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Title: Around the World in Seven Months
Author: Gillis, Charles J.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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AROUND THE WORLD IN SEVEN MONTHS



BY CHARLES J. GILLIS



Printed for Private Distribution

COPYRIGHT, 1891 BY CHARLES J. GILLIS

The Knickerbocker Press, New York

Printed and Bound by G. P. Putnam's Sons


With the Compliments of the Author



CONTENTS


  CHAPTER                                            PAGE

       I.--YOKOHAMA                                     1

      II.--YOKOHAMA                                     8

     III.--TOKIO                                       14

      IV.--NIKKO                                       19

       V.--MIYNOSKITA                                  22

      VI.--KOBÉ                                        27

     VII.--OSAKA                                       31

    VIII.--HONG-KONG                                   33

      IX.--CANTON                                      39

       X.--HONG-KONG                                   46

      XI.--SINGAPORE                                   51

     XII.--ON BOARD THE "KAISAR-I-HAND"                57

    XIII.--COLOMBO                                     61

     XIV.--NEWAVA ELIYA                                66

      XV.--ON BOARD THE "ROHILLA"                      70

     XVI.--CALCUTTA                                    76

    XVII.--DARJEELING                                  81

   XVIII.--BENARES                                     85

     XIX.--LUCKNOW                                     90

      XX.--CAWNPORE                                    93

     XXI.--AGRA                                        95

    XXII.--DELHI                                       99

   XXIII.--JEYPORE                                    105

    XXIV.--BOMBAY                                     111

     XXV.--ON BOARD THE "KHEDIVE"                     115

    XXVI.--THROUGH THE SUEZ CANAL                     119

   XXVII.--CAIRO AND THE PYRAMIDS                     123

  XXVIII.--JAFFA                                      132

    XXIX.--RAMLEH                                     134

     XXX.--JERUSALEM                                  136

    XXXI.--JAFFA                                      140

   XXXII.--ON BOARD THE "POCCIR"                      142

  XXXIII.--CONSTANTINOPLE                             147

   XXXIV.--CONCLUSION                                 154

  DISTANCES TRAVELLED                                 158



AROUND THE WORLD IN SEVEN MONTHS.



CHAPTER I.

YOKOHAMA.


                                    YOKOHAMA, JAPAN, Oct. 10, 1889.

At 9.50 A.M., on the morning of the 8th of September I went aboard the
vestibule train of the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, at
Forty-second Street, New York; and having travelled on the principal
railroads around the world, I can truly say that no train which has ever
carried me has approached this one in luxurious ease, comfort, and
safety. The train rolled into the Chicago depot at 9.50 the next
morning--exactly twenty-four hours. I was detained in Chicago for two
days, and then left by the Rock Island route for San Francisco.

At Ogden, we were detained two days by the burning of a bridge built
over a ravine--one hundred feet long and about the same height. The
fire destroyed the massive snow-sheds and great trees for a long
distance. The fire took place Friday. Telegrams were sent to Sacramento,
and the next day word came that twenty-one car loads of material had
been sent with mechanics to erect a new bridge.

The new bridge was erected in four days. Our train was the first to pass
over it, and I remarked how substantially the new erection had been
constructed. We reached the summit at noon, and the Palace Hotel, San
Francisco, at midnight.

On the 21st of September we went aboard the steamer _Rio-de-Janeiro_,
built for the southern trade--370 feet long, 38 feet wide, 3,500
tons--six tubular boilers, each 13 feet diameter, 10-1/2 feet long. I
remarked what heavy consumers of coal such shaped boilers must be, and
the engineer said there was no room to put in any other kind.

I found myself the sole occupant of a large and well ventilated
state-room. At 3 P.M., Captain Ward, standing on the bridge, gave the
signal, and the voice of an officer sang out, "All ashore that's going."
Several hundreds of Chinese men and a dozen women, in showy dresses,
crowded the wharf. The friends of the missionaries on the wharf sang a
parting hymn. The big propeller started. A tug pulled the ship's bow
around, and away we went on our voyage of 4,700 miles across the
Pacific. We passed the Golden Gate and the Seal Islands--covered with
huge seals--and then on towards our destination.

I soon made the acquaintance of most of the passengers, forty-five in
number--including fourteen missionaries of the Presbyterian Board, nice
young people going out to their duties in China and Japan. I took my
seat at the dining-table, and found that I had at my right an agreeable
companion, a captain in the German army, and at the left a charming miss
of ten, Bessie, daughter of J. De Romero, secretary of the Spanish
Legation to China.

The first week out was a rough one. The weather was bad, and the ship
rolled fearfully, so that we could not walk on deck. The waves were
immense, and consequently nearly every one was sick. I felt a little
nausea for a couple of days, but soon did duty regularly at the fine
feast placed before us three times a day, the specialty being splendid
California fruits--peaches, plums, grapes, and oranges, any of which
would bring a prize in an agricultural show.

Day after day the tireless engine drove the propeller. The splendid ship
rushed on and on, not a moment's stop the entire distance. Not a sail or
a steamer seen from port to port, and not even a whale. Once some
porpoises and flying-fish, and once, when a thousand miles from land, a
land-hawk lighted on the cross-trees, and proceeded leisurely to feast
on a captured bird, and during the night flew away.

The never-ending water was very impressive in its desolation. Better
weather came, the ship was steady, and we could walk on deck. My little
friend and I romped along the deck from end to end in safety, but once a
rude wave threw us down, and dashed us against the sides of the vessel,
taking off some inches of skin from me, but the child was unhurt, and I
did not mind a little thing like that.

I had early made the acquaintance of Mr. Mathews, the chief engineer,
and once went into the hold and inspected the boilers and machinery of
the huge ship. I spent a good deal of time in the chief engineer's room,
listening to strange tales of ship and shore.

On the 9th inst., as we were approaching our destination, I was shown an
engrossed resolution complimenting the captain, beautifully illustrated
with a pen-and-ink sketch of the ship by Señor Romero. After dinner, one
of the passengers was selected to make the presentation address. He
said:

"Ladies and gentlemen, fellow-passengers by the good ship
_Rio-de-Janeiro_: I act with pleasure as chairman on this auspicious
occasion, and congratulate you on the near termination of our long trip
across the great Pacific Ocean, rendered safe by the skill of the
navigators and pleasant by the efforts of the officers, one and all. I
have been many times across many seas, sometimes in magnificent floating
palaces, but never on one so neat and clean, and where every detail has
been so carefully attended to.

    "'O'er the glad waters of the dark blue sea,
        Our thoughts as boundless and our souls as free,
      Far as the breeze can bear, the billows foam,
        Survey our empire and behold our home.'

"Our only home indeed for a brief period of time. But who can fail to
remember the pleasant acquaintances made, even if we go around the
world? For 'they that go down to the sea in ships; that do business in
great waters; these see the works of the Lord, and his wonders in the
deep.' Even if we look upon the lofty Himalayas, the Alps, the
Apennines, and the Juras, and linger about gigantic Mont Blanc and her
white-robed sisters, or the beautiful Jungfrau, or sail along the
classic shores of the blue Mediterranean,--wherever we go, and whatever
we see, the scenes on this good ship will be photographed, as it were,
on our memories as long as we live--the romps on the deck, perchance
with a charming miss; or the tramp, tramp with military regularity with
those of mature age; the hours of looking upon the moonlit sea,
listening to the song and music of our missionary friends. God bless
them and their cause!

"The temporary annoyance of sea-sickness will be forgotten. And now,
fellow-passengers and friends, let us resolve that, like the
passion-flower of the wilderness, which always bears within its bosom
the true cross, we will bear within our bosom the true cross of 'enmity
towards none, charity and goodwill for all,' and thus we shall be an
honor to ourselves, the dear ones at home, the country we came from, and
our God.

"Captain Ward, by directions of the passengers on this ship, permit me
to present to you an engrossed resolution, signed by all of us, and
beautifully illustrated by Señor Romero, and expressing the hope--which
has been so often said before on like occasions--that your voyage
through life may be as safe and pleasant as you have made ours. I bid
you farewell."

The captain made a suitable reply, and the company all stood up and
drank his health.

One more night on the ship; and the next morning we sighted land and
passed along near it for forty miles. It was a rough country, evidently
of volcanic formation, and not so thickly populated as I expected to
see, considering that there are thirty-eight million people in Japan. At
last we cast anchor in the splendid harbor of Yokohama, one of the most
commodious and beautiful in the world, where a tug took us off the ship.
We were detained an hour or two at the custom-house, and then each took
a _jinrickisha_, a low, two-wheeled chaise with a man between the
shafts, who trotted up to the "Grand," the most perfect of hotels. We
went directly to our rooms, which had been previously engaged.



CHAPTER II.

YOKOHAMA.


                                           YOKOHAMA, Oct. 12, 1889.

The Grand Hotel, where I am located, is very large and first-class in
all respects. It is two hundred feet long, fronting the matchless bay,
with an extension along a canal of two hundred feet.

From the room I occupy, I look down upon the canal and a fine bridge
which spans it. Across this bridge goes a constant procession of men,
women, and children, some horses and carriages, and occasionally a
single ox drawing a cart. But every thing looks so different, and is
managed so differently from what one has been accustomed to, that I am
more and more impressed with the idea that I am no longer in this world,
but in some wonderland beyond the stars.

The view of the bay from the front of the hotel is said to be, by some,
the finest in the world. The harbor is very large, and could float all
the navies of all nations. At anchor, in different directions, are
iron-clad war-ships, English, French, German, Italian, Russian, and
Japanese,--only one showing the stars and stripes, the _St. Mary_, an
old side-wheel boat, about as large as a Brooklyn ferry-boat, and of
course about as useless.

One of the naval vessels flying the British flag is an immense iron-clad
of six thousand tons. With the commander, Captain May, I became
acquainted. He has on board an Armstrong gun of one hundred and twenty
tons, the largest I think ever made, which will throw a bolt of half a
ton a dozen miles, and penetrate through a wrought-iron plate twelve
inches thick.

The captain expressed himself as having serious doubt of the efficiency
of such monster ships and guns in actual warfare, as smaller, swifter
crafts could run around them, and have great advantages in that respect.

Most of the coal used in this part of the world comes from England, and
is consequently very high-priced.

The harbor is crowded with many large passenger steamers, and a great
fleet of fishing craft. Towards evening the latter presented a
beautiful appearance, coming in.

I took a short walk beyond the canal and over steep hills. There are few
horses or oxen to be seen. Most of the transportation is done by men. A
two-wheeled cart, loaded with perhaps five hundred brick, was being
pushed up a steep hill by eight men, who rested often and were much
fatigued by their exertions.

Last evening our party started for a moonlight excursion along the
smooth and finely macadam-paved streets of the city. Under the guidance
of one of our number, _jinrickishas_--the national cab for transporting
light packages and passengers--were called, The translation of this word
is _pullman-car_, and thus we have the extraordinary coincidence of the
same name for a crude vehicle, drawn by a man, and for the splendid
Pullman palace cars of America, which, with the Wagner, so far surpass
in elegance and comfort all others.

Away we went at a tremendous pace, each having a Chinese lantern, my
carriage leading. We passed through well-lighted streets, lined with
stores filled with showy goods, into the suburbs, a mile or two away,
and stopped at a tea-house, where we were received with much bowing and
ceremony by the women in charge, who spoke a little English. We were
shown up a narrow stair-way into a small hall, and a bargain was made
for a national performance by two musicians and ten dancing girls, who
presently appeared, draped in beautiful Japanese costumes. These dancing
girls were all very pretty, with their almond eyes and dark skins, and
apparently not more than twelve or fifteen years old. They were the most
jolly and laughing young women one ever saw. They shook hands with all
the company, and then danced very nicely, to very poor music, in their
swaying robes. At a signal, these robes were thrown aside, and the girls
appeared in long loose dresses made of white and red material, much like
the stripes on the American flag. The dancing, which was very graceful,
continued for some time; but the show became somewhat monotonous. The
ladies did not care to see any thing more, and we came away. Again we
took to the road, making a very unique procession by moonlight--passing
over many bridges and boulevards, and rows upon rows of brilliantly
illuminated tea-houses,--and returned to the hotel.

The natives do not wear European clothing as much as I expected. The
upper part of their persons is covered with a loose sack, often open in
front, and the jolly and laughing children of ten years and under are
generally entirely nude.

This morning all hands took another trip through the markets. We
examined cane factories, and stores filled with silks and beautiful
goods of native manufacture. Again we looked upon the street scenes and
their never-ending wonders.

From my bedroom window I see a large factory for the making of ice,
which is sold at a penny a pound and is the greatest of comforts in this
country. Butter and cigars are so strong and bad that I have left off
the use of them, and do not expect to try them again until I get to
Austria; but soda-water of excellent quality is to be had everywhere,
and is a great comfort.

We spent the evening listening to the splendid Japanese Marine Band
which played lovely music for two hours in front of the hotel; all the
musicians were natives. It was gayly bright at the hotel, the entire
front being illuminated by paper lanterns of various colors; the big
ships in the bay shown by their own numerous lamps, and the light of
the full moon glittering upon the moving waters. I have seen no such
beautiful show since 1887, when, at the city of Florence, I witnessed
great festivities attendant upon the unveiling of a statue to an Italian
patriot; the great dome of the cathedral, the bridges, and the boats on
the river Arno, the palaces on the hills, and the whole beautiful city
being illuminated in the most splendid manner--but this is a digression
and I must write now about Japan.

I have to-day wandered about the city alone, and have seen more of the
well-to-do natives. These are better dressed--always the flowing
dressing-gown pattern, and stilted and inconvenient slipper-like shoes.

Everywhere, the babies are carried in bags, on the backs of their
mothers, or more often by the older children. There are great numbers of
babies to be seen all over the city, carried about in this way, and they
always appear very happy, well fed, and comfortable.

This morning at two o'clock I was awakened by an earthquake which rolled
my bed about the room. It lasted twenty seconds or so, but I did not
think it worth while to get up, and soon went off to sleep again. I am
told such entertainments are frequent in this country, and one must get
used to them.



CHAPTER III.

TOKIO.


                                       TOKIO, JAPAN, Oct. 15, 1889.

After being entertained at Yokohama, on the morning of the 14th instant,
with a slight earthquake, we left for this, the capital city of the
Empire, on a finely built and equipped, narrow-gauge (3 ft. 6 in.)
railroad. Every square yard of the country we traversed was cultivated
in the highest degree--Distance eighteen miles, time one hour.

I noticed that the locomotives, cars, and all the equipments about the
railroad were of English manufacture from Manchester and Birmingham. I
was informed that most of the twelve hundred miles of railroads in Japan
were owned and run by the Government. The chief in charge is a native
educated in England, who scouted the idea that any other country could
produce any thing fit to be used on railroads.

We had previously engaged rooms at one of the two hotels in the city,
where foreigners are entertained, and after an excellent dinner, took
_jinrickishas_, of which there are 80,000 in this city, and had a long
run through the interminable streets. The city has a population of
1,600,000 and covers a space of thirty-six square miles, the streets
being very narrow and the houses mostly of wood, one and two stories
high--the stores all small.

After passing through streets for some miles, we came to others, wider
and lighted brilliantly by gas and electricity, through which carriages
were not allowed to pass. The houses, for miles, were occupied as
tea-houses, and were brilliantly illuminated, like the gin palaces of
London, or the whiskey saloons of America. Great vans were passing
along, on which dancing and theatrical performances were going on. There
were also a good many theatres in active operation.

One of the evenings that we were in the city, these streets were
occupied by an immense annual flower show, one of the features of which
was a big elephant constructed of chrysanthemum flowers of many colors.
The effect was very gorgeous.

The next day we spent going about the great city and seeing its wonders,
chief of which is the Mikado's palace and grounds. I called on the
American Minister and asked him to get me a permit to go into the
palace, but he said it was impossible, no foreigners being allowed in
the palace or the grounds. The palace and gardens looked like immense
fortifications, being surrounded by three moats, each a hundred feet
wide, and filled with water, and by three stone walls, each thirty or
forty feet high.

The palace is in the heart of the city, and I should say the grounds
were two hundred acres in extent, all, including the neighboring
streets, being lighted by the New York Edison Company. I saw the
superintendent who had charge of the construction of the plant, who said
it took them a year to do it.

The women to be seen in the streets and tea-houses are invariably small
and very pretty, except some of the married ones, who have their teeth
colored black in accordance with an ancient custom, which makes them
look hideous.

It is very cool in this part of Japan at this season. There is not
sufficient frost to affect the crops, but one gets cold riding
about--and there is no efficient method of heating the houses. There is
no coal used for domestic purposes, and wood is very scarce and high. If
you ask for a fire, at most hotels, they bring you a copper pan
containing ignited charcoal covered with ashes, which does about as much
good as a kerosene lamp. I suffer greatly with the cold, and would be
glad to pay a large price for a pair of Arctic overshoes.

The price of newspapers, printed in the English language, at Yokohama is
twenty-five cents a copy, or thirty dollars per annum. They have very
little news, and almost none from America.

We went through the museum, and saw many extraordinary curiosities of
ancient and modern Japan. Among them was a stuffed rooster in a glass
case, whose tail feathers were ten feet long. I thought there was some
humbug about it, but I afterwards saw a live one with tail feathers
twelve feet long.

The public buildings are modern, large, and handsome, and the people
very polite and good-natured. The streets are narrow. Great crowds are
everywhere. It seems to me that I must have seen a hundred thousand
people to-day. Every thing about the city is strange, often disagreeable
and offensive. A couple of days in it is quite sufficient, and I shall
be very glad to go away to-morrow.



CHAPTER IV.

NIKKO.


                                       NIKKO, JAPAN, Oct. 20, 1889.

We left Tokio on the 17th, at 6.46 A.M., for a station called
Utsumorama, ninety-three miles. Arrived at noon, and, after an excellent
lunch, started in _jinrickishas_ for this place, and a most
extraordinary and unique trip it proved to be.

The road was built hundreds of years ago by a Shinto king, and is an
admirable example of engineering; well drained, and with an excellent
foundation of small stones, which needed only a top-dressing and a steam
roller to make it as good as any in Europe. It is lined on both sides
with immense pine and cedar trees. Many of these trees are twelve feet
in diameter; and often the roots are grown together, so that four or
five trees look like one. They are sixty to eighty feet high, and afford
an excellent shade.

The distance from the railway station to this place is twenty-five
miles, and we made it in four hours with two men harnessed to the
_jinrickishas_ tandem. We made only one stop of half an hour for lunch,
which we brought with us, and ate at one of the numerous tea-houses.

We arrived at 4 P.M., delighted at the wonderful sights, but much
fatigued and very cold. Rooms had been engaged for us in an excellent
hotel, excellent in all respects except that there was no way of
heating, unless with pans of charcoal. I suffered greatly from the cold,
though I had warm clothing, including a heavy overcoat which had done me
good service the previous winter at Montreal when the thermometer stood
at thirty degrees below zero.

Near the hotel are a dozen, or more, costly and grotesque edifices, much
adorned with carved wood statues of horrible-looking beasts and devils,
covered with bronze and gold. There are temples of Buddha, and gorgeous
mausoleums of kings who died five hundred years ago, situated in a park
of big trees; but looking at them, though interesting, was not
agreeable, and I was quite satisfied with one visit.

To-day we made an excursion to a lake among the mountains, five thousand
feet high. I was furnished with a mountain horse which proved an ugly
brute; kicked and stumbled, and put the bit between his teeth, so that I
could not control him, and he nearly trotted the life out of me. We went
up and along the winding paths, passing numerous water-falls, one of
which was 750 feet high, and at last reached the lake, which is of great
beauty. The mountains rise directly from the water's edge. They are
covered to their very tops with green trees, the leaves of which have a
singular feathery appearance.

The tea-houses where we stopped for lunch were models of cleanliness and
comfort. We brought our own provisions as usual, but had in addition a
boiled fish just taken from the lake.

We stopped in and around the tea-houses for some hours; and then I
mounted my ugly brute of a horse and rode back to the hotel, a much
used-up man. I was glad to get a bath and to retire early.

We returned to the railway station by the road we came, and again made
the distance in four hours, with only one stop of fifteen minutes.



CHAPTER V.

MIYNOSKITA.


                                  MIYNOSKITA, JAPAN, Oct. 24, 1889.

Yesterday at 10 A.M. we left Yokohama, arrived at the railroad station
at twelve, and reached this favorite watering-place, among the
mountains, in four hours by _jinrickishas_. Our rooms had been engaged
in an excellent hotel, called Fujiya, and soon after our arrival a fine
dinner was served of soup, fish, roast beef, sago pudding, and other
delicacies, to which we did ample justice. The waitresses were all
pretty native girls, dressed in their native costumes; there were a
dozen, or more, of them about the hotel. These waitresses were pleasant,
jolly, and very polite, but very small in stature; some of them walked
under my outstretched arm, and all of them might have done so.

I have a fine front room, and look out upon the surrounding mountains,
which are very lofty and covered with green trees. This is an ideal
mountain resort--great mountains, a roaring river winding some hundreds
of feet below the road, and numerous water-falls; the water rushing down
into the river. From one point of view I counted seven water-falls, and
found, on trial, that one of them came from a hot spring far up among
the mountains, and the water was quite warm when it reached the road. I
walked along the road for several miles and found it wonderfully
romantic everywhere. The road itself is a fine specimen of engineering,
very expensive to build, and almost as good as the famous one built by
Napoleon III., from Geneva to Chamouni.

We are here rather too late in the season to thoroughly enjoy the place
and surroundings, it being cold and the methods of heating houses
imperfect, but in summer it must be perfectly lovely.

There is another hotel being erected near the one we are in, and I was
much interested watching their method of work. They required a lot of
earth for filling in, and were transporting it in baskets from the
mountains above. Two men would fill a basket, suspend it across their
shoulders by a bamboo pole, dump it where wanted, and return for more.
I longed to present them with a wheelbarrow, and show them how to move
earth ten times faster than they were doing. It would appear that there
are no saw-mills in this country, for the men were sawing out boards and
timber by hand, to use in the construction of this hotel. A stick of
timber a foot or two in diameter was arranged with one end resting on
the ground, and the other placed on a wooden horse four or five feet
high; a man then mounted the stick and laboriously sawed out boards with
a hand-saw. The workmen had no clothing on except a breech cloth, and
were all doing constant and faithful service for, as we were informed,
ten hours a day; the pay being ten cents per day. For similar service in
our country, as every one knows, mechanics are paid from $2.50 to $3.50
per day.

We left the hotel at nine this morning, and took a trip among the
mountains to Lake Hakone. I selected my horse this time, and he proved
an excellent animal, a small shaggy fellow, kind and easy trotting, but
much given to stumbling and letting both heels fly if another horse came
near, which little amusement of his nearly unseated me several times.
We went up six thousand feet over the worst of mountain roads, but my
animal walked carefully, often along narrow paths, where a fall would
have tumbled us down hundreds of feet below. I enjoyed the ride very
much. It took six horses and seven chairs to accommodate our party, each
horse having a man to attend to him, and each chair carried by four men,
making a large procession. We arrived in two or three hours at an hotel
on the lake, and after an excellent lunch took boats and crossed over to
near the foot of Fusiyama, the horses and men going around to meet us.

Fusiyama is the brag mountain of Japan, the only one of much size in the
Empire, and is universally known and photographed in all possible ways.
It is fourteen thousand feet high, and is, as I write, covered with
snow, and presents a beautiful appearance from the lake.

We landed and walked over the mountains to the place where the horses
had been sent. The sun was terribly hot in some places, and in others
the only path was along the bed of dry brooks. We passed over the crater
of an active volcano, steam and smoke rushing out near the path. The
guide said it was dangerous to wander from the path, and pointed out
where two native guides had fallen through and had not been seen since.
There was no wandering after this fact was stated. After two or three
hours of dreadful fatigue, we found our horses, and I was very glad to
mount my shaggy old fellow, who carried me safely over slippery rocks,
along narrow paths, and a road (where there was any) as bad as a road
could be, arriving at the hotel at six, much fatigued, but in good form
and ready for the excellent dinner which was waiting our arrival.

After thoroughly enjoying this delightful spot for two days, we started
down the mountain road in the morning and came along in _jinrickishas_
at a tremendous pace, making the distance--fourteen and one half
miles--to the railroad in two hours. We reached Yokohama at 7 P.M., in
season for a fine dinner.



CHAPTER VI.

KOBÉ.


                                         KOBÉ, JAPAN, Nov. 7, 1889.

On the 2d inst. we left Yokohama by the Japanese steamer _Omi Mars_,
Captain Island Vrise. During the afternoon we passed an island on which
is a volcano in eruption. It is 2,550 feet high, and was a pretty sight
as seen from the steamer. We arrived at this fine city at 5 P.M., and
were soon in comfortable quarters at an excellent hotel, and, as it was
very cold, I had a grate fire in my room, which I enjoyed very much. The
city is beautifully situated near the shore with great mountains for a
background, and the harbor is very fine. As usual, big steamers and
crafts of all kinds were to be seen, representing England, France,
Italy, Russia, and other countries--but Stars and Stripes there were
none.

We left on the 4th by rail for Kioto, arriving there at 5 P.M., at a
really splendid hotel, as fine as any in Europe. The city is a very old
one, and one of the largest and most interesting in Japan; great numbers
of temples and palaces, and, in and around it, most lovely scenery. Some
of the temples were erected seven hundred years ago. In the evening I
went with a party and called on the American missionaries, who were
holding a monthly meeting at one of their houses. They have a large
college building, and all seem greatly interested in their work.

The next morning we started early to make the famous Oigawa Rapids
excursion. The entire party, except two ladies, went in _jinrickishas_,
over bad roads and through immense fields of rice, vegetables, and
tea-plants, up and along a rough mountain road. Once my cooly's
carelessness tipped me over, but, as good luck would have it, toward the
cliff and not into the rushing river, and no harm was done. We had to
leave the vehicles several times, the road having been badly washed out
a month ago by a big typhoon, which caused floods and great disasters
all over the island. Some thousands of lives were lost, and there was
great destruction of property.

We stopped once to rest, and then went through fields for a mile or two
to the river Hodza, where we took three flat-bottomed boats, manned by
three boatmen each, and passed down over numerous rapids, and through
what in California would be called a cañon--mountains from two thousand
to three thousand feet high, clothed with verdure to their tops. The
river is from two hundred to three hundred feet wide and full of rocks,
and was really, it appeared to me, very dangerous; but the boatmen were
skilful, and we did the distance, seven miles, in one and one half
hours. We had lunch at a tea-house, and returned by another route to the
city, passing through other fields and seeing an immense number of
children everywhere. We arrived at the hotel at 5 P.M., the excursion
being pronounced by all to have been the most interesting we had enjoyed
in Japan.

On the 6th inst. we left the city at 9 A.M. in _jinrickishas_, and
passed along a splendid wide national road for seven miles, to Lake
Viwa. We met great crowds of people on foot coming to the city, and
numerous trucks loaded with stone, timber, rice, and vegetables.
Occasionally a single bullock would be drawing the vehicles, but
generally this was done by two or four men. We met two processions
of ten trucks, each loaded with stone. The trucks were drawn by
prisoners, with a soldier to guard each truck. The prisoners were
comfortable-looking, and appeared as jolly as any of the travellers.
They were building a canal from the lake to Kioto, nine miles long,
four miles of which they said was a tunnel. I examined a part of it,
and found it to be of excellent construction. We arrived at the lake
at noon. After lunch we went aboard a small steamer, and proceeded to
a point where there was a famous temple, and landed. But looking at
temples in this country has become monotonous, and I spent my time
sitting under a wonderful pine tree, which is feet eight in diameter,
with limbs trained out for fifty feet horizontally each way. We steamed
around the lake for an hour or two, and returned by the same road we
went, reaching the hotel at six. I found a good fire in a stove in my
room, which was very acceptable.



CHAPTER VII.

OSAKA.


                                               OSAKA, Nov. 8, 1889.

We left Kioto at 10 A.M. this morning by rail, and arrived in this
remarkable city at 11.15. It is a most interesting place, having a large
number of canals and bridges, in which respect it resembles Venice more
than any other city. It is the second city in size and importance in the
Empire, having about a million and a half of inhabitants, and numerous
industries, such as cotton factories, etc.; also the imperial mint,
which we visited.

The machinery of this mint was all made in France--with one or two
exceptions, of English make--and is very fine. This is the most
exclusively native city we have visited, there being only seven resident
foreigners, and only one American, from Charlestown, Mass., who is here
for two years to superintend the erection of a brush factory.

There are numerous large boats constantly passing through the canals,
heavily loaded with cotton and all kinds of goods, showing an extensive
commerce. Toward evening I took a walk across a long bridge, and rested
myself on a seat in a small park overlooking the river; but the people
stopped their work to look at me to such an extent as to make it
disagreeable, and I returned to the hotel. The next morning we returned
to our old quarters in the hotel at Kobé.



                              CHAPTER VIII.

                               HONG-KONG.


                                          HONG-KONG, Nov. 18, 1889.

Leaving Kobé on the evening of the 8th, by the Peninsular and Oriental
steamer _Ancona_, we arrived here at seven this evening. This line of
steamers has the contract for transporting the English mails all over
the Eastern waters, including Australia, Japan, and China, and has in
commission fifty-four vessels, some of them of 6,000 tons, representing
7,000 horse-power.

On the 14th and 15th we were steaming through the famous inland sea, the
beauty of which could hardly be exaggerated by a writer of a poetical
turn of mind,--passing between Nipon, a large island, on one side, and
many hundred smaller ones on the other. The channel would often be near
the shores, where we could see the villages and cultivated land. The
islands being volcanic, were in all sorts of fantastic shapes; one
called the Asses'-ears was very funny-looking. The water is very clear
and blue, the islands largely cultivated and clothed with green to the
summits of their mountains.

On the morning of the 15th, the steamer dropped her anchor at Nagasaki,
and we all went ashore sight-seeing and shopping. We rode about through
long streets, and called at several factories and stores; among others,
at a place where was made a variety of shell-work, which was very
pretty. I made some purchases.

The owner of the place spoke English, and I recommended him to send an
exhibition of his goods to the fair which was expected to be opened in
New York in 1892, and he astonished me by asking what country New York
was in? But life being too short for me to teach him the rudiments of
geography, I paid for my purchase, and came away.

We went to see more temples. In the grounds near one of them were two
small trees and on a stone near it was engraved, "Planted by Mr. and
Mrs. Gen. Grant, 1879."

We had an excellent lunch at the Hotel Bellevue, took another trip
around the city, and came back to the ship at 6 P.M.

The harbor is one of great beauty, nearly landlocked, and surrounded by
hills covered with verdure. It was crowded with ships, three Russian
men-of-war, one American, and several English.

Nothing could have been more lovely than the trip from Nagasaki to this
port--the sea as smooth as a pond, weather warm, and every thing quite
agreeable and comfortable.

We came up the bay last evening between four and six. It was a splendid
show. One of the finest harbors in the world, eleven miles long and from
two to five wide. The islands and mountains covered with verdure.

The island of Hong-Kong was taken possession of by the British after the
war with China in 1842, and now has a population of one hundred and
forty thousand.

We left the steamer after dark in a tug, and had a fine view of the city
of Victoria; the streets and buildings covering the hills for a long
distance, and the vessels in the harbor being brilliantly lighted,
presented a splendid appearance as we approached.

We soon took possession of rooms previously engaged at the Hong-Kong
Hotel, and found it to be in all respects first-class, including an
Otis elevator furnished by their London house. The waiters are all
Chinese, tall and good-looking, and dressed in long blue night-gowns or
frocks.

This city surpasses Gibraltar in the number of nationalities one sees in
the streets; every nation on earth appearing to be represented, and I am
much interested in looking at them as they pass.

The policemen are a sight--tall, black fellows from the Malay Peninsula.
Their uniform is the same as worn by those in New York, except a large
red turban, which gives them a very imposing appearance.

Passing for a mile or so alongside the water front between 5 and 6 P.M.
I found that hundreds of boats had returned from fishing, or other
business, and were tied to the piers, bows on, giving me a chance to see
this phase of Chinese life, which had always interested me when reading
about it. They were all having their suppers,--a family of ten, sitting
in a circle with a big bowl of food, apparently rice, in the centre.
Each person had a small bowl, which was often replenished, and the food
eaten with chopsticks. The boat was their home, their sole residence.
In one case a small boy was eating and his mother was boxing his ears
very roughly. Except the children, no one paid any attention to me; this
being an English city the people are accustomed to foreigners.

One morning we called _jinrickishas_ and went on a ten minutes' trip to
the foot of the mountains, which are back of the city, and there entered
a cable tramway car, which took us up a very steep incline, a mile or
so, to a station, and then we took sedan chairs and continued our trip
to the top of Mount Victoria, 1,825 feet high. From there we looked down
upon the bay, the city, many islands, and the mainland of China on the
opposite shores--a scene of unsurpassed magnificence. The big steamers
in the beautiful bay looked like canoes on the calm waters of an inland
lake.

The island is a series of mountains, over, around, and through which are
built splendid roads, near which are many beautiful residences, where
the governor and wealthy people reside.

We looked about for a couple of hours and then took the tramway down.
Some of the more timid of the party preferred to come all the way down
in the sedans, and said they had a delightful trip.

The sedan I was in was carried by two men, who were very picturesque,
their bronze bodies shining in the sun. Their bare feet pressed the
ground with a sure tread. Sometimes I have seen a sedan carried by four
men with white trousers and red sacks, their heads covered by large
bamboo hats, and altogether presenting a very attractive appearance.

The thermometer on the top of Mount Victoria registered only sixty-five
degrees, but I never felt such heat in July at home. However, when in
Japan I suffered so much from cold weather that I am quite glad to have
some of the other kind now.



CHAPTER IX.

CANTON.


                                      CANTON, CHINA, Nov. 21, 1889.

From Hong-Kong we sailed on the 21st inst. at 8 A.M., for this city, by
the fine English steamer _Hankow_, Captain Lloyd, and arrived at 2.30
P.M.

There being but one hotel here, the Oriental, and that a very poor one
at that, we made use of the English passenger boats as hotels during our
stay, and found them excellent in all ways; large, clean rooms and table
very fine, including all kinds of wines and beer furnished gratis, and
wood-cock, and snipe every day.

Leaving the beautiful harbor of Hong-Kong, with its immense
fortifications, we passed into the Canton River, a mile or two wide for
many miles from its mouth, and having high mountains on each side,
covered with green trees and grass. There were great fortifications all
along, armed with big Krupp guns. We saw large numbers of the national
boats, called _sampans_, and many village, houses, and tents.

As we approached Canton the river narrowed to about a thousand feet, and
I was able to closely observe the country. Banana trees lined the shores
for many miles, sugar-cane and rice fields stretched as far as I could
see. Scattered all along the country and in the city big brick buildings
one hundred feet square and six stories high were very prominent. These
were pawnbrokers' establishments.

As we approached the city, the largest building seen was a Catholic
cathedral, with two great towers; a splendid edifice, but not yet
finished.

We had an excellent lunch on the steamer, and then went in sedan chairs
to call on Mr. Charles Seymour, the United States Consul, and his wife.
After being kindly entertained in their beautiful residence, we returned
to the boat, and spent the remainder of the day and evening watching the
wonderful life on the river.

There was a ferry-house near, and I learned that the cost of ferrying
across the river was one fifth of a cent, and that a howling swell
could have a boat alone for one and a half cents.

After a good dinner at seven, and a good night's sleep, we all took
sedan chairs, three men to each chair, the conductor ahead with the
native guide, Ah Cum, a fine-looking Chinese gentleman with finger nails
two inches long, and the entire day was spent in sight-seeing.

All the streets of the city are from four to ten feet wide, no
sidewalks, and are paved with granite blocks a foot wide and six feet
long. The houses all have shops in front. We did not see one private
house in the city outside of the foreign settlements. The buildings are
mostly two stories high, built of brick, and the stores have no glass or
other fronts; all open to the street.

The streets are crowded with an immense mass of men, women, and
children, nearly all with no clothing above their hips, and as our men
pushed their way along, yelling and screaming, the people would stop,
crowd around us with wonder, but were never impolite.

We passed along many miles of streets, lined with stores of all kinds,
the butchers' shops displaying dead rats hanging up, and once I saw the
carcass of a large dog with the hair scalded off lying on the butcher's
table ready to be cut up for customers.

It has rained here for two days, and the streets are very dirty and
bad-smelling. There is no system of sewerage, no horses or draft
animals. Every thing, including all kinds of sewerage and slops and
building materials, is carried along by men, women, and children.
Frequently there were such masses of people going and coming that
traffic would be clogged, and we had much difficulty in getting through.

To write of all the extraordinary things I have seen to-day would
require a big book, and I can therefore only mention that we went to a
flour mill and saw them grinding wheat by stones forced around by blind
oxen, just as they used to do in Bible times in Palestine.

We went into a jail and saw poor wretches in irons with wooden collars
around their necks; and on the street two of them were in the stocks,
their hands and feet confined. The court-house was near, and some of our
party attended a trial which had been progressing for some days. The
wife of the judge saw there were ladies in the party, and invited them
into an interior room and entertained them with tea.

The prisoner was accused of forging the deed of a house and land
belonging to one of his wives, and selling her furniture, all valued at
two thousand dollars. Several witnesses proved that all this was so, and
the wife appeared with her marriage certificate. At the moment when our
party arrived, the prisoner was on the stand. He denied that he was
married to the woman or had ever sold any of her property. The judge was
very angry, and said to the prisoner that he was the greatest liar in
China, and ordered that he should be punished with 150 blows with a
bamboo stick, then and there. He was thrown down, and held by several
men, while another struck the blows with great severity on his bare
back, causing the poor wretch to yell with agony, so that he could be
heard far out on the street, as well as in the interior room, where the
ladies were drinking tea. After fifty blows had been given, the man was
asked to confess, but he refused and was given fifty more; and the
native guide said that he would no doubt have his head cut off in a few
days. We saw on our route a beautiful club-house, and a clock two
hundred years old, made to go by water. Lunch was served in a splendid
seven-story pagoda on a hill outside of the city wall, from the top of
which we looked down upon one section of the city and an immense
cemetery. A part of this was devoted to rich men's tombs, all above
ground, the peculiarities of which were that the coffins were all in
sight. After lunch we were again rushed through the crowded streets,
stopping at many shops, some of the party purchasing largely of silks,
satins, crockery, and curios; and at six we returned to the boat, a very
much instructed but fatigued party.

In the evening I was greatly interested in watching what was going on in
the family boats, called _sampans_, which were anchored between our boat
and the shore. I counted from the steamer 164 of them, with their sterns
towards us. Each boat had a kerosene-oil stove, and in a frying-pan they
were preparing their suppers, which consisted apparently of rice. I
noticed that when the woman who was stirring the food wished to moisten
it, she dipped water from the river, in which was floating all the filth
of the great city. Each member of the family had a bowl which he dipped
into the food, and proceeded to eat with chopsticks.

There are many thousand of such boats on the river, the only homes of
their occupants.

We spent another day in Canton, going about in sedan chairs, steamers,
and _sampans_, and saw many places and objects of interest; but two days
have been quite enough for this city, and I was glad to get aboard the
fine steamer _Honam_, Captain Febor, which left at 5.30 P.M., and
arrived at Hong-Kong at 1 A.M., we all going directly to the rooms
retained for us at the hotel. Here I had the pleasure of meeting a lady
from New York, Mrs. R. H. L. Townsend, who is making a tour around the
world, accompanied by another lady, and has accomplished the trip thus
far without trouble, being everywhere received with distinguished
consideration.



CHAPTER X.

HONG-KONG.


                                           HONG-KONG, Dec. 3, 1889.

We have been detained here ten days, awaiting the arrival of a P. and O.
steamer, for which we were booked, but have passed the time in a very
delightful manner.

I went nearly every day to the park and public gardens, of about twenty
acres, situated several hundred feet above the main street, laid out in
the best manner, and containing a great variety of trees and flowers,
such as grow only in tropical climates. On one occasion a friend and
myself were sitting on a bench near a handsomely dressed Chinese
gentleman. My friend said: "See what a handsome girl is coming, and how
beautifully she is dressed, but how deplorable that she has such little
feet." I agreed with him, and said it was a pity such a pretty creature
was obliged to submit to a barbarous custom like that. The Chinese
gentleman spoke to us in excellent English, and said: "Do you think so?
That is my daughter, and while I agree with you, we feel obliged to make
her feet small or no Chinese gentleman would marry her."

We made apologies which were kindly accepted, and in a long conversation
with the gentleman we learned much of China, he being a resident of
Canton, who had been educated in the United States. I cannot agree with
my Chinese friend that it will be so long a time before China will be
opened to European civilization, for her 332,000,000 people are
beginning to feel the pressure of surrounding nations; Russia on the
north, and England, Germany, France, and Italy on her sea-coasts, and
above all the example of the wonderful advances made by Japan are having
strong influences upon China. China has now for a Prime-Minister, Li
Hung Chang, a very great man, the equal of Bismarck or Gladstone, and
the young Emperor has very advanced ideas. Just now we read in the
newspapers that Li Hung Chang had caused a system of railways to be laid
out, to run all over the vast empire, but it appears that the religious
authorities have some sort of a veto on political actions, and because
one of the gates at Pekin had been destroyed by fire, which they
attributed to the anger of the gods on account of the attempt to build
railroads, the invention of "foreign devils," they would not consent,
and consequently the railroad plan was abandoned for the present. There
is only one railroad in the Empire, up north, running from a coal mine
to the sea, eighty miles long.

The Emperor has, in his extensive palace grounds at Pekin, a miniature
railroad, much like the one which was in the grounds of the Centennial
Exposition at Philadelphia in 1876, with a locomotive and car attached,
which was built and presented to him by the French, and he is said to be
very much pleased riding about on it.

I think it a misfortune to China, and to this country, that our great
general, Ulysses S. Grant, was not permitted to live a few years longer,
for through the great friendship of Li Hung Chang for him, and the high
regard in which he was held, not only by all the rulers of the Asiatic
countries, but by the people themselves, it is more than likely that we
would have seen China opened to modern civilization, as Japan has been,
and the United States of America reaping the advantages of close
commercial relations with her, and at the same time amicably restricting
the emigration of her people to this country.

One afternoon we hired a steam yacht and went about the harbor and
partly around the island. We stopped to examine a dry dock, where a
large steamer was being repaired, and I was delighted to see that one of
the big pumps used for pumping the water out of the dock was made by the
A. S. Cameron Co., of New York, for you do not often see any thing in
this part of the world to remind you of home,--kerosene oil, Singer's
sewing-machines, and clocks being about all. The English appear to
supply nearly every thing to the countless millions of this Eastern
country, owing, of course, to the fact that their government does so
much to forward the interests of her merchants and manufacturers, and I
think it only right to say that wherever you see a British flag in this
part of the world there follows it Christianity, civilization in all its
advanced phases, and safety to life and property, and not anywhere is
the great contrast between civilization and semi-barbarism shown so
strongly as in the comforts and beauties of this lovely city as against
the horrors of Canton.

This is an important commercial city. The governor stated in a late
message that it was the third or fourth export city in the world. There
is a great deal of building going on up the mountains, the bricks for
which are being carried from the vessels to their destinations by
coolies, each man carrying two baskets suspended from a bamboo stick
across his shoulders, each basket containing eighteen large bricks. The
mountains are very steep, and the distance about two miles, so that the
men can only make two or three trips a day, and their pay is five cents
a trip.

The fine winding roads were alive with these men; a thousand or more
were to be seen at one time.



CHAPTER XI.

SINGAPORE.


                                           SINGAPORE, Dec. 9, 1889.

On the 4th instant we left the beautiful island of Hong-Kong and the
city of Victoria by the steamer _Kaisar-i-Hind_ (Empress of India). The
accommodations and appointments of the steamer were first-class--electric
lights, plenty of ice, and every convenience.

On Sunday morning the English service was read from the prayer-book by
the captain to a congregation consisting of all of the officers and most
of the passengers. Before this there was a parade of the crew and
servants,--some sixty Lascars, black, sharp-looking fellows dressed in
frocks and bright head-dresses, and looking very fine.

Yesterday was very hot. We were nearing the equator, and the captain had
punkas put up in the dining cabin. A Lascar boy pulled the strings
running over pulleys and fanned us during meal times, which was very
agreeable.

Again I have to note how lonely these sea voyages are. Since we left
Hong-Kong, five days, not a craft has been seen, only a wide waste of
water, generally as smooth as a pond.

The steamer arrived at seven in the morning, and was soon surrounded by
boats, each containing two or three boys. The passengers threw silver
pieces into the water, and the boys would dive after them, and seemed to
get them every time. It was great fun to watch them. A little
bald-headed fellow not more than six years old, attracted my attention,
and I threw some bright pieces near his boat. Over he went and caught
them every time, and was pulled into the boat by his older companion,
triumphantly holding up the pieces.

We came ashore and were soon in our rooms in the large and first-rate
Hotel de l'Europe.

We were within about fifty miles of the equator, and the heat was
intense. After resting we took carriages, it being quite a comfort to
have them once more, and drove over fine roads, past splendid
government and other buildings, two or three miles out to a botanical
garden, said to be one of the finest in the world, all in perfect order,
with trees and plants such as can be seen only in the tropics; tall
trees, with clusters of cocoa-nuts on them, and the fan palm, a great
curiosity to me, being in the shape of a fan fifty feet high.
Pine-apples were everywhere, for this is the home of that fine fruit;
big trees, covered with red and white flowers, and plants of great
variety and beauty, all in a park of a hundred acres or more; houses
filled with fine orchids, and others containing beautiful native birds.
It was very hot--ninety degrees or so--and oppressive, but we all stood
it for a couple of hours, and most of our party, who had seen many such
shows in all parts of the world, said that they had never seen any thing
approaching this for variety and beauty. We then took our carriages and
returned to the hotel for lunch, and immediately afterwards went on
another tour around the well-built, handsome city. Fine stores and
public buildings, perfect pavements, splendid turn-outs, and all the
appliances of civilization were everywhere. No more babies carried
pickapack, as in Japan and China. They were often nude, but looked well
cared-for, comfortable, and happy.

The natives are of the Malay race, and their dress is of the brightest,
generally a frock of white or red cotton and no trousers. We returned to
the hotel at five, and after resting an hour had an excellent dinner.
Being very hungry I partook of all the courses, the dinner being _à la
Russe_. One incident was particularly tropical. The ceiling and sides of
the dining-room were covered with little green lizards, crawling about
and catching flies. Some of the ladies were nervous, fearing that the
creatures might drop into the soup or on their hair, but I did not mind,
knowing them to be harmless. The landlord, who has been here
twenty-eight years, thinks that I should stay here at least a week and
go on to the Malay Peninsula to shoot tigers, but I have concluded to
postpone that kind of amusement until I come again. I find it best to be
very temperate in this terribly hot country, limiting my beverages to
soda and Apollinaris water, and am very thankful to have plenty of ice,
which is now manufactured in this city and all other large cities in the
East. The P. & O. line of steamers alone spends one hundred thousand
dollars annually for ice.

When I retired at night I found that they had not provided me with even
a sheet for a cover; only a mosquito net. The Chinese chamber-man was
sleeping in front of my door, but I did not like to disturb him, so I
turned in, and it being very hot I got along very well, and had a good
night's rest.

I was out early in the morning, and was greatly interested in looking at
the sights of the city. They were making a park of large dimensions,
fronting the water, and a hundred or more wagons were used to transport
the dirt from the country. Each wagon was drawn by a pair of bullocks
driven by a Malay. These drivers were bright-eyed, smart-looking men,
with nothing on but a cloth around their loins, and no covering to their
heads. They sat on the tongues of the wagons, and I was much amused to
see that when they wanted the bullocks to turn a corner they twisted
their tails, and the obedient beasts at once went in the direction
indicated.

I saw a great drove of goats passing along, as many as four hundred, and
men from all countries in great variety of dress. Singapore is a very
busy place, being the chief city of the Straits Settlements, whence
comes a larger part of the tin used in such immense quantities all over
the world. The familiar ingots of tin were to be seen on the streets and
sidewalks and being trucked towards the big steamers.



CHAPTER XII.

ON BOARD THE "KAISAR-I-HIND."


                              STEAMER "KAISAR-I-HIND," OFF SUMATRA,
                                              Dec. 13, 1889.

After mailing letters on the 10th instant at Singapore we went on board
the steamer at 4 P.M., and started again on our voyage. We were then
only forty-five miles from the equator, and though the thermometer
recorded only eighty degrees, it seemed much as if it were over a
hundred. However, as soon as the steamer got under way it was quite
comfortable. After a day and two nights we arrived at Penang, and at 9
A.M. went ashore, and all took carriages for a drive through one of the
prettiest and hottest towns in the world. We were driven along wide,
beautifully paved, clean streets for three miles to a water-fall and a
botanical garden, and it was a drive well worth having. On both sides of
the road were plantations of cocoa-nut trees, bearing ripe fruit, and
once I saw a large nut fall to the ground with a dull thud.

Our tough little horse, driven by a black man from India, trotted along
very fast. The road was lined with many strange trees laden with fruit,
and the fields near by were covered with brilliant flowers.

We got out of the carriage at the botanical garden and walked about for
a short time, but were glad to get in again, as the sun was intensely
hot. Returning we traversed the same beautiful road, viewing the
cocoa-nut trees, the mango, and many strange and beautiful fruits and
flowers.

Workmen were engaged getting out stone and paving the roads, their black
backs shining in the hot sun. Here we saw travelling on the road many
gayly dressed Indian women, with bright silver ornaments on their arms
and in their noses. We drove around the soldiers' barracks and hospitals
and through the handsome streets of the town, and at ten o'clock took a
boat to the steamer, much pleased by our little trip ashore, which gave
us a change before starting on the voyage for Colombo. We steamed away
once more, and soon after lunch, while I was reading in my state-room,
I heard a commotion on deck, and, running up, reached there just as the
captain did. "Man overboard!" was the cry, and the sailors were crawling
into a boat like cats. The second officer was already there, and in two
minutes the boat was lowered into the water, and was off. I looked over
the side of the vessel and saw that a patent buoy and a life-preserver
had been thrown over. With a glass I could see the black fellow swimming
for the buoy, which he soon reached, and shortly afterwards the boat
picked him up and returned with him to the ship in just eighteen minutes
from the time she left. Wonderful discipline was displayed, not a loud
word being spoken. After the boat was hauled up the captain touched a
bell, and away we went again.

The patent buoy before mentioned had attached to it a tin box,
containing some sandwiches and a small flask of whiskey, which the
rescued sailor had confiscated before the arrival of the boat.

At four o'clock one morning a boy called me to get up and see the famous
Southern Cross. I at once joined the company, and looked upon four
stars, which formed an immense and perfect cross, very beautiful to
behold. It was a splendid night, the bright moon shining on the water,
and countless stars above, many of which are never seen except in this
latitude.



CHAPTER XIII.

COLOMBO.


                                    COLOMBO, CEYLON, Dec. 18, 1889.

Six days from Singapore, we arrived here on the evening of the 16th
instant, and at once went to our rooms at the Grand Oriental Hotel,
which had been engaged some weeks in advance. Colombo is the capital of
Ceylon, and has a population of one hundred and twenty thousand, and
many large and handsome buildings.

As we passed along the coast last evening immense groves of cocoa-nut
trees were seen from the vessel, extending along the shore for thirty
miles or so. It was the hottest weather yet experienced, not more than
eighty degrees, as shown by the thermometer, but very oppressive.

This morning, after an excellent breakfast at the hotel, I went with all
the party on a drive in and around the city. It was dreadfully hot, and
we had about such an entertainment as one might expect driving around
New York or Chicago streets on a July day, with the thermometer at
ninety degrees. The streets and roads are clean, wide, and in perfect
order. We stopped at a large market, where the natives crowded around
us, and where were tropical fruits of many kinds, some of which I had
never heard of before. We passed many groves of cocoa-nut and banana
trees laden with fruit, public and private buildings, and large and
handsome bungalows, churches, and schools, but the people who crowded
the streets were the most interesting to see--Indians, Malays,
Singhalese, and Chinese, dressed in their native costumes, all
industrious, orderly, and civil.

We called upon Arabi Pasha, who was banished from Egypt some years ago
for heading a rebellion against the Khedive. His residence is a fine
bungalow, surrounded by handsome grounds. He is a portly gentleman of
about sixty-five years, speaking good English, and appeared very glad to
see us. We spent a short half-hour talking with him, and then took our
leave and continued our tour around the city. We saw numerous shops and
plantations once more, and studied the remarkable people we met, and
were especially interested by the young children swarming in the streets
everywhere, and looking like little animated bronze statues.

We went through a fine museum and saw a great collection of historical
objects belonging to Ceylon, one being a rudely sculptured figure of a
lion carved in stone three hundred years ago.

This island is the great producer of the ruby, sapphire, and pearl,
dealers in which have stores near, and are allowed to come around the
hotel. They are very troublesome in their attentions, and, as is common
among merchants in this part of the world, ask two or three times more
than they expect to get for their goods.

I intended to go up to the mines, fifty miles off, where they obtain the
ruby and sapphire, but was prevented from doing so. I also wished to see
the divers go after pearl-oysters, but a couple of weeks ago one of them
went down in the water and never came up, a shark having caught him.
Since this accident none of his companions can be induced to do any
diving, and for the present the industry, which is a very large and
important one, is paralyzed.

There are no fat people in this country, and no drunkards. In a Buddhist
temple, which I saw yesterday, was a painting of a drunkard. The culprit
was represented in hell, enduring great agony, being pierced with
daggers, and the ugliest-looking devil, with tusks like fish-hooks,
standing over him, about to pull his teeth with big pincers. Any
follower of Buddha looking at that picture would surely join a
temperance society.

One morning, accompanied by two friends, I took a carriage and drove
seven miles out into the country, through the native city, and along
perfect country roads, passing through wonderful tropical plantations
and beautiful flowers everywhere. Men and women stared at us as we
passed, and crowds of bright, laughing children ran after the carriage,
begging for pennies. One man had a basket of beautiful pink lotus
flowers, one of which we bought.

At length we came to the oldest temple on the island, 2,300 years old,
and where Buddha himself preached,--a splendid temple, the walls of
which were covered with highly colored paintings, representing
Temperance, Prudence, Fortitude, and Justice. There was the usual big
statue of Buddha and the usual worshippers.

The ride was a delightful one, the children numerous and very funny, and
beggars without number.

Another day we went by rail twenty-eight miles along the coast to the
end of the road, the entire distance through groves of cocoa-nut trees
extending as far back from the water as we could see. Once we passed
under a banyan tree, the limbs of which had been trained over the road
twenty feet high, in shape of an arch, then taking root and forming
other trees on the opposite side. We spent the day at Lavini, a
delightful sea-coast hotel, and enjoyed ourselves very much. It was
quite a contrast to the hot city whither we returned for an
eight-o'clock dinner.



CHAPTER XIV.

NEWAVA ELIYA.


                                              NEWAVA ELIYA, CEYLON,
                                                 Dec. 20, 1889.

This is the sanitarium of Ceylon, 133 miles from Colombo and 6,200 feet
above the sea level; a cool and delightful valley of a thousand acres or
so, surrounded by high mountains, with a lake in the middle,--a very
ideal place for a sanitarium. The thermometer averages seventy degrees.

We left Colombo at 9 A.M. on the 19th instant, in a first-class car
engaged for the party, and passed over a six-feet-gauge road, built in
the most substantial manner, with an extra guard-rail in dangerous
places. There were iron bridges and stone depots at various points, each
depot surrounded by a beautiful and well-kept flower-garden.

For the first fifty miles the road passed through a flat country of
beautiful fields and cocoa-nut trees, and then we commenced to go up
and around high mountains, the building of the road being a great
engineering triumph. The road was lined on both sides for a long
distance with a hedge of the large-leafed spiked aloe, from five to six
feet high, and impenetrable by man or beast, and then we began to see
tropical vegetation in all its luxuriant growth. Along the sides of the
road and far as the eye could see were the blooming lantana, the
sun-flower, and many large trees covered with yellow, white, and red
flowers in great profusion. For the first time we saw tea, coffee, and
cinchona plantations, the mountains being often covered to their tops
with tea-plants, sturdy bushes about two feet high, and I should say
that from the time we commenced to see them there were many thousand
acres.

From time to time we could see the natives in parties of fifty or more
picking the leaves and putting them into large baskets and carrying them
on their heads to the dry-houses, or depots, and very picturesque they
looked in their petticoats of many colors, their bare backs glistening
in the sun. The natives have on petticoats when they wear any thing.
Generally they are bare-headed, but sometimes sport gay-colored
turbans. They are a fine race--bright, sharp, intelligent, cleanly,
good-natured, and temperate. The women are handsome, and wear silver
ornaments in their noses and ears.

The hotel here is an old vice-regal bungalow, and is like a private
house. After getting warmed by a wood fire I retired and slept well all
night. In the morning, before breakfast, I walked out to the woods to
see the monkeys, but they did not appear, and I did not dare to go far
from the trodden path on account of the cobras, which abound in these
parts. After breakfast we took carriages down the mountain for five
miles, over as fine a road as any in Europe, to the depot, and to our
car, which had been retained for us, and soon we were on our way to
Kandy, our next stopping-place.

A missionary accompanied us down the mountains, who had been
twenty-seven years in the country, and entertained us with tales of
snakes and elephants, and some account of his work in India and Ceylon.
Coffee is no longer produced in Ceylon, the trees having been destroyed
a dozen years ago by an insect, but an immense quantity of tea is grown,
pronounced to be the finest in the world, and which is largely taking
the place of that raised in China and India.

At 5 P.M. we reached Kandy, the ancient capital of Ceylon, containing
14,000 population,--a fine city, with many large buildings. There is a
lake in the centre one and a half miles in circumference. In the evening
we visited a large Buddhist temple, erected to hold a tooth of Buddha,
which the faithful regard as a sacred relic.

On the 21st we took carriages to the government botanical gardens, said
to be the finest in the world, and of course nothing like them is
possible anywhere, except in the tropics. We saw giant palms twelve feet
in diameter, stood beneath the deadly upas tree and the mahogany,
jujube, almond, nutmeg, clove, mango, ebony, and a great grove of
immense rubber-trees, and saw an immense variety of bright-colored
flowers and leaves. The gardens cover one hundred and eighty acres, and
we spent two delightful hours there, after which we drove around the
city and through the extensive park of the Governor: returning, we took
the train at 3 P.M. and arrived at our hotel in Colombo at seven, just
in season to enjoy the excellent dinner awaiting us.



CHAPTER XV.

ON BOARD THE "ROHILLA."


                                    STEAMER "ROHILLA," NEAR MADRAS,
                                             Dec. 27, 1889.

Christmas was a fearfully hot day in Columbo, ninety degrees or more,
and I did not go out in the morning, except to look into an Episcopal
church, which was handsomely decorated with flowers, the air being kept
cool by fans propelled by natives standing outside.

After lunch, accompanied by two friends, I drove around the city and
some miles into the country, over splendid roads. On the road we bought
three cocoa-nuts for five cents, and opening one, had a refreshing
drink.

We returned at 5 P.M. and at once came aboard this ship, one of the
finest of the splendid fleet of the P. & O. line. The weather, except
the terrible heat, continues perfect--not a ripple on the sea, the
sunsets splendid, and the starlit nights of great loveliness.

A lady from Hartford, Mrs. Brown, who is well up in astronomy, pointed
out to me last evening many stars never seen except in this part of the
world. A lady from New York, Mrs. R. H. L. Townsend, was taken seriously
ill on the 23d at the hotel; she was confined to her rooms for three
days, and had two doctors and a nurse; but just before I left for the
steamer I was glad to see that she had recovered so as to be able to
take a drive.

At the last moment the Captain decided to call at Madras, where we shall
be to-morrow, long enough to go ashore and see the famous city. Four
great steamers left Colombo the same evening that we did, one each for
Australia, Calcutta, Singapore, and Hong-Kong; one of them being a
German vessel of immense size, 7,000 tons. On this steamer we have all
the modern improvements: Edison lights, an excellent table, and always
plenty of ice. Life on the ocean, as we have it, is very pleasant, and
we get along nicely, though they tell of terrific storms which rage
here at other seasons.

The ship is full of passengers, largely English, returning from
Australia, very nice, kind, and agreeable people. Yesterday a north wind
sprang up and it was delightfully cool; the passengers were all on deck
in groups, a dozen of the stalwart young Englishmen playing the national
game, cricket; some reading, a lot of children playing, and all were
happy.

In the evening we had a delightful concert by amateurs, violin playing
by a young lady, parts of the "Bohemian Girl" and other operas being
rendered in a superior manner.

The ship slowed up so as not to get to Madras before morning, and it was
literally sailing on a summer sea; the moon sank down behind the waters
in a glow, presenting a beautiful appearance. I had a good sleep all
night, and at seven in the morning looked out and saw we were at Madras,
between two long break-waters. Soon breakfast was over, and we all
entered a big row-boat, propelled by ten bare-backed Hindoos; the ship
was surrounded by a dozen of these boats, the crews chattering and
shouting, and on one occasion a boy got overboard, but he did not mind,
swam about a short time and then got aboard, none the worse for his
ducking.

We could see that there was a heavy surf beating on the beach, but when
our boat struck the sand, I was lifted ashore by two strong black men,
followed by the ladies of the party, conveyed in a similar manner. We
took carriages and drove about the city, which is said to be the hottest
in India, but we did not find it so; on the contrary, it was very
comfortable. We went through the natives' quarters, and evidently they
had seen white people before, for they paid no attention to us, not so
much as we to them, as we were looking upon a race new to us. They had
marks on their foreheads, showing the caste to which they belonged. We
visited the markets, and saw that the banyan tree was quite common in
the squares and along the streets, and passing on to the great fort, we
looked at the big guns; then we entered St. George's Church, where there
were many statues of famous soldiers who had served in India and died
here. We called at the post-office, a large and beautiful building,
remarked on the fine roads, the handsome appearance of the women
dressed in bright-colored robes with silver ornaments in their noses
and on their toes, and then we passed on to the ship, well pleased that
we were not to stop any longer in such an unattractive place.


                                         Sunday, December 29, 1889.

We reached the steamer at noon yesterday; the deck was crowded with
native merchants trying to sell mats and all kinds of curios, but
presently they were driven off to their boats, and at noon the ship was
put upon her course, due north, everybody comfortable and happy, the sea
as smooth as an inland lake. This morning we had a delightful service on
deck, read from the English Prayer Book by the Captain, assisted by one
of his officers; the singing, by young ladies, was particularly fine,
and now and again I could detect the sweet tenor of my friend from
Manchester.

Before the service the crew were mustered and reviewed by the Captain.
There were nearly one hundred of them, mostly Lascars, dressed in white
with colored turbans and presenting a very picturesque appearance.

Last evening I was interested to see a lady reclining on a steamer chair
on deck, and reading by the light of a portable electric lamp fastened
to the back of her chair. I interviewed her husband this morning, and he
informed me that it was one of Edison's inventions, and that they were
now common in London, and cost twenty dollars each. They are four inches
in diameter, and can be carried in the coat pocket. This one he charges
from one of the lights on the ship, and it will last fifteen hours.


                                                  December 30, 1889.

We are still rushing on over a placid sea at a moderate rate, as the
ship has never made more than 288 miles a day. The thermometer marks
seventy degrees, with a light breeze from the north, and warm woollen
clothing is comfortable. This is a great country for learning practical
temperance, none of our party having tasted liquor for a month, previous
experience having shown that they were much better without it.

I noticed two young men at dinner to-day who drank two large bottles of
champagne, but they will doubtless find out by experience that such
indulgences do not pay in this climate. We are only 12,500 miles from
New York now, and it seems quite like nearing home.



CHAPTER XVI.

CALCUTTA.


                                     CALCUTTA, INDIA, Jan. 1, 1890.

We arrived here yesterday, after a delightful trip from Madras, and at
once went to our rooms at a first-class hotel, engaged some time ago.
Mine happens to be a wooden barn-like structure built on the roof of a
six-story building, which gives me a chance to look down upon the famous
city of palaces and immense parks--a great show, particularly at night,
when the streets are illuminated by gas and electricity.

We were told that Calcutta was a dreadfully hot place, but last night I
had my overcoat on, and was very comfortable, the thermometer being
seventy-two degrees.

I have just returned from a tramp about the city, and find it one of the
finest I have seen--population one million; splendid government and
other buildings, great parks, fine wide streets and sidewalks, and
every appearance of advanced civilization.

The natives are a handsome race, dressed in their picturesque costumes.
White and native soldiers in brilliant uniforms are to be met
everywhere, and the whole scene is one of great beauty.

A royal prince is here to-day, the stores are shut, and a great review
of soldiers is going on. The rush for rooms at the hotels is so great
that I hear of a Major-General of the British army who is to sleep in a
bathroom near us to-night. On the morning of the 2d instant we took a
carriage drive around the city, starting at 10 A.M. and returning at
1.30.

The Botanical Gardens established in 1792 are very fine and well kept,
but nothing like the one in Kandy, Ceylon. We saw the famous banyan
tree, one hundred years old, the main trunk of which is 42 feet in
circumference, the crown 850 feet in circumference; there being 234
roots which strike down from the branches into the earth. These roots
and branches become little trees themselves. In the garden were two
beautiful avenues of palm trees, each a quarter of a mile long. I was
much interested in a bridge of boats that we passed over. It was twelve
hundred feet long and seventy feet wide, rising and falling with the
tide sixteen feet. I have seen several bridges made of boats in
different parts of the world, but none so large and substantial as this.

We went in the afternoon to the great fort, and inspected the immense
fortifications, with their great guns and piles of balls. A marriage had
just taken place in the garrison church, and the party were out on the
lawn waiting for the arrival of carriages. The brilliant uniforms of the
officers and the handsomely dressed ladies made a fine show. The church
is an exceedingly beautiful one, with many costly monuments erected to
keep in memory the glorious deeds of England's heroes, statesmen, and
scholars.

In the great Cathedral there were many splendid monuments, one to the
good Bishop Heber, a name dear to the hearts of all Christians for the
beautiful hymn he wrote, "From Greenland's Icy Mountains," and though I
have heard it sung in many churches all over the world, it always seems
fresh, inspiring, and beautiful.

There was a beautiful monument to Lord Elgin, who was Governor-General
of India, and before that, of Canada, in whose history I had a personal
interest, having seen him and obtained from his hands a marriage license
at Montreal in 1847.

We went to a public building, in the yard of which was marked out the
size of a prison known as the Black Hole. It was underground, 18 × 25
feet, where the 20th of January, 1756, one hundred and forty-six persons
were confined, and the next morning only twenty-three were alive. In one
of the churches near was a monument erected to the memory of Job
Charnock, a sailor, who, before Calcutta came into the possession of
England, came ashore with a boat-load of companions to see the sights.
They saw a widow placed on a funeral pyre all ready to ignite and burn
her alive, which was the custom in those days. The natives set fire to
the wood, which was too much for the gallant sailor; so he rushed in and
saved the woman, and, it is related, subsequently married her, and
settled down as a merchant in Calcutta, where he became rich.

Returning along the road beside a park a mile or two long we met many
fine turn-outs, containing Indian and English nabobs, and among them was
a coach and four with the widow and children of the late King of Oude,
who were taking an airing. The ladies and children were in very gay
costumes, and looked exceedingly pretty. The show was a very brilliant
one, far surpassing any thing of the kind to be seen in any other
country.



CHAPTER XVII.

DARJEELING.


                                         DARJEELING, INDIA,
                                                      Jan. 4, 1890.

At 4 P.M. yesterday we left Calcutta, passing through the city, which
was everywhere decorated for Prince Victor, who will be a king of
England, if he lives, and who was to arrive at the same hour we left. We
took possession of the car engaged for us, and I noticed that the next
one was engaged by two Indian princes, their names being on the car.
Presently they appeared, handsomely dressed in long colored robes and
turbans, and soon after there arrived two palanquins carried by coolies,
and completely shut up, containing their wives. They held up a carpet
screen to prevent outsiders from getting a look at the women, but I
caught sight of two figures, completely covered from head to foot with
white garments, getting out of the palanquin into the car. The
car-blinds were instantly drawn down. I was much interested, it being my
first look at Mohammedan women.

After a tolerable night's sleep in the car we crossed the Ganges on a
ferry-boat, and then took a narrow-gauge, two-feet-wide railroad, called
the Darjeeling and Himalaya, which is perhaps one of the greatest feats
of engineering skill in the world. It is run mainly on a cart-road
previously built, and cost only fifteen thousand dollars per mile, and
is fifty miles long.

We passed through a flat country for some miles, and then commenced to
go up, around, through, and over mountains with terrible-looking
precipices, now on one hand and now on the other. It has been a bright
and splendid day, one in a hundred they tell us. We were in an
observation car, and we consequently could see every thing to the best
advantage. Elephants were at work in the fields on the plains, and
immense tea plantations lined the hills and mountains.

At 4 P.M. we reached our destination, 7,400 feet high and looked upon
the mighty Himalayas, four ranges rising each one above the other, the
two highest covered with snow, and the one most remote appearing to be
fifty miles off, one of the peaks of which is the famous Mount Everest,
the highest mountain in the world. The atmosphere was exceptionally
clear, and the panorama spread before us was magnificent, and would
require the poetical pen of Bayard Taylor to do it any thing like
justice. We were soon in our rooms at an excellent hotel, which had been
engaged as usual. Mine had an open coal-fire and a man soon brought a
delicious cup of tea and some toast which were very welcome. I could
hear the jackals crying in the near woods. The country is thickly
populated and highly cultivated, the people bright and smart but clothed
in rags and looking very poor, beggars being everywhere. Darjeeling is
the sanitarium of Bengal. There are several hotels, and numerous fine
dwellings scattered along on the mountain sides, and far up there are
large barracks and hospitals for soldiers. We remained two days, and on
the morning of the second day Mr. Kolish, Mr. Jackson, and I became
ambitious to see Mount Everest from a nearer point of view and in all
its glory, so we were called at 5 A.M. On getting out I found my two
friends mounted, but the ugly beast waiting for me did not approve of
the excursion, and first tried to kick me, and then to bite, but I
finally mounted and succeeded in making him understand that he had
better mind me. Away we went, up the steep but excellent roads for an
eight-mile trip to the top of one of the mountains. My horse proved a
good roadster, sometimes trotting and then galloping, and in one and a
half hours we reached our destination, and looked upon a great range of
snow-covered mountains; Everest, the monarch of all, was among them, but
much to our disappointment, clouds settled about the tops of the range
and we did not see the greatest mountain in the world.

We stopped there an hour or so and took our fill of the grand sight, and
then rode down the mountain at the same fast pace we had come up, for
the train left at ten and we had none too much time. On our way down we
met a Chinese marriage procession. They were making an awful din with
tomtoms and drums, and a great show with banners and flags, which scared
my horse, but the good-natured Chinese stopped their noise and we
galloped on, reaching the hotel at nine, having enjoyed a fine morning
ride.



CHAPTER XVIII.

BENARES.


                                     BENARES, INDIA, Jan. 12, 1890.

On the evening of the 10th we left Calcutta, travelled all night, and
reached here at 1.30 P.M. yesterday. The railroads in India are mostly
six-feet gauge, substantially built, but very slow, twenty-five miles an
hour being the usual speed.

We brought along our own bedding, and stopped at stations for meals,
every thing being very primitive compared with accommodations found in
America or Europe. We passed through a country thickly populated, the
fields being highly cultivated, and planted with wheat, rice,
cocoa-nuts, etc. Parrots were flying about in flocks, or perched on the
telegraph wires. Elephants could be seen in the fields, and bullocks
were everywhere drawing carts or ploughing.

The two days we have been here have been very active ones, seeing the
wonders of this "Holy City." Yesterday morning, at seven o'clock, we
went out on the Ganges in a big boat. Splendid palaces were along the
shore for a mile or two, and thousands of pilgrims from all parts of
India and beyond were bathing and praying. At length we came to the
cremation places. The boat stopped within fifty feet of the shore, and
we saw the bodies of four dead persons in different stages of the
process of cremation: one where the ashes were being swept into the
river, and another just being brought down; this one was covered with a
red cloth, showing, as they said, that it was a female. The men who
carried the body first dipped it into the water, and then placed it on a
pile of wood and brush, and set fire to it. Each of the other two piles
of wood had a body on it, and both were being burned.

Passing through the city to Clark's Hotel, where we were stopping, we
had plenty of evidence that Benares sustained its reputation of being
the most filthy city in India. The Hindoo temples were especially dirty,
though some of them had gilded domes, and one, where there was a sacred
cow, was the most filthy of them all.

A Vienna friend asked me if I would not like to call on the Maharajah of
Benares, he being the ruler of the province, and behind his throne being
the Governor-General of India. I said yes, and we sent our cards to the
palace and asked an interview. An officer called, I suppose to look us
over, and after asking some questions said that His Highness would be
pleased to see us at one o'clock, and at that hour the same officer
called again, and we went to the palace in a carriage, and were at once
shown up to the second story, where we were met at the door by the
Maharajah, a young man thirty years old and very fine-looking. He spoke
English, and shook hands and welcomed us very politely. He was dressed
in brown velvet breeches, coat of yellow silk covered with silver stars,
cap of the same, and gold-embroidered shoes; and was smoking an immense
pipe with a stem twenty feet long. He led the way to an interior hall,
splendidly furnished in Oriental style, and showed us to a seat. We had
a conversation of about half an hour, during which I took occasion to
tell him something of our country, and invited him to come to New York.
He said he would be very glad to see America, and thanking us for
calling said he was sorry we could not stay some time in his dominions.
He then shook hands and said good-bye, directing an officer to send us
books about his province. Nothing could have been more polite and kind
than his attentions to us. I think it proper to say that my republican
pulse did not beat any quicker on seeing such a magnificent palace and
potentate, though I never saw the like or read of such scenes except in
the "Arabian Nights."

In the afternoon the party took another drive around the city, and while
the others were examining an extensive embroidery factory, I sat in the
carriage in the market-place, and was much entertained by various
aspects of Oriental life.

Once a little prince came along, mounted on a splendid horse, led by a
man dressed in red robes and with a red turban on his head. The little
lad was dressed in robes embroidered with gold, and altogether the scene
was one not to be witnessed anywhere except in this country, or at the
theatre.

We drove to an ancient city some distance off, and saw several old
palaces; passed through great groves of mango trees and plantations of
beans, peas, wheat, rice, etc. Natives, beggars, and children in great
numbers crowded around our carriages. We met a regiment of native
cavalry with white officers and a fine band of native musicians.



CHAPTER XIX.

LUCKNOW.


                                         LUCKNOW, January 13, 1890.

We arrived here at twelve last night, after a tedious ride by rail, and
I was up at seven this morning, and have been all day seeing the wonders
of the city.

Since a visit to the field on which the battle of Waterloo was fought, I
have never spent a day of such absorbing interest as this, for here
Lawrence, with one thousand eight hundred men, held the fort against
fifty thousand rebels for six months, and up the road we saw came Sir
Colin Campbell and Havelock's army of relief. The buildings are riddled
with balls, and we saw where Lawrence fell and the room where he died,
July 4, 1857. Nothing could be more thrilling than to hear many
incidents of the siege related in an admirable manner by a native
guide.

We spent some hours in wandering about the building and ground held by
the English, and especially examined the big cannons, in front of which
five hundred rebels were blown away and killed.

We went to a fine Mohammedan mosque, one of the minarets of which was
covered with gold, and would make an architectural sensation if placed
in any city in Europe or America.

In the afternoon we took another ride and saw a walled enclosure of
twenty acres or so, where Havelock and his Highlanders made a breach in
the high wall, shot two thousand rebels in four hours, and buried them
on the spot.

We stopped at various mosques and public buildings, and reached the
hotel at 5 P.M.

It is a fearfully dirty place, and the sun of India, here as elsewhere,
is intensely hot, but the evenings are quite cool. I saw many elephants
and camels in the streets to-day, though horses and bullocks are
generally used, and fine carriages drawn by horses are a common sight.

We have seen Lucknow pretty thoroughly, though one might spend a week
here to advantage, especially in visiting the museum, where there are
ancient and modern curiosities of the highest interest, and the mosques,
which are exceedingly beautiful, in great contrast to the filthy Hindoo
temples. One especially reminded me of St. Mark's at Venice.



CHAPTER XX.

CAWNPORE.


                                        CAWNPORE, January 14, 1890.

At ten this morning we arrived here, and have seen all the places where
such frightful massacres took place during the Sepoy rebellion of 1857.
Mr. Lee, who now keeps a hotel here, acted as our guide, and pointed out
the various localities. He was a non-commissioned officer, and
accompanied General Havelock's army, which arrived two days after the
massacre, and inflicted upon the rebels the terrible retribution of
fastening several hundred of them in front of the big cannon and blowing
them into pieces.

Mr. Lee pointed out the exact spot where these executions took place,
and showed how the poor wretches were fastened to the mouths of the
cannon. It will be remembered that General Wheeler, commanding the
British troops, after defending the fort for weeks against a great army
of rebels, was induced to surrender under promise of protection from
Nana Sahib, who collected the prisoners on the banks of the Ganges and
had them massacred. Only four escaped. General Wheeler was seventy-two
years of age, married to a native woman, and had by her seven children.
He believed that Nana Sahib would keep faith with him, but he and all
his officers were collected on some steps leading down to the water of
the Ganges, and at a signal from Nana they were all shot down and
killed. One of General Wheeler's daughters committed suicide by jumping
into a well, and another married a native and is now alive here.

When the rebellion was conquered Nana Sahib could not be found, but Mr.
Henry Balantine, now U. S. Consul at Bombay, states that the monster
escaped to one of the countries in the north part of India and died
there of cholera. Murphy, one of the men who escaped in a boat, had a
singular fate. After the rebellion he was made custodian of the public
buildings here; but one day he killed a native and was obliged to leave
for China, and has never been heard of since.

Like many other places in India, Cawnpore is fearfully dusty, the hotel
very poor, and one is glad to get away.



CHAPTER XXI.

AGRA.


                                            AGRA, January 17, 1890.

We left Cawnpore at five o'clock on the morning of the 15th. The train
was delayed, and I wandered about the chilly depot and caught a bad
cold. We were several hours on the train looking out upon the Oriental
scenery, the people, and the wild and domestic animals near by, and at a
distance we saw elephants, camels, droves of small donkeys, big black
goats, and long-legged pigs, flocks of paroquets and green parrots, now
and then a deer or antelope, and the usual remarkable trees and flowers.

I arrived here well fagged out, but a good night's rest made me all
right again, and I have put in two days of hard work, which I regard as
among the most remarkable of my life.

We saw many magnificent palaces and mosques, the description of which
would alone fill a large book, and I have space only to refer to the
Tâj-Mahal, which has been regarded by all who have seen it for the last
two hundred years as the most remarkable building of its kind ever
erected, and one of the wonders of the world.

Built by the Emperor Shah Jahan as a tomb for his wife, it is of pure
white marble, 186 feet square, the centre dome being 50 feet in diameter
by 80 feet high.

At the four corners stand four towers, each 137 feet high. The architect
came from Venice, and his name was Geronimo Verrone.

On the front gateway is the date, 1648, marking the completion of the
building, which was twenty years building, and cost ten millions of
dollars, nothing being paid to the twenty thousand workmen, who were
said to have been employed in its construction, except an allowance of
corn daily, and even this was carefully curtailed by rapacious officers,
causing frightful mortality among the men. Jewellers were brought from
Italy, and they inserted in the marble walls, both inside and out, in
the shape of vases and flowers, diamonds, rubies, sapphires, and other
precious stones. The more valuable ones were stolen, but since the
English have had possession they have inserted artificial ones, and we
could see what a magnificent show it must have been.

The remains of the emperor were placed in a tomb by the side of those of
his beloved wife. Each tomb had precious stones inserted in the marble,
and on the top of one I saw a place where a ruby two inches in diameter
was said to have been taken out. Ordinary stones, such as the cornelian
and amethyst, were still there. We lingered about the beautiful building
for many hours, admiring it from every point of view. My friend, Mr.
Jackson, sang a little song under the great dome, which echoed and
re-echoed, producing a remarkable effect.

I have been so much impressed with the marvellous beauty of the Tâj that
I have purchased an alabaster model of it, and having packed it
carefully hope to get it home safely. On the opposite side of the river
from the Tâj we were shown the foundation of a building which the
emperor intended to erect for his own tomb, and to connect the two by a
bridge of solid silver twelve hundred feet long, but the tale they told
us was that the emperor's son shut his father up in a prison palace for
several years, and there he died at ninety-four years of age.

The emperor, knowing that he was about to die, asked to be taken to a
marble summer-house, from which he could see the Tâj. They carried him
there, and on the spot where we stood he took a last look at the
beautiful building, and died. I know no more touching tale in all
history, and it being well told on the spot by one of the guides, was
very impressive.

This city, like most others we have seen in India, is very dirty, and we
are put to many trials and discomforts, especially in eating, for we
cannot get what we want, the hotels being very indifferent from an
American point of view.



CHAPTER XXII.

DELHI.


                                           DELHI, January 21, 1890.

Yesterday at noon we left Agra, passing over the river by a fine iron
bridge, from which we had another view of the beautiful Tâj, which was
lovely beyond expression. We had an English compartment car to
ourselves, and were very comfortable. Highly cultivated fields and
frequent great barren plains, with now and then an elephant, were to be
seen, and once a long caravan of camels. Monkeys were in the woods, and
flocks of parrots flying about, and often the beautiful peacocks were
perched on the fences or wandering about the fields.

It will be remembered that the Hindoos consider all animal and bird life
sacred, and never kill them, and consequently we see them everywhere.

We passed on at the rate of about twenty miles an hour, having
forty-three carriages and over a thousand passengers, mostly natives,
and stopped at a station at 1 P.M. for lunch. The stations in India are
all large, this one being more than a thousand feet long, and there were
collected in it more than a thousand pilgrims bound for the sacred
Ganges with their bags and bedding.

I went among them accompanied by the native guide, and saw that many of
them carried painted poles, from the top of each of which was suspended
a bag containing the ashes and bones of some relative, which they had
brought from their far-off homes, and were taking to the Ganges to be
thrown into the (to them) sacred river.

I looked at a group of handsomely dressed women. Among them was a bride,
who had a profusion of silver ornaments in her nose and ears, and on her
arms and toes. My appearance among this party seemed to entertain them
very much, judging by their looks and their chattering.

We passed through great fields of the castor-oil plant, cotton, and
mustard, and at 9 P.M. rolled into the big station here, and were soon
at the hotel enjoying the comforts of a wood fire.

This is the most dreadful climate I know of--eighty degrees to ninety
degrees during the day, and down to sixty degrees at night. The hotels
have rooms only on the ground-floor, which is paved with stone, and any
thing but comfortable.

This city has great historic interest, having been ravaged many times by
conquerors, beginning with Tamerlane, who burned it, and killed a
hundred thousand of its inhabitants, men, women, and children.

Taking a drive, I saw monkeys running along the walls, and was
everywhere beset by a great lot of beggars, dancing girls, and merchants
wanting to sell shawls, jewelry, and many other articles.

We have been here several days, constantly driving about and seeing
magnificent palaces, tombs, and mosques. In one of the great marble
palaces was a large hall in which was erected the famous Peacock Throne
in the year 1638.

The following account of it is given by Tavernier, who, in the
seventeenth century, travelled extensively in the East, and saw all the
wonders that he relates:

"The largest throne, which is set up in the hall of the first court, is
in form like one of our field-beds, six feet long and four broad. The
cushion at the back is round like a bolster; the cushions on the sides
are flat. I counted about a hundred and eight pale rubies in collets
about this throne, the least whereof weighed a hundred carats; but there
are some that weigh two hundred. Emeralds I counted about one hundred
and sixty, that weighed threescore, some thirty, carats. The under part
of the canopy is all embroidered with pearls and diamonds, with a fringe
of pearls round about. Upon the top of the canopy, which is made like an
arch with four panes, stands a peacock with his tail spread, consisting
all of sapphires and other proper colored stones; the body is of beaten
gold enchased with several jewels, and a great ruby upon his breast at
which hangs a pearl that weighs fifty carats. On each side of the
peacock stand two nosegays as high as the bird, consisting of several
sorts of flowers, all of beaten gold enamelled. When the king seats
himself upon the throne there is a transparent jewel with a diamond
appendant, of eighty or ninety carats, encompassed with rubies and
emeralds, so hung that it is always in his eye. The twelve pillars also
that uphold the canopy are set with rows of fair pearl, round and of an
excellent water, that weigh from six to ten carats apiece. At the
distance of four feet, upon each side of the throne, are placed two
parasols or umbrellas, the handles whereof are about eight feet high,
covered with diamonds; the parasols themselves are of crimson velvet,
embroidered and stringed with pearls.

"This is the famous throne which Tamerlane began and Shah Jahan
finished, which is really reported to have cost a hundred and sixty
million five hundred thousand livres of our money [thirty-two million
one hundred thousand dollars]."

The famous and beautiful Cashmere shawls are made in the province north
of here, and are mostly sold in this city, where there are many
storehouses filled with them. It is said that it takes the labor of two
men a year to make one of these shawls of moderate size.

Wishing to purchase, I went to one of the largest establishments
accompanied by three friends. The merchant showed me a book in which
were written recommendations of his goods by Gen. U. S. Grant and Col.
Fred. Grant, and among them was one written in German, which was
translated by my friend from Vienna as follows: "I have bought shawls
of this man, and think I got them cheap, but do not offer him a third of
what he asks." We spent much time looking at a great variety of the
shawls, and finally, aided by the excellent taste of my friends, Mr.
Norris of Baltimore, Mr. Kolish of Vienna, and Mr. Jackson of
Manchester, I selected two, which I thought very beautiful, and asked
the price. The merchant consulted two or three of his sharp, bright-eyed
clerks in their own language and said: "I have not sold a shawl to your
party; I sell you very, very cheap; you may have those beautiful shawls
for 1,400 rupees." Having in mind the German gentleman's remarks, I
said, "No; the price is absurd; let us go," and we started out. Then the
merchant followed saying, "Don't go; make me an offer," and I said, "I
will give you 400 rupees for both shawls." Greatly to my astonishment he
replied, "Take them; I will send to your hotel." Fearing a substitution
or some other trick I said: "No; hand them to me, if you please. Here
are 100 rupees, and you may come to the hotel and get the balance." To
this he agreed and the purchase was made.



CHAPTER XXIII.

JEYPORE.


                                         JEYPORE, January 25, 1890.

Our party arrived here on the 23d instant, and permission was obtained
from the Rajah, who has the reputation of being the most enlightened
ruler in India, to visit his palaces and grounds; and very magnificent
we found them. The palace was very large, and fitted up in a costly
manner. We were admitted everywhere, except to a big building occupied
by his three hundred wives. We then went to see fifty elephants in
different places, each tied by the legs; and then we visited the tiger
cages, a dozen of them, each containing a savage fellow. We then went
to the stables and saw four hundred blooded horses from all parts
of the world. The custodian in charge of the stable said that if I
wanted to hunt tigers the Rajah would be pleased to loan me a horse,
and I would be sure to find a tiger from two to six miles from the
city wall. The Rajah was good enough to loan us four of his biggest
elephants, and in the afternoon we sent them outside the city wall
with a photographer. We followed in a carriage and had photographs
taken, and afterwards mounted the elephants, four on each, and rode two
miles farther to a country palace of the Rajah, and to the ruins of
an ancient city, where were formerly great castles, reminding one of
Germany and the Rhine. We spent an hour looking over the castle, which
is very costly and splendid. On the road and around the palace we were
amused by the antics of numerous monkeys and the beauty of flocks of
peacocks running wild all over, the screaming of parrots, etc. We then
mounted our elephants to return. The one I was on looked as large as
Jumbo. Meanwhile my friend, Mr. Jackson of Manchester, who is a great
walker and dislikes the motion of the elephant, had ten minutes before
started to walk to the carriages, a distance of two miles. He had
nearly reached them, when he met a lady and gentleman, who proved to be
an English doctor and his wife. They bowed and said "Good-day," but had
not passed on ten paces before they came running back. The doctor took
hold of Jackson and said, "Look on top of the wall!" (a stone wall laid
in cement five feet high). "And so you went within two yards of yonder
tiger!" Jackson looked and saw the big head and paws of a large tiger
resting on top of the wall, and then he ran away toward the carriages.
Meanwhile, Mr. Kolish, who was on the elephant ahead, had seen the
tiger in the field, and shouted to me to look at him, but he went away
very quickly, and I saw nothing but a movement in the brush. All this
took place before we knew Mr. Jackson had seen the beast. There were
six natives with each elephant, and they were much excited and said the
tiger must be very hungry, as one seldom came so near the city, and he
would most likely get a kid or a man before morning.

[Illustration: TRAVELLING IN INDIA.]

I have been more interested in this city, where I have seen only native
faces, than in any other in India, and would be glad to spend some weeks
here.

The main avenues are one hundred feet wide, lighted by gas, and having
water supplied by pumping works. They are lined with beautiful public
and private buildings, and crowded with traffic, numerous caravans of
camels coming and going loaded with stone, cotton bales, and all kinds
of goods.

This morning we went to the Museum, a large and splendid edifice erected
by the present Rajah. As an architectural triumph I know of nothing
superior anywhere. It is of white and colored marble from base to dome;
and the contents no adjectives can describe. Lovely! charming! splendid!
Costly goods from Oriental countries, owned and arranged by the Rajah
Mahara Swai Madhosingh.

Over the arched entrance to the exhibition rooms sentences were painted,
taken from native books; for instance:

    "How much soever one may study science,
    If you do not act right, you are ignorant."

    "By contentment make me rich,
    For without that there is no wealth."

    "Rectitude is the means of pleasing God:
    I never saw any one lost on a straight road."

We are comfortably lodged in a hotel called a bungalow, which is owned
by the Rajah and conducted by a native. I was amused at one of the
printed notices in the dining-room, which was: "If visitors are not
satisfied with the food or cooking, they can deduct from the bill what
they consider fair"; an excellent notice, which I recommend for adoption
by hotels elsewhere. In another hotel I saw the following: "Guests are
requested not to strike the servants"; and "Guests wishing ice are
requested to give a day's notice, and name how much they require."

I walked up the street to look at a hunting tiger with hoods over his
eyes, and tied to a tree, and while leaning up against a bungalow gate,
a fine-looking young Indian, mounted on a splendid Arabian horse,
interviewed me, much as an American newspaper man would have done: Where
did I come from? What was my profession? and What was I in Jeypore for?

I told him something of our country, the number of people, the miles of
railroads and telegraph wires, the size of New York and Chicago--in all
of which he was much interested. I then interviewed him and asked him
who he was, and he replied that he was Colonel Fyaz, commander of a
regiment of native troops. He could talk the English, Hindoo, Persian,
and Oude languages, was delighted to see an American, and asked me where
I learned to speak English. He seemed surprised to learn that it was the
language of the United States of America.

After a long conversation he asked for my card and invited me to call at
his quarters, saying that he would be glad to show me about the city.



CHAPTER XXIV.

BOMBAY.


                                          BOMBAY, January 27, 1890.

Leaving delightful Jeypore by the evening train, we were two nights and
one day on the road. It was very cold after dark, so much so that I had
to get up in the middle of the night and put on my overcoat and shoes.

The train went at a speed of twenty-five miles an hour, stopping at
stations for meals, which were quite good, but the native waiters were
of the worst, and all the arrangements very primitive compared with the
splendid vestibule trains running on the Central Railroad from New York
to Chicago.

We obtained accommodations at a first-rate hotel, where I rested for a
day, being much fatigued by the trip from Jeypore, but towards night I
took a walk along a beautiful boulevard, and through fine parks for
several miles, and was much interested in looking at the strange and
wonderful scenes. The highly colored dresses of the native women, the
silver ornaments covering their persons; the immense public and private
palaces, very costly and beautiful,--all made a great impression on me,
and I think that Bombay is one of the finest cities in the world.

There are fifty thousand Parsees in this city, with some of whom I
became acquainted, and found them to be very intelligent, and was told
that they were very successful merchants, many of them millionaires.
They originally came from Persia, where they were agriculturists, but
here they are merchants. These Parsees are all worshippers of the sun.

One day we went to their burial-place called the "Towers of Silence,"
situated in a handsomely laid out park. There were three round towers
about one hundred feet in diameter and fifty feet high, without any
tops, and around the edges perched some hundreds of black vultures. We
were told by the attendant that the dead bodies were placed on slats
inside these towers and then devoured by the vultures.

We saw the dreadful creatures all flying over to one of the towers, and
discovered that a body was being carried there by attendants dressed in
white. We were not permitted to go near the towers, but were shown by an
attendant a working model of one of them, and exactly how the dead
bodies were disposed of.

Towards evening a band played in the beautiful park fronting the hotel,
and I saw sights probably not surpassed by any other place on earth.

The _élite_ were out, both native and foreign, in full force, as a
public meeting was being held in a beautiful building erected by a
wealthy Parsee merchant, in front of which was his marble statue.

The building is called the Bombay University, and an officer, whose coat
was covered with decorations, was delivering an address on higher
education. Officers and soldiers mounted on fine horses patrolled the
streets; companies of Sepoys dressed in native costumes marched along;
many white children cared for by native nurses, splendidly dressed
native women, and beautiful English ladies and children passed to and
fro; carriages and fine horses went by on the road, making a scene of
wonderful beauty and attraction. The city, with its many parks, covers
a large space, and is elegant and clean, containing more than a million
of people, but, strange to say of such an important commercial centre,
there has been no United States consul here for six months, and I had in
consequence much trouble in shipping home some boxes.

I called upon Mr. Henry Ballantine,[1] who had delivered a delightful
lecture on Cashmere before the Geographical Society at New York last
winter, and he was good enough to give me such information as enabled me
to get my goods off.


[1] Since the above was written Mr. Ballantine has been appointed U. S.
Consul to Bombay.



CHAPTER XXV.

ON BOARD "THE KHEDIVE."


                             STEAMER "KHEDIVE," RED SEA, NEAR SUEZ,
                                        February 10, 1890.

The morning of the 31st of January was very hot at Bombay, as usual, and
I only went out to make a few calls, and some purchases, and at 3 P.M.
we went on a tender to this steamer, passing two large English troop
ships just arrived, and several ironclad men-of-war, and looked at the
great forts on the land where we had before seen two 120-ton Armstrong
guns with piles of conical balls, each ball weighing half a ton.

The harbor is large and fine, and there were at anchor many large
steamers and sailing craft, but I did not see anywhere the flag of our
country.

On Sunday there was the usual parade of officers, sailors, and servants,
149 in all, most of the sailors being Lascars, dressed in white gowns,
red turbans, and sashes, presenting a clean and picturesque appearance.

The vessel is a fine one, wonderfully clean, and with all modern
improvements, including electric lights.

The doctor is a young and handsome man, and spends most of his time with
the young lady passengers, who seem to require much medical advice. I
notice that on most of the ships where I have been the doctors are very
attentive to the ladies.

One night I slept very soundly in the upper berth, but in the morning
found my room flooded from the open port-holes, sofa, floor, and baggage
wet, but no great harm done, my clothing being hung up. In the morning I
knew the sailors were washing the deck, for the water leaked through and
struck my face, but one learns not to mind such little matters when
travelling, and I turned over for another sleep.

It is rather hot on the steamer, thermometer eighty degrees, but the
punkas are going in the cabin, and we are all quite comfortable.

We came from Bombay on the steamer _Assam_, arrived at Aden on the 6th,
and were transferred to this ship, and unfortunately there was not time
for us to go ashore, but I think we lost nothing, as it was a
poor-looking place, nothing but rocks and fortifications.

We now see for the first time the coast of Arabia, big hills evidently
of volcanic formation, and long reaches of white sand. The native boats
crowded around the ship, offering ostrich feathers and various things
for sale; boys were diving for silver pieces thrown into the water, and
generally succeeded in getting them.

The run of four days up the historic Red Sea has been full of interest.
One day the air was full of locusts flying over from Arabia to Africa,
many of them falling on the deck. They looked like small birds when
flying, but were not larger than katydids, and brown in color.

On Sunday the service was read by a clergyman who preached an excellent
sermon. He read from the Bible the account of the passage of the Red Sea
at a place not far from where we were, and the sermon was about it and
Egypt.

The seats at the long tables in the dining-room were filled, nearly all
the passengers being in attendance. The weather continues perfect, the
water smooth and looking very blue. Captain Loggin, of this ship, says
that on his last trip he had a lady passenger who was ninety-one years
of age, and on a former trip another who was ninety-two, both of them
very jolly and comfortable, and going from England to visit their
relatives in India.

The captain said that on another of his trips, two ladies, strangers to
each other, were put in one state-room in which were two wash-basins.
One basin being a little larger than the other, each lady wanted the
larger one, and appealed to him. He gave the matter due consideration,
and finally informed them that the elder should have it. As we approach
the upper end of the sea it narrows to about three miles, and we have
good views of both the Arabian and the African coasts, long stretches of
sand on both shores, and then mountains of volcanic origin, but not a
sign of a town or of any inhabitants. Early one morning the captain gave
notice that we were nearing the Sinai range of mountains, and he showed
on his chart all the points of interest, and directly pointed out the
historic mountain itself, situated beyond a range which was near the
sea, and looming up so that we could see it with the naked eye, and very
clearly with the glass. The mountain appeared to be about forty miles
off.



CHAPTER XXVI.

THROUGH THE SUEZ CANAL.


                                          CAIRO, February 12, 1890.

At 9 P.M., on the 10th instant, the big steamer _Khedive_ anchored at
Suez, the Red Sea entrance to the canal; and I was much interested in
watching the engineers making steam connections to a large dynamo on
deck. The connections were made by copper pipes and flange joints. In
half an hour they were ready. Captain Loggin gave the signal, and the
stately vessel moved on at the rate of six miles an hour towards Port
Said on the Mediterranean. The canal is 87 miles long, and when
completed was 72 feet wide and 26 feet deep, but two years ago it was
decided to enlarge it to 120 feet wide, 27 feet 8 inches deep. They are
now at work on the enlargement, as I saw four immense dredgers lying in
the canal near Suez, and was informed that thousands of men could be
seen during the day at work all along the route.

I stationed myself on the upper deck at 9.30 P.M., and remained there
all night with the kind and pleasant captain for my only companion, only
leaving when we were nearing Ismaïlia at six in the morning; and I was
amply rewarded by sights such as I never expect to see again.

The five thousand candle-power electric light, with a Mangin reflector,
spread the rays out fanlike, and illuminated the canal and vicinity for
half a mile ahead and several hundred feet wide, so that the smallest
thing on the land or in the water could be seen. The electric rays
illuminated the water so that the white-painted buoys, of which you
could often see three or four at a time, seemed to be lighted from the
inside, as if made of translucent golden porcelain, and suspended in
mid-air. The white sand on the banks of the canal might be readily
mistaken for snow, and was in one place piled up fifty feet high, for a
long distance, and the general effect was singularly weird, as the great
steamer moved majestically on. When we reached the small Bitter Water
Lake, the buoys were on stands fifteen feet high, out of water, looking
as if they were made of silver, the pear-shaped domes like illuminated
mosques. Once where there was an opening in the sand-bank, the light
illuminated a hill some distance off, and it seemed as if I were looking
upon a great city, with its mosques, minarets, churches, and buildings
all being destroyed by fire. Several times, when approaching huge
dredging machines, the electric light seemed to transform them into
beautiful flower boats on which fairies might be dancing. As we entered
the large Bitter Lake, the electric lights were put out and the vessel
guided by a pilot increased her speed.

The tide rises seven feet at Suez, and forces the water up the canal to
the Bitter Lakes, which operate like a safety valve, distributing the
water and returning it when the tide recedes.

The Mediterranean being a tideless sea, the water runs naturally through
the canal to the Bitter Lakes. Most of the commerce of the East passes
through the canal, instead of around the Cape of Good Hope, as formerly.
In 1887 there passed through the canal 3,137 vessels, of which 2,330
were British, and only three American. I know of no greater illustration
of the fallibility of human judgment than that the English opposed the
building of this canal. Lord Palmerston said it could not be built, and
if done, would never pay, or be any good to commerce; and now
seventy-five per cent. of the tonnage passing through it is British, and
it is of immense importance to them, both politically and in a business
way. But for the persistent energy of M. de Lesseps, it is safe to say
the canal would not have been built for many years, if ever.

The average passages through the canal from the Mediterranean to the Red
Sea have been eighteen hours, Captain Loggin having made the shortest in
fifteen hours; but when the enlargement is completed, so that vessels
may make an uninterrupted passage each way, the time may be reduced to
twelve hours. The stock of the company has paid as high as twenty-one
per cent., and I was informed that our steamer, the _Khedive_, had
several hundred cases of silk on board, and that she would pay about
seven thousand dollars transit charges. Every steamer passing through
the canal now makes use of the electric light; those not having a dynamo
on board hire one at Port Said in Suez for ten pounds sterling per trip,
including two men to run it.



CHAPTER XXVII.

CAIRO AND THE PYRAMIDS.


                                          CAIRO, February 17, 1890.

On the 13th at 1 P.M. we took the train at Ismaïlia, had a first-class
carriage and agreeable company. For half the distance we passed through
a sandy desert, but when we came to the station Tel-el-Kebir, near which
Wolseley routed the Egyptian army, the country improved, great fields of
sugar-cane, lentils, grain, and grass were to be seen; men were
ploughing, and others gathering the crops, assisted by camels, bullocks,
and donkeys. In one instance, a camel was harnessed to a bullock drawing
a plough. The people were everywhere industrious, and the fields looked
in splendid condition. Very often we saw large flocks of sheep and
goats, and soon we came in sight of a long arched bridge spanning the
Nile. After crossing this we entered a fine depot at Cairo, where there
was the usual clamor of hackmen, but our conductor rescued us from these
land sharks, and we were soon at the Royal Hotel and I found my room,
which had been engaged, and directly a package of letters and papers
were handed to me, which were very welcome.

It is as cool here as March in New York, and I have on my regular winter
clothing. The Red Sea voyage and the weather here have toned me up, and
I feel in first-rate health. This is one of three fine hotels in Cairo,
and is first class in every respect--French cooking, splendid bread and
butter, and excellent beef and mutton, which have, no doubt, helped to
put me in good condition, after the horrors of our campaign of the India
cookery.

Mr. Norris sent a telegram to Baltimore last evening at 5.30, and had an
answer at 11.30 P.M., so that we are all now in touch of home.

We have been this afternoon through the bazaars to the great Citadel and
the grand Mosque, where I unfortunately stumbled over a prostrate man
praying, with his face towards Mecca, and there was a little row, but I
apologized and passed on.

Yesterday we started out at nine and did not get back to the hotel until
four. We went first to the famous museum three miles distant, over the
river, and saw an immense collection of antiquities, illustrating
Egyptian history for six thousand years, including the mummies of the
great kings, Rameses I., II., and III., and their wives and some of
their children. Their remains are not pretty to look at, and it seemed
to me to be sacrilegious to expose them for show in a museum at one
franc admission. The museum building is very beautiful, having been
erected by the Khedive for a palace, the same Khedive who was deposed by
the English, and is now in exile in Italy.

One room had marble pillars three feet in diameter and thirty feet high,
and the whole building is fitted up in the highest style of modern
French art.

We entered carriages and drove over a fine shaded road to the great
Pyramids, where we arrived at noon. I at once announced my intention of
going to the top of the big Pyramid, as did also Mr. Kolish of Vienna
and Miss Roe of Cincinnati, the others of the party declining.

The old Arab sheik, who has charge here, appointed three stalwart
Egyptians to assist me, and two others followed with jugs of water; with
one man holding each hand, and another to push, we commenced the ascent.
The stones were from two to two and a half feet high, making the tallest
kind of stairs, but the men were careful and good at pulling and
pushing, and I made rapid progress.

They stopped twice to rest, and then I found what violent exertions I
had been making, for I was completely blown, and my mouth and throat as
dry as if I had not had a drink for a month.

We rested at each stopping-place a few minutes, and rinsing my mouth
with water refreshed me; then we rushed on, reaching the top in
seventeen minutes. Such had been the violence of the exertion that I
could hardly speak for fifteen minutes afterwards. Mr. Kolish being a
stout young fellow got along first-rate, and Miss Roe being strong,
cool, and fearless came up serenely. From the top the view towards the
Nile was of unsurpassed beauty; long stretches of country covered with
green as far as the eye could reach. Farther back was a boundless plain,
but all sand and desolation. I intended to recite here Napoleon the
First's address, "Soldiers of the grand army, forty centuries are
looking down upon you," but I was so much engaged getting my breath that
I forgot all about it.

After stopping on top for half an hour, we commenced going down, one man
holding each of my hands and another holding a rope which was around
under my arms. We got along very nicely with only one stop, indeed I
think I could have come down perfectly well without help from any one.

There are 250 steps on the big Pyramid, and it is 480 feet high. At one
o'clock we had a capital lunch, and then started for the Statue of
Memnon only a third of a mile from the Pyramids. Some camels were
kneeling ready to take us, and I mounted one. The beast squealed and got
up first on his front legs and then on his hind ones, pitching me back
and forth, but I hung on and got along very nicely.

The immense statue, partly covered with sand, did not impress me much,
but a tomb which I entered near by was a wonder. I measured one of the
big stones in the wall and found it was five feet square and seventeen
feet long.

We mounted on camels again and Miss Roe and I had a race across the
yielding sand, the Cincinnati young lady coming out ahead.

The beggars crowded around and annoyed the ladies so much that I spoke
to the old sheik, and he went at them with a whip and scattered them
very quickly.

We returned to Cairo the same way we went, observing on the road large
numbers of camels, bullocks, and donkeys, and once I counted seven
camels loaded with fresh hay. Thus ended one of the wonder days of my
life.

Yesterday morning we left here on a steamer, and went up the
swift-running waters of the Nile, passing numerous palaces, tombs, and
all kinds of Oriental buildings, dozens of water-wheels run by bullocks,
and once a steam-pump and boiler, all raising water for irrigation.

We had a stalwart and fancy-dressed dragoman, but he was of little use.
We took along a nice lunch and picnicked on the boat, reaching the dock
in three hours, where we found about a hundred donkeys and their
attendants yelling, screaming, and pushing. After much trouble we each
mounted one of the ugly beasts, and started for the ancient city of
Memphis, seven miles away. There was a boy with a stick to each donkey,
and every time he struck, my beast would kick and nearly unseat me.

A young lady from Boston, Miss Potter, was put in my charge, and several
times we had splendid trots and gallops on the sandy roads and plains.

We met strings of camels and donkeys on the way in front, and our
cavalcade of excursionists, stretched along the sandy road, presented a
remarkable appearance.

Half-way we stopped to rest at a place where an immense marble statue of
a king was lying in the sand. It was thirty feet long, and five feet
across the face.

The donkey ridden by Miss Potter proved so bad that she changed him for
another here, and we galloped over the sandy plain unto Memphis, our
destination. There were half a dozen big pyramids in sight, and the
whole country was covered with ruins. We were on a high hill, and looked
down upon the Delta of the Nile and its cultivated fields, a scene of
rare beauty, on one side, and on the other, vast sandy plains and
deserts.

We walked to the entrance of the "Tombs of the Sacred Bulls." The
passage-ways and tombs are cut out of solid rock and are all under
ground. These passage-ways are a mile or two long, and thirty feet in
diameter. They strongly reminded me of the sewers in Paris.

From these passages, were dug out of solid rock twelve rooms, each
containing the statue of a "Sacred Bull," each one carved out of the
rock, highly polished and covered with writing executed in a beautiful
manner.

Each of us carried a candle, and it was very hot, so much so that one of
the young men came near fainting and had to hurry out. It was a curious
and weird scene, fifty or more people, each with a candle, wandering
about in the dark. After looking at the tombs, we all returned to the
upper air, and went to the tomb of a great king near by, which was under
ground, and contained several large rooms, all made of highly polished
white marble, covered with writing and carvings; processions of men and
animals, beautifully executed, and in the best state of preservation.

Mounted on the donkeys once more, men and boys surrounded us, offering
all kinds of things for sale. One young fellow showed me the skeleton
of a lady's hand, and offered to sell it for a shilling, but I declined.
It was a rough ride back to the river, the donkeys being very
uncomfortable creatures to ride. Once the one ridden by Miss Potter
greeted some of his friends in a field, and brayed with tremendous
energy.

We were very much fatigued and glad to get to the boat.

The return voyage was very pleasant, and we reached Cairo at 5.30 P.M.



CHAPTER XXVIII.

JAFFA.


                                   JAFFA, PALESTINE, Feb. 21, 1890.

Our party left Cairo on the 19th, going by rail one hundred and fifty
miles to Alexandria, and leaving there at 10 A.M. the following day,
arrived here by steamer this morning.

The landing from the steamer was made in boats, and was rather rough,
the sea running high and there being no breakwater.

This is said to be the oldest town in the world, and is certainly the
dirtiest one I ever saw. We drove all about, going first to the house of
Simon the Tanner, situated near the sea. We saw the tank in which he
used to tan his leather, and went on the top of the house, where he and
his family used to sleep. We then went to the house of Dorcas, situated
in a grove of orange-and lemon-trees, and I bowed my head to her memory,
for she not only did good to the poor herself, but her example has
caused countless millions of Christian women in all the ages since to do
the same, very often in associations named after her.

The oranges raised in and about the town are very large and fine, and
much exported. Great crowds of Turks, camels, and donkeys were in the
market-places.



CHAPTER XXIX.

RAMLEH.


                                          REINHARD'S HOTEL, RAMLEH,
                                             February 21, 1890.

We left Jaffa at 3 P.M., in as fine a landau as you would see in Hyde
Park, with three horses and a dragoman, and drove along a splendid
macadam road, meeting and constantly passing camels, donkeys, and
strange-looking Turks. Soon we came to the Plains of Sharon, perfectly
level, and stretching off for ten or twenty miles each way, covered with
red, blue, and yellow flowers. They are said to be the "roses of Sharon"
mentioned in the Scriptures, but really are a species of poppy. At a
distance we saw the high hills and mountains which surround Jerusalem.
The scenes were of the most thrilling interest, for Solomon often passed
this way, and over the road were transported the cedars of Lebanon of
which the great temple was built. It was a cool and bracing day, and we
had a delightful trip, arriving at this excellent hotel at 5 P.M., and
at once walked to the ruins of a mosque built in 1099 A.D., by Saladin.
The tower, an elegant structure, is still standing. We went to the top
of this tower, and looked upon a lovely landscape. As far as the eye
could see, the plains were covered with almond-trees in full blossom,
and other trees and shrubs peculiar to the country, the big cactus
plants being used for fences. As we returned we passed a tower, from the
top of which a priest was crying aloud for the faithful to pray. Every
few miles was a guard-house, and horsemen were often met on the road who
acted as police.



CHAPTER XXX.

JERUSALEM.


                                      JERUSALEM, February 23, 1890.

The rest overnight at Ramleh, at the hotel there, kept by a German,
formerly of Buffalo, N. Y., proved very refreshing, and in the morning
we took our fine carriage, and driving rapidly over the excellent road,
reached here at 5 P.M., having had a very enjoyable trip.

Coming near the Jaffa gate our driver ran against a heavy-loaded camel,
and caused him to tumble almost into our carriage, but he fell partly
under it, and the wheels ran over one of his legs and broke it. The
owner of the camel, a big Turk, when he saw the mischief, sat down by
the side of the road and wept. The carriage stopped at the Jaffa gate,
and we walked to the new hotel, a large handsome building of stone, all
the halls being paved with marble. It was so very cold that I had a
fire made in a small stove in my room. Here, as in all the countries I
have lately visited, fuel is very scarce and dear; that used here was
the roots of trees.

At last the dream of a lifetime has been realized, and I have been on
the top of the Mount of Olives, to me the most interesting spot on
earth. It had been raining, making the slippery stones of the streets
very disagreeable. Accompanied by an excellent guide, I walked from the
Jaffa to the Golden Gate, along the street of "Solomon and David," and
mounted a small good-natured donkey, who carefully took me over a rough
road to the top of the Mount. Thence I looked upon the scenes so often
described in the Bible, rendered more impressive to me from the thought
that on the very spot where I was, must have stood David and Solomon,
Christ, St. Peter, Paul, and the Apostles! They must have looked down in
their time, as I did, upon the winding Jordan, the Dead Sea, Bethlehem,
and the mountains and valleys beyond. The other view was towards the
compact walled city. It seemed to me that I could see the great army of
Titus encamped on the hills beyond the Jaffa Gate, preparing to assault
it with their battering-rams. The scene was a very impressive one. After
admiring the beautiful church lately erected by the Russians, on top of
the Mount, I passed down by another and rougher path, and rode entirely
around the city, the guide carefully explaining every thing as we rode
along. The Mosque of Omar, built on the spot where Solomon's temple
stood, is a splendid edifice, the outside being made of various-colored
tiles, and the inside of mosaic work, with the most exquisite
stained-glass windows.

At length we got away from this almost enchanted spot and went through
the markets and bazaars, which do not differ much from those of other
Oriental cities: narrow dirty streets, small stores, and crowds of
long-bearded old men, exactly as you see represented in all pictures;
women, black, brown, and white, with their faces modestly covered, but
barelegged and nothing on their feet except sandals; even these were
often left off.

We took a carriage and went to Bethlehem, five miles from Jerusalem, and
attended religious services held in various churches by the Russians,
Catholics, and Copts. Every thing we saw was of great interest, the view
from the hill superb, and the people and scenes on the way wonderful to
behold.



CHAPTER XXXI.

JAFFA.


                                           JAFFA, January 26, 1890.

Having spent two days in Jerusalem industriously sight-seeing, one
noon-day I took a seat in the fine carriage provided, my only companion
being a dragoman, and we were soon bowling along over the fine road to
Jaffa.

The engineers are surveying for a railroad from Jaffa to Jerusalem and
the people expect that it will be completed in a year. The journey may
then be made in an hour. The moon came up at 6 P.M., and as we passed
along the road through the mountains I saw sights and scenery not to be
soon forgotten. I felt safe, for every few miles there was a stone
watch-tower, occupied by guards, and often we met them on the road,
mounted and armed with guns. It was a ride of thrilling interest, for
over this route have passed many times the heroes of old, and on yonder
field of Sharon, now smiling with flowers, was once fought a great
battle. The carriage rushed on, and half-way we changed horses. Being
very cold, I walked ahead for a couple of miles, meeting caravans and
single camels, and numerous donkeys laden with wood, and men coming from
the fields with their oxen and their ploughs. The black-eyed natives
eyed me curiously, but said nothing, and soon the carriage overtook me,
and I was so well warmed up by my walk that I felt comfortable for the
remainder of the trip.

We were detained for two days at Jaffa on account of the rough sea,
which prevented steamers from landing, but being in a comfortable hotel,
I was content and spent the time looking about the ancient city.

A young Arab offered to sell me a tame hyena for twenty francs. It was
nine months old, and as playful as a young dog. At last the sea became
smooth, and I entered one of the heavy boats, and the three strong
Turkish boatmen put me over the rough waters in good style on board the
Russian steamer _Poccir_ from Alexandria bound for Odessa.



                             CHAPTER XXXII.

                         ON BOARD THE "POCCIR."


                                      STEAMER "POCCIR," March 4, 1890.

The steward gave me a very poor state-room below with another man, but I
handed him a fee, and in the morning he put me in a beautiful cabin on
deck, a large room, lined with handsome polished wood with two large
looking-glasses, and fit for a prince or an American to occupy. I could
not find a man on the ship who spoke a word of English, but I rather
enjoyed the novel situation, and got along very nicely.

On the 28th instant, in the morning, I came on deck, and found that we
had arrived at Beyrout, and after partaking of a glass of tea and some
bread, I took a boat and went ashore, and there engaged an Arab guide.
The first call we made was on Mr. Bissenger, our Consul, formerly from
New York, with whom I had a pleasant talk. We then went along the
streets lined on both sides with fine stores occupied by English and
other foreign merchants, and then through the bazaars of the native
town. We inspected a fine palace, splendidly furnished, owned by a
Russian nobleman, who has not been here for seven years, but who keeps
it open, with servants in attendance, ready to be occupied by himself
and family at any time.

We drove out to a handsome public garden, and came back over the famous
Damascus road built by the French. A fine macadam roadway, over which
are run diligences to Damascus, eighty miles away, but now it is blocked
by heavy snow in the mountains, and consequently two hundred travellers
are detained in Beyrout. One gentleman tried to get through on
horseback, but the snow was too deep, and he was obliged to return. The
bay is a beautiful one; as seen from the city, a range of mountains
looming up around it, the lower ones being covered with cedars, and the
higher, including Mount Lebanon, capped with snow.

It will be remembered that Solomon obtained the cedars from these
mountains with which he built the temple at Jerusalem. I had some
anxiety about my passport, as it had not been endorsed by the Turkish
Consul at Cairo, but a fee put into the hands of the customs officer was
sufficient, and he permitted me to depart without even looking at the
document. We got aboard the ship at noon, and after a nice lunch,
including excellent red and white Odessa wine, the steamer whistled, and
we were off. During the afternoon we stopped at Napoli, which is a
well-built town, extending along the shore a mile or two, with the
snow-covered mountains for background. Here a dozen passengers got off,
mostly Turks. There was a heavy sea, and the small boats could only be
brought up to within six feet of the ship's ladder, so the passengers
wishing to disembark had to jump. The steam engines were kept in
constant use from 4 P.M. until midnight, taking on board from lighters
three thousand large boxes of oranges for Odessa.

The steamer and the lighters pitched about, and it was a sight to see
how skilfully every thing was managed.

The cooking on this ship is excellent, though some of the food is new to
me, and I look with some surprise to see the Russians drink a small
glass of raw brandy before each meal.

We arrived at the ancient and important city of Smyrna yesterday at 10
A.M., and went ashore with Mr. Zucker, Swiss Consul to Chili, who speaks
English, and very kindly assisted me in making known my wants.

We employed a guide and went through the city, which is a large one,
containing two hundred thousand people.

The foreign streets and stores are very fine, but those occupied by
Jews, Turks, Armenians, and Greeks are very dirty and disagreeable.

After a couple of hours' walking about in the heat and dirt, we came
back to the street running along the bay, which is a couple of miles
long, well-paved and clean. A dozen large steamers were at the docks,
and much business going on. We saw numbers of fine buildings, hotels,
and cafés.

Mr. Zucker and I called on the United States Consul, Mr. Emmet, and I
was agreeably surprised to find that he was an old acquaintance,
formerly in the Comptroller's office of New York.

At 4 P.M. we went on board, and were soon off. The steamer had been
invaded by a dozen young Englishmen, and on interviewing them I found
that they belonged to a foot-ball club of Constantinople, and had been
to Smyrna playing against a club there. They were a jolly set of young
fellows, and made things lively on the ship for the remainder of the
trip.

The wind blew hard all day. It was cold and disagreeable, and we saw
little of the land, though we were passing through the famous
Dardanelles, the Hellespont of the Greeks, past the site of the ancient
city of Troy, of which Homer sung, and I would have given much for a
bright day or a moonlight night so that I could have seen the exact
place where "Leander swam the Hellespont." But this was not to be, so I
turned in and slept until morning, and when I came on deck found that we
were at anchor in the world-renowned and beautiful harbor of
Constantinople.



CHAPTER XXXIII.

CONSTANTINOPLE.


                                     CONSTANTINOPLE, March 9, 1890.

The harbor appears to be about a mile wide and two miles long,
surrounded by steep hills, on which the city is built, largely in
terraces, with many great palaces, mosques, and public buildings, the
Mosque of St. Sophia being very prominent. I took a guide at the ship
and went ashore in his boat. I had been often informed of the annoyances
by custom-house officials to which travellers are often obliged to
submit on their arrival in the Turkish dominions, and was agreeably
surprised at the ease with which I was permitted to go on shore. The
guide showed my passport to an officer, who looked it over and returned
it, and we went to another wharf, where my trunk and bag had been
landed. There were three venerable officers here, who each took a franc
and passed the baggage without opening any thing, or saying a word.

A big Turk took my trunk and bag on his back, and we went up an
ill-paved and dirty street, a quarter of a mile long, and almost as hard
to climb as the Pyramids of Egypt, leading to a nice and well-paved
avenue, lined with fine shops, on which was the Hotel Pesth, where we
found comfortable quarters.

I had a cup of tea, and then sallied out to see the city. There are few
carriages to be seen in the streets, but great numbers of large and
homeless yellow dogs, all of the same shaggy breed, apparently well fed
and happy and certainly good-natured. There were twelve of these dogs on
the walk opposite the hotel, and I counted 164 on one of the main
streets, about a mile long. We remarked that they were about as thick
all over the city, and there must be as many as fifty thousand
altogether. We walked down a fine street to the water, and along the
shore for a mile or two, and again admired the beautiful bay, which
poets have raved about for centuries, and which most people think the
finest in all the world.

We went as far as one of the big palaces belonging to the Sultan, which
faces the water. It is twelve hundred feet long, and has two grand
entrances built of white marble. There we took a circuit around the
hills, and saw many great buildings, barracks, schools, etc. Once we saw
a regiment of horsemen drilling in a large square. The men were tall and
fine-looking, and the horses excellent. There were two fire alarms while
we were out, and it was enough to make a New York horse laugh to see the
arrangements for putting them out. The engine, so called, was an
ordinary force-pump with two handles, placed on a platform and carried
by a dozen men, who were followed by fifty more, in a leisurely way.
There are no water-works, and many large and very old wooden buildings,
so one can readily see that there must be destructive fires here
sometimes.

I have been here a week, and have seen many mosques, including the
immense and famous St. Sophia, which must have been in days of old very
magnificent, but it has been largely robbed of its treasures, and is now
quite dilapidated.

The weather here is very bad, cold, rainy, and blustering, much as we
often have it in March. There was a heavy fall of snow two weeks ago,
and the streets are wet, slippery, and disagreeable. On the 6th instant
we made the famous trip up the Bosphorus to the Black Sea, which has
been so often written about. There were four of us, Mr. Zucker, myself,
and two friends, all sedate, over sixty years of age, and representing a
combined weight of nearly eight hundred pounds.

We left the hotel at 9 A.M., walked a short distance through the middle
of the muddy streets to a cable road, which we took, and in ten minutes
were in a busy street near the water. We then crossed a fine iron bridge
and went on board a side-wheel steamer. Looking across the water we
could see the great hospital buildings where Florence Nightingale
immortalized her name, by her care of wounded soldiers during the
Crimean war. Steam was up, and soon we were away, going along near the
shore of the European side and making about ten landings. On the shore,
buildings have been erected, sometimes a hundred or more together, so
that practically speaking the ten miles to the Black Sea is a
continuation of the city. Palaces are to be seen all along, several of
them belonging to the Sultan, and one very large and splendid one
occupied by the Persian Ambassador.

The ranges of hills near the water are largely cultivated, and even now
are covered with green grass, the whole presenting a panorama of great
beauty.

We stopped at noon, went on shore and had an excellent lunch at a German
restaurant, and then took another boat as far as the Black Sea, and
returned along the shore of Asia, stopping at numerous places to take on
passengers and mail, and in an hour reached the city.

There was a lot of women on board, with their faces more or less
covered. Once as the steamer was passing a house I saw a very pretty
sight. A couple of little girls made signals to our captain, and a
larger one held up, for him to see, a small white puppy. The
white-headed old sailor smiled a grim smile, and the swift steamer swept
on.

One day I took a guide and went to see the famous native bazaars, where
under one roof were several hundred small stores, the passage-ways
narrow, wet, and ill-paved, such as you find everywhere in the East,
filled with every thing native and foreign one ever thought of. An
Armenian pulled me into his store and showed me elegant stuff, sofa
pillows, silks, shawls, and gold embroidery, but having no use for such
things I came away without purchasing.

Another day I called on Mr. Sweeney, our Consul, and later upon Mr.
Solomon Hirsch, U. S. Minister, who kindly gave me all the information I
wanted about Constantinople. Returning through the lower part of the
city, where there was a large crowd of people, I saw a dog-fight. A
strange black dog had invaded this part of the city, and a dozen yellow
ones went for him fiercely, causing an immense row and confusion, until
a Turk appeared with a big rope, thrashed them all and sent them yelling
away.

One morning we took a carriage, and went to see the Sultan make his
weekly trip to a mosque. We drove some three miles to the front of the
mosque through the mud and snow.

This mosque is a new and beautiful one, and soon after we arrived, there
was a great gathering of horse and foot-soldiers.

The horsemen were fine-looking, and rode splendid horses. They formed
several deep in front of our carriage, but I got on a high fence, so as
to have a good view, and stood there in the snow and rain for an hour,
waiting for his Highness. At length there came a band of music, a troop
of cavalry, and many decorated officers, followed by an open carriage
containing the Sultan, a dark, black-bearded middle-aged Turk, wearing
the national red fez. He passed slowly on to his devotions, and I was
asked if I would wait and see him return. I said most decidedly not, and
returned with my friends to the hotel and to a late but excellent
breakfast at 2 P.M.



CHAPTER XXXIV.

CONCLUSION.


On the afternoon of the 10th of March, I took a walk down to the great
bridge, and had a last and lingering look at the splendid harbor, the
Golden Horn, and the Bosphorus. At 6 P.M., I took a carriage and a guide
to the depot at Stamboul, from which leaves, twice a week, the Oriental
Express for Vienna and Paris.

After an examination of my passport and baggage, and considerable delay,
I got on the train, composed exclusively of Mann boudoir cars, lighted
by gas, including dining-car; and every thing first-class, quite as good
as any thing in America, except the vestibule trains from New York to
Chicago. The road-bed is so perfectly constructed that the cars run
easier than on any railroad I was ever on. You could read with comfort,
and some of the passengers were writing. My journey from Constantinople
was a solitary one, our party having separated, and other friends being
left behind. Passing through Bulgaria and Servia, little was to be seen
except vast plains, sometimes cultivated, but often not; mud houses with
thatched roofs, and oxen ploughing in the fields. We then went up and
over big mountains, covered with snow.

The second morning when I arose we were in Hungary, and the scene had
changed to every appearance of business and activity. Four oxen,
attached to a plough or to a four-wheel wagon, were to be seen all along
the route. There were vast cultivated plains, and beyond them towns,
villages, and houses, all looking in good shape. We arrived at Budapest
after two nights and one day on the train. I spent two days in Budapest,
and found it one of the most beautiful cities in Europe--handsome, well
paved, wide, clean streets, splendid hotels, stores, and public and
private buildings. This city is the capital of Hungary; the King, who is
also Emperor of Austria, resides here for a portion of the year.

In one of my trips about the city, I saw him driving out in his royal
coach. Leaving Budapest at half-past two one afternoon, after a fine
journey of five hours, I arrived in Vienna, and was accommodated at the
Imperial Hotel, which was first-class in all respects.

A week was passed in Vienna. It is one of the most beautiful cities in
the world, many think even finer than Paris, and I thoroughly enjoyed
the comforts of civilization once more, all the more, no doubt, from
having been partly deprived of them for so many months, as recorded in
the previous pages. I called on Colonel Grant, the United States
Minister, who was very polite and kind. I dined with him and his
charming family, and attended a diplomatic reception given by Mrs.
Grant. I also dined with the distinguished Dr. Kolish and his family,
some of whom spoke excellent English, and passed a very agreeable
evening with them.

Passing on to Berlin, I there saw a grand review given by the Emperor to
the Prince of Wales; and from there went to Dresden, in which delightful
city several days were spent, going often to the large and splendid
gallery of paintings, and lingering in front of that wonderful work of
art, the "Sistine Madonna." One evening I went to the Grand Opera, and
one afternoon drove around and through the city. Two American young
ladies were kind enough to accompany me and to point out the various
objects of interest. We met the King of Saxony, driving out in a showy
royal carriage.

Hamburg came next, one of the most beautiful and enterprising cities in
Europe, and then Bremen, where I boarded the North German Lloyds steamer
_Eider_.

Every thing about this splendid ship was so perfect that one could not
suggest an improvement; the table being of extraordinary excellence. We
made a quick passage, and in eight days I landed in New York, April 8,
1890, having been absent exactly seven months. The distance travelled
was 27,816 miles: 18,786 by water, 9,030 by land.


       *       *       *       *       *



DISTANCES TRAVELLED:

Recorded from San Francisco to Cairo by Miss Roe; of Cincinnati.

                                           MILES
    From New York to San Francisco         3,000
    San Francisco to Yokohama              4,724
    Yokohama to Tokio and return              36
    Nikko, Lake Chiu, and return             253
    Hankom Pass and return                   115-1/2
    Kamakura and Enoshima                     80
    Yokohama to Kobé                         346
    Kobé to Kioto and Osaka                  152
    Kobé _via_ Nagasaki to Hong-Kong       1,456
    Hong-Kong to Canton and return           180
    Hong-Kong to Colombo, Ceylon           3,096
    N. Elliya and Kandy                      270-1/2
    Colombo to Madras and Calcutta         1,401
    Calcutta to Darjeeling and return        740
    Calcutta to Benares                      475
    Benares to Lucknow                       202
    Lucknow to Cawnpore                       46
    Cawnpore to Agra                         160
    Agra to Delhi                            144
    Delhi to Jeypore                         101
    Jeypore to Bombay                        699
    Bombay to Aden                         1,661
    Aden to Ismaïlia                       1,352
    Ismaïlia to Cairo                         84
    Memphis and return                        50
    Pyramids and return                       16
    Cairo to Alexandria                      150
    Alexandria to Jaffa                      250
    Jaffa to Jerusalem and return             68
    Jerusalem to Bethlehem and return         10
    Jaffa to Constantinople                1,000
    Constantinople to Vienna               1,300
    Vienna to Dresden                        340
    Dresden to Berlin                        100
    Berlin to Hamburg                        168
    Hamburg to Bremerhaven                    90
    Bremerhaven to New York                3,500
                                          ------
                                          27,816

       *       *       *       *       *





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