; Rodriguez, _American Constitutions_;
     Sweet, _History of Latin America_; Koebel, _South America_;
     Garcia Calderon, _Latin-America_, 86-231; _Cambridge Modern
     History_, XII, 672-689; Domville-Fife, _Great States of South
     America_; Enock, _The Republics of Central and South America_;
     Porter, _The Ten Republics_; Colmo, _Los paises de la America
     latina_; Amunategui, _Ensayos biographicos_ (4v); Shepherd,
     _Hispanic Nations of the New World_.

=Chapter IX. Relations with One Another and with Europe.=

         1. Boundary disputes and commissions; the principle of _uti

         2. Filibustering expeditions and reprisals.

         3. The status of Uruguay.

         4. The war against Paraguay.

         5. The Chile-Peru-Bolivia war; the Tacna-Arica question.

         6. International standing of Latin America.

         7. The problem of unity:

             a. Proposals for a league of states of Spanish origin.

             b. Proposals for inclusion of Brazil in this league.

             c. Congresses of Hispanic-American countries: Panama
            (1826), Lima (1848, 1864, 1897), Santiago de Chile (1856).

             d. Programmes of arbitration; proposals for codification of
             international law for the Americas.

             e. Congresses for health and sanitations conventions: Rio
             de Janiero (1887, 1906), Lima (1888), Washington (1902,
             1905), Mexico City (1907), San Jose de Costa Rica (1909).

             f. Scientific congresses: Buenos Aires (1898), Montevideo,
             (1901), Rio de Janiero (1905), Santiago de Chile, (1908),
             Washington, (1916).

             g. Control of river commerce; the international rivers.

         8. Central American affairs; arbitration agreement.

         9. The so-called A. B. C. Alliance.

         10. Relations with Europe:

             Diplomatic; economic; cultural.

         11. European interventions in Latin American affairs:

             Examples of European intervention: France and Great Britain
             at Buenos Aires and Montevideo; Spain and France in Mexico;
             France, Great Britain and Spain in Mexico; Spain in Santo
             Domingo and Peru; Great Britain at Corinto; Germany, Great
             Britain and Italy in Venezuela.

     Readings: Shepherd, 96-106; Koebel, _The South Americans_,
     41-63; Garcia Calderon, 335-350; _Cambridge Modern History_,
     Vol. XII, 689-702; Moore, _Brazil and Peru Boundary Question_;
     Posada, _En America una compaña_; Helio Lobo, _O Tribunal
     Arbitral Brasiliero-Boliviano_; Alvarez, _Le Droit
     international Americain_; Quesada, _La Evolution del

=Chapter X. Later Diplomatic and Political Relations with the United

         1. Development and extension of the Monroe Doctrine:

             a. The Jackson-Van Buren attitude.

             b. Polk's revival, interpretation, and restriction.

             c. Monroe Doctrine in the fifties:

                 1. Connection with slavery issue.

                 2. Paraguay, 1857-59.

             d. The Maximilian episode.

             e. The United States and the Chilean war with Spain.

             f. Grant and the nationalization of the doctrine.

             g. The Santos claim in Ecuador; Alsop claim in Chile.

             h. Cleveland-Olney extension.

             i. Monroe Doctrine and imperialism.

             j. Roosevelt-Taft period.

             k. Wilson Doctrine.

             l. Monroe Doctrine and claims against Hispanic-American

                 1. Contractual,--Alsop, Cerutti, Landreau.

                 2. Tortuous,--Case of Moreno; Benton Case; Renton Case.

             m. The Monroe Doctrine and the World War.

     Readings: Appropriate sections of Edgington, Bingham, Hart,
     Bigelow; Reddaway, _Monroe Doctrine_; American State Papers;
     Moore, _A Digest of International Law_, Vol. VI, 368-604;
     714-715; ----, _Principles of American Diplomacy_, 246-269;
     Minister Dudley's report, U. S. For. Rel., 1899; Vicuña
     Mackenna, _Historia de la Administracion Montt_; ----,
     _Historia de Chile_; New International Encyclopedia; Bonilla,
     _Wilson Doctrine_; Barrett, _Latin-America of Today and its
     Relation to the United States_; Helio Lobo, _De Monroe a
     Rio-Branco_; Saenz Peña, _Derecho publico Americano_.

         2. Hispanic-American attitude toward the United States.

             a. In politics and diplomacy.

             b. In commerce.

     Readings: Ugarte, _El porvenir de la America latina_;
     Sotolongo, _El Imperialismo Norte Americano_; Merlos, _America
     latina ante el peligro_; Weyl, _American World Policies_,
     Chapter XV; Gondra, _Los Estados Unidos y las Naciones

         3. Efforts at coöperation and friendship:

             a. Evolution of Pan Americanism.

             b. The Pan American Union:

                 1. Organization and purposes.

                 2. Control and accomplishments.

             c. Pan American congresses: Washington, (1889); Mexico
             City,(1902); Rio de Janiero, (1906); Buenos Aires, (1910).

             d. Inter-American financial congresses: Washington, (1915);
             Buenos Aires, (1916).

             e. The peace and arbitration treaties.

             f. Cultural inter-relations; scientific conferences,
             increase of trade and travel; exchange of teachers and
             college professors.

             g. Proposals of an inter-American league of nations.

         4. The Drago Doctrine and the Porter Doctrine.

         5. Latin America at the second Hague Conference.

     Readings: Hull, _The United States and Latin America at the
     Hague_; Quesada, _La Doctrina Drago_ (Rev. de la Univ., B.A.,

         6. The Platt Amendment:

             a. Relations with Cuba; interventions.

         7. Caribbean Interests of the United States:

             1. Political and economic conditions in the Caribbean area;
             effects and influences of the Spanish-American War.

             2. Strategic importance; United States as a Caribbean

                 a. Porto Rico as a dependency.

                 b. Territorial government; the insular cases; the
                 question of citizenship.

                 c. The Virgin Islands.

             3. Dominant position of the United States:

                 a. In commerce.

                 b. Financial agreements with Santo Domingo, Haiti,

                 c. The Panama Canal as a factor in the problem; status
                 of the Republic of Panama with respect to the United

                 d. Naval bases of the United States; lease of the Corn

                 e. Interventions of the United States.

             4. Relations of the United States and Venezuela, Colombia,
             Central America.

             5. Attitude of Caribbean peoples toward the United States;
             problem of self-determination.

             6. Contemporary tendencies.

     Readings: Jones, _Caribbean Interests of the United States_;
     Bonsal, _The American Mediterranean_; Westergaard, _The Danish
     West Indies_, 1671-1917; De Booy and Faris, _The Virgin

         8. The Panama Canal:

             a. Treaties and plans for construction.

             b. The French enterprise.

             c. Relations of Columbia and the United States.

             d. Secession and independence of Panama.

             e. Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty.

             f. Construction of Canal.

             g. Possible economic and political effects.

             h. The Columbian grievance against the United States;
             diplomatic developments.

         9. Wilson Administration:

             a. Hispanic-American policy.

             b. Relations with Mexico.

             c. Achievements and criticism.

     Required Readings: Senate Doc., No. 744, 61st Cong., 3rd
     Session; _Annals of American Academy of Pol. Science_, July,
     1914; Bryce, 484-520; Garcia Calderon, 298-312; Latane,
     _America as a World Power_, 255-285; ----, _Diplomatic
     Relations of the United States with Spanish America_; Williams,
     _Anglo-American Isthmian Diplomacy_; _The New Pan Americanism_,
     Parts I, II and III (World Peace Foundation).

     Additional Readings: Flack, _Spanish American Diplomatic
     Relations Preceding the War of 1898_; Chandler, _Inter-American
     Acquaintances_; Moore, _Principles of American Diplomacy_,
     365-419; Maurtua, _La Idea Pan Americana y la cuestion del
     arbitraje_; Usher, _Pan-Americanism_; Gause and Carr, _The
     Story of Panama_; Bishop, _Panama, Past and Present_.

=Chapter XI. Trade Relations of Hispanic America and the United States.=

         1. Origins of trade.

         2. Development of trade during the 19th century:

             a. Comparative predominance of United States to about 1850.

             b. Disruption of trade during War of Secession.

             c. Increased European competition after Franco-Prussian

         3. History of trade in the 20th century.

         4. Volume of contemporary trade, export and import, with United
         States; with Europe.

         5. Character of the trade:

             a. Standard articles imported and exported.

             b. Non-competitive goods and raw products.

             c. Competitive goods.

         6. Purchasing power of Hispanic American countries.

         7. Misconceptions, current in United States, as to
         Hispanic-American habits of business.

         8. Obstacles in the way of trade:

             a. Lack of merchant marine.

             b. Established habits and traditions of trade.

             c. Ignorance of market and the accepted methods of trade:

                 1. Market demands.

                 2. Transportation problems.

                 3. Tariff administrations.

             d. Long term credits.

             e. Lack of organization to secure the trade.

         9. Methods for improvement.

         10. The Webb-Pomerene Act.

         11. Effects of the European war of 1914; construction of the
         Panama Canal.

         12. Increase of American business interests in Hispanic

     Readings: _Atlas America Latina_; Verrill, _South and Central
     American Trade Conditions of Today_, 168-179; U. S. Sen. Doc.
     No. 737, 60th Cong., 2d Sess., (Fisher, _Ethnography and
     Commercial Importance of Latin America and the West Indies_);
     House Doc., No. 154, 59 Cong., 2d Sess.; Aughinbaugh, _Selling
     Latin America_; Babson, _The Future of South America_; Bonsal,
     _The American Mediterranean_; Chandler, _Inter-American
     Acquaintances_; Hough, _Practical Exporting_; Shepherd,
     168-179; ----, _Our South American Trade_ (Pol. Science
     Quart., Dec., 1909); Filsinger, _Exporting to Latin America_;
     Savay, _The Science of Foreign Trade_; Pepper, _American
     Foreign Trade_; Cooper, _Understanding South America_; Wilson,
     _South America as an Export Field_, (Sp. Agt. Ser. No. 81,
     1914, Dept. of Com.); South American Supplement, London
     _Times_; U. S. consular reports; reports of the Department of
     Commerce and Labor (now Department of Commerce).

=Chapter XII. Hispanic America and the World War.=

         1. Economic and political influences of the war.

         2. Hispanic-American products necessary in the prosecution of
         the war.

         3. Efforts to secure sympathy for one or the other group of
         belligerents; policies of neutrality; cultural factors in the
         situation: Germany as a menace.

         4. Improvement in the financial situation; development of Pan
         Americanism: the financial congresses.

         5. Growth of anti-German sentiment in certain countries; Ruy
         Barbosa's indictment of Germany; the Luxburg and Zimmermann

         6. Effect of the entrance of the United States into the war.

         7. Hispanic America in the war:

             a. Nations which declared war: Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba,
             Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.

             b. Nations which severed relations with Germany: Bolivia,
             Ecuador, Peru, Santo Domingo, Uruguay.

             c. The neutral countries: Argentina, Chile, Colombia,
             Mexico, Salvador, Venezuela, Paraguay.

             d. Services of Brazil and Cuba.

         8. Hispanic America and the Peace Conference; the prominent
         part played by Brazil.

         9. The Tacna-Arica question in a new phase.

         10. Attitude toward the League of Nations; Brazil as a member
         of the Supreme Council; the states which joined the league.

         11. The Monroe Doctrine during the war; projects for an
         inter-American league of states.

         12. Economic results of the war upon Hispanic America.

     Readings: Martin, _Latin America and the War_, (League of
     Nations, II, No. 4); Kirkpatrick, _South America and the War_;
     Rowe, _Early Effects of the War upon Finance, Commerce, and
     Industry of Peru_; Ferrara, _La doctrine de Monroe y la liga de
     las naciones_; Galliard, _Amerique latine et Europe
     occidentale_; Wagner, _L'Allemagne et l'Amerique Latine_;
     Quesada, El "peligro Aleman" en sud America; Yearbooks and

=Chapter XIII. Contemporary History, Problems, and Achievements of
Hispanic America.=

         1. Political:

             a. Political and governmental stability.

             b. Politics in practice and principle.

             c. Modern conventions, platforms, and elections.

             d. Restrictions of the ballot.

             e. Professional men in politics.

             f. Absence of political experience by the masses.

             g. Necessity of developing public interest in politics and
             political philosophy.

             h. Appearance of new political issues.

             i. Electoral reform: Argentina.

             j. Civil Service in Hispanic America.

             k. State or Church control over education.

             l. Municipal government:

                 1. History of progress.

                 2. Public utilities; fire departments; police system;
                 water works; public sanitation; municipal ownership.

             m. Social legislation.

             n. Passing of the South American type of revolution.

     Readings: Garcia Calderon, 222-248, 365-677; Shepherd, 141-150;
     Scruggs, _The Colombian and Venezuelan Republics; Vera y
     Gonzalez, Elementos de historia contemporanea de America_;
     Heredia, _Memorias sobre las revoluciones de Venezuela_; books
     on individual countries.

         2. Social and Religious:

             A. Social:

                 1. Population:

                     a. Census statistics available.

                     b. Population and resources.

                 2. Social types: Spanish; immigrant; Indian, savage and
                 civilized; mixed races; negro.

                 3. Laboring classes and types: _"vaquero;" "gaucho;"
                 "llanero;"_ industrial laborers.

                 4. Labor system and laws.

                     a. Peonage:

                         1. Feudal status of labor in colonies.

                         2. Origin of peonage; inheritance of debt.

                         3. The "inquilino" and "colono"; "cholo."

                         4. Ignorance, wages, and living conditions.

                         5. Peon in government and politics.

                         6. Peonage in Mexico; in South America.

                     b. Labor regulations in general.

                     c. Labor organizations.

                     d. Dearth of labor in certain countries.

                     e. Strikes; radicalism; labor conditions in
                     Argentina, Brazil and Mexico.

                 5. Aristocratic and professional society.

                 6. Language.

                 7. Position of woman:

                     a. In society.

                     b. Family life.

                     c. The matter of divorce.

                 8. Amusements and social customs:

                     a. Sports and games.

                     b. Carnivals and festivals.

                     c. Dress and etiquette.

                     d. Gambling and lotteries.

                     e. Social customs in business.

                 9. Influence of the Basques in Latin America.

     Readings: Shepherd, 121-141; ----, _Psychology of the Latin
     American_ (Jour. of Race Devel. 1919); Garcia Calderon,
     283-290; Bryce, 432, 528-530; Romero, _Mexico and the United
     States_; Bingham, _Across South America_; books on individual
     countries and on travel; Bunge, _Nuestra America_; Colmo,
     _America Latina_.

             B. Religious:

                 1. Prevalence of Roman Catholic Church.

                 2. Church and State; tendency toward separation.

                 3. Clericalism in politics.

                 4. The work of the Church.

                 5. Toleration in Hispanic America.

                 6. Protestant missionary activities.

                 7. Foreign opinion of Hispanic-American morality.

     Required Readings: Shepherd, 139; Koebel, _The South Americans_
     41-44, 91-108, 152-169.

     Additional Readings: Speer, _South American Problems_; Brown,
     _Latin America_; Neely, _South America: Its Missionary
     Problem_; Planchet, _La Cuestion religiosa en Mexico_.

         3. Immigration:

             a. History of immigration in the 19th century:

                 1. Causes of scarcity before 1857; colonial exclusion;
                 revolutions; greater inducements of the United States;
                 economic reasons.

                 2. Increase since 1857.

                     Ideas of Alberdi and Sarmiento on immigration.

                 3. Drift toward the Southern republics.

                 4. Immigration in the North American republics.

             b. Political and economic effects of immigration.

             c. Effects on society.

             d. Spanish, Italian, German, Russian and Polish, English,
             French, Portuguese, Oriental, Turkish and Assyrian

             e. Favorite occupations of aliens.

             f. The question of assimilation and citizenship.

     Required Readings: Shepherd, 81-84, 126-129, 169; Koebel, _The
     South Americans_, 152-169; Garcia Calderon, 290-298, 323-335.

     Additional Readings: _Atlas America Latina_; Koebel, _British
     Exploits_, 481-551; Mulhall, _The English in South America_;
     Wintzer, _Die Deutschen im tropischen Amerika_.

         4. Financial:

             a. Monetary systems in Hispanic America.

                 1. Standards and values.

                 2. Paper currency.

                 3. Fluctuations.

             b. Capital and Banking:

                 1. Number of banks.

                 2. Domestic and foreign control of banking.

                 3. Branch banks:

                     a. European.

                     b. United States.

             4. Scarcity of capital.

                 c. Hispanic-American finance.

                     1. Credits, exchange, solvency.

                     2. Stock exchanges.

                     3. Bond issues.

                     4. Public debts.

                     5. Sinking funds.

                     6. Insurance.

                     7. Trusts and corporations.

                 d. Foreign influences upon financial policies.

                 e. Business enterprises:

                     1. Habits of business.

                     2. Buying and selling; advertising.

                 f. Tariff systems:

                     1. Tariff for revenue.

                     2. Rates: specific rather than _ad valorem_.

                     3. Variations and complexity.

                 g. Taxation:

                     1. On personal property.

                     2. On lands and real estate.

                     3. On industries.

                     4. Licenses and concessions.

                 h. Internal improvements and public works.

                     1. History of internal improvements in Latin

                     2. Public works; postal service; parcel post.

                 i. Movement for single, Pan-American monetary standard.

                 j. Movement for a Pan-American, standardized tariff

     Readings: Shepherd, 43, 48, 150-153, 173; Wolfe, _Foreign
     Credits_, (Sp. Agts. Ser. No. 62, 1913, Department of
     Commerce); Hurley, _Banking and Credit in Argentina, Brazil,
     Chile, and Peru_, (Sp. Agts. Ser. No. 90, 1914, ibid.);
     Verrill, Aughinbaugh, and Babson; Crosby, _Latin American
     Monetary System and Exchange Conditions_; The South American
     Year-Book; Consular reports; Reports of the Board of Trade
     (Eng.); books on individual countries; Roper, _The Postal
     Service and the Latin American Trade_.

         5. Industrial:

             A. The most important industries:

                 1. Mining:

                     a. Areas of ore fields.

                     b. Facilities.

                     c. Acquisition of mining properties.

                     d. Labor supply.

                     e. Gold, silver, diamonds, copper, tin, nitrate,
                     coal, and other mines.

                 2. Stock-raising:

                     a. Areas adapted.

                     b. Cattle, horse, sheep ranches.

                     c. Stock-yards and slaughter-houses.

                     d. Wool and hides.

     Readings: Whelpley, _Trade Development in Argentina_, (Sp.
     Agts. Ser. No. 43, 1911, Dept. of Commerce and Labor); _Atlas
     America Latina_.

                 3. Rubber:

                     a. Areas of growth.

                     b. Processes employed.

                     c. Labor supply; labor scandals; "black gold."

                 4. Agriculture:

                     a. Arable lands and climatic conditions.

                     b. Agriculture in connection with stock-raising.

                     c. Ownership of land.

                     d. The agrarian situation in Hispanic America.

                     e. The "haciendas," "fazendas;" the "chacras" and

                     f. Agricultural products: Coffee, cacao yerba,

                 5. Manufacturing:

                     a. General characteristics: domestic and factory

                     b. Connection with other industries.

                     c. Obstacles in the way.

                     d. Products: foodstuffs, textiles, machinery.

             B. European and American capital invested in industries.

             C. Occupations of foreigners in Hispanic America.

     Readings: Koebel, _The South Americans_, 132-151, 193-204;
     books on individual countries; Pearson, _The Rubber Country of
     the Amazon_; Gemmingen, _Die entwickelung der fabrikindustrie
     im lateinischen Amerika_.

         6. Commercial:

             a. History of Hispanic-American commerce.

             b. Exports and imports:

                 1. Character and value.

                 2. Destination.

             c. Commercial enterprises.

             d. Trade marks and their use.

             e. Customs regulations.

             f. Modern transportation and communication.

                 1. Development of transportation facilities.

                 2. Survival of colonial methods in certain areas.

                 3. Pack-trains, stage routes, llama trains.

                 4. Roads and highways.

                 5. Land transportation:

                     a. Railroads: trunk lines; short lines.

                     b. International and transcontinental lines.

                     c. Projected lines.

                     d. Horse cars and trolleys; subways.

                     e. Mileage and rates.

                     f. Freight rates.

                     g. Capital and ownership.

                 6. Water transportation:

                     a. River steamers and barges.

                     b. Oceanic lines.

                     c. Harbor facilities.

                     d. Rates.

                     g. Communication:

                         1. Telegraph lines.

                         2. Cable lines.

                         3. Postal service; international service.

                     h. The metric system of weights and measures.

                     i. Concessions and monopolies:

                         1. Procedure in obtaining them.

                         2. Policies of various countries in relation

                         3. Attitude of the United States toward them.

     Readings: Shepherd, 168-191; Koebel, _The South Americans_,
     304-358; Domville-Fife, _Great States of South America; Atlas
     America Latina; Sheridan, Transportation Rates to the West
     Coast of South America_ (Sp. Agts. report, Ser. 72, 1913. Bur.
     of For. and Dom. Commerce); Gueydan, _Transportation Facilities
     of Colombia and Venezuela_ (_ibid._); _Trade mark registration
     in Latin America_ (Tariff series, No. 31, _ibid._); Verrill,
     Aughinbaugh, and Babson; Reports of Bureau of Trade Relations
     of the State Department; Report of the Bureau of Foreign and
     Domestic Commerce of the Commerce Department; U. S. Federal
     Trade Com. Rep. on Trade and Tariffs in Brazil, Uruguay,
     Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, and Peru; _Tariff Systems of South
     American countries_. (Bur. of For and Dom. Com.)

         7. Educational and Cultural:

             A. Educational:

                 1. General characteristics.

                 2. Percentages of illiterates in various countries.

                 3. Educational progress.

                 4. Obstacles to popular education.

                 5. Foreign influences in education.

                     a. European teachers in Hispanic-America.

                     b. American teachers in Argentina in 1868;
                     educational reforms of Sarmiento.

                     c. Influence of United States at present.

                 6. Administration of schools.

                 7. Elementary and secondary education.

                 8. Higher education in Hispanic-America.

                     a. Universities:

                         1. Faculties, courses, and equipment.

                         2. Libraries and publications.

                         3. Students.

                     b. Scientific pursuits.

                         1. Observatories and other establishments for
                         study of geography, ethnology, and zoology.

                         2. Schools of medicine and surgery.

                     c. Industrial and technical education.

                 9. Urban and rural education.

                 10. Popular interest in education.

                 11. Non-official efforts for promotion of education:

                     a. Congresses and teachers' associations.

                     b. Private schools and institutions.

                     c. Publications and lectures.

                 12. Educational reforms needed.

             B. Cultural achievements in general:

                 1. Public charity:

                     a. Control and sources of revenue.

                     b. Societies and institutions for social service.

                 2. Public libraries.

                 3. Journalism:

                     a. Status of the press in various countries.

                     b. Notable newspapers.

                     c. Recent development.

                     d. Magazines and periodicals.

                 4. Literature:

                     a. General characteristics.

                     b. European and particularly French influence.

                     c. Representative literary men and their works.

                         1. Novelists, essayists, poets:

                         Ricardo Palma, Rodo, Alencar, Gonzalvez Diaz,
                         San Martin, Echeverria, Sarmiento, Ruben Dario,
                         Chocano, Blanco Fombona, etc.

                         2. Historians:

                         Alaman, the Amunategui, Barros Arana,
                         Icazbalceta, Vicuña Mackenna, Mitre, Jose
                         Toribio Medina, Oliviera Lima, Zamacois, etc.

                         3. Jurists:

                         Bello, Calvo, Velez Sarsfield, Ambrosio Montt,

                 5. Arts:

                     a. General characteristics.

                     b. Achievements in music; the drama; architecture;
                     painting; and sculpture.

     Readings: For education: Shepherd, 192-204; ----, _Education in
     South America_, (Review of Reviews, May, 1908); ----, _Higher
     Education in South America_, (Columbia University Quart., Dec.,
     1907); Koebel, _The South Americans_, 109-132; Brandon,
     _Latin-American Universities and Special Schools_; Blakslee,
     _Latin-America_, 30-46; Monroe, _An Encyclopedia of Education_
     (See discussion under the names of each country); see also,
     Walle, _Bolivia_, Chap. 6; Eder, _Colombia_, Chap. 16; Hirst,
     _Argentina_, Chap. 14; and Wright's books on Bolivia, Chile,
     and Peru; Bravo Mejia, _Organizacion de las escuelas rurales_;
     Amunategui, _Discursos Parliamentarios_.

     For cultural problems: Shepherd, 204-250; _La Literatura y el
     Periodismo_; Garcia Calderon, _Latin-America_, 249-282; Warner,
     _Library of the World's Best Literature_, Vol. 15; Blakslee,
     _Latin-America_, 299-306; Koebel, _The South Americans_,
     109-130; Goldberg, _Studies in Spanish American Literature_;
     Umphrey, _Spanish American Poets of Today and Yesterday_
     (Hispania, 1919); Coester, _The Literary History of Spanish
     America_; Starr, _Readings from Modern Mexican Authors_;
     Lamborn, _Mexican Paintings and Painters_; Zanelli Lopez,
     _Mujeres Chilenos de letras_; Amunategui, La _Alborada, poetica
     in Chile_.

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