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´╗┐Title: Educational Toys - Consisting Chiefly of Coping-Saw Problems for Children in - School and the Home
Author: Petersen, Louis C.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Educational Toys - Consisting Chiefly of Coping-Saw Problems for Children in - School and the Home" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



-------------------------------------------------------------

[Transcriber's Note: LEAD-PAINT WARNING!
DO NOT USE THE GROUND-LEAD PAINT INGREDIENTS
mentioned in the "Coloring the Toys" chapter.
See Transcriber's Notes at end of document for more details.]

-------------------------------------------------------------



EDUCATIONAL TOYS


Consisting Chiefly of Coping-Saw Problems for
Children in the School and the Home

by

LOUIS C. PETERSEN, B. Sc.

Director of Manual Arts, State Normal University,
Carbondale, Illinois

[Illustration]

PUBLISHED BY
THE MANUAL ARTS PRESS
PEORIA, ILLINOIS



COPYRIGHT
LOUIS C. PETERSEN
1920



CONTENTS



                                      _Page_

INTRODUCTION                              5

TOOLS AND SUPPLIES                        7

BOW DRILL                                 8

TRANSFERRING DESIGNS                      9

WOODS                                     9

LAYING OUT WORK                          10

SAWING                                   10

FASTENING BASES                          11

FASTENINGS                               11

COLORING TOYS                            12

WORKING DRAWINGS AND DIRECTIONS          15
  The Buzzer                             16
  The Shark Puzzle                       16
  Duck                                   18
  Goose                                  18
  Wild Duck                              20
  Hen                                    20
  Deer                                   22
  Cow                                    22
  Weasel                                 26
  Tiger                                  26
  Rocking Rhino                          28
  Minstrels                              30
  Squirrel                               32
  Pig                                    32
  Kangaroo                               32
  Camel                                  36
  Giraffe                                38
  Swan Rocker                            40
  Balancing Peacock                      42
  Toy Dog                                44
  Teddy Bear                             46
  Parrot                                 48
  Doll's Hobby Horse                     50
  Stern Wheeler                          50
  The Weather-cock                       50
  Arm-chair and Rocking-chair             54
  Doll's Cradle                          54
  Doll's Bed                             56
  Doll's Table                           56
  Kites                                  58
  Wood Choppers                          60
  The Bucking Goats                      60
  Pecking Hens                           60
  Acrobat                                64
  Climbing Sailor                        64
  The Jumping Jack                       68
  Balancing Barrister                    68
  The Dancing Rastus                     70
  The Spanking Esquimaux                 72
  Wabbler                                74
  Falling Teeter-Totter                  76
  Tumbling Tommie                        78
  The Busy Pup                           80
  The Dinkey Bird                        82
  Pelican Sewing Stand                   84
  Whirligig                              86
  The Cart                               86
  The Wagon                              88
  Flying Goose                           90
  The Dodo Bird                          92
  Rocking-horse and Rider                94
  Animated Elephant                      97
  The Bucking Mule                      100
  Fox-and-Goose Game                    104
  Nine Men's Mill                       106
  Disc Puzzle                           108
  Ball Puzzle                           108

APPENDIX
  Knots and Braids                      111



INTRODUCTION


The purpose in sending out this collection of toys is to promote among
children a love for educational occupation. This book is intended to
be of real service to parents and teachers who are intrusted with the
arduous responsibility of child-training. It is with this object in
view that the directions, drawings and photographs have been prepared.

The experience of almost twenty years as a teacher has convinced
the author that only when the child approaches subject-matter with
interest and enthusiasm can the best results be obtained. Giving a
child an opportunity to make things, arouses his interest; therefore,
learning by doing is a most effective method in gaining educational
ends.

Toy-making incorporates this method, with several vital elements
added. It takes into account the child's view-point, his proclivities
and his emotions. It is a form of activity that appeals strongly
to his fancy, has a direct relation to his environments, and is
within the range of his mental grasp and constructive ability. His
wonderful imagination endows the creatures of his handiwork with life,
individuality and cunning. The toy problem is in harmony with the
child's resourcefulness, his powers and his interests.

The problems contained in this book have been selected from those
worked out in the Normal Model School. They have been tested under
ordinary class-room conditions. To survive the weeding-out process, a
toy has had to meet the following requirements:


      1. It must be within the child's power.

      2. It must excite and sustain interest.

      3. It must possess educational value.

      4. It must be adaptable to light-wood construction.

      5. It must conform in size and complexity to the limited
         space and equipment of class-room conditions.


In his early years, the child begins tinkering with what materials
and tools he can find, making something. The wise parent and teacher
will turn that healthful, happy, creative instinct into good, useful
channels. He will encourage and guide the child, in these early
attempts, by surrounding him with congenial conditions, by furnishing
him suggestions, pictures, drawings and such other aids as will direct
him to occupational problems of educational value, and by providing
him with a place to work, the tools, wood, nails, wire and other
necessary equipment.

One advantage in connection with the kind of educational hand work
presented in this book is that it can be carried on with a very
small and inexpensive equipment. Moreover, it is light, clean and
agreeable in every respect. The tools are safe for a child to
handle. The material is substantial and durable. The articles made
are firm, strong and of lasting quality. They become an excellent
means for providing an abundance of entertainment, and constitute
most acceptable gifts, promoting as much genuine happiness for the
industrious donor as for the fortunate receiver.

Toy-making may readily be adapted to class-room conditions and
a period be devoted to it each day. Members of the class may be
appointed to distribute the tools and material at the beginning of the
period, and collect them at the end. While at work, each pupil should
stay at his desk and keep it neat and orderly. When not in use, the
equipment should be locked up in a box having suitable compartments
for the tools and materials.

The teacher who is to conduct the class should be thoroly familiar
with the work and should have made each model before taking it up as a
class problem. The work as a whole should be conducted in a systematic
and quiet manner; concise planning, prompt action, and accuracy in
details should be insisted upon. The cheerful spirit, the formation
of correct habits, and the proper regard for everything and everybody
should be cultivated along with skill in constructing and good taste
in coloring the toys.

If for any valid reason this work can not be carried on in the school,
the teacher should encourage the pupils to do it as home work. The
child can buy his own scroll saw and colors, and furnish his own
wood. The work can be done outside of school, but still be under the
supervision and guidance of the teacher. The training that comes thru
reading and interpreting directions and drawings, and carrying out the
instruction in every detail, is of value to every child, no matter
what his future career may be.

The child should, therefore, have a book of his own, giving directions
and drawings. Furthermore, the teacher should give the proper amount
of credit for the home work.


                    L. C. PETERSEN.



TOOLS AND SUPPLIES


The equipment listed below is suggestive for ordinary class-room
conditions. The number of pupils should not exceed twenty-four.

_Tools for each pupil_:


      12" rule.

      Coping-saw.

      Saw-bracket, Fig. 1. A working drawing of the saw-bracket
      is shown in Fig. 2.

      A water-color brush.


[Illustration: Fig. 1]

_Tools for every four pupils_:


      Scissors.

      Compass.

      Water-color pan.

      4-1/2" round-nose pliers, Fig. 4.

      5" side-cutting pliers.

      5 oz. claw hammer.

      8" half-round mill file.

      Bow-drill, see Fig. 3.


[Illustration: Fig. 2]

_General class equipment and supplies_:


      A box for locking up equipment and work.

      2 breast drills.

      Iron block to serve as anvil.

      6 quires of No. 1/2 sand-paper.

      Le Page's glue in two one-pint cans.

      1 gross coping-saw blades.

      1 lb. each of 1/2", 3/4" and 1" brads.

      2 lbs. each of 3/4" No. 19, 1" No. 18, 1-1/4" No. 17,
      1-1/2" No. 16, and 1-3/4" No. 15 flat-headed nails.

      1 lb. each of 1/2", 5/8" and 3/4" brass escutcheon pins.

      30 ft. of No. 12 copper-coated steel wire.

      A few nails of various sizes for making drills.

      Turpentine.

      Alcohol.

      Borax.

      Brushes of various sizes.

      Paint--red, yellow, green, blue, black and white of the
      paints to be used. Several good enamel paints, ready for
      use, are on the market. "Calcimo" is cheaper, but not so
      convenient, as it must be prepared.


[Illustration: Fig. 3]

[Illustration: Fig. 4]



BOW DRILL


The bow drill is useful for drilling small holes in wood, and may
easily be made by a child. First, procure an ordinary thread spool.
Push a round stick six inches long thru the hole with a tight fit.
Shape the top of the stick to a point (Fig. 3). Drive a nail into the
other end of the stick. Cut the head off the nail, hammer it flat
at the end, and sharpen it with a file. In this way a drill of any
size needed for the work can be made. The bow is made from a slender,
flexible stick, about twenty inches long. A notch is cut at each end
where the ends of a strong string are securely tied. Slip the bow
string once around the spool and spin it. The top end of the spindle
is guided in a shallow hole in a piece of wood as shown at H in Fig.
3. This block of wood is held in the left hand while the right moves
the bow back and forth, spinning the spindle and drilling the hole.



TRANSFERRING DESIGNS


The shapes of people, animals and birds on the plates that follow are
drawn full size. They are intended to be made of wood, and may be
transferred by any one of the following methods:

      (_a_) Place a piece of transparent paper, known as tracing
      paper, over the drawing in the book, and with a soft, sharp
      lead pencil, trace all the lines on the drawing. Cut out
      the traced shape with a pair of scissors. Place it on the
      wood, and with pencil trace along the edge of the paper
      pattern.

      (_b_) Make a tracing and paste it on the wood.

      (_c_) Place a piece of carbon paper on the wood, carbon
      side down. On this, place the tracing in position and
      fasten it down with two thumb tacks. With a hard pencil, or
      a stylus, go over all the lines of tracing. Pressure should
      be applied as the lines are being traced so that they may
      show plainly on the wood.

      (_d_) Rub the back of the tracing with graphite (the lead
      of the pencil). Place it on the wood, and with a hard
      pencil, or a stylus, trace the lines.

      (_e_) When a permanent pattern is desired for class use,
      place the tracing on a piece of cardboard, and transfer
      the outline by method _c_ or _d_, indicated above. With a
      sharp, pointed knife or shears cut the cardboard accurately
      to line. Place this template on the wood, and with a sharp
      pencil, held vertically, draw lines around the edge of the
      template. This method serves well for class work.



WOODS


Save the thin-wood boxes found at home. Ask the store-keeper to save
boxes instead of burning them. A rich supply of wood for toy-making
may be secured in this way. For class work, it will be necessary to
buy wood prepared and surfaced to dimensions. The thicknesses most
convenient for school work are 3/16", 1/4", 3/8", 1/2", 7/8".

While three-ply wood is best for the thin stock, the single-ply
answers the purpose when due care is given to the direction of the
wood fibers--the grain. Such woods as maple, elm, birch, cherry and
bay wood are very durable, but rather hard to work. Bass wood, poplar
and sugar pine are easy to work, are preferable in school, and give
satisfactory results.



LAYING OUT WORK


It is important to have the patterns placed correctly on the wood so
that the desired result may be reached. One of the things sought is
the greatest possible strength in the parts sawed out. The grain of
the wood should, therefore, run lengthwise of the wood where the parts
are narrow. Another thing desired is the economical use of material.
The patterns should, therefore, be so arranged on the wood that the
outlines will match closely together and thus use up as nearly as
possible all surface space on the board. Generally, it is advisable to
place the larger patterns first, beginning near a corner of the board,
and then fit in the smaller patterns on the intermediate spaces.

Where the drawings are not full size, the dimensions are shown in
inches or fractions of an inch. Guided by the figures, the outlines of
the object may be laid out directly on the wood by ruler, pencil and
compasses. In laying out the different shapes on the wood, attention
should be given to the direction of the grain of the wood, to have it
run lengthwise the object, not crosswise.



SAWING


After the different shapes have been properly laid out on the wood,
the next thing to do is to saw them out with a coping-saw. The wood
is placed flat on a saw-bracket, pattern side up. This saw-bracket is
fastened to the edge of a desk or a table top and should be adjusted
in height so the top of it is about 6" below the child's chin. The
child may stand or sit, when at work, whichever is most comfortable,
but a standing position gives more freedom of movement.

The wood is held and guided on the saw-bracket with the left hand,
while the right hand operates the coping-saw with an up-and-down
motion in the V-shaped opening in the bracket.

The coping-saw is the principal tool needed for this work, and may be
purchased with extra blades for about 25 cents. The frame is made of
spring steel and holds the blade in tension. By pressing the frame
against the edge of a table, it may readily be sprung enough to allow
the blade to be put into the slots in the ends of the frame. There is
a pair of end slots and a pair of side slots in the frame. The blade
may be inserted into these slots with either the teeth edge or the
smooth edge of the blade towards the frame. _The points of the teeth
should always point towards the handle of the frame._ The frame is
held with the handle down. The saw does the cutting as it is pulled
downward. In working the saw, the blade must be kept perpendicular to
the face of the wood. The blade should never be forced against the
wood, as that will cause the wood to tear, and leave a ragged edge.
Saw right to the line. Keep the saw going up and down to insure
freedom and plenty of room for the blade, especially in turning
corners. When removing it from the work, do not attempt to twist the
blade or let the frame hang on it, as the blades are brittle and break
easily.

When an opening is to be sawed out, bore a hole in the middle of the
part to be cut out, remove the blade from the upper part of the frame,
while holding it in place in the lower part with the thumb of the
right hand. Slip the blade thru the hole from below, and replace it in
the slot while pressing the upper part of the frame against the edge
of the desk. When the opening has been cut, the saw may be removed by
reversing the operation. In all cases, saw the edge of the wood to a
finish as far as possible. Rough or fuzzy edges should be removed by
filing and sand-papering.



FASTENING TO BASES


Where toys have bases, they should be made of two or more thicknesses,
one overlapping the other. The lower piece should be thicker than the
upper, extending a distance equal to the thickness of the upper part.
When both the toy and the base parts are ready to fasten together,
hold the toy in a vise, with its feet up, and drive nails thru the
upper part of the base into the feet. Then fasten the top to the lower
part with escutcheon pins. Space the pins accurately.



FASTENINGS


Several methods are employed in fastening parts together in
toy-making. Where parts are joined together permanently, a thin coat
of liquid glue should be rubbed on the joining surfaces with a small
paddle, and then fastened with several brads. Where possible, these
brads should reach thru the parts just enough to be clenched on the
other side (A, Fig. 5).

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

A movable joint is secured by one flat-headed nail which acts as a
pivot, on which one or more of the parts turn. The nail must reach
thru the wood far enough to allow the end to be bent back like a
staple and be driven into the wood.

A loose joint is required in some toys so that the parts may swing
without friction. A flat-headed nail is used as a pivot, and holes, a
little bigger than the nail, are bored thru all but one of the parts
to be joined together. The part that will be nearest to the point of
the nail has no hole bored in it, for it should fit tight. The nail
must reach thru the joint far enough so that it may be bent back,
staple-like, and when the point is driven back into the wood, the
joint should swing freely. The nail may be bent with round-nose pliers
(B, Fig. 5).



COLORING THE TOYS


The possibilities that may be achieved in beautifying these wooden
toys are almost limitless. They may be treated as design problems,
thereby serving as a means of training the taste and imagination
as well as developing an appreciation of space relations and color
harmonies. The work is fascinating to children and presents an
excellent opportunity for acquiring knowledge and skill in mixing and
applying colors. Several methods are given here. The choice of method
should be guided by the child's ability and experience in doing work
of this kind. The employment of striking and brilliant colors will
enhance the charm and increase the artistic effect.

The methods of coloring are arranged in the order of their difficulty
in manipulation:

_Method No. 1._ Water colors may be used to color the wood, but only a
little water should be used so as to prevent the tendency to spread.
When the toy is dry, a coat of shellac may be applied over the water
color. This protects the wood and gives the toy a crisp and bright
appearance.

_Method No. 2._ Of the calcimine paints, the one known as "Calcimo"
may be used successfully by children. It is procured in powder form
and costs from 15 to 50 cents a pound according to color. It is mixed
with water that contains a binder to prevent the colors from rubbing
off in handling the toys. The binder may be either glue or mucilage
mixed with the water. The proportion is about a tablespoonful of glue
to a quart of water. In preparing the colors, put a teaspoonful of
powder in a water-color pan and add water, while stirring and rubbing
out the lumps, till the mixture comes to a consistency of thick cream.
It may then be applied with a No. 6 water-color brush.

[TR Note: -------------------------------------------------

LEAD WARNING!

DO NOT USE THE WHITE LEAD OR GROUND LEAD INGREDIENTS MENTIONED IN
METHODS 3 AND 4.

-------------------------------------------------End of TR Note]

_Method No. 3._ When handled correctly, oil paint and enamel paint
give excellent results, producing a smooth, brilliant gloss. First,
give the toy a coat of white lead or flat white tone. Apply it with a
flat sash brush about an inch wide. Allow the toy to dry four or five
days and then sand-paper it smoothly with No. 1/2 sand-paper. Finally,
give it a coat of enamel paint of the colors desired.

If colored enamel is not at hand, use white enamel and add colors
ground in oil. The enamel paint is put on a surface with a large
camel-hair brush. Use No. 10 artist's flat brush for features. Natural
details and life-like effects should be avoided.

The features should be conventionalized. Eyes, ears, nose and mouth
may be dotted in with a tooth-pick.

_Method No. 4._ For a second coat, instead of using enamel for
coloring, white lead ground in oil may be used, mixed with colors
ground in oil. This produces a mat or dull finish that is quite
pleasing. However, if a gloss finish is desired, a coat of varnish may
be applied over the dull color. Dry colors may be mixed with shellac
varnish until it is heavy enough to cover the wood. If this mixture
becomes too thick to spread smoothly, it may be thinned with alcohol.
The brush that has been used in varnish may be cleaned by washing in
borax water. When the joints are movable, it is advisable to paint
each part separately before putting them together. Where glue has
been used to form joints, it should be thoroly dry before the toy is
painted.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



WORKING DRAWINGS AND DIRECTIONS


In beginning the construction of these toys, read the directions
carefully so as to understand the process of construction. Study how
you can best arrive at the desired results. By thinking ahead, as you
proceed, many mistakes may be prevented.


      Be careful in making your drawings.

      Keep your pencil sharp.

      Be precise in making measurements.

      Handle the tools with care.

      Finish one job before starting another.

      Have a place for your tools.

      Keep your glue and wood-finishes well covered to prevent
      drying.

      Keep your brushes in kerosene to prevent them from getting
      stiff.

      Be clean in handling colors.

      Let one color get dry before joining on another.

      Let the colors join on sharp and definite lines.

      Pick up only a small amount of color with the brush.

      Lay the color on in a thin coat.

      Clean your brushes before putting them away.

      Give your work that clean, crisp, snappy appearance which
      is the mark of superior craftsmanship.


[Illustration]


THE BUZZER

This toy is made from 1/4" stock. Two 1/8" holes are located on a
straight line passing thru the center, one on each side of the center
and 1/4" from it. The circle is drawn with compass, and then sawed to
the line.

The circumference is stepped off into lengths equal to the radius, and
every second point connected by line with the center. This divides the
surface into three equal spaces called sectors. Color each sector with
one of the primary colors--red, blue and yellow.

A strong cord is slipped thru the two holes, and the ends tied
together in a square knot, leaving a loop on each side of the wheel.

To operate the buzzer, insert a finger of each hand in the loops and
swing the disk around in a circular motion till the strands of the
cord are twisted together. Then pull hard on the cord so that the disk
will be set into a spinning motion as the cord is being unwound. At
this instant slacken the cord so that the disk may continue turning,
and rewind the string. Then pull on the cord again, and the disk will
spin in the opposite direction. By whirling the disks rapidly in
this way, the colors will blend and show a new color produced by the
three primary colors. The other side of the wheel may have half of it
colored yellow and half colored blue. This will blend into green when
spun. By pasting paper sectors of different colors on the wheel, an
infinite number of tests in color-blending may be made.


THE SHARK PUZZLE

The shark is sawed out as shown in the drawing and three holes bored.

To make one of the rings, draw two concentric circles--one 1/2" radius
and the other 3/4" radius. First, saw out the inner circle and then
the outer.

Take a piece of cord a foot long, double it and slip the loop thru the
middle hole in the shark. Next, put the two ends of the cord thru the
loop. Slip a ring on each end of the cord, and tie with a slip knot
into the end hole in the shark.

Puzzle: Transfer a ring from one end to the other.

[Illustration: BUZZER SHARK PUZZLE]


DUCK

The parts for this fowl are sawed out of 1/4" stock. The edges should
be sawed square and to line, and may be made smooth and slightly
rounded by filing and sand-papering.

The two feet should be made alike and held together when the hole for
the nail is drilled thru them. The bottom of the feet will then be on
the same level, and the duck will stand upright. Put a fine 1" nail
thru one foot, drive it thru the body, at the proper place, and press
it thru the other foot.

With round-nose pliers, bend the end of the nail around so the end
will point toward the wood (Fig. 5). Place the head of the nail
against a block of iron, and with the hammer drive the point of the
nail into the foot. The joint should be firm and movable so the duck
will stand at different postures.

Color the body brown, with black outlines and streaks on the wings,
the bill yellow, the head green, and the feet red.

[Illustration: Fig. 6. Platform Bases.]


GOOSE

This project may be made of 3/8" stock and fastened to a platform base
(Fig. 6).

The platform is made of two rectangular pieces one on top of the
other. The upper is 1-1/2" by 2-1/4"; the lower, 2-1/4" by 3". The
grain in the two pieces should cross to prevent warping.

To fasten the goose to the platform, outline on the upper piece of the
platform the position for the foot. Hold the goose with foot up. Drive
1-1/2" brads thru the upper piece of the platform into the foot.

On the upper side of this upper piece of the platform, locate points
at each corner, 1/4" from the outer edges, and drive 5/8" escutcheon
pins thru it into the lower piece of the platform.

Smooth all parts, and color the body white with black trimmings. Make
the bill yellow, the feet red and the platform green.

[Illustration: DUCK GOOSE]


WILD DUCK

The body may be cut from 3/8" stock, or from heavier material if so
desired. It may be whittled to natural shape with a pocket knife
before fastening it onto the platform.

The bill, eye and feet are colored yellow, throat, breast and tail
red, head and wings dark green, and platform blue.


HEN

The construction of this problem is similar to that of the goose. Her
feet and comb are colored red, body white with black trimming, beak
and platform yellow.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: WILD DUCK HEN]


DEER

The stock is 3/8" thick, the grain running vertical. It should be
mounted on a wheel base 3/8" by 2" by 5-1/2" (Fig. 7). The deer is
colored reddish brown, but nearly white under the body and on the
lower parts of the legs. Color the base black and the wheels red.

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Wheel Base.]

[Illustration: DEER]


COW

The stock is 3/8" thick. The grain of the wood should run vertical.
The cow should be mounted on a wheel base 3/8" by 2" by 5-1/2". Wheels
are 3/8" thick, 1-1/2" diameter. This is a Jersey cow, and should be
colored accordingly. The base may be colored green, and the wheels red.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: COW]


WEASEL

This little creature is wary and swift as lightning in its movements.

The stock should be 1/4" thick, the grain running lengthwise of the
body. It may be mounted on rocker base 1/4" by 1-1/2" by 5" (Fig. 8.
See text on "Minstrels," page 30). It is reddish brown with under part
of body light.

[Illustration: Fig. 8. Rocker Bases.]

[Illustration: WEASEL]


TIGER

This may be treated in the same way as the weasel except the coloring.
Examine a tiger in the zoo, or look up some colored pictures of tigers
so you will know just how to draw his stripes and just what color to
make them.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: TIGER]


ROCKING RHINO

The rhinoceros should be cut out and colored and mounted on a platform
which has rockers fastened to its edges (Fig. 8).

Hold the animal in the vise, head down, and nail thru the platform
into the feet.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: ROCKING RHINO]


MINSTRELS

The stock for the two minstrels, the platform and the rockers is 1/4"
thick, with the grain of the wood running lengthwise in each object.

The bottom of the feet of the figures should fit squarely onto the
platform. The rockers are laid off with the compass. The center of the
arc is on a separate piece of wood of the same thickness as the rocker.

When the rockers are accurately finished and nailed to the platform,
a center line is drawn along the under side of the platform, and
points located to match the position of the feet of the figures.
Use 3/4" brads and drive them thru the platform. Hold the figures,
heads down, in the vise, or in clamps, and, in turn, drive the brads
thru the feet and into the legs so that the figures will stand in an
upright position. They are then colored in such brilliant attire as is
becoming two gay minstrels.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: MINSTRELS]


SQUIRREL

The squirrel is generally regarded as being wary and wild. Still, by
wise and kind treatment, its timidity can be overcome, and it may
become quite tame. All parts of the squirrel may be made from 1/4"
stock. Saw out the body, two fore, two hind legs and a nut.

Hold each pair of legs together in boring holes thru them. Smooth the
parts and assemble them by firm movable joints.

Color throat and breast light gray, and the remainder brown.

[Illustration: SQUIRREL]


PIG

This problem is worked out similar to the squirrel. It may be colored
red, black or white, with large spots.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: PIG]


KANGAROO

This animal has its home in Australia, where the birds are songless
and the trees give no shade.

It has a very powerful tail which serves with the two long hind legs
as its support and for making enormous bounds. The fore legs, much
like arms, are used with surprising dexterity by this strange animal.
The nose, throat and breast are very light, the rest of the body is
reddish brown.

[Illustration: KANGAROO]


CAMEL

It is with significance that this beast is called the ship of the
desert. Like a ship crossing a wide ocean of water, the camel travels
across a great expanse of sand carrying heavy loads of freight.

It has a wonderful endurance and can go for a week without drinking,
subsisting on the coarse grass of that waste region, and the water
stored up in its humps. Its dreamy eyes, sullen nature, angular figure
and neutral grey-brown color--all seem to resemble the rocky desert
itself.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: CAMEL]


GIRAFFE

This creature (Fig. 9) is, unquestionably, the tallest of all the
beasts of the forests of Africa. It does not stoop to obtain its
living from the ground, but browses on the tops of trees.

It is also called the camelopard, suggesting a resemblance in shape to
the camel and in color to the leopard.

It is cream-colored with a shower of dark-brown spots on its back and
sides.

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]

[Illustration: GIRAFFE]


SWAN ROCKER

All the parts may be made from 1/4" stock. The two sides are made like
the pattern. The seat is 2-1/4" wide, the back 2-1/2". Both are 3"
long, and serve to unite the two sides.

When the parts are finished and ready for assembling, mark on the
sides the exact location of seat and back; also the position of each
nail on all parts. Hold the two sides together and make small holes
thru them where the nails are to be driven. Nail, in turn, the seat
and back to the first side, and then to the second side.

Color white and decorate appropriately.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: SWAN ROCKER]


BALANCING PEACOCK

Saw out the shape of the fowl as outlined in the drawing.

There is good chance for display of fine color in dark-green and blue.
The breast should be colored brown.

Make a small stick about 2" long for a perch. Drive a small nail into
each end of the stick, and tie the ends of a fine cord to each nail.
Press a brad thru the middle of the stick up into the foot of the
peacock. It may then be hung up by the long loop of the string and
swung freely.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: PEACOCK]


TOY DOG

This dog may be made of 3/16" or 1/4" stock. When put together, the
two pieces for the body are separated by the head, tail and two
circular pieces. The legs are fastened to the outside of the body by
two long nails that reach thru the five thicknesses. The ends of the
nails are bent back.

Smooth the parts and color white, with large black spots on head,
back, tail and legs.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: TOY DOG]


TEDDY BEAR

This animal has two pieces for the body. The head and two circular
pieces hold these two pieces apart. The head and legs move on tight
joints so that the bear will stay in the desired position.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: TEDDY BEAR]


PARROT

This may be made of 1/4" stock. The base has two holes bored thru it
for the uprights with fit tight into the holes (Fig. 10). The perch is
2" long and has a brad in each end to swing on. These brads fit loose
thru the uprights near the top ends.

The parrot is sawed out, and a 3/4" brad driven up thru the foot which
also fits into the hole in the middle of the perch.

The parrot may be colored white with black trimmings, yellow beak and
eyes, red crest, tail and foot. The wings are green.

The stand should have a green base, red uprights, and yellow perch.
The bird should balance well and swing freely.

[Illustration: Fig. 10.]

[Illustration: PARROT]


DOLL'S HOBBY HORSE

The two body pieces of the horse with rocker are sawed from 1/4" wood.
The seat and back are made alike, as are also the shelf and foot-rest.
The ends of these four pieces should be at right angles to the sides,
and the edges should be slightly rounded.

Mark carefully on both side pieces where the cross-pieces are to be
fastened. Hold the two together and make fine holes thru the two
thicknesses where the nails are to go thru. By driving the brads thru
these holes, fasten all the cross pieces to one side, and watch that
the brads go straight. Then fasten the other side in a similar way.

Color the horses white, rockers red, and seat blue.

[Illustration: DOLL'S HOBBY HORSE]


STERN WHEELER

This boat is sawed out according to the drawing, and notches cut on
the arms at the stern as a place for the rubber band which serves both
as axle and motive power. The paddles are sawed out to fit together to
form a stern wheel with four paddles.

The elastic is made in a double loop of four thicknesses, one of which
is placed in each of the four angles of the paddle. By twisting the
elastic band, power is stored up sufficient for the boat to attain a
fair rate of speed. A spool serves as smoke-stack.

Paint the boat white and smoke-stack red.

[Illustration]


THE WEATHER-COCK

This fowl may be made of 3/8" stock; a shingle will do. Let the
grain run vertically. The perch may be made of similar stock, triple
thickness, with the middle piece short to allow room for the foot of
the rooster. The pieces are securely fastened together with nails,
and a hole bored in the other end of the perch for a metal pivot, on
which it should swing to tell the way the wind blows. Give it two
coats of paint, using brilliant colors.

[Illustration: STERN WHEELER WEATHER COCK]


ARM-CHAIR AND ROCKING-CHAIR

These two doll's chairs are similar in construction. Make them from
1/4" wood. Saw out two sides, a back and a seat for each chair. Have
edges finished accurately. The seats are alike for the two chairs. The
backs, also, are alike, except that the one for the rocker is 1/4"
longer than the other. Assemble as shown in dotted lines, and fasten
with 1" brads.

The chairs may be colored white or mahogany. With due care and skill,
this furniture may be made very attractive and valuable.

[Illustration: ROCKING CHAIR ARM CHAIR]


DOLL'S CRADLE

Every little girl loves to own a cradle for her doll. Here is one that
is strong and pretty, and can easily be made from thin wood about
1/4" thick. Saw out the two ends after tracing the outline from the
full-sized drawing. The two sides and bottom have their dimensions
given. When properly shaped and smooth, the bottom is fastened with
1" brads between the ends. One-inch brads are driven thru the sides
into the edges of the ends. Be careful when driving the brads that the
sides do not split and that the brads go straight.

Paint the cradle white on the outside and violet or pink inside.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: DOLL'S CRADLE]


DOLL'S BED

This is a problem that will appeal to the little girl. It is also
needed to complete the set of doll's house furniture. It is made of
1/4" wood and fastened with 1" brads. The grain should be run from top
to bottom in the ends of the bed and lengthwise in sides and bottom.

The parts should be cut out of paper full size and placed on the wood
as patterns. In cutting out the ends, fold the paper on the vertical
center line so as to cut the two halves at the same time. When all
parts are sawed out, fasten the bottom to the two ends, and then put
the sides in place. The bed is colored like the rest of the furniture.


DOLL'S TABLE

This table, being part of the furniture set, may be made from 1/4"
stock. The four pieces comprising the legs are made from two paper
patterns that are laid out to measure, folded on the vertical center
line, cut out symmetrically, then traced on the wood, sawed out,
smoothed and fastened together with 3/4" brads. The top is drawn
directly on the wood with compass and fastened with 3/4" brads,
centrally on the legs.

It is colored white, brown, mahogany or some other shade to harmonize
with the general color scheme of the Doll's House and its furnishings.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: DOLL'S BED DOLL'S TABLE]


KITES

Kite-flying is known the world over. Every boy wants to make and fly a
kite. It is a sport that is almost limitless in its possibilities.

Kites may be made any size, of almost any shape and with all sorts
of decorations. The two models here presented are types of practical
fliers and are easily made.

One needs a tail to steady it in its flight, the other is tailless,
but has the cross rod sprung by means of a string into the shape of
a bow. The wind is caught against the convex surface and renders it
steady. In the making of kites, it is essential that a few things be
observed:

If the size be changed, the same proportions should be maintained.
Make the wooden stays as light as possible consistent with strength.

Be sure to preserve balance both in distance and weight of the various
parts. Make the cross-lap joint secure by driving a light nail thru
the several thicknesses and bending down the end; then tie them
together with strong twine. Cut a notch in the outer ends of the stays
and in stringing the twine taut prevent it from slipping by tying a
knot around the stick and thru the notch. The paper should be very
light and strong. It is doubled over the string and pasted together.

The guy-strings are fastened to the ends of the wooden stays and the
anchor line securely tied to them with several knots directly opposite
where the stays cross. A few adjustments in point of balance and of
the weight of the tail may be necessary in starting to fly the kite,
but after they are made, it should rise to a great height and maintain
a steady flight.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: KITES]


WOOD CHOPPERS

The stock required is 1/4" thick. Two bodies, two arms with axes, and
two bars are needed for this toy. The upper bar has a place 5/8" from
its center which is widened to resemble a tree stump an inch high.
The pairs of parts are held together while holes are being bored thru
them. The shoulders of the men and arms should have small holes to
make a fixed joint while the men's legs and the bars should have holes
closely fitting 1" nails.

Both bars are located on the side of the men on which the arms are
fastened.

Color the coats, hats and sleeves blue, boots and axes black, arms,
fingers, faces pink, and trousers red, bars green, and stump brown.

[Illustration: WOOD CHOPPERS]


THE BUCKING GOATS

From 1/4" stock, saw out two bodies, as shown in the full-size
drawing, and two bars shown in the dimensioned drawing. Place the
two bodies together and bore holes in the hind legs, as shown, for
1" nails. Do likewise with the two bars. Color the goats white, with
large brown spots on their backs, necks and legs. Color the horns and
hoofs black, and the bars gray or brown. Fasten with movable joints,
one bar on each side of the goats, having them cross as indicated in
the assembled drawing.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: BUCKING GOATS]


PECKING HENS

Saw out two bodies and four legs for the two hens. Hold two legs
together and bore five fine holes thru them as shown in the drawing.
Then place one of these with each of the unbored legs and bore these,
using the first pair as template for boring the second. Also bore
holes in the two bodies together, saw out the two bars and bore the
holes thru the two together. Saw out the upright and the tilting pans;
bore holes, and fasten together with a loose joint. Enlarge the two
lower holes in legs of the hens to the size of a 1" nail. Fasten
two legs to each hen with three 3/4" brads, and clench. Finish the
parts in appropriate contrasting colors. Place the two bars between
the legs of the hens and insert thru the holes 1" nails, bending their
ends back to form a loose joint. Take the upright and the pans, and
fasten the lower end of the upright to the middle of the upper bar so
that each pan will tilt when the hens peck.

[Illustration: PECKING HEN]


ACROBAT

The body, arms and legs are made of 3/16" wood. After the acrobat is
sawed out and holes are bored, paint the parts in gay colors. Assemble
with loose joints. The two upright sticks are fastened to the cross
piece by two 1" brads at each end, after the two holes are bored in
the upper ends for the cord. It is colored green or black. Insert a
strong double cord thru the frame and the hands of the acrobat. There
is a twist in the cord when the legs are down, but it is straight when
the arms point down.

[Illustration: ACROBAT]


CLIMBING SAILOR

This nimble tar climbs a rope according to a style that is all his
own. Pull on the string, and the friction on the two nails between
his legs being greater than that between his hands, his hands glide
upward. Let go, and the elastic band between his legs and arms pulls
his legs up, and he thus gets a fresh grip.

Saw out of 3/16" stock one body, two arms and two legs. The arms are
fastened to the body with three 3/4" brads and clenched. The legs have
a loose hip joint on a 1" nail with the end bent back. The rubber band
is held between arms and legs by two nails. The string is held between
two thicknesses of felt or cardboard that are fastened between the
hands with two brads to produce the required friction. Bore holes to
avoid splitting. The string passes down between the two legs around
two nails that pass thru both legs but do not pull them together.
Color the cap white and suit blue.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: CLIMBING SAILOR]


THE JUMPING JACK

The wood should be 3/16" thick. Two of each pattern is required,
except the head, which may be made of slightly thicker stock.

Bore the holes as shown to form loose joints.

Color the cap and body blue, thighs and upper arms yellow, calves and
fore arms pink, and shoes brown.

Insert small nails into edge of arms and thighs at the points where
the strings are to be attached. Take two pieces of string, two feet
long; tie the ends of one to nails in the arms, the ends of the other
to the nails in the thighs. Insert 1" nails thru one of the body
pieces; drive 3/4" brads thru it and the neck; place arms and legs
in position; adjust the strings to proper lengths, and tie a knot on
them. Place the other body piece in position. Bend back the ends of
the nails, making loose joints, and drive the brads thru the neck into
the second body piece, and clench. Fasten the legs together with loose
joints, and all should work freely.

[Illustration: JUMPING JACK]


BALANCING BARRISTER

The body may be sawed from 3/8" stock as outlined in the drawing. Find
its center of gravity by balancing it on a knife edge, crosswise, and
then lengthwise. Draw lines along the knife edge where it balances.
Where these intersect is the center of gravity. Bore a hole at this
point of intersection perpendicular to the body, and so as to fit
tight on a 1/4" dowel rod. Make two discs 1" diameter, 1/4" thick,
with a hole to fit tight on the dowel on each side of the man.

Color his shirt red, hat and trousers blue, arms and stockings white,
and dowel, shoes and parallel bars black.

The frame on which the man should balance (Fig. 11), with his head
just a little the lighter, is made of seven pieces. The base, 1/2" x
2" x 12"; the four uprights, 1/4" x 1" x 5-3/4", and the two bars,
3/8" x 3/4" x 15", are firmly fastened together so that the two bars
will be parallel and horizontal.

When the man is properly balanced, which may be accomplished by
whittling off a little stock where needed, he should roll from end to
end of the bars by giving the dowel a twist between two fingers.

[Illustration: Fig. 11.]

[Illustration: BALANCING BARRISTER]


THE DANCING RASTUS

All parts of the body are of 3/16" stock. When sawed out, the parts
are colored separately and assembled. All joints should swing without
friction. Therefore, bore all holes larger than the nail, thru all
thicknesses, except the one nearest to the point of the nail. At
elbows and knees have the heads of the nails on the inside. At the
shoulders place a small wheel between the arms and body, and use a
1-1/2" nail for pivot, with plenty of play. The platform (Fig. 12)
is of thin, springy wood, 1-1/2" wide and 9" long. The upright post
is of 1/2" stock about 6" long and securely nailed to the platform
and braced with a small block. Holes are bored into Rastus' back and
the post so as to fit tight on No. 16 spring brass wire, 5" long. Put
a weight on the rear end of the platform, let the front end project
out over the edge of a table and set it vibrating. This should cause
Rastus to swing legs and arms in a merry fashion.

[Illustration: Fig. 12.]

[Illustration]

[Illustration: DANCING RASTUS]


THE SPANKING ESQUIMAUX

The stock for all parts is 1/4" thick except for the oar and broom
which should be 1/8" thick. Saw out the two figures, wheels and bars.
Hold the two wheels together and bore two holes for the pivot nails.
Do similarly to the bars. Assemble wheels and bars temporarily to mark
places on the wheels where the feet of the figures will be fastened.
Saw out the oar and broom. Color all the parts separately in bright
contrasting values to bring out the outlines of the arms and other
parts of the figures. Fasten the wheels to the feet, the bars to the
wheels in loose joint, and the oar and broom to the man and woman in
positions indicated by the dotted lines.

When properly put together, the figures should swing when the bars are
moved back and forth, and the oar and broom go flying and strike with
a rattling bang.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: SPANKING ESQUIMAUX]


WABBLER

This toy is made so that the wabbler can go or glide down the ladder
on his elbows. The ladder is made from soft wood 3/8" to 1/2" thick,
2-1/2" wide, and 20" long. The openings are cut as shown, and nails
located and driven in exactly as indicated in the drawing. The ladder
is then securely fastened to the base which is made of 3/4" wood,
3-1/2" square. The wabbler is sawed out of 1/4" wood. A full-sized
drawing is shown. This is all one piece without openings. Features and
parts of the body are to be worked out by using paints of different
colors.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: WABBLER]


FALLING TEETER-TOTTER

The stock for the upright piece and end supports is 3/8" thick; that
for the two boys and teeter-totter is 1/4" thick. The upright is made
2" wide and 28" long. On the center line lay off points 1-3/8" apart.
With these as centers, draw semi-circles of 1" radius alternately on
both sides of center line. From each center draw lines tangent to the
circles, as shown in the drawing.

Saw to these lines and curves, and finish the edges so that they are
smooth. Saw out two boys and the teeter-totter board (B, Fig. 13),
cutting out the center opening accurately. Slip this board onto the
upright, and watch it fall from top to bottom in a see-saw motion.
If it fails to travel smoothly, see where the rub is and remove the
obstacle. Fasten the two pairs of cross pieces to each end of the
upright so that it will stand vertically on either end.

Give it a thin coat of paint. Color the boys and fasten them with a
nail thru the body of each boy, fitting loosely, and driven into the
ends of the board. When the see-saw is turned up-end down, the boys
will swing on the nails and keep heads up.

[Illustration: Fig. 13.]

[Illustration]

[Illustration: FALLING TEETER TOTTER]


TUMBLING TOMMIE

This problem is rather unique in its principle of operation and offers
at once material for study and investigation. Like that of a circus
performer, the combinations must be exactly right or the little fellow
may fall on his head. In making the man, first bore the holes thru
the block and take care to make them parallel. The openings into the
holes from the ends must be in the same plane and made to slide over
the rounds of the ladder without friction. The tumbler may be shaped
and colored to look like a man. A base may be attached to each end,
but on opposite sides of the ladder, so that Tommie may tumble in both
directions.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: TUMBLING TOMMIE]


THE BUSY PUP

All parts of this article are made of 1/4" wood except the ears which
should be 1/8" thick. Saw out one body, a pair each of fore legs, hind
legs, ears and tail, and the push-rod and guide. The guide is made of
four pieces and fastened together with glue and brads, as shown in
the drawing. The two pairs of legs are fastened to the body by loose
joints. Holes are bored thru one end of the push-rod and the forefeet;
also thru the projecting end of the guide and hind feet. Fasten that
end of the guide between the hind feet with loose joint (Fig. 14).
Insert the push-rod thru the hole in the guide, which should slide
easily, and fasten between the fore feet. By holding the guide in the
left hand and working the push-rod back and forth, the dog should work
freely and without a hitch in all the varied positions that it is
possible for it to assume. With fine brad fasten the tail. Bore holes
thru head and ears, and pivot them on a loose joint so that they will
swing when the pup is busy scratching.

The pup may be colored white with black spots on neck, body and legs.
The push-rod and guide may be finished in a dark color or black.

The stunts that this pup can perform are greater in number than one
would suspect. Furthermore, they increase also in variety as the child
acquires skill in manipulation.

[Illustration: Fig. 14.]

[Illustration]

[Illustration: BUSY PUP]


THE DINKEY BIRD

When properly made up, this bird can bob its head and tail up and
down. A swinging pendulum supplies the motive power. The parts are
shown in the drawing full size, except the clamp that holds the Dinkey
in upright position (Fig. 15).

The head, tail and body pieces, one with and one without the leg, are
sawed from 1/4", the back (E) from 5/16", the wedge from 3/8", and the
clamp from 1/2" stock. Finish all edges. Drill 1/16" holes at A and B.
Put the two body pieces together so they coincide, and drive fine 1"
nails thru both of them at C and D. Then separate them enough to let
the back (E) into place between them. Fasten the three pieces together
with five 1" brads, and clench. Fasten clamp (F) securely to the foot
at H.

Color the different parts in gay tints, and let dry.

Take 4 ft. of strong twine and with small nails fasten one end to
the head and the other to the tail. Pull out the nails at C and D
enough to let the head and the tail slip into their places between the
body pieces. Then reinsert the nails. The head and tail should swing
freely, and the back (E) act as a stop in their up-and-down motion.

Put the clamp onto the edge of a table top and fix with the wedge.
Pull down on the loop of the string, grasp it about 6" from the top,
and there tie a simple knot. Fasten a stone or a piece of metal to the
loop. Set it swinging and watch the bobbing performance according to
Dinkey fashion.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.]

[Illustration: DINKEY BIRD]


PELICAN SEWING STAND

Whether or not this article may be within the toy class, one thing is
certain: It is useful as well as ornamental. The pelican is made of
three thicknesses. The middle piece is 3/8" and the two outside ones
1/4" thick. The middle piece has parts cut away to give room for the
pin-cushion, and in the head, an opening is left to give place for
scissors, which, in turn, serve as the bird's beak. The cushion is
stuffed with cotton or some other suitable material, and covered with
a double thickness of thin cloth, and fastened in place securely by
nails piercing from one side to the other.

The platform is six-sided in shape (Fig. 16), of double 3/8"
thickness, with grain at right angles in the two pieces, and has
four pins extending 1-1/4" above the surface for holding spools. The
pelican is fastened to the platform by placing the upper thickness
against the foot, and driving 1-1/2" brads thru and up into the foot.
Bore holes and drive the pins for the spools thru the upper thickness.
Lastly, the bottom board of the platform, which extends 3/8" beyond
the upper, is fastened by driving 3/4" brads thru the bottom piece
into the upper. The pelican may be colored with white enamel and black
trimmings, while the platform may be light green or blue.

Besides the places for scissors and spools, other attachments may be
arranged to suit the convenience of the happy possessor.

[Illustration: Fig. 16.]

[Illustration]

[Illustration: PELICAN SEWING STAND]


WHIRLIGIG

This little device might also be called a child's aeroplane, for it
soars up into the air over houses and trees, and makes everybody
around crane his neck in wonder. The parts consist of the flyer, a
spool and the handle. First, get an ordinary thread spool, bore two
holes in one end and drive in two six-penny nails. Cut off the heads
3/8" from the end of the spool and file the ends round and smooth.
Take a piece of strong wood (yellow pine will do) about 7" long and
3/4" square. Whittle down one end for a distance 3/8" longer than the
length of the spool and so it will make a running fit.

For a flyer, get a piece of soft wood 3/8" x 1-1/4" x 8". Bore three
holes at the center to fit onto the two pins on the spool and the top
end of the handle. Whittle both faces down to a slant like a windmill
so the blades will be less than 1/8" thick. Put the parts together.
Wind about a yard of string around the spool in the proper direction,
and then set the flyer spinning by pulling the string quickly off the
spool. If all parts are properly balanced and adjusted, the flyer
should go "way up high."

[Illustration: WHIRLIGIG]


THE CART

This practical project is of heavier stock than most toys. However,
dimensions and sizes of stock may be modified to suit the convenience
and wishes of the maker. The box may be of 3/8" stock, the axle and
tongue of 3/4", and the wheels of 1/2" or 3/4".

[Illustration]

Heavy round-headed screws with washers under the heads, fitting thru
holes bored in the wheels and screwed securely into the ends of the
axle, form the bearings.

Take care to bore the holes thru the wheels and into the ends of the
axle the proper size, and central and true.

The box is fastened by driving 1-1/4" nails thru the bottom into
the axle. The tongue is shaped to fit on the axle, and is securely
fastened by nails to the axle and wagon bottom.

A handle of a loop of brass wire may be inserted thru the tongue near
the small end, and the ends bent.

The box is painted green and wheels and tongue red.

[Illustration: CART]


THE WAGON

The stock required for the box of the wagon is 1/4" thick, for the
wheels 3/8", for the tongue 1/2", and for the axles 3/4". The axles
are 5-1/2" long; the rear one is 1" wide; the front one is 7/8" wide,
as shown in the drawing. The holes for the screws in the ends of the
axles are bored 3/8" from the lower side. The screws are heavy, 1-1/2"
round-headed, with metal washers under the heads. The holes in the
wheels are bored true, and so that they will just slip over the screws.

The tongue is connected with the front axle by a piece of tin, cut
from a tin can after the pattern shown on the drawing.

The cross piece between the wagon box and the front axle, called the
bolster, is 1-1/8" wide, 5" long and 3/4" thick. It tapers from 5" in
length at the top to 2-1/2" at the bottom, where it rests on and turns
on the tin that is nailed to the top side of the axle.

Always bore holes of the proper sizes before inserting screws.

The front axle is connected to the bolster by a 2" round-headed screw
on which it turns. In making the wagon box, the sides are nailed to
the bottom, the ends fastened in position, and the back nailed onto
the edge of the seat.

The box is painted green outside and red inside. The two wings of the
tin plate are bent down to fit tight onto the sides of the tongue, and
nails are driven thru the tin into the tongue. The whole running gear
is painted red. The box is nailed to the bolster and to the rear axle.
The seat is nailed into position, the wheels fitted on, and the front
axle screwed onto the bolster. This wagon is strong and should last a
long time and afford much wholesome pleasure.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: WAGON]


FLYING GOOSE

The body, platform and wheels (Fig. 17) are of 1/4" stock. The
wings are a little thinner. Saw out one body and two wings and bore
holes for cords, as shown in the drawing. Saw out the platform and
four wheels, and finish them carefully. The front wheels turn on 1"
flat-headed nails that are driven into the edge of the platform 3/4"
from the end. The rear wheels are driven onto a wire axle which turns
in two wire staples that are driven into the bottom of the platform,
3/4" from the end and 1/4" from each edge. In driving these staples,
take thought to avoid splitting the platform. Also, when boring
holes thru the center of the four wheels, take care to secure proper
direction and sizes of holes for a running fit in the front wheels
and a press fit onto the axle in the rear wheels. Hold the body with
foot up, and nail the platform onto it. With round-nose pliers make
the connecting rods from No. 12 wire with the eyes neatly shaped and
at right angles to each other. Attach the rods to the wings by staples
so the joints will work freely without too much play. Attach the other
ends of the rods to the outer faces of the rear wheels by means of
short flat-headed nails. The nails pass thru the eyes of the rods and
are driven into the wheels 1/4" from the outer rims. The nails in the
two wheels must be in line with each other, as they act as cranks to
actuate the wings. After the rear axle is assembled and fastened in
place, the wings are fastened to the body.

[Illustration: Fig. 17.]

[Illustration: FLYING GOOSE]

The parts of the wings that touch the body must have been rounded off,
as shown in section on the drawing. The edges are removed from the
holes so as not to wear the cord.

A heavy strong twine may be used for hinging the wings to the body.
Each of the two hinges is formed by slipping the end of the cord up
thru the wing, then thru the body, then down thru the second wing, and
back thru the body; then tie the ends in a square knot under the first
wing. Adjust all parts accurately so they are not too loose and yet
work without friction.

This goose may be painted white with gray stripes on the wings, red
beak, foot and wheels, and green platform.

Attach a string or slender stick to the end of the platform to roll it
on the floor.

Watch the flying goose and see if she can rise by flapping her wings.


THE DODO BIRD

Until recently this bird has been considered extinct, but is here
revived to show what it may have appeared like. In this case it has
chosen to perambulate on four wheels and maintain a bobbing motion of
the head and body by means of a connecting rod between the breast and
a crank on the front axle.

[Illustration]

The body swings on a pivot between two uprights which we will call the
wings. These wings are held apart by a piece between the feet, which
is slightly thicker than the body to give the body freedom of motion.

The two base pieces are fastened onto the outside of the feet by three
1-1/2" brads driven in from each side. The front end of the base is
held together by a piece 3/4" square and 3/8" thick, which is also the
thickness of the base pieces and wheels. The body and wings are of
1/4" stock.

Make saw cuts 1/8" deep across the bottom of the base pieces to form
bearings for the two wire axles, one 1/2" from the rear, and the
other 1-1/4" from the front end of the base. The axles should turn
freely in these cuts, and nails bent over them will secure them in
their places. The parts are colored in gay contrasting colors before
assembling. The body is pivoted between the wings and the piece
between the feet is fastened. Then the base is assembled and fastened
to the outside of the feet of the dodo.

Before inserting the axles into the wheels, the ends should be
hammered a little flat to prevent them from turning in the wheels. It
should be a tight fit. Next, put the axles into the cuts, and fasten.
Slip a fine nail thru the hole in the upper end of the connecting rod,
and drive it thru the breast of the bird, and bend the end. Then put
the lower, or forked, end of the connecting rod over the crank on the
front axle and secure it by a brad.

When rolling along on the floor, the dodo should bob its head in a
most polite manner in recognition of being well put together.

[Illustration: DODO BIRD]


ROCKING-HORSE AND RIDER

The body of the horse is shown full size and may be sawed from 3/8"
wood. All the other parts should be made of 1/4" wood and have the
grain run lengthwise.

[Illustration]

Two fore and two hind legs are required. The upper end of each leg is
tapered off on the side that fits against the body so that the feet
will be far enough apart to be fastened on the inside of the rockers
(see end view B). Each pair of legs should be fastened to the body
with a nail thru the three thicknesses at the place marked. Saw out
two rockers and finish to true and smooth curves. With fine brad
fasten the feet on the inside of the rocker at the places marked, but
take care that the wood does not split. Saw out three rails 2" long
and 3/8" wide to be fastened onto the top of the rockers with two
fine brads, one at each end of the rocker and one in the middle, as
indicated on the drawing by the letter R. The upper ends of the legs
may now be secured to the body by two or three brads.

Give the whole a general touching up to assure strength and
smoothness. Give it a priming coat of paint. Let dry four days. Paint
saddle, bridle, cross rails and rocker red, and the body and legs
white. Outline eyes, nose, hoofs and other features in black, and the
rocking horse is complete.

The body of the rider is 3/8", arms and legs 3/16" stock.

[Illustration: ROCKING HORSE AND RIDER]

[Illustration: RIDER FOR ROCKING HORSE]


ANIMATED ELEPHANT

The body is composed of three thicknesses. The two on the outside are
1/4" thick, the one in between is 3/8" thick, and reaches only to the
dotted line (Fig. 18), to allow room for the head which is 3/8" thick
and moves between the two outside pieces with 1-1/4" nail as pivot.
This is a loose joint.

[Illustration: Fig. 18.]

Saw out the platform and wheels to dimensions. The connecting rod
should be of wood 1/8" thick and 1/4" wide. A hole is bored near the
end that is pivoted to the throat of the elephant; in the other end
is a fork to fit over the axle crank with a fine hole bored at right
angle thru the connecting rod for a brad to prevent the crank from
slipping out. The two axles are made from No. 12 steel wire. One
is straight, the other has a crank in the middle. Flat places are
hammered near each end of the axles so that they may be pressed into
holes in the wheels and not turn. Each axle is held to the platform by
two staples which may be made from long brads by cutting off the heads.

Color the elephant gray, the blanket red and yellow, the platform and
connecting rod red, and the wheels yellow. Fasten the platform to the
elephant by driving nails thru it into the feet. Press the wheels onto
the axles and fasten the axles under the platform so they move freely.
Fit head and rod in places so all connections are strong and move
without friction. Attach a string to the front end of the platform,
and when pulled on the floor, the elephant will swing his trunk up and
down in a vicious manner.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: ANIMATED ELEPHANT]


THE BUCKING MULE

Saw out of 3/8" stock the bodies of the mule and rider (Fig. 19). All
legs and arms are of 3/16" stock. Two circles to be placed between the
man's arms and shoulders are of 1/4" wood. The connecting rod, marked
Z, Z (Fig. 20), shown full size and of 3/8" stock, is to connect the
fore legs of the mule and the crank on the axle. Fasten the legs to
the mule and arms and legs to the rider with loose joints. Then take
rod Z, Z, and make the fork-like cut in the wide end and drill a small
hole thru it at right angles to that cut. This is for the nail that
holds the crank in place. Fasten the rod securely between the fore
legs of the mule at the position indicated. The tail is then fastened
with two 1/2" brads. Paint the mule and rider in contrasting colors.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Fig. 19.]

[Illustration: BUCKING MULE]

Next, make the frame and wheels as follows: Saw out two 5" wheels and
bore the center holes to fit tight on the wire axle and to run true.
The frame, the handle, the sides and end are shaped from 1/2" stock.
The two upright pieces are made of 3/8" stock and securely fastened
on the inner faces of the sides. Then the sides are nailed to the
end piece and the handle. Cuts are sawed into the lower edge of the
sides, 2" from the end to form a bearing for the axle. Paint wheels
red and frame green. The axle is best made by holding the wire in a
vise. First, make bends 3/8" on each side of the middle point. Then
make the second pair of bends 1-1/4" from the middle. Near each end
of the axle, flattened places are hammered so that, when driven into
the wheels, they will not turn. Drive the wheels onto the axle. Put
the axle in place, drive nails into the sides, and bend them over the
axle to hold it in place. Take the mule, put the projection from the
body between the two uprights on the frame, insert a 1-1/2" nail thru
the three holes, and bend the end back. Join the connecting rod to the
crank. Stride the rider on the mule and insert a nail thru his thighs
and the back of the mule. With a neat cord connect the hands to the
mouth of the mule, for a bridle. Take hold of the handle and watch the
mule gallop when you push him along.

[Illustration: Fig. 20.]

[Illustration: RIDER FOR BUCKING MULE]


FOX-AND-GOOSE GAME

This game is played by two people on a board with 33 holes, as shown
in the drawing. The board may be made either square or octagonal. The
octagon is made from a square by placing one point of the compass at
a corner and the other point at the center of the board. With each
corner in turn as a center, draw arcs intersecting the edges of the
board. Connect these points of intersection across the corners of the
board; saw off the four triangles. Smooth the edges and chamfer. Lay
out and bore the holes. Make 26 pegs to fit loose. Leave 24 white for
the geese and color 2 red for the foxes.

In playing the game, all the pegs are put in their places. The foxes
at Nos. 9 and 11; the geese at 7, 8, 12, 13, and consecutively up to
33. The foxes and geese can move on the lines only, in any direction
from one hole to the next. A fox can also jump over a goose and take
it, provided the hole just beyond it is vacant. In fact, the fox
can jump and take several geese in various directions if conditions
permit. The geese can not jump, but they can move so as to hem in the
foxes and make it impossible for them to move. This means that the
foxes have lost the game. In starting the game, the player having
the foxes gets the first move. His aim is to jump and capture all
the geese and win the game. Each player takes turn in moving. When
crowding a goose in on a fox, the player always has another goose
behind it so that the fox can not jump it. This game is one of the
kind that requires foresight and study. It is highly interesting and
entertaining, and by experience, players may become quite expert at
the game.

_Solitaire_--This same board may also be used for the solitaire game.
However, that requires 32 pegs. They are put in all the holes except
No. 17. The object is to jump and take all the pegs but one, and it
must land in hole 17. Unaided, this is difficult to do, and it would
take a long time for a person to discover a solution. For this reason,
the reader is presented with the following "Key": 5 jumps to 17 and
takes 10, 12 to 10 and takes 11, etc.; 3 to 11, 1-3, 18-6, 3-11,
30-18, 27-25, 13-27, 24-26, 27-25, 22-24, 31-23, 33-31, 16-28, 31-23,
4-16, 7-9, 21-7, 10-8, 7-9, 24-22, 22-8, 8-10, 10-12, 12-26, 26-24,
17-15, 29-17, 18-16, 15-17.

[Illustration: FOX-AND-GEESE GAME]


NINE MEN'S MILL

This is a game that is played by two persons and is as fascinating as
it is old. The upper part of the board is 3/8" thick and has 24 holes
bored thru it, as shown in the drawing. The lower board is 7-1/2"
square and 1/4" thick, and extends 1/4" beyond the top board on all
sides. The grain in the two boards should run at right angles when
fastened together. The 18 pegs are 3/8" in diameter and 1" long. Each
player has a set of 9 pegs, the sets being differently colored. In
starting a game, each player takes his turn in putting a peg into a
hole till all the pegs are put down. Then they take turns in moving
the pegs. A peg may be moved from one hole to the next and only along
rows parallel with the edges of the board, not along the rows that run
from corners of the board to its center. That is, along rows 1, 2,
3 or 2, 5, 8, but not along rows 1, 4, 7. The object of a player in
putting down pegs and in moving is to get a Mill; that is, get 3 pegs
in a row parallel with the edges of the board. For example: Pegs in
holes 4, 5, 6 or 2, 5, 8 makes a Mill, but not 3, 6, 9. When a player
gets a Mill, he can take one of his opponent's pegs that is not in a
Mill. Another aim of a player is to place his pegs so that he prevents
his opponent from getting a Mill. When the pegs of one of the players
have all been taken except 3, then he is allowed to jump anywhere on
the board. When the pegs are all gone but two, then the game is lost.
When a player can get 5 pegs into holes situated as 7, 8, 9 and 4, 6,
then he has a double Mill by moving from 8 to 5 and from 5 to 8, etc.,
and pick one of his opponent's pegs for each move.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: NINE MEN'S MILL]


DISK PUZZLE

This problem consists of a base, three spindles and seven disks of
different diameters. The spindles are fitted tight into holes in the
base and rounded at the top so the disks will slide over freely. The
seven disks are laid out on the wood with compass, and to prevent
splitting the holes are all bored before the sawing is done.

The parts may receive a finish of stain and two or three coats of
shellac. Polish with No. 1/2 sand-paper between each coat.

_Puzzle_--Place all disks on one spindle, decreasing in sizes upward.
The object is to transfer the disks to one of the other spindles and
to be in the same order. In doing this, never have more than one disk
at a time removed from the spindles, and never place a larger disk on
top of a smaller one.

[Illustration: DISK PUZZLE]


BALL PUZZLE

At first it is not evident why this is called a ball puzzle, but, when
let into the secret, most people see at once a good reason for naming
it so. The wooden ball or marble is hidden from sight inside of the
wood and may be shifted in position from the middle to the upper piece
of the puzzle and vice versa (Fig. 21).

[Illustration: Fig. 21.]

The problem is to slide the middle piece off of the pin that projects
up from the lower piece and swing it around its pivot. This pivot is a
1-1/2" round-headed screw, fitting loosely in the upper two and fixed
in the lower piece. A 1/2" hole is bored thru the middle and 1/2"
deep in the upper piece to hold the 7/16" ball. This hole is bored
so it touches the hole for the screw. In the middle piece, the screw
can slide into it. In order to make the ball leave its position in
the middle piece, the puzzle must be held upside down. The drawings
show the puzzle both closed and open, and supply directions for
constructing this interesting problem.

Finish with stain and two coats of shellac. This puzzle may be a
source of much genuine amusement when a circle of friends come
together and all want a hand at opening it, each having his advice to
give how to solve this mysterious problem.

[Illustration: BALL PUZZLE]

[Illustration]



APPENDIX

KNOTS AND BRAIDS


Most of us are called upon, in the course of our daily duties, whether
afloat or ashore, in camp or at home, to hitch up pack animals, do
up packages, equipments and outfits, and make fastenings on sails,
tents, scaffolding and play apparatus. This involves the tying of a
great number of knots and in many cases life and limb depend upon the
correct tying of those knots. The seamen, textile workers and civil
engineers are pastmasters of the art. Our scouts, sailors and soldiers
are taught knot-tying as an essential factor in their training. Would
it not seem a part of wisdom, for the sake of safety and economy in
time and good nature, for everybody to master these knot problems? It
would, at least, be a very practical part of the training for children
in the schools.

They should be taught knot-tying and its application in an intelligent
and thoro manner, and have frequent practice-drill therein, till it
becomes second nature to them.

When a knot is tied, it must be pulled together tight, so as to stay.
Otherwise, especially if the cord is stiff, the loops will slide apart
or flop out of position, and the knot will come loose. A knot derives
its strength and reliability from the friction between its different
parts. When tension is applied on a knot, the two parts which lie
alongside of each other should move in the reverse directions and
produce a maximum amount of friction, as the ropes tend to slip.

One may readily learn to tie the different knots by carefully
following the accompanying drawings. Procure a slender, flexible
rope, bend it into the shape shown in the drawing, and go over and
under, as indicated, so that the parts will be in the correct relative
positions. Begin by making the simple knots, and, later, tackle the
more complex ones. Also learn their names.


NAMES OF KNOTS AND BRAIDS

      1. Overhand knot--to prevent unraveling of rope, starting
      of a square knot; also a stop knot.

      2. Figure-eight knot--used for a stop knot.

      3. Boat knot--used on sails and rigging.

      4. Slip knot--used to fasten rope end to a post.

      5. Flemish loop--stays tight, will jam.

      6. Stevedore knot--will not jam.

      7. Sheet bend or weaver's knot--for joining two ends.

      8. Square or reef knot--for joining two cords--very useful,
      is non-slipping.

      9. Granny knot--most people confuse it with the square
      knot. It will slip.

      10. Thief knot--will slip.

      11. Carrick bend--used on top of gin pole or mast to hold
      it erect; the four ends are fastened to the ground.

      12. Carrick bend--used to join two ropes.

      13. Bowline--a very useful non-slipping loop.

      14. Clove hitch--an effective means for fastening rope to a
      post or ring.

      15. Timber hitch--used for pulling logs.

      16. Handcuff hitch--used to convey prisoners.

      17. Sheepshank--to decrease the length of a rope.

      18. Bowknot--is tied like the square knot, but with ends
      doubled back in tying the latter half--used on neckties and
      ribbons.

      19. Spanish bowline--used as boatswain's chair.

      20. Wall knot--used by electricians as a stop on drop-cord.

      21. Wall knot crowned--a neat rope-end finish, to prevent
      unraveling.

      22. Three-strand flat braid.

      23. Four-strand flat braid, begun.

      24. Four-strand flat braid, continued--the right strand
      goes over, the left one goes under, and then is passed to
      the right, in front of the middle strand.

      25. Six-strand flat braid, begun.

      26. Six-strand flat braid, continued--note that each strand
      goes from one side clear to the other, before turning
      around and goes over and under, alternately, in crossing
      the other strands.

      27. Chain knot--is begun like a slip knot.

      28. Chain knotting, continued--each loop is pulled taut.

      29. Double chain knotting--is started like the single chain
      knot, but the second loop is formed from the free end, and
      slipped thru from the same side as the first. Both ends are
      used, alternately, and the loops are pulled taut. It makes
      a beautiful cord, triangular in shape.

      30. Genoese braid, begun--two cords are used, one end of
      each is used as a core, tho a thicker core may be used, and
      with the other two ends, in turn, loops are drawn around
      the core.

      31. Genoese braid, continued--makes a handsome flat braid.

      32. Watch fob--may be made of three or more strings or
      ribbons. Four strings are used in this case. Take two shoe
      strings and double them. Tie thread around them, about two
      inches from the loops. Hold the loops in the left hand,
      with the ends up. Name them A, B, C, D, as is shown in
      the drawing. First, bend A to the right; bend D over A,
      and away from you; bend C over D, and to the left; bend B
      over C, and toward you, and slip the end under the loop of
      A. Second, take string A and double it back to the left;
      bend B over A, and away from you; bend C over B, and to
      the right; bend D over C, and toward you, and slip the end
      under loop at A. The third step is like the first, and the
      fourth like the second. When finished, slip the loops thru
      your watch-ring, open the two loops and slip the watch fob
      thru them. The charm is neatly fastened to the finishing
      ends.

      33. Banister bar--is made by tying the overhand knot over a
      core of any desired thickness.

      34. Banister bar, continued--the process of tying this knot
      is as follows: Hold the left strand horizontally behind
      the core; reach under it at the right of the core and take
      the right strand, bring it forward and to the left across
      the front of the core, and then back at the left of the
      core, thru the loop formed by the left strand. Continue by
      repeating this process.

      35. Solomon's knot--this is started like the banister bar,
      but, instead of tying all the knots alike, the tying is
      done, in turn, first with the right-hand strand, then with
      the left. Each strand will thus remain on the same side of
      the core as at the start. The strand in front of the core
      is used continually for tying the knot by the left and
      right hand, alternately, as the strand moves from side to
      side. It is a series of left and right overhand knots over
      a core.

      36. Four-strand round braid--is very pretty, and well
      repays any difficulty in mastering it. It is not as easy to
      illustrate, by drawing, the process of making a round braid
      as a flat one; however, by carefully following the movement
      of each strand in the illustration, while manipulating the
      four strings, one will soon gain success and also much
      satisfaction.

      First, hold the four strands in the left hand, as in the
      beginning of the flat braid, but, instead of taking the
      right strand, reach in, just in the left of the right
      strand, and, from behind, take the left strand, bring it
      forward and across in front from right to left. Second,
      exchange the places of the words, right and left, and
      repeat the above-described process.

      Referring to the drawing, reach in at B, and from behind at
      the right, below x4, take C; bring it forward and across B,
      at x7. Next, hold the braid in the left hand and, with the
      right, reach in at D and take A from behind, and bring it
      forward and across C, at E, as is shown by dotted lines.

      Braiding with three strands, or as many more as desired,
      may be done with ropes, strings of beads, rich-colored
      cords and ribbons, or basketry materials, for making many
      useful and beautiful articles, such as chains, belts,
      hangings, bags, portieres and wicker work for baskets, lamp
      shades and chairs.

[Illustration]



TOY PATTERNS

_By_ MICHAEL C. DANK

A collection of full-size toy patterns. Toys which make a strong
appeal to the child. Each pattern sheet presents a particular class of
toys including Jointed Animals, Animal Rocker Toys, Wheeled Platform
Toys, Lever Toys, String Toys, Freak Toys, Novelties, etc. While
intended to be worked out in wood many are equally well adapted for
cardboard. Toy-making at home from these patterns is a fine hobby
for the boy from six to twelve years of age, and in the school is a
fascinating manual training activity. These patterns are based upon
the author's long experience in the teaching of toy-making in public
and private schools and summer camps. They are well presented on
sheets size 10-1/2 x 14 inches and are enclosed in a portfolio with an
attractive design in color. _Price, 80 cents._


MANUAL TRAINING TOYS _for the_ BOYS WORKSHOP

_By_ HARRIS W. MOORE.--A popular boys' book illustrating 42 projects
overflowing with "boy" interest. The drawings are full-page and show
each project complete and in detail. A descriptive text accompanies
giving full information as to materials needed and how to proceed with
the simple tools required. _Price, $1.50._


COPING SAW WORK

_By_ BEN W. JOHNSON.--Presents drawings and suggestions for a
course of work in thin wood that is full of fun for the children,
and affording ample means for training in form study, construction,
invention and careful work. A helpful guide for the teacher of the
fourth grade. _Price, 30 cents._


KITECRAFT _and_ KITE TOURNAMENTS

_By_ CHARLES M. MILLER.--An authoritative and comprehensive treatment
of kitecraft. The book deals with the construction and flying of
all kinds of kites, and the making and using of kite accessories.
Also aeroplanes, gliders, propellers, motors, etc. Four chapters
are devoted to presenting a detailed description of kite flying
tournaments. Abundantly illustrated and attractively bound. _Price,
$1.75._


BIRD HOUSES BOYS CAN BUILD

_By_ ALBERT F. SIEPERT.--A book of rare interest to boys. It is
written in the boy spirit and combines the charm of nature with the
allurements of continuation work in wood. It illustrates hundreds
of bird houses and shows working drawings of various designs, also
feeders, shelters, sparrow traps, and other bird accessories. The
common house nesting birds are pictured and described with information
regarding houses, foods, etc., suitable for each. A pleasing and
practical book for wide-awake boys. _Price, 65 cents._

_Send for Descriptive Catalog._

THE MANUAL ARTS PRESS

PEORIA, ILLINOIS



Transcriber's Notes


REMINDER: LEAD-PAINT WARNING! DO NOT USE THE GROUND-LEAD PAINT
INGREDIENTS mentioned in the "Coloring the Toys" chapter. This book
was published before the harmful effects of lead paint to children
were known. Also, when working with enamel paint that contains a high
quantity of solvents, make sure the area is as well-ventilated as
possible. If still in doubt, wear a respirator mask to prevent the
toxic effects of solvent inhalation. Paper masks do not block solvent
fumes.

Some of the diagrams have been moved from their original positions to
the sections describing their constructions.

Pages 6, 13: Retained original spelling of "thoroly."

Page 15: Changed "craftmanship" to "craftsmanship."

Page 31: Changed "Minsrels" to "Minstrels."





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