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Title: The Beaver, Vol. I, No. 4, January 1921
Author: Company, Hudson's Bay
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Beaver, Vol. I, No. 4, January 1921" ***

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  Vol. I     JANUARY, 1921     No. 4



[Illustration: _The Beaver_

_A Journal of Progress_]


[Illustration: CAMPING OUT AT 40° BELOW

_A Hudson's Bay Company's Post Inspector camping for the night near
Great Slave Lake. Defying the snows, these hardy men "mush" with dog
teams from Fort to Fort across the vast silent spaces of the great
North, keeping H.B.C. communications open and taking account of furs
traded at each post of the district._]

[Illustration: _Devoted to The Interests of Those Who Serve The Hudson's
Bay Company_]



Bidding for World's Fine Furs at London Auction Sales

_Four Weeks' Annual Selling of Pelts Draws Cosmopolitan Crowd of Buyers
from All Quarters of the Globe--H.B.C. Auction of Chief Interest._

By J. D. J. FORBES (_London Fur Warehouse_)


If a stranger were to ask where the fur quarter in the City of London is
situated, perhaps the simplest answer would be to tell him to make for
the Guildhall, and then to walk due south towards the River Thames. He
would proceed along King Street (which is continued as Queen Street
after Cheapside is passed) and in less than five minutes would be at his
destination. What the Rue d'Aboukir is to Paris and the Bruehl to
Leipzig, Queen Street is to London. It stands for the heart and centre
of the London fur trade. Except for the Hudson's Bay Company's
warehouse, which stands apart, all the most important fur merchants and
commission houses are located within a stone's throw of the College Hill
Public Saleroom--the entrance to which is in Queen Street--where the
world's fur produce is periodically put up for auction.


_World's Buyers Assemble in Saleroom_

In the saleroom itself there is little to suggest a fur market; no skins
or pelts are to be seen; no samples are displayed to catch the eye of
possible buyers; there is no odour of furs or naphthalene. The saleroom
reminds one of a large classroom with its rows of desks and forms facing
a narrow rostrum whereon the selling broker and his assistants sit. Here
three times a year assemble fur buyers from all over the world. The
typically English features of the brokers contrast strangely with the
faces of the cosmopolitan crowd which throngs the saleroom benches; and
when in the intervals of selling a buzz of conversation is heard, it
seems incredible that one is in the heart of London and not in some
Levantine port.


_Selections Are Made From Catalogs_

Each buyer brings to the saleroom his catalogues, containing valuations
and descriptions of the pelts he has inspected at the various fur
warehouses. For the most part, only a very small proportion of the lots
catalogued are seen by the prospective buyer; these are "show" lots and
represent the bulk, which could not be properly examined in the short
time at his disposal. There are usually about twenty catalogues--some of
which contain only a few hundred lots but most of which run into
thousands of lots--and as the fur collections are distributed amongst a
dozen different wharves and warehouses, where the skins are lotted and
placed "on show," only a few days before the sales takes place, it will
be appreciated that the thorough-going dealer who wishes to acquaint
himself with the whole collection of furs on the market has plenty to
do!


_The Order of the Sale_

At one time the order of selling was rather haphazard, but in recent
years the sale arrangements have been revised and co-ordinated.
Catalogues are now divided into definite sections, and the entire market
supply of furs contained in section 1 of the various catalogues is
offered for sale before section 2 is dealt with, and so on--the brokers
balloting among themselves for precedence. In accordance with
long-established custom, the first goods to be put up for sale are those
coming from China and the far east (these auctions are referred to as
the "China sales"); next comes the catalogues of Australian furs,
followed immediately by any offerings there may be of fur seals.


_H.B.C. Auction Premier Attraction_

Although these auctions occupy the whole of the first sale week, they
are of secondary importance when compared with the sales of the choicer
North American and Siberian furs, which commence on the Monday of the
second week with the Hudson's Bay Company's sale. Needless to say, the
Company's auction always proves the greatest attraction of the whole
series and never fails to draw a crowded room. The Company's catalogue
is the only one now sold in its entirety without a break, and this for
the very good reason that it provides the most reliable basis for
comparison of values and enables the experienced buyer to appraise
market fluctuations with confidence.

The rest of the week following the Company's sale is taken up with the
disposal of "fine" furs (such as beaver, ermine, foxes, marten, otter
and sables) from other catalogues; the third week sees the "staple"
lines (such as skunk, opossum, musquash and raccoon) offered for sale;
and in the fourth and final week sundry South American and lower grade
skins are offered.


_The Flexible Eyebrow An Aid in Bidding_

The method of bidding at the fur auction is by what is known as the
"silent" system. The auctioneer usually starts the bidding himself at a
moderate figure and the buyers interested signify their bids by various
methods--such as by a nod, or a wink, or even a flick of the pencil;
sometimes indeed a buyer will merely look at the auctioneer whilst the
bids are being taken and only remove his gaze when his limit has been
exceeded. It is often amusing to notice the tactics adopted by two
bidders, each of whom wants a particular lot: one may perhaps be seated
in the front row and he will perhaps bid by _raising his eyebrows_; the
other (seated further back) will not look at the broker at all but will
narrowly _watch his rival's hat_ (the movement of which betrays the
bidding) whilst he records his own bids by _moving his little finger_!

As a rule, bids advance by a definite amount, which varies with the
value of the article in question: bids for beaver skins, for example,
may start at 50s. and advance by 2s. steps to 100s., beyond which the
advance is by 5s. steps; in the case of musquash an advance of 3d or 6d
per bid is sufficient. When demand is keen and bidding brisk, buyers
frequently discard the silent method, and the broker is assailed with a
chorus of "up! up!" from all parts of the room. As it is often difficult
in such cases to distinguish between bidders, the possession of a good
pair of lungs is a decided advantage for a buyer.


_Furs Sold at "Per Skin" Rate_

Most lots are sold "at per skin"--that is to say, when a lot of musquash
containing 1600 skins, for instance, is put up, the auctioneer needs to
register the price of only one skin--the value of the lot being 1600
times that figure.

Although sitting for weeks in the saleroom buying sundry lots of skins
from this catalogue and that may seem a dull job, yet the buyer with
imagination finds the fur trade fascinating. He realizes that the skins
he buys have taken months of patient toil and careful handling to
assemble from the uttermost parts of the earth.

To him, the sale mark "MKR" denotes not merely a particular quality of
fur, but suggests the mighty river of the great Northwest threading its
lonely way from the plains to the Arctic Sea. It is this sense of the
world-wide ramifications of the fur trade, and the knowledge that the
Company's organization has played, and still plays, a notable part in
its development that make one feel proud to belong to the Hudson's Bay
Company.



An American Account of an Ancient Selkirk Settlement Caravan


The Public Archives of Canada at Ottawa contain the following
characteristic description of a Red River Caravan from the old Selkirk
Settlement, as printed in the _Wisconsin Herald_ of September 15th,
1847:

"On the 10th of July, there appeared at the village of St. Paul, on the
Upper Mississippi, the most novel and original caravan that has ever
appeared since Noah's ark was evacuated. Our readers are aware that
there is an isolated settlement of several thousand inhabitants in a
high latitude of British North America, known as the 'Selkirk
Settlement.' Cut off from the commerce of the world, they rely entirely
upon their own resources, their farms, their flocks and fishing for
support--being a community, so to speak, of Robinson Crusoes. Their
crops having failed the last two seasons, they have been forced to
break out of the wilds again and seek food in the markets of the great
brawling world. Formerly their chief point of contact with commerce was
Toronto; but now, owing to the increase of supplies on the Upper
Mississippi, and the abundance of game and forage on that route, they
trade at St. Paul, and the head of steamboat navigation on the
Mississippi River.

"Into St. Paul they came, on the 10th of July, a caravan of one hundred
and twenty carts, in a single file, wearily moving along by moonlight.
Long after the head of the caravan had reached the village, the
lengthened train of followers could be seen moving over the undulating
prairie, partly visible and partly hidden between the billowy ridges of
the extended plain, crawling onward like some huge serpent, the extreme
rear still invisible and partly hidden in the dimness of the distance.
They had travelled southward over the prairie six hundred miles, having
been nineteen days on their way, through a region abounding in
buffaloes--encamping at night in a tent, around which the carts were
drawn in a circle, to fence in the cattle.... They brought along a large
elk, a bear, and some other animals they had captured on their way--and
many packages of furs. They had a very choice lot of buffalo robes, well
dressed, which they sold at St. Paul by the lot at $3.50 each.

"They had with them also an abundance of specie, and waited a few days
at St. Paul for the arrival of a steamboat load of flour and groceries.
The caravan was made up of men and boys of all ages, kindreds, tongues
and complexions.... Their dresses were as various as could be imagined,
being uniform in only a single article of apparel--all wore moccasins.
The carts were made wholly of wood and hides, the hubs being covered
with bandages of green hide, drawn on while soft and then shrinking
until they became nearly as tight as bands of iron. Some of these odd
two-wheeled vehicles were drawn by little horses, and others by oxen,
each animal--horse or ox--being geared in a harness of green hide. They
are now again on their way back to the frozen wilds of the North, many
of them probably never again to commune with the great world."



How Smith's Landing Became FitzGerald

_Heroic Sacrifice of R.N.W.M.P. Officer Led to His Name Being Given to
H.B.C. Landing_


FitzGerald, originally known as Smith's Landing, is at the end of the
Athabasca River navigation, approximately three hundred miles below
McMurray. It is an important point in the transportation system, as
cargoes are there discharged and portaged sixteen miles to Fort Smith,
where they are loaded into other steamers navigating the Mackenzie
River.

In 1910, a commissioned officer of the mounted police named FitzGerald,
along with three members of the force, left Fort McPherson for Dawson.
The party encountered severe storms, and lost their way in the mountain
passes. After wandering for several weeks, they decided to return, but
owing to lack of food and inability to procure game of any kind they
suffered great privation. Finally, they were obliged to kill their dogs
for food. One of the members of the party died and the position of the
survivors was desperate, as two of the remaining members were unable to
proceed. FitzGerald left these men with all the clothing and whatever
else they had that might benefit them and continued _alone_ in an
endeavor to get back to Fort McPherson and bring help. On reaching a
point about twelve miles of the Post--which was then actually in
sight--he was too exhausted to travel further and was frozen to death.

Meanwhile, the non-arrival of this patrol in Dawson caused the mounted
police to send out a search party from that end on the assumption that
FitzGerald's party might have been held up nearby, but the search party
had to continue within this short distance of McPherson before finding
the evidence of the tragedy.

FitzGerald was held in high regard by all the people in the Northwest
Territory in which he served and application was made to the authorities
at Ottawa to change the name of Smith's Landing to Fort FitzGerald to
commemorate his worthy but unfortunately unsuccessful effort to secure
relief for his party.



"Uplands," the Ancient H.B.C. Farm on Vancouver Island

_Onetime Natural Park and Grazing Ground Now Being Subdivided at
Victoria_

By C. H. FRENCH, _District Manager for B.C._


When Victoria was established by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1843 all
that tract of land between Cadboro Bay and The Willows was a park, being
studded here and there with beautiful oak trees and plentifully supplied
with grass in which the elk loved to scamper about.


_Farm Required to Support Post_

At all Hudson's Bay Company's forts, the self-supporting feature was
always given first consideration. At Victoria it was not only necessary
to raise sufficient grain, butter and beef to support the Fort, but also
sufficient to supply Russian America, or Alaska as we now know it.
Uplands was one of the first farms established to gain those ends.

The farm buildings were always just where they now are, but the road
leading to them was different, in that where it now takes a bend where
the golf links association put up their sign, it continued straight
through the cultivated fields to the farm buildings. An examination will
show the trees and rocks still marking this road.


_Riding to Uplands for the View_

The officers at the Fort had saddle horses and it was to the uplands
they went when desiring a ride on horseback. Many officers of Her
Majesty's ships immediately on landing made arrangements for a horseback
ride to this wonderful piece of country.

It has an elevation--without seeming to climb--sufficient to present
perhaps the finest marine view to be found anywhere. The view was
obtainable from almost any part of the thousand acres contained in the
farm.

The handsome oak and maple trees were just sufficiently scattered not to
obstruct the view of the Olympic Mountains to the south; San Juan and
other islands to the east and southeast, which were overlooked by
glorious Mount Baker, always standing out as if a sentinel clothed in
white, guarding a country so rich in minerals, lumber and fish that its
equal has yet to be discovered.

Looking north, towards James and Salt Spring Islands, one is almost
speechless with admiration of the beauty that is stretched before the
eye.


_Indian Villages Are at Strategic Points_

Indian villages were in earlier times established only at points where
the food supply was abundant, but in this particular instance the
village was established for strategic reasons. There were two points
occupied by Indians; one toward the northern side of the bay, where the
present Cadboro Bay Hotel is to-day located, and the other just inside
the point, east of the present Yacht Clubhouse. Those living on the
north side of the bay were the custodians of a portage from Telegraph
Bay to Cadboro Bay, while the Indians on the south side of the bay were
the real defenders of the tribe as a portage from there to Rock Bay had
to be blocked to all enemies as it was to this point that retreats were
made and where also was stored their winter supply of food.


_The Songhees Had a Magic Spring_

The Songhees on the southeast end of Vancouver Island had, I believe,
the most strategic situation of any tribe on the coast. From their
central village at Concordance Arm the all-important route was by
Cadboro Bay, principally because the great spring that was regarded by
them as possessing certain medicinal qualities was located at that
point.

This spring was surrounded by willows and was so carefully camouflaged
that one could hardly find it, excepting that the ground from the spring
to the waterfront was more or less wet. In the improving of Uplands,
this spring was drained in some way and, I am told, does not show on the
surface now, but probably is diverted to the sea beach.



Hoot Mon! Th' Roarin' Game is on Wi' Lads o' the H.B.C.

_Land, Retail and Wholesale Departments at Winnipeg Get Away to Fast
Start--Some Already Displaying Mid Season Form_

By OUT TURN


At Winnipeg, the respective Curling Associations of the Land Department,
Retail Store and Wholesale Depot are making up for lost time, the season
having started late. Extent of the enthusiasm displayed in the Company's
Winnipeg establishments for the grand old game is indicated by the
hundred and ten yelling, sweeping adherents who turn out once and twice
a week. Ice has been good and the weather just cold enough to induce
lively work behind every skip. It is to be noted that more rocks are
getting across the "hog" than the first part of last season.

[Illustration: "_Meet Me Face to Face_"]

If ice holds after present schedules are completed, it is planned to
bring the victorious rinks together in an H.B.C. "bon spiel" for a
decision on the Company Curling Championship for Winnipeg.

[Illustration: "_Draw Weight, We'll Sweep It!_"]

Sketched are two well-known "skips" heading land department rinks and
one "skip" who cuts a lot of ice in wholesale circles. Our staff artist
caught him as he was shooting his first rock of the season, using the
follow-through system. He is usually more dignified than as portrayed
(on next page) and the editor remarks a terrific shift of latitude here
as this arctic "skip" was but lately a strutting Toreador. The two land
department "skips" pictured on this page wear no disguise and need no
introduction but we'll give a Made beaver to anyone who'll guess their
identity.

It is of course too early to make predictions as to probable winners in
the various departmental associations. We cannot get any sort of a
prognostication from our usually very opinionated Sporting Editor. For
next issue, he promises to analyze the performance of the leading rinks
and tell Messrs. Harman, Vesey and Sparling exactly what their
respective chances are.

On the following page is the standing of the rinks as at 10th January:

[Illustration: _Wholesale Boys! "Do You Know Him?"_

--!!! _Sweep Her-Up--She'll Never Reach_]


H.B.C. CURLING ASSOCIATIONS.

Winnipeg, 1921

_Land Department_

  -------------------------------------
              |Games |   |    |
      SKIP    |Played|Won|Lost|Standing
  ------------+------+---+----+--------
  Harman      |  4   | 3 | 1  |  .750
  McDill      |  4   | 2 | 2  |  .500
  Bellingham  |  4   | 1 | 2  |  .250
  Joslyn      |  4   | 1 | 2  |  .250
  -------------------------------------

_Retail Store_

  -------------------------------------
  MacGregor   |  2   | 2 | 0  | 1.000
  Mills       |  1   | 1 | 0  | 1.000
  Scott       |  2   | 2 | 0  | 1.000
  Pearen      |  1   | 1 | 0  | 1.000
  Parker      |  2   | 1 | 1  |  .500
  Healy       |  2   | 1 | 1  |  .500
  Tait        |  2   | 1 | 1  |  .500
  Sidey       |  2   | 1 | 1  |  .500
  Sparling    |  2   | 0 | 2  |  .000
  Ogston      |  1   | 0 | 1  |  .000
  Pugsley     |  2   | 0 | 2  |  .000
  Bowdler     |  1   | 0 | 1  |  .000
  -------------------------------------

_Wholesale Depot_

  -------------------------------------
  Swan        |  2   | 2 | 0  | 1.000
  A. Thompson |  2   | 2 | 0  | 1.000
  Iveson      |  1   | 1 | 0  | 1.000
  Veysey      |  3   | 2 | 1  |  .666
  Poitras     |  3   | 2 | 1  |  .666
  Phelan      |  2   | 1 | 1  |  .500
  Brock       |  3   | 1 | 2  |  .333
  O. Thompson |  2   | 0 | 2  |  .000
  McMicken    |  2   | 0 | 2  |  .000
  Ross        |  2   | 0 | 2  |  .000



_How Many "Advertisers" Has H.B.C.?_

By MRS. JACK HAWKSHAW


Some one will answer, "there's one ad-man in Winnipeg, one in Edmonton,
one in Calgary, one in Yorkton, one each in Lethbridge, Nelson, Vernon,
Kamloops and Vancouver." If that is all, then I am afraid it's time to
be up and doing. Each employee in the Company's service should be "on
the advertising staff," _to promote good feeling and optimism_. Think
what a great thing it would be right now at the beginning of a New Year
and on the threshold of a new season, if the company's thousands of
employees took a leading part in the advertising of the Company's
stores.



_Tree 95 Years Old Bears Apples_


_Vancouver, Washington, Dec. 18th (Special)_--Two apples grown on the
famous old apple tree in Vancouver barracks were picked to-day by A. A.
Quarnberg. This apple tree is the oldest in Pacific Northwest, if not
the United States, having been planted in 1826 by Bruce, the gardener
for the Hudson's Bay Trading Company. This makes the apple tree more
than ninety-five years old.

The seeds were brought around the Horn in a sailing-vessel by an
Hudson's Bay Trading Company official who carried them in a waistcoat
pocket. The tailor was cleaning out the pockets and found these apple
seeds and he gave them to the gardener who planted them. Many trees were
raised. All have died except one.



_More than 100 Benefits Paid in 1920_


The Hudson's Bay Employees' Welfare Association at Winnipeg Retail
continues to flourish despite the many demands made on the "exchequer"
during the past twelve months. Upwards of one hundred individual
employees have received benefits during 1920 and the Secretary, P.
Harrison, reports that the balance in hand at present is larger than at
any time since the inception of the plan.



C. H. French Has Long Experience in H.B.C. Fur Trade

_British Columbia District Manager Entered Service in Lake Winnipeg
District, 1887; Sent to New Caledonia on Important Mission in 1894_

By F. S. GARNER


[Illustration: _Mr. French in the B.C. District Office_]

C. H. French, District Manager of the Company's British Columbia fur
trade district, is a man whose experience in the service during 33
years, from Lake Winnipeg to the Pacific Coast and north to Alaska, has
excellently fitted him to narrate countless stories of brave adventure
and stern duty under the H.B.C. flag in the great Northwest.

Mr. French, though 53, carries his years lightly. True, his hair is
grizzled; upon his face is delineated the tale of dangers met and
hardships overcome. Yet one would not place his age at over 45, if even
that. Seasoned as an oak, with hard and healthful living in a climate
which eliminates all but the fittest, Mr. French, now in lovely
Victoria, may know at least a measure of the relaxation and joy of
living such as is seldom granted the fur trader. The "spring" in his
step and the active interest he takes in the life and development of
Vancouver Island identify in him a youthful spirit which well might be
envied by many men under thirty.

Mr. French was born in Markham township, twelve miles north of Toronto,
Ontario, on 23rd July, 1867.

He served a full apprenticeship at printing. Then he acquired a fair
knowledge of bread-baking, fishing and sailing, which experience he says
stood him in good stead after entering the service.

In 1887 Mr. French joined H.B.C. in the Lake Winnipeg District, doing
work of various kinds, one job being the sailing of the boat "Beaver"
under Mr. W. J. McLean at Lower Fort Garry, and afterwards Mr. Flett at
Fort Alexander.

During this period he brought the body of Chief Factor Belanger in from
the lake and delivered it at the Selkirk Roman Catholic Church. The
Chief Factor was drowned at Norway House.

Fur Trade Commissioner Wrigley went out of office and while his
successor, Mr. C. C. Chipman, was Commissioner, he had the able support
of such men as William Clark. It was with William Clark that Mr. French
engaged to go to New Caledonia District, British Columbia (March, 1894)
to break up a ring that was pilfering merchandise from the Babine, B.C.,
warehouse. This was successfully accomplished, and Mr. French was given
charge of Babine Post, remaining there until 1901, when installed as fur
buyer at Victoria, under Mr. James Thomson. He was in charge of that
work until February, 1914, when he was made District Manager for British
Columbia.



SEND IT IN


    If you have a bit of news, send it in.
    Or a joke that will amuse, send it in.
    A story that is true, an incident that's new,
    "We want to hear from you," send it in.
    Never mind about your style,
    If it's only worth the while, send it in.
    Will it make a paragraph? Send it in.
    If some good your words can teach,
    If some distant reader reach,
    If you have a glowing speech, send it in.

MISS D. L. BENS,
  _Winnipeg Retail_



How the Eskimo Hunts the Musk-Ox

     _Description of Eskimo's method of hunting musk-oxen in the Arctic
     regions as given by Capt. French, R.N.W.M.P., one of the patrol who
     went north to investigate the killing of Messrs. Bradbury and
     Street, sent out by Smithsonian Institute and National Museum at
     Ottawa._


The Eskimo, sighting a small band of musk-oxen--usually a bull, cow and
one or two calves--lets loose two or three husky dogs (part dog and part
wolf) which encircle the animals. The bull and cow turn their heads
towards the dogs, with the calf or calves in the centre, and prepare to
give fight. Once the oxen are "anchored," the Eskimos turn loose all
their dogs which serve to keep the oxen "anchored" instead of taking to
their heels, and proceed themselves with bow and arrows and dispatch the
animals.

[Illustration]

These musk-oxen are very fierce and warlike animals, hence the necessity
of the Eskimo protecting himself with dogs. In the case of a wounded
bull charging an Eskimo, the dogs immediately rush to attack it and
withdraw its attention from the Eskimo who may thereby find time to
string another arrow to his bow and then dispatch it.--_W.E.A._

[Illustration: Holding the Musk-Oxen at Bay]



_There'll Be No More Slacker Contributors If They All Read This_


_Barriere Post, Ontario,

Editor, The "Beaver," Winnipeg._

_It is, I think, the duty of all of your readers to wish THE BEAVER a
very happy New Year._

_You cannot realize what the magazine means to us who live in the silent
places far removed from social intercourse with our fellow creatures._

_We who have access to such little reading material to interest us in
our lonely lives will look forward eagerly to the arrival of THE
BEAVER._

_And I can assure you that I wish it every success in the years to come,
and I trust that all the readers will recognize the fact that it is
their bounden duty to contribute either in writing or photographs from
time to time._

_I think that it is not to our Commissioner alone that we should look
for guidance nor to our District Managers, but to our friendly
intercourse one with another, which can only be accomplished through the
medium of THE BEAVER and I sincerely trust that this friendly
intercourse will grow stronger and stronger as the years roll by, and so
help to strengthen and firmly cement together the bonds of good
fellowship._

_I have the honor to be, Sir,

Yours obediently,

(Signed) ASHTON ALSTON,

Post Manager._

_Issued Every Now and Then in the Interests
of Those in the Service of the
Hudson's Bay Company_

[Illustration]



The Beaver

"_A Journal of Progress_"


Copyright, 1921, by The Hudson's Bay Company

Address all communications to Editor,
"THE BEAVER," York and Main Streets,
Winnipeg, Canada

  Vol. I     JANUARY, 1921     No. 4



Fortunate Canada!


The big war is all over but the paying. A whole "bale" of little wars,
however, have been engaging the attention of the world until recent
settlements were effected.

Famine in China. Russian chaos and Irish thunderclouds. Inoculation
against the "Bolshevik bug" in every quarter of the globe.

Fortunate Canada!

Industrial depression, unemployment and foreboding grips the United
States. Canada has had a tinge of this malady, too, during price
convulsions--but Canada is sound. Canada--especially Western Canada--is
busy, optimistic and possessed of a confidence unbounded. A happier or
more prosperous Christmas and New Year's that just past in Canada, never
has been.

For twelve months ending October, 1920, Canada's volume of trade was _up
five hundred million dollars_ over the year previous. Canada is
fortunate. To the sweet uses of Peace, she is applying herself
assiduously.



The Yankee Balloonists


The Beaver refrains from elaborating upon current newspaper reports
about the U.S. Navy balloonists who drifted from New York City to Moose
Factory and were rescued by H.B.C. men at James Bay--until the report of
our Associate Editor at Moose Factory and his photographs have been
received. It is expected these will come out to Mattice by next packet,
and _The Beaver_ will then be able to give authentic details.



Ambition


Ambitious men raise themselves like the tallest trees high above the
shrub growth of somnolent spirits and so are "most in the power of the
winds of fortune."

Your chance for Success is not lacking as long as the spark of Ambition
is alive within you. With some men, Ambition dies between thirty and
forty; with others it remains unquenched. Some men have made fortunes
and lost them at forty-five, then have turned in and made other fortunes
before retiring. Scores of great Successes have been recorded after the
age of fifty; cases where Ambition, the "divine discontent," was never
downed.

Without Ambition, the fire under the boilers of Industry would die and
the pop-valves of Commerce would cease to reveal live power that drives
the pistons of progress.



A Martian at the Rink


Picture a man from Mars, just descended, as he steps into an H.B.C.
curling rink during the ninth "end"--when Scottish excitement is at its
hottest. Try to comprehend his bewilderment as he hears frenzied shouts
of "_SWEEP, SWEEP, SWEEP 'er up! GET IT across the hog!_" And
again--"_out turn, Mac; draw-weight and a wick off this one. Just come
TO it!_"

And sweatered, mufflered figures contort themselves in fantastic
fox-trots on the ice as they swing mad brooms in the van of the skidding
stones.

The grey rocks curl and thump--or twist uncannily to a berth behind
guardian stones. "_WE LIE_," bursts in raucous chorus from steaming
throats. "A marvelous confession thinks the man from Mars."

The roarin' game of Cur-r-r-lin' is in full fling at many of the
Company's branches. Young and old all become _younger_ in a fast and
furious "draw."

Buy a broom and a pair of "galoshes" and get on the ice. Forget
business, bid dull care begone. Curl ten "ends" and then you'll say
"where's that pack of worries that was hounding me this afternoon?"



Egotism


The large proportion of the human race which is afflicted with "Self
Importance" can draw pointed conclusion from the facts that:

(1) Michelson the scientist has discovered an accurate method of
measuring the distant stars, by which it is determined that one star in
Orion is _twenty-seven trillion times as large as the earth_, and
twenty-seven million times as large as the Sun. (It's no use trying to
visualize this tremendous planet. Even a _billion_ is incomprehensible
to the human mind; a _trillion_ simply cannot be embraced in our
thought.)

(2) Latest available figures indicate that there are about _two billion
people living on the Earth_, despite the slaughter of war. We are
somewhere in that crowd.

If we ever feel ourselves getting "chesty in the head," let us repress
even the faintest stirrings of Egotism, for we're only one in two
billion (never would be missed!) riding to an unticketed destination on
a "pin-point planet" that swirls every day a million miles nearer to
that gigantic sun, _Alpha Orionus_ (see it any clear night in the
heavens) which is so tremendous in dimension that our poor little earth
at the instant of contact would sputter out like a tiny drop of grease
on a big stove.



Our Reporters


The Beaver should be _all-seeing, all-knowing_--as far as H.B.C. events
are concerned. If a single incident which affects the Company or its
employees escapes being reported to this journal, we are not fulfilling
our mission. If any other publication tells of an H.B.C. event or
reports any H.B.C. employees' activities which do not reach _The
Beaver_--_then we're_ "_scooped_," in the parlance of the press.

You faithful readers of _The Beaver_ who daily are giving your time and
thought to H.B.C. affairs--_you_ are the eyes and ears of this journal.
We have a good many "live-wire" reporters, but need more. Let every
member of staff take a personal interest in forwarding to _The Beaver_
intelligence of every description that might interest H.B.C. people.



The Wanderers


The lure of exploration has not lost its power since the two main
prizes--both Poles--were achieved. Recently it was announced that a
considerable number of new expeditions would set out in 1921 to various
remote quarters of the globe--one to Baffins Land, one to the north of
Siberia, one to Central Africa and so on down the list. Amundsen is now
trying to drift across the North Pole.

The Challenge of Discovery ever has greater power than strong drink to
inflame the blood of daring men, particularly of the British and
Scandinavian races. They will never tire until the last "back-lot" of
the earth has been carefully scanned, mapped and staked for science and
civilization.



Reputation


A man may live a lifetime of virtue and honesty; then by one false step
destroy the delicate structure of Reputation which he has so
painstakingly constructed.

The _Good Name_ of H.B.C. has taken two hundred and fifty years to
build. Yet _one year's departure_ from H.B.C. ideals and H.B.C.
standards would serve to corrode the foundations underlying this
priceless Reputation.

When acting or speaking in the name of the Company, employees who
appreciate the insecurity of Reputation _think twice before saying or
doing anything_ that might be adjudged _un-Hudson's Bay_.



The Prize Contest


"How I Earned My First Dollar" Contest is stirring up much interest
among "old timers" in the ranks. First letters are beginning to come in.
Please do not delay in sending the facts about your early start. Two
hundred words are enough to give the main details--and are soon
written.



_Some People in the East and the West are Whimpering and Whining!_


     Pessimistic over the outlook for spring business.

     Some people think the bottom has fallen out of things, when the
     fact is things are as good as ever they were. Only that with the
     getting back into the condition that prevailed before the war
     prices are falling, and many people have contracted a fever which
     was very prevalent in the States a short time ago called
     Pessimania.

     _We've Got to Do Our Part to Create a Spirit of Optimism_, for if
     we all join the army of pessimists, it's going to be bad for
     ourselves, bad for the Company, and bad for the country too.
     _Besides, we have every reason to be optimistic and here are the
     reasons_--First, there is the good news of lower prices on nearly
     all kinds of goods, and people who have been doing without can now
     buy freely again. Second, the government has abolished the
     undesirable luxury tax. Encourage your customers and friends to buy
     now, for prices cannot jump down below what they are now for the
     spring, and the more they buy the more it will add prosperity to
     the country. No country's prosperity was ever built up on fear, but
     faith. The low prices are here now. People have money for
     necessities and we must do our part by talking and thinking
     hopefully for the coming spring. That's it! Have you ever stopped
     to think of the wonderful power of thought. Like the pebble dropped
     in the lake, ever widening in circles, your tiny thought of
     hopefulness and helpfulness will have an ever-widening effect.
     Every word that you say with belief behind it stimulates other
     people to be optimistic, and so your influence increases. This is
     what makes _power_.

     Every added sale that we make will not only increase our own record
     but it will add its quota to the prosperity of Canada.

     Let everybody think good times, talk good times, and buy for good
     times' sake, then the ranks of the unemployed will melt before the
     sunshine of prosperity!

     Won't we make a resolution to start being _peptimists_ to-day?--_F.
     S. Garner._



MOTTOE FOR YE NEWE YEARE

_Modernized by A. Seymour H.B.C. Post, D-14_


    There arre noe Byrdes
    In Nexte Yeare's Neste.
    In Nexte Yeare's Creame
    There arre no Flyes.
    Noe Vaine Regrettes
    Disturb my Breaste
    For Aught yt in
    Ye Futurre lyes
    Ande Laste Yeare's Flyes
    Ande Laste Yeare's Byrdes
    Arre paste ye reache
    Of Tearres ande Wordes.

  ? ? ? ?
--Chaucer.



START THE NEW YEAR WELL


     by joining the vast and ever increasing multitude of those who find
     in Life Insurance the one sure way of protecting dependent
     ones--while making timely provision for their own future at the
     same time.

     Join the ever increasing number who have found, in the Policies of
     The Great-West Life Assurance Company, all that can be desired in
     profitable Life Insurance.

     Thus you will obtain protection at low cost, and will secure a
     share in the remarkable profits that are being paid to
     Policyholders of

  The Great-West Life Assurance Company
  Dept. "D. 30"   Head Office: WINNIPEG



C. W. Veysey Always Pushed the Work--Never Let It Push Him

_General Manager of Winnipeg Wholesale Developed Himself So Consistently
With H. B. C. at Vancouver That He Was Called to Fill a Big Man's Shoes_

By A. BROCK, _Associate Editor_


The career of Mr. C. W. Veysey, Manager H.B.C. Wholesale, Winnipeg,
furnishes an excellent example of the Company's appreciation of, and
reward for, faithful service and ability to apply one's business acumen
in the Company's interests.

[Illustration: C. W. VEYSEY, Esq.

_General Manager, Wholesale Department_]


_A Nova Scotian Who Early Came West_

Born in the little town of North Sidney, Nova Scotia, of English
parentage, Mr. Veysey was privileged to spend the first years of his
life in that country and community which produced so many of the leading
business men now in the West.

When he was thirteen his parents decided to move to British Columbia.
They arrived in Vancouver in October, 1888.

A few years spent at the west end and Central Schools, Vancouver,
brought Mr. Veysey to that stage where he decided that it was about time
he was learning to paddle his own canoe.


_Began Business Life in B.C. Refinery_

The B.C. Sugar Refinery was the scene of his first labors, given in
exchange for what at that time seemed the magnificent remuneration of
$12 per month, with the promised reward of an increase to $15 in three
months, providing the service he rendered was satisfactory to his
employer.

It is interesting to recall that the Company's present general manager
at Vancouver, Mr. H. T. Lockyer, was at that time also connected with
the B.C. Refinery in the capacity of accountant; and Mr. Veysey was
fortunate in forming a friendship in those days which later proved to be
a source of great help when the experience and assistance of an "older
head" were needed to straighten out, ofttimes, the rough business road
he had to travel.


_Joined H.B.C. Service in 1896_

A period of five years, however, completed Mr. Veysey's connection with
the refinery. During this time Mr. Lockyer had entered the H.B.C.
service as accountant and perhaps in view of the association begun at
the refinery it was not strange that an opportunity should shortly
present itself enabling Mr. Veysey also to join the Company's service.
On 1st November, 1896, he commenced his duties in the Vancouver office.

Mr. E. J. Cuchinay was the Company's accountant at Vancouver at that
time, but on account of ill health was being transferred to one of the
Company's steamers as purser. Consequently, his position at Vancouver
had to be filled.


_Mr. Lockyer Got Him a New Job_

Feeling, as Shakespeare says, that there is a "tide in the affairs of
men," Mr. Veysey decided to approach Mr. Lockyer (who by this time had
attained the position of general manager) and ascertain if he could not
be allowed to show his ability for the position. Mr. Lockyer informed
him that _he had already wired_ Commissioner Chipman, recommending his
appointment and showed him the wire. Mr. Veysey experienced anxious days
while awaiting the reply from Winnipeg; but eventually word was received
approving the appointment.


_Mr. Lockyer Gave Him Lesson in Self-Reliance_

Perhaps a little incident that occurred soon after Mr. Veysey's
appointment will be appreciated by a great many of the present aspiring
accountants of the Company. The time of the month had arrived when the
famous "Form 20" had to be compiled and with the help of Mr. Lockyer
this task was successfully accomplished. The next month, however, the
young accountant found not a little difficulty in completing this form
unassisted. He thought of Mr. Lockyer's kindly assistance the previous
month and again approached the general manager for help; but much to Mr.
Veysey's surprise, he was met with the reply, "Why, Charlie, I showed
you how to do that last month. Go back and do it." And back he went, and
what is more important, _he did it_. Mr. Veysey often remarks that that
was one of the best turns Mr. Lockyer ever did him.


_Handled Big Business During Yukon Rush_

Mr. Veysey has many pleasant reminiscences of the days of the Yukon rush
and what it meant to Vancouver. H.B.C. business was so great at that
time that it meant working every night until midnight for five months.
Mr. Lockyer will also remember this strenuous time, as he bore his share
with the rest. Midnight would often come and find him still on the job.


_Promoted to Assistant Managership_

Promotion again was the order of the day, and Mr. Veysey was made
assistant general manager at Vancouver. In 1908, however, he was
approached by Messrs. Kelly Douglas and Company to join their firm as
credit office manager, which position he filled until 1913, when he was
asked by the Hudson's Bay Company to go to Winnipeg in the capacity of
general manager of the Depot and Wholesale Branch, which had been
rendered vacant by the death of that valued servant of the Company, Mr.
G. W. Cochrane.


_Became Wholesale General Manager_

Mr. Veysey arrived in Winnipeg in July, 1913, and immediately applied
himself diligently to the task of building up a wholesale business which
should be second to none in the West. It was by no means an easy task,
but perseverance eventually prevailed and H.B.C. Winnipeg Wholesale has
registered great gains. Since Mr. Veysey's appointment at Winnipeg,
wholesale branches of the Company have been established at Saskatoon and
Regina, Saskatchewan, under his management. The H.B.C. candy factory, at
Winnipeg, owes its inception to his efforts for expansion of the
Company's business.


_Serves Fur Trade and Stores Efficiently_

One of his greatest ambitions has been to operate the depot so
efficiently that the service given both to the fur trade posts and
retail stores would be as near perfect as it was possible to make it.
The Company's many district managers and store managers all over Canada
acknowledge and appreciate the efforts which have been put forward in
this direction by Mr. Veysey's organization.

Amongst the staff it may be said without fear of contradiction no man
could be held in higher esteem than Mr. Veysey. Exacting, but human, he
is and always ready to lend a helping hand. Having climbed up from the
foot of the ladder himself he believes in employees' earning every step
of their advancement, but he is always prepared to recognize and reward
merit where demonstrated.


_Mr. Veysey Always Active in Sports_

In the world of sport, Mr. Veysey is an ardent devotee of the ancient
and honourable game of golf, and many predict that some day the Burbidge
cup will be seen reposing in his office. Mr. Veysey also takes a
wholesome interest in curling. His enthusiasm and ability as a "skip"
usually helps place his rink "on top of the league" at the wholesale.



Rupert's House Notes


_Staff Changes_

J. S. C. Watt, late in charge of Fort Chimi, succeeds Mr. A. Nicolson,
retired.

R. J. Sherlaw, late in charge of Mistassinny Post, to charge of Rupert's
House Post.

A. Brebner, of Aberdeen, Scotland, apprentice clerk.


_Mistassinny Post_

F. Mcleod, late clerk at Albany Post, succeeds R. J. Sherlaw in charge
of Mistassinny Post.


_Woswanaby Post_

H. Hawkins, late clerk at Rupert's House, succeeds D. M. Stuart, in
charge of Woswanaby Post.

Mr. Stuart left on board the S.S. "Nascopie," for a holiday in England.



Buffalo River Post News


We have had considerable sickness among the people of this district but
are glad to say that only a few are now incapacitated. A considerable
number died during last summer.

Mr. J. M. Cumines, manager of H.B.C. Buffalo River, recently made a very
pleasant trip to Toronto, to visit his mother, who was ill.

Lamson Hubbard Canadian Fur Company have opened their new store at
Buffalo River. (_But H.B.C. is still here doing business._)



B.C. District Office News


Mr. and Mrs. C. H. French= received congratulations on the birth of a
fine daughter on December 1st.

Mr. F. B. Wombwell=, B.C. District accountant, returned from a visit to
Mayo Brothers, Rochester, Minn.

During the past month the H.B.C. Victoria office has had the pleasure of
visits from:

     _Captain Evan J. Edwards, of Montreal, H.M. Senior Trade
     Commissioner in Canada and Newfoundland; Mr. L. B. Beale, of
     Winnipeg, His Majesty's Trade Commissioner, Department of Overseas
     Trade, London; Captain Louis Knaflich, of the Kuskokwim Fishing and
     Transportation Company, from whom the Hudson's Bay Company
     chartered the "Ruby" for Western Arctic District; Captain J.
     Bernard._



_Requires Long Trip to Inspect B.C. Posts_


To those of our readers who are "city folk" or whose travel is limited,
the following might prove interesting:

To make an inspection trip to the Hudson's Bay Company's Posts in
British Columbia District alone a distance of 3758 miles must be covered
as follows:

 _404 miles by trails._
 _974 miles by rivers._
  _56 miles by lake._
  _80 miles by automobile._
 _976 miles by railroad._
_1268 miles by steamboat._



A Seaplane Visits Moose Factory


August 27, 1920, will be well remembered by the natives of Moose Island,
as it marks the arrival of the first air machine to any H.B.C. post in
James Bay district.

A high-pitched, droning noise heralded the approach of the machine; and
soon the 'plane came into view, flying at an altitude of about three
thousand feet. A fine sight it was to see the great bird coming nearer,
suddenly "bank," and, with a great flash of silver, as the sun's rays
glinted on the tilted planes, it nose-dived and planed down to the
"landing" stretch of water, which had been previously marked with a buoy
and red flag. This channel of deep water runs between Moose Island and a
smaller island, the river at this point being of delta formation.

Meanwhile the inhabitants and the Company's staff had gathered on the
bank, the latter all armed with cameras. A canoe shot out from the river
side and the airmen were soon exchanging greetings with us.

The seaplane to the Indians was a matter of great mystery and for long
bands of them stood gazing at the craft which the white men had handled
so dexterously.

During their subsequent trips to their base near Cochrane they very
kindly carried our outward mails.

The object of the seaplane's journey was the recording by motion
pictures the life and customs of the inhabitants of northern
Canada.--_G.F._



FAMOUS TRIPS BY H.B.C. DOG TEAMS

107 Miles from Dawn to Dark

By H. M. S. COTTER, _Cumberland House_


In the year 1896 I was in charge of H.B.C. Northwest River Post on the
Labrador. It was customary for the post managers to assemble annually at
district headquarters which at that time was located at Rigolet on the
coast. This council was usually held in April on a specified date.
Rigolet is ninety-two miles from Northwest River by the winter trail.
The trip occupies two days as a rule, and when we left the Post it was
the intention as usual _to run the first fifty miles and camp_ for the
night at a place named the Lowlands.

[Illustration: _The feet of the dogs are protected by deerskin moccasins
from laceration on sharp edges of the ice_]

We had the ordinary length of sled or "komatik," which is about twelve
feet long and weighs about a hundred pounds. We carried a load of about
six hundred pounds, which in that part of the country is considered
light.

We left the Post at 4.30 a.m. April 7th, 1896, just before dawn. The sky
was somewhat overcast and a light wind was blowing from Southwest. The
travelling was good, particularly in the early morning, as the melted
snow of the previous day had dried up during the night.

Our nine dogs were in the very pink of condition. They displayed a
fierce eagerness to reach the sealing grounds, nine miles below the
Post.

"Lieutenant" was the leader's name, and second leader, "Friday." Both
these dogs were famous as seal hunters. There was "nothing on four
legs," it was claimed, ever approached them either in respect of speed
or ability to scent seals at long distance. After we reached the sealing
grounds the team broke into a mad pace. No sooner had they run down one
batch of seals than the leaders would scent others long before they were
visible. In this way the speed of the whole team was maintained at a
high rate.

As the local saying was, the dogs were "seal mad" and getting out of
hand. I had been over these sealing grounds many times, but never had
seen so many seals as on this day. Around the seal or blowing holes they
were not in large numbers, but along the cracks which opened across the
bay and ran for fifteen or twenty miles, the seals were literally in
thousands. It was good sport chasing them. We stopped several times and
speared four, adding about three hundred pounds to our load. But this
seemed to make no difference in the speed of the dogs.

Finally we got into the Lowlands just before noon, having covered fully
sixty-five miles of our journey. As it was yet early and the dogs
appeared fresh as when they started, we decided after having a light
lunch, to go on to the next stopping place seventeen miles below. The
going was excellent and we did the first twelve miles in ninety minutes;
but coming to rough and hummocky ice we had to bear in towards the shore
to get around it. The wind had swept the rocks clean of snow. Just as we
got on land some caribou appeared across our course immediately ahead.
Well, talk about dogs moving! Their former speed seemed slow in
comparison. They raced over the naked rocks like wolves. I remember
looking behind and seeing a stream of fire flying from the steel shoeing
of the sledge like a shower of sparks from a high-speed emery wheel. The
caribou moved off into the valley and we had a tough job to get the
team onto the ice again. Here we came in sight of more seals. Off we
went again from our course and past the stopping place we had planned;
so we decided to go right on to our destination. _We arrived at Rigolet
before 8 p.m._

The Post managers came out and greeted us warmly, remarking however that
we had made slow time, arriving so late in the evening. _They thought we
had left the previous day._ When I announced that we had left only that
morning they said "like ---- you did." We had lost two hours, but in the
fourteen and a half hours we had been actually travelling we had covered
a hundred and seven miles. I am not claiming this is a record, but it is
one of the fastest trips ever made by an H.B.C. dog team with full load.

_Editor's Note--Mr. James Fraser, who later became H.B.C. District
Manager in Esquimaux Bay, made the trip from Rigolet to Northwest River
in one day on a previous occasion, but as he lost a twenty-eight pound
keg of white lead on the way up much of the glory vanished. The
foregoing is the first of a series of authentic stories which The Beaver
plans to carry in a regular department which may be styled the "Dog
Column"--just plain DOG. Men of the Hudson's Bay: bestir your
"recollection equipment" and let us know if you have a better dog story
than Mr. Cotter's. Particularly are we expecting to hear from J. J. G.
Rosser, of Isle a la Crosse, and Ashton Alston, of Barriere, both famous
"dog skinners."_



LITTLE JOURNEYS TO THE HAUNTS OF CANADA'S FUR-BEARING ANIMALS

I.

THE BEAVER

(_Continued from last Issue_)


They have their young during June. When one year old they have two or
three only, the next year as many as six, but in after years the average
number is four. The young stay with their parents for two years and in
the third year they leave and make a home or mate with others who are
making homes for themselves. Under the old unwritten laws of the
Indians, a trap must not be set closer than two hundred yards from a
house, because the young beaver never go that far away from home,
therefore only the two years and older ones would be caught.


_Method of Drowning Beaver_

Owing to their custom of immediately using their teeth on anything that
interferes with their liberty, a trap must be set in such a way that the
animal drowns or he will in a very few seconds cut his imprisoned foot
off close to the shoulder. The system of drowning is as simple as it is
effective. Every trap chain has a ring on the end of it and is usually
set on the edge of fairly deep water with the chain ring over a stick
that has about half an inch of each branch left on, and has been shoved
in the mud out in deep water. The first thing the beaver does when
caught is to spring out into the water, taking of course train and trap
with him, and the ring easily and naturally slips down the pole and when
it reached the bottom immediately checks the flight of the beaver and
does not allow him to even come to the surface again. Consequently, he
is drowned in a very few moments. Ordinarily he can stay under water for
about ten minutes, but when excited and fighting as he would do when
caught, will drown quickly.


_Beaver Tail Useful Implement_

The beaver uses its tail to steer with while swimming and to carry the
mud necessary to construct his house. He will scratch a little pile of
earth up with his fore paws, then turn around and scoop his tail under
the loose mud, holding it stiff and straight out behind on the level of
the water while he swims off to where building operations are going on.

[Illustration: _Two fine, fat, 35 pound beaver_]


_How the Beaver Stores Food_

The beaver's winter store of food is not put too close to the house, but
usually a considerable distance off; sometimes in deep water in the
middle of a pond or under a bank where the water is too deep to freeze
to the bottom. Sticks of cottonwood, cut as large as can conveniently be
handled, are pulled or even carried on their shoulders while they walk
in an upright position to the water, then floated to the spot selected.
These sticks are not shoved into the mud as has often been stated, but
are piled up or built up just as we would build a raft--the first layer
lying one way, and the second layer crossways on top, each layer having
all crevices filled up with mud until the larder is sufficient for his
winter's needs, and is weighed down level with the top of the water.
When he starts to draw from this store, he pulls a stick out from the
bottom and takes it off to his tunnel leading to the bank close by his
house where meals are served.


_Easy To Approach Beaver From Windward Side_

Animals usually can detect the approach of danger if it comes from the
windward side. The beaver is not an exception, but one can be within a
few feet of them when the wind is blowing in the opposite direction, and
they fail to get the scent. For example, an Indian wanted a beaver to
eat and as just before camping for the night he had passed some cuttings
only a little way back on the trail, he decided to go back after dark
and see what luck there was for him. He was careful to approach the
workings from the windward side and after listening attentively he could
hear a beaver cutting trees up on the hill side above him. He selected a
sheltered spot in some brush on the windward side of the slide or the
road that was used by the beaver to skid down the cut wood. Presently
along came the animal, struggling with a large piece of cottonwood. The
Indian waited until after the beaver had passed him, then reached out
and caught the stick, holding it firmly, and as soon as the beaver was
satisfied that it was caught it walked back with the intention of
cutting it loose only to get hit on the head with a stick and killed by
the Indian.


_The Beaver a Castorum Factory_

Both male and female have a pair of glands lying lengthways on the
inside of the skin at the lower extremities, which does not appear to be
controlled as other organs are, but are emptied with the hand by a
downward pressure. The secretion contained in these two bags is a solid
from which oil is extracted and is completely emptied once each year.
Close by every house a handful of dry grass is gathered up and the
castorum deposited, then a few tail-fulls of mud are put on top of it.
What this is done for I am not certain but think it is like a challenge
or a sign that all trespassers will have to fight. When the bags are
emptied in the fall the beaver visit jackpine forests and eat largely of
the gum, I am told by the Indians, for the purpose of replenishing the
castorum supply, and this is likely true, because the odor and character
of the deposit is not unlike pine gum. Castorum has a peculiar
attraction for all wild animals, and the Indians put it to account by
using it as a trap scent. Another advantage it has is that though an oil
substance it is of such a nature that when rubbed on iron traps and set
under water it will not leave the trap and float up like all other oil
substances will do. Commercially it is used as a body in perfumes,
likely also on account of its being able to retain the perfume for such
a long time.

(_To be continued_)



G. L. Bellingham Won Way From Clerkship in Land Dept.

_Assistant Land Commissioner--A Man to Whom Accuracy is Next to
Godliness--Has Earned Continuous Promotion Through 18 Years._

By B. A. EVERITT, _Associate Editor_


Mr. G. L. Bellingham, assistant to the land commissioner, hails from
Wales but he has been so long in Canada and has for so many years dealt
with H.B.C. farm lands that he knows his adopted country possibly better
than his native soil. Mr. Bellingham is so intimately in touch with the
Company's widespread land holdings that he can almost tell one the
value, topography, the soil and the tonnage of wild hay on any H.B.C.
parcel out of several thousand dotted over the prairie maps.


_Likes to See a "Square Deal" All Round_

Mr. Bellingham is keen, active and earnest, with a typical British
temperament, which often reminds one that he is a fighting man all
through--prepared to hold his own in any transaction. Those who know him
best admire his faculty for getting at the "root of things" quickly and
his insistence on absolute justice being meted out to all concerned.


_Insists on Clear Understanding_

Any arrangement made with Mr. Bellingham could not possibly be
misunderstood or confused. His mastery of details and clearcut
registering of all salient points--always followed by a careful
recapitulation--makes issues unforgettable, whether the occasion be the
sale of a section of land or the arrangement of a curling match. He is
as careful in even the most unimportant dealings as if making a legal
contract.

[Illustration]

Mr. Bellingham was born at Newport, Monmouthshire, Wales, June 17th,
1875. Educated in London and North of England, he entered a Lancashire
stockbroker's office in 1889, where he remained for two years. For ten
years, subsequently, he was in the employ of the town council, resigning
the position of assistant secretary in 1902, to embark for Canada.


_Has a Try at Tilling the Soil_

The desire to get "back to the land" had got a strong hold upon him, and
Canada's great West presented the most alluring prospects to the young
and adventurous agriculturist.

One week of the farm's hard labor sufficed. Mr. Bellingham's illusions
of the joy of currying the prairies as a means of enticing wealth broke
and died as the proverbial bubble. His first farm job was either too
"hefty" for Mr. Bellingham or he was not powerful enough for it.


_Joined H.B.C. as Clerk in 1902_

In Winnipeg, May 16th, 1902, he applied for and obtained a junior
position in the Company's land department, of which Mr. Montague Aldous
was chief clerk and Mr. C. C. Chipman, Commissioner.


_Faithful Effort Gains Promotions_

Mr. Bellingham applied himself earnestly to learning all there was to
know about land and H.B.C. methods of doing business. He was assigned
one duty after another and, as his good work came to the notice of his
superiors, "graduated" from each new position to a better one. To-day,
he is assistant to the land commissioner, Mr. H. F. Harman.

When the Company's Edmonton townsite sale of 1912 was inaugurated, Mr.
Bellingham was chosen to take charge of the Edmonton branch, in which
capacity he remained until June, 1916, being then recalled to Winnipeg
to deputize for the assistant land commissioner during the latter's
absence in France.



WHAT HAPPENED AT MOOSE FACTORY DURING SUMMER AND FALL, 1920

Extracts from the Post Journal from Entries by J. L. Gaudet, Post
Manager


July 1st--Our steamer, the "Inenew," left this morning on her first trip
            to Charlton Island, taking the District staff to the island
            for the summer, as this is our summer distributing point.
            Dr. Stewart and Rev. W. G. Walton were passengers.

July 6th--The steamer returned with a cargo for Moose Factory of
            Charlton Depot stock. The steamer returned to Charlton with
            a load of lumber which I am shipping to the Straits.

July 14th--The steamer returned with her second cargo from Charlton, and
            took another load of lumber for the Strait Posts. Mr.
            Johansen of the Biological Branch of the Naval Department of
            the Canadian Government, was a passenger on his way to Fort
            George. Mr. Fred McLeod and family were also passengers on
            their way to Woswonaby Post. Mr. McLeod is going there in
            the capacity of Post Manager.

July 21st--Mr. F. D. Wilson arrived here to-day with two apprentice
            clerks, Messrs. Beveridge and Findlay, both from Aberdeen,
            Scotland.

Aug. 3rd--Mr. Aurey, the government treaty paymaster, arrived here on
            his annual trip, paying treaty to the Indians. Mr. Aurey is
            assisted by Dr. Baker.

Aug. 10th--Mr. Russell and family, Mr. John Louttit and family, arrived
            with the schooner "Fort George." These gentlemen are on
            their way out to civilization. Mr. Russell was in charge of
            Fort George Post.

Aug. 14th--Mr. Romanet, general fur trade inspector, arrived here with
            Mrs. Romanet and two children. Mr. Romanet says he is here
            on an official visit from the Fur Trade Commissioner's
            Office. Inspector Phillips and Sgt. Joy, of the R.C.M.
            Police, also arrived to-day. They are on their way to the
            Belcher Islands to investigate some Eskimo murder case.

Aug. 17th--A large seaplane, "The Caaz," with Capt. Maxwell as pilot and
            Mr. Doan as engineer, landed here this afternoon. This is
            the first flying machine to come to Moose Factory and was
            quite a sight for our Indians.

Aug. 19th--The general inspector left on the schooner "Fort George" for
            Charlton Island this morning at 7 o'clock. A canoe carrying
            the ship's papers and two apprentice clerks, Mr. Gregory and
            Mr. Bremner, arrived at 1 p.m., just a few hours late to
            catch the schooner which I was holding for that purpose, so
            I had to get busy and send off our hay-boat with this mail
            to Charlton Island.

Aug. 23rd--The seaplane landed here to-day on her second trip from Remy
            Lake, which is a few miles from Cochrane, with two moving
            picture men, Mr. Blake and Mr. Tash. They claim that they
            are being sent by the Ontario Government to take pictures.

Aug. 26th--We had a visit from Capt. Mack to-day. He came with our
            schooner "Fort Charles" from Charlton Island, and states
            that they had a hard and trying trip coming through the
            Straits. Mr. and Mrs. Mayer were also passengers. Mr. Mayer
            is our worthy Post Manager at Great Whale River and is on
            his way out to civilization on a few months' leave.

Aug. 27th--The seaplane "Caaz" brought us some newspapers from Cochrane,
            dated Aug. 25th, with the latest news.

Aug. 31st--We have at last managed to extinguish the bush fire which was
            started by the Rev. Mr. Haythornthwaite on the 25th inst.,
            after working day and night since it started. This will be
            quite a relief to the many families who are still camped
            across the river, as they were afraid to come back.

Sept. 2nd--Our steamer "Inenew" landed here to-day with our District
            Manager, Mr. Rackham, Mr. Romanet, the general inspector,
            Mr. Griffith, manager of Albany Post, who is acting as
            private secretary to the general inspector, Messrs. Blake
            and Tash, movie men, and the Rev. Mr. Walton were
            passengers. The seaplane "Caaz" also arrived from Remy Lake
            with Mr. Griffin, representing the Toronto _Star_, as
            passenger.

Sept. 21st--Mr. A. Nicolson and family arrived this evening from
            Rupert's House, after a hard and trying trip around the
            coast. Mr. Nicolson has been in the employ of the Hudson's
            Bay Company for forty years. It is with much regret that we
            see Mr. Nicolson severing his active services with the good
            old Company.

Sept. 23rd--Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Anderson and child landed here to-day
            after spending a few months' holiday in civilization. Mr.
            Anderson is on his way to his Post, which is Attawapiskat.

Oct. 1st--The steamer "Inenew" landed here to-day with the District
            Office staff and the balance of our outfit. This finishes
            our season's transport.

Oct. 7th--Capt. G. R. Redfearn, A. Guibeau, engineer, Inspector
            Phillips, Sgt. Joy, Mr. Johansen and Mr. Sainsbury left this
            morning for Clute.

Oct. 9th--Hauled out the S.S. "Inenew" to winter quarters and stored
            away the hauling gear.

Oct. 27th--Packet canoes returned from the line to-day and by them
            received the first issue of our magazine, _The Beaver_.

Oct. 29th--Mr. G. R. Ray, fur trade inspector, and Mr. J. B. Neil
            arrived here to-day at mid day.

Nov. 10th--The river is frozen over, and hardly any snow on the ground
            as yet. We are having fine weather.--J. L. Gaudet, Post
            Manager.



The Ghost is Foiled in Lac Seul's Haunted Room

By R. O. OTTEN


It was Christmas at Lac Seul Post, that historic place, well known to
men of the North. Quite a number of the Outpost managers had come in to
spend Christmas with the Post Manager and his family. The last to arrive
was Mr. R. He had travelled over 200 miles by dog team and cariole to
get there. After the hand-shaking was over, Mr. M., the Post Manager,
drew Mr. R. aside and asked if he believed in ghosts. Mr. R. laughed and
said he didn't believe in any kind of spirits, except the kind they used
to have at Christmas in the old days, but wanted to know what the joke
was. The Post Manager told him that he had only one room left vacant,
and nobody had slept in that room for years as it was supposed to be
haunted.

The story was that on two different occasions at the usual Christmas
gathering of the Outpost managers, there had been tragic endings to
several guests who had occupied that room. Both had died from having
their throats cut from ear to ear--and no one had slept there since. Mr.
R. said he didn't believe in such nonsense as ghosts, and wanted to be
shown to the room, as he wanted to get a shave and clean-up before
dinner. He said any kind of a room would look good to him after sleeping
in the snow for the past week.

The Post Manager showed him to the room which was situated at the rear
of the large dwelling house, away from the rest of the guests. Mr. R.
had just laid out his "glad rags" and was commencing to shave--he had
the razor in his hand--when a feeling came over him that _he was not
alone in the room_. Looking into the mirror, he was horrified to see
there the reflection of a horrible face peering over his shoulder. He
felt his wrist grasped by a claw-like hand. His hand was being forced
slowly up and up, towards his throat. Mr. R. tried to call out for help,
but he was powerless to utter a sound. The hand was still forcing the
razor towards his victim's throat, then it started to draw it across.
Mr. R. gave himself up for lost, when he felt the grip on his wrist
loosen and a baffled expression came over the horrible face. That ghost
was up against modern science. _Mr. R. was using a safety razor._



SASKATCHEWAN DISTRICT OFFICE NEWS


Congratulations would appear to be in order for Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong,
of Fort a la Corne Post, and their daughter Norah on the success
attained by the latter at the recent St. Alban's College (Prince Albert)
term examinations. The following is a quotation from the local paper:

     "Miss Norah Armstrong, the gold medalist of the year at St. Alban's
     college, Prince Albert, holds an enviable record in the college.
     Miss Armstrong has been a student at St. Alban's for the past four
     years, taking her grade 8 diploma in 1917. She was successful in
     passing her junior matriculation examination in June, and now holds
     the St. Alban's scholarship to the University of Saskatchewan. In
     addition to her marked progress in her studies, Miss Armstrong has
     found time to distinguish herself along athletic lines, having won
     the tennis cup in singles, and also with Miss Phyllis Clarke in the
     doubles."



"SKIPPERING A SCOW" ON THE ATHABASCA

(_Continued from last number_)

By N. A. Howland


[Illustration]

When the men in the scow realized their position they did not shout
frenziedly for help. To them the most important business of the moment
was to get a smoke.


_They Smoked While Facing Death_

The _frenzied_ people were all on shore. Under the calming influence of
tobacco, the wrecked crew surveyed the damage. The boat was intact
though leaking a little. It was impossible for them to extricate
themselves. Even if any of them could swim, an attempt to make the shore
would have proved fatal. They relied on us. Their hope was founded on a
rock as surely as their craft.


_Getting Ready for the Rescue_

It was not long ere some of the sixty odd men, at Mr. Cornwall's
direction, on the island had run to the warehouse to get rope.
Fortunately being on the scene, he took matters in hand, and as soon as
the necessary tackle had been brought, essayed to rescue the endangered
crew. The only way that this could be done was to get a line aboard the
scow and pull her off. The distance from shore was too great to permit
of a rope being thrown, but there was a rock standing well out of the
water about half way between, from which it might be possible to hurl a
stick; so Cornwall, taking a club in his hand to which was attached a
long cord held by the men on shore, started to work his way out to the
vantage point through the rock-studded stream, struggling from boulder
to boulder, the swirling water gripping and tearing at his legs in an
effort to sweep him away.


_Fighting the Torrent_

To the tense crowd of men watching it seemed impossible that he could
attain his object, but in spite of the great physical strain slowly and
surely the figure--now waist deep in the current, now pulling himself up
on to a rock, clinging always to the meagre support with a tenacity that
the raging torrent could not break--reached its goal.


_Getting A Line Aboard the Wreck_

A sense of relief came to those who watched, but not for long. He rested
for a moment to recover his breath; then coolly gathering the small rope
into a coil he made the first throw. A gasp went up from the crowd on
shore. The distance was too great; the stick hit the water fully twenty
feet short. Again and again the attempt failed. Sometimes the missile
fell so close that the rope could almost be reached but they had no
boat-hook aboard. The thrower could not stand up with good footing to do
his work, but from a precarious position threw with arms alone. He
rested, tired by his exertions. Suddenly he gathered all his strength
and at imminent hazard of hurling himself into the river sent the stick
with unerring aim over its mark.


_We Pulled the Scow Off the Rock_

A mighty cheer went up from all the watchers. It was but a moment's work
to haul in the cable and make it fast to the end of the scow; every
available man on shore found a place on the line, and pulled with might
and main to the cry of "Yo heave ho!" that she creaked in every seam and
her square end was drawn bow-shaped under the strain on that fragile
rope. Pull as we might, our efforts to dislodge her were unavailing.
Something had to give, however. It was the line which parted with a
snap, hurling us to the ground. A groan went up from those in danger,
for in a moment they fell from the highest hope to the lowest depth of
despair. They were in worse plight than before, but steadfastly the
business of renewing communication with the scow proceeded without
delay. Cornwall's efforts were again crowned with success. Little by
little our task was accomplished and we were gratified to see the men
who were in the water scramble aboard in great haste, as with a rousing
cheer we let go the cable.


_A Tenderfoot Spectator_

When we had first arrived at the head of the rapids the previous day, a
little man with a large outfit was found encamped on the river bank
unable to proceed any further, waiting for something or somebody to turn
up. Ten days had passed before help arrived. He had been brought hither
by a gasoline engine and canoe, his only companions so far as is known
being two spaniels. This gentleman styled himself a prospector
ostensibly bound for Fond-du-Lac to investigate the silver strike there;
but his proceedings and appearance belied the assertion, for if there
were a man who should not have left the shelter of the paternal wings,
it was he. The impression gained was that he was one of those helpless
useless atoms of humanity that are misfits anywhere, but in the North,
where one must be self-reliant, doubly out of place. He having arranged
with Mr. Cornwall for a "lift" from there to Fort McMurray, lay all day
on his bedding in the sand surrounded by his goods and chattels, playing
with his dogs, bestirring himself only to take a photograph occasionally
or get a bite to eat.


_Fondled His Spaniels and Looked On_

He was apparently oblivious to the tragedy being enacted within a
hundred yards of him. This man called down upon himself the contempt and
scorn of all men present by remaining inert, lazily fondling his
spaniels whilst men's lives trembled in the balance. His hand upon the
rope would not perhaps have helped much, but we should at least have
known that he was a man. The sequel to his apathy was that next day he
was deposited on the main land below the rapids and where it was
intimated to him that his company was no longer desirable.


_An All Night Mosquito Raid_

Whether fired by a spirit of recklessness by the events of the day, or
whether the writer was too tired to return to his camp on the mainland
with the men is of little consequence, but be it known that his
mosquito-bar was there. Needless to say, the mosquitoes were victorious.
We needed no alarm clock that morning because the enemy forced me out of
bed during the night to upbraid myself for a fool. Not a wink of sleep
for me as a result; however, we got an early breakfast out of it.


_The Tug "Crester" Wrecked_

My Russians were making good progress removing the rails, the freight
having been all portaged, and the scows run through the previous day
were being drawn up to the Island and reloaded. About 10 o'clock Captain
Barber started to run the tug "Crester" through the rapids without
steam, steering with auxiliary in case of accident. Disaster dogged the
footsteps of the railroad party apparently. Nothing had gone well so
far. The climax had arrived. Those who were watching the river gave a
shout. All eyes went to the rapid immediately; there was the "Crester"
shooting down through the roughest of the water well over on the land
side, out of control. We learned later that her rudder had been smashed.
We saw her take a few bad bumps from a distance of two hundred yards;
then with a final heave she seemed to be lifted bodily and dashed on the
rocks close inshore where she lay a wreck with her bottom stove in,
broadside to the current with the waves breaking over her.

[Illustration]


_The "Crester" Dismantled_

There were no casualties. With the aid of spars, the crew were easily
able to make the land. It was the middle of the afternoon before it was
possible for me to go over and see the tug. In the space of six hours
the captain, engineer and boatmen had her completely dismantled and all
her "innards" ashore, whilst preparations were being made to pull her
off and float her down the rest of the way into the Big Eddy, where she
could be patched up.

(_To be continued_)



Moose Island Afire

_Clergyman's Bonfire Grows Into Conflagration, Threatening H.B.C. Post
and Natives' Homes_

BY GEO. FINDLAY, Moose Factory


A Journal extract, dated August 25th, 1920, states briefly that:

     "The Rev. Mr. Haythornthwaite while burning old tree stumps at the
     back of the Mission allowed the fire to run on, thereby setting
     alight the adjoining bush."

That day, a Wednesday, was excessively hot, and, as the whole summer had
been very warm, all the bush and undergrowth must have been perfectly
dry. At 2 o'clock in the afternoon the cry of "Fire" went up, and from
the southwest end of the island a big column of smoke began to darken
the air, blowing in the direction of the Post.

For some minutes the natives stood gazing and then the realization that
the Island was afire broke upon them. Something akin to panic set in.
Canoes were loaded. Food, blankets and tents were thrown haphazardly
into them, and they were swiftly paddled to the opposite bank of the
river by the fear-stricken natives.

Imagine the scene: The river dotted with canoes, with their
multicoloured loads; the roar of the ever-increasing fire, as it was
fanned by a slight breeze, and the strange stillness that pervaded the
Post, which can be sensed only in a deserted place.

The servants returned as soon as their families were safely "entrenched"
on the other side of the river, and each with his axe hurried to the
scene of the outbreak.

In company with Mr. Gaudet, our Post Manager, I went to see the progress
made by the fire. Often we were compelled to change our route through
the bush on account of the terrific heat and the choking, blinding
smoke. In many places great patches of undergrowth were blazing quite a
distance from the body of the fire, sparks having been blown ahead by
the wind.

The roar of the fire was deafening as it caught fresh trees, shooting
great lurid tongues of flame up their entire thirty feet. Darker and
darker grew the air; the heat became fiercer; the fire advanced as if to
satisfy its terrible hunger by enveloping the entire Island in its
scorching clutch; and as we walked back to the deserted Post thoughts of
having to abandon it ran through our minds.

However the wind dropped, and the little band of fire fighters worked
hard to accomplish their task. Had the wind risen, the whole island
would have been devastated.

All that night, and the succeeding five days and nights, gangs of
natives (who had by this time got over their fright) and servants
watched the fire until it was successfully stamped out.

[Illustration: _Assembly of Indians who received H.B.C. Long Service
Medals at Fort Alexander_]

[Illustration: _Robust sons of Post manager W. A. Murray, at Fort
Alexander, Manitoba_]



WINNIPEG


RESOLVED

_Jan. 1, 1921_

that New Year's resolutions are not going out of fashion, as witnessed
by the following answers to the query, "What is One of your New Year's
Resolutions."

_J. H. Pearen_--To remain young that I may laugh with my children. To be
considerate at all times of the aged and infirm or those in need of
encouragement.

_W. Ogden_--To think more, talk less and to go through each day fully
realizing that the opportunities which come to me lie in the present and
not in the future.

_Thos. F. Reith_, Card-writer--That I try to emulate the well-known
Beaver and turn out heaps of

    B_right_
    E_ffective_
    A_rtistic_
    V_igorous_
    E_nterprising and_
    R_eadable_

show cards, tickets and signs during 1921, in which case I expect to
"BE-A-VER-"Y busy Card-writer.

_Geo. W. Ashbrook_--It is my opinion that a New Year's resolution, if
sincere, should be confined to the individual's eye alone and not open
to the gaze of the public.

_S. Kaufman_--One of my resolutions for 1921 is to endeavor to reduce my
weight twenty pounds by applying myself assiduously to the royal sport
of curling during the winter season and by strenuously playing tennis
during leisure hours in the summer time.

_Miss D. Bens_--To be true to my word, my work and my friends. To make
all I can, to save all I can and give all I can.

_J. W. Frankish_--We are aiming at 100% efficiency in selling our
merchandise. It should be sold on the same basis as we buy it. More
attention by sales staff in introducing all the new merchandise as it
enters the department. This is our intention in departments 3 and 5 for
1921.

_Chas. Healey_--Do it now! This is my New Year's resolution. It is so
easy to put things off when just a little "pep," a little extra energy
is needed. So much can be gained and greater satisfaction can be given
to all. Do it now!

_A. C. Dunbar_--I will increase my efficiency--(power to produce)--by
studying, plus analyzing, plus determination, plus application, equals
increased efficiency.

_J. Whalley_--That every business act of mine will be executed with the
full belief that it is for the best interest of the firm.

_Saml. Drennan_--To continue placing more confidence in the washboard
than in the Ouija board.

_I. N. Cognito_--Not to engage any more handsome looking salesgirls, as
those I now have are all engaged--and may get married.

_W. R. Ogston_--One of my resolutions for the New Year will be to govern
my actions, thought and speech towards my fellowmen by the well-known
principle of "The Golden Rule" and to do my work in such a way that at
the close of each day I may feel that I have accomplished something.


Winnipeg Moustache Club

_Semi-Annual Report_

Just prior to the closing of the outfit ending January 31st, 1920, a
careful inventory discloses the following state of affairs. The showing
is not entirely satisfactory, but it is felt that some progress is being
made.

_Moustaches on Hand_--None.

_Moustaches on Upper Lip_--Twenty divided among the following "heads of
stocks": Messrs. Frankish, Goody, Grant, Moore (tailoring), Lade,
Fuller, Hughes, Lackie, Weeden, Blowers, Leveque, Dickens, Harrison,
Hardiman, Keeley, Chambers, Duckneau, Breitner, Clark, Pugsley (?).

_New Member_--Mr. T. Nichols. (Greetings, brother).

_Under Suspicion_--Mr. C. M. Thomas, Mr. C. Robinson, Mr. Robt.
Cunningham.

_The Club's National Anthem_--"The Bonnie Bloomin' Heather."

_Legend for Club's New Escutcheon_--"The Weight of a Hair Will Turn the
Scales."--_Shakespeare._

_Remarks_--All members and supporters are urged to consult Mr. Saalfeld
re irregularities of growth observed from time to time. Renovation for
spring should be undertaken early. Special rates to members for loan of
Hoover electric sweepers. Use of garden rakes or weeders will result in
suspension from Club privileges. Special attention is called to the
alarming recurrence of the grasshopper plague prophesied for June and
July.

[Illustration: DO YOU REMEMBER this remarkable aggregation? This is the
formidable H.B.C. Football Team, Season 1911-12.

_From left to right_--Madill, Jones, Medland, Isaacs, Everitt, Paul,
Brodie, Dyde, Foulks, Sheldon, Campbell, Mr. A. H. Doc, Law, Smith,
Allan.]


Managers' Social Dramatic Affair

As merry a company as ever graced a festal board met at the store
buyers', managers' and assistants' social in the lunchroom, Thursday
evening, January sixth. The highly edible and diversified "wittles" were
disposed of with a display of "wim" and "wigor" which did justice to all
traditions. Entire arrangements for the occasion were undertaken by the
ladies, and the zest with which the entertainment proceeded brought down
the applause of the whole assembly.

Speech, anecdote, jest, song and a three-act drama, starring the
celebrated tragedian, Samuel Drennan, were features of an altogether
enjoyable and profitable evening.


Are We 100 Per Cent Efficient?

By R. J. HUGHES

I wonder how many of us could answer the question at the head of this
article truthfully without a considerable amount of self-study, and if
we did stop and analyze ourselves would we find that we could say, "Yes,
I am 100 per cent. efficient." Now, let us consider for a minute what
"efficient" really means.

Turning to your dictionary, you will find the definition, "capable of
producing the desired results." Are we really prepared to say "yes, I am
capable of producing the desired results." If you can't, you are not 100
per cent. efficient and must find the reason why. It does not matter
what position you hold or what the nature of your work is, if you are
efficient, advancement is bound to be waiting.

In a recent issue of _The Beaver_ was a copy of what was called "A
man-rating chart" and a statement that stores' staff promotions are
governed by efficiency. Study this chart and see how many points you can
honestly claim to have mastered. Whatever you do, don't go round like
some people saying, "I am 100 per cent. efficient." If you really are,
the management will soon notice it and promotion will come your way.
Next month I will tell you what an important part memory takes in
efficiency.


Y-O-U!

_What's the Matter With You, Anyway?_

By ELMER PUGSLEY

There are two ways, 'tis said, by which to get into "society"--either by
flattering or shocking it. But though the writer had the honeyed tongue
of the anteater, this is no time to coddle and soothe you with some
linseed-poultice sort of caressing lullaby. It's New Year's and I am
deliberately setting out to fire up your "dander." Of course, you may be
able to prove an alibi, but, otherwise, if these few plodding lines
succeed in making you really boiling, red-hot "mad"--(not just angry,
you understand)--that will be the best proof that you're still
conscious--and there's hope for you. We shudder when we read of "so and
so" being picked up unconscious, but I could pick up numbers of people
in that pitiable predicament any day--people who somehow got into the
business world, strange to say.

You stand at the outset of a New Year. Scientists think there have been
living beings on this old planet for 500,000 of those time-measures we
call years--but there is _only one_ you can be sure of--that's _this_
year. It's a wonder you didn't think of that without being told! Glance
back over the old year's glimmering trail now fading into whatever such
things fade into. It is strewed with regrets and wasted opportunities
that slipped through your careless fingers! Aren't you ashamed?

What's the matter with you anyway? Don't you care much? Aren't you
interested in the big proposition called "life", more than just enough
to watch the procession of progressive mortals passing? You'll never
keep up with them if you don't pad right along! Wouldn't you like to
strike out for a real goal, eh? You have the stuff in you if you'd just
shake yourself a little to rouse your rusting gifts. Don't turn over the
key to the bailiff just because you weren't born under a favorable sign
in the zodiac. Even if your teacup doesn't read right--pshaw! you
wouldn't let a thing like that spoil your future! Never mind if the
bumps on your head are in the wrong place; jump into the scuffle and
you'll receive any other bumps you need before you're through. A chap is
said to have advertised his brains for sale the other day--"good as
new--never been used." He never served in The Hudson's Bay, that fellow.
No, sir!

       *       *       *       *       *

The very air is surcharged with pleas to you to launch out and
distinguish yourself. Self advancement is the theme of the age. No one
can do as much for you as you can do for yourself. You're a regular
"powerhouse" of possibilities if you have enough gumption to utilize
them. You remember you turned down a smashing good chance to get ahead,
when, for the sake of a few paltry frivolities, you sacrificed that
special study course which you could have mastered in 1920. You know
better than that. You saunter along through life as if you had a
thousand years to put in here. Train the microscope on your freckled
career and set about to remedy things. Come now, get hold of yourself!
It's all beginning over again--New Year--new page--new everything!
Tackle something that's so much bigger than you that it scares you!
That's the way to grow accustomed to accomplishing big things. This is
_your_ year! How do you know that you're going to have another as good?
Make this your motto--pin it to your New Year's resolutions--"This is
_My_ Year!"--and in sooth it _will_ be your year!


Miss McCheyne's name was inadvertently omitted from the formerly
published list of names of those completing ten years' service.

Since the change in markets Miss Winslow, our postmistress-in-general,
is worried for fear someone is going to tear in one of these days and
ask what the new replacement price is on two cent postage stamps.

Someone turns in an unsigned report about the prevalence of "sparklers"
getting hard on the eyes around the bureau of adjustment.


First Snowshoe Tramp

By Land Staff

Eighteen members of the Land Department staff snowshoed out to the home
of Mr. B. Everitt, our genial associate editor, at East Kildonan,
Saturday evening, December 18th. The party gathered at Redwood bridge
and tramped north by way of Red River.

About half way it was found necessary to call a halt owing to the guide
being missing. His rejuvenated appearance upon eventually overtaking the
main party led to some doubt as to the generally accepted meaning of
"air holes," which were reported to be the cause of the delay.

While there was not sufficient snow to make real good tramping, what was
lacking in this respect was more than compensated for by the enjoyable
time provided by the host and hostess at the conclusion of the hike.
Here games and dancing were indulged in until midnight, when the party
was brought to an end with the singing of "Auld Lang Syne."--_F.H.N._


_An Error Rectified_

As some error in the names of the long service medalists had been made
at the opening of the Anniversary Celebration, our general manager's
office was the scene the other day of a pleasant little ceremony when
Mr. Chas. E. Robinson was made the recipient of his long service medal.
It was presented by Sir Augustus Nanton, chairman of the Canadian
Advisory Committee, Mr. FitzGerald and Mr. Sparling being also present.
"Charlie" has been with the Store since June 6, 1904, and is one of the
bulwarks.

Mr. James Thomson, former Commissioner of lands and furs, was warmly
welcomed home at Winnipeg, December 23rd, after an absence of several
months in the Orkney's and Scotland.



EDMONTON


LAND OFFICE

[Illustration: _Our photograph shows Mr. J. R. McIntosh, H.B.C. Land
Agent in charge of the Edmonton Land Office, with his secretary and Mr.
Henderson (standing). Mr. McIntosh and staff who are actively associated
with the Company's housing scheme, operate from these modern offices in
the McLeod Building._]


Retail Store Notes

Recent Changes Among Store's Department Heads

Changes never seem to come singly, for since the first appearance of
_The Beaver_ no less than five important executive appointments have
been made in the store; and another is scheduled for the very near
future.

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. Chasey, the new buyer for the men's clothing departments, and Miss
M. Doherty, the new buyer for the hosiery and gloves, are now firmly
established on their feet and are making noteworthy progress.

       *       *       *       *       *

We now welcome to our ranks three more recent arrivals:

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. Pallett is another Easterner who has heard the call of the West. Mr.
Pallett succeeds Mr. Jenkins as buyer of the trimmings and ribbons. He
was previously with the T. Eaton Company for several years. Mr. Pallett
is very favorably impressed with the City of Edmonton and predicts a
great future for the store.

Mr. Secord is the new buyer of the ladies' ready-to-wear, and successor
to Mr. Woodman. Mr. Secord was previously with the Robert Simpson Co.,
of Toronto, nine years buyer of the ladies' ready-to-wear and fur
department. Since coming to the store, Mr. Secord has won the esteem of
the entire staff and we predict a rosy future for the department under
his supervision.

Mr. J. McLeod has succeeded Mr. McKee as buyer of the cigar and candy
departments. Mr. McLeod was recently floor manager on the second floor
and was previously manager of the grocery department, Hudson's Bay
Company, Retail, Vernon, B.C.


Hail to Our New Assistant "Chief"

This new appointment was effective on December 13th, 1920. Besides
holding the position of assistant manager, Mr. McKenzie will also act in
the capacity of merchandise manager, thereby relieving Mr. F. F. Harker
of a big burden. Mr. Harker has for the past twelve months acted in the
dual capacity of manager of the store as well as merchandise manager.

Mr. G. M. McKenzie was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, serving his
apprenticeship in the dry goods and men's wear business. In 1901 he
came to Canada and joined the firm of Jaeger & Company, subsequently
holding the position of stores manager and supervisor of the factory in
Montreal. In 1916 Mr. McKenzie heard the call of his country and
proceeded to the front, serving with His Majesty's forces in France
until March, 1919.

Upon returning to Canada he accepted a position with the R. J. Tooke
Company as general manager of the retail stores in Montreal. His recent
appointment as assistant manager of the Edmonton store will fill a long
felt want.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: _Mr. P. A. Stone, president of the Amusement and Athletic
Association, which has grown to embrace a dozen varied athletic and
social activities since its inauguration in September, 1919._]

       *       *       *       *       *

Mrs. Lewis recently rejoined the staff after an absence of two years.
She is in charge of the lace and neckwear department. We are glad to
welcome her back.

Miss Law is also an old member of the staff who has recently come back
to the store. During her absence she was with the Company's store at
Calgary. She is resuming her duties here in the ribbon department.

Miss McAdam, who has been in the Company's service for the past seven
years, has left us for the coast. Miss McAdam was a very popular member
of the staff and we regret exceedingly to lose her.

Mr. Howey, of the men's furnishings department, is an expert hockey
player. We have no doubt he will be a valuable acquisition to the
store's team.

Mr. C. Stapells, house furnishings buyer, and Mr. Hewes are very busy
these days supervising the draperies and furnishings for the palatial
new Empire theatre.

We have heard that a certain young lady on the third floor has lost her
heart and is going to sign a life contract in the very near future.


The A. and A. A. Concert Reveals Real Artists

Another of those very enjoyable concerts which are staged periodically
through the winter months by the Amusement and Athletic Association, was
held in the "Hudsonia" dining room on Thursday evening, December 2nd, at
which about 150 members and their friends were present.

The association was again fortunate in hearing Mr. R. L. Bateman, who
rendered "She Is Far from the Land" and, in response to a hearty encore,
"For You Alone" was all that could be desired.

Miss Kate Hamilton sang "Bird Songs" in which her beautiful voice was
heard to very great advantage.

Mrs. Roy Carbert sang Tosti's "Good Bye," and as an encore, "Angus
MacDonald."

Mr. Bert Crockett sang "There's Life in the Old Dog Yet," which was very
much appreciated, he being vociferously encored.

All the other artists are members of the staff and their songs were all
rendered in admirable style.

One exceptionally pleasing number was the duet, "Tenor and Baritone,"
Mr. T. A. Crockett's tenor and Mr. Digney's baritone voices blending in
perfect harmony.

Miss Edna Southen and Miss K. Riddle were two excellent sopranos, whilst
Miss W. E. Crowther's sweet contralto voice has never been heard to
greater advantage.

Mr. T. A. Crockett and Mr. George Saunders have fine tenor voices,
whilst Mr. G. Robert's deep bass was used with effect in "Out on the
Deep."

Mr. C. Digney was splendid in "Captain Mack" and later his rendering of
"My Old Shako" was perfect.

Miss Moore acted as accompanist throughout and in addition gave a duet
in company, with her sister.

One cannot speak too highly of Miss Moore's assistance, as she is always
ready and willing to help in any way that will add to the enjoyment of
the staff, whether it be as accompanist or soloist.

Mr. P. A. Stone, president of the Amusement and Athletic Association,
acted as chairman.


Community Singing is Getting Results

Community singing for the staff, which was inaugurated at the Edmonton
store, November 1st, 1920, is reported to be an unqualified success.

The staff arrive at 8.45 a.m. and sing usually two songs before 8.55
a.m. bell sounds, when the covers are removed preparatory to the day's
business.

The initiative was taken by the Amusement and Athletic Association. The
fact that it is still retaining the original interest proves that the
all-important co-operation has been obtained; hence the success.

Whilst it is impossible yet to gauge the full extent of the benefits
derived from community singing, it may be said that the early morning
"grouch" is dissipated, and that alone makes it worth while, as it
leaves the staff in a happier frame of mind. This cannot but conduce to
the betterment of the service afforded to customers.

From community singing to a trained choir is but a step, since even the
untrained singer gradually falls into and holds the time and rhythm of
the piece being sung, so that from an untrained band of voices a
perfectly functioning choir is created.

This is the aim of the Edmonton Amusement and Athletic Association, and
with a continuance of the staff's co-operation that end will be
attained.


The Ad. Man's Destiny

     Mr. Jack Prest was going home one night in the street car. It was
     late, and the man sitting next to him began to talk. "What business
     are you in?" he asked. "The advertising business," replied Jack.
     "Is that so? Well, well, I used to be in the advertising business
     myself. I gave it up though and went into the rag-and-old-bottle
     business. I was a sandwich man for the Empire Theatre for six
     months." "Say," and he leaned over confidentially, "Ain't it hard
     when the wind blows?"



CALGARY


The Rank and File

By F. R. REEVE

The newspapers recently had much to say concerning the remarkable honors
paid in England and France to the bodies of two unknown soldiers who
fell on the battlefields.

It was a nation's whole-hearted recognition of the fact that Victory was
after all due to the efforts and self-sacrifice of the rank and file.

In the scheme of life each one of us has a definite sphere to fill. Lest
those who now constitute the rank and file in the service of the Company
should be inclined to regard their positions with something of
dissatisfaction, as being of no importance, I would have them take a
lesson from the honors paid to these two unknown soldiers.

Upon those who constitute the front rank, those who come in contact with
the public, the whole success of this great Company depends.

Behind you it is true, stretches a long line that reaches back from the
junior buyer, through to the Governor himself, but the work accomplished
by this wonderful organization does not reach its greatest success
except through your co-operation.

The transaction between a customer and salesperson is not just so much
money changing hands for a certain article. It represents the crowning
success of a long series of operations, that, through your hands as the
H.B.C. representative, reaches the goal for which it was intended, an
appreciative buying public.

Upon the conduct of the rank and file--upon the impressions that are
derived from your personality--is this Company judged.

The courtesy, helpfulness and efficiency that are displayed by you are
the greatest assets this Company has. To know and to realize that no
matter what your position in the service of the Company may be, that the
Company is absolutely depending on your efforts will be to create in you
a greater desire for helpfulness and efficiency which cannot fail to
mean greater success for yourself and Company too.



VANCOUVER


_Everybody Boost for Our 1921 Hockey Team_

It has been asked of the editor why there were not more attending the
hockey games last winter, and why the H.B.C. employees were very
backward in supporting their own team, being especially conspicuous by
their absence. We've a dandy team this year, folks, and the boys sure
would like some "rooters." Come along and bring your friends and the
horn off the old Ford. Help the team make a name for themselves in the
Commercial League. The following are the names of our players:

    _W. E. Almas (Capt.)_
    _E. Herbert_
    _P. Timmins_
    _Chub Anderson_
    _R. M. Mair_
    _J. Gilroy_
    _J.C. Hamm_
    _J. McDonald_
    _J. D. Barber_
    _C. Boe_

       *       *       *       *       *

We were very grieved to hear on December 10th of the death of Mr.
Patterson, husband of Mrs. W. Patterson, cashier in our children's shoe
department.

       *       *       *       *       *

We are also bereaved of one of our old employees, Mr. James Hallisy, who
passed away at his home on December 10th. The deceased was on our night
staff, and had been in the Company's employ since 1918.

       *       *       *       *       *

The army and Navy League Hall again witnessed a popular H.B.C. dance.
Approximately 350 attended and tripped the light fantastic to the
strains of Garden's orchestra. Mr. Skelly, chairman, and his competent
committee had charge of the affair, which was carried off without a
hitch to a very successful ending.


_Mr. Lockyer Elected President of Vancouver Exhibition Association_

Holding their first meeting since taking office, the directors of the
Vancouver Exhibition Association on Dec. 16th elected Mr. H. T. Lockyer,
manager of the Hudson's Bay Company, Vancouver retail store, as
president for the ensuing year.--_Vancouver Province._

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. W. W. Frazer, the popular buyer for china and glass, left for Europe
in the interests of his section, early this month. Many laudatory
remarks were overheard by Eastern and American tourists anent his last
collection of lovely china. Mr. Frazer apparently knows where to get
them. "Where do they get all these pretty patterns--there's not an ugly
one among them"--exclaimed a lady from Ottawa recently, and went on to
say she had never seen a better display in New York, Montreal or
Toronto. But that's Mr. Frazer's secret. We wish him bon voyage and the
best of luck this time.

       *       *       *       *       *

Miss A. K. Smith, too, buyer of notions, neckwear, laces, trimmings,
hankies and fancy jewellery, has been chosen for a trip abroad after the
airy fairy "nothings"--"the stuff that dreams are made of"--that are so
dear to feminine hearts. Her return from Europe ladened with spoils will
be looked forward to with interest by her constituency in Vancouver. You
may be sure Miss Smith will not overlook any of the cute or smart little
knick-knacks that are being shown in the marts over there, and we shall
all have an opportunity to be more than ever up-to-date on her return.
Vancouver is to be congratulated on having two buyers in whom the
Company has so much faith and confidence as to entrust with this
important foreign buying.


_The Tell-Tale Inventory_

A Vancouver bailiff went out to levy on the contents of a house. The
inventory began in the attic and ended in the cellar. When the
dining-room was reached the tally of furniture ran thus:

_One dining room table, oak._

_One set of chairs (6), oak._

_One sideboard, oak._

_Two bottles of whiskey, (full)!_

Then the word "full" was stricken over and replaced by "empty" and the
inventory went on in a hand that struggled and lurched across the page,
until it closed with:

"_One revolving door mat._"


_Mr. Greer Gets a Regular Shower of Good Things_

By E. Bell

Of the recent year end festivities enjoyed by Hudson's Bay employees
perhaps none had more of the _vivres_ and relish of the days of real
sport than the banquet tendered Mr. Greer by his staff in the display
department.

This event took place in the Barron Hotel to begin with and ended at a
box party to the opera to witness the "Dance Shop." The menu of the
dinner, which was enjoyed both wisely and well, gives some of the
unlucky individuals who were not invited an appetizer even to read:

    _Greer Soup_
    _Goose a la Greer_
    _Oyster Cocktail, Y.M.C.A._
    _Celery a la Celestial Citizen_
    _Brussels Sprouts a la Lulu Island_
    _Fried Sweet Potatoes, Brunette_
    _Hot Toasted Rolls, Blonde_
    _Combination Salad a la Display_
    _French Pastry Translated Cake, Devilled_
    _Creme de Chaufroid    Cafe d'Hots D'el_

(_N.B.--S.O.S. Calgary. M. Laparique, please note. Can you beat it?_)

Having done full justice to these delectable viands the innocent
occasion of so much mirth was next trotted to the opera, where his
friends had taken the precaution to present him with a lorgnette or
opera glass, we forget which. (Anyway it was not a monocle.)
Notwithstanding, to the everlasting credit of the display department,
they all turned up next morning on time and in the best of spirits.


_Old-Time Employees Visit the Store_

Among the guests of the Store last month were Mr. and Mrs. Alexander J.
Baird, both old-time employees of the Company, who devoted a number of
years of faithful service in the old store and two or three years in the
new store.

Mr. Baird was secretary to the general manager, Mr. Lockyer. In 1917, he
went to Honolulu for a new field to conquer. He was there but a little
while before he sent for his fiancee, Miss Beck, then the general
manager's stenographer. As soon as she arrived in Honolulu they were
married. Being accustomed to speculating and used to seeing money made
out of land, Mr. Baird (in face of much opposition) bought a piece of
land and built three cottages thereon--an investment which proved a good
one and a money maker.



KAMLOOPS


H.B.C. Kamloops Store Dates Back to 1812

_Location Has Changed Several Times to Keep Pace With Growth of City_

By A.E. DODMAN

The Company's store at Kamloops dates back to the year 1812 and it is
therefore one of the oldest establishments at present existing in the
stores department.

The original location was some distance from the present store site, as,
like all Western towns, the business centre has changed several times,
and the Company found it necessary to change from time to time in order
to keep pace with the natural growth of the city.

The present premises were purchased and remodelled by the Company in
1911, and have a frontage of 75 feet on Victoria Street, extending 125
feet on Second Avenue with two entrances on Victoria and one on Second
Avenue.

The building consists of two stories and basement. In addition the
Company also operates a wholesale and retail tobacco and candy business
on rented premises situated at the corner of Victoria Street and Third
Avenue.

The business at Kamloops comprises eight departments--general dry goods,
ladies' wear, men's furnishings, boots and shoes, crockery and hardware,
house furnishing, groceries and tobaccos.

Miss Brooke, of the grocery staff, resigned her position with the
Company and was married on January 1st, 1921. She was presented with a
travelling bag by the staff. We wish her all kinds of joy and happiness
in her new venture. She was a real "good fellow" and will be greatly
missed by us.

Miss Muir has accepted the position made vacant by Miss Brooke of the
Grocery Department. We wish Miss Muir every success.

Miss Cozens says she was never "locked out" in her life, but she
experienced the feeling of being "locked in." She says "never again."

The Staff presented Mr. A.E. Dodman, our store manager, and Mrs. Dodman
with a Christmas gift of a very handsome tea set with best wishes.

       *       *       *       *       *

A rumour is heard to the effect that Mr. McDonald, the accountant, has
become an expert dancer, and has accepted an invitation to teach three
ladies the fine points in dancing. Nice for Mac, but kind of tough on
the ladies.

       *       *       *       *       *

After a very busy and most successful Christmas trade the staff have
settled down for the most successful January sale we have ever had.



VERNON


_Entire Staff a Santa Claus to Mr. Pout, Xmas_

On Christmas Eve, at the close of the biggest day in the history of the
Vernon Store, the staff gathered for a few minutes to extend good wishes
and exchange tokens of friendship. At the conclusion, Mr. Pout was
captured when trying to tip-toe off, set securely within the smiling
circle, and compelled to listen to the following effusion which Tom
Bone, the store poet, says he did not compose. It is now being blamed on
Jack Ricketts, and so far Jack hasn't denied it.

    _Our dear respected Mister Pout
    We guess you guess what we're about;
    If not, you won't be long in doubt,
    But get the sense,
    So we shall quickly put to rout
    Your dread suspense._

    _It's Christmas time, as you well know,
    And we have gathered here to show
    That years may come and years may go,
    With rush and zest,
    But our good feelings far outgrow
    This timely test?_

    _It gives us joy to give to you
    This coffee service, bright and new,
    And wish that all things good and true
    That hope conjures,
    May travel all the next year through
    With you and yours._

Mr. Pout was too full for words (_honi soit qui mal y pense_), but he
managed to express his hearty thanks for the splendid support and
co-operation he had received from the entire staff during the Christmas
rush, also for the kind thought which prompted the giving of such a
beautiful gift.

The coffee pot was one of those long narrow "prohibition" coffee pots
that you are unable to tell what is inside of until you taste the
contents.

Tom Harrison struck up "He's a Jolly Good Fellow." "Arry" thought it was
"Auld Lang Syne" and started off on his own, while James Henderson, in
an endeavour to put them both right, commenced "Will You No Come Back
Again."

When the company broke up, those three were still at it, and nobody
could tell which was winning.--_R.W._

       *       *       *       *       *

Miss Cridland, treasurer of our Sisters' Sewing Circle, has been absent
from the meeting several week. We were surprised to see her at the last
meeting. She says her absence has been due to the fact that she had to
attend "prayer meetings." We have since learned that a certain young
man's "tin Lizzie" is being overhauled. May it take all winter--so
Gladys will be at every meeting.

       *       *       *       *       *

Miss Phillys Ripley, the girl with the sparkling eyes, assisted for
several weeks in the hardware department but is back once again at her
old stand tying bows for the kiddies. Her eyes still sparkle and there
are many beaus waiting for her to cast her spell on one of them so that
two may be tied into one bow.

"Wonderful how popular some men are," said Watson, when he heard what
happened Christmas Eve. The girls in the dry goods department placed
mistletoe on the light over Mr. Andrews' desk--and not one missed him,
even Mabel had hers. Nuff sed.

Mr. Tom Bone, assistant manager of the grocery department, the staff
poet, has changed his vocation and now spends his evenings making
musical instruments. We wonder if it will be jazz or operatic music.

We are glad to learn that Mrs. Griffin, wife of C. Griffin of the men's
department, is home once again after being confined to the Hospital
several weeks with typhoid fever. We all wish her a speedy recovery.


Vernon, Gem of the Okanagan

--_and the H.B.C. Store, One of Its Institutions_

Thirty years ago, there were only two stores in Vernon, The Hudson's Bay
Company and W.F. Cameron, both firms carrying a general line of
merchandise. The only other stores in the Okanagan Valley, at this
period, were one at Enderby, Landsdowne, Okanagan Mission and Penticton,
so that these stores supplied the necessities of life practically to the
whole of the Okanagan Valley, reaching from Sicamous to fifty miles
beyond Penticton and from Grand Prairie to the White Valley district.
The towns of Armstrong and Kelowna, at this period, were not in
existence.

Travelling in the early days was by stage and boat in Summer, the boat
running from Sicamous to Enderby, thence by stage to Vernon, and the
only method of travelling in Winter was by stage or pack horse. Mail,
also, was received by these means of transportation.

The great bulk of trading, at that time, was done with Victoria, which
was a greater commercial centre than Vancouver. All merchandise from the
Coast was carried by freight trains to Sicamous, transferred there to a
small steamer as far as Enderby and thence by wagon to Vernon.

Business conditions and the manner of trading in the early days were
entirely different to the present day method. There were no banks in the
Valley, all banking being done through Vancouver, cheques often passing
around as currency and would have as many as a dozen endorsations before
reaching the bank.

Yearly credit was the system of trading. Farmers, ranchers, trappers and
Indians paid their accounts once a year after they had received money
for their crops and catch of furs; the amusing feature in regard to the
credit in these days being that the average customer would ask of his
account, simply looking at the total and settling up without checking
up. Considerable business was done in the bulk, tea sold by the chest,
flour and sugar by the ton, and other commodities in similar large
quantities.

Thirty years ago the Valley was passing through a stage of transition
from stock-raising to wheat producing.

R. P. Rithet & Co. of Victoria controlled a large flour mill at Enderby,
where all the wheat of the district was taken and milled. Wheat then
sold as low as $18.00 per ton at the mill, the farmer doing his own
hauling. A few years later $28.00 per ton was considered a wonderful
price.

During the period under review, very little fruit was grown and it was
not until 1892 that the growing of fruit was given any serious thought.
At that time, Lord Aberdeen purchased the land now known as the
Coldstream Ranch and started fruit growing on a fairly large scale, the
land being purchased from Forbes G. Vernon. After him the City of Vernon
was named. He was, at that time, member for the Okanagan Valley, also
Minister of Labor and Works.

At this period the population of Vernon was about 300 and, generally
speaking, were considered prosperous.

A Mr. Gray of Nicola was the largest cattle buyer and a general round-up
of cattle was made twice a year, when he would make his purchase from
the ranchers and drive the cattle out to the coast or prairie markets.

(_To be continued_)



[Illustration: BEAVER CHIPS]


_The Secret of Success_

In the fall a Methodist minister came into the Edmonton exhibition
offices and inquired where he could purchase a good, reliable horse. He
was directed to R. B. Hill's stables, where, after a judicious amount of
deliberation, he decided on a horse which suited his fancy and pocket,
and took him home. Two days afterwards he came back to Mr. Hill and
stated that the horse was blind, and within the rules as prescribed by
the Methodist church he told Mr. Hill just what he thought of the deal,
and asked him why he had not been informed that the horse was blind,
before purchasing him. Mr. Hill very modestly replied that he had not
thought he should tell him, as the man from whom he got the horse in the
first place had said nothing about this defect, and he thought it was a
secret!!


_No Wonder_

Editor--"We are sorry to lose your subscription, Mr. Jackson. What's the
matter? Don't you like our politics?"

Mistah Jackson--"T'aint dat, sah; t'aint dat. Mah wife jes' been an'
landed a job o' work for me by advertisin' in youh darned ole papah."


_Didn't Need To_

A young Irishman recently applied for a job as life-saver at the
municipal baths.

As he was about six feet six inches high and well built, the chief
life-saver gave him an application blank to fill out.

"By the way," said the chief life-saver, "can you swim?"

"No," replied the applicant; "but I can wade like blazes!"


_He Got the Job_

Police Commissioner--"If you were ordered to disperse a mob what would
you do?"

Applicant--"Pass around the hat."

P.C.--"You'll do."


_Two Strings to Her Beau_

He--"If you could only have two wishes come true, what would you wish
for?"

She (frankly)--"Well, I'd wish for a husband."

He--"That's the only one."

She--"I'd save the other wish until I saw how he turned out."


_Well! Well!_

"I say, who was here with you last night?"

"Only Myrtle, father."

"Well, tell Myrtle that she left her pipe on piano."


_Fifty-Fifty_

A man from Toronto reported that an African resident of that city did a
rattling business in rabbit sausages, until some of his customers began
to question the quality of the goods. A committee waited on the
merchant, and asked him if any meat other than that of rabbits went into
the sausages. He reluctantly admitted that there was another meat in
them, and when pressed further said that the dilution was by means of
horse meat. The chairman of the committee then asked him the proportion
of the two ingredients, and he said fifty-fifty. The committee started
to withdraw when a heretofore silent member raised the question as to
what the merchant meant by "fifty-fifty." "Why, boss, by fifty-fifty ah
means one rabbit and one hawss."


_All Engaged_

An Irishman who had lately come over was sent to call a taxi. In about
half an hour he returned and reported as follows: "Some wan be the name
of Hire has the most of thim ingaged, and the only wans he didn't have
some wan else had."


_Slim, Slimmer, Slimmest_

Last week we read of a firm--manufacturers of petticoats--which went
into bankruptcy. They stated in explanation that women, in the shrinking
process of appearing taper, had ceased wearing 'em.

To-day we notice the advertisement of a ladies' tailor: "Suits made to
order, with or without material."

Without material? Gad Zooks!

We cut out that ad and burned it lest our wife should find it.


_Some Ditty_

      There was a young man from the city,
      Who met what he thought was a kitty;
        He gave it a pat
        And said, "Nice little cat!"
    And they buried his clothes out of pity.


_Vaccination Problem_

Classical Dancer--"Doctor, I want to be vaccinated somewhere where it
won't show."

Doctor--"Well, miss, I'm afraid I will have to vaccinate internally."


_The Safety Vent_

"A friend of mine fell asleep in the bathtub with the water running."

"Did the tub overflow?"

"Nope; luckily he sleeps with his mouth open."


[Illustration: The smoking tobacco of yesterday, to-day and tomorrow]

H.B.C.
IMPERIAL MIXTURE
"_Canada's National Smoke_"

_The Tin with the Humidor Top_

[Illustration: --_Obtainable in 1/10, 1/5, 1/2 and 1 lb. tins at good
dealers everywhere_]

       *       *       *       *       *

     Transcriber's Notes:

     Obvious unintentional spelling (Canadian English) & punctuation
     errors repaired.





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