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Title: The Discovery and Conquest of the Molucco and Philippine Islands. - Containing their History, Ancient and Modern, Natural and - Political: Their Description, Product, Religion, Government, - Laws, Languages, Customs, Manners, Habits, Shape, and - Inclinations of the Natives. With an Account of many other - adjacent Islands, and several remarkable Voyages through - the Streights of Magellan, and in other Parts.
Author: Argensola, Bartholomew Leonardo de
Language: English
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                                 OF THE
                    Molucco and Philippine Islands.


    Their History, Ancient and Modern, Natural and Political: Their
 Description, Product, Religion, Government, Laws, Languages, Customs,
    Manners, Habits, Shape, and Inclinations of the Natives. With an
 Account of many other adjacent Islands, and several remarkable Voyages
         through the Streights of Magellan, and in other Parts.

  Written in Spanish by Bartholomew Leonardo de Argensola, Chaplain to
                the Empress, and Rector of Villahermosa.

  Now Translated into English: And Illustrated with a Map and several

                   LONDON, Printed in the Year, 1708.

                                 TO THE
                             Edmund Poley,
                                 IN THE
                        County of SUFFOLK, Esq.;


Reiterated Favours claim a Repetition of Acknowledgments; should
the latter be as frequent as the former, they might prove rather
troublesome to you, than acceptable. I have therefore resolv'd
once for all to express how sensible I am of the many Obligations
I lye under. You would not perhaps be pleas'd, should I go about
to enumerate them, because great Minds never look back upon what
Courtesies they have bestow'd, being always intent upon what farther
Acts of Generosity they may perform.

Among the many other Testimonies of your Bounty, there is one I am here
oblig'd particularly to mention, which is your having admitted of the
Dedication of so small a Work as the Translation of Cieza's Travels in
Peru. Your Acceptance of that Part has encourag'd me to prefix your
Name to the Whole, now grown up into two Volumes, that it may honour
them both in the Front, as it gives Reputation to the first in that
Place, where it shall remain as a Demonstration of your Condescension,
as this is of your Right and my Gratitude. I shall therefore avoid
any Repetition of what is there said, or adding more here to display
your Merit. Neither am I capable of giving your Character, nor will
you consent to it, which puts me upon a Necessity of cutting short;
lest my own Inclination and your Desert insensibly draw me on to
attempt what I am not qualify'd to go through with. True Virtue can
be no more conceal'd than the Splendor of the Sun, nor does it stand
in need of outward Ornaments to set it off; you have render'd your
self too conspicuous to be unknown, and can receive no Addition from
my poor Endeavours. The Design of these Lines is, at the same Time,
to honour my Work with your Patronage, and to express my Acknowledgment
and Gratitude for all Favours already receiv'd; wishing this may stand
a perpetual Monument of both, and to you all Increase of Happiness;
and I shall always own my self


                                        Your most Obliged, and most

                                            Devoted Humble Servant

                                                JOHN STEVENS.

                    Concerning this Work in general.

It will be needless to trouble the Reader with a tedious Introduction,
shewing the usefulness of this sort of Books, several others having
already treated of that Subject, no less Learnedly than Fully, so that
it would only be repeating what has been frequently said already,
and what most Men are sufficiently convinc'd of; besides that, it
is not design'd to fill up this small Volume with Perswasives to buy
it; but rather to proceed directly to the matter propos'd. But, lest
the Design should be misapprehended, it will be necessary, in as few
Words as may be, to make all Persons sensible of it. Nothing is more
certain, than that many curious Pieces have escap'd the search of
those who have publish'd Volumes of this Nature, either because they
are grown extreamly Rare; or, perhaps, those who Translated were not
Masters of the Languages in which they were Writ, or else for want
of sufficient Information; since, as no Man can know all Things,
neither can any be acquainted with all Books. These are the Things
now design'd to Entertain the Publick, with assurance that nothing
shall be offer'd, but what is valuable, and approv'd of by Learned
and Ingenious Persons. It is needless, and even impracticable, in this
First Part to give a Catalogue of the Books intended to be Translated;
needless, in Regard that being very rare, few are yet acquainted
with them; and impracticable, because several not yet known to the
Undertakers, may hereafter come to Hand: As also, by reason that
some which are not to be found in England, are now sent for Abroad,
and considering their Scarcity, and the Hazards of the Sea, it is
impossible to determine when they will be had. Besides, it is not
convenient to Publish the Names of such Books, at a time when so many
are gaping to catch at any thing they can hope to make an Advantage
of, tho' others have acquir'd some sort of right to it, by declaring
they have such a Work in Hand. Every Piece that is Publish'd, will,
it is hop'd, Recommend it self, and be an Inducement to the Buyer
to purchase the next, for which reason it will be superfluous to
add any thing in their Commendation. Neither is this Work confin'd
to Translations, the Undertakers having already a prospect of some
Original Manuscripts of the same Nature, Written by Ingenious and
Able Persons, who have Travel'd, and not taken care to publish
their Observations. The Translations will be out of all Languages,
which can afford any thing answerable to what is proposed, that is,
excellent in it self, and never before seen in English.

As for the Method here intended, it is to Publish every Month, as much
as will make a Book of Twelve Pence, or Eighteen Pence, according
as it can be contriv'd, without breaking off abruptly, to leave the
Relation maim'd and imperfect, for as scarce any of the Books to
be Translated are so small as to come into the compass of a Month,
so of necessity they must be divided into several Parts, according
to their Bulk. Now each Month being Sold Stich'd, every Buyer may
afterwards Bind them up when he has an Author compleat, and therefore
great care shall be taken, that the one may end, and the next begin,
so as to cause no Obstacle, or Confusion in Binding. All the Books
shall be adorn'd with proper Maps, and useful Cuts, that is, not with
Representations of Battels, or Draughts of Places made according to
the Engravers Fancy, but with true Delineations taken upon the Spot,
where any such are to be had; the real Habits of the People; Birds,
Beasts, Plants, &c. Whether every Month will afford any of these,
cannot be promised, since they are to be inserted in their proper
Places, for substantial Information, and not dispers'd at Will to
embellish the Book, and divert the Ignorant. Therefore some Months
will contain more, others fewer, and some perhaps none, with assurance
that the Charge shall not be spar'd where they are requisite, and such
are to be had as can be vouch'd to be Genuine. Thus every Person will,
at so small a Price, as has been mention'd have a Taste of the Author
propos'd to be Translated, and of the Performance, before he launches
out more Money to purchase the whole, and has every Month something
New to Divert and Inform; which, tho' at first it may look slight, as
being a Stitch'd Pamphlet, will soon grow upon into a Compleat Work,
as if Printed all at once, and be no less becoming any Gentlemans
Study, or Library. No Author is design'd to be Abridg'd, but fairly,
and carefully Translated at large; but if any should hereafter be
thought fit, for any particular Reasons to be so dealt with, it shall
not be done without the Advice and Approbation of sufficient Judges,
and the Publick shall have Notice of it, that no Man may have just
cause to Complain he is any way Impos'd on. Every Author shall have
a particular Preface giving some Account of Him, and his Work, with
a fair Title, for the Binding of him up conveniently into a Volume,
and every Month, as has been said, so contriv'd, that there may be no
Casma, or other Eyesore in the Book. A small number will be Printed
on a large fine Paper, for such as are more Curious, at one half more
than the Price of the Common Sort.

The next Book Publish'd in this Collection, will be Diarium Italicum:
Or, Singular Remarks upon Ancient Monuments, Collections of Rarities,
&c. made in a Journey through Italy: With variety of Cuts and
Figure. By the R. F. Bernard de Montfaucon, Monk of the Order of
S. Benedict, of the Congregation of S. Maur.


Our Author, Bartholomew Leonardo de Argensola, was a Learned Clergyman,
and as such employ'd by the President and Council of the Indies to
Write this History. He calls it, The Conquest of the Molucco Islands,
without Enlarging any further in his title, tho' at the same time his
Work contains their first Discovery, their Description, the Manners,
Customs, Religion, Habit, and Political and Natural History; with
all the Wars, and other Remarkable Accidents in those Parts, since
they were first known to Europeans, till their Reduction under the
Crown of Spain. In Speaking of them he Occasionally runs out to give
the same Account of the Philippine Islands, and of several others
in those Eastern Seas. This is frequent in Spanish Books, wherein we
generally find much more than the Titles promise, contrary to what is
Practis'd with us, who strive to fill up a Title Page with abundance
of Inviting Heads, the least part whereof is Treated of in the Body
of the Work, or at best so Superficially, that scarce any more can
be made of them there, than was in the Frontispiece.

For the Compiling of this Work the Author, being Employ'd by
the Authority abovemention'd, had the Command of all Authentick
Manuscript Relations, which were either in the Kings Custody, or in
Private Hands; besides the Testimony of such Persons then Living,
as had been Eye-Witnesses to any part of what he delivers. His Design
was only to Write the Conquest of those Islands, by King Philip the
Third of Spain; but considering how few were acquainted with them,
and that of Consequence most Readers would be at a loss to know where,
or what these Moluccos were, he Judiciously Resolv'd to bring down his
History from its proper Source. To this End he begins with the Antient,
and Fabulous Original of their Kings; then comes to the Discovery of
them by Europeans, and proceeds to the Wars between them, and with
the Natives, for the Possession of those so much coveted Dominions.

His Description of them is very Exact; That of the Cloves, their
principal Commodity, no less Curious; and that of the other Product
and Animals, Inferior to neither. The Wars carrying him over from one
Place to another; he gives a short Account of the Islands Papûas,
and that of Celebes. The Spaniards, to avoid passing through the
Portuguese Sea, attempted to settle Trade at the Moluccos, by the
way of the Streights of Magellan, which gives occasion to Argensola
to entertain us with a particular Account of the Spanish Fleet sent
into the said Streight, under the Admiral Sarmiento, which has been
hitherto very Imperfectly Deliver'd in English, tho' very Remarkable,
and full of Surprizing Accidents. In short, not to stretch out this
Preface, with the Subject of the Work, we shall find in it a brief
Description of the Island Sumatra; of the vast Empire of China; of
all the Philippine Islands, and those of Ceylon, Banda, Java, and many
others of less Note. Nor does he omit to speak of the Dutch Voyages;
and Undertakings of Sir Francis Drake, and other English Adventurers;
and Embelishes the whole with such variety of pleasing Incidents,
that few Books of Travels afford so much Profitable Entertainment,
with such good Authority.

No Author ever had a better Reputation, among all that Understand,
and have had the good Fortune to Meet with him; for being so
Valuable, he is extraordinary Scarce, rare to be met with in
Spain, and consequently much more in England. This may perhaps be
the main Reason why he has not yet been Translated, and being so
Valuable, he cannot miss of that Reception which he has found in
the Original. But it is not intended to prepossess the Reader, who
is left to make his own Judgment, and therefore a long Preface is
designedly avoided, that he may the sooner enter upon so Useful and
Diverting a Work. It is not improper, nevertheless, to Advise the
Reader not to take notice of some Reflections in Point of Religion,
and in other Cases, considering the Book was Writ by a Spaniard,
and that it was not proper to Omit, or Alter any thing, where a Fair,
and Entire Translation is promised. Besides, That these are very few,
and inconsiderable, and consequently not worth observing, as indeed
the generality of Judicious Readers will be suffciently satisfy'd,
and this Caution is given for their Sake, whom perhaps Passion,
or overmuch Zeal may move to condem a Work on such an Occasion,
when they can find no other matter to Carp at.

                                 OF THE
                         Discovery and Conquest
                                 OF THE
                  Molucco and Philippine Islands, &c.

                                BOOK I.

[Author's Introduction.] I write the Conquest of the Molucco Islands
by King Philip the III. of Spain, and the reducing of their Kings to
their former Subjection, to his Predecessors, by Don Pedro de Acunha,
Governour of the Philippine Islands, and Admiral of the Spanish
Fleet; a Victory worthy the Foresight of such a Godly Monarch, the
Application of those worthy Statesmen that compose his supreme Council,
and the Valour of our Nation; not so much on account of the Wealth,
and Fertility of those Countries, as for that it took from the Northern
Nations all occasion of Sailing in our Seas, and Debauching the new
Converted Asiaticks, and the Inhabitants of our Colonies Trading among
them. The Celerity with which the Expedition was concluded, does not in
the least diminish the Glory of the Event; which, for that very Reason,
might rather deserve a place in a more ample Relation. I am sensible
of the Dangers I expose my self to; but am no less satisfy'd, that I
shall find some to stand by me. The most famous Painters, and Carvers,
have generally a great value for Heads, Arms, and other Limbs, which
have been drawn to perfection from the Life, by which they compose
all the Parts, when they design some excellent Piece. The ignorant in
those Arts have no Esteem for such Fragments, being only taken with
the entire Statue, or Picture, consisting of all its Limbs, without
examining the Defects there may be in each of them. The Relation I
undertake to write of these Islands will find the same Esteem, and
be expos'd to no less Contempt; for the Judicious, who understand how
History is Compil'd, will value this part drawn to the Life; whereas
those, who, as they say themselves, Read only to divert the Time,
will make little account of it, as being more fond of some Romance,
full of Monsterous Events; or of some bulkey Work, bearing the Title
of a History, treating of numerous Armies, and mighty Slaughters, and
bestowing the Success, not where Providence gave, but where they would
have it. This is the Reason why many Things, worthy to be known and
preserv'd, remain bury'd in Oblivion; because being left for General
Histories, there are only slight Sketches of them Drawn at the Time
when they hapned, by those who had a share in them, so that when
these Manuscripts are to be made use of, either they are not to be
found, or else they reduce the Writer to a necessity of subscribing
to whatsoever either Self-Love, or any other Passion dictated to
the Authors of such Memoirs, without any possibility of examining
into the Truth. To obviate this Inconveniency, in a matter of such
moment as that of Ternate, the Capital of the Molucco Islands, I was
Commanded to write an Account of it, at a time when they were still
living who acted in and directed it: And I have such full Information
of all that is requisite for this purpose, that I hope Truth will
make amends for my want of Ability. This is as much as I have thought
fit to Advertise the Reader, without entering upon the Advantage he
will reap by perusing this Relation; because, if he is well affected,
all I can say for it will be superfluous; and if otherwise inclin'd,
tho' I endeavour to set him right, he will never conceive it.

[Kings of the Moluccos.] Among the fourteen most potent Princes, who
Lord it over the Archipelago of the Molucco Islands, under the Title
of Kings, those of Ternate and Tydore boast of a Divine Original;
such Liberty to be vain do Men take upon them, or so much do they
ascribe to obscure Antiquity. [A Fable of their Original.] There is
an ancient Tradition among those People, look'd upon as Sacred, That
they were once Govern'd by a most Ancient Prince, called Bicocigara,
who sailing along the Coast of Rachian, perceiv'd that among some
craggy Rocks there were grown up abundance of Rotas, so they call
a sort of solid Canes, which, when small, they make use of instead
of Ropes. He lik'd them, and order'd they should be cut down, and
brought into his Vessel. His Subjects going to fulfil his Orders,
and having search'd all the place, return'd to their Master, desiring
he would look again, least his Eyes deceiv'd him, for they could
meet with no such Canes. Bicocigara, who saw them distinctly from
his Boat, was positive with his incredulous People, and order'd them
again to be brought; but to decide the matter, went himself Ashore,
where immediatly they appeared to them all. He commanded them to be
cut down, and as they went about it, Blood ran from the Canes that
were cut. Being astonish'd at that Prodigy, he discover'd close to
the Roots of them four Eggs, which look'd like a Snakes Eggs, and at
the same time heard a Voice, proceeding from the hollow of the Canes
cut down, which said, Keep those Eggs; for from them shall come four
excellent Governours. He took up those fatal Eggs, with Religious
Respect, and carry'd them home, where they were kept in the best
place of his House. In a short time, from the four Yolks proceeded
four Rational Chickens, being three Men, and one Woman, who afterwards
Reign'd, the first of them Bachian, the second in Butan, and the third
over the Islands call'd Papuas, lying East from the Moluccos. The
Woman was Marry'd to Prince Loloda, who gave Name to the Country of
Batochina, not far from the great Boconora. This Fable has gain'd such
Reputation, that they honour Bicocigara as a Hero, worship the Rocks,
and adore the Eggs. The truth of it is, that the cunning Man, by this
prodigious Superstition, Sanctify'd his own Race, and gain'd Kingdoms,
and Respect for his four Children. So Greece feign'd, or beleiv'd,
that Leda Conceiving of the Adulterous Swan brought forth the Eggs,
from which came Castor, Pollux, and Helena. Fortune, when she raises
Men to a high pitch, perswades those she designs to Crown, to lay the
Foundation of their Majesty on Fables, resembling true Misteries,
so to perswade the Multitude that they are somewhat Divine, and to
distinguish the Royal Race by a peculiarity even in the Universal
Law of being Born into the World. Of this Race thirteen Idolatrous
Kings succeeded one another in Tydore, down to Sultan Tydore Bongue,
the first that receiv'd the Mahometan Alcoran, tho' intermix'd with
Idolatry, which lasted above Eighty Years, and being confounded among
the Precepts of that abominable Sect, bred Divisions, and Distractions
among the People. Afterwards, when the Commander Brito arriv'd in that
Island, as we shall soon see, he found a Caciz, or Priest, taught them
the new Superstition, and that many oppos'd him, on account of the
old Fable of the Eggs, which the Persian Morabout could never Decry;
so great is the power of Error transmitted from our Fore-Fathers.

King Tydore Bongue's Successor, was his Son Cachil Boleyfe, no less
[A false Prophesie.] Supersticious than the Father, but in another
way. He pretending to the Spirit of Prophecy, gain'd such Reputation,
by the Experience and Foresight of his Riper Years, that he came to be
Honour'd by his Subjects as a Prophet; or by the least Credulous, as a
Person of singular Prudence, so that all Men gave Ear to him, as to an
Oracle. Puffed up with this Vanity, he pretended to Fore-tell future
Events; which when no particular Persons, or set Times are appointed,
is a safe way of Predicting, without Danger of being found False;
either because in process of Time something Accidentally happens,
that may be adapted to the Prophecy, or in regard, that is always
expected which will never come to pass. For this Reason, as in most
Countries there are some current Notions of future Expectations,
conceiv'd upon trivial Occasions, rather than any Observation of the
Stars; therefore Boleyfe us'd to tell those about him, That the time
would come, when Iron Men should arrive at Ternate, from the remotest
parts of the World, and settle in its Territory; by whose Power the
Glory, and Dominion of the Molucco Islands should be far extended.

In the Reign of King John the first, of Portugal, his Son, Prince
Henry, [First Discoveries.] having employ'd several Persons on
Discoveries, John Gonzales, and Tristan Vaz found the Island of Madera,
in the Year 1419, and others soon after those of the Azores, and Cabo
Verde, and ran along the Coast of Guinea and Africk. Afterwards,
in the Reigns of King Edward, and Alonso the V. those Discoveries
were continu'd, till under King John the II. they proceeded as far
as the Cape of Good Hope, and a Hundred Leagues beyond it, along
the Coast, call'd Rio del Infante. The honour of this Discovery is
due to that famous Seaman Bartholomew Diaz, if we may believe the
Manuscript Memoirs of Duarte Resende, for the Historian Barros. This
rais'd Emulation in the Spanish Nation, already engag'd in such
Voyages, as having Discover'd the Western Islands, call'd Antilles,
or Caribbee Islands. This Discovery occasion'd a Controversy about
the Right to them, Portugal pretending to, and Spain defending its
Possession. After much Contention, the Difference was adjusted by Ruy
de Sousa, and Don John his Son, and Arias de Almada, Commission'd by
Portugal, who in the Year 1404. agreed with the Spanish Embassador,
That, since this inferior Globe, consisting of Earth and Water,
answers to the Degrees into which the Celestial Sphere is divided,
it should be equally parted between the two Kings, by a Meridian Line
drawn through the North and South Poles, and compassing the Land and
Sea, so as to cut them into two halves. It was appointed, That the
Share to the Eastward should belong to the Crown of Portugal, and the
other to the Westward, to that of Castile; and that it should be so
mark'd down on the Sea Charts; the Line passing through a fixt Point
on the Earth, which was to be the Boundary of both Nations. This
was by mutual Consent settled 360 Leagues West from Cabo Verde,
and so the Line, or Meridian, fell upon the Country we call Brazil,
about the most Westerly part of the Mouth of the River Maranhao,
which disembogues there to the Northward. This Line cuts through that
Country, and to the Southward runs off beyond the River of Plate,
from whence the Spaniards begin to reckon their Degrees of Longitude
Westward, and the Portugueses Eastward, 180 belonging to each of them,
for as much as the whole Circumference of the Earth contains three
hundred and sixty Degrees.

[Vasco de Gama discovers India.] Vasco de Gama, employ'd by King
Emanuel of Portugal, to Discover and Conquer India, prosecuted this
Enterprize, look'd upon by Ptolomy, as impracticable; he travers'd
the main Ocean, within the Portuguese Division, where he Discover'd,
and since the Portuguese Commanders have Conquer'd so many Kingdoms,
Nations, and Islands, so distinct in Customs, Manners, Laws, Languages,
and Colours. They returning home admir'd what they had seen, and
lay'd it down in Maps, but stretching out the Longitude, that is the
Distance from West to East, beyond what it really was; thus Craftily
providing for the Controversy which might arise upon this Occasion,
as it soon happen'd, through the Falshood of the Sea Charts.

[Portugueses Pretentions to the Moluccos.] By virtue of this practice,
and by the Pope's subsequent Authorizing of it, the Portugueses
pretend that the Molucco Islands, and those of Banda, and Amboyna,
are within their Bounds, as they were adjudg'd, and settled by
experienc'd Sailers, calculating the Extent of that Meridian,
and they even stretch it 15 Degrees further. Resende complains,
That Magalhaens, whom the English call Magellan, magnify'd the
Opinion conceiv'd of the Eastern Seas, when in the Year 1519 he went
away Disgusted into Spain. Magellan grew up in the service of Queen
Ellenor, then serv'd King Emanuel, and went over into India with that
Alonso de Albuquerque, of whose Bravery, and Conduct, we have written
Histories, besides what Fame, and Tradition have deliver'd. This Man,
not satisfy'd with the first Conquests, sent Antony de Abreu, Francis
Serrano, and Ferdinand de Magalhaens from Malaca, with three Ships,
to Discover the Molucco Islands. All these three Commanders steer'd
several Courses. We shall soon speak of Magellan again. Antony de
Abreu arriv'd at Banda, and returning towards Malaca, richly Laden
with Spice of that Country, Serrano was parted from him in a Storm,
and Shipwrack'd on the Islands of Lucopino, signifying Islands of
Tortoises, so call'd from the Plenty and Bigness of those Creatures.

There the Tempest left the Portugueses, only their Lives and Arms
sav'd, [Serrano cast on the Islands of Lucopine.] for their Junck,
which is a sort of light Vessel, was Stav'd. The Lucopine Islands were
Horrid, by reason of their want of Water, and being Desert; for their
Rocks lying under Water, and the many Sea Robbers that frequent them,
and always keep Sentinels posted to discover any Sailing by, that they
may fall upon, and plunder them. Had not Hunger and Thirst threatned
the Portuguses with speedy Death, they had reason to expect it at
the Hands of those Pyrats; but that which had been the Destruction
of others, at this time prov'd their Safety. Those Miscreants had
observ'd the Shipwreck, and Rowing up in a Vessel call'd a Caracoa,
as it were to a certain Booty, drew near to those who had so narrowly
escap'd perishing in the Sea; but the Malaca Pilots, and Mariners
were not ignorant of their design. They acquainted their Captain
with the Danger, desiring him to take such Measures as might be
for his own, and their Safety. Serrano, like a Man of Valour and
Discretion, having view'd the Shore, conceal'd his Men in a hidden
Place. The Pyrates landed to pursue them; but as soon as ever they
were at some distance from the Shore, the Strangers rush'd out, and
possess'd themselves of the Caracoa. The Barbarians thus surpris'd,
reflecting on their Mismanagement, and perceiving they were lost Men,
gave over the thoughts of Robbing, and had recourse to Intreaties,
throwing down their Bows and Arrows, and begging they would not leave
[His Escape.] them in that Island, but rather take pity, and pardon
what they had done; and promising, if he would carry them off, to
conduct him to another place, where Strangers were well receiv'd, and
there was Trade. Serrano granted their Request, and admitted them,
and having repair'd the shatter'd Junck, and Embarking together,
they directed their Course to the Island of Amboyna, where they were
well receiv'd by the People of Rucutelo, who were ancient Enemies to
those of Veranula, a Neighboring City of Batochina, with whom those
of Rucutelo coming to a Battle, they obtain'd [Arrives at Amboyna.]
the Victory, through the Assistance of the New-comers. The Fame
of this Success flew over to the Molucco Islands, at the Time when
Boleyse Reign'd in Ternate, and Almanzor in Tydore, who were both
not long before Idolaters, and then Mahometans. These two were at
Variance about the Limits of their Dominions, and understanding that
the Portugueses were at Amboyna, each of them desiring to Strengthen
himself against his Enemy, sent Embassadors, and Ships, to invite,
and bring over to them those Forreign Soldiers; thinking it also
convenient upon other accounts, to enter into Alliance with those
People, whose great Actions were then so fresh in the Mouths of all
Men. Boleyse was quicker than Almanzor, and sent ten Ships for Serrano,
with a Thousand well Arm'd Soldiers for their Defence, the whole under
the Command of his Kinsman Cachil Coliba. The Tydore Embassadors
return'd from Rucutelo disappointed. It is but a short Cut between
Amboyna, and Ternate, and therefore Boylese's Ships soon return'd
with the Portugueses. That King went out attended by his Subjects, to
receive the new Guests; all of them concluding, That they went to see
the fulfilling of their so long expected Prophecy. Serrano Landed in
bright white Armour, and his Companions in the same manner. [Settles
at Ternate.] When the King saw them, he embrac'd every Man, with
a Countenance full of Pleasure and Admiration, shedding Tears, and
lifting up his Hands to Heaven, bless'd God, and gave hearty Thanks,
for that he had granted him to see that which had been Predicted so
many Years before. These, said he, my Friends, are the Warriers you
have so long wish'd for, on account of my Prophecy. Honour them,
and let us all vie in Entertaining them; since the Grandeur of our
Country depends on their Arms. The Portugueses, well pleas'd to be
thought worthy of a Prophecy, the Beleif whereof was a Politick
Invention, conducing to their Reputation, made no less Courteous
Returns, expressing their singular Affection. They settle Amity,
and Trade in the Moluccos; whence they spread it to the adjacent, and
remoter Islands, which it will be now requisite breifly to Describe,
for the better Understanding of this History.

[Archipelago describ'd.] The Eastern Archipelago, not to speak of
the Division of those Oriental Parts into Northern, and Southern,
Contains so many Islands, that the certain Number of them is not yet
known. Hence Modern Authors distribute it into five Divisions, being so
many Archipelagos, under the names of Molucco, Moro, Papuas, Celebes,
and Amboyna. The Name of the First, in their Language, is Moloc,
signifying, the Head, because it is the Chief of all about it. Others
will have to be Malucco, which, in Arabick, imports, the Kingdom,
as the Principal of them. It Contains five most Remarkable Islands,
all of them under the same Meridian, one in sight of another, their
whole Extent being 25 Leagues; the Equinoctial crossing them, so that
the most Northern of them has but half a Degree of Latitude that way,
and the most Southern, one Degree on the other side. Near to them, on
the East, is the Island Gilolo, by the Portugueses call'd Batochina de
Moro, and by the Moluccos, Alemaera. Among all the others lying about
them, call'd also Moluccos, as we say the Canaries, the Terceras, or
the Oreades, these are the most Remarkable, for their great Plenty
of Spice. The Names of them, beginning with the Northermost, are,
Ternate, Tydore, Motiel, Machian, and Bachian; by the ancient Heathens
call'd, Cape, Duco, Moutil, Mara, and Seque. This last, which is
Bachian, is divided into many Islands, seperated from one another by
little Channels, Navigable only in small Vessels; for which reason,
as also because it is under one Soveraign, it has but one Name, and
all the Molucco Islands are Subject to three Kings. They are divided
by small Arms of the Sea, and some Desert little Islands, as also by
their Antient Enmity. The Coast both near the Shore, and farther off
at Sea, full of Dangerous Shoals; among which there are some Inlets,
where the Ships Ride in Safety. The Soil of them all is generally Dry
and Spungy, sucking up all the Water, tho' it Rains never so much,
and in many Places the Brooks that run down from the Mountains do not
reach the Sea. According to that grave Historian John de Barros, these
Islands afford an ill Prospect, and are no way pleasant to behold;
because the Sun being always so near them, sometimes passing over
towards the Northern, and some times towards the Southern Solstice,
the natural Damp of the Earth fills them so full of Trees, and
Plants, that it thickens the Air, and hinders the Sight; for by
reason of the Earthly Vapours, the Trees are never naked of Leaves;
but before one falls another has sprung out; and the same is among
Herbs. Others affirm, they are Pleasant to look to, but not Healthy,
especially for Strangers, who are all subject to the Disease call'd
Berber, which is common in that Country. This Malady swells the Body,
and disables the Limbs, but is cur'd with Cloves, the Wine of the
Philippine Islands, drank with Ginger, and the use of a certain Herb,
known to the Natives; and the Dutch do it with the juyce of Lemmons,
a Remedy found by their own Apprehension, and Experience.

Providence has stor'd these Spice-Islands with Bananas, Coco-Nuts,
[Product of the Moluccos.] Oranges, Lemmons, Lignum-Aloes, Sanders,
Cinamon, Mace, Mastick-Trees, but above all, with abundance of Cloves,
and other Plants; all of them valuable for their Fruit, or delightful
for their Ornaments. They have neither Wheat nor Rice; but Nature gave
them Industry, and Matter to supply this Defect. They beat a sort
of Tree, like the Wild-Palm, with Mallets made of strong Canes; and
those dry Trunks, so batter'd, yield an extraordinary white Flower,
coming from the bruized Pith; which they mould up in square Pipkins,
and this is the Sagu, or Landan, so made into square Loaves, [Sagu.]
like the Castile Sope. This Plant is about Fifteen Foot high, and
from the Top of it sprout out some Branches, like those which produce
the Tamarinds. These bear a Fruit like the Cypress-Nuts, in which
there are certain fine Hairs, which if they touch a Man's Flesh,
burn it. From the tender Branches of the same Plant cut, flows the
Liquor which serves them for Drink, putting the Ends of the said
Branches so cut into narrow Mouth'd Vessels, which are fill'd in a
Night, and the Liquor so gather'd, is like Milk Whipped, and Frothy,
which they call Tuac. When Drank new, it is Sweet and very Fat'ning;
boil'd like new Wine it tastes like Wine, and after grows sharp as
Vinegar. The same Advantage they reap from two other Plants call'd
Nipo, and Coco; the last of them yields also Oyl, Boards, and Timber
to build Houses. They also Drink another pleasant Liquor, which
Nature has shut up in the Hollow of the Canes they call Bambooes,
so large that the Knots are a Yard a sunder. They abound in Flesh;
but the People are more affected to Fish; notwithstanding Hugo, the
Dutchman, says they want both. Providence afforded them no Mines,
either of Gold, or Silver; whether it was a Punishment, or Mercy we
do not decide. Neither have they found any, of other less precious
Metals; but not far from them is Lambuco, an Island abounding in
Iron and Steel; whence, and from the Mines of Sula and Butva, the
people of the Maluccos bring them, to make their Caampilanes, which
are sharp heavy Cymiters, and their Crises, being small Daggers. The
Portugueses and Dutch have now furnish'd those Islands with small
Fire-Arms, and Cannon of all sorts known among us.

Ternate is the Capital City, and Court of that King, near to which
a [A burning Mountain in Ternate.] dreadful burning Mountain
Flames out, about the Equinoxes, because at those Times the Winds
blow; which kindle that natural Fire, on the Matter that has fed
it so many Ages. The Top of the Mountain, which exhales it, is
cold, and not cover'd with Ashes, but with asort of light cloddy
Earth, little different from the Pomice-Stone burnt in our Fiery
Mountains. Descending thence to the Foot of the Hill, which stretches
out like a Piramid, down to the Plain; it is all uncooth, being thick
with Trees, whose Verdure is spar'd by the Flames, and the very Fire,
Waters and Moistens them with Brooks, which it draws together in the
Hollow of the Mountain, and forces it to Sweat, and pour out.

[People of Ternate.] The Natives Differ from one another, as it were
through a Miraculous Bounty of Nature; for it has made the Women Fair
and Beautiful, and the Men, of a darker Colour than a Quince; their
Hair lank, and many anoint it with sweet Oyls. Their Eyes are large,
the Eyebrows long, which, and their Eye-lashes, they colour Black. Of
Body they are Strong, much addicted to War, and sloathful for all other
Employments. They are long Liv'd; grow grey earlie; and are as Active
by Sea as by Land; Officious, and Courteous to Strangers; but when
they grow Familiar, Importunate, and Troublesome in their Requests;
in their Dealings, all bent upon Interest; Jealous, Fraudulent, and
False. They are Poor, and therefore Proud; and to name many Vices in
one, Ungrateful.

[Religion, Manners, Laws.] The Chineses possess'd themselves of these
Islands, when they subdu'd all those Eastern Parts; and after them the
Javeneses, and the Malayes, and lastly the Persians, and Arabs; which
last, together with their Trade, Introduc'd the Mahometan Superstition
among the Worship of their Gods; from whom some Families boasted they
were descended. Their Laws are Barbarous: They have no limited Number
of Wives. The King's chief Wife, call'd in their Language Putriz,
enables and gives the Right of Succession to which her Sons are
preferr'd, tho' younger than those by other Mothers. Theft is not
pardon'd, tho' never so inconsiderable; but Adultery easily. When
the Dawn appears, Officers appointed by Law for that purpose, beat a
sort of broad, flat Tabors about the Streets, to awake Marry'd People,
who they think deserves this Care from the Government, on account of
Procreation. Most Crimes are punish'd with Death; in other Respects
they Obey the Will, or Tyranny of the Conqueror.

[Their Habit.] The Men, on their Heads, wear Turkish Turbants of
several Colours, with abundance of Feathers on them. The King's ends
above like a Miter, and serves instead of a Crown. For their other Garb
they all wear Wastecoats, which they call Cheninas, and Blew, Crimson,
Green, and Purple Breeches. Of the same they make their Cloaks, or
Mantles, which are short, Soldier-like, thrown over, or knotted on
the Shoulder, after the Ancient Roman manner, known by the written
Descriptions, Statues, and other Monuments of those Times. The Women
are Proud of their Hair; sometimes they spread, and sometimes they plat
it, sticking abundance of Flowers among the Ribbons, which hold it
together; so that in their Dress, they are not encumber'd with loose
Viels, Plumes, or Feathers. All that variety adorns them without Art;
they wear Bracelets, Pendants, and Necklaces of Diamonds and Rubies,
and great Strings of Pearls, which are not forbid even the meanest,
no more than Silks, wherein the Women particularly are Clad after
the Persian and Turkish Fashion; and all this costly Attire is the
Product of the Neighbouring Lands and Seas. Both Men and Women in
their Habit show their natural Haughtiness.

[Language.] The variety of Languages among them is great, for
sometimes one Town does not understand the People of the next; the
Malaye Tongue is most us'd, as easiest to pronounce. This Diversity of
Languages shows, that those Islands were Peopled by several Nations. In
those Parts all Antiquity, and the Art of Navigation are ascrib'd to
the Chineses. Some affirm, That the People of the Molucco Islands
are Descended from the Jaos, who settled there being invited by
the Fragrancy of the Spice. They loaded their Vessels with Cloves,
till then unknown, and holding on that Trade, carry'd it to the
Gulphs of Arabia, and Persia. They Sail'd about all those Countries,
transporting Silks, and Porcelance, the Product, and Manufacture of
China. The Cloves were by the Persians, and Arabs transmitted to the
Greeks, and Romans. Some Roman Emperors had a design of Conquering
the East, till they should come to the Spicy Countries; so covetous
were they of that Commodity; and believing they all came from China,
call'd all those People Chineses. The Spaniards formerly brought them
among other Goods from the Red-Sea. The Kings of Egypt for some time
possess'd themselves of all the Spice which they Transmitted from
the [How Cloves were brought into Europe.] Hands of the Asiaticks
into Europe. This the Romans continu'd, when they reduc'd Egypt into
the Form of a Province. Long after, the Genoeses, Transferring the
Trade to Theodosia, now Caffa, handed them about to all Parts; and
there the Venetians, and other Trading Nations, had their Consuls,
and Factors. They afterwards were convey'd over the Caspian Sea and
Trabisond; but this Trade fell with the Eastern Empire; and then the
Turks carry'd them in Caravans of Camels, and Dromedaries to Berytus,
Aleppo, Damascus, and several Ports on the Mediterranean. The Sultans
of Egypt brought them back to the Red-Sea, and thence to Alexandria,
down the Nile. The Portugueses having Conquer'd the East-Indies, took
them from Egypt, and brought them in their Fleets by the Cape of Good
Hope, sinking and taking all Ships that attempted to carry any to Grand
Cayro. For that purpose they kept Squadrons on the Coasts of Arabia
and Persia, and at Cape Guardafu. By this means the Trade of Egypt was
surpress'd, and all the Spice brought on the Kings account to India,
and thence taking a prodigious compass, to Lisbon. He who is Master at
Sea will be possess'd of this Wealth; by which, and other Commodities,
we see that is made good, which some write Themistocles was wont to
say, That he has all things who has the Sea.

The Kings, Boleyfe, of Ternate, and Almanzor, of Tydore, contended
about Entertaining Serrano, and each of them courted him to build a
Fort in his Island. It is well worth Observation, To see how eagerly
these Kings sought after, and begg'd for that which they were soon
after to be averse to. They writ about it to the King of Portugal;
but Antony de Miranda coming to the Moluccos, besides a wooden Fort,
or House he built at Talangame, erected another at Machian, an Island
belonging to the two Kings, by which means he satisfy'd the Request of
both. Soon after Cachil Laudin, King of Bachian, made Application to
Don Tristan de Meneses, on the same account. Don Tristan was come to
the Moluccos to Load Spice, and with a design to carry away Francis
Serrano, and to induce Boleyfe to consent to it, he perswaded him,
it was requisite that Serrano should go to Portugal, to prevail upon
King Emanuel to order the Fort he desir'd, to be built upon Ternate,
and not elsewhere. Boleyfe approv'd of his design, and to that end,
sent Cachilato, as his Embassador, with Serrano. Don Tristan set out,
and his Ships being dispers'd in a Storm, was oblig'd to return to the
Moluccos, and to Winter in the Wooden House above mention'd; but as
soon as the Monson blew, he put to Sea again, and touching at Bachian
was inform'd, That they had kill'd some Portugueses, of Simon Correa's
Vessel in that Island. This troubled him, but he dissembled it, and
proceeding on his Voyage, return'd to Malaca, by the way of Amboyna.

[Brito at the Molucco's.] Antony de Brito, appointed by the Governour
of India to succeed Serrano in that Post, Sail'd from Cape Sincapura,
through the Streights of Sabam, with 300 Men, and some experienc'd
Commanders. He touch'd at Tuban, a City in the Island of Jaua, and
went over to another, call'd Agazim, a Mart in those Parts, opposite to
the Island Madura. Its nearness inviting him, he sent a Roving Vessel
thither to get some Information what Course he was to Steer. Seventeen
Men there were in the Vessel Landed on the Coast, and went up along the
side of a River, cover'd with beautiful Trees, whose Fruit deceiv'd the
Sailers; for they attracted with the pleasant sight, and unexpected
satisfaction, forgot to secure their Vessel. The Natives observing
the Opportunity, first took the Vessel, and then all the Men, whose
Ransom prov'd afterwards difficult, tho' the Lord of the City favour'd
it. Brito sail'd directly for the Moluccos, and touching at Bachian,
sent Simon de Abreu in all haste to burn a Village, and kill all the
Inhabitants, in Revenge for Simon Correa's Companions slain there;
that King Laudin might understand, they should not escape unpunish'd,
who wrong'd the Portuguese, and that since his Island was the first
that took up Arms [King of Ternate Dies.] against them, it should
also be the first that felt their Vengeance. He executed his severity
without any Loss, tho' that King did not forget the Obligation he
laid on him. Brito went on to Tydore, and was Inform'd by Almanzor
of the Disorders there were at Ternate, because Boleyfe was dead,
and it was suppos'd he had been Poyson'd. He being near his Death
order'd, That during the Minority of his eldest Son Cachil Bohat, or
Boyano, the Queen his Wife, who was Daughter to the King of Tydore,
should Govern; and that Cachil Daroes, Natural Son to the said Boleyfe,
should Act jointly with her. The Queen who was Crafty, suspecting that
her Father Almanzor might under that colour aim st some Advantage, to
the Detriment of her Son, call'd her Subjects together and told them,
That it was enough for her to take care of her Sons Education; and
therefore she laid the greatest stress of Government on Cachil Daroes.

The King, and the Governour Daroes, expected the Commander Antony
Brito, as the Kingdoms, and the young Kings Protector. They went out
to [A Fort Built at Ternate.] meet him in a Fleet of Carcoas, with
the Noise of that Barbarous Musick of Brass Basons, and Tabors. He
Landed, shewing State, and appearing worthy of that Applause; visited
the Queen, the King, and his Brothers; and after the Ceremony of
Condoling the Death of Boleyfe, ordering Affairs in Conjunction with
Daroes, he approv'd of that Form of Government, and upon all occasions
Defended his Province against that of Tydore. To do this with the
greatest Security, he pitch'd upon a proper spot of Ground, according
to the Rules of Fortification, which were not then very perfect,
no more than Military Discipline. The Foundation being dug, Brito,
in the presence of the King, and all the People, laid the first Stone
of the new Fort, with his own Hand. This happen'd on Midsummer Day,
and therefore he gave the Fort the Name of St. John Baptist; and tho'
it was built for the Defence of Ternate, yet in Brito's mind it was
Dedicated to the service of the Gospel, and its Ministers. He us'd
endeavours to send away the Caeiz he found there spreading of Mahomet's
false Doctrine, as an Obstacle to the True; but the War which is there
always settled and natural against Tydore, obstructed these Designs;
tho' at the same time the Troubles of those two Revengeful Nations
increas'd the Revenues of Portugal, by contributing of their Spice:
and the desire of Superiority brought them into Subjection. However,
in Portugal Brito had a Successor appointed him, and he was inform'd,
That the other was already sailing for the Moluccos; and there was need
enough of them both, and of doubling their Forces; because Spain still
insisted upon taking those Countries as its Right, and Brito began
to be hated, on account of his offering Violence to the Royal Family.

At the same time Magellan having Sail'd 600 Leagues towards Malaca,
[Magellan goes over to Spain.] was in certain Islands, whence he
corresponded with Serrano; who having thriv'd so well in Ternate,
with Boleyfe, sent his Friend word what Kindness, and Wealth he had
receiv'd from him; advising him to return to his Company. Magellan
consenting, resolv'd to go to the Moluccos; but in case his Services
were not Rewarded in Portugal, as he expected, he would take the way
directly for Ternate, under whose King Serrano grew so Rich in Nine
Years. He consider'd, that since the Moluccos were 600 Leagues East
from Malaca, which make 30 Degrees, little more or less, they were out
of the Portuguese Limits, according to the antient Sea Chart. Returning
to Portugal, he found no Favour, but thought himself wrong'd, and
resenting it, went away into Castile, carrying with him a Planisphere,
drawn by Peter Reynel; by which, and the Correspondence he had held
with Serrano, he perswaded the Emperor, Charles V. that the Molucco
Islands belong'd to him. It is reported, That he Confirm'd his Opinion
with Writings, and the Authority of Ruy Faleyro, a Portuguese Judiciary
Astrologer, and much more with Serrano's.

Hereupon the Emperor gave him the Command of a Squadron, with which
he sail'd from Sanlucar, on the 21st. of September, 1519. He stay'd
[Sets out on his Discovery.] four days at the Canaries, where a
Caravel overtook him, with private Intelligence, that his Captains
went with a Design not to Obey him particularly John Cartagena,
who had the same Commission as Magellan. He bravely seem'd to take
no notice, and sailing away with a fair Wind, being pass'd Rio de
Janeyro, in the Province of Santa Cruz, commonly call'd Brazil,
the Sea growing very cold, and much more the River of Plate, which
is in 35 Degrees of South Latitude, the Captains question'd him
about the Voyage, since they could nor find the Cape, or Streight,
they went in search of. He answer'd, as to Men that were entirely
Subordinate to his Direction and Authority, That they must go on,
for he knew what he was about, and the Coasts of Norway and Ireland
were in a greater Latitude, and yet Ships sailed along them. These
Contests lasted almost all the Voyage, and increas'd with the cold and
dreadful Winds, and the hideous sight of the Mountains of Snow and Ice,
grown old, which they met in the Latitude of 52 and 53 Degrees. They
magnify'd these Difficulties, alledging, That it requir'd six, or
seven Months to come from Castile, cross the Line, and run all along
the Coast of Brazil, through such diversity of Climates, in each of
which the Weather vary'd. That this was throwing away Men and Ships,
which were more valuable than all the Cloves in the Molucco Islands.

The Astrologer, Ruy Faleyro, being Distracted, was left in the
Mad-House [He discovers the Streight of his Name.] at Sevil;
and in his Place went Andrew de San Martin, to whom Magellan gave
Ear, as to what he said of the Weather; but not in other Cases,
as some lay to his Charge, and with such Moderation and Integrity,
as becomes Christian Piety. Nor is it to be believ'd, That Magellan
should consult such a Deceitful a Science as Judiciary Astrology,
upon such difficult Points, or should prefer it before Astronomy,
amidst such dreadful Dangers. The Hardships became intollerable;
and Discord so far prevail'd with the Captains, John de Cartagena,
Gaspar Quesada, and Lewis de Mendoza, that they resolved either to
Kill, or Secure Magellan. This Conspiracy coming to his Ears, as he
lay at the Mouth of the River of St. Julian, having contriv'd what was
to be done, as John de Barros writes, he caus'd Lewis de Mendoza to be
Stab'd, which was done by Gonzalo de Espinosa. Next Gaspar de Quesada
was Quarter'd Alive; and a Servant of his, who was concern'd, had his
Pardon. Cartagena he condemned to a lingering Death, leaving him in
that Desert Country, with a Clergy Man, guilty of the same Crime, which
was High Treason against their King. So say the Portuguese Histories;
but the Spanish inform us, That they were privately proceeded against,
and the Judgment was Read to them. This done he made some Speeches
to Justify the Fact, and Comfort his Companions. Cartagena, and the
Clergy-Man, who were left with some Provisions, got away a few days
after, in one of the Ships of the same Squadron, which return'd to
Spain. Magellan overcoming incredible Difficulties, found the Streight,
and Passage, which makes the Communication between the two Seas, and
preserves his Name to this Day. He there took Giants above fifteen
Spans high, who wanting raw Flesh, which they us'd to feed on, soon
Dy'd; then he passed the Streight successfully. But tho' he got under
the Equinoctial, either by reason of the Currents, or the Faultiness
of the Sea Charts, he Sail'd round about, and almost in sight of the
Molucco Islands, yet could never come at them. He Touch'd at others,
where he was oblig'd to Fight; and went on to those of Zebu, or the
Manilas. At this same time his Friend Serrano was sailing for India,
and tho' it happen'd in several Places, yet they both Dy'd on the
same Day, and much after the same Manner.

It would be superfluous to dilate upon the Story of Magellan, his
tedious Navigation, and the many Difficulties he met with, before and
after he pass'd through his Streight into the Pacifick, or South-Sea;
his Arrival at the Island of Zebu, and perswading the Idolatrous
King to embrace the Christian Faith, and the Battles he fought on
his account, with his Enemies; for besides that these things are
Related by very good Authors who Treat of the Discovery of the Molucco
Islands, which was the main Object of his desperate Undertaking, we
must be brief in repeating them, to show how eager several Princes,
and Nations were for these Islands, and the Notion they had of what
great Consequence they would be to them.

The King of Zebu was Baptiz'd, rather to make his Advantage of the
Spanish Arms, than out of any Zeal, or that he knew the Faith he
Embrac'd. He took the Name of Ferdinand in Baptism, to flatter his
Godfather, who [He is Murder'd with others.] was Ferdinand Magalhaens,
himself. After obtaining several Victories by his Assistance, thinking
he could shake off the second Yoke he expected those Strangers might
lay on him, he turn'd against them. He contriv'd an Entertainment,
in Honour of Magellan and Thirty five Spaniards being at it, he
fell upon them at a time appointed, with a Multitude of Barbarians,
and confounding the Feast, murder'd his Guests, who handled their
Arms to defend themselves, which only serv'd to render their Deaths
more Honourable. The rest of the Spaniards, who escap'd because
they were at Sea, for their better Government under that Misfortune,
presently chose Barbosa, a Kinsman of Magalhaens, for their General,
and Lewis Alfonso, a Portuguese to be Captain of the Ship, call'd the
Victory. The perfidious King, thinking to conceal his Treachery and
Apostacy, as if it were possible to keep it secret, sent to invite
Barbosa, saying he would deliver him the Jewel he had promis'd for the
King of Spain. John Serrano, thinking it a Rashness, to trust a Man
again, whose Hands were still Bloody with the late Execution, disswaded
Barbosa from accepting of the Invitation; but was not regarded. Barbosa
went with the other Guests, and Serrano himself, who, to show it was
not Fear that mov'd him to give such Advice, was the first that got
into the Boat. They were conducted into a Wood of Palm-Trees, where
the King expected them, with a small Retinue, the Tables being spread
in the Shade, amidst the Musick of Bag-Pipes. When they were seated,
and began to Eat, a great number of Archers that lay in Ambush,
rush'd out, and shot our Men. They saved Serrano, whom they lov'd,
not out of Kindness, for they show'd him bound to those that were at
Sea, demanding for his Ransom, two Brass Guns, and then he told them,
the Slaughter that had been made. Our Men, not trusting to them, any
longer, set Sail, and did not only see the Indians carry Serrano back
to their Town, but soon after heard mighty Shouts in it; and it was
afterwards known that they gave them when they killed Serrano, and
ran to throw down a great Cross, set up before the New-Church, which
they could not perform. The Spaniards wanting Men, burnt the Ships,
call'd the Conception, and chose John Caravallo for their General,
and Gonzalo Gomez de Espinosa, Captain of the Ship the Victory. They
came to Borneo, on the Coast whereof they found those Peoples Fleet
of Carcoas, Painted, and the Prows of them like Serpents Heads gilt.

The Soldiers appear'd well Arm'd, who having spy'd our Ship, acquainted
[Soldiers of Borneo, and Reception of Spaniards.] their King with
it. He order'd 2000 of his Guard to go out, and receive them, before
they reach'd the City. These Men came brandishing their Bows and
poison'd Arrows, Trunks, Cymitars, and Sheilds, and wore Breast-plates
made of Tortois Shells, and encompass'd an Arm'd Elephant, on whose
Back there was a wooden Castle. When the Spaniards came up the
Elephant stoop'd down, and six arm'd Men coming out of the Castle,
put Gonzalo Gomez de Espinosa, who was then General, into it. Thus
attended, he went to Visit the King, in whose Presence his Secretary
spoke to him through a Trunk, and Espinosa gave him an Account of the
King of Zebu's Perfidiousness. All condol'd the Accident, and our Men
taking Leave Sail'd away for the Molucco Islands, being reliev'd with
what they wanted, and furnish'd with able Pilots.

Not far from Borneo, they met 150 Sail, whereof they took two Junks,
[Spaniards at Tydore.] in which they found an Hundred Men, five Women,
a Son of the King of Luzon, and an Infant two Months Old. This they
thought would be a sufficient Ransom to recover their Companions; so
they let go the Prince upon his Parole, he promising to restore them
the Captive Spaniards. They had some Storms; but arriv'd at Tydore,
on the 8th of November 1521. When Almanzor heard the salute of the
Canon, he sent to enquire what People they were, and presently after
he came to our Ships in a little Boat. His Shirt appear'd woven with
Gold and Silk, a white Cloth which trail'd being girt over it. About
his Head a fine Veil of several Colours, made like a Persian Miter:
Being Aboard the Commodore, the Relations of that Voyage say, he
stopp'd his Nose with his Fingers, either at the Smell of our Meat,
or of the Ship. Mahometanism was newly come into his Island, and
most of his Subjects, especially those Inhabiting the Mountains,
ador'd Idols. He bid our Men wellcome, gave them good Words, and
afterwards was as kind in his Actions; and being inform'd of their
past Sufferings, gave them leave to load Cloves. They presented him
with a Chair of Crimson Velvet, a Robe of Yellow Velvet, a great
Loose Coat of false Cloth of Gold, a piece of Yellow Damask, four
Yards of Scarlet Cloth; Handkercheifs, and Towles, wrought with Silk,
and Gold; Drinking-Glasses, Glass Beads, Looking-Glasses, Knives,
Scizers, and Combs. They gave his Son another parcel of Gifts, and
a Cap, and did the like by his Cachiles and Sangiacks. When they
ask'd the Kings leave in the Emperors Name to Trade, he granted it,
adding they should kill any that offer'd to hinder them. He seriously
view'd his Majesty's Picture and Arms on the Standard, and desired
to see our Coin. And pretending to be an Astrologer, or Soothsayer,
or as others say, having Dreamt, or Guess'd it, or being told it by
Chinese Priests, he said, He knew the Christians were to come to his
Lands for Spice; and desired that they would not leave him. [Ally with
that King.] They treated about an Alliance, and when they were agreed,
two Tydores brought something in their Hands to the Ships, which they
afterwards understood was the Alcoran, tho' at first they did not,
because cover'd with Silks, and Strings. Almanzor lay'd his Hands
on it, and then on his Head, and Breast; and this was the Ceremony
of his Swearing Friendship, and Fealty to the Crown of Castile, and
that he would allow them Cloves, and all Commerce for ever. Then the
General Espinosa, in the Emperor's Name, before an Image of the blessed
Virgin, swore to protect them both in Peace and War, and presented
King Almanzor with Thirty Indians he had taken Prisoners. Soon after,
as some Authors affirm, Corala, Prince of Ternate, Nephew to Almanzor,
came to Tydore to swear Fealty in like manner, as did Luzuf, King
of Gilolo, of whom it is Written, That he had Six Hundred Sons, and
that Almanzor had Two Hundred Wives. These Kings Writ to the Emperor;
ratifying their Fealty, and Sebastian del Cano sail'd away in the
Ship, the Victory, by the way the Portugueses use, with the Letters
and Instruments; the General Espinosa returning towards Panama, for
Castilla del Oro on the Continent of America, to pass thence to Spain.

At this time the new Governor, Don Garcia Henriquez, was under Sail,
to succeed Antony Brito, and being come to Banda, waited for the Monson
to carry him to Ternate. Monson is the Name by which the Portuguese
[Monson, what it is.] call the Wind, which blows six Months to carry
them to India, and then six Months again to bring them back. There he
furnished himself with all Necessaries for the Fort built by Brito. He
had need so to do, for he received Advice, That Spanish Ships were
sailing thro' the Bays, and openest Parts of the Archipelago. He
sent to discover them, by the Industry of his Soldiers, and being
receiv'd at Ternate, view'd the Fort, and observ'd the posture of
the Government. He proposed a Peace with Cachil Almanzor, King of
Tydore. We shall have frequent Occasion to repeat these Words Cachil
and Sangiack. Cachil is perhaps deriv'd from Katil, which in Arabick
[Cachil and Sangiack, their significations.] is the same as among us,
a Valiant Soldier. In the Molucco Islands they Honour their Nobility
with this Title, which is something more than Don in Spain. The Title
of Sangiack, which answers to that of Duke, or Earl, might come
from Senchaq; which in the Turkish Language, imports a Commander:
To conclude this Peace, he thought it convenient to secure the Royal
Family; which he accordingly executed, and though he colour'd it with
fair Pretexts, they plainly perceived this was an Introduction towards
Oppressing them, and show'd a mistrust. We may safely affirm, This was
the first Distaste which, as being a notorious Wrong, [Portugueses,
why hated.] disturb'd that Nation, and from that time they grew Cold,
and Jealous, thinking themselves oblig'd to seek Revenge; and this
Action was the occasion of all the ensuing Slaughters, as we often
see a great Fire rise from one small Spark.

Cachil Daroes endeavour'd to obstruct this Peace, as Tutor, and
Governor, fearing the Trade of Cloves would be transferr'd to Tydore,
to the Destruction of the Infant King's Dominions. But notwithstanding
this Opposition, the Peace was concluded, upon certain Conditions, as,
That the King of Tydore should deliver a Ship he had taken, the Canon,
and some [More of their Outrages.] runaway Portuguese. Almanzor,
who stood in need of a Peace, and the Friendship of the Portuguese,
to gain the Affection of Cachil Daroes, propos'd to Marry him to
one of his Daughters. Don Garcia believing that this Union among
them would produce that of their Forces, and less Submission to
the Portuguese's Dominion, to obstruct this dangerous Alliance,
sent to the King of Tydore to borrow the Canon. That King excus'd
himself, alledging, that he had lent it a few days before, to the
King of Bachian. Cachil Daroes complying with him, agreed to all the
Articles. Don Garcia being dissatisfy'd, waited an opportunity to
break all that Contrivance, and be Reveng'd. Almanzor fell Sick, and
desir'd Don Garcia to send him a Physician; who sent an Apothecary,
and he either not understanding Physick, or, as was believ'd, by order
of Don Garcia, kill'd the Patient. Manifest tokens of Poyson afterwards
appear'd. The Funeral was order'd, and at the same time the Commander,
Don Garcia, appear'd in the Morning, in a parcel of Carcoas, before
Tydore. He sent Baldaya, the Clerk of the Fort, to demand the Canon,
threatning War, in case of denial. The Regents excusing themselves at
that time, with just Reasons, and particularly the Funeral Solemnity,
when they were in the Height of the Ceremony of Burying their King,
they heard the Shouts of Don Garcia's Men giving the Assault. The
Portuguese enter'd the City, firing the Houses, plundering and killing,
which oblig'd the Tydores to abandon their King's Body, and fly to
the Mountains. During their Absence, Don Garcia seized the Canon, and
carry'd it away to Ternate. Those who had fled return'd, with some
Apprehension, and found the City ruin'd hideous, and almost reduc'd
to Ashes; but recovering from their Fright; they proclaim'd Cachil
Raxamira, the Son of Almanzor, King. They committed the Education
of him to Cachil Rade, his Kinsman, the War being declared between
Ternate and the New King of Tydore, who was seasonably supported by
the Spaniards that came to his Country.

[Spanish Ship first round the World.] The Ship Victory returning into
Spain, with the Letters from the King of the Molucco Islands, which
the Emperor receiv'd, he was more fully convinc'd, that these Islands
were within his Limits. Their Wealth, and his Right to them were so
lively represented to him, that he order'd another Squadron of four
Ships, two Galloons, and an Advice Boat to be made ready at Corunna,
to be Commanded by the Commendary Fray Garcia de Loaysa, a Gentleman
of Biscay, and under him, as Vice-Admiral, Sebastian del Cano, and
the Captains Don Rodrigo de Acunna, James de Vera, &c. They Sail'd on
the Eve of St. James the Apostle, 1525, touch'd at Gomera, and running
along the Coast of Guinea, could not make Cape St. Augustine for want
of Wind. By reason of this Calm, all agreeing to it, he alter'd his
Course to the Cape of Good Hope. A Portuguese Ship guided them to

[Another Squadron passes Magellans Streights.] the Island of
St. Matthew, which is Desert, and full of lofty Orange Trees, where
they saw Hens, the Track of wild Boars, and some Portuguese Words
carv'd on Trees, which shew'd they had pass'd that way. The Ships
leaving them, they pass'd Cape St. Augustine, making for the Streights
of Magellan. In this Course they endur'd Storms, and Err'd in their
Accounts. Sebastian del Cano struck on a Shoal, and was reliev'd. The
Galloons and Advice Boat made New Spain. The Admiral, by the Advice
of Cano, pass'd the Equinoctial, upon information, That in 12 Degrees
of South Latitude, he would find certain Islands that were rich in
Gold and Silver. All the Men sickn'd, the Admiral, and Cano dy'd,
with some others. The remains of the Squadron choosing Toribio de
Salazar for their Commander, return'd under the Line; but he dy'd at
the Islands de las Velas, now call'd Ladrones, or of Thieves. After
some Strife, Martin Iniguez, and Ferdinand de Bustamante succeeded him,
and agree'd to Command by turns. Thus divided they came in sight of
Mindanao, and thence to the Molucco Islands, took in some Refreshment
at Cope, a Town of the Island Moratay, whence they went on to Camafo,
of Morotoja, whose Sangiack is Subject to the King of Tydore.

[War betwixt Spaniards and Portugueses.] They proceeded through
the Gulph of Camafo, where they were Inform'd by the Ship of Don
George de Meneses, who had been forc'd thither by the Currents, that
the Portugueses held the Fort of Ternate, and Don Garcia made War
on Tydore. Iniguez, and Bustamante offer'd them the Assistance of
Spain, by which, coming so opportunely, they gain'd the Affections
of them all, and furnished themselves with Necessaries. Don Garcia
being already provided against the new Enemy, gather'd some Carcoas,
and tho' he could not perswade Daroes, the Tutor, to go along with
him, oppos'd the Spaniards. First the Portuguese sent an Admonition,
wherein he offer'd them Peace, and Entertainment, as Subjects to the
Emperor, who was so near Ally'd to the King of Portugal; protesting,
That the Molucco Islands were within his Limits. This avail'd
nothing, and Daroes Embarking in 12 Carcoas, with Emanuel Falcao,
sent that Protestation in Writing, and in case it was Rejected, to
declare War. The Spanish Commander receiv'd the Lawyer that was to
make the Protestation, with much Civility [Portuguese and Spanish
War.] and Respect, and answer'd, That the Molucco Islands belong'd
to the Crown of Castile, and therefore he, in the Emperors Name,
required Don Garcia not to break the Peace establish'd between their
Kings. After all they were oblig'd to have recourse to Arms. Iniguez
Landed on Tydore, strengthen'd the Works, and furnish'd them with
Canon. The Portuguese follow'd, and both sides Firing, there was a
great Slaughter; but those of Ternate retir'd so disorderly, that
the Tydores remain'd Victors. However neither the Protestations, nor
the War ceas'd, the Spaniards urging Magellan's Discovery, and the
Portuguese, Serrano's, and Brito's. The Tydores and Spaniards took some
Carcoas belonging to Gilolo, in which they kill'd a Portuguese, and
some Ternates, as also a Champan Laden with Provisions for Talangame.

In the Philippine Islands they give the Name of Carcoas to a sort of
[Carcoas, what sort of Vessels, and others.] Vessels that use Oars,
open, and bigger than our Barks, and are Steer'd by two Rudders, the
one ahead, and the other astern. The Ternates call'd them Janguas,
which differ from the Carcoas only in having two Half-Moons of Wood,
Painted, or Guilt, rising above the Keel at the Head and Poop. About
100 Men Row in each of them, to the sound of a Tabor, and a Bell. They
carry twenty Soldiers, and six Musketiers. The rest are employ'd
about four or five little Brass Guns. Both the Men that Row, and the
Soldiers are Arm'd with Campilanes, that is Cymiters, and Shields,
and abundance of Calabays, and Sagus, being long Canes burnt in the
Fire, to harden them; which they throw, without tacking, as the Moors
do their Darts. Their way of Fighting is to come within Gun-shot,
and as soon as they have Fir'd, both sides fly with all speed, till
they have Loaded again, and then return to the same Post. They set
three Men to each Gun, the one Levels, the other Charges, and the
third Fires it. This is the way among the Islanders; for when they
have to do with Europeans, our Example has Improv'd them in the Art
of War. But in their Carcoas they are always expos'd to be kill'd by
our Cannon, because they have no Fights to cover them; and the same
is in the Champanes, which differ but little from the others.

The Victory we have spoken of Encourag'd the Tydores, and with the
Assistance of the Spaniards, they Arm'd, and falling upon Gaca, a
Town of Ternate, Plunder'd and Burnt it; but at their Return, they
met with Martin Correa, whom they Fought, plying their Carcoas, the
Success remaining doubtful. Whilst this War was at the hottest, Don
George de Meneses [Don George de Meneses at Ternate.] came from the
Papuas to Ternate, to whom Don Garcia presently resign'd the Post, tho'
the Hostilities continu'd, with Burning and Slaughter on both sides,
which it was expected would be greater when the Portuguese Succours
came from Malaca, and the Castilian from Spain. The new Portuguese
Commander in Chief, and Martin Inniguez came to a Conference, and
with much Courtesy, and desire of Peace, concluded a Truce, which
lasted not long, tho' not on account of the main cause.

There were many Battles between the Spanish and Portuguese Nations,
from Gilolo and other adjacent Islands, about the Possession of the
Moluccos, and they were under several Commanders, the Event whereof
we shall see in its Place. Therefore, and because others have Treated
of them Copeously, they shall be now pass'd by, that we may return
to the Actions of those Kings, which ought to be distinctly deliver'd
now at the Beginning, for the better Understanding of the Causes why
they came to be Lost.

[King of Tydore makes Peace.] The King of Tydore was less Supported
by Spain than he had been before, and was therefore oblig'd to
sue for Peace, laying some Burden of Tribute, on his own Revenue
proceeding from the Cloves. He also promis'd never to admit of any
Spanish Succours; besides some other Conditions, which put an end to
the Wars for a time.

We have already observ'd, That Cachil Boleyfe, King of Ternate,
left three lawful Sons, viz. Cachil Bayano, Cachil Dayalo, and
Cachil Tabarija. The Eldest of them was not above six Years of
Age; besides whom there [Daroes, and the Queen govern Ternate.]
were seven Bastards, the Eldest of them, Cachil Daroes, was Governor
of the Kingdom, in Conjunction with the Queen. When Brito, in the Year
1521, Built the Fort, to secure the Subjection of the Island, tho' he
had another Pretence for it, he took the Infant King, and the Queen
his Mother, into it. She generously resenting this Violence, as not
able to endure, that they should oppose the course of her Government,
which she manag'd, together with her Step-Son, loudly Complain'd, and
Threatned, as a Queen, and as a Mother. She wanted no Conveniencies
for the Education of the Children; but there being Wrong disguiz'd
among all that seeming Kindness, neither her Family, nor the Nurse,
nor the Perswasions of Great Persons, could appease her Anger. The
Natives observ'd the Difference of the Portuguese Domination, and
that since their building of that Fort, they us'd intolerable Rigor,
and consequently began to grow cold in their Affection, [Portuguese
Insolent.] and to slacken in their Respect; especially when they
perceiv'd that Brito's Successor continu'd to keep the Royal Family
under Oppression. The young King was bred up in the Fort, till he
was of Age to enter upon the Government of his Kingdom; and being
18 years old, soon dy'd, not without the usual suspition of Poison,
but it was affirm'd to be given by private order of Cachil Daroes. O
the wonderful Effects of the Desire of Rule!

Sultan Bayano being Dead, order was taken that the People should
immediatly Swear Cachil Dayalo; but Don George found also means to
get him into the Fort; the Mother demanding him, as fearing his Death,
by the example of the Elder. Don George condescended, not so much in
compliance [They Insult the Natives.] to her Fears, as to oblige
Cachil Daroes, with whose Government he was well-satisfy'd; and it
was he that had interven'd in, and advis'd that way of Breeding the
Princes. Soon after there happen'd an Accident, which broke off their
good Intelligence; for Daroes grew jealous of the Commander in chiefs
Behaviour, observing him much to favour Cachil Bayaco, a Man of note,
whose Friendship he was suspicious of, and he with reason fear'd,
that the Commander would in time value Bayaco more than him. This
well grounded Fear grew up in his Breast, till it turn'd to down
right Hatred, and he contriv'd to kill Don George. The Design could
not be carry'd on so private, as to be conceal'd from him, and he
to disappoint it, retir'd into the Fort. Daroes puffed up with the
Applause of the People, sent immediatly to require him to deliver up
Bayaco, to try him upon some Complaints he had against him, being his
Judge, as Governour, and oblig'd to do Justice. Don George was desirous
to save Cachil Bayaco, and to that purpose assembled the Alcayde, and
other Officers. Some said he ought to deliver him, others advis'd to
appease Daroes by fair means. Bayaco, who hated him so mortally, that
he woul'd chuse any sort of Death, rather than fall into his Hands,
being lock'd up in a Room of the Fort, understood that his Case was
doubtful, for they Consulted without any great Privacy. This made
him Resolve what to do, and going to a high Window, he threw himself
out with such Fury, that he beat himself to Pieces. Don George was
troubl'd at the Accident, and thought himself oblig'd to Revenge it;
which he began upon finding a Sow kill'd, either to spight him, or
because the Neighbours were Mahometans, and had done it as she graz'd,
or went about the Courts of the Fort. This was a rediculous Occasion,
but of Moment enough among those People; Enquiry was made who had
kill'd her, and it appear'd, or Don George would have it, that the
Fault belong'd to Cachil Baydua, a near Kinsman to Cachil Daroes,
very Learned, and Zealous in the Law of Mahomet, as also a Caciz,
or Priest, and of great Authority in the Kingdom. He was seiz'd by
Don George, and carry'd into the Fort, without regard to the publick
Peace. Daroes, in a great Consternation, went with the chief Men of the
Kingdom, to desire he would release that Sacred Person. Whilst they
were discoursing this Point, Peter Fernandez, a mean Fellow, Servant
to the Commander in Chief, by his Masters Order, or of his own Accord,
in the Presence of them all, went up to Cachil Baydua, and rubb'd
his Mouth, [Rudeness.] and Face with a fat Collop of the same Sow,
neither the Opposition he made, nor his Complaints to God, and the
Commander in Chief availing him; but on the contrary, the Portugueses
laugh'd out aloud, approving the Action by their Applause. Daroes on
his part, cast himself on the Ground, and Weeping, prevail'd to have
Baydua restor'd to him, whom, Don George being satisfy'd, or appeas'd,
and taking Security, sent to his House. Daroes attended him, and all
the Prime Men; and Baydua, by Reason it is an Abomination among them to
touch Swines-Flesh, presently used their Purifications; and the more
to express his Concern, voluntarily left the Island for some Years,
and travel'd about all the others in the Neighbourhood, preaching,
and magnifying the Affront offer'd to one of Mahomets Priests, thus
stirring up the Natives, and perswading them to Unite in Defence of
their Honour.

This Accident, which as a Disgrace to their Religion, exasperated
the People, was seconded by another much worse, which quite render'd
the Portugueses Odious. The contrary Winds kept back the Trading
Galeon, [Portugueses become odious for Rapine, &c.] that us'd to
carry the Soldiers Pay, and their Wants increasing, they began to
seek Relief, breaking into the Natives Shops, and Store-Houses,
and taking away their Provisions, without Paying for them. Daroes,
offended at it, order'd, That no Provisions should be brought into
the City to sell, and that the Shops which dealt in them, should be
shut up. This was accordingly done, and reduc'd those in the Fort
to such Distress, that the Soldiers mutinying, rail'd at their own
Commander, and the Governour of India, demanding Relief with their
Arms in their Hands. Don George being hard press'd, and blaming
the Avarice of his Country Men, sent some Carcoas with Soldiers,
under the Command of Gomez Ariaz, to barter Goods in the adjacent
Islands for Provisions. They Landed on an Island near by, where,
being desperate with Hunger, they Plunder'd the Town of Tabona,
the Inhabitants whereof, no longer able to endure such Affronts, and
Robberies, running to Arms, fell upon them, and kill'd the greatest
Number, and most of the rest being Wounded, were Disarm'd. They
embark'd for Ternate, where their Wounds and Nakedness spoke what had
befallen them, as much as their Words. Don George, who, besides his
being naturally Passionate, was now quite enrag'd, threatned Daroes,
That if he did not deliver up the principal Actors in this Mischief,
he would seek his Revenge other ways. He was obey'd, and tho' Cachil
Daroes knew that all the Fault belong'd to the Portugueses, yet he
deliver'd up the Governor of Tabona, and two other Chief Men of the
Place, to Don George, thinking he would be satisfy'd with keeping them
Prisoners for [Barbarous Cruelty.] some Days. As soon as they were
brought before him, he order'd the Hands of the two to be cut off,
and that they should be then set at liberty. The Governors Punishment
was answerable to the Cruelty of him that was his Judge; they ty'd
his Hands behind his Back, and exposing him on the Shore, set two
fierce Woolf-Dogs upon him, he having no way to withstand their Fury,
made several vain attempts to slip aside from them, and endeavour'd to
defend himself with what little Power was left him in those Limbs that
were not Bound. The Multitude with Horror beheld the Spectacle, touch'd
with Compassion, and admiring the Inhumanity of the Punishment. The
wretched Man attempted to Fly, but perceiving that the arm'd Soldiers,
had shut up every way, on the Land side, he cast himself into the
Sea, the only Refuge accidentally left him, to seek some uncertain
Hope of Safety. However the Dogs being already blooded, left him not;
but barking and howling, bit and tore him, tho' he still swam with his
Legs. At last, being desperate, and almost in the last Agony, he took a
horrid Resolution and fell upon those fierce Creatures with his Teeth;
such was the Effect of Pain and Despair. Thus the unhappy Man took
hold of one of the Dogs by the Ear, and holding fast, sunk with him to
the Bottom. The like Barbarity had never before been seen in any of
those Countries to which the Portugueses Traded; and by it they lost
the Reputation they had before gain'd, to their great Applause, that
they inflicted Punishments, as it were by Compulsion, and Oblig'd to
it, and that with Mildness, and Compassion, to shew their Generosity.

[Conspiracy to destroy the Portugueses.] This Action brought them
into general Hatred, and all the People of the Molucco Islands being
exited by Cachil Daroes, contriv'd to kill Don George, with all
the Portugueses and Spaniards, and so deliver themselves from their
Yoke. Daroes undertook to Unite all the Kings of those Islands in a
League against the Christians; sent away trusty Persons to stir up
the Confederates; and particularly to Cachil Catabruno, Governor of
Gilolo, during that Kings Minority, advising him, at a Time appointed,
to rise in Arms against the Spaniards inhabiting his Dominions, and
then to kill the Infant King, and Usurp the Crown; for the compassing
whereof he promis'd his Assistance, for they should both make that
their common Cause, because he design'd the same Slaughter upon the
Portugueses, and upon the Infant King Sultan Dayalo, whom he would
Succeed in the Throne, and never submit to any Spanish Tyranny. At this
time the Voice of the Gospel resounded in the Ears of the Barbarous
Nations of the Archipelago, by the Preaching of the Religious Men
of the Orders of St. Augustin, St. Dominick, and St. Francis, and of
Father Francis Naverius, a Jesuit, and his Companions; Churches were
built, and therefore God, who was taught by them, would not suffer
the Ministers of the Gospel to be extirpated. Don George was inform'd
of the Conspiracy, and the Preparations that were making to put it in
Execution, which he kept to himself. Daroes, the better to disemble it,
never absented himself, but resorted to the Fort, and paid Visits to
the Governour; sometimes when sent for by him, and others, of his own
Accord. He sent one Day desiring he would come to him, and bring Cachil
Tamarano, Admiral of the Island, and Cachil Boio, the chief Justice
of the Kingdom, to treat about some important Affairs. Cachil Daroes
knowing nothing of Don George's Design, took those two Cachils with
him, and went away to the Fort. Don George receiv'd them courteously,
[Daroes and others put to Death.] and with a chearful Countenance; but
being come into a Room where all Things were prepar'd for the Purpose,
they were seiz'd and put to the Rack, on which they discover'd the
Conspiracy. Immediately he pass'd Sentence upon them in Form, and at
the same time caus'd a Scaffold to be erected, adjoyning to the Fort,
on the Outside, where the People were already gather'd in a Crowd. Then
Cachil Daroes being brought out, and plac'd high on the Scaffold, a
Cryer proclaim'd his Crimes, and the Penalty he was condemn'd to. His
Head was cut off, and his Companions put to a less honourable Death;
but what that was, no History or Relations inform us.

The Queen and all the Natives, were so terrify'd by this Action,
that [Natives fly, and streighten the Portugueses.] they fled out
of the City, to a craggy strong Mountain at the Town of Toruto:
Thence the Queen sent to demand her Son, whom the Governour kept as
a Prisoner; but he not answering her Letter, she was so offended at,
and jealous of his Silence, that she caus'd Proclamation to be made,
forbidding all the People of the Island, upon Pain of Death, to sell
any Provisions, or other Necessaries, to the Portugueses. Her Orders
were readily obey'd, and the Portugueses press'd by Hunger, found
it a more powerful Enemy, than those they had wrong'd. Their Skins
began to shrivel, they grew Lank and Weak, and must have perish'd,
had not Gonzalo Pereyra arriv'd then with the Trading Galeon. Gonzalo
Pereyra came from Malaca to succeed Don George de Meneses in the
Post of Ternate; and improving the Opportunity, touch'd at Borneo,
where he visited the King, with whom, the Spaniards not obstructing,
he settled perpetual Peace and Amity; thence he set out immediately for
Ternate, where he arriv'd in Safety. He presently took Possession of
the Fort, and paid the weak Soldiers. The Queen went to visit him,
and to complain of Don George, [New Governour.] and demand her
Son Cachil Dayalo, which was her greatest Concern. Gonzalo Pereyra
answer'd her generously, promis'd to do her Justice; and to begin,
secur'd Don George in the Principal Tower, to appease the Queen,
engaging i i. Word, That he would restore her Son, as soon as the Fort
was in a good Posture. He sent to intreat her to return to the City,
and former Amity; that Justice might be peaceably administer'd. She
seeing some Effects of his Promise, in the Imprisonment of her Enemy,
and the Expectation of Releasing the King her Son, turn'd past Sorrow
into Joy, return'd to Court, and Gonzalo Pereyra reform'd Abuses,
repair'd the Fort, and built Bastions of Square Stone, which till then
had been unhew'd, the Queen furnishing Workmen and Materials. Still
Cachil Dayalo was detain'd in the Fort, without being restor'd to
his Liberty; and the Queen and People help'd to build the Fort, as
the sure Means of obtaining their King's Liberty. Gonzalo Pereyra,
when he thought it a proper Time, resolv'd to execute some Orders he
had brought from Goa, which were the same that had before endanger'd
the Disturbance of those Kingdoms.

[Fresh Uproars caus'd by the Governour.] Some Governours, says
the Portuguese Historian, Couto, only study to enrich themselves,
impoverishing the Provinces, and their King; for no Prince can be
rich, if his Grandeur depends upon poor Subjects. The Governour
now perceiving that all Things were quiet, and he had little or no
Dependance on those People, made Proclamation, that none should buy
Cloves in those Islands, but the King, his Master's Factors. At the
same Time he order'd, that his Officers should enter the Houses of
marry'd Men, which are the Richest, and take away all their Cloves;
and this not only among the Natives, but in the Habitations, and
Colonies of the Portugueses, paying for it after the Country Rate;
and that they should break all their Weights, Scales and Measures,
and other Implements of this Sort, all which he caus'd to be publickly
burnt. The Island was again in an Uproar, and the Portugueses were
for quitting it, because it was to no Purpose to live there, if they
were depriv'd of that Trade. Most of the Portugueses repair'd to the
House of Ferdinand Lopez, a Priest, who was the Bishop's Vicar in
the Fort, and ought to have given them an Example of Modesty. There
one Vincent Fonseca, a seditious Fellow, heading the Mutiniers, they
resolv'd to require the Governour to permit them to live in their
former Liberty; and in case he should not Consent, they would depart
the Fort, and the Country, and go over to the Spaniards, or else to
the Mahometans, and Idolaters Towns. Some there were, who boggled at
the Crime of abandoning the Service of their King, together with the
[Portugueses mutiny.] Fort; and voted it would be less Harm to procure
the Governour's Death, by Means of the Natives. Whilst they were thus
unresolv'd, the Governour sent to seize Vincent de Fonseca, for some
disrespectful Words he had spoken upon this Occasion, to another
Soldier who was viewing the Guards. The Multitude, who had already
given themselves up to the Direction of Fonseca, were as much concern'd
at his Imprisonment, as if every one of them had been put into Irons;
and as generally in such Mutinies, they are not without some specious
Pretence, tho' it be but superficial, many of the Seditious, being
incens'd, and resolute, repair'd to the Queen's Palace, where they
were easily admitted, and some of them to more Privacy with certain
Counsellors of her's. There they represented the Hardship of depriving
them of the Trade of Clove, without any Demerit on their Side. But,
said they, they may as well deprive us of this common Air, of this
Light, and of the Benefit of our Senses. Our Kings give no such Orders;
but they proceed from the Avarice of the Governours and Commanders,
who tyrannize over us, and this Man more than all his Predecessors,
being come to destroy, that which he was sent to preserve. He has no
Design to restore your Majesty your Son; but on the contrary we are
satisfy'd he contrives to destroy both the Son and the Mother. Her
he will secure, as soon as he has brought his Works to perfection,
that he may not be again kept from Provisions. If you will stand up
for your Country, and kill the Commander, we shall not obstruct it,
but on the contrary shall be as vigorous to act against him, as we
are ready to promise it.

The Queen and her Councellors were well pleas'd, hoping by that
[The Queen stirs up her People.] means to get rid of Tyrants, as
they call'd them, and therefore would not let slip so favourable an
opportunity to compass their Ends. The Queen assembled the prime Men
of the Island; represented to them the Condition it was in; put them
in mind, how King Boleyfe her Husband, protected the Portugueses,
who came thither in Distress; how they had sworn Amity, and solemnly
given their Hands upon it; the Honour and Kindness he show'd them; and
that for their sakes he forfeited the good will of the Neighbouring
Princes; that after he had receiv'd them, he maintain'd Wars, and
sustain'd losses, even to the hazard of his life, to protect them;
that he treated them as affectionately as if they had been his own
Children; and how they, in return for his Entertainment and Favours,
as soon as the Breath was out of his Body, presum'd, said she, to
lay violent Hands on me; from whose Tyranny and Oppression I escaped,
by absconding long among the Rocks, and Brambles. My Children, they
snatch'd from their Nurses Breasts, to confine them in Prison; in their
own Kingdom, and among their Subjects. When Cachil Bayano came to age
to govern, they poyson'd him. They now design after the same manner
to destroy his Brother, a lawful King, as if he were some run-away
Slave. See what regard a parcel of intruding Strangers have for your
Fortunes, your Houses, your Daughters, and your Wives, in your own
Country, and in my Presence. Any one of these things ought to be a
sufficient motive to cast off the Yoke we laid upon our Necks through
our own Credulity. What then will not they all together oblige us to
do? But besides all this, what ought we not to do, seeing our Religion
affronted? Our Temples polluted? Our Priests trampled on? And all our
selves in general despis'd? Can you have a greater Testimony of the
justice of your Cause, than to see the Portugueses themselves on your
side? Do not let slip this Opportunity, my Friends, stand by them,
since they promise to assist us. Deliver by their means your King,
your Country, and your Religion; that all these may be afterwards
rescu'd from them, and we may exclude such ungrateful Guests.

These and other Exhortations made by the Queen, as Mafeus writes in
[Conspiracy against the Governor.] his Latin History, were receiv'd
with Abundance of Tears, and they all engag'd to put their helping
hands to the execution of what had been concerted; and fixt the day and
hour. Great Dissimulation was us'd, and the Queen forwarded the work of
the Fort with much application, without sparing any Cost, giving out,
so as it might come to the Governour's Ears, That the King her Sons
Liberty depended on the finishing of the Fort. This was the effect
of Motherly Affection. The appointed Day being come, the Natives
appear'd in Arms, just during the scorching Heat of the Noon-day;
Some hid themselves in a Mosque, behind the Fort; others in a Wood,
not far off, all of them ready to assault it, upon a Signal given,
they being to enter at a Breach, which was not yet made up. Some
of the Arm'd Islanders slily mixt themselves among the Masons, and
Labourers, and among the King's Servants, who were going and coming
with kind Messages between the Son and the Mother, and by this means
convey'd him his Arms, and being us'd to talk to him freely at other
times, they had then the Opportunity of acquainting him with the
Design, and advising to be in a readiness to fall on boldly in due
time. Thence they went to the Governour's Apartment, where he was
taking his Afternoons Nap in all possible Security, his whole Family
being asleep. The Ternates burst the Doors open with their Shoulders,
and rush'd upon the Governour, whom the noise had awak'd. He defended
himself with his Sword and Buckler for a considerable space; but his
Enemies being numerous, and all [His Death.] pressing forwards,
they cut him in pieces. A Woman-slave of his hearing the Hubbub,
shreek'd out, which with the other Noise brought the Islanders out
of the Mosque, without expecting the Signal. They laid hold of a
Portuguese they met, but he broke loose, and escap'd their Fury by
flight. The Slave continu'd crying out, Moors, Moors. With this the
Governour's Servants came running arm'd, and going up to the chief
Tower, where their Master was wont to divert himself, found all the
Murderers there, whom they laid hold of, and cast down headlong, and
then shut the Gates of the Fort. Then they rang the Bell, the sound
whereof, and their not hearing the Signal, discourag'd the Ternates
who lay in Ambush, so that they slunk away into the City.

The Portugues Conspirators went slily dissembling into the Fort, and
finding the Governour dead, requir'd the rest in his place to admit of
the Alcayde, or Constable of the Fort, because the King of Portugal had
so order'd. They refus'd him, and particularly the Vicar, who took upon
him [Fonseca made Governour.] to head them all, and prevail'd so far
that they chose Vincent de Fonseca for their Governour, who immediately
took Possession of the Fort, and beginning to go on in the Tyrannical
Design of Gonzalo Pereyra, left the Trade of Clove as it was before;
but secur'd King Dayalo. No notice was taken of the Governour's Death,
as being executed by the consent of them all. The Queen insisted to
demand her Son, since she had furnish'd all Necessaries for that
Work; Vincent Fonseca refer'd the Answer to the Marry'd Men. All
those Nations are of opinion that the discreetest among them are
the Marry'd Men, both on account of their Age, and as more faithful
Councellors, because they have a greater interest in the publick Good,
and therefore it is usual to refer to them all Debates and Answers
in matters of Difficulty. They all voted, That the Queen should not
have her Son deliver'd to her, because it was convenient to keep him
as an Hostage, fearing the second part of what had been concerted,
and that their Friendships would last no longer than till it could
be executed. But to palliate the true cause of detaining him, they
answered, That they must first acquaint the Governour of India. In
the mean while the Mother did not cease to weep, and to intreat. She
fed upon these Hopes, grounded on the Hatred the Portugueses still
retain'd for Pereyra, and on the Generosity she had us'd in restoring
the Trade of Clove, and other means. The most prevalent of these
seem'd to be the gaining the affections of the Marry'd Portugueses,
to whom that Affair was referred, and under-hand of Vincent Fonseca
himself, by rich Presents, and extraordinary Gifts. But she was
soon undeceived, for Fonseca offered her such Reasons or Excuses,
as proved his Tyrannical Design; alledging, that having already sent
to consult the Governour of India about the King's Liberty, it was
not in his power to come to any Resolution in that affair, till the
Answer came from Goa, for they would cut off his Head, should he go
about to act of himself. The Queen perceiving that neither Gifts,
nor Intreaties would prevail to get her Son, she resolv'd to use Force.

She stir'd up all the Neighbouring Kingdoms against the Portugueses;
[The Queen recovers her Son by force.] and order'd the Provisions
to be all remov'd, that none might come to the Fort, either by Sea or
Land. Those within began to feel the want of all Necessaries, to such
a degree, that they su'd to the Queen for Peace, which was concluded,
and they gave up her Son, which was the only thing she aim'd at,
without regarding the inconveniency of losing the Fort. The Queen
having obtain'd the King's Liberty, granted the Portugueses all the
Conditions they demanded, and was so throughly appeas'd that the
Christians continu'd their Settlements and Colonies, and Trade, and
Provisions were restor'd. The Queen put the Government into the hands
of her Son, who at first shew'd some Severity and Harshness towards
the prime Men, and discover'd some Weaknesses, which till then his
Confinement had either conceal'd, or suppress'd. These things render'd
him so odious, that the case was alter'd, and they would have been
glad he had been Prisoner again. The Mother could not curb his ill
Inclination, for the extravagant Youth's deprav'd Nature would not
allow of it.

At this time three mean Fellows of the Portugueses Colony, went
to those of the Natives to rob; besides which they ravish'd some
Women. The [Portuguese Robbers kill'd.] Islanders would not bear with
that Insolence; but those who had been wrong'd in revenge kill'd the
Offenders. Vincent de Fonseca hearing of it, magnify'd the Heinousness
of the Fact, without mentioning his Countrymens Guilt, and order'd
strict Enquiry to be made after the Slayers. What Care ought Princes
to take to secure the Affection of their Subjects. The King was so
hated, that certain Natives went to the Governour, and being conducted
into a private part of the Fort, because they were Men of Quality,
they assur'd him that the King had been the Occasion of the killing of
those Portugueses, grounding the Accusation on their own Surmises, and
aggravating the Offence with other Circumstances, in such manner, that
had Fonseca lov'd the King, he could not but have believ'd them. He
presently contriv'd to seize him; but being impatient, and despairing
of securing him by Art, had recourse to Force. The King did the like,
tho' [King of Ternate flies.] sensible how little Assistance he could
expect from his People, however he arm'd a few Vessels, and falling
upon some Christian Towns, took several Prisoners. The Governour on
the other Hand, without sparing Ternate, attacked what Towns he could,
so that Cruelty and Rapine were again in use, even to assaulting of
Cities, the very Sufferers approving of it, and pleas'd with their
Losses, that so they might be reveng'd of their King. He fearing
that the Hatred they bore him, might occasion his being seiz'd and
deliver'd up to Fonseca, went over to Tydore, where that King for the
present entertain'd and assisted him, as a Friend and Relation. The
Governour sent with speed to call the King's younger Brother, named
Sultan Tabarija, who was fled with some Malecontents, and with the
consent of [Sultan Tabarija made King.] all the rest of the People,
who were before no less dissatisfy'd, proclaim'd him King, with all
the Forms and Ceremonies us'd in that case. Many approv'd of it, yet
some were scandaliz'd. The same Division reign'd among the Portugueses,
remembring the unjust Election of Vincent de Fonseca, and that he was
the first and main instrument of the Death of Gonzalo Pereyra. Fonseca
himself was not at Peace with his own Conscience; but so full of
Apprehensions and Dread, that he was never unarm'd, disconsolate,
melancholy, and attended by all those ill Symptoms, the Memory of
Guilt produces in the Mind; and he could wish he were discharg'd of
the Burden he had taken upon him. The new King Tabarija began his
Reign shewing Kindness to all Men, and cherishing the Portugueses,
which offended his absent Brother; and administer'd occasion to
irritate the Kings of Tydore and Ternate against him so hastily,
that he immediately broke the Peace, and declar'd himself their Enemy.

[Tristan de Atayde Governour of Ternate.] At this time Tristan de
Atayde came to Ternate, whose Presence brought all Things into better
Form. He appeas'd the Queen, and commending Tabarija's Government,
gain'd his Affection. Trade went on without any Obstruction. Vincent
de Fonseca imbark'd for India, and was seiz'd by the Viceroy of Goa,
for the heinous Crimes he had committed in the Molucco Islands,
whence a full Account of them was sent with him; yet he was not
punish'd, but liv'd quietly for the future. Ternate flourish'd under
this mild Government; the King, his Subjects, and the Portuguese
Officers being united; but all those Garrisons so remote from the
Head, being Receptacles of seditious Persons, who are contriving
Innovations to disturb the Peace, and thrive by Discord, there wanted
not some Promoters of such Changes, who perverted Tristan de Atayde,
and divested him of his former Mildness. About the beginning of his
Government two Carcoas of Barbarians plunder'd and almost destroy'd
the City Momoya, the Inhabitants whereof were Idolaters, in the
Island Moro. The Lord of it a powerful Sangiack, and good Moral Man,
tho' a Heathen, made his Escape. Gonzalo Velloso, a Portuguese, was
then not far from his City, following his Trade, and going thither,
upon his paying a Visit to the Sangiack, he told him the Havock that
had been made, complaining of the dangerous Neighbourhood of the
other Islanders, and asking his Advice, how he might be reveng'd and
secur'd for the future. Velloso, God directing his Tongue, told him,
That the surest way was to sue for Peace to the Commander in chief
of the Moluccos, and entertain Amity with the Portugueses, for if his
Enemies once saw he was supported by their Power, no King nor Sangiack
would dare to offend him. He assur'd him that the King of Portugal sent
them for that End, being oblig'd to put down Tyranny and Oppression;
but that for the obtaining that benefit more fully, it was requisite
he should become a Christian; for by that means he would save his
Soul, and secure his Escape, which was the least important of the
[A Sangiack converted.] two. Velloso said so much to this Point,
and the Spirit which directed, suggested such important Truths, that
the Sangiack at first admiring them, approv'd and submitted to them,
and grew very earnest to be admitted to Baptism. He desir'd Gonzalo
Velloso to be assisting to him, and gathering some of his Family
and Friends, they set out for Ternate, the Sangiack himself staying
behind for their Answer. The Heathens came with Velloso to Ternate,
where they were generously received, and entertain'd by Tristan de
Ataide. Having heard what they came about, he put them all into the
Christian Habit, appointing Clergy-men to instruct and Catechize
them. Being thus prepar'd, they receiv'd Baptism with extraordinary
satisfaction, the Commander in chief being their God-father. Then
he commended the Sangiack's Resolution, shewing how advantageous
it would be to him to become a Son of the Church, and reject the
abominable and foul Ceremonies of Idolatry, in which he had liv'd. He
sent him word, to appoint the Day and Place for being Baptiz'd, and
he would see all perform'd as he should direct, for which Reason he
left it to his Choice. The Messengers returning to Momoya, were not
only proud of having embrac'd the Christian Faith, but of the good
Usage they receiv'd from the Governour and other Christians, telling
the Sangiack all that had happen'd, and the Answer they brought
him. The Sangiack, led by his own inclination, and encourag'd by
their Account, imbark'd in some Carcoas with the greatest Splendor
of Musick and Gayety he was able. Being come in Sight of Ternate,
Tristan de Ataide went out to meet him with no less Pomp. He lodg'd and
entertain'd him accordingly, and order'd a Learned and Religious Man
to Catechize and instruct him. Some Days after when the Cathecumens
were fitted for it, they receiv'd Baptism, with publick Rejoycings,
and greater Solemnity than had ever been seen in Ternate. There
was not a Christian but what brought Palm-Branches and Flowers from
that natural Garden of the Island; besides Musick, Dancing, Firing
of great Guns, and even the very Barbarians rejoyc'd. The Sangiack
in Baptism took the Name of Don John; he stay'd some Days rejoycing
and Feasting with the Portugueses, and then return'd home, taking
along with him the Priest that instructed him, call'd Simon Vaz,
to improve him in the Knowledge of the Faith. That Priest liv'd with
him some Years in his City, leading an Exemplar Life, and exercising
himself in Works of Officious and pure Charity, by which means he
converted great Numbers of Heathens, and particularly the Inhabitants
of Momoya. But being alone, and the Number of those God was pleased
for his Glory, to bring to him increasing very fast, he sent to
Tristan de Atayde for another Priest to assist him in that Function,
and he accordingly sent F. Francis Alvarez. They both in a short time
converted the Infidels of that Part, throwing down all the Pagodes,
so they call'd their Idols, cleansing those Places, and converting
the Houses of Abomination and Darkness into Churches of the living
God. Tristan de Atayde so far favour'd the new Don John, as to send
along with him some Portuguese Soldiers to defend his Person and Fort,
and this Prince maintain'd very friendly Correspondence with him. His
End we shall soon see and admire in the Sequel of this History.

The People of Ternate at the same time took another Course, for they
[Portugueses serve the King.] hating Sultan Tabarija, and desiring
his Death, talk'd with the Governour in private, and gave him to
understand that his Life was in Danger, for Tabarija contriv'd to kill
him, as had been done by Gonzalo Pereyra, that so he might seize the
Fort, turning out the Portugueses. The Governour hearing his Life,
and the Fort were both in Jeopardy, and calling to mind the yet fresh
Example of his Predecessor, easily believ'd the Design, but cunningly
dissembled. He contriv'd that some Portugueses on account of real
or pretended Differences should have Recourse to the King's Favour,
as sometimes they us'd to do, and should prevail upon him to come
to the Fort to speak for them. He was apply'd to by some, and like
an innocent Man suspecting nothing, went to the Fort to intercede
for them. He was immediately seiz'd and loaded with Irons, and being
brought to Trial, the same Persons that contriv'd his Imprisonment,
appear'd as Witnesses against him. After a tedious Examination,
or show of it, the Result was, that he should be sent to India to
justifie himself. He imbark'd with a safe [His Conversion and Death.]
Conscience, and his Cause being examin'd before the Viceroy Antony
Barreto at Goa, he was clear'd, and confessing the Holy Spirit had
taken that method to draw him to Salvation, was Baptiz'd in that
City with great Satisfaction, by the Name of Don Emanuel. In his
Return homewards, expecting the Monson at Malaca to put to Sea, he
dy'd with extraordinary Tokens of a sincere Christian; and having
no lawful Heir, appointed King John the Third of Portugal to succeed
him in all his Kingdoms. The Will was afterwards carry'd to Ternate,
where the great Ones and Commonalty accepted of it, owning King
John for their Soveraign. This was perform'd with Acclamations in
the Streets and publick Places, as also in the Courts of Judicature,
taking Possession with the Royal Standard of Portugal display'd, and
all other usual Solemnities and Ceremonies. In the Year 1549, Jordan
de Freytas carry'd the publick Instruments of the Possession to Lisbon.

To return to the Course of the History when Tristan de Atayde
had Imbark'd King Tabarija for India, he sought out for a Bastard
Brother of his call'd Aerio, born of a Javanese Mother. The Lad
was then ten years of Age, bred by his Mother in a retir'd manner,
at a Pleasure-House encompass'd with perpetual Greens, the natural
Disposition being improv'd [The Melancholy Tree, and Flower.] by Art,
which so far prevail'd that the Flower so wonderful for its Fragrancy
and manner of growing call'd Triste, or melancholy; found only in
Malabar and Malaca, abounded in this Ladies Gardens. She ador'd the
Sun, and brought up her Child in that Folly, that he might forget the
Rudiments he learnt at Goa, when in the Colledge of the Jesuits. The
Idolaters believe, or feign, that a most beautiful Daughter of
Parizataco, a Satrapa, or Nobleman, fell in love with the Sun, and
that he after complying with, and obliging her, setled his Affections
on another, and the first not able to endure that another should be
preferr'd before her, kill'd her self. From her Ashes, for in those
parts they still retain the Custom of burning dead Bodies, sprung that
Melancholy Tree, say they, whose Blossoms or Flowers still preserving
the Memory of their Original, have such a Hatred for the Sun, that they
cannot bear his Light. This Plant is call'd in the Canarine Tongue
Parizataco, from the Indian Womans Father, who was Metamorphos'd
like Daphne, tho' on other Account. The Malayes call it Singadi;
the Arabs, Guart; the Persians and Turks, Gul; the Decanines, Pul;
and the Portuguese, Arvore Triste; that is, the Melancholy Tree. It
shoots out abundance of slender Branches, regularly divided by Knots,
from each of which two Leaves sprout, opposite to one another, like
those of the Plum-Tree, but soft like Sage, and cover'd with a white
Down. From each Leaf sprouts a Nib, or Nipple, whence five Heads
shoot out small at the end, each of them adorn'd with four smaller
round Leaves; from each little Head proceed five Flowers, the fifth
in the midst of the other four; among them the white Flowers visibly
grow out, being bigger than Orange Flowers, and so fast after Night
fall, that the Motion of them is perceptible. This Fruitfulness lasts
all the Night, till the Appearing of the Sun renders it barren, and
causes all the Flowers and Leaves to drop off, the Boughs remaining
wither'd. On a sudden all that Fragrancy ceases, which enrich'd the
Air with all the sweet Odours of Asia, included in this alone; till
the Sun leaving the Horizon again, the Plant again flourishes in its
beloved Darkness, as if it then retriev'd the Wrong it receiv'd from
the Light. The Asiaticks are excessively fond of Perfumes, which is
an Argument of their Lasciviousness. Great Taxes are laid in several
Provinces, on all sweet Scents.

The Portugueses came arm'd to that House, where the aforesaid Princess
[Portuguses sent to fetch Aerio.] bred her Son, and demanded him in
the Name of Tristan de Atayde; she would willingly have hid him, but
could not, and therefore began to excuse her self, and beg they would
leave him. It avail'd nothing, for the Messengers had Orders not to
return without him, and to gain her Consent, swore they would carry
him to reign in the stead of Tabarija, and that as soon as he came
to the Fort, he should be received as King, both by the Ternates and
Portugueses. Some Relations tell us, that then the Mother, shedding
Abundance of Tears, streightly embracing the Prince, cry'd out,
saying, Were I assur'd that you took him away to reign peaceably, [His
Mother's Speech to keep him.] without any Opposition, or Apprehension,
well belov'd and obey'd by his Subjects, and in settled Prosperity,
undisturb'd by any Frights; yet would I rather see him grow up and
continue in a private Life, without burdening himself with any publick
Concern, than that he should reign to please your Humour; this was
my Intention in retiring with him, and I would gladly conceal him
from all humane Conversation. If so, what can I think of what you
now promise me? Will it be reasonable, that I deliver you my Son
to receive the Crown, and that you at the same time design him for
Imprisonment and Fetters, from which nothing shall, or can possible
deliver him but Poison and false Accusations, which have brought his
Brothers and Parents to their End? What Security have I from Fortune,
that she will in this Child be reconciled to that Family, which she has
condemned to immortal Enmity with the Europeans, in Requital for having
friendly entertain'd them; and decreed that, instead of the Protection
it hop'd to find in your Arms, you should lay on it an intollerable
Yoke? Leave us then, both Mother and Son, to employ our selves about
the Works of Nature, since costly Experience has so fully undeceived
as to the Effects of Fortune. Permit us to divert the Thoughts of
them, with the Quiet, and Improvements of these Gardens. Let us
be allow'd to want that which so many seek after. James de Couto,
in his Decades relates this Fact, and the Mother's Lamentation, and
Words. The Portugueses, no longer able to give Ear to those dismal
Reflections, which did not savour of a barbarous Woman, ran up to
her, and forc'd away her Son, whom she struggled to defend. He,
says the same Author, observing his Mother's Tears, and the Reasons
she alledg'd for not parting with him, and having some anticipated
Notion of the Sweetness of Reigning, which he had not yet tasted,
stood gazing on her and them, full of Confusion. The Rudeness, and
Insolence of the Soldiers put an End to all; for tho' they had no
such Orders from their Commander, being deaf to, and weary of hearing
the Complaints of [The Portuguese murder her.] a Disconsolate Woman;
they at the same time seiz'd the Son, and laying hold of the Mother,
cast her headlong out at the Window: The new King was carry'd to the
Fort, and at the same time that the Subjects swore Fidelity to him,
they with general Lamentation celebrated his Mother's Obsequies,
which were perform'd with greater Solemnity, than even those of the
Principal Queens. This Inhumanity exceeding even the Canibals, and
consequently unworthy the pretended Portugueses Bravery; being bruited
Abroad in the Neighbouring Provinces, produc'd that just Hatred which
was of Force to unite; and actually drew into a Confederacy all the
Kings of the Archipelago, against the Portugueses. They assembled
[Confederacy against them.] in Council, and in the Meeting concerted
their Design, declaring that the Oppression they were under, was
intollerable, the Portugueses making and deposing Kings to their
own Humour and Fancy, insulting those Crowns which had given them
the Power they had abus'd, contrary to all Laws of Humanity, without
allowing the Natives so much as a Vote in Elections. Having agreed
upon the Enterprize, they provided all Things for the Execution,
whilst the appointed Time came, which they diligently made as short
as might be, and expected with Dissimulation.

The Spanish and Portuguese Fleets at this Time continu'd their Voyages
to the Archipelago, their several known Ways; the Spaniards from New
[Difference about the Moluccos, between Spain and Portugal.] Spain to
the Phillippine Islands; the Portugueses along the Coasts of Africk,
and so to Malaca. Both Sides exercised their Power, and carry'd on
their Trade with Ambition, and, as some say, with Cruelty; but the
most bloody Theatre of continual Tragedies, was Ternate and all the
Molucco's. There both Nations of Castile and Portugal decided their
Quarrel by the Sword, whilst their Kings in Europe only contended by
Dint of Cunning, and Cosmography. At this time the Matter was not so
plain, as when the Cosmographers and Commissioners on both Sides, lay'd
down the Meridian, whereby to assign each of them one half of the World
to their King. For the Admiral Christopher Columbus returning from his
first Discovery of the West-Indies, in the Year 1493, Pope Alexander
the VIth. granted the Investiture of them, for the Crown of Castile,
to their Catholick Majesties, King Ferdinand, and Queen Isabel, or
Elizabeth; and to obviate the Differences that might arise between
the two Crowns, to the obstructing the Propagation of the Gospel,
by the same Apostolical Authority, which in that spiritual Capacity
is not limited to any part of the Globe, he divided it betwixt those
two Crowns, ordering a Line to be drawn along the Heavens to cut
both the Poles, distant on the Earth one hundred Leagues from the
Islands of the Azores and Cabo Verde. By Vertue of this Division, the
Emperor pretended that the Molucco Islands were within his Limits,
ever since Gonzalo Gomez de Espinosa, his Commander in chief,
Sebastian del Cano, and his Companions, who went with Magellan,
took Possession of them for his Crown. Pretending at the same Time,
that they were the first Christians that arriv'd at the Moluccos, and
that then he was own'd as Sovereign by Sultan Corala, King of Ternate,
who reign'd before Sultan Bongue; by Sultan Almanzor, King of Tydore,
by Luzuf, King of Gilolo, and other Princes, who all swore Fealty
by their Idols, and the Alcoran; and that Gonzalo Gomez admitted
them, and swore to the Observance of what had been agreed on, in his
[Arguments for Spain.] King's Name, before an Image of the Blessed
Virgin. He urg'd, that by Mathematical Demonstration, and the Judgment
of Men learned in that Faculty, it appear'd, that the Moluccos were
within the Limits of Castile, as were all others, as far as Malaca,
and even beyond it. That it was no easy Undertaking for Portugal
to go about to disprove the Writings of so many Cosmographers, and
such able Mariners; and particularly the Opinion of Magellan, who was
himself a Portuguese. And that in Case he might be thought partial,
because of his being disoblig'd in Portugal, that Exception did not
lie against Francis Serrano, who was also a Portuguese, and had been
favour'd and cherish'd. That to say the Sea Charts had been maliciously
contriv'd, was a groundless Objection, and not probable. Besides that,
in Relation to the Article of Possession, on which the Controversy
depended, it was only requisite to stand by what was writ by, and
receiv'd among Cosmographers.

In Answer to this, King John of Portugal, deny'd the Fact of the
Discovery, [Portuguese Answer.] as to its Precedency; for Serrano's
was in the Year 1511, and that of Magellans Companions nine Years
later, in 1520. He declar'd the Globes, Astrolabes, and Sea Charts
to be partial, and that in Case they were rectify'd, drawing the
aforesaid Meridian, according to Rules of Astrology, his Limits would
not only comprehend the Moluccos, but reach far beyond the Philippine
Islands. He offer'd King Tabarija's last Will on his Behalf; and
said, that if the Line were fairly drawn, observing Eclipses, as
had been done sometimes, the Truth of his Assertion would appear. To
this they added, the Papers of the Geographer and Astrologer, Andrew
de S. Martin, by which it appear'd, that he sailing with Magellan,
his before unattempted Voyage, had observed several Eclipses, and
Oppositions. Among the rest, on the 17th of December, 1519. He in the
River call'd Rio de Janeyro, took an Observation of a Conjunction of
Jupiter and the Moon; on the first of February 1520, another of the
Moon and Venus; soon after another of the Sun and Moon, after passing
the Streights, another Opposition of the Sun and Moon, and others
at other times; all which, tho' calculated by him to the Meridian
of Sevil, avail'd nothing to his Design, which was to prove that the
Molucco Islands did not belong to Portugal; for which Reason he found
Fault with John de Monteregio's Tables and Almanacks. All these Papers
were preserv'd by Edward Resende Factor at the Moluccos, a learned
and curious Man. They said, that since there was then a Treaty about
the Possession of those Islands; in a Case of that Consequence it was
not proper, to avoid alledging, and examining the Grounds of their
Property, to prevent the Decision of the Sword, which was the Court
where that Controversy was pleaded; and when once it comes to that
pass, there was no Possibility of standing to speculative Writing,
which not being made good by Experience, must at least be look'd upon
as uncertain.

The Possession of the Molucco Islands was of great Consequence to
the King of Portugal, for carrying on the Trade of Spice, and being
inform'd of the War still maintain'd between his Subjects and the
Emperor's, in those Parts, he daily us'd fresh Endeavours to bring
that Business to some Conclusion, that so the War might cease. The
Emperor had not so much Intelligence of what his Commanders did in
Asia; because the Portuguese suffer'd no Ships, but their own to pass
by the Cape of Good Hope; and the way of New-Spain, that Voyage was not
much frequented, and therefore not so well known; and besides all this
he then stood in need of a great Sum of Money. In the Year 1525, there
was a Treaty at Segovia, [The Difference adjusted.] by his Majesties
Order, for composing of this Difference, and in 1526 it was held at
Sevil, where the Portuguese Embassador; and the Licenciate Azevedo of
that Kings Council, were met by the Bishops of Osma, President of the
Council of the Indies, Doctor Laurence Galindez, of the same Council,
and Don Garcia de Padilla, first Commendary of Calatrava, on the
Emperor's side, as Commissioners, and Plenipotentaries, besides the
Lord-High-Chancellor, and the Popes Nuncio, Mercurio Gatnara. After
many Meetings, and much Strife, to which there were also Civilians,
Geographers, and Mariners admitted; all which only puzzled the Cause,
whence ensu'd Law Suits, Arbitrations, and other Fruitless Negociations
in Spain, and Wars in Asia between the Ships of both Crowns: After all
this there was a Cessation, and Quietness, the Emperor Mortgaging those
controverted Islands to the King of Portugal, for 350000 Ducats. This
was concluded at Zaragoza, on the 22d of August 1529, as his Imperial
Majesty was going over to be Crown'd in Italy. The Line of Division
was again examin'd, and what Parts of the Earth it is to run through;
the Times of Payment were fix'd, with other Conditions, and Salvos
of the Right on both sides, that so neither Oblivion, nor the Kindred
between the two Kings might confound it.

By Relations Written in those Days it appears, that the Emperor
consulting [Spaniards against quitting the Moluccos.] Peter Ruyz
de Villegas, a grave and learned Gentleman, about this Mortgage;
his Answer was condemning it, and declaring, That his Majesty had
better to have Mortgaged any other of his Kingdoms, than that of the
Moluccos, Trapobana, or Malaca, or any other in the East; all which,
in his Opinion, belong'd to his Majesty; and the great uncertainty
of State Affairs. Many others advised the Emperor to repay that great
Sum to the King of Portugal; and what is yet more, the Representatives
in the Cortes of Castile, propos'd that the Emperor should make over
to them the Molucco Islands for six Years, by way of Farm, and they
would pay King John the Mortgage Money, and bring the Trade of Spice
to Coruna, and after the six Years his Majesty should carry on that
Trade. The Emperor hearing of this Innovation, order'd a stop to it,
and that no further Progress should be made in fitting out the Fleet
design'd for the Moluccos, under Simon de Alcazova, and forwarded by
the Bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo.

Orders, and Letters Patents, were drawn and sealed, for both Nations
to forbear Hostilities, but the Emperor's Subjects never receiv'd
Commands from him to withdraw their Forces for any other Enterprize,
nor did they [War ceases between Spaniards and Portugueses.] know what
had been agreed on in Spain, any other way than by the Account they
had from the Portugueses who had receiv'd Orders from their King, to
conclude a Peace, and to Ship off the Spaniards by the way of India
for Spain. This Agreement put an End to all Judicial, and Military
Contention. Since then the Vicissitude of Times has invested all the
Right, and Title in our King. So that, according to grave Civilians, he
might, as they say, invert the Titles, or possess by them all, without
confounding the Right; Heaven having design'd him to be Sovereign of
such a vast Monarchy, and given him that Hereditary Zeal, which makes
him offer his whole Power to oppose Hereticks and Sectaries, and to
spread the Faith, and its perfect Politicks among such Multitudes of
Souls as have received it, in so many barbarous Provinces. For this
same Reason it will be superfluous to examine any further into the
Limits assign'd by that Law, which could never be settled.

This Accommodation being concluded, the Portuguese Fleets, without
[Portugueses Possession of the Moluccos.] any Opposition from those
of Castile, peaceably possess'd themselves of the Islands of Ternate,
Tydore, Bachian, and the others about them. From the first of these,
as their Head in Spirituals, our Priests went Abroad to preach the Word
of Truth, which was receiv'd by several Kings and Nations, leaving but
inconsiderable Remains of Idolatry, and other Sects. Whole Cities,
whose Soveraigns chose to continue in their Darkness, not regarding
their Prince's Example, which uses to have the Force of a Law, threw
down their Idols, and consecrated Profaneness, dedicating their
Temples to the True God. The Kings of Portugal built Garrisons, and
Factories for the Christians to inhabit; sending their Commanders and
Officers, who curbed the Kings, and the Sangiacks their Subjects. Some
Governours there were, who besides the Care they took of propagating
[Conversions.] the Gospel, and maintaining Peace in those Parts,
endeavour'd by endearing Means to attract the Barbarians to love
our Habits, to affect our Ways of Entertainment, and the European
Affability and Conversation, and gently inclin'd them to our Customs
and Manners, which in some Places made them look upon that as a Sort
of Equality, when it was no better than Servitude. The powerful
Union of Justice and Religion was however the most prevalent; but
the Commanders and Governours being defective in the first of these
Virtues, on which inward Felicity and Government depend; the Subjects
lost the second, and return'd to their former Blindness, as appears
by what has been already said, and more fully by what is to follow,
since we are now come to the Election of Sultan Aerio, in whose Days
Ternate was utterly lost, and could never be recovered either by Force
or Art, till the Reign of our Sovereign Lord the King; a just Reward of
his Piety and Zeal. The lawful Queen, by those People call'd Putriz,
was as much concern'd for Aerio's Mother's Death, as for any of her
own Sons. She was present at her Funeral, and lamenting immoderately,
curs'd the Domination of the Portugueses, calling it Tyranny. All the
Machinations of those who study'd Revenge were known to her, and she
forwarded them with her Advice; for as they said, nothing now remain'd
of the former Moderation of the Governours sent thither out of Europe,
nor of that Regard and Respect they used to have for them.

                       The End of the First Book.

                                 OF THE
                         Discovery and Conquest
                                 OF THE
                  Molucco and Philippine Islands, &c.

                                BOOK II.

The Alliance concluded betwixt the Kings of the Archipelago, and
particularly Vaygamano, Vaigeo, Quibibio, and Mincimbio, reigning
in the Islands Papuas, was follow'd by such an Accident, that tho'
the Minds of the Confederates had not been already so well dispos'd,
nor the Blood of those Innocent Kings so newly spilt, it would have
consummated the Hatred they had conceived against the Portuguese
Nation. All the Ports of the Molucco Islands were so well secur'd,
and the Passage for Provisions so wholly stopp'd up, that Tristan
de Atayde despairing of Relief, sent Captain Pinto to Mindanao,
[Pinto sent for Relief.] and the Neighbouring Islands, to furnish such
things as were absolutly necessary for the Support of Life, there being
nothing to be had within his Liberties. Pinto sailing in a good Ship,
arriv'd at Mindanao, visited the King, by whom he was well receiv'd;
and he having seen his Credentials, and consulted the Sangiacks
of his Council, establish'd Peace and Amity with him. He sold the
Commodities he carry'd at his own Rates, and buying and barterring,
loaded with Provisions to his own Content; thence he went over to the
Island Seriago, where he was no less successful with the King. In this
Island, that their Friendship might last for ever, they concluded
the Peace with a barbarous Ceremony, which when practis'd in those
Parts, they never break the Articles. The Parties being met, certain
Officers appointed for that Purpose, draw a Quantity of Blood from
[Barbarous Custome.] their Arms, and each drinks the other's, as a
Gage of Affection; believing they convey it into their Souls, by that
horrid Draught. This Contract so ratify'd, produc'd such Confidence,
that their Ships repair'd to our Ports, and ours to theirs, with all
possible Security, without any Let or Prohibition. Pinto perceiving
what a Multitude of the Natives resorted to his Ship, resolved to
make a Prey of them; and the last Day, Forty of them coming Aboard
to Trade, he perswaded them to go down into the Hold, on Pretence of
showing them its Bulk and Conveniencies, and as [Villany of Pinto.]
soon as they were down, shut the Hatches upon them; this he practised
several times, till at last, tho' he observ'd them close, one of them
forcing his Way out, leap'd into the Sea, and swam ashore. He went
directly to the King, whom he acquainted with the villanous Practice;
The King justly enrag'd, to see Friendship so newly contracted, and
confirm'd by the most sacred of Tyes, in his Opinion, so perfidiously
violated by the Portugueses, thinking Religion affronted, immediately
order'd all the Ships that were afloat to be brought together, and
such as were finish'd in the Docks, to be launch'd; all which being
well equipp'd, stor'd with Guns, and full of those furious Barbarians,
encompass'd the Portuguese Ship, attacking her on all Sides. Pinto
was beginning to weigh his Anchors, having seen the Ships in Motion,
and the Men hasting Aboard; he defended himself with only 25 Soldiers,
who had scarce time to handle their Arms; for the Natives of Seriago
began already to Board, and those who were Prisoners under Deck had
prevaild, but that the Mariners loos'd their Sails. At this time
there fell a dreadful Storm of Rain, with such amazing Thunder and
Lightning, as if the Heavens had been rent asunder. The Seriagos
quitted the Portuguese Ship, endeavouring to recover the Shore in
their own Vessels, with their Sails rent, the Hulls shatter'd, and the
Rigging disabled; and to get off the better, they threw over-board
their Cannon and Arms, being in danger of sinking. This Tempest
lasted two Days, during which Time, Pinto's Ship could not escape,
his Men and he being so far spent, that they had neither Strength
nor Courage to stand by their Tackle; they let the Ship drive with
the Sea, and threw over-board their Provisions, Merchandize, Guns,
Arms, Cloaths, and all they could come at; and being convinc'd of the
Justice of the Judgment, for having broken their Faith, and solemn
Engagement they had made, arriv'd at Ternate astonish'd, dumb, and out
of Countenance, thinking they were still in the Storm. Such are the
Effects of a guilty Conscience, which presently provokes God's Wrath.

All the Kings of the adjacent Islands were soon acquainted with
the [Leagues against the Portugueses.] Perfidiousness of those
few Portugueses, that they had transgress'd the sacred Laws
of Hospitality, and always made a mischievous Use of Benefits;
whereupon they immediately concluded their League, to be exercised
like desperate Men. They presently made Proclamation, forbidding,
under most severe Penalties, the conveying of any Provisions to the
Portugueses, either by Sea or Land, that so they might be reduc'd to
quit all those Provinces, and fly into India, and since they could not
batter the Fort, for Want of great Guns, they should starve it out;
enjoyning all Persons of all Ages, and both Sexes, to be vigilant
in observing this fatal Decree, that so the Trading Galeon might not
afford them the Comfort of hoping for Relief. Then considering that the
main Motive of their exercising such Tyranny, was the Spice of Cloves,
wherewith Ternate, and all the Moluccos abound, the Natives resolv'd
to set Fire to all the Trees, endeavouring that the Conflagration
should be so Universal, as that the Moluccos might ever after remain
barren. They well knew that this was contriving their own Ruin;
but they look'd upon it as a pleasing and advantageous Destruction,
so they might but be reveng'd of their Enemies.

[Reflection.] The Crop of Cloves makes the Wealth of the Molucco
Kings, much more than the Taxes their Subjects pay; and tho' Rage,
and Despair put Fire into their Hands, to burn their Country, it
might happen, as sometimes Mistakes prove advantageous, that what
they design'd to render their Fields Barren, might make them more
Fruitful. It is well known that course Ashes mix'd, and scatter'd on
the Face of the Earth often Fertilize it. Nothing is more frequent in
Europe than to burn the Stubble, and Straw upon barren Lands; because,
either the burnt Earth gathers some Unknown Strength, and produces
good Pasture, or else the Fire consumes its Rankness, and exhales
the superfluous Moisture. Perhaps the intense Heat opens several
Passages, and dilates the close Pores, and hidden Veins, thro' which
the Nourishment flows, and thence the Earth receives it in all Parts,
to make it capable of a new Product; or else it hardens, and closes
the Vents which were open'd, that so the thin Waters, or the continual
Intenseness of the Sun, or the piercing Cold of the North-East Wind,
which is chilling, may do it no Harm. Besides, Nature having chosen
that only Part of the World to produce this sort of Fruit, in which
there has never been observ'd any Failure, or Intermission, it could
not be believing that a Momentary Violence should utterly cause it to
cease. However the Design of those People was not to renew those Spicy
Groves, but entirely to destroy them. This shows how mischievously
they were bent against themselves, and against all Nations. It will
be therefore convenient in this Place to treat of the Cloves at large.

[Account of Cloves.] The first that made any Account of it, were
the Chineses, who attracted by the Scent, began to load their Junks
with it for the Gulphs of Persia and Arabia. Pliny was acquainted
with, and defines it, saying, It is a long Pepper; and calls it
Garyophillum. The Persians gave it since the Name of Calafur, it does
not belong to us to decide which of these Words was derived from
the other. The Spaniards formerly call'd it Girofe, and afterwards
Clavos, because they are like Nails, which bear the same Name. The
Head of the Clove, having four small Teeth that cross it, resembles
a Star. The Natives of the Moluccos call the Tree Siger, the Leaf
Varaqua, and the Fruit Chamque. The Plant is not unlike our Bay-Tree,
but bears a greater Head. When it begins to blossom, it spreads a
most delicious Fragrancy, and on the very Top like the Myrtle, from
one single Stock produces an infinite Number of Clusters, like those
of Elder, or the Honey-Suckle. At first coming out they are White,
as they grow up Green, and the third Season, when Ripe, makes them
Red; this Variety of Colours, by inward Virtue, showing the several
Terms that bring it to Perfection. Those that remain on the Clusters,
which they call Mother Cloves, continue there a year, growing larger
and stronger. They either thresh the Branches to gather them, or
else shake them with Cords they have made fast above, drawing from
below, after the Ground about is clean'd; but it is naturally clear
from Weeds, for this Sovereign Tree suffers no sort of Herb to grow
about it. It draws all the moisture so powerfully to it self, that
all Roots about are destroy'd, or starv'd. It bears at eight Years
standing, and lasts an hundred. Some say it would hold longer, were it
not strip'd with such Violence, which it avenges by growing Barren;
but they are mistaken, for in the Islands of Bachian, they lop the
Branches, that they may produce more Cloves, and the low Branches bear
least. From these they gather the Cloves with their Hands, and they
only bear when the Monson blows. They yield their Fruit from September
to February every two Years. Others say once in three; because when
they gather the Clove, besides that the Plant is much impair'd, they
break off those Buds, which produce the Blossoms of the Cloves; but
then they afford certain hopes of another Crop. The Truth of it is,
that Nature allows them a Year's respit, during which they rest like
the Olive-Trees in Europe. They are gathered when Ripe, and their
Ripeness appears by being Red. Being spread in the Sun, in three Days
they dry up, and contract a blackish Ash-colour. [Mistake of Avicen.]

Avicen, by his leave, was deceiv'd, when he said that the Gum
of the Clove Tree is answerable in its Virtue to Turpentine; for
Experience has prov'd the contrary. Besides, that Trees excessive
hot or cold, yield no Gum, but only those which are temperate between
both. Sea-Water Feeds, and Fresh does them Harm. A certain Historian
Writes, that they yield Fruit twice a Year; if by it he means the
middle Crop, which is very small, we grant it; but if he speaks of the
most Fruitful, as the Triennial, which with general Amazement produces
enough to serve all Nations, the Belief of his Assertion will remain
in the Author himself. These Plants make amends for their delay in the
Abundance of their Product; which is such, that after enriching all
Nations with it, the K. of Spain's Revenue out of it, Yearly amounts to
two Millions of pieces of Eight, little over or under. It is generally
reckon'd that only the five Molucco Islands produce all the Clove,
because of the prodigious Quantity they yield. They always amount to
Four Thousand Bars, each Bar of Ternate being four hundred Weight,
and three quarters, and this for that Island; but the third of the
whole taken for the King amounts to six thousand Bars, and every common
Bar is better than five hundred Weight of ours. Perhaps the Word Bar
might come from the Greek Baros, signifying a Load. The Cloves grow
also in the small Islands of Ires and Meytarana, about Ternate; those
of Pulo and Cavali near Tydore, and in Gilolo, Sabugo and Gamoconora,
Towns of Barachina; as also in the Islands of Amboyna and Veranula,
more in this last than in all the others, but they are weak, and
smaller. The Clove Trees grow up without any Help or Art, like all
Trees coming from Rocks, and they made the only Woods in these Islands,
which sucking in all the moisture Heaven affords, it is a wonder
to see any other Plant near. When they have a mind to Transplant a
Clove Tree, they set it where many Weeds grow, that it may thrive the
sooner, by the help of the Moisture, and Virtue it sucks from them,
and as the Tree thrives those Plants perish. For the same reason
Cloves are ill Neighbours to full Vessels. The Ring Doves, whereof
there are great numbers in Gilolo, eat many of those Cloves which
grow Old upon the Tree, then flying they purge in the Air with the
Motion, and from their Excrements dropping on the Ground Clove Trees
grow up. Heaven has given them so plentifully only to these Islands,
abstractly from all the World beside; being at first not valu'd, or
known by the Natives. This is what they would have destroy'd by Fire,
that it might be totally annihilated; because the Flames gather more
Strength among combustible Matter, than other Violences, to which
sublunary things are subject.

Since we are now upon the Description of the Moluccos, and in regard
[Moluccos describ'd.] that those delightful Provinces are so remote
from us, we will go on with what is remarkable in them, to show
the desperate Fury of those People, who had condemn'd them to the
Flames. All the five Molucco Islands are almost round, and of the
same Shape. The compass of the biggest is not seven Leagues. They
have all Crags, of a wonderful Height, cover'd with an odoriferous
Fragrancy of wild Cloves; and about them several Cities, Towns
and Forts. Their exact Roundness is the Reason they have no good
Harbours for both the Monsons of Norwest and South. Only Ternate
forms the Port they call Talangame, and a League from it, that of
Toloco, where Ships ride safe, and with their Boats close to the
Shore. The Forts were not erected in either of them, because they
should not be remote from the King's Court. Both these Ports look
to the Eastward, and have ridges of Rocks that break off the Sea,
and secure the Vessels. That of Ternate, opposite to the Fort admits
of Caravels, at high Water and spring-Tides, which being unloaded
ride where they will. This Ridge of Rocks is of a sort of Stone,
that turns into Coral, which when old hardens, and shooting out
many Branches, knits together, and turns again into Stone, whereof
excellent Lime is made. It is so contriv'd that those who come to it
by Sea, think they see noble Structures erected for the Defence of
the Harbour. The Mountain, which rises in the midst of Ternate, two
[Burning Mountain.] Leagues in Height, and cover'd with Palm, and
other rare Trees, has on the Top of it a Mouth or Cave, that seems to
reach down to the very Center. A Man can hardly be seen from the one
side to the other. Within it is a Square Spot, like a Threshing-Floor,
made of Stones and loose Earth. Some curious Persons have view'd it,
and among them one Gabriel Rebelo Factor, and Alcayde of the Fort;
who having sounded it, tying together several long Fishing-Lines,
found it was 500 Fath. deep. At the Bottom gushes out a beautiful
Spring, tho' no Man has dar'd to Tast of it, or try whether it is
Sweet or Sower. The loose Floor shakes with the Fire in the Bowels of
the Mountain; whereof the first Account was given by Anthony Galvam,
who Observ'd it in the Year 1538, when he was Commander in Chief over
these Islands. He went up to see that Wonder in Nature, at a safe Time,
for he could not have done it in April, or September, when the Sun
moves from one Hemisphere to the other, and crosses the Equinoctial,
which cuts half a Degree of Ternate, because of the Winds then kindling
the Flames. Had Pliny, when he went out of Curiosity to see the Burning
of Mount Vesuvius, in Italy, taken another opportunity, he had not been
Burnt to Death, as his Nephew writ to Cornelius Tacitus. It stinks, and
casts out Smoke, Sulphur, and Red-Stones, as it were out of the Mouth
of a Canon; shewing the Mountain to be hollow at the Foundation. It
causes Earthquakes, and Noise; and the Flames, and burnt Stones, have
reach'd to the City, and Fort, and even to the Islands of the Meaos and
Casures, twenty Leagues from Ternate. The Smoke is of several Colours,
because the Moisture and Corruption of the Earth exhales it thick, and
diversify'd, which is help'd by the ill Quality of the Air, and that,
with the falling of the Excrements the Fire casts out upon the Springs,
corrupts the Waters, and destroys Health. Going up this Mountain two
thirds of the Height, it is all Green and Fruitful; but the Top is
excessive Cold, without any sort of Fowl, or Birds, but abundance
of Flyes. Thence is descry'd a spacious Sea, and an infinite Number
of Islands; because the Purity of the Air, free from Exhalations,
as is said of the Top of Mount Olympus, represents curious Objects
to the Sight, and favours it without any Let, the greater part of
the Year. Where the Thickness of the Trees Terminates, a Spring of
fresh Water gushes out, so very cold that there is no Drinking of it,
but by Sips. At the Top, some distance from the Mouth, which casts
out the Flames, they at this time tore away a piece of the Mountain,
whence for two Days abundance of Water flow'd; great pieces of Rocks
roul'd down the side of the Hill, to the Sea; forming Concavities,
and bearing down Trees, and Ruins. The same Mountain, on the Top,
has a spacious sweet Pool, encompass'd with Trees, wherein there are
blew, and gold-Colour Alligators, above a Fadom long, who, as soon
as they hear People stirring, plunge down to the Bottom.

These Islands know no Difference of Summer and Winter; nor is there
[Seasons.] any settled Rainy Season, but it generally Rains more
with the North-East, than with the South Wind. The Molucco Islands
breed Snakes above 30 [Snakes.] Foot long, and proportionably thick;
but they are neither Quick of Motion, nor Venomous. Those who have
seen them affirm, That when they want Sustenance, they chew a certain
Herb Nature has shown them, and climbing the Trees by the Sea-side,
cast into it what they have chew'd; many Fishes come to Eate it,
and being made Drunk, lye helpless upon the Water; then the Snakes
launch out upon them, and satisfy their Hunger, till they are full of
those stupify'd Fishes. The Crocodils on the Land are [Crocodils.]
the fiercest of Monsters; the Ancients write almost the contrary of
those of the Nile. These in the Sea are so Timorous, that they suffer
themselves to be bound under Water. A Crocodile has been taken that
had four Eyes, and a very little Heart. Here are also found certain
Insects, which they [Insect.] call Cuzos, living on Trees, on whose
Fruit they feed: They are like Rabbits, their Hair thick, harsh, and
curl'd, of a brightish Brown; their Eyes round and sprightly; their
Feet small; and a very long Tail, by which they hang, the better to
reach the Fruit; and they stink like Foxes.

In the Desert Parts there are Wild-Fowl; some of the Tame are the
same we have in Europe. The Parots, in their Tongue call'd Nores,
of several [Parots.] Colours intermixt, Cry excessively, but Talk
well. An Islander affirms, That at this time, when the People were
Conspiring, a Parrot in the Air cry'd, I Dye, I Die; and beating his
Wings, fell down Dead. A Relation tells us of another, that came from
Amboyna, on the Mast of a small Vessel, when they went to take him,
he cry'd out, Sebastian, Sebastian, who was his Master, and came
to his assistance. There are great flocks of [Birds and Fishes.]
black Geese, with Parrots Feet; Martins, Swallows, Feldefares,
Thrushes, and Sparrow-Hawks. The variety of Fish is infinite; the
Sea-Cow, like that of Brazil; a sort of Crab, one part whereof Eaten,
kills in 24 Hours; this is on the Sea-shore, under certain Trees, whose
shade suffers no Grass or Herb to grow; those who Sleep in it Sicken,
and it dries and parches up the very Ground. There is another sort
of Crabs, not unlike Lobsters, but with less Claws; they have strong
white Teeth, with which they break the Shels, to eat the Almonds;
they breed among Rocks, are taken at Night with Light; their Body,
Claws, and all the Flesh, is like that of a Lobster. Near the Tail
they have a Bag, full of a certain Substance delicious to the Tast,
for which they are as much valu'd as Pullets.

[Strange Sticks.] All over the Moluccos there grows a sort of reddish
Sticks, which burn in the Fire, raise a Flame, and are like a burning
Cole, without wasting; They look to be of a Stony Nature, moulder away
betwixt the Fingers, and are easily broken by the Teeth. Not far from
the Fort of Ternate, is to [Tree of Butter-Flies.] be seen the Plant
call'd Catopa, from which there drop Leaves less than the common sort;
the Stem whereof, on a sudden, is form'd into the Head of a Worm,
or Butter-Fly; the Body and Fibers coming from it, make Feet, and
the Leafy Part, Wings; so that it soon becoms a perfect Butter-Fly,
and at the same time a Leaf. This Tree buds out every Year, like a
Chestnut-Tree, and from the Buds proceed these Worms, which run upon
Threads fastened to the Leaves. Nature was profuse with those People;
especially as to the Cloves, which I distinguish from the Long-Peper
Pliny perhaps spoke of, when he nam'd the Garyophillum. But since
the Profit of that so highly valu'd Product, was to occasion such
bloody Wars, such incredible Voiages, from all Parts of the World,
that the real Dangers, are even beyond human Belief; it may well be
controverted, whether it were [A good Remark.] most for the publick
Tranquility, that this Spice should be known, or ever conceal'd;
for its Plenty and Virtue, which awaken'd the Avarice of the remotest
Nations, has glutted those Seas with the Wracks of Ships, and Fleets,
and call'd thither Armies of Rebels, making their passage through
Streights before unknown, in the Sight of Mountains cover'd with
blew Ice and Snow, as never reach'd by the Suns bright Beams; and
yet they venture at all, not out of any Zeal of promoting Religion,
or Civility, but only to load with that Spice, which has occasion'd
Disobedience and Superstition. This is the precious Commodity, which
gives Power and Wealth to those Kings, and causes their Wars. A Wonder
of Nature, which plainly shows it has created nothing so harmless,
but what is abus'd by human Malice. This is the true Fruit of Discord,
rather than the fabulous Apple of the three Godesses, since for it
there has been, and still is, more Fighting, than for the Mines of
Gold. Had this happen'd in the Days of the Greek, or Latin Poets,
how much more would thay have spoken of our Moluccos, than they did of
the Islands Gorgones in the Ethiopick Ocean? Let us stop a little to
reflect on the Dangers Mortals expose themselves to, rather, perhaps,
to please their wanton Appetites, than to confirm their Health.

[The Confederates meet.] The People of Ternate, Tydore, Bachian, and
all the Neighbouring Princes, being impatient to put in Execution their
desperate Design, chose the King of Tydore for their Head, to joyn
with him of Ternate, that had been expell'd on account of the Death of
Gonzalo Pereyra. Among the Relations usually collected by the Christian
Curiosity of the Religious Men of the Society, we find that these
Kings met in the little Island, which divides Ternate from Tydore,
before they went each of them to his proper Post for performing what
was stipulated in the Confederacy, and there the King of Tydore, as
Chief of the League, spoke to them in this Manner. I cannot mention the
Occasion of this our Union, without shedding Tears, for the Joy [King
of Tydore's Speech.] of the Success, which we look upon as present,
produces the same Effects it would do, were we already Victorious. Our
Forces are assembled to deliver us from the Spanish Yoke, punishing
those Men with the Hazard of our Total Ruin, whom neither our Benefits
could oblige, nor our Threats correct. They are the great Robbers of
the World, who usurp it, by shrowding their Avarice under specious and
godly Pretences. In vain have we endeavour'd to moderate their Pride
by Means of our Modesty and Submission. If they meet with Wealthy
Enemies, the Portugeses show themselves Covetous, if with Needy,
they are Ambitious; this is the only Nation that equally seeks after
others Wealth and Miseries. They rob, kill, and subdue, taking away our
Dominions under false Titles, and think they have no settled Peace,
till they have reduc'd the Provinces into Desarts. We possess the
most fruitful Islands in Asia, only to purchase Servitude and base
Subjection with their Product, converting this blessed Bounty of Heaven
into Tribute paid to the Ambition of Intruding Tyrants. Experience has
show'd us, how odious our Valour has been to the Christian Commanders,
whom, for the same Reason, we must never hope to find more modest,
or less our Enemies. Assure your selves then, and remember, both
Kings and Subjects, both you who seek Glory, and you who provide for
your Safety, that neither of these is to be had without Liberty, nor
this without War; nor is the War to be maintain'd without Courage and
Unanimity. The Power of the Portugueses is increased, and on it their
Reputation depends. Having then discover'd the Mystery, and Cause of
this Tyranny, who is there that will not prepare to try the utmost
of Fortune, to purchase the greatest of human Felicities, which is
Liberty. Other Nations, which when they hear of our Resolution, will
call it Despair and Savageness; if they weigh it with the Occasion,
will rather Commend than go about to find Excuses for us. Besides,
every Man knows what is fit for his Religion, his Honour and his
Country, better than those who judge of these Things at a Distance. In
short, What is Life worth without Liberty?

Those incensed Kings made suitable Returns to these Words, and
having taken proper Measures to commence and carry on the War, went
away in their Vessels, without losing Time, or admitting of Delay;
as well knowing the many Dangers a great Undertaking is expos'd to,
which depends on Secrecy, and is imparted to many.

On the Day appointed, all the Natives departed the City of Ternate,
[Ternate City abandon'd and burnt.] with their Families, not in good
Order, as in Transmigrations, but raging, in Confusion, and loaded with
their Children, and a few Necessaries, having before sent away their
Effects to other Islands. To convince the Portugueses of their Design,
and that the People of Ternate abandon'd the Country, they set Fire to
the City in several Places; the Flames began to take hold and spread,
till they met, and of many small ones became one general Conflagration,
with hideous Noise and Cries; for not only the Houses were burnt, which
had for so many Ages belong'd to their Forefather, and Ancestors, but
all that attracts the Affection to our Native Country, the Temples,
all their worldly Treasure, and the Bounty of Nature; for the open
Country began now to feel the Desolation, the Caves, Lakes and Springs,
the Rocks, and the very Sea it self shin'd, boil'd up and crack'd,
and the Fire receiv'd into the subterraneous Caverns, lying in the
hollow Mountains, pierced into the deepest Recesses, roaring and
overturning Stones and Trees. In the mean while, the People travell'd
towards the Desarts, looking back to view the Effects of their Revenge.

[Resolution of the People.] Tristan de Atayde, amaz'd to behold
that dreadful Practice, having arm'd some Soldiers, sent Messages to
The Queen and Governours, to propose some Accommodation, and appease
that inhumane Rage. He promis'd to make Satisfaction, and that all
Things should be set right, but it avail'd nothing; for they rather
grew more furious, and would not hearken to any Proposal, or admit
of Treaty, that might make them slacken in their Resolution. Being
come to those Places which Nature has made strong among the Rocks,
they arm'd, and in Parties fell upon the Christians, lying in wait for
them when they went out for Wood or Water, and killing or wounding
them by Surprize. The Edict was put in Execution throughout all
the Islands at the same Time, destroying all the Portugueses that
were in them. In the City Momoya, they kill'd eight that were with
F. [Portugueses slaughter'd.] Francis Alvarez, but he fled to a Ship,
after receiving several Wounds. In the Island of Chion, the Head of
Moratay; they also slew the Priest, Simon Vaz; an Infidel rushing
into his Chamber, broke in Pieces the Picture of the Blessed Virgin,
he found there painted on a Board; but Heaven suffer'd him not to go
unpunish'd, for his Hands drop'd off on the Spot, and he dy'd a few
Days after. It was further observ'd, that within a Year there was not
one left alive of all his Race, which was destroy'd in War, and by
other Misfortunes and Calamities; as the last of them was fishing, a
Needle Fish sprung out of the Water, and struck him with the Snout in
the Eye, whereof he dyed. The whole Town perished miserably within a
few Years. Tristan de Atayde soon receiv'd the News of this Slaughter
of the Portugueses, and so successively of the others, throughout all
the Islands. He encourag'd his Men, and labour'd to hide his Concern
for being shut up among so many Enemies; he regulated the Distribution
of Provisions; sent out several Spies, to get Information of the
Enemies Motions and Designs: and order'd the Guard upon King Aerio,
who was in the Fort, to be always watchful, for the more Security,
leaving only the Nurses, and other Women that attended him. Then he
again employ'd other Persons to propose a Peace to the Queen, and the
King of Tydore, with ample Commission to offer advantageous Conditions,
which were to be immediately perform'd; but all prov'd ineffectual,
for an Accident which soon happen'd confirm'd the Enemies Obstinacy.

Catabruno, Governour of Gilolo, and Tutor to the Infant King, finding
[King of Tydore poison'd.] his Usurpation establish'd by Time, and a
good Disposition in the Minds of his Accomplices, poison'd the King;
and possessing himself of the Palace and Forts, ascended the Throne,
making the Subjects swear Allegiance to him. Tho' no Man in all those
Eastern Parts expected any other Event, yet was it look'd upon as
most certain, that Tristan de Atayde was consenting to the Poisoning,
and his Usurpation; besides other Circumstances produc'd so prove his
Guilt, it was notorious, that Atayde sent Catabruno a Robe of blew
Velvet, which he wore the Day he rebell'd, and was sworn King. God
so order'd it, that as soon as he was possess'd of the Kingdom,
he broke his Faith with Tristan de Atayde, and confederated with
the other United Princes, proving the greatest Enemy the Portugueses
had; for he fitted out numerous Fleets wherewith he warr'd on all the
Christians of those Islands, threatning and tormenting them that they
might renounce their Faith.

At this time the Governour of India, tho' there were some Troubles
at [Galvam sent to govern the Moluccos.] Goa, and in other Places,
sent Succours to Ternate, because it was towards the End of Summer,
and one must of Necessity go to succeed the Governour. Antony Galvam
was the Man appointed, who laid out above 10000 Ducats of his own
towards restoring the Places that had been burnt, by which it may be
truly said, he redeem'd the Moluccos. He was desirous, not only to
People, but even to enlarge Ternate, and to this Purpose he treated
with some poor marry'd Men, and needy Families, to go over with
him and their Wives and Children to those Islands; the same he did
with Men and Women, who were lewd Livers, that they might mend their
Lives in another Country, and embrace the legal State of Matrimony;
to which End, he lent them Money, and provided Necessaries for their
Voyage. In the meanwhile, the Tyrant Catabruno, assembled his Forces,
and mov'd against the City Momoya, where the Sangiack of it liv'd,
who had been before an ignorant Idolater, but then a Christian
Prince. He finding himself inferiour in Power, retired into a Fort,
with his Wife, Children [Momoya taken.] and Family. Some Portugueses
sent him by Tristan de Atayde, not daring to trust themselves shut
up there with him, withdrew into the Mountains, where they were soon
kill'd, pursuant to the Edict of the League. Catabruno enter'd the
City, without any Opposition, where he exercis'd his Cruelty, because
the wretched Inhabitants would not quit it; and many new converted
Christians recanted for Fear, or thro' the Violence of Torments. Being
Master of the City, he laid Seige to the Fort, giving it several
furious Assaults, which Don John withstood, making a resolute Defence,
and in some Sallies return'd Victorious; yet his Example prevailed
[Amazing Action of an Indian Convert.] not on his People, as it
usually does where it meets with generous Souls; so that this Prince
soon discover'd how faint-hearted most of them were; he suspected that
servile Fear would degenerate to such Baseness, that they would deliver
him up to his Enemy, and therefore like a brave Man, he presently bent
his Thoughts to secure the Salvation of his Soul. He knew Catabruno
valu'd himself upon his Zeal for the Law of Mahomet, and therefore
spar'd the Lives of all Christians that Apostatiz'd, putting to Death
such as prov'd stanch and constant; he fear'd his Wife and Children,
being pusilanimous, would fail in the Confession of their Faith,
and being fill'd with this Spirit, drew his Cimiter, ran to them,
and shedding Tears, which were not the Effect of Cowardice, slew
them one after another, first telling them his Reasons for so doing,
and that tho' in the Eyes of the World he might appear inhumane, yet
considering the Salvation of their Souls, what he did was a Religious
Magnanimity, and therefore they ought rather to thank him for it. This
was a mistaken Notion; and to go through stitch with it, he would,
still persisting in the same Error, have kill'd himself, but that he
was hinder'd by his own Servants, who to purchase the Tyrant's Pardon,
deliver'd up to him that Christian Prince, who had been so ill advis'd
by his Zeal. Being brought before Catabruno, who was inform'd how
cruelly he had slain his Wife and Children, he ask'd him, Why he had
undertaken so barbarous and inhumane an Action? Don John answer'd
him with great Courage and Undauntedness. At that Time, and in my
Thoughts, I had more regard to the Salvation of their Souls, than to
the preserving of their Lives. I mistrusted [His Words.] the Sex,
their Age, and your Torments, and would not hazard their persisting in
the true Faith. Souls are Immortal, and I took nothing from my Children
that they can feel the want of, or which Time, or your Sword would not
have depriv'd them of; the latter we should all have been thankful to,
as the Instrument of the Divine Will. But I much more dreaded your
Pardon and Mercy, by which you might have perverted their Minds, with
those Soothings which please frail Mortality. I being more resolute,
tho' expos'd to all your Fury, am so far from fearing the Effects,
either of your Torments or Intreaties, that I shall look upon you as
God's Executioner, and were it his Will, that you should take away
my Life, I should receive a greater Benefit from your Sword, than
from your Mercy. Catabruno, enrag'd at his Answer, order'd him to be
kill'd; but the Tyrant's own Friends, who lov'd Don John, the Sangiack,
carry'd him out of the Room, and contriv'd he should have his Liberty,
and be restor'd. Their Intreaties prevail'd on Catabruno, and he liv'd
many Years after in his own Dominions, with a Christian Constancy,
confessing his indiscreet Zeal, which had caused his own Sword to
deprive him of Wife and Children. A Mind truly worthy the best Part of
Europe, and not to be the Product of the most remote barbarous Nations;
and highly commendable, had it been directed by more solid Rules,
to curb that Fierceness, so opposite to all natural and divine Laws,
which looks upon such horrid Murders, as a Piece of Piety.

Tristan de Atayde was troubl'd at these Misfortunes, which were almost
[Several Actions.] under his Eyes; tho' he wanted not for others
nearer, for the People of Ternate being now Masters of the Island,
burnt all the new and old Towns, belonging either to themselves, or
the Christians, and amongst others, those of Trutupalate, Calamata,
and Isico, yet they met with brave Opposition in them all, and they
cost much Blood. Twice our Men went out to Fight the Tydore Fleet,
which came within sight of the Fort, and tho' they both times retir'd
Shatter'd, and well Beaten, the Barbarians had not much cause to Boast
of their Victory, for Abundance of them were kill'd, and scarce any
went off unhurt. The Confederates fitted out other numerous Fleets,
wherewith they much Streightened the Christians in the Fort, till
Antony Galvam arriv'd, who was at this time Sailing. But Relief came
before, Don Stephen de Gama, sending a Galeon laden with Provisions
and Ammunition to Ternate, under the Command of Simon Sodre. The
Galeon arriv'd safe, and with it the Support of those Disconsolate
People. They took Heart, and ventur'd to go abroad, spreading
themselves about the Island, and going into the Woods, met with ruin'd
Buildings, the remains whereof still smoked, and when it was Dark,
they observ'd the high Flames on the Mountains. However they made
Incursions upon the Barbarians and throughout all the Islands there
were hourly Engagements, either with the Christian Inhabitants, or
the Soldiers of the Forts; and at Sea they heard the Martial Musick,
which Sounded whilst they Sail'd, or Fought Manfully, and at that
time was dreadful.

In the mean while Captain Alvarado, a Spanish Gentleman, sent by
Ferdinand Cortes to Ternate, that the Valour he had shown in those
Parts, serving [Spaniards at the Papuas.] God and his King, might
not lie idle, discover'd the Islands of the Papuas, and fought those
Barbarians with Resolution, tho' the Portuguese Histories assign
the Honour of this Discovery to Don George de Meneses who arriv'd at
them in the Year 1526, as we have seen. The great Commander Alvarado
also Discover'd other Islands, call'd Gelles, in one Degree of North
Latitude, and East from Ternate, 125 Leagues from Batochina. The
Natives of those Islands are like those of the Moluccos in Colour,
Habit, and Customs, differing only in Language, which is peculiar
to themselves.

Antony Galvam sail'd from Malaca with the proper Monson, with [Galvam
Fights at Sea.] the Men, and all Necessaries to fight, and settle
Colonies. When he was past the Island Borneo, and the ridges or Rocks
which lie under Water, in sight of that Coast, as F. Marta, the Jesuit,
writes to the Governor Gomez Perez, and appears by his Papers, in
Sight of Malaca he Discover'd a great Fleet of Carcoas, and other
Chinese Ships, with Sails made of Canes, and Palm-Tree Leaves wove
together. He was soon satisfy'd, that they were the Auxiliaries which
had joyn'd the Janguas of Tydore and Catabruno, who, with the expell'd
King of Ternate, were Cruzing to meet the Portugueses, or Spaniards,
that should come into their Seas. Galvam order'd his Men to be in a
Readiness, to clear his Guns, and prepare all Things, doing the Duty
of a Commander, and of a Soldier. The Enemy drew up in three Lines,
each of its particular Nation, as if the Portugueses had many Ships. He
was himself in the Trading Galeon, and with it a Pink, and another
small Vessel, wherein, among the Marry'd Men, and Families unfit
for that Service, there were some few that could take up Arms. The
Infidels drew near, but without Artillery, the Gilolo Archers let fly
a great number of Arrows upon our Men, and then one Line shearing off,
the other discharg'd, the Air resounding, being peirc'd by the Darts,
and Calabays, or Staves hardned at the Fire. Galvam not regarding the
Danger, tho' at first he defended himself with Fights and Planks;
when he thought they had spent most of those flying-Weapons, among
which they fir'd some Muskets, he began to play his great Guns,
tearing their Vessels, and destroying the Men. He Sunk a considerable
number, and Took several, because they fought disorderly, relying,
as it were a Land-fight, on the Multitude of their Soldiers, as ours
did on their Valour, and Experience. But Galvam, whose Business it
was to get to Ternate, held on his Voyage, and arriv'd [Arrives
at Ternate.] there as he desir'd. His Men landed in that dismal
Solitude, among Smoke and Ruins. The Joy of those who were in the
Fort, and the extraordinary Relief, coming quite unhop'd for, were
an Encouragement to them all. The Clergy came out to receive him, the
Soldiers shouting amidst the Divine Hymns, confounding the Procession,
and their Satisfaction. It was a Pleasure to behold, and they gazed
on him as a Deliverer sent from Heaven. Tristan de Atayde resign'd
his Post, and Antony Galvam took Possession, enquir'd into the Nature
of the Confederacy, and the Fame of his Arrival being spread Abroad,
Things began to mend. To this Purpose he arrested Tristan de Atayde,
and afterwards sent him to Goa. He had before sent Messengers to the
Queen, to acquaint her with his Arrival, and the End of it, which
was to serve her, and retrieve all the Mischiefs an inordinate Desire
of Revenge had occasion'd. In the mean while he began to repair the
City, the Colonies, Churches, Keys, and Houses, distributing those
Families he had brought with him. Nor did he neglect Husbandry,
but planted Vines brought from Portugal, which he soon saw grown
up into substantial Vinyards. He deliver'd to the Clergy the new
Constitutions drawn up by Cardinal Henry, afterwards the last K. of
the House of Portugal. He offer'd Peace to all that would comply,
sent Religious Men to inculcate to those who liv'd like Outlaws, the
Love of their Country, its re-establishment, and how dishonourable
it was to them to make choice of a Life like that of wild Beasts,
only for a cruel Satisfaction.

[Strength of the Natives.] The Queen, who not to speak of her
natural Fierceness, expected to see her Son restor'd, and set at
Liberty, and to drive away the Portugueses, would not give Ear to any
Accommodation. The greatest Burden of the War lay then upon Tydore,
where the Confederate Kings, with the deposed Dayalo, a most Fierce
Man, gather'd above Fifty Thousand Fighting Men; but they had not yet
enclosed that City with a Wall and Ditch, being satisfy'd with having
built a Fort upon high Rocks, whence they spread abroad to pick up
the Fishermen, and other Portugueses that went out from Ternate to
get Provisions, and thence they infested that dangerous Coast. Galvam
fearing lest the Prolonging of the War should reduce him to the former
difficulties, sent other Messengers to treat of Peace, and perswade
those obstinate Kings, to Publish an Oblivion of all past Wrongs,
without taking Notice of the late engagement, offering them mighty
Presents, to purchase Commerce at the Price of them. They being puffed
up with some good Success, and their mighty Power; would not hearken
to any Proposals Peace; but on the contrary, as Maffæus Writes, they
return'd an Answer very abusive to the Portugueses. Galvam imploring
the Assistance of Heaven, so managed the Affair, that it was look'd
upon as amazing, even by such as view Things impartially. Nor would
it be credible, unless comfirm'd [Galvam sails over to Attack them.]
by other Enterprizes of his suitable to this. He had only four Tall
Ships, and a few smaller Vessels in the Port; these he speedily form'd
into a Squadron, putting in 400 Men, 170 of them Portugueses, the rest
to make up the Number, Slaves, and the common sort of Ternate. He
left Tristan de Atayde with some Men to defend the Fort, and secure
Sultan Aerio, and sail'd away himself for Tydore, without meeting any
Enemy, the reason of it not known, and lay by in a safe Place, about a
Musket-shot from that Island. Being come to an Anchor, he took a full
View of the Multitude that guarded the Shores, considering the Nature
of the Country, and Situation of the City. Having called a Council
of War, he resolv'd to Storm the Fort on the high Rock, then little
regarded, the Confederates thinking themselves safe. He made a Speech
to them in plain Terms, without any Rhetorical Ornaments. These are the
same People, said he, we have so newly Vanquish'd, to restore whom to
the Liberty they desire, would be a matter of small moment, did they
when possessed of it allow the Freedom of preaching the Gospel. This
is the Cause we are imbark'd in. Who then can doubt of Victory, or
not wish to Die for the obtaining of it? As these Enemies are the
same we Defeated, so are we the same Victors; so that I need not have
Recourse to Foreign Examples, to encourage you. Their Disobedience
and Restlessness is of a long standing; it will be but reasonable
that our Arms add one Victorious Day to so many Turbulent Years, that
so we may lay the Ax to the Root of Rebellion. They call us Tyrants;
that does not at all trouble me; because after the Victory, we shall
have the Opportunity of dispelling that Slander by our Moderation.

They would not suffer Galvam to put an end to his Speech, all of them
[The manner of the Attack.] pressing earnestly to Fight, and he
resolving to make himself Master of the Rock, as he had contriv'd,
pick'd out 120 Portugueses, and made out 300 from among the Rest,
leaving the Remainder to secure the Ships, and keep the Enemy in
Play, if they should attack them; making show of a greater Number,
by appearing in several Places, and shouting, by which such as fear
are easily imposed upon. In the mean while, Galvam having taken a
Native of Tydore, and oblig'd him to serve for a Guide, set out at the
fourth Watch in the Night with his Men, through by-ways remote from
the City, over-grown with Brambles, and scarce practicable, and with
the greatest silence he could came to the Top of the Mountain. The
Portugueses had march'd the greatest Part of the Way by the first
Dawn of Day, and resting them a little from the Fatigue, descry'd
the Enemy's shining Helmets and their Feathers on them. Galvam
then beginning, all the rest raised the Cry, To Arms, to Arms. The
Confederates, with Horrid Shouts, which resounded on the Rocks,
and in the Woods, made ready for their Defence, notwithstanding the
surprize; but soon perceived they should fall a Prey to our Men. The
Fight began, and King Dayalo, enrag'd for that he had been depos'd,
appear'd the foremost with some Troops, to secure the Passes, and
advanced to meet the Portugueses in a Plain. They avoided him not,
and both Parties mixing, much Blood was spilt. Dayalo was visible by
his bright Helmet, adorn'd with Variety of standing high Feathers,
[King of Ternate Kill'd.] and his Body cover'd with a Steel Coat of
Mail, brandishing with both Hands a Lance, as like a small Yard of a
Ship, and charging with desperate Fury; but happ'ning to rush in among
our Pikes and Musketiers, unadvisedly, he receiv'd several Wounds on
all Sides, and fell down raging. He was wonderful strong, and started
up immediately; concealing his Wounds and Pain, and beginning a fresh
Charge in the first Ranks, for fear of discouraging his Men. He Fought
a considerable Time; but not being Dress'd, and the Action causing
the Blood to run the faster, his Eye sight fail'd him, and he dropt
a second Time, saying to his Guards, Move hence as fast as you can,
and carry me carefully that the Dogs, so he call'd the Portugueses,
may not have the Satisfaction of cutting my Body in Pieces. His
Soldiers did so, not without great Danger; and he soon after he had
been carry'd off, gave up his haughty Soul. His Forces daunted by
this Accident, turn'd their Backs, hiding themselves among the Rocks
and Brambles, [The Indians routed.] throwing down their Arms, and
getting off through almost inaccessible Ways. Others return'd to the
City, and meeting some Troops that march'd to their Assistance, made
them return another Way. The Portugueses follow'd the Chace, killing
such as fled, and Galvam came to the Fort, with the Loss of only
one Slave. This Victory, which happen'd on the Feast of St. Thomas,
the Apostle, in the Year 1537, humbled the Pride of the Confederates;
was ascrib'd to the Intercession of that Apostle, and they observ'd
a solemn Thanksgiving. The Fort was fired with good Advice, for the
Citizens and Traders, seeing the Flames so near, abandon'd their
Houses, and departed the City with the flying Multitude. Galvam was
now coming down from the Hill, having drawn together his Men, and
form'd them into small Bodies, with sound of Trumpets and Singing,
to make his Victorious Entry into that City, now void of Defendants,
and full of Wealth. Considering that the Avarice of the Victorious
Soldiers spur'd them on to take Possession of that inestimable Booty,
for all the [Tydore burnt.] Merchants had brought their Effects to
Tydore, as the safest Place. Galvam order'd to set Fire to the Houses,
all which were consum'd with their harmless Treasure, in Sight of
those who had hop'd to be Masters of it; only the Provisions being
providentially sav'd.

Of the People of Tydore as many were taken as did not in Time save
themselves by Flight; as also a Junk in the Port, and several other
small Vessels. The Enemies afterwards perish'd in other smaller
Actions. The daunted King, hasted Home to secure their own Lands,
disolving the Confederacy, and being sufficiently warn'd, gave Ear to,
and [Peace concluded.] embrac'd Proposals of Peace; taking leave of
him of Tydore, and agreeing with Galvam, whose Vertue and Discretion
gain'd so much upon Cachil Rade, that King's Brother, that he came to a
Conference with him and concluded a Peace upon certain Conditions. The
King of Tydore oblig'd himself to restore Galvam the Cannon; not to
assist the Enemies of Portugal; not to permit the Clove to be dispos'd
of into any other Hands than the Portuguese Officers; and to sell it
as was usual at Ternate. Galvam went over next to subdue Gilolo, and
the other Kings, all which he compass'd successfully. The Queen also
submitted, either on Account of the King of Tydore's Falshood, or that,
as she said, she grew weary of the War, or else because the depos'd
King was kill'd. Catabruno was appeas'd by Galvam's good Behaviour,
and accepted of Conditions, among which the chiefest was, that Galvam
should set Sultan Aerio at Liberty. Thus the Confederacy was dissolv'd,
and the Maluccos laying down Arms, submitted again. Provisions were
furnish'd as before, and the Crops, and Trade of Spice were restor'd.

[Sultan Aerio King of Ternate.] Sultan Aerio attended by the
Christians and Gentiles, Dancing, and making other demonstrations
of Joy, went from the Fort to his Palace, where he remain'd with
his Guard, and Family. Before he Marry'd, tho' he never wanted for
Concubines, he in Person took a Progress to the principal places
in his Dominions of Ternate, Moutil, and Machian. Those in the Fort
attended and assisted him, together with the Sangiacks, who went all
about that Archipelago, first on that side they call Del Moro, that
is towards Batochina, and is distant from the Moluccos 60 Leagues
Northward, beginning at the Isles of Doe, two Leagues to the Point
of Bicoe. All these are Inhabited by Wild People.

[Batochina, that is Gilolo describ'd.] Batochina is 250 Leagues
in Compass, and Subject to two Kings, which are those of Gylolo,
and Lolada. This last is Ancienter than all those of the Moluccos,
or in those Seas, and formerly was the most Powerful; but now the
Weakest. The Inhabitants of the North part of Batochina are Savage,
without any King, Laws, or Towns, living in Deserts. Those on the
East-side have populous Towns, on the Sea Shore; and tho' they speak
several Languages, yet they understand one another. This Coast they
call'd Morotia, that is, Land Moor. The other Islands opposite are
call'd Morotay, that is, Sea-Moor, and all those Isles breed deceitful,
brutal and dastardly Men. Only the City Moncoya is Warlike. It ever
wanted Laws, Weights, Measures, Coin, Gold, Silver, and all other
Metals, and a King; but it is overstock'd with Provisions, Arms, Idols,
and Devils speaking in them. The Women Till the Land. Each of these
Towns is Govern'd by a Magistrate chosen by the People; they pay him
no Taxes, but have Regard to his Descent. The Molucco Kings conquer'd
them, and every one kept what he could get; the better part belongs
to him of Ternate, and less to the King of Tydore, whose Dominions
were enlarg'd by the Power of Spain. They went on to establish their
Possessions among the Papuas, or Papous, East from the Moluccos,
being Islands little resorted to, because many of them are all
encompass'd with Flats and Shoals. The Natives of them are Black,
like the Cafres; they wear their Hair wound about in large curl'd
[Papuas, or Papous.] Locks, their Visages lean and ugly. The Name
of Papuas in their Language signifies Blacks, being a stern People,
enur'd to Labour, and fit for any piece of Treachery. All their
Islands are subject to Kings, and abound in Gold, which they do
not Transport, because no Man lays up any more of it than is us'd
in their Ornaments. Among these Black-men there are some as White
and fair as the Germans; if these go out in the Sun, they are struck
blind, tho they do not look at it. Those in Spain are call'd Albinos;
yet some of them are strong, and can behold any Object. Among these
Papuas there are many deaf. As to the Extent of this Country, if we
may believe the Accounts of Spanish Pilots, who have sail'd that way,
these Islands run along a vast Continent, which terminates at the
Streights of Magellan. These Kings entertain Friendship with Ternate,
whither they sent Embassadors, and as much as was here subject to
the Moluccos, had no Share in the desperate Fury of the League. So
did those of Celebes to the Westward, being many notable Islands, the
great Island Celebes it self, as also Mindanas; so those of Bisaya,
abounding in Iron; Mascaga, and Masbate, which have much Gold, as
well as Mindanas; that of Sologo, and others producing Provisions,
Spice, Sanders, Eaglewood, [Other Islands.] Cinnamon, Camphire,
Tortoshell, Ginger, and Long Pepper. Some of these Islands are subject
to the King of Borneo, others to those of Tydore and Bachian, but
the most to him of Ternate. The People are generally treacherous;
many of them go naked, painting their Bodies in Falcage, and other
Figures; their Hair long, hanging on their Backs, or else knotted,
and cut short over the Forehead, like our Peasants; their Faces large;
their Teeth well shap'd and black; and their Ears bor'd. The Natives
of [Celebes.] Celebes are filthy, and vile in their Behaviour; the
Æquinoctial passes over their Island, which is full of little Towns;
a whole Race living in every House. On their Walls they hang the Hair
of those they have kill'd in War; and the greatest number of them
is most Honourable. There are among them several sorts of Monstrous
Productions. One of these is a Tree bearing a vast Head, the shade
whereof kills any Man that lyes down under it on the West-side, unless
he immediately lye down on the East-side; the same shade at only a
Yard distance being an Antidote against its opposite Malignity. In
these Towns there are horrid Stews of Sodomy; tho there are no such
at Ternate; but they have gone as far as Amboyna, which lyes South
of it. Among the Moluccos there are many Islands subject to their own
Chiefs, full of excellent Waters, and delightful Banks. Formerly they
were free, afterwards conquer'd by the Kings of Ternate and Tydore;
against whom they also rebell'd, and submitted to the Queen of Japara,
and many Christian Towns were subject to the Portugueses. They yield
above 2000 Hundred Weight of Cloves Yearly; which the Jaos are Masters
of, none being to obstruct them; they go over and Barter, and carry
it away in their Junks. We speak elsewhere of their Fertility. Our
Relations tell us, they produce a fort of Reeds, or Canes, above
fifty fathom long, and no thicker than a mans little finger. South
from Amboyna lye the Islands of Banda; and about 300 Leagues to
the Eastward; some affirm, there is one which is all over an entire
Mine of Gold, and the Natives not above a Yard high. If this be so,
and these the true Pigmies, who will look upon the Battels mention'd
in Homer's 3d Iliad, betwixt them and the Cranes, as Fabulous. Those
scatter'd Dominions were again united and submitted to Sultan Aerio,
whose Marriage Solemnities, Building of Masques, Publick Festivals,
and other Works of Peace, we must pass over in silence, as not proper
for our purpose, they being only a pleasing sort of Digressions.

[Mezquita Governs at Ternate.] The Kings of Portugal sent several
Commanders in Chief to Ternate, and last in the Year 1570; James Lopez
de Mezquita, who had commanded on the Molucco Seas, took Possession
of the Fort. In his Time Sultan Aerio, a courteous and affable Man,
continu'd in Subjection to Portugal, valuing himself upon being true
to his Word in all his Actions. Nevertheless, there wanted not some
ill-meaning Persons, who mislik'd his Government, and pretended that
he did not exercise his Power legally. They said, he had given way
to those Vices, into which luxurious Princes are wont to fall; those
being generally the Fruits of a long Peace. They fancy'd, he retained
the Memory of past Tragedies; and particularly his Mother's inhuman
End, and therefore persecuted our Religion; tho at the [Pretences
to destroy King Aerio.] same Time the Memories of those Days do
not charge him with any Temporal Disobedience, or want of Fidelity;
but they rather compar'd him to Massinissa, King of Numidia; and say
the Portugueses ought to have respected him, as the Romans did the
other. The Commander hearing of those Abuses, and fearing greater might
ensue, some Religious Men encreasing his Jealousie, he endeavour'd to
redress them by Friendly Admonitions, and other Contrivances. Those
Methods had no effect on him, for he answer'd, he was in his own
Dominions, where, without offence to the Portuguese Sovereignty, he
might live as he pleas'd. Mezquita resolving to try harsher means,
since the others did not at all move the King, nor make him uneasie,
as relying on his Innocency; began to deprive him of his Revenue,
and the Income of the Spice; threatning also, that he would, in all
other Respects, execute the last Will made by his Brother Tabarija,
wherein he appointed the King of Portugal for his Heir; or at lest
would treat him so like an inferior Person, that he should scarce be
able to assume the Name of King; for such is the Punishment they are
lyable to, who do not observe that Decorum which was inviolable in
their Ancestors.

Cachil Babu, Son to Sultan Aerio, taking a Progress about this Time,
through his Father's Islands, a Subject came to complain to him
against certain Portugueses, who had taken away his Daughter; for
which fault he order'd them all to be kill'd, as if they had been
accessary to the ravishing of the Maid. He had no Directions, nor
so much as the consent of King Aerio for this exorbitant Command,
which took no effect. On the contrary he afterwards so generously
resented it, that he order'd the Prince to be seiz'd, and would have
punish'd him severely, had he not been hindred by those the wrong was
offer'd to. This plain Demonstration was [The Portugueses seize and
send him to Goa.] not sufficient to divert the Portuguese Commander
from imputing the Sons Fault to the Father, contrary to all Reason
and Likelihood. All discreet Methods us'd by well-meaning Persons to
reconcile them two, failing; James Lopez by his King's Authority, which
generally is most unreasonable, the farther it is from the Prince,
from whom it is deriv'd, presum'd to imprison the Sultan; being dragg'd
away from a Pleasure-House, where he was passing the Heat of the Day,
among his Women; His Subjects lov'd him, and their Resentment for this
wrong was proportionable to their Affection; nor did the Portugueses
approve of the Fact. The Commander perceiving that all Men were against
him, and that after all Enquiries and Examinations, the King's Cause
still appear'd the better, and his Fidelity was more visibly made out,
he gave him his Liberty, to the great Satisfaction of his Kingdoms,
which were attentive to the Event; but upon Condition he should go to
Goa to clear himself, where he expected they would cut off his Head,
upon the Informations he would send against him. The King set out,
and before he came to Malaga, the Viceroy [The Viceroy acquits him.]
writ to him, begging he would return to his Kingdom, for he was fully
convinc'd of his Innocence, and promis'd to punish the Causer of those
Troubles; but at that Time, for some Considerations, was satisfy'd
with reproving him. The K. returning to Ternate, the Commander was
sent Prisoner to Goa, and had been more severely punish'd; but that
Fortune preserv'd him, to be an Instrument of the loss which has
lasted till our Days.

Within a Year after his Imprisonment he was restor'd to his Command
in Ternate, where be again practic'd against that King; for there
are some [Pretended Reconciliation.] Dispositions which never part
with the Jealousies they have once conceiv'd. Ternate was as it were
the Metropolis in Religious matters, and King Aerio had never offer'd
any Affront to us either in Spirituals or Temporals, for which Reason
there never wanted some grave Persons in his Court. These Zealously
reconcil'd them two, and that perfectly, as to outward Appearance,
and that their renew'd Amity might be lasting, the King assur'd
the Commander upon Oath, according to his Sect, that he would never
privately harbour the least Jealousie of him; but before he admitted
of any, would discover it to him, that so he might either receive,
or make Satisfaction; to the end no Accidents might revive any
Mistrusts. The [Falshood of Mezquita.] Commander made the King the
same solemn Promise, both of them being thus pacify'd, and in the
Opinion of all those who mediated betwixt them, so Friendly, that
none could imagine such perfect Amity could ever be dissolv'd. But
there being nothing less permanent among Men than Reconciliations, the
Portuguese Commander reassuming the Hatred which never was extinct,
or perhaps so much as lay'd aside, resolv'd to destroy Sultan Aerio
when only five Days were elaps'd since the Re-establishment of their
Friendship sworn to on both sides. This could not be kept so private,
as not to come to the Sultan's Ears; but the Consideration that he
was a King, his own Sincerity, and the fresh Reconciliation, made
him think he was secure. But if the Nature of Man be such as not
to forgive when it has done a Wrong, what can be less secure than
injur'd Innocence? The Commander feigns himself Sick, and sends to
desire the King, that since he is not able to wait on him in his
Palace, he will be pleas'd to honour him with a Visit in the Fort,
there to confer with his Highness about some important Affairs
which concern the King of Portugal, his Master, and are not fit to
be communicated to any other. All the Answer the King return'd,
was to go himself to Visit the Sick Man, tho' he had Information
better grounded than on bear Surmises, that Martin Antonio Pimentel,
the Commanders Nephew, had Orders to murder him, as soon as ever he
came into the Fort. [Aerio's Innocent Bravery.] He could not prevail
upon himself to believe a Treacherous Design; so far does Innocence
prevail over a generous Soul. But when he saw that at the Gate, they
stopp'd his Guards, the Sangiacks and Cachiles, that attended him,
he then began to be convinc'd of the Villany, yet went on without
being disorder'd, and showing an undaunted Countenance. And tho' he
could not forbear dropping some Tears, when he took leave of his Sons,
however he presently compos'd his Countenance, so that he was not at
all dismay'd, tho' in the Commanders Nephew's Looks he saw visible
Tokens of his Unkles Commission. He would have complain'd to the
Commander of the Disrespect of those who stopp'd his Attendance, but
they would not suffer him to go on. The Mask being now laid aside, and
the true Design appearing, in Violence he call'd out to the Sangiacks,
but the Gate was shut against him and them. Pimentel came up to him
with a Naked Ponyard, and begg'd his Pardon like an Executioner. The
King, without showing any Surprize, or Disorder, Bid him consider what
he was going to do; for there were many left to revenge his Death,
besides his Sons and Subjects, all the Kings of the Archipelago, as
well the Sovereigns who were in Alliance, as those who ow'd Fealty
to the Crown of Portugal. This Instance, said he, will make them
dread every Capricious Humour of a Commander in chief. If still that
Jealousie survies, which has so often been prov'd groundless, I will
deliver my self up to the King of Portugal; and if my Death be of such
Consequence to you, yet respite the Execution but a little, for at my
Age, Time will soon perform what your Swords are to do. They [He is
murder'd.] now began to fall upon him, and he seeing a Brass Cannon,
on which were the Arms of Portugal, clasping his Arms about it, said,
Christians, at least show some respect to these Arms; for you kill
a King that has paid the greatest Deference to your Crown. This last
Testimony of his Innocence was of no Force to appease those Murderers;
though formerly in Rome, the embracing the Statues of the Emperors was
sufficient to deliver Slaves from being punish'd by their Masters. It
may be a Question whether his Soul was sav'd; for there are those
who affirm, he intreated the Murderer to permit him to be Baptiz'd;
who answering, It was then too late, without granting his Request,
or any Respite, ran furiously upon that Antient Prince, who made
no Resistance, and stabb'd him in several Places. They carry'd the
Body into a Vault. The King's Kindred and Servants heard the Noise,
and suspecting the worst; went away in great Disorder, to the City,
where there was already a confused Rumour of what had happen'd, and
being Distracted, ran shrieking about the Streets, where nothing was
to be heard but Weeping, Threats, Complaints and Disorder.

The Principal Queen, with the Kings other Wives, and Slaves, his
Sons, and Brothers, laying a side all State, came out of the Palace,
already surrounded by the Multitude, in Confusion and Dispair,
and being follow'd by most of the Portugueses, who no less abhorr'd
the Fact, ran to the Fort, crying out to let them see their King,
as still doubting of what they heard. [Mezquita's Inhumanity.]
The Commander appear'd in Armour on the Wall, and said, They should see
him immediatly; and then came up a Soldier, bringing the Kings Head
with the Royal Turbant on it. After him came others, with his Arms,
Legs, and Body cut into small pieces, all which they hung upon the
Battlements in the sight of his People. Afterwards they Salted them,
as if the perpetuating of the Wrong had been requisite. This was
what most provok'd the injur'd People, who no longer able to behold
so inhumane a Spectacle, and being beside themselves, and fearing
more Mischief, return'd with their Family. The Sons out of Respect
to their Fathers Body, went away from Ternate to several Islands,
tho' in Reality they departed to excite others by their Presence,
representing the Hideousness, and Horror of the Fact; and to dispose
their Revenge. For the present they were satisfied with sending to
complain of the Commander in Chief.

[Complain'd of at Goa.] Their Embassador arriv'd at Goa clad in White,
which is the Mourning of the Molucco Islands, and upon the Faith of
his Credentials, acquainted the Viceroy with the whole matter; proving
the Innocency of the Murder'd Sultan; representing the Wrong done to,
and the Sorrow of his Family, and Kingdoms, who so passionately Lov'd
him; and beseeching him, in the name of them all, to Right them against
the Man, who with the Power and Authority of the Portuguese Arms, had
Violated the publick Faith and the Laws of Nature. The Viceroy gave
him a favourable hearing, tho' by that Time the matter was otherwise
represented at Goa, at least among the Portuguese Nation. They said,
That King Aerio going to visit the Commander [False pretences of the
Portugueses.] in Chief, Martin Antonio Pimentel, went in with him,
and they contended in Words upon some Point, when the Portuguese
answering him angrily, they fell to their Weapons, and the King was
kill'd in the Quarrel. They added, That he was Advis'd so to do,
by some of our Religious Men, who were offended at the Persecution
of the Christians, and the Obstructing of the King of Portugal's
Service. Pimentel made his Defence with the Original Letters, of
those who perswaded him to commit the Fact, and who afterwards sav'd
him. However the Viceroy did not Reject the Plaintifs; but promis'd to
Right them; and to shew that he design'd them farther satisfaction than
a bare Promise, he sent away the necessary Supplies for the Security
of the Fort of Ternate, and Nunno Pereyra de la Cerda, a Gentleman
of Courage, and the necessary Sagacity to succeed the other in a Post
where all things were in Confusion. He also writ to King Sebastian of
Portugal, acquainting him with the Death of King Aerio; how Cruelly
and Unjustly he had been kill'd; what a Revolution there was cause
to fear it might produce; whom he had sent to succeed Mezquita; the
Orders he had to Secure him, as also Pimentel, if he could find him.

[Pereyra succeeds Mezquita.] Nunno Pereyra arriv'd at Malaco with
the Molucco Embassador, whence, at the proper Season, they Sail'd to
Ternate, where as soon as they Landed, order was taken for Correcting
the Insolency of those in the Garrisons, who robb'd, and obstructed
Trade. When he had settled these Affairs, he seiz'd the late Commander
in Chief, James Lopez; but did not punnish him there, in the sight
of those who had been wrong'd, which would have appeas'd them. The
new Commander sollicited the Kings Sons to return to Ternate, and
endeavour'd to give them, and the Kingdom Satisfaction. He easily
convinc'd them, that the Publick was no way guilty of their Fathers
Death, but only the Commander Mezquita, who should be severely
punish'd. That [He fawns.] he deliver'd them the Kings Body, to
be Bury'd with due Honour. That they should settle the Succession,
offering it to Cachil Guarate, Aerio's Eldest Son. He told them,
the King of Portugal did not send his Commanders to be Enemies, but
Protectors of the Royal Family and State of Ternate, and therefore
they should make use of his Arms, as their own. They return'd apparent
Thanks for what Pereyna did, and being indifferently satisfy'd with his
Promises, took the Kings Body. A few Months after, on the Day appointed
for the Barbarous Obsequies, Embassadors from the neighboring Kings,
and Kingdoms landed at the City, who all repair'd to the Palace,
clad in White, with the dead Kings Sons, and Brothers, the Sangiacks
and Soldiers, and the Chiefest of them, going into the Room where
the Coffin was before the Mourners, who are Officers of the Grave,
began their Lamentations [Revenge vow'd.] and Cryes, they all swore
upon the dead Body, to take a Revenge suitable to the Wrong; but
because this Resolution requir'd a more deliberate Preparation, they
suspended it for a Year. It is reported, that Heaven anticipated them
within that time, punishing Pimentel, striking him to the Heart with
the Disease call'd Berber, whereof he dy'd swelling up, and raving.

[Assembly of the Indians to consent.] The Funeral Rites being
perform'd, the Prince took leave of Nunno Pereyra, to go over to
the Island Ires, where they have a most stately Country-House, and
the principal Mosque. There they all met on pretence of Diverting
themselves after their Sorrow, tho it was now almost two Years since
the occasion of it happened. The Cachilas and Sangiacks repair'd
thither under the same Colour, and without loosing any Time, they
proposed the Uniting the Forces of their Kingdoms, and shaking off
the Portuguese Yoke. What shall we, said they, value the Portugueses,
if once we come to be sensible of our own Strength? What can we Fear,
or not Dare to attempt? The Portugueses value him who Robs most, and
is guilty of the greatest Crimes and Enormities. The forcing away of
our Product, their one lewd Pleasures, and our Wrongs, are Occasion
for them to make War; ours are our Country, and the Defence of our
Parents, our Wives, our Children, and our Liberty. It is necessary to
expedite the Execution, because a Secret is not lasting among many,
and in Affairs of this Nature, there is more Danger in Consulting,
than even in Execution. We have been already too long in Confusion,
without a Head. No Man contradicted; but neither Cachil Guarate,
the Eldest of the Brothers, nor the Second, durst take upon them so
difficult an Enterprize. Cachil Babre, the Third, undertok it, with the
usual Ingagement, either to Conquer, or to Dye. They presently lifted
him up, with general Applause, and his Election being made publick,
the Kingdom easily submitted to him, through the desire of Revenge;
tho' according to the Custom of the Molucco Islands, as soon as the
King has any Son born, they swear him his Successor, in his turn,
and there was then no need of any other Oath, yet they again swore to
Cochil Babu. This done, they went out to their Mosque, in Procession,
to offer Sacrifice. A Boy went foremost with a naked Sword on his
Shoulder, and with the other Hand [Sacrifice.] leading a Kid, which
was to be the Victim, with the little Horns Gilt. The Alcoran forbids
Sacrifising; but these Islanders receive the Rites of Mahometanism
so confus'dly, that with them they also retain those of their ancient
Idolatry, and intermix the Ceremonies. He that conducts the Sacrifize,
is, according to their Custom, follow'd by part of the Kings Soldiers,
with their Pikes advanc'd, and after them goes one holding up on high a
small Gold Vessel, or Pan, with burning Coals in it, the Frankincense
they throw in Smoking. Next to him was the new King, over whose Head
they always carry an Umbrello, made of Feathers of several Colours,
in shape of a large Semicircle. The King was encompass'd by those
Soldiers, that are given him by his Subjects by way or Acknowledgement,
like the Turkish Janizaries. In this Order they came to the Mosque,
at whose Gates, whensoever they are to enter, they find Kettles
and Pots full of Water, to wash their Hands and Feet before they go
in. As soon as the King was upon the Threshold the Musick play'd,
and they spread Milk-white Carpets, as is the Custome: Kneeling on
them, they mutter out their vain Prayers, bowing their Heads down to
the Ground. In the midst of the Mosque stands a Pulpit, cover'd with
white Cloth. Instead of a Bell, there hangs up the holy great flat
Drum, which they beat with Sticks; tho each Mosque has a great Bell,
without a Clapper, which they strike with a Stone, or piece of Iron,
when requisite. All that hear it, of what Condition soever, repair to
the Temple, with Pikes, Shields, Cymitars, and Muskets. The profane
Sacrifice being ended, they conducted the new King to the Harbour; he
went into his Carcoa, with his Family, and the other Sangiacks, and
[The King's Carcoa.] great Men, into many others. The King's is so
contriv'd, that there is a Gang-way all round it, made of Canes. There
are two Slaves to each Oar; others do the Service of the Vessel, and
near every one lies a Number of Arrows. Instead of Oars they use a
sort of great Paddles, like Spoons, with which they also lade out the
Water the Vessel takes in. On the upper part they make Musick with
their Tabors, and Sounding-Basons of Metal, according to which they
Row faster or slower, as we Dance to our Musick. In the same Place
there are seven Brass Guns; a considerable number of Pikes advanc'd,
longer than ours, and a Bed adorn'd with Quilts interwoven with Gold,
and by it hung the King's Helmet, Breast, and Back Plates. He sat,
or lay on that rich Bed, the Servants of his Bed-Chamber Fanning him
with a large Wing, made of various colour'd Feathers of the Birds
that fly about his Islands; thus he Coasted about, the Sea and Shore
resounding with Guns, Shouts, and Barbarous Instruments.

At the same time that they seem'd to be wholly taken up with Sports and
Diversions, in the Island Ires, they Vow'd an irreconciliable Enmity
[War Proclaim'd.] to the Portuguese Nation, with the same Solemnity
as they had sworn Allegiance to their King; and this Secret having
been inviolably observ'd, when the new K. thought convenient he caused
it to be Publish'd throughout all his Dominions, which consists of
seventy two Islands in that Archipelago, betwixt those of Mindanao,
on the North; Bima and Corca on the [Dominions of Ternate.] South;
and the Continent of the Papuas, or Papous, otherwise call'd New
Guinea on the East: The Inhabitants whereof pay him their Tribute
in Gold, Amber, and Birds of Paradise; all which Provinces have
been Usurped from other Kings, on whose Ruins his Pride is swollen
so high, that he stiles himself in his own Language, Emperor of the
Archipelago. In most of them there were at that Time some Christian
Towns, Churches, and Preachers, and the Gospel was receiv'd in the
eight principal Nations. Idolater and Mahometan Embassadours came
from them all to acknowledge, and swear Fealty to Cachil Rabu. In this
great Assembly the Desire of Revenge was made the Cause of Religion,
and in it began the longest Persecution the true Faith has undergone
in our Days. It will be therefore requisite, distinctly to describe
the remote, and neighbouring Countries and Nations that carry'd it on;
and the Strength, and standing Forces, [Forces of the Kings of Ternate
and Provinces.] they have ready at all times upon any Occasion.

The sixteen greater Towns of Ternate furnish their K. with 3000 Arm'd
Men; the Island of Montil, distant from it six Leagues South, 200; that
of Machian, eight Leagues distant, 1500; that of Caioa four Leagues
from Mechian, the same way, 300; those of Gazea, twelve Leagues from
Caioa, 300; those of Xula, fifty Leagues from Ternate, 4000; those
of Burro, seventy Leagues distant, 4000; those of Veramula eighty
Leagues from Amboina, and are the same Number of Leagues in compass
50000; those of Buaro, and Manipa, lying betwixt those of Veranula
and Burro, 3000; those of Na, Nolo, and New Guinea, which are many,
and very populous, fifty Leagues East from Ternate, send no certain,
but numerous Forces; that of Ires, where the King then was, 400;
and pays Tribute in Amber, and Birds of Paradise. Those of Meaos and
Tasure, on the North, 400. Those of Doe, distant thirty Leagues some
way, 900. Those of Rao and Saquita, seventy Leagues North, 1000. The
great Batochina, or Gilolo, four Leagues from Ternate, 10000. The
large Island Matheo, contains several Kingdoms, thirty Leagues to the
Westward, each of them subject to its own King, and all of them to him
of Ternate; send him Arm'd Troops. Totole and Bool 6000 Men; Guayduda
7000; Gorontano and Iliboto, 10000; Tomine, 12000; Manado, 2000; Dondo,
700; Labague, 1000; Fulo, and Jaqua, 10000; Gape, Tobuquo, and Butu
are all subject to him, and the number of their supplies is uncertain;
but Sanguien and its King, 40 Leagues from Ternate, serve him with
3000 Men. This was not the standing Force, which without adding to it
the uncertain number, nor the multitude of slaves, amounts to 120300
Men. This particular F. Martin sent to the Governor Gamez Parez,
and the original was deliver'd to me. Since then, that Kings Power
is increased, and because more Formidable, by reason of his Alliances
with several Princes, entering Amity with some, and Oppressing others,
and practising the Rules of Tyranny among them all, as Artfully as
was formerly done by Greece, Rome, and Carthage. Of their Game, Fish,
Rice, Sagu, and other Stores of Fruit and Spice, and the Royal Mines,
we shall speak when the Subject in Hand requires it; and so of their
Weapons, of which last it is to be observ'd once for all, that those
they Dart, are all poison'd, and the Fire-Arms differ not from ours.

For managing of this great Design, the King privately sent about
his Brothers, [Pereyra prepares his Defense.] and Sangiacks; but
so great an Army could not be contracted from such distant Parts,
without being heard of by the Christians, and particularly Nunno
Pereyra. He suspecting that the Desire of Revenge still prevail'd in
the injur'd Parties, and that the first Effects of it would fall upon
his Fort, tho' the Sultan's Murderer was not then in it, strengthned
it proportionably to the Siege he expected. Prudence supplies the
Place of Prophesy. The Fort was not then erected, which is since to
be seen in Ternate, on a high Ground of difficult Ascent, next the
Sea, and the Back of it defended by a Lake, next the Mountain; being
three Miles distant from the first Fort: It was afterwards built
to defend themselves against great Fleets; not satisfy'd with that
they had before on the Plain, [The Portuguese Fort.] next the Sea,
made of dry Stones, without Mortar; which being since improv'd in all
Respects, is now built with Lime, the Walls a Yard and half thick,
and Fifteen in Height; Forty in Length next the Sea, with a round
Tower at each Angle, like the ancient Spanish Fortresses. Nunno
Pereyra endeavour'd with all possible Diligence, to shut up in it
the greatest Number he could of all the Christian Families, and to
be in a Readiness to stand the Siege, which soon ensu'd. He sent
Advice to India and Portugal of the Intelligence he had receiv'd,
demanding Succours, as in a certain Danger; but it could never have
come in Time; for some Part of those Forces being assembled in the
Island Ires, the Rest staying on Botochina, in that Part which is
properly call'd Gilolo, and is remote from the Portugueses, they
there began to persecute Christianity by publick Decree.

The Apprehension of these Mischiefs, had much perplex'd all the
Governours of those Provinces, because it was daily confirm'd by
visible Proofs of an open Insurrection. James Lopez de Marquita was
already kept Prisoner in the Fort of Benastarim at Goa, those confin'd,
and the Viceroy expected Orders from Spain to dispose of him, and the
Forces; because it was fear'd the King of Ternate might make use of
the great Supplies which could be sent him from China; especially if
that were certain which was then discoursed in Spain. It was reported,
[Project of abandoning the Philippine Islands.] That the Council of
State, observing that the Philippine Islands were rather an Expence,
than an Advantage to the Crown, being many, and hard to be maintain'd,
had propos'd to King Philip, to quit them, and withdraw the Court of
Justice, and the Garrisons that defend them. They added the Example of
the Chineses, who abandon'd them, tho' they are such near Neighbours,
and can relieve them with as much Ease, as if they were joyning to
their Continent. That as Spain governs them, the Loss they occasion
is considerable, without any Hopes that it can ever be alter'd for
the better; a vast Quantity of Silver being sent thither from New
Spain, both for the usual Expences, and to buy Commodities; that so
all that Treasure is convey'd by the Hands of the Chineses into the
Heart of those Dominions, render'd intractable by the Severity of
their Laws, by [Reasons for it.] which they are trench'd in, as it
were with Fortification, against all Commerce with Strangers. They
alledg'd that a Monarchy dispers'd, and divided by so many Seas, and
different Climates, could scarce be united; nor could humane Wisdom,
by settled Correspondence, tye together Provinces so remov'd from one
another by Nature. That these Arguments are not the Ofspring of Wit,
but of Experience, and Truths obvious to the Senses. That all such as
might be urg'd against them, were only grounded upon Honour, and full
of a generous Sound, but difficult in the Execution; and therefore the
best Expedient, was for the King to strengthen himself in Europe, where
his Forces can be ready to meet all Dangers, without being expos'd to
the Hazards of the Sea, and the Dominions of others. Each of these
Arguments was so fully represented by the Officers of the Revenue,
that the Proposal was thought worthy to be debated and consider'd;
and had God permitted the King to exclude the Philippine Islands his
Monarchy, leaving them expos'd to the first that would take Possession,
the Moluccos had so far been strengthen'd, as to become unconquerable.

The same Thing has been propos'd at other Times, and in the Days of
King Philip the IIId. who sticking to his Father's Answer, has always
rejected that [King Philip rejects it.] mischievous Advice. That most
prudent Monarch answer'd, That the Philippines should be maintain'd,
in the same Manner they were, and the Court should be invested with
more Authority, that Justice might prevail, for he laid the Stress of
Government, on its being upright, and impartially administer'd. That
in the same manner the Troops should be kept up there, and maintain'd
out of the Revenues of New-Spain, or any other of his Kingdoms,
since all the Treasures discover'd, or still hid in the Bowels of the
Mines, ought to be apply'd to the Propagation [His Reasons.] of the
Gospel. For what would the Enemies of Christ say, if they perceived
that the Philippine Islands were left destitute of the true Light,
and its Ministers to propagate it, because they did not produce rich
Metals, and other Wealth, like the Rest of the fruitful Islands in Asia
and America? That all the Power of Kings, ought to be subservient to
this Sovereign End, as becomes Sons of the Church, and Promoters of the
Apostolical preaching, which is continu'd by Succession. That since
he had refused to mitigate the least Point of his Severity towards
his Northern Subjects, or to grant them Liberty of Conscience; why
should he remit any thing among Heathens, and Mahometans, which were
the Harvest God had assign'd him, to enrich the Church with those
Children, so remote? Thus the Project was put down, and this has
always been the glorious Resolution, when mistaken Zeal, or worldly
Interests have propos'd the quitting of those Dominions. This seems
to have been a peculiar Providence of Heaven, which knew how soon
they were all like to belong to the same Master, and that the Right
and Conquests should be all United in his Person, the one being the
Means to recover the other, as has been seen in our Days.

[Product of Asia.] King Philip was govern'd by this Religious Motive;
but there were others urg'd by such as were acquainted with the Riches
of Asia, which are chiefly Diamonds, Rubies, large and Seed Pearl,
Amber-Greece, Musk, Civet, Camphir of Borneo and China, Vermillion,
Coral, Quick-Silver, Copper, fine Muslins, and Calicoes of Cambaya and
Bengala, Carpets, Coverlets, and fine Quilts. Persian Silks, Brocard,
Ivory, Rheubarb, Cardamome, Cassia Fistula, Frankincense, Benjamin,
Wax, China-Ware, [Arguments against quitting the Philippines.]
Lake for dying, and Physick, Cloves, Mace, Gold, Silver, Medicinal
Plants, Aloes, Eagle Wood, Calamba, Ebony, and very many more rare
Trees, Drugs, Spices, and Ornaments. All this they said, Venice lost,
when the Trade was remov'd to Portugal; and this same stir'd up the
Sultan of Egypt, as well knowing therein consisted all substantial
Wealth, to enter into a Confederacy with all the Kings of India; who
were already alarm'd by the Portuguese Fleets; so that they at the
common charge fitted out a Navy of Galleys, and other Vessels, in the
Port of Suez furnish'd it with Cannon, and put aboard 3000 Mamelucks,
besides a great Number of Venetian and Genoese Renegadoes. With this
Power the Sultan enter'd India, in the Year 1508, and tho' the King
of Cambaya assisted him, he was vanquish'd by the Portugueses in the
Port of Chaul. They urg'd, That at present these Riches are still more
valuable, and that if the Trade of them were once brought into the
Way of the Philippine Islands, it would save all the Dangers met with,
by the way of Amboyna, Banda, Borneo, and the many Shoals about them,
as also the many Storms those narrow Seas are subject to. For the Clove
particularly was brought by the Portugueses, in their Trading Galeon,
which goes from Goa to the Moluccos, to pay their Garrisons. In this
Ship they every year carry'd away to Malaca and Goa, 24000 Quintals,
or Hundred Weight of Cloves, little more or less. At those Ports it
was dealt to Persians, Turks, Chineses, and Africans, so that scarce
the third Part came to Europe. The King of Achem, in Sumatra, secur'd
another Part, whence it was sent to Alexandria. All these Commodities,
when they come to Malaca, pay eight per Cent. The Spice that comes
into Spain is distributed into all the Kingdoms of Europe; and it
might be easily contriv'd, say these People, to bring the greatest
Part to Spain from the Philippine Islands; which would be one of the
noblest Projects, that will be thought of for the improving of the
Revenue, considering what a great Price Clove bears in Spain, and how
cheap it is in the Molucco. This was the Opinion when those Islands
belong'd to another Master, and it was no easie Matter to divert the
Trade of Spice, and other Goods, from the usual India Voyage. Besides
the Religious Men of the Orders of St. Augustin and St. Dominick,
had already propagated the Faith in those and other Islands, whence
that which flourish'd, and advanc'd in Ternate and Tydore was Fed.

Cachil Babu sail'd with his Brothers, and a great Number of Vessels
from Ires for Ternate, with much Joy, and forebodings of Victory;
greater Forces continually joyning him, through the earnest Desire they
had all of delivering those Parts from the Portuguese Domination. As
soon as ever they arriv'd at Ternate, they landed, and immediately
invested the Fort, which they call'd the Seat of Servitude. [Portuguese
Fort besieg'd.] They assaulted the Houses of the Portugueses, and
that so suddenly, that though they had Notice before, and lived in
Fear, they scarce stood upon their Defence. Rage and Success made a
more than Barbarous Havock. They set Fire to the Houses with Fury,
and popular Tumult; so that whatsoever was not within a Wall and
Ditch, perish'd that Day. Those in the Fort attempted to succour
their People; but greater Numbers of Ternates coming on, kill'd
some of those, who had sally'd out, not only with Darts of solid
Canes, which they cast most dexteriously, with Arrows, Cymiters and
Shields, which they us'd when Idolaters; but with Muskets and other
Fire Arms. The rest of the Portugueses routed, fled to their Fort;
for those who had gain'd Reputation by so many brave Exploits, were
that Day depriv'd of their Courage, by the Injustice of the Action
they had been concern'd in. They sent again to Goa to desire Relief,
and to represent the [Desolation.] Distress, not only of the Fort
of Ternate, but of all the others the King of Portugal held in those
Eastern Parts; for they had cast off Subjection to him in most of
them. They forgot not to mention the persecution of the Religion,
and the scarcity of Arms and Provisions, of both which the Ternates
had deprived them. These News were flown into India and Spain by
other Ways; and all the while the Siege lasted Goa sent Succours
to the Moluccos, in their trading Galeons; but [Tydore and Ternate
mortal Enemies.] the vast Distance, the many Shoals, and the violent
Storms those Seas are subject to, occasion'd the Loss of those Ships,
or put them by their intended Voyage.

The Commanders in those Eastern Ports, who follow'd the Example of
those of Ternate were not Idle; for the Portuguese, tho' the reducing
of those Rebels succeeded not at that Time, did not miss of obtaining
other Victories, which should we relate them here, would make this
look more like a History of all India than of one small part of it;
besides that the Portugueses Nation has not wanted Learned Authors,
who have transmitted them to us, where they may be seen at large. The
Spaniards have also done the like, in a much more loftier Stile than
mine. We must therefore circumscribe our selves, and return to the
Moluccos, where the Besieged, as it were forsaken, and abandon'd by all
the Earth, endure the Hardships and Perils of Places so streightned.

Thus all their Hopes, under Heaven, depended on their own Valour,
and the inviolable Friendship of the King of Tydore, so implacable
an Enemy to him of Ternate, that neither the Neighbourhood of the
Kingdoms, divided only by an Arm of the Sea, a League and half over,
in the midst whereof is a small Desart Island, which almost joyns them,
nor the ancient and reiterated Alliances, do in the least abate of
their Hatred, which seems to be fatal, and consequently unavoidable
betwixt those two Kings and Nations.

However, the Ternates being always intent upon War, and thinking no
Practice [Practices of Babu with Tydore.] unlawful, that may secure
their Success, they ply'd their Weapons on one Hand, and on the Other,
carry'd on their Intrigues, for a Pacification with the King of Tydore;
not so much out of any Desire of coming to a Conclusion with him, as
to the End that being amaz'd with the Hopes of Peace, he might grow
slack in Relieving and Assisting the Besieged. They offer'd to restore
him some Places, taken from him during the late Wars; and to give him
those and others, as a Portion with a Daughter to the King of Ternate;
besides other Advantages, of which Accommodation the King of Bachian
was the chief Manager. To these fair Offers, they added Threats; and
both the Kings and their Nations agreeing in Religion, and it being
easy to cover any Occasion of War under fair Pretences; it happen'd
that the Tydores, at least while this Politick Game was playing,
did not afford their Succours with the same Zeal as they had done
at first; and that King, who till then had been a constant Friend,
upon another Consideration, deferr'd [Policy of the K. of Tydore.]
his coming to a Resolution. He waited, as well as the Besieged,
the Arrival of the Portuguese Succours, and several of his Carcoas
often touch'd at the Islands of Borneo, to enquire what Ships pass'd
that Way from India. They examin'd every Vessel they met, and every
slight Intelligence puff'd them up, or quite cast them down. In short,
both Parties protracted the Time, with so little Regard to any other
Principles, that all their Courage and Fidelity, depended on it alone.

This is so certain, that the King of Tydore being just at the Point
of accepting the Wife, and Lands offer'd him by the Enemy, fell off
upon the News brought him, that a Galleon was seen sailing for the
Molucco Islands, and he rejected all the Proposals. It was afterwards
known to be bound for the Philippine Islands, and belong'd neither to
the Portuguese nor Spaniards; but to Venetian Merchants, who traded
between Manila and China, with several Commodities of their own
Country, and other Parts of the Levant; so that the King of Tydore,
and the Besieged themselves began to make fresh Reparations, like
Men that sharpen their Weapons, and fit their Armour.

These Succours encourag'd them to several bold Attempts. The Besieged
made [Sallies, and the Length of the Siege.] a Salley, to nail up
the Enemies Cannon, and tho' few in Number, several Times assaulted
their Camp, still returning Victorious, without any considerable
Loss. They dismounted all their Cannon from the Walls, their Works
nothing availing them, because they were not made according to Art. The
Siege lasted five Years, the Portugueses sustaining it with notable
Resolution, and the Indians pressing with no less Obstinacy; nor would
the Hunger, Thurst, Nakedness, and the Hardships of the Seasons have
been tollerable, had not they been common to both Parties. Extream
Want, was the Occasion of several signal Exploits of that Valour,
wherewith they defended their Lives, and the Fort. This produc'd
Rage and Admiration in the Enemy; and an affectionate Compassion
in the Women of the Island; among whom they found Advice, Secrecy,
Intelligence and known Favour. So great is the Power of Persecuted
Virtue, that it prevails, even upon those Enemies, who harbour the
Memory of a Wrong, to convert it, first into a Desire of forgetting
it, and without long Interposition of Time, produces a Zeal to support
that Valour they first hated.

                      The End of the Second Book.

                                 OF THE
                         Discovery and Conquest
                                 OF THE
                  Molucco and Philippine Islands, &c.

                               BOOK III.

[Cessation of Arms.] Both Sides now took the Breathing of a short
Cessation; advantagious to Ternate for the Liberty of Trade, and
to the Portugueses, because it gain'd Time to their Hope of Relief,
which they concluded must be near at Hand, by Reason it had been long
expected. They were not discouraged by Events, those having prov'd
alternatively Successful and Unfortunate, and Victory was toss'd to
and fro; besides that the Interruption of Commerce had knit some the
closer together in Friendship. I could mention several Instances of
this Sort, contain'd in Letters, and other Spanish and Portuguese
Relations, sent by Religious Men from the Moluccos, to the Governours
of the Philippine Islands, whose Papers have, upon this Occasion,
been lay'd before me, for my better Information, for which Reason
we may make Use of some of them, without departing from the main
Subject. The gravest of the Greek and Latin Historians sometimes
intermix private Adventures, as it were short Episodes to divert the
Reader. The Example of great Masters is a sufficient Authority for
Learners, for which Reason I may well be allow'd this Freedom.

One Duarte, a brave Ensign, had contracted strict Friendship with
Cachil [A Love Story.] Tudura, which was no way obstructed by the
Difficulties of the Seige, nor so much as interrupted. Duarte was wont
in the dead of the Night, to go safely into the City in the Habit of
the Country, and by the Help of the Language, being Master of it,
where he was privately admitted into his Friend's House, and well
receiv'd there on another Account by Tudurisa, his only Daughter,
who, being prevail'd on by the Love she bore Duarte, imbrac'd the
Christian Religion. The Father was not unacquainted with their Love,
but he also knew that it was attended by Modesty in Tudurisa, and
true Courtesy in Duarte. Returning to the Fort, he used to be taken
in the same dangerous way, by those Persons who had let him down
with a Rope. He brought with him some Intelligence and Provisions;
but he came not so entire himself, for the Indian Woman, who was to be
his Wife, had robb'd him of his Heart. Nuno Pereyra going the Rounds
miss'd the Ensign at his Post, and enquiring into it, understood the
Cause of his Absence; in Respect to which, considering the mighty
Power it often has over great Souls, he conniv'd at the Breach of
Martial Discipline, assigning that to the Passion, without reproving
the Lover. Whether he follow'd the Example we read of Quintus Fabius
Maximus, in the like Case, or on Account that Experience shows, there
is Nothing can hold a Lover so fast as the Presence of the lov'd
Object; Pereyra enjoining all Persons to keep the Secret, contriv'd,
without offending Tudura, that his Daughter should come privately into
the Fort, which she consented to, without many Perswasions. Having
so done, the Commander in Chief, calling his Ensign, said to him,
I am inform'd, that at certain Times, and that when the Danger is
greatest, you forsake us; but that it is not for want of Affection,
or not knowing the Duty of your Post; tho' we were not confin'd
to these narrow Walls, I would not punish your Failure, because
Mildness has ever been more efficacious for correcting of Generous
Souls, than Rigour. It will not be convenient for the Future, that
we be left without you, and in Fear for what may befall you: Here is
your Wife, and then she appear'd, brought hither without any Force,
or Opposition from her Father. Take her to you lovingly, and do not
suffer the Honour of Portugal, depending on these few Men, to want the
Bravery of so able an Officer. Duarte was amaz'd, generously out of
Countenance, full of Love, and knew not what to say; but was excus'd
by his Friends, and even by Nunno Pereyra.

[Hopes and Despair of the Besieged.] It was now the Year 1575,
when the Besieged began to conceive some Hopes of their Deliverance;
because the Saugiacks and Cachils of the King of Ternate's Race
were divided into Factions, and there wanted not some among them,
who endeavour'd to draw the Portugueses over to their Party. These
Misunderstandings made them act less vigorously; and did not they
look on theirs as the Common Cause, the Design had succeeded. The
Portugueses in this Condition, despairing of all Relief, the Natives
of Ternate on the other Side of the Island, next those of the Meaos,
discover'd a Galeon coming from Malaca, having coasted about Borneo;
they concluded it was that which brought the Succours from Portugal,
and being assur'd it was so, they became unanimous again, and press'd
on the Seige; but Force little prevailing against the Resolution of
[Proposals of Accommodation, and Reasons for it.] the Besieged, Cachil
Tulo, by Permission, propos'd some Terms, which the Commander in Chief
had long listen'd to from the Wall. One Day making several Overtures,
Tulo told him, That the King, his Brother, was willing to put an End
to that tedious Seige, upon any Conditions. That to this Effect had
concluded a Peace with the King of Tydore, that he might not relieve
them for the Future. That the King of Bachian had joyn'd him for the
same Purpose; to the End, that since they were all convinc'd that
was their common Cause, they might with their joynt Power make their
utmost Efforts. That the Cessation which had lasted till then, tho'
advantages to the King, as encouraging the Trade with the Javaneses,
and Rumes, who came to Load Clove, must of Necessity cease. He
ask'd how long they would expose their Lives to the utmost Dangers,
only to gain an empty Name of Loyal Subjects, which, perhaps, would
never be known to him that was to reward it. He bid them consider the
Villany of his Father, King Aerio's Death, and that by their Obstinate
holding out they made the Murderers Cause more Criminal. That they
thus show'd they approv'd of anothers Treachery, whose Punishment they
would compass by other Means. That they ought to be very thankfull,
that the King would not involve them in the Guilt of that Wretch, who
contrary to his solemn Oath, to the Laws of Friendship, and the Honour
of the Portuguese Nation, or rather to Nature it self, had Murder'd
that King, who most inviolably observ'd the Faith he had engag'd to
him. Besides, that they were sensible how little Comfort uncertain
Hopes could afford amidst real Wants; and how impracticable it was
for Relief to come from so great a distance, through such boisterous
Seas, causing so many Shipwrecks, and which seem'd to have conspir'd
against those who had oppress'd and injur'd Ternate.

He concluded his Discourse requiring the Commander in Chief, to deliver
up the Fort, or expect the utmost Rigour; for if he once refus'd the
Terms offer'd, and provok'd them, they would spare neither Sex, nor
Age. The Besieg'd were not free from Jealousie, that there was Fraud
in these Offers; [The Besieged Surrender.] yet, perceiving that
the Succours never came from India, either because retarded by the
African War, in which King Sebastian had engag'd himself, or by the
Difficulties of that dangerous Voyage; and believing that the two Kings
of Tydore and Ternate were reconcil'd, as Tulo told them, thinking he
of Tydore, without whose support they could not subsist, had forsaken
their Friendship, the Proposals were accepted by unanimous Consent,
after Nuno Pereyra had return'd a resolute Answer, suitable to that
Part of Cachil Tulo's Words, which contain'd any Threats, signifying
to him, how little they mov'd himself, or his Men; and that he would
hearken to no Conditions to the disservice of his God, or his King,
or to disparage the Bravery of his Soldiers, which had been so often
try'd to the cost of the Natives of Ternate; nevertheless upon some
other Considerations, he would [The Capitulation.] surrender the Fort,
provided that all the Portugueses might march out in a Body, Colours
Flying, with their Wives, Children, Slaves, and all their Goods, having
first Hostages given them to their content, that no Harm, or Injury
should be done them. That the King should secure them their Passage to
Amboyna, and find them Vessels; and that such as should happen to be
left in Dominions for want of them, should have no Ransome demanded of
them, either then, or at the time of their departure. That the Fort
and Guns should be deliver'd to King Babu, upon express Condition,
That he should hold it for the King of Portugal, and in his Name,
to whom he should restore it, whensoever he effectually punish'd the
Murder of King Aerio. The King easily Granted, and Swore to perform
all those Conditions, being eager to possess himself of the Fort,
before the Succours arriv'd, [The Fort Deliver'd.] which were now
near at hand. On the Day appointed, which was Saint Stephen's, the
Ternates took up all the advantageous Posts to view the Portugueses,
who march'd out as if they had been Conquerors; and no sooner were they
out of the Fort, than the Natives running in, possess'd themselves
of the Guns, with loud Laughter and Shouts, Scoffing at those that
left it; for the third Day after the Galeon arriv'd, well Mann'd,
and furnish'd with Guns, and all Necessaries, and James de Azambuja
in it, as Commander in Chief. They had thoughts of Recovering the
Fort, but it was too late, because the Enemy was possess'd of all
Things, without any Opposition. Pereyra then perceiv'd how great
an Obstacle Precipitation is to the chusing of the safest Advice,
and how infallibly it is follow'd by fruitless Repentance; since had
he delay'd but never so little longer, tho' it were only to weigh
the Enemies Proposals, who ought never to be suppos'd Sincere,
he might have sav'd himself and Destroy'd them. For this Reason,
tho' he wanted not an honourable Excuse, he resolv'd not to return
to Goa, having private Intelligence that the Viceroy would not fail
to secure him, in Order to cut off his Head. Azambuja protected him
in his Galeon, and he went over with many others to Amboyna. The rest
spread themselves throughout the Neighbouring Islands, in Vessels they
begg'd. Some return'd to Malaca, and only sixteen Portuguese Families
remain'd in Ternate for want of Shipping; who at first submitted to
the change of their Fortune: but could not afterwards comply with
the Difference there is betwixt Domination and Servitude. The King of
Tydore a [Portugueses settle at Tydore.] most trusty Friend to the
Spaniards in their greatest Affliction, offer'd them his Islands,
Houses, and Trade of Spice. He sent them a good Number of Carcoas,
which carry'd them over to his Dominions, and soon after assign'd
them a convenient Place to build their Houses and Churches. This
Colony was increased, and the Number of its Inhabitants augmented by
Sancho de Vasconselos, who sent others from Malaca, being Commander
in Chief of Goa and afterwards of Amboyna, in the Year 1578. At last
he came thither himself, and erected a Fort, a quarter of a League
from the City of Tydore, which gives its Name to the Island.

[Tydore describ'd.] Tydore, in the Language of those Parts, which
was formerly spoken, signifies, Fertility and Beauty. Europeans
generally give it this Name; but its King, as appears by his Arabick
and Persian Subscriptions, Writes Tudura, and not Tydore. It is not
inferior to Ternate for Fruitfulness, and Delight, but far exceeds
it in Magnitude and Populousness; and yields the same Aromatick
Product. Curious Persons have there try'd to improve the Clove,
watering and pruning the Tree at proper Seasons, and it appears to
embrace the Helps of Art, by growing bigger, more active in its Vertue,
and the Scent stronger. The white Sanders here come to more Perfection,
than in any other of the Eastern Parts. In this, as well as the other
Molucco Islands are found those Birds, they, in their Language, call
[Birds of Paradice.] Manucodiatas, signifying Birds of Paradise, from
a Fable, credited by those superstitious People, that they came down
from Heaven. The Fort here was afterwards enlarg'd by Nuno Pereyra,
not far from the Port, and then by James de Azambuja. The latter did
not only contribute with his Industry, [Fort of Tydore.] but with his
Labour, carrying the Materials himself, when it was requisite to set
the Soldiers an Example, and forward the Work; which the King often
view'd, and was well pleas'd to see the Fortifications. He discours'd
familiarly with the Officers, advis'd with them in his Wars, and
comforted the Christians, and they far'd best, for from that Time
forward, there being none in Ternate, and that Fort in the Hands
of the Natives, the Heathens and Mahometans seem'd to be Superior
and Conquerors throughout all those Provinces. They strengthen'd
themselves with Works and other Preparations, erected Forts on high
Places, and bending their Minds against the Christians, put many to
cruel Martyrdoms; that so the Foundation of our Faith may be in all
Parts cemented with the Blood of the Faithful. They dismember'd the
Bodies, and burnt the Legs [Persecution.] and Arms in the sight of the
still Living Trunks. They impal'd the Women, tore out their Bowels,
and they surving themselves, beheld their still moving Flesh in the
Hands of their Executioners. Children were pull'd Piecemeal before
their Mothers Eyes, and Infants still in Embrio were rent from their
Wombs. It has been made out, that above 60000 Christians fell by the
Sword in only the King of Ternate's Dominions. This is asserted in
the Annual Relations of the Fathers of the Society, who preach'd
in those Parts. They give an Account of this dismal Persecution,
with all the Circumstances of the Cruelties; as how the persecuted
Persons fled to the Mountains, seeking for Compassion among the wild
Beasts, others cast themselves into the Sea, where they perish'd,
either devour'd by its Monsters, or swallow'd by the Waves themselves,
not being able to reach the other Islands. A considerable Number of
these religious Fugitives, as they swam met a Portuguese Ship, coming
to the Relief of those at Amboyna, and with dismal Voices cry'd out,
Help, Relieve us, for we are Christians. They carefully took them up
in their Boats, and having view'd them at Leasure, found that none of
them were above 12 Years of Age. Yet at this same Time, when cruelty
advanc'd God's Glory, Providence seem'd to act Counter in the very
Cities, and Deserts. Idolaters and Mahometans were converted, and our
Religious Men preach'd and catechis'd, without any Fear of Punishment,
which they rather coveted, and thought themselves unworthy of it;
encouraging one another with the Examples the Tyrant made, for several
Purposes. But all those People looking upon it as their Duty to seek
Revenge, their Cruelty gaining Applause under that Name, and Europe
being involv'd in Dismal Troubles, they met with no Opposition in
the Execution of their Vengeance, and the Calamity ran so high, that
in the space of thirty Years, they either quite obliterated, or much
obscured the Name of Christianity in those Eastern Parts, destroy'd
our Churches, and, like those who prepare to hunt wild Beasts, arm'd
themselves against the Faithful who liv'd in more security among those
savage Creatures, or in Deserts never penetrated by Men, feeding on
Herbs, and gaining Time, by that lawful Retreat for the sake of the
Gospel, for the Wrath of Heav'n, whose Executioners those Men were,
to pass over. Above 36 Towns, of each 800 Inhabitants in Gilolo and
Celebes a spacious and populous Country, and in those of the two Kings
of Sian and Sanguil, [Many Apostatize.] who profess'd Christianity,
with most of their Subjects, in the Kingdom of Cauripana; in that
of Bachian, whose King and his People were Sons of the Church; in
the Islands of Amboyna, where Forty Towns worshipped CHRIST, in the
Bosom of his Faith, and in those of Tydore, which were not without
this Light; in all those Places they fell off from Christianity,
and were utterly lost; first through the Insolency of the Portuguese
Commanders, and lastly on Account of the Death of Sultan Aerio; who,
as was prov'd, had given no real, nor so much as a likely Token of
Falshood, for which they might be provok'd to destroy him. However
the Christians dy'd with such Resolution, that the Persecuters took
not away any Life but what became a fresh Example of Magnanimity,
and perhaps Providence might permit that Accident of Aerio, with a
Design to advance the Churches Glory.

[Augustin Nunez sent to Command at Amboyna.] Sultan Babu making his
present Victory an Instrument to obtain others, Ship'd his Men, in
Order to besiege Tydore and Bachian; and tho' he met with a vigorous
Defence in both Places, and the Portuguese Auxiliaries made some Amends
for his Superiority of Power, yet they submitted to the Tyrant. This
Revenge made him stick at no Cruelty. In November, this same Year, a
Galeon came to Malaca from India, to carry Succours for the Moluccos,
commanded by Captain Augustin Nunez, the Eldest and Bravest Commander
in those Days, as he made it appear in the Expedition of Chaul, when it
was besieged by Niza Molucco, when Don Luys de Atayde was Viceroy of
India, in the year 1578. The Galeon was stor'd with all Necessaries,
and in it James [James Lopez de Mezquita sent Prisoner to Ternate.]
Lopez de Mezquita, the Murderer of Aerio, design'd for Punishment, in
Satisfaction for the Wrong done. He was so strong, and fierce, that
to secure him, he was fetter'd with a great Chain, the End whereof
was made fast to a heavy Piece of Brass Cannon. Augustin Nunez had
Orders to convey him to the new King of Ternate, to be deliver'd
to him bolted, like a Criminal, that he might pass such a sentence
of Death on him as he thought fit, which should be executed in his
Presence, pursuant to the Orders sent by the King of Portugal. They
put him on double Fetters, Manacles, and Chains, and kept him in the
Steeridge. Augustin Nunez went to succeed Sancho de Vasconcelos, in
the Fort of Amboyna; but a storm rising, he was forc'd into the Port
of Japara, of Sunda, in the greater Java. The Galeon wanting water,
and Refreshment, he there sent for it; which the Native Javaneses
brought him in 40 Vessels. Among them came 150 Soldiers in the
Habit of Peasants, and Fishermen; who making many words as is usual
among Buyers and Sellers, drew the Ponyards they brought conceal'd,
and surprizing the Portugueses, fell on with such Fury and Cruelty,
that they [The Murderer kill'd.] kill'd them all. Among them dy'd
James Lopez de Mezquita, but fighting with extraordinary Bravery,
tho' held by his Chain, hinder'd by his Fetters, and other heavy
Encumbrances, and restrain'd by the Cannon, to which his Chain was
made fast. However he got a Sword and a Buckler wherewith he cut
down ten Javaneses, revenging on them the Death of the Portugueses,
and they on him, that of King Aerio of Ternate, which had occasion'd
so much Slaughter. Seventy three Christians were kill'd and above
the same Number of Javaneses, and their Vessels had been taken,
but that others came to their Assistance from the Shore in the Heat
of the Action, in which there were Men with Fire-Locks and Lances,
six Yards and a Quarter long, the Points of them poison'd. The Galeon
was taken without any Succour, nor was the Cannon of any Use.

It is but reasonable that so manly and honourable a Death should,
as is usual, render all this Gentlemans Life honourable; and that his
Fetters, and Sufferings joyn'd to it, excite Compassion and Affection
in the minds of the [His Vindication.] Readers, so to blot out the
Hatred they have conceiv'd against him on Account of Sultan Aerio's
Death. It is to be observ'd, for his justification that it does
not appear, not is it reported, he was incens'd to perform that Act
through Interest, Ambition, or any other private Motives; but was
mov'd to it by Informations which perswaded him it was convenient,
for the Establishing and Advancement of Religion, and the publick
Peace. Very brave men must also be allow'd some Excesses of Fierceness,
which proceed from an extraordinary Force in the irascible Part of
the mind, and wherein Valour is subdu'd. When these Persons find
themselves encompass'd by great Numbers, and streightned by wrongful
Violence; if they are not to be daunted and overcome, it comes to pass
that Patience often provok'd turns that Courage into Fury and Rage,
which causes them to make mighty Slaughters, and Examples of Cruelty;
led to it not only by Passion, but also by Judgment and Thought, which
directs them to cause themselves to be dreaded even to Astonishment,
to save themselves and their People from other great Cruelties which
usually mean Souls attempt and practice upon those they stand much
in Fear of. Let this Reflection serve for a general Excuse to other
Offences of this sort mention'd, or blam'd in our History.

This Accident, in as much as related to the Death of James Lopez de
Mezquita, was forgot, or at least not known for many Years, for in
1603 the King of Ternate demanded Justice of our King, against that
Man not knowing that God had summon'd him before a more upright
Tribunal. The News being brought to Malaca, the Commander Arias
de Saldana immediately [Peter Lopez de Sousa sent to Moluccos.]
sent away another Galeon, he call'd S. Peter and S. Paul, for the
Moluccos under command of Peter Lopez de Sousa, and a Galley with
150 Soldiers to relieve Sancho de Vasconcelos at Amboyna, where he
wanted Provisions, and was streightned. They sail'd in May 1579, to
touch at Borneo, there to take in all Necessaries for the Design. He
arriv'd on that Island in June, and found it in an Uproar, occasion'd
by the Spaniards [Spaniards at Borneo.] who came thither with Doctor
Sandi, Governour of the Philippine Islands in 30 rowing Vessels. He
took the City, and put the King to flight, who was a Lover of the
Portugueses, and from that time Manila began to be look'd upon as
a place of Arms, for the recovering of the Molucco Islands; and if
Sandi had then employ'd those, he carry'd to this other Expedition
against them, he would have found the Tyrant less settled, and
consequently his Revenge more easy. Vasconcelos died at Amboyna, and
James de Azambuja succeeded him, so that nothing came now from India
but fair Promises. In the Philippine Islands they had no Orders at
that Time to intermeddle in those Wars, because they then belong'd to
another Sovereign, and therefore they were only Lookers on to those
Martyrdoms, and Revolutions and employ'd themselves as they us'd in
Camboxa, Mindanao, Japan and China, and then particularly in Borneo,
without regarding those other Successes.

Borneo lies between Malaca and the Moluccos, and according to the
Opinion [Borneo describ'd.] of Gerard Mercator, is that which
Ptolomy calls, the Island of Good Fortune. A Point of it lies under
the Equinoctial, and the greater Part stretches out to 6 Degrees of
North Latitude, taking up the two first Parallels. Thus it appears
to be above 400 Leagues in Compass. It abounds in Provisions, and
all other Necessaries for the Support of humane Life. And produces
abundance of Camphire, Agarick Diamonds, vast Numbers of Horses,
smaller than the Spanish; but it has not such plenty of Sheep, or
Kine: There is a general Resort of Trade in all its Populous Cities
and Ports. The Capital is Borneo, which gives Name to the Island,
built on a Spacious Lake the Sea Forms, like Venice, and said to
contain 23000 Houses: The King is a Mahometan; no man speaks to
him but by the Interposition of an Interpreter. The Natives worship
Idols. They are White, good Natur'd and sharp Witted. They have no
certain Fashion of Cloaths. Many of them wear Cotton Shirts, and
others of white common single Tabby, with red Lists.

Sirelela, Brother to this King, came to Manila, where Doctor Sandi
being then Governour, he laid before him his Pretensions, and some
Means he had for bringing his Designs to bear; but he put the main
Stress upon [King of Borneo's Brothers at Manila.] his having a
greater Party there, than the King his Brother. He promised which
would be no difficult Matter, in Regard of the Hatred the People bore
the King, that he would make the Kingdom Tributary to the Kings of
Spain. The Governour having taken sufficient Precautions, condescended
to his Request, and arming as many Spaniards, and Philippines as he
thought convenient, with all Necessaries for a great Enterprize, ship'd
them, and arriv'd happily at Borneo. He attack'd it in several Places;
the best of the People immediately declar'd for the Brother. The
King thinking himself weakest at Sea, reserv'd his Forces for the
Land, and being deceiv'd [Spaniards overthrow that King.] in his
Expectation, was forc'd to fly, his Army being routed, without any
Remains to attend him in the Deserts, and Retreats of the Mountains,
where he liv'd miserably. Sirelela ascended the Throne; the Victorious
Spaniards return'd to the Philippine Islands loaded with Booty; and
among other Things, if we may believe Relations, brought 600 Pieces
of Artillery. However the depos'd King, a few Months after, got to
a Head again. No Man ought to Despair in Adversity, for Fortune is
nothing but the Will of God. Thus the King, with the Assistance of
the Portuguses, [He is restored.] recover'd his Throne, casting down
his Brother, and defeating him, till he was utterly destroy'd. Hatred
is frequently no less intense than Love among those whom Nature has
most closly link'd. In the Molucco Islands the War did not cease,
nor the general Malice against Christians.

The News of what had happened there was not known in Europe, where,
and in Africk greater Dangers were apprehended; of the Event whereof
[A Prodigy.] Providence thought fit to inform our free Wills, by
stupendious Prodigies. On the 15th of June 1580, about the declining
of the Day, there appear'd to certain Sailers a Large Crucifix in the
Body of the Sun the Foot of the Cross standing on Mount Calvary, as
we see in common Pictures; on the Right Side of it a Figure clad in
White, and another on the left in a deep Red. The Crucifix ascended
upwards, and was still seen to mount till the Sun Setting, the Day shut
in. This was seen by all those who came in a Caravel, from the Island
of St. Michael ten Leagues before they came to that of St. George,
the Bishop whereof residing in that of Angla, sent the Affidavit of
it to King Philip the Second, which was receiv'd and much talked of
by the Judge Freytas, a grave Person. All the Men of the Caravel
sign'd it, as Eye-Witnesses, who affirm, That being touch'd with
it, they confess'd their Sins at the Sight of the Prodigy, begging
Mercy with Sighs and Tears. Our Understandings ought to stand amaz'd,
and praise, him that produces both what is Natural, and Miraculous,
and who by so many Warnings shows us, that he has reserv'd Times,
and Moments in his own Hand.

King Sebastian, at that Time, had other Conquests in View. The Loss
or the Recovery of Ternate and the neighbouring Moluccos concern'd
him alone; but he referr'd that to the Governour of India; whilst
he himself, solicited by the Xerif Muley Mahomet, whom he design'd
to set upon the [King Sebastian prepares for the War in Africk.]
Throne of Morocco, tho' with a good Design, joyn'd the African Army,
with another of Catholicks, consisting of the Portuguese Gentry,
of Spaniards, Italians, and Germans. And, if we may believe those
who committed that Expedition to writing, he went over into Africk,
contrary to all the known Rules and Maxims of Martial Prudence,
which Proportions the Strength to the Undertaking, to ascertain the
Success and forecasts, in Case Things prosper, to secure and preserve
them. This he did upon the Assurances the Xerif gave him, that as soon
as ever the Portuguese Forces appear'd, the People would submit to
him. But God permitted that most Christian Prince [Is Kill'd there.]
to be kill'd, the Xerif perishing with him; and their Armies to be
routed, Muley Moluc the third Person remaining Victorious, tho' he
also dy'd in the same Battel, and was bury'd in triumphant Manner. The
Prodigies, and Fears of the wiser sort were verify'd in the King of
Portugal, and particularly that which happen'd before his Birth. It is
certainly reported, that the Princess Joanna his Mother, one Night saw
a great Number of Moors come into her Chamber, in the Palace at Lisbon,
clad in several Colours; [Prodigy.] she believ'd or fancy'd they might
be those they call Monetros, who are such as do the Duty of Guards
in the Royal Apartment. Some went out to enquire, and found them all
still, as husht as at other Times. The Princess seeing the imaginary
Moors come in again, swoon'd away in her Ladies Arms. Afterwards at
the proper Time, she was deliver'd of King Sebastian, whose singular
Virtues, supported by the Loyalty of his Subjects, might have
shin'd as bright as his natural Magnanimity, had not that hasten'd
his End. That was mourn'd for and lamented by all Christendom, and
brought Trouble to all its Princes, who began seriously to discourse
about the Successor to the Crown of Portugal. There they presently
swore [Henry the Cardinal King.] Henry, the Prince Cardinal, Unkle
to the late King, then Eighty Years of Age, and the last Lawful Male
of that Royal House, which began in another of his Name. Antony,
Prior of Crato, Son to Prince Lewis, pretended to succeed him,
and tho' declar'd illegitimate, there was a Party that follow'd
him. This Revolution, and the Hurry in such difficult Exigences,
were the Occasion, that Care was not taken to supply other Places,
much nearer than Ternate. Besides that dismal Accounts brought 5000
Leagues, tho' they were represented by Demosthenes, would come cold
from his Mouth and scarce move the best dispos'd Prince, when never
so much at Leasure; and King Henry, had no Power, but only his Zeal
for Religion, to oppose the Tyranny practis'd in the Archipelago of
the Moluccos. The Cardinal King thought all his Forces little enough,
and necessary considering the extraordinary Jealousie he had conceiv'd,
upon our King Philip's declaring himself a Pretender to those Kingdoms,
and having order'd a considerable Army to make up to the frontiers,
which he had drawn together during the said Cardinal's Life. The
Generals were the Duke of Alva, and the Marquess de Santa Cruz, the
first at Land, the other at Sea; and in the mean while the ablest
Divines and Civilians of Europe, in all the Schools, and Parliaments
writ concerning his Right.

[First English Voyage to the Moluccos.] The Year before, being
1579, about the Beginning of it, Q. Elizabeth of England, seeing the
Princes of Europe, particularly those in the Western Parts, make
Warlike Preparations, as being divided in Opinions; form Leagues,
and direct all their Designs towards the Kingdom of Portugal, she
to make some Diversion with Security, had on a sudden fitted out
four Ships, of eighteen Brass Guns each, and in them two hundred
Men, and ten young Gentlemen, who besides employing their Valour,
on such Occasions as it should offer, were to be very intent upon
the Business of Navigation for greater Ends. She appointed Francis
Drake of the County of Devon their Commander in Chief; who at his
own, or at the Charge of John Hawkins, from whom he stole a great
Quantity of Gold and Silver at S. John de Ulva, [Sir Francis Drake
his Voyage.] in the Year 1566, added some more Ships. He set sail
from the Port of Plymouth, for the South Sea, and to find out that
Streight of Magellan, scarce believed by the Vulgar, and declar'd by
several Cosmographers. He promis'd to sail as much as might be to the
Northward, and to take rich Prizes, infesting all those remote Seas,
and to return Victorious into England, through the same Streight. This
presumptuous Hope he grounded on his own Valour, on the Negligence of
the Spaniards, who are intrusted with the Places of Strength; on our
want of Ships; and above all on that Opportunity, or Season so full
of sundry and extraordinary Commotions. He touch'd on the Coast of
Africk, and refitted all his Ships at Cape Bojador. The Moors took
two of his Men, and a Portuguese Ship pay'd for it, he robbing her
at Cabo Blanco of an hundred Quintals, or hundred Weight of Bisket,
besides much Fish, and many Arms. He touch'd at the Islands of Cabo
Verde, where he took another small Portuguese Vessel, richly Laden
with Wine, Cloth, Holland, and several other Commodities, with Sylva,
the Pilot in it, who was well acquainted with those Seas, and better
on the Coast of Brazil. But six or seven Days after the Vessel sunk,
and not a Man was sav'd except only the said Pilot. Drake went on to
the River of Plate, and Winter'd for some Months in S. Julians Bay,
which is not well shelter'd, but expos'd to excessive cold Winds,
in 50 Degrees of South Latitude, where he lost some Men.

One Thomas Haughton rais'd a Mutiny there, in order to Debauch the
Squadron, Drake laid hold of him, and struck off his Head. Here they
[Giants.] saw eight Indian Giants to whom the tallest Englishman
look'd like a Dwarf. They show'd their Bows and Arrows, and an
Englishman, who valu'd himself upon his Dexterity at those Weapons,
breaking the Peace establish'd with those People, let fly an Arrow
at one of them, which pierced him through, and he dropt; the others
in Revenge discharged theirs, and kill'd two of the English. The rest
then assail'd the Indians, but they fled so swiftly that they seem'd
not, to those English who saw and writ this, to set their Feet on
the Ground. They departed thence, as soon as the North Winds they
had expected to blow, and holding on their Course to the Southward,
in fifteen Days came to the Mouth of the Streight. From thence to the
second Narrowing they spent five Days, by reason of the Currents and
Shoals; at a small distance from them they found no Bottom. They met
with some Calms and Storms, and being come into the South-Sea had one
which lasted forty Days, and in it lost some Ships. The Vice-Admiral
return'd through the same Streight into England, where the Queen
order'd him to be Hang'd for having forsaken his Admiral; but he was
repriev'd till Drakes Return, and the Pardon'd, at his Request. He
went on with only his own and some other Ships, but wanted not Men,
Provisions, nor Ammunition, he took some belonging to private Persons,
and the Kings, loaded with the Plate they were bringing for Spain,
a Robbery of [Drake takes the Kings Plate.] great Consequence,
not so much for the Quantity of the Treasure, as for the Use it
is apply'd to in our Monarchy, which is the Advancement of the
Catholick Church, and which thereby ceas'd, and deplorable for the
unjust Abuses it was to be apply'd to in Scismatical Kingdoms. Having
wander'd, Steering various Courses, in which his Pilots made their
Observations by Sounding and their Charts, he touch'd at six Islands,
to some whereof he gave Names, in Imitation of the fabulous Heroes,
and even of true Catholicks, who assign such Names according to their
particular Devotion. One he call'd S. Bartholomew, another S. James,
and a third, which [He gives Names to Islands.] he thought larger and
more fruitful, New Albion, from the Ancient Name of England, this is
California. There he stay'd a Month and a half, refitting his Ships,
and sailing thence to those call'd de los Ladrones, or of Thieves,
in nine Degrees of North Latitude, kill'd 20 Indians, because they
attack'd him with 100 Canoas. Twenty Days after, he came to an Anchor
at the Molucco Islands, having before touch'd at others, without any
Action [Arrives at the Moluccos.] worth remembering. His Cruelties,
and Robberies might well gain him the Title of the greatest of Pyrates,
in those remotest Parts, as he had it in Europe. He came to Ternate,
but succeeded not at first, that People being War-like, and at that
time Arm'd by their own Malice, and an implacable King. He attempted
to barter for Clove, without his Leave, was inform'd how severely
he handled such as Transgress'd, and slighting the Advice, the King
came to hear of it, and order'd him to be Kill'd. It came very near
the Execution; but Drake, whose Genious well experienced in Frauds
was no Stranger to Dissimulation, retir'd to his Ships, to make his
Escape by Flight. Thence he contriv'd to appease the King, which was
no difficult Matter, by means of some Presents he sent him. With them
he purchas'd the good Will, and an Audience of that cunning Tyrant,
and going ashore several Times to visit him, agreed he should enter
into Amity with the Queen, and Nation of England, and that Factories
should be settled out of Hand. The King consented, and Drake promis'd
him the Protection and Arms of England; and taking with him, among
other Gifts, a rich Ring the King gave him for the Queen, he sail'd
homewards, with a great quantity of Clove. He met a Portuguese Ship
crossing the small Channel of Tydore, but either durst not, or thought
not fit to attack her, whether it was for being Inferior in Strength,
or out of a Desire of securing the new acquir'd Wealth. Scarce was
he got clear of Ternate, before the Winds began to toss him, in that
Sea full of Flats, whence they forc'd him, in order [Is in a Storm.]
to deliver him quite up to Tempests. He was oblig'd to lighten his
Ships, and among other Things of Value, threw over-Board a Cannon, of
an extraordinary Bigness, which the King of Ternate, hearing afterwards
of the Storm, caused to be taken out of the deep Sea. Then he built
a House before his Palace, on the Roof whereof he planted it openly,
and pointing over, either on Account of its Magnitude, or by way of
Ostentation, and in Memory of the first Englishman, that came into
his Kingdoms, from whom and the Sea he had taken that new offensive
Booty. Drake went on to the greater Java, where he laid in Provisions
of Cazabi, Plantans, and Floul, in exchange for Cloth. Next he put
into another Island, in four Degrees of North Latitude, where he
stay'd six Weeks. There he left a Woman, and two Men, all Blacks,
that belong'd to him, giving them Fire, Rice, and some Grain, that
they might People the Place. An Heroick Foundation of a Colony. Then
he continu'd his Voyage, turning in and out to several Places, with
unexpected Dammage to all those he touch'd at.

It is to be observ'd, that it being possitively believed in Spain
and the Indies, [Reflection of the Spanish Author.] that none had
ever pass'd the Streights of Magellan, since the first Discoverer,
except F. Garcia de Loaysa, and one of the Ships sent by Don Gutierre
de Vargas, Bishop of Palencia, to the Spice-Islands, it was look'd
upon as incredible, that any Pyrates were come into the South-Sea,
especially through the Streight, and to the Islands of Ternate, and
that Archipelago. This Man was the first that open'd the Passage to the
Sectaries Hugonots, Lutherans, and Calvinists, who afterwards pierc'd
into those Seas, with Ship Loads of perverted Texts, Heretical Bibles,
and other Books of unsound Doctrine; but the Divine Providence has
given Proofs, that it is so much Offended at this Hellish Innovation,
tho' it permits Idolatry, and Mahometanism, that it has not suffer'd
those Souls which through its profound Judgments, lie involv'd
in the Shades and Darkness of Ignorance, to imbibe that Poyson,
till it sent them the Gospel in its Purity. It has Oppos'd those
new Apostacies making use of, as Instruments of Spanish Religious
Men, giving Strength to our King, who protects them, his main Design
being the Support of Religion. This Truth plainly appears in the many
Victories the Church has obtain'd through his Officers, and the Armies
maintain'd in the remotest Parts of the Monarchy, for the Propagation
of the Faith preach'd to the most distant Indians.

But the better to demonstrate this true Forecast and Care, I think
it a [Reason for this Digression.] necessary Digression, so far from
being superfluous, to relate the Preparations made by the Viceroy Don
Francisco de Toledo, directing his Actions to this End, as became a
Minister who follow'd his Princes Designs, in Order to secure himself
against Drake's surprizing Celerity and Boldness; for as much of this
as concerns the Molucco Islands, obliges us to write it, and we will
slightly run over all the particular Passages.

[Preparations of the Viceroy.] The Viceroy of Peru was of Opinion,
That in Order to secure the Indies, their Peace and Religion, and
for the removing, at first, of all Obstacles to its Exaltation, and
making Examples for a Warning, it was of the greatest Consequence to
erect Forts, as divine and humane politick Precautions, and to Arm
against that Pyrate, so to give a Check to the Northern Parts by his
Punishment. To this Purpose, and in Order to his Destruction, a more
exact Observation was to be taken of the Passes into the South-Sea,
and more particularly of the Way he was to take, to return into his
own Country. He was egg'd on by Fear, or the Loss of Reputation,
because some English Ships, Part of Drake's Squadron, ran along
the Coasts of Chile and Arica, obliging the People to Arm; it being
apprehended that Drake had erected Forts to secure the Passage, for
carrying on the Trade of Spice and Jewels, and the bringing in of
perverting Ministers with their poisonous Doctrines. For this Effect,
he pitch'd upon Peter Sarmiento de Gamboa, a Gentleman of Galicia,
who had twice already engag'd with that Pyrate. The first in the Port
of Callao near Lima, where he took from him a Spanish Ship, laden
with Commodities of Spain; the second a few Days after, pursuing
him as far as Panama. The Viceroy resolv'd he should go to discover
the Streights of Magellan, an Enterprize look'd upon as impractable
by the South Sea, by Reason of the many Mouths and Channels which
obstruct the Access to it, where many [Difficultie of the Streight of
Magellan.] Discoverers sent by the Governours of Peru and Chile have
been lost. Others have attempted it, entering from the North Sea, and
miss'd of the Streight; some were cast away, or beaten back by Storm,
and all generally despair'd of finding it. But now that Terror being
remov'd, they can take a fix'd Latitude, settle a Rumb, and steer
a safe Course to the Streight, so to secure the Passage before an
Enemy possesses himself of it. The Viceroy made Choice of two Ships,
which he took Care to see well rigg'd, arm'd and provided. Sarmiento
call'd the Bigger, Our Lady of Hope, which was Commodore; the other
being subordinate, had the Name of S. Francis. Two Hundred Seamen and
Soldiers were put into them, with virtuous and learned Religious Men,
fit for that Employ. [Sarmiento sent after Drake with two Ships.]
Captain John de Villalobos was appointed Vice-Admiral. Ferdinand
Lamero Head Pilot, and under him Ferdinand Alonso and Antony Pablo,
all of them very able Pilots in both Seas. These took an Oath of
Fidelity, and the Viceroy gave the Admiral particular Instructions,
the Purport whereof was, That they should pursue the Pyrate, fight
him till taken or kill'd, and recover the great Booty he had taken
upon the King's Lands [His Instructions.] and Ships, whatsoever the
Hazard might be, since they had sufficient Men, Arms and Ammunition
to overcome the Enemy. That they should sail into 50 or 54 Degrees
of South Latitude, as might be most Advantageous, about the Mouth of
the Streights of Magellan. That both Ships should have Lights out at
Night, that so they might not lose Sight of one another in the Dark,
but always keep together. He charg'd them to be unanimous in their
Consultations, particularly the two Commanders; which Direction was not
so well observ'd, as it ought to have been, thro' the Vice-Admiral's
Fault. They were commanded to lay down the Ports, and Seas in exact
Draughts. To take Possession of any Country they landed on for his
Majesty. When they met with any Towns of Indians, to mollify and
endear them by discreet Courtesy, and gain their Affections with such
Gifts, as should for that Purpose be deliver'd to the Commodore, being
Sissars, Combs, Knives, Fishing-Hooks, Buttons of several Colours,
Looking-Glasses, Hawks-Bells, Glass-Beads, &c. To carry with them some
Indians to serve for Interpreters; and so provided discreetly for
all other material Points. Then to encourage them he made a Speech,
intermixing it with Hopes and Exhortations. The Commodore having
conferr'd with his Vice-Admiral and Pilots, concerning the Design of
their Voyage; they agreed, That if any Stress of Weather should happen
to part the one Ship from the other, they should carefully seek one
another out, or make the Mouth of the Streight in the South-Sea to the
Westward, there to wait for one another. The next Day being Sunday,
the 11th of October, 1579, when they had all confess'd and receiv'd
the Holy Eucharist, they embark'd in order to introduce the Faith into
those Nations void of all Worship. On Board the Capitana, or greater
Ship, the General, or Commodore Sarmiento, F. Antony de Guadramiro,
of the Order of S. Francis, and Vicar-General of this Expedition; the
Ensign John Gutierrez de Guevara, Antony Pablos, and Ferdinand Alonso,
Pilots, with 54 Soldiers. In the other Ship, with John de Villalobos,
F. Christopher de Merida, of the said Order of S. Francis, Ferdinand
Lamero, chief Pilot of that Ship, [His Strength.] with whom, and
the Seamen and Soldiers, they made 54; and the whole Number in both
Vessels as was said above.

They sail'd from the Port of Callao, belonging to the City of Lima, and
that Night came to an Anchor at the Island, two Leagues from Callao, in
[His Voyage.] 12 Degrees and a half of South Latitude. On the first
of November they pass'd in Sight of those they call Unfortunate,
in 25 Degrees, 20 Minutes, which were accidentally discover'd by
the Pilot John Fernandez, being bound for Chile the second Time,
immediately after Magellan's Discovery, since the Year 1520. They
are now call'd, the Islands of S. Felix, and S. Ambor. Here Sarmiento
observ'd the Difference, betwixt this Course, which he calls the True
one, and the Imaginary. This he noted down [His Care and Capacity.]
with extraordinary Curiosity, employing all the Care and Art of
his Pilots, and his own, which was not inferior to theirs, nor to
others in any Martial Knowledge, as will appear by his Treatises,
if publish'd, of Navigation, casting great Guns and Bullets,
Fortification, and Knowledge in Astronomy, for failing in all
Seas. They never quitted the Lead, the Astrolabe, and the Charts,
either in the Deep, in Ports, Bays, or among Mountains, and Currents,
which produc'd a very ample Relation he sent to King Philip, whence
we took this Abridgement. There he sets down the Points in the Heaven
answering to the Earth, the Dangers, Islands, Promontories and Gulphs,
Geographically and Corographically. He lays down the Rumbs that are to
be follow'd, and those to be avoided; and thus distinctly leads us into
and thro' the Streight, giving visible Signs, and also invisible of
the Winds for all Ports. At the first unknown Land, where he anchor'd,
they found the Latitude to be 49 Degrees and a half [Land at the
Mouth of the Streights.] South. They saw no People, but Tokens of
them, as the Prints of Mens Feet, Darts, Oars, and little Nets. They
climb'd up vast high Mountains, above two Leagues in the Ascent, over
Stones, some of them so sharp, that they cut their Shoes. Others,
to avoid them, made their way on the Boughs of Trees. From the
Top they discover'd great Channels, Inlets, Rivers, and Harbours,
and all the Land as far as their Sight could reach, seem'd to them
cut and rent asunder. They judg'd it to be an Archipelago. It is
to be observ'd, that our Discoverers give the Name of Archipelagos,
to Seas in the New World, which are strew'd thick with Islands, as
it were great Stones, like the Archipelago of Greece, so well known
to all Nations in the Egean Sea, which contains the Cyclades, tho'
the Name is not ancient. They perceiv'd the Channel to run on, Wide,
Spacious, Open and Clean; and were satisfi'd that Drake came out that
Way into the South Sea. They found the Latitude by three Astrolabes
to be 50 Degrees. The Harbour they call'd of, Our Lady of the Rosary,
and the Island of the most Holy Trinity.

The next Sunday, Sarmiento order'd all the Men to land, in order to
take Possession, and perform'd all that is contain'd in the Authentick
Instrument [Sarmiento takes Possession of the Land.] of what happen'd
that Day, the express Words whereof are thus,

'In the Name of the most Holy Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost,
three Persons, and one only God, who is the Beginning, Maker and [The
Form of it.] Creator of all Things; without whom nothing that is Good
can be done, began, or preserv'd. And in regard that a good Beginning
must be in God, and through God, and in him it is requisite to begin,
to his Honour and Glory, and in his most Holy Name, Be it known to
all those who shall see this Instrument, that this Day, being Sunday
the 22d of November, 1579, this Royal Navy of the Mighty Renowned
Lord, King Philip of Spain, and its other Dominions, my Sovereign,
being arriv'd in this Country by Order of the most Excellent Lord,
Don Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy, Governour, and Captain General
of Peru, to discover the Streight of Magellan, under the Command of
the General Peter Sarmiento, the Land by him nam'd, Our Lady of the
Rosary, and the Bay of, The most Holy Trinity. The said Lord General
having landed with most of the Sea and Landmen belonging to his Navy,
and the Religious Men, he brought ashore a Cross, which he devoutly
worshipp'd, with all his Men. The Religious Men sang the Hymn Te
Deum laudamus, and he with a loud Voice, said, That in the Name of
his Majesty Philip the Second, our Lord, King of Castile and Aragon,
and their Dependencies, whom our Lord God long preserve, with the
Addition of greater Kingdoms and Dominions, for the Glory of God,
and Good and Prosperity of his Subjects; and in the Name of the most
Potent Kings his Heirs and Successors for the Time being; he, as his
Commander in chief, and Admiral of this same Navy, and by Virtue of
the Order and Instructions given him in his Majesty's Royal Name, by
the said Lord Viceroy of Peru, took, did take, seiz'd, and did seize
the Possession of this Land on which he is now ashore, and which
he has discover'd for evermore, in the said Royal Name, and of the
said Crown of Castile and Leon, as has been said, as being his own,
and really belonging to him, by Virtue of the Donation and Gift the
Holy Father Alexander the Sixth, Pope of Rome, pass'd Motu proprio,
in Favour of their Catholick Majesties Ferdinand the Fifth and Isabel
his Wife, King and Queen of Castile and Leon of glorious Memory, and
to their Heirs and Successors, of the one half of the World, being
180 Degrees of Longitude, as is more fully contain'd in the said
Bull, dated at Rome, on the 4th of May, 1493. By Virtue whereof,
these said Lands fall, lye, and are included within the Limits
and Meridian of the said Partition of 180 Degrees of Longitude,
belonging to the said Royal Crown of Castile and Leon. And as such
he takes, and did take Possession of these said Lands, and their
Territories, Seas, Rivers, Creeks, Ports, Bays, Gulphs, Archipelagos,
and of this said Harbour of the Rosary, where at present this Navy
is at Anchor. And he subjects, and did subject them to the Power,
Possession and Dominion of the said Royal Crown, as has been said, as
being their own Property. And in Token of Possession, or as it were,
drawing the Sword he had by his Side, with it he cut Trees, Branches,
and Grass, and remov'd Stones, and walk'd over the Fields and Shores,
without any Opposition; requiring such as were present to be Witnesses
thereof, and me the underwritten Notary, to give him a Testimonial
thereof in publick Form. And immediately, taking up a great Cross,
and the Men belonging to the Navy being drawn up in a martial Manner,
with Muskets and other Arms, they carry'd the Cross in Procession, the
Religious Men, F. Antony de Guadramiro, the Vicar and his Companion,
singing the Litany, and all the others answering. And the said
Procession being ended, the said Lord General planted the Cross on
a hard Rock, and rais'd a heap of Stones at the Foot of the Cross,
in Token, and as a Memorial of Possession of all the Lands and Seas,
discover'd, adjacent, and contiguous. And he gave the Name of Our
Lady of the Rosary to this Port, as has been said. And as soon as
the Cross was set up, they worshipp'd it a second Time; and they
all pray'd, beseeching and intreating our Lord JESUS CHRIST, would
be pleas'd that what they did might be for his Glory, and to the End
that our Holy Catholick Faith might be exalted and dilated, and the
Holy Gospel preach'd and spread abroad among these barbarous Nations,
which have hitherto been remote from the true Knowledge and Doctrine;
that it may defend and deliver them from the Frauds and Dangers of
the Devil, and from the Blindness they are in, that their Souls may
be sav'd. And then the Religious Men sung in Honour of the Cross,
the Hymn Vexilla Regis. Next the Father Vicar said Mass on an Altar
there erected, being the first that was ever said in that Country, to
the Honour and Glory of our Almighty Lord God, and for the Extirpation
of the Devil and all Idolatry. And he preach'd to that Purpose, and
some confess'd and communicated. And as soon as the Mass was said,
the General, for a more absolute Token and Memorial of Possession,
caus'd a large Tree to be trimm'd, and on it caus'd a very high
Cross to be made, and on it plac'd the most Holy Name of our Lord
JESUS CHRIST. J. N. R. I. And under it, Philippus Secundus Rex
Hispaniarum. Of all which, I John de Esquivel, Royal Secretary to
this Navy and Admiral Ship, do give Affidavit and true Testimony,
that it was so done as is said. Then follows Esquivel's Subscription.'

[Sarmiento gives Names to Places.] Four Days after, Sarmiento, in
the Vice-Admiral's Boat, with the Pilots, Pablos and Lamero, and ten
Sailors and Soldiers, with Muskets, Bucklers and Swords, and four Days
Provision, set out of this Port to discover the Channels they saw, that
they might not endanger the Ships. Going out by the Ridges of Rocks,
he run along the Gulph, close to the Shore, all which he observ'd,
and sounded the Harbours, giving Names to them and the Mountains,
according to their Shapes, such as Sugar-Loaves, Pitchers, Guinea
Peppers, and the like. He observ'd the Trees, the Plants and the
Birds. At one Place on the Shore he found several Tracts of People,
and two Poniards or such Weapons made of Bone, with a Cross on the
Handles, near a small Stream of fresh Water, whose Sands are Red,
and therefore he call'd it the Red-River, which falls into a Harbour,
and that also took the same Name. They saw abundance of Fish, and
among the Shells thrown up by the Sea, vast Quantities of Oysters and
Mussels, and in those that were left upon the Rocks above the Water,
great and small Pearls, some Grey, others White. This Sort of [Pearls
despis'd for Hunger.] Fish, at certain Times, the Shells being first
open, gape with their Mouths, and receive the pure and substantial
Dew, which, as it were, impregnates them with Pearls, which are in
Colour answerable to the Nature of the Dew. If they receive it pure,
they produce them white; if disturb'd, they are of a Dark, or other
Muddy Colours. Sarmiento describes the Vexation that tormented him
and his Men; for being eager to satisfy their Hunger with Oysters
and Mussels, and they being unfit to Eat, because of the Hardness of
those Pearls they found in them, they threw them away, cursing the
Inventors of putting a Value on those Productions, or Hornynesses
of Fishes, which Nature had trebly hid in the Waters of the Sea,
in Shells, and in the Fish it self. They said, that true Wealth
consisted in tame Cattle, Fruit, and Corn brought up by Tillage,
as they had in Spain; for that precious Obstacle to feeding, then
not valu'd, depriving them of the Sustenance of the Shell-Fish,
and being forc'd to live ten Days on the Provision they brought for
four, the Fast made them all Philosophers. From this Red Harbour,
he was obliged to return to the Ships left in that of the Rosary, no
Day passing without violent Storms; when they had run backward, and
forward, above 70 Leagues, landing on Islands, and taking Possession
of them. They were Fruitful and Habitable, but till then Untill'd and
Desart. From a very high Hill, he discover'd the main Chanel, which
runs out into the great Ocean, and so many other Channels and small
Islands, that they could not be reckon'd up in a long Time. Whilst he
staid, he sounded Harbours, Deeps, Channels, Creeks, Inlets, Flats,
Roads and Bays, making Draughts of, and giving them Names. He settled
the Latitude, and certain Course to be steer'd, in the Presence,
and with the Opinion of the Pilots, Seamen, and Soldiers, in order to
reconcile those disagreeing Persons by examining all that were present.

Here the Vice-Admiral began to cavil, saying, They were imbay'd, and
[Vice-Admiral disagrees with Sarmiento.] that it was impossible to
hold on their Voyage that Way; and would have quitted his Admiral,
as he did afterwards. From Red-Port they held on their Course,
trying those in other Islands. Sarmiento came to a Bay, which he
call'd S. Francis's, where, as they were taking their Station,
a Soldier fired a Piece at some Birds, and in Answer to the Gun,
certain Indians, near a Mountain, on the other Side of the Bay,
gave horrid Shouts. By the first Noise, the Spaniards thought it
had been made by Sea-Wolves, till they discover'd the naked Red
Bodies. They afterwards [Painted Indians.] found the Reason of that
Colour, for they daub'd themselves from the Head to the Feet with a
glutinous Red-Earth. Sarmiento took some of his Company into a Boat,
and coming to a Thicket, found them in the closest of the Trees,
without any other Cloathing but that Clay as Red as Blood. Only
one old Man, who talk'd to, and commanded, and was obey'd by them,
appear'd cover'd with a Cloak of the Skins of Sea-Wolves. Fifteen
Youths came out upon the open Shore, near the Sea and drawing near,
with peaceable Demonstrations, very earnestly pointed, lifting up
their Hands towards the Place where the Ships remain'd. The Spaniards
did the same. The Indians came close, and Sarmiento giving them two
Towels and a Night-cap, for he had nothing else then, and the Pilots
some other Trifles, they were well pleas'd. They gave them Wine,
which they tasted and then threw away. They eat of the Bisket, but all
this did not satisfy them; for which Reason, and because they were on
an open Shore, in Danger of losing the Boat, they return'd to their
Station, making Signs to the Indians to go to the Boat. They did so,
and Sarmiento posted two Sentinels for the more Security, then forcibly
seiz'd one of the Indians for an Interpreter, put him into his Boat,
embrac'd him lovingly, cloath'd and fed him. This Place he call'd,
The Point of People, as being the first where he found any. Thence
he proceeded to Three small Islands, lying in a Triangle, and lay
there. They went on, taking Draughts of the Lands, and being before a
very craggy Country, the Indian who had never ceas'd shedding Tears,
throwing off a Shirt they had put him on, leap'd over-board, and
swam away. They held on their Way, quite weary of seeing so many
Islands, containing strange Productions of Nature, but without any
Inhabitants. Only in one of them, which they call'd, The Cleft Rock,
near a deep Cave, they found much Tract of Men's Feet, and the whole
Skeleton of a Man or Woman. They went on thence with Storms through
incredible Solitudes, which it would be too much to describe, tho'
our Design were to treat only of this Voyage. At another Land, where
they arriv'd full of Uncertainty, as it were by Accident, in the Bay
they call'd, Our Lady of Guadalupe, thinking to discover whether
one Channel ran to the East, and another to the North; they saw a
[A Piragua.] Piragua, being a Vessel made of Planks put together,
without any Sides, and sometimes of Rushes, and of Calabashes, and
properly a Float, coming along on the Water, and in it five Indians,
who getting to the Shore, left the Piragua, and ran up a Mountain in
a Consternation. The Pilot went into the Piragua, with four Soldiers,
and the Boat proceeded further.

Coming to another Point, where they thought there were more People,
[A Cottage and what in it.] they only found a low round Cottage,
made of Poles, and cover'd with broad Barks of Trees, and the Skins
of Sea-Wolves. In it were little Baskets, Shell-Fish, small Nets, and
Bones for Sticking of Fish, like Harping Irons and Scrips full of that
Red Earth wherewith they dye their Bodies, instead of Cloaths. This is
all the Gayity and Habit they use, instead of the Gold and Silks worn
in the Courts of Princes. Sarmiento left the Piragua, and return'd to
the Ships with only the Boat, because his Provisions were spent. In
this small Vessel, and a Brigantine, he found newly built by his
Company, whilst they were viewing those most desart Islands, with
the Advice of the Vice-Admiral, he went from the Red Harbour, and
finding no other safe for the Ships, return'd to the same. Then in
the Boat call'd Nuestra Senora de Guia, or Our Lady of the Guide, he
went away to make Tryal of the Mouth which appear'd to the Eastward
under a mighty long Ridge of Snowy Mountains, so various, that
they saw some Tops cover'd with white, others with blew, and others
[Snow of several Colours.] with black Snow. Sarmiento calls that the
Continent. There is no Number of the Islands he took Possession of,
and those he discover'd, being inaccessible in other Archipelagos, from
the Top of a Mountain rising above those about it, and cover'd with
blew Snow, which he compares to the Colour of the Turky Stones. This
Height he call'd Anno Nuevo, that is, New Year, because he found it
on the first Day of the Year, 1580. He left no Saints Name, or the
Resemblance of any natural Thing, but what he apply'd to distinguish
those Islands he touch'd at, erecting Crosses on them all, and writing
as he did in the first. He saw Men, only in these here mention'd.

He ran again in his Boat through those Seas, where Nature seem'd
to set up new Islands every Day; and Anchor'd in a Harbour, where,
among [Sarmiento's Industry.] other Precautions for Navigation, he
drew a Meridian Line on the Earth, and mark'd the Magnetick Needles,
refreshing them by touching again, because they had receiv'd some
Damage by the Storms and Damps. How weak a Guide have Men for mighty
Enterprizes! He prosecuted his Discovery of little Islands, and taking
Possession; and observ'd an Eclipse for the Benefit of Navigation, in
the Port of Misericordia, or Mercy, as he nam'd it. The Vice-Admiral
not coming to him, he suppos'd he was return'd to Lima, however he
waited for him ten Days, and five more in another newly discover'd,
and call'd, Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria, or Our Lady of Candlemas,
three Leagues from the other. This Time having been agreed upon between
them to expect one another, which when expir'd, each was to make the
best of his Way into Spain; Sarmiento being positive, contrary to
the Opinion of the Pilots, that there was the Streight of Magellan.

On St. Agnes's Day he Anchor'd at the Island which forms that Harbour,
for which Reason he gave it that Saint's Name. From the Ridge of a
Hill, which hangs bending like a Bow over a River, he perceiv'd five
Native Indians, who with Cries and Signs desired him to come to them;
the Spaniards answering them in the same Manner, the Indians held up a
[Indians by Signs show that Drake pass'd that Way.] white Scarf, and
our Men another. When they were come down to the Shore, they seem'd to
request they would draw near. Sarmiento sent them his Ensign, and the
Pilot Ferdinand Alonso, with only four Men, that they might not fear;
however they durst not come near the Boat. One of our Men went ashore,
and yet they would not trust him, yet drawing nearer because he was
alone, he gave them Chaquiras, that is, Glass-Beads, Hawks-Bells,
Combs, Ear-Rings, and Hempen-Cloth. Observe what mighty Designs were
couch'd under those Childish Gifts. Then the Ensign and Pilot came
ashore, cherishing and giving them other Toys, and show'd them what
every Thing was for, by applying it to the Use before them. This
pleas'd them extreamly, as did some little Linnen Flags, or Bannors,
our Men carry'd, made of narrow Slips of French Linnen, Canvas, and
Silesia Cloth. This made Sarmiento judge that they had before seen
Europeans, and they, without being ask'd, signify'd by intelligible
Tokens, that two Ships like ours had pass'd that Way, or were still
thereabouts, pointing to the South East, and in them bearded Men,
clad and arm'd after the same Manner. This was the first Intelligence
they found of the English Ships under Drake. The Indians with smiling
Countenances promis'd to come again. They went up the Land, and our
Men aboard the Ship, which not being far off, Sarmiento came ashore
to take Possession, with the usual Religious and Civil Ceremony.

The next Day the Ensign and Ferdinand Alonso were with six Soldiers
by break of Day in the Harbour, carrying a considerable Quantity of
Toys, to gain the Affections of the Natives, who came also; but would
not draw [Spaniards catch three Indians.] near our Men. They made
the same Signs they had the Day before. The Spaniards to be better
informed of what Course the English Steer'd, ran at the Indians,
and took three of them, every two Soldiers holding one of them, and
tho' they gave our Men many Blows and Bangs, struggling to get loose,
they could not prevail, and yet were very strong. The Spaniards put
up all that they might get them to the Ship, where Sarmiento receiv'd,
and treated them Courteously. They Eat and Drank, and Kindness so far
prevail'd, that they laid aside all Fear, and Laugh'd. Being show'd
the narrow Slips of Linnen, they pointed with their Hands to a Bay,
where the Ships had Anchor'd, with the bearded People, who had Arrows,
and Partesans. One of them show'd two, and another one Wound they
had receiv'd fighting against the Men of that Fleet.

[Vice-Admiral returns to Chile.] The Vice-Admiral was now gone back
to Chile, and among other Accidents which happen'd in his Return,
he was wont to tell, that being come to Island Mocha, he sent his
Boat thither to ask some supply of Provisions, and understanding
how Friendly they behav'd themselves towards Drake, and that the
Hatred those People bear the Spaniards might be an Obstacle to him,
his Messengers, by Order, conceal'd their being such, pretending
they were Lutherans. The Islanders gave Credit to the Fiction, being
desirous [He deceives the Indians.] to gain Friends, for preserving
of their Liberty. Accordingly they sent them Flesh, Bread, and Fruit,
with a Letter, in answer to theirs, the Superscription thereof in
English run thus, To the very Magnificent Lords, the Lutherans, in
the South Sea. Our Men answer'd, That since they had supplied them
with such plenty of Provisions, they desir'd they would come and
partake. About 30 of the Prime Caciques accepted of the Invitation,
and came very Joyfully, in a Canoe, to our Ship. No sooner were they
Aboard, than the Vice-Admiral, not regarding their Complaints, gave
order to loose the Sails, which were ready, and carry'd them away
Prisoners to Chile. Some things that befell him, might justify his
deserting his Superior, but they must be left to those who write a
particular History of those Actions.

[Sarmiento press'd to go back.] To return to Sarmiento. In the
aforesaid Port of Candelaria, or Candlemass, the Pilots press'd him
hard, with Intreaties and Protestations, to do as his Vice-Admiral
had done, representing how much his Men were harrass'd and his Ship
disabled, and that he had done more than all the Discoverers before
him. That they wanted Anchors, Cables, and Rigging; that the Winds
oppos'd him, without which it was impossible to proceed. This was a
Dangerous Tryal, because amidst the Complaints, and almost Threats
of the Pilots, there was a mixture of Flattery, commending him, for
that no other Discoverer had ventur'd so far; so that Sarmiento was no
[He is resolute, and goes on.] less mov'd by their Praises than by
their Anger. However he bore up against both, and severely check'd the
Pilots: Who knows but he might conceal the same Fears they urg'd? And
in short, he appear'd so Resolute against all they could say, that
he brought them to his Beck. He sail'd thence, keeping the Channel,
and about a League to the South-East, the Indians show'd him the
way the Bearded Men took, of whom, after killing many, they, as was
afterwards known, sav'd one Catherine, and a Boy, both English, who
[Account of Drake's Passage.] still liv'd among those wild Beasts,
which they were more like than Rational Creatures. Somewhat farther
in another Island, which the Indians said was call'd Puchachailgua,
full of extraordinary high grey Rocks, the bearded Men again fought
the Natives without Success. They went on to another Island Nam'd
Capitloilgua, on the Coast call'd Cayrayxaxiilgua. Sarmiento did not
change the Ancient Names of Countries, when he could learn them. They
were sufficiently dismay'd in the next they came at, thinking they
were Imbay'd; but presently after they took Heart again, at the Sight
of the Channel, which begins at the Mouth called Xaultegua, and it
widen'd, bringing them out to a most spacious Sea, full of thousands
of Islands. Passing by, in Sight of one of them, they perceiv'd high
Smokes; and the Captive Indians began to Weep, and they saw it was
for Fear of the Natives, expressing that they were Giants, and fought
desperately. Our Men encourag'd them, giving them to understand that
they should be able to deal with those People. They went ashore on
that Country, which is call'd Tinquichisgua. Sarmiento alter'd it, in
Honour of the Cross he [Several Islands.] erected there, calling it,
the Island of the Cross. There he saw Abundance of Whales, Wolves,
and other Sea-Monsters, and great Clods of Snow, on the Waves. He
made ready his Cannon, and small Arms, providing against both Pirates
and Natives, for he expected to find the English possessed of the
Land. From that Time he stood upon his Guard, and no Man quitted
his Arms. They went on to a third Island, which is the biggest,
heard Humane Voices, and saw some Piraguas, with the People that
cry'd out, who were crossing from one Island to another. Our Men
drew near in the Boat to take a View, and all of them put into a
clean Harbour, whence they discover'd a Town, not Barbarous, but
Decent and Lofty, like ours in Europe, and abundance of People, who
having sunk the Piraguas, [Populous Islands.] and standing on the
Mountains, with their Arms in their Hands, call'd to our Men from
a Wood, to Land, as ours did them to draw near the Sea. Among the
Trees appear'd many more of those Islanders, with Bows and Arrows,
as if they intended to fall on. This made our Men discharge some
Muskets at them, the Noise whereof so terrify'd the Indian Women,
that they set up hideous Shrieks, and therefore the Spaniards forbore
Firing, for fear of losing all hopes of gaining their Affections. By
this time the Ship which had been Cruizing up and down, came into
the Harbour. Sarmiento made a Gun ready, and the Boat came Aboard,
Towing a Piragua after it. Having writ the Instrument of Possession,
tho' he had not inquir'd into the Government of the Inhabitants
of that great Town, he Landed on the Shore, whence is discover'd a
vast high Mountain, all white with aged Snow, and encompass'd with
Rocks. Ancient Relations call'd it Orlanro's Bell, he being one of
Magellan's Companions. He Sail'd on to 54 Degrees Latitude, at the
Point he call'd of S. Isidorus. Near to it the Natives call'd out to
him, and coming up to our Men, Embrac'd them familiarly. [Tractable
Indians.] Sarmiento, besides Hawks-Bels, and other Toys, sent them
Bisket and Flesh from the Ships. They sat down to Converse, by Signs,
with the Ensign, the Pilot, and Eight other Christians, signifying,
that they were pleas'd with their Friendship, and those rich Gifts;
and gave such confuse Tokens of the English having pass'd that
way, as the others had done. Then they return'd to their Huts,
and the Admiral having taken Possession, and found the Latitude
to be 53 Degrees, and 40 Minutes, advanc'd in sight of the Coast,
which eight Leagues from thence lies flat with the Sea, and forms a
Shore of white Sand. Before he came to it he Discover'd a prodigious
high burning Mountain, cover'd with Snow; where the Fire and the Snow
seem, out of natural Courtesy, to Respect one another, and to confine
within themselves their Force, and Effects; for neither is the one
Quench'd, nor the other Melted by their near Neighbourhood. The Channel
carry'd him to the Point he call'd of S. Anne, in 53 Degrees and a
half of Latitude. He took possession, and rais'd a heap of Stones,
at the Foot of a Cross, and left a Letter written with Charcole-Dust,
which he thought incorruptible, in the Shards of an Earthen Vessel,
well Pitch'd, among those Stones. In it he declared to all Nations,
That those Lands and Seas belong'd to the King of Spain, and by
what Title he held them. In the same Letter, he left Orders for his
Vice-Admiral, to return to Peru, and give the Viceroy an Account of all
that happen'd, till they discover'd the Streight. [Indian Presents.]
The Ship steer'd off with the Ebb, and the Indians when it was gone
came down with their Wives and Children, and a Present of great
pieces of Sea Wolves, stinking Meat, Sea Foul, call'd Minnos, which
are White and Yellowish, Murtina, a sort of Fruit like Cherries,
and bits of Flint, bor'd through and Painted, in a small Box of
Gold and Silver. Being ask'd, what that was for, and they answering,
To strike Fire, one of them took some Feathers he brought, and with
them lighted it, as if it were Tinder. A little before, when our Men
made a Fire to melt the Pitch, for securing the Vessel the Letter
was in, which was left stopp'd at the Foot of the Cross, the Flame
spread upon the Mountain, and rais'd a Smoke. The Indians believing
they were Fires made by those so much dreaded Enemies of theirs,
went away and could not be stopp'd by any means; nor was their Fear
groundless, for they answer'd immediatly in the opposite Island,
with great Smokes. The River which falls into the Sea at the Point
Sarmiento call'd S. John's; and the Streight dividing these Islands,
which is the very Old one of Magellan, look'd and sought after with
so much Danger, he nam'd of The Mother of God, changing its first
Appellation, that through this Devotion she may obtain of her Son
the Salvation of those numberless Provinces, extending the Voice of
his Gospel to them, that it might reach the Ears of so many Souls,
most of which are Ignorant of their own Immortality, without knowing
any more than common Nature has taught them.

[Possession taken.] Sarmiento was so well pleas'd with having thus
express'd his Devotion, that when he return'd to Spain, he intreated
the Kings, to direct that Streight to be generally so call'd, and
his Majesties Orders. The Possession of this so remarkable Place was
taken with extraordinary Joy, inserting in the Instrument the Clause
of Pope Alexander the 6th's Bull, the Title that gives the Kings of
Castile, and the Limits assigned by the Line he drew through both the
Poles of the World, as Gods Vicar. F. Guadramiro said Mass, and they
all heard it devoutly, considering it was the first offer'd up in
that Place by Man to his Creator. It was intended as a Thanksgiving,
and they all took Courage to undertake any difficult Enterprize. They
saw the Track of Tigers, and Lions, and also White and Grey Parrots,
with Red Heads; and they heard the sweet Notes of Goldfinches, and
other Birds. Holding on their Course along the Channel, with excessive
hot Weather, they came into a Bay, that was cover'd with white Weeds,
and Anchor'd at the Point, on which a Company of Giants immediatly
appear'd, who call'd out to them, lifting up their Hands Unarm'd; our
Men imitated their Actions, which denoted Peace on both sides. They
being come to the Boat, which was Guarded by ten Musketeers, the
Ensign leap'd Ashore, with four others. The Giants made Signs to him
to lay down his Leading-Staff, and then they withdrew, to the place
where they had hid their Bows and Arrows. The Ensign did as they
directed, and then shew'd them the Toys and Gifts he design'd for
them. This withheld them, but still they were jealous, wherefore our
Men supposing their jealousy proceeded from what they had suffer'd
before, and guessing they had receiv'd some dammage from the English
Pyrate, to be the better enform'd of it, ten of our men fell upon one
of the Giants, whom they took; but had enough to [A Giant Taken.]
do to secure him. The others running to their Arms, return'd so
quick upon the Spaniards, that they had scarce time to get into their
Boat. They shot their Arrows, which flying thick, and our Men taking
care to avoid them, they dropt two Muskets. The Steward of the Ship was
shot in the Eye with an Arrow. The Indian they took was a Giant even
among the other Giants, and the Relation says, he look'd to them like
one of the Cyclops. Other Relations assure us, each of these Giants
is above three Yards high, and they are proportionably spread and
brawny. Being brought into the Ship, he was extraordinary melancholy,
and tho' they offer'd him the best they had to Eat, he would take
nothing all that Day. They set Sail, crossing Channels, and passing
by Islands, in most of which they saluted them with Smokes. In the
narrowest Part, which they call'd of Our Lady of Grace, through which
they must pass of Necessity, and is [Other Indians.] in 53 Degrees
and a half Latitude, Sarmiento was of Opinion, Forts might be erected
on the two Capes to secure the Passage. They made haste thro' it,
and again saw the Natives on another Point of Land, calling out, and
shaking their Cloaks, or Woolly Blankets. Sarmiento went to them with
eighteen Soldiers. Only four Indians appear'd with Bows and Arrows,
and making Signs of Peace with their Hands, said, Xiitote, which,
as was afterwards known, signifies Brothers. They posted themselves
on a rising Ground, and when the Spaniards were landed, made Signs to
them for one of our Men to come to them. One went unarm'd, with some
Gifts, as Glass-Beads, Hawks-Bels and Combs, which they receiv'd
pointing to him to go down again. He did so, and the Ensign went
up in his stead, obliging them with other Presents. They accepted
of them, and yet neither they, nor any Courtesie could dispel their
Jealousie. Sarmiento left them, to avoid provoking them, and going up
the Mountain another way, to view the Ridge, Plains, and Channels,
the four Archers appear'd before him, and without any Provocation
receiv'd, but on the contrary after receiving the aforesaid Gifts,
they furiously assaulted our Men, wounding the General with two Arrows
in the Side, and betwixt his Eyes; and another Soldier had an Eye
put out. The rest of the Spaniards covering themselves with their
Bucklers ran at them, but the Giants fled up the Country so swiftly,
that a Musket Ball would scarce over-take them. This Action seems to
verifie the Cowardice the Authors of Fabulous Books, commonly call'd
Romances, ascribe to their Giants. Sarmiento view'd the Land, call'd
it Nuestra Senora del Valle, or Our Lady of the Vale, discovering
betwixt two spacious Ridges, some delightful Plains, numerous Towns,
lofty Buildings, Towers and Pinacles, and to his Thought sumptuous
Temples of so Majestick an Appearance, that he scarce believ'd his
own Eyes, and judg'd it an imaginary City.

                       The End of the Third Book

                                 OF THE
                         Discovery and Conquest
                                 OF THE
                  Molucco and Philippine Islands, &c.

                                BOOK IV.

These Endeavours us'd by Spain to shut out the Monsters of Heresy,
dispell'd the Dread spread abroad by Drake, and his [Reasons for
Digressions.] Example in the North and South Seas. And since his
coming to Ternate, oblig'd us to write all these Particulars, we could
not, once they began to have any Place in this Relation, forbear
making it perfect by delivering the Success of them. A compleat
History is the Witness of Times, the Light of Truth, the Life of
Memory, and in fine the Mistress of Life. Therefore, to perform the
Duty incumbent on it from such important Employments, it is not to
spare any notable Digressions; especially when they deviate but little
from the main Subject, and have some Connexion with it. This here is
due to a most prudent Action of King Philip IId. and his Ministers;
and shows his Catholick Indignation against Sectaries, and his Zeal
for preserving the Faithful of his Indies untainted, and improving
the Disposition in the Souls of Idolaters, towards drawing them to
the Faith. It demonstrates how he compass'd the whole World by Means
of his Commanders, that he might introduce the said Faith in all
Corners thereof; to the Reputation of his Watchfulness in the Service
of this Mistical Empire, which is now Militant, in order to its being
Triumphant. For this Reason it is absolutely Necessary, not to conceal
Sarmiento's Resolution, nor to leave him in those remote Seas, till we
have brought him back to Spain, and then we will return to the Molucco
Islands, which were in the mean while busy about their own Destruction.

Sarmiento did not go up to the great City he discover'd at a Distance,
because he would not depart from his Ship, to which he return'd,
leaving us still desirous to be throughly satisfi'd of so strange a
Thing. By the Way he found two extraordinary long Cloaks, or Barbarian
Blankets, made of Sheep-Skins, with the Wooll on, and a pair of Shoes
made of raw Hides to bind about the Feet, which the Indians could
not carry off, thro' the fearful Precipitation of their Flight. They
continu'd their Discovery, [South Coast.] and the Wind oblig'd them to
strike over to the Southern Coast, five Leagues distant from Our Lady
of the Vale; and tho' the cold Winds blew, they found this Country more
Temperate than the others. It is inhabited by proper People, has wild
and tame Cattel, and Game, as was declar'd by Philip, so they call'd an
Indian they brought over, in Honour to King Philip. It produces Cotton,
a certain Sign of its being Temperate; and Cinnamon, by them call'd
Cabea. The Air is very serene, and the Stars appear bright, so that
they are plainly to be observ'd, lay'd down, and describ'd. Sarmiento
says it is useful in those Parts to observe the Crozier, which is 30
Degrees above the Antartick Pole, and that he made use of it, for
taking of Latitudes, as we do in our Hemisphere of the North Star,
[Observations for Sailors.] tho' with another Sort of Computation. And
in Regard that the Crozier does not serve all the Year, he sought out
another Polar Star, nearer to the Pole, of a shorter Computation, but
general and perpetual; and he us'd such Industry, that he discover'd,
and ascertain'd it by Observations, and Experiments of several clear
Nights. He settled the Stars in the Crozier, and two other Croziers,
and two other Polar Stars, which take a very small Compass; this he
did for the common Benefit of curious Sailors. Notwithstanding all
these Tokens, and the Incouragement of humane Curiosity, no Man has
ever gone to those Towns, which had such promising Signs of Civility;
tho' those rude Giants did not seem to confirm those Appearances of
a well-settled Country. Sarmiento ran along the Streight, [Sarmiento
comes into the North Sea.] never ceasing to sound, and lay it down
till he came to a Cape, he call'd, Of the Holy Ghost, from which
to that of the Virgin Mary, there are 110 Leagues from the South
to the North Sea. Here they began to order their Course with due
Difference. They saw Whales, and on the Shores, Thickets of several
unknown Plants. They ran thro' Storms and Dangers, surprizing even
to such experienced Sailors as they were. They all vow'd Offerings to
Churches, Alms, and Pilgrimages to Places of Devotion in Spain, with
other solemn Engagements, on which fearful Mortals in Danger, devoutly
ground and encourage their Hopes. The Tempest ceas'd, and on the 25th
of March, about Midnight, Sarmiento saw a low white Rainbow, opposite
to the Moon, which was moving against it; and it was occasion'd by
Repercussion of her Rays, which fell by Refraction on the opposite
Clouds. He says, That neither he nor any other Person, ever saw, heard,
or read of the like; but by his good Leave, in Albericus Vespusius's
Epitome of Voyages, we read that the same happen'd in the Year 1501,
in that same Place, where both of them taking the Sun's Altitude, they
found him in 23 Degrees large, which is as good as 15 Leagues. This
Day they were within the Tropick of Capricorn. Proceeding forward,
they lost their Reckoning, and the Hopes of recovering it, for Want of
Mathematical Instruments; but on the first of April, 1580, at Night,
they discover'd, and observ'd the Polar-Star of the Triangle in 21
Degrees; and on the 10th of the same Month, they saw the [Anchors
at the Island Ascention.] Island of the Ascention, at eight Leagues
Distance. They anchor'd there, found Water, and saw several Crosses,
erected by some Portugueses, who in their Way to India, were cast away
there by a Storm, and the Living, out of Devotion, set them up on the
Graves of those that dy'd. On one of them they found a Board nail'd,
with this Inscription, Don John de Castel Rodrigro, Commodore, arriv'd
here with five India Ships, on the 13th of May, 1576. Near to it,
Sarmiento set up another, as a Memorial, that the first Ship coming
from Peru, touch'd there, having pass'd thro' the Streight from the
South to the North-Sea, on the King's Account, with the Occasion of
his Voyage. This Island abounds in Sharks, which are [Ravenous Birds.]
Sea-Monsters, Fish, and a Sort of such greedy and troublesome Fowl,
that they make at whatsoever they see. They took the Ensigns Hat
off his Head, to snatch away a Letter he had stuck in it. He sav'd
his Hat, by clapping up his Hand immediately, but lost the Letter,
which they pull'd away by force; and afterwards they saw a Fray in
the Air, the others endeavouring to take it from that Harpy, which
first snatch'd it away. This Island lies in 7 Degrees and a half of
South Latitude, and it is very observeable, that tho' the Spaniards
were very attentive to their Compass, and took so many Precautions
for their Security, yet such was the Force of the several Currents,
that when they thought they were 60 Leagues from Pernambuco East and
West, at the River of Virtues, on the Coast of Brazil, they found
themselves 400 Leagues to the Eastward; so that the Currents deceiv'd,
and drove them 340 Leagues from the Point they had settled by the
Degree of Latitude. Sarmiento discourses largely upon this Effect,
charging the Sea-Charts with Falshood, and being ignorantly laid
down. Dreadful Tempests ensu'd, till on the 28th of April, on the
Coast of Guinea he discover'd Sierra Liona, abounding in Gold, and
Blacks. Then the Islands they call of Idols, and beyond them those of
Vixagaos, inhabited by stout Black Archers, who shoot poison'd Arrows,
wherewith, such as are wounded, presently dye raving. On the 8th of
May they all fell sick on the Coast of Guinea, of Fevers, Lameness,
Swellings, and Imposthumations in their Gums, which in that Country
prove Mortal, by Reason of the Excessive Heat, and then for Want
of Water; but Heaven reliev'd them with seasonable Rain. When they
labour'd to make the Islands of Cabo Verde for some Refreshment,
the Winds drove them off. They bore up without finding Land, or
any Ship, till on the 22d of May, being in 15 Degrees 40 Minutes of
North Latitude, they descry'd two Sail. Sarmiento believ'd they had
been Portugueses, and was desirous to make up to hale them; but upon
better Observation perceiv'd, the one was a Tall Ship, the other a
Sloop, both of them French, who pursu'd and endeavour'd to get to
Windward of him. The Sloop came foremost to view our Ship, which made
good its Advantage. When they [Fight with the French.] were come in
Sight of the Island of Santiago, the French held up a Naked Sword,
and then fir'd some Shot. The Spaniards answer'd with their Muskets,
which was then done by both Sides, and several French Men fell, tho'
on our Side never a Man was kill'd, but some wounded, and then they
fled more swiftly than they had pursu'd. Those on the Island beheld
the Ingagement, and thinking it had been Counterfeit, and both the
Ships French, they stirr'd not out to Succour either. When the Pirate
was quite fled, a Caravel of Algarve arriv'd coming from Portugal,
which discover'd the Pirate's Name, and Strength; declaring he had
85 Men in the Ship, and 25 in the Sloop, and among them a Portuguese
Pilot. That he had plunder'd four other Ships, and the said Caravel,
at Cape Blanco, on the Coast of Africk; and at the Island of May,
not far from Santiago, had sunk another Caravel, belonging to the
Royal Navy, which was sailing for Brazil, in order to People Paraguay;
where the English had of late Years built Towns, intermarrying with,
and being attracted by the Love, and Children they had by the Tapuyer
Indian Women.

[Sarmiento at Cabo Verde.] Sarmiento Landed at Cabo Verde,
the Custom-House of which City yearly is worth to the King 100000
Ducats. There are always in it 20000 Blacks, because of the settled
Trade for them. Before he Anchor'd, there came Boats from the Shore,
to view his Ship, and he telling them, he came from Peru, through
the Streights of Magellan, they were amaz'd. They return'd to give
an Account to their Governor Gaspar de Andrade, and told him, That
those that came in the Ship, were Men of several Shapes, Deform'd,
and Ill-look'd, and others with long tangled Hair and Locks. These
were some Indians of Peru and Chile. As for the Rest Sarmiento has
these Words, As to our being Ill-look'd, they did not wrong us; for
besides that we had no effeminate Countenances, the Powder and Sweat
of our Volleys of small Shot, a little before, had not set us off to
any Advantage; and, in short, we had more mind to some Water than to
look like Beaus. However, neither he nor his Men went Ashore, till
they had satisfy'd a Pratick Master that none of them were infected
with the Plague. The next Day they Landed bare-Foot, in Procession,
with Crosses, and Images, repairing to the Church of our Lady of the
Rosary, where they gave Thanks, Alms, and other effects of their
Vows, with extraordinary Joy; for every Storm is so much Honour,
when recounted in safe Harbour. They Confess'd, and receiv'd the
Blessed Sacrament at a Mass they had Vow'd to cause to be said. The
Governor, Don Bartholomew Leytao, Entertain'd, and made much of them,
tho' at first he would not believe they had pass'd the Streight. The
Sick were Cured, and the Ship and Boat which were much shatter'd,
re-fitted. The main Design of this Voyage, which was to Fight Drake,
and provide the proper Defence against the Designs of the Enemy,
had not been compass'd; and therefore Sarmiento, having Fought the
French Ship, and Sloop, which appear'd again, alarming that Coast,
and both of them flying back with all speed, after being Shatter'd and
Beaten, to the Island Mayo, or of May, the common Shelter of Robbers;
He redoubled his Watchfulness, and went on to get Intelligence of
the English, as well those that pass'd the Streight with Drake, as of
those new Planters in Brazil, or Paraguay; as also of the Inclination
of the Subjects of the Crown of Portugal, to submit to King Philip,
or Don Antony. A Pilot of Algarve inform'd him, That the [Intelligence
he receives.] Year before, betwixt Ayamonte and Tavira, two English
Merchants, speaking of the Indies, assured him, that Drake was gone
thro' into the South Sea; and by the Time, the News agreed with what
the Indians of the Streight had signify'd to him by Signs; and that
he arriv'd safe in England, with two Ships fraught with Gold and
Silver of that notable Robbery, which he presented to the Queen. She
fitted out five other Ships, with three Years Provision, to return
to the Streights of Magellan, to seek out those that had been lost
there; and Drake eight more. That the first five were already gone in
Decemb. last. That the Merchants had entrusted him with that Secret,
taking him for a Portuguese, and who, as such, would not discover
it to the Spaniards. By the French he was informed, That as soon as
they had brought off some Ships with Blacks from Castro Vedre, they
would go over to the Island Margarita, and thence to the North-ward,
from the Island of Santo Domingo to Yaguana, whence they came not
above four Months since, Loaded with Hides, and Sugar. That they had
kill'd Captain Barbudo, in the Island Margarita, in Revenge for the
English he had slain. That having taken the Governor of Brazil, they
again set him at Liberty. That all their Pilots are Portugueses. He
was also told by others who came from thence, and by Captains of
Reputation, who were [English in Paraguay.] returning thither, that
in the Bay of Paraguay, near Rio de Janeyro, which is in 21 Degrees,
12 Minutes South Latitude, there had been for eight Years last past,
Colonies of English among the Tapujers; with whom for the three last
Years, the Portuguese were at War, and had kill'd most of them.

That it is suppos'd the Natives, who are Man-Eaters, had devour'd most
of those that fled up the Country. He pick'd up other Intelligence
from England, concerning their Navies, their Colonies in those Parts,
and Design of Usurping the Molucco Islands with all their Strength,
and to render themselves Invincible Masters of the Spice. They
dispatch'd a Boat, with these Advices to the Viceroy of Peru; for
Sarmiento could not return himself by the way of Brazil and Paraguay,
because the force of the Currents had drove him away into the Main Sea,
East-ward. Before his Departure, [Sarmiento Strangles his Ensign,
and Punishes others.] he caus'd his Ensign to be Strangled, as a
Traytor to his King, to the Dishonour of his Post, and an Obstructor
of the Discovery. Two other Soldiers he Bannish'd, one of them from
the Indies, and shew'd Severity to some of the Company, on Account of
the same Crime, which, it was believ'd, had not been so fully prov'd
upon them, as is requisite for inflicting the usual Punishment.

From this Port he sail'd to the Westward, till he came to the Channel
between the Island Fuego and that of Santiago, where one of the Ships
that came out with him stay'd. Steering Norwest, one Point over or
under, [Advice-Boat sent the Viceroy of Peru.] for that is the Course
to the Island S. Anton, he thence dispatch'd the Advice Boat for the
Viceroy of Peru, with eight Men, commanded by Ferdinand Alonso. In
thirteen Days more he pass'd betwixt the Island Graciosa, one of the
Azores, small, but fruitful, and populous, and that of S. George,
in which he saw prodigious high Fires. Those he afterwards found
verified [Conflagration in the Island of S. George.] by the Bishop,
at Angra, where he resides. That on the first of June that same
Year, there were dreadful Earthquakes in the Island of S. George,
Voices of Devils were heard, and among other wonderful Effects, the
Earth open'd in three Places, whence Streams of Fire ran as far as
the Sea. Those continu'd, and seven more broke out, casting forth as
many Rivulets of Liquid Fire; one of which ran round an Hermitage,
and nine Men running to save some Bee-Hives from being burnt, another
Mouth open'd, which swallow'd seven of them, and sing'd the other
two. So much Ashes fell like Rain upon the Earth, that it was cover'd
a Span deep, and in short, all the Island was on Fire. Sarmiento held
on his Course, and on the 18th of June, arriv'd at the City Angra,
on the Island Tercera, the Chief of the Azores, where also came in a
Ship from the Town of Bernambuco, and another from Baya de todos os
Santos, in Brazil. These being ask'd, What they knew of the English,
assur'd him, That in November last past there came five White Men,
with fifteen Indians, who were going to Isleos, and the Portuguese
Towns by Land; and going along the Shore, they on a sudden, at Rio de
las Cuentas, lighted upon an English Sloop. Seven of the [Some English
in Brazil.] Men were ashore drying their Sails, and as soon as they
saw the Travellers they fled. The Portuguese persisted pursuing them;
but the English letting fly some Arrows, held on their Flight, two of
them up the Mountain, and the other five along the Coast, till they
got into the Sloop. They cut their Cables, and left behind them two
large Carriages for Guns.

The Travelers desir'd them to come ashore, and offer'd them Meat, and
all other Necessaries, assuring them they meant no Harm. They answer'd,
they would not come, and show'd Muskets, Cross-bows and Pikes, pointing
a small Gun, to fire at them. It was then Ebb, and they departed six
Leagues from thence, to sail near the River de las Cuentas. That at
the Island Cape, over-against Camamu, another Portuguese Ship, that
knew nothing of this Sloop, lighted on it, when there were only three
English Men left in her, the rest being kill'd ashore, with Arrows by
the Natives. In short, the Sloop was cast away, five Men of it being
taken, who declar'd, that it came with a Squadron of ten Ships, in
which a certain great Englishman [An English Squadron.] pass'd the
Streights of Magellan. That they return'd thence Coasting along, to
plant a Colony in the most convenient Place for their Purpose, the
Admiral having 500 Men aboard for that End. Four Hundred of them were
Soldiers, the rest Seamen, and other Mechanicks. That all this Squadron
Anchor'd in an Island of Cainbals, or Man-Eaters, and a Storm rising,
nine of them sail'd away, but the Admiral not being able to get from
her Anchors time enough, was Cast away, none being sav'd but those
that came [The Admiral cast-away.] in the Sloop, and they escap'd by
being then gone to Water. One of these five was 35 Years of Age, and
an able Mathematitian. He affirm'd, That those who escap'd the Storm,
would soon return to the Coast of Brazil, with a numerous Fleet. Among
other Particulars, he told them, that they found an Inscription with
the King of Spain's Arms, in that part of the Island Cananca, where
they were, which their Commander in chief took away, and set up in the
Place of it another, with those of England. Besides all this, three
of those Ships that escap'd the Storm, coming before the Portuguese
Town of Rio de Janeiro, to make the Cape, and find out the other six,
the Governor of that Place, sent out four Canoes to take Cognisance
of them, which on a sudden fell in with another Long-Boat belonging
to the English, who, as soon as they spy'd the Canoes, made away,
but could not do it so fast as to save all. They took Three, and the
Governor sent them to Bahia; but the Ships made away with all their
Sails. The Prisoners own'd, That in case they met with their Ships at
the Cape, they [English at Brazil.] were resolv'd to go to Parayba,
or Pernambuco. In other Respects they agreed with the Account given
by those in the Sloop. The English arriv'd at Brazil about November,
1579, at the same Time that Sarmiento was seeking for the Streight;
and this agrees with the confuse Signs the Brutish Indians of those
Parts made to him, as he Touch'd on their Coasts. His chief Care
being to enquire into these Matters, he was inform'd by the [Ship
of theirs cast-away.] Corregidor, that is the Governor in Civil
Affairs of Angra, that on the second of November, that same Year,
another English Ship was Cast-away at Gualva, a Town two Leagues
distant from that City, with six Men in it, two whereof, and a Black
were sav'd. It appear'd there had been 300 Men in the Ship, and much
Wealth, which was thrown into the Sea, during the Storm. That they
were going to plant Colonies in India, and most of the Men dy'd on
the Coast of Guinea; and perhaps this might be one of the nine Ships
aforesaid. The People of Gualva drew out of the Sea fifteen heavy
pieces of cast Iron Cannon, but could not get out several others. The
fifteen are of an extraordinary Magnitude, as it were for some settled
Fort. To conclude, he was inform'd, and Time has since verified it,
that they were preparing in those Northern Parts to rob us of the
Treasure of Metals, and Spice there is in those Countries, and in
exchange to Introduce their Sects. The final Success of both the
Spanish and the English Admirals, was that they arriv'd safe in their
respective Countries, forsaken [Drake's Treasure seiz'd.] by the
Vice-Admirals. Drake return'd to London, with an immense Treasure,
which the Queen seiz'd, alledging, That Don Barnardino de Menoza,
then the Spanish Embassador at that Court, demanded Restitution,
as belonging to his K. and the rest of it taken from his Subjects;
but she adjudg'd it to her own Cofers, in Recompence for the Dammage
sustain'd, when the Spaniards supported her Rebels in Ireland. Drake
was not enrich'd by his Robberies, nor did he gain any Reputation
by his Actions; but on the contrary he was slighted in England,
either because they knew what he did was not Honourable, or that
generally a Man's own Country is [Sarmiento in Spain.] ungrateful to
him. Sarmiento departing from Angra with a fair Wind, discover'd the
Coast of Spain on the 7th of August, and arriv'd at Cape S. Vincent,
full of Intelligence and News from so great a Part of the World, and
of the Designs of several Nations, and the Crown of Portugal. His
Arrival, and Account produc'd the fitting out of other Fleets, and
fresh Preparations in Spain, and in the Indies, which extended to
the Relief of the remotest Parts. One of them was the Reducing of
Ternate, and the sending over one hundred Spanish Families, arm'd,
provided and examin'd, as to Quality and Virtue, to be the first
Inhabitant of those Desarts upon the Streight. They carry'd Tools,
Arms, Instructions, and all Necessaries to fortifie the narrow Parts
of it. Sarmiento went as Chief, and Governour of those Dominions. This
Project prov'd unsuccessful, and in the general Opinion of all Men,
it was through the Fault of the Genéral Sancho Flores. Afterwards
Sarmiento was taken, and set at Liberty in England where he had
Conferences with the Queen and Drake upon this Subject, whence he
drew Information for the Execution of greater Designs.

[King Henry of Portugal dyes.] This Year King Henry Dy'd in Portugal,
when he had Reign'd but thirteen Months. Five Governours had the
Administration during the Interregnum, and were disturb'd by the
Arming of Don Antonio, within the Kingdom, and by King Philip's Forces
already advancing into the Frontiers. So that neither Government
could do any more than consult about the present Exigencies; which
at that Time were neither perfect Peace nor open War, there being
Hopes that they would lay down their Arms, and joyn with their true
Prince, whom the Portuguese is wont to Love, as a Father, rather than
as a King. However there were some Troubles, and Commotions. Private
Discord is an inseparable incident to all Governments, and that draws
the Thoughts of Men after it, and is often the Original of general
Calamities, tho' it be moderated, or justify'd by a sincere Zeal.

King Philip enter'd Lisbon supporting his Right by his Power, and
[King Philip the II. at Lisbon.] whilst the other Provinces, which
compose that Monarchy in Spain, Africk, Asia, and the East-Indies
submitted to him, he bestow'd Favours, gave Laws, confirm'd the Old,
ratified Priviledges, and gain'd Affections by his Presence, and a
General Pardon, which he extended to those who had offended him. On
the 15th of November 1582, he swore to observe those Laws establish'd
by his Predecessors, and particularly by King Emanuel, as then next
Heir to the Crowns of Spain, for himself and his Son, Prince Michael,
whom God took to a better Kingdom in his Infancy. Those Laws were
afterwards sworn to by King Sebastian, and all of them imported,
that all Honours, Employments, Benefices, and the Management of
the Revenue of the Crown, with all other Commands by Sea and Land,
in Portugal, Africk, India, the Islands and all other Parts already
conquered, or to be conquer'd by that Crown, shall be in the Hands
of Natural born Portugueses. And by the 24th Chapter of these Laws,
it was establish'd, that in fitting out Fleets [He Swears to maintain
the Laws.] for India, or otherwise for Defence of the Kingdom, or
suppressing of Pyrates, the King should take the necessary Measures
with the Kingdom of Portugal, though he should use the Assistance of
his Majesties other Dominions. They were sensible that this favourable
Law, without infringing the Antient Laws, made way for employing
the Forces of the Crown of Castile, in the Recovery, or Preservation
of the Kingdoms of the Eastern Archipelago, where at that Time the
Christians suffer'd Martyrdom, without any Opposition. And the King
for the Recovery of Ternate, especially consider'd the Conveniency
of the Philippine Islands, which lie more opportune than India;
the Justness of which Reflection has been confirm'd by the Event.

India at this Time was govern'd by the Viceroy Fernan Tellez, to
whom King Philip the second Writ, representing how favourable an
Opportunity he had to do God good Service, to secure the Tranquility
of Christendom, and settle Peace, which inestimable Advantages would
be owing to his Fidelity and Care, if through them those Provinces
should be united to the Monarchy, without any Trouble, by continuing
Loyal, and providing that the Tributary Kings should do the same. He
put him in Mind that Services [India submits to him.] become the
more valuable by the surmounting of the greatest Difficulties, and
gave him good Hopes of a Reward, which would have been fulfill'd,
had he come home to see the Effects of them and his Services. But
Fernan Tellez had no need of any such Promises, or of the Perswasions
which are as good as Commands, contain'd in Letters from Ministers of
State, and sent with the King's Letter. These being sent over Land,
came [Tellez the Viceroy Loyal.] to his Hands in six Months, and he
either preserving, or gaining their Affections had so much Forecast
as to confirm the King, Princes, and Sangiacks, who, in those remote
Parts, pay subjection to the Crown of Portugal; before he knew any
thing of the Orders sent him, or of the additional Estate the King
was pleas'd to confer on him. By his Authority he disappointed some
Projects of Confederacies, set a foot for the recovering of their
Former Liberty, hoping by the Example of the King of Ternate, that the
Revolutions in Europe might turn to their Advantage. But in despight
of these Contradictions and Changes, Fernan Tellez so far prevailed,
as that the Religious Mendicants, and the Jesuits, continu'd the
preaching of the Gospel, with such Fervour, that they defy'd even
Tyranny it self. The Conversions of Idolater Princes are truly and
elegantly related in the Writings and Books of the Missions of the
Society, and other Ecclesiastical Histories; so that they excite,
and inflame Devotion in the Breasts of such as read them. There may
be seen, how the Truth was embrac'd, with all possible Affection;
how hastily, and eagerly they learn'd the Catechism; what Rejoycings
the Catechumens made on the Day they were baptiz'd; Queens, and
Princesses worshipping the Images of Saints; and sweeping the new
Churches, and Chappels with their own Hands; with what Attention,
and Exactness they honour'd the Ceremonies of the Church, and lastly,
how they frequented the Sacraments, and improv'd in Christianity.

All this was Persecuted, and Extirpated by the King of Ternate; who
was now so far from enduring any neighbouring Empire, that he struck
a Dread into the remotest; insomuch, that tho' they were all sensible
they [King of Bachian kill'd.] ought in all good Policy to support
the Kingdoms of Tydore and Bachian, yet they became lookers on, as it
were on a Stage, to behold the Assaults given, and the Cruelties acted
at the Sieges. And in the latter of them, whilst throughout India the
Standards were display'd in submission to Spain, the King of Ternate
enter'd Bachian, and press'd on so vigorously, that he took the Forts
by main Force, and made the principal Sangiacks Prisoners. At the
Taking of the City of Bachian, the King of the Island was slain in
Fight, with all the Portugueses that assisted him; and the Prince,
his Son, taken, who was then a Christian, but soon after, having taken
an Oath of Fealty to the Conquerer, and Apostatiz'd from the True
Religion, he was miserably Restor'd to his Kingdom, exchanging the
Hopes of his Souls Salvation, for the Pernicious Fables of the Alcoran,
to which he has adhear'd till this time; tho' in Temporals he now owns
the sovereign Dominion of our King. The War with the Tydores lasted
longer, the two Navies fighting with indifferent Success, and Victory
changing sides, according [Molucco way of Fighting.] to various
Accidents. These Princes method of making War depends on Ambushes,
and Stratagems, where Subtilty supplies the place of Strength. It is
rare that either side is much weakned; because as soon as sensible
of the others Advantage, the Weaker flyes, and reserves himself for
better Fortune; nor do they look upon it as Dishonourable to fly, for
in those Parts they have but rude Notions of the Laws of Honour. The
last Action, after they had sustain'd the Siege with extraordinary
Magnanimity, was a Sally made by the Portuguese and Tydores from the
Fort, with much Order and Conduct, Attacking the Enemies Camp with
such Bravery, that [Battle of Tydores and Ternates.] tho' they were
much superior in number, they could not stand the Fury of the King
of Tydore. The Ternates being put to Flight, imbark'd after a great
Slaughter of their Men, and never stopp'd till they came to Talangame,
so they call the Harbour of Ternate on that side. The Tydores pursu'd,
and being flush'd with Victory despis'd the Succours the Ternates
had ready in that Place, which Addition made them renew the Fight
with fresh Vigour, and wrest the Victory which then inclin'd to the
Tydores. These without breaking their Order, retir'd and imbark'd;
and hasting back in their Carcoas came to Tydore, where they fortify'd
themselves against what might happen. The King of Ternate return'd
to this City in Triumphant Manner, making a Show of some Prisoners.

The News of the Union of Portugal to Castile, was now known throughout
all those Eastern Parts, and so well receiv'd, that instead of offering
at any Opposition, they all joyfully submitted, hoping they should be
protected by a more powerful Arm, than they had been before. Nor were
they deceiv'd in their Expectation, for, pursuant to what the King had
sworn at Lisbon, concerning the Fleets, for suppressing of Pyrates,
and Garrisoning the Coasts of Africk, he granted his Royal Order, for
all the Governours of the Philippine Islands to take Care to relieve
the Moluccos, and all other the Dominions in India, belonging to the
Crown of Portugal, making use of New Spain, and all other Kingdoms
subject to the Crown of Castile, there being more conveniency for
supplying them from thence, than even from India.

The King of Ternate, being sensible of the Change of Times, and
how much greater Forces threatned him than before; and that he
should not be suffer'd to reign, without submitting to a Superior,
he grew better advis'd, [Nayque Embassador for Spain.] and sent an
Ambassador to Lisbon. The Ambassador was Cachil Nayque, well known
for the Antiquity of his Family, and brave Actions. Nayque signifies
a Tribune, or Commander. He embark'd with much Wealth of those Parts,
as Porcelane, Chinese Silks, Calico's and Muslins, Spice, Fruit,
Aromatick Woods and Barks, and Preserves of the same; and passing
between the Islands of Pangicaz and Manado, near to that of Celebes,
keeping off from the Equinoctical, coasted it and cross'd the Line
[His Voyage.] again, till he came to Borneo. There he visited the
King, who was at Tayaopura, and deliver'd him Letters from his Master,
attempting by Word of Mouth, to unite him to the Molucco Nation against
the Crown of Spain. Contenting himself with the first Hopes, he pass'd
on betwixt Cremato and Surato, and cross'd the Islands Pulo and Linga,
in sight of the greater Java, thence thro' the Streight of Malaca,
by the great Ones of Banca and Bintam, in the Port whereof were then
the 20 Ships, which are sent from Sumatra every Year, loaded with
Pepper. He barter'd away much of what he had in his own Ship, and
propos'd a general Revolt to all [Streights of Sincapura and Sabao.]
Nations. There are two Streights there; the one of Sincapura, so
call'd from that City built on the Coast of Malaca; and the other of
Sabao, from an Island of that Name, and this leads to Sumatra. Nayque
steer'd this Course, and soon put into the Harbour which lies going
out of the Channel.

This great Island, opposite to Malaca, and divided from it by a Bay
full [Sumatra describ'd.] of Ridges, of Rocks and Shoals, and above a
thousand smaller Islands, was formerly a Peninsula, and contiguous to
Malaca, as Sicily is said to have been to Italy, Ancient Geographers
call'd it Trapobana, the Modern Sumatra. The Ancients also call'd it,
the Golden Chersonesus, and the most curious Searchers into Antiquity,
Ophir, whence Solomon gather'd that vast Mass of Treasure. According to
the Portugueses it is 80 Leagues in Length, and 30 in Breadth. (Here
seems to be some Mistake in the Author, for the Island is well known
to be above 80 Leagues in Length.) Italian Writers say it is 2100 in
Circumference. The Dutch, who have traded and made War there, do not
contradict it, and all agree it is the largest in all the East, and
the most fruitful we know of. It lies thwarting from North to South,
in the Torrid Zone, and the Equinoctial Line cuts it in the Middle;
so that one Part falls to the Northern Hemisphere, and takes up five
Degrees, and the other to the Southern, extending seven Degrees. This
Island is, according to some, divided into four Kingdoms; others
say ten, and some 29; but we know of eight, which are, Pedir, Pacem,
Achem, Camper, Menancabo, wealthy in Gold Mines, and Zaude; and up the
Inland the other two of Andragide, and Auru, the Natives whereof are
Idolaters and Man-Eaters. They devour, not only Strangers, but their
own Brothers, and Fathers. In short, among these barbarous People,
Hunger produces the same Effects as Passion. The King of Achem is the
most Powerful of them, and they all pay Homage to the [Nayque stirs
up Princes to revolt.] Crown of Portugal. Nayque enter'd the Court
of Achem, attended by his own Men, and follow'd by the Multitude of
Chinese, Japonese, Malay, Persian, and Turkish Merchants; all of them
flattering themselves with the Expectation of new Commotions. He first
worshipp'd the King in a Temple, where there were monstrous Idols,
notwithstanding that the People are Mahometans. He had afterwards
private Conferences with him at Court, and in a few Days brought
him over to his Party, with his Wealth, as if he had been a poor
Man. After delivering his Master's Letters, he told him, that before
he went over into Europe, whether he was sent to discover the Power
of Spain in its Origin, or Source, at a Time when it was distracted
by such Revolutions, it was convenient that most wealthy Part of Asia
should be restor'd to its former Condition, a Matter of no Difficulty,
if they were firmly united among themselves. That none were so able
to overthrow the Neighbouring Monarchy, which from Malaca had,
as it were, fetter'd so many Provinces, as the Kings of Sumatra,
if they, considering of what Moment it was to them, would stand by
one another. That since he had successfully besieg'd that hateful
City, assaulted its Walls, and Forts, and valu'd himself on being
an Enemy to the Portugueses, he ought not to let slip so favourable
an Opportunity, which offer'd him compleat Victory. That he should
remember the several Expeditions of the Viceroys against Sumatra,
and that they always breed up Adelantados, or Lords-Lieutenants,
with their Soldiers in Pay against those Kingdoms. And that since,
till then they had not been able to make him uneasy, it was too
much Forbearance to suffer a perpetual [The King of Achem complies.]
Threat of Thraldom to subsist so near him. The King of Achem, listen'd
to him with Satisfaction, as one, who, with all his Nation, hates the
Haughtiness of the Portuguese Behaviour; yet he neither promis'd, nor
perform'd any more than obstructing the Trade of Malaca, till he had
reduc'd it to Want. Nor did he keep the Secret, for they had soon an
Account at Malaca and Goa of these Contrivances. He farther promis'd;
That whensoever the King of Ternate should make a greater Invasion,
or go about to extend, or enlarge himself, as far as he pretended
he had a right, he would continue to give the Diversion, as far as
stood with his Conveniency, and that he should have the Liberty of his
Ports, and all Supplies for his Ships in his Kingdom. Nayque return'd
Thanks, and extended his Negociation, endeavouring to bring in the
other Tyrants of Sumatra, as for the Publick Good. Then sailing away
through the Streight of Sunda, so call'd from the Name of a City in
the furthest Part of the Province, beyond the Line; he proceeded
to the greater Java, no less Fertile than the other in the same
Medicinal, and Odoriferous Growth, at the Time when Thomas Candish,
an English Commander was arriv'd there, coming from the North-Sea,
by the Way of New Spain.

Nayque went up the Country to visit, and found him in a populous
City, where he was loading Pepper, which is excellent in Java, with
that King's Leave, he being a Friend to the English, who had already
settled a Factory. [Candish in Java presented by Nayque.] He found him
on the Banks of a River of such a Nature, that it presently converts
any Wood whatsoever cast into it into Stone, as solid and hard as our
Pebbles. He bore the Englishman Company to the Port of Sunda Calapa,
viewed his Ship, and made as much of him as he could. Among other
Things he presented him a Pavillion, artificially wove all with sweet
scented Cloves, and not black, which was not only fit to keep out the
excessive Cold of England, but even to dry up over moist Bodies that
slept under it. There is daily Experience of its atractive Virtue at
Ternate, by placing great Vessels full of Water in the middle of the
Rooms where the Cloves [Clove atracts Water, as does China Silk.]
are kept, and in the Morning they find the Heaps of Cloves damp,
and the Vessels empty and dry. The same Essential Heat is in the
Skeins of China Silk, which therefore those who deal in it keep at a
small Distance from the Water, yet they suck it, without touching,
and by this Fraud they weigh the heavier. Captain John Lopez de
Ribera carry'd such a Pavillion of Cloves, as is above mention'd,
and presented it to the Earl of Coruna, who was then Viceroy. Nayque,
like a Flash of Lightning which burns all that stands in its way,
endeavour'd to stir up those who before were kept peaceable by the
Valour of Fernan Tellez, and to encourage the Turbulent, but without
staying to see the effect of his Negociation, he made directly towards
the Cape of Good-Hope, yet it is more likely, and even positive,
that he went first to Malaca, and thence in the India Ships to Spain.

Whilst Nayque was at Sea, the Marques de Santa Cruz had in the Ocean
fought the Fleet Commanded by Philip Strozzi, in which was Antony
the Bastard, Pretender to the Crown of Portugal, and destroy'd it,
[Antony the Bastard Defeated.] Chastizing the French, who with real,
or counterfeit Commissions from their King, had oppos'd King Philip's
just Possession. He arrived victorious at the Island of S. Michael,
cut off the Heads of the French Gentlemen, and condemn'd the Rest
to the Galleys. Strozzi dy'd of his Wounds, and Don Antonio escap'd
in a Boat, and return'd to Zealand, to solicite fresh Succours in
England and France. In the mean while, the King of Achem perform'd his
Promise. His Kingdom lies next the first Promontory of the [Kingdom
of Achem.] Island, in four Degrees and a half of North Latitude,
and consequently his Ships easily made themselves Masters of all the
Streight between Sumatra and Achem, which they so entirely possess'd,
that they suffer'd none of the Ships to pass to Malaca, which brought
Merchandize and Provisions from China, Japan, Camboxa, nor even from
the Moluccos, obliging them to Coast about several Islands, to the
great Loss of the Merchants. But the Portuguese Dealers in the City of
Pedir, eight Leagues from Achem, sustain'd much greater Dammage. Most
of them fled to Malaca, and tho' Fernan Tellez was then upon his
Departure, he gave the necessary Orders at Goa for their Relief. He
sunk some of the Enemies Ships, and took one loaded with Daggers, they
call Crizes, made at Menancabo, and a numerous Artillery, a Thing well
known, and cast in Sumatra, many Years before the Europeans brought
them into those Parts. This appears by the Victory the Portugueses
obtain'd over that Nation, during the Blockade of Malaca.

The King of Achem sending a Daughter to be Married to the King of Zor,
not far from Malaca, in the Country of Siam, among other rich Gifts,
[Monstrous Piece of Cannon.] by way of Portion, presented him a
Brass Cannon of such a bigness, that the like had never been seen
in Europe. This prodigious Gun, and the Princess that was to be
Queen of Zor, fell into the Hands of the Portugueses. The taking
of this Prize, and some others, clear'd the Sea of that Fleet; and
that extraordinary piece of Cannon, which serv'd to Ballast a Ship,
was brought as a Present to the King of Spain, for its Monstrous Size,
but a Storm oblig'd them to leave it in the Island Tercera, where it is
now seen and admir'd. The City Zor was also Taken by the Portugueses,
and in it they found 1500 pieces of Cannon, Artificially Cast, with
curious Figures and Flowers of Rais'd-Work on them. The Molucco
Embassador [Molucco Embassador at Lisbon.] being come to Lisbon,
obtain'd Audience of the King; who, tho' he was fully inform'd of
the Embassadors Falshood, and the Practices of his Nation, yet gave
him a favourable Hearing, after he had shew'd his Credentials to the
Ministers of State. He in a long Speech recounted, from its Original,
the constant Fidelity or the Molucco Kings, and how particularly
Remarkable it had been in Sultan Aerio, and that the wicked Commander
[His Speech.] in Chief in putting him to Death, had equally wrong'd
the Crown of Portugal. That since the Murderer was not punish'd,
to satisfy the dead Man's Children and Kingdoms, it might well
be concluded, that so Cruel and Undeserv'd an Execution had been
by the Direction of some higher Power than the Governor Mesquita,
and that even in case the Crime had been Notorious it had been more
Prudence to charge it upon some private Person. That King Cachil Babu
intreated his Majesty to punish the Offender in such manner as might
give Satisfaction, and be an Example and Security to all the Asiatick
Kings, that own the Dominion of Spain. In Return for that Favour,
and Justice, he promised to Restore the Fort of Ternate, and his
other Kingdoms, which were Alienated, and that they would return
to their former Subjection, as they had promis'd to the Governor
Pereyra de la Cerda; so remarkably correct their Behaviour, that
there should be visible Effects of a Royal, and Humble Gratitude,
both in respect to his Majesties service, and the security of the
Garrisons, and to the Advantage of the neighbouring Provinces,
belonging to other Kings, who were his Subjects, about Malaca, the
Philippine Islands, and Parts Adjacent. He also ingaged to Restore
the Churches, and Christian Religion, and much more than had been
agreed upon with Pereyra. The King having heard his Request, as if
he were ignorant that the Ternates did not deserve the satisfaction
they requir'd, since they had taken it themselves so fully, that
it exceeded even the bounds and examples of Revenge, he Answer'd,
That [The King's Answer.] all the Accessaries to that Fact should
be found out, it being prov'd that the Principal was already Dead,
and none of them should escape Unpunish'd, as would have been done
by King Sebastian, had he Liv'd. That Cachil Babu must prepare to
Restore all Things into the same Posture they were in before, if he
intended to partake of the general Amnesty, which blotted out all
past Offences throughout the Dominions of that Crown. Nayque had some
private Audiences, and some Ministers of State had Conferences with
him, with a Design to find out how the People of India were dispos'd.

At this same Time Don Gonzalo Ronquillo, pursuant to the Orders he
[Ensign Duenas from Philippines to the Moluccos.] had receiv'd from
Spain, sent the Ensign, Francis de Duenas, from the Philippine Islands,
where he was Governor, to the Moluccos, to pry into the Inclinations
of the Kings, and People, Governors, and other Portugueses at Ternate,
Tydore, and Bachian, as to submitting to the King of Spain. He set
out in the Habit of a Chinese, and was much assisted by his Knowledge
of those Countries, and their Languages, and much more by his bold
Spirit, sufficiently try'd in those Wars. He artfully Learnt what Hopes
there might be of the Recovery of Ternate, and how firm the People of
Tydore stood. He first inquired what Leagues were carrying on in the
Archipelago, what Intelligence they had with, and expected from the
Northern Fleets, with whom they had now familiar Correspondence. He
Travell'd about the Islands, like a Sangley, or Chinese, in the
Janguas, or Trading [The Intelligence he got.] Vessels of the Malay,
and Philippine Merchants, and had the Opportunity of viewing them
all, so far as to take the Dimensions of strong Places, compute what
Stores and Ammunition the Barbarians had, and discover the Humours
and Inclinations of the Portugueses who Traded, or Govern'd there;
and returning to the Philippine Islands, his Account, and Relation,
first Encourag'd and gave Hopes that more Advantagious Enterprizes
might be undertaken in those Parts, than about Malaca, tho' it were
but only Supporting the Portugueses and Tydores, then hard press'd
by the King of Ternate. King Philip receiv'd this Intelligence at
Lisbon, whence the Molucco Embassador was then gone, ill satisfy'd
with the Answer he had; but Sultan Babu, on whom the Word of so great
a Monarch, and the Authority of his Promise might perhaps have had
great Effect, dy'd long before the said Embassador could come to
his Presence. [Sultan Babu Dies.] The small Remains of Christianity
still left in his Kingdom, took a little Heart, and had our Arms but
appear'd upon the Revolution caus'd by his Death, the only Noise of
them might have gain'd the Victory. It is Reported that furious King
Babu dy'd by the excess of his Love, or rather of his inordinate Lust,
in the Arms of one of his Mistresses. Some say she kill'd him with
Charms, or Poison, which is the Tyrant-Slayer among those Nations,
impatient of one Mans long Rule. He was Succeeded by his Brother,
who was Illegitimate, as we are told by Cachil Tulo, in the Letter,
which, as we shall see hereafter, he writ to the Governor of the
Philippine Islands. The new King took the Name of Cachil Sultan Nait
Dini Baraca [Sultan Nait succeds.] Xa, before whom Cachil Madraca
ought to have been preferr'd, as being Son to the principal Queen. As
soon as Enthron'd he offer'd Peace to his Neighbours; on this Security,
and that of a clear Conscience, Cachil Gava, King of Tydore, paid him
a visit. He was received with publick Rejoycings in one of the greatest
Squares of Ternate, and attended to a mighty lofty Arbour, provided to
offer Sacrifize in, a (Chappel suitable to the Priesthood) and there
to decide Controversies, and give Audience to his Subjects. When the
first Complements were over, and the King of Tydore [Murders the King
of Tydore.] least suspected any thing, the Ternate Guards, hearing
the Signal given by their K. drew their Campilanes, or Cymiters, and
without allowing the Guest time to cry out, fell upon, and cut him
into Pieces; tho' he was the Man thro' whose Means the K. of Ternate
had the Crown given him, contrary to the Opinion, and Designs of his
Unkles. But whensoever great Returns are due to a Favour receiv'd,
Ungrateful Souls convert the Obligation into Hatred, and nothing can
occur to them more odious than the Sight of the Benefactor. Next he
turn'd his Fury against that murder'd Princes Family, and such of
his Servants as could not make their Escape to Tydore, were either
Kill'd, or remain'd Prisoners at Ternate, or absconded wheresoever
Fortune, and their own Confusion lead them. This cruel Fact, which
some assign'd to his Father, Cachil Babu, Reconcil'd the Murderer
and his Unkles. But he immediately acquainted them, how he expected
to be Invaded on two Sides; that it was of the utmost Consequence,
that Subjects should own their Sovereign, and fortify his Islands,
especially all the upper Parts; and that since he had such Powerful
Unkles, it was Reasonable, and Convenient, the People should be
acquainted how firmly they were United to their Nephew. Then extolling
their Valour, he with the sweetness of their Commendations so blinded
and amused them, that they could not perceive the profound Jealousie
he shrouded under them. Thus he divided them, that they might attend
the Fortifications in distant Places; whilst [New King of Tydore.]
he in Person carry'd on the War against the Tydores. They presently
set up a Brother of their late King in his Stead; who, tho' he govern'd
with Bravery, and stuck close to the Portugueses, yet had some strong
Places taken from him by the King of Ternate, which were afterwards
restor'd, in our Kings Name, by Don Pedro de Acuna to the King now
reigning. This Prince lived but a short Time, yet so long that Cachil
Mole, who was a Child when the King his Father was murder'd, grew
up, and in him the Revenge of the Injury receiv'd. He never thought,
or talk'd of any other Thing, till he brought it to Execution.

In the mean while the new King of Tydore, assisted by the Spaniards he
had in his Forts, provided to oppose, and attack his Enemy. They all
expected Succours from India, where it was certain they must think
it necessary to support Tydore, in order to recover Ternate. Their
Behaviour was so brave, as to defend themselves, tho' ill furnish'd
with Arms and Provisions against those who attack'd them with Plenty
of all Things. Hector Brito was come with a Galleon from India to
their Assistance, and [He is taken by him of Ternate.] it being known
at Tydore that a Storm had oblig'd him to stay on the farther Coast
of Borneo, the King fitted out four Carcoas, and went to meet him,
but was forced back to his Island by contrary Winds. He of Ternate
watch'd to improve all Opportunities against his Enemy, and therefore
would not let this Slip, nor trust to any other; but Man'd out nine
Carcoas, and going in Person fell upon him. The Tydores wanted not
Courage to defend themselves, and the Fight began with that Fury,
which always arms those two Nations against one another; but tho' the
Tydore fought desperately, he was taken, and his Men either kill'd,
or dangerously wounded. This Misfortune griev'd the Portugueses no
less than the Indians, because they all lov'd him. For this reason
they gather'd the Remains of that Disaster, and all the other Forces
they could make, offering their Service to Cachil Aleazen, Brother to
the Captive King, a very hopeful Youth. [Fidelity of the Tydores.]
He thank'd them, and was so dexterous in gaining the Affections,
and confirming the Fidelity of the Subjects, that through his Care,
no Man was wanting to his Duty. This Industry was of good Use, for
the Conqueror did not return immediately to Ternate; but went about
to his Enemies Islands, perswading the People in each of them to take
an Oath of Allegiance to him, showing them their Captive King, whose
Life was at his disposal; but the Tydore Towns, being furnish'd with
all Necessaries, and believing they might with Safety practice that
Hatred and Rage Nature has fill'd them with, would not give Ear to his
Proposals, though they were mix'd with Intreaties, and Threats, and on
the contrary dismiss'd him with their usual Fierceness. He perceiving
that the Ostentation of his Victory, and the Sight of the Captive
King availed him but little, Sail'd away for Ternate. At his Arrival,
he was received with Trumpets, Kettle-Drums, and Basons they beat on,
and with Songs they make for such like Occasions. The Heads and Limbs
of the Tydores slain in Battel, were fix'd [Cruelties of Ternates.]
upon the Spears they have advanc'd in the Carcoas on the Poops and
Prows, and other high Places of them, and particularly the Kings. This
is their way of erecting Trophies. Of the Skulls they make Cups to
drink out of; like the Scithians, who, according to Herodotus, practice
the same; or like the Germans, as Tacitus tells us, of the Heads of
the Uri they slew, and that was a Token of Nobility. He would not
trust the keeping of the King in any of his Forts; but turn'd a strong
House into a Goal, and appointed him a Guard of Gilolo Islanders, well
arm'd. Sometimes he show'd Severity, and otherwhiles Tenderness; but
all Men knowing his Disposition, expected the End of the Captive King;
tho' at the same time they believ'd, he would mitigate his Revenge
out of Respect to his Sister, the Princess of Tydore. Hector Brito,
Commander of a Galeon, [Hector Brito at Tydore.] came now to Tydore;
but his Arrival did not much mend the Posture of Affairs, tho' those
in the Fort were Encourag'd to hold out, and at least, he added some
Reputation to the Cause, and inclin'd the Ternates to listen to some
Overtures. However what could not be compass'd by force of Arms nor
Treaty, was effected by the Resolution of an Amorous Soul.

The Princess Quisayra, Sister to King Gapabaguna, that was the
Prisoner's [Remarkable Story of the Captive King's Liberty.] Name,
had so great an Opinion of herself, as to hope that her Beauty would
prevail to bring about that good End, which was then of Consequence
to all Parties, on several Accounts. She knew she was belov'd by the
King of Bachian, by him of Sian, a brave Youth, by him of Ternate her
Enemy, and by other prime Sangiacks of his Kingdom, and his Kinsmen,
who all publickly vy'd in doing her Honour. She was discreet enough
dexterously to feed them all with such Hopes, as lay no Obligation on
the Party that gives them, and yet encourage those who value them. She
gave out that she would marry none but the Man that [Contrivance of
Quisayra, Princess of Tydore.] should set her Brother at Liberty,
and deliver him to her alive, or dead. This Part of the Declaration,
tended to the Promoting of her Design. The Promise work'd upon all
her Admirers; tho' it was most certain, that her naming herself as a
Reward of the Enterprize, proceeded from the Affection she bore Ruy
Diaz d' Acunha, a Portuguese Gentleman, and Commander in Chief of
the Fort of Tydore. She thought he would attempt the Rescuing of the
King, and that such Success would entitle her [She is in Love with
the Portuguse Commander.] to marry him, tho' many suspected there
was already a mutual Obligation, as well as Desire, and that they
were reciprocally in Love. It was known, that they had discours'd
together several Times in the House of Quinchana, a great Lady,
Aunt to Quisayra, whether Ruy Diaz was wont to go frequently; and
that with her Interposition the Matter had been so far concerted,
that the Princess promis'd she would embrace Christianity to marry
him. This made not his Rivals dismay, and the King of Ternate, upon
these profer'd Hopes, offer'd to give her Brother his Liberty. However
he was not regarded, because Quisayra was as averse to be beholding
to him, as she was desirous to be oblig'd by Ruy Diaz. This powerful
Passion informs barbarous Minds. Her Disdain caus'd the King of Tydore
to be more close confin'd, and his Body to be loaded with heavy Chains,
being more narrowly observ'd than before.

[Cachil Salama a Lover of Quisagra, his Bravery.] Cachil Salama,
a Subject and near Kinsman of his, well known for his Valour in
the Wars, was more deep in Love with Quisayra than all the Rest,
and listen'd to all the Reports of their endeavouring to comply with
her Expectation. He entirely keeping his own Council, a Thing rare in
Lovers, to be secret without Affectation, that no Notice might be taken
of him, one Night fitted out a Baroto, so they call a Sort of small
Boat, putting into it five Tydore Soldiers, he could confide in. Thus
he cross'd over the Channel to the Leeward, and landed on Ternate;
where he left the Boat ready, but hid on the Shore. Then Cachil
Salama, conceal'd among the Croud of trading People in the City,
went to the chief Part they call Limathas, and set Fire to a House
in that Ward he thought stood most convenient for his Purpose. The
Flame, which had taken hold of the Roof gathering Strength, threatned
a greater Conflagration. Having done this Mischief, whilst the People
flock'd together, and endeavour'd to put a Stop to it with Water,
and other means, Cachil return'd to his Boat, on the Inside the Ridge
of Rocks there is about the Island, and went away to the other Side
of the Fort, where he began to beat an Alarm, to cause the greater
Confusion. This done he went ashore again, with only his Campilan,
or Cimiter, ordering three of his Men to follow him at some small
Distance. He found the King's Prison almost abandon'd, the Guards
being gone to help at the House that was a Fire. He went in boldly,
breaking open Doors, and Bolts, till he came to the Prisoners Chamber,
[He rescues the King of Tydore.] who scarce believing what he saw,
ask'd him, with much Amazement, how he came thither, and whether the
Fort of Tydore was lost? Cachil answer'd, he must be quick, and go
along with him, and should afterwards be satisfy'd as to his Questions;
for if he refus'd he would strike off his Head. Then laying hold of
the end of the Chain, and the other three Tydores being now come up to
them, they forc'd their Passage out of the House, making way with their
Swords and killing such as offer'd to oppose them. The same Valour
and good Fortune carry'd them through the Streets, to the Port, and
leaping into their little Boat, put all their Hands to the Oars. In
those Islands it is usual for Kings to row, without being compell'd
to it by Necessity; for as in Spain the Nobility learn to ride,
so the Island Princes in all those Eastern Parts value themselves
upon handling the Oars, and Sails. They cross'd over the Streight,
and being pursu'd too late, by the light Vessels of Ternate, arriv'd
unexpected at Tydore. The Fame of his arrival was soon spread abroad,
and when certainly known, the Cannon was fir'd, the flat Drums in
the Temples were beaten, and the Bells rung, the Sound whereof uses
to draw the People of the Moluccos together, and in short there was
a general Rejoycing, without quitting their Arms. All Men cry'd up
Cachil Salama to the Skies, calling him the Deliverer of Tydore,
and Neza Maluco, Neza signifies a Spear, and Maluco a Kingdom, and
both together the Spear, that is, the Defence of the Kingdom.

Only Quisayra was troubled at this Event, because the general Promise
[Quisayra contrives to murder Cachil Salama.] she had made of
marrying, whosoever perform'd it, was only design'd for Ruy Diaz
de Acunha. She was not able to conceal this Truth; especially when
Cachil Salama boldly press'd the Performance of the Promise, the
King himself seconding him. She delay'd him, alledging some specious
Pretences to gain Time. She would willingly have made her Complaint
to Ruy Diaz himself, either to shame, or provoke him to Passion. She
easily compass'd to meet him at her Aunts, where, as soon as she began
to Discourse, there was nothing but Tears, Complaints, Excuses, and
Contrivances to murder Salama, to conclude a Reconciliation. Rocque
Pinheyro the Commander's Nephew, and a Soldier of reputed Valour,
was present at this Discourse. Quisayra trusting him with her secret
Thoughts, he [Pinheyro undertakes to murder him and his own Unkle.]
boldly, and with Art, gave her to understand that his Unkle was
as slack as before; and since he had been so in the other Affair,
what could be expected from him in what he now promis'd. He said,
if she could prevail upon her self to be sensible of the Ingratitude
of Ruy Diaz, and to substitute him in his Place, he would not only
murder Cachil, but his own Unkle too. That out of the Respect due to
her high Qualities, he had not till then presum'd to let her know how
deeply he was in Love with her Beauty; but that he now thought himself
absolv'd from all human Tyes, and wholly confin'd by that. Pinheyro
had a full hearing, an Advantage not far remote from being admitted;
and tho' he was not commanded to murder his Unkle, yet he perceiv'd
he had not left him so well in the Princesses Esteem as he was before.

In the mean while, Cachil Salama was not idle, pressing the Business
hastily, [Salama convey'd into Quisayra's Bed Chamber.] and having
got some Inkling, or suspecting the Cause of the Delay, like a true
Lover who is seldom deceiv'd in this Sort of Jealousy, he found out
the Truth. By the Contrivance of one of Quisayra's Women, he durst
presume to hide himself in her Bedchamber; and in the dead of the
Night, he suddenly appear'd before her, his Fiercness being overcome
by a Superior Power. The Princess was surpriz'd, but dissembled it,
and prepar'd to defend herself in Case Violence were offer'd. She
threatned to cry out; utter'd Complaints with Tears, and bewail'd the
loss of her Reputation, saying, how could they think her Innocent,
who saw him either come in, or go out. Salama all the while in humble
Posture, and on his Knees, assur'd her he had no other Design,
than to put her in Mind of the Obligation she lay under, and that
since it was known he was to be her Husband, his being seen was of no
Consequence. That her Reputation suffer'd more, by the delaying of the
marriage; and that to convince her of his Affection, he would be gone
as obediently as he had always done. He went [He gains her Affection.]
out immediately, comforted with Thanks, and Hopes; and deliver'd her
from the Fear she had conceiv'd of him. She was so taken with this
Courteous Action, that resolving it in her Mind, it wrought so much,
as to settle her Affection on Salama; so that she would have marry'd
him, tho' he had not oblig'd her before.

At this time Pinheyro, who was already engaged in her Love, either
to obtain its Reward, or because his Unkle did not Favour him as
he expected, [Pinheyro murders his Unkle, and is kill'd by Salama.]
or for both Reasons, contriv'd his Death. As he was going one Day to
the Palace, to acquaint Quisayra that the Murder was already committed,
Cachil happened than to come from a Fort to see his Mistress. He seeing
Pinheyro coming out of her Apartment, drew his Campilan, or Cymiter,
and tho' the Youth fought Manfully, and like a Lover, yet Cachil,
who had the same Qualifications, and was Jealous over and above,
at the first onset clove his Head, so furiously, that he dropt down
dead of the Wound. Then proceeding as he had begun, he went in where
Quisayra was, whom [He marries Quisayra.] he easily perswaded to be
gon with him, and leaving the Palace full of Confusion, they Imbark'd
in the Baroto, or small Boat that brought him. They Marry'd with
the good liking of the King and Kingdome, and the Loss of those two
Gentlemen's Lives. And since among the Portuguese Nation, as much
Account is made of Honour gain'd, or lost in Love Affairs, as was
formerly of Victories obtain'd in Greece, at the Olympick Games,
the Vindication of these Lovers shall be left to the Management of
those who are well skil'd in that Matter, to whom we refer our selves.

The Portugueses were much griev'd at this Disaster, as being Publick,
and the King was so incens'd, that one of them having accidentally
kill'd [A Portuguese hang'd.] a Horse he had a great Value for, he
caus'd him to be Hang'd, without hearkning to any thing that could be
said for him. This gain'd Cachil Mole so generally the Affections of
all Men, that tho' Cachil Cota was Elder, and Son to the principal
Queen, by them call'd Putriz, under colour that the latter was a
Friend to the King of Ternate, and about to contract Affinity with him,
the other gain'd the greater Party, which advanc'd him to Succeed in
the Throne of Tydore, as we shall soon see.

The Portuguese Galeons arrived at Malaca, and in them Cachil Naique
returning from Spain, and having stay'd there some Months for
the Monsons, [Nayque returns to Ternate.] he had a good Voyage,
and arrived safe at Ternate, when he had by the way sollicited the
Javaneses, and the People of Achem and Borneo, not to admit of the
Spanish Domination. He brought no acceptable Answer from King Philip,
and found the King who had employ'd him Dead, and in his Place another,
so different from the Former, that he entertain'd no Thoughts of
restoring the Forts to the Portugueses, but on the contrary, aim'd
at casting off all Obedience, and obliterating their Name. To this
effect he Confederated with the English, who, with other Northern
[English at Ternate.] Nations, Lorded it in the Island. Five Leagues
from it lay at Anchor an English Ship, waiting for two others that
came out with her. They Anchor'd in the Port, and went ashore, as if
they had been in London, being well receiv'd by the Sultan, with whose
Leave they settled a Factory in the City, where they left Officers,
who under the name of Trade, were more absolute Masters of it than
the Natives. They dispers'd to gather in the Clove for the Goods they
brought to Barter; and on the 21st. of August dispatch'd their Ships,
loaded with that Spice, and with those Nuts they call of Molucco,
and excellent Preserves of them both. In these Ships went Embassadors
to Queen Elizabeth, and to the Prince of Orange, carrying Presents
suitable to those Persons, of the most valuable Things in India. They
were order'd to offer the Queen his Kingdome in Vassalage, and his
Friendship to the Prince of Orange. The Advantage of these Embassies
afterwards appear'd; yet he did not on that Account give any hopes
of Restoring Christianity; for besides that the Persecution grew
more violent, he had at that time brought over into his Kingdome,
a great number of Arabian and Persian false Prophets, all of them
Mahomet's Priests and Ministers, [Mahometan Preachers at Ternate.]
to strengthen that Sect. Besides, being inform'd by his Spies, That
it was given out in the Philippine Islands, That they would make War
on him that way, and that in Spain the King promis'd the Union of the
two Crowns should produce the Conjunction of their Power and Arms,
for the punishing of disobedient Tyrants, he slighted no Alliance, nor
contemn'd the Weakest Enemy. For this Reason, he gave Entertainment,
and allow'd the planting of Colonies to Europeans, and Leagued with
Idolaters and Mahometans, who hate Spain, as their common Enemy. The
English Ships now frequented India, facilitating the Passage, and
shewing an Example to the French and Dutch, which encourag'd them
all to venture out far from their Countries, and seek for Treasure
in strange ones.

Sultan Capabaguna did not long enjoy his Liberty at Tydore. He was
[King of Ternate dies.] taken ill at an Entertainment. Some believe he
had a slow Poison given him; because he was very moderate in Eating,
and those motions of his Arms, the gnashing of his Teeth, and losing
of his Senses, which attend the Falling-Sickness, and are Simptoms
of Apoplexies, could not naturally proceed from his Temperate way of
Living; but are always caused by much Excess, which Occasions this
violent Distemper. He came to himself after that first Fit, but his
Vigour wasted, and he linger'd on to the end of his Life. Cachil
Cotta should have Succeeded him, but they were suspicious of his
Correspondence with the Ternates; and they all so openly favour'd his
Brother Cachil Mole, that there was not the least Difficulty made about
the Succession. He often remember'd his Fathers unfortunate Death, and
in Regard that this raging Desire of Revenge, might prove instrumental
for the Recovery of Ternates; as soon as his Unkle Dy'd, which was on
the 24th of April 1599, the Portuguese Commander in Chief, Ruy Gonzalez
de Sequeyrao repair'd to his Palace, and by Means of the Portuguese
[Cachil Mole King of Tydore.] Power and Arms, caused Cachil Mole to be
sworn King, as being a most faithful Friend to his Nation, and no less
an Enemy to the Ternates. He immediatly dispatch'd Captain Palma with
this News to Manila, and with it an Account of the Molucco Islands,
of their Neighbours, and of their Preparations; because they were
then providing in the Philippine Islands for this War, to extirpate
this Receptacle of Sects, where all sorts of Apostasies are admitted,
and particularly the vile Doctrines of Mahomet. Ever since the Year
1555, when the Dutch enter'd those Seas, they have not, till this Time,
ceas'd bringing in Sectaries, and Captains of Pyrates: These Men carry
away the Wealth of Asia, and in Lieu of it leave behind them that false
Doctrine, which renders the Conversion of so many Souls Fruitless.

The Forgetfulness, or Contempt the Governours of India show'd for
[Moluccos slighted at Goa.] the Molucco Islands, seem'd fatal;
since they refus'd, or with-held the usual Succours, abandoning the
Commanders, and Forts, for so many Years, as if they had not been in
the World. This was not remedy'd by the Union of the Crowns of Spain
and Portugal; on the contrary, the great Success of the Adelantado,
or Lord Lieutenant Legaspe, in the Islands Luzones, which he call'd
Philippines, being known in Spain, King Philip the IId. thought fit
as we shall soon see, that the Molucco Islands, and Parts adjacent,
whither he was Zealous to send Evangelical Preachers, should be
sensible of the Advantage of his Neighbouring Empire. This was [Relief
order'd from the Philippines, and why.] speedily order'd, and tho'
the Effects were not sutable, by Reason of the many Accidents great
Undertakings are liable to, yet Time has shown how convenient it was
to fix that Resolution. For the better understanding of the Reasons
on which it was grounded; since one of them proceeded from the various
Disposition, Qualities, and Interests of the Nations throughout those
Seas and Lands; it will be absolutely necessary in this Place to make
them known, before we come to Particulars.

[Description of China.] The Country of the Sinæ, whom we call
Chineses, is the uttermost of the Continent of Asia. On the East
and South it is encompass'd by the Ocean, which the Ancients call'd
Sericus. On the West, it reaches to the Borders of the farther India;
and on the North to those of the Massagetes and Scythians. Their
Ancient Annals, Writings and Traditions informs us, that the Chineses
extended their Empire much further. This is verify'd by the Remains
of sumptuous Structures; and not only in Ruins, wherein their former
Magnificence is still apparent, but even in Cities, which Time has
preserv'd, tho' not inhabited, and yet to be seen in the Provinces
they have excluded their Limits. There are many which take there
Denomination, and own their Original from China. For that immense
Empire finding it self labouring under its own Power, and overburden'd
with its Magnitude, like a judicious Patient, to prevent more Harm, it
breath'd the Veins, and brought down the Redundancy of the Body. The
same we read the Carthagenians did, when in the like Condition, and
for the same Reasons. It confin'd it self to a narrower Compass,
proportionable to the Extent of humane Providence, that so their
Prince's Light might reach to shine over, and be communicated to them;
which cannot be, when the Circumference is too great for the Darting
of the Beams. They publish'd indispensable Decrees against such as
go out [Chineses contract their Empire.] of China, without leave
from the Magistrates. They abandon'd vast Provinces, which being left
expos'd to Tyranny, and Infidelity, after tedious Wars, submitted to
the most Potent. Hence the Kings of India took their Original, being
oblig'd never to lay down their Arms, nor keep any Faith, so to support
themselves one against another, till a greater Power subdues them.

[15 Kingdoms in China.] In China they reckon 15 maritime Kingdoms,
or Provinces of an extraordinary Extent, with each its Metropolis,
or Capital; the rest are up the Inland. The most part of it lies
within temperate Climates, and receives into its pure and open
Bosome the Sun's vital Rays, having a healthful, and serene pleasant
air. This favourable Disposition renders it so fruitful, [Fertility,
Air, Populousness.] that it yearly yields two or three crops. The
great Industry of the Tillers, is a considerable Addition to its
Fertility. The Number of them is infinite, being a People that daily
multiply exceedingly, because they are forbid going into foreign
Countries. Neither is any among such a numerous Multitude of Men
allow'd to live idle. Idleness is not only exposed [Idleness punish'd.]
to private Contempt, and the Scoffs of Neighbours, but punish'd
by publick Custome and Law. Thus the Peasants leave not the least
Spot of Ground untill'd. The Hills and deep Bottoms produce Vines
and Pine-Trees; the Plains, Rice, Barley, Wheat, and other common
Grain. Tho' they do not press the Grapes for the Wine, as we do, yet
they keep them [Product, Tea.] to eat; and of the Herb call'd Chia,
they make a wholesome hot Liquor. This they drink, as do the Japoneses,
and it preserves them from Colds, Head-Aches, Rheums in the Eyes,
and makes them live long and healthy. Some Parts of the Country want
Olive-Trees, but they are not destitute of other Plants, which yield
a Liquor to anoint them. There is a perpetual Abundance of Pasture,
Fruits, Flowers, and all Products of Gardens. [Rivers, Ports, &c.]
There are many Navigable Rivers, carrying Ships of great Burden,
and full of excellent Fish; the Banks cover'd with perpetual Greens,
spacious Harbours, and a Trade in them of all Things necessary for
humane Life. The Fowl are of various colour'd Feathers, and pleasant
and nourishing to eat; great Numbers of large Deer; vast Lakes, Woods
and Mountains, and Mines of Gold, Silver, Iron, and other Metals;
besides Pearls and precious Stones. Its Purcelane, or Earthen Ware,
is not to be imitated in the World; and it affords rich Furs against
the Cold, Silks, Wooll, Cotton, and Flax; nor is there any End of its
Sugar, Honey, Amber, Vermilion, and Lake. Musk, whereof no mention
is found among Greek and Latin Authors, is more plentiful in China
than in other Parts.

The People are most passionately addicted to Delight, and
Lasciviousness. [The People.] They alone always sell all Things;
they buy nothing that Nature or Art affords, either for Sustenance,
or Cloathing, except some Perfumes for their Cloaths, and Pepper
out of India; nor would there be any Place for Foreign Trade,
did not an insatiable Avarice of Gold and Silver predominate among
the Chineses. What they draw out of the Bowels of the Mines, they
conceal as carefully as if it were still in them; and even that they
bring from remote Provinces, they heap up, and bury. Their publick
and private Structures would make up a Narration of extraordinary
Length. We are told of 200 Cities of an extraordinary Magnitude,
[Cities.] and many more of inferior Degree, besides Towns, Castles,
and Villages, containing above 3000 Families each, built of Bricks made
of the same Clay as our Purcelane, or China Ware, and these encompass'd
with continu'd Woods, Springs and Rivers. In all these there are Towers
with stately Pinnacles, Pleasure-Houses, and Temples, tho' hideously
painted, yet costly, with Variety of deform'd Images, through which the
Devils give their Answers. But these are not in all Parts, for many
of them know no God, nor Religion. Life, they say, was from Eternity
common to, and alike in all living Creatures. That at first Men drank
[Barbarous Opinions.] humane Blood, and eat raw Meat. That afterwards
the Use of Reason provided for Necessity, and Pleasure; inventing
the Ways of dressing, and seasoning Meat at the Fire, in Vessels
and other Utensils. The same, they say, happen'd in Regard to Man's
Nakedness. So that Man is indebted to himself alone for what he enjoys,
and therefore whosoever lay'd on him the Burden of Religion, and the
owning of a Cause Superior to Nature, only aim'd at the dejecting
him, and exercising a Tyranny over his Liberty. With these impious
Notions, and destructive Atheism, they oppose their Eternal Salvation,
which our Arms, and our Preachers invite them to. They only regard
Generation; but not without Distinction. Lawful Matrimony entitles
Women to be Mistresses of their Families. The Matrons [Chastity.]
value themselves upon being highly Chast. Concubines are kept in Houses
apart. They do not want for Plays, and such Representations; and they
delight in seeing their Traditions, whether true or fabulous, acted
on the Stage. They use Entertainments, and have Tables and Chairs of
Ebony, and other precious Materials; as also Shipping, Shows, Carts,
Horse-Litters, and the Exercise of Arms, and Riding.

[Customs, and Manners.] It were no difficult Matter to give an
Account here of their private Customs and Manners, were they to our
Purpose. Something shall be said of the Publick and Political, for the
better Understanding of some Things that happen'd in the Philippine
Islands, from whence the Recovery of the Moluccos, in our Times,
had its Beginning. They call their great [Government.] Men Loyties,
from among whom the King chuses his Judges and Counsellors. There is
almost an infinite Number of inferiour Magistrates, who exercise the
Regal Power and Authority, even in the most inconsiderable Cases. In
every Town there are five, that have the greatest Power, and these are
Strangers in the Place, that they may be free from Partiality. [Tutan
a Viceroy.] The Head of them all, is call'd Tutan, being the same
as a Viceroy in [Poncasio.] Europe. The next in Dignity is the
Poncasio, who has Charge of the King's Taxes, and Royal Treasure,
with a great Number of Clerks, and other [Ancasio.] Officers; and
he pays all Salaries and Pensions. Next follows the Ancasio, [Aitan.]
who is chief Justice, in Criminal Cases of Consequence. The Aitan has
the Inspection of all Martial Affairs, he musters the Armies, builds
the Ships, and his principal Duty is to observe the Guards, that no
Stranger [Luitisio.] may pass into the Inland Country. The Luitisio
is next to the Aitan in Dignity, and is to be expert in War, in which
he is employ'd by the Aitan. I know there are other Magistrates,
and their Names and Dignities, which I must pass over in Silence. All
of them except the Luitisio, keep great State. There are ten chosen
Persons of the Council, tho' not equal in Authority. Five of them sit
on the Right, the others on the Left. The King often thrusts in among
the Judges and Parties in Disguize, to pry into the Causes, and their
Decisions, and be certainly inform'd of both. When he thinks fit, he
sometimes makes himself known; and the Moment he discovers himself,
they all stand Mute, full of Respect and Astonishment, listening to
what he shall command. Then he commends or reproves either Party, and
rewards, or punishes before he [Mandarines.] departs the Court. His
Mandarines, and Prime Ministers are so highly respected, that no Man
dares look them in the Face, and they always look so Stern, that it
would be thought a great Disorder to lose the least of their Gravity,
tho' it were but with a modest Smile. This they observe, when they
pass thro' the Streets, in Sight of the People. The greatest Honour
among them is to wear a Cymiter with a gold Pommel, and a yellow Hat.

When the President of the Council Dies, the eldest Judge succeeds
him. [Judges.] These go Circuits thro' the Provinces, and reform
Abuses, and all of them wear the King's Badge on their Shoulders,
and Breasts, being a Golden Dragon wove in the Cloth. When they go
these Progresses, they save, or lessen the Charge by circumscribing the
State. When first elected, at their taking Possession of their Posts,
they generally go out attended by Troops of Horse and Foot, with all
Sorts of Musick, and Splendour. Their Pomp appears in the Hanging,
and other Ornaments of the Streets and Houses. All the expence of
Law Suits, Courts, and other Perquisites is allow'd out of the King's
Exchequer. The Mandarines are Governors, and Viceroys. In China there
are no Dukes, Marquesses, or Earls, nor do they own any Dignity,
but what is deriv'd from the King's Authority. Though in the Parts
next to Scythia, or Tartary, some People are Mahometans; yet in all
[Religion.] others they are either Idolaters, or look upon the Notion
of a God as a meer Jest. They believe the Life and Death of Men and
Beasts are alike. There is nothing they are more attentive to, than
the obstructing of any foreign Religion, and this under the politick
Pretence, that they are jealous of Innovation. But above all they
oppose the true Religion, hating that they know nothing of; and are
as much afraid of it, as if its Ministers went arm'd to preach it,
and with the Noise of Drums, and Trumpets, and regular Armies. They
are frighted at a few bare-foot, and almost naked Men who profess
Poverty, and preach up Morality, and supernatural Virtues, grounded
on Humility and Peace. They have such an Aversion for them, that
were it proper to our Subject, or were there not printed Relations
thereof already, we would recount several Instances, to show their
unreasonable Hatred. Hence may be inferr'd, how much more Need of
the special Grace of Heaven these Nations stand in, with those in the
Neighbourhood, which are expos'd to the Infection and Danger of their
Obstinacy. The Reader ought also to consider, that tho sometimes, the
Avarice, and other Crimes of our Commanders, and Soldiers interfere
with the Preaching of the Gospel, yet their Offences do not lessen
the Iustice of the Cause. He is also to reflect, that, allowing his
Majesty, for weighty Reasons of State should, as we have said was
propos'd, resolve to abandon those Parts of Asia, as the Chineses
did, and circumscribe the Compass of his Monarchy; yet the Cause
of Religion would not permit it. Our Kings are its Ministers, and
Sons of the Catholick Church, and any War made for the Propagation
of the Gospel, is of the greatest Consequence, and highly gainful,
tho' it be to acquire, or recover desert Provinces. Besides that the
Philippine Islands have shown us how tractable their Natives are, and
how much they improve with the Example, and Society of the Spaniards,
and how affectionately they have imbrac'd the Faith, and assist the
Religious Men, who dilate, and carry it over into China, Japan,
Camboxa, Mindanao, the Moluccos, and other Islands, where still
Idolatry continues, or the Friendship with the Devils left them
by their antient Masters, when they excluded them their Dominions,
or else the Mahometan Fictions, which they have since imbrac'd.

This is the Principal End of keeping those Provinces; and the Revenues
and Wealth which is consum'd upon them, and several others, are laid
out upon the Forces, and Preparations Spain makes for the Preaching
and Security of the Ministers of the Church. Besides, that as Times
have alter'd, [Rumours of Chinese Invasions.] so they have often in
China chang'd their Opinion, and show'd they repented their having
diminish'd their Empire. No Year passes over with out Threats of
Chinese Armies; of their Listing Men; of building Ships; of their
solemn consecrating, or dedicating them to their carv'd Gods, or to
the Sun, Moon, and Stars, which are ador'd in some Parts, begging
Success in their vain Prayers against the Spaniards, who are possess'd
of those Countries they abandon'd, thro' their own Indiscretion. This
short Account of the Chineses, or Sangleys, is here inserted, for the
better understanding of those Actions we shall soon treat of. They
not only oppose the Truth; but tho' they are wholly addicted to their
Interest, and Slaves to Gain, and tho' it be so absolutely requisite
for the attaining of those Ends through their Industry and Trade,
to maintain Amity with their Neighbours, yet there is nothing less
to be reliy'd on than their Faith, or to give it a more proper Name,
their Dissimulation. Happy those People, if when China withdrew its
Dominion, it had also with drawn the Errors of its Worship.

                      The End of the Fourth Book.

                                 OF THE
                         Discovery and Conquest
                                 OF THE
                  Molucco and Philippine Islands, &c.

                                BOOK V.

The Islands Luzones, or Manilas, which are both of them antient Names,
having been discover'd by Magellan; after his Death, and various
Accidents befallen his Companions, Sebastian [Sebastian Cano the
first that sail'd round the World.] Cano return'd to Spain in that
renowned Ship, call'd the Victory, as it were to express her Voyage,
which is not so likely as true. Sebastian Cano, was born in the Town
of Guetaria, on the Pyrenean Mountains, as we are told by Massæus,
in his Latin History, where he extols Cano's mighty Resolution,
and skill in the Art of Navigation. He tell us with what Respect and
Admiration all Men look'd on him, as the first that went round this
Globe, which is the Habitation of Mortals. And in Truth what value
shall we henceforward put upon the Fabulous Argonauts, Tiphys, Jason,
and all other Sailers, so much celebrated by the Greek Eloquence,
or Vanity, if compar'd with our Cano? He was the first Witness of
the Communication of the two Seas, to whom Nature disclos'd what
she had till then reserv'd for his Discovery, suffering herself to
be entirely lay'd open, as a Beginning of such Bold Enterprizes of
that Law which serves, and renders us Immortal.

[Islands Lusones call'd Philippines.] Magellan being dead, the islands
Lusones, which ought to have inherited his Name for being his Place
of Burial, as the Streight did for his discovering and passing it,
in the year 1565, chang'd theirs for that of Philippines, tho' those
of that Eastern Archipelago bear the same. The Adelantado, or Lord
Lieutenant Michael de Legaspe, sent from New-Spain, by the Viceroy Don
Lewis de Velasco, with a Spanish Fleet arriv'd at these Islands. He
first conquer'd that of Zebu, and its Neighbours, where he spent six
[Legaspe the first Conqueror.] Years. These Islands, as there are
several Names given to divers of those Parts, are call'd Pintados,
because then the Indians went naked, and their Bodies wrought and
painted of several Colours. He left a Garrison there, [Luzon Island
subdu'd.] and went over to possess himself of Luzon, 150 Leagues
from Zebu. He fought the Barbarians, who after the first Surprize,
caus'd by our Arms, Ships, and Countenances, differing from theirs,
was over, were encourag'd by that very Novelty. Legaspe ran into a
Bay, four Leagues over at the Mouth, where is an Island now call'd
Marivelez. The Bay runs thirty Leagues up to the City Manila, and is
eight Leagues over, lying North-West, and South-East. The Inhabitants
of this City oppos'd him with more Bravery than the Pintados; because
they had Cannon, and a Fort, but as soon as they saw that taken by
the Spaniards, they submitted. This was done so expeditiously that
the Country had not time to come in; and thus he enter'd Manila,
a Place strong by Nature. At a Point of it, which is shut in by the
Waters of the Bay, a considerable River empties it self, which rises
in the Great Lake call'd Vay, five Leagues Distant. This Point which
at first is narrow and sharp, presently widens, because the Sea-coast
runs away to the South South-East, and the River West, leaving a most
[Manila City.] spacious Spot for the City, which is all encompass'd
with Water, except that part which lyes to the South-West. Legaspe then
built it of Wood, whereof there is great plenty in those parts. The
Roofs he cover'd, or Thatch'd with the Leaves of Nipa, which is like
our Sedge, or Sword-Grass, and a sufficient Fence against the Rains;
but a Combustible Matter, and the occasion of Great Conflagrations,
which have often hapned.

[Luzon Island describ'd.] Luzon is more Populous than any of the
other Islands, which in Honour of King Philip the Second, were call'd
Philippines, and which some affirm are in Number 11000. The Compass
of Luzon is 350 Leagues. It runs without the Bay 100 Leagues to
the Northward, as far as New Segovia; and from where this Province
commences, which is at Cape Bojador, and 70 Leagues from it, turns
to the Eastward, to the Promontory del Enganno; from thence along
the Coast to the South, 80 Leagues; then turning again to that
they call Embocadero, or the Mouth, being the Streight against
the Island Tandaya, 40 Leagues, and this is 80 from the Bay. So
that it bears the shape of a Square, and in it several Bays, and
few good Harbours. It lyes in 160 Degrees Longitude, reckoned from
the Canaries, the Southermost Part in 14 Degrees of North Latitude,
and the Northermost in 19. On that Side of it lyes China, separated
from it by the Sea 60 Leagues over; and the Islands of Japan, 250
Leagues distant. On the East is the Vast Ocean; on the South is the
greatest of all the Archipelagos, divided into five, and those again
rent into so many Islands, Kingdoms, and Provinces, as if Nature
had resolv'd that Man should never determine their Number. The most
known are the two Javas, our Moluccos, Borneo, and New Guinea. On the
West of Luzon, at 300 Leagues, and greater Distances, lye Malaca,
Siam, Patan, Camboxa, Cochin-china, and several other Provinces on
the Continent of Asia. The Chineses forsook their Habitations in our
Philippine Islands, but not the Trade. Neither did the Worship they
had introduc'd cease, nor their Fertility. [Product, and Trade.]
They produce plenty of Corn, and other necessary Grain; Deer, Cows,
Buffaloes, Goats, and Wild Boars; Fruit, and Sweets; and if any be
wanting the Chincheo Chineses bring it, as they do Porcelane, and
Silks. The Wine they use, and always drank, is drawn from the Palm, or
rather Coco Trees, cutting off the Clusters of the Fruit they produce,
when Green, and taking off the Nipples of them, they gather the Water
that runs from them, and Boil it in Jars, till it becomes so strong,
that it makes Men drunk, in the same manner as the strongest Spanish
Wine. Of its Natural Growth, the Island has Oranges, Lemmons, and
most delicious Citrons; of Spanish Fruit, Figs, and Pears. There
are Numerous Breeds of Sparrow-Hawks, [Birds.] Birds like small
Herons, and Eagles, besides sundry Sorts of Parrots, and other large
and small Fowl. In the Rivers and Lakes there are many Monstrous
Crocodils, or Alligators. These easily kill the Indians, [Alligators.]
and especially Boys, who happen unadvisedly to come where they are,
and the Cattle that goes into the Water to drink. It often happens,
they lay hold of their Snouts, or Noses, and draw them under Water,
where they are drown'd, without being able to defend themselves;
then they drag the Carcass to the Shore, and devour it. An Alligator
being kill'd a whole Buffaloes Head has been found some times in the
Belly, and yet in that Country they are as big as the largest Ox in
Spain. The Alligators lay Eggs as the Tortoises do, about the bigness
of Goose-Eggs, and so hard that they will scarce break, tho' struck
against a Stone with main Force. They are Hatch'd by burying in the
Sand, near the edge of the Water; the moisture whereof, with the Heat
of the Sun forms the young Ones. There are some Indians so brave, that
as fierce as these Creatures [How the Indians fight the Alligators.]
are, they kill them with their Hands. They arm the left up to the Arm
with a Glove of Buffalo's Hide. They hold in it a Stick, or small
Stake, somewhat above a Foot long, and as thick as a Man's Wrist,
and sharpned at both Ends, with which they go into the Water up to
the Waste: The Crocodile makes up to the Indian, gaping to swallow
him, and he holding out his Arm that is arm'd, and the Hand with the
Stake in it, for the Monster to bite at, claps it across his Mouth,
so that he cannot shut it, or make use of his Teeth to hurt him. The
Alligator feeling the hurt of the sharp pointed Stick, is so dismayed
that he neither makes resistance, nor offends, nor dares so much as
move, because the least strugling gauls him. Then the Indian holding
fast the Stake, with a Ponyard he has in his other Hand, Wounds the
Creature so often about the Gills, till it bleeds to Death. Then
he drags it ashore with Ropes and Noozes, many Indians joyning
to draw, and there is need of many, considering the Bulk of those
Crocodiles. They are shap'd like Lizards, but arm'd with such strong
Shells, that a Musket-shot makes little Impression on them, and they
are scarce to be hurt, but only about the Gills, and under their short
Legs, where Nature has plac'd a sort of sweet Odour, which the Indians
make their Advantage of. These Islands, besides the Cattel, produce
all that is found in Africk, as Tygers, Lions, Bears, Foxes, Monkeys,
[Beasts.] Apes, Squirrels, and some of them Abundance of Civet-Cats,
which are much Hunted, in order to be sent into several Countries,
with other Commodities of China; Callicoes, Silks, Porcelane, Iron,
Copper, Steel, [Commodities.] Quicksilver, and many more Yearly
Transported from those Countries. The Religion and Government is
now the same as in Spain; but in those which are not yet subdu'd,
they follow an Extravagant Idolatry; believing the Soul Immortal,
but wandering from one Body to another, according to that ridiculous
Transmigration invented or published by Pythagoras. They are much
addicted to Trade, and forwarded in it by the Commerce with China. The
Philippine People are braver than their Neighbours; the Spaniards
and their Breed do not degenerate from their Original.

An Army was now forming of all these Sorts of People, by Order of the
King, to attempt recovering the Forts of the Moluccos. Don Ronquillo
de Pennalosa was then Governour there; and tho' he had receiv'd some
Intelligence [Ronquillo's Preparations for the Moluccos.] brought him
thence by Spies and Traders, yet not satisfy'd with it, he sent thither
another Soldier. He disguised himself, and being like the Natives
in Countenance, and speaking their Language to Perfection, got to
Tydore. He found our People very earnest to forward that Enterprize,
and that King ready to support it with all his Power. Thence he
pass'd over to Ternate, among Merchants, where he view'd the Forts,
the Shoals of the Harbours; observ'd their Correspondence with the
English, and took notice how they Landed, and Traded in all Safety,
or rather with Authority. Nor was he unacquainted with the Numbers
of conceal'd Christians, who would take up Arms when a seasonable
Opportunity was offer'd, or any other Particular, which belong'd to a
Judicious Spy to enquire into. Hereupon Ronquillo gather'd about 300
Spaniards, and above 1500 Natives [The Forces sent under Sarmiento.]
of the Philippines, with Ammunition, Provisions, and Seamen, and at
the proper Season sent them for the Moluccos in three Great Ships,
and a considerable Number of Small Ones. Peter Sarmiento, a brave
and experienc'd Officer, still living in those Islands, when this
was writ, went as General. He had Courage, and Force to destroy any
of the Enemies that then frequented those Seas. His Majesty had some
time before bestow'd the Government of Ternate, if it were Conquer'd,
on Paul de Lima; and [Paul de Lima rich in the Moluccos.] allow'd
his Brother Francis de Lima to make two Voyages to the Moluccos, in
Consideration of their Services, and those of Henry their Father. Paul
was Marry'd to a Christian, and devout Lady, tho' a Kinswoman to
the King of Ternate, who was not so. For this Reason, and because
he had been possess'd in Ternate, of the ancient Inheritance of the
Villages of Guita, Mofaquia, Mofaguita, Pavate, Pelveri, Sansuma,
Takane, Mayloa, and Soma; and in the Island of Machian of Sabele,
Talapao, Talatoa, Mofabonana, Tabaloga, Tagono, Bobaba, and Molapa;
and in Regard the King of Ternate, had expell'd him most of them,
as also of Bitua in Tydore, and several other Places, he went over
to Manila, as a Banish'd Man, where he confer'd with the Governour,
about the means of facilitating the Conquest, just before it was put
in Execution. His Advice was of use, and he gave it, as one so nearly
concern'd; for besides the Inheritance the King of Ternate wrongfully
with-held from him, he hop'd to recover the Island of Moutil, which
belong'd to his Forefathers. The Enterprize was farther Authoriz'd
by the Presence of Don John Ronquillo, [Don John Ronquillo joyn'd
with Sarmiento.] the Governour's Nephew, who had equal Power with
Sarmiento, both by Sea and Land. If any thing was wanting, they
thought the Defect would easily be supply'd by the Valour of the
Soldiers, the Celerity of the Passage, and the Enemies Surprize;
but the divided Command was an Obstacle to their Hopes.

The Weather prov'd not very cross, yet neither was it so favourable,
as that they could come directly to anchor at Ternate, as would have
been most convenient to deceive the Watchfulness of the Enemy. They
arriv'd at Moutil, and fought a Parcel of Janguas in Sight of
Land; which [Spaniards arrive at and take Moutil.] were taken,
and the Christians in them set at Liberty. Paul de Lima being well
acquainted with the Bays, and there being no sufficient Force in the
Island to withstand a Fleet, it easily submitted, when attack'd in
several Parts. The Natives came out with Palm, Citron, and Clove-Tree
Branches, in Token of Peace, and to beg Pardon. Both were granted,
and Paul de Lima appointed their Lord, tho' his New Dominion turn'd
to little Account, for within a few Days, all the People slipp'd
away, either because they thought themselves safer at Ternate, or
to meet the Enemy, who of Necessity must carry the War over into
that Island, as it happen'd. Here Sarmiento refitted the Ships, and
being over-joy'd with this Success, [Sarmiento in Ternate.] obtain'd
without the Loss of one Man, arriv'd at Talangame, passing amidst
the Enemies Carcoas, which they had fitted out in a Hurry. The King
expected him long before in the Fort, well furnish'd with our Cannon,
particularly the Bastion they had enlarg'd, and call'd Cachil Tulo,
from the King's Uncle, who made it, and these Preparations seem'd to
threaten any Disaster. Our Men landed on that Side, and were oppos'd
by the Ternates; but Night put an End to the Fight, and both Parties
retiring to their Fastnesses, our Cannon was landed, and planted in
the Place, and after such Manner as Paul de Lima directed, and ever
since he commanded it in the Fort of Tydore. The King of this Island
was willing to joyn our Camp, as had appear'd by some of his Actions,
and his Promises to the Ensign Duennas; but he mistrusted the Fortune
of the Spaniards, as if he [King of Tydore dubious.] had not had
sufficient Experience of it. The Opportunity and Fidelity now invited
him, and yet he forbore; his Doubtfulness is thought to have been
prejudicial to the Success. Sarmiento having planted his Cannon,
intrench'd himself, and taking some Prisoners, of whom he learn'd
what Provisions and Amunition the Besieged had, began to press on,
and batter them furiously; yet they were not discourag'd, but answer'd
boldly. It was found convenient to possess the upper Grounds, which
over-looking the Place, tho' they have been since levell'd, our Men
much incommoded the Enemy, and had they continu'd it, that would have
put an End to the War. However there was so much Sickness in the Camp,
that no Remedy [Fort of Ternate batter'd.] was found against it,
but going off so to save themselves for a more favourable Season. The
Succours which came as Duties from Tydore, were very inconsiderable;
the Allies were cold, and all Things weak; what other Causes there
were Heaven knows. It is likely there were some of [The Siege raised.]
more Moment, for in short the Army broke up, and reimbark'd for Manila,
without doing any thing but adding to the Enemies Resolution.

At that Time, only the English Nation disturb'd the Spanish
Sovereignty in those Eastern Parts; for this Reason, King Philip was
desirous, not only for the present to curb them by Force of Arms,
but to make them an Example to all other Nations, that they might
not spread themselves abroad to attempt such Invasions, as we are
Eye-Witnesses to. This Work was undertaken in the Year 1588, but
first happen'd what we are now to [State of Affairs in Europe.]
relate. Queen Elizabeth of England, after a tedious Imprisonment,
beheaded Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland, for some Politick Reasons,
or Fictions. The then King of Scotland, and since of England also,
Son to the Martyr, arm'd his People, strengthen'd his Garrisons,
and invaded the Dominions of the Enemy, who had caus'd him to be
Motherless; and more particularly the Marches about the River Tweed,
and those of Anandale, water'd by the River Solway. The Queen call'd
Home the Earl of Leicester, who was in Holland, appointed him General,
and War broke out in all those Northern Provinces, with apprehensions
of greater to ensue. [Queen Elizabeth's Practices.] After many Events,
which do not belong to this Place, Queen Elizabeth strengthned her
Alliance with the Dutch, encouraging those Provinces to persist in
their Disobedience to the Church, and to King Philip, and advising
them, since the King had forbid them trading in all the Rest of
his Dominions, to go over into India, there to raise Commotions,
and rob him of the Spice. The more safely to compass her Designs,
she supported the Flemmings Obstinacy, flattering herself with the
Hopes of a new Monarchy, for the acquiring whereof, she propos'd to
make use of the Wealth yearly brought from the North and South Seas,
for Spain, the Robbing of which had already made an Addition to her
Power; as also of the Factories erected for Trade in the Moluccos,
Banda, Sumatra, Ceylon, and the two Javas; where she kept Garrisons,
in order to convert the Friendship into Sovereignty.

King Philip, whose great Soul ever entertain'd both Forbearance, and
[King Philip's mighty Fleet.] Counsel, resolv'd to cut off the Heads
of this Hydra at the Neck they all sprung from. He gather'd, for the
Conquest of England, the mightiest Fleet that has been seen on the
Ocean in our Days. Twenty Thousand fighting Men were put aboard tall
Ships, besides 9000 Sailors, with 1730 Pieces of Cannon, Abundance
of Ammunition, and Pikes and Fire-Arms for the Catholicks, who it
was hop'd, as soon as they saw the Spanish Colours, would joyn our
Army. Don Alonso Perez de Guzman, Duke of [And Army against England.]
Medina Sidonia commanded in Chief, and was to joyn the Prince of Parma,
then Governour of Flanders, who had Commission to raise another Army
of 30000 Horse and Foot, with the Necessary Provisions and Ammunition,
which he was to transport at a fit Season to that Point of England,
where the Thames falls into the Sea, to march thence to London,
and there Arm the Catholicks. But it was first requisite to beat the
English at Sea, where they were then powerful, and well acquainted with
the proper Times to sail and keep at Home. At the least they were to
be terrify'd, that they might not dare to obstruct the Passage of the
Troops, the Prince of Parma had in readiness at Dunkirk and Newport,
or hinder their embarking, when the Spanish Fleet should come thither
to waft them over. This Fleet sail'd from Lisbon on the 19th of May,
1588, and as soon as out [They suffer by Storms.] suffer'd much by
the Weather, so that three Gallies were cast away, on the Coast of
Bayonne. Abundance of the powder blew up; and the General was oblig'd
to return to Corunna, to refit; whence he could not get out till the
2d of July.

Being come into 48 Degrees of Latitude, he sent away Don Lewis de
Guzman to give Advice to the Prince of Parma, and on the last of the
same [Arrive at the Lizard.] Month arriv'd himself at the Lizard,
in Cornwall, where he lay by, and was certainly inform'd, that
all the Enemy's Ships, being fifty in number, lay in Plymouth. The
English Admiral at Break of Day discover'd ours, [Spanish Shiptaker.]
and tho' he wanted neither Strength, nor Experience in Sea Affairs, he
resolved to draw off and avoid ingaging, but his Ships being lighter
incommoded us in the Rear. In the Catholick Fleet, a great Ship of
Guipuscoa blew up, and another of Andaluzia spent her Main-Mast, in
which Distress, two English Ships attacking her, and those afterwards
seconded by others, in one of which Sir Francis Drake was, they took
her. There Don Pedro de Valdes, a Spanish Commander of known Valour,
and then Lieutenant General, was made Prisoner, with whom they sent
to Plymouth, a great Quantity of Crown Pieces, and fifty Great
Guns. About 400 Spaniards were kill'd, and taken. On the 2d and
4th of August, the Lord Howard, and Drake joyn'd their Squadrons,
some write they had an hundred Sail, all well Mann'd, and light,
with which they infested ours, which were heavy, and encumber'd,
particularly the Portuguese Galleon, call'd the S. John, being the
greatest in the Fleet, and in it were John Martinez de Recalde, the
Count de Paredes, the Marques de la Favara, and other Commanders
of Note. However they got to the Isle of Wight, whence the Duke
sent away two Messengers to the Prince of Parma, who was then at
Brussels, desiring he would furnish him with Powder and Ball, for
the Defence of the Fleet, and imbark what Troops he had ready. But
he, either prevented by invincible Obstacles, or for other Reasons,
which have left that Princes Reputation [Disappointment of the Fleet.]
expos'd to Censures, mov'd so slowly, that what had been so maturely
concerted took no Effect. The Enemy boasting, that the Sea and Winds
had fought against us, in Vindication, as they said of their Cause,
made publick Rejoycings, firing their Cannon; and soon after the Queen
put forth a Proclamation to the same Effect, against which a certain
English Religious Man writ learnedly, by the Name of Andrew Philopator.

The Dutch who were in Confederacy with Queen Elizabeth, seeing this
Success, were encourag'd to aspire to greater Matters, renouncing
their Religion, and their Sovereign, attempting to usurp the Treasures
of the East, [The Dutch aspire.] Mines, Spice, Drugs, and Silks,
as appears by their bold Voyages, wherein they have endeavour'd to
follow the fresh Examples of the English, and the ancient set them
by Columbus, Albuquerque, Magellan, Gama, and Cortes, as we shall see
hereafter. But, both they and the English, if they try the Justice of
their Cause by the Success of that Fleet, must be oblig'd to prefer
the Cause of the Gentiles, when God for his Secret Judgments permitted
his own chosen People to be over-thrown. Destruction is more glorious
than Prosperity; and a religious Soul will rather chuse to be cast
down than Victorious, if an angry God is to give it the Victory.

After this Santiago de Vera govern'd the Philippine Islands, and by
special Order, arm'd against Ternate, where the English from that
Time traded [Another Expedition from the Philippines.] with all
possible Security. All Nations had settled Factories except the
Javaneses and Lascarines. Above 2500 Mahometans from Mecca preach'd
their Abominations. They fear'd nothing from Portugal, all their
Apprehension was from the Spaniards, who were newly ingag'd to seek
Revenge. The King of Ternate well knew that Sarmiento and Ronquillo
would have taken it, had not Diseases prevented them. When the News
of fresh Preparations came to Tydore, it was carry'd over by Spies to
Ternate. That King presently call'd together his Subjects, especially
the Islanders of Machian and Homer, who came in 40 Carcoas, because
their Islands were very populous. The Number had been greater, but
that the [King of Ternate prepares.] King would not suffer more
to be fitted out than he demanded, for he could not conceal his
Fear that they would rebel, those Parts being full of Christians,
and the Taxes he laid on the People intolerable. Santiago de Vera
appointed John Morones General, who wanted not for Conduct, nor his
Men for Valour, nor the Fleet for Cannon and Ammunition. But whether
Natural Ambition, or any other Accident was the Occasion of it, there
were such Divisions among them, that they had sufficient Grounds to
mistrust the Event, before they left Manila. They set sail with fair
Weather, and pass'd the greatest Dangers of the Sea, and when they
thought themselves safest, all the Elements seem'd to conspire against
the Fleet. They lost the Light, and their Reckning, the Vessels were
shatter'd, and the greatest of [Spanish Fleet loses a great Galleon.]
them sunk, and all the Men lost. This was the Galleon S. Hellen,
which carry'd the Guns to batter the Fort, and many other Necessaries
and Stores. For all this, they insisted upon proceeding, and the King
of Bachian assisted them with what Forces he had rais'd, under Colour
of clearing the Sea of some Enemies; and being a Christian baptiz'd,
lamented his departing from our holy Faith, on Account of Persecution,
and promis'd the Restitution of his Soul.

[Spanish General refuses the best Advice.] The Weather growing calm,
when they were in Sight of Ternate, the Carcoas durst not stand them,
but fled at the first Discharges, which they can do without receiving
any Damage. Therefore the two Kings, and Paul de Lima, advis'd to fall
on in several Places. Ferdinand Boto Machado, Captain of a Galleon,
was of the same Opinion; but the General suspecting the former,
on Account of his Affinity, and the latter for the Friendship he
had lately contracted with the King of Tydore, whom he was not well
satisfy'd with, would not follow their Advice; alledging, That it
was not convenient, by dividing the Forces, to weaken them more than
the Storm [Besieges the Fort of Ternate.] had done. He laid Siege
to the Fort, but the Besieged being acquainted with the Condition
of our Troops, oppos'd all their Assaults courageously, and scoff'd
and laugh'd at the insignificant Batteries. However our Men, whom
the Storms had depriv'd of Necessaries for that Work, vented their
Spleen upon the Javanese. These valu'd themselves upon sallying out to
Skirmish, being distinguishable by their Arms, and manner of drawing
up. The Spaniards handled them so roughly, that they did little more
during the War. Some Months were spent in Fruitless Attempts, and if
they had attack'd the Country, but a Culverine-Shot short of the Fort,
at the Bay of Limathao, and march'd thence to attack the Fort behind,
as the most understanding desir'd, it had been of good Consequence. But
the General Morones, putting all upon Experience without Forecast,
was satisfy'd with fronting next the Sea, doing much Harm, which was
caus'd by that first, and obstinate manner of attacking; and that gave
Way for Succours to go into the Natives, at other landing Places, tho'
thirty Men at a small Distance might have prevented it. This both the
Kings maintain'd, whose Valour, which ought to be commended even in
Enemies, if our General had pleas'd, might have given Success to this
Undertaking. Besides that experience has shown that fifty Spaniards
have done as much upon Occasion, as whole Roman Legions well arm'd
and disciplin'd.

Morones now perceiving that neither his Arms, nor his Proposals had
[Sends some Men to the other Fort.] any effect upon the Rebels, he
resolv'd to pass over some of his Men against the other Fort, which,
tho' seated on a Ground of difficult Access, seem'd to be pregnable,
because built in Haste, a League from the former on a steep Hill. On
the Land Side of it is the Mountain, and on the Back a Lake, and is
of no use, because it does not defend the City, which is open, and is
[Javanese Ships burnt.] only regarded for being near the old Fort. Our
Men went on chearfully, and the Defendants receiv'd them as well firing
their Cannon, which gave a Check to the Spanish Fury. Those in the
other Fort, tho' they made little use of Fire-Arms, being compell'd
by Necessity, ventur'd to sally out to the Shore. To draw them to
this Resolution, some of our Men on a sudden set Fire to the Junks,
in which a great Number of Javanese Indians had come thither. The
Vessels, which were old blaz'd up, without any Obstruction from those
who guarded them, but they referr'd the Remedy to their Weapons. They
were in all about 3000 fighting Men, 1000 of them had Muskets, whereof
200 were expert at them; the rest neither Pikes, nor Lances, nor any
other long sort of Arms, but only those they call Toranas, about a
Fathom in Length, like Darts, and some like Arrows, which they cast by
main Strength, with Canes and Strings, wherewith they unexpectedly
wound unarm'd Men in Fight; because they fly not out of a Bow,
but are thrown strait forward, or over their Heads. Others had only
their Campilanes, or Cymiters, and Shields. Many of them fought the
more obstinately, confiding in their Coats of Mail, and Head-Pieces,
bought of the Portugueses; but as soon as they clos'd with our Men,
they broke their Order, and lost Courage. This Accident prov'd a very
great Obstacle, because it diverted our Men from their double Design
of pressing both Forts at the same Time, so that the very Commanders
were forc'd to ingage. Morones knew how to behave himself upon all
Occasions, and the Spaniards made such a Slaughter, that almost all
the Javaneses lay upon [Bloody Victory gain'd by the Spaniards.]
the Spot. Those in the Forts had not the Courage to fall in upon
the Rear, tho' they pour'd a Volley upon the Forces of Tydore and
Bachian, but with little Harm. This Victory was not gain'd without
Effusion of Blood, yet they took Heart to hope for one more compleat,
at the Arrival of the Galeon from India, and believ'd that Addition
of Strength would make amends for what they lost in the Storm.

The Galeon arriv'd at Tydore, better provided to carry on the Trade,
than the War. For this Reason, and because many of our Men were Sick,
or Wounded, Morones was oblig'd to raise the Siege, and dismiss those
Kings, [The Siege rais'd.] to whom he afterwards sent Presents
of Spanish Commodities, some Horses and Silks. It was since known
that tho' the Ternates will endure much Hardship, they were then
so near press'd, that Hunger must have subdu'd them, could our Men
have stay'd a little longer. They embark'd in Sight of the Enemy,
who presently appear'd in the Field rejoycing, with Musick, and other
Tokens of Victory. The Asiatick Traders resorted to their Ports, and
others from Europe, but particularly their new Friends the English,
with whom they communicated the Joy of their Success.

They never made a good use of Peace and Quietness at Ternate, as
soon as [Notable Practices.] that was now restor'd, the King was
again at Variance with his Unkles; which Fortune so improv'd as
to furnish an Opportunity that might have been advantageous to our
Designs, had not she thwarted it. Cachil Mandraxa was the noblest of
Sultan Aerio's Sons, as born of the Queen they call Putriz, which is
the Chief. His Father would have had him succeed in the Throne, but
was disgusted at a Boldness which does not use to be mislik'd among
Politicians. Cachil Mandraxa was desperately in love with Filola,
his Niece, Daughter to the King his Brother; and that Princes did not
refuse her Unkles Courtship. The Father one Day found them talking
together, in the Apartment reserv'd only for himself; and tho' he
was satisfied their Conversation was within the Bounds of Decency,
took such an Aversion, that he depriv'd him of the Succession. The
illegitimate Nephew Reign'd, against the Will of all the Unkles, who
were near conspiring [Subtilty of the King of Ternate.] to kill him;
but the subtle King knew how to disappoint their Designs, and secure
himself without discovering the Contrivance. He call'd Cachil Mandraxa
to him, and repeating all past Distates, told him, how desirous he
was to remove all manner of Jealousies by a perfect Reconciliation,
which he thought might be done by means of the Princess Filola, and
since there was such a good Correspondence between them, all the Rest
would be easie. However before he gave her to him to Wife, he must
reflect that she was promis'd to the King of Tydore, to whom he was
not willing to administer fresh Causes of War, or to be the Occasion
of interrupting that short Tranquility they enjoy'd. That since all
they discours'd there would remain in their Breasts, he would have him
to take his Advice. Mandraxa was beside himself, with that unexpected
Satisfaction, and yet had he been truly Master of himself, he might
easily have seen thro' the Fraud of that pleasing [His crafty Words.]
Change in his Condition, wherein he found the King so much his Friend,
who but just before had been his Enemy. He thank'd him for the Favour,
and putting his whole Dependance on the Words of his Mouth, desir'd
he would give him the Advice he spoke of. The King answer'd, I have
contriv'd a Way, which will satisfie you, and the King of Tydore will
have no Cause to complain. For the attaining of both these Ends, I
will keep Council, as is requisite, and do you any Night steal away
the Princess, the Way you shall best like, so it be with Regard to
my Reputation, and in all Respects giving such outward Tokens, that
all Men may believe it was open Violence, and no Contrivance, or at
least known to me, I, on my Side, will pretend to be very Angry, and
will complain of the Injury as loudly as is requisite to satisfie the
World of my Innocence. For why should I, Unkle, wish for the Felicities
of this World, but to make them common to our Family? I will retain
the Cares of the Crown, and do you enjoy the Satisfaction the Kingdom
affords. Mandraxa could not forbear Weeping for Joy, he fell down at
his Nephew's Feet and kiss'd them, without disguizing any thing of his
Passion, yet suppressing the Joy of his new Hopes, the best he could,
he found Means to acquaint the Princess, and to appoint the Hour,
Place, and Confidents for exposing herself to be stolen away.

To this Purpose they pitch'd upon a Garden, which looks out upon
the Sea, adorn'd with its Natural Trees, whence the Ships are seen,
and among them, on the Day prefix'd they spy'd a Carcoa, with all the
Men that Row'd curiously dress'd and they and the Soldiers wearing
Garlands, plainly show'd the Design of their Voyage, tho' they row'd
without the Musick they use to have at other Times. Mandraxa and a
small but brave Number of his Friends landed as silently, and they
after the manner of Talasio, and the [Cachal Mandraxa steals the
Princess Filola.] ancient Romans, when they forc'd away the Sabine
Women, laid Hold of Filola and the Rest, and run them aboard with
all possible Speed, conveying them to a strong Place in the Island,
where having fortify'd himself, like a Soldier, Mandraxa devote
himself to Love. Fame the utter Enemy to Secrecy divulg'd the Fact,
and convey'd it over to the King of Tydore's Ears, with the King of
Ternate's Complaints. He magnify'd the Affront, and every Man spoke
of it, according to his own Notion. The King who had contriv'd it, and
by whose Breath all the Machines of that Tragedy were mov'd assembled
the prime Men of his Kingdom, most of them Enemies to the deluded
Mandraxa, and ask'd their Assistance and Advice in so notorious a
[Base falsehood of the King.] Violence, and pretending extraordinary
Concern. They all Voted to a Man, that it was absolutely necessary to
make such an Example as might deter others from the like. When the
Consultation was over, the King dispatch'd Messengers to his Unkle,
intreating him to repair to Court to stop ill Mouths by fair Means, and
appease the Neighbouring Princes. Cachil Mandraxa made no difficulty
to obey, as well knowing that none of his Actions had been contrary
to the King's Orders. Only the Princess advis'd the Contrary; for tho'
young, as little above 20 years of Age, she was better acquainted with
her Brother, and well knew he never kept his Faith, particularly with
his own Family, and that he could not have any Kindness for them as
being jealous of the Crown. Mandraxa made no Account of all that,
but went to Court, and enter'd the Palace attended by his Family,
and relying on the King's Promise, but more especially on the secret
Mystery of that Affair, known only to them two, Unkle and Nephew. When
he came to kiss the King's Hand, he looking as stern as if he had not
advis'd the stealing of the Princess, said he knew not what Course
to take upon so notorious an Affront offer'd to his Crown and Palace,
but to cut off his Head. Mandraxa thinking at first that had been all
Counterfeit, and according to what had been agreed between them, when
he perceiv'd [He murders Mandraxa.] it was barefac'd falsehood, would
have spoke loud in Defence of his Innocence; but was not permitted,
and the King making a Sign to a Sturdy Black he had prepar'd for that
Action, he drew his Cymiter, and hew'd him down barbarously. The poor
Prince fell, without being reliev'd by any Man; for at that Time his
Brothers Cachil Tulo, and Cachil Sufur were not at Ternate, the former
being Governor, the latter Admiral. Nor did they come to Ternate in a
long Time after, tho' they look Care to protect the Widow Princess,
who was left with Child, and afterwards brought forth Cachil Amida,
who dy'd Young.

The whole Truth of this Matter was soon known, with all its
Particulars, and Circumstances; and the Cachiles conferring together,
Tulo resolv'd to go over to the Service of King Philip, to which
Purpose, when [The King's Unkles conspire against him.] Duarte Pereyra
was Commander in Chief at Tydore, he went thither to treat with him,
and with Antony de Matos, who went first for the same End to Bachian;
but forasmuch as what was concerted among them, will better appear
by the Letter Cachil Tulo sent from Tydore to the Governour Santiago
de Vera, we will here insert it, translated From the Malaye Language,
by the King's Naguatatos, so they there call the Interpreters.

[Cachil Tulo's letter to the Governor of the Philipines.] Cachil Babu,
my Brother, late King of Ternate, writ to the King of Portugal,
to desire he would do him Justice, upon a Man, who murder'd his
Father and mine; upon receiving which Satisfaction, he would again
deliver the Fort of Ternate to his Majesty, it being then out of his
Possession, His present Majesty succeeding in the Throne of Portugal,
answer'd my Brother's Letter, by Cachil Naique, his Embassador; but
when he return'd my Brother was dead, which was the Reason we did not
then deliver up the Fort, because a Bastard Son had succeeded him,
being proclaim'd King by the People of Ternate, with the Assistance
of the King of Tydore, tho' he had no Right to it. He would not
perform what his Father had promis'd, and he was oblig'd to; nor
follow the Advice given him by me, and by my Brother Cachil Mandraxa,
the rightful Heir of the Crown; which was that he should deliver up
the Fort, as his Father had promis'd, to the Portuguese; and this,
not because he could not defend himself against them, and his Majesty;
but expresly because his Father, and my Brother had so order'd; for
we did not suppose it could be taken from us by Force of Arms; but we
knew it was his Will to serve his Majesty, by delivering up the Fort
to him. He finding we persisted in this Opinion, resolv'd to murder
my Brother, and his own Unkle, the true Heir of the Crown, cutting
him in Pieces, by the Hands of a Slave, when he came upon his Word,
and had his Security and mine. Wherefore considering the Injustice
of my Nephew upon this Occasion, and that he will not perform what
his Father, my Brother and I promised to his Majesty, I am resolv'd
from this Time forward, to become his Majesty's sincere Subject and
Servant. And I do by these Presents, oblige my self, and swear by my
Law, at I did swear; and do not depart from it, to the Father Vicar
Antony Ferreyra, to give all my Help and Assistance, towards the
taking of the Fort, with all my Kindred and Friends, till it shall be
in the Possession of his Majesty's Commander, or whosoever shall come
with the Portugueses, or Spaniards that attend him; upon Condition,
that the Commander, or Commanders, shall, in his Majesty's Name,
perform what Duarte Pereyra, the Commander in chief promis'd me and
sign'd for him, I having given him a Counterpart; which is, that I
shall be proclaim'd King of Ternate, as soon as Possession is taken of
the Fort for his Majesty; both in regard it belongs to me in Right of
my Father, and of the Service I now do, and hereafter hope to do his
Majesty. I therefore beg it as a Favour of your Lordship, and require
you in his Majesty's Name, that you take Care to send the greatest
Number of Men you possibly can, and with the greatest Expedition; to
the End that this my Intention, and Will to serve his Majesty herein
may be effectual, which I hope will be without the Expence of Lives;
notwithstanding the Fort is well fortify'd, as your Lordship may have
been inform'd. The Commander in chief, will write to your Lordship,
what Season and Order those Forces are to observe. Given at Tydore,
to which Place I am come to this Intent, as will be testify'd by the
Father Vicar Antony Ferreyra, and the Judge Antony de Matos, whom,
as Persons of such Note, I desir'd to sign for me. May the 23d.

[Nunno Pereyra's Perswasions to the same Governor.] At the
Bottom of the Letter, the Vicar and Matos certify'd his Hand and
Subscription. With this came another very long one, wherein Duarte
Pereyra gives the Governour a more ample Account of what is here
deliver'd briefly, representing to him the Opportunity offer'd in
forcible Terms. He tells him that Mandraxa a little before his Death,
had propos'd the same thing to him, that his Brother Tulo now did;
and that they were desirous to fulfill what they promis'd Nunno
Pereyra. That the Island of Machian, the most fruitful in Clove,
Espous'd the Party that was against the King. That they could no longer
endure their Oppression. He perswaded him to Arm 400 Spaniards, if
they were come from Mexico, and to Ship them off for the Expedition
upon Ternate, giving out, that they were going to clear those Seas
from Javaneses, whose Friendship the People of Ternate value more than
they do ours. That besides the good Success he expected by the Help
of those Forces, they would at least secure those Ports against the
English, the People of Ternate having always a Fleet in Readiness. That
the Enterprize might succeed with Fifteen Frigates, and one Galeon,
provided they went to stay a Year at the Moluccos, and brought a Number
of Philippine Pioneers. He says, the Javanese Ships are less than the
Frigats, and there are Forty Soldiers in each of them, who lye Aboard
Eight Months, and live a Year upon 300 Bushels of Rice. That in Case
the Frigates could not hold the Men, they should bring some Junks,
which are necessary Vessels to Transport Provisions from the Islands of
Burro and Bachian. He complains of the King of Tydore's ill Behaviour,
and his Avarice; of Sancho de Vasconcelos, and James de Azambuja,
who built the Fort of Tydore in an ill place. He commends the King of
Bachian, and says he in private lives like a Christian. Among these
Things he intermixes many more, all of them tending to perswade the
Expedition of Ternate, to blot out the last Disgrace, without any
Expence to the King, through Cachil Tulo's Contrivance.

The Governour receiv'd this Dispatch, and he would willingly have put
it in Execution immediately; but as it went on slowly, and the Death
[The Projects for executing the Design.] of Cachil Tulo happened in
the mean while, it was requisite to delay the Design, and attend to
the Preservation of the Philippine Islands, against the Machinations
of the Chineses and Japoneses, against whose Robberies and Burnings
they are never secure. Each of these Attempts harass'd the Province
with the Expence of Treasure, and Power, so that there was a necessity
of breathing to recover both. It was thought the most proper Advice
to joyn from the Philippines and Malaca, with equal Force, coming
from both Parts to Arm in the Moluccos, which was the Boundary of
both Provinces. This took Effect some Years after, Captain Andrew
Furtado coming from Malaca, of whose Actions it will be proper to
begin to speak to give a Reputation to his Person.

Andrew Furtado de Mendoza might have Ennobled his Family, had it
[Andrew Furtado his Actions.] not been of antient Quality. He was the
Terror of those Eastern Parts, where he serv'd the King ever since
the Year 1576, subduing Barbarous Nations. In the Year 1587 he was
the Governour of the Fort of Rachol, till he came to have that of
Malaca. Whilst he was in the first, some Villages of Gentiles rose
up against the Ministers of the Church, disturbing Christianity
with Warlike Disorders. Furtado pacify'd them with Severity, and
his Authority. In 1591 Furtado was Commander of the Portuguese
Soldiery in that Archipelago, and was very earnest to employ them
in the Recovery of Ternate; but was hinder'd by other Wars, which
he concluded Victoriously. In August that same Year, he was inform'd
that Eighteen Galeons had put out of Cunnal, Commanded by Cutumaza,
assisted by Raju, with a Design to Besiege the Fort of Ceylon. This
Cutumaza had the Year before Burnt a Ship of ours, Sailing for China,
and made dismal Havock on the Coast of Coromandel. Furtado went out
in Search of the Enemies Fleet, and by the way reliev'd the Fort of
Ceylon; and on the Coast of Malabar he met three Ships Bound from Mecca
for Cunnal. He fought them, and Sunk two, the Sea running so high,
that the Vessels which Row'd could not attack them. The other after
a long Dispute yielded to him. This Victory was a sufficient Revenge
for the Burning of our Ships. Continual War is maintain'd in these
Parts, which Neighbour upon Malaca; and that in Ceylon never ceases,
contrary to the Advice of Persons that are well acquainted with India;
because the best Product of that Island being the Cinnamon, a Commodity
of less Durance than the Mace, Clove and Pepper, they look upon almost
all the expence laid upon Ceylon, as good as thrown away. Besides that
the greatest Commanders are employ'd in suppressing the continual
Rebellions of those most inconstant People, without stretching out,
at least as far as the Moluccos, by their Absence encouraging their
Tyranny, and giving Opportunity to Nations that are our Enemies to
fix themselves in our Forts.

[Ceylon describ'd.] Ceylon is one of the most Remarkable Islands In
the World, and the most fruitful. It lies opposite to Cape Comorin,
Nobly Inhabited, and cultivated. In it grow all Plants, known in
all other Parts of the World, Nutmegs, Pepper, Cinnamon, and the
most Excellent call'd Mosyllion grows in this Island. Here is Wild
and Garden Fruit, Spanish Figs, and Grapes, and the best Oranges in
all Asia. There are whole Woods of mighty Palm-Trees. The Variety of
Flowers, would take up much Time to describe it; as also of Grain
known to us, Wheat, Rice, and Flax, of which and their Cotton,
they make wonderful Webs. It has all sorts of Precious Stones,
Gold, Silver, Steel, Tin, Iron, and Seed Pearl. Several [Product.]
Christaline Rivers, and Fountains moisten it, with delightful and
Medicinal Waters, of Excellent Qualities. And among the rest there
are Springs of Liquid Bitumen, thicker than our Oyl, and some of pure
Balsam. There are Burning Mountains continually blazing, and casting
out Clods of Brimstone among the Crags of the Hills; where there are
Groves [Birds.] of Tall Trees, on whose Branches are to be seen all
sorts of Birds that fly in other Parts of the World, and among them
our Turkys, Wild Hens, [Beasts.] and Pidgeons. It abounds in Deer,
Wild-Boars, Tygers, Lions, and [Elephants.] Elephants of so Noble
a Kind, that all others submit to them. Those that are bred in this
Island have such an Extraordinary Natural Instinct, that it verifies
what Aristotle, Plutarch, Athenæus, Ælian, Pliny, and others, who
have Writ Natural History testifie, and is, that whether it proceeds
from Knowledge, or Habit, they partake of the Wit, Sense, and even of
the Prudence of Men. We are told they have so much Sense of Honour,
that they will not go Aboard a Ship, if they imagine they are carry'd
to serve Princes in strange Countries, and that they obey, if their
Owners swear they will bring them back to their own. That they
are concern'd at abusive Words given them. That they pay a sort of
Religious Respect to the Sun and Moon. That they remember such Things
as they conceive; and Gellius perswades us we may believe, that at
Night they bewail their Servitude with doleful Complaints; and if any
Man happens to come near in the Height of their Lamentation, they with
shame suppress their Sighs; and in short, they seem feasible of the
Iniquity of their Fate. In this Country it is their Part to load and
unload Ships, the Weight of Commerce, whether Arms, Metals, Provisions,
or other Commodities whatsoever hanging on their Teeth, or lying on
their Necks. They are more willing to carry Arm'd Men on their Backs,
in great Castles built to that purpose. They serve the Chingalas, not
as they did in Rome at publick Shows, but in Battel, as they did the
Carthaginians, and afterwards the Romans. The People of Ceylon believe
their Country is the Terrestrial [Opinion that Paradise is in Ceylon.]
Paradise. They call the Top of a certain Mountain Adam's Point,
and on it, they say, is to be seen the Print of his Foot, and that
there he did Pennance. Upon this Belief, the Jogues, who are penitent
Pilgrims, visit that Point, where they affirm there grows a thick Tree,
of an indifferent [Strange Tree.] Height, with small rough Leaves,
of a dusty Colour, the Bark Ash-colour'd, which in the Night shines,
and dispells Darkness. Under Colour of this Superstition, all the
Gangs of strowling Players or Actors, come [Players.] out of this
Island, and travel throughout all India, representing their Fables,
with odd Gestures, and Dancing to little Flat Tabors, Bag-pipes, and
Rattles of small Bells. Abundance of Pearls are found about it. The
Gold and other Metals are kept untouch'd in the Mines, by publick Law,
and yet notwithstanding this Precaution, they are not free from War
and Oppression. The Natives are call'd Chingalas, and resemble the
Malabars in Customs and Countenances. They have broad Noses, but are
not so black, and go naked, but not to immodesty. Formerly they had
but one King, who was dispossess'd by Force, and Treachery, and the
Kingdom [King's expell'd.] divided among many. Division having thus
weaken'd them, a Barbarian, call'd Raju, tyrannically expell'd the
King's the Island; one of whom was by the Magnificence of the Kings
of Portugal bred at Goa.

Raju was a subtle Soldier, and jealous even of those that supported
him. He had some Years before, besieg'd the Fort of Columbo, with a
great Body of Foot, Elephants and Horse. Andrew Furtado being in search
of the Enemies Fleet, in Prosecution of his Revenge for the Ships
lost, to relieve [Furtado relieves Columbo.] the Fort of Columbo,
doubled Cape Comorin, thro' the Streight of Ceylon, at the Time when
it is usually most difficult and dangerous for Tall Ships, much more
for such Vessels as use Oars. He came to the Fort so opportunely, that
had he stay'd never so little longer it had been lost, for most of the
Garrison had mutiny'd against their Commander in Chief Simon de Brito
who was wounded by them with two Musket Balls. Raju was marching with
all Expedition by Land to Columbo for fear of slipping the Opportunity
offer'd him of taking Possession of it. Cutumuza lay with all his
Fleet in the River Cordiva, distant from the Fort ready to attack it
by Sea, when Raju fell on by Land. Furtado was before-hand with him,
and getting in, dispos'd all Things for its Defence. He quell'd the
Mutiny, punish'd the Ring-leaders, satisfy'd such as had just Cause
of Complaint or had been wrong'd, and with all possible Speed went
out to find Cunale's Fleet. Nor was he disappointed, for the Enemy
did not offer [Beat, the Indian Fleet.] to fly, but met him, with
his Ships drawn up in good Order, and after Cannonading, they laid
one another aboard, where there was an obstinate Fight on both Sides,
till Cunnale's Navy was defeated. Furtado took 14 Galeons, with all
their Artillery, and Men, besides Abundance kill'd. The Admiral fled
with only four Ships of 18 he had, and made to Raju's Country. This
Victory was sufficient Satisfaction for the Damage receiv'd by that
rebellious Fleet, the ill Success whereof discourag'd Raju from coming
to besiege Columbo, so that he retir'd and dismiss'd his Army.

Not long after, Furtado was inform'd by his Spyes, that the King of
Jasanapatan had concluded a League with Raju, pressing him to return
to the Siege of Columbo, whilst he did the same to Mana. That his
Presumption might not want such Punishment, as became the Honour
of the Crown of Portugal, and the Reputation of its Grandeur, which
is more prevalent in those Parts than Force, Furtado gathering what
Power he could, with all possible Celerity attack'd that King. He was
not unprovided, but drawing [Routs him, and subdues his Kingdom.]
up without the Walls of that City, offer'd him Battel, his Men,
Elephants and Horses covering spacious Fields. Furtado playing both
Parts of a Commander, and a Soldier, drew up his Forces, encourag'd
them in few Words; and both Sides coming to the Charge exercis'd
their Force and Fury; but at Length the King's Troops were routed,
and he slain entering the City, in which abundance of Brass Cannon was
found, besides the Plunder, which was considerable. He took Possession
of it, and seizing the Forts and Garrisons, carry'd on the War there
in such Manner, that the whole Kingdom seeing such severe Execution,
and feeling it so heavily within its Bowels, submitted to the King of
Spain. By his Authority, when the Sword was put up, he appointed a
Kinsman of the late King, to whom of Right it belonged, to reign in
Jasanapatan, he having been taken in the last Battel. He caus'd him
to swear and plight his Faith, that he would be a perpetual Vassal
to his Majesty; imposing on him the Payment of a yearly Tribute,
which still subsists. The Writings containing this Settlement were
sent by him into Spain, where and at Goa, all that had been done was
approv'd of by the Viceroy, and the Conqueror, who had concluded it
so happily, highly applauded.

[Ternate the Cause of Rebellions.] He next Strengthned the Fort
of Columbo, with Four Ships of his Fleet, and 100 Soldiers; and
Supply'd Cosme de la Feta with Eighty Men, under Two Captains,
to prosecute the Affair of Candia, which was committed to him, and
sorted good effect. No Rebellion broke out in those Parts, but what
was either supported by Ternate, or proceeded from its Example, and
great Celerity was requisite in the Commanders for suppressing of it.

[Coast of Pearl Fishery Rebells, and is reduc'd.] At this same Time
all the Coast of the Pearl Fishery rebell'd, and among other sudden
Destruction usually made by Seditious Men in Arms, the Subjects
of Vinapanaique burnt Twenty five Christian Churches. Furtado
made all possible speed to chastize them before the Rebellion
grew to a Head. The Mutineers not being well Strengthned, sent
Embassadors to him, begging Peace, and colouring their Guilt with
Excuses, which Furtado admitted of because it was convenient for
his Majesties Service; upon Condition they should make good all the
Damages occasion'd by their Revolt. He commanded them to rebuild the
Churches they had destroy'd, and to grant the Society of the Jesuits,
who had then the Charge of the Christians in that Country, all the
Liberties and Immunities demanded by those then residing there;
taking sufficient Hostages for the Performance.

[Furtado ill us'd would depart India.] These and other no less
notable Actions, he perform'd in the space of four Months; but
as Envy seldom fails to oppose Valour, when he came to Cochin,
and was there ready to set out for the Conquest of the Moluccos,
and particularly of Ternate, he received Letters from the Viceroy,
Matthias de Albuquerque commanding him to deliver up the Fleet to Nunno
Vello Pereyra. He obey'd, and when he came to Goa, was Imprisoned,
and put to Trouble. As soon as it was in his Power, he resolv'd
to depart India, and remove himself from the ill-will of those he
thought were not his Friends; but the City of Goa conjur'd him not
to forsake it, and in vain endeavour'd to procure a Reconciliation
betwixt those Commanders. This happened in the Year 1592, when, and
some Years after, Ternate might have been reliev'd, as Furtado desir'd,
had not the Animosities reigning obstructed it. However they were
so far from employing him, that, tho' Furtado several times Offer'd
himself, with his own Ships, and at his proper Cost, where there was
such Necessity of suppressing Cunnale, yet he was as often Rejected,
and that Victory envy'd him, which afterwards he had granted by Heaven,
as we shall see in its Place.

At this Time Santiago de Vera was discharged of his Command of the
Philippine Islands. He had signified his Intentions to Andrew Furtado,
and received his Answer, That he would comply with his Desires;
but Fortune disappointed these good Beginnings, embroiling Furtado
with those who did not love him, and removing Santiago from his
Government. His Successor was Gomez Perez de las Marinnas, Knight of
the Order of Santiago, [Gomez Perez Governor of the Philippines.]
or St. James the Apostle, a Person of high Reputation, born at
Betanzos, in the Kingdom of Galicia. He arriv'd at the Philippines
in the Year 1590, and brought with him his Son Don Lewis, Knight of
the Order of Alcantara. The new Governor found Manila open, without
any Form of a City, and without Wealth to Improve it. Above 200000
Pieces of Eight were wanting for this Purpose; yet he compass'd the
Work by Projects, and Contrivance without any Dammage to the Publick,
or to private Persons. He Monopoliz'd the Cards; he laid Penalties
on excessive Gaming, and punish'd such as Forestal'd the Markets,
and on Victuallers, and other Retailers of that Sort that were guilty
of Frauds; with these Fines he built the Walls of Manila, which are
12849 Geometrical Foot in Compass, [He Walls Manila; Builds Forts,
&c.] each Foot being the third part of a Yard. He apply'd himself
diligently to this Work, and the Inhabitants attended it, being
willing to forward it on Account of the Intreaties and Example of
their Chief. The City had but one Fort, and that ill built, wherefore
he Erected another at the Mouth of the River, calling it Santiago,
and enclosed the old one. He finish'd the Cathedral, and built from
the Ground the Church of St. Potenciana, Patroness of the Island,
for Women that have retir'd from the World. Then he apply'd himself to
casting, and brought able Artists, who furnish'd the Place with heavy
and small Cannon; built Galleys to Cruize and Trade, whereon depends
the Welfare of those Countries; and pursuant to what he had promis'd
in Spain, bent his Thoughts towards Ternate, and all the Moluccos;
reflected on the Disreputation of the unfortunate Expeditions of his
Predecessors, who attempted the Conquest of that flourishing Kingdom,
and how he might punish those who Tyranniz'd in it.

He imparted his Thoughts by Word of Mouth, and by Letters to Zealous
[His first Steps for recovery of the Moluccos.] Persons, and more
particularly to F. Marta, a Priest of the Society of Jesus, and a
grave and active Man, whose Experience and Doctrine had been very
Advantageous in those Parts. This Religious Man furnish'd him with
Intelligence, Advice, and proper Ministers to prepare and carry
on the Work; one of whom was Brother Gaspar Gomez, a Spaniard, and
Lay-Brother of the said Society. Among the many Conferences there
were to this Effect, I find an Exhortation of F. Antony Marta, in a
Letter he writ to the Governor from Tydore, which, because it is an
Original, and conducing for the better Understanding of this Affair,
I will here insert, translated out of the Portuguese. Grant me this
Liberty, since the Speeches which are generally Fabulous, pretended
to be made by Generals and Consuls, in the Greek and Latin Histories,
are allow'd of. F. Antony Marta says thus;

[F. Merta's Letter, of the State of the Moluccos.] In fine, your
Lordship is resolv'd to undertake this Expedition. You will have a
spacious Field for dilating the Glory of God very much, and rendering
your Name famous to Perpetuity. By it your Lordship will acquire
to his Majesty a most Large and Wealthy Kingdom, since all this
Archipelago of the Moluccos and Amboina, as far as Banda, which is
above 130 Leagues in Length and 70 in Breadth, is an inexhaustible
Source of Clove, Nutmeg, and Mace, which will afford his Majesty a
Yearly Income of 200000 Crusados, which is about 27000 Pounds Sterling,
then a considerable sum, in India alone; besides that of other Islands,
which produce no Clove. Nor will it require any Expence, because the
Country it self will freely afford it on its very Mountains; and what
is yet much more, your Lordship will gain above 200000 Souls to God,
all which, in a short time, after subduing the Kingdom, will become
Christians, without any, or with very little Opposition; whereby your
Lordship will have a burning Flambeau in this World, to light and
conduct you to Heaven. Besides, you will magnify and perpetuate your
Name, with a Title nothing inferior to those of the ancient Roman
Generals, such as those of Germanicus, Africanus, and the like. It
is not now requisite to touch upon the Method your Lordship is to
observe for compassing this Enterprize, to your eternal Praise; for,
as we understand, there is no want of Experience with you for Warlike
Affairs; Yet if your Lordship should be any way Dubious, Jerome de
Azevedo is able to inform you of such things as you shall desire to
know. He is well acquainted with the Strength of the Moluccos, and
of their Enemies. However I would have your Lordship look [League of
the Mahometans.] upon this War as considerable and difficult, because
it is very convenient to come well Provided, and Resolv'd. You are
not to Fight with the Ternates alone, but with all the Moors of this
Archipelago. Hitherto the Fort of Amboina had to do with the Ternates,
that are at Veranula, and this of Tydore with those in the Island
Ternate; but now of late we are to fight with those of the Islands
of Banda and of Seram. All the Moors in those Parts Assembled last
year, and Resolv'd, That for the future the War should be carry'd
on under the Name of their Religion. And for the more Security,
and better Establishing of this Point, they chose those of Banda
for Chiefs of their Law; and took an Oath to lay down their Lives,
or expell the Portugueses. Accordingly the last Year, those of Banda
came with the Ternates [Fort of Amboyna Beseig'd.] of Veranula,
with a great number of Carcoas, to Beseige the Fort of Amboyna; and
in the Engagement they had with us, took one of the two Galiots we
brought from Goa, tho' it was not their Valour, but our Negligence
that occasion'd the making of that Prize. It plainly appear'd, that
our Lord did it to punish our Pride. This so far Encouraged them,
that they durst afterwards daily Cruize in sight of the Fort, took
the Fishermen that went out in the Morning to follow their Trade,
and laid a Ground some Carcoas on the Shore. They erected a Mosque
opposite to the Fort, as in a safe Place, and thus they kept the
Fort Besieged with Contempt, for the space of a Month. At the end
thereof, the Galley going out, with one Galiot we had left, made
them fly, every one to his own Country, giving out, and threatning,
That they would Return next Year with a greater Fleet, which will be
about September. We are certainly assured that the People of Banda,
left 50 of their prime Men at Amboyna, as Hostages for the performance
of their Engagement. This is also known by a Man of our own, who fled
from Banda, having been carry'd thither Prisoner from Amboyna. We are
informed, that 25 Carcoas would set out, so many being Launch'd, and
they were to Sail after their Lent, which is at the End of this Month
of July, and to joyn the Seyrves, and the rest of the Confederates,
in order to return again before the Fort of Amboyna. If they come
with such a Force, I am very suspitious that the Fort will be lost;
because the Enemies method is to take in all the Towns that are
Subject to it; and when this is left alone, wanting the Support
of its Neighbours, it must of necessity Surrender. Antony Perez,
the Governor of that Fort, is a Man of Courage, and well Fortified;
and yet there are Circumstances to be consider'd, some of them very
Difficult; as that the Enemies are Numerous, and there will come
some Confederates with them, who are fit for any piece of Treachery;
besides, that they cannot be Reliev'd from any Part whatsoever, for
the full space of five Months, that is till the beginning of January
next. We cannot but apprehend some great Mischief will happen; for
supposing they do not take the Fort, still this War is Dangerous,
as being Universal, with all the Moors; stirr'd up by means of the
Caciques; Concerted under solemn Oaths; and Declar'd to be Religious,
with full Remission of Sins to all that Die in it. There is no want
of Fomenters, and those Caciques of Note, and [General Conspiracy
against Christians.] great Authority among the Moors, in Banda,
Amboyna, Ternate, and Tydore. These Men urge their Religion, and the
Honour of Mahomet, and by that means manage the People as they please;
as I have found by Experience this Year, and in this War we had at
Amboyna, in which I was. For formerly the Moors were soon weary of
being at Sea, and when any Man of Note happened to be kill'd in Fight,
they presently retir'd, looking upon it as an ill Omen. Now they
continue all the seasonable Months at sea, without flinching; tho'
the Portugueses slew 150 of their Men, and among them their Admiral,
and others of the prime Commanders they had in their Fleet. To this
must be added, That this is a general Conspiracy of all the Moors
against us; insomuch, that two who were our Friends, and had Assisted
us several times, with their Fleets, against the Ternates, being those
of the Island Burro, these being summoned by the Commander to Sail with
him in the Navy, as they had done at other times, did not only refuse
it now, but would not so much as receive the Message, or suffer him
that carry'd it to Land. The Tydores did the same, for the Commander
of Amboyna demanding Assistance of them, they would not go, alledging
that their Fort was in as much Danger. And the King of Tydore being
inform'd of your Lordships coming, his Subjects declare before hand,
and perhaps at the Instigation of their King, That they will have no
Spaniards in these Parts; which makes us look about, where they will
raise Moors to Destroy us. Therefore all Delays, in this Affair,
will be very dangerous; because we are Inferior to the Moors, and
must of Necessity Fight them, since it is for Religion, and Honour,
on both which Accounts they are become our mortal Enemies. By this your
[F. Marta presses for Relief.] Lordship will understand what need we
are in of your Succour and Relief; and may compute how many are to draw
their Swords against you, since they are all our Enemies in general,
and have Conspir'd against us. However, it will be Discretion first
to Dissemble with the Tydores, that they may not joyn the Ternates,
and by that means render the War more tedious and difficult. I do
not speak to all the rest in particular, according to my Notion,
because I refer it to Jerome de Azevedo, who will give a very good
Account. But let this be Established as a Maxim, That your Lordship
has a mighty Enterprize in Hand; and I trust in God he will give you
Wisdom, and Strength to go through it with Ease; since you come to
Revenge the Injuries formerly, and now offered by these Barbarians,
to God and his [Irreverences to Religion.] Saints. For we know that
the Ternates still drink out of the consecrated Chalices, and make use
of the Patens to Offer, or Receive any thing, as on profane Salvers;
and of the Vestments, and Ornaments of Altars, they make Cloaths, and
Hangings for their Houses. The People of Banda, most of them, wear
Ornaments of the Blood of above 3000 Christians, they Treacherously
Murder'd, at several times, in their Ports, as they went thither to
Trade with them; and in that Island, and part of the Sea, there are
Streams of Spanish and Portuguese Blood running. Your Lordship came
to spread the Catholick Faith, and that you may the better conceive
what Jerome de Azevedo will say to you touching this Affair, I send
you by him a Draught of all this Archipelago, as well of the Moluccos,
as of Amboyna, and Banda. In it your Lordship will see what a large
Kingdom we loose, when it might be recover'd with little Cost. It
only remains, That your Lordship come, with all possible Expedition,
because the greatest Danger is in Delay; and when you are here you
will find brave Commanders, who will assist you with their [Good
Officers and Soldiers.] Swords and their Advice. Among them is Sancho
de Vasoncelos, who was Commander at Amboyna, has often fought with
these Infidels, and obtain'd signal Victories over them. Here is also
Thomas de Sousa, Commander of Molucco, and of most Southern Parts,
a Man expert in Martial Affairs. In Tydore and Amboyna, you will
also find brave Soldiers, and there will not want to Pay them, for
the Riches of the Country will be sufficent for that, and to satisfy
them with Gold, precious Stones, and other Booty; besides you will
find many sorts of Arms. We Religious Men daily offer up our Prayers,
[Gomez Perez prepares.] and will so continue to do with Fervour;
and tho' the Unworthiness of the Ministers might be a Hinderance,
yet we hope they will prove Advantageous.

The Governour receiv'd this Letter; which, with the Discourse he
had more at large with Jerome de Azevedo, made him put the last
Hand to a Work of so much Importance to the Service of the Christian
Commonwealth, which had been neglected in those Parts. Gaspar Gomez
had conferr'd with him long before, and by his Means, and the Accounts
of other knowing Persons, the Governor was so well acquainted with
the Kingdoms, and Seas, the Seasons and Dangers of the Undertaking,
that he had no great need of F. Marta's Map. He dispatch'd Gaspar
Gomez, a Man of Secrecy and Activity, trusting him with the Design,
because he was recommended by several grave Fathers of that Order. He
gave him particular Instructions, with which, [Gaspar Gomez sent as
a Spy.] and his own Experience, he wander'd about the Archipelago,
and learnt as much as was convenient. He visited Ternate, Tydore,
Mindanao, both the Javas, and scarce omitted any Place, as far as
the Point of Malaca, but what he took a View of.

In the Year 1593, King Philip the 2d bestow'd the Government of
Cartagena, in America, upon Don Pedro Bravo de Acunna. To take this
Employ, [D. Pedro de Acuna Governor of Cartagena.] he quitted that he
had in the Spanish Galleys; he was Captain of the Admiral Galley, and
Vice-Admiral of them all, under the Adelantado, or Lord Lieutenant of
Castile, his Kinsman. He had serv'd his Majesty many Years by Sea and
Land, in the Mediterranean. No Action of Note was perform'd without
him, since the Expedition of Navarino against the Turks, and the
[His brave Actions.] others that ensu'd in those Parts, in Naples,
in Portugal, and all those that occur'd before, till his Majesty was
put in Possession of that Crown. Lastly, When he commanded the Spanish
Galleys he fought those of the Moors and Turks, with the Galiots,
and Brigantines of the Levant, and English Ships, and took and sunk
several of both Sorts. He took a great Number of Slaves in Barbary;
particularly at Zangazon, Benegicar, and Alcazar. He defended Cadiz
from the Invasion, and Rapine of Drake, the English Admiral, who
attempted it with a mighty Fleet. This was done by only four Galleys,
but two of which were clean, yet the Bravery of the Commander made
amends for all. How great an Action this was, and what Reputation
Don Pedro gain'd by it, appear'd afterwards, when the English again
possess'd themselves of Cadiz, at the Time that all the Galleys in
Spain were in the Bay, and the Fleet then preparing to sail to the
Indies. In each of these Actions, most whereof were victorious, there
are many remarkable Particulars, and they all deserve large Encomiums;
but since they do not belong to the Subject of this History, it would
be blameable to insert them here.

The King for these Reasons constituted Don Pedro de Acunna, his Captain
General, in the Province of Cartagena and Tierra Firme, and Commander
of the Galleys on that Coast; which Commissions had never before been
united in that Government. He gave him a Galley, and Orders to receive
the Royal Fifths of the Pearl-Fishery, at the Island Margarita. He set
out from the Port of Sanlucar, on the 27th of September, in a Pink,
with 12 Soldiers, [His Voyage.] some Religious Men, and his Servants,
the Galley, and another Ship following. The Winds soon rose, and the
Sea swell'd, and the Vessels were dispers'd. In one of them there
were 20 Soldiers, and 40 Slaves at the Oar, this was so far drove
away, that they saw it no more, till five Days after they came to
Cartagena. The Storm ceas'd, and Don Pedro arriv'd at Gran Canaria, but
would not go into the City. He took in two hundred Cask of Water. The
Governour Don Lewis de la Cueva was not in the Island; but it being
known in his Family that Don Pedro was come, they sent to welcome
him. The Visit was follow'd by some Horses loaded with Abundance of
Fowl, Game, Sheep, Wine, Pears, and most stately Quinces, besides
Abundance of other Provisions. He sail'd thence with a favourable
Wind, which soon turn'd against him, and tho' he was far enough off,
drove back the Ships in Sight of Teneriffe. After being toss'd about
for some Days, there happened such a tedious Calm between two Islands,
as made Amends for the Violence of the Storms, and yet he had others
afterwards as violent as those before. Many Days after, when they had
lost their reckning, they arriv'd at the Island Metalinon, inhabited
by unconquered Indians, where they took in Water without Opposition,
for the Rest of the Voyage. Thence he had fair Weather to the Island
Margarita. As soon as he landed in the Harbour, Don John Sarmiento
de Villandrando, the Governour of the Island came to meet him, having
hourly expected him, since he knew he was to come. The rejoycing, and
Entertainment was such as became Friends, and Friends of that Quality.

[An English Ship near the Island Margarita.] An English Ship of
above four hundred Tun Burthen, with thirty Pieces of Cannon of
five thousand Weight each, and Abundance of Men, had been 30 days
in a Harbour but two Leagues from the Island Margarita. Don John
Sarmiento telling Don Pedro, what Insolences that Ship committed,
and how much to his Disreputation she oppress'd the Islanders under
his Government, desir'd he might attack her with his Galley. Don
Pedro perswaded him to desist from that Enterprize, since it did
not belong to him, and it was an unpardonable Fault to attack her,
without an equal Force. Don John persisted so long, that he carry'd it
against Don Pedro's Opinion. They made to the Place where the Ship lay,
passing by dangerous Rocks, and being come in Sight of it, perceiv'd
it was stronger, and better provided than they had been told. Our Men,
in Order to fight, turn'd out all the Women, most of them Wives to
those that came in the Galleys. Twenty Soldiers came from the Island
Margarita, by their Governours Order, who being ship'd they appear'd
by Break of Day in Sight of the Enemy. The Wind then [The Islanders
oblige Don Pedro to Fight her.] blowing fresh Don Pedro advising with
the Natives of the Island Margarita and their Governour told them,
it was requisite to expect a Calm, in Order to take the Ship, since
the Galley could wait for it under Shelter, without any Danger. The
Islanders being provok'd by the Dammage they had receiv'd, and to
flatter Don John Sarmiento, answer'd, That they had two of the Prime
Men of that Ship Prisoners in the City, by whose Account they were
inform'd of the Distress she was in, and that she must surrender, as
soon as attack'd. This Opinion being bandy'd about with Obstinacy,
came to be Positiveness in Don John. Don Pedro looking upon it
as such, and concerned to see his Friend engag'd in such a Piece
of Madness, with those Hot, but unexperienc'd Men, said to them,
By my long Experience in several Seas, I know it is the worst of
Conduct to attack a Ship, when she has the Wind; but let us fall on;
that the People of the Island Margarita may not have it to say that I
deferr'd engaging out of Fear, and not out of Discretion. This said,
he order'd his Galley to weigh Anchor. He arm'd himself, and Don John,
and just as the Sun appear'd they attack'd the Ship [The Engagement.]
with Fury and Violence. The English were not backward; they speedily
cut the Cables of three Anchors they had out, and leaving them in
the Sea, set their Sails. The Wind was fair and soon fill'd them. The
Men were brisk and ply'd their Cannon without ceasing. Our Galley did
the same, and fir'd five Shot, before it receiv'd any Harm. Then she
ran her Beak against the Poop of the Ship, but could not grapple,
nor board. Some Men went down to the Boats which were tow'd by the
Ship, and cut the Ropes. The Ship, and Galley fell a firing again,
without Intermission. Don Pedro receiv'd a Musquet Shot on his Target,
which glancing off broke in Pieces a Board of the Stern Lockers,
and wounded those that were next it. A Cannon Ball took of the Head
of one of our Slaves, and scatter'd his Brains in Don Pedro's Face;
but another Ball touch'd him nearer, when it threw Don John Sarmiento
into the Sea, who being sunk by the Weight of his Armour, was never
seen again. Fourteen Soldiers of the Island Margarita, and nine
Spaniards were kill'd, and many wounded, of all whom Don Pedro took
Care, without neglecting the other Duties of a Commander. Some Persons
of Note were also kill'd, as Alonso de Anduxar, a Youth about twenty
Years of Age, of the Order of Christ, and Antonio Santiso, who had been
a Captain in Flanders. The Ship holding on her Course, made the best
of the fair Wind, and was seen to fly, as if she had been victorious;
tho' she threw many dead Bodies over Board, in Sight of our Men. Don
Pedro return'd to the Island Margarita, lamenting the Death of his
Friend, and his Wifes Widow-Hood, amidst the Tears of other Widows,
and Fathers left Childless. He comforted the afflicted the best he
could, received the King's Boxes of Peals, and went on much griev'd
at the Event, and to see how little his Precaution had avail'd.

Don Pedro had a prosperous Passage thence, to the Island Curazao, to
Rio de la Hacha, and so in Sight of Cartagena. Being descry'd from
the City [Don Pedro at Cartagena.] the Galleys went out to meet
him, whose Musick and Guns, with those of the Fort made a Mixture
of Harmony and Noise. He enter'd upon the Government and immediately
took a View of the Galleys, Warlike Prepations being of the greatest
Consequence in those Parts. He found them shatter'd, and almost gone to
Ruin, refitted one, and furnish'd another with Slaves, and all other
Necessaries. All things were before in such Disorder, and Confusion,
that it was hard to distinguish betwixt the Galley Slaves and the
Soldiers, the former going about as free, and gay as the latter. He
blam'd this Liberty, and order'd the Heads and Beards of the Slaves
to be shav'd, and that they should be chain'd. Next he took in hand
the Divisions, Manners, and civil Government of the City, and there
was soon a Reformation of Abuses, and publick Crimes, all this he
perform'd by his Valour, and Example. He also review'd the Horse and
Foot; repair'd the Fortifications; attended all Martial Affairs; had
his Gates always open to decide Controversies, without Distinction of
Persons; and tho' he had here considerable Opportunities offer'd him,
and much Matter to discover his Capacity, and the Greatness of his
Soul, yet he found in himself greater Hopes and Desires, above what was
present, and exciting him to advance farther, and to make known to the
World that generous Restlessness, which was afterwards serviceable to
the Church, by restoring its former Honour, in the remotest Provinces.

                       The End of the Fifth Book.

                                 OF THE
                         Discovery and Conquest
                                 OF THE
                  Molucco and Philippine Islands, &c.

                                BOOK VI.

[Gomez Perez builds four Galleys, and makes Slaves wrongfully.]
In the mean while Gomez Perez, still carrying on his Preparations,
conceal'd the Design, without sparing any charge for Shipping,
Provisions, or Men. Among other Necessaries, he built four choice
Galleys and for the manning of them, took a Method which was look'd
upon as severe. He Order'd, That as many Indians who were Slaves to
other Indians of Quality, as would serve to Man the Galleys, should be
bought up, and Paid for by the Spaniards, who were Proprietors, out of
their own Money; setting the Price of each Slave at two Taes in Gold,
each [Taes of Gold their Value.] Tae being little above an Ounce,
which was the Price Slaves had in former Times been valu'd at among
them. He promis'd, that the Proprietors should afterwards be Refunded
what they laid out, from the Kings Revenue. Yet this did not seem to
mollify the Rigour of the Order; because he improperly call'd those
Indians Slaves, for their Lords use and love them like Children, set
them at their own Tables, and Marry them to their Daughters; besides
that, Slaves then were worth more Money. The Concern of those that
were to be Sold, was attended by that of the Proprietors, who were to
[Discontent in the Philippines.] contribute out of their Estates, to
defray Charges they look'd upon as not very Necessary, and to Disgust
their Vassals, by taking them away forcibly, being never likely to
recover the Money they laid down, which they [The Governors excuses.]
were well assur'd of. The Governour gave out, That those Galleys were
to secure the Country, and defend it from the Danger that threatned;
because he knew the Emperor of Japan was coming to Invade it, with a
numerous Fleet; and that it could not be Defended without Galleys,
and therefore it was absolutely Necessary to Man them with Slaves,
since they had no others to Row. That these were not to be Fetter'd
in the Galleys, nor Treated like Slaves, but so kindly used, that
they themselves should prefer their Entertainment, before that of
their Lords, whom they look'd upon as Parents, or Fathers-in-Law.

These Allegations, and the absolute Necessity of defending themselves,
[The Design against the Moluccos takes Air.] silenc'd both Parties;
but could not stop the Mouth of Fame, for it was already known,
what Engagements he made before he came from Spain, to the King,
the Ministers, the Kindred, and Fomenters of the Expedition of
Ternate, so that whatsoever he conceal'd, was divulg'd by uncertain
Authors. However some advis'd him not to rely on the Chineses, or
Sangleyes for the Defence of the Philippines; because no natural
or civil Tye had ever gain'd, or attracted their Affection towards
them. That he ought to remember the fresh Instance of what they did,
when his Predecessor employ'd them, and consequently should be watchful
over them. That he sending a Supply of Men, Ammunitions and Provisions
to the Fort and Town of Cagayan, which is on the Coast of that Island
of Luzon, 80 leagues from the City Manila, and there being then no
Ship to send it in, Necessity pressing, he thought he might relieve
that Want, by making use of one of the Chinese Ships that were then
at Anchor in the Harbour, and clear'd in Order to return to China. He
commanded the [Falshood of the Chineses.] Supply to be put aboard
her, and the Chineses to carry, and in the Way, to land it where he
directed, since it was no let to their Voyage; promising to requite and
gratify them for that Service. They undertook it with extraordinary
Tokens of good Will; but their Artifice appear'd by the Event, and
show'd how Men that are upon the Watch, improve Opportunities. The
Chineses set sail, and the second Day after, when the Spaniards
were asleep, as believing themselves safe among trusty Friends,
they fell upon them so unexpectedly, that they had not Time to stand
upon their Guard, but were all murder'd and cast into the Sea. They
plunder'd all they carry'd, and dividing the Spoil, sail'd for their
own Country. They [Spanish Woman abandon'd in China.] only sav'd one
unhappy Spanish Woman, that went with our Men, and took her along with
them. They spar'd her Life, but after having insolently abus'd her,
they set her ashore, in a Sea-Port Town of the first Part of China
they made. She presently had Recourse to the Magistrates, whom she
acquainted with the Villany those Men had committed, and the Wrongs
they had done her; but tho' favourably heard by those Judges, she had
no Satisfaction for her Wrongs, nor could she obtain Justice. However
they appointed Officers to carry her up the Country, remitting her to
other Supream Magistrates. In this Journey, which was many Leagues,
she endur'd more than she had done before, till some of the Governors
taking Compassion on her and her Tears, carry'd her to the City of
Macao, where the Portugueses reside, and set her at Liberty. Thus the
whole Matter came to be known, and it was at Manila in the Mouths of
all Men, who now magnify'd it, upon Occasion of the New Enterprize.

[Chineses put into the Galleys.] In short, all the Slaves demanded
by the Governour Gomez Perez, were raised with much Trouble and
Oppression, and in the same Manner they were put into the Galleys,
where they continu'd some Time before they departed, and many of them
dy'd, as not being us'd to that sort of Life. All those Slaves were
not sufficient to Man the Galleys, and the Admiral Galley remain'd
without Rowers. This, and the Necessity of finishing the Work produc'd
a more rigorous Practice than the former. The Governour order'd that
250 of the Chineses, who resort to the Philippines to Trade, should be
taken to Man the Admiral Galley, and each of them to be allow'd two
Pieces of Eight a Month, out of the King's Revenue. He assur'd them,
they should not be chain'd, but at Liberty, and with their Arms,
to serve as Soldiers; and that they should only row in the Galleys
when there was any Calm, and to weather some Capes. The Chineses being
acquainted by their Chinese Governour with this Resolution, positively
refus'd it, as an intolerable Burden. But our Governour pressing to
bring about his Design, the Chinese assembled his People, to treat
about the Affair, and contrive how 250 might be chosen out from among
them all, threatning that he would take every Tenth Man out of their
Houses. These Words provok'd them to such a Degree, that the next Day
they shut up the very Windows of their Houses, and the Traders their
Shops, and stopp'd the Provisions which run through their Hands. Our
Governour seeing this Proceeding, and alledging that they mutiny'd,
caus'd about 50 of those that came next to hand, to be seiz'd, and put
to the Oar in the Galley. The others terrify'd by this Action, met,
and drew from among them all, the 250, and because no Man would be of
that Number, they divided 20000 Pieces of Eight among those that would
comply, and gave every Chinese that would go in the Galley 80 Pieces
of Eight, besides the King's Pay. By Means of this good Encouragement,
there was no Want of Chineses that listed themselves to row, but the
20000 Pieces of Eight were consum'd among them, or rather among the
Officers. These 250 Chineses were form'd into five Companies, under
five Chinese Christian Captains, who pass'd Musters and Reviews, with
Pikes and Catanes, which differ little from Cymiters, and express'd
Joy and Satisfaction.

Whilst these Things were in Agitation, Brother Gaspar Gomez
came [B. Gaspar Gomez brings Intelligence.] to Manila, full of
Intelligence, whereof he gave the Governour an Account, at several
private Conferences. He said, the King of Ternate's Affairs were
in no ill Posture; tho' somewhat weak'ned, by not agreeing with the
Prime Men of his Kingdom; and that many of them threatned, they would
Rebel, on Account of his Tyranny, and because he rais'd intolerable
Taxes. That then, neither the Javaneses, nor the Lascarines, nor the
Moors of Mecca frequented Ternate, as they had done at the Time when
Captain Morones arriv'd there, under the Government of Santiago de
Vera. He gave very particular Information concerning the two Forts
of Talangame. That the King of Ternate had then about 3000 common
[Strength of Ternate.] Soldiers, 1000 Musquetiers, and a great Number
from his other Kingdoms. That they fought with Darts, Campilanes, or
Cymiters, and Shields; and others had Coats of Mail, and Head-Pieces
they got from the Portugueses, in exchange for Spice. That they had
Abundance of Ammunition, all of their own making, of the Materials
the Javaneses brought to barter for Clove. That the Principal Place
was the City Ternate, where the King and all his Court reside, and
therefore it is best secur'd, and from thence all others are supply'd,
supported, and encourag'd. [How to be attack'd.] He advis'd that our
Men should assault it before Break of Day; because all Attacks made
upon those People in the Morning Watch had been successful. That, if
our Fleet came unexpected, it would certainly succeed; but that the
said King had his Spies spread abroad in almost all those Islands, as
far as those of Canela, Sarvangan and Mindanao. That a good Number of
Brass Sakers, and other great Guns might be brought in the Carcoas,
from the Fort of Amboyna, and the Kings of Sian, and Tydore. That
the People of Amboyna would send them upon Command, those of Sian
and Tydore, upon very small Intreaty; because besides their owning
the Crown of Spain, they are Enemies to Ternate. That the necessary
Preparation for finishing the War, even in case the King of Tydore
should fail, and it might be suspected he would not willingly see his
Enemy utterly destroy'd, consisted in Artillery and Shipping, which was
ready, and above 1200 Soldiers well arm'd, with their Coats of Mail
and Head-Pieces, till they went over to the Island of Banda, to put
in the necessary Garrison there. [Light Vessels of good Use.] That
there should be a Number of Light Vessels to take the Enemy flying;
for by that Means the War would be quite concluded in a short Time,
and without Bloodshed. That even the Malecontent Ternates declar'd,
and publish'd as much, and own'd, that if a considerable Number of
Fighting Men should come into their Country, they would all come in
and submit without striking Stroke. Hence he inferr'd, that there were
conceal'd Christians in the Molucco Islands. That the Conquest of the
whole Island of Banda, was very advantageous and profitable, and not
hazardous, and that the Neighbourhood of Amboyna, which was ours, would
be of great Consequence for maintaining it. He further affirm'd, That
the Portugueses very much facilitated the Enterprize, and magnify'd
the great Benefit it would be to his Majesty; and that F. Antony
Marta, of whom the Governour had so great a Conceit, was of the same
Opinion. Brother Gaspar Gomez added so many Circumstances to these
particular Accounts, that he wholly inflam'd the Governour's Heart.

[King of Camboxa sends Spaniards Embassadors to the Governour.]
At this Time, Landara, King of Camboxa, sent the Governour an Embassy
by two Spanish Commanders, attended by many of his Subjects, with
such Splendor as the Occasion of it requir'd. That barbarous King
thought fit his Embassadors should not be natural born Subjects,
because of the Occasion his People had given him to suspect their
Fidelity. He chose them of Different Conditions, to the End that such
Variety, the Diversity of Inclinations, and Opposition, might produce
the better Effect. The one of them was a Portuguese, his Name James
Veloso, the other a Spaniard, Blas Ruyz de Fernan Gonzalez. They
brought Gomez Perez a Magnificent [Their Present.] Present, a great
Quantity of Ivory, Benjamin, China Ware, Pieces of Silk and Cotton,
and an Elephant of a generous Temper, as afterwards appear'd by
Experience. They deliver'd their Embassy, the Purport [Subject of
their Embassy.] whereof was, to desire Succour against the King of
Sian, who was marching against him of Camboxa, with a numerous Army;
offering in Return for his Assistance to become subject to Spain,
and embrace Christianity. That the King concluded, that so brave and
gallant a Gentleman as Gomez Perez, would not on Account of any other
Diversion refuse to perform an Action, which must redound so much
to the Glory of God, and the Advantage of the Crown of Spain. The
Governour receiv'd the Present, making a Return with another of some
European Curiosities; and by way [The Answer.] of Answer, thank'd
that King for the Confidence he had seem'd to place in him; but
that, for the Present, he could not possibly afford the Succours, nor
divert those Forces, which he was getting ready, to punish the King of
Ternate, and recover that Kingdom, and the rest of the Moluccos, which
had Rebell'd, so much to the Dishonour of the Spanish Nation. That
his Highness should place his Confidence in the Goodness of God, and
persevere in the Design of serving him in his Holy and True Religion,
and as soon as the Expedition of Ternate was over, he would convert
his Forces to the Relief of Camboxa. The Embassadors were dismiss'd
with these Hopes, which the Governours Son, Don Lewis de las Marinas,
afterwards made good; and to give them entire Satisfaction, and
justify the Delay, it was found necessary to make Publick the true
Design of that Fleet, which till then had been kept secret.

[Mighty Preparations against Ternate.] The Governour, in fine,
resolv'd to set forward, and endeavour'd to take along with him all
the Men he could get. All were listed that could be prevail'd upon
either by Force or Intreaties. The Proprietors and Soldiers were
extravagantly expensive, upon the Ships, Provisions, and Gallantry;
and the Philipines being well furnish'd with all Things, they
did more than had been imagin'd, or could be in the Governour's
Power. He sent his Son Don Lewis, with all the Soldiers that were
in Pay, to the Island of Zebu, where the Fleet was to rendevous,
and there he continued six Months, waiting for new Orders. Gomez
Perez stay'd at Manila, ordering Matters of great Moment. Two Days
before his Departure, being invited by, and supping in the House of
Peter de Rojas, his Lieutenant, where diverting himself with Gaming,
and much Pleasure, he grew [Prediction of ill Success.] so merry,
contrary to his Custom, and the Harshness of his Temper, that many
interpreted it as a good Omen of his Success. He said in Discourse,
that F. Vincent, of the Order of St. Francis, had told him, the
Enterprize could not succeed, because the Army was made up of Men
that were carry'd away by Force, and particularly the marry'd Men were
so. He departed Manila on the 17th of October, with six Royal Galleys,
one Galleon, one small Vessel call'd a Foist, one little Frigot, and
several other Frigots, Carcoas, and Bireyes, which are another Sort of
[The Fleet sets out.] Vessels of the Natives; all which, being part
the Kings, and part belonging to Subjects, who offer'd to serve him
with their Lives and Fortunes, amounted to an hundred. There were a
Thousand Spaniards well arm'd; above four hundred Musquetiers of the
Territory of Manila; a thousand more of those they call Visaias,
Men arm'd with Lances, Shields, [Its Force.] Bows and Arrows,
and above four hundred Chineses, of those that dwelt in the Island,
besides a good Number of those that came to Trade taken into Pay; but
many more Compell'd than Voluntiers. The Galleys carry'd Abundance of
Provisions for the Army, over which he appointed his Son Don Lewis
Perez, his Lieutenant, and sent him before, as has been said, with
Orders to make for the Island of Zebu. He embark'd himself aboard the
Admiral-Galley, which had twenty eight Benches for the Men to row,
and was mann'd with the 250 Chineses for the Oar. Eighty Spaniards
were put aboard it; they touch'd at Cabite, sail'd thence on the 19th,
and with them some Vessels, in which there were private Persons, who
follow'd at their own Expence, coasting the Island of Manila as far
as Balajan. They parted, because the Vessels kept in Sight of Land,
and the Governour put out to Sea. On the 25th he came alone to pass the
Night, at the Point call'd de Azufre, or of Brimstone, in the Island
of Manila, opposite to that of Caza, where the Current, and the Drift
of the Water from the Land run strong, and the Breezes then blowing,
the Galley could not weather it. He anchor'd under the Shelter of it,
and yet dragg'd a little with the Force of the Current. They made the
Chineses row excessive [Chineses at the Oars ill us'd.] hard, to bring
her up again under the Land. In short, they row'd very faintly, either
because they were not us'd to that Labour, and forc'd to the Oar, or
because they were then tir'd, and incens'd with the Command. Other
contrary Winds darted up, which again obstructed their Voyage, and
to weather some Points of Land, it was necessary to ply the Oars,
and to vex the Crew, with the usual Severity and Punishment commonly
inflicted aboard the Galleys. They thought this hard, and contrary
to what the Governour had assur'd them, which was, that they should
be kindly treated; but neither the Lash, nor the Threats, nor the
stemming of the Currents, with the Vigour and Sweat of their Bodies,
seem'd so [The Governour threatens them.] intollerable, and injurious
to them, as to hear the angry and stern Governour himself bid them
row manfully, for if they did not, he would put them in Chains, and
cut off their Hair. This to the Chineses is an Affront that deserves
Death, for they place their Honour in their Hair, which they cherish
and preserve very fair, and value themselves upon it, as the Ladies
in Europe us'd to do, all their Delight and Reputation being [The
Chineses rebel and kill the Spaniards.] in keeping it curiously
comb'd. Hereupon they resolv'd to mutiny, to prevent such an Affront
and Contempt. The next Night, which was the 25th of October, being
appointed for the Execution, when the tir'd Spaniards laid themselves
down upon the Benches, and other convenient Places in the Vessel,
the Chineses did so too, but cunningly dividing themselves, every one
lay down by a Spaniard, pretending to be asleep. In the dead of the
last Watch, which they thought the properest and safest Time, seeing
the Spaniards sound asleep, the Chineses, upon hearing of a shrill
Whistle, which was the Signal agreed upon between them, started up
all together, and every Man with wonderful Celerity put on a white
Vest, or Shirt, that they might know one another in the Height of
their Fury, and the Darkness of the Night, and so distinguish where
to make the Slaughter, tho' for the more Security, they also lighted
abundance of Wax-Candles, which they had conceal'd wrap'd up in those
white Vests. Then they drew their Catanas, which are keener, and more
crooked than our Cymiters, and began without any Noise every Man to
hew his next Spaniard; so proceeding in their Fury, and killing all
those that slept. Above 60 Persons had imbark'd in the Admiral-Galley,
some of them being the Governour's Servants, and other old Soldiers,
who suffer'd Inconveniencies to oblige and divert him. They had
play'd all the Night, and being tir'd, and the Heat very violent,
they lay naked, some on the Gang-Way in the middle of the Galley,
others on the Benches, and the greatest Favourites, who had more Room
allow'd them, in the Poop, and to that Purpose the Governour retired
into the Cabin. The Chineses continu'd the Execution, on those who
slept, without any Mistrust, which was done so expeditiously, that
when some of those who slept in the Poop awak'd, the other Spaniards
were all kill'd. The Watch heard nothing of it, tho' there could
be no Excuse for that Neglect, because there had been Instances and
Warnings enough before. Others awak'd, and feeling themselves wounded,
in the Confusion leap'd into the Sea, where most of them [Many of them
drowned. Only 12 escape.] were drown'd; some few cast themselves into
the Sea before they were hurt, and were also swallow'd up by it, tho'
they were near Land, because the Current being strong, they could not
stem it; twelve escap'd, and many Bodies were found along the Shores.

The Chineses now grown bold, drew out the Pikes they had hid under the
Benches, and finish'd their Treacherous Work with Noise. The Governor,
[The Governor kill'd.] who was under Deck, Sleeping, with a Candle
and Lanthorn by him, Awak'd; and that he might do so, they made the
greater Noise; and the Chineses themselves cry'd out to him, desiring
he would come up to pacify a Quarrel there was among the Castillas,
so they call the Spaniards. He, for this Reason, or believing the
Galley dragg'd, as it had done at other times, getting up in his Shirt,
and opening the Scuttle, look'd out, lifting half his Body above it:
At the same time the Chineses fell upon him with their Cymiters, and
wounded him Mortally, clutting his Head, and running him through with
their Pikes in more than barbarous manner. Seeing his Death near he
drew back, and took up the Prayer Book of his Order, which he always
carry'd about him, and an Image of our Blessed Lady, and ended his life
between those two Advocates, which were afterwards seen bathed in his
Blood: Yet he dy'd not presently, for they afterwards found him in
his Bed, imbracing the Image, where he Bled to Death, and about him
the Bodies of Daniel Gomez de Leon, his Valet de Chamber, Pantaleon
de Brito, Sucro Diaz, John de Chavez, Peter Maseda, John de S. Juan,
Carrion Ponce, and Francis Castillo, all of them his Servants, and four
brave Slaves, who had the same End. This was not known till it was Day;
because none of the Chineses durst go down where the Governor was that
Night, fearing least some of the 80 Spaniards that were in the Galley,
had retir'd thither; such was the Dread of their own Guilt. None
were left [Two sav'd alive.] alive in the Galley, but F. Francis
Montilla, of the Barefoot Order of S. Francis, and John de Cuellar,
the Governors Secretary, who lay under Deck, whether the fainthearted
Chineses durst not go down in three Days, when their first Fury was
over. Then they afterwards set Ashore, on the Coast of Ilocos, in the
same Island of Luzon, that the Natives might suffer them to Water;
and because the Frier and the Secretary had Capitulated, having their
promise that they would do them no hurt, before they surrendered. The
Chineses being satisfy'd that there were no more ancient Christians
left, began to Shout and Roar for Joy that they had gone through with
their Work, and had no Man more to stand in Awe of.

The Spaniards, who were in the other Vessels, near the Shore, tho'
they saw the Lights, and heard a confus'd Noise aboard the Admiral,
thought it might be on account of some Work belonging to the Galley,
or the like. [The Chineses sail for China.] When, a long time after,
they understood how matters went, from those who sav'd themselves by
Swimming, they lay still, not being able to redress it. They were
but few; had not Strength enough; and the Mischief was done. They
stay'd till Morning, and when Day appear'd, perceiv'd that the Galley
had set her Shoulder-of-Mutton-Sail, and was standing for China, but
they could not follow her; The Wind favouring, she sail'd all along
the Coast of the Island, till they got clear of it, the Chineses all
the way Celebrating their Victory.

[The two Prisoners beg an easy Death, and are promis'd their Lives.]
The Frier and the Secretary, who were among them, being fully
perswaded they would soon kill them, and fearing it would be after
some of their cruel Methods, holding up their Hands, begg'd they
would allow them some Time to make their Peace with God; and in
case they would put them to Death, that it might be by Beheading,
and not any other Inhuman Way. One of the Chineses bid them not Fear,
for they should not Dye. They all lay'd down their bloody Weapons,
and prostrating themselves, return'd Thanks to Heaven in most humble
manner, beating Drums, and ringing Bells they carry'd, according
to their Custom. The two Christians being then bolted to a Bench in
the Galley, during 15 Days their Captivity lasted, were fed with a
small Proportion of Rice, boil'd in Water, without Salt, continually
looking upon the Blood of their Companions that had been spilt,
wherewith all the Deck was Stain'd. They shed Abundance of Tears
on it, besides those they hourly let fall with the Apprehension of
Death, those Chineses, like faithless false Men, designing to take
away their Lives, in some strange manner. They weigh'd, and sailed
between the Islands of Mindanao and Luban, towards China, and Coasting
along Manila towards Cagayan, some contrary Winds happening to blow,
and Calms succeeding, they were much concern'd, fearing, that if the
News of [The Chineses invoke their Gods.] their Treachery reach'd the
Philippines, they would send after and overtake them. This Dread made
them have recourse to their Gods, and call upon them, offering several
sorts of Sacrifices, Perfumes, and Prayers, which the Devil often
answer'd in formal Words, by the Mouths of such as were Possessed,
whom he Enter'd to that Purpose, for there never wanted two or three
such, all the time those Christians were in the Galley. What they saw
was, that when least they thought of it, and on a sudden, the Person
possessed began to quake, from Head to Foot. The others seeing him
in that Condition, said, Some God was coming to Speak to them. Then
coming up [Some of them possess'd.] to him, with Tokens of Respect,
they unty'd, and spread abroad his Hair; and stripping him quite naked
set him on his Feet, and he presently fell a Dancing to the Noise of
some Drum, or Bell, they beat or rung. They put a Cymiter, or Spear
into his Hand, and as he danc'd he brandish'd it over all their Heads,
with no small danger of hurting them, which they were not the least
apprehensive of; alledging, that their God, tho' he did so, would
never hurt them, without they were guilty of some Sin against him.

Before the Devil had possess'd any in the Galley, the Chineses were
concerting [Christians preserv'd by Means of the Devil.] to murder the
Christians, believing they were the Occasion, why God did not give them
a fair Wind for their Voyage; but that watchful sovereign Providence,
without whose Direction the least Accident does not happen, making
Use of the Devil himself as an Instrument, prevented it by Means of
those very Persons who offended it. The Person possess'd ask'd for
Ink and Paper, which being presently brought him, he made certain
Characters and confus'd Scrawls, which being expounded by the others
in the Galley, they found signify'd, that those two Men were harmless,
therefore they should not kill them, which was no small Incouragement
to the Prisoners. However this lasted not long, for some others who
were possess'd after the first, tormented them cruelly, especially
one of them, who was the maddest. He told the Chineses, that if he
should happen to hurt those Men, as he brandish'd the Weapon he had
in his Hand over them, making Essays, as if he cut and slash'd, then
they must kill them immediately; because it would be a certain Sign,
that their Gods requir'd it, and that their being in the Ship was the
Occasion, why they gave them not a fair Gale. All the Men in the Galley
assembled, to behold that Spectacle, and the Person possess'd having
for a considerable Space walk'd about the Gang-Way, with extravagant
Gestures, went then to the Place where the Religious Man and his
Companion were; there growing hellishly inrag'd, he commanded all
the rest to stand aside, and being left with only the two Prisoners,
began to make hideous Faces and Grimaces at them, [Horred practices
upon the Prisoners.] when getting upon the Table in the mid Part of
the Galley, he thence threw his Cymiter at them, with such Fury, that
it stuck in the Deck, between their Feet. Seeing he had not hurt nor
touch'd them, he ask'd for it again to make a second and third Tryal,
sticking it every Time so deep, that the others could scarce draw it
out from the Planks. This done, he bid them give him a Partesan, with
which he hack'd, hew'd, and thurst, in such frightful and dangerous
Manner, that the Chineses themselves were astonish'd. He kept them
above an hour in that Dread and Affliction, without daring to stir,
or beg for Mercy; believing it would not avail them, but that on
the contrary, whatsoever they could say might be prejudicial. Thus
having plac'd all their Hopes, and Confidence on that sovereign
Lord, who even when he delays does not fail to give Assistance,
they call'd upon him, and offer'd themselves up to him in fervent
Prayers; particularly the Religious Man, repeating some Psalms and
Verses, which his former Devotion, excited by the present Danger,
brought into his Mind, and were suitable to that Occasion, and such
like Exigencies; by which, as he afterwards said, he receiv'd great
Comfort, and Addition of Courage. This sort of miserable Life, and
these Torments lasted all or most Days during therein Captivity.

[The Chineses land, 820 of them are kill'd.] At length, the Chineses
perceiving they could not possibly perform the Voyage they desir'd, by
Reason the Wind was contrary; they resolv'd to land on the Island of
Ilocos, not far from Luzon, at the Port they call Sinay. They being
there ashore to Water, the Natives knowing they had murder'd the
Governour, laid an Ambush and kill'd twenty of them, and might have
destroyed above eighty that had landed, if they had not wanted Courage;
because at the very Shout the Men gave, when falling on, they were so
daunted, that they all fled several Ways in Confusion, throwing down
their Arms, endeavouring to save their Lives, by leaping into the Sea,
so to get off in the Boat. The Chineses meeting with this Disaster,
and thinking one of their own Men had been the Occasion of it, because
he advised them to put into that Port, they resolv'd to seize and
put him [They drown one of their own Men.] to Death. They did as
had been resolv'd, and at Night, by unanimous Consent, threw him into
the Sea, then weighing their Anchors, they got out of that Harbour,
and put into another, three Leagues off, on the same Coast. There
the Devil entering into one of them, as he us'd to do, commanded them
immediately to return to the Port, where they had sustain'd that Loss
of their Friends and Companions, and that they should not depart
thence, till they had sacrific'd a Man to him, without appointing
which he would have. They immediately obey'd the Command, one of the
Chief Chineses making Choice of one of the Christian Indians of the
Philippines they had Prisoners, to be Sacrifiz'd, and ty'd his Hands
and Feet, stretching them on a Cross, which they rais'd up, and the
Christian being bound against the fore-Mast, one of those possess'd by
the Devil came up [An Indian cruelly Sacrifiz'd.] to him in Sight of
them all, and playing the part of an Executioner, ripp'd up his Breast,
with one of those Daggers they use, making a wound so large, that he
thrust in his Hand with ease, and pluck'd out part of his Entrals,
whereof, with horrid Fury, he bit a Mouthful, and casting the rest
up into the Air, eat what he had in his Mouth, and lick'd his Hands,
pleasing himself with the Blood that stuck to them.

[They cast him into the Sea.] Having committed the Murder, they took
the Cross, and him that was on it, and cast it and the Martyr into
the Sea, which receiv'd that Body, offer'd in Sacrifize to the Devil,
then to be cloath'd in Glory, by him that has provided it for those
who suffer for the Confession of the Faith. This dreadful Spectacle
struck Horror, and rais'd Emulation in the two Christians, who beheld
it with Zeal, and had expected as much before. The Inhuman Sacrifice
being over, they put out of the Harbour, and having for some days
Coasted the Island with Difficulty; one of them, by command of the
Possess'd Person, who had order'd the Sacrifice, with the consent [The
Secretary and Frier set at Liberty.] of them all, set at liberty the
Religious Man, the Secretary, and all the Indians they had Prisoners,
putting them ashore in the Boat, and then the Chineses stood out
to Sea. They endeavour'd to make over to China, but not being able,
put into Cochinchina, where the King of Tunquin took all they had,
and among the rest two heavy Pieces of Cannon, that had been put
aboard for the Expedition of the Moluccos, the King's Standard,
and all the Jewels, Goods, and Money. He suffer'd the Galley to
perish on the Coast, and the Chineses dispers'd, flying into several
Provinces. Others affirm, that King seiz'd and punish'd them.

[Spaniards that escapd came to Manila.] The Spaniards that escap'd,
went to carry the News to Manila, where some griev'd, and others,
who hated the Governour for his Severity, rejoyced; but that ill Will
soon vanish'd, and all generally lamented him; more especially when
some of the Bodies were found and brought in. Among them were those of
the Ensign, John Diaz Guerrero, an old Soldier, and Governour of Cebu;
of the Ensign Penalosa, Proprietor of Pila; the great Soldier Sahagun,
whose Wife ran roaring about the City; [Bodies found.] of Captain
Castano, newly come over from Spain; of Francis Rodriguez Perulero;
of Captain Peter Neyla; of John de Sotomayer; of Simon Fernandez;
that of his Sergeant; of Guzman; of the Ensign and Sergeant of the
Company brought by Don Philip de Samano, who being sick transferr'd
it to Captain John Xuarez Gallinato; and those of Sebastian Ruis
and Lewis Velez, these two Merchants, all the rest old Soldiers;
whose Funerals renew'd the Sorrow for that dismall Accident.

[Rojas chose Governour by the City.] This News being brought to
Manila, and no Papers of the Governour's appearing, wherein he nam'd,
who was to succeed him, tho' it was known he had the King's Order
so to do, believing it might be lost in the Galley, among much of
the Kings, his own, and private Persons Goods, the City therefore
chose the Licentiate Rojas for their Governour, and he was so forty
Days. But the Secretary John de Cuellar returning to Manila, in a
miserable Condition, with F. Francis de Montilla, gave Notice, that
Gomez Perez, before his Departure had appointed his Son Don Lewis to
succeed, and that this would be found at the Monastery of S. Augustin,
in a Box, [Don Lewis das Marinnas Governor.] among other Papers,
in the Custody of F. James Munnoz. Rojas had already sent Orders
to Cebu, for all the People employ'd in the Expedition, to return,
as was accordingly done. So that Don Lewis coming, not withstanding
some Protestations, he, by Virtue of his Father's Authority, succeeded
him in the Government, till Don Francis Tello came.

[Character of Gomez Perez.] Such was the End of that Gentleman,
whose Actions were valuable in themselves, and the more for the Zeal
he did them with. He wanted not for political and martial Virtues,
nor for Prudence in both Sorts; but he would not regard Examples; and
contrary to what those taught him, durst promise himself to succeed,
so that he became confident, if not rash. But his Christian Piety
makes Amends for all.

Don Lewis, his Kindred and Friends, would fain have prosecuted the
Expedition [The Fleet dismiss'd.] to the Moluccos, and to this End
F. Antony Fernandez came from Tydore; but he succeeded not. The Fleet
was dismiss'd, and it was a singular Providence for the Security
of the Philippine Islands; for presently after, at the Beginning of
the Year 1594, there came thither a great Number of Ships from China,
loaded only with Men and Arms, and bringing no Merchandize, as they are
wont to do. Those Ships brought seven Mandarines, being some of the
chief Viceroys and Governours of the Provinces. It was believ'd, and
[Arm'd Chineses in the Philippines.] prov'd certainly true, that they
knowing Gomez Perez went upon that Expedition, to which he took with
him all the Spaniards, concluded the Country was left defenceless,
and therefore came with a Design to Conquer, or plunder it, which
would have been very easy, had they found it as they expected. They
went out of their Ships but twice to visit Don Lewis, with great
State, and much Attendance. He receiv'd them affectionately, and
presented every Mandarine with a gold Chain. They told him, they
came by their King's Order, to pick up the Chineses, who wander'd
about those Islands without his Leave; but this was look'd upon as
a meer Pretence; because there was no Need, for that Effect, of so
many Mandarines, nor such a Number [Mandarines visit Don Lewis.]
of Vessels arm'd and furnish'd for War. The Chineses who murder'd
Gomez Perez, were of Chincheo, and therefore Don Lewis, as knowing
the certain Criminals, sent his Kinsman Don Ferdinand de Castro,
in a Ship, to give the King of China an Account of that Treachery;
but his Voyage miscarry'd, and all was left in Suspence.

[King of Camboxa demands the promis'd Succour.] At this Time Langara,
King of Camboxa made Instance for the Succours, and requir'd Don
Lewis to perform his Fathers Promise made to him not long before. He
therefore, in Pursuance to it, and to the End that those Forces,
or some Part of them, might continue in the Church's Service, since
they were provided for that End, in the Design of Ternate, resolv'd
to support that King with them.

Camboxa is one of the most fertile of the Indian Regions. It sends
[Camboxa described.] Abundance of Provisions to other Parts, for
which Reason it is frequented by Spaniards, Persians, Arabs, and
Armenians. The King is a Mahometan; but his Subjects the Gusarats
and Banians, follow the Precepts of Pythagoras, perhaps without
any Knowledge of him. They are all sharp witted, [Opinions of the
Natives.] and reputed the cunningest Merchants in India. However
they are of Opinion, that after Death, Men, Brute Beasts, and all
Creatures, receive either Punishment, or Reward; so confus'd a Notion
have they of Immortality. The City Camboxa, which gives its Name to
all the Country, is also call'd Champa, abounding in the Odoriferous
Calambuco Wood, whose Tree call'd Calamba, grows in unknown Regions,
and therefore has not been seen standing. The Floods upon those great
Rivers bring down Trunks of it, and [Lignum Aloes.] this is the
precious Lignum Aloes. Camboxa produces Corn, Rice, Pease, Butter,
and Oyl. There are made in it various Sorts of Cotton Webs, Muslins,
Buckrams, Calicoes, white and painted, Dimities, and other curious
[Manufactures.] Pieces exceeding the finest in Holland. They also
adorn their Rooms with Carpets; tho' they are not like those brought
out of Persia to Ormuz. They weave others for the common Sort, which
they call Bancales, not unlike the Scotch Plads. Nor do they want the
Art of Silk-Weaving, for they both weave, and work with the Needle,
rich Hangings, Coverings for the low Chairs us'd by the Women of
Quality, and for the Indian Litters, or Palanquines, which are made
of Ivory, and Tortoise-Shell, and of the same they make Chess-Boards,
and Tables to Play, Seal-Rings, and other portable Things. In the
Mountains there is found a sort of Christal, extraordinary [Product.]
transparent, whereof they make Beads, little Idols, Bracelets,
Necklaces, and other Toys. It abounds in Amethists, Garnets, the Sort
of Saphirs call'd Hyacinths, Spinets, Cornelians, Chrysolites, Cats
Eyes, properly call'd Acates, all of them precious Stones; There are
also those they call Milk, and Blood Stones, pleasant, and medicinal
Fruits, Opium, Bangue, Sanders, Alom and Sugar. Indigo is incomparably
prepar'd in Camboxa, and thence sent to several Provinces. The living
Creatures are the same Asia affords in those Parts, Elephants, Lions,
Horses, wild Boars, [Beasts.] and other fierce Beasts. It is in Ten
Degrees of North Latitude. The River Mecon waters all the Kingdom, and
in it falls into the Sea; being look'd upon as the greatest in India,
carrying so much water in Summer, that it [Mecon River.] floods,
and covers the Fields, like the Nile in Egypt. It joyns another
of less Stock, at the Place call'd Chordemuco. This River, for six
Months runs backward. The Reason of it is the Extent and Plainness
of the Country it runs along. The Southern Breezes choak up the Bar
with Sand. The Currents thus damm'd up, swell and rise together, after
much Struggling one against the other. The Bar looks to the South-ward,
both Waters at first Form a deep Bay, and finding no free Passage out,
but being drove by the mighty Violence of the Winds, are forc'd to
submit and bend their Course the wrong Way, till a more favourable
Season restores them to their natural Course. We see some such like
Effects in Spain, where the Tagus falls into the Sea of Portugal,
and the Guadalquivir into that of Andaluzia, oppos'd by the superior
Force of the Sea Waves, and of the Winds.

About this Time, in the remotest Part of this Country, beyond
impenetrable [Angon City Discover'd.] Woods, not far from the
Kingdom of the Laos, was discover'd a City, of above six thousand
Houses, now call'd Angon. The Structures, and Streets, all of
massy Marble Stones, artificially wrought, and as entire, as if
they had been modern Works. The Wall strong, with a Scarp, or Slope
within, in such Manner, that they can go up to the Battlements [Its
Magnificence.] every where. Those Battlements all differ one from
another, representing sundry Creatures, one represents the Head of
an Elephant, another of a Lion, a third of a Tiger, and so proceed in
continual Variety. The Ditch, which is also of hew'd Stones, is capable
of receiving Ships. Over it is a magnificent Bridge, the Arches of it
being supported by stone Giants of a prodigious Height. The Aqueducts,
tho' dry, show no less Grandeur. There are Remains of Gardens, and
delightful Places, where the Aqueducts terminate. On one Side of the
Town is a Lake above thirty Leagues in Compass. There are Epitaphs,
Inscriptions, and Characters not understood. Many Buildings are
more sumptuous than the rest, most of them of Alabaster, and Jasper
Stone. In all this City, when first discoverred by the Natives, they
found no People, nor Beasts, nor any living Creatures, except such as
Nature produces out of the Breaches of Ruins. I own I was unwilling
to write this, and that I have look'd upon it as an imaginary City
of Plato's Atlantis, and of that his Common-Wealth; but there is no
wonderful Thing, or Accident, that is not subject to much Doubt. It
is now Inhabited, and our Religious Men, of the Order of St. Augustin
and St. Dominick, who have Preach'd in those Parts, do testify the
Truth of it. A Person of Reputation for his Learning, conjectures it
was the Work of the Emperor Traian; but tho' he extended the Empire
more than his Predecessors, I have not ever Read that he reach'd as
far as Camboxa. Were the Histories of the Chineses as well known
as ours, they would inform us, why they abandon'd so great a Part
of the World; they would explain the Inscriptions on the Buildings,
and all the rest that is unknown to the Natives themselves. I know
not what to say of so Beautiful a City's being buried in Oblivion,
or not known. It is rather a Subject of Admiration than Reflection.

[Three Spanish Ships sent to the Relief of Camboxa.] Don Lewis being
zealous to bring those Nations into the Bosom of the Church, and
their Wealth, and Kings under the Subjection of the Crown of Spain,
fitted out three Ships, under the Command of John Xuarez Gallinato,
born at Tenerife, one of the Canary Islands, with 120 Spaniards,
and some Philippines. They Sail'd from Cebu, but there rose a Storm
immediately, which dispers'd the Ships. Gallinato drove on by the Fury
of the Winds, arriv'd at Malaca, and the other two at Camboxa. Going
up the River, [King of Camboxa routed by him of Siam.] they were
Inform'd, That the King of Sian had defeated him of Camboxa, his
Neighbour; who, with the wretched Remains of his Army, fled into the
Kingdom of the Laos, a Neighbouring but Inhumane Nation; and that,
whilst he was begging Compassion among those obdurate Hearts, the
King of Sian had set up Prauncar, Nick-nam'd, Wry Mouth the Traytor,
Brother to the vanqush'd Monarch, for King of Camboxa. This Accident
did not obstruct the Succours which the Spaniards carry'd under Colour
of an Embassy. They came to the City Chordumulo, 80 Leagues distant
from the Bar, and leaving 40 Spaniards in the Ships, 40 others went
to the Country where the new King was. They made Application to visit
him presently, but he would not be seen that Day, tho' he order'd they
should have good Quarters, and be told, he would give them Audience
three Days after. But James Veloso and Blase Ruyz, either that they
were formerly acquainted [Design to murder the Spaniards.] with the
Country, or some new Subtilty occurring, looking on that delay as
suspicious, visiting a beautiful Indian Woman, of the King's Family,
she told them in private, That being admitted into that Tyrants
Secrets, he being fond of her, she knew he intended to Murder them
all; and that during those three Days he had assign'd them, as it
were to Rest, after their Journey, the Men and Means for Executing
that Design were to be provided. The Spaniards return'd Thanks for
the Intelligence, not without promise of Reward.

[Desperat Bravery of the Spaniards.] They were not dismay'd at
the Danger; but repeating their Thanks to the Indian Woman, for her
Intelligence, came to this magnanimous, if it may not be term'd a
rash Resolution. They agreed to attack the King's Palace that same
Night, and to withstand the whole Army, if Need were. They prepar'd
themselves for that Enterprize, which was above human Strength, set
fire to the House where the Powder lay, and the People running to
help, or to see the Mischief, the Spaniards, during the Confusion,
enter'd the Palace, and being acquainted with the royal Apartments,
made through them, till they came to the King's Person, whom they
run thro', and kill'd [They kill the King of Camboxa.] after cutting
his Guards in Pieces. He defended himself, calling out for Help, but
those who came to his Assistance found him bloodless. The Report of
this Action alarm'd the other Guards, and then all the City, which
contains above thirty thousand Inhabitants, who where all running to
Arms; above 14000 Men took up such as Occasion offer'd, and came upon
the Spaniards with many war-like Elephants. Our two Commanders drew
up [Retire before 14000 Indians.] their little Body, and retir'd
in great Order, always fighting and killing great numbers of their
Enemies. The Fight lasted all the Night, with wonderful Bravery,
the next Day they got to their Ships, and imbark'd, leaving that
Kingdom full of new Divisions.

The second Day after, Gallinato came in, with his Ship. He landed,
having [Gallinato at Camboxa.] been before inform'd of what had
happen'd, and thinking he did not perform his Duty, unless he succour'd
the Spaniards, when he heard the Drums and Bells, and saw the Streets
and Port full of trading People, now in Arms. He gave strict Orders
to those that attended him, to behave themselves very modestly, so
as to conceal their own Concern, and deceive the People of Camboxa,
both by their Looks, and the Sedateness of their Words. The principal
Men of Camboxa visited him, in peaceable Manner; whom he treated very
courteously. He might have perform'd some great Exploit, but finding
his Strength too small for such an Enterprize, and that now Affairs had
taken another Turn, and were in a different Posture, he thought fit to
be gone. Most of those great Men oppos'd it, promising him the Crown,
as being well affected to the Spaniards, and a foreign Government. [The
great Men offer him the Crown.] Hence came the idle Report, that
Gallinato was King of Camboxa, which was believ'd by many in Spain,
and acted on the Stage with Applause, and good Liking. And it was
the Opinion of Persons well acquainted with those Countries, that had
Gallinato laid hold of the Opportunity offer'd him, he might then have
possess'd himself of Camboxa, and united it to the Crown of Castile.

I have seen Letters of Velloso, and Blase Ruiz, to the Council at
Manila, after this Action, wherein they speak to this Effect, and
complain that Gallinato should blame what they did. But Gallinato,
whose Judgment, and Valour, had been try'd in the greatest Dangers
of those Eastern Parts, and many Years before in Flanders, would
not suffer himself to be easily [The depos'd King's Son restor'd.]
led away by popular Affection, and honourably rejecting that
Opportunity, sail'd towards Manila. He took in some Refreshment in
Cochinchina. Blase Ruiz and James Velloso had landed there before,
and went alone by Land to the Kingdom of the Laos, which lies West
of Cochinchina, to seek out the depos'd King Langara, and restore
him to his Throne. They found he was dead, but had a Son living,
who being told how they had kill'd the Usurper, his Uncle and Enemy;
he set forward immediately for his Kingdom with Velloso and Ruiz, and
10000 Men, the King of the Laos, contrary to all Expectation furnish'd
him. He attack'd Camboxa, where Ruiz and Velloso faithfully stuck to
him during the War, and afterwards in his Government. Then he sent
another Embassy to the Philippine Island, asking Supplies of Men to
quell the Troubles in his Country, and that he and his Subjects might
receive the Faith of JESUS CHRIST; promising a considerable Part of
his Dominions to the Spaniards, to subsist them. This Embassy came
to Manila, when Don Lewis had quitted the Government, and resign'd
it up to Don Francis Tello, which gave Occasion to Ternate to grow
more settled in its Tyranny.

[D. Pedro de Acunna fortifies Carthagena.] Don Pedro de Acunna,
who govern'd Carthagena in the West-Indies, in this Year 1595,
either because it was his natural Inclination, or the Necessity of
the Times requiring it, fortify'd the Place with Fascines, Planks,
Piles, and Ditches, working at it himself in Person. Thus he oblig'd
the Bishop, Clergy and Religious Men, to put their Hands to the Work;
the very Ladies of Quality, their Daughters and Maids, did not refuse
to follow such an Example. It was wonderful to see with what Expedition
and Zeal the Work was brought to Perfection, of such Force is a good
Example. Soon after came to Puerto Rico, the Ship call'd Pandorga, or
Borgonna, that was Admiral of Tierra Firme, and New Spain, with three
Millions in her. The whole under the Care of the General Sancho Pardo.

[56 English Sail sent to rob the West-Indies.] At this Time there
came into the West-Indies a Fleet of 56 Sail, sent by the Queen of
England to plunder them, under the Command of John Hawkins and Francis
Drake. Captain Peter Tello defended the three Millions so bravely with
the Spanish Frigots, that he sav'd the Prize. Hawkins was wounded in
the Fight, and dy'd of it before he could come to the Firm Land. Drake,
with that Fleet, enter'd Rio de la Hacha and Santa Maria; and being
one Night in Sight of Carthagena, took a Frigate belonging to that
Coast, by which he was inform'd, how well the Governour had fortifi'd
it; therefore making a Compliment of Necessity, he sent Don Pedro a
Message by the Men of his Frigot, whom he therefore set at Liberty,
saying, He did not attack his Works and City out of Respect to him,
and because he honour'd his Valour. The Truth of the Matter was, That
Drake call'd together his Captains to consult what was to be done, and
they all advis'd him to attack the City, promising to do their utmost,
and be answerable for the Success; alledging it ought to be attempted,
for being a Place of vast Wealth and Consequence. Only Drake oppos'd
it, [Drake's Actions there.] strength'ning his Opinion by saying,
His Mind did not give him, that the Enterprize could have the Success
they would assure him, because they were to have to do with a Knight
of Malta, a Batchelor, nothing weakned with Womanish Affection, or
the Care of Children; but watchful, and intent upon defending the
Place, and so Resolute, that he would dye on the Spot before he would
lose it. This Opinion prevail'd, and the English standing in Awe of
Don Pedro's Reputation, went away to the Town of Nombre de Dios,
and took it. Drake afterwards designing to do the same at Panama,
was disappointed, meeting Opposition by the Way, which had been
provided upon the Advice sent by Don Pedro, that the English were
moving against that City.

But let us return into Asia. Still the People of Camboxa persisted
to ask Succours at the Philipine Islands, upon the usual Promise of
Conversion and Vassalage. Don Lewis de las Marinhas undertook the
Enterprize in Person, [D. Lewis de las Marinhas goes to relieve
Camboxa.] and at his own Cost. He set out from Manila with Don
James Jordan, an Italian, Don Pedro de Figueroa, Peter Villestil,
and Ferdinand de los Rios Coronel, Spanish Commanders, the last of
them then a Priest, who had also been in the first War of Camboxa. A
Storm took them out at Sea, which lasted three Days, with the usual
Fury. The Shipwrack was miserable, two Ships were stav'd in Pieces,
and the Sea swallow'd up all the Men, Provisions and Ammunition. Of
all the Soldiers and Seamen on Board the Vice-Admiral, only five swam
ashore on the Coast of China. Some Soldiers were also sav'd out of
the Admiral, and among them Captain Ferdinand de los Rios, the Vessel
remaining founder'd under the Waves. The other Ship got to Camboxa
almost shatter'd to Pieces after [Is cast away.] many Dangers. She
found in the River of Camboxa, eight Juncks of Malayes, and the
Spaniards seeing they design'd to carry away some Slaves of the King
of Camboxa, to whose Assistance they came, inconsiderately boarded the
Malayes, who being well furnish'd with more than ordinary Fire-works,
soon burnt our Ship, and most of the Spaniards perish'd in the [Spanish
Ships burnt.] Flames or Smoke. Blaze Ruiz, nor Velloso were not there
at that Time, but soon after in the Country, where they were attending
the King, being beset in the House where they lodg'd, were barbarously
murder'd. Those few Spaniards that escap'd, got into the Kingdom of
Sian, and thence to Manila. Heaven was pleas'd this should be the End
of all those mighty Preparations made for the Recovery of Ternate,
and the other Molucco Islands, whose Tyrant triumph'd at the News,
concluding it was the Effect of his good Fortune, and looking on
it as a Testimony of the Justice of his Cause, and accordingly he
confederated a new with our Enemies.

Don Francisco Tello, a Gentleman of Andaluzia, succeeded Gomez Perez
[D. Fran. Tello Governor of the Phil.] in the Government of the
Philippine Islands, and came to Manila in the Year 1596. His first
Care was to inform himself of the Condition his Predecessor had left
them in, and to supply the Garrisons; because the Emperor of Japan,
having in the Year 1595, executed those glorious Martyrdoms, the
Memory whereof is still fresh, on the Religious Men of the Order of
S. Francis, it gave him Jealousy, that he might have a Design against
the Philippine Islands.

The Natives of the Islands of Mindanao, hate our Nation as much as
[People of Mindanao hate the Spaniards.] those of Ternate, and upon
any Occasion take Arms against it, as they did in the last, at the
said Island of Ternate. For this Reason, Stephen Rodriguez de Figueroa
enter'd into Articles with the new Governour. Don Francisco Tello,
by Virtue whereof he made War on the People of Mindanao and Ternate,
at his own Expence. Stephen Rodriguez was so rich, [Stephen Rodriguez
makes War on Mindanao, at his own Expence.] that he might safely
undertake this Affair. He liv'd at Arevalo, a Town on the Island
Panaz, one of the Philippines, and set out with some Galleys, Frigots,
Champanes, and one Ship, in which there were some Spaniards, and above
1500 of the Painted Natives, call'd Pintados, who were to serve as
Pioneers. He arriv'd at the River of Mindanao, on the 20th of April,
1596, and as soon as the Inhabitants of the Town, peculiarly call'd
Mindanao, saw such a sightly Company, they fled up the Side of the
River, abandoning the Place, to the Fury of the Soldiers. Most of them
resorted to the Town of Buyahen, then the Residence of Raxamura, King
of Mindanao, who being under Age, had yet no Charge of the Government,
which was wholly in the Hands of Silonga, a Soldier, and Commander
of Reputation. Our Men following up the River, came to Tampacan,
five Leagues from the first. That Place was govern'd by Dinguilibot,
Uncle to Monao, the true Proprietor, who was then also young.

These two were naturally well affected to the Spaniards, and therefore,
as soon as they discover'd their Arms, came out, in peaceable Manner,
to meet, [The Natives fly, and he pursues.] and offer them their
Assistance. They inform'd them, that the Enemies, for they were so to
those of Buyahen, had retir'd into the Fort they had there. Stephen
Rodriguez hearing the News, and having made much of those Princes,
order'd the Fleet to weigh Anchor, and continue the Pursuit, four
Leagues farther, still along the River, to Buyahen. Being come thither,
he landed his Men on S. Mark's Day; which was done by the Col. John
de Xara, but without any Order, because having had no Engagement at
Mindanao, they thought they should have little to do there; as if
this, or any other Pretence ought to be an Excuse for not observing
Martial Discipline, Stephen Rodriguez would land to rectify that
Disorder by his Presence. He went out in such Armour of Proof, that a
Shot of a small Drake would scarce pierce it. Only his Head unarm'd,
but cover'd with a Cap and Feather, a black carrying his Helmet, and
five Soldiers well arm'd attending him. He had scarce march'd fifty
Paces, before an Indian, whose Name was Ubal, suddenly rush'd out
of a close and topping Thicket, and running [ Is kill'd.] at him,
with his Campilan, or Cymiter, clove his Head. Ubal was Brother to
Silonga, and Owner of one only Cow there was in all that Country. He
kill'd her three Days before this Accident, and inviting his Friends
to her, promis'd in that War to kill the most noted Man among the
Spaniards. He was as good as his Word, for Stephen Rodriguez dropt
down of the Wound, and dy'd three Days after, without answering one
Word to the Questions that were made him, tho' he did it by Signs. The
five Spaniards, seeing their Commander so suddenly wounded, that the
Slayer, appeared, and the Stroke was heard the same Moment, fell upon
Ubal and cut him in Pieces. They acquainted Colonel Xara with their
General's Death; [A Fort erected in Mindanao and call'd New Murcia.]
and he suppressing his Concern, drew back the Men, and threw up a
Fortification in the most convenient Place, near the River, where he
orderly founded his Colony, to be inhabited by our Men. He appointed
Aldermen, and Magistrates, calling it New Murcia, in Honour of the old
one in Spain, where he was born. Afterwards, designing to marry Donna
Ana de Oseguera, Widow to Stephen Rodriguez, he left Things unsettled,
and arriv'd at the Island Luzon about the Beginning of June.

The Governor Don Francis Tello, who was then at the Place call'd El
Embocadero, an hundred Leagues from Manila, being inform'd of what had
happen'd, and told upon what design the Colonel Xara came, seiz'd him
immediately, [Cap. Miranda sent to Mindanao.] sending Captain Toribio
de Miranda, to the War in Mindanao. He found his Men were retire'd
to the Port de la Caldera, in the same Island but 36 Leagues from the
Mouth of the River. There he maintain'd himself, till about August Don
Francis Tello appointed Don John Ronquillo, who was Commander of the
Galleys, to succeed in that Post. He also commission'd Peter Arceo
Covarrubias, and others, as Captains, to go with him; James Chaves
Cannizares, Collonel; Garcia Guerrero, Major; and Christopher Villagra
and Cervan Gutierrez, Captains of Foot. Don John Ronquillo came with
his Recruit to press upon the Enemy, and did it so effectually, that
being distress'd, they crav'd Aid of the King of Ternate, to whom the
People of Mindanao pay an Acknowledgement, which is little less, or
the same as Tribute. Buizan, Brother to Silonga, went on this Embassy;
[Ternates Succour Mindanao.] and succeeded so well, that the King
of Ternate sent with him seven Carcoas, x heavy Pieces of Cannon,
two smaller, some Falconets, and six hundred Men. They sailing up the
River of Mindanao, design'd to pass on as far as Buyahen; but met with
great Difficulties at the Reaches; because at one of them they were
threatned by the Spaniards chief Fort, the Galleys, and other Vessels;
and the other was a narrow Channel, with a Point running out into it,
on which was erected a Bastion, defended by forty Men. From thence
our Men had artificially laid a strong wooden Bridge over to the
other Side of the River, close to which a Galliot ply'd up and down.

The Ternates seeing both Sides so well Guarded, resolv'd to fortify
themselves at the Mouth of the River. They accordingly erected a
small [They build a Fort on the River.] Fort, and put themselves
into it, with an equal Number of Mindanao Soldiers. The News hereof
mov'd the General Ronquillo to dislodge them; and in Order to it,
came down with the Galleys and other Vessels, and 140 Men well
appointed. He landed with 116, and the Captains Ruy Gomez Arellano,
Garcia Guerrero, Christopher Villagra, and Alonso de Palma, facing the
Enemy, at about eighty Paces Distance, on the Bank of the River. The
Ternates and Mindanaos had levell'd all the Front of their Fort,
and designedly left a Spot of Bushes and Brambles on one Side,
where 300 Ternates lay in Ambush, the rest being in the Fort. Both
their Parties perceiving how few of our Men came to attack them,
were asham'd to be shut up within Fortifications, and lye in Ambush,
and accordingly making Show of haughty Threats, came out and met the
Spaniards. They found such Opposition, that without the Help of any
Stratagem, or other Cause but their natural Valour, at the very first
onset, almost all the Ternates were kill'd, [Slaughter of Ternates.]
and the rest fled. Our Men follow'd the Chace, till they made an
End of them. The people of Tampaca, who till then had been Neuters,
to see which Side Fortune would favour, perceiving she declar'd for
us, took up Arms for our Part. Only seventy seven escap'd dangerously
wounded, whereof fifty were drown'd in the River leaping, into it in
Despair: Of the other twenty seven, only three surviv'd, who carry'd
the News to their [Only three escape.] King. The Spaniards possess'd
themselves of the Shipping, Cannon, and Plunder of the vanquish'd,
and were encourag'd to prosecute the War.

Don Francis Tello did not neglect other Affairs of this Nature. He
understood by his Spyes, and it was bruited abroad, that the Emperor of
Japan [Warlike preparations in Japan.] was gathering a mighty Army,
and fitted out a Fleet for it, with Arms and Provisions. It was also
known, that he was in Treaty to secure himself against the Chineses,
of whom the Japoneses are naturally Jealous. Hence it was inferr'd,
that he arm'd to carry the War out of his own Dominions. He had already
enter'd into Allyance with the King of Ternate, and other Neighbours,
who were Enemies to the Crown of Spain. All these Particulars gave
vehement Cause to conjecture, that the Storm threatned the Philippine
Islands, and more especially Manila, the Head of them. The Governour
strengthned himself, and sent Captain Alderete to discover the whole
Truth, under Colour of complimenting that Emperour, and carrying [A
Spanish Embassy thither.] him a Present. The Embassador set out for
Japan in July, and at the same Time Don Francisco dispatch'd the Galeon
S. Philip for New Spain, with Advice of those Reports. These two Ships,
viz. that Alderete went in, and the S. Philip, were together in Japan,
which the Natives were jealous of. Alderete got full Information of the
Strength and Designs of the Japoneses, and his Industry was of Use, for
the taking of right Measures in Manila, and to prevent their fearing
without Cause. He brought back another noble Present to the Governour;
and both Sides stood upon their Guard, to be ready upon all Occasions.

[Sovereign Court at Manila.] In the Year 1598, the sovereign Court was
again erected at Manila, King Philip prudently conferring Dignity on
that Province. It was compos'd of the Iudges Zambrano, Mezcoa, Tellez
de Almazan, and the Kings Attorney Jerome Salazar, y Salcedo. That
great King never allow'd of any Intermission in his weighty Cares,
which extended to all the known Parts of the World; having a watchful
Eye upon the Designs of other Princes, whether well, or ill affected to
the Propagation of the Gospel, which was his main Design. Therefore,
about this Time, he made Haste to rid himself of his neighbouring
Enemies, that he might have Leasure to attend the remotest Rebels
against the Church and his Monarchy. And in Respect that as [Peace
between France & Spain.] Age came on, its Distempers grew heavier,
he concluded a Peace with France, which was proclaim'd at Madrid, with
Martial Solemnity, after he had withdrawn himself to the Monastery of
S. Laurence, at the Escurial, [K. Philip the 2d dies.] a Work of his
Piety and Magnificence, where he dy'd on the thirteenth of September
1598, with singular Tokens of Sanctity. He frequented the Sacrament
of Confession, receiv'd the divine Viaticum, and extreme Unction,
the last Remedy for temporal, and eternal Health. His Death was in
all Respects answerable to the wonderful Course of his Life.

[K. Philip the 3d.] King Philip the Third, our sovereign Lord,
succeeded him, having been before sworn in all his Kingdoms, who,
amidst the Tears and Funeral Solemnities, Commanded the Will to
be open'd, and what his Father had order'd to be fulfill'd. His
Instructions, and the Mysteries of State, whereof he was so great
a Master, and which he communicated to his Son till the last Gasp,
produc'd the Peace which attended his most happy Succession, which
was his Due by Natural Right, the Law of Nations, and his own innate
Virtues; the general Submission of his Subjects, and the Fidelity
of the Armies that serv'd in the Northern Provinces in Italy,
Africk, Asia, the Indies, and in Garrisons, were a Curb to other
Nations. Many of them presented the new King with Protestations of
Loyalty, before they had receiv'd Letters and Advice of his being
upon the Throne. The same Unanimity was found in the Fleet, and
Naval Power, wherein the Treasures and Commodities are transported;
a rare Tranquility upon the Change of Princes. The Roman Legions
in Germany, and Illyricum, did not show such Respect to Tyberius,
after the Death of Augustus. [Greatness of the Spanish Monarchy.]
And tho' the Spanish Monarchy is of so great an Extent, that it
borders on the unknown World, and it is never Night in all Parts of
it, because the Sun encompasses and continually displays his Light
over it, yet it obey'd without any Commotion, or rather with Pride,
as if it knew and were sensible of the new Hand that took up the
Reins of Government. Excellent Princes have seldom fail'd to employ
extraordinary Ministers about their Persons, to manage and sustain
the Burden their Fortune lays upon their Shoulders; so Alexander the
Great had Hephestion; the two Scipios, the two Lelij; Augustus Cæsar,
Marcus Agrippa; the Princes of the August House of Austria, other
Persons of singular Virtue; for all moral Wisdom, and Experience it
self teaches us, that the Difficulties of weighty Affairs are not
to be duly manag'd, and surmounted, by any but Persons of a more
than ordinary Capacity; because Nature has not left any of its Works
destitute of a proportionable Ministry. And considering, that it is
of great Importance to the publick Welfare, to contrive, that what is
necessary for the Use and Commerce of Mankind may appear eminent in
Dignity, for the strengthning of the common Advantage with Authority:
The King, I say, following those ancient Examples, made Choice of Don
Francisco de Rojas y Sandoval, then Marques of Denia, and since first
Duke of Lerma, a most [Duke of Lerma Prime Minister.] able Minister,
privately to consult with him about fundamental Matters and Concerns,
for which he had been prepar'd with singular Affection in those Times:
Besides the great Antiquity of his Family, which has ally'd him to all
the noblest of the Grandees of Spain, all Men own him endow'd with
the necessary Virtues, that belong to a Person in so great a Post;
which shine through that pleasing Gravity of his Countenance, with
a stay'd Gayity that testifies his Capacity, and provokes Respect
at the same Time that it gains Affections. He constituted him the
first of his Council of State, and all the Orders for Peace and
War began to run through his Hands. All the Opinions of Councels,
which he found seal'd, for King Philip the 2d to give his Decision
thereupon, he restor'd, without opening them, to the Presidents of
the said Councels they came from, being, perhaps, calculated out of
Respect, that they might again debate upon them with more Liberty,
and send them back enlarg'd or reform'd.

Heaven was now hastening the Reduction of the Molucco Islands, and
the [Neglect of the Moluccos in Spain.] punishing the Persecution
of the faithfull, tho the Tyrants appear'd never so haughty; however
the Talk of it was discontinu'd for some Time; because the Enterprize
was to be concerted, and carry'd on in the Philippine Islands, and to
be resolv'd on, and encourag'd in the supreme Council of the Indies,
and it was requisite that the President and Councellors should be
well affected to the Cause, which had then no Body to support it,
as being despair'd of by Reason of so many unfortunate Attempts:
and therefore the Papers of Reflections, and Informations relating
to it, lay by, forgotten, in Heaps. This was the Posture of those
Affairs till Providence dispos'd the Means for bringing it about,
that a Matter which was difficult on so many several Accounts,
might fall into the Hands of a Sovereign, who being well affected,
might with special Zeal bring it to Perfection.

No Body now disturb'd the King of Ternate. The English settled on his
Lands, and Trade enrich'd the Sovereign and the Subjects. He, tho' he
had many Sons, and the Prince his Successor was of Age to bear Arms,
did not cease equally to increase his Wives and Concubines. Lust was
never circumscrib'd by any Laws among those People. The Relations of
curious Persons inform us, That among the rest of this Kings Wives,
there was [Queen of Ternate in Love with the Kings Son.] one very
young, and singular for Beauty, with whom the Prince her Son-in-Law,
whose Name was Gariolano fell in Love, and she rejected not his
Courtship tho' she was Wife to his Father: But that Nearness of Blood
secur'd their Familiarity, and under the Shelter, and Cover of it,
she admitted both Father and Son.

[Sangiack of Sabubu Father to her.] This Queen was Daughter to the
Sangiack of Sabubu, a potent Prince in the great Island Batochina,
who came to Ternate, upon some slight Occasion. He being lodged in
the Palace, and entertain'd as a Father, and Father-in-Law, easily saw
into the Incestuous Life of his Daughter. He resolv'd to be thoroughly
convinc'd, yet concealing his Jealousy from both the Lovers, he was
satisfy'd of the Truth, learnt who were the Parties privy to it,
abhorr'd the Baseness, and condemn'd his own Blood. He pretended
one day he would Dine in private, and sent only for his Daughter;
who being free [He Poisons her.] from all Jealousy or Suspition,
swallow'd a Poison, which soon took away her Life, in that Food which
she us'd most to delight in. Endeavours were us'd to help the unhappy
Queen, and compose the Father; but he angrily obstructing that last
act of Compassion, put away the Physitians, and Women, and being left
alone with the King, who, upon hearing the News, was come to give his
Assistance, said, This Woman, whom Nature gave to me for a Daughter,
and I to you for a Wife, has, with her Life, satisfy'd a Debt she
had contracted by her inordinate Passions. Do not Lament her, or
believe she dy'd of any Natural Distemper. I killd her, taking the
Revenge off your Hands. The Prince, your Son, had a Love Intrigue with
her? Being in your House I had full Proof of it, and not being able to
endure, that my Blood should wrong you, I could lay aside all Fatherly
Affection, and take away the Stain that on my Side is laid upon the
Law of Nature, and your Honour. I have honourably finish'd the first
Part of this Example. Now, if you think your self wrong'd by your Son,
he is in your Power, and I have no Right to deliver him up to you,
as I do this false Body. It lies upon you to finish this Work upon
the Offender, for I have perform'd all that was my Duty in giving you
this Information, and depriving my self of the Daughter I lov'd best.

The King was astonish'd, without knowing how to return Thanks,
or perform any other Act becoming a King; and having lamented the
Misfortune for some time, order'd Prince Gariolano to be secur'd; but
he, who was no less belov'd by the Guards than his Father, Guessing
at the Consequences, [The Prince Flies.] which might certainly
be deduc'd from the Queens violent Death, sparing no Horse-flesh,
made to the Sea-Port, where he withdrew, with some of his Relations,
from his Fathers Presence and Anger, till it naturally cool'd. It
happen'd as he expected, for he was appeased before a Year expir'd,
and the [Is Restor'd to Favour.] Prince was restor'd to his Favour;
the King then making a Jest of the Stains of his Honour, and saying,
He well knew his ill Luck in Wives and Concubines. But what Laws
does he observe, who is guided by his Appetite? And how can he weigh
the Duties of Honour, who Thinks that only the common Actions of the
Sense have any solid being?

                       The End of the Sixth Book.

                                 OF THE
                         Discovery and Conquest
                                 OF THE
                  Molucco and Philippine Islands, &c.

                               BOOK VII.

The Governour Don Francis Tello, to attend other Neighbouring
[D. Francis Tello neglects the Moluccos.] Provinces, where greater
Commotions were threatned, turn'd his Arms that Way; sending some
inconsiderable Part, at several Times to the Moluccos; for he never
went seriously about recovering those Islands, either because he
apprehended, or had Intelligence of Dangers threatned by the haughty
Japoneses, Mindanaos, and Chineses, or that he would not tread in
the Track of those who ruin'd themselves in the Expeditions against
Ternate. Yet our Men fought that Nation in other Parts; for being the
most Warlike, and averse to the very Name of Spaniards, it never let
pass any Opportunity of doing them Harm.

We have already mention'd the first coming of the English into those
Seas, and the Care that was taken to obliterate the Example set by
their Voyage, by fortifying the Streights of Magellan. It could not
be effected, nor did our Fleet succeed in punishing, as was intended,
those who had the Boldness to attempt that unthought-of Passage. Since
then, the Hollanders [Dutch at the Moluccos.] and Zealanders,
supported by Rebellion and Disobedience, have sail'd into India,
possess'd themselves of strong Holds, and erected Factories,
transporting the Drugs, Precious Stones and Silks of Asia; and what
is worse, possessing themselves of several Places, and rending the
Spanish Monarchy. They have made several Voyages. What Island have
they not pry'd into? What Barbarous Nation have they not encourag'd to
Rebellion and Tyranny; especially since Maurice of Nassau is possess'd
of those Provinces, by the Title of Governour.

[Philippines fill'd with Chineses.] The Philippine Islands were
now appointed for the Place of Arms, considering the great Delays
Experience had shown there were towards Recovering of the Molucco
Islands. In the mean while, notwithstanding that Don Francis Tello
was warn'd, how pernicious Inhabitants he was like to have in the
Sangleyes, or Chineses, by whom the Islands of his Province began to
be much peopled and fill'd, yet he allow'd them greater Liberty than
was convenient; and the Municipal Laws which provided against this
Disorder being forgotten or contemn'd, in a very short Time there
were additional Towns of Chineses, Chincheos, and other such like
Monsters, who were no better than Pyrates, or Incendiaries in that
Country, which ought to have taken sufficient Warning by, and been well
provided on Account of past Accidents, to shut up all Passages against
such Enemy Nations. Don Francisco excus'd their Resort, alledging,
That they imported Abundance of Provisions and Merchandise, which is
what usually enriches all Places; That no Men have such a consummate
Mechanick Genius as they; That they are more assiduous and constant at
the Works and Buildings than the Natives of the Philippines. He said,
That all the Jealousy generally conceiv'd of them vanishes, if the
Governour administers Justice impartially, and permits no private
Cabals. All these are, or appear'd to be frivolous Reasons, without
any Force; and the admitting of such an Inundation of those People,
prov'd very dangerous, as may be seen in the Sequel of this Work,
by what happen'd to the Governour Gomez Perez. It was a particular
Providence of Heaven, that other Nations did not go about to League
with this, or the Dutch, who have so strongly fix'd themselves in the
Archipelago; for they might, without much Difficulty, have given us
more Trouble than has been occasion'd by the Rebellion of the Kings
of the Moluccos; to whose Country, and all others in India, great
Fleets of Dutch resort, ever since the Year 1585, whereof Dutch
Writers give an Account, and lay down in Cuts, even the smallest
Plants they produce.

It does not belong to us to give an Account of the English, Dutch,
or other Nations of India and Asia, or their Expeditions and Voyages;
but only such as relate to the Conquest of Ternate and the Molucco
Islands, or may have some Dependance on this Subject; but be it
known, once for all, that every Year, some Northern Fleets appear'd,
coming either thro' New Streights, still unknown to our Discoverers,
or those before frequented and laid down. But before we enter upon
this Relation, it seems requisite to say something of Holland,
the Head of the Neighbouring Islands, as that which is become most
outrageous in India, and most covets the [Account of Holland.]
Moluccos. The province of Holland is almost on all Sides encompass'd
by the Sea, and the Ports of the Maese and Rhine, for about 60
Leagues in Compass. Within it are contain'd 29 wall'd Towns, whose
Names and Situation does not belong to us to speak of, nor of those
of Zealand, or the other Provinces subject to them. The Curious may
read Lambert, Hortensius, and Montesortius. The Natives are descended
from the Ancient Catti; and forasmuch as Erasmus of Rotterdam, which
is in Holland, describes it in his Chiliades, we will abridge what
he there delivers at large, out of Affection to his Country. The
Learned, say he, agree, and it is a probable Conjecture, that the
Island Tacitus mentions, lying from [Tacitus l. 20.] the Rhine to
the Ocean, is that we call Holland; which I am oblig'd to Honour,
as owing my first Breath to it; and would to God we could honour it
as it deserves. Martial charges it with being rude, or unpolished;
and Lucan with Cruelty. Either these Things do not belong to us,
but to our Ancestors, or we may value our selves upon them both. What
Nation is now known, whose first Fathers were not more uncouth than
their Posterity? Or when was Rome more highly commended, than when its
People knew no other Arts but Tillage and Warfare? Erasmus spends Time
in proving, that it is the Nature of Holland, not to relish Martial's
Wit; and that this is not the Effect of Rudeness, but a Gravity worthy
Imitation. Then he makes an Exclamation, saying, Would to God all
Christians had Dutch Ears! And that if still any one shall contend,
the Nation is in the Wrong, in having stopp'd theirs to all Poetical
Delights and Allurements, and arm'd it self against them; the Dutch
valu'd themselves upon being comprehended in that Reflection, which
did not displease the Ancient Sabines, the Perfect Lacedemonians,
and the Severe Catos. Lucan call'd the Batavi, that is the Dutch,
Cruel, as Virgil did the Romans, Vehement. Erasmus adds, That the
Customs of these Nations [Erasmus of the Manners of Hollanders.]
are Familiar, inclining to Meekness and Benignity, and not to
Fierceness; because Nature endow'd them with a sincere Disposition,
free from Fraud and Double-Dealing, and did not make them subject
to extraordinary Vices, except the Love of Pleasure, and Excess in
Entertainments. This is caus'd by the Multitude of Beauties, which
are Incentives, by the several Sea-Ports on the Ocean, the Mouths of
the two Rivers, Rhine and Maese; the perpetual Felicity of the Soil,
water'd by other Navigable Rivers; and the Fish and Foul in the Ponds
and Woods. No Province of so small a Compass, contains so many Cities
of a considerable Magnitude, and so Populous, excellently govern'd;
so full of Commodities, Arts and Trade. It abounds in Men indifferently
learn'd. Erasmus himself, in Conclusion, owns that none of them arrives
to singular Erudition. This Account, which in all that is natural must
be own'd not to exceed, affords Arguments to condemn and convince the
Author of it, and the Nation it self. All that Part of the World where
Religion and Politeness flourish, is acquainted with the Diversity
of Opinions all those Nations espouse, of Protestants, Puritans,
Calvinists, these the most Numerous; Huguenots, Lutherans, and all
other Sorts, too long to enumerate, and not to our Purpose. Since
Erasmus confesses that his Country does not produce any Persons of
eminent Learning, why do they take upon them to decide Controversies
in Religion? Why do they incroach upon Councils? If they are of such
an excellent Disposition, and have such a modest Genius, [The Authors
Reflections on them.] Why do they cast off that Piety, whereof there
are such ancient Testimonies in our first Fathers, so much honour'd
by the primitive Charity of the true Church? It is true, as Erasmus
says, that they are of a kind Temper, but Tenacious of whatsoever
they once espouse; the same moves us to pity them the more, for the
Difficulty of dealing with Positiveness in Minds that are not given
to change. Let no Man believe but that under that seeming Meekness in
Behaviour, the highest Degree of Pride lies [A Spanish Author cannot
forbear these Reflections.] couch'd. What greater Pride than to
scoff at the most ancient Church? At its Apostolical Traditions? At
her universal Agreement? At the Miracles God has wrought, to approve
the Catholick Doctrine? And what Error can be more inexcusable, than
to follow the New Opinions of unlearned and vicious Men, such as the
Arch-Hereticks were; and to live under a Necessity of not laying down
their seditious Arms only to defend Impiety grounded on Ignorance,
and the Extravagancies of their Passions? What House is there in those
Cities which Erasmus extols, wherein all the Inhabitants profess
and follow the same Way of spiritual Salvation? When the Father is
a Calvinist, the Mother is often a Huguenot, the Son a Lutheran, the
Servant a Hussite, and the Daughter a Protestant. All the Family is
divided, or rather every particular Person's Soul is so, and at best
doubts of all. Wherein does this differ from Atheism? It is positive
Atheism. This Division, unworthy of wild Beasts, is the Occasion,
and a Sort of Mathematical Necessity, that these People cannot be
united among themselves in true Peace. For those Things are the same
to one [See the latter part of the Preface.] another, that they
are to a Third; so that almost all these having different Notions,
as to God, they cannot of Necessity be united among themselves, as
differing in the most essential Part, which is the having an uniform
Notion of God in Religion. Let no Man believe, that because they
are not at War among themselves, it is Love that is the Occasion of
it. The Ground of their false Tranquility is to be call'd a Cessation,
and not Peace. These are the People who have unhing'd Loyalty and the
Christian Religion, before settled in the Islands, and remotest Parts
of Asia, making Excursions from their own Country, as far as China,
their raging Avarice being grounded on the Advice given them by the
Queen of England, and on Malice, because King Philip the IId had
shut up the other Ports of his Kingdoms against them; so to endeavour
to reduce them to the Truth and Submission, by taking from them the
Advantages of Trade.

[Dutch first sail to the Moluccos.] The first Dutch Fleet that came
to the Molucco Islands, after the English, in the Year 1598, shall
be here spoken of. Some prime Men, for the Sake of their Country,
as they said, and to gain Reputation, met in Holland and Zealand,
and fitted out six Ships and two Brigantines, to sail into India. The
first Ship they call'd the Maurice, the Admiral in her being Jacob
Cornelius Neck, born at Roterdam, and the Master Gonaert Jansk; the
second was the Amsterdam, and in her the Vice-Admiral Vibrant Darkik;
the other Ships were the Holland, the Zealand, the Guelder, and the
Utrecht; The bigger Brigantine the Friezland, and the smaller the
Overissel. They carry'd 160 Soldiers, besides Mariners, and saild
from Roterdam on the 13th of March. Off from Sluys, on the 4th of
April, they had such a dreadful Storm, as might have discourag'd
them from Proceeding, and the Ship the Holland was almost disabled;
but still they were drove on by the Weather to the Texel, and thence
to Debenter, and in Conclusion they got into the Ocean. They met
another Ship returning to the Low Countries, which presented them
with 10000 Oranges, and having distributed them among the Men, they
made a general Rejoycing, for the baptizing of 25 Men, aboard the Ship
the Guelder, on the 10th of May. [Barrels must be a Mistake.] On the
11th they anchor'd at Barrels, and on the 15th at the Island Madera,
and again on the 17th at the Canaries, Gomera, and Palma, passing by
those of Sal and Santiago, which are those of Cabo Verde, they furl'd
all their Sails, and drove in a Storm, in 29 Degrees Latitude. On the
first of June they took a Sea Tortoise which weigh'd 143 Pounds. On
the 15th of the same Month, Gerrit Jans, either provok'd by Wine or
a worse Spirit, cast himself into the Sea, from the highest Part
of the greater Brigantine. The next Day, aboard the Ship Guelder,
in which the new baptised Men were, they saw a large flying-Fish,
which clapping too its Wings, Fell into the said Ship; but they saw
the same Sort of Fishes fall upon their Vessels at other Times. On
the Eighth they cross'd the Line, and began to distribute a Pot of
Wine to every six Men; but on the 25th of the same Month, for Joy
of having pass'd the Ridges of Rocks before Brazil, which run to
the Southward in 18 Degrees of South Latitude, they allow'd three
Pots to every seven Men. Such a thick Fog fell that they lost Sight
of the smaller Brigantine; the Zealand soon found her again, and
discover'd many Cranes standing on the Tops of the Reeds, or Canes,
that grew out Tall and of an equal Height above the Water. On the
24th of July, they came to an Anchor at the Cape of Good Hope, whence
they sail'd again on the 15th of August with Stormy Weather, all the
eight Vessels together, the Sea there boiling up as a Pot does upon
[The Sea seems to boil up.] the Fire. This Motion, like boiling, was
seen for about a Musket Shot in Length, and the Breadth of a Ship,
and all this Space was cover'd thick with Weeds, which they pass'd
over by main Force, without any Danger.

[Madagascar.] On the 24th they reach'd the Island of Madagascar,
or of S. Laurence, and saw abundance of Whales. Here the plentiful
Distribution of Wine ceas'd, and it began to be given out more
sparingly, to lament by this Abstinence, the Death of John Pomer, a
skilful Sailor. On the 27th they pass'd Cape S. Sebastian, and on the
30th Cape S. Julian. On the 4th of September, it was debated whether
they should make for the Island of Banda, or put into the Bay of Anton
Gill. They came to no Resolution at that Time, tho' they afterwards
arriv'd separately at Banda, and at several Times. On the 17th they
discover'd, at a great Distance, the Island of Cerne, by others call'd
the Isle of Swans, which is high and mountainous, and for Joy of the
Water they expected to take in there, they gave every Man three Cups
of Wine. Before that, the Vice-Admiral went ashore with five Men, in
another little Island, and taking a View of it, found a Noble Spacious
Harbour, well land-lock'd, into which a Rivulet of fresh [They land in
a small Island.] Water fell. They put in and refitted their shatter'd
Vessels, finding 14 Fathom Water. They had not Landed in four Months,
and therefore in Thanksgiving, and because it was then Fair Time in
Holland, they made a Sort of Chappel; on the Bodies of Trees, and
covering it with Leaves, preach'd there twice a Day, in Honour of the
Fair. They eat Abundance of Fowl, which they could almost take with
their Hands, and drank Wine more plentifully. A Native of Madagascar,
who came along with them, and had been taken in a former Voyage, was,
by the Instruction of those Sermons, made a Christian, and baptiz'd,
taking the Name of Laurence. They found no Inhabitants in the Island
though it was Delightful.

[Clear Water in the Sea.] On the 28th and 29th, they observ'd they
were upon a very Christalline Water, without any other Tokens of
their being near Land, and those same Days at Noon, they had the Sun
in the Zenith, directly over their Heads, which had happen'd to them
at other Times. Here a Storm separated the Ships; the Maurice, which
was Admiral, by them in Latin call'd Prætoria, the Holland, and the
Overissel, tho' they endeavour'd to [Cerne Island.] make Java, were
drove by Stress of Weather to Banda; and the other five to the Island
Cerne, or of Swans, leaving six other smaller on the Right Hand. They
enter'd the Port with ten Fathom Water, between two Mountains, which
contract the Mouth of it. The Situation of it is in 21 Degrees of South
Latitude, and is five Leagues in Compass. The Port is Spacious enough
to contain 50 Ships, and shelter'd against all Winds. They were so
well pleas'd with the Island, that they chang'd its ancient Name of
Cerne, or of Swans, for that of Maurice, in Honour of Count Maurice
of Nassau, Bastard Son to the Prince of Orange, so well known in our
Days. Discoverers were sent about it, and return'd without finding any
humane Track, nor Signs of any Habitation. They had a doubtful [Tame
Birds and Beasts.] Proof hereof in the Birds and Beasts; for they ran
into their Hands and alighted on their Heads, as they might have done
on the Branches of Trees, or had they been bred Tame; which Boldness
proceeded either from their having never seen Men, or being grown very
familiar with them. [Strange Bats.] Among the rest, there are Bats,
which have Heads as big, and like Apes, and these sleep considerable
Numbers of them together, and hanging on the Trees, with their Legs
and Wings extended. The Air and Soil are so healthy and fit to be
inhabited, that as soon as the Sick were landed, they recovered. The
Land is high and mountainous, full of Woods, and not being inhabited,
there are no Tracts or Paths through them. There [Ebony.] is an
infinite Quantity of Ebony Trees, as black as Pitch, and as smooth
as Ivory; the Trunks being cover'd with a rough Bark, preserve
the Body solid. There are other Plants, whose Trunks are Red, and
others Pale as Wax; delicious Coco-Nuts, vast Numbers of Palm-Trees,
and some of them of such Sort, that one of their Leaves covers all a
Man's Body, and defends it against the Rain. They spread their Nets,
and among the other [Monstrous Thornback.] Multitude of Fishes,
took a Thornback so large, that it afforded two Meals [Tortoises.]
for all the Men in the Ships. They saw Land Tortoises, so big, that
one of them walk'd with four Soldiers sitting on its Back; and ten
of them din'd upon the Shell of another, as if it had been a round
Table. In a very short Time they kill'd Abundance of Turtle-Doves,
and another Sort of [Penguins.] white Birds, bigger than our Swans,
but as round as a Ball, and have only two or three curl'd Feathers in
the Tail. There were so many blew Parrots, that they might have loaded
their Ships with them. Indian Crows, twice as big as the European,
of three several colour'd Feathers.

They erected Forges, dress'd all their Tools, and built another
Vessel, to supply the Place of the Utrecht, which with the other
two, had directed her Course for Madagascar. They again took a
View of their Maurice Island, and towards the Inland Part of it,
tho' there were no Signs of any [Wax found with Greek Characters.]
humane Habitation, found about three hundred Pounds weight of Wax,
on which there were plain Greek Letters and Characters. They also
saw Oars, Nets, and Pieces of Timber, being the Wreck of Ships. The
Vice-Admiral, providing a smooth square Board, carv'd on it the Arms of
Holland, Zealand, and Amsterdam, and nail'd it on the Top of a Tree,
as a Memorial of his being there, and giving the Name of MAURICE to
the island, with this Inscription, which being in Spanish, denotes
their Hatred to the Ancient Faith of our Nation, and being couch'd
in one Line over their Arms, was, THE REFORM'D CHRISTIANS. Then they
plow'd up a large Field, and sow'd it with Wheat, and other European
Grain; turning lose some Hens, to see what Improvement they should
find another Time. They again, for some Days, visited the Hills and
Plains, and found no Track of Man.

Whilst these refresh'd themselves at the Island Cerne, or of Swans,
being fourteen Days, the other three Ships arriv'd at S. Mary's, a
barren Island, [S. Mary Island.] tho' some Orange and Lemon Trees
grow in it, as also Sugar Canes, and there are Hens. About it, and
in Sight of Land, there are monstrous Whales. They landed, but not
without Opposition from the Natives, with whom they fought, and took
their King; but he was easily ransom'd, a [Strange Ransom for a King.]
Cow and a Calf being given them in Exchange for him. They saw the
Manner of the Whale Fishery, which is very easy there. The Indians make
up close to them in their Canoes, and stick them with a Harping-Iron
they dart, being ty'd to Ropes made of the Barks of Trees. They stor'd
their Ship with their Flesh and Oil, and some Oranges, and went over
to the Bay of Anton Gil, where the Madagascar Indian, would not stay,
as he had desired before, being now well affected to the Habit and
Drunkenness of his Companions. They were toss'd backwards and forwards
for five Days, between certain Islands, destitute of Provisions,
and unsafe, by Reason they were in War among themselves.

They set forward with a fair Gale towards Java, and on the 26th
of December, 1598, arriv'd at Banda, which is eight Leagues from
Amboina. [Banda Island.] This Island is shap'd like a Horse-shooe,
and lies in four Degrees of South Latitude. It is most fruitful, with
little or no Improvement, in Nutmegs, and their precious Mace; as also
Provisions and Medicines for Men, beyond all other Parts of the known
World. It is divided into three Parts, each of them three Leagues in
Compass. The Capital City is called Nera. As soon as they arriv'd,
they contracted Friendship with the Islanders; tho' a foreign Ship,
to secure the Trade to herself, gave them to understand, that the Dutch
were certain Pirates who fled the Year before, and had lain conceal'd
at Sea, to come again and rob the Island, and therefore they did not
fully credit them. This Notion was back'd by Trading Portugueses,
and others settled there; but the Dutch sending their Abdol, that
is the Indian Interpreter, with some Soldiers, and Gifts to present
the King, according to the Custom of Merchants that come into his
Country, they before him clear'd that Imputation, and defended their
Innocence. The King was an Infant, and govern'd by his Cephates, that
[The Dutch settle Trade there.] is his Vice-Roy, Tutor, or Protector,
who set all right. They gave the King the Present before him, which
he receiv'd very graciously. It consisted of certain valuable gilt
Vessels, admirably ingrav'd, Christal Glasses, Looking-Glasses in gilt
Frames, and Pieces of Velvet and Taffety. They deliver'd him Letters
and Commissions of the States of Holland, Zealand, and Count Maurice,
with their Seals hanging to them in Form. All was accepted, and they
lay down flat on the Ground to receive and read the Letters, with
profound Reverence. The King promis'd to answer them, as he did, and
immediately gave leave to Trade; whereupon the Dutch built Factories
in the Island. They then expos'd in publick Shops great Store of Arms,
Silks, Linnen and Cloth; as did the Natives their Spice, China Ware,
and Pearls, and other Commodities the Neighbouring Islanders and
Chineses bring hither to barter, and sell to one another. Five [All
their Ships meet again.] Weeks after, the other three Ships arriv'd,
and the people of the City hearing the Discharges of the Cannon,
and seeing the Auncients spread abroad, for Joy of the Ships meeting
again, came down to the Port, and encompass'd the Ships in Boats,
offering them Plenty of Fowl, Eggs, Coco Nuts, Bananas, Sugar-Canes,
and Cakes made of Rice-Flower. This dainty Feeding continu'd every Day,
and they gave them a Weeks Provision for a Dutch Man for one Pewter
Spoon. However they rais'd the Price of Pepper; but they pay'd for
all with Pins and Needles, Knives, Spoons, Looking-Glasses, and little
Tabors; and with those same Commodities, they purchas'd more valuable
Goods at Sumatra, as also Provisions; when four of these eight Ships
return'd Homewards, the others sailing for Ternate and the Moluccos.

The greatest Quantity, and best Commodity they took in here, was of
[The Nutmeg Tree.] are few and weak; but in Banda there is a plentiful
Crop, and they have much more Virtue. Nature has cloath'd its Mountains
and Plains, with Woods and Groves of these Plants. They are like the
European Pear-Trees, and their Fruit resembles Pairs, or rather in
Roundness the Melocotones. When the Nutmegs blosom, they spread a
cordial Fragrancy; by degrees they lose their Native Green, which
is original in all Vegetables; and then succeeds a Blew, intermix'd
with Grey, Cherry-Colour, and a pale Gold Colour, as we see in the
Rainbow, tho' not in that regular Division, but in Spots like the
Jaspar Stone. Infinite Numbers of Parrots, and other birds of various
Plumage, most delightful to behold, come to sit upon the Branches,
attracted by the sweet Odour. The Nuts, when dry, cast off the Shell it
grows cover'd with, and is the Mace, within which is a white Kernel,
not so sharp in Taste as the Nut, and when dry is converted into its
Substance. Of this Mace, which is hot and dry in the second Degree,
and within the third, the Bandeses make a most [Oil of Nutmeg.]
precious Oil to cure all Distempers in the Nerves, and Aches caus'd
by cold. Of these Nuts they choose the freshest, weightiest, fattest,
juiciest, [Virtues of Nutmeg.] and without any Hole. With them they
cure, or correct stinking Breath, clear the Eyes, comfort the Stomach,
Liver, and Spleen, and digest Meat. They are a Remedy against many
other Distempers, and serve to add outward Lustre to the Face. The
Bandeses call the Mace of their Aromatick Nuts, Buna Pala. It was
not known to the Greeks nor to Pliny, according to Averrois; tho'
Serapion, whether the true, or the suppositious, when he describes it,
alledges Gallen's Authority. It is true, the Chrisabolans he treated
of, agree well enough with the Nutmegs in Colour and Shape.

The Javaneses, Chineses, and Natives of the Moluccos resort to
the City Mora, to barter for this precious Fruit, and load their
Ships with it; and [Merchants way of living at Banda.] this is
the Trade of that People, as is that of Clove to Ternate, Tydore,
and the other Moluccos. The Merchants arriving in this Island, many
of them contribute to make up a Sum, wherewith they purchase a Woman,
to dress their Meat, and attend them. The Dutch did so from this first
Time. When they go away she is left Free, till they return the next
Year; so that her Slavery commences with the Return of her Masters,
and their Absence gives it an Intermission. Some of the Natives are
Idolaters; but the greater Part Mahometans, and so superstitious, that
the very Soldiers do not mount the Guard, till they have pray'd in the
Mosques, so loud, that all [Religion of Banda.] the Neighbourhood can
hear them. Nor must any Man go into them without washing his Feet, in
great Vessels of Water, provided at the Door, by the publick. Their
Prayers consist in these Words, Estagfer Ai'lah Estagfer Al'lah,
Asgiv'd Ai'lahe, Asgiv'd Al'lahe, La Il'lahe Inla Ai'lah, Mu.amed
resul At'lahi. When they utter these last Words, they stroke their
Faces with their Hands, a Ceremony denoting much Devotion. The Words
in English are; Pardon O God, Pardon O God. I prostrate my self to
God. I prostrate my self to God. There is no other God but God, and
Mahomet his Messenger: By these Words, There is no other God but God,
they deny the eneffable Mystery of the most blessed Trinity. Then they
proceed to several Blasphemies. They say other Prayers, at which they
scarce move their lips; when they do this they stand three and three
upon a Mat, lifting up their Eyes to Heaven three Times, and bowing
down their Heads to the Ground. The Dutch Author, who gives this
Account, does not mention any other Religion in this Island, nor in
any of the others their Fleets touch'd at; tho' it is so well known,
that the Catholick Faith of our Lord Jesus Christ has been preach'd
many Years before, throughout them all, with the Glory of Martyrdom;
but those People conceal it, to what Intent is well known.

The Banaeses assemble in the Streets, and publick Places, where
they feast [Feasting in Banda.] themselves. It is frequent among
them to eat in the Temples and Woods, an hundred in a Parcel;
especially when they consult together about the publick Weal, or any
Danger. There are seven Cities in the Island, which are Enemies to
one another. Nera is averse to the Lambethans, Combers and Veierans,
and maintains Friendship with the Inhabitants of Lontoor, which
is on the other Side of the Island, and those of two other little
Cities call'd Poleruija and Poelvay. When they are to fight, they
always repair [Enmity among their Cities.] first to Nera, to concert
Affairs. Banda provides their Entertainments on the Ground, in the
Streets. The Dishes are made of the Trunks and Leaves of Bananas,
and other Plants. Every one has a Piece of Sagu brought him on them,
and a Plate of Rice boil'd in the Broth of Flesh. This they devour,
carrying it to their Mouths with both Hands, and eat it with such a
Relish, as if they had Jove's Brains dress'd set before them; so the
Dutch Relation of Paludanus and Hugo expresses it. Whilst the Meat
lasts, till the Multitude are satisfy'd, the Nobles by two and two,
take up their Cymiters and Shields, and fight to the sound of Bells,
and the Clattering of their Basons. When weary of this Exercise,
they deliver the Weapons to others, which continue it. The Cause
of their Wars, is for that the Inhabitants of Labetaca, many Years
since, set some Plants in the Territory of Nera. The People of this
City affronted at this Presumption, made the first War upon them;
which is as bloodily prosecuted as if their Religion, or Honour,
depended on it. They attack one another by Day and Night in their
Territories, and by Sea in their Carcoas.

[Banda Tar.] In these they do not, like us, fill up the Seams
of the Boards with Pitch and Tar, but with Shells of Indian Nuts,
which they call Clappos. They pound those Shells and Rhinds, till
they became like a Bitumen, or Mass, wherein there remain certain
Threads, which resemble Hemp, with this they knit their Seams, and
fill up the Crannyes and cover them in such Sort that it resists
the Force of the Water. They carry two, and sometimes four Pieces of
Cannon. The Men use small Fire-locks, Bucklers, and [Their Weapons.]
large Cymiters, which they call Padang, and Lances of a more solid Wood
than our Box. They exercise all these Weapons from their Child-hood,
as they do in casting a sort of Hooks with sharp Points and Edges,
which they dart at the Enemies Bodies, and then draw back the Lines
they are made fast to. Their Heads they arm with Helmets; and on their
Crests wear Birds of Paradise, both for Ornament, and a superstitious
Defence. They have Breast and Back Pieces, and call'd them as we did
Corselets. When they are to fight at Sea, as soon as the War-like
Instruments begin to sound, the Soldiers fall a leaping, and skipping
on the Benches, which run round the [Oars like Shovels.] Carcoas from
Stem to Stern. The Slaves ply the Oars, which are like wooden Shovels,
make the Vessel fly by main Force, and serve to lade out the Water,
when there is Occasion. They are so revengeful, that having [Cruelty
of Bandeses.] been in those Days vanquish'd on Land by the Labetans,
many of them being kill'd and wounded, those of Nera assembled the
next Day in five Carcoas, and attacking the little Island Bayjer, the
Natives whereof had assisted the Labetans they slew all they found,
without sparing any but a few Women, whom they carry'd Captives to
Nera, with the Heads of their Enemies before them on Spears; and for
four Days, to the Amazement of Foreigners, and particularly the Dutch,
they show'd their Cymiters embrew'd in Gore, about the Streets. Nay,
a Soldier among them, in the Sight of Abundance, took a Fancy to
try his Cymiter, he carry'd naked, and with it clove down one of the
Captive Women, from the Shoulder to the Breast.

[Burial of Enemies.] They shew'd themselves Merciful in burying those
Heads, assembling together in the House of the Shabander, that is
the Governor, in the Presence of all the People, which uses to meet
to see such Spectacles, every [Heads.] Soldier, as a Testimony of
his Valour, laid all the Heads he had cut off on [Their Funerals.]
a very large Stone, under a Tree: They wrapp'd them up in Cotton
Cloths, and carrying them in Dishes bury'd them in a Grove, with
much Smoke of Frankincense, whereof they have great Plenty. Had those
dead Persons been Natives, their Kindred and Friends would have come
immediately to lament with loud Cries, as they use to do, over their
Graves, which they dig like us, wrap up the Bodies in Shrouds of
white Cotton, and carry them to be bury'd on their Shoulders. They
are great Observers, that the Funerals of Men should go before those
of Women; place Lamps over the Graves of all, and by their Light pray
for them. They cry out furiously, calling the Dead, as if they hop'd
they should come to Life at their Call; and perceiving they do not
rise again, the Kindred and Friends meet about the most splendid
Entertainment they are able to provide. Being ask'd by the Dutch,
what it was they ask'd of God in the Prayers they mutter'd over the
Graves, they answer'd. We pray that the Dead may not rise again. So
that the Want of the true Light of Faith, does not hinder them from
seeing, how much Mankind suffers from the first Moment of his Life,
till the last; but it is rather to be concluded, that they look upon
it as a Misfortune to have been born. They were much amaz'd to hear,
that the Dutch did not use the same Ceremony towards their dead.

They play at Foot-Ball, which is made of Spanish Reeds. They that
[Foot-Ball.] Play make a Ring one standing in the Center, who
tosses the Ball to those about him, and they with a Kick throw
it so high that it is almost out of Sight. If any one misses it,
they hiss, and hoot, to shame him for his Unskilfulness. Men live in
this Island longer than in any other Parts of [Life long in Banda.]
the World. The Dutch saw several, who exceed 130 Years of Age. They
live upon the Product of their Country; and tho' there is continual
War, yet the greater Number lives Idle; and it is very remarkable
that those People, who are so much addicted to Sloath, should be
such Enemies to Quietness. A useless Life does not deserve much Age;
and that which is dedicated to Idleness seldom attains to it. The
Women Plow and Till [Women Till the Land.] the Land, and follow
other manly Professions. They seldom go abroad with Men; they have
all the Charge of Houshold Affairs, and their greatest Employment
within Doors, is usually uncasing and drying of Nutmegs.

The Dutch having loaded with Spice, Purcelane, and some Rubies, and
[Dutch depart from Banda.] settled Factories, and Amity, sail'd from
Banda, on the 14th of July, with great firing of Cannon. They stood
towards the Island Noeselau, the Natives whereof are Anthropophagi,
so the Greeks call Man-Eaters. They proceeded towards that of Amboyna,
whose Western Point they discover'd, yet did not touch at it then,
but went on to the greater Java, notwithstanding [Come to Java.]
their Admiral was at Amboyna. They arriv'd at Java and the City Tuban,
sent two Boats thither to Discover, and know whither they might be
allow'd to take in Provisions. Those who return'd with the Answer,
brought along with them a Portuguese, who, at the Perswasion of
the Natives, had renounc'd [Portuguese Renegado.] the Faith of
Jesus Christ, as was known, and call'd among them by the name of
the Renegado, as a proper Appellative, and not dishonourable. This
Man inform'd the Admiral, That if he would stay there three or four
Months, he might enrich his Ships to his Hearts Content. They sent by
him to ask the King's Leave, with some Presents of Copper, Glass and
Silk. [Presents to and from the King.] The next day Merchants came
down to the Harbour, with Abundance of Commodities; and from the King,
in Return for their insignificant Present, they brought the Dutch 19
great Sacks of Rice. The Trade being settled, they went up to the City,
where they saw several Horsemen, well Arm'd, Horses well Accouter'd,
on which they value themselves very much, Shops well stor'd, and a free
Trade for all Nations. The Vice-Admiral went to kiss the King's Hand,
who receiv'd him Graciously; promis'd to go Aboard the Ships in Person,
and perform'd it, having first order'd them to be show'd all his Royal
Apartments, even to his Womens private Lodgings; his Elephants; an
infinite number of Birds in Cages, and his Stables full of excellent
Horses, and many of them. Then the Prince came Aboare the Ships, and
after him the King. The Cannon saluted them both, and they admir'd,
and were pleas'd with the Noise.

[Tuban Capital of Java.] Tuban is the King of Java's Court, the
strongest of all the Cities in that Island, encompass'd with a high
Wall, divided by several Gates with Towers on them, contains stately
Structures, and Squares appointed for the publick Resort of Traders,
the King is extraordinary rich, and in a few Hours can gather a
great Number of Horse and Foot. His Palace is truly Royal, his Family
consists of the Prime Nobility, and he is very powerful at Sea. They
call their Ships Juncks; which being loaded with Pepper, and other
Product of the Country, as Silks and Cloths, the Manufactures [Trade
of that City.] of his People, are sent to Balim; where bartering
them for Cloaths, they transport those to other Kingdoms, as those of
Banda, the Moluccos, and Philippines. Whence, and from other Islands,
having improv'd their Commodities, they bring Mastick, Nutmegs, Cloves,
and other Spice. All the [Habit.] Country abounds in Cattle, which
graze all Day in the Woods, and are hous'd at Night. Their Habit is
the same as at Banda, and covers their Bodies from the Waste downwards,
the rest upwards remaining naked. They all wear Daggers, call'd Crises,
and the Nobles stately long Vests, the Fullness whereof waves in the
Air magnificently. None of them goes abroad attended by less than
ten or twelve Servants, one of which always carries for his Master a
little Basket full of the Leaves of a certain Plant they call Betele,
which they chew with green Nuts, and a little Lime. This Composition
they call Ledon; in chewing, it yields a Juice, which they swallow,
and then spit out the green Substance, after the Virtue has been
extracted in their Mouths.

They were so overjoy'd at the coming of the Dutch, that the next Day
[The Kings Dress.] they invited them to see their Diversions. The King
was present a Horse-Back, clad in several Sorts of rich Silks, but all
Girt about him. To his Belt hung a Cymiter, in a Scabard adorn'd with
precious Stones; the Hilt of beaten Gold, with a Devils Head form'd
on it. On his Turbant he had abundance of Feathers. All the Nobility
follow'd him, Dress'd much after the same manner, mounted on stately
prancing Horses, but smaller than ours, with rich Furnitures of Spanish
Leather, studded, and plated with Gold, and Figures of Serpents; and
in some of the Bridles they had Stones, so white that they look'd like
Alabaster. Sometimes they ran streight forwards, and sometimes in a
Ring, casting their Darts. When the Sport was over, they attended the
King, by whose Orders they carry'd aboard the Ships, [Commerce settled
between the Dutch and Javaneses.] and to the Dutch Men's Lodgings,
a great quantity of Rice, Sheep, Goats, Hens, Eggs, Fish, and Fruit,
as Coco-Nuts, Mangos, Lemons, and delicious Bananas. Then they fell
to treating of Trade, and Amity, and thought every Thing cheap except
the Pepper, for they not liking the Commodities the Dutch offer'd
in Exchange for it, lifting up their Hands cry'd, Lima, which, in
their Tongue, signifies five Pieces of Eight. So much they demanded
for a Measure of theirs. They were well receiv'd in all Respects,
except in Relation to admitting of their Sect.

They had deliver'd Letters to the King from Count Maurice, which he
answer'd in the Persian Tongue, and the Dutch having receiv'd them,
left Tuban, on the 24th of the same Month, with fair Weather, and
well furnish'd with valuable Commodities and Provisions. Passing by
the Island [Madura Island.] Sidago, they anchor'd between Java and
Madura; sounded the Depth, and notwithstanding the Current, and that
the Ground was a stiff Muddy Hill, they visited Madura, landing on the
East-side; but remov'd presently to the City Arosbay, on the West, and
afterwards thence to Jorta, to get Guides, or Pilots to conduct them to
the rest of the Moluccos. They sent to Compliment the King of Madura,
who presently after the Audience, sent the Vice-Admiral a Sheep, with
which went the Renegado, who had brought him a Dagger, they call Criz,
from the King of Tuban, richly adorn'd with Gold and precious Stones,
and the King's Head engrav'd on the Pommel. They found a German settled
in the Country, rich in Spice, and understood [Madura Described.]
by him, that at Arosbay they had seiz'd 40 of their Companions. The
Island of Madura, next to Java, inclines to the Northward. They wear
the same Habit as in the other; but are sharper Witted. It is most
fruitful in Rice, but both in Reaping and Plowing, the Peasants and
Buffalos are mir'd up to the Knees, the continual Inundations keeping
the Ground so wet. Few Ships come to it, by reason of its inaccessible
Shoales. They have the same common use of Weapons, Elephants, Horses,
Spears, Campilanes, or Cymiters, and Shields. The Crizes, or Daggers,
worn by the King's Guards are [Arosbay City.] of Silver. The City
Arosbay is Populous, and well Wall'd. The Hollanders main Design in
coming to it, was, as has been said, to take in Pilots, and other
Necessaries to proceed to the Molucco Islands; to which Purpose,
and to avoid the Shoals lying betwixt Java and Madura, they divided
their Ships. The Vice-Admiral, with the Guelder and Zealand, pass'd
the Chanels of Madura, in order to joyn, at Jorta, the Junks that
sail for Ternate, and thence to the other Molucco Islands.

The Admiral Sticht Utrecht, running along the length of Madura,
came to an Anchor before Arosbay. He sent out a Number of his Men
in the [Dutch taken by the King of Madura.] Boat, to bring Rice,
and other Provisions from Shore. No sooner were they landed, then
seiz'd, disarm'd, stripp'd, and carry'd before the King. Those staying
long, another Boat was sent with only three Men, and the same befell
them. The Prisoners intreated the King to give leave, that those three,
or any others, might go to give the Admiral an Account. He granted it,
but upon Condition, that as soon as they had deliver'd the Message,
they should return to Prison. They gave Notice of their Misfortune,
and the Admiral sent away a Boat to carry immediate Advice to his
Countrymen at the City Jorta, writing several Letters to procure the
Prisoners Liberty. The Vice-Admiral came with his Ships, and joyn'd
those at Arosbay. The [His Demands for their Ransom.] King demanded
the two biggest Brass Guns aboard the Admiral, many Pieces of Silk,
and one thousand Pieces of Eight for the Ransom of the Prisoners. The
Admiral answer'd, That the Cannon was not his own, but belong'd to
all his Nation, and therefore he desir'd him to moderate the Ransom,
and turn it into Money, or take it out in such Commodities as he
brought. Six Days were spent in Treating, and the Delay made the
Conclusion more Difficult; and therefore the Admiral believing,
that his Men were kept Prisoners in their own Boats, or near the
Sea, without any considerable Guard, he order'd all his Men to
land at once, and to Rescue them [Attempt to Rescue them by Force.]
by Force. An hundred and fifty Dutchmen attempted it, but saw a great
Number of People gathering on the Shore, led by the Portugueses,
who carry'd white Colours, in token of Peace, giving out that they
came to treat of an Accommodation, which, as Hugo affirms, was a
Stratagem to gain Time for the Citizens to Arm. The Dutch either
suspected, or had Notice of it, and forming a small body with about
20 Musquetiers, contriv'd to have their other Boats draw nearer,
that so the Seamen and Officers might come to Fight, according to
the appointed Order. More Men came out of the City, at another Gate,
to enclose them unawares in the Port. The Dutch saw into the Policy,
and were sensible of the Danger, and therefore sent two other boats to
guard the Port. This Precaution was the saving of their Lives; but they
could not escape a Shower of Arrows, wherewith the Arosbayans thought
to subdue them, not so much by their Force, and the Harm receiv'd, as
by keeping the Enemy in Play, that so they might spend their Powder,
and be oblig'd to retire to their Ships. Nor would they have been safe
there, for now the Wind and Sea threatned them, and [Dutch Defeated.]
thirty six Men belonging to the Admiral, and thirteen to the Zealand
were Drown'd, and the Boats cast away. Some few escap'd, whom they did
not kill, at the Request of the Renegado of Tuban, but they were made
Prisoners. These kneeling down, to move Compassion, with their dismal
Looks, and Tears, the Conquerors laid a Handful of Earth on their
Heads, a Ceremony [Ceremony in giving Quarter.] they use towards the
vanquish'd, whose Lives they grant. Perhaps they themselves know not
the Reason, and Original of the Custom. Five and Twenty were lost in
this Encounter, fifteen of the Admirals, one of John Marts, and nine
of the Zealand. The Prisoners were carry'd to a Country Cottage; three
Men dangerously wounded, one Trumpeter, and a Herald put into Chains,
the others only their Hands bound. The rest were carry'd far from
these, and put into a deep Cellar. The Herald being brought into the
King's Presence, he ask'd him, whether he would stay in his Country,
promising, among other Favours, that he would marry him to two of his
own Wives. The Dutchman answer'd, returning Thanks, but with Freedom
in his Looks, That with his good leave he had rather return to his
Companions. He was therefore carry'd, with the Trumpeter, about the
City, and at his going out at the Gate saw all the Prisoners, being
fifty one, who were conducting, under a Guard, to another Island.

[Prisoners Ransom'd.] In fine, the Agreement was concluded, and
the King discharg'd them for 2000 Florines. So they return'd to
their Ships, except two, who hid themselves, taking a liking to that
barbarous Way of living. The Governour Jacob Marts Dy'd, his Body
was cast into the Sea, and the rest sailing to the [Dutch Depart.]
Northward, directed their Course for the Island of Celebes. They
pass'd by Combay, six Leagues from it, and beyond that of Routon,
and escap'd the Ridges of Rocks of Cebessa, which are not mark'd down,
nor taken Notice of in Maps. Their fell mighty Rains, and they steer'd
North East for the Island of Amboyna, and in sight of Boora. A Boy dy'd
aboard the Zealand; another falling off a Yard, into the Sea, held a
Rope's End in his Mouth, that his arms might be at Liberty to swim,
and quitted it not, till he had Help, and was sav'd. The next Day they
lay by, and their Preacher made a long Spiritual Discourse upon the
Sacraments, to celebrate the solemnity of Baptizing two Boys, whom
he had already Catechis'd. On the first of March, not far from Blau,
to the Eastward of Boora, they saw three other smaller Islands, call'd
Atypoti, Maniba, and Gita, which are not far from [Come to Amboyna.]
Amboyna. They pass'd by them, and arriv'd at Amboyna on the third of
the same Month.

The Port is small, and at the Mouth of it, they were receiv'd by three
Boats, belonging to the Town of Matel, seated on the Mountains. Thence
they went on to that of Ito. Amboyna is about eight Leagues from
Banda, to the Northward, in the Way to Ternate. The compass of it is
fifteen Leagues, most fruitful in Cloves, Oranges, Lemmons, Citrons,
Coco-Nuts, Bananas, Sugar-Canes, and other such like Product. The
Natives are more open Hearted, and sincere, than those of the Moluccos
or Banda; wear the same Habit; live Upon the Trade of Spice; are
temperate and abstemious, [Their Weapons.] and great Sufferers
of Hardship. Their Weapons, are Spears with Sharp twisted Ends;
these they dart so dexterously, that they will hit the smallest
Mark at a great Distance. They also use Cymiters and Shields, and
now Muskets. They make great Masses of Sugar, Rice, and Almonds,
like our [Carcoas.] Sugar-Loaves, and value themselves upon being
able Seamen. Their Carcoas are like great Dragons, did these swim
with their Bodies extended on the Water, and lifting up their two
Ends of Head and Tail, which are gilt, and well Carv'd, and serve
for Prow and Poop. At both of them hang Standards of several Sorts
of Silk, and Colours, which are born up by the Wind, when they do
not reach to the Water. The Admiral of Amboyna came with three of
these Vessels full of arm'd Men, to see the Dutch, with a [Musick.]
Noise of Kittle-Drums, and Brass Basons hanging on the Musitian's
Left-Shoulder, and striking them with the Right-Hand, as they do the
Tabors in Spain. They sang their set Airs, understood by none but the
Native Amboyneses, tho' attentively listen'd to by the Dutch, for their
Strangeness. The Slaves also sang to the Noise of their Oars. They
fir'd the three Guns every Carcoa carry'd, being a Salute, in Honour
of their Guests; who relying on that Reception, dropt their Anchors,
posting many Sentinels, because they observ'd the Natives had done
the same in all Parts, and there were constant Fires in many Places.

[Dutch permitted to Trade at Amboyna.] The Amboynese Admiral ask'd
them, What they came for, and who they were, and having heard their
Answer, gave them leave to go ashore, and expose their Commodities,
allowing them free Commerce, contrary to his Majesty's Prohibition,
which us'd to be more punctually observ'd in this Island. The Dutch
Vice-Admiral went ashore, where he was well received, and conducted
to a Seat cover'd with Sails of Ships, supported by Trees, full of
Fruit not known in Europe. He easily prevail'd with the Governors,
to allow him full Liberty to Trade. Their Success was forwarded [King
of Ternate's Brother assists the Dutch.] by Cachil Azude, Brother to
the King of Ternate, who happen'd to be there then, celebrating his
Nuptials, being newly come with his Bride, who was the Daughter of a
Sangiack of Batochina. He had long courted, and desir'd to be marry'd
to her, but was oppos'd by the Father, who had promised her to the King
of Bachian. We shall say no more of their Love, nor of what became
of the Prince, because it is no essential Part of this History. He
presently repair'd to the Dutch, and order'd them to be furnish'd with
those Loaves made of Sugar, Almonds and Rice, with Coco-Nuts, Bananas,
and Wine made of Rice, and this so lavishly, that the Dutch [Plenty
of Provisions.] Relations own they had scarce Room to lay up such
Plenty of Provisions. The same would have been, had they bought them,
for they had so much for a Pewter Spoon, that they knew not what to do
with it. The Amboynese Admiral went aboard the Ships again, was pleas'd
to see the great Guns, and the Variety and Plenty of Merchandise. The
Prince of Ternate did the same, and both of them at their coming and
going were saluted by the Cannon. They had private Conferences with
him, and other Noblemen of the Moluccos, who attended him. They erected
Factories in several Parts of Amboyna, and agreed that the two Ships,
Guelder and Zealand, should Sail for Banda, whilst the other two lay
two Months to load and rest at Amboyna. We shall mention hereafter
what befel these in Ternate, let us now return to the other two.

[Two Dutch Ships sail for Banda.] They sail'd with a fair Wind,
but one of them stuck in the Flats of Ceru, so that she could scarce
be got off. Below Jealau, they met a Portuguese Ship at Naesau, the
Inhabitants of which Place eat Mans Flesh. They pass'd on merrily by
Poelsetton, two Leagues short of Banda, on that Side. It is desert,
and uninhabited, infamous, for stronger Reasons, than the Greeks
alledge against the Acroceraunian Rocks. There are Cryes, Whistles, and
[Island of Devils.] Roarings heard in it at all Times, and dreadful
Apparitions are seen, with Fires ascending through the Air; and
long Experience has shown, that it is inhabited by Devils. Therefore
Sailors, when they pass in Sight of it, which seldom happens without
Storms, make all the Sail they can to get far off, from the very Wind
that blows on it. The Dutch chief Pilot knowing so much, furiously
took such fast hold of the Helm, that all the rest could not put him
from it; He drew it to him violently, thinking that Force drove on the
Ship; his Face grew fiery, and his Breast not being able to contain his
Wind, he breath'd fast, and groan'd, till being past the [Dutch Pilot
frighted by the Devil.] Island, he grew merry, and whistling loud,
scoff'd at the Devil, because he could not cast away the Ship; yet soon
after he was in Disorder again, and dropt the Helm; they recover'd him,
and made all sail to go forward. [Trade at Banda.] They arriv'd at
Banda, near the River, on the fifteenth of the Month. Several Bandese
Boats came out, offering their Spice. The Dutch landed, carrying with
them sundry Commodities, which they expos'd in Shops. A rich Turk,
who was in Esteem, entertain'd them. They built Houses on the Island,
and a few Days after hear'd News of their Admiral, by some Chinese
Ships, that came from Amboyna; and were inform'd, that the Portugueses
were already at War with the Natives, for entertaining and allowing
them Factories.

[Return thence.] On the fourth of July, having settled Trade at Banda,
they sail'd thence towards Noeselau, along the Channels of Zeru,
without regarding their Admiral, who was promoting, and fomenting
the War at Amboyna. They sail'd in Sight of Bouton, which is in five
Degrees of South Latitude, and of the Island Cobayna. On the twelfth
they pass'd the Coast of Celebes, and on the seventeenth, by that of
Madura, and again discover'd Arosbay, where the Misfortune we have
spoken of befel them. They ran along the Coast of Java, and in the
Evening came to Iacatra, where they cast Anchor, sent to visit the
King, and their Compliment was return'd by him with a Present of
Rice, Fowl, and Coco-Nuts, and a Buffalo for the Vice-Admiral. The
Zealanders, who had been left at Banda in their Houses and Factories,
in the Cities of Montelongo, and Soleparvo, by Letters of the first of
August, acquainted them, how the new Friendship was establish'd. From
this Time the Dutch began, without any Opposition, to possess
themselves of the Provinces belonging to the Crown of Spain in Asia.

They took Leave of that King, and return'd to Banda, with the Natives
of which Place they had now contracted such Familiarity, that some
Ships belonging to Bandese Merchants, which they met by the Way,
presented them with a considerable Quantity of Porcelane. At their
Arrival the Governour came out to meet them, with 400 Men, inviting
them to take some Refreshment ashore, which they refus'd, but made
presents to each other, and drank out great Vessels of Wine made of
Rice, which is a powerful and strong Liquor. Continuing their Voyage
on the tenth of September, towards the South West, they thought
they were under the Tropick of Capricorn. On the thirtieth, they
were in 28 Degrees, with the Wind at West, somewhat Northerly, and
ran thirty Leagues beyond Cape S. Roman, after they had been toss'd
among many Islands, in thirty two Degrees and a half South. Next
they discover'd Cape Ploemera, of the Southern Ethiopia, or Land of
the Cafres. A Storm dispers'd the Ships, but they met again when it
ceas'd, at Cape Anquillos. On the seventh of September they arriv'd
at the Island S. Helena; the Master went ashore, kill'd many wild
Beasts; and, [S. Helena Island.] furnish'd the Ships with Fruit,
there being Plenty of both. The Sick recovered there: They went
into the solitary Church, and on the first of January, 1600, they
sail'd thence, and being come into five Degrees of North Latitude,
on the Thirtieth of the same Month, observ'd an Eclypse. Then they
began to discover the North Pole, which had been out of their Sight
so long. On the thirteenth of February they had Sight of the Island
Mayo, or May, one of those of Cabo Verde, and about the End of March
discover'd the English Hills. In fine, they arriv'd at the Texel,
and thence to Amsterdam, where they unladed that spicy Wealth, the
like, for Quality and Newness, had never yet been brought to Lisbon;
at least Hugo's Relations tell us, there might have been as precious
Oyl drawn from these, as when they were just gather'd.

Whilst these two Ships, Zealand and Guelder, were sailing Home, the
[The other Dutch Ships depart the Moluccos:] other two, Amsterdam
and Utretcht, being almost naturaliz'd at Amboyna, departed thence for
Ternate, on the eigth of March, 1599, in the Company of three Junks,
full of Javanese Soldiers, well arm'd, and hir'd to attack a Fort that
was defended by Portugueses. Before their Departure, some of them
went ashore, and among other Game, took Abundance of green Pigeons,
[Green Pigeons.] as big as our Ducks. They loaded with Clove, because
it is sold in that Island for thirty five Royals a Bar, which is there
150 Pounds. They were inform'd, that the Dutch, who had been left
at Banda, would soon come to joyn them. The Portugueses attacking
a Fort with ill Success, the Dutch, who were before agreed with the
Prince of Ternate, arm'd, and mix'd with his Men. This was the first
Time they ever Fought with the Subjects of Spain, in those Parts;
and the Dutch Author, who gives an Account of this Action, says,
the Islanders look'd upon it as a Prodigy.

Having settled Commerce at Amboyna, they sail'd away for the Islands
of Ternate, taking for their Guide, a Captain, who pretended to them,
[Dutch at Ternate.] that he was Brother to the King of an Island;
and to magnify his Grand-Father, boasted he had kept seventy lawful
Wives, besides Concubines; and that his Son, to vye with him, had
forty Wives, besides Mistresses. So says the Journal of that Voyage,
writ by them who perform'd it. They discover'd the Islands of Tydore
and Ternate on the twenty sixth, and coming to an Anchor at the latter,
in fifteen Fathom Water, put out their Colours, fired their Cannon,
and spar'd for no real or vain Ostentation. The King of Ternate, whose
deep known Sagacity is such, that he trusts no other but himself to
observe what Dangers may threaten, went into his own Carcoa, attended
by many others, on the 28th of May, and sail'd [The King goes to view
the Ships.] to the Place, where the Dutch lay at Anchor. He drew
near and inclos'd the Ships, call'd to the Admiral, and ask'd him, who
he was, whence his Ships, and other Particulars. These Questions and
Answers held some Hours, by Means of the Naguatato's who interpreted
the Discourse. The Admiral intreated the King that he would please
to come aboard his Ship. He excus'd himself, first alledging, that
he did not like those Ladders they show'd him to go up to them, tho'
they had purposely cover'd them with fine Cloth; and afterwards,
that the Sun was setting, and it was Time for him to repair to his
Devotions. Having made this godly Excuse, he sail'd towards the City,
the Air resounding with the Noise of his Brass Basons, Flat Tabors,
Guns, Shouts, and Persian Songs.

[He returns.] The 29th he drew near to the new Comers again, with 23
Carcoas; in which he had 100 Brass Guns for his Defence, and firing
them all at once, to the clattering of Bells, made show of his Warlike
Preparation. The Confusion of it being over, tho' they sang Verses,
as they do to denote Peace, in the Malay Tongue, so they call the
Language of Malaca, whence it was convey'd to the Moluccos; yet the
Dutch made ready their great Guns, Muskets, and half Pikes. They
plac'd some arm'd Men out of Sight in every Ship, as also where they
might be taken Notice of, showing, or at least not concealing their
Jealousy, that so no sudden Surprize might find them unprovided. The
King's Carcoa drew near alone, and those who were in it spoke to the
Dutch Admiral, by Means of the Naguatato, without showing themselves.

The King was satisfy'd with only talking to them, and withdrew; after
Noon he return'd with only two Carcoas, one of which tow'd a Boat after
[Talks with the Dutch.] her. Being come up to the Dutch, he began to
talk to the Vice-Admiral; enquir'd after their Guns, and order'd the
other Carcoa to stand further off, and the Captain going too far, the
Boat, either accidentally, or by Design, broke loose from the Stern,
and was over-set by the Waves; the King then desired the Admiral to
fire at it with a Ball, that he might see whether they could hit or
sink it. They fir'd immediately, the King being well pleas'd to see
that the Shot had stav'd the Boat in Pieces. The Admiral laying hold
of this Opportunity, took Care, whilst they were commending the Shot,
which serv'd to disguise the Threat, to let him know that he could
with as much Ease sink the Carcoas. This Tryal satisfy'd the [Gives
them leave to Trade.] King, who soon after gave leave for that Nation
to Trade in his Dominions, and barter Cloves, Spice, precious Stones,
and Pearls, all which is there to be found, by reason of the Resort of
the Japonese, Camboxa and Chinese Ships. Of these last they then saw
some all made of Wood alone, even to their Anchors, and the Sails of
Cane. They came to an Anchor at Ternate, where the first Thing they
did, was burying of Reynart Reynarts, a Dutch Soldier, scarce worthy
of that Buryal, Idolaters and Mahometans resorting to the Funeral. The
King the next Day sent a Carcoa to acquaint the Dutch, that he would go
aboard their Ships, and a Boat came to the Admiral's Side, with only
four Ternates in a private Habit, who, by their Questions, Curiosity,
and Solicitude, seem'd to be Spyes, as they did by all their Discourse,
which was on sundry Subjects, and very full of solid Reflection;
which was held on, and listen'd to, with Attention and Dissimulation.

When the Dutch expected the King would come, they understood he [The
King visits the Dutch, in Disguise.] was one of the four then talking
to them from the Boat. They signify'd to him that they knew him, and
he did not deny it. They pay'd him the Respect due to a King; but then
he refus'd to return to the Ship. Notwithstanding these Jealousies,
he approved of the Behaviour of that People. On the second of June
Embassadors went ashore, who carry'd the King a Present, which he
accepted of, and treated them courteously. They return'd, full of
Admiration of the infinite Quantity of Cloves, and the wonderful
Woods of them; and bringing the News, that the Ternates would soon
come to view and buy the Dutch Commodities.

The next Day they came in great Numbers, Sangiacks, Cachiles, and
Commons, Barbarian Ladies, and all Sorts of Women, with Variety of
[Concourse of People to the Dutch.] Attendance. The Shores were
cover'd with sundry Sorts of People; differing in Habit, Colour, and
great Diversity of Feathers; among them many naked, and of various
Countenances, for all flock'd out, as if it had been some publick
Festival. Tho' they admir'd the Wealth of the Ships, yet they rais'd
the Price of the Bars of Clove so high, that they could not come to
any Agreement, because that was to be their main Loading. They went
ashore on the 10th and 11th, to see whether they abated any Thing of
the Price, and to some other Purposes, which do not concern us, tho'
they might be some Ornament, but shall be left in the Originals where
they were writ. They could not conclude any Thing with the King,
or his Subjects, because they were celebrating a Festival, and the
Dutch were present at the Shows.

A Sort of Combatants, like the Roman Pugiles, and Gladiators, tho'
[Indian Gladiators.] differing in some Respects, fought in a large
spacious Square. These Ternates did not move from one Place to another,
nor hurt one another, but stood continually upon one Foot, without
changing or easing it, on any Account; but the Foot that was lifted
up, mov'd about and stretch'd in the Air, without being put to the
Ground. Their Mistresses, Wives, or Sisters attended in the Field,
with Branches of Flowers, and China Dishes full of Aromatick Liquors,
to refresh those that were tyr'd; but most of them attended the
Conqueror. The Sport being ended, the next Day the King repair'd
to the Ships, but went not aboard. Discoursing with the Admiral,
he ask'd him for a gilt Musket, which he presented him, and [The
King asks a Musket, and pays for it.] the King did not think fit to
receive Gratis, because he had ask'd for it; he therefore order'd,
that when the Dutch paid the Tithe of the Spice, which is the Duty he
has from Merchants, they should have two Bars and a half discounted for
the Price of the Musket, and that they should be furnish'd with every
Thing they had Occasion for besides. He was well pleas'd one Day, that
the Dutch should see how a Boy of eleven Years of Age, was led about
the Streets, with his Hands bound, because he had stolen a Tubac,
[Severe Punishment of petty Larceny.] that is, a Leaf of a Frail,
with as many Cloves as it would carry; because this was an Instance
of their Severity in punishing that Offence. The other Boys, shouted
and sham'd him, proclaiming the Theft with loud Voices.

[Triumph of Ternates.] About this Time some Ternate Troops return'd
Home victorious, having plunder'd and destroy'd a Town in the Island
of Tydore. They march'd into the City on the 20th of July, the King
being present, with their Campilanes, or Cymiters drawn, and bloody,
with half Heads, Ears, and Hair of those they had conquer'd, or
slain, sticking to them. They show'd the Shields and Weapons they
had taken from them, their Cloaths and Feathers, and 43 Prisoners,
who follow'd dragging Chains, some about their Necks, and some at
their Heels. Among them was a brave Youth, 21 Years of Age, who was
a Sangiack of Note, and Kinsman to the King of Tydore; as also a very
beautiful Portuguese Lady, Wife to a Captain in that Fort. They walk'd
about the City, with all this State and Plunder, till they came to
[Prisoners sacrific'd.] the King's Palace; there the Captives were
sacrific'd, and the Portuguese Lady sold for a Slave, a rare Piece
of Mercy, and purchas'd by her Tears. The King of Ternate honour'd
the Chief of the Tydores, smiling and lovingly encouraging him, as
Kinsman to a King. The Youth excusing himself, and pleading Innocence,
to gain the Victor's Favour, he return'd a favourable Answer, and
bid him wash himself. Sweet Water was brought to wash their Hands,
and it was poured over the King's Hands and his, at the same Time,
out of one Ewer. Then the Captive thus assur'd, letting fall his
Hands with the Water, which, perhaps, is a Ceremony to denote Peace,
and bowing his Head by way of civility, a Soldier struck him on
[Barbarous Perfidiousness.] the Neck with a sharp Campilane, or
Cymiter, so furiously, that the Head dropt at some Distance from
the Body half alive; then they cut both the Head and Body into small
Pieces, all which, to exercise their utmost Rage, they put into a Prau,
which is a little Boat, and then sunk all together in the Sea.

Four Days after another Parcel of Ternates came with several Tydore
[More of their Cruelty.] Prisoners, whose Heads they cut off in the
Port, as they did that of a Stranger, who came peaceably to the Island
with Merchandize. All these Spectacles the Dutch beheld. Such good Use
do those Barbarians make of Victory. Friendship being now establish'd
with the Dutch, and the King [The King aboard the Dutch Ships.]
well assur'd of it, he resolv'd to go aboard their Ships. He went
aboard the Admiral on the 25th of July, with all his Guard, where
nothing escap'd being narrowly view'd and observ'd by him, with a
seeming willingness to buy it. He desired the Admiral to leave some
of his Men at Ternate, which was refus'd at that Time. He view'd the
Ship over again, and going into the Cook-Room, very much admir'd a
Pair of Bellows, wherewith they kindled the Fire in his Presence,
and seeing the Use they were put to, took them into his own Hands,
and was a considerable Time opening and shutting of them; then biting
and pressing the Nozle with his Lips, [Foolish Behaviour of his.]
he began to swallow the Wind it blow'd out, swelling himself up,
not without much Laughter and Astonishment of the Dutch, who write,
they Thought the King was either running Mad, or had no Sense
before. He begg'd those Bellows, and being presented with them,
was highly pleas'd. He return'd several Times after to the Ships,
with a greater Design in his Head, which was to try whether he
could by any Means contrive to seize them. He was pleas'd to see
how affectionately his Subjects traded and trusted them with their
Spice. At length they prevail'd upon the Admiral to leave some of
his Men, with a good Sum of Money, to [Dutch Factory at Ternate.]
buy up Cloves the next gathering. The first Dutch Factors left at
Ternate, were Francis Verdoes, Father to William; Diricht Floris,
Jacob Lamberts, John Jans, of Grol; Cornelius Adrians, and a Boy of
Amsterdam, whose Name was Henry Jans. These laid the Ground for the
second Enmity, with the first Rebells of that Nation, who conspir'd
with the Ternates, and were afterwards the Occasion of other Fleets
and Succours coming into those Parts, against their Natural Sovereign.

These Men being left at Ternate, and having receiv'd Intelligence
that [Dutch depart Ternate.] the Brigantines were returning from the
Island of Banda, the Ships sail'd from Ternate, on the 19th of August,
passing by the Island Maca, among the other Moluccos, and that of
Oba, to the Northward. Then in two Degrees and a half Latitude, they
discover'd so many Islands, that they could not count them; others
they saw, not set down in the Maps, and learnt their Names from some
Sailors. Among them was that of Banquore, and its Neighbour Sabobe,
whose King resides in that of Mitara, and has 30 more within a very
small Compass. He furnish'd them with Provisions, and gave Notice of
Dangerous Ridges of Rocks; to avoid which, they return'd the same Way
they came, in Sight of Amboyna and Celebes. On the 13th of November,
they were inform'd at Jaquetra, that the Vice-Admiral was already
gone from Banda; and had there a great Quantity of Rice, brought but
just before by Chinese Vessels.

[Come to Banda.] On the 17th they came to Banda, where at Montelongo,
and Soleparvo, they found the two Zealand Ships, which having traded
about eight Months with little Profit, design'd to return. On the
15th of January 1600, the Admiral made the Governour of Banda some
European Presents, and among them a small Boat, all cover'd with
fine Scarlet. All the Merchants met and set sail for Holland, on the
21th of the same Month, and sail'd all February, with stormy Winds,
and loss of some of their Men, till the Weather mended on the third of
March. On the 13th of April, in the Latitude of 34 Degrees and a half,
they found themselves somewhat [At the Cape of Good Hope.] above 20
Leagues from the Cape of Good Hope. On the 16th of May, they reach'd
the Island of St. Helena, where, at some Distance, they discover'd
other Ships. Some Men landed, and admir'd its strange Fertility
among those Mountains. They saw another Island, whose bare Rocks,
[S. Helena.] without Trees or Grass, look as if they were made of
Coals; and among them are Abundance of monstrous wild Boars, yet
nothing could be seen to grow, or any living Creatures they could
feed upon; There were also [Desart Island.] large Tortoises, some
of them weighing 400 Weight. On the last of May they made for the
Texel, and thence to Amsterdam, where they were receiv'd with publick
Rejoycing; and they again prepar'd to return to India, and continuing
their Trade with those barbarous Kings, who are Masters of the Spice,
Metals, precious Stones, Pearls, and other foreign Wealth, have at
length converted the Friendship they kindly offer'd at first, into
Slavery, and Subjection to the Tyranny of Holland and Zealand. And
in the Year 1600, with more Expedition, they sail'd into Guinea,
and to S. George de la Mina, with only two Ships, the first Time,
and ran through the same Ports and Islands, throughout our Seas in
Safety. They took particular Accounts of all Things, whether Natural,
or Political, relating to that vast extended Country of Asia, which
is almost opposite to Europe, and under other Stars, and another
Pole. The same Year, being in search of the North-Passage, in 80
Degrees of Latitude, they discover'd [Nova Zembla.] Nova Zembla,
where they found nothing but monstrous white and grey Bears, which
did not run, but rather took little Notice of the Noise of Cannon,
and devour'd Men; there were also white Crows, no less undaunted;
and in short, most of that Part of the World was desart, and they
found not the Passage they expected into the South-Sea. Yet they now
sail'd all those Southern Parts, at all Seasons, making a Jest of the
Monsons, the Portugueses so mightily observe, as if they had them
shut up in Skins, like the Fable in Ulysses. Perhaps they buy fair
and stormy Winds, as is said to be done in Lapland, at settled Rates,
of Witches that deal in them.

[Vanity of the King of Ternate.] The King of Ternate was so puff'd
up with the Friendship, and Support of the Northern Nations, that he
durst boldly flatter himself with the Hope of becoming absolute Master
of Tydore. Accordingly he streightned that King, and the Portuguese
Garrison, without allowing them the least Respite. Other Dutch Ships
had come since the former to that Island, on Account of Trade, by
the Way of India, with Arms and several Commodities. The Ternate
Embassadors were treating in England and Holland, for settling of
perpetual Peace and Commerce. The King had already received Answers
to these Embassies, and very speedily expected an English Fleet,
and many Dutch Ships, with whose Assistance he promis'd himself to
destroy Tydore, and thence to stretch out to the Philippines. In
the mean while, some Dutch and English remain'd at his Court, like
Hostages, with a Factor, whose Business was to attend the Bartering,
or buying up of Spice; to purchase which they brought him Abundance
of curious Arms. This being known to the King of Tydore, and Ruy
Gonzalez de Sequeyra, Commander of the Fort, who every Year writ to the
[Embassy from Tydore to the Philippines.] Governour of the Philippines
about it; they now sent a particular Embassy to Don Francisco Tello,
giving him an Account of the Condition of those Places; of the Fort;
of the Succours, and how vain it was to expect them from India. That
an Affair of such Consequence might sort the desired [The King's
Brother Embassador.] Event, they appointed Cachil Cota, the King of
Tydore's Brother, a notable Soldier, and most renowned Commander of
the Moluccos, to go Embassador. He came to Manila, well attended,
with Letters from the King, and the Commander in Chief. Those, and
he, in a set Speech, (for the People of the Moluccos do not want
Rhetorick to perswade) return'd the Governour Thanks for the Supplies
he had at several Times sent them of Provisions, and Ammunition. But
what we come to desire, said Cachil Cota, is that this Work be now
effectually taken in Hand, before the English and Dutch with their
Fleets strengthen Ternate, and render it impregnable. We cannot
but admire, that whereas the Portuguese Arms obtain such signal
Victories, as are those of Calicut; over the Turks, at Diu; over
the Egyptians; over the People of Cananor, of Ceylon, the Javas,
Sumatra, and other Nations on that Side; and the Spaniards on this,
against those of Camboxa, Mindanao, Japan, Cochinchina, and China,
yet only we of the Moluccos, who lie amidst the Dominions of one only
Monarch, should be left expos'd to the utmost Fury of a Parcel of
Rebellious Islands. If the King of Spain allows, or rather commands,
we should be reliev'd by the Way of the Philippine Islands, Why is he
not obey'd? What does it avail to carry on a cool War, against a hot
and watchful Enemy? The Governour answer'd to every Point, and having
entertain'd him, and given Hopes of greater Supplies, when he could
be secure against the mighty Preparations then making at Japan, he
dismiss'd him, with a considerable Recruit of Artillery and Ammunition,
and some experienced Soldiers. However these Succours being so much
inferior to the Power of the Enemy, and their own Fear, which made
them expect much greater, they could not put them out of Care. This
made them send Captain Marcos Dias de Febra, [Another Embassy.]
their last Embassador to the Philippines, during the Government of
Don Francis Tello. He carry'd Letters from the King and Ruy Gonzalez,
to the Governour and Council, which being almost all of them much of
the same Purport, we will here insert one of them, directed to Doctor
Antony Morga, one of that Council, writ with the King's own Hand,
and in the Portuguese Language.

[The King of Tydores Letter.] I was wonderfully pleas'd with your
Letter of the 8th of November last, because by it I understood how
very sincere you were in remembring of me; God reward you for it
with much Prosperity in this Life, that you may do Service to the
King, my Sovereign, for I understand you are by his Order in those
Islands, and desirous to improve them; which I am not ignorant will
be no less Advantageous to this Fort and Island of Tydore. I write
to the Governour, and to that Council, concerning the Succours I
desire, and have ask'd so often, the Necessity of it being great,
to prevent those Mischiefs which may afterwards put my Sovereign,
the King, to much Trouble and Charge. God grant you long Life. From
this Island of Tydore, March the 8th 1601. The King of Tydore, in
Arabick Characters; and then what follows in Portuguese. The Bearer
is Marcos Diaz, he will deliver you a Powder Flask, with a Charger of
fine Moorish Brass. I send it you, that you may remember this Friend.

[Embassador returns well satisfy'd.] The Embassador return'd to
Tydore with the first Monson, at the Beginning of the Year 1602,
well pleas'd with the Answer he brought, the Supplies of Provisions
and Ammunition he had demanded, and some Soldiers; but much better
satisfy'd with the Hopes given him, that as soon as an Opportunity
offer'd, that Expedition should be undertaken from Manila for Ternate,
with the necessary Preparations, and Force to secure the Success.

[K. James of England Writes to the King of Ternate.]

At this Time King James of England, writ to Sultan Zayde, of Ternate,
desiring him to continue his former Friendship, and that the English
might build Colonies and Factories in the Molucco Islands. The Sultan
would not grant it, and complain'd in harsh Terms, that England had
never assisted him against Portugal; and that so little Account
should be there made of the first Alliance concluded by Means of
Sir Francis Drake, when King Babu sent the Queen of England a Ring
in Token of Confederacy, [His Answer.] by the said Drake. He said,
he could not admit the English, contrary to the solemn Engagement he
had made to Prince Maurice and the Dutch Nation, to whom he had made
a Promise, that none but they should buy up and lade the Product
of his Country. All this appears by the Copy of a Letter in the
Portuguese Tongue, found among the King of Ternate's Papers, when
our Men possess'd themselves of his Palace. Where we may observe the
perfect Hatred he shows for the Portuguese Government, since he never
Names those People without adding the Epithet of Mortal Enemies;
and in speaking of the Dutch, My Friends and Deliverers; adding,
That he expects their Fleets with great Satisfaction. This Answer
he sent King James by Henry Middleton, then Admiral of the English
Fleet, on the eighteenth of July, 1605. The Truth of the Fact is,
that this King admitted, and invited to his Dominions, and the Product
of them, all other Nations, to arm against the Spaniards, and oppose
Christianity; and tho' he then boasted of the Succours he receiv'd,
and expected from the Dutch, had he seen the Power of their Fleets and
Arms decline, he would have excluded them the Trade. All his Religion
and Hopes were subservient to the present Circumstances of Times,
and his Faith depended on the Advantages he could make.

                      The End of the Seventh Book.

                                 OF THE
                         Discovery and Conquest
                                 OF THE
                  Molucco and Philippine Islands, &c.

                               BOOK VIII.

All the Contents of the Letters, and other Papers, that came from
the Molucco Islands to India and the Philippines, for the following
Years, amount to nothing but Complaints, asking Relief, and giving
Intelligence, not altogether below the Dignity of History, were we not
come so near the last Period of it. Particularly there are Letters of
the Commander of Tydore, Ruy Gonzalez de Sequeyra, to the Governor of
the Philippine Islands, wherein he complains, [Complaints from Tydore,
and other Advice.] That whereas he had sent 400 Men, Ships, and
Warlike Stores to Camboxa, where his Majesty had nothing to Recover,
he had furnish'd him with only twenty Soldiers. He represents to him
many pressing Wants, without any Hopes of Relief from the Viceroy,
by the way of Malaca; urging the scarcity of Provisions, Arms, and all
other Necessaries. He informs him, That through his Means Cachil Mole
had been sworn King of Tydore; and how faithful a Friend he approves
himself to the Crown of Sian, and an Enemy to the Ternates, and that
he is always sollicitous for recovering of that Fort. He desires him
to send the King a Present of great Guns, and other Gifts, and to do
the same by the King of Sian, who is a Christian, and our Friend. He
acquaints him how frequently the English and Dutch Ships resort to
those Seas, and that he had taken some of them.

The Success of a very great and rich Ship of Zealand, is most
particularly Remarkable: This Vessel putting into Ternate, and Trading
with that Wicked Faithless King, he consented that Ruy Gonzalez should
contrive [Villany of the King of Ternate.] to cut her Cables, provided
the Booty might be his: He agreed to it, exacting an Exorbitant price
for the Villany. The Bargain made, and the Bribe receiv'd, they who had
cut the Cables leap'd over-board, and immediately the King's Officers
appear'd, who seiz'd all the Loading, the Ship being beaten to pieces,
to no purpose. He assures him, That the Enterprize on Ternate might be
effected with 400 Spaniards; and promises to send him a great piece
of Amber, as an extraordinary Rarity, from the Isles of Mava, which
are 60 Leagues from the Moluccos. He again gives Advice of Northern
Galeons, and that one of them, in four Hours, had batter'd that Fort,
shot into it 261 Bullets; one of which he sent him; and that they
had beaten down a large Curtin of the Wall, which was then Repairing.

[English Infest the West-Indies.] In the mean while England infested
the West-Indies; where the Towns and Ships suffer'd by their Invasions,
Robberies, and Burnings. Only that Part, which was the District
belonging to Don Pedro de Acunna, defended it self, through the
Bravery of its Governor, and for the same Reason the Enemy had Regard
to it. William Park, the English Admiral, appear'd upon the strong
and garrison'd Coasts of America, in the Year 1601. They defended
themselves well, yet he prevail'd in some Places. On the Coast of
Cartagena he took one Julio, a Fisherman, whom he afterwards set at
Liberty, that he might carry the following Letter, writ in broken
Spanish to Don Pedro.

[A'miral Parke's Letter to Don Pedro.] Being inform'd by Fame, with
how much Generosity and Kindness your Lordship entertains Strangers,
especially those of my Nation, I would not forbear expressing the
Gratitude due to your Lordship for that Magnificence, on my own
Part, and returning Thanks, wishing you as long a Life, and as much
Health, as to my self. I would not omit writing these few Lines to
your Lordship, not only on the aforesaid Account, but to acquaint
you with what has happen'd to me during this Expedition. It pleas'd
God to make me Master of one of the Kings Ports, call'd Porto Belo,
which I was possess'd of a whole Day and Part of the Night, where I
found some Gentlemen, particularly Captain Melendez, and some other
Soldiers of the Garrison; and plundering the Place had very little
Booty. The said Captain Melendez, fought like a resolute Soldier,
and faithful Servant of his King, and therefore I order'd him to
be dress'd by my Surgeon, and to be carry'd out of the House where
he was wounded, having laid Wood in all the Houses to fire them,
and consume the Town. I do assure your Lordship, and declare on the
Word of a Soldier, that being inform'd of your Valour and Renown,
by certain Prisoners I took, as Captain Rolon, and several others,
and at Porto Belo by the King's Factor, Funes, and other Soldiers,
that were my Prisoners, and aboard my Ship, I gave them all their
Liberty, and forebore firing the City, only on Account of your
Reputation, and the Fame of your good Usage to such Prisoners as
fall into your Hands. So that those I set at Liberty, as also the
Town, may be thankful to your Lordship for so great an Obligation,
as is the Value of the said Town, and their Lives. The Castle, and
the Fort at the Mouth of the Harbour, and the Port it self, so well
fortify'd and furnish'd with Artillery, and all other Necessaries,
did not deter, fright, or daunt me, for I went out with six Ships,
and the Castles did me no Harm. Really the Commanders and Guners were
very honest Men. I give your Lordship Notice of two English Men, who
landed at Santa Marta, near ten Months since, their Names are Abraham
Collins, and Thomas Hall. These are both Spies upon Cartagena. I like
the Treason, but drown the Traitor; I send you some poor Men ashore,
whom I took upon this Coast, your Lordship will favour them as is due,
and according to your Custom. And having Nothing else, at present,
to acquaint your Lordship with, pray to God to lengthen your Life,
with much Health, and Prosperity, and to give me good Luck, as is
in his divine Power, is convenient for us, and I wish. From aboard
my Ship, February the twenty eigth, 1601, our Stile. Your Lordships,
William Park.

Don Pedro answer'd in few Words, yet so as his Brevity might not
exclude Civility, and the Pyrate being satisfy'd, proceeded on his
Voyage. The King had at this Time appointed Don Pedro to succeed
Don Francis [Don Pedro appointed Governor of the Philippines.]
Tello in the Government of the Philippine Islands, designing him for
those Enterprizes he afterwards perform'd. This his Majesty judg'd a
proper Resolution, and safe in the Execution; for what Person is fit
to be pitch'd upon to Govern the utmost Limits of so far extended a
Dominion, but such a one as is endu'd with both Valour and Loyalty,
two necessary Qualifications to secure the Respect and Submission due
to an absent Prince; a Matter of much Difficulty in remote Governments?

Since this Gentleman's own Actions, and the great Opinion his very
Enemies had conceiv'd of them, are sufficient Testimonies of his
Valour, let us proceed to say something of his Quality. Don Pedro had
the Surname of Bravo, as being Son to Don Lewis Bravo, who serving
under the [Don Pedro's Father.] Emperor Charles the fifth, on the Day
the Prince of Orange dy'd, ask'd Leave to assault S. Desir, a strong
Town in the Low Countries, on the Banks of the River Matrone. The
History of that War informs us, that some Friends of his Father's,
hearing of it, endeavour'd to obstruct it, either by disswading
the Son, or prevailing with the Emperor not to grant him Leave. His
Father was Sancho Bravo de Lagunas, a Gentleman of Quality by Birth,
and no less by his own Actions, at that Time Inspector General of the
Emperor's Forces by Sea and Land, and one of his Council of War. All
Men honour'd, and lov'd him entirely. They consider'd he had no other
Son but Don Lewis, and the manifest Danger he expos'd himself to; but
he perceiving what his Fathers Friends were contriving, took upon him
to lead the Van, before they could have Time to prevent his gaining
the Honour he expected; and assaulted the Place with Success, tho'
not without some Imputation of Rashness. His Son Don Pedro did not
degenerate, for the Brave are the Off-spring of the Brave, and the
Eagle does not breed Doves.

The Name of Acunna he took from his Mother, according to the [His
Mother.] Custom of the Kingdoms of Castile, where noble Families,
to keep up the Honour of the Quality they acquire by Matrimony, use to
revive the Names of their Progenitors even in the Grand-Children. Don
Lewis Bravo, marry'd Donna Isabel de Acunna, Daughter to Don Pedro
de Acunna, call'd in those Days el Cabezudo, signifying, either the
Head-strong, or Great-Headed, great Grand-Son to the first Earl of
Buendia, a Family of known Antiquity. Among his Sons, Don Sancho
Bravo, the eldest, is now, when this History was writ, Adelantado,
or Lord Lieutenant of Ternate, and Knight of the Order of Alcantara;
Don Garcia, is Knight of Santiago; Don Lewis, of Calatrava; Don John,
bred in the principal Colledge of Alcala, went thence to be Gentleman
of the Bed-chamber to the  most serene Arch-Duke Albertus, and is
since Cannon of the Holy Church of Toledo, besides other Church
Affairs he is always employ'd in. Our [Don Pedro Knight of Malta.]
Don Pedro was Knight of Malta, and Commendary of Salamanca.

He departed Cartagena, leaving that Government disconsolate, and full
of the Desire of his Continuance among them. He had a good Passage,
[Comes to Mexico.] and being come to Mexico, and entertain'd by the
Viceroy, Don Gaspar De Zunnigay Azevedo, Earl of Monterey, consulted
with him about the Expedition and Recovery of the Molucco Islands,
beginning with Ternate, the Head of them. They admitted to their
Consultations some experienc'd Commanders in those Countries. The
Result was, the Viceroy's being well affected to the Expedition,
and to the Governour, who was going to undertake it, which was of
no small Consequence, towards rend'ring the Preparations made in
New Spain effective. Don Pedro writ to the King, to his Confessor,
to the Duke of Lerma, and to other Ministers of State, especially
the supreme Councellors of the Indies, very largely, in Relation to
this War, showing how difficult it was, and how great a Dishonour,
to permit a Tyrant to reign so long, he being so near a Neighbour. He
said, he could not secure any Ships, nor even the Provinces, against
the Moluccos; and that, had he not been promis'd to be enabled to
recover them, he would never have accepted of the Government of
the Philippine Islands. He sent Brother Gaspar Gomez, a Jesuit,
[Arrives at the Islands Ladrones.] with these Letters into Spain,
And set out himself from Mexico, for Acapulco, the Sea-Port-Town of
that Kingdom. Thence he proceeded, with four Ships of New Spain, to the
Islands de los Ladrones, that is of Thieves, otherwise call'd de las
Velas, or of Sails, from the great Multitude of Little Sails seen about
them, belonging to Abundance of Boats that come out to meet the Ships.

He directed his Course to the Isles of Carpana, and that of Guan,
that no Time might be lost without doing good to others. His
Design was to bring off from among those barbarous People, such
Men as had escap'd [Rich Ships lost.] of the Ship Margarita, cast
away there the Year before, with above 1200000 Ducats; and as true
Virtue never wants Matter to work on, he [Twenty five Men sav'd.]
deliver'd twenty five Men of the many that suffer'd Shipwrack in
that Place. Having perform'd this good Work, in twenty six Days he
came to the Mouth of the Streight of the Philippines, and anchor'd at
Cabite, three [Don Pedro at Manila.] Leagues from Manila; where he
was receiv'd with incredible, and universal Joy. His first Care was
to be inform'd of the Condition his Predecessor left the Government
in. He view'd every Part, and cast off the Sangleys, or Chineses,
as thinking they exceeded the large Number allowed of by the King's
Order. Some interpreted the Exclusion of those People, was only to
condemn the extravagant Liberties they took; but Time soon show'd,
that there were other great Advantages reap'd by it. In Don Pedro
all Men believ'd the Security of the Philippine Islands was come;
for the Governour's Reputation was equal to the Necessities of his
Province; which requir'd the Government of an experienc'd Commander,
of great Name, and so vigilant as he was.

Don Francis Tello resign'd up the Power into his Hands, and
staying [Don Francis Tello dyes.] there to give an Account of his
Administration, dyed in April, the following Year. The new Governour
was much concern'd to find the King's Treasury empty, and himself under
an Obligation of supporting the King's and his own Credit. To this
Consideration belong'd the Moluccos, the reducing whereof he had in
Charge. However he took Courage, believing he might with Industry and
Labour, make amends for the Want of Cash. He attended all the Works in
Person, as he had been wont to do, both at Manila and in the Country
about, building Galleys, and other Vessels, whereof there was then
a great Want, to secure the Sea, at that Time infested [Don Pedro
visits his Government.] by the Neighbouring Pirates and Enemies,
especially those of Mindanao. Next he visited the Provinces of the
Pintados, and supply'd the Wants he found in those Parts. In these
Passages betwixt the Islands, besides the Storms, his little Vessel,
which had only three Soldiers in it, escap'd, he fell into another
notable Danger. Two and twenty English Vessels enrich'd with the
Booty they had taken in the Islands belonging to that Government,
attempted to inclose and take him, but the Tide failing them, they
stuck on Ground, and could not get off. Don Pedro saw them [Cruelty
of English.] throw over-board above 2000 Spaniards, and Natives they
had made Prisoners, to lighten their Vessels. They also cast into the
Sea a beautiful Spanish Maid, about 17 Years of Age. Afterwards the
Fleet from Manila sail'd in quest of them, and chastis'd some, tho'
the Punishment was inferior to their Cruelty.

Don Pedro would fain have remov'd all Obstacles that lay in the Way
to the Enterprize he had in Hand; but was oblig'd to put off for
some Months that which he was most intent upon, and to dispatch the
Affairs [Japonese Embassador at Manila.] of Xolo and Japan. Chiquiro,
a Japonese Embassador, was newly arriv'd at Manila, with a Present of
the Product and Manufactures of that Island, and orders to treat with
the Governour, and settle Amity and Commerce, between the Subjects of
the Emperor of Japan, whose Name was Dayfusama, and the Philippines
and New-Spain. The Neighbourhood of those Provinces, the Power of the
Japonese Kings, their natural Disposition, and other Considerations,
which Experience had shown to be of great Moment, made against refusing
of that Commerce; and yet there were Opinions to the contrary, for
those very Reasons. However that barbarous Prince having once espous'd
that Affair, it was not easy to find out an Expedient to settle it,
without any Jealousy or Disgust. Dayfusama demanded, that the Spaniards
should trade to Quanto, a Port in one of his Provinces, and that such
Friendship might be establish'd, that the Japoneses might go over to
New-Spain. That the Governour should send him Ship-wrights, and Workmen
to build Ships in Japan, for performing of that [His Proposals.]
Voyage, upon which Dayfusama was very intent, being perswaded to it
by a Religious Man of ours, of the Order of St. Francis, whose Name
was F. Jerome of JESUS, and for whom that Monarch had a great Esteem.

[Objections to them.] This was a Matter of great Weight, and
on several Accounts most prejudicial to the Philippine Islands,
whose greatest Security for so many Years, has consisted in the
Japonese's wanting of Ships and Pilots, and being ignorant in the
Art of Navigation. Men of Experience observ'd, that whensoever the
said haughty barbarous Prince has attempted to arm against Manila, he
has still been obstructed by this Want. They said, that to send him
Ship-Wrights, and Men to build him Ships after the Spanish Manner,
would be no other than arming him against the Spaniards themselves;
and that their Voyages would be destructive to the Philippines and
New-Spain; for that the making the Japoneses capable of Trading
far off, was not only inconvenient, but unsafe. The Governour Don
Pedro de Acunna seriously weighing all these Reasons, order'd the
Embassador Chiquiro to be magnificently entertain'd, made him some
Presents for his King and for himself, and sent a Ship with another
moderate Present, lest it should be interpreted to proceed from Fear,
if it had been too considerable. This Ship sail'd with Dayfusama and
his Embassador, both of them loaded with Commodities to barter. Don
Pedro's Letters contain'd many Compliments, and Thanks for the good
Will he show'd towards establishing more solid Friendship; but that,
tho' he had ample Commission for all Things relating to the Government
of the Philippine Islands, yet he could not satisfy that Part of his
Embassy, which concern'd the furnishing of him with Sailors and Workmen
to build Spanish Ships, without acquainting the Viceroy of New-Spain,
nor could the Viceroy do it, without special Orders from the King of
Spain. That he promis'd to write to them about it, for promoting the
Accomplishment of his reasonable Demands; but that he must consider,
it would be above three Years before they had an Answer, because of
the great Length, and many Accidents of such Voyages. It was order'd
that the aforesaid F. Jerome should himself deliver these Letters,
to Dayfusama. The Fryar himself had a private Letter sent him with a
Reproof for what he had done, and Instructions how to mend it; and that
he should signify to the Japonese Monarch, how highly [Instructions to
F. Jerome.] the Governour valu'd the Inclination he show'd to settle
Peace and Commerce with the Spaniards, and his Kindness to them; and
at the same Time perswade him to continue that good Correspondence,
which the Governour would inviolably observe; but that he should
endeavour to divert the King's Thoughts from such Designs, and
never go about to facilitate the Execution of them; because, tho'
perhaps the Emperor then reigning entertain'd no sinister Meaning,
nor had any farther Thought than promoting a sincere Friendship,
yet that might be very prejudicial in the Days of a more mischievous
Successor; who might make an ill Use of his Skill in Navigation,
and improve it against the Persons that taught it him. The Governour
promis'd he would soon send another Ship with Commodities to barter;
and he might put the King in Hopes it would carry over some Spanish
Ship-Carpenters to build Ships after their Manner. That he should
desire Dayfusama to wait with Patience, and consider how heinously
he would be offended himself, if any of his Governours should presume
to make any new Settlements in Trade without his Privity or Order.

[Japonese Embassador cast away.] Chiquiro return'd for Japan with
this Answer; but when he was off the Head of the Island Formosa,
such a dreadful Storm overtook him, that he was swallow'd up, and
neither Men, Goods, nor Arms sav'd; and this happen'd in so remote a
Place, that it was not known till many Days after. Dayfusama, at the
Request of F. Jerome, had granted Leave for Preaching of the Gospel,
throughout his Dominions, building of Churches, and such as would
professing Christianity by publick Authority. Don Pedro the Governour
[Religious allow'd to Preach in Japan.] took the necessary Measures,
that so favourable an Indulgence might not be lost, and that not only
barefoot Franciscans, but also Religious Men of other Orders should go
over thither. They made use of the Japonese Captains and Ships, newly
come to Manila with Meal. The Dominicans sent over to the Kingdom
of Zazuma four Fryars, and F. Francis de Morales, Prior of Manila
for their Superior, saying the King of that Province sent for them,
being the only one, who had not yet submitted to Dayfusama. The Order
of S. Augustin sent two Religious Men, and F. James de Guevara, Prior
also of Manila for their Superior, and these went to the Kingdom of
Firando. Those of the Order of S. Francis, sent F. Augustin Rodriguez,
who had been Witness to the Martyrdom of his Companions in Japan,
to Nangasaqui, for him to go thence with a Lay-Brother to Miaco,
and bear F. Jerome of Jesus Company. Many perswaded Don Pedro, not to
send away these Religious Men; but tho' those Perswasions were well
grounded, and some Difficulties occur'd against their Departure,
he resolv'd to dismiss them. The Zeal of true Glory overcomes all
Opposition. These Religious Men found no Signs of those Desires that
had been signify'd to them in the Provinces they went to. Very few
Japoneses were converted, and there was less Disposition to advance,
because the Kings, and Tonos, which are Princes had no Affection
for our Religion, nor were any Way disgusted with their Idols. They
only aspir'd to settle Commerce, and to trade with the Spaniards,
for their private Interest.

[Another Ship to Japan.] Don Pedro sent the Ship he had promis'd to
Japan, well stor'd with Cannon, and call'd it S. James the Less. The
Captain, Officers, and Sailors were all Men of Experience; and she was
laden with Commodities to barter, Red-Wood, Deer's-Skins, raw Silk,
and several other Sorts. The Govenour order'd them to dispose of what
they carry'd at the Port of Quanto, and to furnish the Religious Men
they found there, and then return with the Produce and Dayfusama's
Leave. Thus Provision was made for all the Affairs of Japan, according
to the present Exigences. The Ship-Wrack of the Embassador Chiquiro
was known, and by the good Management of F. Jerome, Dayfusama was
acquainted with the Answer he carry'd, and rested satisfy'd; so that
the preaching of the Gospel went on in his Dominions.

[Furtado's Letter to Don Pedro concerning the Expedition.] Don Pedro's
Thoughts were all bent upon Recovering of the Molucco Islands, and
his other Business did not make him neglect that Enterprize. Andrew
Furtado de Mendoza, Admiral of those Seas for the Crown of Portugal
had writ him Word, that he had Orders from his Majesty to repair to
Ternate; but that he did not expect the Viceroy would set him out,
as was requisite for that Expedition. Don Pedro answer'd him, to his
Content, with Assurance, that he should be supported. These Letters
came to the Hands of the Portuguese Admiral at Malaca, when he was
ready to set out. He presently answer'd both those of the 22d of
September, and the 22d of December, signifying how acceptable they
were to him. Because, says he, I love your Lordship entirely, tho'
I have never seen you, on Account of your being a brave Commander,
and so zealous for his Majesty's Service; not to mention other Reasons
for which I am yours. I was much troubled for the Loss of the Ship,
and the ill Fortune of the other, for the want you will find of the
Return you expected by them: But it is to be suppos'd, that the Viceroy
of New-Spain, seeing how long those Ships were missing, would impute
it to some very considerable Causes, and therefore will Assist you
Powerfully, for nothing less can be expected from such a Viceroy who,
I am told, is a very worthy Gentleman. I am experimentally sensible
of what your Lordship writes to me; for after being in those Parts
five Years, without receiving any Succours from India, when I expected
these Disorders should end, and considerable Supplies would be sent me,
the Viceroy furnish'd me so poorly, as will appear to your Lordship by
the List of what he sends, and thence you may infer, how his Majesty
is serv'd in those Parts, that your Lordship may acquaint him with it,
and we may joyntly so order it, that all this may not be overthrown
in one Hour.

Then he complains, That they have not sent him his Majesty's Letter,
[More of the Letter.] nor the Archbishop of Goa had not receiv'd
his; and says, He had rather be at Plow in Old Castile, than a
Witness to the ill Disposition of what is committed to his Charge:
And proceeding, says thus, Your Lordship tells me, That as soon as I
draw near the Moluccos, you will do me the favour to have in readiness
for me 300 Soldiers, with Captain Gallinato, and another Captain,
and two Galleys, four Brigantines, and all the Carcoas that shall be
requisite. I know not what his Majesty appoints for me; but, for the
Sins of these Dominions, Time has put Things into such a Posture,
that I must be forc'd to repair to the Moluccos, as well to recover
what is Lost, as to save what is Gain'd, which cannot be done,
unless both Powers, from hence and thence, be United. Twelve Dutch
Ships anchor'd this Year at the Bar of Goa: They took the Viceroy so
unprovided, that they lay at Anchor a Month at the said Bar, without
any Attempt made to remove them. They made great Havock amongst the
Merchants Ships on the Coast of India, without any Opposition. They
came from the other Sea, by the Back of Sumatra, to the Streight of
Sunda. Seven of them arriv'd at Amboyna, the others being [Baseness of
a Portuguse Govenour.] then parted from them. When they enter'd over
the Bar, the Governour sent two Men, to ask, whether Don Emanuel was
aboard. The Ships hearing of it, went and Anchor'd under the Fort. Then
the Governor sent three or four other Men, who made the Agreement for
the surrendering of the Fort. When it was sign'd the Dutch drew near:
the Gates were open'd to them, and they admitted without standing
one Musket Shot, or firing a Cannon. They took an Oath of Fidelity
to Prince Maurice, and the Governor after committing the Treason,
commanded a Black of his own to put him into Irons, saying, The People
of the Town had done it. Since that he came hither, and skulks about
the Mountains, and I am very earnest to take him, that I may make an
Example of him. I have already secur'd some of the Marry'd Men that
came hither, being fully convinc'd that the Governor and they are
Enemies and Traytors. When the Dutch were possess'd of the Fort, they
put more Cannon into it, with a Garrison of 140 Men, and Provisions
for two Years. I have also received Intelligence, That they sent five
Ships against Tydore, and I am very jealous of that Place, because of
the Divisions there; wherefore I immediately sent away two Galiots,
well Man'd, Arm'd, and Provided. God grant they find that Fort in the
King's Possession. Thus, if his Majesty well send hither the Galeons
he writes of, and commands me to serve him in these Southern Parts,
I must of necessity go over that way; for since Amboyna is in the
Possession of the Dutch, we may conclude Tydore will soon follow. If
they extend their Dominion, from that Port, which God avert, they
will thence put an End to the Affairs of the Moluccos, and of China,
and with the Assistance of the Ternates must of necessity Infest those
Parts about Manila; and therefore we are all oblig'd, as Christians,
and his Majesty's Subjects, to Oppose such a mighty Misfortune. And
since the Lot has fallen between your Lordship, and this Soldier of
yours, we seem to be in some measure both of us under an Obligation
to spare no Pains for the Recovering of those Parts of the Molucco
Islands. For my part I will labour for the Success, tho' I were to
lose ten Lives, if I had so many. But because I shall not have an
Opportunity to send your Lordship Intelligence, till a Year hence,
I now intreat you to have what Soldiers you can in Readiness, and
the greatest Number of Natives, that we may not fall short when the
work is half done, and be forced, for want of them, to put our selves
into the Hands, and expect the Assistance of Traytors. The same I beg,
as to Provisions; for there are none where I am at present. But since
Captain Gallinato has seen all, and knows what is Necessary in those
Parts, whereof he has before now given your Lordship ample Information,
it will be needless to repeat it in this, being your Lordship tells
me in yours, you do me the Favour to appoint him for my Companion;
and he is so able a Commander, that when your Lordship orders him
to prepare for this Expedition, he will take with him all he thinks
proper for it. Tho' his Majesty should send several Galeons, and many
Men, I shall not be able to do any thing with them in those Parts,
because the main Thing there, is to have Vessels that Row, and Men
that have Serv'd, whereof I am very destitute. From India none can
come, tho' the Viceroy were never so willing to furnish me. However,
confiding in your Lordship's Worth, and in what you have signify'd
to me by Letter, I will undertake this Expedition, believing I shall
find all Things in such Readiness, that they will set out from thence
the Moment your Lordship receives Advice from me. I am told your
Lordship expects a Gentleman in those Parts, who comes to Conquer
Camboxa. If he happens to come, I must put your Lordship in Mind,
that the best Conquest is that of the Moluccos, where his Majesty's
Forts will be restor'd, and there the said Gentleman may shew his
Valour, and merit a considerable Reward from the King. Before the
Dutch came to Amboyna, two English Ships passed by that Island,
which sent a Letter to the Governor of the Fort, to acquaint him,
that the Dutch were coming after them, with a Design to possess
themselves of the said Fort, and therefore they advised him to
behave himself well, because the Dutch they spoke of, were a poor
faint-hearted People. That, if they had Occasion for Powder, Ball,
and all other Necessaries, they were ready to supply him, because
they were then at Peace with Spain, and the Constable of Castile was
already sent into England, by his Majesty, to Ratify it: And the
Post-Master-General was Embassador in Ordinary. This Intelligence
leaves the Rebels no pretence to any Excuse. Furtado's Letter goes on,
to other Particulars, recommending Religious Men, and Commanders and
he concludes with Abundance of Compliments, and Courteous Expressions.

Don Pedro having receiv'd these Letters, order'd and hasten'd all
necessary Preparations, with the utmost Diligence, pressing the
Business in Spain, and with the Viceroy at Mexico, and thought all
Delays tedious; but the Approbation of his Advice, and the Supplies to
put it in Execution, being to come from a Center so remote, and where
there lay an Obligation of being no less attentive to all Parts of
the Circumference, the Expedition could [Brother Gaspar Gomez forwards
the Expedition.] not possibly be brought about sooner. Brother Gaspar
Gomez, whose Intelligence in this Affair, was always very material,
had presently Intimation of what had been resolv'd on, by Letters from
Don Pedro; and he was so diligent in promoting it, that to advance
this Cause, he cross'd the greatest Oceans as readily, as if they had
been the Narrow-Seas, which part those Islands; having solicited the
Viceroy at Mexico, and then the Counsellors, and Ministers of State in
Spain. His Arguments and Motives were the same we have several Times
mention'd in this Work. Dividing the Wealth of the South into three
fixt Kinds, precious Stones, and Pearls, Metals, and Spice, and Drugs;
all which were distributed among Enemies, English and Dutch. That the
King had no Spice left, but only that of Tydore, which must be lost,
unless speedily and powerfully supported, and the same Forces would
recover Ternate, Banda, Amboyna, and what had been held in Celebes,
Batochina, and the Places wrested by the Tyrants of Sumatra. All this
the Jesuit made out by Demonstration, for he grounded not the least
Information upon any thing less than Experience.

[Succeeds in his Negociation.] He was heard in the Council of
the Indies, and the Council of State for the Crown of Portugal,
and dispatch'd for the Philippines, by the way of New-Spain. By
the other Way, the King order'd, that the Captain General Furtado,
taking with him the necessary Fleet from Goa, should sail for the
Moluccos, by special Commission, by Virtue whereof he afterward sent
to ask Assistance at the Philippine Islands, as we have seen, and
such Supplies were to be furnish'd on both Sides, as being united,
might secure the Conquest of the Moluccos. However the Event must of
Necessity be tedious, the Dutch being already possess'd of all the
King's Forts in the Archipelago; and their numerous Fleets of all the
Ports, Fairs, and Trade, with Factories conveniently settled for their
Intercourse between India and their own Country. We shall not enter
upon the Account of those Affairs, because no more of them than have
been already mention'd, as yet related to the Moluccos. Much Time,
and many Precautions were requisite, for these two Commanders to
joyn, amidst so many Obstacles: They sent frequent Advice backward
and forward, and neither Part was idle in the mean while.

[Furtado Sails from Goa.] At length, notwithstanding all Difficulties,
Furtado sail'd from Goa with six Galeons, eighteen Galiots, and one
Galley, with the King's Orders, and in his Name those of the Viceroy
Arias de Saldania, to fight the Dutch, and any other Enemy, and to
proceed to Sunda, to chastize that King, and the Rebels in Java. He was
directed to place Garrisons there, and having [Disabled by Storms.]
settled the Affairs of India, to proceed to the Moluccos. They went
out with good Hearts to undertake that Work, but were hinder'd by
Storms and Tempests. In the Gulph of Ceylon, he lost the Galley, and
seventeen Galiots that were under the Conduct of Francis de Sousa,
and Andrew Roiz, and in them the greatest Strength he had to compass
his Designs. He was three whole Years without any Succours to proceed
on his Enterprize. At Malaca he recruited the best he could; and in
December, 1601, Steering his Course for Sunda, relying on the Succours
he expected from the King of Palimbam, in Java, suppos'd to be our
Friend and Confederate; but he was deceived, for that Infidel was
so far from espousing our Party, that he had taken up with the King
of Sunda, whom he intended, and afterwards actually did succour with
30000 Men. This did not dismay Furtado, but he sail'd on towards Sunda,
referring the Punishment of the King of Palimbam [Sails for Sunda.]
to another Time: There, on the Bar, he discover'd seven Dutch Ships,
which he pursu'd, tho' to little purpose, they being excellent
Sailers. However the Galeon Commanded by Thomas de Sousa Aronches,
fought five of them, killing many Dutch, without losing one Man; but
her Rigging was torn, and she could not board the Enemy, who fled,
drawing our Ships after them in such a manner, that Furtado could not
possibly recover the Bar, tho' he anchor'd in a Road, from whence he
might have return'd to the Port.

This was a special Providence, for the Enemy did not seem dispos'd
to stand, and they had already been upon both Bars; and therefore
reflecting [Arrives at Amboyna.] on the Tears, and Groans of the
Commanders, and Christians at Amboyna, he directed his Course towards
those Islands, where he arriv'd on the 10th of February without being
detain'd by some Victories he gain'd in his Way. The Natives and those
in the Fort were alarm'd, believing they had been Enemies, but the
Admiral giving a Signal, they knew the Christian Fleet. The Joy spread
abroad, and the Shore was cover'd with People expressing it. Furtado
first apply'd himself to repair the Fort, and refit the Ships. He also
built four Ships, two Galiots, and twelve Carcoas. Then he set out,
without losing Time, to make War on the Itos, and other Towns [Subdues
the Itos.] that had rebell'd against the Fort, sending Joseph Pinto,
with 200 Portugueses by Land. The Fleet sail'd round the Island, and
lay a Month in the Bay call'd Bacacio. Texeyra, Commander in Chief
of the Fort, went before, with a good Number of Carcoas, to reduce
some rebellious Towns, especially those which are on the Mountains
call'd Gunos, where there are excellent sweet Waters, and large Woods
of Orange Trees. These Towns acknowledge their Fault, and came to make
their Submission. Seven or [The Gunos submit.] Eight of the principal
Men came from each Town. Every Town brought a Flag, and three large
valuable Basons of bright Metal, and in them a little Earth, with
Branches of Clove-Trees in Blossom, in Token that they deliver'd up
the Land, with the most precious of its Product. Some brought Goats,
and Hens, and such Fruit as their Country afforded to denote the same.

Furtado knew there was a private Alliance between the Rebels of Amboyna
and the Dutch, and that ten Ships were to come to take that Fort, [Ten
Dutch Ships at Amboyna.] and the other we had left us at Amboyna. They
were so deeply engag'd in this Contract, that those at Sunda, seeing
Furtado set sail towards those Parts, they did the same, and on the
10th of March, the ten Ships appear'd in Sight of the Islands, three
of them coming on and treating with the Natives; yet for fear of us,
they stood off to the Island Burro, and the other seven to Banda,
to sail over to the Moluccos. All this was known to Furtado by good
Intelligence, besides that he receiv'd from F. Lewis Fernandez,
Rector of the Society of JESUS, who was newly come from Tydore, with
Letters from that King, and the Christians residing there, bidding
him welcome, and pressing that he would come to their Assistance;
[Three of them at Ternate.] because three of the seven Ships that
escap'd from him at Sunda, were together at Ternate. He was also
inform'd, that those Ships, had found out a Way to relieve those Forts,
passing between Borneo and Macossar, [A new Passage to the Molucco.]
which is a shorter Cut by a Year; and that they were fortifying Ternate
where they would not suffer the Dutch to leave them, but oblig'd them
to stay and ingage in the War they expected. Furtado follow'd that in
Amboyna, daily reducing some Towns that had revolted. The Inhabitants
of Rosatelo, built on an Eminence, and well fortify'd discovering
our Ships, [People of Rosatelo burn their Town.] and Carcoas, set
fire to all their Goods, and then to their Houses, and fled to a high
Mountain, where their Wives and Children were before. The Way up to
it was by tying to the Trees certain Rotas, which are slender tough
Canes, that may be knotted like Ropes, a slow and almost useless Hold,
which render'd the Mountain never the less inaccessible. Yet our Men
making their Way thro' Clefts, attain'd the Top two days after. The
Rebels perceiving they were lost, came to receive the Conquerors with
[Submit.] white Flags, but the King, not daring to trust to that
Security, fled to remoter Parts.

[People of Ito fly to the mountain.] The Infidels of Ito, puff'd
up with the Dutch Supplies they expected, made no Doubt of routing
the Christians, as soon as they landed; but perceiving they were
disappointed of the Succour of the ten Ships, which sail'd by
without staying, and that Rosatelo was reduc'd; yet they were not
quite dejected, but committed their Safety to the Strength and
Tops of the Mountains. They abandon'd their chief City, properly
call'd Ito. and the Fort there erected by the Dutch, retiring with
all their Families to the highest and most impregnable Part of the
Country call'd Nao and Bemnao, being two Rocks, one above another,
like the Round-Tops in a Ship one over the other; whence the Shore
appears near at Hand tho' [Nao strong place, whither the Rebels fled.]
half a League distant, by Reason of the Windings of the Ways. Nao is
all encompass'd with upright Rocks, with pleasant Planes below. There
are three Ways to get up to it, but all of them so difficult, that
the very Lizards can scarce climb it. On these three Passes they
threw up double Trenches, with strong Ramparts, and a good Number
of Brass Sakers, and Demy-Falconets to secure them. At each of
them was a considerable Number of Men, with their Colours flying,
and all Sorts of offensive and defensive Arms, wherewith the Dutch
have furnish'd those Southern Seas. The greatest Danger threatned
was from a great Number of mighty Stones, or Pieces of Rocks, which
being roul'd down from such a Height can bear down and destroy an
Army. All the Enemy's Power was now reduc'd to this single Place,
and the Town standing on the first of the [Pleasant Country of Nao,
and Bemnao.] two Rocks, being built on a large round Spot it forms,
like an European City with good large Houses, after their Manner. All
the Country about beautify'd with Clove Trees, like our Olive Trees,
but with greater Heads. Among which there ran up Branches of the
Male and Female Trees, and underneath all Sorts of thorny Plants,
Orange, Lemmon, Citron and Zamboa Trees, with six, or eight Springs,
each of them gushing out curious Streams of Water. All the Mountain
look'd like a delicious pleasure House and Garden. On the Top of
it appear'd the Town of Bemnao, which signifyes, the Son of Nao,
exceeding the other in Number of Houses, and Extent of Woods.

The General came to this Place on Palm-Sunday, order'd a Trench to
be [Furtado encamps at Bemnao.] cast up, and Tents to be pitch'd,
for a Defence against the Sun, and the Rain, which sometimes falls
unexpected. He commanded an Enemy Amboynese, that had fallen into his
Hands, attended by some Christians, to go enquire into the Designs
of the People of Ito, and to guide the Way. When they were come
within hearing, and had deliver'd their Message, [Haughty Answer
of the Itos.] the Infidels answer'd, That they were the King of
Ternate's Subjects, and own'd none but him. That they would trade
with the Dutch, and all other Nations they thought fit. That they
would also sell Clove to the Spaniards; but that the King of Spain
had a very long Neck. Having return'd this Answer, they began to fire
the Cannon. Our Men were forc'd to put up the Affront, and pass by
their Fury; but the General regarding neither, order'd a Captain,
on Monday, to view the Situation of the Place; because his Soldiers
had gone up disorderly to their Trenches, and been repuls'd with Shot,
and throwing of Stones, which made them retire down the Mountain with
many wounded. The next Night he sent 200 Men, to possess themselves
of a Mount that overlook'd the Enemies Trenches. They did so, and
as soon as the Day appear'd, our Musketiers pour'd in [Portugueses
gain Ground.] their Volleys of Shot, firing at the same Time with two
Drakes, they had carry'd up with a Design to cast up another Trench,
and thus they put the Enemy to Rout. The Trench was thrown up, and the
next Night they remov'd the Drakes to it, drawing nearer, to make the
greater Slaughter. Gonzalo Vaz de Castello-Branco commanded at this
Pass. The Men here that Night talk'd with the besieg'd, and assur'd
them, they would take their Fort the next Night, as they actually did.

[They attack the Enemies Fort.] On Wednesday Morning the General
order'd the Drums to beat to Arms, to go up himself to the Hill
where his Men were, leaving Trajano Ruiz de Castello-Branco below,
with 50 Men, to guard the Camp; but without any Design of attacking
the Fort that Day; but only to order the Men, and assign them their
Posts. Whilst he was concerting this Affair with his Officers,
Gonzalo Vaz came to them with a dangerous Shot in one of the Calves
of his Legs, and five other Wounds running Blood. The Soldiers were
incens'd, at the Sight of him, and signify'd they would fall on. It
was given out, where the General was, that the Victorious Enemy was
falling upon our Drakes, and Posts; and he improving Necessity cry'd
out, with a loud Voice, Santiago, that is, S. James, the Cry given
by the Spaniards when they fall on. The Soldiers were so encourag'd
by this Cry, that they immediately gave the Assault, with much Fury
and Alacrity, climbing those smooth Rocks, upon their Hands and Feet:
The Barbarians Drums and Bag-Pipes rattled in their Ears, and the
Noise of their Cannon and small Shot eccho'd among all the Rocks. The
Enemy threw Stones, which wounded, and knock'd down our Men, and many
tumbled, without being able to help themselves: Some single Stones
carry'd two or three Men down the Side of a Hill, till they stopp'd at
some Tree. A Captain was stunn'd with a Pebble, tho' he receiv'd it on
a Steel Buckler; but he soon recover'd, and was seen upon the Enemies
Works. The Cries and Shouts rent the Air. Many tumbling down forc'd
out the sharp Pointed Stakes that were drove into the Ground; and
presently after, as if they had flown, were seen Fighting above. Those
who were left to guard the Camp, look'd on with Emulation. Among them
a Religious Man of [The Fort taken.] the Order of S. Dominick, fell
on his Knees to say the Litany, all the Men answering, and God heard
him, for before it was ended, they saw our Colours display'd above,
and the Enemies cast down, the Fort and Works being Demolish'd.

A brave Christian, who carry'd the foremost of our Colours,
was laid hold of by an Amboynese, yet he, tho' shot thro' the
Body with a Musket-Ball, whereof he soon after Dy'd, defended them
bravely. However, notwithstanding his Resistance, and that his Captain
came to his Succour, the Infidel carry'd off a Part of the Staff, which
was recover'd when the Victory was [Amboyneses abandon their highest
Fort.] gain'd. The Amboyneses, seeing their Works taken, and their
Colours dragg'd about, withdrew to the upper-Part, leaving only three
Men behind them, who dy'd Fighting, with honourable Obstinacy. They
did not fortifie themselves in that Place, but abandoning their Town
and Goods, and slipping down Precipices, and upright Heights with
Ropes, made their Escapes; and though they burnt some of their Goods,
yet many of value remain'd. The General gave Order for curing of the
wounded Men, which were above 200, besides those run through by the
sharp Stakes pitch'd all about the Field.

[The Towns submit.] The gaining of this Victory did so discourage
all the Islanders, that they refus'd to take up Arms, or hazard an
Engagement. Nine Towns submitted at once, the next day, and the
Territory about did the same. The General came down Victorious,
and erected Arbours in those Delightful Woods, with an Altar, on
which Mass was sung on Easter-Day, and all the Office of the Church,
with much Solemnity, in Thanksgiving, assigning the Sovereignty
to that Lord, who grants, or takes away Victory, according [Dutch
Fort raz'd.] to his secret Judgements. The Dutch Fort was raz'd,
where, in several Places, were to be seen Escutcheons, with the Arms
of Count Maurice. The King of Ito came and submitted himself; his
Name, whilst an Idolater, was Talere, afterwards Don Melchior, for
he was a Renegado Christian, and fled at the taking of Rosatelo. He
deliver'd himself up, as also a famous Caziz he brought with him,
who was a Man of much Reputation among them.

To this Victory Furtado resolv'd to add those he expected at Veranula,
[Veranula City describ'd.] a large City, and Neighbouring Island. He
sail'd from Amboyna with all the Fleet, and arriv'd at Veranula,
and the City of the same Name, which is populous, and its Territory
the most fruitful in Clove of any in those Parts. It is built
along the shore on a high and upright Rock, which look'd like a
Wall, with Towers, and Stories. The Houses are high Roof'd, with
Galleries. There is a Mosque that has three Isles, with a stately
Room to read the Alcoran in. Within the City was the Dutch Fort,
conveniently seated, built of Stone, round, and cover'd. Beyond that
was also another Stone Fort, with several salliant Angles, Ravelins,
and Guerites. This belong'd to the King of Ternate, who was Tyrant
of that Part of Veranula. As soon as our Fleet anchor'd before the
City, the Prime Men of it came to acquaint the General, That they were
willing to submit, but knew not how to do it, for Fear of the Ternates;
and therefore desir'd he would let them assemble their Council, and
they would return the next Day with their Answer. Furtado granted
their Request, sending two Amboyneses of Note along with them. They
return'd no Answer, but fled, [People of Veranula fly.] not daring
to stand the Fury of those who came Victorious. They fir'd a Gun
for a Signal of what they were doing, and the General being assur'd
of their Flight, order'd the Men to land and plunder the City. The
Inhabitants had before secur'd the best of their Effects, and yet
in some Houses they found above the value of 30000 Crowns, and in
others less, besides many Goods of value; abundance of Brass Drakes
and Muskets; China Ware, and Silks; Dutch Glasses, and great Store of
Royal-Cloves. [Veranula plunder'd and burnt.] After plundering the
City, they set fire to it, and it burnt for some Days. The Dutch and
Ternatese Forts were raz'd. The General was inform'd by some Prisoners,
that the People of Veranula, had expected mighty Succours against him
from the Dutch Ships that were seen; and that there were aboard 100
Men to Garrison Viranula, and 100 more for the Fort he had demolish'd
at Ito. Some of our Men pursu'd the Ternates as far as Lacidecavello,
a Town where they imbark'd on many Vessels, for their own Island.

[Mamala City submits with others.] After this, the City Mamala sent
to make its Submission, and many others follow'd its Example. Furtado
having concluded this Affair, resolv'd to return to Amboyna, and
being upon his Departure, Francis de Sousa Teve came to him, with
ten Portugueses, who had been, not long before, taken by the Dutch
Ships. He had met at Banda the five Ships Furtado found at Sunda, and
here gave him some important Intelligence, showing how much he would
find the Seas, in his Way to the Moluccos, infested by those Northern
Sailers. The Commander in Chief of the Dutch made very much of Francis
de Sousa, dismissing him with Arms and Provisions for his Voyage,
but at the Price of 500 Crowns, paid for him and his Companions,
by some Heathen Towns in the Island; to whom Furtado, without any
Delay, made good the whole Sum. The Dutch General writ very civilly
to Furtado, desiring he would use his Men well, as he would do by the
Spaniards he met with. Furtado return'd an Answer, no less Courteous,
and sent him a Dutch Youth, who had been Prisoner at Ternate.

[The conquer'd submit, and give Hostages.] Having reduc'd these
Islands, Furtado appointed a Day for the Governors of them to come
and swear Fealty to our King, that he might save Time, and follow the
Course of his Victories. They came with much State, and Submission;
and to secure their future Behaviour, and their new promis'd Fidelity,
deliver'd to the General a considerable Number of Youths, being the
Sons of the Prime Men, as Hostages. Peace, and the general Pardon,
were celebrated with Rejoycings. The Preaching of the Gospel was again
exercis'd with entire Liberty, and many Idolaters, and Mahometans
were converted. Other Provinces came to acknowledge the Conqueror;
without expecting the Chance of War. Furtado at Amboyna prepar'd for
the Expedition against the Moluccos.

[King of Ternate's Preparations.] Those who fled to Ternate,
gave an Account of the Loss of the Towns and Forts that King had
been possess'd of at Amboyna; and that the General Furtado openly
declar'd he was making Preparations against those Islands, and grew
stronger upon his Success. The King slighted not this Intelligence,
but immediately strengthened his Fleet, and his Forts, and call'd
in the Javaneses and Mindanaos, to be in readiness upon any
Attack. Amidst the Noise of War, and his Treaties with the Dutch
for maintaining of it, he found Leasure to seek his Satisfaction;
concluding a Match with his Queen Celicaya, who follow'd him in all
his Troubles, even when he last fled from his Kingdom. She was very
Young, and so Beautiful, that all the Indian Kings courted her for
their Wife, and sent to demand her of the Sangiack of Motiel, her
Father; who gave her to him of Ternate, as the greatest, most potent,
and respected. [His Marriage.] The Time for the Nuptials being come,
when the Bride was brought to Ternate, attended by her Father, Kindred,
Brothers-in-law, and many Troops of arm'd Men, she was receiv'd with
the Noise of Cannon, Musick, and other Instruments us'd in their
Festivals and Solemnities. These [Queen Celicaya's great Beauty.]
lasted many Days, with Profusion; but the most pleasing Object, was
the Presence of Celicaya, her extraordinary Grace, which drew the
Eyes, and Affections of all Men, temper'd with a Sort of Affability,
which encourag'd all that convers'd with her. This Quality very often
gave Occasion to suspect her Husband's Reputation, and were not this
History confined to such Things as really relate to the Conquest,
it might afford us a large Field to treat of the Gentleness of her
Disposition, her Love Intrigues, and uncontroulable Power over the
Affections, even of those who were most wrong'd; which are spoken of
at large in several Discourses and Relations.

[Furtado sends for Succours to the Philippine Islands.] The Exigencies
of the Time, and necessity oblig'd the General Furtado to press
for the Succours, which were providing for him in the Philippine
Islands. Amboyna is 200 Leagues from the nearest of them, and that
200 more from Manila, he sent thither F. Andrew Pereyra, a Jesuit,
and Captain Antony Brito Fogaza, in May 1602. They arriv'd at Cebu
on the 25th of July, sail'd thence for Manila on the 6th of August,
and came to that City on the 5th of September. Don Pedro de Acunna
was well pleas'd to see them, asking particularly concerning all
the Proceedings of the General Furtado, wherein he was very curious,
or rather generously emulous, and he having in his Letters referr'd
himself to their Relation, they gave it him at large, and perform'd
the Duty of their Embassy, each according to his Profession. Don Pedro
did not delay their Business; but call'd a Council of War, wherein it
was resolv'd, that the Succours he desir'd should be sent Furtado,
tho' they were forc'd to comply with the Difficulties the Country
then labour'd under. Upon this Determination he sent away to [Succours
sent from the Philippines to Furtado.] the Provinces of the Pintados,
ordering Capt. John Xuarez Gallinato, who commanded there, to furnish
all Things necessary for the Enterprize; and that he, with the best
disciplin'd Infantry, should leave Cebu, and repair to the Town of
Arevalo, the place appointed for the Fleet to rendezvouz. Gallinato
did so, and sent a Ship to Oton, to take in as much as it could of
the Succours. It arriv'd at Oton on the 28th of October; and that
same Day Don Pedro set out from Manila for the Pintados, in Order to
hasten the fitting out of the Fleet by his Presence, tho' it was then
almost ready at Oton, where he arriv'd on the 13th of November, and he
was of such a mettled Temper, that never regarding the Expeditions of
Xolo and Mindanao, or that the Natives of those Islands were spread
about in Troops among those of the Pintados, robbing and murdering
his Majesty's Subjects, he gather'd the Supplies, and deliver'd them
to John Xuarez Gallinato, appointing him General, and Commander in
Chief for this Expedition.

As soon as the General Furtado had sent away for Succours to Manila,
after chastising and garrisoning of Veranula and Amboyna, he set sail
for the Molucco Islands, with five Galeons, four Galliots, and 12
Carcoas, carrying his Victorious Men; but in those Seas Disasters
are so frequent, that neither the Joy of their late Successes,
nor the Refreshment receiv'd after their Victories, appear'd in
their Countenances. He arriv'd at Ternate [Furtado sails by Ternate
to Tydore.] with this Fleet, on the 10th of August; but he only
look'd on that Island, and proceeded to Tydore: There he view'd the
Fort, encourag'd the Soldiers in it, and made use of that King's
Person and Interest, as Prudence directed; for that Prince, tho'
he labours by Words to convince us of his Friendship and Fidelity,
does not confirm it by his Actions; but rather leaves us dubious,
when he most endeavours to perswade.

Furtado left the Galeons at Tydore, and with the other Vessels
that row'd, went six Leagues thence, to the Island of Machian, then
Subject to the [Machian Island submits to Furtado.] King of Ternate,
but so weary of that Vassalage, that as soon as our Fleet appear'd,
the Governours flock'd down to the Port, attended by the Natives, with
their Wives and Children, and such Gifts as came next to Hand, as also
some Colours, which they laid at Furtado's Feet, submitting themselves,
and delivering up their Country. The Men landed in peaceable Manner,
amidst the usual Noise of Bagpipes and Basons; and the Portugueses
having in vain sought after some Dutch Men, who chose rather to secure
themselves by Flight, than to trust to the General's good Nature,
were inform'd that they were gone over to Ternate. A view having
[Dutch fly to Ternate.] been taken of the Island, Furtado erected a
Fort with all possible Expedition, in the most convenient Place. When
finish'd according to the Rules of Fortification, he put into it a
Captain with 50 Men, whom he left well arm'd and provided, and with
them a light Vessel, call'd a Galizabra. Then he return'd himself,
with the Rest of the fleet, to Tydore, where he joyn'd all his Ships,
repair'd them, and set out for Ternate to the Port of Talangame,
where he anchor'd, and lay from the End of October to the middle of
February, when the Succours from Manila came.

Some accuse him of lying still very long without attempting any thing;
[Furtado accus'd.] saying, he let slip the Opportunities, without
cutting off the Enemies Provisions, or ravaging their Country,
when he might have subdu'd them by that Means alone, without firing
a Shot. However, when we have before us the Actions of such great
Commanders, it is safer to judge they had some sufficient unknown
Reason for what they did, than to attribute it to their Fault. Most
certain it is, That being inform'd of a Fleet of the Enemies of
22 Carcoas, which was not far from the Island Machian, he lost no
Time, but putting 172 Portugueses, of the chosen Men of his Fleet,
into 18 Carcoas, under an able Commander, he sent them to find out
the Infidels. But tho' the Soldiers were so haughty, that every one
undertook to fight six Carcoas, yet every Officer was for commanding
all the Rest, and [Portugueses baffled through their Pride.] thus Want
of Discipline snatch'd the Victory out of their Hands. The Enemy
pass'd by, and they look'd on, without firing a Gun. The Barbarian
Fleet, observing their Disorder, stood about nimbly, and pouring in a
Volley upon the Portugueses, took a Carcoa, with fourteen Men in it,
whom they slew, in Sight of their Companions, and it was good Fortune
that they did not follow their Stroke. This occasion'd the General's
erecting the Fort at Machian; whilst the King of Ternate strengthen'd
his, with the Assistance of 20 Hollanders, making good Use of the
Leisure of eight Months given him by Furtado. He then cast up Works,
and provided Engines, as he did afterwards in the Sight of our Camp.

When the Fleet was all assembled at the Philippine Islands,
the Ammunition and Provisions were deliver'd to Gallinato, by
the Judges and King's [The Succours sent by Don Pedro de Acunna.]
Attorney of the Sovereign Court, being 1000 Bushels of clean Rice,
300 Bullocks for Flesh; 200 Jars of Wine; 80 Quintals, or hundred
Weight of Nails, Hooks, Hinges, and other Iron Work; 40 of Powder;
300 Ilocos Blankets; 700 Yards of Spanish Woollen Cloth; 100 Needles
for Sails; 30 Jars of Oil; and for the Complement of Men, 200 Soldiers,
165 of them heavy Harquebusiers, and the other, 35 light Musquetiers;
22 Seamen; some Pilots; one Master; three Gunners of S. Potenciana,
and 20 Grummets. The whole Expence hereof amounting to 22260 Pieces
of Eight a Month. The Governour and Sovereign Court having done
thus much, they requir'd F. Andrew Pereyra, and Captain Brito, to
go with that Supply, which was then in readiness, under Gallinato,
with the Colours, and Captains Christopher Villagra, and John
Fernandes de Torres. The Company belonging to Captain Don Thomas
Bravo, the Governour's Nephew, and Son to his Brother Don Garcia,
staid behind, but the Captain went himself, and serv'd honourably in
the Expedition. The Foot embark'd on the Ship S. Potenciana, and the
Frigats S. Antony, S. Sebastian, S. Bonaventure, and S. Francis. They
set sail from the Port of Yloilo, on the 20th of January, 1603, and
arriv'd at that of Caldera, in Mindanao, on the 25th; where receiving
some Intelligence of the Enemy, they continued till the 28th. Then
they saild towards the Moluccos, and on the 7th of February descry'd
the Island of Siao, and the next Morning, by Break of Day, that
[S. Antony Frigat cast away.] of Toalan, four Leagues from it. There
the Frigat S. Antony was cast away, on a Shoal of that Island, which
discompos'd all the Squadron. Gallinato took Care to save the Men. He
sent Captain Villagra, who brought them off, with the Arms and Guns;
the rest was swallowed by the Sea.

They held on their Voyage, and on the 13th of February discover'd
the Island of Ternate. On the 14th they arriv'd at Tydore, where
they were inform'd of the coming of Andrew Furtado; and therefore
stay'd but a [Gallinato from Manila joyns Furtado.] short Time to
refresh themselves, being earnest to joyn him. Setting forward with
a fair Wind, they came to Ternate, and enter'd the Port of Talangame,
a League from the Fort, on the 16th of the aforesaid Month. The Fleets
saluted one another in friendly Manner, and the Generals did the like,
giving one another an Account of their Strength, Transactions, and
all other Particulars till that Time. The Discourse falling out of
one Thing into another, came to contesting; for Gallinato affirm'd,
That the Enemies Provisions ought to have been cut off, by ordering
our Carcoas to sail round the Island, which was in great Want of
them, and could be reliev'd by the Opportunity he had given. Furtado
alledg'd other Reasons to defend himself. It was thought convenient
before they landed, to take a View of the Enemies Fort, to which
Purpose, the Captains, Christopher Villagra, and Gonzalo Sequeyra
were appointed to make up to it in a Carcoa, with a white Flag,
as it were to speak with the King, and propose Peace and Conditions.

Those two Officers drew near, the Enemy met them, and understanding
what they came about, sent to acquaint the King. He answer'd he could
not give them Audience that Day, but they might return the next. They
returning accordingly, the Inhabitants of the City came out to meet
them, [Two Captains sent to the City of Ternate.] and among them
Cachil Sugui, Cachil Gogo, and Cachil Quipate, the King's Uncles, who
went back to tell him, that those Captains were come by his Highness's
Command. This Message was brought him at Nine a Clock in the Morning,
and tho' he was close by the City, the Answer came not till four
in the Afternoon, and was, That unless Furtado, or Gallinato came,
he would not speak with any other; but that the Captains that were
come might treat with his Officers, and he would stand by, and ratify
what they should conclude. The Spaniards having receiv'd this Answer,
and their Design being to view the Fort, Captain Villagra [Villagra
views the Fort.] set his Resolution, and pretending some Occasion,
went into the Thicket, whence he observ'd all that could be seen on
that Side, more nicely than could have been expected in so short a
Time. They return'd to the Fleet, and gave the General an Account of
all they knew.

In fine, they landed, and then again Gallinato intreated Furtado,
to [The Forces land.] send out the light Vessels a cruising, to cut
off the Enemies Supplies; and those which went out upon his Request,
sped so well, that they met a plentiful and strong Reinforcement
of Men and Provisions, in two Junks and a large Chiampan, which
they took, killing and taking the Men, who were Numerous and well
arm'd. They continu'd to round the Island, encourag'd by this first
Success, and by that Means cut off all Succours. The Enemy began
to want, sicken and dye. They fed on Herbs, and other slight Dyet;
and many, but particularly Women, not being able to endure Hunger,
[Famine at Ternate.] fled confidently, tho' compell'd by Necessity,
to our Camp; and the rest would have done the same if they could.

On the 27th of February, Furtado took a Review of his Men on the
[Christians review'd.] Enemies Shore, where our Ships were at
Anchor. Gallinato said, he was much troubled to see it, because in
his Opinion, they were not fit even to make that Show, most of them
being Boys, sick of the Distemper they call Berber, unskillful at
their Fire-arms, and very few of them had Muskets, but only little
Fowling-Pieces; so that all seem'd to forebode ill Success. The whole
Number of them was 420 Soldiers, divided into four Companies. The next
Day, the Spanish Infantry of the Philippine Islands pass'd Muster,
in the same Place, before Furtado and his Officers. Don Thomas led
them in Armour, and with a Pike in his Hand, with all the Musquetiers
in the Van. After him the other Companies in Order, according to
Seniority. They all form'd three Bodies, being Men of Experience,
well equipp'd, orderly, and of such Valour as soon after appear'd.

A Council was held, about landing, on the first of March, where the
[Consuls about landing.] General declar'd by Word of Mouth, saying
he never did it in Writing, That he had lain so long, almost idle,
wholly depending on the Succour that was come, and that since Don
Pedro de Acunna had sent it so compleat, it was not reasonable to lose
Time. Gallinato answer'd, representing the Greatness of the Enterprize,
and that they had provided no Necessaries to begin the Work, hinting at
some Home Particulars, which were signify'd to him by the Portuguese
Commanders. The Votes being taken, it was finally resolv'd to land,
because all Things were in readiness; perhaps they conceited that the
Enemies Power was imaginary, and that they would submit at the Sight
of our Army. Gallinato was always of the [Gallinato against it.]
contrary Opinion; because that Weakness he was an Eye-witness to,
could not deceive him; and therefore that nothing might be wanting
on his Part, tho' he was under Command, but much respected, he writ
a Role of the Things necessary for the Design in Hand, setting down
in it even the Hand-Spikes for moving of the Artillery, which had not
been provided in all that Time. By which may be seen, said Gallinato,
how great a Defect there had been in the Rest. When the Council broke
up, Furtado told Gallinato, he had order'd, that as soon as they
landed, 200 Portugueses should mount the Guard, with one Company of
Spaniards. Gallinato begg'd he would give him leave to lead the Van,
saying, he would not go as Chief, but only as a Soldier, as being
proud of serving under him. This he requested very earnestly; but
Furtado, who knew how to value such Requests, answer'd, That if he
went he must accept of his [He begs to lead the Van and obtains it.]
Company. Gallinato reply'd, That he should take the Post due to his
Person, since it was of such Consequence, and do him the Favour to
grant him the Van. He would not grant it at that Time, but the next
Day, he and his Admiral spoke to him, saying, He assign'd him the Van,
by the Advice of his Admiral, and therefore desired he would be content
it might consist of the Number of Men he had appointed. Gallinato
accepted the Command, and valu'd it as was due. They landed on the
3d of March, and as they were drawing up, Furtado would needs place
two of his Colours, and one of the Spanish in the Van, with 300 Men;
the other three in the Rear; and the Royal Standard, and himself to
be in the main Body; Gallinato was of Opinion, that all the Colours
should march with the main Body, but the General follow'd his own Way.

[They move towards the Enemy.] In this Order they began to move
towards the Enemy, Captain Don Thomas marching by Gallinato, who
afterwards, in a Letter to Don Pedro, said, He this Day, and upon other
Occasions, gave good Proof, that he was the Son of such a Father,
and these grey Hairs of mine were sufficiently honour'd with the
Assistance of such a Hand, and I was well defended and secure. The
Enemy being above 700, kept in a strong and safe Post, the Shore on
which our Men march'd, being little or nothing, by Reason it was
High-Water, and that on the Land Side there was a very high Bank,
and above it a rising and close Zacatal, which could not be broke
through. Zacatal is a Field overgrown with such deep Grass or Weeds,
that many Men, and much Cattle may be hid among them. These are much
thicker [Zacatal what it is.] than the Fields of Sedge, or Sheer-Grass
in Spain. They call it Zacatal, from the Word Zacate, signifying
that Sort of Grass or Weed, which grows up almost as thick as a
Reed. Along this narrow Slip of Shore, which was full of Rocks, and
uneven, only three Men could march abreast, he that was next the Sea,
being partly in the Water. The Enemy was possess'd of this close Pass,
and a great Tree cut down for that Purpose, and lying across the Place,
serv'd them instead of a Trench. Behind [Posture of the Ternates.]
it, and upon the Bank, between it, and the Zacatal, appear'd all their
Men, with Muskets, Fire-Locks, Campilanes, or Cymiters, Bacacacs,
or burnt Staves, Darts, Hand Granadoes, and Stones which did not do
us the least Harm. They had also five Drakes in this Post, wherewith,
upon some short Attacks, they kill'd five Spaniards; and afterwards,
as the Action grew hotter, wounded ten Portugueses, in such Sort that
they dy'd in a few Days. Gallinato owns he was this Day in Danger of
losing his Honour; because the Colours, and all the Rest was in the
utmost Peril.

[Gallinato repulsed.] The Enemy fought in Safety, and did our Men so
much Harm, that the first Charge Gallinato gave, the Ternates fell on
so furiously, as to drive us from the Ground we had gain'd. Gallinato
look'd behind him to see the Colours he had brought with him in
the Van, with the 300 Men, and found them at his Back very thinly
Guarded. Thus the second Time the Shout was given to fall on, and he
again oblig'd to retire, because he had fewer Men every time, and the
last they were scarce twenty. At length shaming those that lagg'd,
and as it were inspiring new Vigour into them, he [Gains the Pass.]
fell on so fiercely, that he gain'd the Post, and the five Drakes. The
Ternates lost all, or most of their best Men. Gallinato follow'd the
Chace till he discover'd the Fort, then he halted, and order'd our
Camp to be Intrenched. The work was begun, and the Enemy obstructed it
twice, sending out Parties to prevent planting the Gabions, and divert
the Workmen; but they retir'd both times with loss. When the Trench
was finished, Gallinato [Spaniards Intrench.] sent to the General
to come to it. He came and took up his Quarters, with all his Men,
bringing the Royal Standard, and all the Colours.

The next Day he judg'd it convenient to carry the Lodgment
forward. [Trenches carry'd on nearer to the Fort.] Gallinato undertook
it, and with his Men finish'd the Trench, within 200 Paces of the
Enemies Fort. There they continu'd some Days; and it being Gallinato's
Part only to obey, he sometimes gave his Opinion, and always did
what he was commanded. He did so, when the General told them it would
be convenient to carry on a Trench farther, to plant the Cannon. On
the Ninth of the same Month, before the Fort had been well view'd,
he went to open the Trench, with his own Men, and 100 Portugueses,
a little above 100 Paces from the Walls, which being so near they all
soon perceiv'd the danger of the Undertaking. It was the worse for the
Confusion and Noise in filling the Gabions. The next Day the Cannon
was brought thither, being four Guns, two thirteen, and two sixteen
Pounders. These sixteen Pounders, which the Portuguese Soldiers call
Camels, are short Pieces, unfit for Battery; besides that the Bullets
[Stone Bullets unfit for Battery.] were made of Stone, and broke
as soon as they touch'd the Wall; being only fit to fire at the
Houses. Gallinato seeing this, told the General that since before
they landed he said, he had Cannon, he should order it to be brought
on, and planted in Battery, now he saw how ineffectual that they had
prov'd. He answer'd, that there was all he had, having left the best
in some Places he recover'd the foregoing Year; and could not bring
any more such, by Reason of the stormy Weather.

[The Enemies Strength.] This being mounted, the Battery began;
but being so improper for this Purpose, it was canonading the Air;
for the Enemy overlook'd, and was strengthen'd by a Stone Cavalier,
which is that of Our Lady, next the Sea. Under it was a Ravelin,
with seven heavy Pieces of Cannon which did, and threatned greater
Harm to our Camp. The Cavalier was all Rampard, four Fathom high,
and a Fathom and a half broad; all which had been perform'd, and
rais'd with Espauls, by the Contrivance of the Dutch, who forwarded
it, ever since they traded with that Tyrant. On the Land Side ran the
Curtin of the Wall, as far as the Stone Bullwark, call'd Cachil Tulo,
fortify'd outwards with Massy Timbers, on which there were three large
Guns, and two on the Wall from this Bullwark to that of our Lady. All
these Works look'd towards that Part, where our Men had taken up
their Quarters. These Forts had also a great Number of Falconets,
and Drakes; and the Cavalier that was batter'd being the strongest
Part, where there was more Noise than Effect, the General order'd
the Battery to cease.

[They Sally.] On Sunday the sixteenth, between four and five in the
Evening, the Enemy sally'd out of their Fort, with most of their Men
to attack, and gain the Trench, where our Cannon was planted. They
assaulted it in three Places, dividing their Men, next the Mountain
in Front, and towards the Shore. From the Mountainward came above
800 Ternates, with Campilanes, or Cymiters, in the Van of them
almost as many Javaneses, with Pikes 25 Spans long, all in close
Order. The Leader of them was a [Amuxa, the King's Nephew leads them.]
gallant Youth, call'd Cachil Amuxa, the King's Cousin German, and
Son to Cachil Tulo. Four hundred attack'd in Front, and many more
next the Sea, each Body under its own Commander; who all fell on
together with such Vigour, that had not they who defended it been in
great Readiness, the Enemy could not miss of being Master of it. The
Captains Pinto and Villagra commanded in it, who defended it bravely,
but Emanuel Andres, Sergeant to Villagra, Alonso Roldan, a Corporal,
and another Portuguese, who behav'd himself gallantly, dy'd fighting,
being all run through with Pikes. The Advantage soon appear'd on the
Spanish Side, [He is Defeated.] which the Enemy perceiving, they
turn'd their Backs, leaving the Commanders their King had the greatest
Value for, dead in the Field, and retired to the Fort. This Success
gave Occasion to draw another Trench nearer the Fort, to batter the
Ravelin, whence they did us Harm, with seven Pieces, notwithstanding
our Work, which was carry'd on by the Captains Villagra and Sebastian
Suarez. On Thursday the Trench was almost finish'd, and being near,
made them so uneasy, that the Besieged began to batter it, with all
their Cannon, but ineffectually, because the Gabions, and Rampart on
the Inside, could bear much more. However, by this they perceiv'd the
Power and Strength of the Enemy, and the Difficulty of the Undertaking.

On the twenty first of March the General came to the Trench, and
[Council of War held.] calling together the Captains, Gallinato,
Villagra, Antony Andrea, John Fernandez de Torres, Gonzalo de Sequeyra,
Sebastian Suarez de Albergueria, Stephen Texeira, Gaspar Pacheco,
the Admiral Thomas de Sousa Ronches, Lewis de Melo Sampayo, Jacome
de Morales, Don Lope de Almeyda, Ruy Gonzalez, Trajan Rodriguez
Castelbranco, Antony de Brito Fogaza, John Pinto de Moraes, and Don
Thomas Bravo, and taking out a Missal, in the first Place desir'd them
to take an Oath upon the holy Evangelists, that they would not speak
of, nor any otherwise reveal, what he should there propose to them,
and what should be resolv'd upon it, till effected. They all swore,
and then he propos'd the Matter thus.

[Furtado's Speech to the Council.] I have call'd you together,
Gentlemen, to acquaint you with the Condition I am in at Present, and
this Siege has brought me to. It is two Years since I came from Goa,
and during my Voyage, have spent a great Quantity of Ammunition, upon
several Occasions; so that when we landed the other Day we had only ten
Pipes of Powder, and 29 Barrels sent me from Manila. Since I landed,
so much has been consum'd, as is visible, in Skirmishes, and Battery,
that I have now much less than half that Quantity. The Dead, Wounded
and Sick, of our Foot, now wanting in the Camp, are 130; and the rest,
as daily Experience shows, fall Sick very fast of the Distemper call'd
Berber. Our Provisions, tho' we took the Rice the Frigates brought from
Manila, are so short, that they can not last beyond the beginning of
June. The Ships and other Vessels of the Fleet, in the Opinion of the
Pilots, run a great Hazard, where they now lie at Anchor; because,
when this Moon is out, there can be no Safety for it, by reason of
the high Winds and Storms, unless they remove to another Place, and
there is no other but Tydore. We see how resolute, and well fortify'd
the Enemy is, since all our Battery has produc'd so little Effect,
and if they receive any Damage, it is soon made up by the Multitude of
People. The Friendship the King of Tydore promis'd for advancing of his
Majesty's Service, has prov'd so false, that he has perform'd nothing
of what was concerted with him, tho' so reasonable, and beneficial to
himself; having only been free in Words, but his Actions have not yet
been seen. I have had sufficient Tryal of him. He has no other Design,
but to deceive, and amuse us, that our Men may be destroy'd by Degrees,
and so Time may consume us if the Enemy cannot. When I press'd him
to do something, to show at this Time that he was a Friend, and his
Majesty's Subject, he answer'd, he would; but that we must furnish
Provisions for all his Men, because he had none. They demand Powder
and Ball, for every trivial Undertaking, that so they may consume
the little we have left; and when there is any Work to be done,
there are no Men for it. Of the few Amboyneses I brought with me,
for this Purpose, their Labour being great, some are return'd home,
others gone to the Enemy. Those that remain are not sufficient, and
most of what has been hitherto done is owing to the Infantry; which
is so harrass'd, that it can do no Service. The Enemy expects Dutch
Ships, and knows they are now at Banda. I have Intelligence that they
have sent for them, and if they come they will be a great Obstacle
to our Designs. Considering what I have discours'd of, I desire you,
Gentlemen, and every one of you, still under the Obligation of the
Oath, to give me your Opinions, that according to them I may resolve
what to do, in pursuance of the great Duty incumbent on me.

Upon the Request of the Captains, the General Furtado gave in these
Proposals in writing, tho' he oppos'd it at first. In short they
were written, as were the Opinions of the Councellors, among whom
the greater Part, even of the Portugueses oppos'd the General; and
tho' I ought to give some Account of their Votes, because they had
all different Views, yet, in Regard that most of them assented to
Gallinato's Opinion, it will suffice to set down his Answer.

John Xuarez Gallinato, Commander of the Provinces of the Pintados,
and [Gallinato's Answer to Furtado.]

the Officers attending me, do answer to the Proposal made by your
Lordship, as follows. That as to the want of Powder you represent, we
look upon it as essential, since we can not fight without it, and if
that fails, our Cannon and small Fire-Arms, are rather Encumbrances,
than Weapons, and therefore it is requisite to resolve and agree,
where and when to employ, and how much of what we have may be spent,
so as our Enterprize may succeed, since we see how ineffectual that
hitherto spent has been; considering, at the same Time, that a great
Quantity is to be reserv'd, to fight five Dutch Galeons we expect;
which, if they come, part of our Fleet must of necessity go out and
ingage. For, if this be not done they will put Succours into the
Place, which tho' never so inconsiderable, as but of 100 Muskets,
would be very prejudicial to us; besides that, it will be a great
Disreputation, not to meet them out at Sea.

As to the Mens sickning, being kill'd and wounded, we say, those are
Misfortunes always attending War; and that we are sensible how fast
the Army grows weak, for which Reason, it will be necessary to be
the more expeditious in the Work we have in Hand; yet so that neither
too much Precipitation may expose it to Hazards, nor Delay give Time
for all the Army to fall Sick. As for the Scarcity of Provisions,
our Opinion is, that an Account be taken of what we have, how much is
consum'd in a Month, and thus the necessary Distribution may be made
in Time; for otherwise we shall fall short, when we least expect it;
and Hunger will do us more Harm than the Enemy.

To the Danger of the Ships threatned by the Pilots, and their Advice
to go over to Tydore, we answer. That if the Fleet quits the Station
where it is, it will be a manifest Detriment to the Army, which is
supply'd from it with all it Wants, and must want every Thing upon
its Absence. Besides, that if the Enemy see it once gone, they will
take fresh Courage; and if the Dutch come and find the Harbour empty,
it is plain they will possess themselves of it. Again, if the Fleet
makes off, must not a considerable Number of the Soldiers go for its
Security? Now how can it be proper to divide our Forces; especially
considering they are so small, and the Men so sickly? Besides that
here is no Place to lay up the Provisions, for the Waters destroy
them by Day and Night. Whilst aboard the Fleet, the Soldiers have it
daily brought fresh and wholesome. Farther, the Pilots, and Natives
of Tydore, say the Ships are safe in the Harbour till after the Middle
of April.

We have had Tryal of the Enemies Power, and believe they have Men,
Ammunition, and Cannon to spare, considering our Condition; and the
Commanders, and Deserters from them confirm it. But neither can it
be deny'd, that the very first Day we ingag'd as we have been told by
Prisoners, and wounded Men, 1000 of the best Men they had in Ternate
came out to stop our Passage with five Pieces of Cannon, and so posted,
that only two of our Men could come up a Breast to charge them; and yet
they with all these Odds, were beaten off with the Loss of many Men,
as appear'd by the dead Bodies, scatter'd along the Shore, where they
also lost their Artillery. The same Day we saw them sally upon the
Fort of Santiago, where Captain Villagra commanded, and tho' our Men
were surpriz'd, yet they repuls'd them and slew the Flower of their
Commanders; so that they were certainly much weakned; and streightned
by Hunger and Sickness. And tho' with the Help of the Dutch, and
their own Hardiness they repair the Breaches, and fortify themselves
with Artillery, Means may be found to surmount these Difficulties,
for if there were none, it would be no War we are ingag'd in.

We are sensible of the King of Tydore's Want of Faith; but what
discreet Commander has not made the best of such Accidents, and
wink'd at disloyal, and unsteady Persons till a more favourable
Opportunity; Besides, before we landed, Notice was taken of this
Princes Indifferency, and that his Design is to protract the War,
rather in Hatred to Ternate, than out of any Love to our Nation. We
our selves will make amends for the Want of Labourers; we will be
both Soldiers and Pioniers, as we have hitherto been; for the Sword
and the Spade are equally honourable in so just a War; and we again
offer our selves, and our Soldiers, to perform whatsoever shall be
for the Service of God and the King.

It is therefore our Opinion, that the Galeons remove immediately;
that two of them Anchor between our Ladies Cavalier, and S. Paul,
and batter the inside of the Cavalier, and the other two, the House
of S. Paul, the Fort, and the Town. Then of Necessity the Defendants
within must fly, since the Defence of the Stone Parapet, is but a meer
Show, except only where it looks upon the open Country. As soon as the
Galeons begin to batter, we will also batter the Ravelin before the
Cavalier, where the seven Pieces of Cannon are, which will certainly
be ruin'd in two Hours, because our Fort of S. Christopher commands
them, and the Thickness is not above a Fathom. To conclude, My Lord,
the Want of Provisions, and of Health, the coming of the Dutch,
the Resolution of the Besieged, of all other Difficulties will be
surmounted by Celerity. We are ready to perform all Things on our
Part; it belongs to your Lordship to make Tryal of our Promise. It
will not be reasonable immediately to abandon the small Remains of
Christianity in the Moluccos, and the Hopes of regaining what has been
lost, in vain endeavour'd for so many Years, at the Expence of so many
Millions of Money, so many Lives, and the Honour of European Nations,
by turning our Backs upon so holy an Undertaking.

[Furtado dissolves the Council, and acts counter to it.] This Answer
was sent in a Paper signed by the Captains, to satisfy all his
Doubts, for they answer'd others by Word of Mouth, which were
started by the Portuguese Commanders to perswade drawing off;
but the General Thanking both Parties for their Zeal in Advising,
broke up the Council; and on Saturday the 22d, came to a Resolution,
which he left to be put in Execution the next Day. That Night he drew
off the Cannon; and on Sunday Night, at the second Watch, the Forces
began to March towards the Shore, where the Ships lay to take in the
Men. The Admiral, Thomas de Sousa, led the Van; the General and his
Officers, the Main Body; and John Xuarez Gallinato, with the Captains
Don Thomas Bravo, John Fernandez de Torres, and Christopher Villagra,
and the Musketiers, brought up the Rear. [The Forces Shipp'd off.]
In this Order the Foot were Shipp'd off, and got all aboard by the
Morning. At the same time two Dutch Men, of those that were in the
Fort with the Enemy, fled from it, and came to the Ships. Among other
Intelligence, they told the Spaniards how strong the Enemy were in
Men and Cannon: That they had 36 heavy Pieces mounted on the Ravelin
near our Ladies; seven on Cachil Tulo's Bastion; three between them;
and two on the Cavalier; three at S. Paul's; eight in the Main Fort;
three at Limatao; three more on that Bastion, and four more near it.

This Day Furtado propos'd to sail away with the Fleet towards Amboyna,
but wanting Water, put it off for four Days, and during that time
Gallinato had leasure to Discourse him, since he was going away,
about providing [Furtado refuses to supply Tydore, and other Places.]
the Fort of Tydore, which could not be Maintain'd without Supplies. He
Answer'd, He was very willing to do it, but could not; and therefore
would send Succours from Amboyna. Application was made to him to
provide for other Wants, which concern'd his Majesties Service,
to which he return'd the same Answer. He press'd him to consider,
in what Condition he left the Fort of Machian, whereto particular
Regard ought to be had, because there were 50 Men and a Captain, with
the small Vessel, call'd a Galizabra, and he must either Relieve,
or Dismantle it. He said, He had already sent to Destroy it, and did
believe it was then Raz'd. [Machian Fort raz'd.]

Having taken this Order, and Leave of the Commanders, he set sail on
Thursday the 27th of March, sending a Letter to Don Pedro de Acunna,
the Governour of the Philippine Islands, with an Account of the
Particulars of this Enterprize: A small Part of it will suffice to
express the Thoughts and Intention of so Discreet a Commander as
he has been prov'd by his former and later Actions; for it is not
to be believ'd that he would quit the Attempt upon Ternate, without
substantial Reasons: The Succours your Lordship [Part of Furtado's
Letter to the Governor of the Philippines.] sent me, says he,
by Gods Assistance, came in good Time; for it was Providence that
furnished his Majesty with this Fleet, and sav'd the Lives of us,
who still enjoy them. By what has happen'd in this Expedition, his
Majesty will understand how much he is beholding to your Lordship,
and how little to the Commander of Malaca; since it is his Fault, that
his Majesty was not serv'd. When the Succours your Lordship sent me
arriv'd, this Fleet had no Ammunition, as having been two Years out
from Goa, and having spent it as Occasion offer'd. Wherefore, that
it might not be thought I Obstructed his Majesties Service, I landed;
and did it with the Loss of many of the Enemies. I carry'd up my last
Trenches within 100 Paces of the Enemies Works, planted five heavy
Battering-Pieces; and in ten Days Battery a great part of a Bastion,
wherein the Enemies main Strength consisted, was ruin'd. During
that Time all the Powder the Fleet had was spent, without leaving
enough for one Charge of the Guns, and if it should happen, as I do
not question it will, that I meet any Squadron of Dutch, I must of
Necessity fight them, this being my principal Motive for raising of
the Siege, when the Enemy was reduc'd to great Streights, both by Want,
and for that many of their best Commanders had been kill'd during the
Siege. By this your Lordship may guess at the Condition I am in. This
Letter dilates upon the Complaints against the Governours of India. He
promises Don Pedro, that if he meets with any Succours at Amboyna,
and is not oblig'd to go relieve the southern Parts, he will return
to the Moluccos, tho' he be forc'd to go refit as far as Malaca. He
praises and recommends the Captains Gallinato, Don Thomas, Villagra,
and their fellow Soldiers, and so concludes the Letter.

Gallinato went to Tydore, where he was inform'd, that tho' the Fort
of Machian was abandon'd, only one Bastian of it was dismantled;
so that if the Enemy would possess themselves of it, they might
do it with Ease, and were actually about it. Hereupon he spoke to
the King of Tydore, [Gallinato at Tydore takes Care of Machian.]
and the Portuguese Commander in Chief, recommending to them, that
they would either take Care to maintain, or else quite raze that
Fort. They commission'd a Captain to do the latter, who going to
perform it, loaded the Vessel, call'd Galizabra with 200 Quintals,
or a hundred Weight of Clove, and return'd to Tydore, to the great
Satisfaction of the Portugueses of that Island. At this Time the
King of Ternate was repairing the Breaches in his Fortifications,
and rais'd new Defences, providing against Dangers he knew Nothing
of yet. His Subjects are Warlike, [Falshood of the King of Tydore.]
with whom, and the Assistance of the Dutch, he thought his Kingdome
invincible. Great Matters might have been expected could any Confidence
be repos'd in the King of Tydore; but our Commanders say his People,
and those of Ternate understand one another.

On the 17th of April, the King of Tydore acquainted Gallinato,
that with [The King and Queen of Tydore at Variance.] his Leave
he design'd to make Peace with the King of Ternate. He answer'd, He
would do well to consider what was expedient for his own Dominions,
without Detriment to his Majesty's Service. The same Day the Sangiack
of Nua, in the Kingdom of Bachian, came to Tydore. He was a Christian,
and laying hold of the Opportunity of serving his Majesty in the last
Expedition, visited the Queen of Tydore, a beautiful young Lady,
Daughter to the King of Bachian, who liv'd discontented, because
the King her Husband was more fond of another ancient Woman, and not
so well born. The Sangiack had Commission and Strength to steal her
away, and conduct her to her Father, since neither Complaints, [She
is stolen away.] Intreaties, nor any other Methods had been of Force
to reclaim the King. On the 4th of May, came a Sister of the King's,
on the same Pretence of visiting her Niece, and reconciling her to
the King. The Sangiack and she having concerted those Affairs, the
young Queen going abroad with them to an Entertainment, and all Things
being provided, they embark'd, and sail'd away towards Bachian. The
King of Tydore was enrag'd, out of Patience, and apprehensive of
a new War; tho' afterwards this Difference was amicably adjusted,
by the Interposition of Cachil Malua, a principal Person of Bachian.

On the 22d of May News was brought to Tydore, that the King of Ternate,
had fitted out 50 Carcoas in his Harbour, and expected the Dutch
Ships. He, at the same Time, made Rejoycings, in a triumphant Manner
for the Departure of the Spaniards. It was requisite to leave some Men
and Provisions in the Fort of Tydore, which being done, Gallinato,
who [Fort of Tydore supply'd.] had before writ by an Advice-Boat,
to the General and Governour of the Philippine Islands, left the
Moluccos, and sail'd himself that Way. This was the Event of that
so long intended and threatned Undertaking, which I have deliver'd
impartially, having search'd after, and even guess'd at some Excuses
to justify the Behaviour of so great a Commander as Andrew Furtado;
enquiring of those very Officers who were present at the Attacks, and
in the Councils. Neither by them, nor by the General's own Memorials
[Impartiality of the Author.] and Papers, can be found or made out
any more than what appears by those which have been here inserted;
but to judge of these Affairs is not the Part of an Historian.

[Earl of Lemos President of the Council of the Indies.] This same
Year, about the beginning of April, the Presidentship of the Council
of the Indies was conferr'd on Don Pedro Fernandez de Castro, Earl
of Lemos and Andrade, Marquess de Sarria, Chief of his Family,
whose Royal Antiquity is well known, Nephew and Son-in-law to the
Duke of Lerma. In his Youth he gave such Hopes, as were afterwards
fulfill'd by his Actions. He was then Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber
to our King. The World made the same Judgment of him, that the Senate
of Rome had in his Time of Scipio, afterwards call'd Africanus, when
it made a Scruple of entrusting him with Matters of great Difficulty,
because he was so young. But Experience soon made appear in the Earl,
as well as in Scipio, that Prudence, which regulates all other Virtues,
often anticipates grey Hairs. It is no Merit of the Off-spring to be
descended from Noble, or Plebeyan Families; but such was the Vivacity
of this great Man's Spirit, and Judgment, that had he been born Mean,
he might by his own natural [This was writ when he was living.]
Parts have made his Fortune. No Man can say he wanted publick or
private Accomplishment. In him appears a settled Magnanimity; with
a courteous Sincerity; yet temper'd with that Justice we extol in
the severe Austereness of some of the Ancients. These Virtues are
interwoven with Religion, a Zeal for its Propagation, and the universal
Agreement, which is the Product of publick Tranquility. Thus he serv'd
his King, with Care and Solicitude; without Intermission, or seeking
himself and his Advantage. It will be requisite to be brief in this
Particular, because his singular Modesty is not pleas'd with the
Soothings of Commendation; but is as averse to Flattery, as remote
from standing in need of it.

[Member of the said Council, at that Time.] The Earl found the
Council fill'd with zealous and grave Men; the Lords Benedict
Rodriguez Valtodano, Peter Bravo de Sotomayor, Alonso Molina de
Medrano, Knight of the Order of Santiago, or S. James the Apostle,
James de Armenteros, Gonzalo de Aponte, Don Thomas Ximenes Ortis,
Don Francisco Arias Maldonado, Benavente de Benavides, John de
Villagutierre, Lewis de Salcedo, and Ferdinand de Villagomez; all of
them qualify'd by Extraction, noted for Learning, and having taken
the highest Degrees in it. These were Counsellors, and the last of
them Solicitor General of that Assembly. To which also belong'd
John de Ybarra, Knight of the Order of Calatrava, and Commendary
of Moratalaz, and Peter de Lodesma, the King's Secretaries. In the
Places of the Licenciates, Molina de Medrano, and Gonzalo de Aponte,
whom his Majesty afterwards employ'd in his Royal Council of Castile,
and in those of some who dy'd, his Majesty, at several Times put in
the Licenciates, Lewis de Salcedo, Gudiel, and Don Francis de Texada y
de Mendoza, Doctor Bernard de Olmedilla, and John de Ybarra, &c. All
these amidst that Multitude of Business they dexterously dispatch'd,
laid all their main Designs, for the restoring his Majesty's Monarchy
to its Fulness, in those utmost Limits of it; a Project suitable to
the Genius of the new President. He enquiring into the general and
particular Posture of all Things then depending, met with that of the
Molucco Islands, and finding it of Consequence, and almost forgotten,
inclin'd to give it a helping Hand.

[Br. Gaspar Gomez informs the Council.] Much about this Time, Brother
Gaspar Gomez came into Spain, being sent by Don Pedro de Acunna, to
solicite that Enterprize. The Brother at several tedious Audiences,
gave the President full Information of all that concern'd the Molucco
Islands, their Wealth, the great Treasure Spain has expended in
Attempts to recover them, to restore persecuted Christianity, where
it had been so much receiv'd; and what Consequence it was, that this
should be done by Way of the Philippine Islands. The Earl undertook
that Cause, as such ought to be supported, and consulted about it
with the Council, with the Duke of Lerma, and most particularly
with the King's Confessor. He never desisted, till it was brought
to bear, and in such a Forwardness, that it might be effectually
dispatch'd. The Members of the supream Council, with the same Zeal,
and considering the repeated Disappointments of this Enterprize,
forwarded the Expedition, and all of them agreed that Don Pedro de
Acunna should undertake it in Person. This favourable Disposition of
theirs, was fully confirm'd, by the News brought a Year after, of the
ill Success of the united Forces of India under Furtado, and those of
the Philippine Islands, under Gallinato. It was writ by Don Pedro de
Acunna, describing it to the Life, with Duplicates for his Majesty,
and the prime Ministers, and though he left much to Brother Gaspar
Gomez, he was very particular himself.

He complain'd that they had let slip such an Opportunity of Recovering
Ternate, and chastising the Dutch, who resort thither to the Trade of
[Don Pedro de Acunna's letter concerning the Enterprize on Ternate.]
Clove, Mace, and other Spice, and Drugs. He represented the Danger the
Philippine Islands were in, after that Neighbouring Tyrant's Victory;
and that having more particularly weigh'd the Circumstances of that
Affair, besides the Necessity of regaining the Reputation lost there,
he found that whatsoever has been yet said, was short. For not to
mention the principal End, which was the Propagation of the Faith,
but only with Regard to the King's Revenue, he show'd, That Ternate
being reduc'd it would be easie to subdue the Islands of Banda, which
are above thirty, lying about a hundred Leagues from the Moluccos,
full of valuable Mace, and possess'd by an unwar-like People, would add
that Income to Spain, and take it from the Dutch, who carry all away,
with little or no Opposition. He promis'd the same as to the Islands
Papuas, which are many, not far distant from Ternate, some of them
Subjects to that King, and yielding him a considerable Quantity of
Gold, Amber, and other valuable Tribute. Then he extended to the Great
Batochina, or Gilolo, describing its Fertility, and how that Tyrannical
King oppress'd it. Those of Celebes 45 Leagues from Ternate, where
he had strong Garrisons. The Greater and Lesser Javas, whose Kings
would again submit to Spain, as soon as the Moluccos were brought
under. He earnestly recommended Secresie and Expedition. To evince
the Necessity of both, besides the usual Reasons, he urg'd that as
soon as those Rebels and the Dutch hear of any War-like Preparations,
they spare neither Cost, nor Labour, to make all necessary Provision;
and that they never sail by the Coasts of India without ruining,
and plundering them. He affirm'd, that the General Furtado was no
way to blame for having abandon'd that Enterprize; for as it plainly
appear'd, and Captain Gallinato declar'd he had always behav'd himself
like a brave Gentleman, and discreet Commander; but that besides the
Want of Provisions and Ammunition, he could not relie upon his own
Men; and that if the Succours sent him from Manila had been more
considerable, he would have hazarded all with only them. He said,
the King of Tydore had sent him great Complaints against the General
Furtado, and that it was a common saying with him. That before he came
to the Moluccos the King of Tydore Slept, and he of Ternate Watch'd;
but now the Case was alter'd, and the contrary might be said. Yet he
believ'd he was not heartily sorry for the Disappointment. The same
he urg'd in Relation to the Kings of Bachian and Sian. He concluded,
offering to undertake that Affair in Person, provided he might be
furnish'd with what was necessary, that he might not be Distress'd
as his Predecessors had been. Then he went on, by way of Answer
to the Objections, or Accusations of the Spanish Commanders, who
being us'd to the Wars in Europe, despis'd all other Enemies, who
made War without all those Engines, and Fire-Arms us'd in Flanders,
France, and England. He says, none of those Eastern Provinces wanted
any of the Inventions we have in Europe; and that besides the great
Numbers they have, and the Dexterity in using them of the Japoneses,
Chineses, Mindanaos, and Moluccos, they are no less expert at their
Bows, and Arrows; especially the Javaneses, who conquer when they fly,
and that they are not destitute of such Strategems, that the Spaniards
have need of all their Valour against them, and their numerous
Armies. He owns the Molucco Islands can not stand in Competition,
with the strong and populous Cities taken in our Parts, but that
nevertheless, so many Christian Churches as have been polluted in them;
the banishing of our Religion; the Persecution of its Ministers;
the continual Tyrannical Practices; and Alliance of those People,
with the Dutch, his Majesties last Rebels, ought not to be cast into
Oblivion. And that, were there no other Motive but this, the King
ought to retrieve his Honour, which is concern'd for the loss of so
many of his Fleets, and Commanders. It is very remarkable, that tho'
in these Letters he gave an Account of the Posture of Affairs, either
as to Peace, or War, of so many several Kings, among whose Territories
the Spanish Arms appear, not without Glory; yet he insists not so much
on any Point, as that of Ternate, which was grown Old by above thirty
Years standing, to the Discredit of our Nation. From all this may be
inferr'd, how necessary it is always, in Affairs of great Difficulty,
to bend the entire Understanding to them, and to be in Love with the
Design conceiv'd, that so the Event may answer the Expectation. He
at the same Time sent long Reflections, and Projects of the Count
de Monterey, then Viceroy of Peru, relating to the Execution of
that Affair, wherein it plainly appear'd, by the Consonancy of the
Reasons, And the Opinions of Men well acquainted with those Parts,
that the Expedition was of greater Concern and Importance, than all
the Arguments made use of upon the like Occasions do ever amount to.

[Lewdness of the King of Ternate and Cachil Amuxa.] Thus was Ternate
bandy'd in the Councils of Spain, whilst at home it abounded in Trade,
yet stood upon its Guard, and particularly the King, whose Prosperity
gave him Occasion to indulge his Inclinations, of Cruelty towards the
Christians, and private Satisfaction to himself. He gave himself up
to the Love of Celicaya, yet being divided among so many Women, it had
not the usual Power over him, but allow'd of other Diversions. Cachil
Amuxa, the bravest of his Commanders, and his Cousin German, was newly
Marry'd to a Daughter of the King of Mindanao, a singular Beauty,
not of the Asiatick Sort, but of the Spanish or Italian. The King,
who was us'd to observe no Rules, courted her as a Gallant, and as a
King, persisting, and presenting her; and was soon admitted by the
Indian Lady. Her Husband, tho' their Privacy for a while conceal'd
his Wrong; at length, by the King's contriving to keep him abroad,
and the Interposition of Time, which reveals all Secrets, found out
who it was defil'd his Bed. What could the unfortunate Man do? He
durst not kill his Wife, for the Love he bore her, and for Fear of the
King's Displeasure. He resolv'd to be reveng'd, as if it had been in
a Money Concern. In order to it, he dissembled the best he could,
and whensoever he had an Opportunity to talk to Queen Celicaya,
either feign'd, or profess'd Love, till he had inculcated it as
he desir'd. He bore with the Disdain and Threats, which are the
Weapons Nature bestow'd on that Sex; and Perseverance prevail'd,
for Celicaya rewarded Cachil's Love. This Intrigue continu'd [Amuxa
Cuckolds the King in Revenge.] a considerable Time, till the King
found it out, and both Rivals took Notice of it. Tho' the King more
deeply resented the Reprisal his Kinsman had made, to be reveng'd;
yet they did not fall out on that Account, nor forbear conversing
together. They preserv'd Peace and Friendship in their Houses;
and the King stood so much in need of Cachil Amuxa, for his Wars,
which in those Parts are no less frequent, than Peace, the special
Blessing of Heaven, is among us, that he durst not declare against
him, and what is more, not so much as displease Celicaya. She, as
if the Abuse tolerated in Men had been allow'd to Women, justify'd
herself by alledging the Wrong the King had done her in courting
the other. However, [The King's Revenge.] the King being once in
the Field, under one of their Arbours, and Cachil Amuxa coming in,
without his Campilan, or Cymiter, the Guards upon a Signal given them,
handled their Arms, fell upon, and gave him many Wounds on his Head,
Face, Arms and Body, none daring to defend him. He was sensible of
the Occasion, and Revenge, and suddenly drawing a small Criz, or
Dagger, he happen'd to have about him, did not only defend himself
against many Cuts and Thrusts, but assaulted the Murderers, and with
great Activity, wounded some, bore down others, and put the rest to
Flight, killing four. Nor had his Fury stopp'd there, but that the
King slipp'd away; tho' now his Wounds had weaken'd Amuxa by Reason of
the great Quantity of Blood that ran from them. He was left for dead;
but an Uncle of his, hearing the Noise, came in to his Assistance,
with his Followers; who all bound up his Wounds, and carry'd him to
his House, where he was cur'd, by the King's Permission. This was the
Effect of his Fear, rather than good Nature, for all his Kindred took
the Injury upon themselves, and began to meditate Revenge; which they
would certainly have compass'd, and made fair Way for the Pretension
of Spain, had not those who were apprehensive of another War soon
reconcil'd those Animosities. The Cachil was cur'd, but with such
Scars in his Face, and so many deep Gashes and Seams in his Head,
that he was nothing like the Man he had been before. So say they who
knew him, and have seen him in our Days at Manila and Ternate. He
was restor'd to the King's Favour, and both of them to that of their
Wives, without Notice taken of the Accident, or as if it had been a
Secret. So great is the Difference in the Humours of Nations.

                      The End of the Eighth Book.

                                 OF THE
                         Discovery and Conquest
                                 OF THE
                  Molucco and Philippine Islands, &c.

                                BOOK IX.

[Preparations in Spain against the Moluccos.] The continual
Application of the President and Council to expedite the Enterprize,
seem'd to be a Presage of the late ill Success at the Molucco
Islands. The true Account of it was brought in Don Pedro de Acunna's
Letters. The King and his Ministers were concern'd at it; but at
the same Time, it was a Motive to hasten the Preparations, recover
the lost Reputation, and put an End at once to that Strife. Some
attributed the Miscarriage to Disagreement between Gallinato and
Furtado; others suspected the Discord had been between the Spanish
and Portuguese Nations. None urg'd that it might be for Want of
Necessaries for carrying on the Work. These Debates ended, and
the President espousing the Business with the Resolution that was
requisite, represented the Matter in a lively Manner to the King,
recounting what the General Furtado had done, the Succours sent
by Don Pedro de Acunna under Gallinato, and how, tho' the Officers
and Soldiers [The Presidents Remonstrance to the King.] did their
Duty, the Success fail'd. That it was look'd upon as most certain,
That the Molucco Kings, who still continu'd under Subjection, had
acted coldly. That this Failure in them was occasion'd by a Sort of
State Policy, easy to be seen thro'; which was the Protracting of
the War, and making use of our Arms for their private Advantage,
without desiring it should be fully concluded. That if Means were
not us'd for expelling the Dutch out of Ternate, they would become
absolute Masters of the Archipelago of the Conception, and deprive
his Majesty of all the Revenue of the Spice, as they had almost done
in the most considerable Parts of India.

[The King's Answer.] The King having consider'd it, approv'd of what
was laid before him; and being sensible of its mighty Importance,
judg'd the Number of Ships, Men and Arms demanded, too small; and
therefore added more with his own Royal Hand, without fixing a certain
Proportion; and order'd, that no Time should be lost, seeming very
earnest to have his Decree put in Execution. In the same Manner he
directed, thro' the Intervention of the Duke of Lerma, that the Design
in Hand should be carry'd on. Hereupon the Council pass'd the Necessary
Orders, and the President sent Letters and Instructions to the Viceroy
of New Spain, and the Governour of the Philippine Islands, that they
might with the same Diligence fulfil the Commands they should receive
as to this Point. The King in his Order sent to this Effect, declar'd
his Will, and the Method he was pleas'd should be observ'd as follows.

Don Pedro de Acunna, my Governour, and Captain General of the
Philippine [The King's Letter to Don Pedro de Acunna.] Islands and
President of my Royal Court in them. On the 20th of September of the
last Year 1603, I writ to you by an Advice Boat, which carry'd Gaspar
Gomez, of the Society of JESUS, to New Spain, acquainting you with the
Resolution I had taken concerning what you writ to me from New Spain,
when you went to serve me those Posts, relating to the Expedition of
Ternate. Pursuant to it, I have order'd 500 Men to be rais'd in these
Kingdoms, who shall be sent aboard the Fleet that is to go this Year
to New Spain. I writ to the Viceroy, directing him to raise 500 more,
that so you may have at least 800 sent you for this Enterprize. I have
appointed four Captains to carry them from this Kingdom; one of whom
is the Vice-Admiral John de Esquivel, to be Commander in Chief of the
said Men; besides six in half Pay, who are skillful and experienc'd
Soldiers, that in Case any of the said Captains dye by the Way, they
may supply their Places; and that they may take Charge of the Companies
to be rais'd in New Spain, as I write to the Viceroy. I have appointed
the said Captains 40 [Captains and their Pay.] Ducats a Month Pay,
and the Vice-Admiral John de Esquivel 60. Those in half Pay are to
have 25 Ducats; and from that Time forward, the said John de Esquivel,
in Case I order him to have the Title of Collonel, shall have 120
Ducats a Month; and whilst he serves under the Title of Commander
in Chief of the said Men, to have 90 Ducats a Month; the Captain:
60, and those in half Pay 40. The Soldiers, as well those rais'd in
Spain, [Soldiers Pay.] as those from New Spain, shall have Eight
Ducats a Month; the Viceroy being order'd to send to those Islands
as much Money as is requisite for a Years Pay, according to those
Rates. And, if they shall be longer detain'd upon other Occasions
of my Service, he shall also furnish what is Necessary, upon Advice
from you. Concerning which I have thought fit to acquaint, charge and
command you, that in Case this Pay of the Soldiers can be moderated,
[The Viceroy to furnish Money, Powder and Cannon.] with Regard
to what is usually paid there to Men of this Sort, you accordingly
reform it, as may be justifiable, acquainting me, and the Viceroy of
New Spain with it. However you shall make no Alteration in the Pay
of the Vice-Admiral John de Esquivel, nor of the Captains, Ensigns,
and those in half Pay. I have also directed the Viceroy to furnish
you with whatsoever shall be requisite, as far as 120000 Ducats you
have demanded for this Expedition, six Pieces of Battering Cannon,
and 500 Quintals, or hundred Weight of Musket Powder. The Men from
hence go arm'd with Muskets and Firelocks. You must be very careful
that there be due Order, Rule and Method in the Distribution of the
said Money, and every Thing besides. You shall endeavour to perform
what is intended, as I expect you [Don Pedro to go in Person.] will,
with the Men sent from hence and from New Spain, and those you may have
rais'd in those Islands for the Expedition against Ternate. If it be
possible you shall go in Person, as you have offer'd to do, leaving
those Islands in the best Order that may be. And in case the Affairs
there should be in such a Posture, that you cannot go in Person upon
this Expedition, you shall appoint another of sufficient Experience,
and well quallify'd, to take the whole Command, for I impower you so
to do. And it is my Will, That in Case you should miscarry, either
going upon the Expedition, or thro' any other Accident, or the Person
you shall appoint for it, that then the [John de Esquivel to succeed
Don Pedro.] Vice-Admiral John de Esquivel succeed and prosecute it;
and that all such as go upon the said Expedition, as well as Seamen
and Landmen, obey him, as they would you, if there. And I declare
that in this Case, and if you should miscarry, and the said John de
Esquivel succeed in the Command of the Expedition, he shall be subject
and subordinate to my Royal Sovereign Court of those Islands. I have
made Choice of the Captains, who have the Command of the Foot rais'd
in those Kingdoms, as Persons of Merit and Service; and therefore
do command you to honour and favour them as far as may be allowable,
and in so doing you will please me; and that you do not reform them,
nor take away their Companies, to give them to others, unless it be to
advance them to higher Posts. Nevertheless, if they shall be guilty
of any Crimes, you may punish them, as their Superior Officer. It is
to be suppos'd, That when these Men come to those Islands, and they
shall set out in the first Ships that sail from New Spain, after the
Arrival of the Flota, you will have all Things in such Forwardness,
that the Enterprize may be [Charge of Martial Discipline, &c.]
gone upon immediately. I charge you strictly to undertake it with
all the Precaution, Maturity, and Consideration I can expect from so
able a Soldier; and that the Men be well disciplin'd and exercis'd,
and all Things so well dispos'd, that you may meet with the wish'd
Success, which is of such Consequence, and you are sensible how much is
hazarded, and of the great Expence that is made. You are to take Care,
as I charge you, that the necessary Order be taken in the Distribution
and Management of my Treasure; and that all superfluous Charges be
avoided. You shall from Time to Time give me an Account of whatsoever
happens, as Occasion shall offer. When you have recover'd the Fort of
Ternate, you shall take the necessary Measures for the Security of the
same, and of the Island. I have order'd the Viceroy of New Spain to
send you Advice, as soon as the Men that go from hence arrive there,
if there be conveniency so to do; and that he particularly inform you
of what Force he has gather'd there, and will be effective any other
Way; as also when they shall sail thence, that you may dispose Things
there accordingly; and if you shall think fit that the Men be left any
where, before they come to Manila, you may order it, or do as you shall
think most Expedient in all Respects. Valladolid, June the 20th 1604.

After the Dispatching of this Order, or Letter, the Contents of it
began to be executed in Spain. In the foregoing Year 1603, whilst
Don Pedro [Dreadful Fire at Manila.] de Acunna was busy in making
Preparations to this Effect, an Accident happen'd in the Philippine
Islands, which threatned the Ruin of them, and greater Calamaties. A
Fire broke out at Manila in April, which consum'd the best Part,
and above half the City, without being able to save the Goods,
which had been landed from the Ships newly arriv'd from New Spain,
and laid up in the safest Part of the Houses, whereof 270 of Timber
and Stone were burnt, as also the Monastery of S. Dominick, House
and Church, the Royal Hospital of the Spaniards, and the Magazines,
no Building that lay betwixt them escaping. Fourteen Spaniards were
burnt, and among them, the licenciate Sanz, a Canon of the Cathedral,
with some Indians and Blacks. The Loss was valu'd at a Million. It
seem'd to be an Omen of what was to follow, which agreed with the
Signs seen in the Sky.

In the foregoing March, a Chinese Ship came into the Bay of Manila,
[Three Chinese Mandarines at Manila.] in which, as the Out-Guards gave
the Account, there came three great Mandarines, with suitable Pomp and
Retinue, about their Monarch's Business. The Governour gave them leave
to land, and come into the City. As soon as landed, they were carry'd
directly to the King's House, in Palankines of Ivory, and curious Sorts
of Wood gilt, on the Shoulders of their Servants, who were clad in
Red. There the Governour expected them, with the Members of the Royal
Court, and a great Number of Officers and Soldiers, who also lin'd the
Streets, and publick Places. When they came to the House, they were set
down by their Servants, and leaving their Colours, Umbrelloes, Launces,
and other Tokens of Grandeur, went into a spacious Room magnificently
adorn'd. As soon as they saw the Governour, who expected them standing,
the Mandarines, making their Obeysance, and performing Ceremonies of
Civility after the Chinese Fashion, made up to him. Don Pedro return'd
their Courtesy after the Manner of Spain. They, pursuant to their
Commission, with the Interposition [Their Extraordinary Message.]
of Interpreters, told him; "That their King had sent them with a
Chinese, they brought along with them in Chains, that they might
with their own Eyes see a Golden Island, call'd Cabit, near Manila,
of which that Subject of his had given him an Account, telling him,
it was not possess'd by any Body, and therefore ask'd of him a Number
of Ships, to seize it, promising to bring them back loaden with Gold,
and if he did not he should take his Head. That they were come to
fulfill that Promise to their King, and to satisfy him of the Truth
of the Existence of so strange an Island; which being an Affair of
such Consequence, their King would not commit it to any Persons of
less Note than themselves." Don Pedro de Acunna answer'd them in a
few [Don Pedro's Answer.] Words. "That they were Welcome; that they
might rest them in the House prepar'd for their Entertainment in the
City, and they would afterwards discourse about that Affair more at
Leisure. Thus they took their Leave, and at the Door got up again into
their Palankines, on the Shoulders of their Slaves, who carry'd them
to their Lodgings. There the Governour order'd them to be plentifully
furnish'd with Provisions, and all Dainties as long as they staid.

It is a plain Case, that the coming of these Mandarines must raise
a Jealousy, [Jealousy of the Chineses.] and make it be concluded,
that they came upon another Design, than what they declar'd. The
Chineses are sharp and mistrustful, and it was not to be believ'd,
that their King should send them on that Errand, nor the Fiction
likely to be credited by the Spaniards. At the same Time, eight
Chinese Ships arriv'd at Manila with Merchandize, and declar'd, That
the Mandarines come as Spies, because the King of China intended to
break off all Trade with the Spaniards, and send over a mighty Fleet
of Ships that could carry an hundred Thousand fighting Men, to possess
himself of that Place, and that this Expedition would be some time that
Year. The Governour redoubled his Care for the Security of the City,
and order'd the Mandarines to be well treated, but not to be suffer'd
to go out of the City, nor to administer Justice among the Sangleys,
or Chineses, as they had began to do, which they seem'd to resent. Then
he sent them Word, that they must dispatch their Business, and return
speedily to China. All this was done, without any Signs of Jealousy
shown by the Spaniards, or that they saw into their private Designs.

The Mandarines visited the Governour again, and then he was more
[Second Visit of the Mandarines, and the Governour's Answers.]
plain; and making something of a Jest of their Coming, said to them,
That he wonder'd their King should give Credit to the Chinese they
brought Prisoner; or if it had been true that any such Gold were
in the Philippine Islands, that he should think the Spaniards would
suffer it to be carry'd away, the Country belonging, as it did, to
the King of Spain. The Mandarines answer'd they believ'd as much;
but that their King had sent them, and they were oblig'd to come,
and to carry him an Answer. That having done their Part, according
to their Duty, they would return. The Governour being willing to make
short Work of it, sent the Mandarines, with their Prisoner and Servants
to the Port of Cabite, which is two Leagues from the City. There they
were receiv'd with the Noise of our Cannon, purposely fir'd at their
Landing, which they admir'd, and did not conceal their Surprise and
Fear. When landed they ask'd the Prisoner, [The Chinese Prisoner
prov'd a Cheat.] whether that was the Island he had told the King
of: He, nothing daunted, answer'd, It was. They reply'd, Then where
is the Gold? All that is in it, rejoyn'd he, is Gold, and I will
make it good. The same Answer he made to several other Questions
put to him; and all was writ down in the Presence of some Spanish
Commanders, and trusty Naguatatoes, or Interpreters. To conclude,
the Mandarines order'd a Basket made of Palm-Tree Leaves to be fill'd
with that Earth, to carry it to the King of China; and after dining
and resting, return'd to Manila. The Naguatatoes or Interpreters,
declar'd, That the Mandarines pressing the Prisoner to answer directly
to the Purpose, he told them, That the meaning of what he said to
the King was, that there was abundance of Gold, and other Wealth in
the [He explains himself.] Possession of the Spaniards and Natives
of the Philippine Islands; and if he would furnish him with a Fleet
well mann'd, he having been at Luzon, and knowing the Country, would
undertake to make himself Master of it, and return to China with the
Ships laden with Gold. This, with what the Chineses had said before,
seem'd more likely than the Invention of the Mandarines.

Don F. Michael de Benavides, then Archbishop Elect of Manila, who
understood the Chinese Language, was of this Opinion. He had been in
their Country, was acquainted with the Subtilties of the Sangleyes,
and suffer'd their Torments and Cruelties. It was presently Judg'd,
that the Mandarines came under that Colour to view the Country, and
to lay the Foundation of their Insurrection and Mutiny there. These
certain Judgments are grounded on the Irrational Disposition of
the Sangleyes, or Chineses, which, not to mention other Proofs,
will sufficiently appear, by some few [Part of a Letter concerning
the Chineses.] Periods of the Long Letter Ferdinand de los Rios,
of whom we have spoken before, writ to Manila, from the Port of
Pinar in Canton, where he was upon the Service of the Church, and
of his King. For these Infidels, says he, have the Light of Nature
more clouded than any other People in the World, and therefore there
is need of Angels, and not Men, to deal with them. For the better
conceiving what a sort of Country 'tis we are in, I shall only say,
that this is the true Kingdom of the Devil, and where he may be said
to govern with absolute Power. Every Sangley, or Chinese, seems to
be possess'd by him; for there is no piece of Malice, or Fraud, but
what they attempt. The Government, tho' outwardly it appears good,
as to Order and Method, for its Security; yet when you once have
Experience of its Practice, you will find it is all a Contrivance of
the Devil. Tho' they do not here publickly rob, or plunder Strangers,
they do it another worse Way, &c.

[Chineses design the Conquest of the Philippines.] This Jealousy
conceiv'd against the Sangleyes, who, once for all, are the Chineses so
call'd by the Spaniards at Manila, was verify'd; for it was afterwards
known, that the Captain of the King of China's Guards had begg'd of
him the Conquest of the Philippine Islands, at the Perswasion of that
Chinese they brought Prisoner. The Governour treated the Mandarines
civilly, and mistrusted their Designs, keeping a watchfull Eye over
them. However there wanted not some-body that ask'd them, what they
thought of that Fellow's Invention, since they had seen that the Place
he mention'd was so far from having any Gold, that there were not the
least Tokens of any such Thing to be found in it; and since it was so,
they ought to make him give it under his Hand, that he had told his
King a Lye. One of the Mandarines bid him do so, and he taking the
Pen form'd [The Prisoners Declaration.] three Characters, which,
explain'd in our Tongue, signify'd, If the King pleases, it is Gold;
and if not, it is Sand. Being press'd farther, he declared, That
he had inform'd his King that Gold was produc'd there to incline
his Majesty to entrust him with a good Fleet, wherewith he might
take Revenge of the Christian Sangleyes, who had done him many
Wrongs. Little Notice was taken of all this, and tho' the Authority
of the Mandarines seem'd to corroborate it, all was look'd upon as
Folly, for none believ'd that they design'd to carry on a War out of
their Country. The Mandarines return'd Home, having, as is believ'd,
communicated their Project to the Sangleyes that were settled there,
who at Manila, and in the other Islands, were above 30000.

[Chineses take Aynan by Treachery.] The same was practis'd by the
Chinese King in the Island of Aynao, or Aynan, a most fruitful Country,
and near to his Kingdom, where the Chineses crept in under Colour of
Trade, as they did at Manila, and possess'd themselves of it to this
Day. This Island has such a plentiful Pearl Fishery, that in the Year
1600 the King caus'd 1500 Arrobas, that is, 375 Hundred Weight of
them to be taken up. This will not seem incredible to such as know,
that not long before, in four Months Time, he gather'd 1700 [Monstrous
Quantity of Pearls.] Vessels that row'd, for this Fishery, every one
being oblig'd to take a Pico, that is, five Arrobas, or Quarters of
an Hundred, to gather a sufficient Quantity of Pearls to rebuil'd a
Royal Apartment that had been pull'd down in that King's Palace. He
built it again, covering the Walls and Roofs with Clusters of Pearls,
and Birds, Beasts, Fruits, and Flowers, all made of that precious
Substance, set on Plates of Gold. The Truth of this Fact appears by
an Authentick Writing, which gives an Account of it; for being likely
to be judg'd Fabulous, it was requisite to authorize the Relation.

[Precautions taken at Manila.] The Governour did not altogether look
upon the Design of the Mandarines as a Piece of Vanity and Folly,
tho' he conceal'd his Thoughts; for he made some Preparations, and
among the rest hasten'd the repairing of the Walls of the City;
which having suffer'd much by the Fire, when the Arms were also
lost, he made up that Defect the best he could, and the Sangleyes
were assisting in it. It is to be observ'd, that those People have
a separate Government among themselves, in the Philippine Islands.

At the Time that Don Pedro, the Governour, was most intent upon the
War against the Molucco Islands, there happen'd such an Accident at
Manila, as [Encan a Chinese of great Subtilty.] might not only have
diverted it, but utterly destroy'd the whole Province. A Man was then
living, who stay'd at Manila, when the great Pyrate Limaon, of whose
Life and Actions there are Printed Relations, came to Manila. He was
then an Idolater, and, as was reported, serv'd the Pyrate in a leud
Capacity. His Name was Encan, born at Semygua, in the Province of
Chincheo; and was baptiz'd under the Government of Santiago de Vera,
who gave him his Surname, and he was call'd Baptist de Vera. He
prov'd a subtile Dealer, and successfully Active, by which Means,
following Trade, he gather'd immense Wealth, and was Great with
the Governours of the Philippines. Through his Interposition, the
Sangleyes propos'd to Don Pedro, that he should allow them to repair
a Parapet of the Wall, which was finishing, at their own Expence;
for that they, as a Part of the Publick, would do his Majesty that
Piece of Service; and every one of them offer'd four Royals, that is,
two Shillings, towards the Work. This Piece of Service, and the Favour
of the Citizens, Encan had purchas'd by good Turns, made the Suspicion
conceiv'd of their Conspiracy vanish, or at least be little regarded.

[His crafty Practices.] He was respected by the Spaniards, and
belov'd by the Sangleyes, had been their Governour several Times,
and had many Godsons, and other Dependants. At this Time he cunningly
kept within the City, to secure Things by his Presence; but from
thence he stirr'd up the People, and laid his Design, by Means of his
Confidents. He thought fit to know what Number of People he should
find to put it in Execution, and that he might muster them in private,
order'd that every one of his Country-Men should bring him a Needle;
pretending he had Occasion for them for some Work. The Sangleyes,
either guessing at the End for which these Needles were gather'd, or
else ignorantly obey'd Encan. The Needles being put into a little Box,
the Number of them was so great, that it encourag'd him to undertake
a far different Work than he had propos'd.

The Governour still forwarded the Work of the Walls; rais'd Men;
and directed the Justices to furnish themselves with Provisions,
and Arms, to relieve the City. Near the Parian, which is the Quarters
of the Chineses, [Don Pedro strengthens himself.] there was another
Ward, inhabited by Japoneses, who are Enemies to the Sangleyes, with
whom they are continually at War in their own Country. The Governour
summon'd the Heads of them, and artfully div'd into their Inclinations,
to discover, what Use he might make of them upon Occasion, and whether
they would assist him against the Chineses, in Case [Japoneses promise
to assist the Spaniards, and alarm the Chineses.] they came to a
War. The Japoneses, proud of the Confidence he repos'd in them, and
of an Opportunity of serving against their Enemy, answer'd, they were
ready to dye with the Spaniards. This discreet Precaution occasion'd
some Harm, for the Japoneses revealing the Secret, or adding some
Circumstances in the Relation, it was given out, that Don Pedro,
with their Assistance, intended to cut off the Sangleyes; and some
of the Japoneses told them as much, that they might fly, and reward
them for the Intelligence. Many of them had Thoughts of absconding
in the Mountains, the Rest were frighted, and those who intended
to revolt, found an Opportunity to perswade the others to joyn with
them, and encourag'd the unsettled with fair Promises. In short, most
of them consented to the Rebellion, and appointed S. Francis's Day,
when the Christians were all at Church, [Conspiracy of the Chineses.]
celebrating that Festival, for the Time of rising. Others were for
having it done at Night, when 25000 of them were to break in and
murder our Men.

Notwithstanding their Secrecy some Discovery was made. John de
Talavera, [Discovery of it.] Curate of the Village of Quiapo,
inform'd the Arch-Bishop, that an Indian Woman, with whom a Sangley,
or Chinese, was in Love, had discover'd to him the Plot laid for
S. Francis's Day. It was also reported, that a Woman-Black had said,
there would be a great Slaughter, and another Conflagration, like the
former, on S. Francis's Night. These and other Advices were presently
made known to the Governour and Council. A sufficient Proof was to
see the Chineses sell all, to their very Shoes, and compound their
Debts, tho' this was rather lookt upon as a Design to [The Governour's
Precautions.] be gone, than to commit any Treason. To dispell their
Fear of the Spaniards and Japoneses, the Governour made them some
Speeches himself, and caus'd the same to be proclaim'd in all Parts,
ingaging the King's Faith and Security; but nothing was of Force
to quiet them. Three Days before the Feast of S. Francis, above 400
Anhayes Merchants stay'd in the City, because they could not dispose
of their Goods. These seeing the others in Disorder, on Account of
the Report, that the Spaniards and Japoneses design'd to massacre
them, sent a Message to the Governour, by Chican, [Anhayes in Fear,
assur'd.] one of the Province of Anhay, or Chincheo, whereof that
City is Head. He came to him by Night, for Fear of the other Chineses;
and acquainted him with the Dread, and Confusion they were in, without
knowing what Course to take, and therefore they came to him for Advice
and Protection. He having hear'd him, gave all possible Security in
his Answer, and the next Day went himself to talk to his Companions,
whom he satisfy'd in a very obliging Manner, assuring them, that the
Spanish Nation never was guilty of executing, or consenting to such
Villanies. This Discourse satisfy'd them; but still those who had
Mischief in their Hearts did not desist.

The Sangleyes, or Chineses live there in a separate Quarter,
which the Arabs call Alcayceria, and the People of the Philippines,
Parian. On S. Francis's Eve, a great Number of them met in a House
half a League from [Parian the Chinese Quarter.] the City, where
there is a Sugar Work: The House stands in a Thicket, which belongs
to the Sangley Governour. Those who began first to gather there,
were the Gardiners of the Quarter of Parian. Don Lewis Perez [First
meeting of the mutinous Chineses.] de las Marinhas had Advice of
it, from the Dominicans of Minondo. Don Lewis had Charge of the
Christian Sangleyes, and sent Word to Don Pedro de Acunna. Minondo
is a Town inhabited by Chineses opposite to Manila, the River only
parting them. From Minondo the Chinese Dwellings run on, as far as
another Town of the Natives, call'd Tondo; and in the [Minondo a Town
of Chineses.] Quarter of the Chineses, there is a strong Monastery
of Augustinians, all of Stone. Not far from it the Dominicans have
two, but wooden Buildings. The Governour, to be fully inform'd of
the whole Truth, sent thither Baptist [Tondo a Town of Natives.]
before mention'd, Governour of the Sangleyes, of whom he had a
great Opinion, and all Men lookt upon him as a sincere Christian,
and loyal Subject to the King. He charg'd him to speak to them in
his Name, and to convince [Baptist, the Chinese Governour sent to
appease them.] them how little Cause they had to fear, as knowing
how peaceable the Spaniards were. Baptist undertook this Commission,
went to the Sugar Work, which was his own, spoke to his People as
he thought fit, and return'd very late with the Answer, telling Don
Pedro, that he had been in Danger of being chosen their Chief, and
that his People would have forc'd him to accept of it. That it was
true, they were assembled together, and strong, but that it was all
occasion'd by the Fear they had conceiv'd of the Spaniards; and that
they had display'd several Colours with Chinese Characters on them,
which, being translated, contain'd these Words.

[Inscription on the Chinese Rebels Colours.] 'The Chief and General of
the Kingdom of China, call'd Ezequi, and another of the Tribe of Su,
call'd Tym, following the Dictates of Heaven in this Affair, that all
the Chineses may unanimously joyn in this Work, and obey them, in Order
to root out these Enemy Robbers, are willing that Yochume and Quinte,
Japoneses, in Conjunction with us Sangleyes, do conquer this City,
and when we have subdu'd it, we will divide this Country, even to
the Grass of it, equally between us, as becomes loving Brothers.

[Falshood of Baptist.] He pretended to be mightily concern'd, because
they would have proclaim'd him King, and he was forc'd to make his
Escape to save his Loyalty; and had deceiv'd them, promising to
return. Hereupon the Governour us'd several Means to appease them,
the Danger of so furious a Beginning increasing with the Number of
the Rebells. The first Mischief he endeavour'd to prevent was the
destroying of the Rice, which was then almost ripe. He appointed
Colonel Augustin de Arceo, Major Christopher de Azcueta, and Captain
Gallinato to go speak to them; but Don Lewis Perez de la Marinhas,
who liv'd at Minondo thinking the Rebellion now requir'd some harsher
Remedy, came at Night to advise the Governour to be more watchful,
and that all the City should do the like. He desir'd he would allow
him some Men to secure that Town, for he fear'd the Sangleyes would
burn it that Night, and it was now requisite to make open War; and he
must not believe they could be reduc'd by Messages, or fair Means. The
[Don Lewis Perez secures Minondo.] Governour being impos'd upon by
Baptist, still hop'd all would be compos'd without Effusion of Blood,
and at the Perswasion of Don Lewis gave him 20 Soldiers, his own
Servants, and some marry'd Spaniards, who were Inhabitants of the same
Town. He distributed these Men into the most dangerous Posts of it,
that the Enemy might not set Fire to it, and the Christian Sangleyes
when they lost their Goods, joyn'd the Rebels. On the other Hand,
the Governour privately posted his Troops, and Sentinels; and all
Men expected, or dreaded the Fate of that Night, particularly the
General John de Alcega, who, by the Governor's Command, was to follow
the Orders he receiv'd from Don Lewis. Proclamation was again made,
that all Men should be peaceable, under Penalty of being sent to the
Galleys for four Years.

This avail'd so little, that, excepting 4000 Handicrafts Men, and the
Anhayes [1000 Sangleyes salley.] Merchants, all the Rest assembled
at the Sugar Work. At one in the Morning, a Party of about 1000
Sangleyes march'd out of a Fort, with Catanas, or Cymiters, Halbards,
and other Weapons advanc'd, as also with long Staves, harden'd at the
Fire at the Points; which they use instead of Pikes, and are no less
serviceable. These are very frequent among them in their Country,
and are made of a solid Sort of Wood, call'd Mangle. They fell upon
the Farm, or Pleasure House of Captain Stephen de Marquina, not far
from their Parian, and murder'd him, his Wife, Children, Servants,
[They murder several and burn Houses.] and Slaves. They set Fire to
the House, and to those of other Spaniards, among which were those
of Colonel Peter de Chaves, and of two Clergymen, who liv'd a retir'd
Life, their Names Francis Gomez, and Ferdinand de los Rios. They also
kill'd F. Barnard de Santa Catalina, Commissary of the Inquisition, of
the Order of S. Dominick. All these defended themselves, as did many
more who escap'd, desperately wounded. Thence they drew towards the
Town of Tondo, which is divided into Quarters. They fell upon that
of Quiapo, and set Fire to it, after murdering 20 Persons. [More
Cruelties.] Among the Rest they burnt a Lady of Quality, and a
Boy, giving great Shouts, and boasting that from thence forward,
the Indians should pay Tribute to them, and the Castillas perish.

News being brought on Saturday Morning, that the Sangleyes were going
to enter the Town, and that the Natives had withdrawn themselves in
their Vessels toward Manila, in Order to get in, or lye under the
Shelter of its Walls in the River, the Governour dispos'd the Regular
Troops, and those of the City Militia about the Walls, viewing the
Gates, and all weak Places. [Captain Perez sent to Tondo.] He sent
Captain Gaspar Perez with his regular Company to Tondo, and order'd
him to obey Don Lewis de las Marinhas, and to carry no Colours. As
soon as he came, the 20 Men sent the Night before, joyn'd him, and Don
Lewis thinking that too small a Force, sent to desire Succours. The
Governour knowing he was in the right, sent the Captain Don Thomas
Bravo, his own Nephew, 24 Years of Age, who serv'd at Ternate in the
[Captain Thomas Bravo Succours him.] Expedition of Andrew Furtado. He
went over to the Town of Tondo, with another Company of the regular
Forces, some Voluntiers, and seven of the Governour's Servants,
leaving the Colours in the City. After him he sent Captain Peter de
Arcea, an old Low-Country Soldier. Don Lewis sent Word again, that
the Chineses were marching towards Tondo, that they were Numerous,
and he fear'd they would burn the Town, and a stately Church of the
Augustinians. The Governour sent him 60 Men more, most of them arm'd
with Pikes, and Halbards, the first having been Musketiers. These
were commanded by Don John de Penna, till he deliver'd them to Don
Lewis. When this Company came, there had been an Ingagement at Tondo,
wherein Don Lewis slew abundance of Sangleyes, and oblig'd the rest to
retire; preventing their burning the Town, which began to take Fire,
and the Houses at the Entrance of it were consum'd. Don Lewis would
have pursu'd the Enemy, who retir'd to their Fort, and Don Thomas
Bravo endeavour'd to disswade [Chineses repuls'd.] him, saying, The
Men were all fatigu'd, and that as soon as out of the Town they would
meet with nothing but Bogs and Brambles; and since the Governor's
Orders extended no farther than to keep the Enemy off from thence,
and save the burning of the Church and Houses, and that had been
done, they ought to send him Advice of it, before they proceeded,
being only the River parted them, and in the mean while the Soldiers
would refresh themselves, and they might hear more of the Enemies
Design. Captain Alcega said the same, but Don Lewis being bent upon it,
and offended to be [Don Lewis upbraids Captain Alcega.] contradicted,
ask'd him, What Hen had cackled in his Ear? And bid them follow him,
for five and twenty Soldiers were enough to deal with all China. Alcega
answer'd, He was us'd to hear as good Game-Cocks as himself Crow;
yet he would do well to consider what he did. However, tho' F. Farfan,
an Augustinian, earnestly perswaded Don Lewis, falling on his Knees,
to do as they desir'd him, and not to go any farther, yet he could
not be prevail'd on; but having order'd the Captains, Gaspar Perez,
and Peter de Arceo, to secure some Posts with a few Men, he broke out
furiously, and [Pursues the Enemy against Advice.] began to march,
being follow'd by the Men, in Pursuit of the Enemy; who had already
gain'd the Road, and they overtook them near the Fort, between the
Bogs and the Fordable Shoals. When they came to the Fort, the Country
open'd a little more. Here they began to fall upon the Enemies Rear,
and they perceiving how few the Spaniards were, as not being above 130,
drew up in a Body with two Points, like a Half Moon, and lay in Ambush
among the Grass. The main Body of our Men march'd towards the Fort,
and then those who lay in Ambush rising, enclos'd our Men, and fell
upon them so furiously with sharp Stakes, Cymiters, and other Weapons,
that they cut them in Pieces. Head-Pieces of Proof were found batter'd
with a Stake. A Musketier, who serv'd Don Lewis, reported, that a
Company of [Is slaughter'd with his Men.] Sangleyes fell upon him,
who having enclos'd him, laid about so implacably, that they bruiz'd
and broke his Legs; after which he fought a considerable Time on his
Knees, till they stun'd him with their Staves, against which a strong
Helmet could not defend him. They left the Ensign Francis de Rebolledo
stun'd, for Dead, and when the Enemy drew off, he made a Shift to get
up and escape, with his Head cruelly cut, and was cur'd in the City,
where he told many Particulars of that miserable Slaughter, about 30
more escap'd, and among them F. Farfan, who all got off by being in
the Rear, and light of Foot. Don Lewis was kill'd there by the same
People that had slain his Father, and with him the General Alcega,
Don Thomas Bravo, Captain Cebrian de Madrid, and only one of all the
Governor's Servants surviv'd.

[Chineses rejoyce with the Spaniard's Heads.] The Sangleyes cut
off the Heads of the Slain, and hoisting them on the Points of
their Spears, run in at their Nostrils, carry'd them to present to
their Chinese General, who was in the Fort, and his Name Hontay. He,
and the Rest, view'd the Heads, and set them up with much rejoycing,
returning Thanks to Heaven, and the Earth, according to their Custom,
for that Victory; thinking they should meet with little Opposition
from the Spaniards after that.

All this Day, being the Feast of S. Francis, and the next, the
Enemy spent in rejoycing. At Manila they were burning the Suburbs,
and Houses without the Walls, and consider'd what Order they should
take against the Parian; for tho' many Thousands of Sangleyes us'd
to inhabit it, there were not then 1500 remaining, and among them 500
Anhayes Merchants, a peaceable and rich People, of whom there was no
mistrust; the rest were Handicrafts, no Way suspected. About 50 of the
others were secur'd, who had their Hair shorn, and were mix'd among
the Christian Sangleys. These gave Information, that they had burnt
Monasteries of Religious People in several Places. Some Clergy-Men,
with abundance of Women and Children, secur'd themselves in the
Church of S. Francis del [Christians defend themselves in a Belfry.]
Monte, and some Companies of Sangleyes coming to besiege them, they
went up into a Belfry, where having fixt a Sheet on a Staff, they
display'd it like Colours, the People appearing at the Windows, the
Women and Children ringing the Bells, rating the Enemy, and bidding
them come on. Our Men often firing two Muskets, which was all they
had, the Sangleyes durst not approach, being more afraid than they
had Occasion, and accordingly drew off to a strong Post, whence they
were to continue the War.

[Francis de las Missas does the Rebels much Harm.] The Governour
endeavour'd to prevent the News of the Slaughter spreading abroad,
lest it should discourage the Country; and gave out, that the Slain
were at S. Francis del monte. He warn'd the Justices to get together
all the Indian Servants, because there were scarce any Spaniards left;
and sent the Factor Francis de las Missas to cruise upon the Coast,
with three Rowing Vessels, towards the Enemies Fort, to cut off all
their Provisions. The Factor perform'd his Part so well, that he sunk
some Vessels, and burnt those that carry'd them Provisions. He kill'd
many of their Men at the Mouth of a River that falls into the Sea,
about the Fort call'd Navotas; look'd for the Clergy-men they were
said to have kill'd in their Houses; and sent away to S. Francis
del monte, a Party of 500 Japoneses, with three Spaniards, and two
Franciscan Fryers, to gather the Remains of that Slaughter. In his Way,
he pass'd by the Enemy's Fort, with a Design to do them some Harm,
if he could, and found they had abandon'd it, retiring to the Parian,
to joyn the rest and besiege the City, being puff'd up with their
late Victory. This happen'd on Monday the 6th. The [Japoneses kill
200 Chineses, and burn their Fort.] Japoneses search'd the Fort,
where they found about 200 sick and wounded Chineses, whom they slew,
and saving abundance of Provisions, burnt the Fort with all their
Warlike Preparations, which could not be serviceable against the first
Owners. They went up to the Monastery, and return'd thence the same
Day to the City.

The few Sangleyes in the Parian were no less apprehensive, than the
[Rebels send to stir up the others.] greater Number in the Fort, both
because they were so near, and for that it was suppos'd they would
joyn their Companions, when they saw the Spaniards decline. Besides,
it was known, that those in Rebellion had sent to desire them to
come over to their Party, giving them Notice of the Spaniards they
had kill'd. This was discover'd by a Sangley, who swimming over,
was taken by the Sentinel on the Vessels that were in the River,
who, having confess'd on the Rack, that he was a Spy, and went
[Spy executed.] forward and backward with Intelligence, was put to
Death. On the other Hand, it was consider'd, that though the safest
Way was to kill all those People, yet it was not just to execute
Men that were not convicted of any Crime; especially since they came
to the Philippine Islands, to trade upon the publick Faith, and the
Governour having engag'd for their Safety, in case they were quiet,
and intermeddled not in the Rebellion. For this Reason some Councils
of War were held among the Commanders, at which the Counsellors, and
the Archbishop, were also present; and considering, that the Rebels
earnestly applying to those in the Parian, to side with them, it was
possible they might be perverted, and in case they did not revolt,
[The Governour would secure the Anhayes.] those Mutiniers would kill
them, it was resolv'd, That the Anhayes Merchants should be perswaded
to retire with their Effects into the Monastery of S. Augustin, which
is a strong House within Manila. The Governour having himself in Person
acquainted them herewith, as also by some of the Counsellors and their
Friends, yet they were irresolute; and tho' some of them committed
the keeping of their Goods to others, they stay'd themselves to be
Spectators of the Event. The last Care taken of them, was Don Pedro's
going in Person to the Parian that same Day; and about an Hour after,
many of the Enemies Colours appear'd on the other Side of the River,
along the Bank of it. They came from the Fort, which was a quarter
of a League from the City.

[Chineses pass over to Parian.] Some of the Sangleyes began to swim
over to the Parian, and others came in Boats and Floats provided
for that Purpose. Their Passage could not be obstructed, because
the Galiots and Carcoas belonging to the Navy were then among the
Pintados, to defend those Islands; Intelligence having been brought,
that a Fleet of Mindanaos and Ternates was coming to invade them. The
Rebels enter'd the Parian with great Cries, bringing the Heads of
the Spaniards they had kill'd on S. Francis's Day, run through the
Nostrils. The Governour observing their Resolution, order'd the
Captains, Gaspar Perez, and Peter de Arceo, who were at Tondo,
to come over to the City with their Companies. The Enemy being
return'd to the Parian, with that dismal Spectacle of the Heads,
began to perswade the Anhayes, who had not yet declar'd, but not
being able to prevail, and finding them positive on the contrary,
and that they blam'd what they had done, [The Chineses murder the
Anhayes.] they fell upon and butcher'd above 200 of them. Then
they plunder'd Part of their Silks, which made them Cloaths of
several Colours. They [Some hang themselves to avoid their Fury.]
also hang'd other Merchants, and some, being about 80 in Number,
hang'd themselves, to prevent falling into their Hands, which is very
frequent in that Country. One of these was the Sangley General himself,
call'd, Hontay. F. John Pobre, formerly a Captain, since a Franciscan
Fryer, and at this Time compell'd by Necessity to take up Arms again,
reported, That the mutinous Sangleyes, having perswaded the Anhayes
to follow their Example, they appointed Chican, a rich Sangley, and
Master of the Spanish Tongue, to answer for them. He, before he would
speak his Mind, told them it would be proper to set up a Gallows, and
the Heads of the Spaniards on it, that being in View, they might all
take Courage to fight manfully. They approv'd of his Counsel, and the
Gallows being set up, he [Strange Death of Chican.] went up himself
to range the Heads, and taking out a Rope he had carry'd up unseen,
put it about his own Neck, and hang'd himself in the Sight of them all.

The same day Captain Peter de Brito, being with his Company in the
Cathedral, which had been assign'd him the Night before, for his Post,
and observing that a certain House was not uncover'd, contrary to
the Proclamation made the Day before, commanding them all to have
the Palm-Tree Leaves and Nipa, wherewith they are thatch'd, taken
off, for Fear of another Conflagration; he sent to take it off. The
Ensign Andrew Obregon went up to this Purpose to the very Top, and
there found Baptist hidden with his Sword and Dagger, whom some
Women endeavour'd to conceal. Being ask'd by the Ensign, what he
did there? he answer'd, He was [Baptist Chief of the Rebels taken.]
taking off the Nipa. The next Question he was quite dash'd, and
his own Conscience suddenly accusing him, he said, Do not kill me,
Sir. The Ensign mildly encouraging, bid him go to the Governour, who
expected him, and stay'd to take off the Covering of Nipa. Then coming
down saw some Soldiers, and went up again with them. By this Time
certain Indian Women had hid Baptist in a Chamber, where the Soldiers
entering by Force, bound him, and he was cast into Prison among other
Chineses. The Tryal was short, as is usual in the Martial Way, and
in the mean while the Prisoners were remov'd to Captain Gallinato's
House. Thither came a Japonese Boy, enquiring for Baptist. They
found his Pocket full of Squibs, and another Boy with a Piece of a
Wax-Candle, all which was given them by one of Baptist's Slaves. The
Squibs were all bloody, perhaps it was some Christian's Gore. He own'd
himself he had [His Confession.] so great a Hand in the Rebellion,
that it was not without good Reason they would have made him their
Chief. That the Sangleys call'd out upon his Name. That Hontay was
troubled at his Absence, saying, He [Why Hontay hang'd himself.]
must needs be in some Trouble, since he did not come to Head them;
and for this Reason he hang'd himself. Next appear'd the Ring-leaders
of the Mutiny, and it was prov'd against them, That they had set up
a Pole on the Place call'd el Cerro, or the Hill of Calocan, and on
it a black Flag, with two Chinese Characters on it, which imported
CUNTIEN, the Signification whereof is, IN OBEDIENCE TO HEAVEN. Other
Colours were found with the Army that fought at Dilao, with a Cut on
them containing the Chinese Figures of Encan, or Baptist.

Several Religious Men, at this Time fought against the Mutiniers;
but [Brother Antony Flores, a brave Man.] among them all, special
Praise is due to the Valour of the Lay-Brother Antony Flores, of
the Order of S. Augustin. He was born in Estremadura, had serv'd in
Flanders, was a Slave in Turkey above 20 Years, and made his Escape
out of the Inland Country by his Valour and Industry. He went over to
the Philippine Islands, where he chearfully took the Habit, in the
Monastery of S. Augustin at Manila. He always show'd great Humility
in Obedience, and lost nothing of his Courage in the Simplicity of a
Religious Life. Him the Governour order'd to scour the River, in the
Galliot belonging to the Monastery, fighting the Ships and Champanes
of the Sangleyes. One Night after having drove from the Shore above
200 Vessels, [Does good Service.] burnt some large ones, and sunk
others, he stay'd in the Middle of the River Passig, to observe the
Sangleyes. Between eleven and twelve, he perceiv'd that one of the
Rebels was swimming over to the City, and the Darkness causing him
to mistake, he lighted upon brother Antony's Galliot. [Takes a Spy.]
He having seen him before, the Indian Servants had the Opportunity of
laying hold of him, drew him by the Hair into the Galliot, and carry'd
him to the Governour. He was put to the Rack, and there confess'd,
That he came to acquaint the Sangleyes of the Parian, that the next
Day those on the other Side would cross the River, and then they would
all together, with the Engines they had provided, attack the Wall,
put all the Spaniards to the Sword, and make themselves Masters
of the Islands. The Governour having this Intelligence, took the
necessary Precautions for the next Day, and Brother Antony return'd
to his Monastery, where he furnish'd himself with Meal and other
Provisions for his Galliot. He carry'd two Muskets for himself, and
drew his Vessel into a Creek the River makes, that runs by the Walls
of Manila, among abundance of Manglans, which are Trees growing in
any watrey land, and so thick, that Men may easily be hid among them,
without being perceiv'd. There Brother Antony lay in Ambush supposing,
or knowing, that the Sangleyes must of Necessity pass that Way,
[He alone kills 600 Chineses.] as being the narrowest in the River,
and nearest to the Wall. Nor was he deceiv'd in his Expectation,
for they came very early in the Morning, and were passing over in
great Numbers from the first Peep of Day, till very late. The Fryer
had put above 200 Bullets into two Pouches, and kept firing the two
Muskets from before five in the Morning, at break of Day till six in
the Evening, cooling them with Vinegar; nor did he ever fire at less
than a Company of 20 or 30 Sangleyes, that no Shot might be lost. It
was concluded for certain, that he alone that Day kill'd above 600
of those Barbarians. The Governour afterwards sent him in pursuit of
those that remain'd, with a thousand Indians, and he slew above 3000
Sangleyes, putting to flight the small Remains of them.

[Desperate Sangleyes kill'd from the Wall.] At this Time many of
the Sangleyes that had cross'd the River, appear'd in the Streets
of the Parian; who standing in Sight of the Walls, with their own,
or the Weapons they had taken from the Spaniards they slew, call'd
upon those who defended the City, whence they made several Musket
Shot at them, wounding and killing many, for they came within good
Aim, after a desperate Manner. It was reported, they had taken their
Anfion, that is, a Composition of Opium, as the Turks do, and is also
us'd by the People of the Moluccos, when they are to give Battel;
for it doses and gives them a brutal Courage. A Piece of Cannon was
planted on the Gate of the Parian, and did considerable Execution,
and no Man [Opium gives Courage.] would have suspected that any had
been there. Some Japoneses and Natives of the Philippines sally'd
out upon the Sangleyes, with good Success; for they kill'd many of
them, and particularly such as had been wounded by the small Shot,
and Brass Guns on the Wall. They thinking the Parian [Japoneses and
Indians fight the Chineses.] was a Shelter for Cowards, set Fire to
it, and went out to fight the Japoneses and Indians. The Sangleyes from
the Houses, where they lay conceal'd, kill'd a Portuguese Captain, and
wounded three others, with small Shot. One of them was Ruy Gonzalez de
Sequeyra, Commander in Chief of the Moluccos. The Sangleyes remov'd
to the Monastery of Candelaria, that is of Candlemas, whence they
sally'd more furiously than from the Parian.

[Fight of Spaniards and Chineses.] On Tuesday in the Morning, Captain
Gallinato march'd towards the Candelaria, with about 500 Spaniards,
and some Japoneses. The Enemy refus'd not the Engagement, but came
out above 4000 strong. Our Men made themselves Masters of a Bridge,
whence they pour'd some Volleys upon them. Perceiving the Loss they
sustain'd, they fell back, to draw the Spaniards into open Field, and
serve them as they had done Don Lewis; but tho' some Soldiers were so
bold as to go into the Church, and plunder Part of what the Sangleyes
had robb'd in the Parian, yet some of them [Slaughter of the Latter.]
retir'd hastily to the Bridge, with the Loss of three Spaniards,
and five Japoneses, besides the wounded, the Enemy charging them in a
Body. Of the Chineses 360 of the boldest were kill'd, which made them
flinch with Fear. The same Day in the Evening, a Party of them came up
to assault the Wall, where it was lowest, bringing scaling Ladders,
and other Necessaries, cover'd with Silk; but the Cannon play'd
so smartly on them, that they lost their Ladders, and many of them
their Lives. This same Afternoon there was an Engagement on the Side
of the Parian, where the Enemy brought on two great Machines, like
Carts, made the Night before, with Wheels, and stuff'd with Quilts,
Blankets, and such Materials, to defend them against the Cannon,
and small Shot. The Governour was apprehensive that they had some
Fire-works, they being great Masters at them; but was soon satisfy'd,
for having fir'd at them with the Piece that was over the Gate of
the Parian, where one of his Servants was Gunner, it carry'd away a
considerable Part of the foremost Machine, and with it a good Number
of the Sangleyes that drew underneath, and were on it. However they
advanc'd boldly, till the Gun tore others in Pieces, and they retir'd,
abandoning the Machine. Still the Fight grew hot about the River,
and several Men went out in Boats, and others did Execution thro'
the Loop-Holes. The Ensign John Guerra de Cervantes, [Their machine
destroy'd.] sent out the Japonese and Native Soldiers, and they drew
near to the Parian, under the Shelter of the Cannon on the Walls, so
courageously, that they set fire to the best of it, being the Houses
of the Anhayes; which quite discourag'd those that were in them,
especially when they observ'd they [The Spaniards fire the Parian.]
had secur'd the River, and the Boats, and taken their Musquetiers. It
was judg'd that above 2500 Sangleyes perish'd this Day by Fire and
Sword, besides those at the Candelaria, and other Straglers. Having
left the Shelter of the Parian, they took up in the Church of the
Candelaria, but the next Morning none of them appear'd. They cross'd
the River on Wednesday, [Kill 2500 Chineses.] and some of our Men
were drowned pursuing them too eagerly. They took the Way to the
Village call'd Tabuco, 5 Leagues from Manila, which is very populous,
and plentiful. Here Captain Don Lewis de Velasco found [They fly.]
them fortify'd, and defended with Doors and Boards, towards the Lake
[And are pursu'd with great Slaughter.] Vay; whence he ply'd them
with small Shot, and kill'd many, they no longer able to endure the
Damage they receiv'd, kindled many Fires in the Night, to prevent being
observ'd, and march'd away towards S. Paul's, a Village 16 Leagues from
Manila, where they came so thin, that they were not above 6000, having
lost very many in the Way to Tabuco. There [Capt. Velasco kill'd.]
Don Lewis fell upon them again; and pursuing them after they quitted
the Village, was so hot, that they kill'd him four Soldiers, and two
barefoot Fryers, the one a Priest, the other a Lay-Brother.

They made a Halt at S. Paul's, intending to reap the Rice, which
was then almost Ripe, because that is a forwarder Country than
Pampangua. [Another Slaughter of Chineses.] Before they came to
S. Paul's, a Detachment of 1500 of them turn'd off from the main Body
towards the Mountains of Pace. The Spaniards and Natives overtook
them, and tho' they stood to it, our Men play'd their Parts so well,
that they cut them all off, and recover'd Part of their Booty.

The Fort the Sangleyes had rais'd at S. Paul's was of Palm-Trees,
whence they made Excursions to fight, reap the Rice, and ravage the
Country. They thought it convenient to divide themselves into two equal
Bodies; the one stay'd in the Fort, the other went away to Vatangas,
seven Leagues distant towards the Sea-Coast, with a Design, as was
thought, to build Ships, for which Purpose they carry'd Carpenters,
Labourers, Tools, [Rebels design to build Ships.] Nails, and all
other Necessaries. The Governour reflecting on their Design, sent some
vigilant Persons towards the Bay of Vatangas, to secure the Vessels
on the Coast, that the Enemy might not make use of them, and get over
to other Islands, which would have been of ill Consequence.

The Governour believing the Design of the Sangleyes was to gain Time,
[The Rebels press'd.] and perhaps to expect some Supplies from China,
which might be promis'd by the Mandarines, before they went away;
he thought it requisite to bring the War to a speedy Conclusion,
because the Enemy fortify'd themselves daily, and made Excursions from
their Forts, to scour the Country, and gather in the Rice; perswading
the Natives to joyn with them; tho' they were so far from complying,
that they kill'd all they could meet with. There were several other
Reasons which prov'd that the greatest Safety consisted in Expedition,
and therefore abundance of Spaniards and Natives, by the Governour's
Order, were always in Quest of the straggling Chineses. However it was
judg'd expedient to press them yet nearer, and not allow them Time,
as they wish'd, till the Rice was ripe, since Hunger must prove their
greatest Enemy. To this Purpose it was thought Expedient to make use
of trusty neighbouring People.

Pampangua is a Province ten Leagues from Manila, beyond the Town of
[Pampangua describ'd.] Tondo, over the River Pasig, on which the
Citizens have convenient small Vessels. The Country is subject to
be overflow'd, by reason of the many Rivers, and because the Natives
draw Trenches from them, to water the Rice, and other Grain. The whole
District is of twelve Leagues, all inhabited, and has seven Churches,
belonging to the Order of S. Augustin. The Natives are Brave, Docible
and Loyal, receive the Christian Faith, and are steadfast in it; and
richer than those of other Parts of the Island. Captain Ferdinand
de Avalos was Alcalde mayor, or chief Governour of Pampangua, and
the Governour General having acquainted him by Letter [Service done
by the Alcayde of Pampangua.] with the Rebellion of the Sangleyes,
requiring him to send Provisions and Arms for the War, and not to
leave any Enemies behind, he perform'd both Things, with extraordinary
Care. He furnish'd him with great Store of Rice, Palm-Wine, and a
considerable Number of Cows and Calves; and took above 400 Sangleyes,
who being carry'd to a Creek in the River, bound two and two, and
deliver'd to the Japoneses, they slew them all. F. James de Guevara
of the Order of S. Augustin, Prior of Manila, who writ this Relation,
preach'd to them first, and only five of them forsook their Idolatry,
and were baptiz'd. At the same Time he sent the Governour 4000
Pampanguos, arm'd after their Country Fashion, with Bows, Arrows,
Half-Pikes, Shields, and long broad Poniards. They came to Manila
with great Shouts, and as if sure of Victory, fell upon the Enemy,
who increas'd still, the more they were destroy'd.

This obliged the Governour, notwithstanding some Opposition, to
send a Number of Spaniards, and Japoneses, with a strong Party of
the Pampangua Indians, well arm'd and provided, under the Command
of the Captain and Major Azcueta, a brave and vigilant Commander,
well acquainted with the [Major Azcueta sent against the Chineses.]
Country, ordering him to draw near the Enemy; yet not to engage,
because they were a desperate barbarous People in their first Onsets,
but to alarm them Day, and Night, on every Side, obstructing their
Excursions, that so they might want Provisions, and consequently be
oblig'd to dislodge, for if he could remove them but twice, he might
cut them off, as it happen'd accordingly. The Major departed Manila,
with these Orders, by the Way of the River. On Munday the 20th of
October, he came in Sight of the Enemy, who was still in the Fort at
S. Paul's, and there he had some Actions. Having cast up some Works,
for his greater Security, in the Quarters he took up, the Enemy's
sally'd out of their Fort, and some of those who valu'd themselves
on their Bravery advanc'd to fight the Spaniards in their Posts,
with as much Boldness, as could be expected from Men in Despair,
and quite distracted. Thus being cut off from Water, streightned,
often alarm'd, never suffer'd to rest, and such as ventur'd out cut
off, they dismay'd, and dislodg'd in the Night very silently, marching
towards Batangas, where their other Body was. However their Departure
could not be conceal'd from the Vigilany of our Men, who march'd after
them, Martin de Herrera, Captain of the Governours Guard, leading the
Van, which consisted of Spaniards, and the bravest of the Natives. He
overtook the Enemy, and began to fall so hard upon their Rear, that
they were [He cuts off one entire Body of them.] forc'd to face about;
and after killing above 800 of them as they pass'd a narrow but deep
River, our main Body coming up attack'd the rest three several Ways,
on an Eminency they had taken, and slew above 1000 more; those that
escap'd perishing the next Day, so that only one was taken alive,
tho' the Governour would have had many sav'd to serve in the Galleys;
but the Japoneses and Natives are so bloody, that neither his Orders,
nor Major Azcueta's Severity, or the other Commanders could curb them.

The Men rested that Day, having travel'd above five Leagues over
Grounds full of Sedges, and Bogs; and prepar'd to proceed to Batangas,
to fight the other Body of Rebels, carrying some Fields Pieces. The
Major had dismiss'd the Japoneses, because they, alledging they were
not Soldiers in Pay, would return to Manila. He had only 50 Soldiers
left with him, and found the Enemy well fortify'd, and furnish'd
with Provisions, as having been Masters of the Country. He spoke
to them in peaceable Manner, as he had [Offers those at Batangas
Terms.] done before to the other Party, offering good Terms, if
they would submit to the Governour; but Obstinacy had stopp'd their
Ears, and excluded all Hopes, so that they would not admit of any
Accommodation. Our Men drew near, three several Ways with their
small Shot, and the Pampangua Indians, who were brave, supported
by the Spaniards, who led and encourag'd them, attack'd the Fort;
but the Defendants behav'd themselves so bravely, that they caus'd
them to retire, with the Loss of four or five Pampanguos kill'd, and
some wounded. Our Men came on again, and the Captain of the Guards,
who Commanded that Attack, with the Men under his Charge, and others
that joyn'd him, fell on with such Fury, that they enter'd [Destroys
them all.] the Fort, and put them to the Sword. About 600 escap'd
of whom they made an End a few Days after. Some few above a Hundred
were saved, who were carry'd alive to serve in the Galleys. Of our Men
eight Natives and six Japoneses were kill'd in those two Actions; but
never a Spaniard, tho' many were wounded, and among them the Captain
of the Guards, who had both his Thighs run through across with a Lance.

[Encan and others Executed.] On the 22d Encan, otherwise call'd
Baptist, was executed, being hang'd and quarter'd, his Head set up
in the Parian, and his Goods confiscated. The following Days the
like Justice was executed on other guilty Chineses; and had the Laws
of their own Country been observ'd, the same Punishment had been
inflicted on their whole Families and Kindred.

[End of the Chinese Rebellion. ] Thus was that Conflagration
suppress'd, which threatned the utter Ruin of the Philippine Islands,
and thus above 23000 Chineses perish'd, few above 500 being left
for the Galleys, and all those Isles being restor'd to unexpected
Peace. Some affirm, the Number of the Sangleyes slain was greater, but
that the Magistrates conceal'd it, for fear Notice should be taken of
their Fault in admitting so many to live in the Country, contrary to
the King's Prohibition; yet in vain does Subtilty contend with Truth.

Don Pedro had receiv'd some Intelligence of his Majesties approving
of the Enterprize on the Moluccos; and whilst he expected to see the
Effect of that Resolution, writ all the Ways he could; as also through
India, to solicite those who were commission'd in that Affair. Being
deliver'd of the Trouble of the Sangleyes, he bent his Mind to provide
all Necessaries for the Fleet, against he should be commanded to set
out; but the End of this [Ill Effects of the Chinese Rebellion.] War,
was the Beginning of other Difficulties at Manila. All Handicrafts
ceas'd, Works were lay'd aside, and Provisions grew scarce; which
Scarcity made all Things dear; whereas before there was Abundance,
all Things laborious being done by the Sangleyes, by Reason that
the Native Indians are neither willing, nor industrious at such
Affairs. They had quite laid aside tilling the Land; breeding of
Fowl, and weaving of Blankets, all which they formerly us'd to do,
in the Time of their Infidelity. The Parian or Chinese Quarter was
particularly ruin'd with Fire and Sword. That Place us'd to be so
plentiful and advantageous, that when Don Pedro came first to Manila,
he writ concerning it to a Kinsman of his in Spain, as follows. [Wealth
of the Parian.] This City is remarkeable for stately Buildings, which
have astonish'd me. I shall only mention one Particular, which is the
chiefest, That it has a Suburb, or Quarter, full of all Sorts of Silks,
and Gold, and Mechanick Trades, and 400 Shops full of this Sort, with
above 8000 Men generally dealing in them; and at the Time when Fleets
come from China with Merchandize, which is at this Season there are
always above 13 or 14000 Men. They bring extraordinary Things, such
as are not in Europe. Don Pedro was also afraid that the Slaughter
lately made would obstruct the Trade, and that the Ships would not
come as usual, with Provisions, from China. But the greater and more
general Apprehension was that instead of Merchants, Ships of War
would come to revenge the Sangleyes. He therefore sent away F. James
[F. Guevara sent through India to Spain.] de Guevara, Prior of Manila,
into Spain, by the Way of India, with an Account of what had been done,
and of his Fears. The many Accidents that befell him in India, Persia,
Turkey, and Italy, made him spend three Years before he came to Court,
where he then found other fresher Intelligence.

At the same Time Don Pedro sent Captain Mark de la Cueva, with
F. Lewis Gandullo, a Dominican, to Macao, a City in China, where
the Portugueses reside, with Letters for the Commander in Chief and
Council of that City, giving them an Account of the Rebellion of the
Sangleyes, and the Event of it, that they, upon any Rumour of a Fleet
providing in China, might [Message to China.] send him Notice of
it several Ways. They had also Letters for the Tutones, or Tsuntos,
Abytaos, and Visitors of the Provinces of Canton, and Chincheo,
acquainting them with the Guilt of the Chineses, which oblig'd the
Spaniards to punish them so severely. The Messengers at their Arrival,
found all the Country peaceably dispos'd, notwithstanding that some
Sangleyes flying from Manila in Champanes, had given an Account of
their Commotions. The Coming of these Spaniards to Macao was soon
known at Chincheo, and presently some of the richest Captains, who
us'd Manila most, came to visit them; their Names were Guansan, Sinu,
and Guachuan. They being fully inform'd of the Truth of the Fact, took
upon them to deliver the Letters Don Pedro sent to the Mandarines,
who receiv'd them by their Means. The Merchants of Chincheo took
Courage to trade in the Philippine Islands, and sail'd in their own
Ships from Macao, with our Messengers, carrying Abundance of Powder,
Saltpeter, and Lead, wherewith the [Chineses trade again at Manila.]
publick Magazines were stor'd. In May following 13 Chinese Ships
arriv'd at Manila, and many more after them, continuing that Trade.

Don Pedro sent the Ships that had brought Supplies from the Islands,
to [Spanish Ship lost.] New Spain; the Commodore of them was cast
away, and not a Man nor a Plank sav'd. He ceas'd not at the same
Time to store the City with Provisions and Ammunition, that he might
be at Leasure to undertake the Expedition against the Moluccos. Now
arriv'd Colonel John de Esquivel, [Esquivel with 600 Men at Manila
from New Spain.] from Mexico, with 600 Soldiers, and Intelligence that
farther Provision was making in New Spain of Men, Stores, Ammunition,
and Money, by the King's Order. All came in due Season to Manila;
and there at that Time dy'd the Arch-Bishop Don Miguel de Benavides,
generally lamented by all the Country. The Chinese Ships that came
again to trade, brought the Governour the Answers to his Letters,
contain'd in three others, all to the same Effect, from the Tuton,
or Tsunto, that is, the Viceroy, the Hayton, and the Visitor General
of the Province of Chincheo. Being translated by the Interpreters,
they were found to this Effect.

[Chinese Letter to the Governour.] To the Chief Commander of
Luzon. Having understood that the Chineses that went to Trade and
Trafick in the Kingdom of Luzon, have been kill'd by the Spaniards,
I have inquir'd into the Cause of that Slaughter, and intreated
the King to do Justice, on those who had been the Occasion of so
much Mischief, that the like may be prevented for the future,
and the Merchants enjoy Peace and Quietness. Some years since,
before I came hither as Visitor, a Sangley, whose Name was Tioneg,
went over to Cabit, in Luzon, with three Mandarines, and the King's
Leave, to seek for Gold and Silver, which was all a Cheat; for he
found neither Gold nor Silver, and therefore I beseech'd the King to
punish that Deceiver, Tioneg, that the [Discovery of the Cheat of the
three Mandarines above.] World might see how impartially Justice
is administer'd in China. It was in the Time of the late Viceroy,
and Eunuch, that Tioneg and his Companion, whose Name was Yanlion,
told the said Lye. Since then I intreated the King to cause all the
Papers relating to Tioneg's Case, to be copy'd, and the said Tioneg,
and the Proceedings against him, to be lay'd before his Majesty, and
I my self saw those Papers, and was sensible that all the said Tioneg
had said was a Lie. I writ to acquaint the King that the Castillas
suspected we intended [Chineses punish'd for Falshood.] to make War
on them, on Account of the Lyes Tioneg had told, and therefore they
had slain above 30000 Chineses at Luzon. The King did what I desir'd,
and accordingly punish'd the aforesaid Yanlion, ordering him to be
put to Death; and caus'd Tioneg's Head to be cut off, and hung up in
a Cage. The Chineses that Dy'd at Luzon were not to blame, and I, and
some others have acquainted the King with so much; as also with the
coming of two English Ships upon these Coasts of Chincheo, a Thing
very dangerous for China, that the King may resolve what is to be
done in two Affairs of such Consequence. We also Writ to the King,
to order two Sangleyes to be punish'd, for having shown the Harbour
to the English. And after having Writ as aforesaid to the King, he
answer'd, What did the English Ships come into China for? Whether
they came to Rob? That they should be order'd to depart thence
immediately to Luzon; and to tell those of Luzon that they should not
give Credit to the wicked and lying Persons among the Chineses; and
that they should immediately kill the two Sangleyes. As for the rest
we writ to him about, he answer'd that we should do our Wills. The
Viceroy, the Eunuch and I, after receiving this Order, do now send
these our letters to the Governour of Luzon, that his Lordship may
be acquainted with the Grandeur of the King of China; for he is so
Great that he governs all the Sun and Moon shine on; as also that the
Governour of Luzon may know how well this so large Kingdom is govern'd,
[Japoneses expell'd Corea.] whose King none has dar'd to offend this
long Time. And tho' the Japoneses have attempted to disturb Corea,
which belongs to the Government of China, that have not succeeded;
but have been expell'd thence, and Corea has remain'd very peaceable
and quiet, as is well known by Fame to the People of Luzon.

The last Year, when we were inform'd, that so many Chineses were
slain at Luzon, on the Account of Tioneg's falshood, we met many
Mandarines of us to agree to propose to the King, that he would revenge
so great a [Spaniards charg'd with the Slaughter of the Chineses.]
Slaughter. We said, that the Land of Luzon is poor, of no Value, and
that formerly it was the Habitation of none but Devils and Snakes;
and that so many Sangleyes having of late Years gone to Trade with
the Castillas, they are now grown so great; the said Sangleyes having
labour'd so much there, building Walls, and Houses, making Gardens,
and other Things very Advantageous to the Castillas. And since
this is so, why had not the Castillas consider'd these Things, nor
been grateful for these good Turns, but on the contrary so cruelly
destroy'd so many Men? And tho' we, two or three Times, Writ to the
King as above, he being Angry for the aforesaid Things, answer'd us,
That it was not convenient to take Revenge, nor make War on the People
of Luzon, for three Reasons. First, Because the Castillas have for
many Years past, been Friends to the Chineses. Secondly, Because it
could not be known, whether the Victory would fall to the Castillas,
or the Chineses. Thirdly, and lastly, Because the People kill'd by
the Castillas were base, and ungrateful to their Native Country of
China, their Parents and Kindred, since they had not return'd to
China in so many years; which People the King said he did not much
value, for the aforesaid Reasons; and he only order'd the Viceroy,
the Eunuch, and me to Write this Letter by the Embassador; that the
People of Luzon may know the King of China has a great Soul is very
Patient and Merciful, since he has not order'd War to be made on the
Inhabitants of Luzon. And his Justice will appear, by his causing
the Falshood of Tioneg to be punish'd. And since the Spaniards are
a discreet People, how can they not be troubled for having kill'd
so many Men; and repent of it, and be kind to the Chineses that are
left. For if the Castillas bear the Chineses good Will, and restore
the Sangleyes that have remain'd of the War, and pay the Money that
is due, and restore the Goods taken from the Sangleyes, there will be
Amity betwixt this Kingdom, and that, and Trading Ships shall go every
Year; otherwise the King will not give Leave for any Ships to trade;
but on the contrary will cause 1000 Ships of [Mandarines Threats.]
War to be built, with Soldiers, and Kindred of the slain, and with
other Nations, and Kingdoms that pay Homage to China, and will make
war without sparing any Person, and then the Kingdom of Luzon shall
be given to those People that pay Acknowledgement to China. The
Visitor General's Letter was writ on the 12th of the second Month,
which, according to our Reckning, is March; the Eunuchs on the 16th,
and the Viceroys on the 22d of the same Month and Year.

[The Governours Answer, to the Mandarines.] The Governour return'd
an Answer to these Letters by the same Messengers, in Terms full
of Civility, and Authority. He gave an Account of the Rebellion
of the Sangleyes from its first Rise; justifying the Spaniards for
their natural Defence, and the Punishment they had inflicted on the
Criminals. He tells them, no State can subsist without punishing the
Wicked, or rewarding the Good; and therefore he does not repent that
Execution, because it was to suppress those that would have destroy'd
us. That the Visitor ought to consider what he would do, in Case the
like had happen'd to him in China. That the only Thing which troubled
him was, that he could not save some Sangley Merchants Anhayes, who
dy'd among the guilty; but that it was not possible to prevent it,
because the severity of War will not allow the killing of some, and
exempting of others; especially, they not being known by the Soldiers
in the Heat of Action. That using Mercy towards those that were
taken alive, he condemn'd them to row in the Galleys, the Punishment
substituted among the Castillas for such as deserve Death. Yet if
it should be thought in China that it ought to be moderated, they
shall be set at Liberty. But let it be consider'd, said Don Pedro,
that the not punishing of so heinous an Offence, may be the Occasion
of their falling into it again, which would exclude all Mercy. The
Goods of the Chineses that were kill'd are safe laid up, and to show
I had no other Motive, but the Execution of Justice, I will order
them to be immediately deliver'd to their Heirs, or to such Persons,
as they of Right belong to. Nothing but Justice inclines me to any
of these Things. Your saying, that unless I release the Prisoners,
there will be Leave granted in China to the Kindred of the slain in
the Rebellion, to come in Arms to Manila, does not move me in the
least; because I take the Chineses to be so wise, that they will
not go upon such Undertakings upon a slight Occasion; especially,
when no Provocation has been given them on our Side. And in Case they
should be of another Mind there, we Spaniards are Men that know how
to defend our Right, our Religion, and our Territories. Let not the
Chineses think they are Lords of the World, as they pretend; for we
Castillas, who have measur'd every Foot of it, very well know the
Lands of the Chineses; and therefore they ought to understand, that
the King of Spain maintains Wars with Kings as powerful as theirs,
and checks, and gives them much Trouble. Nor is it any Thing new with
us, when our Enemies think they have brought us under, to be wasting
and destroying their Lands, and never give over till we have cast
them out of their Thrones, and wrested their Scepters out of their
Hands. I should be very sorry the Commerce should be interrupted;
but at the same Time, believe the Chineses are not willing to lose it,
since it is so advantageous to them, for they carry Home our Silver,
which never wastes, in Exchange for their Commodities, which are
slight Things, soon spoil'd. It was discreetly done, not to admit
the English Ships that appear'd upon the Coast, for they are not
Spaniards, but their Enemies, and Pyrates; for which Reason they
should have been punish'd, had they come to Manila. To conclude,
for as much as we Spaniards always justify our Proceedings, and
value our selves upon the Worlds not being able to say, we Usurp the
Right of others, or make War on our Friends, what is here promis'd
shall be perform'd. And the Chineses may take Notice, for the future,
that we never do any Thing out of Fear, or on Account of our Enemies
Threats. Don Pedro concludes, offering the Continuation of Friendship,
upon new Assurances of Peace, with the Kingdom of China; saying, he
would, at the proper Time, give Liberty to their Prisoners he had in
the Galleys; Tho' he design'd first to make Use of them, and did so
in his Expedition to the Moluccos, which he was then preparing for;
and all this was punctually perform'd.

[The Emperour of Japan's Letter.] He receiv'd other Letters at the
same Time, from the Emperor of Japan, wherein, after returning him
Thanks for a Present of Wine of Grapes, which Don Pedro had sent him,
with other Things of Value, he Encourag'd him to Trade, and desir'd he
would not send him any Christian Preachers, without his Consent. For,
says he, this Country is call'd Xincoco, which signifies, Dedicated
to Idols; which have been honour'd with much Commendation by our
Fore-Fathers, whose Actions I alone can not reverse, and therefore
it is not convenient that your Law be spread abroad, or preach'd in
Japan; and if your Lordship is willing to entertain Amity with me,
and these Kingdoms, do as I would have you. So says the Japonese. Don
Pedro answer'd and appeas'd him, so that the preaching was continu'd
in his Dominions.

[Dutch Squadron.] This same Year 1604, the Provinces of Holland
and Zealand, according to their Custom, fitted out a Squadron of
twelve tall Ships, well equipp'd, with some smaller Vessels, and,
as if they had been Lords of the Winds and of the Seas, set Sail
for India, the known Way, arriving prosperously, in a short Time,
at the Cape of Good Hope. All the Captains had been there before,
and the Pilots valu'd themselves upon no less Experience. The Admiral
was Stephen Drage. Beginning to visit their Forts, and Factories, in
Order to take some Prizes, as well as Trade, they met with two small
Ships, loaden with Ivory, at the Bar of Mozambique. They chas'd them,
and tho' [Takes two Portugues Ships.] they fled amain, being pursu'd
with no less Swiftness, the Dutch Robbers overtook, and after a sharp
Engagement enter'd them. They burnt the one, and mann'd the other,
which was a Reinforcement to prosecute their Robberies. All those
Kings, and the Commanders of our Forts, receiv'd them as Friends. In
September, they came to the Bar of Goa; and lay 15 Days at Bardes,
in as much Security as if they had been at Amsterdam, expecting the
India Ships. Thence they sent away a Ship to Cambaya, to exchange the
Ivory they had not long before robb'd our People of, acting not like
Pyrates, but Merchants who dispose of the Wealth they pick up by Trade,
and succeeded prosperously in all their Undertakings. They sent two
more Ships to Bengula, with other Commodities; all which return'd
in due Time considerably enrich'd. Perceiving that no Power oppos'd
them, they sailed [And a Foist.] down the Coast of Malabar, trading
wheresoever they thought fit, and took another Portuguese Vessel,
called a Foist, which had 21 Oars; and after unlading the Booty,
they lifted her up their Way, and took her along with them.

[Zamori signifies Cæsar.] After this they bent their Thoughts upon
greater Matters, to which End they sent an Embassy to the Zamori,
which Name imports as much as Cæsar among us, and he is King of
Calicut, a Friend and Confederate with the Dutch. Having agreed upon an
Interview, they fell to Trade, and whilst the rest attended Commerce,
and private Gain, the Admiral consulted about State Affairs, concerting
to carry on the War against the Spaniards, and more particularly the
Portugueses. They settled the Time, and the Forces they were to joyn
for that Effect. Then they diverted themselves with Feasting [Joins
with the Dutch.] and Treats. At one of which, by way of Farewel,
Zamori gave Admiral Drage an Emeraud, thought to be the largest and
beautifullest in the World. They went on, and took some Prizes on the
Coast of Java, and among them a small Ship, in which were Don Manuel
de Melo, Commander in Chief of the Moluccos, and his Wife, who was
oblig'd to fight as well as her Husband, and yet they could not escape
Captivity. The nearer they drew to Ternate, the more considerable
Encounters they had, for in [They take a Portuguese Frigat at Amboyna.]
Sight of Amboyna they fell in with a Frigat coming from the Moluccos
to Anchor in that Island, which they took, and in her Captain Antony
Machado, her Commander. They stay'd at Amboyna, hoping to recover
what they had lost, either by Treachery, or Force. The Year 1605 had
now commenced, and they began their Work on the 23rd of February.

[Drage takes Amboyna.] Eight Ships and six Tenders enter'd the
Port, and the Fort was surrender'd to them without much Difficulty,
or Opposition. They also possess'd themselves of the Portuguese
Colony. Those People seeing the Dutch so strong in Men and Cannon,
durst not, nor could they well oppose them. Forty Portugueses took an
Oath of Fidelity to the Prince of Orange's Bastard Son. They put the
Commander in Chief into Irons, and deliver'd the Fort to the Dutch,
alledging, for an Excuse, that they had not Ammunition to defend
themselves. There was another greater Mischief, which was, that the
Natives favour'd the Dutch, as their Deliverers from the Portuguese
Yoke; and they are well belov'd there, and in all Places where they
Trade, because [Fits out 40 Carcoas.] of late they have taken this
Course, not to meddle with their Religion, nor so much as mention it,
unless, where any will embrace Christianity on their own Accord. They
neither wrong'd nor distur'd any Body; and to show they would always
maintain them in that Security, within five Days, they fitted out 40
Carcoas, to defend the Natives against any Enemy.

[Indians well affected to the Dutch.] The Admiral pick'd out three
of the Ships, and went himself with them to the Islands of Banda,
to load Nutmeg, Mace, and Clove, there and at Amboyna. The Fame of
this Success, and the Hatred conceived against the Spaniards, were so
favourable to this Nation, that at this Time the People of Amboyna,
Ito, Veranula, and other Places, had their Embassadors at Sunda, to
expect this Fleet, which came from Home at their Request. Before they
set out from Holland they had receiv'd Embassadors from the King of
Achem in Sumatra, to the same End. For this Reason the Dutch give out,
that they come to revenge the Wrongs, the Portugueses and Spaniards
have done to the Natives, and to restore them to their Liberty. The
Designs of these perfidious People were no longer a Secret; for
the Admiral Drage refitted five of his Ships, and sent them to the
Moluccos, to take the Fort and Kingdom of Tydore, the only one that
continu'd in Subjection to Spain; and it was publickly reported, that
the King of Ternate would forward the Enterprize with his Ships and
Men. The Dutch Vice-Admiral sail'd with these Ships stopping by the
Way to make his Advantage, take in the Refreshments in their Factories,
and lade Pepper, and other Spice. Every Thing [The Dutch prosperous.]
succeeded as they could with, tho' they aspir'd to some Matters which
requir'd a greater Power than they brought. They intended to pass
by the Streight of Acapulco, and there to lie in wait for the Ships
belonging to the Philippines going and coming, because they knew
them to be Rich, and might take them. To this End they delay'd Time,
till they could be joyn'd by the two Ships they expected from Sunda,
laden with Pepper, from that plentiful, and secure Factory of theirs.

Aboard the eight Ships there was great Store of Bricks, Lime, and
squared Stones, Wheele-Barrows, and other Tooles and Materials for
Building; [Materials for Building in the Dutch Ships.] all which
was to be carry'd from the aforesaid Streight, tho' they had already
began to build it at Amboyna, and landing a considerable Part of those
Materials, they left there 130 Soldiers, to carry on the Works, and
Garrison the Fort. At the Heels of this Fleet they expected another
to lay Siege to Malaca; designing from thence to Govern India, as
the Portugueses have [Their Design against Malaca.] done. In Order
to this, they had before confederated with the Kings of Jor, Achem,
and Sunda, with whose Assistance, and that of other Native Sangiacks,
they were to overthrow the Power of Portugal; for they were resolv'd
not to quit India, and since its Commodities enrich'd them, they would
pay for the Expence of the War; besides, that they were already so
wealthy, that even in Flanders the Soldiers deserted from the Arch-Duke
Albertus, to serve them. Notwithstanding this extraordinary Affection,
[The English give the Spaniards Intelligence.] wherewith the Dutch are
entertain'd in all those Countries, before they came to Amboyna, two
English Ships came to an Anchor near by, and acquainted the Natives,
that a Dutch Squadron was coming to possess itself of the Island;
but bid them not to fear, for it had none but poor scoundrel Men;
and therefore they should defend themselves, offering them their
Assistance, and acquainting them that the Crowns of Spain and England
were then in Amity; and therefore the Subjects of them both ought to
be so of Course. They slighting this favourable Opportunity, chose
rather to become [Their just Dealing after the Peace.] Subjects to
Prince Maurice, and undergo the Dutch Yoke. The English demanded
Clove, and offer'd them their own Price for it, and were so just,
that they never joyn'd with the Dutch. In short, Amboyna remain'd in
the Enemies Hands. The People dispers'd, many of them went to Malaca,
and among the rest, the Commander in chief, Don Emanuel de Melo, with
some Portugueses. Others repair'd to the Island of Cebu, part of the
Philippines and other Places, for they had all their Liberty. They
all departed Amboyna about the middle of May, but without their Goods,
or Spice; being positively forbid that Trade, the Dutch alledging it
was all their own.

[They give Intelligence of the Dutch at Tydore.] One of those English
Ships sailing along those Coasts, and escaping the Ridges of Rocks,
got before-hand to the Port of Tydore. They call'd the Commander
in Chief of the Fort, Peter Alvarez Abreu, and inform'd him, that
they left the Dutch Squadron fortifying the strong Holds at Amboyna;
and that when they had reduc'd all in those Seas, they would come
to fall upon Tydore. The Commander in Chief return'd Thanks for that
friendly Intelligence; and among other Civilities that pass'd between
them, desir'd to know the Motive that induc'd them to show such
Kindness. Then the English told him, That their Kings were Friends,
and to convince him of it, and the Danger he was in, offer'd him as
much Ammunition as he stood in need of. They gave him Six Barrels
of Powder, 100 Cannon Balls, and a Number of Head-Pieces. This made
the Tydores and Portugueses begin to fortify themselves, and was the
Product of the late Peace.

[Four Dutch Ships at Tydore.] A Month after, four great Dutch
Ships, and four Tenders, came to the Island, where two of the King's
Galleons lay at Anchor, with the Portuguese Ships laden with Goods and
Provisions. The Dutch Admiral sent the King of Tydore Word, That if
he would deliver him that Fort, and expell the Portugueses, he would
be his Friend; and desiring he would not [Their Message to the King.]
start any Difficulties, since he might easily do it, being a peaceable
King in his own Dominions; besides that, they had Men and Strength
enough aboard that Squadron, to force them to consent to what they now
courteously demanded. The King of Tydore sent him a Cow, and answer'd,
[His Answer.] That he neither could, nor ought to put the Portugueses
out of their Forts, nor to admit of any other Nation in their Place,
till they had either voluntarily, or by Force of Arms, abandon'd their
Possession. That whilst they [Bravery of the Portuguese Commander.]
two decided the Quarrel, he would look on as Neuter. The Portuguese
Commander in Chief, understanding what Messages pass'd, interrupted
them, sending to let the Dutch Men know. That it was in vain to talk of
surrendring the Fort, whilst he was alive, and present. That he was to
treat with him, and the marry'd Men that liv'd in it about that Affair.

[Dutch take two Galleons.] Being come to this Resolution, the next
Morning the Dutch Ships remov'd, and went to board the Portugueses
that were at Tydore, two Cannon Shot from the Fort. They fought above
two Hours, and so constant was Fortune to one Side, that in so short a
Time, the Portugueses that remain'd alive were fain to throw themselves
into the Sea, and their Galleons [Bold Answer of the Portugueses.]
were taken, one of which they immediately burnt. The next Day another
Message was sent to Tydore, wherein the Dutch directed the King to
propose the surrendring of the Fort to the Portugueses, and he would
give them the Galleon he had spar'd, to carry them and their Effects,
wheresoever they should think fit. The Portugueses taking Courage,
[Dutch and Ternates joyn and burn a Town.] where others would be
dismay'd, answer'd, That the Loss of the Galleons had not daunted them;
for they would rather dye all of them, than deliver up the Fort. The
Dutch durst not batter it alone, but resolv'd to joyn the King of
Ternate, who was already set out with abundance of Carcoas to that
Effect. They met him a League from the Fort, and spending little Time
in Ceremonies return'd together, burning a Town of Tydore by the Way,
came the next Morning before the Fort.

They landed 800 Dutch and Ternate Soldiers, and having made a Trench
with Barrels fill'd with Earth, batter'd the Fort for three Days
from that Work, with two Pieces of Cannon. At the same Time they
play'd upon it from their Ships, firing above 1500 Shot. The third
Day they [Batter the Fort and are repuls'd.] drew nearer; and the
fourth in the Morning began to batter more furiously. They kill'd
the Constable of the Castle, and in the midst of the Confusion, the
King of Ternate and the Dutch, that were ashore, advanc'd, drawing
the Cannon under the very Fort, having surpriz'd the Portugueses,
and falling on them unexpectedly. They soon recovering themselves,
attack'd the Dutch afresh, who turning their Backs, behav'd themselves
so basely, that they ran into the Water; abandoning the Guns they
had ashore. In the Height of this Success, many Dutch being slain,
and only four Portugueses, on a sudden they spy'd all the Fort in a
Flame, which roar'd from [The Fort Burnt.] the Ground to the Tops
of the Houses, till a considerable Part was blown up, and almost all
the rest consum'd, and lay'd flat. Six and twenty Portugueses were
burnt, and it could never be discover'd or guess'd, how, or which
Way the Powder was set a fire, to cause that mighty Destruction. The
Portugueses, who just before were joyful for their Victory, having no
Walls to shelter them, were forc'd to retire to the City of Tydore,
and the Dutch and Ternates rallying, pursu'd them thither. The King
receiv'd them in friendly Manner, and he himself went the same Day
[Tydore taken by the Dutch.] aboard the Dutch Ship that lay at Anchor
before it, and calling the Dutch Admiral, propos'd to him the Affair
of the Fort, and that if those who defended it had ships allow'd them,
they would go away to other Parts. He agreed to it, and though it cost
the Portugueses all they had, they accepted of three small Tenders,
a Galliot that had been the King's, and a Dutch Tender to secure them
against the Ternates. The Dutch settled Amity with the King of Tydore;
that they should continue in his Dominions; and erect Factories,
and Trade for Clove, as the Portugueses had done. Thus the Conquer'd
having bought some Ships dispers'd themselves about those Islands. Many
of them went to the Philippines, where Don Pedro, the Governour,
examin'd them, in order to get Information concerning the Moluccos.

Antony de Silva, a Portuguese, was one of them that escap'd from the
[Dutch design to take the Ships of the Philippines.] Fort of Ternate,
and came to the Town of Arevalo in the Philippines; Besides being
a Soldier, he was also a Naguatato, or Interpreter. This Man gave
an Authentick Relation of that Affair, and added, That being brought
Prisoner from Amboyna, the Dutch Admiral having a Sea-Chart before him,
look'd for Mindoro, Manila, and for Cabite; and being ask'd by Silva,
why he look'd for it, was inform'd, That his Design was, in Case he
did not succeed at the Moluccos, to try to take some of the Ships
that trade betwixt New Spain, and the Philippines. Silva reply'd,
That [Silva gives Intelligence of it.] he had not the Time to meet
either; because those that come to the Philippines arrive about the
10th of May, and the others set out on the 10th of June. However that
was the Design of the Dutch Admiral, who intended to get Intelligence
at Mindoro, thence to sail to Macao, send an Embassador into China,
and revenge the Wrong Don Pablos de Portugal had done them in those
Countries. Then to load Pepper at Patane; next at the Streight of
Sincapura, to endeavour to take the Chinese Ships that resort to
Malaca; and whatever happen'd, to hold on his Voyage to Holland that
Way, loaden with Treasure. All this the Dutch Admiral communicated
to Antony de Silva, as to one that was to go with him into Holland,
because he was a Soldier, and able Interpreter in both Languages;
and therefore Stephen Drage made much of him. This Intelligence was
confirm'd [All the Moluccos lost to Spain.] by some others, who had
fought and escap'd the Slaughter at Tydore. Don Pedro hearing so much,
was concern'd, as a Man zealous for the Church, and for his King;
and it griev'd him to consider, that the Crown of Spain had not a
Foot of Land left it in the Moluccos; and that a Rebel was in quiet
Possession of them all.

Prosperity having embolden'd, and strengthen'd the Dutch, Don Pedro
[Don Pedro's Precautions.] assembling his Council of War, order'd
that the Captains Antony Freyle, Commander of the Squadron belonging to
the Pintados, Peter Sevil, Stephen de Alcazar, and Bernardine Alfonso,
should repair to the Forts of the Pintados, and other Islands that were
in Danger, with their Companies. He refitted the Ships, and prepar'd
his Cannon, as being so near a victorious Enemy, who so successfully
put in Execution all their Threats. Antony [Dutch Letters and Present
to the King of Ternate.] de Sylva show'd an Original Letter, written
by another Dutch Admiral at the Island of Borneo, to the King of
Ternate, and sent by Philip Bissegop, Captain of a Ship, with a
Present of a Quantity of fine Holland; Six Bales of several Vessels
with Musk; Twelve Bottles of Rose-Water; Six Pounds of Dutch Anfion,
that is, Opium, which, as has been said, disturbs the Senses, and
is us'd by those People to encourage them to fight; and six Barrels
of Powder. He gave him an Account of Andrew Furtado's unfortunate
Voyage, the Obstacles, Storms, and Enemies he had met with, since
his Departure from Ternate, till he came to Malaca. He gave him the
Title of Most Serene Prince, and Potent King of the Moluccos, Bandas,
Amboyna, and innumerable other Islands. He congratulated with him for
the Event of his Arrival at the Moluccos; promising he would return
to Ternate with a greater Power, he expected from Holland, and take
Possession of the Forts, to extirpate the common Enemy, the King of
Spain; and encourag'd him with these Hopes, to hold out till then. He
assur'd him, that he should scour all those Seas from the Moluccos,
and extend his Dominions as far as China, without being hinder'd by
the Philippines or Japoneses. To this End, he desired him to renew his
Friendship with Mindanao, and to acquaint the King of those Islands,
that he was a Friend to the Dutch, so to give them Admittance to
those Ports, Freedom of Trade, and amicable Entertainment, as was
requisite for their Undertakings; this being a Thing most Expedient,
above all other Politick Considerations. He added, he might observe,
and be assur'd, that nothing was so little regarded in Spain, as
to contrive that their many Provinces should preserve some Sort of
Union. That therefore all those which are very remote, and subject
to that Crown, ought to take much Notice of the great Delays there,
in coming to a Resolution, and sending Succours from Spain; because
before they believe, or examine the News brought them in order to
believe them, Affairs have taken a new Turn, and consequently neither
the Spanish Councils, nor their Arms come seasonably. That Experience
had made most of these Things known to his Highness, and his Zeal for
his Service oblig'd him to mention them. Antony de Silva, added, that
he was very sure the King of Ternate had not omitted doing any Thing
of what the Dutch Man recommended to him; and that he had already
propos'd to his People to go abroad to fight, far from their own
Islands. Tho' it was never apprehended he would do so, yet at that
Time it much troubled Don Pedro, because he was so spent with the
Affair of the Sangleyes, the Want of whom he labour'd so to supply,
that no such Mischief might happen again, it being so necessary to
support the Trade of the Philippines another Way, and procure safety
at Home in Order to make War, and keep up a Reputation.

Time, which sometimes gives Hope, and sometimes Dispair, comforted
Don Pedro in his Affliction, bringing in a few Months after some
Ships of private Persons from New Spain, and then in due Season
the usual Fleet. [Men, Money, &c. arrive at Manila from New Spain.]
They arriv'd at Manila, on the Eve of S. Matthias, and in them the
Spaniards sent from Spain, for the Expedition of Ternate, with above
200 more from the Marquess de Montesclaros, Viceroy of New Spain,
as also the other Necessaries, and Money, pursuant to the King's
Order. Part of this came committed to Brother Gaspar Gomez, who
was receiv'd with incredible Joy. He deliver'd all his Letters to
the Governour, and immediate Care was taken to quarter the Officers
and Soldiers, and to distribute them speedily, so that all Men might
believe there was no other Design in their coming, but the Security
of the Philippine Islands, threatned by the Emperor of Japan, and
the Conspiracies of the Sangleyes. This Report was industriously
so given out, that it might fly and spread abroad [Management of
the Governour.] without the Kingdom, lest they might receive any
Intelligence, who had cause to fear. Besides that, as the Fame of
those great Preparations was Advantageous to the Spaniards in Point
of Reputation, so the Reality of the Power they had, added to the
Opinion conceiv'd, prov'd the Defence and Security of them all. In
Japan, only the News that Manila was full of Men, and Ships of War,
allay'd, or quite banish'd the Disgust of that King, on Account of Don
Pedro's refusing him Ship-Wrights. The People of Chincheo also forbore
meditating Revenge against an Enemy, whose Victories were back'd with
such Succours. Don Pedro consider'd all these Particulars, and each
of them made him conclude, that he might with Safety be absent for
some Time from Manila. However the King of Ternate overjoy'd that he
had shaken off the Spanish Yoke, made little Account of all that was
told him, concerning its Neighbouring Kingdoms, believing they would
never recover their Ancient Possessions. The Dutch Commanders, who were
rebuilding the burnt Fort at Tydore, sent him a considerable Number of
Heavy Brass Cannon, of Drakes, and Muskets, and he hired some of the
Ingeniers, that came in those Ships, to look to his Fortifications,
and reside in them, and in his City. Some accepted of the Habitation,
approving of that disorderly, and irreligious Liberty of Life allow'd
in that Country; where considering the frequent Resort of Ships from
the North, and the many Factories, they reckon'd themselves as good
as at Home, since they could often meet with their Kindred or Friends,
or at least with their Country-Men. Banish'd Spaniards and Portugueses
arriv'd daily at the Port of Oton, in the Philippine Islands, and
among them Paul de Lima, a Person of great Experience, and still
General of the Artillery at Tydore, who, besides the News of the late
Destruction, brought an Account of the Joy wherewith the Dutch dug up
the Guns he endeavour'd to hide, and how much they were increased in
Strength and Shipping. He was receiv'd with much Honour, in regard to
his Quality, and because he was one of those who had lost Lands and
Goods, taken from him by the King of Ternate, and his Information,
and Counsel were of Use for what afterwards happen'd. All Men attended
the Warlike Preparations, in their several Stations, but with equal
Zeal; building Ships, and gathering Provisions, Arms, and Ammunitions;
and Don Pedro himself was so diligent and vigilant, that he attended
the meanest Employments, giving an Example, and encouraging; so that
it may be said, he did every Thing, for he ply'd all Hands.

                       The End of the Ninth Book.

                                 OF THE
                         Discovery and Conquest
                                 OF THE
                  Molucco and Philippine Islands, &c.

                                BOOK X.

[Want of Political Reflections whence.] There is generally some
Moral Instruction, which lies couch'd under the Actions of Men, and
which Judicious Writers use to point at in the Relation of Events,
as the Advantage of History; but what civil Rules, or Precepts for
the forming of the Political Life, can we lay down, in writing the
Conquest and Defence of Barbarous Countries, which all depends on
Voyages, and reducing of Garrisons; notwithstanding State Craft has
somewhat inform'd those Nations? Or what can occur in this Subject,
which the Reader may not infer, as a necessary Consequence of the
foregoing Discourse? Since then the Matter in Hand does not afford
us such Reflection, let us draw to a Conclusion, in Pursuance of our
Promise made at the Beginning.

[Yloilo Port the Rendezvous of The Navy.] Don Pedro de Acunna, now
Captain General of the Fleet that was assembled in the Philippine
Islands, at the same time took Care to see it fitted out with
Expedition, and to provide for the Security of the Province he was to
forsake, that he might go upon that so difficult Undertaking. Some
there were, who look'd upon it as Part of Don Pedro's good Fortune,
that the Molucco Islands had been utterly lost, that since he had the
more Matter to work upon, his Victory might be the more glorious. He
most industriously provided all Things requisite for the Use of War;
and even for all the Accidents it might be liable to. The Point,
or Promontory of Yloilo runs out into the Sea, not far from Arevalo,
in the Island of Panay, forming a Harbour proper and capacious enough
to be the Place of Arms, for the Preparations then in Hand. Here the
Fleet rendezvous'd, consisting [Particulars of the Fleet.] of Six Tall
Ships, Six Galleys, Three Galliots, like those they call Galizabras,
belonging to the Crown of Portugal; in one of which was Peter Alvarez
de Abreu, Commander in Chief of the Fort of Tydore; the other two,
under the Command of John Rodriguez Camelo, Commodore, sent from
Malaca, by the General Andrew Furtado de Mendoza, to be aiding with his
Courage and Conduct, and to carry him an Account of the Success. One
flat bottom'd Galliot, to land the Artillery, and in it 300 Baskets
of Rice. Four Foists built purposely for carrying of Provisions. Two
Champanes of Ten Tun Burden each, with 1600 Baskets of clean Rice. Two
Dutch Long-Boats, which carry'd over the Portugueses when the Fort of
Tydore was lost. Seven Frigats belonging to the King, and Seven more
to private Persons, and the like Number of Champanes, in all 36 Sail.

[The Land Forces.] Colonel John de Esquivel brought 12 Companies
of Spanish Foot; four whereof were rais'd in Andaluzia, being his
own, and those of the Captains, Paul Garrucho, Peter Sevil, and Luke
de Vergara Gaviria. Six came from New Spain, under the Captains Don
Roderick de Mendoza, Son to Don John de Raeza y Castilla, and to Donna
Maria de Mendoza, and by her Grandson to the Marquess de Montesclaros,
and therefore, out of Respect to his Kinsman, the Viceroy of New Spain,
he came out of Italy to serve his Majesty in the Philippine Islands;
the others were Captain Pascual de Alarcon Pacheco, Martin de Esquivel,
Bernardine Alfonso, Peter Delgado, and Stephen de Alcazar. Two
other Companies commanded by the Captains John Guerra de Cervantes,
and Christopher de Villagra, belong'd to the Forces of Manila, and
the Province of the Pintados. All which, with [1423 Spaniards.]
their Officers, make up 1423 Spaniards. Under the Colonel Don
Guillermo, and the Captains Don Francis Palaot, Don John Lit, Don
Lewis and Augustin Lout, 344 Pampangua, and Tagalo Indians; besides
620 others of the same Nations, for the Sea and Land Service, and
649 Rowers. All the Men in the Fleet, besides the General's Household
and Family, amounted to 3095; with 75 Pieces of Cannon of all Sorts,
and all other Perquisites for Sea, Landing, Fight, and Battery.

[The Fleet sails from Yloilo.] Don Pedro sail'd from the Port of
Yloilo, with all these Preparations, on the 15th of January, 1606,
the Weather being unsettled, but he as resolute as at other Times. He
arriv'd at the Island Mindanao, then in Enmity with the Spaniards,
and in Confederacy with the Ternates, and came to [Caldera Port.]
an Anchor in the Port of Caldera, to water, where the Admiral's Ship,
in which the Colonel Esquivel was, began to drag her Anchors, and was
forc'd to set her Sails to get off; but perceiving she could not, by
so doing weather a Point, she fired two Guns, in Token of Distress,
at the Time [Admiral Ship lost.] when her Rudder struck. The Galleys
made up to tow her off, and broke some Ropes to no Purpose, the Sea
and Wind being against them. Captain Villagra was entrusted to save
the Men and Provisions that were aboard; and he, tho' a considerable
Part belonging to the King and private Men was lost, with incredible
Industry sav'd the most of them, and the Goods, as also all the Men,
Cannon, Powder, Cables, Rigging, and Sails; and that the People of
Mindanao might not reap the Benefit of the Wreck, he set Fire to
the Vessel, after taking out all the Iron Work. This Accident was
much lamented, both for its own Consequence, and because the Men,
who are often vainly Superstitious, put an ill Construction upon it;
but the General's Wisdom made amends for all.

[They sail from Caldera.] From the Port of Caldera, the General
order'd the Colonel to sail over to that of Talangame, which, as has
been said, is in the Island of Ternate; and bore him Company himself,
with the Galleys, till he was out of the Streight of Sabuanga, which is
dangerous by Reason of the Currents and Ridges of Rocks, wherefore they
tow'd the Ships, till they were out of Danger, as also because they
were becalm'd. The Fleet stood out to Sea; the Galleys coasted along
slowly to take in Water enough to last them to Ternate, the Men that
had been sav'd from abroad the Admiral being distributed among them,
and the other Vessels, so that their Burden and Labour [Through Mistake
fall in with Celebes.] was increased. The ablest pilots in those Seas,
had Charge of the Galleys, and yet notwithstanding all their Care, and
that of the Captains and expert Mariners, they mistook their Course,
and fell in among the islands of Celebes, otherwise call'd of Mateo,
above 60 Leagues to the Leeward of Ternate. The Wind was contrary, and
the Error was to be [Arrive at Ternate.] retriev'd by rowing. With
very much Labour they reach'd Ternate on the 26th of March, being
Easter-Day. That Day so joyful to all Mankind, made them forget past
Toils, and convert them into Pleasure and Delight.

[Superstition of Moluccos as to Eclipses.] They were inform'd, that
the Day before, an Eclipse of the Moon had been observ'd at Ternate,
with the usual Concern. No sooner does the Darkness begin to cover the
Body of the Moon, than the People with Sighs and Tears begin also to
lament that Planet's Mourning; for they believe it forebodes the Death
or Captivity of their King, or of some eminent Person or some Calamity
to the Publick. If the Eclipse passes over without any of these Losses,
they Repair to their Mosque in Procession, Rank and File. Here the
foremost carry large China Dishes. Those are follow'd by others with
Launces, and Hatchets advanc'd, and Muskets rested. Next them follow
three Lamps, carry'd on Men's Shoulders, as common Pictures represent
the great Bunch of Grapes carry'd by the Discoverers, who went to
view the Holy Land promis'd by God to his People. Next comes a Boy,
in Royal Robes, and behind him another holding an Umbrello, made of
various Feathers, over the Head of the first. Then follow the Women,
set off with Flowers and Palm-Branches, without Order; and thus they
celebrate their Thanksgiving, in the Streets and Temples, because
the Eclipse pass'd over without any Detriment. The Dutch told them,
That Eclipses were commonly known in their Country, and throughout
all Europe; which those People either admir'd or did not believe.

When our Galleys came to the Port of Talangame, Don Pedro expected to
have found the Colonel with the Fleet in it; but only saw a stately
[Dutch Ship at Talangame.] Dutch Ship, carrying 30 Pieces of Cannon,
and 12 Pedreroes. She fought our Ships as they pass'd by, and then
drew to the Shore, and defended herself with Part of the Artillery,
that was fittest for the Purpose, and being guarded by a great Number
of Ternate Soldiers, kept close in her Fortification. Don Pedro took
a View of her, as he pass'd by in the Galleys, tho' she made several
Shot at him, and threw 18 Pound Balls into the Admiral Galley, where
he was. He thought fit not to stay, till he heard of the Fleet which
was then at Tydore, little above two Leagues from that Port, as was
known by some Vessels of the Natives, that came up board and board, in
sailing by that Harbour. The Galleys directed their Course to Tydore,
led by the Joy of this good News, which eas'd Don Pedro of much Care
he was in, knowing there was a Scarcity of Seamen aboard the Fleet,
and he fear'd it might have been drove away elsewhere.

[Dutch Men at Tydore.] Esquivel found four Dutch Men at Tydore. One
of them was the Factor who gather'd the Clove for a Company of his
Countrymen, that belong'd to the Factories of Ternate, Amboyna, Banda,
Sunda, and other Places about them; the other three were Sailers. He
examin'd all four, and they gave an Account of the Strength of that
Ship, and her Guns, saying, She was loden with Clove; and one of
the five that fought the Portugueses, when the Fort of Ternate blew
up. That they expected another Ship, which came [Intelligence they
give.] with her from Bantam, and was parted in foul Weather. That
the main Drift of the Agreement made between the King of Ternate
and the Dutch, was their Assisting him against the Spaniards, and
Portugueses. That there were Orders at Java and Sunda for the Dutch
Ships which pass'd by to enquire there, whether there were any News
from the Moluccos; and if Need were, that they should leave their
Loding there, and go succour the King of Ternate.

[Ternate to be attack'd before the Dutch Ship.] Before Don Pedro
departed Talangame, he consulted with his Officers, whether it
were convenient to attack the Dutch Ship before they went upon
the Enterprize of Ternate. Opinions varied, but it was concluded,
that since his Majesties Design was to recover the Maluccos, and he
had order'd the Fleet to be provided for that Intent, it was not
expedient to prefer any other Action. Time is subject to change,
and sometimes an Accident overthrows the best concerted Designs. That
great Ship, so well stor'd with Guns, and Mann'd, might have sunk some
of ours, by which we should have lost our Cannon, and Provisions,
or some other Mischief, that could not possibly be foreseen might
have happen'd, to the obstructing of the main Design. Besides that
the Ternates being their Friends, in Case we had master'd the Ship,
the Men might fly and save themselves among their Confederates, and
thus the Enterprize be rendered more difficult by their Assistance;
and it was known by Spyes, that the King already had Dutch Gunners,
and Soldiers of Courage and Conduct.

[King of Tydore and Don Pedro meet at Sea.] The King was not at
Tydore when our Fleet came into his Harbour, being gone to marry a
Daughter of the King of Bachian; and tho' the Colonel sent to acquaint
him with his Arrival, and to desire he would hasten his Coming,
as fearing Delays; yet perceiving the Time slipt away, he set out
on the last of March for Ternate, with his Fleet. When they were at
Sea, they heard the new marryed King's Bagpipes, Basons, Trumpets,
and Kettle-Drums. He having receiv'd the Spaniards Letters, imbark'd,
bringing the New Queen along with him, and joyn'd them with his Carcoas
full of Musick and Garlands of Flowers. They met with extraordinary
Joy, and the King of Tydore express'd it particularly for seeing of
Don Pedro de Accunna, with whom he had before frequent Communication
by Letters and Messengers. He show'd much Concern for the Streights he
had been reduc'd to by the King of Ternate, with the Assistance of the
Dutch. Don Pedro comforted him, declaring his Majesty's Intention, and
how he had order'd him to come to his Assistance, from the Philippine
Islands, whensoever he should require it. He visited the Bride,
paying her all possible Respect; and the King of Tydore, telling him,
he would attend the Fleet in Person, with his Ships and Men, went away
then to his Island, and the next Morning, at Break of Day, according
to his Promise, came into a Bay near [Orders for the Enterprize.]
Ternate, where our Fleet had anchor'd. The Rejoycings for his coming
did not delay the Consultations, and Orders for the Enterprize. The
Governour call'd a Council of War, where it was resolv'd, that all
the Strength of the Fleet should be reduc'd to only three great Ships,
to secure the Sea and Land. They were immediately sufficiently mann'd
with Sea-Men and Soldiers, under the Command of Bernardine Alfonso,
Antony Carrenno de Valdes, and Don Gil Sanchez de Carranza, all three
Commanders of Repute. Other Orders were issu'd out, and presently put
in Execution by the Officers. Of the three above nam'd, two dy'd in
their Return Home, and only Carreno out liv'd it.

[The Forces land April the first.] Don Pedro, and the King of Tydore
landed their Men, on the first of April, at Break of Day; but it being
difficult, and even dangerous to march so near the Water, because
there was no more ground on the Shore than for five Men in Rank; it
was resolv'd to make the Attack with a small Number, gradually along
the Sea Coast, without ingaging too far; and at the same Time to make
Way over the Top of the Mountain, with some Pampanguo, and Tangalo
Indian Pioneers, and to send another Party of Men that Way, to give
the Enemy a Diversion, and oblige them to divide their Forces. The
King of Ternate, whom Experience and Fear had instructed in the
Art of War, perceiving what was aim'd at, to avoid being cut off in
[K. of Ternate retires to his Fort.] the Rear, retir'd to his Fort,
as soon as he discover'd our Army. This was the Reason why our Men
met with no Opposition, whereas the General Furtado found so much
Resistance there, three Years before, at the Seige we have spoken of,
when in gaining that Pass, he lost some Portugueses and Spaniards,
being assisted by Captain Gallinato.

[Gallinato invests the Place.] He now put our Men into good Order,
leading the Van, and drew up within Musket Shot of the Wall. He told
Don Pedro, in the Presence of the King of Tydore, that some Soldiers
had, by his Command, taken a View of the Place, and that considering
the Nature of the Situation, it was requisite to maintain that Ground
till Night, when our Men should intrench, and bring up the Cannon
for Battery. His Advice was approv'd of, and put in Execution; and
in Regard that the Enemy did some Harm in the main Body, and Wings,
with their Cannon and small Shot; Don Pedro to prevent it, order'd the
Men to lye down. It was observ'd that there were [Sentinels on Trees
beaten off.] four Eminences cover'd with wild, and full headed Trees,
on which the Enemy had their Sentinels, who gave Intelligence how
the Spaniards mov'd, and of whatsoever they order'd, or perform'd. A
Captain went up to make himself Master of the Trees, and soon brought
down the Enemies Sentinels. Gallinato perfected that Work, commanding
our Sentinels to get up into those same Trees, as was done. The Enemy
endeavour'd to remove them with their Cannon and small Arms, firing
incessantly; but could never disturb either those that were on the
Top, among the Boughs, who gave the Information, not the others that
stood at the Foot, who receiv'd and carryed it to the Officers. The
Enemy was possess'd of a Post near the Bastion of Cachil Tulo, on the
right Hand of the Wall, a little beyond the Trees, and the General
thinking it necessary to be gain'd, commanded Captain John de Cubas,
an old Low-Country Soldier, to attack it with 30 Musketiers, and if
he thought himself too hard set, to send Word, and he should have a
good Supply of Pikes. The Captain went on by the Way of the Mountain,
and the Enemy to prevent him, sent a Body of Men out of the Fort next
the Sea, whom Captain Villagra charg'd. Whilst they were ingag'd,
the King of Ternate, perceiv'd that Cubas was marching to gain his
Post, and [Villagra and Cubas fight the Ternates.] being sensible
how prejudicial the Loss of it would be, sally'd out himself to
fight him, and the Spaniards had enough to do. Cubas gained the
highest Ridge; but so fatigued, that he was forc'd to send for the
Supply of Pikes. The Captains Vergara, Alarcon, and Don Roderick de
Mendoza supported him with 40 detatch'd Men; and before they came up
more Ternates and Javaneses sally'd out of the Fort, with whom the
fight was renew'd in more furious Manner. Another Party of Infidels
was presently discover'd next the Sea, for which Reason, and because,
if the Enemy had demanded more Succours, his Posts would be forsaken,
the King order'd those who fought with Villagra to retire, and went
himself with them, and some others to sustain the Rest. His coming on
like a brave, or rather a desperate [The Fight redoubl'd.] Commander,
oblig'd Cubas, to ask for another Supply which the Captains Villagra,
and Cervantes carry'd him, and charg'd the Enemy. Cachil Amuxa, of
whose Bravery Mention has been made, went up to Captain Cubas after
burning the Brims of his Hat, and the Feather in it, with a Musket
Shot, and they both fought Hand to Hand for a considerable Time, the
one with his Sword, and the other with his Campilane, or Cymiter. The
[Single Combat.] Sentinels on the Trees cry'd out, giving Notice of
the Troops on the Shore, and that they came on towards our Van-Guard,
and the Front of it. Captain Villagra was order'd to charge them with
a Division of Shot, belonging to Captain Cervantes, who commanded all
the Halbardiers. Both Parties fought with equal Tokens of Courage,
when the Sentinels from the Trees gave Notice, that John de Cubas,
on the Right, demanded more Succours. The Captains Don Roderick de
Mendoza, and Pascual de Alarcon went with it immediately, drawing
out two Divisions of Musketiers. The Sentinels cry'd out again, that
the Enemy, who fought with Captain Villagra were retiring towards
the Walls, and that John de Cubas demanded another Supply of Pikes
and Halbards. Captain Cervantes supported him with 50, and Villagra,
with the Men he commanded.

[Ternates retire in Disorder.] Our Sentinels, to whose Vigilancy
a great Part of this Success is owing, gave Notice again, that
upon the Approach of our Supplies, the Enemy retired in Disorder,
and our Men made up to the Wall. The Event of the Battle began now
to be out of Doubt, and even in that Posture requir'd Diversity of
Conduct. Don Pedro therefore order'd the Colours with the Rest of the
Pikes to march, leaving one Division of Musquetiers, and the Heavy
Harquebussiers in the Rear, to face the Enemy, in Case they should
happen to sally out again toward the Sea. The other Captains and
Soldiers went on fighting, and at the set Time attack'd the Wall,
helping one another to climb to the Top. The two first that got
upon it were the Captains John de Cubas, and Cervantes, who having
receiv'd some Wounds on it, tumbled down again. The Difficulty of this
Enterprize increas'd as the Enemy renew'd their Efforts, doing us Harm
with their heavy and small Cannon, Muskets, sundry Sort of Fireworks,
Stones, and other Contrivances the Dutch furnish'd them with; but the
Attack was made so furiously, that the Spaniards gave not the King,
nor his Men Leisure enough to get into the old Portuguese Fort, within
the Wall; for had they done so, they might have defended themselves
some Time, and our Men would have been oblig'd to batter the Walls
with Cannon; and tho' the Fort is small, and built in more unskilful
Times, it would have cost Trouble.

The Place was taken with little Loss, for we had but Fifteen Men
kill'd on our Side, among them was Captain Cervantes, who getting
up the first [The Place taken, and Number of the Slain.] upon the
Wall, with a Design to display the King's Standard on it, was run
into the Eye with a Launce, by a Barbarian, and others coming on,
they threw him down to the Ground, whereof he dy'd the seventh Day,
much regretted by all Men. He had before said publickly, offering
to give the Charge, Gentlemen, the Bull shall not make his Escape
my Way, unless it cost me my Life; alluding to keeping of him in
at the Bull-Feasts. He was as good as his Word both ways, since he
dy'd in Performance of it, with his Arms and Legs broken. No Man of
any Note, either among the Spaniards or Indians escap'd unhurt. Many
Ternates and Javaneses were slain, and some Dutch shed their Blood,
like brave or desperate Men, thinking it a Misfortune, as they said,
to owe their Lives to our Courtesy, or Mercy.

It was never expected that the Success, would be in all Points
answerable to the Justice of the Cause. Don Pedro had design'd to
batter the Forts, wherein he would have met with mighty Difficulties,
because the Cannon was very heavy, and hard to be drawn to the
proper Posts for Battery; as also for that there was not Earth
to fill the Gabions, and the [Cannon found in it.] Rockiness of
the Ground obstructed the throwing up of the Trenches, which would
have occasion'd the Loss of many Men before the Artillery could be
planted. The Spaniards pursu'd their Success, and possessing themselves
of the Fort, found in it 43 large Brass Guns, abundance of Drakes,
and other Arms, besides Ammunition and Provisions.

The Men having enter'd the City, every one fell to plunder, and commit
[Prisoners made Slaves.] Outrages. Don Pedro had made Proclamation,
that all the Enemies taken within four Days should be made Slaves. The
Commanders halted near the ancient Church of S. Paul, which was
fortify'd by the Enemy with Ramparts for this Service. Opinions
vary'd about what was next to be done; Some were for securing what
was already gain'd; Others for pushing on, to gain the main Fort. The
Captains Vergara and Villagra, went for the Latter, and the Soldiers
were so brisk and eager to run into any Danger, that one of them,
of the Province of Estremadura, and belonging [Eagerness of the Men.]
to the Company of Captain Sevil, an Aragonian, and notable Commander,
who was also for going on, took up Captain Villagra in his Arms, and
carry'd him above ten Paces, saying, Good Captain, fall on, fall on;
and then set him down. The Captain struck him, for having [They attack
and take the main Fort.] taken him up so rudely, at such a Time; and
the Soldier bowing, pleasantly and with a smiling Countenance, said
to him, God is my Life, strike again, and fall on. In short, Vergara
and Villagra, with a few Men attack'd the main Fort, and carry'd it,
being themselves the first that enter'd [They attack and take the main
Fort.] the Gates, but not the first that went up; for as they were
running up the Stairs hastily, and just going into the Hall, Barela,
an old Soldier, and Corporal to Captain Cervantes, thrust by their
Side, and getting in, took a gilt Ewre, made in the Shape of an Urn,
curiously ingrav'd, from off a rich Cupboard, or Side-board there was
in the Hall, saying to the Captains, [The King's Palace plunder'd.]
Gentlemen, I take this in Token that I came in here with you; and
carry'd it away, by their Consent. All the Palace was then expos'd to
the Avarice of the Soldiers. Don Pedro would have given a check to it;
but was not taken Notice of, till almost all was over.

The King of Ternate had forsaken all, and some of the Dutch him,
when [The King &c. fly, to Gilolo.] they saw he was going down;
none follow'd him in this Confusion and Flight, but the Sangiack of
Mofaquia, his Kinsman, who encourag'd and advis'd him, his Queen
Celicaya, and some other Women. He embark'd with them all, Prince
Gariolano his Son, and a few Dutch, in great Haste, within the Wall,
aboard some Carcoas of Mofaquia, and plying the Oars, or rather
Flying, arriv'd in the Island of Gilolo, at a Fort there, built not
long before in Sabugu. The rest of the Dutch got off in other Vessels
to their Ship.

The whole Body of the Army now rang'd the Towns and Houses of the
[The Dutch to their Ship.] Natives, wholly intent upon Plunder,
and Don Pedro went about, giving Orders, and checking the Soldiers,
that they might keep in a Body.

The General went on to S. Paul's Church, which was unroof'd and
profan'd; he order'd it to be cleans'd, and immediately adorn'd
with [Possession taken of the Fort.] Boughs, and other Ornaments,
brought thither by the diligent Soldiers, where they devoutly, with
loud Voices, sang the Hymn, Salve Regina, which our Church uses to
call upon the blessed Virgin. For the compleating of this Victory,
they still wanted to seize the King, Prince, Sangiacks, and Commanders
that follow'd him. The General took Possession of the Forts, setting
up and displaying the Colours, with the Arms of the Crown of Spain,
and the Name of PHILIP THE THIRD, OUR SOVEREIGN, the Musick playing,
and Guns firing. He order'd, [King of Ternate pursu'd.] that the next
Day Captain Villagra should set out in Pursuit of the King of Ternate,
with 100 Men in two Galleys, and the King of Tydore, and the Prince
his Son, with their Fleet, consisting of two Janguas, and 15 Carcoas,
in which were 1000 Men.

The King and Prince of Tydore, with Captain Villagra, came to the
[Tacome Fort surrender'd to Villagra.] Fort of Tacome, in Ternate,
on the third of April, where they found Cachil Amuxa, the bravest of
the Natives of Ternate, Cousin German to their King, and his Captain
General. Villagra sent him a Message by Antony de Silva, Interpreter of
their Language, and through his Means he surrendred, with some Dutch;
all whom he carry'd Prisoners to the City. He brought them in very
honourable Manner, and they had not the dejected Looks of Men that
were overcome. Being come to the City, he deliver'd them to Don Pedro
de Acunna, who observing the same Generosity, received and treated
them courteously, and commended their Valour. There the Cachil and
Captain John de Cubas knew one another again, remember'd the Wounds
they had given and receiv'd, and were good Friends. The Portuguese
Commanders visited him, and in his Presence, after commending the
Bravery they had shown in the War, the General, with his [The General
honours the Portuguese Commanders.] own Hands, put weighty Gold
Chains about their Necks, as was then us'd among Soldiers, desiring
they would accept of that Acknowledgement of their gallant Behaviour,
and excuse the Smallness of the Gift; and they on their Side, made
suitable Returns of Courtesy.

Villagra went out again, and by the Way, took the Sangiack of
Mofaquia, and two of his Nephews, without any Opposition. All these
having desir'd Audience of Don Pedro, told him, they had always been
desirous to [Sangiack of Mofaquia taken.] return to their Subjection
under his Majesty, but that their Kinsman, the King, had obstructed
it, and ruin'd himself by adhereing to his own Opinion, rejecting
the safest and best, which was to recover their former Favour. This
Pride, said they, has reduc'd him to the miserable Condition he
[He proposes to bring over the King.] is now in. If you please we
will discourse, and perswade him to put himself into your Hands,
after you have taken such Security of us as becomes conquer'd Men,
and given Commission to such as you can confide in to Article with
the King. It is not the Change of our Fortune that moves us to this,
for none can daunt those who are prepar'd for the worst; but it is
that Fidelity, which the Circumstances of the Times would not permit
us to exert. [Don Pedro's Answer.] Don Pedro return'd Thanks for
their Zeal, and told them, The Method they had chosen was the best
to oblige the King of Spain to use that Victory with his innate royal
Goodness; and therefore empower'd them to assure the King, and his Son,
that their Lives should be safe. The two Cachiles embarking with Paul
de Lima, who, tho' a Native of Ternate, was discreet and a Master of
the Spanish Tongue, as also well known to the King, and with Captain
Villagra, they sail'd over together to the Fort of Sabubu, in the
Island Batochina. The King embrac'd, and receiv'd them with Tears;
but when they propos'd his surrend'ring himself, he would [The King
delivers himself up on a safe Conduct.] not consent without a formal
safe Conduct first granted. That Satisfaction was soon given him, for
Don Pedro sent it, with Assurance of his Life, in respectful Terms,
becoming the Person of a King, and all solid and safe, according
to the Power committed to him, the Rest being left at his Catholick
Majesty's Disposal.

[Embarks for Ternate.] The Instrument, which the General had drawn
in Form, being read, the King resolv'd to repair to Ternate, with
the Prince, and the other Cachiles and Sangiacks; yet contrary to the
Advice of Celicaya, of whom he was always desperately in Love. In fine,
he put himself into the Hands of Don Pedro, and to this Effect embark'd
on three Janguas, and meeting with Villagra, they went over with all
the rest into his Galleys, to be carry'd to the General. The King
desir'd by the Way to visit his Mother, who was in the Fort of Tacome,
and having propos'd it to Captain Villagra, he comply'd with him,
and the Galleys made haste. They came to Tacome on the 8th of April,
where he landed, and his Mother coming out to meet him, encourag'd
him, without showing the least Dejectedness. [Visits his Mother.]
Nothing appear'd in the Discourse between them that could be heard,
that had a Womanish Air, or the Resemblance of a Motherly Tenderness,
as the Interpreters declar'd, nor did she comfort him with Hopes
of Revenge, but only with Reasons perswading to sute himself to his
Fortune, which is the Will of Heaven.

From this Place Villagra sent Advice to Don Pedro, that the King was
come, and would soon be with him. He having receiv'd the News, sent
[The King brought to Ternate.] Major Ascueta to bid him welcome. He
order'd he should be treated with Respect, and that the Major should
in secret bid Captain Villagra make haste to Ternate, because there
was much still to do, and it was not proper to lose Time. The Progress
of Victory is not to be interrupted. They set out in the Evening for
Ternate, where they arriv'd late at Night, and therefore went not
into the City. The King stood as it were amaz'd when he saw the Place,
and heard the Drums, and other Martial Noises; being sensible of the
Yoke he had been so averse to bear. However he diverted [The King
of Tydore goes to visit him.] himself that Night, as a sick Person
uses to admit of the Entertainment he receives from those who are
in Health. The next Day the General came aboard, whilst the Army was
forming into one great Body, and the Companies were marching, that the
King might not stay; that Show being provided for him, and the Design
that he should be conducted in through the Midst of the Forces. Don
Pedro order'd, That before he landed, the King of Tydore, who attended
in the same Harbour, should go visit him. He refus'd to receive him,
as long as he could, and the Colonel and all the Captains intreated him
to admit of the Visit, which he at length consented to, either being
perswaded, or yielding to Importunity. The Galley made towards the
King of Tydore's Fleet, and as they drew near, the Cannon fir'd. The
King of Tydore stay'd aboard his Admiral, conceal'd between Curtains
of Crimson Damask, and when the two Galleys [Barbarous Ceremonies of
the Kings.] were come together board and board, after a long Silence,
the Curtains were drawn. Both the Kings appear'd in their Vessels,
looking at one another, for a considerable Time, without speaking
a Word. At length he of Ternate, as the conquer'd, call'd to one of
his Nephews, to whom kneeling, he deliver'd a Message in his Ear for
the King of Tydore. The Nephew [Zumbaya Ceremony.] went over to the
Carcoa, and having made the Zumbaya, according to their Ceremonies,
with great Tokens of Submission, kneeling, joyning his Hands,
and raising them up to his Face, kiss'd the King of Tydore's left
Foot. Then he deliver'd him his Message with much Deliberation, all
the Standers-by observing the knitting of his Brows, and all the other
Tokens of Admiration and Sorrow, wherewith he was heard. The Nephew
withdrew as soon as he had done speaking; and after the King of Tydore
had continu'd a while Thoughtful, he call'd another Cachil, who was his
Favourite, and Kinsman. He spoke to him in the same Manner, and gave
him another Message for the King of Ternate, with much Deliberation
and State. This Messenger paid him the same respectful Ceremonies,
and going over to our Galley, when he came into the Presence of the
King of Ternate, after performing the same Zumbaya, bow'd himself
down, and deliver'd the Answer. The King receiv'd it with as much
Grandeur as he could have done had he been Conqueror. Then he also
stood a while musing, and rising went over to the Admiral of Tydore,
which, as has been [Meeting of the two Kings.] said, was grappled
with the Galley. The Prince, his Son, and the Commanders attended
him. The King of Tydore stood up to receive him. When they met,
each of them us'd tedious Civilities, and Ceremonies towards the
other, about sitting. He of Ternate sat first, and the Prince, by
his Father's Order, paid him of Tydore, the Respect of the Zumbaya,
kissing his Foot. He to prevent obliging his Son to repay the like
Compliment to the other, before the King of Ternate came, had order'd
him aboard another Vessel, and to put out to Sea, that he might not
be present at the Interview. The two Kings discours'd about several
Affairs, and he of Ternate, of his Misfortune, tho' in manly Manner.

[The two Kings land.] It being now Time for the King of Ternate
to land, both the Kings began to draw near it, but with different
Notions. The General waited in the Fort, and saw the Landing from
the Top of it. The King of Ternate came ashore between and led by the
Colonel, and Gallinato. After him follow'd the Prince, conducted by
Captain Villagra, and the Major. The King march'd thro' a Lane of our
Foot, and seem'd pleas'd to see them so gallant, and orderly. Thus
he came to the Fort, the ancient Residence of his Predecessors,
and not long since his own, Don Pedro, the Governour coming down to
the Gate to meet him, unarm'd, richly dress'd, and with [Don Pedro
receives the King.] such Decency as became his Person. He would
have kiss'd his Hand, but the King embrac'd him, and they went
up Hand in Hand to the Lodgings; in the Stateliest whereof, they
found three Chairs, with as many Cushions before them, plac'd on a
rich Carpet under the Canopy. The King sat on that in the Middle,
the Prince on the next, and the Governour on the third. After a
short Silence, the Discourse began, Don Pedro telling the King,
his Highness ought to bear his present Condition with Resolution,
remembering the long Prosperity he had enjoy'd. That he offer'd to
interceed, [Comforts him.] and use his Interest with his Majesty,
that he might be restor'd to his Kingdoms; and that the Subject in
Hand requiring longer and private Conferences, he for the Present
would cut it short, because the settling of weighty Affairs, is
not to be grounded on the Noise of Promises. [The King's Answer.]
The King return'd Thanks for the Kindness he show'd, in promising his
Restitution, and bewailing his present Condition, concluded, saying,
That he took Comfort in him, considering Heaven had reserv'd him to
be subdu'd by so great a Commander; in which particular he reckon'd he
was much oblig'd to his Fortune; and that he confided, he would treat
him with such Generosity and Goodness as was due on his own Account,
and his being the Minister of so great a Monarch, without calling to
mind that his own Pride had been his Ruin. The Governour satisfy'd him
as to all Points, and having order'd the best House in Ternate to be
furnish'd, and [A Spanish Company guards the King.] sent to it Plate,
Household Goods, Linnen, Beds, Pavillions, and all Things answerable to
such a Guest, he desir'd the King would be pleas'd to remove thither,
and with his leave he would wait on him; and that, with his good
liking, a Spanish Captain with his Company should guard his Person;
lest the Subjects of the Kingdom of Tydore, his natural Enemies, who
were then very Numerous in the City, seeing him alone, should offer
any Rudeness. The King accepted of it, smiling in a heavy Manner, to
signify that the Guard was appointed to secure him, and all the other
Prisoners, and that he was sensible of the false Gloss they gave it.

[He desires the Company of Captain Villagra.] Captain Peter Delgado
was order'd with his Company to guard the King's House, and attend him,
till reliev'd. That Night the King was very melancholy, being among
so many Strangers, and though it was late, would not go to Bed, till
he had sent Sylva, the Portuguese Interpreter, to desire the General,
that for some Comfort in his Solitude, this being the Request of a
conquer'd Person, he would send him Captain Villagra, whom, as the
first Spaniard he had been acquainted with, he lov'd, call'd him
Father and delighted in his Company. The King is reported to have
said, that to converse with the Conquerors, is only to hasten being
overcome, and make the Change of Fortune Habitual. The Governour was
glad he could afford him that Satisfaction; and sending immediately
for Captain Villagra, desir'd he would go divert the King, and make
much of, and entertain him with Art, that he might be comforted. The
Captain readily comply'd, and the King express'd singular Satisfaction
in his Company. He supp'd, and went to Bed, discoursing all the while
with the Captain concerning Martial and Religious Affairs.

Two Days after the Governour directed Colonel Gallinato and Captain
Villagra, together with Paul de Lima, to propose to the King to enter
into Treaty with him, in his Majesty's Name, for settling Things
in a State of Security, and Safety; and to perswade him, that was
the Way to deserve [Treaty set afoot with the King.] well, and put
himself into a better Condition. They three went to him, attended
by other Persons of Note, and among them some religious Men of the
Orders of S. Augustin, and S. Dominick, and the Society of Jesus,
who all behav'd themselves commendably in their Stations. The King
did not refuse to capitulate, and after settling the Form, by the
Interposition of Paul de Lima, and granting some Things he desir'd
of the King of Spain, the following Articles were drawn and sign'd.

[Articles between the General and King of Ternate. The King to
deliver up all Forts.] The first Thing requir'd of Cachil Sultan
Zayde, King of Ternate, and of the rest who are Prisoners with his
Highness, is that he shall deliver up to his Majesty King Philip our
Sovereign, the Forts he is now possess'd of, being those of Gilolo,
Sabubu, Gamocanora, Tacome, those of Machian, those of Sula, and the
Rest. To this he answers, that he will deliver up to his Majesty the
aforesaid Forts, and to that Effect, will send the Prince his Son,
and His Kinsman Cachil Amuxa, with the Persons appointed to take
Possession of them, and that they shall be deliver'd up, with all
the Cannon, Ammunitions, Muskets, and Fire-Arms there are in them.

[To release Prisoners.] Secondly, That he shall restore all the
Prisoners he has, either Christians, or Infidels, being our Subjects,
as well of the Provinces of the Pintados, as of the Rest that are
subject to the Spaniards in the Philippine Islands. He answer'd,
that all such as can be found at present shall be deliver'd, and the
Rest hereafter as they are discover'd.

[To deliver up the Dutch.] Thirdly, That he shall deliver up the
Dutch he has in his Power. He answer'd, That when he departed the
Fort of Ternate, 13 or 14 that were with him fled; and he supposes
they repair'd to the Dutch Ship, because he has not seen them since;
but if they shall be found, he will deliver them immediately.

[And Renegado Spaniards.] Fourthly, He shall deliver up the Renegado
Spaniards that were in the Fort of Ternate. He answer'd, that there was
but one, and he fled as well as the Rest the Day the Fort was taken;
that he knows not where he is, but will cause Search to be made,
and deliver him.

[Also Batochina, Moratay, & Herrao.] Fifthly, That he shall deliver
up all the Towns which are in Batochina, and is call'd El Moro, they
having been formerly Christians; as also the Islands of Moratay,
and Herrao, which were also Christian, with all the Artillery and
Ammunition there is in them. He answer'd, he is ready to deliver up
all, as he had done his Person.

[The Form of rendering the Capitulation authentick.] These Articles
Don Pedro de Acunna, Governour, and Captain General of the Philippine
Islands, President of the Royal Court residing in them, and General
of this Fleet in the Moluccos, committed to the General John Xuarez
Gallinato, and to Captain Christopher de Villagra, who concluded
them in the Form as above, by the Interposition of Paul de Lima,
a Portuguese born in these Islands, who serv'd as Interpreter of
the Languages. And the said King subscrib'd his Name, after his
Manner. Given in the Fort of Ternate, on the tenth of April, 1606. The
said General, and Captain also sign'd it with the said Paul de Lima.

[How it was sign'd.] The King sign'd in Persian Characters, with
graceful Flourishes, and the Spaniards plainly; and this Original
Capitulation was brought into Spain, with the other authentick

[Commanders go to take Possession.] In Pursuance to this Agreement,
the Commanders imbark'd to take Possession of the several Places,
carrying along with them the King and Prince, and other Prisoners in
two Galleys being the Admiral, and Vice-Admiral, with all Villagra's
Company, and Part of that of Cervantes. The first Place taken
Possession of was the Fort of Tacome, next that of Sula, both in the
Island of Ternate. Thence they sail'd to the great Batochina, where
are those of Gilolo, formerly a flourishing Kingdom; of Sabubu, and
Gamocanora, [Gamocanora what it signifies.] which we corruptly call
Gran Bocanora; but in that Country Language, Gamo signifies Middle,
and Canora Land, so that Gamocanora, altogether signifies, Mid-Land,
because it lies in the midst of Gilolo, and El Moro. Possession was
taken of all these Forts, none landing but Villagra, with Cachil Amuxa,
Antony de Sylva, and John de Vega, who did the Part of a Notary, being
appointed, and authoriz'd for that Time. The Cachil assembled the
People at all the Forts, acquainted them with the Success of Ternate,
and that all was now subject to the Spaniards, by whose Authority that
Captain [Manner of taking Possession.] came to take Possession, that
so all might pay their Obedience to his Majesty. The People having
been attentive to what was propos'd to them, knelt down, and raising
their voices made the Zumbaya. Then the Captain display'd the Standard
advancing it in his Majesty's Name, to denote Possession. Then he
commanded the Natives to bring out the Cannon, and draw it down to
the Shore, to be imbark'd aboard the Galleys. This was the Method
observed at Gilolo, and in other Places of less Note.

[K. of Tydore recovers his Towns.] In the mean while, the King of
Tydore, making his Advantage of the Victory, sent the Prince his Son
with some Troops, to possess himself of the Towns the King of Ternate
had taken for him, as he actually did. Don Pedro being inform'd of
it, was offended that an Enterprize should be undertaken without his
Order, and thinking the King of Tydore had therein given Tokens of
Distrust, and Disrespect, had Thoughts of taking such Satisfaction,
as he judg'd the Matter deserv'd; but the King of Tydore reflecting
on his Misbehaviour, and that the Governours Resentment swell'd up to
absolute Indignation, he found Means to appease him, excusing himself,
and saying, that Invasion had been carry'd on without his Order,
or Knowledge; and desisting expected to be restor'd by Don Pedro,
as we shall soon see.

The Method observ'd at other Forts, could not be followed at that of
Sabubu, where Queen Celycaya was, because Cachil Amuxa fell sick,
or pretended so to do. Villagra had Regard to the Circumstances of
Times. Cachil Rete, Sangiack of Gamocanora, the King's Nephew, and
a brave Soldier, [The People of Sabubu in Arms.] landed instead of
the other. The People of that Town imagin'd, that Villagra brought
considerable Forces, and therefore to secure the Queen, and themselves,
they gather'd above 2500 fighting Men, under Pretence they would not
suffer Celycaya to be taken away. They hid themselves with their Arms,
yet not so but that the Captain knew of it. He took no Notice, but
coming up to one of the Bastions of the Town, which were both next
the River, drew off the Cannon, some few of the Natives, and those
Boys helping him; the Rest waiting for more considerable Action,
in Arms. Then he disarm'd the other Bastion, assisted by Francis
Romanico, and John Rodriguez Bermejo, Captains of the Galleys. The
Town stands on the Bank of a River, up which they had run in their
Boats; but returning with the [Cachil Rete.] Men that row'd, the
Guns were loaded, the Sangiack Rete forwarding of it. He finding the
People in an Uproar, would not have had the Cannon carry'd away, at
that Time. Possession was not taken till afterwards, out of Respect
to the Queen, and by Reason of the Mutiny of the People, who escap'd
not unchastis'd. The Galleys return'd to Gamocanora, and not being
able to get into the River, nor to stay out, because of the Flats,
where an indifferent Wind may do much Harm, the least Part whereof
was the Loss of the Vessels; Gallinato therefore considering, that if
they should be cast away, the King was in his own Country, whence it
would be impossible to get him out again, tho' a greater Power should
be gather'd for that End, than what came from the Philippine Islands,
and having consulted with him about the Method to be us'd to get in
to Gamocanora, the Sangiack of that [His Advice to the Spaniards.]
Place said to him. Sir, if you have such Confidence in me, as I know
you may, and my Advice is of any Force with you, do not go thither with
these Galleys, for you will expose them to Shoals, and Winds. Since
therefore here are two Carcoas of Tydore, let the Captain Villagra,
the Notary, and the Interpreter go aboard them, and I will go along
with them to my Country, where the same shall be done, as if the
Galleys went in.

[Villagra trusts the Sangiack.] Gallinato consulted with Villagra,
and they approv'd of the Method, setting out in the Carcoas on Saturday
in the Afternoon, and on Sunday Morning a League short of the River,
the Sangiack told the Captain, he well knew he had been long from his
Country, attending the King, and that his Subjects had no certain
Account of him, and therefore, they might then as they us'd to do
at other Times, come out to the Mouth of the River with a Fleet,
to guard the Entrance. That if it should so happen, he must not he
disturb'd, for they should all serve him. The Captain, told him, how
much he confided in him, since he had so easily follow'd his Advice,
and was come to his Country almost Naked; and that whatsoever happen'd
he would not [He appeases his Subjects.] mistrust him. Being come
near the Mouth of the River, they saw 13 Vessels come out, and when
in the Sea, they drew up in a half Moon, and made up to enclose the
Captain's Carcoa. The Sangiack seeing them near at Hand, went forward,
and calling out, commanded them to be peaceable. As soon as they knew
him, they obey'd, drew together their Vessels, and came to speak to
him. He enquir'd into the Posture of his Affairs, and ask'd whether
his Mother was there. They said she was, and gave him a long Account
of all Things. They went before to carry his Mother the News of his
Coming, and he order'd them to assemble all the People of the Town,
and that none should appear arm'd, for they never us'd to lay aside
their Campilanes. Being come in, they found all, and even the Women got
together, [A Vessel sail'd by none but Women.] and imbarking again,
met the Sangiacks Mother in the Middle of the River, she then coming
down, to see her Son, in a Vessel all full of Women, clad in several
Sorts of Silks, with high Feathers, and several of them arm'd. Some
handed the Sails, others ply'd the Oares, and others attended about
that Princesses Person, so that there was not one Man among them.

[Meeting of the Sangiack and his Mother.] The Mother being impatient,
advanc'd as soon as ever she came to her Son's Carcoa; but he more
nimbly leap'd into that Vessel of Women, and after paying the due
Respect to his Mother, there pass'd extraordinary Demonstrations of
Love on both Sides, she imbracing, and kissing her Son. Thus they all
went up the River, against the Stream, till they came to the Town. On
both the Banks there appear'd People clad in gay Manner, with Feathers,
but unarm'd, and the Sangiack having desir'd his Mother to go ashore,
all the Prime Men to perswade her leap'd into the Water, and carryed
her in their Arms. The Sangiack and Villagra came to the Market-Place,
in the midst whereof they found an Arbour, or Hut made of Boughs, on
Timbers, and in it two Chairs, on a Carpet. They set down with the
usual Ceremonies, and the Sangiack declar'd to his Subjects, that
all the Dominions of the King of Ternate, and their Persons, were
then subject to the King of Spain, as he was himself. That hereupon
follow'd the Obligation of delivering up the Forts to him, and he was
possess'd of all the Rest, only that being wanting. That they should so
order that Captain Villagra [His great Submission to the Spaniards.]
might take Possession of it and the Artillery. Villagra intreated the
Sangiack to go see his Wife, and Children, and he would receive the
Surrender of the Fort, and Arms, in the Afternoon; but he answer'd,
that he came not to rejoyce with his Family, but to serve the King of
Spain. Afterwards he added, If you will have me see them I will make
Use of your Leave; and if you refuse it, will imbark without seeing
them. Villagra would not allow of such rigid Nicety, pressing him to
take the Satisfaction of his Family, before the Act of Possession,
and in the mean while, stay'd himself with John de Vega, and Antony
de Sylva.

[His Noble Entertainment.] As soon as the Sangiack came Home, he sent
the Captain about 30 Indians loaded with Provisions, one after another,
but first they brought Tables, Chairs; and Table-Linnen in their great
Dishes, and Salvers, and on them the Salts, Knives, drinking Cups,
and Ewres, Variety of Fruit, Pullets roasted and fry'd, Goats Flesh
roasted and boil'd, and other Dishes, after the Fashion of their
Country. A little before the Dinner was ended they brought a Bed,
and Pillows of green Satin, which they laid upon Carpets, to take an
Afternoons Nap on. It was not long before the Sangiack himself came,
follow'd by all the People, leading his Mother, and [Arms deliver'd.]
with them many Men loaded with the Arms he was to deliver up, gather'd
from Private Men, as also Drakes, Muskets, and other Fire-Arms. Indians
brought them on their Shoulders, adorn'd with Boughs, in Token of the
Satisfaction they had in delivering them. The same was then done in
the Fort, as had been in the others. The Sangiack that Night gave the
Captain a Supper in the same Manner as the Dinner had been. The next
Day they breakfasted, and imbarking, return'd where Gallinato waited
for them in the Galleys, at Tacome, with some Indians of Sabubu, who
came with a Message to Villagra, inviting him to go take Possession
of the Fort.

[Treacherous Design of the People of Sabubu.] He suspected they
had a treacherous Design, which was, that when they came to Sabubu,
they would endeavour to have the Galleys come into the River, the
Bar being proper for them, and having 1500 Men in Ambush, on both
Sides of it, they would at Night send down some Fire-Ships upon them,
then those that were in Ambush giving the Alarm, they might at least
rescue their King, and the other Prisoners that were aboard; and in
Case the Spaniards would not go in with their Galleys, they would
seize Captain Villagra, when he landed, that the Governour might,
in Exchange, for him deliver them the King of Ternate. A Portuguese
Woman, who retir'd to Tacome, flying from Ternate when it was taken,
and marry'd to a Renegado, tho' she was herself a Christian, gave
Gallinato [A Portuguese Woman discovers the Design.] Advice of this
intended Treachery. He took no Notice, but privately advis'd Villagra
to pretend he was sick. The Natives of Sabubu, again pressed for the
Captain, that they might deliver him the Fort, and Gallinato desiring
him to make ready to go thither, he excus'd himself, alledging his
Indisposition. Vega and Sylva, and some other Officers, went without
him, and did the same Thing he could have done, avoiding the Danger
of the Treason.

[Don Pedro restores Towns to the Owners.] They return'd with the
Galleys to Ternate, where they found Don Pedro, who condescending
to some just Requests, and to others which depended on Courtesy,
being only Matter of Bounty, restor'd several Towns, wrongfully
taken. These were bestow'd on the Kings of Tydore, of Bachian,
and of Sian. The last of these, tho' he ought to have joyn'd the
Governour before the Expedition came late, by Reason of contrary
Winds. He restor'd eight Towns to the King of Tydore, Cachil Mole,
he having been before possess'd of them in the Island of Machian. On
Cachil Raxa Laudin, King of Bachian, who was always faithful to the
Spaniards, and wounded at the Siege Andrew Furtado lay'd to Ternate,
he bestow'd the Islands of Cayoa, Adoba, and Bayloro, which are near
Bachian, as also Lucabata, Palomata, and other Towns. He gave Ruy
Pereyra, the Sangiack of Labua, a notable Christian, and the King of
Spain's Subject, the Island of Gane to hold as Governour; and others
to Paul de Lima, which his Family had formerly been possess'd of.

[Don Pedro resolves to carry the Prisoners to Manila.] Some Assemblies
were held, to consult, what was to be done with the King and his
Son. Upon summing up the Votes, it was Resolv'd that neither the one,
nor the other, or any of the Prisoners of Note, being his Kinsmen,
Cachiles and Sangiacks of Repute, should be left in the Moluccos; and
that, for considerable Reasons, then appearing, it was not convenient,
at that Time, to depose the King, but to allow him to appoint such
peaceable Persons as he thought fit, to Govern the Kingdom. Don Pedro
had, during this Time, writ to the King of Spain, acquainting him with
the [King of Ternate directed to appoint Governours.] Success of
the War, and approv'd of the Method of appointing Governours, and
accordingly order'd the Captive King and Prince should be told, that
this Form of Government was pitch'd upon to secure us against their
Confederacies, since it was certain that they expected the Dutch, and
had sent to invite them against the Spaniards. That the King was to
understand, that his Liberty, and Restoration to his Kingdoms, depended
on his good Behaviour for the future, and that of his Subjects;
and their assisting the Spaniards that were to be left at Ternate,
and their friendly Entertainment of them. This Message was deliver'd
to the King by F. Lewis Fernandez, of the Society [Cachil Sugui, and
Cachil Quipat Governours.] of Jesus, Gallinato, and Esquivel. They
did it with much Respect, adding, that he was to go to Manila, and
therefore he should appoint such Persons, as he would have to Govern
during his Absence. The King complying, submitted to every Thing,
and nam'd Cachil Sugui, and Cachil Quipat, both of them his Unkles, to
be Governours, because they were of a peaceable and honest Disposition.

A Day was appointed for the solemn Act of doing Homage. The great Hall
in the Fort was hung with Silk, rich Canopys set up; the Governour
[Solemnity for swearing Fealty.] took his Seat under the chiefest
of them, all the Forces being at Arms; and then he declar'd to the
Kings the Occasion of assembling them together, which was to swear
Fealty to his Majesty, a Duty that had been so long put off, and at
the same Time so much labour'd for by War.

[Persons that swore Fealty.] They swore Fealty to our Sovereign Lord
King Philip, in the Person of the Governour Don Pedro. The first
was Cachil Sultan Zayde Buxey, King of Ternate, and Cachil Sulamp
Gariolano, the Prince, his Son. Then Cachil Mole, King of Tydore;
Cachil Raxa Laudin, King of Bachian; Cachil Dini, King of Sian, who
had never done it before, but only profess'd Friendship. After them
swore the Sangiacks and Cachiles, Tulo, Codate, Amuxa, Rete, Ale,
Nayo, Quipate, Colambaboa, Dexebes, Pamuza, Babada, Barcat, Sugi,
Gugu, Boleyfe, Gulila, Maleyto, Banaba, all of them Princes, Kinsmen,
and Subjects to the Molucco King. They promis'd not to admit of the
Dutch, nor any other Nations, to the Trade of Clove, and to preserve
it entirely for his Majesty, and his Subjects; and to be assisting
with their Persons, Forces, and Ships, whensoever they should be call'd
upon by the Commander of the Fort of Ternate, or of the Philippines. It
was also agreed, that they should not any Way obstruct the Conversion
of the Gentils that were inclin'd to embrace Christianity.

They were all satisfy'd with this Beginning of their new Subjection,
because the King of Ternate oppress'd them, as being the most potent,
and supported by the Dutch; nor had they any Security against his
Tyranny; especially since he caus'd the King of Tydore's Father to
be treacherously murder'd, [Another Fort built at Tydore.] the King
of Bachian's in War, and a Kinsman of his, which they both still
resented. Don Pedro order'd another Fort to be erected at Tydore,
and a Captain with 50 Men to Garrison it; at the Request of the
King, by whose Assistance it was finish'd. It was resolv'd, that
for the present, the [Ternate eas'd of Duties.] third Part of the
Duties the People of Ternate us'd to pay, should be taken off, so
to make them easy, that they might reap some Benefit of our Victory,
and not be perswaded it tended to increase their Oppression. The old
Fort being small, and unfit to make any considerable Defence, it was
thought fit to build one on a higher Ground, larger, and stronger. The
Plan was laid out, and Orders given for carrying on the Work. The
said old Fort was brought into a narrow Compass, whilst the new
one was raising, which the Governour, before he departed Ternate,
saw finish'd, quite enclos'd, and strengthned with Ramparts. Six
hundred Men, distributed into six Companies, [Men left at Ternate.]
were left in it, to defend the Island against any Invasion. Six other
Captains were reform'd. There were also twelve Gunners, 65 Pioneers,
35 Masons, and two good Brigantines, which, in Case of Necessity,
[Esquivel Governour.] might be mann'd with Pioneers. Colonel John
de Esquivel was appointed Commander in chief, and Governour of all
the Moluccos.

Don Pedro, the Day before his Departure, gave the said Governour his
Instructions, which had been maturely weighed, and debated, after
several private Conferences with him, providing for all Accidents
that might happen.

[Prisoners shipp'd for Manila.] All the Prisoners, being the King and
Prince of Ternate, and 24 Sangiacks and Cachiles, were put aboard the
Admiral Galley, under the Care of Captain Villagra, with particular
Orders to convey them to Manila. This done they set sail. Our Fleet
being departed with the Booty, and Prisoners, the Colonel, John de
Esquivel, apply'd himself diligently to the Affairs of his Charge,
and to hastning on the Fortifications begun in several Parts. Whilst
the Conquerors [King of Tydore sent to Sabubu.] sail'd away, on the
fourth of May, he order'd the King of Tydore, with his Fleet, and
in it some Spaniards, commanded by the Captains Pasqual de Aragon,
and Martin de Esquivel, to sail for Sabubu, to perswade the Cachiles,
Sugui and Quipati, to return to the City; because by their Examples
the Citizens and Multitude would do the like, they being fled to the
Mountains on Account of the War; for so they would quit those Deserts,
be encouraged to confide in the Conqueror, and settle in Peace. The
King of Tydore arriv'd at Sabubu, with his Company; sent Messengers
to them, who deliver'd what they were commission'd with, adding,
that if they requir'd Hostages for their safe coming, they should
have the Spanish Captains that were [The Governours refuse to come.]
in the Fleet deliver'd to them. The Governours were so far from
giving Ear to their Message, that they sent to conjure them to depart
Sabubu. Esquivel was concern'd at this mistrustful and rough Behaviour,
because the greatest Part of the People of the Island were in that
strong Hold, and in Gilolo, and that Repulse in the Presence of the
Natives that were fled, seem'd to threaten greater Opposition. Whilst
he prepar'd to reduce them, he endeavour'd by fair Means to attract
the Inhabitants of a Town, call'd Tacome, two Leagues from Ternate,
whither also some of those that had fled were retir'd. He sent them
a considerable Quantity of Plunder, plac'd Safeguards in Tacome and
Malayo, to quiet, and defend them against the Tydores, their Enemies
and Conquerors.

The King of Tydore, and our Commanders, returning without any Effect
[Spanish Ships at Machian.] from Sabubu, they sail'd with the Fleet
to Machian, to recover peaceably that Part of the Island, which
the Governour, Don Pedro, took from the King [two Dutch Ships.]
of Ternate, to restore it to him of Tydore. At the same Time two
Dutch Ships arriv'd there; one of them was the same our Fleet found
some Days before in the Fort Talangame; which having been a Witness
to our Success, rejoyn'd the other, and both of them came together to
the Moluccos, by Order of the Dutch Commander residing at Amboyna,
to encourage the King of Ternate to persist in his Disobedience,
and assist him against our Fleet. Our Men sent the Colonel Advice,
who order'd our Galliots to set out, to find, and pursue those
Ships, that so their Boats might not offer to move far from them,
and to endeavour to obstruct their trading with the Natives. Tho'
the Orders were obey'd, the said two Ships appear'd before Ternate
the third Day after, and holding on their Course, anchor'd at Gilolo,
where most of the Natives of the Molucco Islands, who were fled,
had fortify'd themselves. These Guests, according to their Custome,
call'd together all the Inhabitants, who were dispers'd about in
other Towns, and resolv'd to go over to Gilolo and Sabubu. They
gather'd all their Vessels, and thought, with them, and the Dutch
Ships, to obstruct the Ravage our Galiots made, and to support their
Friends. This new Rebellion was carryed on in Sight of the Dutch
Ships lying at Anchor before Gilolo, and they secur'd, and defended
them against our Squadrons.

[Rebellion at Gilolo.] The Colonel intreated the King of Tydore, who
was newly return'd from Machian, to gather a greater Number of arm'd
Carcoas, that our Infantry might be carry'd in them, and the Galiots,
to attack Gilolo, and Sabubu, in Order to suppress that Mischief
in its first Rise, there being other Places for our Vessels to put
into, besides the Harbour where the Enemies Ships lay at Anchor. The
King of Tydore started so many Difficulties, that Esquivel could not
prevail upon him. Another more effectual Method was found. [Methods
for suppressing it.] It being certain, that the Fugitives must bring
their Provisions, and particularly Rice, from the Province del Moro,
and Island of Moratay, where there is great Plenty; and that we having
burnt the Ships of the Moluccos, during that War, they would supply the
Want of them from those same Places; the Governour therefore resolv'd,
that Major Vergara, and the King of Tydore, should repair thither
with 120 Spaniards, to disappoint their Designs, that so Necessity
might reduce them to submit.

[120 Spaniards sent to Gilolo.] Our Forces arriv'd at the
Island Batochina, which is the same as Gilolo, and where Sabubu
stands. Leaving the Shore, they march'd over extraordinary wooded
Mountains, along the Side of the River Gabocanora, to a great Town,
the Receptacle of many of the Fugitives. They met with no Opposition,
or other Obstacle in the Way, but only those sharp pointed Stakes they
use to drive into the Ground. The Enemy had plac'd their greatest
Defence upon the River; but abandon'd it upon the Approach of the
Spaniards, running up into the Mountains, and leaving their Houses
[They burn Towns and reduce the Island.] and Vessels. Our Men fell
upon both, burnt them, and took such as durst stay behind. In fine,
they all, dismay'd at the Sight of the Flames and Destruction,
embrac'd more submissive methods. The City Visoa underwent the same
Fate, and the Remains of it sued for Pardon, and comply'd.

The King of Tydore went away from this Place with eight Carcoas,
leaving the rest, and the Galleys, with the Major. The City Mamuya,
having [Galela destroy'd.] made Resistance, was also burnt. Our Men
went over in small Vessels to Galela, a Town built in a large Lake,
which held out till reduc'd by Fire and Sword, the very Children
swimming away. Tolo, Chiava, and Camafo, [Tolo, Chiava and Camafo
submit.] which are three Leagues from Galela, and whose Inhabitants
had been formerly Christians, prevented Military Execution, by
sending Deputies from Tolo, the strongest of them, with Boughs of
Bonanas in Blossom, and Green, and White Cloves. They came unarm'd,
and with Musick, and express'd much Sorrow for their late Rebellion,
for which Sultan Zayde was to blame, and for having forsaken the
Christian Religion, which they were there ready to imbrace. The
Spanish Commander prais'd, and treated them Courteously. Our Men now
sickned a pace; for which Reason, as also because the westerly Winds
began to grow boisterous, he was oblig'd to defer the subduing of
Moratay. However he left some Men at Tolo, with the small Guns taken
at Gabocanora, to secure the Towns that were reduc'd, and defend them
against those of Galela and Tabelo, which are biger than they. This
done he return'd to Ternate, but not without Storms, and Dangers,
incurr'd by giving Credit to a Molucco Slave.

The Governour mann'd a Galliot, a Brigantine, and some smaller Vessels
with Soldiers, and Chineses to row, under the Command of the Ensign
Christopher Suarez. He sail'd with a fair Wind for the Island Mateo,
[Message from Esquivel to the Heathen Kings of Bool, and Totoli.]
which we call Celebes, the nearest Part whereof is 30 Leagues West
from Ternate, and its Length above 150 Leagues. The furthest Part of it
is subject to the King of Macassar, a Mahometan Prince, with whom the
People of Malaca have Trade, as also with three other heathen Kings,
of whom there was a Report, that they desired to be Christians; but
they fell under the Tyranny of the King of Ternate, and suffer'd by
his Invasions and Burnings. Esquivel sent to acquaint them with the
King of Spain's Victories and Success; and exhorted them to come
under his Dominion, but above all to be united to the Church. He
made them Presents of European Commodities, which are as good as
Money with them, and offer'd the Protection of the Spanish Power,
which had pull'd down that Tyrant, to whom they were Tributary. He
said, he sent them Ships and Arms, and that for the Time to come,
they might safely repair to trade at the Moluccos. These Princes
were two Brothers, the one King of Bool, the other of Totoli. They
rejoyc'd at the coming of the Embassador Christopher Suarez, and he
presenting them some Pieces of Velvet, in Token of Friendship, they
return'd other Gifts, and Abundance of Provisions, and dismiss'd him,
with a Letter to the Governour. Queen Dongue of Cauripa, testify'd
to Esquivel no less Satisfaction, and Inclination to be united to
the King of Spain by Vassalage.

[King of Tydore's Actions.] The Garrisons of the Rebellious Towns
were assaulted by the Spaniards, and compell'd to submit. The King
of Tydore made Havock on the Coast of Batochina, or Gilolo, where
he recover'd for his Majesty, and for himself, the Towns and Forts
that had been taken from him by the King of Ternate. He plunder'd the
great Town of Mira, in Moratay, and made Captives of many that oppos'd
him, who had also been Christians. Among the rest he took a Guimala,
which signifies, a Chief, or Head of a Quarter, or Ward, whom he again
set at Liberty, at the Request of our Men, sending him away with two
other Guimalas, in the Company of Captain John [Meaos Islands subdu'd.]
de la Torre. The Islands in those Parts were reducing by Degrees, with
little Opposition. Those of the Meaos, lying to the North-West, towards
Manila, being among, and full of large Towns, defended themselves,
with the Assistance, and Industry of the Dutch; but B. Antony Flores,
a Lay-Brother, of the Order of S. Augustin, who fought against the
Sangleyes of Manila, as has been said above, coming thither with the
Galleys, they submitted. The Ensign Lewis de Zuazo arriv'd after the
Business was over, and they being now successful, and understanding
that the Dutch Ship was sail'd from Gilolo, made after her. She was
so good a Sailer, [Reduction of other Islands.] that they labour'd
in vain; but carry'd on the War at Gilolo and Sabubu, which made
the Ternate Governours put up their Complaints, and lay aside their
Designs. They writ to the Governour, and he answer'd them, sending a
Copy of the Articles, upon which they offer'd to repair to Ternate,
in peaceable Manner. All our Commanders were dispers'd in several
Places, reducing the Islands of the Moluccos that had Rebell'd,
either by Force of Arms, or other Methods; and particularly those
belonging to the Sultan of Ternate, which are few under an hundred;
and thus Peace began to be establish'd, which if not Wish'd for,
was at least Tolerated, and accepted of with such Appearances as are
becoming to make it honourable.

[The King and Molucco Prisoners attempt to escape.] Whilst the
Molucco Islands submitted by Force to receive the Yoke, the Governour,
Don Pedro de Acunna, was sailing for Manila. Captain Villagra was at
a Distance from the Fleet, with the King, Prince, and Sangiacks that
were Prisoners, aboard the Admiral Galley. This made them form a Design
to attempt to make their Escape to Mindanao, and they had succeeded,
if not prevented by the Soldiers that guarded them. Captain Villagra
either Suspected, or had Information of it, and therefore doubled
the Guards, and put eight of the most daring into Chains. Among
the most remarkable were Cachil Amuxa, the Sangiack Rete, and he of
Mofaquia. They all arriv'd at Manila, but their Fetters were taken off
before they came thither, after they had worn them ten Days, with much
Regret of the King, whom they satisfy'd with Hopes, and acquainting
him with some of the Grounds there were to suspect, till the Danger
of laying them aside ceas'd. The Hazard at Mindanao was, that those
Islands are not Tributary, yet they value themselves upon entertaining
Friendship with the King of Ternate; and it is most certain, that had
he attempted to fly, and succeeded in it, they would have supported
him there, and Villagra had Intelligence given him, that the King
either made, or approv'd of the Proposal; tho' there was no want of
Care and Vigilancy either in Don Pedro's Ship, or the Admiral Galley.

During all this Time we have spoken of, the News of our Success was
not brought to the Philippine Islands. This long Silence, and Want of
Intelligence, became an Argument in those Parts, and particularly at
Manila, that Don Pedro and the Fleet were lost, or at least had met
with such [Don Pedro de Acunna suppos'd to be poison'd.] ill Success
as deserv'd to be generally lamented. Virtue never fail'd of envious
Persons to persecute it, and accordingly Don Pedro was not without
them at Manila; but tho' they were well known, in so much that in
the general Opinion of all Men, they are suppos'd to have given the
Poison, whereof that great Man was thought to have dy'd 22 Days after
his Return, we will nevertheless suppress their Names, since it is not
the Part of an Author, whose Duty it is to observe an exact Neutrality,
and not to be led any Way by Affection, to confirm that Deposition,
which, as yet, is no better grounded than on Suspicion. They are all
Dead long since, [False Reports abroad.] and have been try'd before
that great Tribunal, where the least thought cannot pass without being
accounted for. These Men gave out, That Don Pedro attacking Ternate,
enter'd it successfully; but that his Men had been too intent upon
Plunder, the Enemy rallyed, and falling upon the Spaniards, beat them
out again, killing most of them. And that the General being asham'd
of his ill Conduct, durst not return to Manila.

[Indians begin to Mutiny.] This Report being spread abroad among the
Indians, did so much Harm, that they began to Mutiny, especially in
the Provinces of Camarines, and Pintados; in so much that the Fryers
who attended their Instruction, could not deal with them any longer,
for they said, That since the People of the Moluccos were victorious,
why should they be still subject to the Spaniards, who did not defend
them against the Moors, and these would now plunder them daily with
the Assistance of Ternate, and it would be worse for the Future. Nor
were they satisfy'd with muttering, but proceeded to confer Notes
together, and to contrive putting their Projects in Execution. But
all this vanish'd at the Sight of Truth, and the News of it, brought
in before the Arrival of the Conquerors, and the Preparations they
saw made for their Reception, and triumphant Rejoycings. The Weather
was seasonable, and favour'd them in all Respects, and they arriv'd
at Manila on the ninth of June, loaded with Honour and Victory,
after they had rested in the Port of Cabite, two Leagues distant.

[Prisoners disconsolate.] The Captives diverted themselves with our
Men, to put off the Remembrance of past Times, whilst rich Garments of
several Sorts of Silks were provided for them at the Publick Charge,
which is the King's Treasury in the Philippine Islands. They look'd
dejectedly, and with Admiration, on the Harbour, Walls, Forts, and
Buildings of the City, the Sight whereof made them call to Mind the
last Day on which they fell from their boasted State of Liberty. Our
Commanders dropt some courteous Words of Comfort in their Discourse,
telling them, that as soon as the News could come to Spain of their
being reduc'd, and that good Order was taken against falling again
into the former Dangers, the King would order them to be restor'd
to their Liberty. All these Expressions were not of Force to satisfy
those Indians, who on the contrary began to complain of the General,
because they either suspected, or were told by some of our Men,
that he would not observe the safe Conduct, and promise he had made
them in the King's Name, and on which they had rely'd; and that
in Case Sultan Zayde were continu'd in the Philippine Islands, it
was certain they would send his Son, Prince Gariolano into Europe,
by the Way of New Spain. The general being acquainted with these
melancholly Reflections of theirs, thought it concern'd the Reputation
of the Christian Religion in general, and of the Spanish Nation in
particular, to dispell those Jealousies, and therefore he writ to
them, and directed the Captain, who carry'd the Letters, to perswade
the King not to conceive the least Mistrust of the King's Word, and
Security he had confided in. This compos'd their Thoughts, and they
either did, or pretended to take Comfort.

[Don Pedro's Entry into Manila.] The Prisoners came with the Forces to
the City, which the Fleet saluted with its Cannon, and were answer'd
by the Artillery and small Shot from the Walls and Forts. The King
landed in a Garden the Governor had without the Walls, where he repos'd
himself that Night, and when Lodgings were provided for him, with
the greatest State that could be, and answerably for other Prisoners,
according to their Qualities, Don Pedro enter'd Manila with the Forces,
and Ostentation of Captives and Booty. There wanted not Triumphal
Arches, with such Inscriptions as are Generally [Description of the
King of Ternate.] set on them in Honour of Conquerors. The Habit of
the Prisoners, in rich Mantles, Turbants and Plumes, was not sutable
to their Fortune; as making their Countenances look more haughty,
and representing Arrogancy. That King was strong body'd, and his
Limbs well Knit; his Neck, and great Part of his Arms he wore naked;
his Skin being of the Color of a Cloud, rather inclin'd to Black than
Tawny. The Features of his Face were like an European. His Eyes large,
full, and sparkling, to which they add the Fierceness of long Eyebrows,
thick Beards and Whiskers, and lank Hair. He always wore his Campilane,
or Cimiter, and Criz, or Dagger; the Hilts of them both resembling the
Heads of Snakes gilt. This is affirm'd by Officers that attended, and
convers'd with him familiarly, to whom he was obligingly Courteous,
and it appears by Relations, and by the Picture drawn to the Life,
which the General sent into Spain for the King.

[Rejoycings.] The Rejoycings for the Victory were continu'd with
much Solemnity, the Indians, who were the principal Subject of them,
being present. The King of Ternate understanding that Messengers
were sending away to Spain to carry the News of the Success, and
Account of the Prisoners, writ a short Letter to the King, intermixt
with Commendations of Don Pedro de Acunna and some other Spanish
Commanders. He represented the change of his Condition, with somewhat
of Submission, but not Humility, or rather Meanness; and intreated
his Majesty to extend his Royal Goodness towards the Conquer'd, for
his own Magnanimity's sake, and on Account of the perpetual Fidelity,
and Vassalage they had sworn to him. This Letter was writ by another
Hand, and in Spanish. When it was given him to sign, the King turn'd
the upside down, and Writ his Name on the white half Page in Persian
Characters, thinking he had sign'd at the Beginning, or Top of the
Letter, as is practis'd by the Princes of those Countries. The Moluccos
being Reduc'd, our Ministers and Preachers went over thither, and the
Voice of the Gospel resounded again in the utmost Borders of the Earth.



Place the Map before Page 1. The Cut of the Champan and Junk before
Page 5. The Melancholly Tree, and Molucca Habit, before Page 8. The
Carcoa and Almadia before Page 61.


Page 4, Line 7, for 1404, read 1494. p. 4, l. penult, for Nagalhaens,
r. Magalhaens. p. 8, l. 28, for deserves r. deserve. p. 10, l. 13,
for roving r. rowing, p. 11, l. 4, for Caeiz, r. Caciz. p. 17, l. 8,
for Inlguez, r. Iniguez. p. 26, l. 3, in the Marginal Note, for mad
r. made. p. 33, in the first Marginal Note, for Portuguese Possession
r. Portugueses take Possession. p. 42, in the third Marginal Note, for
King of Tydore, r. King of Gilolo. p. 49, and elsewhere, for Mindanos
r. Mindanae. p. 54 l. 30, for Cachilas r. Cachiles. ibid. l. 44,
for Babre r. Babu. p. 49, l. 35, for Falcage r. Foliage. p. 60,
l. 16, for Reparations r. Preparations. p. 62, l. 37, for did
they not look, r. had they not look'd. p. 63, l. 4, for Advantages,
r. Advantageous. p. 77, l. 33, for caivl r. cavil. p. 97, in the second
Marginal Note, for Duenas from, r. Duenas sent from. p. 118, in the
third Marginal Note, for Cachil Mandrata, r. Cachil Mandraxa. p. 120,
in Marginal Note, for Nuno r. Duarte. p. 140, in the third Marginal
Note, for 820, r. and 20.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Discovery and Conquest of the Molucco and Philippine Islands. - Containing their History, Ancient and Modern, Natural and - Political: Their Description, Product, Religion, Government, - Laws, Languages, Customs, Manners, Habits, Shape, and - Inclinations of the Natives. With an Account of many other - adjacent Islands, and several remarkable Voyages through - the Streights of Magellan, and in other Parts." ***

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