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Title: Fruits of the Hawaiian Islands
Author: Wilder, Gerrit Parmile
Language: English
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book.



  FRUITS
  OF THE
  HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

  BY

  GERRIT PARMILE WILDER


  (REVISED EDITION, INCLUDING VOL. 1, 1906.)

  ILLUSTRATED BY ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-ONE HALF-TONE
  PLATES WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SAME


  Copyright December 1906, December 1911
  GERRIT PARMILE WILDER


  HONOLULU, T. H.
  PUBLISHED BY THE HAWAIIAN GAZETTE CO., LTD.
  1911



INDEX


  Preface                                                                5
  Persea gratissima, Avocado, Palta or Alligator Pear, Plate I           7
  Persea gratissima, Avocado, Plate II                                   9
  Persea gratissima, Guatamala Avocado, Plate III                       11
  Punica Granatum, Pomegranate, Plate IV                                13
  Ficus Carica (common var.), Fig, Plate V                              15
  Ficus Carica, Fig, Plate VI                                           17
  Ficus Carica (white or lemon var.), Fig, Plate VII                    19
  Jambosa malaccensis, Mountain Apple or "Ohia Ai," Plate VIII          21
  Jambosa sp., Water Apple, Plate IX                                    23
  Jambosa sp. (white var.), Water Apple, Plate X                        25
  Jambosa sp. (red var.), Water Apple, Plate XI                         27
  Eugenia Jambos, Rose Apple, Plate XII                                 29
  Eugenia brasiliensis, Brazilian Plum or Spanish Cherry, Plate XIII    31
  Eugenia uniflora, French Cherry, Plate XIV                            33
  Eugenia sp., Plate XV                                                 35
  Syzygium Jambolana, Java Plum, Plate XVI                              37
  Syzygium Jambolana (small variety), Java Plum, Plate XVII             39
  Averrhoa Carambola, Plate XVIII                                       41
  Achras Sapota, Sapodilla or Naseberry, Plate XIX                      43
  Casimiroa edulis, White Sapodilla, Plate XX                           45
  Prunus Persica, Peach, Plate XXI                                      47
  Chrysophyllum Cainito (purple var.), Star Apple, Plate XXII           49
  Chrysophyllum Cainito (white var.), Star Apple, Plate XXIII           51
  Chrysophyllum monopyrenum, Plate XXIV                                 53
  Mimusops Elengi, Plate XXV                                            55
  Spondias dulcis, "Wi," Plate XXVI                                     57
  Spondias lutea, Hog Plum, Plate XXVII                                 59
  Mammea Americana, Mammee Apple, Plate XXVIII                          61
  Tamarindus indica, Tamarind, Plate XXIX                               63
  Durio zibethinus, Durion, Plate XXX                                   65
  Coffea arabica, Arabian Coffee, Plate XXXI                            67
  Coffea liberica, Liberian Coffee, Plate XXXII                         69
  Clausena Wampi, Wampi, Plate XXXIII                                   71
  Physalis peruviana, Cape Gooseberry or "Poha," Plate XXXIV            73
  Carica Papaya, Papaya (fruit, female tree), Plate XXXV                75
  Carica Papaya, Papaya (fruit, male tree), Plate XXXVI                 77
  Carica quercifolia, Plate XXXVII                                      79
  Citrus Japonica (var. "Hazara"), Chinese Orange, Plate XXXVIII        81
  Citrus Japonica, Kumquat, Plate XXXIX                                 83
  Citrus Nobilis, Mandarin Orange, Plate XL                             85
  Citrus medica limetta, Lime, Plate XLI                                87
  Citrus medica limonum, Lemon, Plate XLII                              89
  Citrus medica (var. limonum), Rough-skin Lemon, Plate XLIII           91
  Citrus Aurantium Sinense, Waialua Orange, Plate XLIV                  93
  Citrus Aurantium, Bahia or Washington Navel Orange, Plate XLV         95
  Citrus Decumana, Pomelo or Shaddock (pear-shaped var.), Plate XLVI    97
  Citrus Decumana, Pomelo or Shaddock (round var.), Plate XLVII         99
  Artocarpus incisa, Breadfruit (Hawaiian var.) or "Ulu," Plate XLVIII 101
  Artocarpus incisa, Breadfruit (Samoan var.), Plate XLIX              103
  Artocarpus incisa, Breadfruit (Tahitian var.), Plate L               105
  Artocarpus incisa, Fertile Breadfruit, Plate LI                      107
  Artocarpus integrifolia, Jack Fruit, Plate LII                       109
  Anona muricata, Sour Sop, Plate LIII                                 111
  Anona Cherimolia, Cherimoyer, Plate LIV                              113
  Anona reticulata, Custard Apple, Plate LV                            115
  Anona squamosa, Sugar Apple or Sweet Sop, Plate LVI                  117
  Psidium Guayava pomiferum, Common Guava, Plate LVII                  119
  Psidium Guayava, Sweet Red Guava, Plate LVIII                        121
  Psidium Guayava, White Lemon Guava, Plate LIX                        123
  Psidium Guayava pyriferum, "Waiawi," Plate LX                        125
  Psidium Cattleyanum, Strawberry Guava, Plate LXI                     127
  Psidium Cattleyanum (var. lucidum), Plate LXII                       129
  Psidium molle, Plate LXIII                                           131
  Mangifera indica, Mango, Plate LXIV                                  133
  Mangifera indica, Manini Mango, Plate LXV                            135
  Mangifera indica, No. 9 Mango, Plate LXVI                            137
  Musa (var.), Banana or "Maia," Plate LXVII                           139
  Morinda citrifolia, "Noni," Plate LXVIII                             141
  Vaccinium reticulatum, "Ohelo," Plate LXIX                           143
  Solanum pimpinellifolium, Currant Tomato, Plate LXX                  145
  Solanum Lycopersicum, Grape Tomato, Plate LXX                        145
  Solanum nodiflorum, "Popolo," Plate LXXI                             147
  Aleurites moluccana, Candlenut Tree or "Kukui Nut," Plate LXXII      149
  Terminalia Catappa, Tropical Almond or "Kamani," Plate LXXIII        151
  Calophyllum inophyllum "Kamani," Plate LXXIV                         153
  Noronhia emarginata, Plate LXXV                                      155
  Castanea sativa, Japanese Chestnut, Plate LXXVI                      157
  Inocarpus edulis, Tahitian Chestnut, Plate LXXVII                    159
  Canarium commune, Canary Nut, Plate LXXVIII                          161
  Canarium commune, Canary Nut (round var.), Plate LXXIX               163
  Macadamia ternifolia, Queensland Nut, Plate LXXX                     165
  Macadamia sp., Plate LXXXI                                           167
  Aegle Marmelos, Bhel or Bael Fruit, Plate LXXXII                     169
  Diospyros decandra, Brown Persimmon, Plate LXXXIII                   171
  Lucuma Rivicoa, Plate LXXXIV                                         173
  Eriobotrya Japonica, Loquat, Plate LXXXV                             175
  Litchi Chinensis, "Lichee," Plate LXXXVI                             177
  Euphoria Longana, Longan, Plate LXXXVII                              179
  Morus nigra, Mulberry, Plate LXXXVIII                                181
  Garcinia mangostana, Mangosteen, Plate LXXXIX                        183
  Garcinia Xanthochymus, Plate XC                                      185
  Bunchosia sp., Plate XCI                                             187
  Malpighia glabra, Barbados Cherry, Plate XCII                        189
  Theobroma Cacao, Cocoa or Chocolate Tree, Plate XCIII                191
  Hibiscus Sabdariffa, Roselle, Plate XCIV                             193
  Monstera deliciosa, Plate XCV                                        195
  Anacardium occidentale, Cashew Nut, Plate XCVI                       197
  Ziziphus Jujuba, "Jujube," Plate XCVII                               199
  Phyllanthus emblica, Plate XCVIII                                    201
  Phyllanthus distichus, Otaheiti Gooseberry, Plate XCIX               203
  Olea Europea, Olive, Plate C                                         205
  Vitis Labrusca, "Isabella Grape," Plate CI                           207
  Pyrus Sinensis, Sand pear, Plate CII                                 209
  Passiflora quadrangularis, Granadilla Vine, Plate CIII               211
  Passiflora edulis, Purple Water Lemon or "Lilikoi," Plate CIV        213
  Passiflora laurifolia, Yellow Water Lemon, Plate CV                  215
  Passiflora alata, Plate CVI                                          217
  Passiflora var. foetida, Plate CVII                                  219
  Cereus triangularis, Night-blooming Cereus, Plate CVIII              221
  Kigelia pinnata, Sausage Tree, Plate CIX                             223
  Phoenix dactylifera, The Date Palm, Plate CX                         225
  Phoenix dactylifera, Date (red and yellow var.), Plate CXI           227
  Acrocomia sp., Plate CXII                                            229
  Cocos nucifera, Cocoanut Palm or "Niu," Plate CXIII                  231
  Cordia collococca, Clammy Cherry, Plate CXIV                         233
  Flacourtia cataphracta, Plate CXV                                    235
  Atalantia buxifolia, Plate CXVI                                      237
  Bumelia sp., Plate CXVII                                             239
  Ochrosia elliptica, Plate CXVIII                                     241
  Ananas sativus, Pineapple, Plate CXIX                                243
  Opuntia Tuna, Prickly Pear or "Panini," Plate CXX                    245
  Prosopis juliflora, Algaroba or "Kiawe," Plate CXXI                  247



PREFACE


My original intention with regard to this work, was to publish it in a
series of three volumes; and to that end, the first volume was presented
to the public in 1906.

Since that time, however, I have deemed it advisable, for various
reasons, to incorporate all my data in one volume.

I desire to acknowledge my indebtedness for help in my researches, to
various works on Horticulture, and to many of my personal friends who
have given me valuable assistance.

I trust that this work will prove of some interest, as I believe that it
contains a fairly comprehensive list of both the indigenous and
naturalized Fruits of the Hawaiian Islands.

  GERRIT PARMILE WILDER.



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE I

  _Persea gratissima._

  AVOCADO, PALTA OR ALLIGATOR PEAR.


Grown in the garden of Gerrit Wilder.

[Illustration: PLATE I.--_Avocado._]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE II

  _Persea gratissima._

  AVOCADO.


This spreading evergreen tree is a native of Tropical America. In the
Hawaiian Islands, the first trees of its kind were said to have been
planted in Pauoa Valley, Oahu, by Don Marin. It attains a height of from
10 to 40 feet, and is adverse to drought. Its leaves are
elliptico-oblong, from 4 to 7 inches in length. The flowers are
greenish-yellow and downy. The fruit, which ripens from June until
November, is a round or pear-shaped drupe, covered with a thin, rather
tough skin, which is either green or purple in color. The flesh is
yellow, firm and marrow-like, and has a delicious nutty flavor. The
seed-cavity is generally large, containing one round or oblong seed,
covered by a thin, brown, parchment-like skin. The quality of the pear
is judged, not only by its flavor, but by the presence or absence of
strings or fibre in the meat, and also by the quantity of flesh as
compared to the size of the seed. Innumerable variations as to size,
shape, and quality have been produced from seedlings--some of which may
be seen in the accompanying illustration. The Avocado is easily
reproduced by budding and grafting, and the best varieties may be
obtained in this manner.

[Illustration: PLATE II.--_Avocado._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE III

  _Persea gratissima._

  GUATAMALA AVOCADO.


This variety is a native of Mexico, and although known as the Guatamala
Avocado, it is more commonly to be found in the markets of the City of
Mexico. Its leaves are purplish-green. The flowers, which appear in May
and June, are like those of the preceding variety; and the drupe, which
matures in the early part of the year, has a long stem. This fruit is
round, from 3 to 5 inches in diameter, has a thick, tough, rough rind,
which when ripe is a deep claret color, and the meat, which is a
golden-yellow, is tinged with purple next to the rind, and is free from
strings or fibres. There are but two trees of this variety bearing fruit
in Honolulu. They were propagated from seeds brought here in 1890 by
Admiral Beardsley. These two trees are growing in private gardens.

[Illustration: PLATE III.--_Guatamala Avocado._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE IV

  _Punica Granatum._

  POMEGRANATE.


The name was derived from the word punicus, of Carthage, near which city
it is said to have been discovered; hence malumpunicum, Apple of
Carthage, which was the early name of the Pomegranate. It is a native of
Northern Africa, and of Southwestern Asia, and is grown in the Himalayas
up to an elevation of 6000 feet. It is a deciduous shrub, which by
careful training can be made to grow into a tree from 10 to 15 feet
high. Many shoots spring from the base of the tree, and should be cut
away, as they draw the sap which should go to the fruit-bearing stems.
The branches are slender, twiggy, nearly cylindrical, and somewhat
thorny. The bark contains about 32 per cent. tannin, and is used for
dying the yellow Morocco leather. The peel of the fruit serves also as a
dye. There are several varieties of Pomegranate growing in Hawaii: the
double-flowering variety is popular as an ornamental plant. All of the
varieties are of easy culture, and are readily propagated by means of
cuttings of the ripe wood. The leaves are lanceolate, glabrous, and a
glossy-green with red veins. The flowers are axillary, solitary or in
small clusters, and in color are a very showy rich orange-red. The fruit
is about the size of an ordinary orange, has a persistent calyx, and is
made up of many small compartments arranged in two series, one above the
other. The crisp, sweet, watery pink pulp enveloping each seed is the
edible portion of the Pomegranate.

[Illustration: PLATE IV.--_Pomegranate._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE V

  _Ficus Carica_ (common variety).

  FIG.


The Fig is the most ancient, as well as one of the most valuable of all
fruit trees. Its name is nearly the same in all European languages. The
tree is supposed to be a native of Caria in Asia Minor. The intelligent
cultivators of Anatolia, by whom the Smyrna Figs are produced, adhere to
the caprification process, used from time immemorial. In California,
efforts have been made to test this process. In the Hawaiian Islands,
the Portuguese seem to be the most successful cultivators of the Fig,
and several varieties are to be found throughout the group. This common
variety grows to a height of from 10 to 20 feet, is hardy, and can
easily be propagated from cuttings. Its leaves are alternate, 3 to 5
deeply lobed, and are shed during the fall months, at which season
careful pruning will increase the following year's yield. The fruit is
single, appearing from the axils of the leaves, on the new wood. It is a
hollow, pear-shaped receptacle, containing many minute seeds, scattered
throughout a soft, pinkish-white pulp.

[Illustration: PLATE V.--_Fig._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE VI

  _Ficus Carica._

  FIG.


Some years ago, this variety of Fig was to be found growing in large
numbers at Makawao, and in the Kula district of Maui. Now, however,
there are few, if any, trees remaining, as a destructive blight,
together with the lack of proper attention, has caused their
extermination. This variety is very prolific. The fruit is small,
pear-shaped, and has a particularly sweet and delicious flavor.

[Illustration: PLATE VI.--_Fig._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE VII

  _Ficus Carica_ (white or lemon variety).

  FIG.


This is a low-growing tree with compact foliage. The leaves are small,
and the fruit is round-turbinate, about 1 to 1½ inches in diameter. The
skin is very thin, is light-green in color, turning to a greenish-yellow
when thoroughly ripe. The pulp is pink, very sweet, and when quite ripe
is free from milky juice. This variety is also prolific, is easily
dried, and on this account would find a ready sale in our markets.

[Illustration: PLATE VII.--_Fig._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE VIII

  _Jambosa malaccensis._

  MOUNTAIN APPLE, "OHIA AI."


This tree is found on all the large islands of the Polynesian groups,
and in the Malaysian Archipelago. In the Hawaiian Islands it confines
itself almost entirely to the moist, shady valleys, and thrives well, up
to an elevation of 1800 feet. It is generally gregarious, and on the
north side of East Maui it forms a forest belt. It attains a height of
from 25 to 50 feet. Its dark, shiny, glabrous leaves are opposite,
elliptico-oblong, and from 6 to 7 inches long, and from 2½ to 3 inches
broad. The flowers are crimson, fluffy balls, appearing in March and
April, on the naked branches and upper trunk of the tree. The fruit,
which ripens from July until December, generally contains one seed, is
obovate, about 3 inches in diameter. The skin is so thin as to be barely
perceptible, and the fruit is very easily bruised. In color, it is a
deep, rich crimson, shading into pink and white; the pulp is firm,
white, and juicy, with a very agreeable flavor.

[Illustration: PLATE VIII.--_Mountain Apple._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE IX

  _Jambosa sp._ (Solomon Island variety).

  WATER APPLE.


This low-growing tree is very rare in the Hawaiian Islands. It was
introduced here, from the Solomon Islands, by Mr. A. Jaeger. The foliage
and crimson flowers resemble those of the _Jambosa malaccensis_, but the
drupe is not so highly colored, and is, in shape, much more elongated.
Specimens of this sweet, edible fruit have measured 5 inches in length.

[Illustration: PLATE IX.--_Water Apple._

One fourth natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE X

  _Jambosa sp._ (white variety).

  WATER APPLE.


This tree is a native of the Malay Islands. The foliage is symmetrical,
and its opposite, shiny leaves are broad, lanceolate, and
obtusely-acuminate. The pure white flowers, which bloom from March until
June, are about ½-inch in diameter, and are produced in bunches on the
naked branches. The fruit, which is also produced in bunches, ripens in
October. It is transversely oval in shape, about 1 to 1½ inches in
diameter at its largest end. It contains from 1 to 3 seeds. Even when
quite ripe, the fruit remains pure white in color, and has a tart,
insipid flavor.

[Illustration: PLATE X.--_Water Apple._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XI

  _Jambosa sp._ (red variety).

  WATER APPLE.


This low-growing tree with its bright evergreen foliage, is not common
in Hawaii. The flowers are small, deep crimson, and appear on the
branches either singly or in bunches. The contrast between these
brilliant flowers and the fresh green leaves makes a very beautiful
sight when the tree is in full bloom. The fruit, which ripens in July,
appears in clusters; it is the same shape as that of the preceding
variety, but in color it is a bright scarlet. It contains from 1 to 3
seeds, which are somewhat difficult to germinate. The fruit is crisp,
watery, and has a sub-acid flavor.

[Illustration: PLATE XI.--_Water Apple._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XII

  _Eugenia Jambos._

  ROSE APPLE.


This evergreen tree, which is a native of the West Indies, is of medium
size, reaching a height of from 20 to 30 feet. It grows well in Hawaii,
and is found at an elevation of 2000 feet. It is propagated from seed,
as well as from cuttings of the ripe wood. The leaves are lanceolate,
acuminate, thick and shiny. The large, fluffy flowers which appear from
January until April, are produced freely, and are a beautiful
creamy-white. The fruit is a somewhat compressed, globular shell,
varying in size from 1 to 2 inches in diameter, and with a large cavity,
containing generally one seed. This shell, which is the edible portion
of the fruit, is a light creamy-yellow, with a tinge of pale-pink on one
side; it requires from 2 to 2½ months to mature. It is firm, crisp, and
has a delicious flavor, somewhat resembling an apricot, and with a rose
odor. The season for the fruit varies according to the elevation, but
generally ends about August or September.

[Illustration: PLATE XII.--_Rose Apple._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XIII

  _Eugenia brasiliensis._

  BRAZILIAN PLUM, OR SPANISH CHERRY.


This evergreen shrub, or low-growing tree, which in many countries is
said to reach a height of but 6 feet, in Hawaii attains a height of 20
feet; and although it thrives in comparatively high altitudes, it bears
best below the 200-foot elevation, and requires considerable moisture.
The bluntish, dark, shiny leaves, which are scale-like along the
branches, are obovate, oblong, and about 3 inches in length. The
blossoming season varies according to the location; however, the tree
generally has flowers and fruit from July until December. The fruit is
the size of a cherry, is deep purple in color, and the persistent calyx
is very prominent. The sweet pulp has a very agreeable flavor.

Probably the first plants of this variety were brought here by Don
Marin, about a century ago. Some fine trees may be found in Pauoa and
Makiki valleys, and also in Nuuanu, in the garden which formerly
belonged to Dr. Hillebrand.

[Illustration: PLATE XIII.--_Brazilian Plum, or Spanish Cherry._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XIV

  _Eugenia uniflora._

  FRENCH CHERRY.


This shrub is said to be a native of Brazil. In Hawaii, it is a common
garden plant, sometimes reaching a height of 10 feet. Its glossy leaves
are ovate-lanceolate, and its peduncles short. It has small, single,
white fragrant flowers. The mature fruit, which resembles a cherry, is
about 1 inch in diameter, and is ribbed longitudinally. It has a
delicious, spicy, acid flavor. There is generally one large, round,
smooth seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XIV.--_French Cherry._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XV

  _Eugenia sp._


This is a small Malayan tree which is rare in Hawaii. It has regular,
opposite, large, broad leaves; with the stems and branches four-sided.
The purplish-white flowers are produced in clusters. The waxy
light-green fruits, with a persistent calyx, resemble a small guava.
These fruits have a very tough, pithy skin and pulp combined, which is
edible, but too dry to be agreeable. The seed is large in proportion to
the size of the fruit.

[Illustration: PLATE XV.--_Eugenia sp._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XVI

  _Syzygium Jambolana._

  JAVA PLUM.


This tall, hardy tree is a native of Southern Asia. In Polynesia it
grows well, up to an elevation of 5000 feet. It is a very common tree in
the Hawaiian Islands. Its leaves, which are from 4 to 6 inches long, and
from 2 to 3 inches broad, are opposite, obtuse or shortly-acuminate. The
flowers, which bloom in June, July and August, are white and quite
fragrant, and are especially attractive to the honey-bee. The oblong
fruit grows in large clusters, ripens from September until November, and
varies in size from a cherry to a pigeon's egg. It is purplish-black in
color, and is edible only when thoroughly ripe. It contains one large,
oblong seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XVI.--_Java Plum._

One half size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XVII

  _Syzygium Jambolana_ (small variety).

  JAVA PLUM.


This tree, which is also very common in the Hawaiian Islands, is said to
have been introduced by Dr. Hillebrand. It bears but one crop a year,
will grow in any soil, and withstands dry weather. The foliage is
smaller than that of the preceding variety; its leaves are narrower, and
a lighter green in color. It blooms at about the same time of year, but
its flowers are not as large, and appear in thick bunches. The purplish
fruit ripens from September until December.

[Illustration: PLATE XVII.--_Java Plum._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XVIII

  _Averrhoa Carambola._


This tree, which is said to have been named after Averrhoes, an Arabian
physician, is a native of Insular India, and is much cultivated in India
and China. It is evergreen, with dense foliage, and grows to a height of
from 15 to 20 feet. It is easily propagated from seeds, and fruits in
about three years. In Hawaii it bears one crop annually, the flowers
appearing in July and the fruit in November and December. The leaves are
alternate, odd-pinnate. The flowers, which are borne in clusters on the
naked stems and branches, are minute, fragrant, and in color shading
from a pale pink to a deep purplish-red. The fruit, varying in size from
a hen's egg to an orange, is ovate, and has five acutely-angled
longitudinal ribs. The fragrant, light-yellow skin is very thin, and the
pulp is watery; it contains a number of flat, brown seeds. This fruit is
of two varieties: the sweet, which may be eaten raw, and the acid which
is delicious when preserved. A very appetizing pickle may be made from
the half-ripe fruit of the acid variety.

[Illustration: PLATE XVIII.--_Averrhoa Carambola._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XIX

  _Achras Sapota._

  SAPODILLA, OR NASEBERRY.


This tree, which grows on almost all of the Islands of the Hawaiian
group, is a fine evergreen, growing to a height of from 10 to 20 feet,
and producing a fruit which is much prized in warm countries. The bark
possesses tonic properties, and from the juice chewing-gum is made. Its
foliage is dense, and the shiny leaves are thick, lance-oblong, entire,
and clustered at the ends of the branches. The flowers, which are small,
whitish, and perfect, are borne on the rusty pubescent growths of the
season. The fruit, of which there are two varieties, the round and the
oblong, is about the size of a hen's egg. It has a rough skin, the color
of a russet apple, beneath which is a firm, somewhat stringy, sweet
pulp, having the flavor of an apricot. This pulp is divided into 10 to
12 compartments, and contains from 4 to 6 large, flat, smooth, black
seeds.

[Illustration: PLATE XIX.--_Sapodilla, or Naseberry._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XX

  _Casimiroa edulis._

  WHITE SAPOTA.


This tree, which is a native of Mexico, is said to have been named after
Cardinal Casimiro Gomez. The first tree of its kind in Hawaii was
planted in 1884, at the Government Nursery, Honolulu. The seed came from
Santa Barbara, California, where there grows today, a tree more than
eighty years old, and which still bears its fruit. It is a tall
evergreen with irregular branches; its digitate leaves are dark and
glossy. The trunk is ashen-grey, with warty excrescences. The fruit,
which matures in April and May, is large, 1 to 4 inches in diameter; it
is depressed-globular and somewhat ribbed, like a tomato; in color it is
a light-green, turning to a dull yellow when ripe, and it has a very
thin skin. The pulp is yellow, resembling that of an over-ripe, and has
a melting, peach-like flavor. It contains from 1 to 3 large, oblong
seeds, which are said to be deleterious.

[Illustration: PLATE XX.--_White Sapota._

One fourth natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXI

  _Prunus Persica._

  PEACH.


The Peach-tree is said by some authorities to be indigenous to Persia,
while by others it is claimed to be a native of China. It is a hardy
tree, and has been known to bear fruit precociously even in the second
year after planting. If allowed to do so, the Peach will grow to a
height of about 15 feet; but it should be pruned annually, in order to
secure a good crop. Its leaves are lanceolate and coarsely serrate. The
flowers are solitary, pink in color, and appear before the leaves. The
fruit is soft and pubescent at maturity. The stone is deeply pitted and
very hard. There are two well-marked varieties, the cling-stone and the
free-stone.

Ulupalakua and Makawao, Maui, once had the reputation of growing
finely-flavored seedling peaches; however, many of these trees have been
injured by cattle, and others have been destroyed by root-fungus and
insect pests. In several localities in Hawaii good peaches have been
grown from imported varieties.

[Illustration: PLATE XXI.--_Peach._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXII

  _Chrysophyllum Cainito_ (purple variety).

  STAR APPLE.


This tree is a native of the West Indies, and although not common in
Hawaii, there are good specimens to be found in many gardens. It has
large irregular spreading branches, grows to a height of from 10 to 25
feet, and has rather thick foliage. Propagation is ordinarily effected
by seeds, which germinate readily, when fresh. It can also be grown from
cuttings of the ripe wood. The tree derives its name from the words
"chrysos," gold, and "phyllon," a leaf; referring to the golden-russet
color of the underside of the beautiful, glossy green leaves. The small
flowers, which appear from June until October, are solitary at the nodes
or in fascicles. The fruit, which ripens in April, is round, about 3
inches in diameter, has a smooth, tough rind, about 1-16th inch thick,
which is a deep purple in color. A cross-section of the fruit shows the
edible pulp with its numerous black seeds, and the star-shaped core,
from which the fruit derives its common name of Star Apple. Unless the
fruit is thoroughly ripe, its milky juice is remarkably astringent.

[Illustration: PLATE XXII.--_Star Apple._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXIII

  _Chrysophyllum Cainito_ (white variety).

  STAR APPLE.


This tree, which bears its fruit in from four to five years, has about
the same characteristics as that of the preceding variety. The fruit is
somewhat larger, and is not quite so sweet. In color it is pale green,
shaded with purple.

[Illustration: PLATE XXIII.--_Star Apple._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXIV

  _Chrysophyllum monopyrenum._


This small tree, which is indigenous to the West Indies, is also a
native of Southern Florida, and is to be found as an ornamental plant in
many localities of tropical America. In Jamaica it is called the "Damson
Plum." Its small, single, white flowers are highly perfumed. The fruit,
which matures from August until December, is small, ovoid-oblong, and
when ripe is purplish-black; when bruised it emits a white, sticky
juice. It contains one large seed. Specimens of this tree are to be
found growing in the grounds of the Queen's Hospital and at the
Government Nursery, Honolulu.

[Illustration: PLATE XXIV.--_Chrysophyllum monopyrenum._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXV

  _Mimusops Elengi._


This handsome evergreen tree, with its bright, glossy leaves, is very
suitable for hedges and for windbreaks. It has alternate, elliptic
leaves 3 to 3½ inches long. The small, solitary flowers, have many
creamy-white petals, and are very fragrant; from them perfume is
obtained by distillation. The yellow fruit is about the shape and size
of a small olive, and contains a dry, mealy pulp which is edible, and
the large, flat, brown seed yield an oil.

[Illustration: PLATE XXV.--_Mimusops Elengi._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      Plate XXVI

  _Spondias dulcis._

  "WI."


This deciduous tree is said to be a native of the Society Islands, and
is common to the tropics of both hemispheres. It is a large, spreading
and graceful tree, reaching a height of from 30 to 50 feet. Its pinnate
leaves are green and glossy; the leaflets are oval-oblong and opposite.
The foliage is shed from December until April. The flowers are
paniculate, small, and greenish-white. The fruit, which ripens from
November until April, is a fleshy drupe, oval in shape, from 1 to 3
inches in diameter; it has a thin, smooth, golden-yellow skin, which has
a rather sour disagreeable odor. The fleshy pulp is light yellow, is
mellow when quite ripe, and has a sub-acid delicious flavor, compared by
some to the pineapple. Within this pulp is embedded a 1 to 5 loculed,
bony endocarp, which contains generally one seed. This endocarp is
covered with fibres which penetrate the pulp. The first Wi tree in
Hawaii was planted at the residence of Mr. John S. Walker, Nuuanu
Valley.

[Illustration: PLATE XXVI.--_Spondias dulcis._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXVII

  _Spondias lutea._

  HOG PLUM.


This tree is distributed over Tropical America, West Africa and Java,
where it is commonly called the Hog Plum, and is used for fattening
swine. In Jamaica it grows well, up to an elevation of 4000 feet. It is
a large, graceful tree, about 50 feet high, with spreading branches, and
it is particularly beautiful when in fruit. The pinnate leaves are a
clear green, the leaflets are ovate-lanceolate, and the golden-yellow
fruit hangs in clusters. It ripens in September and October. The fruit
is ovoid, about 1 inch long; it has a smooth skin, having a disagreeable
odor. There is one large seed, which resembles the husk of a ground-nut.
This fruit is cooling and aromatic. To my knowledge there are but two
trees of this kind in bearing in the Hawaiian Islands, and these are
growing in private grounds in Honolulu.

[Illustration: PLATE XXVII.--_Hog Plum._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXVIII

  _Mammea Americana._

  MAMMEE APPLE.


The Mammee Apple, which grows well in Hawaii, is a native of the West
Indies, and is a fruit much esteemed in tropical countries. In Jamaica
it thrives well, up to an elevation of 3000 feet. The tree attains a
height of from 30 to 40 feet, and the wood, which is beautifully
grained, is durable and well adapted to building purposes. Its leaves
are rigid and leathery. The round seeds, varying in number from 1 to 4,
germinate freely, and the young plants are easily raised. The fruit is
from 3 to 6 inches in diameter, is brown or russet color, and has a
yellow pulp, which is sweet and aromatic. The outer rind, as well as the
pulp immediately surrounding the seeds, is very bitter. The fruit may be
eaten raw, and is very delicious when preserved.

[Illustration: PLATE XXVIII.--_Mammee Apple._

One fourth natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXIX

  _Tamarindus indica._

  TAMARIND.


The name is derived from Tamar, Arabic for Date, and Indus, Indian; thus
literally meaning Indian Date. It is a native of the Indies, Egypt and
Arabia. The tree is never leafless, and the foliage is graceful,
pinnated and acacia like. It bears one crop a year, the season varying
somewhat according to the location and elevation. It yields a handsome,
hard and close-grained furniture wood, which is yellowish-white, with
occasional red streaks in it; the heart-wood is dark brownish-purple.
The pods are thick, linear, dark brown in color, and from 3 to 6 inches
long. The seeds vary in number. The pulp surrounding the seeds has a
pleasant acid flavor, and when made into syrup, forms the basis of a
delicious, cooling beverage. This pulp is called the fruit, while the
pod is spoken of as the shell. The Tamarind is propagated from both
seeds and cuttings, and is undoubtedly one of the noblest of our
tropical trees.

[Illustration: PLATE XXIX.--_Tamarind._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXX

  _Durio zibethinus._

  DURION.


This fine tree attains a height of from 60 to 80 feet; it derives its
name from the Malay word "dury," a thorn, in reference to the prickly
covering of the fruit. The leaves, which are a light, glossy green on
the upper surface, are alternate, entire, elliptical and acute. The
yellowish-white flowers are large. The fruit, which is either globular
or oval, sometimes measures 10 inches in length. It has a hard rind,
covered with thorny warts or spines, and externally looks not unlike a
breadfruit. When ripe, it is brownish-yellow, and, when opened at its
lower end, shows five longitudinal sections or cells, each containing
from 1 to 4 seeds about the size of a pigeon's egg. The edible pulp
surrounding the seeds is firm and cream-colored. The Durion is
remarkable for its combination of an absolutely delicious flavor and an
abominably offensive odor. To my knowledge there is but one tree in
bearing in the Hawaiian Islands, and that is growing in private grounds
at Lihue, Kauai.

[Illustration: PLATE XXX.--_Durion._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXXI

  _Coffea arabica._

  ARABIAN COFFEE.


The Coffee-tree is said to be a native of Abyssinia. Two species, the
Arabian and the Liberian, are now cultivated throughout the tropics. The
use of coffee was known in Arabia long before it was introduced to
Europeans in the sixteenth century. The Dutch were the first to
introduce the plant to Europe. The Arabian Coffee-tree is low-growing,
and bears one crop annually; its leaves are elliptico-oblong, acuminate,
generally from 3 to 6 inches long, and are thin and shiny. The white
flowers appear in clusters, and are very fragrant. The berries are
ovoid, fleshy, and bright red. In this berry are found the two seeds,
which constitute the coffee of commerce. The Coffee-tree was introduced
into Hawaii about 1823, by a Frenchman, who established a small
plantation in Manoa Valley, Oahu. The tree is now well naturalized in
the woods of Kona, Hawaii, and elsewhere in the Islands, and flourishes
up to an elevation of from 1000 to 2000 feet.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXI.--_Arabian Coffee._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXXII

  _Coffea liberica._

  LIBERIAN COFFEE.


This species is a tall grower, is highly ornamental in foliage, and is a
rich bearer. Its leaves are from 6 to 12 inches long. The white flowers
come in dense clusters, and are more robust and productive than are
those of the Arabica. The berries are nearly spherical, and in color are
a dull crimson. The pulp is large in proportion to the size of the
seeds. Although this variety has not become popular in Hawaii, it is
claimed that it will grow at a much lower elevation than will the
Arabica, and the flavor is said to be very fine.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXII.--_Liberian Coffee._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXXIII

  _Clausena Wampi._

  WAMPI.


This odorous tree is a native of China. It is a symmetrical evergreen
with dense foliage. The light, mossy-green leaves are imparipinnate, the
leaflets ovate-repand, and they are rough on the under surface. The
flowers, which are borne in clusters, on the new wood, are small,
yellow, and very fragrant. The fruit ripens from June until October; it
is about the size of a gooseberry; the skin is yellowish-brown, shaded
with green. The pulp is sub-acid with a balsamic fragrance. It contains
one large seed about the size of a kernel of corn. There are two
varieties, the sweet and the sour; both may be eaten raw, and are very
highly prized by the Chinese. I know of but two trees of this kind in
the Hawaiian Islands; they are of the sour variety, and are growing in
private gardens in Honolulu.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXIII.--_Wampi._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXXIV

  _Physalis peruviana._

  CAPE GOOSEBERRY--"POHA."


This shrub, or bush, is a native of Brazil, but is naturalized in many
warm countries. It stands partially erect, reaching a height of from 1½
to 3 feet. Its pointed leaves, heart-shaped at the base, are very fuzzy.
The open, bell-shaped flowers are yellow in color. The fruit, which is
about the size of a cherry, is enclosed in a thin, yellow, paper-like
husk, which is quite hairy. When ripe, the fruit is yellow, and has a
delicious sub-acid pulp, filled with minute seeds. The Poha may be eaten
raw, but is much more acceptable when made into jam or jelly. The dried
fruit is said to be a substitute for yeast. In Hawaii, the Poha thrives
best in the cool elevations.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXIV.--_Cape Gooseberry._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXXV

  _Carica Papaya._

  PAPAYA (fruit, female tree).


The Papaya is a native of South America; it is found in Florida, and in
many parts of tropical America; it was early introduced into Hawaii,
grows and bears well in almost any locality. It is a small tree, with a
hollow, branchless trunk; it is short-lived, and is suitable only to
regions free from frost, and requires perfect drainage. There are two
forms, the tall and the dwarf, but there are numerous variations as to
shape and quality of the fruit. The soft green leaves, often measuring
two feet across, are variously palmated, and have simple, long, hollow
stems. The Papaya is usually dioceous; the fruit-bearing tree is called
the female; it is claimed that trees of both sexes should be planted
near each other, in order to ensure a good yield. The female flowers,
which appear from the axils of the leaves, are yellowish-white, single,
or two or three together.

The fruit of the Papaya ripens successively. It is either round or
oblong, and sometimes weighs eight pounds. The skin is thin, and is
bright yellow when ripe. The firm, yellow pulp has a delicious flavor,
and the milky juice contains a digestive principle similar to pepsin.
The seed cavity is large, and is filled with many small seeds which are
enveloped in a loose, mucous coat, with a brittle, pitted testa. When
fresh these seeds germinate readily.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXV.--_Papaya_ (_fruit, female tree_).

One fourth natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXXVI

  _Carica Papaya._

  PAPAYA (fruit, male tree).


The size, shape, foliage and general appearance of this tree is the same
as that of the preceding variety. Its flowers appear on long stems, are
funnel-shape, and have five lobes. The male tree sometimes produces
fruit, and it is of large size and fine quality. A good example may be
seen in the accompanying illustration.

I know of no method whereby one can, by any selection of seeds, produce
with any degree of certainty, plants of either male or female variety.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXVI.--_Papaya_ (_fruit, male tree_).

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXXVII

  _Carica quercifolia._


This species of dwarf Papaya is of recent introduction to Hawaii. It has
a soft, hollow trunk, and low, spreading branches. The leaves are deeply
lobed, of a light green color on the upper side, and whitish-green
underneath. Flowers dioecious, yellowish-green, having five petals.
Fruit the size of a large olive, green, and ribbed with five white
stripes, changing to yellow when ripe. The yellow pulp, containing
numerous seeds, has a strong pesin flavor that is quite agreeable.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXVII.--_Carica quercifolia._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXXVIII

  _Citrus Japonica._

  Var. "Hazara."

  CHINESE ORANGE.


This familiar and highly ornamental tree, commonly known as the Chinese
orange, was very early introduced to these Islands. It is well named
Hazara (meaning thousand of fruit), as it is one of the most prolific of
the citrus family, and both green and ripe fruit in great quantities may
be found on the same tree at almost any season of the year. The tree is
of medium size, and the small, shiny leaves have short petioles. It is
generally thornless. The flowers are white and fragrant. The round fruit
is a deep yellow, and its smooth skin is very loosely attached. The pulp
is also a deep yellow and contains many seeds, and the sour juice is
very plentiful. The tree is hardy and free from disease and scale.
Propagation is by seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXVIII.--_Chinese Orange._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XXXIX

  _Citrus Japonica._

  KUMQUAT.


The Kumquat is a native of Cochin-China, and is also cultivated in
Japan, Florida, and California. It is a low-growing bush or shrub,
having smooth, angular branches, and in both the round and oval
varieties the dark foliage is dense and beautiful. It is a very prolific
bearer. Its leaves are small, lanceolate, slightly serrate, pointed or
blunt and wedge-shaped at the base. The small, white flowers come
solitary or in clusters, the fruit varies in size from a large
gooseberry to that of a pigeon's egg, and is either ovate, oblong, or
spherical. It is 5 to 6 celled, has very little pulp, and contains many
seeds. The pulp is somewhat sour, especially in the round varieties; and
the smooth, thick, yellow rind is aromatic and sweet; the Kumquat is
generally preserved whole, and those prepared by the Chinese are very
delicious.

This ornamental citrus tree is not often seen in our gardens, for it is
subject to scale, and to the mealy bug, which destroy the flowers and
stunt the fruit. The Kumquat comes true to seed, and may also be
propagated by grafting and budding.

[Illustration: PLATE XXXIX.--_Kumquat._

Two thirds natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XL

  _Citrus Nobilis._

  MANDARIN ORANGE.


This small tree or thornless shrub with its dense foliage is a native of
Cochin-China, and fine specimens of this tree, with its golden fruit in
season, can be found in many gardens about Honolulu, especially those of
the Chinese. Its leaves are lanceolate, its petioles short. Flowers are
white and fragrant. The fruit is compressed-spherical, apex depressed, a
ridge about the stem. The thin peel is greenish-yellow, baggy, and
separates readily from the sections. Pulp generally dry, sweet, juice
scant, fruit containing many seeds. The characteristic odor of the
leaves, twigs and fruit of all varieties of the Mandarin orange is
easily recognizable.

[Illustration: PLATE XL.--_Mandarin Orange._

Two thirds natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XLI

  _Citrus medica limetta._

  LIME.


This small tree or bush thrives in Hawaii, and yields good crops. It
requires a sandy, rocky soil, and does well in the shaded valleys.
However, it is attacked by scale pests and root fungus, and many
valuable trees are destroyed in this way. The dark green, shiny leaves
are oval or elliptical, and emit an agreeable odor when bruised. The
fragrant flowers are small, white, with an occasional tinge of pink. The
fruit is small, varying in shape from round to elliptical. The light
yellow skin is oily and very bitter, and the pulp is juicy and sour. The
picture representing this fruit shows several varieties, forms and
shapes: those on the left being the Mexican type, those on the upper
right the Kusai lime, the latter much resembling a mandarin orange in
shape, and has a loose skin, but the pulp is very juicy and exceedingly
sour. This lime has become very popular in Hawaii, grows readily from
seed, and produces true. To Mr. Henry Swinton is due the credit of
introducing this variety in 1885 from Kusai, or Strong's Island,
Micronesia.

[Illustration: PLATE XLI.--_Lime._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XLII

  _Citrus medica limonum._

  LEMON.


This is a spreading tree, having ovate-oblong, fragrant leaves with
short petioles. The flowers are small and white. The medium-sized fruit
is egg-shaped, ending in a nipple-like point. The thin, smooth skin is
aromatic. The juicy pulp is rich in citric acid. Many choice varieties
of lemons have been introduced to Hawaii, but they have not thrived
particularly well, because of the scale and insect pests which so
greedily attack them; eternal vigilance is necessary in order to get the
fruit matured; some very fine specimens, however, have been grown in
Kona, at an elevation of 1500 feet.

[Illustration: PLATE XLII.--_Lemon._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XLIII

  _Citrus medica var. limonum._

  ROUGH-SKIN LEMON.


This variety is very hardy, bears profusely, and requires much more
water than does the orange. Being a strong, vigorous grower, it forms an
excellent stock upon which to graft the citrus varieties. The flower is
white, with a reddish tint outside. The fruit is generally oval, and
contains many seeds. The pale yellow skin is rough and warty. The pulp
is coarse-grained and very juicy. It comes true to seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XLIII.--_Rough-skin Lemon._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XLIV

  _Citrus Aurantium Sinense._

  WAIALUA ORANGE.


This tree, which grows to a height of from 20 to 35 feet, is cultivated
in all tropical and sub-tropical countries. Its young branches are pale
green, angular and glabrous. The leaves are oblong, ovate and pointed,
and the petioles are narrowly winged. Its flowers are white and very
fragrant. This variety of orange, locally known as the Waialua orange,
has a bright yellow fruit, generally round, with a coarse, thick skin,
very juicy pulp, and numerous seeds; and was introduced by Vancouver and
planted in Hanalei valley, Kauai. It is now widely disseminated
throughout the group, and in Kona, Hawaii, grows exceptionally well.
This orange is said to produce true to seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XLIV.--_Waialua Orange._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XLV

  _Citrus Aurantium._

  BAHIA, OR WASHINGTON NAVEL ORANGE.


This variety was first introduced into the United States from Brazil,
and is now the most popular of all the oranges. It is cultivated
extensively in California, in which State the first trees of its kind
were planted; for this reason it is often called the Riverside Navel.
The fruit is large, solid, and heavy. It is seedless, and has a
prominent navel mark at the apex. The brilliant orange color of the skin
is one of its characteristics. Grafted and budded trees of this variety
of orange may be found growing in many localities in the Hawaiian
Islands, but the fruit is not as fine as it should be, as, with few
exceptions, it has a tendency to become very dry and woody.

[Illustration: PLATE XLV.--_Bahia, or Washington Navel Orange._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XLVI

  _Citrus Decumana._

  POMELO OR SHADDOCK (pear-shaped var.).


This hardy tree, with its spreading branches, grows to a height of from
15 to 20 feet. It is extensively cultivated in India, and widely
distributed over the Malayan and Polynesian Islands. It was early
introduced to the Hawaiian Islands, presumably by the Chinese, who seem
to be especially fond of the fruit, as it is always an important feature
of their New Year's decorations. The leaves are large, oval or
ovate-oblong, obtuse, and frequently emarginate, and the petiole is
broadly winged. The flowers are large and white. This pyriform variety,
which is from 6 to 8 inches in diameter, often weighs 4 to 8 pounds.

The pale-yellow rind is smooth, thick and very bitter, but can be made
into a preserve. The pulp varies in color from pale yellow to red, and
has a sub-acid, slightly bitter, flavor.

[Illustration: PLATE XLVI.--_Pomelo or Shaddock_ (_pear-shaped var._)

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XLVII

  _Citrus Decumana._

  POMELO OR SHADDOCK (round var.)


The fruit of this round variety is smaller than that of the preceding
variety. The light-yellow rind is coarse, spongy, thick, and leathery.
The cells of the pulp are coarse, dry, and have a bitter, sub-acid
flavor. There are many large, wedge-shaped seeds.

[Illustration: PLATE XLVII.--_Pomelo or Shaddock_ (_round var._)

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XLVIII

  _Artocarpus incisa._

  BREADFRUIT (Hawaiian var.)

  "ULU."


The first breadfruit trees were brought from Tahiti by the Hawaiians
who, landing at Ewa, carried them across the mountain, and presented
them to one of the Chiefs of Oahu, who lived at Kualoa. There they were
planted and thrived. At the present day this variety of the breadfruit,
now called the Hawaiian variety, is to be found growing wild throughout
the Islands. There are many varieties of this handsome tree, which grows
to a height of from 15 to 40 feet. It thrives best in hot, moist places,
and requires a great deal of water.

Its large ovate leaves are rough and deeply lobed. The male flower is a
large yellow catkin. The fruit is formed from the female flowers, and is
attached to the branches by large stems. In shape it is either round or
oblong, varying in size from 5 to 8 inches in diameter. The thick, tough
rind is, in some varieties muricated, and in others it is reticulated.
In color it is green, changing to brownish when the fruit is ripe. The
pulp is firm, mealy, and somewhat fibrous, and as an article of diet is
much esteemed. Propagation is by suckers, or by layers from the
branches.

[Illustration: PLATE XLVIII.--_Breadfruit_ (_Hawaiian var._)--"_Ulu._"

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XLIX

  _Artocarpus incisa._

  BREADFRUIT (Samoan var.)


This variety was introduced to these Islands by Mr. James Bicknell. Its
large, oval leaves are leathery and rough, and less deeply lobed than
are those of the Hawaiian variety. The round fruit has a characteristic
raised ring where it is attached to the long stem. The yellowish-green
rind is reticulated, and the orange-colored pulp is somewhat sticky when
cooked, and is very sweet. This variety occasionally produces seed.

[Illustration: PLATE XLIX.--_Breadfruit_ (_Samoan var._)

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE L

  _Artocarpus incisa._

  BREADFRUIT (Tahitian var.)


This variety of Tahitian breadfruit is found only in a few gardens in
Hawaii. Its glossy green leaves are nearly entire. The oblong fruit has
a deep yellow pulp, with very little fibre.

[Illustration: PLATE L.--_Breadfruit_ (_Tahitian var._)

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LI

  _Artocarpus incisa._

  FERTILE BREADFRUIT.


This seeding variety is rarely cultivated on account of its inferior
fruit. The leaves are slightly lobed. The fruit is oblong with a short,
thick stem, and is covered with short, hard projections. The fibrous
pulp contains numerous large seeds, which are edible when cooked.

[Illustration: PLATE LI.--_Fertile Breadfruit._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LII

  _Artocarpus integrifolia._

  JACK FRUIT.


This tree is a native of India and Malay. And was introduced to Hawaii
by Mr. David Forbes of Kukuihaele, Hawaii. The Jack fruit is a large,
handsome tree, with leaves from 4 to 6 inches in length, which on the
old growth are obovate-oblong and on the young branches are narrow. The
oblong, irregular fruit, which varies in weight from 20 to 60 pounds, is
borne on the trunk, as well as on the old branches. The green rind is
covered with small hexagonal knobs. The pulp when ripe has all
overpowering odor and is seldom eaten; but the oily seeds when roasted
are edible, and are said to resemble chestnuts. On Tantalus, Oahu, the
Jack fruit thrives well, and has produced fair sized fruits. It is a
tree that needs a great deal of moisture, and consequently is seldom
grown on the low lands.

[Illustration: PLATE LII.--_Jack Fruit._

One fourth natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LIII

  _Anona muricata._

  SOUR SOP.


This small, hardy evergreen tree is very common in Hawaii. Its dark
green, glabrous leaves are pointed, elliptical, and are shiny on the
upper surface, but rusty beneath. The greenish-yellow flowers are
usually solitary, and have a peculiar odor. The fruit is large, varying
in weight from 1 to 15 pounds. In shape, it is either oblong or conical
and blunt. The rough, dark green, shiny skin, which is irregular in
thickness, is studded with fleshy spines. The soft, white, cotton-like
pulp is divided into sections, each containing a shiny, black seed,
about half an inch long. These are very readily propagated.

[Illustration: PLATE LIII.--_Sour Sop._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LIV

  _Anona Cherimolia._

  CHERIMOYER.


The Cherimoyer, a well-known fruit of the tropics, is said to be a
native of Peru. It is naturalized in Central America, is hardy in the
mildest coast regions of Spain, and in Jamaica is cultivated up to an
elevation of nearly 5000 feet. It thrives on the Florida Keys, and is
also grown to a limited extent in Southern California. The tree grows to
a height of from 10 to 20 feet; its branches are spreading, and the
dark, shiny leaves are either ovate or oblong, and are sparsely hairy
above and velvety beneath.

The single petaled, velvety-green flowers are very fragrant. The fruit,
which is about the size of a large orange, is heart-shaped and slightly
flattened at the stem end. When ripe, the skin is a greyish-green, and
is covered with slightly-raised semicircular markings. The white pulp,
which is soft and rich, is divided into cells, each containing a black
seed about the size of an ordinary bean. The Cherimoyer comes true to
seed and bears in about three years. It is one of the most delicious
fruits, and its delicate, slightly-acid flavor is very characteristic.
The Cherimoyer was one of the earliest fruits introduced to these
Islands, and the best specimens of its kind are grown in Kona and Kau,
Hawaii, where it continues to propagate itself naturally from seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LIV.--_Cherimoyer._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LV

  _Anona reticulata._

  CUSTARD APPLE.


This tree, which is not common in Hawaii, is rather delicate, and grows
to a height of from 10 to 15 feet. It is a native of the Antilles, and
is a very popular tree in the West Indies. It thrives in Southern
California. Its leaves, which are either lanceolate or oblong and
pointed, are glabrous above and rough beneath. In color they are light
green and rather brittle, when bruised they emit a very unpleasant odor.

The flowers are three-petaled and are greenish or yellowish, with purple
spots at the base. Artificial pollination will induce the flowers to set
and produce better crops. The heart-shaped fruit is from 3 to 5 inches
in diameter. The skin is smooth, with small depressions; when ripe, it
is a pinkish-yellow and shading to a russet. Next to the skin the pulp
is soft and creamy-yellow, while toward the center it is quite white.
The flavor is sweet and delicious. There are numerous smooth, black
seeds. This fruit, like its cousin the Cherimoyer grows true to seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LV.--_Custard Apple._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LVI

  _Anona squamosa._

  SUGAR APPLE--SWEET SOP.


This small tree is native of the West Indies, from which country the
plants found growing in many of our gardens in these Islands were
imported. The thin leaves are ovate-oblong, and are very slightly hairy
on both sides. The greenish flowers are about an inch long. The fruit
which is from 3 to 4 inches in diameter, is the shape of a pine cone; it
is greenish-yellow when ripe, and each carpel forms a slight
protuberance. The sweet, creamy-white pulp is very delicious. There are
numerous small smooth, brownish-black seeds, which germinate readily,
and the plants bear fruit in from two to four years. This variety of
anona is sensitive to drought, and thrives well at the high elevations.

[Illustration: PLATE LVI.--_Sugar Apple_--_Sweet Sop._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LVII

  _Psidium Guayava pomiferum._

  (Common guava.)


The Guava is an extensive genus of low-growing evergreen trees, found
chiefly in the West Indies, South America, and China. They have become
naturalized in Hawaii, and may be found growing wild on waste lands and
by the roadside. In some localities growing so rank as to become
troublesome. The leaves are oval to oblong, usually acuminate, glabrous
above and pubescent beneath, and have prominent veins. The fragrant,
white, solitary flowers are axillary.

The somewhat rough skin of the globose fruit is a brownish-yellow, and
the firm, dark-pink pulp, in which is embedded numerous seeds, is
generally acid and aromatic. This guava is the source of the famous
guava jelly of commerce.

[Illustration: PLATE LVII.--_Psidium Guayava pomiferum_ (_common guava_).

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LVIII

  _Psidium Guayava._

  (Sweet red guava.)


This guava has the same general characteristics as the preceding
variety. It is more frequently found in valleys and gulches than in the
open. Its red pulp is firm and sweet.

[Illustration: PLATE LVIII.--_Psidium Guayava_ (_sweet red guava_).]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LIX

  _Psidium Guayava._

  (White lemon guava.)


The lemon guava tree grows taller and somewhat more erect than the
others. The pear-shaped fruit is large, often 3 inches in length. It has
a rough, greenish-white skin, and the white pulp is sweet. This is a
cultivated variety, and is found growing in a few gardens in these
Islands.

[Illustration: PLATE LIX.--_Psidium Guayava_ (_white lemon guava_).

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LX

  _Psidium Guayava pyriferum._

  "WAIAWI."


This handsome evergreen tree was an early introduced species, and now is
very common about the islands. Grows very symmetrically, and attains the
height of 20 to 25 feet. Leaves, small, lanceolate, shiny, the trunk and
branches smooth. Flowers white and very fragrant; fruit small,
pear-shaped, pulp yellow and containing many seeds; this species is very
prolific, but the fruit is inferior.

[Illustration: PLATE LX.--"_Waiawi._"

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXI

  _Psidium Cattleyanum._

  STRAWBERRY GUAVA.


One of the hardiest of the guavas, and said to be a native of Brazil.
The date of its introduction to Hawaii is not recorded, and as
Hillebrand makes no mention of it, it is probably of recent importation.
A shrubby tree 15 to 20 feet high. Leaves opposite, obovate, small,
leathery, dark-green, shiny. Flowers white, fragrant. Fruit spherical,
about one inch in diameter, purple-reddish when ripe, soft, juicy pulp,
which has an agreeable flavor, and containing many small seeds. This
fruit is used for making jams and jellies, and bears a crop more or less
during all the months of the year.

[Illustration: PLATE LXI.--_Strawberry Guava._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXII

  _Psidium Cattleyanum._

  (var. _lucidum_.)


This low-growing shrub is occasionally cultivated in these Islands. It
has opposite obovate leaves, and fragrant white flowers. The round
fruit, which has a sweet, yellow pulp, is larger than the strawberry
guava, and has a more delicate flavor.

[Illustration: PLATE LXII.--_Psidium Cattleyanum._

(var. _lucidum_.)

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXIII

  _Psidium molle._


This species was introduced to Hawaii by Mr. A. Jaeger; and a single
specimen of its kind is now growing at the Old Plantation, Honolulu. It
is a low-growing, slender, willow-like tree of straggling growth. The
opposite leaves are small, stiff and rough. The white flowers are
fragrant. The small, round fruit is brownish-green, turning to a pale
yellow when ripe. The white pulp is slightly acid, and contains many
seeds. This guava is rather an inferior fruit.

[Illustration: PLATE LXIII.--_Psidium molle._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXIV

  _Mangifera indica._

  MANGO.


The mango, which is a native of South Asia, is extensively cultivated
throughout India, the Islands of the West Indies, and somewhat in
Florida. In Hawaii it has become thoroughly naturalized, and is one of
the most common trees; growing from the sea level up to about 1,000
feet.

A hot, rather dry, climate, with well-drained soil suits it best. It is
an evergreen, shady tree of quick growing habit, sometimes reaching a
height of 70 feet, and having a round, dense top. All parts of the mango
tree have a resinous fragrance, that suggests turpentine. Its thick,
shiny leaves are from 6 to 10 inches in length. The greenish, scented
flowers are borne in large terminal panicles; and these are followed
three or four months later by the fruit, which is large and
kidney-shaped, having a smooth, rather soft, pale-green skin, with tints
of yellow and red. The large seed is nearly as long as the fruit, its
shell is rough and fibrous, and the kernel is shaped like a bean. In the
inferior varieties of mangoes the pulp is full of fibre and tastes
strongly of turpentine. There are numerous varieties of the mango
cultivated in Hawaii; the fruit of which varies much in point of flavor,
juiciness, as well as in the size and shape of the seed.

Within the past ten years improved varieties have been imported; notably
the Alphonse, Cambodiana, Pirie, and many others. These have thrived
well and have borne delicious fruit; from them many grafts have been
made and the finer grades of mangoes have been disseminated. Propagation
is effected by seed, by grafting or inarching, and by budding. The mango
as a rule does not come true to seed; also seedlings take much longer to
fruit than do the grafted trees.

The illustration on the opposite page is that of the so-called common
mango, which was brought to Hawaii from Mexico.

[Illustration: PLATE LXIV.--_Mango._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXV

  _Mangifera indica._

  MANINI MANGO.


This tree is supposed to be the first mango tree brought to the Hawaiian
Islands. It was planted in the early part of the nineteenth century by
Don Marin, whom the Hawaiians familiarly called "Manini." He brought to
Hawaii many useful trees and plants; among the number was this mango,
which he planted in his vineyard, then known as "Ka Pa Waina," and there
it may be found today; a venerable tree standing about 80 feet high,
having a spread of over 100 feet, and its trunk measuring 15 feet in
circumference. Although a prolific bearer, its fruits, which are borne
in large clusters, are small, and of an inferior quality, having a thick
skin and a large, hairy seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LXV.--_Manini Mango._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXVI

  _Mangifera indica._

  NO. 9 MANGO.


This mango, with its distinctive shape, is one of the few types that
comes true to seed. The first and original tree, which was planted at
the Government Nursery, Honolulu, was brought from Jamaica by Joseph
Marsden, Esq. This tree is a prolific bearer, and its seeds have been
widely distributed throughout these Islands. The fruit is large and
regular in size, having a thick skin which is of a light-green color.
The pulp is pale yellow, very juicy, and slightly acid. There is a very
large, hairy seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LXVI.--_No. 9 Mango._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXVII

  _Musa varieties._

  BANANA--"MAIA."


The banana, which has been cultivated from the most remote times, is a
plant of great importance in tropical and sub-tropical climates, where
its highly nutritious fruit is used as food. It is a large herbaceous,
slightly shrubby, plant of very easy growth, having immense,
gracefully-arching, undivided leaves. There are numerous varieties, the
fruit of which differs in shape, color and flavor.

As decorative plants in landscape gardening, few subjects equal the
choice species of the banana; and on account of its utility, combined
with its beauty, it is considered one of the most valuable of tropical
products. Propagation is by off-shoots or suckers. When a stalk is cut,
the fruit of which has ripened, sprouts are put forth which in time bear
fruit. The enormous flower stalk issues from the center of the crown of
leaves, and curves over with its own weight.

The flowers are arranged in a dense terminal panicle; they alternate
with large, reddish scales, which drop off as the fruit stalk develops,
and the finger-like fruits are in clusters. The Hawaiians seem to have
possessed the banana from the earliest times, and about fifty varieties
were known to the older natives. However, since the year 1855, the
so-called Chinese banana (_Musa Cavendishii_), which was at that time
introduced from Tahiti, has crowded out the native varieties, many of
which are now extinct.

The accompanying cut shows a few of the different forms and sizes of the
banana grown in Hawaii.

[Illustration: PLATE LXVII.--_Banana_--"_Maia._"

One half natural size.

  Moa          Largo
  Popoulu      Red Cuban
  Lele         Chinese]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXVIII

  _Morinda citrifolia._

  "NONI."


This species is found in nearly all the Pacific Islands. The date of its
introduction to Hawaii, however, is not recorded. It is a small tree
which grows in the low lands. Its shiny, oval leaves have short
petioles. The white flowers are about 1 inch in length. The fruit is
whitish-yellow when mature, and when decaying it emits a very offensive
odor. The seeds are interesting because they will float a great length
of time in salt water, their buoyancy is caused by a distinct air cell.

[Illustration: PLATE LXVIII.--"_Noni._"

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXIX

  _Vaccinium reticulatum._

  "OHELO."


This is an erect dwarf shrub growing to a height of from one to two
feet, having stiff, crowded branches with leaves varying in form, from
oblong to obovate, and in color from green to green tinged with yellow
and red. The white flowers are solitary, and come mostly in the axils of
the true leaves. The globose fruit is a fleshy, shiny berry, much
resembling the cranberry; in color it is yellow or pale rose, and is
covered with a waxy bloom.

The Ohelo thrives best in the higher elevations, from 4000 to 8000 feet.
It grows particularly well on the mountain slopes of Hawaii and Maui. It
is an edible berry, and is the principal food of the rare Hawaiian
goose, now to be found in only a few localities. The Ohelo has always
been a favorite subject of Hawaiian songs and legends, and was used as
one of the offerings to the Goddess Pele.

[Illustration: PLATE LXIX.--"_Ohelo._"

Natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXX

  _Solanum pimpinellifolium._

  CURRANT TOMATO.


The first illustration on the opposite page is that of the currant
tomato; an annual found growing wild in great profusion in the low lands
of our valleys. It is of weak growth, very diffuse and twiggy, and
scarcely pubescent. Its obovate leaves are small with nearly entire
leaflets, and very small secondary leaflets; the elongated racemes bear
from 100 to 40 small, currant-like red berries, which are very sweet.

  _Solanum Lycopersicum._

  GRAPE TOMATO.

The second illustration is that of the grape tomato, which has
grayish-green leaves and slender, ascending stems. The leaves are
pinnate with small, nearly entire leaflets; the main leaflets are
notched or even lobed toward the base. The fruit is a bright red berry
about half an inch in diameter, and is fresh and aromatic.

[Illustration: PLATE LXX.--_Currant Tomato._  _Grape Tomato._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXI

  _Solanum nodiflorum._

  "POPOLO."


This glabrous, annual, growing from 1 to 2 feet in height, is Common to
most tropical countries, and in Hawaii was probably of aboriginal
introduction; as the Hawaiians have many ways of using the fruits and
the leaves, for medicinal purposes. This plant is found on waste land,
in old pastures, and by the roadside. Its ovate leaves are dark green.
The whitish flowers are small, and the fruit is a small, shiny, black
berry.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXI.--"_Popolo._"

Natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXII

  _Aleurites moluccana._

  CANDLENUT TREE--"KUKUI NUT."


The Kukui tree is easily recognizable from afar off by the pale hue of
its foliage, which appears to be dusted over with flour. It is a
handsome, soft wood, evergreen tree, growing to a height of from 40 to
60 feet, and is widely spread over tropical Polynesia, and a great part
of Malaysia; and by all branches of the Polynesian race it is called by
the same name: Kukui or Tutui. The Hawaiians tattooed their skins with a
black dye which they prepared from the juice which is found in the
fleshy covering of the green fruit. The leaves are alternate, 3 to 5
lobed, pubescent, and have long petioles. The yellowish-green flowers
are in terminal clusters. The fruit is spherical, from 1 to 2 inches in
diameter, and light-green in color, changing to a dull-brown when ripe.
It contains one or more nuts, or seeds, which have a very hard, boney
shell, the surface of which is uneven like the shell of a walnut. The
kernels of this nut, when dried, were strung together, or bound on
sticks, and served the natives for torches or candles: thus the English
name of Candlenut Tree. The oil obtained from the nut was used by the
Hawaiians for burning in stone lamps. The kernel, when baked, pounded,
and mixed with salt and Chili peppers, makes a brown paste which is very
appetizing. This is much esteemed by the Hawaiians, who call it
"Inamona."

[Illustration: PLATE LXXII.--_Candlenut Tree_--"_Kukui Nut._"

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXIII

  _Terminalia Cattapa._

  TROPICAL ALMOND.

  "KAMANI."


This deciduous tree, generally called Kamani by the Hawaiians, with its
spreading branches in horizontal whorls or layers, is one of the
familiar and useful shade trees of these Islands. Leaves large,
opposite, broadly obovate-obtuse, very short petioled, and turning
brilliant shades of red and yellow during the autumn. Flowers
greenish-white on long spikes, upper ones staminate, the lower ones
perfect. The almond-shaped fruit is a compressed hard, nut-like body 1
to 1½, inches long, with a thin outer covering which is sweet, and
spongy. There is generally one, sometimes two, small, edible kernels
found embedded in the hard body. These may be eaten raw, or roasted.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXIII.--_Tropical Almond_--"_Kamani._"

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXIV

  _Calophyllum inophyllum._

  "KAMANI."


This Kamani is a large tropical tree, having shiny, leathery, evergreen
foliage. Its leaves are obovate, usually marginate, and its white
flowers are very fragrant. The fruit, which generally comes in clusters,
is round, about the size of a large walnut, and has a thin, leathery
skin which covers a boney shell, inside of which is a corky substance
surrounding the seed or kernel. This tree was an early introduction to
these Islands, and is commonly seen on our seacoasts.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXIV.--"_Kamani._"

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXV

  _Noronhia emarginata._


This tree is a native of Madagascar and also of Mauritius. A fine
specimen may be seen at the Government Nursery, Honolulu. It is a
handsome evergreen with entire, cuneate, coriacious leaves, having short
petioles. The yellowish flowers come in clusters, and are quite
fragrant. The fruit is a one-celled drupe, almost round, and about an
inch in diameter. It is purple when ripe, and has a tough skin. The
sweet, edible pulp surrounds a very large seed.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXV.--_Noronhia emarginata._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXVI

  _Castanea sativa._

  JAPANESE CHESTNUT.


This is a close-headed tree of slender growth, attaining a height of
from 30 to 50 feet. Its leaves are smaller than those of other
chestnuts, generally from 3 to 7 inches long, and are either rounded at
the base or reduced to a long, bristle-like point. The monoecious
flowers are arranged in long catkins. The small burs have a thin, papery
lining, and short, widely-branching spines. The nuts are large and
glossy, usually three in a bur. They are somewhat inferior in quality,
but are palatable when cooked.

To my knowledge there is but one tree of this variety growing in these
Islands, and it is to be found on the slopes of Tantalus, where it was
planted by the Department of Agriculture.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXVI.--_Japanese Chestnut._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXVII

  _Inocarpus edulis._

  TAHITIAN CHESTNUT.


This tree, which is said to be a native of the Moluccas, is an evergreen
of very rapid growth. Its straight trunk, with smooth, ashen-grey bark,
its spreading branches, with their dense green foliage, make a very
ornamental as well as useful tree. Its leaves are alternate and simple.
The small, fragrant, pale yellow flowers are very numerous. The drupe is
obliquely oval, and about the size of a goose egg, containing a large
kernel which is edible when roasted, but is not especially palatable.
The only trees of this variety growing in Hawaii are to be found at
Ahuimanu Ranch, Oahu, where they fruit regularly, and the seeds
germinate after being in the ground some months.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXVII.--_Tahitian Chestnut._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXVIII

  _Canarium commune._

  CANARY NUT.


This medium-sized nut-bearing tree is found growing in Java, Guam and
the Philippines, and from any one of those countries may have been
introduced to Hawaii. A fine specimen may be seen at the Government
Nursery, Honolulu. Its leaves are alternate, odd pinnate. The small
flowers come in terminal panicles. The fruit or nut is ellipsoidal. The
thick skin, which is purple-colored when ripe, covers a hard,
three-lobed stone, which differs from a pecan nut only in that it is
sharp at each end. The kernel is small, sweet and edible. Trees
propagated from the mature nuts.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXVIII.--_Canary Nut._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXIX

  _Canarium commune._

  CANARY NUT (round variety).


Few trees of this round variety are to be found in Hawaii. Its leaves
are smaller than those of the preceding variety, and it is a very poor
bearer.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXIX.--_Canary Nut_ (_round var._)

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXX

  _Macadamia ternifolia._

  QUEENSLAND NUT.


This sub-tropical Australian tree sometimes grows to a height of 60
feet, but in Hawaii is of medium size. It is symmetrical and handsome,
having dark green, shiny foliage, and long tassel-like white flowers.
Its glabrous leaves are sessile, oblong, lanceolate, serrate, with fine
prickly teeth, and come in whorls of 3 to 4, varying in length from a
few inches to a foot. Flowers small; fruit has a thick, very hard shell,
which when ripe is a smooth, shiny brown. The kernel is white, crisp and
sweet, and has the flavor of hazel nuts. It may be eaten either raw or
roasted. The tree matures its fruit in the Fall months, and is easily
propagated from the fresh nuts.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXX.--_Queensland Nut._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXXI

  _Macadamia sp._


This variety of the Queensland nut has leaves and fruit larger than
those of _Macadamia ternifolia_.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXI.--_Macadamia sp._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXXII

  _Aegle Marmelos._

  BHEL OR BAEL FRUIT.


This small spinose tree is a native of tropical Asia, and although not
commonly grown in Hawaii, specimens may be found in several gardens. It
has alternate trifoliolate leaves, and flowers, which grow in clusters,
are small and fragrant. The gourd-like fruit, with its hard shell, is
from 2 to 4 inches in diameter, and is either round or pear-shaped, and
although heavy and solid, it will float in water. The rind, when ripe,
is a yellowish-brown color, and is studded with oil cells. The interior
surface of the skin is lined with open-mouthed cells, which pour their
gummy secretions into the interior of the carpel, filling it and bathing
the seed. The pulp is sweet and aromatic, and is esteemed for making
conserves, and also as a cooling drink.

In India, the roots and leaves are used medicinally. Bael gum is a
sticky, astringent substance soluble in water. The fruit contains
several large, flat, woolly seeds, which germinate readily, and the
plant is also very easily propagated from root cuttings.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXII.--_Bhel or Bael Fruit._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXXIII

  _Diospyros decandra._

  BROWN PERSIMMON.


This is an evergreen tree rarely found in Hawaii. It has alternate,
irregular, long, narrow leaves, shiny dark-green on the upper side, a
velvety light-green on the underside, and has a long petiole. The
branches are brittle, light-green, smooth and shiny when young, and
after the leaves shed become woody and inclined to dry back.

The trunk and bark of the tree is covered with warty excresences. The
solitary flowers are four-petaled. The edible fruit ripens in December,
is round, depressed, about 2½ inches in diameter, in color light-green
dotted with numerous white spots. When quite ripe the thin skin turns to
a shiny-brown. The soft chocolate colored pulp is sweet and contains
from 1 to 8 large flat seeds.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXIII.--_Brown Persimmon._

Natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXXIV

  _Lucuma Rivicoa._

  EGG FRUIT.


This small evergreen tree, which is a native of Brazil, is found only in
one or two gardens in Honolulu. Its leaves are elliptic-obovate,
resembling those of the mango. The yellow flowers are single, the fruit
is the size and shape of a hen's egg, and has the flavor of the yolk of
an egg sweetened with sugar. It has from one to three large seeds, which
are easily germinated.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXIV.--_Egg Fruit._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXXV

  _Eriobotrya Japonica._

  LOQUAT.


The Loquat has been for many years a familiar fruit in our gardens, and
is a native of China and Japan. It is a low evergreen tree with thick
foliage, and in congenial climates is a profuse bearer. Its leaves are
thick, oblong, and remotely toothed and grow near the ends of the
branches. The white flowers grow in clusters, are very fragrant, and the
fruit, which also ripens in clusters, about Christmas time, is
pear-shaped, and has an agreeable acid flavor. The seeds are large, and
germinate readily. Fine grafted and budded varieties have been
introduced by local horticulturalists.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXV.--_Loquat._

One fourth natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXXVI

  _Litchi Chinensis._

  "LICHEE."


This tree, with its dense foliage, is a native of Southern China. The
first tree of this variety was brought to Hawaii by Mr. Afong, and
planted at his residence in Nuuanu avenue, Honolulu, in the year 1870.

The leaves are alternate, and abruptly pinnate; the oblong leaflets are
not quite opposite. Flowers pale green, small and regular, producing
bunches of reddish-colored fruits, each about the size of a small
walnut. They are covered with a parchment-like skin having many soft
spines. The interior consists of a large seed covered with a whitish
pulp of a sweetish acid flavor; this pulp when dried in the shell
becomes somewhat shriveled, brownish in color, and very sweet.

The fruiting season is in July, and as there are but few trees here that
bear, high prices are obtained for this rare fruit, which is much prized
by the Chinese. Fresh seeds will germinate, but it requires so many
years for these seedlings to bear that grafted and budded plants are
imported from China.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXVI.--"_Lichee._"

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXXVII

  _Euphoria Longana._

  LONGAN.


This tree is a native of India and Southern China. It produces its
flowers and fruits at about the same time of year as does the Litchi,
which it somewhat resembles, although its fruits are somewhat smaller
and less palatable. The tree grows to a height of about 20 feet. It has
large, alternate, pinnate leaves, and the oblong leaflets are not quite
opposite; they are glossy on the upper surface, and a dusty-brown on the
underside. The small flowers come in terminal panicles; and the fruit,
which is borne in clusters, has a thin, brittle, somewhat rough shell.
There is one large, smooth, hard seed; around which is a thin layer of
sweetish, aromatic pulp. The best fruits raised here are those grown by
the Chinese.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXVII.--_Longan._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXXVIII

  _Morus nigra._

  MULBERRY.


This low-growing tree is a native of southwestern Russia and Persia. It
has rough, dark-green leaves, usually not lobed. The thick, fleshy fruit
is variable in size. The mulberry grows readily from cuttings.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXVIII.--_Mulberry._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE LXXXIX

  _Garcinia mangostana._

  MANGOSTEEN.


This tree is a native of Sumatra and of the Islands of the Eastern
Archipelago. It is of medium size, the stem rising to a height of about
20 feet; and its branches coming out in regular order give the head of
the tree the form of a parabola. The leaves are about 8 inches long and
4 inches broad at the middle; they are a beautiful green on the upper
side and a delicate olive on the under side. The flowers resemble a
single rose with dark-red petals. The fruit is round, about the size of
a small orange, and has a characteristic persistent calyx. The shell is
at first green, and when ripe changes to purplish-brown marked with
yellow spots. The Mangosteen is called the queen of fruits, and the tree
upon which it is produced is most graceful and beautiful.

Those who have tasted this fruit in its perfection declare it to be
indescribably delicious. The Mangosteen must have a hot, moist, and
fairly equable climate throughout the year.

Many Mangosteen trees have been brought to Hawaii, and have received
intelligent care, but they have not thrived well; and have eventually
died. Only two have ever produced fruit; one in the garden of Mr.
Francis Gay of Kauai, which bears its fruit annually, and the other tree
at Lahaina, Maui, in the garden formerly the property of Mr. Harry
Turton.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXXIX.--_Mangosteen._

Two thirds natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XC

  _Garcinia Xanthochymus._


This handsome tree is a native of India, and was first introduced to
Hawaii by Mr. Albert Jaeger. It has long, narrow, leathery leaves of a
bright, glossy green. The flowers, which have four petals, appear at the
axil of the leaves, and the fruit, which is about the size of a small
quince, has a smooth, thin skin, which is yellow when ripe. The firm
pulp is golden yellow, very juicy, and sour, and the seeds are large.
This variety is common in the Islands, and has often been mistaken for
the Mangosteen. It ripens its fruit in October and November. This
variety has been used to inarch the garcina mangostana upon.

[Illustration: PLATE XC.--_Garcinia Xanthochymus._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XCI

  _Bunchosia sp._


This tree was doubtless introduced to Hawaii from South America. There
are only two specimens of its kind growing in Honolulu. Its fruits are
edible, but not especially palatable. It is a small tree having terete
branches, and its opposite leaves are oblong-elliptical, dark-green
above and a lighter, somewhat glossy-green beneath. The petioles are
short. The axillary inflorescence comes in long, slender cymes, and the
five-petaled flowers are yellow. When ripe, the obovate fruit is a
purplish-yellow, having usually two seeds, and but one seed when
abortive.

[Illustration: PLATE XCI.--_Bunchosia sp._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XCII

  _Malpighia glabra._

  BARBADOS CHERRY.


This small shrub is a native of the West Indies. Its dull-green leaves
are opposite, ovate and glabrous, either entire or spiny-toothed. The
rose-colored flowers are axillary and five-petaled. The bright red fruit
is about the size of a cherry, and has a thin skin, and its acid pulp is
used for jam and preserves. The seeds or stones are large, four-angled,
and germinate readily; plants are also produced by cuttings. Though not
common in these Islands, there are, however, a few specimens of this
plant to be found in several of the private gardens of Honolulu.

[Illustration: PLATE XCII.--_Barbados Cherry._

Natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XCIII

  _Theobroma Cacao._

  CHOCOLATE, COCOA.


In Hawaii this tropical tree grows to a height of from 10 to 30 feet. It
has large, pointed leaves, and the new growth is wine-colored. The
flowers appear on the trunk and mature branches, and the fruit which
follows is about 8 to 12 inches long, and is called the pod; inside of
this pod are beans or seeds, from which the commercial product called
cocoa is made, through a process of drying and curing. Chocolate is the
term used for the sweetened preparations of the roasted and ground
beans, with a large proportion of the original fat retained. Cocoa
preparations are the same material in fine powder, sweetened and
unsweetened, with a greater part of the fat extracted.

Cacao cultivation has never been successfully attempted in Hawaii.
However, a few isolated trees can be found at Ahuimanu Ranch, Oahu,
where they were planted by the Catholic brothers as an experiment some
years ago.

[Illustration: PLATE XCIII.--_Chocolate, Cocoa._

One fourth natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XCIV

  _Hibiscus Sabdariffa._

  ROSELLE.


This bush or shrub is a showy annual growing to a height of from 5 to 7
feet. The stems are reddish, and the pale yellow flowers solitary. The
leaves are palmate and of a light-green color. It is widely cultivated
in the tropics, in Florida, and in Southern California; and also thrives
in Hawaii. The dark crimson calyces are very fleshy and make excellent
jelly, which has somewhat the flavor of the cranberry.

[Illustration: PLATE XCIV.--_Roselle._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XCV

  _Monstera deliciosa._


The Monstera deliciosa, one of the grandest of arid plants, is a native
of the mountainous regions of Guatamala and Brazil. It climbs to a
height of 12 or more feet, and its leaf stalks are often 3 feet long. It
obtains nourishment from the tree upon which it attaches itself. Its
leaves are huge and perforated. As the plant climbs, the stems emit
aerial roots, many of which never reach the ground. The fruit which has
the appearance of an elongated pine-cone, grows to a length of from 6 to
12 inches, and is about 2½ inches in diameter.

The rind is composed of plates which may be detached when the fruit is
quite ripe. It is green in color until it ripens, when there appears a
slight tinge of yellow. The creamy-white pulp has a most delicious
flavor, somewhat resembling the banana, and also like the pineapple. It
requires 18 months to mature the fruit. Propagation is by cuttings.

[Illustration: PLATE XCV.--_Monstera deliciosa._

One fourth natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XCVI

  _Anacardium occidentale._

  CASHEW NUT.


This spreading tree is a native of the West Indies; and although it is
seen in several gardens of our Islands, it is not common. The first tree
of its kind was planted by Mr. Henry Davis in his grounds at Punahou.
The tree grows to a height of from 15 to 20 feet. The light-green,
leathery leaves are oval and rough, its pink flowers have a peculiar,
strong fragrance. The fruit consists of two distinct parts; the
heart-shaped nut or seed and the fleshy, pear-shaped receptacle to which
it is attached. This receptacle is from 2 to 4 inches long, is either
red or yellow, and is very juicy and astringent. The nut or seed is
edible when roasted. It is much appreciated in the West Indies. While
being roasted the fumes are said to be poisonous.

[Illustration: PLATE XCVI.--_Cashew Nut._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XCVII

  _Ziziphus Jujuba._

  "JUJUBE."


This tree, which grows to a height of from 15 to 20 feet, is a native of
China, from which country it was probably introduced to these Islands.
Its branches are usually prickly; the leaves, which are from 1 to 3
inches in length, are alternate, ovate to oblong, obtuse, and are dark
green and glabrous above, and tawny and nearly white beneath. The
flowers are axillary. The yellow fruit, which ripens in March, is about
the size of a cherry. When eaten raw, it has a bitter flavor, but it
makes an excellent preserve.

[Illustration: PLATE XCVII.--"_Jujube._"

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XCVIII

  _Phyllanthus emblica._


There is but one tree of this species that has ever fruited in Honolulu.
It is to be found growing in the grounds of the Royal Mausoleum, Nuuanu
Valley. It is of medium height, having a crooked trunk, and its thin,
scattered branches grow irregularly. The numerous alternate leaves are
pinnate, the obtuse leaflets growing close together, and are from
one-half to three-fourths of an inch in length. Its minute flowers are
greenish-yellow. The round, six-striated fruit is smooth and fleshy, and
three-fourths to one inch in diameter. The seeds are enclosed in three
or more obovate cells, each cell containing two seeds. The pulp is hard
and bitter, but when cooked makes an excellent preserve.

[Illustration: PLATE XCVIII. _Phyllanthus emblica._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE XCIX

  _Phyllanthus distichus._

  OTAHEITI GOOSEBERRY.


This is a low-growing tree having large pinnate leaves with acute,
alternate leaflets, which are about one to two inches in length. Its
flowers grow on separate branches below the foliage. The fleshy, green
fruit, which is borne in long clusters, is acid and astringent, but when
made into preserves or pickles is palatable. The root and seeds have
medicinal qualities. There is but one tree of this species in Honolulu.
It is growing in the garden of Mr. Wm. Wolters.

[Illustration: PLATE XCIX.--_Otaheiti Gooseberry._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE C

  _Olea Europea._

  OLIVE.


The Olive, which is a native of Southwestern Asia, is not a tree of any
great height, but is very longlived, and yields prolifically. Although
not cultivated to any extent, the Olive has been growing in Hawaii for
many years. However, it has fruited only in a few favorable localities,
and nothing has ever been done to test its value commercially.

The tree thrives best in a warm, dry atmosphere, where the soil is rich
and well drained. Long-continued droughts so detrimental to most plants
will affect the Olive but slightly. The tree requires judicious pruning
immediately after the fruit is gathered, when the sap is comparatively
at rest. The small, thick leaves are lanceolate, opposite, and usually
entire; they are dull green above and silvery beneath. The small white
flowers, which come in panicles, are usually imperfect. The fruit is a
small, ellipsoid drupe, which is bluish-black when ripe. Its oil is an
important product. The Olive may be propagated from seeds, cuttings,
layers, suckers and pieces of the old stumps. The seeds require some
time to germinate, and the growth of the young plant is slow.

[Illustration: PLATE C.--_Olive._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CI

  _Vitis Labrusca._

  "ISABELLA GRAPE."


This variety of grape was early introduced to these Islands, and has
become very popular. It is a hardy vine, variable in productiveness, and
is practically the only grape grown in any quantity in Hawaii. The
leaves are of medium size, often roundish and thick; their upper surface
is dark-green, the under surface is whitish-green. The Isabella is an
attractive blue-black grape, bearing in large, well-formed clusters,
having a thick bloom. The muskiness of the thick skin is somewhat
objectionable.

[Illustration: PLATE CI.--"_Isabella Grape._"

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CII

  _Pyrus Sinensis._

  SAND PEAR.


This tree is a vigorous and clean grower, having strong, thick shoots,
beautiful foliage, and very ornamental fruit. The dark-green leaves are
broadly ovate, and long-pointed, with their margins thickly furnished
with very sharp, almost bristle-like teeth. The large white flowers
appear rather in advance of the leaves. The fruit is hard and rough,
about 2½ inches in diameter, with generally a depression about the stem.
The flesh is tough and gritty, but is very delicious when baked.
Propagation is by cuttings.

[Illustration: PLATE CII.--_Sand Pear._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CIII

  _Passiflora quadrangularis._

  GRANADILLA VINE.


This tall, strong climber is a native of tropical America. Its leaves
are broadly ovate, and the strong stems are purplish in color. The
large, interesting flowers are from 3 to 5 inches across. The sepals are
linear and violet shaded, the petals are very narrow and lilac. The many
rows of filaments in the crown are violet with bars of white below the
middle, the inner and shorter set being deep violet. The oblong fruit
attains a size from 5 to 9 inches in length, and in color is a pale,
yellowish green. The succulent, edible pulp of its hollow center has an
agreeable sub-acid flavor, and contains many flat seeds. This vine bears
well where there are bees; artificial fertilization also increases the
number of its fruits.

[Illustration: PLATE CIII.--_Granadilla Vine._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CIV

  _Passiflora edulis._

  PURPLE WATER LEMON.

  "LILIKOI."


This strong, woody vine is native of Brazil, and is naturalized in most
tropical countries. Its first introduction to these islands was at
Lilikoi, district of Makawao, Maui, whence its native name. Its serrate
leaves are large and deeply three-lobed; the white flowers are tinted
with purple. The fruit is oblong, globular, and when ripe is purple in
color; its shell-like skin is thick and crisp. The orange-colored edible
pulp is very fragrant, and is filled with small seeds, which germinate
readily.

[Illustration: PLATE CIV.--_Purple Water Lemon_--"_Lilikoi._"

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CV

  _Passiflora laurifolia._

  YELLOW WATER LEMON.


This strong-growing, glabrous vine, climbing by tendrils, is a native of
tropical America. The date when it was introduced to Hawaii, and by
whom, is not known; but in the Hilo and Hamakua districts of Hawaii this
variety grows wild. Its thick leaves are oval, oblong and entire, and
have a short, sharp point. The flowers are about 2½, inches across, are
white, with red spots on them. The fruit is slightly oblong, 2 inches in
diameter, and very regular in size and shape. When ripe, it is yellow
spotted with white. It has a medium-hard shell or skin, and the edible
pulp is whitish-yellow, and contains many flat, black seeds.

[Illustration: PLATE CV.--_Yellow Water Lemon._

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CVI

  _Passiflora alata._


This is a strong, vigorous vine, very suitable for arbors and trellises.
It is not commonly found in Hawaii; however, a very fine specimen of its
kind is growing in Dr. St. D. G. Walter's garden in Honolulu. The leaves
are oval to ovate, the petioles having two glands. The fragrant purple
flowers are about two inches in diameter. The ovoid-pointed fruit has a
tough, leathery shell which, when green, is six-striated, with white
stripes; when quite ripe the fruit is a dull orange-yellow. The numerous
seeds are imbedded in the juicy, scented pulp, which is aromatic and
delicious. Propagation is by seed and by cuttings.

[Illustration: PLATE CVI.--_Passiflora alata._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CVII

  _Passiflora, var. foetida._


This strong and hardy vine grows well on arbors and trellises. Its
leaves are three-cleft, and have long petioles; and spiral tendrils
spring from the axils. The single, pale-green flowers are surrounded by
a green, lace-like covering. The fruit is nearly globular, and slightly
pointed; it is about three-fourths of an inch in diameter, and when ripe
is a bright scarlet.

[Illustration: PLATE CVII. _Passiflora, var. foetida._

Two thirds natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CVIII

  _Cereus triangularis._

  NIGHT-BLOOMING CEREUS.


Although this plant with its wonderful nocturnal blossoms may be found
growing almost everywhere in the Islands, the best specimens of its kind
may be seen on the stone walls of Oahu College. The beautiful creamy
flowers with their yellow centers are large, about a foot long, and when
in full bloom about the same in diameter. The tube is covered with
large, leaf-like green scales. The fruit, which is about 3½ inches long
and 2 inches in diameter, is covered with persistent, large, fleshy
scales which are scarlet colored when ripe, and the interior pulp is
edible and refreshing. Fruit, however, upon the night-blooming cereus in
Hawaii is rather rare, although a few fine specimens have matured.

[Illustration: PLATE CVIII.--_Night-blooming Cereus._

Two thirds natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CIX

  _Kigelia pinnata._

  SAUSAGE TREE.


This medium-sized and very handsome shade tree is a native of tropical
Africa. It was probably introduced to Hawaii by Dr. Hillebrand. A fine
tree of this species is growing in Mrs. Foster's garden, Nuuanu avenue.
It has large pinnate leaves, and panicles of purple flowers. The
peculiar rough, grey, oblong fruits hang from a long stem, and present
an odd appearance. This tree and also one other of the same variety
growing in the grounds of the Queen's Hospital, very rarely set their
fruit. Because of the difficulty of obtaining seeds, the sausage tree
has not been widely distributed.

[Illustration: PLATE CIX.--_Sausage Tree._

One fourth natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CX

  _Phoenix dactylifera._

  THE DATE PALM.


The date, which is a native of North Africa, Arabia, and Persia, is a
noble palm, often growing to a height of from 80 to 100 feet. It is of
remarkable longevity, and will continue to produce fruit even at the age
of a hundred years. The neighborhood of the sea is considered
unfavorable to their production, although they will luxuriate in saltish
soil and bear well when brackish water is used.

Many varieties of dates exist, the fruit differing in shape, size and
color. They will grow from seeds, although the superior varieties can be
continued only from off-shoots of the root. These will commence to bear
in five years. In Asia, the growers of the commercial date find it
necessary to pollinate artificially by hanging sprays of the male
flowers in the branches of the fruit-bearing trees. There are no
imported trees bearing in Hawaii, and although there are many date trees
in Honolulu, artificial pollination would doubtless greatly increase the
yield and the quality of the fruit.

[Illustration: PLATE CX.--_The Date Palm._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CXI

  _Phoenix dactylifera._

  DATE (red and yellow variety).


The accompanying cut shows fruit from two of the best date trees in
Honolulu, and it is curious to note that both of them were grown from
seeds taken from packages of dried dates purchased from a local grocer.

[Illustration: PLATE CXI.--_Date_ (_red and yellow var._)

One third natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CXII

  _Acrocomia sp._


This interesting palm is seldom seen in Hawaii; there being but two
specimens of its kind that have produced fruit in Honolulu. Its stem is
capitately thickened at the persistent bases of the armed petioles. The
glaucous leaves are pari-pinnate with narrow, lanceolate, accuminate
segments, having a prominent mid-rib.

The inflorescence is simple and branching. The fruit is arranged similar
to that of Cocos, each about three-fourths of an inch in diameter,
sub-globose with a pointed apex. When ripe, it is a bright yellow, and
its juicy, edible pulp has the flavor of apricots.

[Illustration: PLATE CXII.--_Acrocomia sp._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CXIII

  _Cocos nucifera._

  COCOANUT PALM.

  "NIU."


The original home of this widely-diffused tree is not positively known.
Some writers say it is indigenous to the islands of the Indian Ocean;
others show that in all probability it is of American origin. On account
of its buoyant husk and impervious shell, it was enabled to drift across
the oceans without losing its germinating power, and in this manner was
widely dispersed. It is strictly a tropical plant, and grows naturally
on the seashore, or in its immediate vicinity.

It has pinnate leaves about 12 to 18 feet long, and the inflorescence
first appears in a cylindrical sheath, which splits length-wise,
exposing long sprays of male flowers, and near the base generally one
female flower, which is much larger, and eventually develops into a
fruit. The picture shows both forms of flowers, as well as a young nut,
and also a mature cocoanut. Propagation is by means of the nut alone,
which must be thoroughly ripe before planting. The outer husk must be
left on, germination taking place at the largest eye; sometimes two eyes
may sprout, and twin trees grow from these. Many varieties have been
imported from islands of the Pacific, Ceylon, West Indies, and Central
America. The cocoanut is not raised in Hawaii for commercial purposes.

[Illustration: PLATE CXIII.--_Cocoanut Palm_--"_Niu._"

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CXIV

  _Cordia collococca._

  CLAMMY CHERRY.


This low tree, with its spreading branches, is a native of the West
Indies, and is rarely met with in these Islands; there being but two
trees of its kind known to me, one growing at the Old Plantation,
Honolulu, the other at Honouliuli Ranch, Oahu. The whitish branches are
very brittle. The leaves are obovate, oblong, glabrous above and shiny
beneath. The subsessile flowers are whiteish-purple. The fruit, which is
half inch in diameter, is bluntly pointed and smooth. The fleshy pulp is
sticky, and adheres to the single seed. This plant may be grown from
seeds and from cuttings.

[Illustration: PLATE CXIV.--_Clammy Cherry._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CXV

  _Flacourtia cataphracta._


This tree, which is a native of the Malay Islands and China, was
introduced to Hawaii by Mr. Albert Jaeger. There is but one tree which
has borne fruit; this is growing at the Old Plantation, Honolulu, Oahu.
The tree, which is about 25 feet high, has dense foliage; the leaves are
small, oblong, lanceolate, glabrous, having short petioles. Flowers very
small, dioceous; the fruit about the size of a common grape, is purple
when ripe, and has a pleasant sub-acid flavor. It contains a few flatish
seeds.

[Illustration: PLATE CXV.--_Flacourtia cataphracta._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CXVI

  _Atalantia buxifolia._


This small tree of dwarfish habit is from tropical Asia. It is closely
related to the orange, and has large thorns. Its simple leaves are
alternate, coriaceous, emarginate, and from 1 to 1½ inches in length.
The petioles are short. The small, solitary flowers have five petals.
The berry is globose and three-quarters of an inch in diameter. When
ripe, it is a shiny black, and has a thick skin. The pulp has somewhat
the flavor of a lime, and the seeds are generally 1 to 5 in number. The
only specimens of this tree in Hawaii are growing in the garden of Mrs.
Foster; they, presumably, were introduced by Dr. Hillebrand, as these
gardens formerly belonged to him.

[Illustration: PLATE CXVI.--_Atalantia buxifolia._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CXVII

  _Bumelia sp._


This large shrub is a native of India. Its alternate, entire, obovate
leaves have short petioles; they are glabrous and are about 4 to 8
inches in length. The small flowers are light pink. The small, globose
fruits grow in bunches; these are purple when ripe, but are not edible.
The only tree of its kind in Honolulu is growing in the grounds of the
Queen's Hospital.

[Illustration: PLATE CXVII.--_Bumelia sp._

Natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CXVIII

  _Ochrosia elliptica._


This plant grows in the Pacific Islands, Malay Peninsula, Ceylon, and
Australia; and on account of its handsome scarlet fruit is cultivated as
an ornament, as the fruit is not edible. The tree is a small evergreen,
having alternate, glabrous, coriaceous leaves which are crowded at the
ends of the stout branches. The small, white flowers have five petals.
The fruit consists usually of two, rarely one, spreading scarlet drupes,
each containing a large seed. The first specimen of its kind in Hawaii
was planted at the Government Nursery, Honolulu, where it is still
growing.

[Illustration: PLATE CXVIII.--_Ochrosia elliptica._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CXIX

  _Ananas sativus._

  PINEAPPLE.


This variety of the pineapple plant was grown at an early date in these
Islands, and until the new and spineless forms were introduced was the
only quality offered in the fruit markets. It is now cultivated but
little, and is often found growing wild. The rosette at the head of the
fleshy fruit has numerous thorny leaves. The fruit is much smaller than
those of the thornless varieties, but it has a very sweet flavor.

[Illustration: PLATE CXIX.--_Pineapple._

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CXX

  _Opuntia Tuna._

  PRICKLY PEAR--"PANINI."


This erect, wide-spreading plant was early introduced to these Islands
from Mexico. It thrives well in arid lands, and in times of drought its
succulent, fleshy leaves and juicy fruit are eaten by cattle. The
plants, when old, become hard and woody, having many stout spines. The
large flowers are reddish-yellow, and the obovate, truncate fruit is a
purplish-red, having a thick fibrous skin, which is covered with fine
bristles. The edible pulp is reddish-purple and contains numerous
seeds.

[Illustration: PLATE CXX.--_Prickly Pear_--"_Panini._"

One half natural size.]



  _G. P. W. Collection._      PLATE CXXI

  _Prosopis juliflora._

  ALGAROBA--"KIAWE."


The Kiawe deserves a special mention in this book, as it is, in my
opinion, one of the most valuable and beautiful trees that grows in the
Hawaiian Islands. Perhaps on account of its very general dissemination,
and because of the ease with which it spreads spontaneously, even in the
driest districts, it has received less consideration than has been
accorded to other plants more difficult of propagation.

The Kiawe is the foundation of all the beauty of our lowlands, and
provides a delicate background for other plants. Under favorable
circumstances, it reaches to a height of 50 feet. It has wide-spreading
branches and delicate-green foliage. The flowers yield a delicious
honey, and the seed-pods furnish a valuable fodder, and, finally, when
the tree is cut down, its wood makes the very best of fuel. The Algaroba
is a native of Central and South America. Ordinarily it is a
moderate-sized tree of quick and easy growth. Its branches in most cases
are covered with stout, cylindrical, axillary spines, and in other cases
they are unarmed.

The abruptly bi-pinnate leaves have from 6 to 30 pairs of linear
leaflets about one-fourth to one inch in length. The small, pale-yellow
flowers come in cylindrical spikes. The straight or sickle-shaped
seed-pod is sweet, and is eaten by stock. Propagation is by seed.

The first Algaroba tree of Hawaii was brought to Honolulu in 1828 by
Father Bachelot, founder of the Roman Catholic Mission in the Islands.
It was planted in the Mission garden, where the venerable tree is
standing today.

[Illustration: PLATE CXXI.--_Algaroba_--"_Kiawe._"]



Detailed Transcriber's Notes.


General Notes.

The relative size of items noted in the captions of the Plates relates
to the original book, not to this document. Scaling of the images in
preparation of this e-book and the size and resolution of the media on
which the e-book is read make general statements about the relative
size of the pictured items impossible.

The "Index" was completely reworked so that it reflects the titles
and captions within the body of the book. The original style was
maintained. Details of changes to the "Index" are omitted. The page
number indicates the Plate, not the text preceding it.

The text of the book varies from the original in that obvious
misprints have been fixed. Where the intent of the misprint was not
obvious, it has been left in place and noted below. Use of archaic and
unusual words, spelling and styling has been maintained. Inconsistent
hyphenation has been retained. Capitalization of botanical names is
maintained as in the original. Details of the changes follow.


Details of the Changes.

Frequently used archaic spelling and styling which have been maintained:
anona (annona), cocoanut (coconut), Guatamala (Guatemala) and Nuuanu
avenue (Nuuanu Avenue). Others occur less frequently.

Both the spellings preceding and preceeding were used throughout the
book. They have been standardized to preceding, as noted below.

In the caption of Plate III, to match the text title--changed to:
Guatamala Avocado (in original book: Avocado).

In the text with Plate IV, changed to: elevation (in original book:
elevtaion); and inserted period after the fruit-bearing stems.

In the text with Plate V, changed to: successful (in original book:
ssuccessful).

In the text with Plate XI, changed to: preceding (in original book:
preceeding).

In the text with Plate XVII, changed to: soil (in original book: sosil);
and to: preceding (in original book: preceeding).

In the text title with Plate XX, changed to: edulis (in original book:
eduiis).

In the text with Plate XXII, for clarity, changed to: 1-16th (in
original book: 1-16); and changed to: underside (in original book:
under-side) for consistency with elsewhere in the book.

In the text with Plate XXIV, changed to: small (in original book:
samll).

In the text with Plate XXXI, changed to: leaves (in original book:
laves) and changed to: who (in original book: whos).

In the text and captions associated with Plates XXXV through XXXVII, the
spellings papaya and papaia were both used. They have been standardized
to papaya.

In the caption of Plate XXXVI, moved the period (".") outside the
parentheses, to match chapter heading.

In the text with Plate XXXVII, the word pesin is probably a printing
error, however it is unclear whether the intended word was resin or
pepsin. The error has been left as in the original.

In the text with Plate XXXVIII, changed to: generally (in original book:
generaly).

In the caption of Plate XXXVIII, italicized Chinese Orange for
consistency with other caption formatting.

In the text title and caption of Plate XLI, changed to: lime (in
original book: limes) for consistency with rest of the book.

In the title of the text with Plate XLV, changed to: WASHINGTON NAVEL
ORANGE (in original book: WASHINGTON NAVEL).

In the text with Plate LVI, changed to: protuberance (in original book:
portuberance).

In the text title and caption of Plate LVIII, changed to: Sweet Red
Guava (in original book: Sweet red).

In the text with Plate LVIII, changed to: preceding (in original book:
preceeding).

In the title of the text with Plate LXIV, changed to: LXIV (in original
book: LXVI).

In the text with Plate LXIV, changed to: followed (in original book:
folowed); and changed to: so-called (in original book: socalled) for
consistency with elsewhere in the book.

In the title of the text with Plate LXVII, changed to: varieties (in
original book: varities); and in the text, changed to: center (in
original book: centre) for consistency with the elsewhere in the book.

In the text with Plate LXX, I suspect that 100 to 40 should have been
10 to 40.

In the text and caption of Plate LXXII, changed to: candlenut (in
original book: candle nut, candle-nut and candlenut) for consistency
within this page.

In the text with Plate LXXIX, changed to: preceding (in original book:
preceeding).

In the text with Plate LXXXVI, changed to: consists (in original book:
consistss).

In the text with Plate LXXXIX, changed to: parabola (in original book:
parobola).

In the text with Plate XCI, changed to: yellow (in original book:
yelow).

In the text with Plate XCV, changed to: delicious (in original book:
declicious).

In the title of the text with Plate XCIX, changed to: Phyllanthus (in
original book: Phllanthus).

In the title of the text with Plate CII, changed to: Sinensis (in
original book: Sinense).

In the title of the text with Plate CIII and in the caption:
Granadilla Vine (in original book: Grenadilla).

In the text with Plate CIII, changed to: climber (in original book:
climer); and changed to: succulent (in original book: suculent).

In the caption of Plate CVIII, changed to: Night-blooming (in original
book: Night-Blooming) for consistency in caption formatting.

In the text with Plate CX, changed to: considered (in original book:
considereed); and changed to the archaic word: saltish (in original
book: satlish).

In the text with Plate CXIII, changed to: American (in original book:
Ameriican).

In the title of the text with Plate CXIV, changed to: collococca (in
original book: colloccoca).

In the text with Plate CXVII, changed to: Honolulu (in original book:
Honolulue).

In the text with Plate CXVIII, changed to: where it is (in original
book: where is is).

In the caption of Plate CXIX, for consistency changed to: Pineapple (in
original book: Pine apple).





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