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Title: The Vision and Creed of Piers Ploughman, Volume II of II
Author: Langland, William
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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       *       *       *       *       *

Library of Old Authors.






  Corresponding Member of the Imperial Institute of France,
  Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.


  VOL. II.



       *       *       *       *       *


          _Passus Decimus Quartus, etc._

  "Ihave but oon hool hater," quod Haukyn;                8900
  "I am the lasse to blame,
  Though it be soiled and selde clene:
  I slepe therinne o nyghtes.
  And also I have an houswif,
  Hewen and children,--
  _Uxorem duxi, et ideo non possum venire._--
  That wollen by-molen it many tyme,
  Maugree my chekes.
  It hath be laved in Lente
  And out of Lente bothe,                                 8910
  With the sope of siknesse,
  That seketh wonder depe,
  And with the losse of catel,
  Looth for to a-gulte
  God of any good man,
  By aught that I wiste;
  And was shryven of the preest
  That gaf me for my synnes
  To penaunce pacience
  And povere men to fede,                                 8920
  Al for coveitise of my cristendom
  In clennesse to kepen it.
  And kouthe I nevere, by Crist!
  Kepen it clene an houre,
  That I ne soiled it with sighte
  Or som ydel speche,
  Or thorugh werk, or thorugh word,
  Or wille of myn herte,
  That I ne flobre it foule
  Fro morwe til even."                                    8930

    "And I shal kenne thee," quod Conscience,
  "Of contricion to make
  That shal clawe thi cote
  Of alle kynnes filthe.
  _Cordis contritio, etc._
  Do-wel shal wasshen and wryngen it
  Thorugh a wis confessour.
  _Oris confessio, etc._
  Do-bet shal beten it and bouken it
  As bright as any scarlet,                               8940
  And engreyven it with good wille
  And Goddes grace to amende the,
  And sithen sende thee to satisfaccion
  For to sowen it after.
  _Satisfactio Do-best._

    "Shal nevere cheeste by-molen it,
  Ne mothe after biten it,
  Ne fend ne fals man
  Defoulen it in thi lyve.
  Shal noon heraud ne harpour                             8950
  Have a fairer garnement
  Than Haukyn the actif man,
  And thow do by my techyng;
  Ne no mynstrall be moore worth
  Amonges povere and riche,
  Than Haukyns wif the wafrer,
  With his _activa vita_."

    "And I shal purveie thee paast," quod Pacience,
  "Though no plough erye,
  And flour to fede folk with                             8960
  As best be for the soule,
  Though nevere greyn growed,
  Ne grape upon vyne.
  To alle that lyveth and loketh
  Liflode wolde I fynde,
  And that y-nogh shal noon faille
  Of thyng that hem nedeth,
  We sholde noght be to bisy
  Abouten oure liflode,"
  _Ne solliciti sitis, etc. Volucres coeli                8970
      Deus pascit, etc. Patientes

    Thanne laughed Haukyn a litel,
  And lightly gan swerye,
  "Who so leveth yow, by oure Lord!
  I leve noght he be blessed."

    "No," quod Pacience paciently;
  And out of his poke hente
  Vitailles of grete vertues
  For alle manere beestes,                                8980
  And seide, "Lo here liflode y-nogh!
  If oure bileve be trewe.
  For lent nevere was lif,
  But liflode were shapen,
  Wher-of or wher-fore
  Or wher-by to libbe.

    "First the wilde worm
  Under weet erthe,
  Fissh to lyve in the flood,
  And in the fir the criket,                              8990
  The corlew by kynde of the eyr
  Moost clennest flessh of briddes,
  And bestes by gras and by greyn
  And by grene rootes,
  In menynge that alle men
  Myghte the same
  Lyve thorugh leel bileve
  And love, as God witnesseth."
  _Quodcunque petieritis a patre in
      nomine meo, etc. Et alibi:                          9000
      Non in solo pane vivit homo,
      sed in omni verbo quod procedit
      de ore Dei._

    But I lokede what liflode it was
  That Pacience so preisede;
  And thanne was it a pece of the pater-noster,
  _Fiat voluntas tua._

    "Have, Haukyn," quod Pacience,
  "And et this whan the hungreth,
  Or whan thow clomsest for cold,                         9010
  Or clyngest for drye;
  Shul nevere gyves thee greve,
  Ne gret lordes wrathe,
  Prison ne peyne;
  For _patientes vincunt_.
  By so that thow be sobre
  Of sighte and of tonge,
  In etynge and in handlynge,
  And in alle thi fyve wittes,
  Darstow nevere care for corn,                           9020
  Ne lynnen cloth ne wollen,
  Ne for drynke, ne deeth drede,
  But deye as God liketh,
  Or thorugh hunger or thorugh hete,
  At his wille be it.
  For if thow lyve after his loore,
  The shorter lif the bettre.
  _Si quis amat Christum,
      Mundum non diliget istum._

    "For thorugh his breeth beestes woxen                 9030
  And a-brood yeden.
  _Dixit et facta sunt, etc._
  _Ergo_ thorugh his breeth mowen
  Men and beestes lyven,
  As holy writ witnesseth,
  Whan men seye hir graces.
  _Aperis tu manum tuam, et imples
      omne animal benedictione._

    "It is founden that fourty wynter
  Folk lyvede withouten tulying;                          9040
  And out of the flynt sprong the flood
  That folk and beestes dronken;
  And in Elyes tyme
  Hevene was y-closed,
  That no reyn ne roon;
  Thus rede men in bokes                                  9046
  That many wyntres men lyveden,
  And no mete ne tulieden.

    "Sevene slepe, as seith the book,
  Sevene hundred wynter,
  And lyveden withouten liflode,
  And at the laste thei woken.
  And if men lyvede as mesure wolde,
  Sholde nevere moore be defaute
  Amonges cristene creatures,
  If Cristes wordes ben trewe.

  "Ac unkyndenesse _caristiam_ maketh                     9056
  Amonges cristen peple;
  And over plentee maketh pryde
  Amonges poore and riche.
  Therfore mesure is muche worth,                         9060
  It may noght be to deere;
  For the meschief and the meschaunce
  Amonges men of Sodome,
  Weex thorugh plentee of payn,
  And of pure sleuthe.
  _Otiositas et abundantia panis peccatum
      turpissimum nutrivit._
  For thei mesured noght hemself
  Of that thei ete and dronke,
  Thei diden dedly synne                                  9070
  That the devel liked,
  So vengeaunce fil upon hem
  For hir vile synnes;
  Thei sonken into helle,
  The citees echone.

    "For-thi mesure we us wel,
  And make oure feith oure sheltrom;
  And thorugh feith cometh contricion,
  Conscience woot wel,
  Which dryveth awey dedly synne,                         9080
  And dooth it to be venial.
  And though a man myghte noght speke,
  Contricion myghte hym save,
  And brynge his soule to blisse;
  For so that feith bere witnesse,
  That whiles he lyvede, he bilevede
  In the loore of the holy chirche.
  _Ergo_ contricion, feith, and conscience
  Is kyndeliche Do-wel,
  And surgiens for dedly synnes                           9090
  Whan shrift of mouthe failleth.
  Ac shrift of mouth moore worthi is,
  If man be y-liche contrit;
  For shrift of mouthe sleeth synne,
  Be it never so dedly.
  _Per confessionem_ to a preest
  _Peccata occiduntur._

    "Ther contricion dooth but dryveth it down
  Into a venial synne,
  As David seith in the Sauter,                           9100
  _Et quorum tecta sunt peccata_;
  Ac satisfaccion seketh out the roote,
  And bothe sleeth and voideth,
  An as it nevere hadde y-be
  To noghte bryngeth dedly synne,
  That it nevere eft is sene ne soor,
  But semeth a wounde y-heeled."

    "Where wonyeth Charité?" quod Haukyn,
  "I wiste nevere in my lyve
  Man that with hym spak,                                 9110
  As wide as I have passed."

    "Ther parfit truthe and poore herte is,
  And pacience of tonge,
  Ther is Charité the chief chaumbrere
  For God hymselve."

    "Wheither paciente poverte," quod Haukyn,
  "Be moore plesaunt to our Drighte
  Than richesse rightfulliche wonne,
  And resonably despended?"

    "Ye, _quis est ille_?" quod Pacience;                 9120
  "Quik _laudabimus eum_.
  Though men rede of richesse
  Right to the worldes ende,
  I wiste nevere renk that riche was,
  That whan he rekene sholde,
  Whan he drogh to his deeth day,
  That he ne dredde hym soore,
  And that at the rekenyng in arrerage fel
  Rather than out of dette.
  Ther the poore dar plede,                               9130
  And preve by pure reson,
  To have allowance of his lord,
  By the lawe he it cleymeth;
  Joye, that nevere joye hadde,
  Of rightful jugge he asketh,
  And seith 'Lo! briddes and beestes
  That no blisse ne knoweth,
  And wilde wormes in wodes,
  Thorugh wyntres thow hem grevest;
  And makest hem wel neigh meke,                          9140
  And mylde for defaute;
  And after thow sendest hem somer,
  That is hir sovereyn joye,
  And blisse to alle that ben,
  Bothe wilde and tame.'

    "Thanne may beggeris as beestes
  After boote waiten,
  That al hir lif han lyved
  In langour and in defaute,
  But God sente hem som tyme                              9150
  Som manere joye
  Outher here or ellis where,
  Kynde wolde it nevere;
  For to wrotherhele was he wroght
  That nevere was joye shapen.
  Aungeles that in helle now ben
  Hadden joye som tyme;
  And Dives in the deyntees lyvede,
  And in _douce vie_.
  Right so reson sheweth                                  9160
  That the men that were riche,
  And hir makes also,
  Lyvede hir lif in murthe.

    "Ac God is of wonder wille,
  By that kynde wit sheweth,
  To gyve many man his mede
  Er he it have deserved.
  Right so fareth God by some riche,
  Ruthe me it thynketh;
  For thei han hir hire heer,                             9170
  And hevene, as it were,
  And greet likynge to lyve
  Withouten labour of bodye:
  And whan he dyeth, ben disalowed,
  As David seith in the Sauter:
  _Dormierunt, et nihil invenerunt._
  And in another stede also:
  _Velut somnium surgentium, Domine,
      in civitate tua, et ad nihilum
      rediges, etc._                                      9180

    "Allas! that richesse shal reve
  And robbe mannes soule
  From the love of oure Lord,
  At his laste ende.

    "Hewen, that han hir hire afore,
  Arn evere moore nedy;
  And selden deyeth he out of dette,
  That dyneth er he deserve it,
  And til he have doon his devoir
  And his dayes journée.                                  9190
  For whan a werkman hath wroght,
  Than many men se the sothe
  What he were worthi for his werk,
  And what he hath deserved;
  And noght to fonge bifore,
  For drede of disalowyng.

    "So I seye by yow riche,
  It semeth noght that ye shulle
  Have hevene in youre here dwellyng,
  And hevene also therafter;                              9200
  Right so as a servaunt taketh his salarie bifore,
  And siththe wolde clayme moore,
  As he that noon hadde,
  And hath hire at the laste.
  It may noght be, ye riche men,
  Or Mathew on God lyeth:
  _Væ! deliciis ad delicias difficile est

    "Ac if ye riche have ruthe,
  And rewarde wel the poore,                              9210
  And lyven as lawe techeth,
  And doon leauté to hem alle,
  Crist of his curteisie
  Shal conforte yow at the laste,
  And rewarden alle double richesse
  That rewful hertes habbeth.
  And as an hyne that hadde
  His hire er he bigonne,
  And whan he hath doon his devoir wel
  Men dooth hym oother bountee,                           9220
  Gyveth hym a cote above his covenaunt,
  Right so Crist gyveth hevene
  Bothe to riche and to noght riche
  That rewfulliche libbeth;
  And alle that doon hir devoir wel
  Han double hire for hir travaille,
  Here forgifnesse of hir synnes,
  And hevene blisse after.

    "Ac it is but selde y-seien,
  As by holy seintes bokes,                               9230
  That God rewarded double reste
  To any riche wye.
  For muche murthe is amonges riche,
  As in mete and clothyng;
  And muche murthe in May is
  Amonges wilde beestes,
  And so forth while somer lasteth
  Hir solace dureth.

    "Ac beggeris aboute Midsomer
  Bred-lees thei slepe.
  And yet is wynter for hem worse,
  For weet shoed thei gone,
  A-furst soore and a-fyngred,
  And foule y-rebuked,                                    9244
  And a-rated of riche men
  That ruthe is to here.
  Now, Lord, sende hem somer,
  And som maner joye,
  Hevene after hir hennes goyng,
  That here han swich defaute,
  For alle myghtestow have maad
  Noon mener than oother,
  And y-liche witty and wise,
  If thee wel hadde liked.
  But, Lord, have ruthe on thise riche men,               9254
  That rewarde noght thi prisoners.
  Of the good that thow hem gyvest
  _Ingrati_ ben manye;
  Ac, God, of thi goodnesse
  Gyve hem grace to amende.
  For may no derthe be hem deere,                         9260
  Droghte ne weet hem greve,
  Ne neither hete ne hayll;
  Have thei hir heele,
  Of that thei wilne and wolde
  Wanteth hem noght here.

    "Ac poore peple thi prisoners,
  Lord, in the put of meschief,
  Conforte tho creatures,
  That muche care suffren
  Thorugh derthe, thorugh droghte,                        9270
  Alle hir dayes here,
  Wo in wynter tymes
  For wantynge of clothes,
  And in somer tyme selde
  Soupen to the fulle.
  Conforte thi carefulle,
  Crist, in thi richesse;
  For how thow confortest alle creatures,
  Clerkes bereth witnesse:
  _Convertimini ad me, et salvi eritis_.                  9280

    "Thus _in genere_ of gentries
  Jhesu Crist seide,
  To robberis and to reveris,
  To riche and to poore,
  Thou taughtest hem in the Trinité
  To taken bapteme,
  And to be clene through that cristnyng
  Of alle kynnes synne;
  And if us fille thorugh folie
  To falle in synne after,                                9290
  Confession and knowlichynge
  In cravynge thi mercy,
  Shulde amenden us as manye sithes
  As man wolde desire.
  And if the pope wolde plede ayein,
  And punysshe us in conscience,
  He sholde take the acquitaunce as quyk,
  And to the queed shewen it.
  _Pateat, etc. per passionem Domini._
  And putten of so the pouke,                             9300
  And preven us under borwe.
  Ac the parchemyn of this patente
  Of poverte be moste,
  And of pure pacience,
  And parfit bileve.

    "Of pompe and of pride
  The parchemym decourreth,
  And principalliche of al the peple,
  But thei be poore of herte;
  Ellis is al on ydel,                                    9310
  Al that evere writen
  Pater-nostres and penaunce,
  And pilgrymages to Rome;
  But oure spences and spendynge
  Sprynge of a trewe wille,
  Ellis is al our labour lost,
  Lo! how men writeth
  In fenestres at the freres,
  If fals be the foundement.
  For-thi cristene sholde be in commune riche,            9320
  Noon coveitous for hymselve.

    "For sevene synnes ther ben,
  That assaillen us evere;
  The fend folweth hem alle,
  And fondeth hem to helpe.
  Ac with richesse that ribaud
  He rathest men bigileth.
  For ther that richesse regneth,
  Reverence folweth;
  And that is plesaunt to pride,                          9330
  In poore and in riche.
  And the riche is reverenced
  By reson of his richesse,
  Ther the poore is put bihynde,
  And peraventure kan moore
  Of wit and of wisdom,
  That fer awey is bettre
  Than richesse or reautee,
  And rather y-herd in hevene.
  For the riche hath muche to rekene;                     9340
  And many tyme hym that walketh
  The heighe wey to hevene-ward,
  Richesse hym letteth,--
  _Ita inpossibile diviti, etc._--
  Ther the poore preesseth bifore the riche,
  With a pak at his rugge,--
  _Opera enim illorum sequuntur illos_.--
  Batauntliche, as beggeris doon,
  And boldeliche he craveth,
  For his poverte and his pacience,                       9350
  A perpetuel blisse.
  _Beati pauperes, quoniam ipsorum
      est regnum cælorum._

    "And pride in richesse regneth
  Rather than in poverte;
  Arst in the master than in the man
  Som mansion he haveth.
  Ac in poverte, ther pacience is,
  Pride hath no myghte,
  Ne none of the sevene synnes                            9360
  Sitten ne mowe ther longe,
  Ne have power in poverte,
  If pacience folwe.
  For the poore is ay prest
  To plese the riche,
  And buxom at hise biddynges,
  For his broke loves;
  And boxomnesse and boost
  Arn evere moore at werre,
  And either hateth oother                                9370
  In alle maner werkes.

    "If wrathe wrastle with the poore,
  He hath the worse ende;
  And if thei bothe pleyne,
  The poore is but feble;
  And if he chide or chatre,
  Hym cheveth the worse.

    "And if coveitise cacche the poore,
  Thei may noght come togideres;
  And by the nekke namely                                 9380
  Hir noon may hente oother.
  For men knowen wel that coveitise
  Is of kene wille,
  And hath hondes and armes
  Of ful greet lengthe;
  And poverte nys but a petit thyng,
  Apereth noght to his navele;
  And lovely layk was it nevere
  Bitwene the longe and the shorte.

    "And though avarice wolde angre the poore,            9390
  He hath but litel myghte;
  For poverte hath but pokes
  To putten in hise goodes,
  Ther avarice hath almaries,
  And yren bounden cofres.
  And wheither be lighter to breke,
  And lasse boost maketh,
  A beggeris bagge
  Than an yren bounde cofre?

    "Lecherie loveth hym noght,                           9400
  For he gyveth but litel silver,
  Ne dooth hym noght dyne delicatly,
  Ne drynke wyn ofte.
  A straw for the stuwes!
  Thei stoode noght, I trowe,
  Hadde thei no thyng but of poore men,
  Hir houses stoode untyled.

    "And though sleuthe suwe poverte,
  And serve noght God to paie,
  Meschief is his maister,                                9410
  And maketh hym to thynke
  That God is his grettest help,
  And no gome ellis;
  And he is servaunt, as he seith,
  And of his sute bothe;
  And wheither he be or be noght,
  He bereth the signe of poverte,
  And in that secte oure Saveour
  Saved al mankynde.
  For-thi every poore that pacient is,                    9420
  May cleymen and asken
  After hir endynge here
  Hevene riche blisse,

    "Muche hardier may he asken,
  That here myghte have his wille
  In lond and in lordshipe,
  And likynge of bodie,
  And for Goddes love leveth al,
  Any lyveth as a beggere;
  And as a mayde for mannes love                          9430
  Hire moder forsaketh,
  Hir fader and alle hire frendes,
  And folweth hir make.
  Muche moore is to love
  Of hym that swich oon taketh,
  Than is that maiden
  That is maried thorugh brocage,
  As by assent of sondry parties,
  And silver to boote,
  Moore for coveitise of good                             9440
  Than kynde love of bothe.
  So it fareth by ech a persone
  That possession forsaketh,
  And put hym to be pacient.
  And poverte weddeth,
  The which is sib to God hymself,
  And so to hise seintes."

    "Have God my trouthe!" quod Haukyn,
  "Ye preise faste poverte,
  What is poverte with pacience," quod he;                9450
  "Proprely to mene?"
  "_Paupertas_," quod Pacience, "_est
      odibile bonum, remotio curarum,
      possessio sine calumnia,
      donum Dei, sanitatis mater,
      absque sollicitudine semita,
      sapientiæ temperatrix, negotium
      sine damno, incerta fortuna,
      absque sollicitudine
      felicitas._"                                        9460

    "I kan noght construe al this," quod Haukyn,
  "Ye moste kenne me this on Englissh."

    "In Englissh," quod Pacience,
  "It is wel hard wel to expounen;
  Ac som deel I shal seyen it,
  By so thow understonde:
  Poverte is the firste point
  That pride moost hateth;
  Thanne is it good by good skile,
  Al that agasteth pride.                                 9470
  Right as contricion is confortable thyng,
  Conscience woot wel,
  And a sorwe of hymself,
  And a solace to the soule,
  So poverte propreliche,
  Penaunce and joye,
  Is to the body
  Pure spiritual helthe.
  _Ergo paupertas est odibile bonum._
  And contricion confort,                                 9480
  And _cura animarum_.

    "Selde sit poverte,
  The sothe to declare;
  For as justice to jugge men,
  Enjoyned is no poore,
  Ne to be mair above men
  Ne mynystre under kynges;
  Selde is any poore y-put
  To punysshen any peple.
  _Remotio curarum._                                      9490
  _Ergo_ poverte and poore men
  Perfournen the comaundement,
  _Nolite judicare
  Quemquam_ the thridde,"

    "Selde is any poore riche,
  But of rightful heritage;
  Wynneth he noght with wightes false,
  Ne with unseled mesures,
  Ne borweth of hise neighebores,
  But that he may wel paie.                               9500
  _Possessio sine calumnia._

    "The ferthe is a fortune
  That florissheth the soule,
  With sobretee fram alle synne,
  And also yit moore
  It afaiteth the flessh
  Fram folies ful manye,
  A collateral confort,
  Cristes owene gifte.
  _Donum Dei._                                            9510

    "The fifte is moder of helthe,
  A frend in alle fondynges,
  And for the land evere a leche,
  A lemman of alle clennesse.
  _Sanitatis mater._

    "The sixte is a path of pees,
  Ye, thorugh the paas of Aultone
  Poverte myghte passe
  Withouten peril of robbyng.
  For ther that poverte passeth,                          9520
  Pees folweth after;
  And ever the lasse that he bereth,
  The hardier he is of herte.
  For-thi seith Seneca,
  _Paupertas est absque sollicitudine semita_                =
  And an hardy man of herte,
  Among an heep of theves.
  _Cantabit paupertas coram latrone
      viatore._                                           9530

    "The seventhe is welle of wisedom,
  And fewe wordes sheweth;
  Therfore lordes alloweth hym litel,
  Or listneth to his reson,
  For he tempreth the tonge to trutheward,
  And no tresor coveiteth
  _Sapientiæ temperatrix._

    "The eightethe is a lele labour,
  And looth to take moore
  Than he may wel deserve,                                9540
  In somer or in wynter.
  And if he chaffareth, he chargeth no losse,
  Mowe he charité wynne.
  _Negotium sine damno._

    "The nynthe is swete to the soule,
  No sugre is swetter.
  For pacience is payn
  For poverte hymselve,
  And sobretee swete drynke
  And good leche in siknesse.                             9550
  Thus lered me a lettred man,
  For oure Lordes love of hevene;
  Seint Austyn a blessed lif
  Withouten bisynesse ladde
  For body and for soule,
  _Absque sollicitudine felicitas_.
  Now God, that alle good gyveth,
  Graunte his soule reste
  That this first wroot to wissen men
  What poverte was to mene!"                              9560

    "Allas!" quod Haukyn the actif man tho,
  "That after my cristendom
  I ne hadde be deed and dolven
  For Do-welis sake!
  So hard it is," quod Haukyn,
  "To lyve and to do no synne.
  Synne seweth us evere," quod he,
  And sory gan wexe,
  And wepte water with hise eighen,
  And weyled the tyme                                     9570
  That he evere dide dede
  That deere God displesed;
  Swound and sobbed
  And siked ful ofte,
  That evere he hadde lond outher lordshipe,
  Lasse other moore,
  Or maistrie over any man
  Mo than of hymselve.
  "I were noght worthi, woot God!" quod Haukyn,
  "To werien any clothes,                                 9580
  Ne neither sherte ne shoon,
  Save for shame one
  To covere my careyne," quod he;
  And cride mercy faste,
  And wepte and wailede;
  And therwith I awakede.                                 9586

       *       *       *       *       *


          _Passus Decimus Quintus, etc. finit Do-wel, et incipit Do-bet._

  Ac after my wakynge,                                    9587
  It was wonder longe
  Er I koude kyndely
  Knowe what was Do-wel.
  And so my wit weex and wanyed,
  Til I a fool weere;
  And some lakkede my lif,
  Allowed it fewe,
  And lete me for a lorel,
  And looth to reverencen
  Lordes or ladies,
  Or any lif ellis;
  As persons in pelure,
  With pendauntz of silver;                               9600
  To sergeauntz ne to swiche
  Seide I noght ones,
  "God loke yow, lordes!"
  Ne loutede faire;
  That folk helden me a fool,
  And in that folie I raved.
  Til reson hadde ruthe on me,
  And rokked me a-slepe,
  Til I seigh, as it sorcerie were,
  A sotil thyng withalle;                                 9610
  Oon withouten tonge and teeth
  Tolde me whider I sholde,
  And wherof I cam, and of what kynde;
  I conjured hym at the laste,
  If he were Cristes creature
  Anoon me to tellen.

    "I am Cristes creature," quod he,
  "And cristene in many a place,
  In Cristes court y-knowe wel,
  And of his kyn a party.                                 9620
  Is neither Peter the porter,
  Nor Poul with his fauchon,
  That wole defende me the dore,
  Dynge I never so late;
  At mydnyght, at mydday,
  My vois so is knowe,
  That ech a creature of his court
  Welcometh me faire."

    "What are ye called," quod I, "in that court,
  Among Cristes peple?"                                   9630

    "The whiles I quikne the cors," quod he,
  "Called am I _Anima_;
  And whan I wilne and wolde,
  _Animus_ ich hatte;
  And for that I kan knowe,
  Called am I _Mens_;
  And whan I make mone to God,
  _Memoria_ is my name;
  And whan I deme domes,
  And do as truthe techeth,                               9640
  Thanne is _Ratio_ my righte name,
  Reson on Englisshe;
  And whan I feele that folk telleth,
  My firste name is _Sensus_,
  And that is wit and wisdom,
  The welle of alle craftes.
  And whan I chalange or chalange noght,
  Chepe or refuse,
  Thanne am I _Conscience_ y-called,
  Goddes clerk and his notarie;                           9650
  And whan I love leelly
  Oure Lord and alle othere,
  Thanne is lele Love my name,
  And in Latyn _Amor_;
  And whan I flee fro the flesshe,
  And forsake the careyne,
  Thanne am I a spirit specheless,
  _Spiritus_ thanne iche hatte.
  Austyn and Ysodorus,
  Either of hem bothe,                                    9660
  Nempnede me thus to name,
  And now thow myght chese
  How thow coveitest to calle me,
  For now thow knowest my names."
  _Anima pro diversis actionibus diversa
      nomina sortitur; dum
      vivificat corpus, anima est;
      dum vult, animus est; dum
      scit, mens est; dum recolit,
      memoria est; dum judicat,                           9670
      ratio est; dum sentit, sensus
      est; dum amat, amor est;
      dum negat vel consentit, conscientia
      est; dum spirat, spiritus
  "Ye ben as a bisshope," quod I,
  Al bourdynge that tyme;
  "For bisshopes y-blessed,
  Thei bereth manye names,
  _Præsul_ and _pontifex_,                                9680
  And _metropolitanus_,
  And othere names an heep,
  _Episcopus_ and _pastor_."

    "That is sooth," seide he;
  "Now I se thi wille;
  Thow woldest knowe and konne
  The cause of alle my names,
  And of me, if thow myghtest,
  Me thynketh by thi speche."

    "Ye, sire," I seide,                                  9690
  "By so no man were greved,
  Alle the sciences under sonne,
  And alle the sotile craftes,
  I wolde I knewe and kouthe
  Kyndely in myn herte."

    "Thanne artow inparfit," quod he,
  "And oon of Prides knyghtes;
  For swich a lust and likyng
  Lucifer fel from hevene."
  _Ponam pedem meum in aquilone, et                       9700
      similis ero altissimo._

    "It were ayeins kynde," quod he,
  "And alle kynnes reson,
  That any creature sholde konne al,
  Except Crist oone:
  Ayein swiche Salomon speketh,
  And despiseth hir wittes,
  And seith, _Sicut qui mel comedit
      multum, non est ei bonum; sic
      qui scrutator est majestatis,                       9710
      opprimitur a gloria_.

    "To Englisshe men this is to mene,
  That mowen speke and here,
  The man that muche hony eteth,
  His mawe it engleymeth;
  And the moore that a man
  Of good matere hereth,
  But he do therafter,
  It dooth hym double scathe.
  _Beatus est_, seith seint Bernard,                      9720
      _Qui scripturas legit,
      Et verba vertit in opera_
  Fulliche to his power.
  Coveitise to konne
  And to knowe sciences,
  Putte out of Paradis
  Adam and Eve.
  _Scientiæ appetitus hominem inmortalitatis
      gloria spoliavit._

    "And right as hony is yvel to defie,                  9730
  And engleymeth the mawe;
  Right so he that thorugh reson
  Wolde the roote knowe
  Of God and of hise grete myghtes,
  Hise graces it letteth.
  For in the likynge lith a pride,
  And licames coveitise,
  Ayein Cristes counseil
  And alle clerkes techynge;
  That is _Non plus sapere quam oportet sapere_              =

    "Freres and fele othere maistres,                     9742
  That to lewed men prechen,
  Ye moeven materes unmesurable
  To tellen of the Trinité,
  That ofte tymes the lewed peple
  Of hir bileve doute.
  Bettre it were to manye doctours
  To leven swich techyng,
  And tellen men of the ten comaundmentz,                 9750
  And touchen the sevene synnes,
  And of the braunches that burjoneth of hem,
  And bryngen men to helle,
  And how that folk in folies
  Misspenden hir fyve wittes,
  As wel freres as oother folk
  Foliliche spenden
  In housynge, in haterynge,
  And in to heigh clergie shewynge,
  Moore for pompe than for pure charité,                  9760
  The peple woot the sothe,
  That I lye noght, loo!
  For lordes ye plesen,
  And reverencen the riche
  The rather for hir silver
  _Confundantur omnes qui adorant
      sculptilia. Et alibi: Ut quid
      diligitis vanitatem, et quæritis

    "Gooth to the glose of thise vers,                    9770
  Ye grete clerkes;
  If I lye on yow to my lewed wit,
  Ledeth me to brennyng.
  For as it semeth, ye forsaketh
  No mannes almesse
  Of usurers, of hoores,
  Of avarouse chapmen;
  And louten to thise lordes
  That mowen lene yow nobles,
  Ayein youre rule and religion,                          9780
  I take record at Jhesus,
  That seide to hise disciples,
  _Ne sitis personarum acceptores_.
  Of this matere I myghte
  Make a long bible!
  Ac of curatours of cristen peple,
  As clerkes bereth witnesse,
  I shal tellen it, for truthes sake,
  Take hede who so liketh.

    "As holynesse and honesté                             9790
  Out of holy chirche spredeth
  Thorugh lele libbynge men
  That Goddes lawe techen;
  Right so out of holi chirche
  Alle yveles spryngeth,
  There inparfit preesthode is,
  Prechours and techeris.
  I se it by ensaunple
  In somer tyme on trowes:
  Ther some bowes ben leved,                              9800
  And some bereth none,
  Ther is a meschief in the morre
  Of swiche manere bowes.

    "Rightso bi persons and preestes,
  And prechours of holi chirche,
  That aren roote of the right feith
  To rule the peple.
  And ther the roote is roten,
  Reson woot the sothe,
  Shal nevere flour ne fruyt                              9810
  Ne fair leef be greene.
  For-thi wolde ye, lettrede, leve
  The lecherie of clothyng;
  And be kynde, as bifel for clerkes,
  And curteise of Cristes goodes,
  Trewe of youre tonge,
  And of youre tail bothe,
  And hatien to here harlotrie;
  And noght to underfonge
  Tithes, but of trewe thyng,                             9820
  Y-tilied or chaffared;
  Lothe were lewed men,
  But thei youre loore folwede,
  And amendeden hem that mysdoon
  Moore for youre ensaumples,
  Than for to prechen and preven it noght,
  Ypocrisie it semeth;
  The which in Latyn
  Is likned to a dongehill
  That were bi-snewed with snow,                          9830
  And snakes withinne;
  Or to a wal that were whit-lymed,
  And were foul withinne;

    "Right so manye preestes,
  Prechours and prelates,
  Ye aren enblaunched with _bele paroles_,
  And with clothes also;
  Ac youre werkes and youre wordes ther under,
  Aren ful unloveliche.
  Johannes Crisostomus                                    9840
  Of clerkes speketh and preestes;
  _Sicut de templo omne bonum progreditur,
      sic de templo omne
      malum procedit. Si sacerdotium
      integrum fuerit, tota floret
      ecclesia: si autem corruptum
      fuerit, omnis fides marcida
      est. Si sacerdotium fuerit
      in peccatis, totus populus
      convertitur ad peccandum. Sicut                     9850
      cum videris arborem pallidam
      et marcidam, intelligis
      quod vitium habet in radice.
      Ita cum videris populum indisciplinatum
      et irreligiosum, sine
      dubio sacerdotium ejus non est

    "If lewed men wiste
  What this Latyn meneth,
  And who was myn auctour,                                9860
  Muche wonder me thinketh,
  But if many a preest beere,
  For hir baselardes and hir broches,
  A peire of bedes in hir hand,
  And a book under hir arme.
  Sire Johan and sire Geffrey
  Hath a girdel of silver.
  A baselard or a ballok-knyf,
  With botons over gilte;
  Ac a porthors that sholde be his plow                   9870
  _Placebo_ to sigge,
  Hadde he nevere service to save silver therto.
  Seith it with ydel wille.

    "Allas! ye lewed men,
  Muche lese ye on preestes.
  Ac thing that wikkedly is wonne,
  And with false sleightes,
  Wolde nevere the wit of witty God
  But wikkede men it hadde,
  The whiche arn preestes inparfite,                      9880
  And prechours after silver,
  Executours and sodenes,
  Somonours and hir lemmannes;
  That that with gile was geten,
  Ungraciousliche is despended;
  So harlotes and hores
  Arn holpe with swiche goodes,
  And Goddes folk, for defaute therof,
  For-faren and spillen.

    "Curatours of holy kirke,                             9890
  As clerkes that ben avarouse,
  Lightliche that thei leven,
  Losels it habbeth,
  Or deieth intestate,
  And thanne the bisshope entreth
  And maketh murthe thermyd,
  And hise men bothe,
  And seyen he was a nygard
  That no good myghte aspare
  To frend ne to fremmed,                                 9900
  The fend have his soule!
  For a wrecchede hous held he
  Al his lif tyme;
  And that he spared and bisperede,
  Dispende we in murthe;
  By lered, by lewed,
  That looth is to despende.
  Thus goon hire goodes.
  Be the goost faren.
  Ac for goode men, God woot!                             9910
  Greet doel men maken,
  And bymeneth goode mete gyveres,
  And in mynde haveth,
  In preieres and in penaunces,
  And in parfit charité."

    "What is charité?" quod I tho.
  "A childisshe thyng," he seide.
  "_Nisi efficiamini parvuli, non intrabitis
      in regnum cælorum._
  Withouten fauntelté or folie,                           9920
  A fre liberal wille."

    "Where sholde men fynde swich a frend,
  With so fre an herte?"
  "I have lyved in londe," quod he,
  "My name is Longe-wille;
  And fond I nevere ful charité
  Byfore ne bihynde.
  Men beth merciable
  To mendinauntz and to poore,
  And wollen lene ther thei leve                          9930
  Lelly to ben paied.
  Ac charité that Poul preiseth best,
  And moost plesaunt to oure Lord,
  Is _Non inflatur, non est ambitiosa, non
      quærit quæ sua sunt, etc_.

    "I seigh nevere swich a man,
  So me God helpe!
  That he ne wolde aske after his,
  And outher while coveite
  Thyng that neded hym noght,                             9940
  And nyme it, if he myghte.

    "Clerkes kenne me
  That Crist is in alle places;
  Ac I seigh hym nevere soothly,
  But as myself in a mirour:
  _In ænigmate tunc facie ad faciem._
  And so I trowe trewely,
  By that men telleth of charité,
  It is noght chaumpions fight,
  Ne chaffare, as I trowe,                                9950

    "Charité," quod he, "ne chaffareth noght,
  Ne chalangeth, ne craveth;
  As proud of a peny,
  As of a pound of golde;
  And is as glad of a gowne
  Of a gray russet,
  As of a tunycle of Tarse,
  Or of trie scarlet.
  He is glad with alle glade,
  And good til alle wikkede,                              9960
  And leveth and loveth alle
  That oure Lord made.
  Corseth he no creature,
  Ne he kan bere no wrathe,
  Ne no likynge hath to lye,
  Ne laughe men to scorne;
  Al that men seyn, he leet it sooth,
  And in solace taketh,
  And alle manere meschiefs
  In myldenesse he suffreth.                              9970
  Coveiteth he noon erthely good,
  But hevene riche blisse,
  Hath he anye rentes or richesse,
  Or anye riche frendes.

    "Of rentes nor of richesse
  Ne rekketh he nevere;
  For a frend that fyndeth hym,
  Failed hym nevere at neede.
  _Fiat voluntas tua_
  Fynt hym evere moore;                                   9980
  And if he soupeth, eteth but a sop
  Of _spera in Deo_.
  He kan portreye wel the paternoster,
  And peynte it with aves;
  And outher while he is woned
  To wenden on pilgrymages,
  Ther poore men and prisons liggeth,
  Hir pardon to have.
  Though he bere hem no breed,
  He bereth hem swetter liflode,                          9990
  Loveth hem as oure Lord biddeth,
  And loketh how thei fare.

    "And whan he is wery of that werk,
  Than wole he som tyme
  Labouren in lavendrye
  Wel the lengthe of a mile,
  And yerne into youthe,
  And yepeliche speke
  Pride with al the appurtenaunces,
  And pakken hem togideres,                              10000
  And bouken hem at his brest,
  And beten hem clene,
  And leggen on longe,
  With _laboravi in gemitu meo_;
  And with warm water at hise eighen
  Wasshen hem after.
  And thanne he syngeth whan he doth so,
  And som tyme seith wepynge,
  _Cor contritum et humiliatum, Deus,
      non despicies_."                                   10010

    "By Crist! I wolde that I knewe hym," quod I,
  "No creature levere!"

    "Withouten help of Piers Plowman," quod he,
  "His persone sestow nevere."

    "Wheither clerkes knowen hym," quod I,
  "That kepen holi kirke?"

    "Clerkes have no knowyng," quod he,
  "But by werkes and by wordes.
  Ac Piers the Plowman
  Parceyveth moore depper                                10020
  What is the wille and wherfore
  That many wight suffreth.
  _Et vidit Deus cogitationes eorum._
  For ther are ful proude herted men,
  Pacient of tonge,
  And buxome as of berynge
  To burgeises and to lordes,
  And to poore peple
  Han pepir in the nose,
  And as a lyoun he loketh,                              10030
  Ther men lakken hise werkes.

    "For ther are beggeris and bidderis,
  Bedemen as it were,
  Loken as lambren,
  And semen ful holy;
  Ac it is moore to have hir mete
  With swich an esy manere,
  Than for penaunce and perfitnesse,
  The poverte that swiche taketh.

    "Therfore by colour ne by clergie                    10040
  Knowe shaltow nevere,
  Neither thorugh wordes ne werkes,
  But thorugh wil oone.
  And that knoweth no clerk,
  Ne creature on erthe,
  But Piers the Plowman
  _Petrus, i. Christus._
  For he nys noght in lolleris,
  Ne in lond leperis heremytes,
  Ne at ancres there a box hangeth,                      10050
  Alle swiche thei faiten.
  Fy on faitours,
  And _in fautores suos_!
  For charité is Goddes champion,
  And as a good child hende,
  And the murieste of mouth
  At mete where he sitteth.
  The love that lith in his herte
  Maketh hym light of speche,
  And is compaignable and confortatif,                   10060
  As Crist bit hymselve.
  _Nolite fieri sicut hypocritæ tristes, etc._
  For I have seyen hym in silk,
  And som tyme in russet,
  Bothe in grey and in grys,
  And in gilt harneis;
  And as gladliche he it gaf
  To gomes that it neded.

    "Edmond and Edward
  Bothe were kynges,                                     10070
  And seintes y-set,
  For charité hem folwede.

    "I have y-seyen charité also
  Syngen and reden,
  Riden and rennen
  In raggede wedes;
  Ac biddynge as beggeris
  Biheld I hym nevere.
  Ac in riche robes
  Rathest he walketh,                                    10080
  Y-called and y-crymyled,
  And his crowne y-shave;
  And in a freres frokke
  He was y-founden ones,
  Ac it is fern ago,
  In seint Fraunceis tyme:
  In that secte siththe
  To selde hath he ben founde.

    "Riche men he recomendeth,
  And of hir robes taketh,                               10090
  That withouten wiles
  Ledeth hir lyves.
  _Beatus est dives qui, etc._

    "In kynges court he cometh ofte,
  Ther the counseil is trewe;
  Ac if coveitise be of the counseil,
  He wolnoght come therinne,

    "In court amonges japeris
  He cometh noght but selde,
  For braulynge and bakbitynge,                          10100
  And berynge of fals witnesse.

    "In the consistorie bifore the commissarie
  He cometh noght but ofte;
  For hir lawe dureth over longe,
  But if thei lacchen silver,
  And matrimoyne for moneie
  Maken and unmaken;
  And that conscience and Crist
  Hath y-knyt faste,
  Thei undoon it unworthily,                             10110
  Tho doctours of lawe.

    "Ac I ne lakke no lif,
  But, Lord, amende us alle,
  And gyve us grace, good God,
  Charité to folwe.
  For who so myghte meete myd hym,
  Swiche maneres hym eileth,
  Neither he blameth ne banneth,
  Bosteth ne preiseth,
  Lakketh ne loseth,                                     10120
  Ne loketh up sterne,
  Craveth ne coveiteth,
  Ne crieth after moore.
  _In pace in idipsum dormiam, etc._

    "The mooste liflode that he lyveth by,
  Is love in Goddes passion;
  Neither he biddeth ne beggeth,
  Ne borweth to yelde,
  Misdooth he no man,
  Ne with his mouth greveth.                             10130

    "Amonges cristene men
  This myldenesse sholde laste.
  In alle manere angres
  Have this at herte,
  That theigh thei suffrede al this,
  God suffrede for us moore,
  In ensample we sholde do so,
  And take no vengeaunce
  Of oure foes that dooth us falsnesse,
  That is oure fadres wille.                             10140

    "For wel may every man wite,
  If God hadde wold hymselve,
  Sholde nevere Judas ne Jew
  Have Jhesu doon on roode,
  Ne han martired Peter ne Poul,
  Ne in prison holden.
  Ac he suffrede in ensample
  That we sholde suffren also,
  And seide to swiche that suffre wolde,
  That _patientes vincunt_.                              10150

    "_Verbi gratia_," quod he,
  "And verray ensamples manye,
  In _Legenda Sanctorum_,
  The lif of holy seintes,
  What penaunce and poverte
  And passion thei suffrede,
  In hunger, in hete,
  In alle manere angres.

    "Antony and Egidie,
  And othere holy fadres,                                10160
  Woneden in wildernesse
  Among wilde beestes;
  Monkes and mendinauntz,
  Men by hemselve,
  In spekes and in spelonkes,
  Selde speken togideres.

    "Ac neither Antony ne Egidie,
  Ne heremyte that tyme,
  Of leons ne of leopardes
  No liflode ne toke;                                    10170
  But of foweles that fleeth,
  Thus fyndeth men in bokes.
  Except that Egidie
  After an hynde cride,
  And thorugh the mylk of that mylde beest
  The man was sustened;
  And day bi day hadde he hire noght
  His hunger for to slake,
  But selden and sondry tymes,
  As seith the book and techeth.                         10180

    "Antony a dayes,
  Aboute noon tyme,
  Hadde a brid that broughte hym breed,
  That he by lyvede;
  And though the gome hadde a gest,
  God fond hem bothe.

    "Poul _primus heremita_
  Hadde parroked hymselve,
  That no man myghte hym se
  For mosse and for leves;                               10190
  Foweles hym fedde
  Fele wyntres withalle,
  Til he foundede freres
  Of Austynes ordre.
  Poul, after his prechyng,
  Paniers he made,
  And wan with hise hondes
  That his wombe neded.

    "Peter fisshed for his foode,
  And his felawe Andrew;                                 10200
  Som thei solde and som thei soden,
  And so thei lyved bothe.

    "And also Marie Maudeleyne
  By mores lyvede and dewes
  Ac moost thorugh devocion
  And mynde of God almyghty.
  I sholde noght thise seven daies
  Siggen hem alle,
  That lyveden thus for oure Lordes love
  Many longe yeres.                                      10210

    "Ac ther ne was leon ne leopard
  That on laundes wenten,
  Neither bere ne boor,
  Ne oother beest wilde,
  That ne fil to hir feet,
  And fawned with the taillies;
  And if thei kouthe han y-carped,
  By Crist! as I trowe,
  Thei wolde have y-fed that folk
  Bifore wild foweles.                                   10220
  Ac God sente hem foode by foweles,
  And by no fierse beestes,
  In menynge that meke thyng
  Mylde thyng sholde fede.

    "Ac who seith religiouses
  Rightfulle men sholde fede,
  And lawefulle men to lif-holy men
  Liflode sholde brynge;
  And thanne wolde lordes and ladies
  Be looth to agulte,                                    10230
  And to taken of hir tenauntz
  Moore than trouthe wolde,
  Foulde thei that freres
  Wolde forsake hir almesses,
  And bidden hem bere it
  There it was y-borwed.
  For we ben Goddes foweles,
  And abiden alwey
  Til briddes brynge us
  That we sholde lyve by.                                10240
  For hadde ye potage and payn y-nogh,
  And peny ale to drynke,
  And a mees thermyd
  Of o maner kynde,
  Ye hadde right y-nogh, ye religiouse,
  And so youre rule me tolde.
  _Nunquam, dicit Job, rugit onager
      cum herbam habuerit, aut mugiet
      bos cum ante plenum præsepe
      steterit. Brutorum animalium                       10250
      natura te condemnat,
      quia cum eis pabulum commune
      sufficiat, ex adipe prodiit iniquitas tua._

    "If lewed men knewe this Latyn,
  Thei wolde loke whom thei yeve,
  And avisen hem bifore
  A fyve dayes or sixe,
  Er thei amortisede to monkes
  Or chanons hir rente.
  Allas! lordes and ladies,                              10260
  Lewed counseil have ye,
  To gyve from youre heires
  That youre aiels yow lefte,
  And gyveth it to bidde for yow
  Fo swiche that ben riche,
  And ben founded and feffed ek
  To bidde for othere.

    "Who perfourneth this prophecie
  Of the peple that now libbeth?
  _Dispersit, dedit pauperibus._                         10270

    "If any peple perfourne that text,
  It are thise poore freres;
  For that thei beggen aboute,
  In buyldynge thei spende it,
  And on hemself som,
  And swiche as ben hir laborers;
  And of hem that habbeth thei taken,
  And gyveth hem that habbeth.

    "Ac clerkes and knyghtes,
  And communers that ben riche,                          10280
  Fele of yow fareth
  As if I a forest hadde
  That were ful of faire trees,
  And I fondede and caste
  How I myghte mo therinne
  Amonges hem sette.

    "Right so, ye riche,
  Ye robeth that ben riche,
  And helpeth hem that helpeth yow,
  And gyveth ther no nede is.                            10290
  As who so filled a toune
  Of a fressh ryver,
  And wente forth with that water
  To woke with Temese;
  Right so, ye riche,
  Ye robeth and fedeth
  Hem that han as ye han,
  Hem ye make at ese.

    "Ac religiouse that riche ben,
  Sholde rather feeste beggeris                          10300
  Than burgeises that riche ben,
  As the book techeth.
  _Quia sacrilegium est res pauperum
      non pauperibus dare. Item:
      Peccatoribus dare, est dæmonibus
      immolare. Item: Monache,
      si indiges et accipis, potius
      das quam accipis; si autem
      non eges et accipis, rapis.
      Porro non indiget monachus, si                     10310
      habeat quod naturæ sufficit._

    "For-thi I counseille alle cristene
  To conformen hem to charité,
  For charité withouten chalangynge
  Unchargeth the soule,
  And many a prison fram purgatorie
  Thorugh his preieres he delivereth.
  Ac ther is a defaute in the folk
  That the feith kepeth;
  Wherfore folk is the febler,                           10320
  And noght ferm of bileve,
  As in lussheburwes is a luther alay,
  And yet loketh he lik a sterlyng;
  The merk of that monee is good,
  Ac the metal is feble.

    "And so it fareth by som folk now,
  Thei han a fair speche,
  Crowne and cristendom,
  The kynges mark of hevene;
  Ac the metal, that is mannes soule,                    10330
  With synne is foule alayed.
  Bothe lettred and lewed
  Beth alayed now with synne,
  That no lif loveth oother,
  Ne oure Lord, as it semeth.
  For thorugh werre and wikkede werkes,
  And wederes unresonable,
  Weder-wise shipmen,
  And witty clerkes also,
  Han no bileve to the lifte,                            10340
  Ne to the loore of philosofres.

    "Astronomiens al day
  In hir art faillen,
  That whilom warned bifore
  What sholde falle after.

    "Shipmen and shepherdes,
  That with ship and sheep wenten,
  Wisten by the walkne
  What sholde bitide,
  As of wedres and wyndes                                10350
  Thei warned men ofte.

    "Tilieris, that tiled the erthe,
  Tolden hir maistres,
  By the seed that thei sewe,
  What thei selle myghte,
  And what to lene, and what to lyve by,
  The lond was so trewe.

    "Now faileth the folk of the flood,
  And of the lond bothe,
  Shepherdes and shipmen,                                10360
  And so do thise tilieris,
  Neither thei konneth ne knoweth
  Oon cours bifore another.

    "Astronomyens also
  Aren at hir wittes ende,
  Of that was calculed of the element
  The contrarie thei fynde;
  Grammer, the ground of al,
  Bigileth now children,
  For is noon of this newe clerkes,                      10370
  Who so nymeth hede,
  Naught oon among an hundred
  That an auctour kan construwe,
  Ne rede a lettre in any langage
  But in Latyn or in Englissh.

    "Go now to any degree,
  And but if gile be maister,
  And flaterere his felawe
  Under hym to fourmen,
  Muche wonder me thynketh                               10380
  Amonges us alle,
  Doctours of decrees
  And of divinité maistres,
  That sholde konne and knowe
  Alle kynnes clergie,
  And answere to argumentz,
  And also to a _quodlibet_;
  I dar noght siggen it for shame,
  If swiche were apposed,
  Thei sholde faillen of her philosophie,                10390
  And in phisik bothe.

    "Wherfore I am a-fered
  Of folk of holy kirke,
  Lest thei overhuppen, as oothere doon,
  In office and in houres;
  And if they overhuppe, as I hope noght,
  Oure bileve suffiseth;
  As clerkes in Corpus Christi feeste
  Syngen and reden,
  That _sola fides sufficit_                             10400
  To save with lewed peple;
  And so may Sarzens be saved,
  Scribes, and Jewes.

    "Allas, thanne! but our looresmen
  Lyve as thei leren us,
  And for hir lyvynge that lewed men
  Be the lother God agulten.
  For Sarzens han somwhat
  Semynge to oure bileve;
  For thei love and bileve                               10410
  In o persone almyghty,
  And we, lered and lewed,
  In oon God almyghty;
  And oon Makometh, a man,
  In mysbileve broughte
  Sarzens of Surree,
  And see in what manere.

    "This Makometh was a cristene
  And for he moste noght ben a pope
  Into Surrie he soughte,                                10420
  And thorugh hise sotile wittes
  He daunted a dowve,
  And day and nyght hire fedde,
  The corn that she croppede
  He caste it in his ere;
  And if he among the peple preched,
  Or in places come,
  Thanne wolde the colvere come
  To the clerkes ere
  Menynge as after mete,--                               10430
  Thus Makometh hire enchauntede;
  And dide folk thanne falle on knees,
  For he swoor in his prechyng
  That the colvere that com so,
  Com from God of hevene,
  As messager to Makometh,
  Men for to teche.
  And thus thorugh wiles of his wit,
  And a whit dowve,
  Makometh in mysbileve                                  10440
  Men and wommen broughte;
  That lyved tho there and lyve yit
  Leeven on hise lawes.

    "And siththe oure Saveour suffred,
  The Sarzens so bigiled
  Thorugh a cristene clerk,
  Acorsed in his soule!
  For drede of the deeth
  I dare noght telle truthe,
  How Englisshe clerkes a colvere fede                   10450
  That coveitise highte,
  And ben manered after Makometh,
  That no man useth trouthe.

    "Ancres and heremytes,
  And monkes and freres,
  Peeren to the apostles
  Thorugh hire parfit lyvynge;
  Wolde nevere the feithful fader
  That hise ministres sholde
  Of tirauntz that teneth trewe men                      10460
  Taken any almesse,
  But doon as Antony dide,
  Dominyk and Fraunceys,
  Beneit and Bernard
  The whiche hem first taughte
  To lyve by litel, and in lowe houses,
  By lele mennes almesse.
  Grace sholde growe and be grene
  Thorugh hir goode lyvynge;
  And folkes sholden fare,                               10470
  That ben in diverse siknesse,
  The bettre for hir biddynges
  In body and in soule.
  Hir preieres and hir penaunces
  To pees sholde brynge
  Alle that ben at debaat,
  And bedemen were trewe.
  _Petite et accipietis, etc._
  Salt saveth the catel,
  Siggen thise wives.                                    10480
  _Vos estis sal terræ, etc._
  The hevedes of holy chirche,
  And thei holy were,
  Crist calleth hem salt
  For cristene soules.
  _Et si sal evanuerit in quo salietur, etc._

    "For fressh flessh outher fissh,
  Whan it salt failleth,
  It is unsavory for sothe,
  Y-soden or y-bake;                                     10490
  So is mannes soule, soothly,
  That seeth no goode ensamples
  Of hem of holi chirche,
  That the heighe wey sholde teche,
  And be gide, and go bifore,
  As a good banyer;
  And hardie hem that bihynde ben,
  And gyve hem good evidence.

    "Ellevene holy men
  Al the world tornede                                   10500
  Into lele bileve;
  The lightloker me thinketh
  Sholde all maner men,
  We han so manye maistres,
  Preestes and prechours,
  And a pope above,
  That Goddes salt sholde be
  To save mannes soule.

    "Al was hethynesse som tyme
  Engelond and Walis,                                    10510
  Til Gregory garte clerkes
  To go here and preche;
  Austyn at Caunterbury
  Cristnede the kyng,
  And thorugh miracles, as men now rede,
  Al that marche he tornede
  To Crist and to cristendom,
  And cros to honoure;
  And follede folk faste,
  And the feith taughte,                                 10520
  Moore thorugh miracles
  Than thorugh muche prechyng,
  As wel thorugh hise werkes
  As with hise holy wordes,
  And seide hem what fullynge
  And feith was to mene.

    "Clooth that cometh fro the wevyng
  Is noght comly to were,
  Til it be fulled under foot
  Or in fullyng stokkes,                                 10530
  Wasshen wel with water,
  And with taseles cracched,
  Y-touked and y-teynted,
  And under taillours hande;
  Right so it fareth by a barn,
  That born is of a wombe,
  Til it be cristned in Cristes name,
  And confermed of the bisshope,
  It is hethene as to hevene-ward.
  And help-lees to the soule.                            10540
  Hethen is to mene after heeth
  And untiled erthe,
  As in wilde wildernesse
  Wexeth wilde beestes,
  Rude and unresonable,
  Rennynge withouten cropiers.

    "Ye mynnen wel how Mathew seith,
  How a man made a feste;
  He fedde him with no venyson,
  Ne fesauntz y-bake,                                    10550
  But with foweles that fram hym nolde,
  But folwede his whistlyng.
  _Ecce altilia mea, et omnia parata sunt._                  =
  And with calves flessh he fedde
  The folk that he lovede.

    "The calf bitokneth clennesse
  In hem that kepeth lawes.
  For as the cow thorugh kynde mylk
  The calf norisseth til an oxe;                         10560
  So love and leauté
  Lele men susteneth,
  And maidenes and mylde men
  Mercy desiren,
  Right as the cow calf
  Coveiteth melk swete,
  So doon rightfulle men
  Mercy and truthe.

    "Ac who beth that excuseth hem
  That ben persons and preestes,                         10570
  That hevedes of holy chirche ben,
  That han hir wil here
  Withouten travaille the tithe deel
  That trewe men biswynken;
  Thei wol be wrooth for I write thus,
  Ac to witnesse I take
  Bothe Mathew and Marc,
  And _Memento Domine David_.

    "What pope or prelat now
  Perfourneth that Crist highte.                         10580
  _Ite in universum mundum et prædicate, etc._               =

    "Allas! that men so longe
  On Makometh sholde bileve,
  So manye prelates to preche
  As the pope maketh,
  Of Nazareth, of Nynyve,
  Of Neptalym and Damaske,
  That thei ne wente as Crist wisseth,
  Sithen thei wille have name                            10590
  To be pastours and preche
  To lyve and to dye.
  _Bonus pastor animam suam ponit, etc._                     =
  And seide it in salvacion
  Of Sarzens and othere,
  For cristene and uncristene
  Crist seide to prechours:
  _Ite vos in vineam meam, etc._

    "And sith that thise Sarzens,                        10600
  Scribes, and Jewes,
  Han a lippe of our bileve,
  The lightlier me thynketh
  Thei sholde turne, who so travailed
  To teche hem of the Trinité.
  _Quærite et invenietis, etc._

    "It is ruthe to rede
  How rightwise men lyvede,
  How thei defouled hir flessh,
  Forsoke hir owene wille,                               10610
  Fer fro kyth and fro kyn
  Yvele y-clothed yeden,
  Baddely y-bedded,
  No book but conscience,
  Ne no richesse but the roode
  To rejoisse hem inne.
  _Absit nobis gloriari nisi in cruce
      Domini nostri, etc._

    "And tho was plentee and pees
  Amonges poore and riche,                               10620
  And now is routhe to rede
  How the rede noble
  Is reverenced er the roode,
  And receyved for worthier
  Than Cristes cros, that overcam
  Deeth and dedly synne.
  And now is werre and wo;
  And who so why asketh,
  For coveitise after cros
  The croune stant in golde.                             10630
  Bothe riche and religious
  That roode thei honoure
  That in grotes is y-grave
  And in gold nobles.
  For coveitise of that cros,
  Men of holy kirke
  Shul torne as templers dide,
  The tyme approcheth faste.

    "Wite ye noght, ye wise men,
  How tho men honoured                                   10640
  Moore tresor than trouthe,
  I dar noght telle the sothe,
  Reson and rightful doom
  The religiouse demede.

    "Right so, ye clerkes,
  For youre coveitise, er longe,
  Shal thei demen _dos ecclesiæ_,
  And youre pride depose,
  _Deposuit potentes de sede, etc._

    "If knyghthod and kynde wit                          10650
  And the commune by conscience
  Togideres love leelly,
  Leveth it wel, ye bisshopes,
  The lordshipe of youre londes
  For evere shul ye lese,
  And lyven as _levitici_,
  As oure Lord techeth.
  _Per primitias et decimas, etc._

    "Whan Costantyn of curteisie
  Holy kirke dowed                                       10660
  With londes and ledes,
  Lordshipes and rentes,
  An aungel men herden
  An heigh at Rome crye,
  _Dos ecclesiæ_ this day
  Hath y-dronke venym,
  And tho that han Petres power
  Arn apoisoned alle.

    "A medicyne moot therto,
  That may amende prelates,                              10670
  That sholden preie for the pees,
  Possession hem letteth;
  Taketh hire landes, ye lordes,
  And leteth hem lyve by dymes.

    "If possession be poison,
  And inparfite hem make,
  Good were to deschargen hem,
  For holy chirches sake,
  And purgen hem of poison,
  Er moore peril falle.                                  10680

    "If preesthode were parfit,
  The peple sholde amende
  That contrarien Cristes lawe,
  And cristendom dispise.
  For alle paynymes preieth,
  And parfitly bileveth
  In the holy grete God,
  And his grace thei asken,
  And make hir mone to Makometh
  Hir message to shewe.                                  10690
  Thus in a feith leve that folk,
  And in a fals mene;
  And that is routhe for rightful men
  That in the reawme wonyen,
  And a peril to the pope,
  And prelates that he maketh,
  That bere bisshopes names
  Of Bethleem and Babiloigne,
  That huppe aboute in Engelond
  To halwe mennes auteres,                               10700
  And crepe amonges curatours,
  And confessen ageyn the lawe.
  _Nolite mittere falcem in messem alienam, etc._

    "Many man for Cristes love
  Was martired in Romayne,
  Er any cristendom was knowe there,
  Or any cros honoured.

    "Every bisshop that bereth cros,
  By that he is holden
  Thorugh his province to passe,                         10710
  And to his peple to shewe hym,
  Tellen hem and techen hem
  On the Trinité to bileve,
  And feden hem with goostly foode,
  And gyve there it nedeth.
  _In domo mea non est panis neque
      vestimentum, et ideo nolite constituere
      me regem._

    "Ozias seith for swiche
  That sike ben and feble,                               10720
  _Inferte omnes decimas in horreum
      meum, ut sit cibus in domo mea._

    "Ac we cristene creatures
  That on the cros bileven,
  Arn ferme as in the feith,
  Goddes forbode ellis!
  And han clerkes to kepen us therinne,
  And hem that shul come after us.

    "And Jewes lyven in lele lawe,
  Oure Lord wroot it hymselve                            10730
  In stoon, for it stedefast was,
  And stonde sholde evere.
  _Dilige Deum et proximum_,
  Is parfit Jewen lawe;
  And took it Moyses to teche men
  Til Messie coome;
  And on that lawe thei lyve yit,
  And leten it the beste,
  And yit knewe thei Crist
  That cristendom taughte                                10740
  For a parfit prophete
  That muche peple savede
  Of selkouthe sores,
  Thei seighen it ofte,
  Bothe of miracles and merveilles,
  And how he men festede,
  With two fisshes and fyve loves,
  Fyve thousand peple;
  And by that mangerie men myghte wel se
  That Messie he semede,                                 10750
  And whan he lifte up Lazar,
  That leid was in grave,
  And under stoon deed and stank,
  With stif vois hym callede:
  _Lazare, veni foras._
  Dide hym rise and rome,
  Right bifore the Jewes.

    "Ac thei seiden and sworen
  With sorcerie he wroughte,
  And studieden to struyen hym,                          10760
  And struyden hemselve;
  And thorugh his pacience, hir power
  To pure noght he broughte.
  _Patientes vincunt._

    "Daniel of hire undoynge
  Devyned and seide,
  _Cum sanctus sanctorum veniat, cessabit
      unctio vestra._
  And wenen tho wrecches
  That he were _pseudo-propheta_,                        10770
  And that his loore be lesynges,
  And lakken it alle,
  And hopen that he be to come
  That shal hem releve,
  Moyses eft or Messie
  Hir maistres yit devyneth.

    "Ac Pharisees and Sarzens,
  Scribes and Jewes,
  Arn folk of oon feith,
  The fader God thei honouren.                           10780
  And sithen that the Sarzens,
  And also the Jewes,
  Konne the firste clause of oure bileve,
  _Credo in Deum patrem omnipotentem_,
  Prelates of cristene provinces
  Sholde preve, if thei myghte,
  To lere hem litlum and litlum
  _Et in Jesum Christum filium_,
  Til thei kouthe speke and spelle
  _Et in Spiritum sanctum_,
  And reden it and recorden it
  With _remissionem peccatorum,
  Carnis resurrectionem, et vitam æternam. Amen._"       10793

       *       *       *       *       *


          _Passus Decimus Sextus, etc. et Primus de Do-bet._

  "Now faire falle yow," quod I tho,                     10794
  "For youre faire shewyng;
  For Haukyns love, the actif man,
  Evere I shal yow lovye!
  Ac yit I am in a weer
  What charité is to mene."

    "It is a ful trie tree," quod he,                    10800
  "Trewely to telle;
  Mercy is the more therof,
  The myddul stok is ruthe;
  The leves ben lele wordes,
  The lawe of holy chirche;
  The blosmes beth buxom speche,
  And benigne lokynge;
  Pacience hatte the pure tree,
  And pure symple of herte;
  And so, thorugh God and thorugh goode men,             10810
  Groweth the fruyt charité."

    "I wolde travaille," quod I, "this tree to se,
  Twenty hundred myle;
  And for to have my fulle of that fruyt,
  Forsake alle othere saulees.
  Lord!" quod I, "if any wight wite
  Whider out it groweth."

    "It groweth in a gardyn," quod he,
  "That God made hymselve,
  Amyddes mannes body,                                   10820
  The more is of that stokke,
  Herte highte the herber
  That it inne groweth.
  And _liberum arbitrium_
  Hath the lond the ferme
  Under Piers the Plowman,
  To piken it and to weden it."

    "Piers the Plowman!" quod I tho,
  And al for pure joye
  That I herde nempne his name,                          10830
  Anoon I swowned after,
  And lay longe in a lone dreem;
  And at the laste, me thoughte
  That Piers the Plowman
  Al the place me shewed,
  And bad me to toten on the tree,
  On top and on roote;
  With thre piles was it under-pight,
  I perceyved it soone.

    "Piers," quod I, "I preie thee,                      10840
  Whi stonde thise piles here?"

    "For wyndes, wiltow wite," quod he,
  To witen it fro fallyng.
  _Cum ceciderit justus, non collidetur,
      quia Dominus supponit manum
  And in blowyng tyme, abite the flowres,
  But if thise piles helpe,

    "The world is a wikked wynd
  To hem that willen truthe;                             10850
  Coveitise comth of that wynd,
  And crepeth among the leves,
  And for-freteth neigh the fruyt
  Thorugh manye faire sightes;
  Thanne with the firste pil I palle hym down,
  That is _Potentia Dei_.

    "The flessh is a fel wynd,
  And in flouryng tyme
  Thorugh likynge and lustes
  So loude he gynneth blowe,                             10860
  That it norisseth nyce sightes,
  And som tyme wordes,
  And wikkede werkes therof,
  Wormes of synne,
  And for-biteth the blosmes
  Right to the bare leves.

    "Than sette I to the secounde pil
  _Sapientia Dei patris_;
  That is the passion and the power
  Of oure prince Jhesu.                                  10870
  Thorugh preieres and thorugh penaunces,
  And Goddes passion in mynde,
  I save it til I se it ripen
  And som del y-fruyted.

    "And thanne fondeth the fend
  My fruyt to destruye,
  With alle the wiles that he kan;
  And waggeth the roote,
  And casteth up to the crop
  Unkynde neighebores;                                   10880
  Bakbiteris breke the cheste,
  Brawleris and chideris,
  And leith a laddre therto,
  Of lesynges are the ronges,
  And feccheth awey my floures som tyme
  Afore bothe myne eighen.
  Ac _liberum arbitrium_
  Letteth hym som tyme,
  That is lieutenaunt to loken it wel,
  Bi leve of myselve.                                    10890
  _Videatis qui peccat in spiritum
      sanctum nunquam remittetur,
      etc. Hoc est idem, qui peccat
      per liberum arbitrium non

    "Ac whan the fend and the flessh
  Forth with the world
  Manacen bihynde me
  My fruyt for to fecche,
  Thanne _liberum arbitrium_                             10900
  Laccheth the firste plante,
  And palleth adoun the pouke,
  Pureliche thorugh grace
  And help of the Holy Goost,
  And thus have I the maistrie."

    "Now faire falle yow! Piers," quod I,
  "So faire ye discryven
  The power of thise postes,
  And hire propre myghtes.
  Ac I have thoughtes a threve                           10910
  Of thise thre piles,
  In what wode thei woxen,
  And where that thei growed;
  For alle are thei aliche longe,
  Noon lasse than oother,
  And to my mynde, as me thinketh,
  On o more thei growed,
  And of o greetnesse,
  And grene of greyn thei semen."

    "That is sooth," quod Piers,                         10920
  "So it may bifalle;
  I shal telle thee as tid
  What this tree highte.
  The ground there it groweth,
  Goodnesse it hatte;
  And I have told thee what highte the tree,
  The Trinité it meneth."

    And egreliche he loked on me;
  And therfore I spared
  To asken hym any moore therof,                         10930
  And bad hym ful faire
  To discryve the fruyt
  That so faire hangeth.

    "Heer no bynethe," quod he tho,
  "If I nede hadde,
  Matrimoyne I may nyme,
  A moiste fruyt withalle;
  Thanne continence is neer the crop,
  As kaylewey bastard,
  Thanne bereth the crop kynde fruyt,                    10940
  And clennest of alle,
  Maidenhode aungeles peeris
  And rathest wole be ripe,
  And swete withouten swellyng,
  Sour worth it nevere."

    I preide Piers tho to pulle a-doun
  An appul, and he wolde,
  And suffre me to assaien
  What savour it hadde.

    And Piers caste to the crop,                         10950
  And thanne comsed it to crye,
  And waggede widwehode,
  And it wepte after;
  And whan it meved matrimoyne,
  It made a foul noise.
  And I hadde ruthe whan Piers rogged,
  It gradde so rufulliche;
  For evere as thei dropped a-doun,
  The devel was redy
  And gadrede hem alle togideres,                        10960
  Bothe grete and smale,
  Adam and Abraham,
  And Ysaye the prophete,
  Sampson and Samuel,
  And seint Johan the Baptist,
  Bar hem forth bodily,
  No body hym letted,
  And made of holy men his hoord
  _In limbo inferni_,
  There is derknesse and drede,                          10970
  And the devel maister.

    And Piers, for pure tene,
  Of that a pil he raughte;
  He hitte after hym,
  Hitte how it myghte,
  _Filius_ by the fader wille,
  And frenesse of _Spiritus sancti_,
  To go robbe that rageman,
  And reve the fruyt fro hym.

    And thanne spak _Spiritus sanctus_                   10980
  In Gabrielis mouthe,
  To a maide that highte Marie,
  A meke thyng withalle,
  That oon Jhesus a justices sone
  Moste jouke in hir chambre,
  Til _plenitudo temporis_
  Fully comen were,
  That Piers fruyt floured,
  And felle to be rype,
  And thanne sholde Jhesus juste therfore,               10990
  By juggement of armes,
  Wheither sholde fonge the fruyt,
  The fend or hymselve.

    The maide myldeliche tho
  The messager graunted,
  And seide hendeliche to hym,
  "Lo me his hand-maiden
  For to werchen his wille,
  Withouten any synne."
  _Ecce ancilla Domini, fiat mihi, etc._                 11000

    And in the wombe of that wenche
  Was he fourty woukes,
  Til he weex a faunt thorugh hir flessh,
  And of fightyng kouthe,
  To have y-foughte with the fend
  Er ful tyme come.
  And Piers the Plowman
  Perceyved plener tyme,
  And lered hym lechecraft
  His lif for to save,                                   11010
  That though he were wounded with his enemy,
  To warisshen hymselve,
  And dide hym assaie his surgenrie
  On hem that sike were,
  Til he was perfit praktisour,
  If any peril fille;
  And soughte out the sike
  And synfulle bothe,
  And salvede sike and synfulle,
  Bothe blynde and crokede,                              11020
  And commune wommen convertede,
  And to goode turnede.
  _Non est sanis opus medicinæ, sed in, etc._

    Bothe meseles and mute,
  And in the menyson blody,
  Ofte heeled swiche,
  He ne held it for no maistrie,
  Save tho he leched Lazar
  That hadde y-leye in grave,
  _Quatriduanus_ quelt,                                  11030
  Quyk dide hym walke.
  Ac as he made the maistrie,
  _Moestus coepit esse_,
  And wepte water with hise eighen,
  Ther seighen it manye.
  Some that the sighte seighen,
  Seiden that tyme
  That he was leche of lif,
  And lord of heigh hevene.
  Jewes jangled ther ayein,                              11040
  And juggede lawes
  And seide he wroghte thorugh wichecraft,
  And with the develes myghte.
  _Dæmonium habet, etc._

    Thanne, "are ye cherles," quod ich,
  "And youre children bothe,
  And Sathan youre saveour,
  Ye self now ye witnessen."
  "For I have saved yow self," seith Crist,
  "And youre sones after,                                11050
  Youre bodies, youre beestes,
  And blynde men holpen
  And fed yow with two fisshes
  And with fyve loves,
  And lefte baskettesful of broke mete,
  Bere awey who so wolde."
  And mys-seide the Jewes manliche
  And manaced hem to bete,
  And knokked on hem with a corde,
  And caste a-doun hir stalles                           11060
  That in chirche chaffareden,
  Or chaungeden any moneie,
  And seide it in sighte of hem alle,
  So that alle herden:--

    "I shal overturne this temple,
  And a-doun throwe it,
  And in thre daies after
  Edifie it new,
  And maken it as muche outher moore
  In alle manere poyntes                                 11070
  As evere it was, and as wid;
  Wherfore I hote yow,
  Of preieres and of perfitnesse
  This place that ye callen."
  _Domus mea domus orationis vocabitur._                     =

    Envye and yvel wil
  Was in the Jewes;
  Thei casten and contreveden
  To kulle hym whan thei myghte,                         11080
  Eche day after oother
  Hir tyme thei awaiteden;
  Til it bifel on a Friday
  A litel bifore Pasqe,
  The Thursday bifore
  There he made his maundee,
  Sittynge at the soper
  He seide thise wordes,
  "I am sold thorugh oon of yow,
  He shal the tyme rewe,                                 11090
  That evere he his Saveour solde,
  For silver or ellis."

    Judas jangled ther ayein;
  Ac Jhesus hym tolde,
  It was hymself soothly,
  And seide _tu dicis_.

    Thanne wente forth that wikked man,
  And with the Jewes mette,
  And tolde hem a tokne
  How to knowe with Jhesus,                              11100
  And which tokne to this day
  To muche is y-used,
  That is kissynge and fair countenaunce,
  And unkynde wille.
  And so was with Judas tho,
  That Jhesus bitrayed:
  "_Ave, raby_," quod that ribaud,
  And right to hym he yede,
  And kiste hym, to be caught therby,
  And kulled of the Jewes.                               11110

    Thanne Jhesus to Judas
  And to the Jewes seide,
  "Falsnesse I fynde
  In thi faire speche,
  And gile in thi glad chere,
  And galle is in thi laughyng;
  Thow shalt be myrour
  To many men to deceyve,
  Ac the worse and the wikkednesse
  Shal worthe upon thiselve.                             11120
  _Necesse est ut veniant scandala:
      Væ homini illi per quem scandalum

    "Though I bi treson be take
  At youre owene wille,
  Suffreth myne apostles in pees
  And in pays gange."
  On a Thursday in thesternesse
  Thus was he taken,
  Thorugh Judas and Jewes,                               11130
  Jhesus was his name,
  That on the Friday folwynge
  For mankyndes sake
  Justed in Jherusalem,
  A joye to us alle.
  On cros upon Calvarie
  Crist took the bataille
  Ayeins deeth and the devel,
  Destruyed hir botheres myghtes,
  Deide and deed for-dide,                               11140
  And day of nyght made.

    And I awaked therwith,
  And wiped myne eighen,
  And after Piers the Plowman
  Pried and stared
  Est-ward and west-ward,
  I waited after faste,
  And yede forth as an ydiot
  In contree to aspie,
  After Piers the Plowman                                11150
  Many a place I soughte.
  And thanne mette I with a man,
  A myd-lenten Sonday,
  As hoor as an hawethorn,
  And Abraham he highte.
  I frayned hym first
  Fram whennes he come,
  And of whennes he were,
  And whider that he soughte.

  "Iam Feith," quod that freke,                          11160
  "It falleth noght to lye,
  And of Abrahames hous
  An heraud of armes,
  And seke after a segge
  That I seigh ones,
  A ful bold bacheler,
  I knew hym by his blasen."

    "What berth that buyrn?" quod I tho,
  "So blisse thee bitide!"

    "Thre leodes in oon lyth,                            11170
  Noon lenger than oother,
  Of oon muchel and myght
  In mesure and in lengthe;
  That oon dooth, alle dooth,
  And ech dooth bi his one.

    "The firste hath myght and majestee,
  Makere of alle thynges,
  _Pater_ is his propre name,
  A persone by hymselve.

    "The secounde of tha sire is                         11180
  Sothfastnesse _filius_,
  Wardeyn of that wit hath
  Was evere withouten gynnyng.

    "The thridde highte the Holi Goost,
  A persone by hymselve,
  The light of al that lif hath
  A-londe and a-watre,
  Confortour of creatures,
  Of hym cometh alle blisse.

    "So thre bilongeth for a lord                        11190
  That lordshipe cleymeth,
  Might and mene
  To knowe his owene myghte,
  Of hym and of his servaunt,
  And what thei suffre bothe.

    "So God that gynnyng hadde nevere,
  But tho hym good thoughte,
  Sente forth his sone,
  As for servaunt that tyme,
  To ocupie hym here,                                    11200
  Til issue were spronge,
  That is, children of charité,
  And holi chirche the moder;
  Patriarkes and prophetes
  And apostles were the children,
  And Crist and cristendom,
  And cristene holy chirche,
  In menynge that man moste
  On o God bileve.
  And there hym likede and lovede,                       11210
  In thre persones hym shewede,
  And that it may be so and sooth,
  Manhode it sheweth,
  Wedlok and widwehode,
  With virginité y-nempned,
  In tokenynge of the Trinité
  Was out of man taken.

    "Adam was oure aller fader,
  And Eve was of hymselve,
  And the issue that thei hadde                          11220
  It was of hem bothe,
  And either is otheres joie
  In thre sondry persones,
  And in hevene and here
  Oon singuler name;
  And thus is mankynde and manhede
  Of matrimoyne y-spronge,
  And bitokneth the Trinité
  And trewe bileve.

    "Mighty is matrimoyne,                               11230
  That multiplieth the erthe,
  And bitokneth trewely,
  Telle if I dorste,
  Hym that first formed al,
  The fader of hevene.

    "The sone, if I it dorste seye,
  Resembleth wel the widewe.
  _Deus meus, Deus meus, ut quid dereliquisti me!_           =

    "That is, creatour weex creature                     11240
  To knowe what was bothe.
  As widewe withouten wedlok
  Was nevere yit y-seighe;
  Na-moore myghte God be man,
  But if he moder hadde.
  So widewe withouten wedlok
  May noght wel stande,
  Ne matrimoyne withouten muliere
  Is noght muche to preise.
  _Maledictus homo qui non reliquit                      11250
      semen in Israel! etc._

    "Thus in thre persones
  Is perfitliche manhede;
  That is man and his make
  And mulliere children.
  And is noght but gendre of a generacion
  Bifore Jhesu Crist in hevene;
  So is the fader forth with the sone,
  And fre wille of bothe.
  _Spiritus procedens a patre et filio, etc._                =
  Which is the Holy Goost of alle,                       11262
  And alle is but o God.

    "Thus in a somer I hym seigh
  As I sat in my porche.
  I roos up and reverenced hym,
  And right faire hym grette,
  Thre men to my sighte
  I made wel at ese,
  Wessh her feet and wiped hem,                          11270
  And afterward thei eten
  Calves flessh and cake-breed,
  And knewe what I thoughte!
  Ful trewe toknes bitwene us is,
  To telle whan me liketh.

    "First he fonded me
  If I lovede bettre
  Hym or Ysaak myn heir,
  The which he highte me kulle.
  He wiste my wille bi hym,                              11280
  He wol me it allowe;
  I am ful siker in soule therof,
  And my sone bothe.
  I circumscised my sone
  Sithen for his sake,
  Myself and my meynee,
  And alle that male weere,
  Bledden blood for that Lordes love,
  And hope to blisse the tyme.
  Myn affiaunce and my feith                             11290
  Is ferme in his bileve;
  For himself bihighte to me,
  And to myn issue bothe,
  Lond and lordshipe,
  And lif withouten ende;
  To me and to myn issue
  Moore yet he grauntede,
  Mercy for oure mys-dedes,
  As many tyme as we asken.
  _Quam olim Abrahæ promisisti et                        11300
      semini ejus._

    "And siththe he sente me to seye
  I sholde do sacrifise,
  And doon hym worship with breed
  And with wyn bothe;
  And called me the foot of his feith,
  His folk for to save,
  And defende hem fro the fend,
  Folk that on me leveden.

    "Thus have I ben his heraud                          11310
  Here and in helle,
  And conforted many a careful
  That after his comynge waiteden.
  And thus I seke hym," he seide,
  "For I herde seyn late
  Of a barn that baptysed hym,
  Johan Baptist was his name,
  That to patriarkes and to prophetes,
  And to oother peple in derknesse,
  Seide that he seigh here                               11320
  That sholde save us alle."
  _Ecce agnus Dei! etc._

    I hadde wonder of hise wordes,
  And of hise wide clothes;
  For in his bosom he bar a thyng
  That he blissed evere.
  And I loked in his lappe,
  A lazar lay therinne
  Amonges patriarkes and prophetes
  Pleyinge togideres.                                    11330

    "What awaitestow?" quod he,
  "And what woldestow have?"

    "I wolde wite," quod I tho,
  "What is in youre lappe."

    "Loo!" quod he; and leet me see.
  "Lord, mercy!" I seide;
  "This is a present of muche pris,
  What prynce shal it have?"

    "It is a precious present," quod he;
  "Ac the pouke it hath attached,                        11340
  And me thermyde," quod that man,
  "May no wed us quyte,
  Ne no buyrn be oure borgh,
  Ne brynge us fram his daunger;
  Out of the poukes pondfold
  No maynprise may us feeche,
  Til he come that I carpe of,
  Crist is his name.
  That shal delivere us som day
  Out of the develes power,                              11350
  And bettre wed for us legge
  Than we ben alle worthi,
  That is lif for lif,
  Or ligge thus evere
  Lollynge in my lappe,
  Til swich a lord us fecche."

    "Allas!" I seide, "that synne
  So longe shal lette
  The myght of Goddes mercy,
  That myghte us alle amende."                           11360
  I wepte for hise wordes.
  With that saugh I another
  Rapeliche renne forth,
  The righte wey he wente.
  I affrayned hym first
  Fram whennes he come,
  And what he highte, and whider he wolde;
  And wightly he tolde.                                  11368

       *       *       *       *       *


          _Passus Decimus Septimus, etc. et Secundus de Do-bet._

  "Iam _Spes_," quod he, "aspie                          11369
  And spire after a knyght,
  That took me a maundement
  Upon the mount of Synay,
  To rule alle reames with,
  I bere the writ here."

    "Is it enseled?" I seide,
  "May men see thi lettres?"

    "Nay," he seide, "seke hym
  That hath the seel to kepe;
  And that is cros and cristendom,
  And Crist theron to honge.                             11380
  And whan it is enseled so,
  I woot wel the sothe,
  That Luciferis lordshipe
  Laste shal no lenger."

    "Lat se thi lettres," quod I,
  "We myghte the lawe knowe."

    Thanne plukkede he forth a patente,
  A pece of an hard roche,
  Wheron were writen two wordes
  On this wise y-glosed.                                 11390
  _Dilige Deum et proximum tuum._

    This was the tixte trewely,
  I took ful good yeme;
  The glose was gloriously writen,
  With a gilt penne.
  _In his duobus mandatis tota lex
      pendet et prophetia._

    "Ben here alle thi lordes lawes?" quod I.
  "Ye, leve me wel," he seide;
  And who so wercheth after this writ,                   11400
  I wol undertaken
  Shal nevere devel hym dere,
  Ne deeth in soule greve.
  For, though I seye it myself,
  I have saved with this charme,
  Of men and of wommen
  Many score thousand.

    "Ye seien sooth," seide this heraud;
  "I have y-founde it ofte.
  Lo! here in my lappe                                   11410
  That leeved on that charme,
  Josue and Judith,
  And Judas Macabeus,
  Ye, and sixti thousand biside forth,
  That ben noght seyen here."

    "Youre wordes arn wonderfulle," quod I tho,
  "Which of yow is trewest,
  And lelest to leve so,
  For lif, and for soule?
  Abraham seith                                          11420
  That he seigh hoolly the Trinité,
  Thre persones in parcelles
  Departable fro oother,
  And alle thre but o god;
  Thus Abraham me taughte,
  And hath saved that bileved so,
  And sory for hir synnes.
  He kan noght siggen the somme,
  And some arn in his lappe.
  What neded it thanne                                   11430
  A newe lawe to bigynne,
  Sith the firste suffiseth
  To savacion and to blisse?
  And now cometh _Spes_ and speketh,
  That aspied the lawe;
  And telleth noght of the Trinité
  That took hym hise lettres,
  To bileeve and lovye
  In o lord almyghty,
  And siththe right as myself                            11440
  So lovye alle peple.

    "The gome that gooth with o staf,
  He semeth in gretter heele
  Than he that gooth with two staves,
  To sighte of us alle.

    "And right so, bi the roode!
  Reson me sheweth
  That it is lighter to lewed men
  O lesson to knowe,
  Than for to techen hem two,                            11450
  And to hard to lerne to the leeste
  It is ful hard for any man
  On Abraham bileve;
  And wel awey worse yit
  For to love a sherewe.
  It is lighter to leeve
  In thre lovely persones,
  Than for to lovye and leve
  As wel lorels as lele."

    "Go thi gate!" quod I to _Spes_,                     11460
  "So me God helpe!
  Tho that lernen thi lawe,
  Wol litel while usen it."
  And as we wenten thus in the wey
  Wordynge togideres,
  Thanne seighe we a Samaritan
  Sittynge on a mule,
  Ridynge ful rapely
  The righte wey we yeden,
  Comynge from a contree                                 11470
  That men called Jerico,
  To a justes in Jerusalem
  He chaced awey faste.
  Bothe the heraud and Hope
  And he mette at ones
  Where a man was wounded,
  And with theves taken;
  He myghte neither steppe ne stande,
  Ne stere foot ne handes,
  Ne helpe hymself soothly,                              11480
  For semy-vif he semed,
  And as naked as a nedle,
  And noon help aboute hym.

    Feith hadde first sighte of hym;
  Ac he fleigh aside,
  And nolde noght neghen hym
  By nyne londes lengthe.

    Hope cam hippynge after,
  That hadde so y-bosted
  How he with Moyses maundement                          11490
  Hadde many men y-holpe;
  Ac whan he hadde sighte of that segge
  Aside he gan hym drawe
  Dredfully bi this day,
  As doke dooth fram the faucon.

    Ac so soone so the Samaritan
  Hadde sighte of this leode,
  He lighte a-down of lyard,
  And ladde hym in his hande,
  And to the wye he wente                                11500
  Hise woundes to biholde;
  And perceyved bi his pous
  He was in peril to dye,
  And but he hadde recoverer the rapelier,
  That rise sholde he nevere.
  With wyn and with oille
  Hise woundes he wasshed,
  Enbawmed hym and bond his heed,
  And in his lappe hym leide,
  And ladde hym so forth on lyard                        11510
  Te _lex Christi_, a graunge
  Wel sixe mile or sevene
  Biside the newe market;
  Herberwed hym at an hostrie,
  And to the hostiler called,
  And seide, "Have kepe this man
  Til I come fro the justes;
  And lo! here silver," he seide,
  "For salve to hise woundes."
  And he took hym two pens,                              11520
  To liflod, as it weere;
  And seide, "What he spendeth moore,
  I make thee good herafter;
  For I may noght lette," quod that leode;
  And lyard he bistrideth,
  And raped hym to Jerusalem-ward
  The righte wey to ryde.

    Feith folwede after faste,
  And fondede to mete hym;
  And _Spes_ spakliche hym spedde,                       11530
  Spede if he myghte
  To overtaken hym and talke to hym,
  Er thei to towne coome.

    And whan I seigh this, I sojourned noght,
  But shoop me to renne,
  And suwed that Samaritan
  That was so ful of pité,
  And graunted hym to ben his groom.
  "Graunt mercy!" he seide;
  "Ac thi frend and thi felawe," quod he,                11540
  "Thow fyndest me at nede."

    And I thanked hym tho,
  And siththe I hym tolde
  How that Feith fleigh awey,
  And _Spes_ his felawe bothe,
  For sighte of that sorweful man
  That robbed was with theves.

    "Have hem excused," quod he,
  "Hir help may litel availle;
  May no medicyne on molde                               11550
  The man to heele brynge,
  Neither feith ne fyn hope,
  So festred be hise woundes,
  Withouten the blood of a barn
  Born of a mayde.
  And he be bathed in that blood,
  Baptised as it were,
  And thanne plastred with penaunce
  And passion of that baby,
  He sholde stonde and steppe.                           11560
  Ac stalworthe worth he nevere.
  Til he have eten al the barn,
  And his blood y-dronke.
  For wente nevere wye in this world
  Thorugh that wildernesse,
  That he ne was robbed or rifled,
  Rood he there or yede,
  Save Feith and his felawe,
  _Spes_, and myselve,
  And thiself now,                                       11570
  And swiche as suwen oure werkes.

    "For outlawes in the wode
  And under bank lotieth,
  And mowen ech man see,
  And good mark take
  Who is bihynde and who bifore,
  And who ben on horse
  For he halt hym hardier on horse
  Than he that is foote.
  For he seigh me that am Samaritan                      11580
  Suwen Feith and his felawe
  On my capul that highte _caro_,
  Of mankynde I took it;
  He was unhardy that harlot,
  And hidde hym _in Inferno_.
  Ac er this day thre daies,
  I dar undertaken,
  That he worth fettred, that feloun,
  Faste with cheynes,
  And nevere eft greve gome                              11590
  That gooth this ilke gate.

    "And thanne shal Feith be forster here,
  And in this fryth walke,
  And kennen out comune men
  That knowen noght the contree
  Which is the wey that I wente,
  And wher forth to Jerusalem.
  And Hope the hostilers man shal be,
  Ther the man lith an helyng;
  And alle that feble and feynte be,                     11600
  That Feith may noght teche,
  Hope shal lede hem forth with love,
  As his lettre telleth,
  And hostele hem and heele
  Thorugh holy chirche bileve,
  Til I have salve for alle sike;
  And thanne shal I turne,
  And come ayein bi this contree,
  And conforten alle sike
  That craveth it and coveiteth it,                      11610
  Or crieth therafter.
  For the barn was born in Bethleem,
  That with his blood shal save
  Alle that lyven in feith
  And folwen his felawes techynge."

    "A! swete sire," I seide tho,
  "Wher I shal bileve,
  As Feith and his felawe
  Enformed me bothe,
  In thre persones departable,                           11620
  That perpetuele were evere,
  And alle thre but o God,
  Thus Abraham me taughte.

    "And Hope afterward
  He bad me to lovye
  O God with al my good,
  And alle gomes after,
  Lovye hem lik myselve,
  Ac oure Lord aboven alle.

    "After Abraham," quod he,                            11630
  "That heraud of armes,
  Sette fully thi feith
  And ferme bileve;
  And as Hope highte thee,
  I hote that thow lovye
  Thyn evene cristene evere moore
  Evene forth with thiselve.
  And if Conscience carpe ther ayein,
  Or kynde wit eyther,
  Or eretikes with argumentz                             11640
  Thyn hond thow hem shewe;
  For God is after an hand,
  Y-heer now and knowe it.

    "The fader was first as a fust,
  With o fynger foldynge;
  Til hym lovede and liste
  To unlosen his fynger,
  And profre it forth as with a pawme
  To what place it sholde,

    "The pawme is purely the hand,                       11650
  And profreth forth the fyngres,
  To ministren and to make
  That myght of hand knoweth;
  And bitokneth trewely,
  Telle who so liketh,
  The Holy Goost of hevene
  He is as the pawme.

    "The fyngres that fre ben
  To folde and to serve,
  Bitoknen soothly the Sone                              11660
  That sent was til erthe,
  That touched and tastede
  At techynge of the pawme
  Seinte Marie a mayde,
  And mankynde laughte.
  _Qui conceptus est de Spiritu sancto, etc._                =

    "The Fader is pawme as a fust,
  With fynger to touche,--
  _Quia omnia traham ad meipsum, etc._                       =
  Al that the pawme perceyveth                           11672
  Profitable to feele.

    "Thus are thei alle but oon,
  As it an hand weere,
  And thre sondry sightes
  In oon shewynge,
  The pawme for it putteth forth fyngres,
  And the fust bothe;
  Right so redily,                                       11680
  Reson it sheweth
  How he that is Holy Goost
  Sire and Son preveth.

    "And as the hand halt harde,
  And alle thyng faste,
  Thorugh foure fyngres and a thombe
  Forth with the pawme;
  Right so the Fader and the Sone,
  And Seint Spirit the thridde,
  Al the wide world                                      11690
  Withinne hem thre holden,
  Bothe wolkne and the wynd,
  Water and erthe,
  Hevene and helle,
  And al that is therinne.

    "Thus it is, nedeth no man
  Trowe noon oother,
  That thre thynges bilongeth
  In oure Lord of Hevene;
  And aren serelopes by hemself,                         11700
  A-sondry were thei nevere,
  Na-moore than myn hand may
  Meve withoute my fyngres.

    "And as my fust is ful hand
  Y-holden togideres;
  So is the Fader a ful God,
  Formour and shappere.
  _Tu fabricator omnium, etc._
  And al the myght myd hym is
  In makynge of thynges.                                 11710
  The fyngres formen a ful hand
  To portreye or peynten,
  Kervynge and compasynge,
  As craft of the fyngres.

    "Right so is the Sone
  The science of the Fader,
  And ful God as is the Fader,
  No febler ne no bettre.

    "The pawme is pureliche the hand,
  And hath power by hymselve,                            11720
  Other wise than the writhen fust,
  Or werkmanshipe of fyngres.
  For he hath power
  To putte out alle the joyntes,
  And to unfolde the folden fust,
  At the fyngres wille.

    "So is the Holy Goost God,
  Neither gretter ne lasse.
  Than is the Sire and the Sone,
  And in the same myghte.                                11730
  And alle are thei but o God;
  As is myn hand and my fyngres,
  Unfolden or folden,
  My fust and my pawne,
  Al is but an hand;
  Evene in the myddes,
  He may receyve right noght,
  Reson it sheweth,
  For the fyngres that folde sholde
  And the fust make,                                     11740
  For peyne of the pawme,
  Power hem failleth
  To clucche or to clawe,
  To clippe or to holde.

    "Were the myddel of myn hand
  Y-maymed or y-perissed,
  I sholde receyve right noght
  Of that I reche myghte.

    "Ac though my thombe and my fyngres
  Bothe were to-shullen,                                 11750
  And the myddel of myn hand
  Withoute _male-ese_,
  In many kynnes maneres
  I myghte myself helpe,
  Bothe mene and amende,
  Though alle my fyngres oke.

    "By this skile, me thynketh,
  I se an evidence
  That who so synneth in the Seint Spirit,
  Assoilled worth he nevere,                             11760
  Neither here ne ellis where,
  As I herde telle.
  _Qui peccat in Spiritu sancto, etc._
  For he priketh God as in the pawme,
  That _peccat in Spiritu sancto_.
  For God the fader is as a fust,
  The Sone is as a fynger,
  The Holy Goost of hevene
  Is as it were the pawme;
  So who so synneth in the Seint Spirit,                 11770
  It semeth that he greveth
  God, that he grypeth with,
  And wolde his grace quenche.

    "And to a torche or a tapur
  The Trinité is likned;
  As wex and a weke
  Were twyned togideres,
  And thanne a fir flawmynge
  Forth out of bothe;
  And as wex and weke                                    11780
  And hoot fir togideres
  Fostren forth a flawmbe
  And a fair leye,
  So dooth the Sire and the Sone
  And also _Spiritus sanctus_,
  That alle kynne cristene
  Clenseth of synnes
  And as thow seest som tyme
  Sodeynliche a torche,
  The blase therof y-blowe out,                          11790
  Yet brenneth the weke
  Withouten leye or light
  That the macche brenneth;
  So is the Holy Goost God,
  And grace withoute mercy
  To alle unkynde creatures,
  That coveite to destruye
  Lele love or lif
  That oure Lord shapte.

    "And as glowynge gledes                              11800
  Gladeth noght thise werkmen,
  That werchen and waken
  In wyntres nyghtes,
  As dooth a kex or a candle
  That caught hath fir and blaseth;
  Na-moore dooth Sire ne Sone
  Ne Seint Spirit togidres
  Graunte no grace
  Ne forgifnesse of synnes,
  Til the Holy Goost gynne                               11810
  To glowe and to blase.
  So that the Holy Goost
  Gloweth but as a glade,
  Til that lele love
  Ligge on hym and blowe,
  And thanne flawmeth he as fir
  On Fader and on _Filius_,
  And melteth hire myght into mercy;
  As men may se in wyntre
  Ysekeles and evesynges                                 11820
  Thorugh hete of the sonne
  Melte in a minut while
  To myst and to watre.

    "So grace of the Holy Goost
  The greet myght of the Trinité
  Melteth to mercy,
  To merciable and to othere;
  And as wex withouten moore
  On a warm glede
  Wol brennen and blasen,                                11830
  Be thei togideres,
  And solacen hem that mowe se,
  That sitten in derknesse.

    "So wol the Fader forgyve
  Folk of mylde hertes,
  That rufully repenten,
  And restitucion make,
  In as muche as thei mowen
  Amenden and paien;
  And if it suffise noght for assetz,                    11840
  That in swich a wille deyeth,
  Mercy for his mekenesse
  Wol maken good the remenaunt.
  And as the weke and fir
  Wol maken a warm flaumbe,
  For to murthen men myd
  That in the derke sitten;
  So wole Crist of his curteisie,
  And men crye hym mercy,
  Bothe forgyve and foryete,                             11850
  And yit bidde for us
  To the Fader of hevene
  Forgifnesse to have.

    "Ac hewe fir at a flynt
  Foure hundred wynter,
  But thow have tow to take it with,
  Tonder or broches,
  Al thi labour is lost,
  And al thi long travaille;
  For may no fir flaumbe make,                           11860
  Faille it is kynde.

    "So is the Holi Goost God,
  And grace withouten mercy
  To alle unkynde creatures,
  Crist hymself witnesseth.
  _Amen dico vobis, nescio vos, etc._

    "Be unkynde to thyn evene cristene,
  And al that thow kanst bidde,
  Delen and do penaunce
  Day and nyght evere,                                   11870
  And purchace al the pardon
  Of Pampilon and Rome,
  And indulgences y-nowe,
  And be _ingratus_ to thi kynde,
  The Holy Goost hereth thee noght,
  Ne helpe may thee by reson;
  For unkyndenesse quencheth hym,
  That he kan noght shyne,
  Ne brenne ne blase clere
  For blowynge of unkyndenesse.                          11880
  Poul the apostel
  Preveth wheither I lye.
  _Si linguis hominum loquar, etc._

    "For-thi beth war, ye wise men,
  That with the world deleth,
  That riche ben and reson knoweth,
  Ruleth wel youre soule,
  Beth noght unkynde, I conseille yow,
  To youre evene cristene,
  For manye of yow riche men,                            11890
  By my soule! men telleth,
  Ye brenne, but ye blase noght,
  That is a blynd bekene.
  _Non omnis qui dicit Domine! Domine!
      intrabit, etc._

    "Dives deyde dampned,
  For his unkyndenesse
  Of his mete and of his moneie
  To men that it nedede.
  Ech a riche I rede                                     11900
  Reward at hym take,
  And gyveth youre good to that God
  That grace of ariseth;
  For thei that ben unkynde to hise,
  Hope I noon oother,
  But thei dwelle ther Dives is
  Dayes withouten ende.

    "Thus is unkyndenesse the contrarie,
  That quencheth, as it were,
  The grace of the Holy Goost,                           11910
  Goddes owene kynde.
  For that kynde dooth, unkynde for-dooth;
  As thise corsede theves
  Unkynde cristene men,
  For coveitise and envye,
  Sleeth a man for hise moebles
  With mouth or with handes.
  For that the Holy Goost hath to kepe,
  The harlotes destruyeth,
  The which is lif and love,                             11920
  The leye of mannes body.
  For every manere good man
  May be likned to a torche,
  Or ellis to a tapur,
  To reverence the Trinité;
  And who morthereth a good man,
  Me thynketh by myn inwit,
  He for-dooth the levest light
  That oure Lord lovyeth.

    "And yet in manye mo maneres                         11930
  Men offenden the Holy Goost.
  Ac this is the worste wise
  That any wight myghte
  Synnen ayein the Seint Spirit,
  Assenten to destruye
  For coveitise of any kynnes thyng
  That Crist deere boughte,
  That wikkedliche and wilfulliche
  Wolde mercy aniente.

    "Innocence is next God,                              11940
  And nyght and day it crieth,
  'Vengeaunce! vengeaunce!
  Forgyve be it nevere
  That shente us and shedde oure blood,
  For-shapte us, as it were!'
  _Vindica sanguinem justorum._

    "Thus 'Vengeaunce! vengeaunce!'
  Verrey Charité asketh.
  And sith holy chirche and Charité
  Chargeth this so soore,                                11950
  Leve I nevere that oure Lord
  Wol love that charité lakketh,
  Ne have pité for any preiere
  Ther that he pleyneth."

    "I pose I hadde synned so,
  And sholde now deye;
  And now I am sory that I so
  The Seint Spirit a-gulte,
  Confesse me and crye his grace,
  God that al made,                                      11960
  And myldeliche his mercy aske,
  Myghte I noght be saved?"

    "Yis," seide the Samaritan,
  "So wel thow myght repente,
  That rightwisnesse thorugh repentaunce,
  To ruthe myghte turne.
  Ac it is but selden y-seighe
  Ther soothnesse bereth witnesse,
  Any creature that is coupable
  Afore a kynges justice,                                11970
  Be raunsoned for his repentaunce,
  Ther alle reson hym dampneth.
  For ther that partie pursueth,
  The peple is so huge,
  That the kyng may do no mercy
  Til bothe men acorde,
  And eyther have equité,
  As holy writ telleth.
  _Nunquam dimittitur peccatum, etc._

    "Thus it fareth by swich folk                        11980
  That falsly al hire lyves
  Yvele lyven, and leten noght
  Til lif hem forsake.
  Good hope, that helpe sholde,
  To wanhope torneth,
  Noght of the noun power of God,
  That he ne is myghtful
  To amende al that amys is,
  And his mercy gretter
  Than alle oure wikkede werkes,                         11990
  As holy writ telleth.
  _Misericordia ejus super omnia opera ejus._                =
  Ac er his rightwisnesse to ruthe torne,
  Som restitucion bihoveth.
  His sorwe is satisfaccion,
  For hym that may noght paie.

    "Thre thynges ther ben
  That doon a man by strengthe
  For to fleen his owene,                                12000
  As holy writ sheweth.

    "That oon is a wikkede wif,
  That wol noght be chastised;
  Hir feere fleeth fro hire,
  For feere of hir tonge.

    "And if his hous be un-hiled,
  And reyne on his bedde,
  He seketh and seketh
  Til he slepe drye.

    "And whan smoke and smolder                          12010
  Smyt in his sighte,
  It dooth hym worse than his wif
  Or wete to slepe.
  For smoke and smolder
  Smyteth in hise eighen,
  Til he be bler-eighed, or blynd,
  And hoors in the throte,
  Cogheth, and curseth
  That Crist gyve hem sorwe
  That sholde brynge in bettre wode,                     12020
  Or blowe it til it brende.

    "Thise thre that I telle of
  Ben thus to understonde;
  The wif is oure wikked flessh,
  That wol noght be chastised;
  For kynde clyveth on hym evere
  To contrarie the soule.
  And though it falle, it fynt skiles
  That freleté it made,
  And that is lightly forgyven                           12030
  And forgeten bothe,
  To man that mercy asketh,
  And amende thenketh.

    "The reyn that reyneth
  Ther we reste sholde,
  Ben siknesse and sorwes
  That we suffren ofte;
  As Poul the apostle
  To the people taughte.
  _Virtus infirmitate perficitur, etc._                  12040

    "And though that men make
  Muche doel in hir angre,
  And ben inpacient in hir penaunce,
  Pure reson knoweth
  That thei han cause to contrarie
  By kynde of hir siknesse;
  And lightliche oure Lord
  At hir lyves ende
  Hath mercy on swiche men,
  That so yvele may suffre.                              12050

    "Ac the smoke and the smolder
  That smyt in oure eighen,
  That is coveitise and unkyndenesse,
  That quencheth Goddes mercy.
  For unkyndenesse is the contrarie
  Of alle kynnes reson.
  For ther nys sik ne sory,
  Ne noon so muche wrecche,
  That he ne may lovye, and hym like,
  And lene of his herte                                  12060
  Good wille and good word,
  And wisshen and willen
  Alle manere men
  Mercy and forgifnesse,
  And lovye hem lik hymself,
  And his lif amende.

    "I may no lenger lette," quod he;
  And lyard he prikede,
  And went awey as wynd;
  And therwith I awakede.                                12070

       *       *       *       *       *


          _Passus Decimus Octavus, etc. et Tertius de Do-bet._

  Wolleward and weet-shoed                                   =
  Wente I forth after,                                   12073
  As a recchelees renk
  That of no wo roughte,
  And yede forth lik a lorel
  Al my lif tyme,
  Til I weex wery of the world,
  And wilned eft to slepe,
  And lened me to a lenten,                              12080
  And longe tyme I slepte;
  And of Cristes passion and penaunce,
  The peple that of raughte,
  Reste me there, and rutte faste
  Til _ramis palmarum_.
  Of gerlis and of _gloria laus_
  Gretly me dremed,
  And how _hosanna_ by organye
  Olde folk songen.

    Oon semblable to the Samaritan,                      12090
  And som deel to Piers the Plowman,
  Bare-foot on an asse bak
  Boot-les cam prikye,
  Withouten spores other spere,
  Spakliche he lokede,
  As is the kynde of a knyght
  That cometh to be dubbed,
  To geten hym gilte spores,
  Or galoches y-couped.

    Thanne was Feith in a fenestre,                      12100
  And cryde a _fili David_,
  As dooth an heraud of armes,
  Whan aventrous cometh to justes.
  Old Jewes of Jerusalem
  For joye thei songen,
  _Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini._                   =

    Thanne I frayned at Feith,
  What al that fare by-mente,
  And who sholde juste in Jerusalem.                     12110
  "Jhesus," he seide,
  "And fecche that the fend claymeth,
  Piers fruyt the Plowman."

    "Is Piers in this place?" quod I.
  And he preynte on me:
  "This Jhesus of his gentries
  Wol juste in Piers armes,
  In his helm and in his haubergeon,
  _Humana natura_;
  That Crist be noght bi-knowe here                      12120
  For _consummatus Deus_.
  In Piers paltok the Plowman
  This prikiere shal ryde.
  For no dynt shal hym dere,
  As _in deitate Patris_."

    "Who shal juste with Jhesus?" quod I,
  "Jewes or scrybes?"

    "Nay," quod he; "The foule fend,
  And fals doom and deeth.
  Deeth seith he shal for-do                             12130
  And a-doun brynge
  Al that lyveth and loketh
  In londe and in watre.

    "Lif seith that he lieth,
  And leieth his lif to wedde,
  That for al that deeth kan do
  Withinne thre daies
  To walke and fecche fro the fend
  Piers fruyt the Plowman,
  And legge it ther hym liketh,                          12140
  And Lucifer bynde,
  And for-bete and a-doun brynge
  Bale deeth for evere."
  _O mors, ero mors tua._

    Thanne cam Pilatus with muche peple,
  _Sedens pro tribunali_,
  To se how doghtiliche Deeth sholde do,
  And deme hir botheres right.

    The Jewes and the justice
  Ayeins Jhesu thei weere,                               12150
  And al the court on hym cryde
  _Crucifige_ sharpe.
  Tho putte hym forth a pilour
  Bifore Pilat, and seide,
  "This Jhesus of oure Jewes temple
  Hath japed and despised,
  To for-doon it on o day,
  And in thre dayes after
  Edifie it eft newe;
  Here he stant that seide it;                           12160
  And yit maken it as muche
  In alle manere poyntes,
  Bothe as long and as large,
  Bi lofte and by grounde."

    "_Crucifige!_" quod a cachepol;
  "I warrante hym a wicche."

    "_Tolle! tolle!_" quod another,
  And took of kene thornes,
  And bigan of kene thorn
  A garland to make,                                     12170
  And sette it sore on his heed,
  And seide in envye,
  "Ave, Raby," quod that rybaud,
  And threw reedes at hym,
  Nailed hym with thre nailes
  Naked on the roode,
  And poison on a poole
  Thei putte up to hise lippes,
  And beden hym drynken his deeth yvel,
  Hise daies were y-done,                                12180
  "And if that thow sotil be,
  Help now thiselve;
  If thow be Crist and kynges sone,
  Com down of the roode;
  Thanne shul we leve that lif thee loveth,
  And wol noght lete thee deye."

    "_Consummatum est_," quod Crist,
  And comsede for to swoune
  Pitousliche and pale,
  As a prison that deieth.                               12190
  The lord of lif and of light
  Tho leide hise eighen togideres.
  The day for drede withdrough,
  And derk bicam the sonne;
  The wal waggede and cleef,
  And al the world quaved;
  Dede men for that dene
  Come out of depe graves,
  And tolde why that tempeste
  So longe tyme durede;                                  12200
  "For a bitter bataille,"
  The dede body seide,
  "Lif and deeth in this derknesse
  Hir oon for-dooth hir oother.
  Shal no wight wite witterly
  Who shal have the maistrie
  Er Sonday aboute sonne risyng;"
  And sank with that til erthe.

    Some seide that he was Goddes sone
  That so faire deide.                                   12210
  _Vere filius Dei erat iste._
  And some seide he was a wicche,
  "Good is that we assaye
  Wher he be deed or noght deed,
  Doun er he be taken."

    Two theves also
  Tholed deeth that tyme,
  Upon a croos besides Crist,
  So was the comune lawe.
  A cachepol cam forth                                   12220
  And craked bothe hire legges,
  And the armes after
  Of either of tho theves.
  Ac was no body so boold
  Goddes body to touche;
  For he was knyght and kynges sone,
  Kynde for-yaf that tyme,
  That noon harlot were so hardy
  To leyen hond upon hym.

    Ac ther cam forth a knyght,                          12230
  With a kene spere y-grounde,
  Highte Longeus, as the lettre telleth,
  And longe hadde lore his sighte.
  Bifore Pilat and oother peple
  In the place he hoved;
  Maugree his manye teeth,
  He was maad that tyme
  To take the spere in his hond,
  And justen with Jhesus.
  For alle thei were unhardy,                            12240
  That hoved on horse or stode,
  To touchen hym or to tasten hym,
  Or taken doun of roode.
  But this blynde bacheler
  Baar hym thorugh the herte;
  The blood sprong doun by the spere,
  And unspered the knyghtes eighen.

    Thanne fil the knyght upon knees,
  And cryde hym mercy;
  "Ayein my wille it was, Lord,                          12250
  To wownde yow so soore."
  He sighed and seide,
  "Soore it me a-thynketh,
  For the dede that I have doon
  I do me in youre grace.
  Have on me ruthe! rightful Jhesu!"
  And right with that he wepte.

    Thanne gan Feith felly
  The false Jewes despise,
  Callede hem caytyves                                   12260
  Acorsed for evere;
  "For this foule vileynye
  Vengeaunce to yow falle!
  To do the blynde bete hym y-bounde,
  It was a boyes counseille.
  Cursede caytif!
  Knyghthood was it nevere
  To mys-do a deed body
  By daye or by nyghte.
  The gree yit hath he geten,                            12270
  For al his grete wounde.

    "For youre champion chivaler,
  Chief knyght of yow alle,
  Yilt hym recreaunt rennyng
  Right at Jhesus wille.
  For be this derknesse y-do,
  His deeth worth avenged;
  And ye, lurdaynes, han y-lost,
  For lif shal have the maistrye;
  And youre fraunchise, that fre was,                    12280
  Fallen is in thraldom,
  And ye, cherles, and youre children
  Cheve shulle nevere
  To have lordshipe in londe,
  Ne no lond tilye,
  But al barayne be,
  And usurie usen,
  Which is lif that oure Lord
  In alle lawes acurseth.
  Now youre goode dayes arn doon,                        12290
  As Daniel prophecied,
  Whan Crist cam, of hir kyngdom
  The crowne sholde cesse."
  _Cum veniat sanctus sanctorum, cessabit
      unctio vestra._

    What for feere of this ferly,
  And of the false Jewes,
  I drow me in that derknesse
  To _descendit ad inferna_;
  And there I saugh soothly                              12300
  _Secundum Scripturas_
  Out of the west coste
  A wenche, as me thoughte,
  Cam walkynge in the wey,
  To helle-ward she loked.
  Mercy highte that mayde,
  A meke thyng withalle,
  A ful benigne burde,
  And buxom of speche.

    Hir suster, as it semed,                             12310
  Cam soothly walkynge.
  Evene out of the est,
  And west-ward she lokede,
  A ful comely creature,
  Truthe she highte,
  For the vertue that hire folwede
  A-fered was she nevere.

    Whan thise maydenes mette,
  Mercy and Truthe,
  Either asked oother                                    12320
  Of this grete wonder,
  Of the dyn and of the derknesse,
  And how the day rowed,
  And which a light and a leme
  Lay bifore helle.
  "Ich have ferly of this fare,
  In feith!" seide Truthe,
  "And am wendynge to wite
  What this wonder meneth."

    "Have no merveille," quod Mercy,                     12330
  "Murth it bitokneth.
  A maiden that highte Marie,
  And moder withouten felyng
  Of any kynnes creature,
  Conceyved thorugh speche
  And grace of the Holy Goost,
  Weex greet with childe,
  Withouten wem
  Into this world she broghte hym;
  And that my tale be trewe,                             12340
  I take God to witnesse.

    "Sith this barn was y-bore
  Ben .xxx.^{ti} wynter passed,
  Which deide and deeth tholed
  This day aboute myd-day,
  And that is cause of this clips
  That closeth now the sonne,
  In menynge that man shal
  Fro merknesse be drawe,
  The while this light and this leme                     12350
  Shal Lucifer a-blende.
  For patriarkes and prophetes
  Han preched herof ofte:
  That man shal man save
  Thorugh a maydenes helpe;
  And that was tynt thorugh tree,
  Tree shal it wynne;
  And that deeth a-down broughte,
  Deeth shal releve."

    "That thow tellest," quod Truthe,                    12360
  "Is but a tale of Waltrot.
  For Adam and Eve,
  And Abraham, with othere,
  Patriarkes and prophetes,
  That in peyne liggen,
  Leve thow nevere that yon light
  Hem a-lofte brynge,
  Ne have hem out of helle.
  Hold thi tonge, Mercy!
  It is but a trufle that thow tellest;                  12370
  I, Truthe, woot the sothe.
  For he that is ones in helle,
  Out cometh he nevere.
  Job the prophete patriark
  Repreveth thi sawes."
  _Quia in inferno nulla est redemptio._

    Thanne Mercy ful myldely
  Mouthed thise wordes,
  "Thorugh experience," quod she,
  "I hope thei shul be saved.                            12380
  For venym for-dooth venym;
  And that preve I by reson.
  For of alle venymes
  Foulest is the scorpion,
  May no medicyne helpe
  The place ther he styngeth,
  Til he be deed, and do therto,
  The yvel he destruyeth,
  The firste venymousté
  Thorugh venym of hymselve.                             12390

    "So shal this deeth for-do,
  I dar my lif legge,
  Al that deeth for-dide first
  Thorugh the develes entisyng;
  And right as thorugh gile
  Man was bi-giled,
  So shal grace that bi-gan
  Make a good sleighte."
  _Ars ut artem falleret._

    "Now suffre we," seide Truthe;                       12400
  "I se, as me thynketh,
  Out of the nyppe of the north
  Noght ful her hennes
  Rightwisnesse come rennynge.
  Reste we the while;
  For he woot moore than we,
  He was er we bothe."

    "That is sooth," seide Mercy;
  "And I se here by sowthe
  Where Pees cometh pleyinge,                            12410
  In pacience y-clothed.
  Love hath coveited hire longe,
  Leve I noon oother,
  But he sente hire som lettre,
  What this light by-meneth
  That over-hoveth helle thus,
  She us shal telle."

    When Pees in pacience y-clothed
  Approched ner hem tweyne,
  Rightwisnesse hire reverenced,                         12420
  By hir riche clothyng,
  And preide Pees to telle hire
  To what place she wolde,
  And in hire gaye garnementz
  Whom she grete thoughte.

    "My wil is to wende," quod she,
  "And welcome hem alle
  That many day myghte I noght se
  For merknesse of synne,
  Adam and Eve,                                          12430
  And othere mo in helle;
  Moyses and many mo
  Mercy shul have,
  And I shal daunce therto,
  Do thow so, suster,
  For Jhesus justede wel,
  Joy bigynneth dawe.
  _Ad vesperum demorabitur fletus, et
      ad matutinum lætitia._

    "Love, that is my lemman,                            12440
  Swiche lettres me sente,
  That Mercy, my suster, and I
  Mankynde sholde save,
  And that God hath for-gyven
  And graunted me pees and mercy,
  To be mannes meynpernour
  For evere moore after.
  Lo here the patente!" quod Pees,
  "_In pace in idipsum._
  And that this dede shal dure,                          12450
  _Dormiam et requiescam_."

    "What! ravestow?" quod Rightwisnesse,
  "Or thow art right dronke?
  Levestow that yond light
  Unlouke myghte helle,
  And save mannes soule?
  Suster, wene it nevere.
  For God the bigynnere
  Gaf the doom hymselve,
  That Adam and Eve,                                     12460
  And alle that hem suwede,
  Sholden deye down righte,
  And dwelle in pyne after,
  If that thei touchede a tree,
  And the fruyt eten.

    "Adam afterward
  Ayeins his defence
  Freet of that fruyt,
  And forsook, as it weere,
  The love of oure Lord                                  12470
  And his loore bothe,
  And folwede that the fend taughte,
  And his felawes wille,
  Ayeins reson and rightwisnesse,
  Recorde thus with truthe,
  That hir peyne be perpetuel,
  And no preiere hem helpe.
  For-thi lat hem chewe as thei chosen,
  And chide we noght, sustres;
  For it is bote-lees bale,                              12480
  The byte that thei eten."

    "And I shal preve," quod Pees,
  "Hir peyne moot have ende,
  And from wo into wele
  Mowe wenden at the laste.
  For hadde thei wist of no wo,
  Wele hadde the noght knowen.
  For no wight woot what wele is,
  That nevere wo suffrede;
  Ne what is hoot hunger,                                12490
  That hadde nevere defaute.

    "If no nyght ne weere,
  No man, as I leeve,
  Sholde nevere wite witterly
  What day is to meene.
  Sholde nevere right riche man,
  That lyveth in reste and ese,
  Wite what wo is,
  Ne were the deeth of kynde.

    "So God, that bigan al                               12500
  Of his goode wille,
  Bicam man of a mayde
  Mankynde to save;
  And suffrede to be sold,
  To se the sorwe of deying,
  The which unknytteth alle care,
  And comsynge is of reste.
  For til _modicum_ mete with us,
  I may it wel avowe,
  Woot no wight, as I wene,                              12510
  What y-nogh is to mene.

    "For-thi God of his goodnesse
  The firste gome Adam
  Sette hym in solace,
  And in sovereyn murthe;
  And siththe he suffred hym synne,
  Sorwe to feele,
  To wite what wele was
  Kyndeliche and knowe it.
  And after God auntrede hymself,                        12520
  And took Adames kynde,
  To wite what he hath suffred
  In thre sondry places,
  Bothe in hevene and in erthe,
  And now til helle he thenketh
  To wite what alle wo is,
  And what is alle joye.

    "So it shal fare by this folk,
  Hir folie and hir synne
  Shal lere hem what langour is                          12530
  And lisse withouten ende.
  Woot no wight what werre is
  Ther that pees regneth,
  Ne what is witterly wele
  Til weylawey! hym teche."

    Thanne was ther a wight
  With two brode eighen,
  Book highte that beau-peere,
  A bold man of speche;
  "By Goddes body!" quod this Book,                      12540
  "I wol bere witnesse
  That tho this barn was y-bore,
  Ther blased a sterre
  That alle the wise of this world
  In o wit acorden,
  That swich a barn was y-bore
  In Bethleem the citee,
  That mannes soule sholde save,
  And synne destroye.
  And alle the elementz," quod the Book,                 12550
  "Herof beren witnesse,
  That he was God that al wroghte,
  The wolkne first shewed.

    "Tho that weren in hevene
  Token _stella cometa_,
  And tendeden it as a torche
  To reverencen his burthe;
  The light folwede the Lord
  Into the lowe erthe.

    "The water witnessed that he was God,                12560
  For he wente on it.
  Peter the apostel
  Parceyved his gate,
  And as he wente on the water,
  Wel hym knew, and seide,
  _Jube me venire ad te super aquas._

    "And lo! how the sonne gan louke
  Hire light in hirselve,
  Whan she seigh hym suffre,
  That sonne and see made.                               12570

    "The erthe for hevynesse
  That he wolde suffre,
  Quaked as quyk thyng,
  And al biquasshed the roche.

    "Lo! helle myghte nat holde,
  But opnede tho God tholede,
  And leet out Symondes sone
  To seen hym hange on roode.
  And now shal Lucifer leve it,
  Though hym looth thynke;                               12580
  For _Gigas_ the geaunt
  With a gyn hath engyned
  To breke and to bete a-doun
  That ben ayeins Jhesus.
  And I, Book, wole be brent,
  But Jhesus rise to lyve
  In alle myghtes of man,
  And his moder gladie,
  And conforte al his kyn
  And out of care brynge,                                12590
  And al the Jewene joye
  Unjoynen and unlouken,
  And but thei reversen his roode,
  And his resurexion,
  And bileve on a newe lawe,
  Be lost lif and soule."

    "Suffre we," seide Truthe;
  "I here and see bothe
  How a spirit speketh to helle,
  And biddeth unspere the yates."                        12600
  _Attolite portas, etc._

    A vois loude in that light
  To Lucifer crieth,
  "Prynces of this place,
  Unpynneth and unlouketh!
  For here cometh with crowne
  That kyng is of glorie."

    Thanne sikede Sathan,
  And seide to hem alle,
  "Swich a light ayeins oure leve                        12610
  Lazar out fette;
  Care and encombraunce
  Is comen to us alle!
  If this kyng come in,
  Mankynde wole he fecche,
  And lede it ther hym liketh,
  And lightliche me bynde.
  Patriarkes and Prophetes
  Han parled herof longe,
  That swich a lord and light                            12620
  Sholde lede hem alle hennes."

    "Listneth," quod Lucifer,
  "For I this lord knowe.
  Bothe this lord and this light,
  Is longe a-go I knew hym.
  May no deeth hym dere,
  Ne no develes queyntise;
  And where he wole is his wey,
  Ac ware hym of the perils.
  If he reveth me my right,                              12630
  He robbeth me by maistrie;
  For by right and by reson
  The renkes that ben here
  Body and soule beth myne,
  Bothe goode and ille.
  For hymself seide,
  That sire is of hevene,
  If Adam ete the appul,
  Alle sholde deye
  And dwelle with us develes;                            12640
  This thretynge he made.
  And he that soothnesse is,
  Seide thise wordes.
  And sithen I seised
  Sevene hundred wynter,
  I leeve that lawe nyl noght
  Lete hym the leeste."

    "That is sooth," seide Sathan;
  "But I me soore drede.
  For thow gete hem with gile,                           12650
  And his gardyn breke,
  And in semblaunce of a serpent
  Sete upon the appul-tree,
  And eggedest hem to ete,
  Eve by hirselve;
  And toldest hire a tale,
  Of treson were the wordes;
  And so thow haddest hem out,
  And hider at the laste.
  It is noght graithly geten,                            12660
  Ther gile is the roote.
  For God wol noght be bi-giled,"
  Quod Gobelyn, "ne by-japed;
  We have no trewe title to hem,
  For thorugh treson were thei dampned."                     =

    "Certes, I drede me," quod the devel,
  "Lest Truthe wol hem fecche;
  Thise thritty wynter, as I wene,
  Hath he gon and preched.                               12670
  I have assailled hym with synne,
  And som tyme y-asked
  Wheither he were God or Goddes sone;
  He yaf me short answere.
  And thus hath he trolled forth
  Thise two and thritty wynter.
  And whan I seigh it was so,
  Lepynge I wente
  To warne Pilates wif
  What done man was Jhesus.                              12680
  For Jewes hateden hym,
  And han doon hym to dethe.
  I wolde have lengthed his lif;
  For I leved if he deide,
  That his soule wolde suffre
  No synne in his sighte.
  For the body, while it on bones yede,
  Aboute was evere
  To save men from synne,
  If hemself wolde.                                      12690
  And now I se wher a soule
  Cometh hiderward seillynge,
  With glorie and with gret light,--
  God it is, I woot wel.
  I rede that we fle," quod he,
  "Faste alle hennes;
  For us were bettre noght be,
  Than biden his sighte.
  For thi lesynges, Lucifer,
  Lost is al oure praye.                                 12700

    "First thorugh the we fellen
  Fro hevene so heighe,
  For we leved on thi lesynges;
  Y-lorn we have Adam,
  And al oure lordshipe, I leve,
  A-londe and a-watre."
  _Nunc princeps hujus mundi ejicietur foras_.

    Eft the light bad unlouke;
  And Lucifer answerede,
  "What lord artow?" quod Lucifer.                       12710
  _Quis est iste?_
  "_Rex Gloriæ_,"
  The light soone seide,
  "And lord of myght and of man,
  And alle manere vertues.
  _Dominus virtutum_.
  Dukes of this dymme place,
  Anoon undo thise yates,
  That Crist may come in,
  The kynges sone of hevene!"                            12720

    And with that breeth helle brak,
  With Belialles barres,
  For any wye or warde,
  Wide opned the yates.

    Patriarkes and prophetes,
  _Populus in tenebris_,
  Songen seint Johanes song,
  _Ecce agnus Dei._
  Lucifer loke ne myghte,
  So light hym a-blente.                                 12730

    And tho that oure Lord lovede
  Into his light he laughte;
  And seide to Sathan,
  "Lo! here my soule to amendes
  For alle synfulle soules,
  To save tho that ben worthi.
  Myne thei ben and of me,
  I may the bet hem cleyme.
  And though Reson recorde
  And Right, of myselve,                                 12740
  That if he ete the appul
  Alle sholde deye;
  I bi-highte hem noght here
  Helle for evere.
  For the dede that thei dide,
  Thi deceite it made;
  With gile thow hem gete,
  Ageyn alle reson.
  For in my paleis Paradis,
  In persone of an addre,                                12750
  Falsliche thow fettest
  Thyng that I lovede.

    "Thus y-lik a lusard,
  With a lady visage,
  Thefliche thow me robbedest;
  And the olde lawe graunteth
  That gilours be bigiled,
  And that is good reson.
  _Dentem pro dente et oculum pro oculo._                    =
  _Ergo_ soule shal soule quyte,                         12761
  And synne to synne wende,
  And al that man hath mys-do
  I, man, wole amende;
  Membre for membre
  By the olde lawe was amendes,
  And lif for lif also,
  And by that lawe I clayme it,
  Adam and al his issue
  At my wille herafter,                                  12770
  And that deeth in hem for-dide
  My deeth shal releve,
  And bothe quykne and quyte
  That queynt was thorugh synne.
  And that grace gile destruye,
  Good feith it asketh.
  So leve I noght, Lucifer,
  Ayein the lawe I fecche hem;
  But by right and by reson
  Raunsone here my liges.                                12780
  _Non veni solvere legem, sed adimplere._                   =

    "Thow fettest myne in my place
  Ayeins alle reson,
  Falsliche and felonliche;
  Good feith me it taughte,
  To recovere hem thorugh raunson,
  And by no reson ellis.
  So that thorugh gile thow gete,
  Thorugh grace it is y-wonne.                           12790
  Thow Lucifer in liknesse
  Of a luther addere
  Getest bi gile
  Tho that God lovede.

    "And I in liknesse of a leode,
  That lord am of hevene,
  Graciousliche thi gile have quyt;
  Go gile ayein gile.
  And as Adam and alle
  Thorugh a tree deyden;                                 12800
  Adam and alle thorugh a tree
  Shul turne ayein to lyve;
  And gile is bi-giled,
  And in his gile fallen.
  _Et cecidit in foveam quam fecit._

    "Now bi-gynneth thi gile
  Ageyn thee to turne,
  And my grace to growe
  Ay gretter and widder;
  That art doctour of deeth,                             12810
  Drynk that thow madest.

    "For I that am lord of lif,
  Love is my drynke;
  And for that drynke to-day
  I deide upon erthe.
  I faught so, me thursteth yit,
  For mannes soule sake;
  May no drynke me moiste,
  Ne my thurst slake,
  Til the vendage falle                                  12820
  In the vale of Josaphat,
  That I drynke right ripe must,
  _Resurrectio mortuorum_;
  And thanne shal I come as a kyng,
  Crouned with aungeles,
  And have out of helle
  Alle mennes soules.

    "Fendes and fyndekynes
  Bifore me shul stande,
  And be at my biddyng                                   12830
  Wher so evere me liketh;
  And to be merciable to man
  Thanne my kynde asketh.
  For we beth bretheren of blood,
  But noght in baptisme alle.
  Ac alle that beth myne hole bretheren
  In blood and in baptisme.
  Shul noght be dampned to the deeth
  That is withouten ende.
  _Tibi soli peccavi, etc._                              12840

    "It is noght used in erthe,
  To hangen a feloun
  Ofter than ones,
  Though he were a tretour.
  And if the kyng of that kyngdom
  Come in that tyme
  There feloun thole sholde
  Deeth or oother juwise,
  Lawe wolde he yeve hym lif,
  If he loked on hym.                                    12850
  And I, that am kyng of kynges,
  Shal come swich a tyme
  Ther doom to the deeth
  Dampneth alle the wikked;
  And if lawe wole I loke on hem,
  It lith in my grace
  Wheither thei deye or deye noght
  For that thei diden ille;
  Be it any thyng a-bought
  The boldnesse of hir synnes,                           12860
  I do mercy thorugh rightwisnesse,
  And alle my wordes trewe;
  And though holy writ wole that I be wroke
  Of hem that diden ille,--
  _Nullum malum impunitum, etc._--
  Thei shul be clensed clerliche,
  And wasshen of hir synnes,
  In my prisone Purgatorie,
  Til _parce_ it hote,
  And my mercy shal be shewed                            12870
  To manye of my bretheren.
  For blood may suffre blood,
  Bothe hungry and a-cale;
  Ac blood may noght se blood
  Blede, but hym rewe.
  _Audivi arcana verba quæ non licet
      homini loqui._

    "Ac my rightwisnesse and right
  Shul rulen al helle,
  And mercy al mankynde                                  12880
  Bifore me in hevene.
  For I were an unkynde kyng,
  But I my kynde helpe,
  And nameliche at swich a nede.
  Ther nedes help bihoveth.
  _Non intres in judicium cum servo tuo._                    =

    "Thus by lawe," quod oure Lord,
  "Lede I wole fro hennes
  Tho that me lovede                                     12890
  And leved in my comynge.
  And for thi lesynge, Lucifer,
  That thow leighe til Eve,
  Thow shalt abyen it bittre;"--
  And bond hym with cheynes.
  Astroth and al the route
  Hidden hem in hernes;
  They dorste noght loke on oure Lord,
  The boldeste of hem alle,
  But leten hym lede forth whom hym liked,               12900
  And lete whom hym liste.

    Manye hundred of aungeles
  Harpeden and songen,
  _Culpat caro, purgat caro,
  Regnat Deus Dei caro._

    Thanne pipede Pees
  Of Poesie a note,
  _Clarior est solito post maxima nebula Phoebus,            =
  Post inimicitias, etc._                                12910

    "After sharpe shoures," quod Pees,
  "Moost shene is the sonne;
  Is no weder warmer
  Than after watry cloudes;
  Ne no love levere,
  Ne lever frendes,
  Than after werre and wo,
  Whan Love and Pees ben maistres.
  Was nevere werre in this world,
  Ne wikkednesse so kene,                                12920
  That ne Love, and hym liste,
  To laughynge ne broughte,
  And pees thorugh pacience
  Alle perils stoppeth."

    "Trewes," quod Truthe;
  "Thow tellest us sooth, by Jhesus!
  Clippe we in covenaunt,
  And ech of us clippe oother."
  "And leteth no peple," quod Pees,
  "Perceyve that we chidde.                              12930
  For inpossible is no thyng
  To hym that is almyghty."

    "Thow seist sooth," quod Rightwisnesse;
  And reverentliche hire kiste.
  "Pees and pees here!
  _Per sæcula sæculorum._"
  _Misericordia et veritas obviaverunt
      sibi, justitia et pax osculatæ sunt._

    Truthe trumpede tho,
  And song _Te Deum laudamus_;                           12940
  And thanne lutede,
  In a loud note,
  _Ecce quam bonum et quam jocundum, etc._

    Til the day dawed
  Thise damyseles dauncede,
  That men rongen to the resurexion.
  And right with that I wakede,
  And callede Kytte my wif,
  And Calote my doghter;
  And bad hem rise and reverence                         12950
  Goddes resurexion;
  And crepe to the cros on knees,
  And kisse it for a juwel,
  For Goddes blissede body
  It bar for oure boote;
  And it a-fereth the fend,
  For swich is the myghte,
  May no grisly goost
  Glide there it walketh.                                12959

       *       *       *       *       *


          _Passus Decimus Nonus, explicit Do-bet, et incipit Do-best._

  Thus I awaked and wroot                                12960
  What I hadde y-dremed;
  And dighte me derely,
  And dide me to chirche,
  To here holly the masse,
  And to be housled after.

    In myddes of the masse,
  Tho men yede to offryng,
  I fel eft-soones a-slepe;
  And sodeynly me mette
  That Piers the Plowman                                 12970
  Was peynted al blody,
  And com in with a cros
  Bifore the comune peple,
  And right lik in alle thynges
  To oure Lord Jhesus.

    And thanne called I Conscience,
  To kenne me the sothe;
  "Is this Jhesus the justere," quod I,
  "That Jewes dide to dethe?
  Or it is Piers the Plowman.                            12980
  Who peynted hym so rede?"

    Quod Conscience, and kneled tho,
  "Thise arn Piers armes,
  Hise colours and his cote armure;
  Ac he that cometh so blody
  Is Crist with his cros,
  Conquerour of cristene."

    "Why calle hym Crist," quod I,
  "Sithen Jewes calle hym Jhesus?
  Patriarkes and prophetes                               12990
  Prophecied bifore
  That alle kynne creatures
  Sholden knelen and bowen,
  Anoon as men nempned
  The name of God Jhesu.
  _Ergo_ is no name
  To the name of Jhesus;
  Ne noon so nedeful to nempne
  By nyghte ne by daye.
  For alle derke develes                                 13000
  Arn a-drad to heren it;
  And synfulle aren solaced
  And saved by that name.
  And ye callen hym Crist;
  For what cause telleth me?
  Is Crist moore of myght,
  And moore worthi name,
  Than Jhesu or Jhesus,
  That al oure joye com of?"

    "Thow knowest wel," quod Conscience,                 13010
  "And thow konne reson,
  That knyght, kyng, conquerour,
  May be o persone.
  To be called a knyght is fair,
  For men shul knele to hym;
  To be called a kyng is fairer,
  For he may knyghtes make;
  Ac to be conquerour called,
  That cometh of special grace,
  And of hardynesse of herte,                            13020
  And of hendenesse,
  To make lordes of laddes
  Of lond that he wynneth,
  And fre men foule thralles
  That folwen noght hise lawes.

    "The Jewes that were gentil men,
  Jhesus thei despised,
  Bothe his loore and his lawe;
  Now are thei lowe cherles.
  As wide as the world is,                               13030
  Noon of hem ther wonyeth
  But under tribut and taillage,
  As tikes and cherles;
  And tho that bicome cristene
  Bi counseil of the baptisme,
  Aren frankeleyns, free men,
  Thorugh fullynge that thei toke,
  And gentil men with Jhesu;
  For Jhesu was y-fulled,
  And upon Calvarie on cros                              13040
  Y-crouned kyng of Jewes.

    "It bicometh to a kyng
  To kepe and to defende;
  And conquerour of conquest
  Hise lawes and his large.
  And so dide Jhesus the Jewes,
  He justified and taughte hem
  The lawe of lif,
  That laste shal evere;
  And defended from foule yveles,                        13050
  Feveres and fluxes,
  And from fendes that in hem were,
  And false bileve.
  Tho was he Jhesus of Jewes called,
  Gentile prophete,
  And kyng of hir kyngdom,
  And croune bar of thornes.

    "And tho conquered he on cros,
  As conquerour noble.
  Mighte no deeth hym for-do,                            13060
  Ne a-doun brynge,
  That he naroos and regnede,
  And ravysshed helle:
  And tho was he conquerour called
  Of quyke and of dede.
  For he yaf Adam and Eve
  And othere mo blisse,
  That longe hadde y-leyen bifore
  As Luciferis cherles.

    "And sith he yaf largely                             13070
  Alle hise lele liges
  Places in Paradis,
  At hir partynge hennes;
  He may wel be called conquerour,
  And that is Crist to mene.

    "Ac the cause that he cometh thus
  With cros of his passion,
  Is to wissen us therwith
  That whan that we ben tempted,
  Therwith to fighte and defenden us                     13080
  Fro fallynge to synne.
  And so bi his sorwe,
  That who so loveth joye
  To penaunce and to poverte
  He moste puten hymselven,
  And muche wo in this world
  To willen and suffren.

    "Ac to carpe moore of Crist,
  And how he com to that name,
  Faithly for to speke,                                  13090
  His firste name was Jhesus;
  Tho he was born in Bethleem,
  As the book telleth,
  And cam to take mankynde,
  Kynges and aungeles
  Reverenced hym faire
  With richesses of erthe,
  Aungeles out of hevene
  Come knelynge and songe,
  _Gloria in excelsis Deo, etc._                         13100

    "Kynges that come after
  Knelede, and offrede
  Mirre and muche gold,
  Withouten mercy askynge
  Or any kynnes catel,
  But knowelichynge hym sovereyn
  Bothe of lond, sonne, and see,
  And sithenes thei wente
  Into hir kyngene kith,
  By counseil of aungeles.                               13110
  And there was that word fulfilled
  The which thow of speke.
  _Omnia cælestia terrestria flectantur
      in hoc nomine Jhesu._

    "For alle the aungeles of hevene
  At his burthe knelede,
  And al the wit of the world
  Was in tho thre kynges,
  Reson and rightwisnesse
  And ruthe thei offrede;                                13120
  Wherfore and why
  Wise men that tyme,
  Maistres and lettred men,
  _Magi_ hem callede.

    "That o kyng cam with reson,
  Covered under sense.

    "The seconde kyng siththe
  Soothliche offrede
  Rightwisnesse under reed gold,
  Resones felawe.                                        13130
  For gold is likned to leautee
  That laste shal evere.

    "The thridde kyng tho kam
  Knelynge to Jhesu,
  And presented hym with pitee,
  Apperynge by mirre.
  For mirre is mercy to mene
  And mylde speche of tonge.

    "Thre y-liche honeste thynges
  Were offred thus at ones,                              13140
  Thorugh thre kynne kynges
  Knelynge to Jhesu,

    "Ac for alle thise preciouse presentz,
  Oure Lord kyng Jhesus
  Was neither kyng ne conquerour,
  Til he gan to wexe
  In the manere of a man,
  And that by muchel sleighte,
  As it bi-cometh a conquerour
  To konne manye sleightes,                              13150
  And manye wiles and wit,
  That wole ben a ledere.
  And so dide Jhesu in hise dayes,
  Who so hadde tyme to telle it.

    "Som tyme he suffrede,
  And som tyme he hidde hym;
  And some tyme he faught faste,
  And fleigh outher while;
  And som tyme he gaf good,
  And grauntede heele bothe,                             13160
  Lif and lyme,
  As hym liste he wroghte.
  As kynde is of a conquerour,
  So comsede Jhesu,
  Til he hadde alle hem
  That he for bledde.

    "In his juventee this Jhesus
  At Jewene feeste
  Water into wyn turnede,
  As holy writ telleth.                                  13170
  And there bigan God
  Of his grace to do-wel.
  For wyn is likned to lawe
  And lif-holynesse,
  And lawe lakkede tho,
  For men lovede noght hir enemys.
  And Crist counseileth thus,
  And comaundeth bothe,
  To lered and to lewede
  To lovyen oure enemys.                                 13180
  So at the feeste first,
  As I bifore tolde,
  Bigan God of his grace
  And goodnesse to do-wel.
  And thanne was he called
  Noght holy Crist, but Jhesu,
  A faunt fyn ful of wit,
  _Filius Mariæ._
  For bifore his moder Marie
  Made he that wonder;                                   13190
  That she first and formest
  Ferme sholde bileve
  That he thorugh grace was gete,
  And of no gome ellis.
  He wroghte that by no wit,
  But thorugh word one;
  After the kynde that he cam of,
  There comsede he do-wel.

    "And whan he woxen was moore,
  In his moder absence,                                  13200
  He made lame to lepe,
  And yaf light to blynde,
  And fedde with two fisshes,
  And with fyve loves,
  Sore a fyngred folk
  Mo than fyve thousand.

    "Thus he confortede carefulle
  And caughte a gretter name,
  The which was Do-bet,
  Where that he wente,                                   13210
  For deve thorugh hise doynges to here
  And dombe speke he made,
  And alle he heeled and halp
  That hym of grace askede.
  And tho was he called in contré
  Of the comune peple,
  For the dedes that he dide,
  _Fili David, Jhesus._
  For David was doghtiest
  Of dedes in his tyme.                                  13220
  The burdes tho songe,
  _Saul interfecit mille, et David decem millia._            =

    "For-thi the contree ther Jhesu cam
  Called hym _fili David_,
  And nempned hym of Nazareth,
  And no man so worthi
  To be kaiser or kyng
  Of the kyngdom of Juda,
  Ne over Jewes justice,                                 13230
  As Jhesus was, hem thoughte.

    "Wherof Cayphas hadde envye,
  And othere of the Jewes;
  And for to doon hym to dethe
  Day and nyght thei casten,
  Killeden hym on cros wise
  At Calvarie on Friday,
  And sithen buriede his body,
  And beden that men sholde,
  Kepen it fro nyght comeris                             13240
  With knyghtes y-armed,
  For no frendes sholde hym fecche.
  For prophetes hem tolde
  That that blissede body
  Of burieles risen sholde,
  And goon into Galilee,
  And gladen hise apostles,
  And his moder Marie;
  Thus men bifore demede.

    "The knyghtes that kepten it                         13250
  Bi-knewe it hemselven,
  That aungeles and archaungeles
  Er the day spronge
  Come knelynge to the corps,
  And songen _Christus resurgens_,
  Verray men bifore hem alle,
  And forth with hem he yede.

    "The Jewes preide hem be pees,
  And bi-soughte the knyghtes
  Telle the comune that ther cam                         13260
  A compaignie of hise apostles,
  And bi-wicched hem as thei woke,
  And awey stolen it.

    "Ac Marie Maudeleyne
  Mette hym by the weye,
  Goynge toward Galilee
  In godhede and manhede,
  And lyves and lokynge,
  And she a-loud cride
  In ech a compaignie ther she cam,                      13270
  _Christus resurgens_.

    "Thus cam it out that Crist over-coom,
  Recoverede and lyvede
  _Sic oportet Christum pati et intrare, etc._               =
  For that that wommen witeth,
  May noght wel be counseille.

    "Peter parceyved al this,
  And pursued after,
  Bothe James and Johan,                                 13280
  Jhesu for to seke,
  Thaddee and ten mo,
  With Thomas of Inde.
  And as alle thise wise wyes
  Weren togideres,
  In an hous al bi-shet,
  And hir dore y-barred,
  Crist cam in, and al closed
  Bothe dore and yates,
  To Peter and to thise apostles,                        13290
  And seide _pax vobis!_
  And took Thomas by the hand,
  And taughte hym to grope,
  And feele with hise fyngres
  His flesshliche herte.

    "Thomas touched it,
  And with his tonge seide,
  '_Deus meus et Dominus meus_--
  Thow art my lord, I bi-leve,
  My God, lord Jhesu;                                    13300
  Thow deidest and deeth tholedest,
  And deme shalt us alle,
  And now art lyvynge and lokynge,
  And laste shalt evere.'

    "Crist carpede thanne,
  And curteisliche seide,
  'Thomas, for thow trowest this,
  And treweliche bi-levest it,
  Blessed mote thow be,
  And be shalt for evere;                                13310
  And blessed mote thei alle be
  In body and in soule
  That nevere shul se me in sighte,
  As thow doost nowthe,
  And lelliche bi-leve al this,
  I love hem and blesse hem.'
  _Beati qui non viderunt, etc._

    "And whan this dede was doon,
  Do-best he taughte,
  And yaf Piers power,                                   13320
  And pardon he grauntede,
  To alle maner men
  Mercy and forgifnesse,
  Hym myght to assoille
  Of alle manere synne,
  In covenaunt that thei come
  And kneweliched to paie
  To Piers pardon the Plowman,
  _Redde quod debes._

    "Thus hath Piers power,                              13330
  By his pardon paied,
  To bynde and unbynde,
  Bothe here and ellis where;
  And assoille men of alle synnes,
  Save of dette one.

    "Anoon after an heigh
  Up into hevene
  He wente, and wonyeth there,
  And wol come at the laste,
  And rewarde hym right wel                              13340
  That _reddit quod debet_,
  Paieth parfitly,
  As pure truthe wolde;
  And what persone paieth it nought,
  Punysshen he thenketh,
  And demen hem at domes day
  Bothe quyke and dede.
  The goode to the godhede
  And to greet joye,
  And wikkede to wonye                                   13350
  In wo withouten ende."

    Thus Conscience of Crist
  And of the cros carpede,
  And counseiled me to knele therto.
  And thanne cam, me thoughte,
  Oon _spiritus paraclitus_
  To Piers and to hise felawes
  In liknesse of a lightnynge
  He lighte on hem alle,
  And made hem konne and knowe                           13360
  Alle kynne langages.
  I wondred what that was,
  And waggede Conscience,
  And was a-fered of the light,
  For in fires lightnesse
  _Spiritus paraclitus_
  Over-spradde hem alle.

    Quod Conscience, and knelede,
  "This is Cristes messager,
  And cometh fro the grete God,                          13370
  And Grace is his name.
  Knele now," quod Conscience,
  "And if thow kanst synge,
  Welcome hym and worshipe hym
  With _Veni creator spiritus_."

    Thanne song I that song,
  So dide manye hundred,
  And cride with Conscience,
  "Help us, God of Grace!"

    And thanne bigan Grace                               13380
  To go with Piers Plowman,
  And counseillede hym and Conscience
  The comune to sompne;
  "For I wole dele to-day
  And gyve divine grace
  To alle kynne creatures
  That han hir fyve wittes,
  Tresour to lyve by
  To hir lyves ende,
  And wepne to fighte with                               13390
  That wole nevere faille.
  For Antecrist and hise
  Al the world shul greve,
  And acombre thee, Conscience,
  But if Crist thee helpe.

    "And false prophetes fele,
  Flatereris and gloseris,
  Shullen come and be curatours
  Over kynges and erles,
  And Pride shal be pope,                                13400
  Prynce of holy chirche,
  Coveitise and unkyndenesse
  Cardinals hym to lede;
  For-thi," quod Grace, "er I go,
  I wol gyve yow tresor,
  And wepne to fighte with
  Whan Antecrist yow assaileth."
  And gaf ech man a grace
  To gide with hymselven,
  That ydelnesse encombre hym noght,                     13410
  Envye ne pride.
  _Divisiones gratiarum sunt, etc._

    Some he yaf wit
  With wordes to shewe,
  Wit to wynne hir liflode with,
  As the world asketh,
  As prechours and preestes,
  And prentices of lawe,
  They lelly to lyve
  By labour of tonge,                                    13420
  And by wit to wissen othere
  As grace hem wolde teche.

    And some he kennede craft
  And konnynge of sighte,
  With sellynge and buggynge
  Hir bilyve to wynne.

    And some he lered to laboure,
  A lele lif and a trewe;
  And some he taughte to tilie,
  To dyche and to thecche,                               13430
  To wynne with her liflode
  Bi loore of his techynge.

    And some to devyne and divide,
  Noumbres to kenne;
  And some to compace craftily,
  And colours to make;
  And some to se and to seye
  What sholde bi-falle,
  Bothe of wele and of wo,
  Telle it er it felle,                                  13440
  As astronomyens thorugh astronomye,
  And philosofres wise.

    And some to ryde, and to recovere
  That wrongfully was wonne;
  He wissed hem to wynne it ayein
  Thorugh wightnesse of handes,
  And fecchen it fro false men
  With folvyles lawes.

    And some he lered to lyve
  In longynge to ben hennes,                             13450
  In poverte and in penaunce,
  To preie for alle cristene.
  And alle he lered to be lele,
  And ech a craft love oother;
  And forbad hem alle debat,
  That noon were among hem.
  "Though some be clenner than some,
  Ye se wel," quod Grace,
  "That he that useth the faireste craft,
  To the fouleste I kouthe have put hym.                 13460
  Thynketh alle," quod Grace,
  "That grace cometh of my gifte;
  Loketh that no man lakke oother,
  But loveth alle as bretheren.

    "And who that moost maistries kan
  Be myldest of berynge;
  And crouneth Conscience kyng,
  And maketh Craft youre stiward,
  And after Craftes conseil
  Clotheth yow and fede.                                 13470
  For I make Piers the Plowman
  My procuratour and my reve,
  And registrer to receyve,
  _Redde quod debes._
  My prowor and my plowman
  Piers shal ben on erthe,
  And for to tilie truthe
  A teeme shal he have."

    Grace gaf Piers a teeme
  Of foure grete oxen.                                   13480
  That oon was Luk, a large beest,
  And a lowe chered;
  And Mark, and Mathew the thridde,
  Myghty beestes bothe;
  And joyned to hem oon Johan,
  Moost gentil of alle,
  The pris neet of Piers Plow,
  Passynge all othere.

    And Grace gaf Piers
  Of his goodnesse foure stottes;                        13490
  Al that hise oxen eriede,
  Thei to harewen after.
  Oon highte Austyn,
  And Ambrose another,
  Gregori the grete clerk,
  And Jerom the goode.
  Thise foure the feith to teche
  Folweth Piers teme,
  And harewede in an hand while
  Al holy Scripture,                                     13500
  With two harewes that thei hadde,
  An oold and a newe.
  _Id est, vetus testamentum et novum._

    And Grace gaf greynes,
  The cardynal vertues,
  And sew hem in mannes soule,
  And sithen he tolde hir names.
  _Spiritus prudentiæ._
  The firste seed highte;
  And who so ete that,                                   13510
  Ymagynen he sholde
  Er he deide any deeth,
  Devyse wel the ende;
  And lerned men a ladel bugge
  With a long stele,
  And caste for to kepe a crokke
  To save the fatte above.

    The seconde seed highte
  _Spiritus temperantiæ._
  He that ete of that seed                               13520
  Hadde swich a kynde,
  Sholde nevere mete ne muchel drynke
  Make hym to swelle,
  Ne no scornere ne scolde
  Out of skile hym bringe,
  Ne wynnynge ne wele
  Of worldliche richesse,
  Waste word of ydelnesse
  Ne wikked speche moeve;
  Sholde no curious clooth                               13530
  Comen on his rugge,
  Ne no mete in his mouth
  That maister Johan spicede.

    The thridde seed that Piers sew
  Was _spiritus fortitudinis_.
  And who ete that seed,
  Hardy was he evere
  To suffren al that God sente,
  Siknesse and angres;
  Mighte no lesynges ne lyere,                           13540
  Ne los of worldly catel,
  Maken hym for any mournynge
  That he nas murie in soule,
  And bold and abidynge
  Bismares to suffre;
  And pleieth al with pacience
  And _parce mihi domine_;
  And covered hym under conseille
  Of Caton the wise:
  _Esto forti animo, cum sis dampnatus inique._              =

    The ferthe seed that Piers sew                       13552
  Was _spiritus justitiæ_.
  And he that ete of that seed,
  Sholde be evere trewe,
  With God, and naught a-gast,
  But of gile one;
  For gile gooth so pryvely,
  That good feith outher while
  Maye nought ben espied,                                13560
  For _spiritus justitiæ_.

    _Spiritus justitiæ._
  Spareth noght to spille
  Hem that ben gilty,
  And for to correcte
  The kyng, if he falle
  In gilt or in trespas.
  For counteth he no kynges wrathe,
  Whan he in court sitteth
  To demen as a domesman,                                13570
  A-drad was he nevere
  Neither of duc ne of deeth,
  That he ne dide lawe,
  For present or for preiere,
  Or any prynces lettres;
  He dide equité to alle
  Evene forth his power.

    Thise foure sedes Piers sew;
  And siththe he dide hem harewe
  With olde lawe and newe lawe,                          13580
  That love myghte wexe
  Among tho foure vertues,
  And vices destruye.
  For comunliche in contrees
  Cammokes and wedes
  Foulen the fruyt in the feld,
  Ther thei growen togideres;
  And so doon vices
  Vertues worthi.

    Quod Piers, "Hareweth alle that konneth kynde wit,
  By conseil of thise doctours;                          13591
  And tilieth after hir techynge
  The cardynale vertues."

    "Ayeins thei greynes," quod Grace,
  "Bi-gynneth for to ripe,
  Ordeigne thee an hous, Piers,
  To herberwe inne thi cornes."

    "By God! Grace," quod Piers,
  "Ye moten gyve tymber,
  And ordeyne that hous,                                 13600
  Er ye hennes wende."

    And Grace gaf hym the cros,
  With the croune of thornes,
  That Crist upon Calvarie
  For mankynde on pyned,
  And of his baptisme and blood
  That he bledde on roode
  He made a manere morter,
  And mercy it highte.
  And therwith Grace bi-gan                              13610
  To make a good foundement,
  And watlede it and walled it
  With his peyne and his passion,
  And of al holy writ
  He made a roof after,
  And called that hous _Unitee_,
  Holy chirche on Englisshe.

    And whan this dede was doon,
  Grace devysede
  A cart highte cristendom                               13620
  To carie Piers sheves;
  And gaf hym caples to his carte,
  Contricion and confession;
  And made preesthod hayward,
  The while hymself wente
  As wide as the world is
  With Piers to tilie truthe.

    Now is Piers to the plow;
  And Pride it aspide,
  And gadered hym a greet oost,                          13630
  For to greven he thynketh
  Conscience and alle cristene
  And cardinale vertues,
  Blowe hem doun and breke hem,
  And bite a-two the mores;
  And sente forth Surquidous,
  His sergeaunt of armes,
  And his spye Spille-love,
  Oon Spek-yvel bihynde.

    Thise two coome to Conscience,                       13640
  And to cristen peple,
  And tolde hem tidynges,
  That tyne thei sholde the sedes
  That Piers there hadde y-sowen,
  The cardynale vertues;
  "And Piers bern worth y-broke,
  And thei that ben in _Unitee_
  Shulle come out, and Conscience
  And youre two caples,
  Confession and Contricion;                             13650
  And youre carte the bileeve
  Shal be coloured so queyntely,
  And covered under sophistrie,
  That Conscience shal noght
  Knowe by Contricion
  Ne by Confession
  Who is cristene or hethene;
  Ne no manere marchaunt
  That with moneie deleth,
  Wheither he wynne with right,                          13660
  With wrong, or with usure.

    "With swiche colours and queyntise
  Cometh Pride y-armed,
  With the lord that lyveth after
  The lust of his body,
  To wasten on welfare,
  And in wikked lyvynge,
  Al the world in a while
  Thorugh oure wit," quod Pryde.

    Quod Conscience to alle cristene tho,                13670
  "My counseil is to wende
  Hastiliche into Unitee,
  And holde we us there;
  And praye we that a pees weere
  In Piers berne the Plowman.
  For witterly I woot wel,
  We beth noght of strengthe
  To goon agayn Pride,
  But Grace weere with us."

    And thanne kam Kynde Wit                             13680
  Conscience to teche,
  And cryde and comaundede
  Alle cristene peple
  For to delven a dych
  Depe aboute Unitee,
  That holy chirche stode in Unitee,
  As it a pyl weere.

    Conscience comaundede tho
  Alle cristene to delve,
  And make a muche moot,                                 13690
  That myghte ben a strengthe
  To helpe holy chirche
  And hem that it kepeth.

    Thanne alle kynne cristene,
  Save comune wommen,
  Repenteden and refused synne,
  Save thei one,
  And false men, flatereris,
  Usurers, and theves,
  Lyeris, and queste-mongeres                            13700
  That were for-sworen ofte,
  Witynge and wilfully
  With the false helden,
  And for silver were for-swore,
  Soothly they wiste it.

    Ther nas no cristene creature
  That kynde wit hadde,
  Save sherewes one
  Swiche as I spak of,
  That he ne halp a quantité                             13710
  Holynesse to wexe,
  Some thorugh bedes biddynge,
  And some thorugh pilgrymages
  And othere pryvé penaunces,
  And somme thorugh penyes delynge.

    And thanne wellede water
  For wikkede werkes,
  Egreliche ernynge
  Out of mennes eighen,
  Clennesse out of comune,                               13720
  And clerkes clene lyvynge,
  Made Unitee holy chirche
  In holynesse to stonde.

    "I care noght," quod Conscience,
  "Though Pride come nouthe.
  The lord of lust shal be letted
  Al this lente, I hope.
  Cometh," quod Conscience,
  "Ye cristene, and dyneth,
  That han laboured lelly                                13730
  Al this lenten tyme.
  Here is breed y-blessed,
  And Goddes body therunder:
  Grace, thorugh Goddes word,
  Yaf Piers power
  And myghtes to maken it,
  And men to ete it after
  In helpe of hir heele
  Ones in a monthe,
  Or as ofte as thei hadde nede,                         13740
  Tho that hadde y-paied
  To Piers pardon the Plowman.
  _Redde quod debes._"

    "How?" quod al the comune,
  "Thow conseillest us to yelde
  Al that we owen any wight,
  Er we go to housel?"

    "That is my conseil," quod Conscience,
  "And cardinale vertues,
  That ech man for-gyve oother,                          13750
  And that wol the pater-noster.
  _Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, etc._
  And so to ben assoilled,
  And siththen ben houseled."

    "Ye, baw!" quod a brewere,
  "I wol noght be ruled,
  By Jhesu! for al youre janglynge
  With _spiritus justitiæ_,
  Ne after Conscience, by Crist!
  While I kan selle                                      13760
  Bothe dregges and draf,
  And drawe it out at oon hole
  Thikke ale and thynne ale,
  For that is my kynde,
  And noght hakke after holynesse.
  Hold thi tonge, Conscience!
  Of _spiritus justitiæ_,
  Thow spekest muche on ydel."

    "Caytif!" quod Conscience,
  "Cursede wrecche!                                      13770
  Un-blessed artow, brewere,
  But if thee God helpe.
  But thow lyve by loore
  Of _spiritus justitiæ_,
  The chief seed that Piers sew,
  Y-saved worstow nevere.
  But Conscience the comune fede,
  And cardinale vertues,
  Leve it wel, thei ben lost,
  Bothe lif and soule."                                  13780

    "Thanne is many a man lost,"
  Quod a lewed vicory.--
  "I am a curatour of holy kirke,
  And cam nevere in my tyme
  Man to me, that me kouthe telle
  Of cardinale vertues,
  Or that acountede Conscience
  At a cokkes fethere or an hennes.
  I knew nevere cardynal,
  That he ne cam fro the pope;                           13790
  And we clerkes, whan thei come,
  For hir comunes paieth,
  For hir pelure and hir palfreyes mete,
  And pilours that hem folweth.

    "The comune _clamat cotidie_
  Ech a man til oother,
  The contree is the corseder
  That cardinals comme inne;
  And ther thei ligge and lenge moost,
  Lecherie there regneth.                                13800

    "For-thi," quod this vicory,
  "By verray God! I wolde
  That no cardynal coome
  Among the comune peple;
  But in hir holynesse
  Helden hem stille
  At Avynone among the Jewes,--
  _Cum sancto sanctus eris, etc._--
  Or in Rome, as hir rule wole,
  The relikes to kepe;                                   13810
  And thow, Conscience, in kynges court,
  And sholdest nevere come thennes;
  And Grace, that thow graddest so of,
  Gyour of alle clerkes;
  And Piers with his newe plow,
  And ek with his olde,
  Emperour of al the world,
  That alle men were cristene.

    "Inparfit is that pope
  That al the world sholde helpe,                        13820
  And sendeth swiche that sleeth hem
  That he sholde save.

    "And wel worthe Piers the Plowman,
  That pursueth God in doynge,
  _Qui pluit super justos
  Et injustos_ at ones,
  And sent the sonne to save
  A cursed mannes tilthe,
  As brighte as to the beste man,
  Or to the beste womman.                                13830

    "Right so Piers the Plowman
  Peyneth hym to tilye
  As wel for a wastour
  And wenches of the stewes,
  As for hymself and his servauntz,
  Save he is first y-served;
  And travailleth and tilieth
  For a tretour also soore
  As for a trewe tidy man,
  Alle tymes y-like.                                     13840
  And worshiped be he that wroghte al,
  Bothe good and wikke,
  And suffreth that synfulle be,
  [Tyl som tyme that thei repenten].
  And God amende the pope!
  That pileth holy kirke,
  And cleymeth bifore the kyng
  To be kepere over cristene;
  And counteth noght though cristene ben
  Killed and robbed;                                     13850
  And fynt folk to fighte,
  And cristen blood to spille,
  Ayein the olde lawe and newe lawe,
  As Luc therof witnesseth.
  _Non occides, mihi vindictam, etc._

    "It semeth, bi so
  Hymself hadde his wille,
  That he reccheth right noght
  Of al the remenaunt.
  And Crist of his curteisie                             13860
  The cardinals save,
  And torne hir wit to wisdom,
  And to welthe of soule!
  For the comune," quod this curatour,
  "Counten ful litel
  The counseil of Conscience,
  Or cardinale vertues.
  But if thei seighe, as by sighte,
  Som what to wynnyng,
  Of gile ne of gabbyng                                  13870
  Gyve thei nevere tale.
  For _spiritus prudentiæ_
  Among the peple is gyle;
  And alle tho faire vertues
  As vices thei semeth.
  Ech man subtileth a sleighte
  Synne for to hide,
  And coloureth it for a konnynge,
  And a clene lyvynge."

    Thanne lough ther a lord,                            13880
  And "By this light!" seide,
  "I holde it right and reson
  Of my reve to take
  Al that myn auditour,
  Or ellis my styward,
  Counseilleth me bi hir acounte
  And my clerkes writyng.
  With _spiritus intellectus_
  Thei seke the reves rolles;
  And with _spiritus fortitudinis_                       13890
  Fecche it I wole after."

    And thanne cam ther a kyng,
  And, by his croune! seide,
  "I am kyng with croune
  The comune to rule,
  And holy kirke and clergie
  From cursed men to fende;
  And if me lakketh to lyve by,
  The lawe wole I take it
  Ther I may hastilokest it have.                        13900
  For I am heed of lawe;
  And ye ben but membres,
  And I above alle.
  And sith I am youre aller heed,
  I am youre aller heele,
  And holy chirches chief help,
  And chieftayn of the comune;
  And what I take of yow two,
  I take it at the techynge
  Of _spiritus justitiæ_,                                13910
  For I jugge yow alle.
  So I may boldely be housled,
  For I borwe nevere,
  Ne crave of my comune,
  But as my kynde asketh."

    "In condicion," quod Conscience,
  "That thow konne defende
  And rule thi reaume in reson,
  Right wel and in truthe,
  Take thow mayst in reson                               13920
  As thi lawe asketh.
  _Omnia tua sunt ad defendendum,
      sed non ad deprædandum._"
  The viker hadde fer hoom,
  And faire took his leeve;
  And I awakned therwith,
  And wroot as me mette.                                 13927

       *       *       *       *       *


          _Passus Vicesimus de Visione, et Primus de Do-best._

  Thanne as I wente by the wey,                          13928
  Whan I was thus awaked,
  Hevy-chered I yede,
  And elenge in herte;
  I ne wiste wher to ete,
  Ne at what place,
  And it neghed neigh the noon,
  And with Nede I mette
  That afrounted me foule,
  And faitour me called:
  "Kanstow noght excuse thee,
  As dide the kyng and othere,
  That thow toke to thy bilyve,                          13940
  To clothes and to sustenaunce;
  And by techynge and by tellynge
  Of _spiritus temperantiæ_,
  And thow nome na-moore
  Than nede thee taughte,
  And nede he hath no lawe,
  Ne nevere shal falle in dette;
  For thre thynges he taketh,
  His lif for to save.

    "That is mete, whan men hym werneth                  13950
  And he no moneye weldeth,
  Ne wight noon wol ben his borugh,
  Ne wed hath noon to legge;
  And he caughte in that caas,
  And come therto by sleighte,
  He synneth noght, soothliche,
  That so wynneth his foode.

    "And though he come so to a clooth,
  And kan no bettre chevyssaunce,
  Nede anoon righte                                      13960
  Nymeth hym under maynprise.

    "And if hym list for to lape,
  The lawe of kynde wolde
  That he dronke at ech dych,
  Er he for thurst deide.
  So Nede al gret nede
  May nymen, as for his owene,
  Withouten counseil of Conscience
  Or cardynale vertues,
  So that he sewe and save                               13970
  _Spiritus temperantiæ_.

    "For is no vertue bi fer
  To _spiritus temperantiæ_;
  Ne _spiritus justitiæ_
  Ne _spiritus fortitudinis_.
  For _spiritus fortitudinis_
  Forfeteth ful ofte.
  He shal do moore than mesure
  Many tyme and ofte,
  And bete men over bittre,                              13980
  And some of hem to litel,
  And greve men gretter
  Than good feith it wolde

    "And _spiritus justitiæ_
  Shal juggen, wol he nele he,
  After the kynges counseil,
  And the comune like.
  And _spiritus prudentiæ_
  In many a point shal faille
  Of that he weneth wolde falle,                         13990
  If his wit ne weere.
  Wenynge is no wysdom,
  Ne wys ymaginacion,
  _Homo proponit, et Deus disponit_,
  And governeth alle goode vertues;
  Ac Nede is next hym,
  For anoon he meketh,
  And as lowe as a lomb,
  For lakkyng of that hym nedeth.
  Wise men forsoke wele,                                 14000
  For thei wolde be nedy,
  And woneden in wildernesse,
  And wolde noght he riche.

    "And God al his grete joye
  Goostliche he lefte,
  And cam and took mankynde,
  And bi-cam nedy.
  So nedy he was, as seith the book,
  In manye sondry places,
  That he seide in his sorwe                             14010
  On the selve roode,
  Bothe fox and fowel
  May fle to hole and crepe,
  And the fissh hath fyn
  To flete with to reste,
  Ther Nede hath y-nome me
  That I moot nede abide
  And suffre sorwes ful soure
  That shal to joye torne,
  For-thi be noght abasshed                              14020
  To bide and to be nedy;
  Sith he that wroghte al the world
  Was wilfulliche nedy,
  Ne nevere noon so nedy
  Ne poverer deide."

  Whan Nede hath under-nome me thus,
  Anoon I fil a-slepe;
  And mette ful merveillously,
  That in mannes forme
  Antecrist cam thanne,                                  14030
  And al the crop of Truthe
  Torned it up-so-doun,
  And over-tilte the roote;
  And fals sprynge and sprede,
  And spede mennes nedes,
  In ech a contree ther he cam
  He kutte awey truthe,
  And gerte gile growe there,
  As he a Good weere.

    Freres folwede that fend,                            14040
  For he gaf hem copes;
  And religiouse reverenced hym,
  And rongen hir belles,
  And al the covent forth cam
  To welcome that tyraunt,
  And alle hise as wel as hym,
  Save oonly fooles.
  Whiche foolis were wel levere
  To deye than to lyve
  Lenger, sith Lenten                                    14050
  Was so rebuked.
  And as a fals fend, Antecrist
  Over alle folk regnede,
  Save that were mylde men and holye,
  That no meschief dradden,
  Defyed alle falsnesse
  And folk that it usede;
  And what kyng that hem conforted,
  Knowynge hem any while,
  They cursed and hir conseil,                           14060
  Were it clerk or lewed.

    Antecrist hadde thus soone
  Hundredes at his baner,
  And Pride it bar
  Boldely aboute,
  With a lord that lyveth
  After likyng of body,
  That kam ayein Conscience,
  That kepere was and gyour
  Over kynde cristene                                    14070
  And cardynale vertues.

    "I conseille," quod Conscience tho,
  "Cometh with me, ye fooles,
  Into Unité holy chirche,
  And holde we us there;
  And crye we to kynde
  That he come and defende us,
  Fooles, fro thise fendes lymes,
  For Piers love the Plowman;
  And crye we to al the comune,                          14080
  That thei come to Unitee,
  And there abide and bikere
  Ayeins Beliales children."

    Kynde Conscience tho herde,
  And cam out of the planetes,
  And sente forth his forreyours,
  Feveres and fluxes,
  Coughes and cardiacles,
  Crampes and tooth-aches,
  Rewmes and radegundes,                                 14090
  And roynous scabbes,
  Biles and bocches,
  And brennynge agues,
  Frenesies and foule yveles,
  Forageres of kynde,
  Hadde y-priked and prayed
  Polles of peple,
  That largeliche a legion
  Loste hir lif soone.

    There was, "Harrow and help!                         14100
  Here cometh Kynde,
  With Deeth that is dredful
  To undo us alle!"

    The lord that lyved after lust
  Tho aloud cryde
  After Confort, a knyght,
  To come and bere his baner;
  "_A l'arme! à l'arme!_" quod that lord,
  "Ech lif kepe his owene!"

    And thanne mette thise men,                          14110
  Er mynstrals myghte pipe,
  And er heraudes of armes
  Hadden discryved lordes,
  Elde the hoore
  That was in the vaunt-warde.
  And bar the baner bifore Deeth,
  Bi right he it cleymede.

    Kynde cam after,
  With many kene soores,
  As pokkes and pestilences,                             14120
  And muche peple shente;
  So Kynde thorugh corrupcions
  Kilde ful manye.

    Deeth cam dryvynge after,
  And al to duste passhed
  Kynges and knyghtes,
  Kaysers and popes,
  Lered and lewed,
  He leet no man stonde
  That he hitte evene,                                   14130
  That evere stired after.
  Manye a lovely lady,
  And lemmans of knyghtes,
  Swowned and swelted
  For sorwe of hise dyntes.

    Conscience of his curteisie
  To Kynde he bi-soughte
  To cesse and suffre,
  And see wher thei wolde
  Leve Pride pryvely,                                    14140
  And be parfite cristene.

    And Kynde cessede tho
  To se the peple amende.
  Fortune gan flatere thanne
  Tho fewe that were alyve,
  And bi-highte hem long lif,
  And Lecherie he sente
  Amonges alle manere men,
  Wedded and unwedded,
  And gaderede a greet hoost                             14150
  Al agayn Conscience.

    This Lecherie leide on
  With a janglynge chiere,
  And with pryvee speche
  And peyntede wordes;
  And armede hym in ydelnesse,
  And in heigh berynge.
  He bar a bowe in his hand,
  And manye brode arewes,
  Weren fethered with fair bi-heste                      14160
  And many a fals truthe.
  With hise un-tidy tales
  He tened ful ofte.
  Conscience and his compaignye,
  Of holy chirche the techeris.

    Thanne cam Coveitise,
  And caste how he myghte
  Overcome Conscience
  And cardinale vertues,
  And armed hym in avarice,                              14170
  And hungriliche lyvede.
  His wepne was al wiles
  To wynnen and to hiden;
  With glosynges and with gabbynges
  He giled the peple.

    Symonye hym sente
  To assaille Conscience,
  And preched to the peple;
  And prelates thei hem maden
  To holden with Antecrist,                              14180
  His temporaltees to save;
  And cam to the kynges counseille
  As a kene baroun,
  And kneled to Conscience
  In court afore hem alle,
  And garte good feith flee,
  And fals to abide;
  And boldeliche bar a-doun,
  With many a bright noble,
  Muche of the wit and wisdom                            14190
  Of Westmynstre Halle.
  He jogged to a justice,
  And justed in his eere,
  And over-tilte al his truthe
  With "Tak this up amendement."

    And to the Arches in haste
  He yede anoon after,
  And tornede cyvyle into symonye,
  And siththe he took the official
  For a mantel of menever,                               14200
  And made lele matrymoyne
  Departen er deeth cam,
  And devors shapte.

    "Allas!" quod Conscience, and cryde tho,
  "Wolde Crist of his grace
  That coveitise were cristene!
  That is so kene a fightere,
  And boold and bidynge
  While his bagge lasteth."

    And thanne lough Lyf,                                14210
  And leet daggen hise clothes,
  And armed hym an haste
  With harlotes wordes;
  And heeld holynesse a jape,
  And hendenesse a wastour;
  And leet leautee a cherl,
  And lyere a fre man;
  Conscience and his counseil
  He counted at a flye
  Thus relyede Lif,                                      14220
  For a litel fortune;
  And priketh forth with Pride,
  Preiseth he no vertue,
  Ne careth noght how Kynde slow,
  And shal come at the laste,
  And kille alle erthely creatures,
  Save Conscience oone.
  Lyf lepte aside,
  And laughte hym a lemman;
  "Heele and I," quod he,                                14230
  "And heighnesse of herte,
  Shal do thee noght drede
  Neither deeth ne elde,
  And to forgyte sorwe,
  And gyve noght of synne."

    This likede Lif,
  And his lemman Fortune;
  And geten in hir glorie
  A gadelyng at the laste,
  Oon that muche wo wroghte,                             14240
  Sleuthe was his name.
  Sleuthe wax wonder yerne,
  And soone was of age,
  And wedded oon Wanhope,
  A wenche of the stuwes.
  Hir sire was a sysour
  That nevere swoor truthe,
  Oon Tomme Two-tonge,
  Atteynt at ech enqueste.

    This Sleuthe was war of werre,                       14250
  And a slynge made,
  And threw drede of dispair
  A dozeyne myle aboute.

    For care Conscience tho
  Cryde upon Elde,
  And bad hym fonde to fighte,
  And a-fere Wanhope.

    And Elde hente good hope,
  And hastiliche he shifte hym,
  And wayved awey Wanhope,                               14260
  And with Lif he fighteth.
  And Lif fleigh for feere
  To phisik after helpe,
  And bi-soughte hym of socour,
  And of his salve he hadde.
  He gaf hym gold good woon,
  That gladede his herte;
  And thei gyven hym ageyn
  A glazene howve.

    Lyf leeved that lechecraft                           14270
  Lette sholde elde,
  And dryven awey deeth
  With dyas and drogges.

    And Elde auntred hym on lyf,
  And at the laste he hitte
  A phisicien with a furred hood,
  That he fel in a palsie,
  And there dyed that doctour
  Er thre dayes after.

    "Now I se," seide Lif,                               14280
  "That surgerie ne phisik
  May noght a myte availle
  To mede ayein Elde."
  And in hope of his heele
  Good herte he hente,
  And rood forth to a revel,
  A ryche place and a murye;
  The compaignye of confort
  Men cleped it som tyme.

    And Elde anoon after me                              14290
  And over myn heed yede;
  And made me balled bifore,
  And bare on the crowne.
  So harde he yede over myn heed,
  It wole be sene evere.

    "Sire yvele y-taught, Elde!" quod I,
  "Unhende go with the!
  Sith whanne was the wey
  Over mennes heddes?
  Haddestow be hende," quod I,                           14300
  "Thow woldest have asked leeve."

    "Ye, leve lurdeyn!" quod he;
  And leyde on me with age,
  And hitte me under the ere,
  Unnethe myghte ich here.
  He buffetted me so aboute the mouth,
  That out my teeth he bette;
  And gyved me in goutes,
  I may noght goon at large.
  And of the wo that I was inne                          14310
  My wif hadde ruthe,
  And wisshed ful witterly
  That I were in hevene;
  For the lyme that she loved me fore,
  And leef was to feele,--
  On nyghtes, namely,
  Whan we naked weere,--
  I ne myghte in no manere
  Maken it at hir wille;
  So Elde and she, soothly,                              14320
  Hadden it for-beten.

    And as I seet in this sorwe,
  I saugh how Kynde passede;
  And Deeth drogh neigh me.
  For drede gan I quake,
  And cryde to Kynde,
  "Out of care me brynge!
  Lo! Elde the hoore
  Hath me bi-seye.
  Awreke me! if youre wille be,                          14330
  For I wolde ben hennes."

    "If thow wolt be wroken,
  Wend into Unitee,
  And hold thee there evere,
  Til I sende for thee;
  And loke thow konne som craft,
  Er thow come thennes."

    "Counseille me, Kynde," quod I,
  "What craft is best to lerne."

    "Lerne to love," quod Kynde,                         14340
  "And leef of alle othere."

    "How shal I come to catel so,
  To clothe me and to feede?"

    "And thow love lelly," quod he,
  "Lakke shal thee nevere
  Mete ne worldly weede,
  While thi lif lasteth."

    And there by conseil of Kynde
  I comsed to rome
  Thorugh Contricion and Confession,                     14350
  Til I cam to Unitee.
  And there was Conscience conestable
  Cristene to save,
  And bisegede soothly
  With sevene grete geauntz
  That with Antechrist helden
  Harde ayein Conscience.

    Sleuthe with his slynge
  An hard assaut he made.
  Proude preestes coome with hym                         14360
  Mo than a thousand,
  In paltokes and pyked shoes,
  And pisseris longe knyves,
  Coomen ayein Conscience,
  With Coveitise thei helden.

    "By Marie!" quod a mansed preest
  Of the Marche of Walys,
  "I counte na-moore Conscience,
  By so I cacche silver,
  Than I do to drynke                                    14370
  A draughte of good ale."
  And so seiden sixty
  Of the same contree;
  And shotten ayein with shot
  Many a sheef of othes,
  And brode hoked arwes,
  Goddes herte and hise nayles;
  And hadden almoost Unitee,
  And holynesse a-down.

    Conscience cryede, "Helpe, Clergie!                  14380
  Or ellis I falle,
  Thorugh inparfite preestes
  And prelates of holy chirche."
  Freres herden hym crye,
  And comen hym to helpe;
  Ac for thei kouthe noght wel hir craft,
  Conscience forsook hem.

    Nede neghede tho neer,
  And Conscience he tolde
  That thei come for coveitise                           14390
  To have cure of soules;
  "And for thei are povere, peraventure,
  For patrymoyne thei faille,
  They wol flatere and fare wel
  With folk that ben riche.
  And sithen thei chosen chele
  And cheitiftee poverte,
  Lat hem chewe as thei chose,
  And charge hem with no cure.
  For lomere he lyeth,                                   14400
  That liflode moot begge,
  Than he that laboureth for liflode,
  And leneth it beggeris.
  And sithen freres forsoke
  The felicité of erthe,
  Lat hem be as beggeris,
  Or lyve by aungeles foode."

    Conscience of this counseil tho
  Comsede for to laughe,
  And curteisliche conforted hem,                        14410
  And called in alle freres,
  And seide, "Sires, soothly
  Welcome be ye alle
  To Unitee and holy chirche;
  Ac o thyng I yow preye,
  Holdeth yow in Unitee,
  And haveth noon envye
  To lered ne to lewed,
  But lyveth after youre reule,
  And I wol be youre borugh                              14420
  Ye shal have breed and clothes
  And othere necessaries y-nowe,
  Yow shal no thyng faille,
  With that ye leve logik,
  And lerneth for to lovye.
  For love lafte thei lordshipe,
  Bothe lond and scole,
  Frere Fraunceys and Domynyk,
  For love to be holye.

    "And if ye coveite cure,                             14430
  Kynde wol yow teche
  That in mesure God made
  Alle manere thynges,
  And sette hem at a certein
  And a siker nombre,
  And nempnede names newe,
  And noumbrede the sterres.
  _Qui numerat multitudinem stellarum,
      et omnibus eis, etc._

    "Kynges and knyghtes                                 14440
  That kepen and defenden,
  Han officers under hem,
  And ech of hem a certein.
  And if thei wage men to werre,
  Thei write hem in noumbre;
  Alle othere in bataille
  Ben y-holde brybours,
  Pylours and pyke-harneys,
  In ech a place y-cursed,
  Wol no man tresore hem paie,                           14450
  Travaille thei never so soore.

    "Monkes and moniales,
  And alle men of religion,
  Hir ordre and hir reule wole
  To han a certein noumbre,
  Of lewed and of lered,
  The lawe wole and asketh
  A certein for a certein,
  Save oonliche of freres.

    "For thi," quod conscience, "by Crist!               14460
  Kynde wit me telleth
  It is wikked to wage yow,
  Ye wexen out of noumbre;
  Hevene hath evene noumbre,
  And helle is withoute noumbre.
  For-thi I wolde witterly
  That ye were in the registre,
  And youre noumbre under notaries signe,
  And neither mo ne lasse."

    Envye herde this,                                    14470
  And heet freres to go to scole
  And lerne logyk and lawe,
  And ek contemplacion,
  And preche men of Plato,
  And preve it by Seneca,
  That alle thynges under hevene
  Oughte to ben in comune.

    And yet he lyeth, as I leve,
  That to the lewed so precheth;
  For God made to men a lawe,                            14480
  And Moyses it taughte.
  _Non concupisces rem proximi tui._

    And yvele in this y-holde
  In parisshes of Engelonde;
  For persons and parissh-preestes
  That sholde the peple shryve,
  Ben curatours called,
  To knowe and to hele
  Alle that ben hir parisshens,
  Penaunce to enjoigne;                                  14490
  And sholden be ashamed in his shrift;
  Ac shame maketh hem wende
  And fleen to the freres,
  As fals folk to Westmynstre,
  That borweth, and bereth it thider,
  And thanne biddeth frendes
  Yerne of forgifnesse,
  Or lenger yeres loone.
  Ac while he is in Westmynstre,
  He wol be bifore,                                      14500
  And maken hym murie
  With oother mennes goodes.

    And so it fareth with muche folk
  That to the freres hem shryveth,
  As sisours and executours,
  Thei wol gyve the freres
  A parcel to preye for hem,
  And make hemself murye
  With the residue and the remenaunt
  That othere men bi-swonke,                             14510
  And suffre the dede in dette
  To the day of doome.

    Envye herfore
  Hatede Conscience;
  And freres to philosophie
  He fond thanne to scole,
  The while Coveitise and Unkyndenesse,
  Conscience assaillede.
  In Unitee holy chirche
  Conscience held hym,                                   14520
  And made Pees porter
  To pynne the yates,
  Of alle tale-telleris
  And titeleris in ydel
  Ypocrisie and he
  An hard assaut thei made,
  And woundede wel wikkedly
  Many a wis techere
  That with Conscience acordede
  And cardynale vertues.                                 14530

    Conscience called a leche,
  That koude wel shryve,
  To go salve tho that sike ben
  And thorugh synne y-wounded
  Shrift shoop sharpe salve,
  And made men do penaunce
  For hir mys-dedes
  That thei wroght hadde,
  And that Piers were y-payed:
  _Redde quod debes._                                    14540

    Some liked noght this leche,
  And lettres thei sente,
  If any surgien were the segge
  That softer koude plastre.
  Sire Leef-to-lyve-in-lecherie
  Lay there and gronede,
  For fastynge of a Frydaye
  He ferde as he wolde deye.

    "Ther is a surgien in this sege
  That softe kan handle,                                 14550
  And moore of phisik bi fer
  And fairer he plastreth,
  Oon frere Flaterere,
  Is phisicien and surgien."

    Quod Contricion to Conscience,
  "Do hym come to Unitee;
  For here is many a man
  Hurt thorugh Ypocrisye."

    "We han no nede," quod Conscience,
  "I woot no bettre leche                                14560
  Than person or parisshe-preest,
  Penitauncer or bisshope,
  Save Piers the Plowman,
  That hath power over hem alle,
  And indulgence may do,
  But if dette lette it."

    "I may wel suffre," seide Conscience,
  "Syn ye desiren
  That frere Flaterere be fet
  And phisike yow sike."                                 14570

    The frere herof herde
  And hiede faste
  To a lord for a lettre,
  Leve to have to curen,
  As a curatour he were;
  And cam with hise lettres
  Boldely to the bisshope,
  And his brief hadde,
  In contrees ther he coome
  Confessions to here,                                   14580
  And cam there Conscience was,
  And knokked at the yate.

    Pees unpynned it,
  Was porter of Unitee,
  And in haste askede
  What his wille were.

    "In faith!" quod this frere,
  "For profit and for helthe
  Carpe I wolde with Contricion,
  And therfore cam I hider."                             14590

    "He is sik," seide Pees,
  "And so are manye othere.
  Ypocrisie hath hurt hem,
  Ful hard is if thei kevere."

    "I am a surgien," seide the segge,
  "And salves kan make.
  Conscience knoweth me wel,
  And what I kan do bothe."

    "I praye thee," quod Pees tho,
  "Er thow passe ferther,                                14600
  What hattestow? I praye thee;
  Hele noght thi name."

    "Certes," seide his felawe,
  "Sire _Penetrans-domos_."

    "Ye, go thi gate," quod Pees,
  "By God! for al thi phisik,
  But thow konne som oother craft,
  Thow comest nought herinne.
  I knew swich oon ones,
  Noght eighte wynter hennes,                            14610
  Coom in thus y-coped
  At a court there I dwelde,
  And was my lordes leche,
  And my ladies bothe.
  And at the laste this lymytour,
  Tho my lord was oute,
  He salvede so oure wommen
  Til some were with childe."

    Hende-speche heet Pees
  Open the yates,                                        14620
  "Lat in the frere and his felawe,
  And make hem fair cheere;
  He may se and here,
  So it may bifalle
  That lif thorugh his loore
  Shal leve Coveitise,
  And be a-drad of Deeth,
  And withdrawe hym fram Pryde,
  And acorde with Conscience,
  And kisse hir either oother."                          14630

    Thus thorugh Hende-speche
  Entred the frere,
  And cam in to Conscience,
  And curteisly hym grette.

    "Thou art welcome," quod Conscience,
  "Kanstow heele the sike?
  Here is Contricion," quod Conscience,
  "My cosyn, y-wounded.
  Conforte hym," quod Conscience,
  "And tak kepe to hise soores.                          14640
  The plastres of the person
  And poudres biten to soore;
  He lat hem ligge over longe,
  And looth is to chaunge hem;
  Fro lenten to lenten
  He lat hise plastres bite."

    "That is over longe," quod this lymytour,
  "I leve I shal amende it."
  And gooth and gropeth Contricion,
  And gaf hym a plastre                                  14650
  Of 'a pryvee paiement,
  And I shal praye for yow
  For al that ye ben holden to,
  Al my lif tyme,
  And make yow, my lady,
  In masse and in matyns
  As frere of oure fraternytee
  For a litel silver.'

    Thus he gooth and gadereth,
  And gloseth there he shryveth,                         14660
  Til Contricion hadde clene foryeten
  To crye and to wepe;
  And wake for hise wikked werkes,
  As he was wont to doone,
  For confort of his confessour
  Contricion he lafte,
  That is the soverayneste salve
  For alle kynne synnes.

    Sleuthe seigh that,
  And so dide Pryde,                                     14670
  And comen with a kene wille
  Conscience to assaille.

    Conscience cryed eft,
  And bad Clergie helpe hym,
  And also Contricion,
  For to kepe the yate.

    "He lyth and dremeth," seide Pees,
  "And so do manye othere,
  The frere with his phisyk
  This folk hath enchaunted,                             14680
  And plastred hem so esily,
  Thei drede no synne."

    "By Crist!" quod Conscience tho,
  "I wole bicome a pilgrym,
  And walken as wide
  As the world lasteth,
  To seken Piers the Plowman,
  That Pryde may destruye;
  And that freres hadde a fyndyng,
  That for nede flateren,                                14690
  And countrepledeth me, Conscience.
  Now Kynde me avenge,
  And sende me hap and heele,
  Til I have Piers the Plowman."
  And siththe he gradde after Grace,
  Til I gan awake.                                       14696

          _Explicit hic Dialogus Petri Plowman._

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *



  Cros and curteis Christ                                    1
  This begynnyng spede,
  For the faders frendshipe
  That fourmed heaven,
  And through the special spirit
  That sprong of hem tweyne,
  And al in one God-hed
  Endles dwelleth.
  A, and all myn a.b.c.
  After have I lerned,                                      10
  And patred in my pater-noster
  Iche poynt after other;
  And after al, myne Ave-marie
  Almost to the end;
  But al my care is to comen,
  For I can nought my Crede.
  Whan I shall shewen my shrift,
  Shent mote I worthen;
  The preeste wil me punyche,
  And penaunce enjoyne;                                     20
  The lengthe of a lenton
  Flesh moot I leve,
  After that Estur is y-come,
  And that is hard fare;
  And Wedenesday iche wyke
  Withouten flesh-mete.
  And also Jesu hymselfe
  To the Jewes he saide,
  "He that leeveth nought on me,
  He leseth the blisse."                                    30
  Therfor lerne the byleve
  Levest me were,
  Gif any worldly wight
  Wil me [it] couthe;
  Other lewed or lered,
  That lyveth thereafter
  And fulliche folweth the feith,
  And feyneth non other;
  That no worldeliche wele
  Wilneth no tyme,                                          40
  But liveth in lovyng of God,
  And his lawe holdeth;
  And for no gettyng of good
  Never his God greveth,
  But folweth hym the full way,
  As he the folke taughte.
  But to many maner of men
  This matter is asked,
  Both to lered and to lewed,
  That seyn that they liveden                               50
  Hollich on the grete God,
  And holden al his hestes.
  But by a fraynyng for than
  Faileth ther manye.
  For first I frayned the freres,
  And they me fulle tolden,
  That al the fruyt of the fayth
  Was in her foure orders;
  And the cofres of Christendom,
  And the keie bothen,                                      60
  And the lock of byleve,
  Lieth loken in her hondes,

    Then wennede I to wytten,
  And with a whight I mette,
  A Minoure in a morwe-tide;
  And to this man I saide,
  "Sire, for greate Godes love!
  The graith thou me tell,
  Of what myddel-erde man
  Myght I best lerne                                        70
  My Crede? For I can it nought,
  My kare is the more.
  And therfore, for Christes love!
  Thy counseyl I preie.
  A Carm me hath y-covenant,
  The nede me to teche;
  But for thou knowest Carmes wel,
  Thy counsail I aske."

    This Minour loked on me,
  And laughyng he sayde,                                    80
  "Leve christen man,
  I leve that thou [art] madde:
  Whough shulde thei techen the god,
  That con non hemselve?
  They ben but jugulers,
  And japers of kynde;
  Lorels and lechures,
  And lemans holden,
  Neyther in order ne out,
  But unneth lybbeth,                                       90
  And by-japeth the folk
  With gestes of Rome.
  It is but a faynt folke,
  Y-founded upon japes.
  They maketh hem Maries men,
  And so thei men tellen;
  And leieth on oure Lady
  Many a long tale.
  And that wicked folk
  Wymmen betraieth,                                        100
  And begileth hem her good
  With glaverynge wordes,
  And therwith holden her hous
  In harlotes warkes.
  And, so save me God!
  I hold it greate synne
  To gyven hem any good,
  Swiche glotones to fynde,
  To mayntaynen swiche maner men
  That michel good destruieth.                             110
  Yet seyn they in her sutiltie
  To sottes in townes,
  Thei comen out of Carmeli
  Christ for to folwen,
  And feyneth hem with holynesse,
  That yvele hem bisemeth.
  Thei lyven more in lecherie,
  And lyeth in her tales,
  Than suen any good liif;
  But lurken in her selles,                                120
  And wynnen werdliche good,
  And wasten it in synne.
  And ghif thei couthen her Crede,
  Other on Christ leveden,
  Thei weren nought so hardy
  Swyche harlotri usen.
  Sikerli I can nought fynden
  Who hem first founded;
  But the foles foundeden hemselfe
  Freres of the Pye,                                       130
  And maken hem mendynans,
  And marre the puple.
  But what glut of tho gomes
  May any good kachen,
  He wyl kepen it hemself,
  And cofrene it faste;
  And thoigh his felawes fayle good,
  For hym he may sterven.
  Her monei mai byquest,
  And testament maken,                                     140
  And none obedience bere,
  But don as hym luste.
  And ryght as Robartes men
  Raken aboute
  At feyres and at full ales,
  And fyllen the cuppe;
  And precheth al of pardon,
  To plesen the puple.
  Her pacience is al pased,
  And put out to ferme;                                    150
  And pride is in her povertie,
  That litel is to preisen.
  And at the lullyng of oure lady
  The wymmen to lyken,
  And miracles of mydwyves,
  And maken wymmen to wenen
  That the lace of oure Lady smok
  Lighteth hem of children.
  Thei ne prechen nought of Powel,
  Ne penaunce for synne;                                   160
  But al of merci and mensk,
  That Marie may helpen.
  With sterne staves and stronge
  Thei over lond straketh,
  Thider as here lemmans liggeth,
  And lurketh in townes,
  Grey grete-heded quenes
  With gold by the eighen,
  And seyne that her sustern thei ben,
  That sojurneth aboute.                                   170
  And thus abouten the gon,
  And Godes folke betrayeth.
  It is the puple that Powel
  Preched of in his tyme;
  He seyde of swich folke
  That so aboute wente,
  Wepyng, I warne you
  Of walkers aboute,
  It beth enemyes of the cros
  That Christ upon tholede.                                180
  Swiche slomrers in slepe,
  Slaughte in her ende,
  And glotonye is her God,
  With gloppynge of drynk,
  And gladnesse in glees,
  And grete joye y-maked.
  In the shendyng of swiche
  Shal mychel folk lawghe;
  Therfore, frend, for thy feith
  Fond to don beter;                                       190
  Leve nought on tho losels,
  Put let hem forth pasen,
  For thei ben fals in her faith,
  And feele mo other."

    "Alas! frere," quath I tho,
  "My purpos is y-failed;
  Now is my comfort a-cast.
  Canstou no bote,
  Wher I myght meten with a man
  That myghte me wyssen                                    200
  For to conne my Crede,
  Christ for to folwen?"

    "Certeyn, felawe," quath the frere,
  "Withouten any fayle,
  Of al men upon mold,
  We Minorities most sheweth
  The pure aposteles liif,
  With penance on erthe,
  And suen hem in sanctité,
  And sufferen wel harde.                                  210
  We haunten no tavernes,
  Ne hobelen abouten;
  At marketes and miracles
  We medeleth us never;
  We hondlen no moneye,
  But monelich faren,
  And haven hunger at the mete,
  At ich a mel ones.
  We haven forsaken the world,
  And in wo libbeth,                                       220
  In penaunce and poverte,
  And prechethe the puple
  By ensample of oure liif
  Soules to helpen;
  And in poverte preien
  For al oure parteneres,
  That gyveth us any good
  God to honouren,
  Other bel other book,
  Or bred to our foode,                                    230
  Other catel, other cloth
  To coveren with oure bones.
  For we buldeth a burwgh,
  A brod and a large,
  A chirch and a chapitle,
  With chaumbers a-lofte;
  With wide wyndowes y-wrought,
  And walles wel heye,
  That mote ben portreid and paint,
  And pulched ful clene,                                   240
  With gay glitering glas
  Glowyng as the sunne.
  And mightestou amenden us
  With moneye of thyn owen,
  Thou shouldest knely bifore Christ
  In compas of gold,
  In the wyde window west-ward
  Wel neigh in the myddel,
  And saint Fraunceis hymselfe
  Shal folden the in his cope,                             250
  And present the to the Trinité,
  And praye for thy synnes.
  Thy name shal noblich ben wryten
  And wrought for the nones,
  And in remembraunce of the
  Y-rad there for evere.
  And, brother, be thou nought a-ferd;
  Bythenk in thyne herte,
  Though thou conne nought thy Crede,
  Care thou no-more!                                       260
  I shal asoilen the, syr,
  And setten it on my soule;
  And thou may maken this good,
  Thenk thou non other."

    "Sir," I sayde, "in certaine
  I shal gon and asaye."
  And he set on me his hond,
  And asoiled me clene,
  And there I parted him fro
  Wythouten and peyne;                                     270
  In covenaunt that I come agayne,
  Christ he me be-taught.

    Then saide I to myself,
  "Here semeth litel treuthe!
  First to blame his brother,
  And bakbyten hym foule,
  There as curteis Christ
  Clerliche saide,
  Whow myght thou in thy brothers eighe
  A bare mote loken,                                       280
  And in thyn owen eighe
  Nought a beme toten?
  See fyrst on thyself,
  And sithen on another,
  And clense clene thy syght,
  And kepe wel thyne eighe,
  And for another mannes eighe
  Ordeyne after.
  And also I see coveitise
  Catel to fongen,                                         290
  That Christ hath clerliche forboden,
  And clenliche destrueden;
  And sayde to his sueres
  For sothe on this wyse,
  'Nought thy neighbors good
  Coveyte in no tyme.'
  But charité and chastité
  Ben chased out clene.
  But Christ seide by her fruit
  Men shal hem ful knowen."                                300
  Thanne saide I, "certeine, syr,
  Thou demest ful trewe."

    Than thought I to frayne the first
  Of this foure ordres;
  And presed to the Prechoures,
  To proven hir wille.
  Ich highed to her house,
  To herken of more;
  And when I came to that court,
  I gaped aboute,                                          310
  Swich a bild bold
  Y-buld upon erthe heighte
  Say I nought in certeyn
  Syththe a long tyme.
  I semed opon that hous,
  And yerne theron loked,
  Whow the pileres weren y-paint,
  And pulched ful clene,
  And queyntly y-corven
  With curious knottes;                                    320
  With wyndowes wel y-wrought,
  Wyde up a-lofte,
  And thanne I entred in,
  And even forth wente;
  And al was walled that wone,
  Though it wiid were,
  With posternes in privité
  To pasen when hem liste;
  Orcheyardes and erberes
  Evesed wel clene,                                        330
  And a curious cros
  Craftly entayled,
  With tabernacles y-tight
  To toten al abouten.
  The pris of a plough-lond
  Of penies so rounde
  To aparaile that pyler
  Were pure litel.
  Than I munte me forth
  The mynstre to knowen,                                   340
  And awaytede a woon
  Wonderly wel y-bild,
  With arches on everiche half,
  And bellyche y-corven,
  With crochetes on corneres,
  With knottes of gold,
  Wyde wyndowes y-wrought,
  Y-wryten ful thikke,
  Shynen with shapen sheldes,
  To shewen aboute,                                        350
  With merkes of merchauntes
  Y-medeled betwene,
  Mo than twentie and two
  Twyse y-noumbbred.
  Ther is non heraud that hath
  Half swich a rolle,
  Right as a rageman
  Hath rekned hem newe.
  Tombes upon tabernacles
  Tylde opon lofte,                                        360
  Housed in hornes,
  Harde set abouten,
  Of armede alabaustre
  Clad for the nones,
  Maad opon marbel
  In many manner wyse,
  Knyghtes in ther conisante
  Clad for the nones;
  Alle it semed seyntes
  Y-sacred opon erthe;                                     370
  And lovely ladies y-wrought
  Leyen by her sydes
  In manye gay garnemens,
  That weren gold beten.
  Though the tax of ten yere
  Were trewely y-gadered,
  Nolde it nought maken that hous
  Half, as I trowe.
  Than cam I to that cloystre,
  And gaped abouten,                                       380
  Whough it was pilered and peynt,
  And portreyed wel clene,
  Al y-hyled with leed
  Lowe to the stones,
  And y-paved with poynttyl
  Ich point after other;
  With cundites of clene tyn
  Closed al aboute,
  With lavoures of latun
  Loveliche y-greithed.                                    390
  I trowe the gaynage of the ground
  In a gret shyre
  Nold aparaile that place
  Oo poynt tyl other ende.
  Thanne was that chapitre house
  Wrought as a greet chirche,
  Corven and covered;
  And queyntelyche entayled,
  With semliche selure
  Y-seet on lofte,                                         400
  As a parlement-hous
  Y-peynted aboute.
  Thanne ferd I into fraytoure,
  And fond there another,
  An halle for an hygh kynge
  An houshold to holden,
  With brode bordes abouten
  Y-benched wel clene,
  With wyndowes of glaas
  Wrought as a chirche                                     410
  Than walkede I ferrer,
  And went al abouten,
  And seigh halles full heygh,
  And houses ful noble,
  Chambres with chymeneys,
  And chapeles gaye,
  And kychenes for an high kynge
  In casteles to holden;
  And her dortoure y-dight
  With dores ful stronge;                                  420
  Fermerye and fraitur,
  With fele mo houses,
  And al strong ston wal
  Sterne upon heithe,
  With gaye garites and grete,
  And iche hole y-glased,
  And other houses y-nowe
  To herberwe the queene.
  And yet thise bilderes wiln beggen
  A bagge ful of whete                                     430
  Of a pure pore man,
  That may onethe paye
  Half his rent in a yere,
  And half ben byhynde.

    Than turned I ayen,
  Whan I hadde all y-toted,
  And fond in a freitoure
  A frere on a benche,
  A greet chorl and a grym,
  Growen as a tonne,                                       440
  With a face so fat
  As a ful bleddere
  Blowen bretful of breth,
  And as a bagge honged
  On bothen his chekes, and his chyn
  With a chol lollede
  So greet as a gos ey,
  Growen al of grece;
  That al wagged his fleish
  As a quick myre.                                         450
  His cope, that bi-clypped hym,
  Wel clene was it folden,
  Of double worstede y-dyght
  Doun to the hele.
  His kyrtel of clene whiit,
  Clenlyche y-sewed,
  Hit was good y-now of ground
  Greyn for to beren.
  I haylsede that hirdman,
  And hendlich I sayde,                                    460
  "Gode sire, for Godes love!
  Canstou me graith tellen
  To any worthely wiight
  That wissen me couthe,
  Whow I shulde conne my Crede,
  Christ for to folwe,
  That levede lelliche hymselfe
  And lyvede therafter,
  That feynede no falshede,
  But fully Chrise suwede?                                 470
  For sich a certeyn man
  Syker wold I trosten,
  That he wolde telle me the trewthe,
  And turne to non other.
  And an Austyn this ender day
  Egged me faste,
  That he wolde techen me wel,
  He plyght me his treuthe,
  And seyde me "certeyn,
  Syghthen Christ deyed                                    480
  Oure ordre was euelles
  And erst y-founde."

    "First, felawe," quath he,
  "Fy on his pilche!
  He is but abortiif,
  Eked with cloutes,
  He holdeth his ordynaunce
  With hores and theves,
  And purchaseth hem pryvyleges
  With penyes so rounde.                                   490
  It is a pur pardoners craft,
  Prove and asay;
  For have they thy money,
  A moneth therafter
  Certes, theigh thou come agen,
  He wil the nought knowen.
  But, felawe, oure foundement
  Was first of the othere,
  And we ben founded fulliche
  Withouten fayntise,                                      500
  And we ben clerkes y-cnowen,
  Cunnyng in schole,
  Proved in processyon
  By processe of lawe.
  Of oure order ther beth
  Bichopes wel manye,
  Seyntes on sundri stedes
  That suffreden harde;
  And we ben proved the priis
  Of popes at Rome,                                        510
  And of grettest degré,
  As godspelles telleth."

    "A! syre," quath I thanne,
  "Thou seyst a grete wonder;
  Sithen Christ sayd hymselfe
  To alle his diciples,
  'Which of you that is most,
  Most shal he werche;
  And who is goere byforne,
  First shal he serven.'                                   520
  And seyde he saugh Satan
  Sytten ful heyghe,
  And ful low ben y-leid.
  In lyknesse he tolde,
  That in povernesse of spyrit
  Is spedfullest hele;
  And hertes of heyne
  Harmeth the soule.
  And therefore, frere, farewel;
  Here fynd I but pride.                                   530
  I preise nought thy prechyns,
  But as a pur myte."

    And angerich I wandrede
  The Austyns to prove,
  And mette with a maistre of tho men,
  And meklich I seyde,
  "Maistre, for the moder love
  That Marie men calleth!
  Knowest thou ought there thou comest
  A creature on erthe                                      540
  That coude me my Crede teche,
  And trewelich enfourme,
  Withouten flateryng fare,
  And nothing feyne,
  That folweth fulliche the feith,
  And non other fables,
  Withouten gabinge of glose,
  As the godspelles telleth?
  A Minoure hath me holly behyght
  To helen my soule,                                       550
  For he seith that her secte
  Is sykerest on erthe,
  And ben kepers of the keye
  That Chrystendom helpeth,
  And puriche in poverte
  The apostles they suweth."
  "Allaas!" quath the frere,
  "Almost I madde in mynde,
  To sen hough this Minoures
  Many men bygyleth.                                       560
  Sothly somme of tho gomes
  Hath more good hymselve
  Than ten knyghtes that I knowe,
  Of catel in cofres.
  In fraytoure they faren best
  Of al the foure ordres,
  And usun ypocricie
  In al that thei werchen,
  And prechen al of perfitnesse;
  But loke now, I the prey,                                570
  Nought but profre hem in privité
  A peny for a masse,
  And, but his name be prest,
  Put out myn eighe,
  Though he had more money hid
  Than marchauntes of wolle.
  Loke hough this loresmen
  Lordes betrayen,
  Seyn that they folwen
  Fully Fraunceyses rewle,                                 580
  That in cotinge of his cope
  Is more cloth y-folden
  Than was in Fraunceis froc
  Whan he hem first made.
  And yet under that cope
  A cote hathe he furred
  With foyns, or with fichewes,
  Other fyn bevere,
  And that is cutted to the kne,
  And queyntly y-botend,                                   590
  Lest any spiritual man
  Aspie that gyle.
  Fraunceys bad his brethern
  Bar-fot to wenden;
  Now han they buclede shone,
  For blenyng of her heles,
  And hosen in harde weder
  Y-hamled by the ancle,
  And spicerie sprad in her purs
  To parten where hem luste.                               600
  Lordes loveth hem wel,
  For they so lowe crouchen;
  But knowen men her cautel
  And her queynte wordes,
  Thei wolde worshypen hem
  Nought but a litle,
  The ymage of ypocricie
  Ymped upon fendes.
  But, sone, gif thou wilt ben seker,
  Seche thou no ferther,                                   610
  We freres beth the firste,
  And founded upon treuthe;
  Paule _primus heremita_
  Put us hymselve
  Away into wildernesse,
  The world to despisen,
  And there we lengeden ful long,
  And leveden ful harde;
  For to alle this freren folke
  Weren founden in tounes,                                 620
  And taughten untrewely,
  And that we wel aspiede.
  And for chef charyté,
  We chargeden us selven
  In amendyng of this men,
  We maden oure celles
  To ben in cytés y-set,
  To styghtle the puple,
  Prechyng and prayeng
  As profetes shoulden.                                    630
  And so we holden us the hetheved
  Of al holy chirche.
  We han power of the Pope
  Purliche assoylen
  Al that helpen oure hous
  In helpe of her soules;
  To dispensen hem with
  In dedes of synne,
  Al that amendeth oure hous
  In money other elles,                                    640
  With corne other catel,
  Or clothes to beddes,
  Other bedys or broche,
  Or breed for our fode.
  And gif thou hast any good,
  And wilt thyself helpen,
  Help us hertelich therwith,
  And here I undertake
  Thou shalt ben brother of oure hous,
  And a book habben                                        650
  At the nexte chapitre
  Clerliche enseled.
  And than oure provincial
  Hath power to assoylen
  Alle sustren and bretheren
  That beth of oure ordre.
  And though thou conne nought the Crede,
  Knele down here,
  My soule I sette for thyn,
  To asoile the clene,                                     660
  In covenaunt that thou come ageyne,
  And katel us brynge."
  And thanne loutede I adoun,
  Add he me leve grauntede;
  And so I parted hym fro,
  And the frere lefte.

    Than seide I to myself,
  "Here is no bote;
  Here pride is the pater-noster
  In preying of synne;                                     670
  Her Crede is coveytise:--
  Now can I no ferthere.
  Yet wil I fonden forth,
  And fraynen the Carmes."
  Than toted I into a taverne,
  And there I aspyede
  Two frere Carmes
  With a ful coppe.
  There I auntrede me in,
  And aisliche I seyde,                                    680
  "Leve sire, for the Lordes love
  That thou on levest!
  Lere me to som man
  My Crede for to lerne,
  That lyveth in lel liif,
  And loveth no synne,
  And gloseth nought the godspel,
  But halt Godes hetes,
  And neyther money ne mede
  Ne may hym nought letten,                                690
  But werchen after Godes word,
  Withouten any faile.
  A Prechoure y-professed
  Hath plight me his trewthe
  To techen me trewely;
  But wouldest thou me tellen,
  For they ben certeyne men,
  And syker on to trosten,
  I would quiten the thy mede
  As my myght were."                                       700

    "A trefle," quath he, "trewely!
  His treweth is ful litel;
  He dynede nought with Dominic,
  Sithe Christ deide.
  For with the prynces of pryde
  The Prechours dwellen;
  They ben so digne as the devel
  That droppeth fro heven,
  With hartes of heynesse,
  Whough halwen the cherches,                              710
  And deleth in devynyté
  As dogges doth bones.
  Thei medeleth with mesages
  And mariages of grete;
  Thei leeven with lordes
  With lesynges y-nowe;
  Thei biggeth hem bichopriches
  With bagges of gold;
  Thei wilneth worchipes:--
  But waite on her dedes.                                  720
  Harkne at Herdforthe
  How that they werchen,
  And loke when that they lyven
  And leeve as thou fyndest.
  They ben counseylours of kynges,
  Christ wot the sothe,
  Whou thei curreth kynges
  And her bak claweth.
  God leve hem laden wel
  In lyvynge of hevene,                                    730
  And glose hem nought for her good
  To greven her soules.
  I pray the, where ben they pryvé
  With any pore whightes
  That may nought amenden her hous,
  Ne amenden hemselven?
  They prechen in proud herte,
  And preyseth her ordre,
  And werdlich worchype
  Wilneth in erthe.                                        740
  Leeve it wel, lef man,
  And men right lokede,
  There is more pryvé pryde
  In Prechoures hertes,
  Than there lefte in Lucifere,
  Or he were lowe fallen.
  They bene dygne as dich-watere,
  That dogges in bayteth.
  Lok a ribaut of hem
  That can nought wel reden                                750
  His Rewel ne his Respondes,
  But be pure rote;
  Als as he were a connyng clerk,
  He casteth the lawes
  Nought lowly, but lordly,
  And lesynges lyeth.
  For right as Minoures
  Most hypocrice useth,
  Ryght so ben Prechoures proude
  Purlyche in herte.                                       760

    "But, chrysten creatoure,
  We Carmes firste comen,
  Even in Elyes tyme,
  First of hem alle;
  And lyven by oure Lady,
  And lelly her serven,
  In clene commun liif
  Kepen us out of synne;
  Nowt proude as Prechoures beth,
  But preyen ful stylle.                                   770
  We couuen on no quentyse,
  Christ wot the southe!
  But bisyeth us in oure bedes,
  As us best holdeth.
  And, therfore, leeve leelman,
  Leeve that iche sigge,
  A masse of us meene men
  Is of more mede,
  And passeth alle prayers
  Of this proude freres.--                                 780
  And thou wilt ghyven us any good,
  I wolde ye here graunten
  To taken al thy penaunce
  In peril of my soule;
  And tho thou conne nought thy Crede,
  Clene the assoyle,
  So that thou mowe amenden oure house
  With money other elles,
  With som catel, other corn,
  Or cuppes of sylvere."                                   790

    "Trewely, frere," quath I tho,
  "To tellen the the sothe,
  There is no peny in my pakke
  To payen for my mete.
  I have no good, ne no golde,
  But go thus abouten,
  And travaile ful trewely
  To wynnen with my fode.
  But woldest thou for Godes love
  Lerne me my Crede,                                       800
  I shulde don for the wil,
  Whan I wele hadde."

    "Trewely," quath the frere,
  "A fole I the holde:--
  Thou woldest nought wetten thy fote,
  And woldest fich kachen.
  Oure pardon and oure preieres
  So beth they nought parten,
  Oure power lasteth nought so feer,
  But we som peny fongen.                                  810

    "Fare wel," quath the frere,
  "For I mot hethen fonden,
  And hyen to an house-wiif
  That hath us byquethen
  Ten pound in hir testament.
  To tellen the sothe,
  Ho draweth to the deth-ward;
  But yet I am in drede
  Leste ho turne hire testament,
  And therfore I hyghe                                     820
  To haven hire to oure hous,
  And henten, gif I mighte,
  An anuel for myne owen use,
  To helpen to clothe."
  "Godys forbode!" quath his felawe,
  "But ho forth passe
  Whil ho is in purpos
  With us to departen!
  God let hir no lengere lyven!
  For letteres ben manye."                                 830

    Thanne turnede I me forth,
  And talked to myselfe
  Of the falshede of this folke,
  Whow feythles thei weren.
  And as I wente by the way
  Wepynge for sorowe,
  I seigh a sely man me by,
  Opon the plough hongen.
  His cote was of a cloute
  That cary was y-called;                                  840
  His hod was ful of holes,
  And his heare oute;
  With his knoppede shon
  Clouted ful thykke;
  His ton toteden out,
  As he the lond tredede;
  His hosen over-hongen his hok-shynes
  On everich a syde,
  Al beslomered in fen,
  As he the plow folwede.                                  850
  Tweye myteynes as meter
  Maad al of cloutes,
  The fyngres weren for-werd,
  And ful of fen honged.
  This whit waselede in the feen
  Almost to the ancle;
  Foure rotheren hym byforne,
  That feble were worthi;
  Men myghte reknen ich a ryb,
  So rentful they weren.                                   860
  His wiif walked hym with,
  With a long gode,
  In a cuttede cote,
  Cutted ful heyghe,
  Wrapped in a wynwe shete
  To weren hire fro wederes,
  Bar-fot on the bare iis,
  That the blod folwede.
  And at the londes ende lath
  A little crom-bolle,                                     870
  And theron lay a lytel chylde
  Lapped in cloutes,
  And tweyne of tweie yeres olde
  Opon another syde.
  And al they songen o songe,
  That sorwe was to heren;
  They crieden alle o cry,
  A kareful note.
  The sely man sighed sore,
  And seyde, "Children, beth stille!"                      880
  This man lokede opon me,
  And leet the plough stonden;
  And seyde, "Sely man,
  Whi syghest thou so harde?
  Gif the lakke liiflode,
  Lene the ich wille
  Swich good as God hath sent;
  Go we, leeve brother."

    I sayde thanne, "Nay, syre,
  My sorowe is wel more.                                   890
  For I can nought my Crede,
  I care wel harde;
  For I can fynden no man
  That fulli byleveth,
  To techen me the heyghe weie,
  And therfore I wepe.
  For I have fonded the freres
  Of the foure ordres;
  For there I wende have wist,
  But now my wit lakketh;                                  900
  And al myn hope was on hem,
  And myn herte also,
  But thei ben fulli faithles,
  And the fend sueth."

    "A! brother," quath he tho,
  "Be ware of tho foles;
  For Christ seyde hymself,
  'Of swiche I you warne,'
  And false profetes in the feith
  He fulliche hem calde,                                   910
  _In vestimentis ovium_,
  But only withinne
  They ben wilde werwolves
  That wiln the folke robben.
  The fen[d] founded hem first,
  The feyth to distrie;
  And by his craft thei comen in,
  To combren the chirche,
  By the covetise of his craft
  The curates to helpen.                                   920
  But nowe they haven an hold,
  They harmen ful manye;
  They don nought after Dominik,
  But dreccheth the puple.
  He folwen nought Fraunceis,
  But falsliche lybben;
  And Austynes rewle
  They rekeneth but a fable;
  And purchaseth hem privilege
  Of popes at Rome.                                        930
  They coveten confessiones,
  To kachen some hyre;
  And sepulturus also,
  Somme wayten to lacchen;
  But other cures of Christen
  They coveten nought to have,
  But there as wynnynge liith,
  He loketh non other."

    "Whough shal I nemne thy name,
  That neyghbores the calleth?"                            940
  "Peres," quath he, "the pore man,
  The Ploughman I hatte."

    "A! Peres!" quath I tho,
  "I pray the thou me telle
  More of thise tryflers,
  Hou trechurly they libbeth;
  For ichon of hem hath tolde me
  A tale of that other,
  Of her wikked liif,
  In werld that he libbeth.                                950
  I trowe that some wicked wight
  Wroughte this ordres.
  Trow ye that gleym of that gest
  That Golias is y-cald,
  Other els Satan hymself,
  Sente hem fro helle,
  To combren men with her crafte,
  Christendome to shenden."

    "Dere brother," quath Peres,
  "The devel is ful queynte,                               960
  To encombren holy chirche
  He casteth ful harde,
  And fluricheth his falsnesse
  Opon fele wise,
  And fer he casteth to-forn
  The folk to dystroye.

    "Of the kynrede of Caym
  He cast the freres,
  And founded hem on Sarysenes,
  Feyned for God.                                          970
  But they with her falshe faith
  Mychel folk shendeth.
  Christ calde hem hymself
  Kynd ipocrites;
  How often he cursed hem,
  Wel can I tellen.
  He seide ons hymself
  To that sory puple:
  'Who worthe you, wyghtes,
  Wel lerned of the lawe!'                                 980
  Eft he seyde to hem selfe,
  'Wo mote you worthen
  That the toumbes of profetes
  Bildeth up heighe!
  Your faderes for-deden hem,
  And to the deth hem broughte.'
  Here I touche this two,
  Twynnen hem I thenke.
  Who wilneth be wiser of lawe
  Than lewede freres,                                      990
  And in multitude of men
  But maistres y-called,
  And wilneth worship of the werld,
  And sytten with heye,
  And leveth lovyng of God
  And lownesse byhynde,
  And in beldyng of toumbes
  Thei traveileth grete,
  To chargen her chirche flore,
  And chaungen it ofte.                                   1000
  And the fader of the freres
  Defouled her soules,
  That was the dyggyng devel,
  That dreccheth men ofte.
  The devel by his dotage
  Dissaveth the chirche,
  And put in the Prechours,
  Y-paynted withouten,
  And by his queyntise they comen in
  The curates to helpen;                                  1010
  But that harmed hem harde,
  And halp hem ful littel.
  But Austynes ordinaunce
  Was on a good treuthe;
  And also Dominikes dedes
  Weren dernelich y-used;
  And Fraunceis founded his folke
  Fulliche on treuthe,
  Pure parfit prestes
  In penaunce to libben,                                  1020
  In love and in lownesse
  And lettynge of pryde,
  Grounded on the Godspel,
  As God baad hymselve.
  But now the glose is so greet
  In gladdyng tales,
  That turneth up two-fold
  Un-teyned upon treuthe,
  That they ben cursed of Christ,
  I can hem wel prove                                     1030
  Withouten his blissyng,
  Bare beth thei in her werkes.
  For Christ seyde hymselfe
  To swiche as him folwede:
  'Y-blissed mot they ben
  That mene ben in soule;'
  And alle power in gost
  God hymself blisseth.
  Whou fele freres fareth so,
  Fayne wolde I knowe,                                    1040
  Prove hem in proces,
  And pynch at her ordre,
  And deme hem after that the don,
  And dredles, Y leve,
  Thei wiln wexon pure wroth
  Wonderliche sone,
  And shewen the a sharp wil
  In a short tyme
  To wiln wilfully wrathe,
  And werche therafter.                                   1050
  Wytnes on Wyclif,
  That warned hem with trewthe.
  For he in goodnesse of gost
  Graythliche hem warned
  To wayven her wikednesse
  And werkes of synne.
  Whou sone this sorimen
  Seweden hys soule,
  And overal lolled hym
  With heritikes werkes!                                  1060
  And so of the blissyng of God
  Thei bereth little mede.

    "Afterward another,
  Onliche he blissede
  The meke of the myddel-erde
  Through myght of his fader.
  Fynd foure freres in a flok
  That folweth that rewle,
  Than have I tynt al my tast,
  Touche and assaye.                                      1070
  Lakke hem a littel wight,
  And her liif blamen;
  But he lepe up on heigh
  In hardenesse of herte,
  And nemne the anon nought,
  And thy name lakke,
  With proude wordes apert
  That passeth his rewle,
  Bothe with 'thou leyst,' and 'thou lext,'
  In heynesse of soule,                                   1080
  And turnnen as a tyraunt
  That turmenteth hymselve.
  A lord were lother
  For to leyne a knave,
  Thanne swich a begger,
  The best in a toun.
  Loke now, leve man,
  Beth nought thise y-lyke
  Fully to the Pharisens,
  In fele of these poyntes.                               1090
  Al her brad beldyng
  Ben belded with synne,
  And in worshipe of the world
  Here wynnyng they holden;
  They shapen her chapolories,
  And strecchet hem brode,
  And launceth heighe her hemmes
  With babelyng in stretes.
  They ben y-sewed with whight silke,
  And semes ful queynte,                                  1100
  Y-stongen with stiches
  That stareth as sylver.
  And but freres ben fyrst y-set
  At sopers and at festes,
  They wiln ben wonderly wroth
  Y-wis, as I trowe;
  But they ben at the lordes borde,
  Louren they willeth.
  He mot bygynne that bord,
  A beggere with sorowe;                                  1110
  And first sitten in se
  In her synagoges,
  That beth her heigh helle hous,
  Of Caymes kynd.
  For though a man in her mynstre
  A masse wolde heren,
  His sight shal so by set
  On sondrye werkes,
  The penonnes and the pomels
  And poyntes of sheldes                                  1120
  Withdrawen his devocion,
  And dusken his herte.
  I likene it to a lim-yerde
  To drawen men to helle,
  And to worchipe of the fend,
  To wraththen the soules.
  And also Christ himself seide
  To swich ypocrites,
  He loveth in marketes ben met
  With gretynges of povere,                               1130
  And lowynge of lewed men
  In Lentenes tyme;
  For thei han of bichopes y-bought
  With her propre silver
  And purchased of penaunce
  The puple to asoyle.
  But money may maken
  Mesure of the peyne;
  After that his power is to payen,
  His penaunce shal fayle.                                1140
  God leve it be a good help
  For hele of the soules!
  And also this myster men
  Ben maysters i-called,
  That the gentill Jesus
  Generalliche blamed,
  And that poynt to his apostles
  Purly defended.
  But freres haven forgeten this,
  And the fend suweth,                                    1150
  He that maystri loved,
  Lucifer the olde.
  Where Fraunceys or Dominik,
  Other Austyn ordeynde,
  And of this dotardes
  Doctur to worthe,
  Maysters of divinité
  Her matynes to leve,
  And cherlich as a cheveteyn
  Hys chaumbre to holden,                                 1160
  With chymené, and chaple,
  And chosen whan hem lyste,
  And served as a sovereyn,
  And as a lord sytten.
  Swich a gome Godes wordes
  Grysliche gloseth;
  I trowe he toucheth nought the text,
  But taketh it for a tale.
  God forbad to his folk,
  And fullyche defendede,                                 1170
  They shoulden nought stodyen biforne
  Ne sturren her wyttes,
  But sodenly the same word
  With here mouth shewe,
  That weren given hem of God,
  Thorugh gost of hemselve.
  Now mot a frere studyen
  And stumlen in tales,
  And leven his matynes,
  And no masse syngen,                                    1180
  And loken hem lesynges
  That liketh the puple,
  To purchasen hym his purs ful,
  To paye for the drynke.
  And, brother, when bernes ben ful,
  And holy tyme passed,
  Thanne comen cursed freres,
  And croucheth ful lowe,
  A losel, a lymytoure,
  Over al the lond lepeth.                                1190
  And loke that he leve non hous,
  That somwhat he ne laiche;
  And there thei gylen hemself,
  And Godes word turneth,
  Bagges and beggyng
  He bad his folke leven,
  And only serven hymself,
  And his ruwel sechen,
  And al that nedly nedeth,
  That shulden hem nought lakken.                         1200
  Wherto beggen thise men,
  And ben nought so feble?
  Hem fayleth no furryng,
  Ne clothes atte fulle,
  But for a lustful liif
  In lustes to dwellen;
  Withouten any travail
  Untrulych libbeth;
  Thei beth nought maymed men,
  Ne no mete lakketh;                                     1210
  Thei [ben] clothed in curious cloth,
  And clenliche arayed.
  It is a lawles liif,
  As lordynges usen,
  Nether ordeyned in ordre,
  But onethe libbeth.

    "Christ bad blissen
  Bodies on erthe
  That wepen for wikkednesse
  That he byforn wroughte.                                1220
  That ben few of tho freres,
  For thei ben nere dede,
  And put al in pur clath,
  With pottes on her hedes;
  Thanne he warieth, and wepeth,
  And wicheth after heven,
  And fyeth on her falshedes
  That thei before deden.
  And therfore of that blissyng,
  Trewely, as I trowe,                                    1230
  Thei may trussen her part
  In a terre powghe.

    "Alle tho blissed beth
  That bodyliche hongreth;
  That ben the pore penyles,
  That han over-passed
  The poynt of her pris liif,
  In penaunce of werkes,
  And mown nought swynken ne sweten,
  But ben swith feble,                                    1240
  Other mayned at meschef,
  Or meseles lyke,
  And her god is a-gon,
  And greveth hem to beggen.
  Ther is no frere, in feith,
  That fareth in this wyse,
  That he may beggen his bred,
  His bed is y-greithed
  Under a pot he shall be put
  In a pryvye chaumbre,                                   1250
  That he shal lyven ne last
  But lytel whyle after.
  Almyghti God and man,
  The merciable blessed,
  That han mercy on men
  That mis-don hem here.
  But who so for-gabbed a frere
  Y-founden at the stues,
  And brought blod of his bodi,
  On back or on syde,                                     1260
  Hym were as good greven
  A grete lord of rentes;
  He shoulde sonnere ben shryven,
  Shortly to tellen,
  Though he kilde a comly knyght,
  And compasd his mother,
  Then a buffet to beden
  A beggere frere.

    "The clene hertes Christ
  He curteyliche blissed                                  1270
  That coveten no catel
  But Christes fulle blysse,
  That leveth fulliche on God,
  And lelliche thenketh
  On his lore and his lawe,
  And lyveth opon trewthe.
  Freres han forgetten this,
  And folweth another,
  That they may henten they holden,
  By-hirneth it sone;                                     1280
  Here hertes ben clen y-hid
  In her heighe cloystre,
  As curres from careyne
  That is cast in diches.

    "And parfiit Christ
  The pesible blissede,
  That ben suffrant and sobre,
  And susteyne anger.
  Asay of her sobernesse,
  And thou might y-knowen                                 1290
  Ther ne is no waspe in this world
  That wil folloke styngen,
  For stappyng on a too
  Of a styncand frere.
  For neyther soveren ne seget
  Thei ne suffereth never.
  Al thei blessyng of God
  Beouten thei walken,
  For of her suffraunce, for sothe,
  Men say but lytel.                                      1300

    "Alle that persecution
  In pure liif suffren,
  They han the beneson of God,
  Blissed in erthe.
  I pray, parceyve now
  The pursut of a frere,
  In what mesure of a mekenesse
  Thise men deleth.
  Byhold upon Water Brut
  Whou bisiliche thei pursueden,                          1310
  For he seid hem the sothe.
  And yet, syre, ferther
  Hy may no more marren hem,
  But men telleth
  That he is an heretik,
  And yvele beleveth.
  And precheth it in pulpit
  To blenden the puple.
  They wolden awyrien that wight
  For his wel dedes,                                      1320
  And so they chewen charité,
  As chewen shaf houndes.
  And thei pursueth the povere,
  And passeth pursutes,
  Bothe they wyln and thei wolden
  Y-worthen so grete,
  To passen any manes myght,
  To mortheren the soules;
  First to brenne the body
  In a bale of fiir,                                      1330
  And sythen the sely soule slen,
  And senden hyre to helle.
  And Christ clerly forbad
  His christene, and defended,
  They shoulden nought after the face
  Never the folke demen."

    "Sire," I seide myself,
  "Thou semest to blamen.
  Why dispisest thou thus
  Thise sely pore freres,                                 1340
  None other men so mychel,
  Monkes ne prestes,
  Chanons ne charthous
  That in chirche serveth?
  It semeth that thise sely men
  Han somewhat the greved,
  Other with word, or with werk,
  And therfore thou wilnest
  To shenden other shamen hem
  With the sharp speche,                                  1350
  And bannen holliche,
  And her hous greven."

    "I prey the," quath Peres,
  "Put that out of thy mynde;
  Certeyn for soule hele
  I say the this wordes.
  I preise nought pocessioneres
  But pur lytel;
  For falshed of freres
  Hath fulliche encombred                                 1360
  Manye of this maner men,
  And maad hem to leven
  Her charité and chasteté,
  And shosen hem to lustes,
  And waxen to werly,
  And wayven the trewethe,
  And leven the love of her God,
  And the werld serven.
  But for falshed of freres
  I fele in my soule,                                     1370
  Seyng the synful liif,
  That sorweth myn herte,
  Hou they ben clothed in cloth
  That clennest sheweth,
  For angeles and archangeles
  Alle they whiit useth,
  And al aldremen
  That ben _ante thronum_.
  Thise toknes haven freres taken;
  But I trowe that a fewe                                 1380
  Folwen fully that cloth,
  But falslyche that useth.
  For whiit, in trowthe, bytokeneth
  Clennes in soule:--
  Gif he have undernethen whiit,
  Thanne he above wereth
  Black, that betokeneth
  Bale for oure synne,
  And mournyng for mis-dede
  Of hem that this useth,                                 1390
  And sorwe for synful liif,
  So that cloth asketh.
  I trowe there ben nought ten freres
  That for synne wepen.
  For that liif is her lust,
  And therby thei libben,
  In fraytour and in fermori
  Her fostryng is synne;
  It is her mete at ich a mel,
  Her most sustinaunce.                                   1400
  Herkne opon Hildegare
  Hou homlich he telleth
  How her sustinaunce is synne;
  And syker, as I trowe,
  Weren her confessiones
  Clenly destrued,
  Hy shoulde nought beren hem so brag,
  Ne belden so heyghe.
  For the fallyng of synne
  Socoreth the foles,                                     1410
  And begileth the grete
  With glaverynge wordes;
  With glosyng of godspels
  Thei Godes word turneth,
  And passen al the pryvylege
  That Peter after used.
  The power of the apostles
  Thie pasen in speche,
  For to sellen the synnes
  For selver other mede.                                  1420
  And purliche _a poena_
  The puple asoyleth,
  And _a culpa_ also,
  That they may kachen
  Money other money-worth,
  And mede to fonge;
  And ben at lone and at bode,
  As burgeises useth.
  Thus they serven Sathanas,
  And soules bygyleth,                                    1430
  Marchaunes of malisones,
  Mansede wrecches.
  Thei usen russet also
  Some of this freres,
  That bitokeneth travaile
  And treuth upon erthe,
  But loke whou this lorels
  Laboren the erthe.
  But freten the fruyt that the folke
  Ful lellich beswynketh;                                 1440
  With travail of trewe men
  Thei tymbren her houses,
  And of the curiouse cloth
  Her copes they beggen;
  And als his gettyng is grete
  He shal ben good holden.
  And right as dranes doth nought
  But drynketh up the huny,
  Whan been with her busynes
  Han brought it to hepe,                                 1450
  Right so fareth freres
  With folk opon erthe;
  They freten up the firste froyt,
  And falsliche lybbeth.
  But alle freres eten nought
  Y-liche good mete,
  But after that his wynnyng is
  Is his wel-fare,
  And after that he bringeth hom
  His bed shal ben graythed,                              1460
  And after that his richesse is raught
  He shal ben redy served.
  But se thiself in thi sight
  Whou somme of hem walketh
  With clouted shon,
  And clothes ful feble,
  Wel neigh for-werd,
  And the wlon offe;
  And his felawe in a frok
  Worth swhich fiftene,                                   1470
  Arayd in rede stone,
  And elles were reuthe:
  And sexe copes or seven
  In his celle hongeth;
  Though for fayling of good
  His felawe shulde sterve,
  He wolde nought lenen hym a peny
  His liif for to holden.
  I myght tymen tho troiflardes
  To toylen with the erthe,                               1480
  Tylyen, and trewlich lyven,
  And her flesh tempren.
  Now mot ich soutere hys sone
  Seten to schole,
  And ich a beggeres brol
  On the book lerne.
  And worth to a writere
  And with a lorde dwelle;
  Other falsly to a frere
  The fend for to serven;                                 1490
  So of that beggares brol
  An abbot shal worthen,
  Among the peres of the lond
  Prese to sytten,
  And lordes sones lowly
  To tho losels aloute,
  Knyghtes crouketh hem to
  And cruccheth ful lowe;
  And his syre a soutere
  Y-suled in grees,                                       1500
  His teeth with toylyng of lether
  Tatered as a sawe.
  Alaas! that lordes of the londe
  Leveth swiche wrechen,
  And leveth swych lorels
  For her lowe wordes.
  They shulden maken abbots
  Her owen bretheren childre,
  Other of som gentil blod,
  And so yt best semed,                                   1510
  And fostre none forytoures,
  Ne swich false freres,
  To maken fat and fulle
  And her flesh combren.
  For her kynde were more
  To y-clense diches,
  Than ben to sopers y-set first,
  And served with sylver.
  A grete bolle-ful of benen
  Were beter in hys wombe,                                1520
  And with the bandes of bakun
  His baly for to fillen,
  Then pertryches, or plovers,
  Or pecokes y-rosted,
  And comeren her stomakes
  With curiuse drynkes,
  That maketh swyche harlotes
  Hordom usen,
  And with her wikked word
  Wymmen bitrayeth.                                       1530
  God wold her wonyynge
  Were in wildernesse,
  And fals freres forboden
  The fayre ladis chaumbres.
  For knewe lordes her craft,
  Treuly I trowe,
  They shulden nought haunten her house
  So holy on nyghtes,
  Ne bedden swich brothels
  In so brode shetes;                                     1540
  But sheten her heved in the stre,
  To sharpen her wittes;
  Ne ben kynges confessours of custom,
  Ne the counsel of the rewme knowe.
  For Fraunceis founded hem nought
  To faren on that wise,
  Ne Domynyk dued hem nevere
  Swyche drynkers to worthe,
  Ne Helye ne Austyn
  Swyche liif never used,                                 1550
  But in povert of spirit
  Spended her tyme.
  We have seyn ourself
  In a short tyme
  Whou freres wolden no flesh
  Among the folk usen;
  But now the harlotes
  Han hyd thilke reule,
  And for the love of oure Lord
  Han leyd hire in water.                                 1560
  Wenest thou ther wolde so fele
  Swich warlawes worthen?
  Ne were werliche wele
  And her welfare,
  Thei shulden delven and dyken,
  And dongen the erthe,
  And menemong corn breed
  To her mete fongen,
  And wortes fleshles wrought,
  And water to drynken,                                   1570
  And werchen and wolward gon,
  As we wrecches usen.
  An aunter gif ther wolde on,
  Among an hol hundred,
  Lyven so for Godes love
  In tyme of a wyntere."

    "Leve Peres," quath I tho,
  "I pray that thou me telle
  Whou I may conne my Crede
  In Christen byleve."                                    1580

    "Leve brother," quath he,
  "Hold that I segge,
  I wil techen the the trouthe,
  And tellen the the sothe.--                             1584

            THE CREDE.

  "Leve thou in oure Loverd God                           1585
  That al the werld wrought,
  Holy heven eke on hey
  Holliche he fourmede,
  And is almyghti hymself
  Over alle his werkes.                                   1590
  And wrought as his wil was
  The werld and the heven;
  And on gentil Jesu Christ,
  Engendred of hymselven,
  His owen onlyche sone,
  Lord over all y-knowen,
  That was clenlich conceived
  Clerli in trewthe
  Of the heye Holy Gost,
  This is the holy beleve.                                1600
  And of the maiden Marye
  Man was he born,
  Withouten synful seed,
  This is fully the byleve.
  With thorn y-crouned, crucified,
  And on the cros dyede,
  And sythen his blessed body
  Was in a stone byried,
  And descended a-doun
  To the derk helle,                                      1610
  And fet out our formfaderes,
  And hy ful fayn weren.
  The thyrd day redeliche
  Hymself ros fram deeth,
  And, on a ston there he stod,
  He steigh up to hevene,
  And on his fader ryght hand
  Redelich he sitteth,
  That almyghti God,
  Over alle other whyghtes;                               1620
  And is herafter to commen,
  Christ all himselven,
  To demen the quyke and the dede,
  Withouten any doute.
  And in the heighe Holy Gost
  Holly I beleve;
  And generall holy chirche also,
  Hold this in the minde;
  The communion of sayntes,
  For soth I to the sayn;                                 1630
  And for our great sinnes
  Forgivenes for to getten,
  And only by Christ
  Clenlich to be clensed;
  Our bodies again to risen
  Right as we been here;
  And the liif everlasting
  Leve ich to habben. Amen.

    "Although this flatterynge freres
  Wyln, for her pryde,                                    1640
  Disputen of Godes deyté,
  As dotardes shulden,
  The more the matere is moved
  The masedere hi worthen.
  Lat the loseles alone,
  And leve thou the trewthe;
  For these maystres of dyvynité
  Many, als I trowe,
  Folwen nought fully the feith,
  As fele of the lewede.                                  1650
  Whough may mannes wiit,
  Through werk of himselve,
  Knowen Christes privité,
  That alle kynde passeth?
  It mot ben a man
  Of also mek an herte,
  That myght with his good liif
  The Holy Gost fongen;
  And thanne nedeth him nought
  Nevere for to studyen;                                  1660
  He myght no maistre ben cald,
  For Christ that defended,
  Ne puten no pylion
  On his pild pate,
  But prechen in parfit liif,
  And no pryde usen.
  But al that ever I have seyd,
  Soth it me semeth;
  And al that evere I have wryten
  Is soth, as I trowe;                                    1670
  And for amendyng of thise men
  Is most that I write.
  God wolde hy wolden ben war,
  And werchen the betere!
  But for I am a lewed man,
  Paraunter I myghte
  Passen par adventure,
  And in some poynt erren,
  I wil nought this matere
  Maistrely avowen.                                       1680
  But gif ich have mys-said,
  Mercy ich aske,
  And pray al mannere men
  This matere amende,
  Ich a word by hymself,
  And al, gif it nedeth.
  God of his grete myght,
  And his good grace,
  Save alle freres
  That feithfulli lybben!                                 1690
  And alle tho that ben fals,
  Fayre hem amende,
  And gyve hem wiit and good wil
  Swiche dedes to werch,
  That thei may wynnen the liif
  That evere shal lesten."

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *


Line 1. Bale, quoting the first two lines, translates them _In æstivo
tempore, cum sol caleret_. The printers of the early editions altered
_softe_ to _set_.

4, 5. _shroudes ... sheep_. The other text of this poem reads _Yshop into
shrobbis | as y shepherde were_. See the Introduction.

28. The text represented in Whitaker's edition here differs much from the
other. Our dreamer is there introduced very unadvisedly telling us of this
tower, 'truthe was therynne,' a piece of information which he only learns
afterwards from dame 'Holy Churche:'

  Ich was aferd of hure face,
  Thauh hue faire were,
  And saide, mercy, madame,
  Wat may this be to mene,
  _The tour upon toft_, quath hue,
  Treuthe ys therynne.
                 (Passus Secundus, ed. Whit.)

Where there is an evident reference to the "tour on a toft," which has been
previously mentioned in the more correct text.

43, 44. Dr. Whitaker, misunderstanding this passage, has printed 'ther' for
'that,' which is in all the MSS. In his gloss, he interprets 'wonnen' by
'to dwell;' and he paraphrases the sentence, 'some destroying themselves by
gluttony and excess,' translating it, I suppose, "And there dwell wasters
whom gluttony destroyeth." The meaning is, the ploughmen worked hard, "and
obtained (wan) that which wasters destroy with their gluttony." The writer
of the second Trin. Coll. MS. seems to have understood the meaning of the
passage, but not the words, and has 'whom that thise wastours.'

68. I have here to preserve the alliteration, adopted 'giltles,' from the
second Trin. Coll. MS., and one of the printed editions, in place of
'synneles,' which the other MS. has. Though we find instances of
irregularity in the sub-letters (or alliterative letters in the first line)
in Pierce Plowman, the chief letter is not so often neglected. In
Whitaker's text the account of the minstrels is very confused. Here the
minstrels get gold by their song without sin, but the japers and janglers
are condemned as getting their living by what is afterwards called
'turpiloquium,' when they had ability to get it in an honester way.

88. _Roberdes knaves._ These are the same class of malefactors who are
named _Roberdesmen_ in the Statutes, 5 Ed. III. c. 14. "Et diverses
roberies, homicides, et felonies ont esté faitz eintz ces heures par gentz
qui sont appellez Roberdesmen, Wastours, et Draghelatche, si est acordé et
establi que si homme eit suspecion de mal de nuls tielx, soit-il de jour
soit-il de nuyt, que meintenant soient arestus par les conestables des
villes." This law was confirmed by 7 Ric. II. c. 5, where the word is again
introduced. Whitaker supposes, without any reason, the 'Roberdes knaves' to
be Robin Hood's men. The other Trin. Coll. MS. reads _Robertis knaves_.

93. _Seint Jame._ St. James of Compostello was a famous resort of pilgrims
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. An amusing song on the
inconveniences which attended the voyage is printed in the Reliquiæ
Antiquæ, vol. i, p. 2.

107. _Walsyngham._ The shrine of the Virgin Mary at Walsingham in Norfolk,
also enjoyed an extraordinary celebrity, as a resort of English pilgrims.
It appears that the first complaints of the Wicliffite reformers were
strongly expressed against this pilgrimage. "Lolardi sequaces Johannis
Wiclif ... prædicaverunt peregrinationes non debere fieri, et præcipue apud
Walsingham," etc. Th. Walsingh. p. 340.

116. The four orders of friars were, of course, the Franciscans,
Augustines, Dominicans, and Carmelites.

131. These four lines stand thus in Whitaker's text, _Bote holy churche and
charité | choppe a-doun swich shryvers, | the moste myschif of molde |
mounteth up faste._ Whitaker has translated it quite wrong, "May true
charity and church discipline knock down these, the greatest pests on
earth, who are rapidly increasing!" The simple meaning of the passage, as
given by Whitaker, is, "Unless holy church and charity chop down such
shrivers (confessors), the greatest mischief of the world is increasing
fast." The present text affords a better and equally clear meaning, "Unless
holy church and they hold better together, the greatest mischief in the
world is increasing, or gaining ground very fast."

141. _of falshede of fastynge_, the comma has slipped in by accident. The
meaning is "of breaking fast-days."

147. _He bunchith hem_, MS. Trin. 2.

168. _the pestilence tyme._ See further on, the note on l. 2497. The great
plague of 1349 and 1350 had carried off so much people, that hands were
wanting to cultivate the lands in many parishes, and the distress which
followed, with the failure of tithes which naturally accompanied it, drove
the parsons to plead poverty as an excuse for going to London and seeking
other occupations.

192. Whitaker's text inserts the following passage between this line and
the one following:--

  Conscience cam and acusede hem,
  And the commune herde hit,
  And seide, "Ydolatrie ye soffren
  In sondrye places menye,
  And boxes ben y-set forth
  Bounden with yren,
  To undertake the tool
  Of untrewe sacrifice,
  In menynge of miracles
  Muche wex hongeth there,
  Al the worldle wot wel
  Hit myghte nat be trywe.
  Ac for it profitith yow to pors-warde,
  Ye prelates soffren
  That lewede men in mysbylyve
  Leven and deien.
  Ich lyve wel, by oure Lorde!
  For love of youre covetyse,
  That al the worlde be the wors;
  As holy wryght telleth
  What cheste and meschaunce
  To children of Israel
  Ful on hem that free were,
  Thorwe two false preestes.
  For the synne of Ophni
  And of Finees hus brother,
  Thei were disconfit in bataille,
  And losten _Archa Dei_,
  And fore hure syre sauh hem syngen,
  And aoffred hem don ylle,
  And noght chasted hem therof,
  And wolde noght rebukie hem,
  Anon as it was y-told hyme
  That the children of Israel
  Weren disconfit in bataille,
  And _Archa Dei_ y-lore,
  And hus sones slayen,
  Anon he ful for sorwe
  Fro hus chaire thare he sat,
  And brak hus necke a-tweyne;
  And al was for venjaunce
  That he but noght hus children.
  And for they were preestes,
  And men of holy churche,
  God was well wrother,
  And toke the rather venjaunce.
  For-thei ich seye, ye preestes,
  And men of holy churche,
  That soffren men do sacrifice
  And worsheppen mawmettes,
  And ye sholde be here fadres,
  And techen hem betere;
  God shal take venjaunce
  In alle swiche preestes
  Wel harder and grettere,
  On suche shrewede faderes,
  Than ever he dude on Ophni
  And Finees, or in here fadere.
  For youre shrewede suffraunce,
  And youre owen synne,
  Youre masse and youre matynes,
  And meny of youre houres, etc.

225. This is the constitutional principle which was universally
acknowledged by our early political writers, and of which some strong
declarations will be found in my "Political Songs" (published by the Camden
Society). The doctrine of "right divine" was certainly not a prevalent one
in the middle ages.

291. This fable appears to be of middle-age formation, for it is not found
in any of the ancient collections. It does not occur in the fables of
Marie. It is however found in the old collection, in French verse of the
fourteenth century, entitled Ysopet; and M. Robert has also printed a Latin
metrical version of the story from a MS. of the same century. La Fontaine
has given it among his fables. It may be observed that the fable is nowhere
so well told as in Piers Ploughman. (See Robert, Fables Inédites, des
xii^e, xiii^e, et xiv^e siècles, i, pp. 98-101.) The readers of Scottish
history will remember the application of this fable in 1481, by the earl of
Angus (popularly named, from this circumstance, Archibald Bell-the-cat), in
the conspiracy against the royal favourites, which forms an excellent
illustration of our text.

381. _Væ terræ, etc._ Ecclesiastes, x, 16. "Væ tibi, terra, cujus rex puer
est, et cujus principes mane comedunt."

423. _and pointeth the lawe._ MS. Trin. 2.

429. after this line the following are inserted in the second MS. of Trin.

  I saugh bisshopis bolde,
  And bacheleris of devyn,
  Become clerkis of acountis
  The king for to serve,
  Archideknes and denis,
  That dignités haven,
  To preche the peple
  And pore men to fede,
  Ben y-lope to Lundone
  Be leve of hire bisshop,
  And ben clerkis of the kinges bench
  The cuntré to shende.

438. _Taillours, tanneris, | And tokkeris bothe._ MS. Trin. 2.

453. The Cottonian MS. Vespas. B. xvi, from which Price has given a long
extract in his edition of Warton, has here "With wyne of Oseye | and wyn of
Gascoyne." Whitaker's reading is "Whit wyn of Oseye and of Gascoyne." Price
observes, in a note, "good wyne of Gaskyne, and the wyne of Osee [is the
reading of MS. Harl. No. 875].--The same hand already noticed has corrected
_wyn_ to _weyte_ (wheat) _of Gascoyne_;--an obvious improvement." I by no
means partake in this opinion: _wine_ of Gascony, and _not wheat_ of
Gascony, is perpetually alluded to in the literature of France and England
from the twelfth to the sixteenth century. The reading of the text now
printed is evidently the original one, which has been corrupted in the
others: the wine more particularly known as Gascon, was a red wine. The
writer of "La Desputoison du Vin et de l'Iaue," says of it--

  Vin de Gascoigne, sa coulour
  N'est pas de petite valour;
  Les autres vins fet honnorer.
  Quant de soi les veult coulourer:
  Force donne, aide, et confort,
  Et d'un vin foible, fet. i. fort.
  Il a de vin plaine sustance;
  Il nourrist sans faire grevance:
  Aus testes est bons et au flanc.
  Et du rouge y a et du blanc.
  (_Jubinal, Nouveau Recueil de Contes, &c._, i. 399.)

The 'wyn of the Rochel' (vin de la Rochelle) was also a favourite wine.--

  Rochelle, qui tant a de pris,
  Que l'en la va de partout querre;
  Chascun si l'enclot et l'enserre,
  Car il n'est pas à garçonner,
  N'en ne la doit q'aus bons donner;--
  Por les grans seignors l'en salache.
                              (_ib._ p. 300).

The "wyn of Oseye" (vin d'Osaie) was a foreign wine, very rare and dear,
and sought up by 'gourmands:' it is mentioned with those of Malvoisia,
Rosetta, and Muscadet. (Depping Réglemens sur les Arts et Métiers de Paris,
p. lxiii.) It is unnecessary to explain what was 'wyn of the Ryn' (Rhine).

456. _of the Reule | and of the Rochel._ Whitaker.

458. These two lines, omitted in the MS. from which our text is printed,
have been added from MS. Trin. 2.

489. _fyve wittes._ The five wits were equivalent to the five _senses_. One
of the characters in the early interlude of The Four Elements, a production
of the earlier part of the sixteenth century, says:--

  I am callyd Sensuall Apetyte,
  All craturs in me delyte;
  I comforte the _wyttys fyve_,
  The tastyng, smellyng, and herynge,
  I refresh the syght and felynge,
  To all creaturs alyve.

Stephen Hawes, in his Pastime of Pleasure (chap. xxiv), belonging to this
same age, refines upon this notion, and talks of five "internall wittes,"
answering to the five external wits, or to those which were commonly
understood by that name.

522. Genesis xix, 32. It is very singular that this story of Lot and his
daughters was the favourite example of the medieval preachers against

563. Luke xx, 25.

595. _on an eller._ It was the prevailing belief during the middle ages,
that the tree on which Judas hanged himself was an elder. Maundevile tells
us that this tree was still in existence, when he visited Jerusalem. "Also
streghte from Natatorie Siloe is an ymage of ston and of olde auncyen werk,
that Absalon leet make; and because thereof, men clepen it the hond of
Absalon. And faste by is yit the _tree of eldre_ that Judas henge himself
upon for despeyr that he hadde, whan he solde and betrayed oure Lord." The
same notion continued to exist in the age of Shakespeare, and is alluded to
by Shakespeare himself, Ben Jonson, and others.

  _Hol._ What mean you, sir?

  _Boyet._ To make Judas hang himself.

  _Hol._ Begin, sir; you are _my elder_.

  _Biron._ Well followed: _Judas was hang'd on an elder._

                                              _Love's Labours Lost_, v, 2.

681. _Lucifer with legions._ The story of Lucifer's rebellion and fall was
extremely popular in the middle ages, and particularly among the
Anglo-Saxons, who, in the fine poem ascribed to Cædmon, had given it almost
as much detail as Milton had done at a later date. This legend is related
in prose in an Anglo-Saxon tract in MS. Cotton. Vespas. D. xiv, fol. 2.

682. The second Trin. Col. MS. has, _Leride it in hevene, | and as the
lovelokest | to loke on, aftir oure Lord_.

697-704. Instead of these lines, we find the following in Whitaker's text:

  Lord, why wolde he tho,
  Thulke wrechede Lucifer,
  Lepen on a-lofte
  In the northe syde,
  To sitten in the sonne side
  Ther the day roweth,
  Ne were it for northerne men,
  Anon ich wolde telle:
  Ac ich wolle lacke no lyf,
  Quath that lady sotthly.
  'Hyt is sykerer by southe,
  Ther the sonne regneth,
  Than in the north, by meny notes,
  No man loyne other.
  For theder as the fend flegh,
  Hus fote for to sette,
  Ther he failede and fuel,
  And hus felawes alle.
  And helle is ther he is,
  And he ther y-bounde,
  Evene contrarie suteth Criste,
  Cierkus knowen the sothe,
  _Dixit Dominus Domino meo, sede a dextris
    'Ac of this matere
  No more mene ich nelle,
  He was in the halyday
  After heten wayten,
  They care noght thauh it be cold
  Knaves wen thei worchen.'

Whitaker has translated the last four lines of the foregoing extract thus,
"Excepting that hyndes on the holyday look out for warm places, but knaves
(servants) when working hard, are indifferent to cold."

695. Isaiah xiv, 14. The citation varies a little from the text of the
printed vulgate.

707. _Somme in the eyr._ The monks in the middle ages endeavoured to
explain the existence of different classes of spirits and fairies, which
the popular creed represented as harmless, or even beneficent creatures, by
supposing that some of the angels who fell with Lucifer were less guilty
than others, and were allowed to occupy the different elements on the earth
instead of being condemned to "the pit." In "The Master of Oxford's
Catechism," written early in the fifteenth century, and printed in the
Reliquiæ Antiquæ, vol. i, p. 231, we have the following question and
answer,--"_C._ Where be the anjelles that God put out of heven, and bycam
devilles? _M._ Som into hell, and som reyned in the skye, and som in the
erth, and som in waters and in wodys."

815. Mark iv, 24. In qua mensura mensi fueritis, remetietur vobis, et
adjicietur vobis.

835. Epist. Jac. ii, 17. Sic et fides, si non habeat opera, mortua est in

862. Luke vi, 38.

901. The second Trin. Col. MS. has--

  Frettid with rynges,
  Of the pureste perreighe
  That prince werde evere,
  In red scarlet robid
  And ribande with gold.
  Ther nis no quen queyntere
  That quyk is o-lyve,
  'What is this womman,' quod I.

934. Matth. vii, 17. _bonus_ (for _bona_) is the reading of the MS. Perhaps
it was thought allowable to use the masculine thus before a fem. noun
beginning with _a_, for the sake of euphony, as the French still write _mon
amie_, instead of _ma amie_, and the like. Whitaker's text has here--

  _Talis pater, talis filius._
  For shal never brere bere
  Beries as a vyne,
  No on crokyd kene thorne
  Kynde fygys wexe.
  _Bona arbor bonum fructum facit._

The lines which follow differ considerably in the two texts.

958. Psalm xiv, 1.

991-994. Instead of these lines, the following are substituted in the
second Trin. Coll. MS.:--

  Sire Symonye is assent
  To asele the chartres,
  That Fals and Favel
  Be any fyn halden,
  And feffe Mede therwith
  In mariage for evere.
  Ther nas halle ne hous
  To herberwe the peple,
  That iche feld nas ful
  Of folk al aboute.
  In myddis a mounteyne
  At myd-morewe tide
  Was pight up a pavyloun
  Proud for the nones,
  And ten thousand of tentis
  Teldit beside,
  Of knightes of cuntrés,
  Of comeres aboute,
  For sisours, for somonours, etc.

And the rest, as far as line 1100, differs very much in the two MSS.

1103. _of Banneburies sokne, | Reynald the reve, | and the redyngkynges
menye, | Munde the mylnere._ Whit.

1128. Luke x, 7.

1177. _With floryns ynowe._ Edward III had issued, not very long before the
date of this poem, the first extensive English gold coinage, to which he
gave the Italian name of florins, derived originally from that of the city
of Florence.

1204. _to Westmynstre_: _i. e._ to the courts of law which were held there.

1404. _A moton of golde._ A mutton (mouton) was a small French coin of
gold, which bore the stamp of a lamb or sheep. See Ducange, v. _Multo_.

1501. Matth. vi, 3.

1523. Regrating, or the buying up of provisions and other things to make
extravagant profits by retailing them, was one of the great sources of
oppression of the poor by the rich in the middle ages, and was a constant
subject of popular complaint.

1529. Whitaker's text adds here,--

  Thei have no puteye of the puple
  That parcel-mele mote biggen,
  Thauh thei take hem untydy thyng,
  Thei hold it no treson;
  And thauh thei fulle nat ful,
  That for lawe y-seelde,
  He gripeth therfor as grete
  As for the grete treuthe.

    Meny sondry sorwes
  In cyté fallen ofte,
  Bothe thorw fyur and flod,
  And al for false puple,
  That bygylen good men,
  And greveth hem wrongliche,
  The wiche cryen on hure knees
  That Christ hem avenge
  Here on this erthe,
  Other elles on helle,
  That so bygyleth hem of here good,
  And God on hem sendeth
  Feveres, other fouler hyveles,
  Other fur on here houses,
  Moreyne, other meschaunce.
  And menye tyme hit falleth,
  That innocence ys y-herde
  In hevene amonge seyntes,
  That louten for hem to oure Lorde,
  And to oure Lady bothe,
  To granten gylours on erthe
  Grace to amende,
  And have here penaunce on pure erthe,
  And noght in the pyne of helle.
  And thenne falleth the fur
  On false menne houses,
  And good men for here gultes
  Gloweth on fuyr after.
  Al thys have we seyen,
  That some tyme thorw a brewere
  Many burgages y-brent,
  And bodyes therynne,
  And thorw a candel cloming
  In a cursed place,
  Fel a-don and for-brende
  Forth al the rewe,
  For-thy mayres that maken free-men,
  Me thynken that thei ouhten
  For to spure and aspye,
  For eny speche of selver,
  What manere mester
  Of merchaundise he usede,
  Er he were underfonge free
  And felawe in youre rolles.
  Hit ys nought semly, for soth,
  In cyté ne in borw-ton,
  That usurers other regratours
  For eny kynne geftes,
  Be fraunchised for a free-man,
  And have fals name.

1548. Job, xv, 34.

1611. _Youre fader she felled._ An allusion to the deposition and death of
Edward II.

1652. Provisors were people who obtained from the pope the reversion of
ecclesiastical dignities, and several severe statutes were made against
them, one well-known one by Edward III.

1674. _Love-daies._ See further on, the note on l. 5634.

1735. _In Normandie._ 1750. _To Caleis._ Allusions, no doubt, to recent
events in the wars of Edward III. See the Introduction.

1769. _Caytiflyche thow, Conscience, | Consailedist the kyng leten | In hus
enemys honde | Ys heritage of Fraunce._ Whit.

1827. Psalm xiv, 1.

1835. Ps. xiv, 2.

1845. Ps. xiv, 5.

1862. Psalm xxv, 10.

1875. Matth. vi, 5.

1885. _Regum._ The reference is to 1 Sam. xv, which in the old Vulgate was
called _primus liber regum_.

1985, 2019. Isaiah ii, 4.

2043. Prov. xxii, 9. Victoriam et honorem acquiret qui dat munera; animam
autem aufert accipientium.

2099. _lernest._ Whitaker's text has _ledest_.

2149. Psalm xiii, 3. The quotation which follows is from the same verse.

2171. _his sone._ The Black Prince, who was a great favourite with the

2175-2186. The variation in Whitaker's text deserves notice. This passage
there stands as follows:--

  Thenne cam Pees into parlement,
  And putte up a bylle.
  How that Wrong wilfullich
  Hadde hus wif for-leyen;
  And how he ravysed Rose,
  The riche widewe, by nyghte;
  And Margarete of here maidenhod,
  As he met hure late.
  'Both my goos, and my grys,
  And my gras he taketh,
  Ich dar nouht for is felaweshepe,
  In faith!' Pees saide,
  'Bere sickerlich eny selver
  To seint Gyles doune;
  He watteth ful wel,
  Wan ich sulfere taketh,
  Wat wey ich wende.
  Wel yerne he aspieth,
  To robbe me and to ryfle me,
  Yf ich ride softe.
  Yut he is bolde for to borwe,
  And baldelich he payeth:
  He borwede of me Bayarde,' etc.

2177. _How Wrong ayeins his wille._ What follows is a true picture of the
oppressions to which the peasantry were frequently subjected by the king's
purveyors, and by others in power. See the Political Songs, pp. 377, 378;
and Hartshorne's Ancient Metrical Tales, pp. 41, 42.

2197. _taillé_, a tally. See the Political Songs, as above quoted. Whitaker
translates this passage, which stands thus in his edition,

  And taketh me bote a taile
  For ten quarters other twelve,

by, "and for ten or twelve quarters of it repaid me but _a sheep's tail_!"

2298. _in my stokkes._ In my prison. Prisons were usually furnished with
stocks, in which, instead of fetters, prisoners were set.

2323. _Beneyt._ St. Benedict, the founder of the Benedictine order; St.
Bernard, of the order of Cistercians; St. Francis, of the Franciscans.

2335. _Galis._ Compostello in Galicia.

2473. _Passus Quintus._ In Whitaker's text, this section, which is called
_Passus Sextus_, is prefaced by the following long exordium, intended as a
satire against the mendicant friars:--

  Thus ich awaked, God wot!
  Wanne ich wonede on Cornhulle,
  Kytte and ich in a cote,
  Clothede as a lollere:
  And a lytel ich let by,
  Leyve me, for sothe,
  Among lolleres of London,
  And lewede heremytes.
  For ich made of tho men,
  As Reson me tauhte.
  For as ich cam by Conscience,
  Wit Reson ich mette,
  In an hote hervest,
  Wenne ich hadde myn hele,
  And lymes to labore with,
  And lovede wel fare,
  And no dede to do
  Bote drynke and to slepe,
  In hele and in unité,
  On me aposede,
  Romynge in remembraunce.
  Thus Reson me arated:
  'Canstow serven,' he seide,
  'Other syngen in a churche?
  Other loke for my cokers?
  Other to the carte picche?
  Mowe, other mowen,
  Other make bond to sheves?
  Repe, other be a repe-reyve
  And arise erliche?
  Other have an horne and be hay-warde,
  And liggen out a nyghtes,
  And kepe my corn in my croft
  From pykers and theeves?
  Other shap shoon other clothes?
  Other shep other kyne kepe?
  Eggen, other harwen,
  Other swyne other gees dryve?
  Other eny kyne craft
  That to the comune nudeth,
  Hem that bed-reden be
  Bylyve to fynde?'
    'Certes,' ich seyde,
  'And so me God helpe!
  Ich am to waik to worche
  With sykel other with sythe;
  And to long, leyf me,
  Lowe for to stoupe,
  To worchen as workeman
  Eny wyle to dure.'
  'Then havest thow londes to lyve by,'
  Quath Reson, 'other lynage ryche
  That fynden the thy fode?
  For an hydel man thow semest,
  A spendour that spende mot,
  Other a spille-tyme;
  Other beggest thy lyve
  Aboute ate menne hatches;
  Other faitest upon Fridays
  Other feste dayes in churches;
  The wiche is lollerene lyf,
  That lytel is preysed
  Ther ryghtfulnesse rewardeth
  Ryght as men deserveth.
  _Reddit unicuique juxta opera sua._
  Ether thow ert broke, so may be,
  In body other in membre,
  Other y-maymed thorow som myshap.
  Werby thow myght be excusede.'
  'Wanne ich yong was,' quath ich,
  'Many yer hennes,
  My fader and my frendes
  Founden me to scole,
  Tyl ich wiste wyterliche
  Wat holy wryt menede,
  And wat is best for the body,
  As the bok telleth,
  And sykerest for the soule,
  By so ich wolle continue.
  And yut fond ich never in faith,
  Sytthen my frendes deyden,
  Lyf that me lyked,
  Bote in thes long clothes.
  Hyf ich by laboure sholde lyf,
  And lyflode deserven,
  That labour that ich lerned best
  Therwhit lyve ich sholde.
  _In eadem vocatione qua vocati estis._
  And ich lyve in Londene
  And on Londen bothe.
  The lomes that ich laboure with
  And lyflode deserve,
  Ys paternoster and my prymer,
  _Placebo et dirige_,
  And my sauter some tyme,
  And my sevene psalmes.
  Thus ich synge for hure soules
  Of suche as me helpen.
  And tho that fynden me my fode
  Vochen saf, ich trowe,
  To be wolcome wan ich come
  Other wyle in a monthe,
  Now with hym, and now with hure,
  And thus gate ich begge
  Withoute bagge other botel,
  Bote my wombe one.
  And also, moreover,
  Me thynketh, syre Reson,
  Men sholde constreyne
  No clerke to knavene werkes.
  For by law of Livitici,
  That oure Lord ordeynede,
  Clerkes that aren crowned
  Of kynde understondyng,
  Sholde nother swynke ne swete,
  Ne swere at enquestes,
  Ne fyghte in no vauntwarde,
  Ne hus fo greve.
  _Nou reddas malum pro malo._
  For it ben aires of hevene,
  And alle that ben crounede
  And in queer in churches,
  Cristes owene mynestres.
  _Dominus pars hæreditatis meæ
    Et alibi, Clementia non constringit._
  Hit bycometh for clerkus
  Crist for to serven;
  And knaves uncrounede
  To cart and to worche.
  For shold no clerk be crouned,
  Bote yf he y-come were
  Of franklens and freemen
  And of folke y-weddede.
  Bondmen and bastardes,
  And beggers children,
  Thuse bylongeth to labour.
  And lordes children sholde serven,
  Bothe God and good men,
  As here degree asketh;
  Some to synge masses,
  Others sitten and wryte,
  Rede and receyve
  That Reson oughte spende.
  And sith bondemenne barnes
  Han be made bisshopes,
  And barnes bastardes
  Han ben archidekenes;
  And sopers and here sones
  For selver han be knyghtes,
  And lordene sones here laboreres,
  And leid here rentes to wedden
  For the ryght of the reame,
  Ryden ayens oure enemys,
  In consort of the comune
  And the kynges worshep.
  And monkes and moniales.
  That mendinauns sholden fynde,
  Han mad here kyn knyghtes,
  And knyght fees purchase.
  Popes and patrones
  Povre gentil blod refuseth,
  And taken Symondes sonne
  Seyntewarie to kepe.
  Lyf-holynesse and love
  Han ben longe hennes,
  And wole, til hit be wered out,
  Or otherwise y-chaunged.
  For-thy rebuke me ryht nouht,
  Reson, ich yow praye;
  For in my conscience ich knowe
  What Crist wolde that ich wroughte.
  Preyers of perfyt man,
  And penaunce discret,
  Is the levest labour
  That oure Lord pleseth.
  _Non de solo_, ich seyde,
  For sothe _vivit homo,
  Nec in pane et pabulo_,
  The paternoster witnesseth.
  _Fiat voluntas tua_
  Fynt ous alle thynges.'
  Quath Conscience, 'By Crist!
  Ich can nat see this lyeth.
  Ac it semeth nouht perfitnesse
  In cyties for to begge,
  Bote he be obediencer
  To pryour other to mynstre.'
  'That ys soth,' ich seide,
  'And so ich by-knowe
  That ich have tynt tyme,
  And tyme mys-spended.
  And yut ich hope, as he
  That ofte haveth chaffarede,
  That ay hath lost and lost,
  And at the latest hym happeth
  He bouhte suche a bargayn
  He was the bet evere,
  And sette hus lost at a lef
  At the laste ende;
  Suche a wynnynge hym warth
  Thorw wyrdes of his grace.
  _Simile est regnum coelorum thesauro
      abscondito in agro, etc._
    _Mulier quæ inveniet dragmam, etc._
  So hope ich to have of hym
  That his almyghty
  A gobet of hus grace,
  And bygynne a tyme
  That alle tymes of my tyme
  To profit shal turne.'
  'Ich rede the,' quath Reson tho,
  'Rathe the to bygynne
  The lyf that ys lowable
  And leel to the soule.'
  'Ye, and continue,' quath Conscience.
  And to the church ich wente.
    And to the church gan ich go,
  God to honourie,
  Byfor the crois on my knees
  Knocked ich my brest,
  Sykinge for my sennes,
  Segginge my paternoster,
  Wepyng and wailinge,
  Tyl ich was a-slepe
  Thenne mete me moche more
  Than ich byfor tolde,
  Of the mater that ich mete fyrst
  On Malverne hulles.
  Ich sawe the feld ful of folk
  Fram ende to the other;
  And Reson revested
  Ryght as a pope,
  And Conscience his crocer
  Byfore the kynge stande.
  Reson reverentliche
  Byfor all the reame
  Prechede and provede
  That thuse pestilences
  Was for pure synne, etc.
      _See_ l. 2497, of the present edition.

2497. _thise pestilences._--There were three great pestilences in the reign
of Edward III, the terrible effects of which were long fresh in people's
minds, and they were often taken as points from which to date common
events. Two of them had passed at the period when the Visions of Piers
Ploughman are believed to have been written, and are the ones here alluded
to. Of the first, or great pestilence, which lasted from 31 May, 1348, to
29 Sept. 1349, the contemporary chroniclers give a fearful account. In a
register of the Abbey of Gloucester (MS. Cotton. Domit. A. VIII, fol. 124),
we have the following entry:--"Anno Domini m^o.ccc^o.xlviij^o. anno vero
regni regis Edwardi III, post conquestum xxij^o. incepit magna pestilentia
in Anglia, ita quod _vix tertia pars_ hominum remansit." This pestilence,
known as the _black plague_, ravaged most parts of Europe, and is said to
have carried off in general about two-thirds of the people. It was the
pestilence which gave rise to the Decameron of Boccaccio. For an
interesting account of it, see Michelet's Hist. de France, iii, 342-349.
The second pestilence lasted from 15 Aug. 1361, to May 3, 1362, and was
much less severe. The third pestilence raged from 2 July to 29 September,

2500. _The south-westrene wynd | on Saterday at even._ Tyrwhitt, in his
Preface to Chaucer, first pointed out the identity of this wind with the
one mentioned by the old chroniclers (Thorn, Decem. Script. col. 2122;
Walsingham, p. 178; the continuator of Adam Murimuth, p. 115), as occurring
on the evening of Jan. 15, 1362. The fifteenth of January in that year was
a Saturday. The following is the account given by Walsingham: "Anno gratiæ
millesimo trecentesimo sexagesimo secundo, qui est annus regni regis
Edwardi a conquestu tertii tricesimus sextus, tenuit rex natale apud
Wyndesor, et quinto decimo die sequente ventus vehemens, nothus auster
affricus, tanta vi erupit, quod flatu suo domos altas, ædificia sublimia,
turres, et campanilia, arbores, et alia quæque durabilia et fortia
violenter prostravit pariter et impegit, in tantum quod residua quæ modo
extant, sunt hactenus infirmiora." The continuator of Murimuth is more
particular as to the time of the day, and in other respects more exact.
"A.D. m. ccc. lxii, xv die Januarii, _circa horam vesperarum_, ventus
vehemens notus australis affricus tanta rabie erupit," etc.

2529. _And fecche Felis his wyf | Fro wyuene pyne._ MS. Trin. Col. 2.

2547. This was a very old and very common proverb in England. Thus in the
Proverbs of Hending (Reliquiæ Antiquæ, vol. i, p. 110):--

  Ne bue thi child never so duere,
  Ant hit wolle unthewes lerne,
    Bet hit other whyle;
  Mote hit al habben is wille,
  Woltou nultou hit wolle spille,
    Ant bicome a fule.
  _Luef child lore byhoveth_;
              Quoth Hendyng.

The proverb is a little varied in another copy of these "Proverbs," p. 194
of the same work. There is a German proverb closely resembling it, "Je
lieberes Kind, je schärfere Ruthe."

2551. Prov. xiii, 24.

2569. After this line Whitaker's text has inserted a passage, answering
nearly word for word (except in the few first lines) to the passage in our
text, ll. 6218-6274.

2573. In the same text, the following lines are here added:--

  'And also,' quath Reson,
  'Ich rede yow, riche
  And comuners, to acorden
  In alle kynne treuthe.
  Let no kynne consail
  Ne covetyze yow departe,
  That on wit and on wil
  Alle youre wardes kepe.
  Lo! in hevene on hy
  Was an holy comune,
  Til Lucifer the lyere
  Leyved that hymselve
  Were wittyour and worthiour
  Than he that was hus maister.
  Hold yow in unité.
  And ye that hother wolde
  Is cause of alle combraunce
  To confounde a reame.

2586. Matt. xxv, 12.

2594. Whitaker's _Passus Sextus_ ends with this line.

2625. Before Envy's confession, and in the place of Lechery, Whitaker's
text introduces the confession of Pride--

  Ich, Pruyde, patientliche
  Penaunce ich aske;
  For ich formest and ferst
  To fader and to moder
  Have y-be unboxome,
  Ich beseche God of mercy;
  And unboxome y-be,
  Nouht abaissed to agulte
  God and alle good men,
  So gret was myn herte;
  Inobedient to holy churche,
  And to hem that ther serven,
  Demed for hure yvel vices,
  And excited othere
  Thorw my word and al my wit
  Hure yvel workes to shewe;
  And scorned hem and othere,
  Yf a skyle founde,
  Lauhynge al aloude,
  For lewede men sholde
  Wene that ich were witty
  And wyser than anothere;
  Scorner and unskilful to hem
  That skil shewede,
  In all manere manners
  My name to be y-knowe,
  Semeng a sovereyn on,
  Wer so me byfulle
  To telle eny tale.
  Ich trowede me wiser
  To carpen other to counsaile
  Than eny, lered other lewede.
  Proud of aparail
  In porte amonge the puple,
  Otherwise than ich have,
  Withynne other withoute,
  Me wilnede that men wende
  Ich were in aveyr
  Riche and resonable,
  And ryghtful of lyvynge;
  Bostynge and braggynge
  Wyt meny bolde othes;
  Avauntyng upon my veine glorie
  For eny undernemynge;
  And yut so syngeler by myself
  Ne non so pomp holy,
  Som tyme on a secte,
  Sam tyme on another;
  In all kynne covetyse
  Contrevede how ich myghte
  Be holde for holy,
  And hondred sithe by that encheison;
  Wilnede that men wende
  My werkes were the beste
  And konnygest of my craft,
  Clerkes other othere,
  And strengest upon my stede,
  And styvest under gurdell,
  And lovelokest to loken on,
  And lykyngest a-bedde;
  And lykynge of such a lif
  That no lawe preyseth;
  Proud of my faire fetours;
  And for ich songe shrille;
  And what ich gaf for Godes love,
  To godsybbes ich tolde,
  Ther to wene that ich were
  Wel holy and wel almesful.
  And non so bold begger
  To bydden an[d] crave,
  Tales to telle
  In tavernes and in stretes,
  Thyng that nevere was thouhte,
  And yut ich swor ich sauh hit,
  And lyed on my lykame
  And on my lyf bothe.
  Of werkes that ich wel dude
  Witnesse ich take,
  And syggen to such
  That sytten me bysyde,
  'Lo! yf ye leyve me nouht,
  Other that ye wene ich lye,
  Ask of hym other of hure,
  And thei conne yow telle
  What ich soffrede an[d] seih,
  And som tyme hadde,
  And what ich knew and couthe,
  Of wat kyn ich kam of;
  Al ich wolde that men wuste,
  When it to pruyde sonede,
  As to preised among the puple,
  Thauh ich povre semede.'
  _Si hominibus placerem, Christi servus
      non essem. Nemo potest duobus
      dominis servire._
  'Now God, of hus goodnesse,
  Geve the grace to amende!'
  Quath Repentaunce ryght with that;
  And thenne roos Envye.

The description of Envy, which follows, is shorter in Whitaker's text, and
differs much from our text.

2819-2822. The discipline here described seems to have been peculiar to the
chapter-house of the monasteries. Matth. Paris, p. 848, has an anecdote
which illustrates curiously this passage of Piers Ploughman. In speaking of
the turbulent Falcasius de Breuté, who had been warned in a vision to offer
himself to suffer penance in the monastery of St. Albans, in the reign of
Henry III, he says, "Vestibus igitur spoliatus cum suis militibus,
similiter indumentis spoliatis, ferens in manu virgam quam vulgariter
_baleis_ appellamus, et confitens culpam suam, ... a singulis fratribus
disciplinas nuda carne suscepit."

2846. In the text which Whitaker has printed, the confession of Wrath was
followed by that of Luxury or Lechery. It stands as follows in the copy of
the same text in MS. Cotton. Vespas. B. xvi. (_See_ l. 8713, of our present

  Thanne seide Lecherie, Alas!
  And to oure Ladi criede,
  'Ladi, for thi leve sone,
  Loute for me nouthe,
  That he have pité on me, putour,
  For his pure merci.'
  'With that I schal,' quod that schrewe,
  'Saterdaies, for thi love,
  Drynke with the doke,
  And dine but ones.'
    I, gulti in gost,
  To God I me schrive,
  As in likyng of lecherige
  My licames gultes,
  In wordes, in wedes,
  In waityng of eyen,
  To eche maide that I mette
  I made here a sigge,
  Semyng to synne-ward,
  And summe can I taste
  Aboute the mouth, and binethe
  Bigon I to grope,
  Til bothe oure wil was on,
  To werke we yeden,
  As wel fastyng daies,
  And hi festes eves,
  And wel in Lente as out of Lente,
  Al tymes i-liche;
  Swiche werkes with us
  Weren nevere out of seson,
  Til we mighten ne more,
  Tho hadde we muri tales
  Of putrige and of paramours,
  And provede thorw speche,
  Handelyng, and halsyng,
  And also thorw cussyng,
  Excityng heither other
  To oure elde synne;
  Sotilde songes,
  And sente out elde baudes
  For te wynne to my wil
  Wemmen with gile;
  Bi sorcerie sum time,
  And sum time be maistrie,
  I lai bi the lovelokest,
  And lovede hem nevere aftur.
    Whan I was eld and hor,
  And hadde i-lorn that kynde,
  I hadde likyng to lige
  Of lecherous tales.
  Now, lord, for thi lewté,
  On lecheres have merci.

2850. _Sire Hervy._ Whitaker and Price (in Warton) suppose that there is
here a personal allusion, which at the time had become proverbial.

2874. _Symme at the Style._ Whit.

2881. _To Wy and to Wynchestre | I wente to the feyre._ Warton (Hist. of
Eng. p. ii, 55, edit. 1840) supposes Wy to be Weyhill, in Hampshire, "where
a famous fair still subsists." In fact it is one of the greatest fairs in
England, lasting ten days. For anecdotes of the celebrity of the great fair
at Winchester in former times, and for some interesting observations on
fairs in general, _see_ Warton, loc. cit.

2933. _The Roode of Bromholm._ At the Priory of Bromholm, in Norfolk, there
was a celebrated cross, said to be made of fragments of the real cross, and
much resorted to by pilgrims. It was brought from Constantinople to England
in 1223. The history of this cross, and the miracles said to have been
performed by it at Bromholm, are told by Matthew Paris (p. 268). In the MS.
Chronicle of Barthol. de Cotton, it is recorded at the date 1223, "Eo
tempore Peregrinatio de Bromholm incepit."

2949. _Frensshe ... of Northfolk._ Norfolk, it would appear by this, was
one of the least refined parts of the island.

3030. In this part of the poem, the smaller variations between the present
text and Whitaker's are very numerous. After this line, the following
passage is inserted:--

  With false wordes and writes
  Ich have wonne my goodes,
  And with gyle and glosynge
  Gadered that ich have;
  Meddled my merchaundise,
  And mad a good moustre,
  The werst lay withynne,
  A gret wit ich let hit.
  And yf my neyhgebore had an hyne,
  Other eny best ellys,
  More profitable than myn,
  Ich made meny wentes,
  How ich myght have hit
  Al my wit ich caste;
  And bote ich hadde hit by othes away,
  At last ich stal hit,
  Other pryvyliche hus pors shok,
  Unpiked his lokes.
  And yf ich yede to the plouh,
  Ich pynchede on hus half acre,
  That a fot londe other a forwe
  Fetchen ich wolde
  Of my neyhgeboris next,
  Nymen of hus erthe,
  And yf y repe, over reche,
  Other gaf hem red that repen
  To sese to me with here sykel,
  That ich sewe nevere.
  In haly dayes at holy churche
  Wenne ich hurde messe,
  Ich hadde nevere witerlich
  To byseche mercy
  For my mysdedes,
  That ich ne mornede ofter
  For lost of good, leyve me,
  Then for lycames gultes.
  Thauh ich dedliche synne dude,
  Ich dradde hit nat so sore
  As wenne ich lenede and leyvede hit lost,
  Other longe er hit were paied.
  And yf [ich] sente over see
  My servaunt to Brugges,
  Other into Prus my prentys,
  My profit to awaite,
  To marchaunde with monye
  And maken here eshaunge,
  Myght nevere man comforty me
  In the meyn time,
  Neither matyns ne masse,
  Ne othere manere syghtes,
  And nevere penaunce performede,
  Ne paternoster seyde.
  That my mynde ne was
  More in my goodes,
  Than in Godes grace,
  And hus grete myghte.
  _Ubi thesaurus tuus, ibi cor tuum._
          _See_ ll. 8751-8827.

3039. Psa. l, 8.

3083. The confessions of the robber and the glutton are reversed in
Whitaker's text, and present many variations. The robber's confession is
there preceded by the following curious lines:--

  Then was ther a Walishman
  That was wonderlich sory,
  He hight Yyvan Yeld ageyn;
  'If ich so moche have,
  Al that ich wickedlich wan
  Setthen ich hit hadde;
  And thauh my liflode lache
  Leten ich nelle
  That ech man shal have hus,
  Er ich hennes wende.
  For me ys levere in this lif
  As a lorel beggen,
  Than in lysse to lyve,
  And lese lyf and soule.'

3162. Between this line and the next, MS. Trin. Col. 2, inserts _Bargoynes
and beverechis | Begonne for to arise._

3277, 3278. _rymes of Robyn Hood | and Randolf erl of Chestre._ This seems
to be the earliest mention of the ballads of Robin Hood which can now be
found. Ritson was quite mistaken (Robin Hood, Introd. p. xlix) in the
supposed mention of him by the prior of Alnwick, the title of the Latin
song being modern. The passage of Fordun, in which Robin Hood is spoken of,
is probably an interpolation.

I am not sure that Ritson is right in taking the _Randolf erl of Chester_
of Piers Ploughman, to be Ranulf de Blundevile: it is quite as probable
that he was the Ranulf of Chester of the days of Stephen, whose turbulent
deeds may have been the subject of popular ballads. Warton (H. E. P. ii,
373), quoting the passage of Piers Ploughman with the word _erl_ omitted,
conceives it to mean Ralph Higden, and imagines the _rymes_ to be the
Chester Mysteries, of which he conjectured that Ralph Higden was the

3311. _Ite missa est._ The concluding sentence of the service of the Mass.

3408. _the Rode of Chestre._ There was a celebrated cross or rood at
Chester, which was long an object of great veneration, and even of
pilgrimage, among our Roman Catholic forefathers. "I do not recollect any
thing remarkable (says Mr. Pennant, speaking of Chester) on the outside of
the walls which has been unnoticed, unless it be the Rood-eye, and the
adjacent places."--"The name of this spot is taken from _eye_, its watery
situation, and rood, the cross which stood there, whose base is still to be
seen." Pennant's Tour in Wales, edit. 1778, p. 191. According to Gough's
Camden, the base was still remaining in 1789.

3410. _Roberd the robbere._ This name is rather curious in conjunction with
the term _Roberdesmen_ mentioned in the note on l. 88. It was no uncommon
practice to give punning names in this way to people or classes of people.
In a Latin song of the reign of Henry III (Political Songs, p. 49), we have
a very curious instance of it, one of the names being, as here, _Robert_:--

Competentur per _Robert_, _robbur_ designatur; Robertus excoriat,
extorquet, et minatur.-- Vir quicunque rabidus consors est Roberto.

Still earlier (12th cent.) a scribe says of one of his brothers, "Secundus
dicebatur _Robertus_, quia a re nomen habuit, _spoliator_ enim diu fuit et
_prædo_." (Polit. Songs, p. 354.)

3419. _Dysmas._ In middle-age legends, Dismas and Gestas were the names of
the two thieves who were crucified with Christ. The former was the one who
believed in the Saviour, and received a promise of paradise.

3443. Before this line, Whitaker's text has the following passage:--

  Ac whiche be the braunches
  That bryngeth me to sleuthe,
  Ys wanne a man mourneth nat
  For hus mysdedes;
  The penaunce that the prest enjoyneth
  Parfourmeth uvele;
  Doth non almys-dedes,
  And drat nat of synne:
  Lyveth ayens the byleyve,
  And no lawe kepeth;
  And hath no lykynge to lerne,
  Ne of houre Lord hure,
  Bote harlotrie other horedom,
  Other elles of som wynnyng.
  Wan men carpen of Crist
  Other of clennesse of soule,
  He wext wroth, and wol not huyre
  Bote wordes of murthe,
  Penaunce and povre men,
  The passion of seyntes,
  He hateth to huyre therof
  And alle that therof carpen.
  Thuse beth the braunches, be war,
  That bryngeth man to wanhope.
  Ye lordes and ladyes,
  And legates of holy churche,
  That feden fool sages,
  Flaterers and lyers,
  And han lykynge to lythen hem,
  In hope to do yow lawe--
  _Væ! vobis qui ridetis, etc._
  And geveth suche mede an mete,
  And povre men refusen;
  In youre deth deynge,
  Ich drede me sore
  Lest tho maner men
  To moche sorwe yow brynge.
  _Consensientes et agentes pari pæna punientur._
  Patriarkes and prophetes,
  Prechours of Godes wordes,
  Saven thorgh here sermons
  Mannes soule fro helle:
  Ryght so flaterers and foles
  Aren the fendes procuratores,
  Entysen men thorgh here tales
  To synne and to harlotrie.
  Clerkus that knowen this,
  Sholde kennen lordes
  What David seide of suche men,
  As the Sauter telleth:
  _Non habitabit in medio domus meæ qui
      facit superbiam, qui loquitur
  Sholde non harlot have audience
  In halle ne in chaumbre,
  Ther that wys men were.
  Whitnesse of Godes wordes;
  Nother a mys-prout man
  Among lordes alouwed.
  Clerkus and knyghtes
  Wolcometh kynges mynstrales,
  For love of here lordes
  Lithen hem at festes:
  Muche more, me thenketh,
  Riche men auhte
  Have beggers byfore hem,
  Wiche beth Godes mynstreles,
  As he seith hymself,
  Seynt Johan berith whittnesse:
  _Qui vos spernit, me etiam spernit._
  Therfor ich rede yow, riche,
  Reveles when ye maken,
  For to solace youre soules,
  Suche mynstrales to have,
  The povre for a foul sage
  Syttynge at thy table,
  Whith a lered man to lere the
  What oure Lord suffrede,
  For to savy thy saule
  Fram Satan thyn enemye,
  And fitayle the withoute flateryng
  Of Good Friday the feste:
  And a blynde man for a bordiour,
  Other a bed-reden womman
  To crye a largesse byfor oure Lord,
  Youre good loos to shewe.
  Thuse thre manere mynstrales
  Maken a man to lauhe;
  In hus deth deyng
  Thei don hym gret comfort,
  That by hus lyfe loveth hem,
  And loveth hem to huyre.
  Thuse solaceth the soule,
  Til hymself be falle
  In a wele good hope, for he wroghte so,
  Among worthy seyntes,
  Ther flaterers and foles
  Whith here foule wordes
  Leden tho that lithen hem
  To Luciferes feste,
  With _Turpiloquio_, a lay of sorwe,
  And Lucifers fitele,
  To perpetual peyne
  Other purgatorye as wykke,
  For he litheth and loveth
  That Godes lawe despiteth.
  _Qui histrionibus dat, dæmonibus sacrificat._

3466. _qui manet, &c._ Epist. Joan. iv, 16.

3477. Epist. Paul, ad Ephes. iv, 8.

3484. Isai. ix, 2.

3496. Matt. ix, 13.

3502. John i, 14.

3520. Psalm xxxv, 8.

3545. _Signes of Synay, | and shelles of Galice ... keyes of Rome._ It is
perhaps hardly necessary to remark that the articles mentioned here were
borne by the pilgrim to indicate the particular holy sites which he had
visited. The reader will readily call to mind the lines of a modern poet:--

  The summon'd Palmer came in place,
  His sable cowl o'erhung his face;
  In his black mantle was he clad,
  With _Peter's keys_ in cloth of red
    On his broad shoulders wrought;
  The _scallop shell_ his cap did deck;
  The crucifix around his neck
    Was from Loretto brought.

3622. _Seint Thomas shryne._ St. Thomas of Canterbury. It may not perhaps
be generally known that an interesting description of this shrine, when in
its glory, is given by Erasmus, Colloq. _Peregrinatio Religionis ergo._

3713. _eten apples un-rosted._ One of the many specimens of the burlesque
manner in which scripture was frequently quoted in these times. A very
singular passage (but in a tract professedly burlesque) occurs in the
Reliquiæ Antiquæ, vol. i, p. 83:--"Peter askud Adam a full greyt dowtfull
question, and seyd, 'Adam, Adam, why ete thu the appull unpard?' 'For
sothe,' quod he, 'for y had no wardyns fryde.'"

3826. _leven_, should be _lenen_.

3890. Luke xiv, 10.

3944, 3948. Psalm lxviii, 29.

3997. _the rode of Lukes._ The second Trin. Col. MS. has _be the rode of
Chestre._ There was a famous cross at Lucca, but whether a part of the real
cross, I have not ascertained. Calvin, in his most able and entertaining
_Admonitio de Reliquiis_, declines undertaking a list of all the places
where pieces of the real cross were shown. "Denique si congesta in acervum
essent omnia quæ reperiri possent, integrum navis onus efficerent: cum
tamen evangelium testificetur ab unico homine ferri potuisse. Quantæ igitur
audaciæ fuit, ligneis frustis sic totum implere orbem, quibus ferendis ne
trecenti quidem homines sufficiant?" _Calvini_, _Opusc._ p. 277. There was
also at Lucca one of the impressions of our Saviour's face on the
handkerchief of Veronica. The peculiar oath of William Rufus was by the
holy face at Lucca.

4027. _with hey trolly lolly._ MS. Trin. Col. 2.

4154. In the second Trin. Col. MS. the passage stands as follows:--

  Ne hadde Peris but a pese lof,
  Thei preyede hym beleve,
  And with a bene batte
  He hadde betwene,
  And hitte hunger therwith
  Amydde hise lippes,
  And blodde in it the bodyward
  A bolle ful of growel,
  Ne hadde the fisician ferst
  Defendite him watir,
  To abate the barly bred,
  And the benis y-grounde,
  Thei hadde be ded be this day,
  And dolven al warm.
  Faitours for fer, etc.

4194. _Thei corven here coppes, | and courtepies made._ Whitaker, who
translates it, "They _carved wooden cups_, and made themselves short
cloaks." It ought to be, "They cut their copes to make courtpies (a kind of
short cloaks) of them."

4242. Paul Epist. ad Galat. vi, 2.

4251. Scimus enim qui dixit, mihi vindicta, et ego retribuam. Paul. ad Heb.
x, 30; conf. Paul. ad Rom. xii, 19.

4256. Luke xvi, 9.

4272. Propter frigus piger arare noluit. Prov. xx, 4.

4306. Labores manuum tuarum quia manducabis, beatus es et bene tibi erit.
Psal. cxxvii, 2.

4336. _His mawe is alongid._ MS. Trin. Coll. 2.

4336. Whitaker's text inserts here the following passage, which is curious
as containing the same word, _latchdrawers_, that occurs in Edward's
statute, quoted before in the note to l. 88:--

  Thenk that Dives for hus delicat lyf
  To the devel wente,
  And Lazar the lene beggere
  That longed after cromes,
  And yut had he hem nat,
  For ich Hunger culde hym,
  And suthe ich sauh hym sute,
  As he a syre were,
  At alle manere ese
  In Abrahame lappe.
  An yf you be of power,
  Peers, ich the rede,
  Alle that greden at thy gate
  For Godes love after fede,
  Parte wit hem of thy payn,
  Of potage and of souel,
  Lene hem som of thy loof,
  Thauh thu the lesse chewe.
  And thauh lyers and latchedrawers,
  And lolleres knocke,
  Let hem abyde tyl the bord be drawe,
  Ac bere hem none cromes,
  Tyl al thyn nedy neihebores
  Have none y-maked.

4339. _Phisik ... hise furred hodes ... his cloke of Calabre._ Whitaker
cites, in illustration of the dress of the physician, the costume still
worn by the Doctors of Medicine in the universities. Chaucer gives the
following description of the dress of the "Doctour of Phisike":--

  In sangwin and in pers he clad was al,
  Lyned with taffata, and with sendal.
                              (Cant. T. Prolog. 441.)

_Calabre_ appears to have been a kind of fur: a document in Rymer, quoted
by Ducange, speaks of an _indumentum foderatum cum Calabre_.

4390. _ripe chiries manye._ This passage, joined with the mention of
cherry-time in l. 2794, shows that cherries were a common fruit in the
fourteenth century. "Mr. Gough, in his British Topography, says that
cherries were first brought in by the Romans, but were afterwards lost and
brought in again in the time of Henry VIII, by Richard Harris, the king's
fruiterer; but this is certainly a mistake. When in the New Forest in
Hampshire in the summer of 1808, I saw a great many cherry-trees,
apparently, of much more considerable age than the time of Henry VIII. The
_very old_ trees were universally of the kind called _merries_." H. E.

4431. Cato, Distich. i, 21:--

  Infantem nudum quum te natura crearit,
  Paupertatis onus patienter ferre memento.

4453. _so seide Saturne._ See the Introduction, p. xii.

4490. Whitaker's text reads after this line:--

  Leel and ful of love,
  And no lord dreden,
  Merciable to meek,
  And mylde to the goode,
  And bytynge on badde men
  Bote yf thei wolde amende,
  And dredeth nat for no deth
  To distruye by here powere
  Lecherie among lordes,
  And hure luther custymes,
  And sithen lyve as thei lereth men,
  Oure lorde Treuthe hem graunteth,
  To be peeres to Apostles, &c.

4525. _sette scolers to scole._ It was common in the _scholastic_ ages for
scholars to wander about gathering money to support them at the
universities. In a poem in MS. Lansdowne, No. 762, the husbandman,
complaining of the many burdens he supports in taxes to the court, payments
to the church, and charitable contributions of different kinds, enumerates
among the latter the alms to scholars:--

  Than cometh clerkys of Oxford, and mak their mone,
  To her scole-hire they most have money.

4547. Psa. xiv, 5. Qui pecuniam suam non dedit ad usuram, et munera super
innocentem non accepit.

4571. Psa. xiv, 1.

4593. Matt. vii, 12. Luke vi, 31.

4618. _the clerc of stories._ Called, elsewhere, _maister of stories_.
These names were given popularly to Peter Comestor, author of the famous
Historia Scolastica, a paraphrase of the Bible history, with abundance of
legendary matter added to it. The title given him by the author of Piers
Ploughman is not uncommon in English treatises of the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries. Lydgate, Minor Poems, p. 102 (Ed. Halliwell), speaks
of Comestor thus:--

  _Maister of storyes_, this doctour ful notable,
  Holding a chalice here in a sonne cliere.

4619. _Catons techyng._ "Cui des videto," is the twenty-third of the
"Distichorum Lemmata" of Dionysius Cato.

4621. Instead of ll. 4621-4658, the following long and curious passage is
substituted in the text adopted by Mr. Whitaker:--

  Wot no man, as ich wene,
  Who is worthy to have.
  The most needy aren oure neighebores,
  And we nyme good hede;
  As prisoners in puttes,
  And poore folke in cotes
  Charged with children
  And chef lordes rente,
  That thei spynnynge may spare,
  Spynen hit in hous hyre,
  Bothe in mylk and in mele.
  To maken with papelotes
  To aglotye with here gurles
  That greden after fode.
  Al so hemselve
  Suffren muche hunger,
  And wo in winter tyme;
  With wakyng a-nyghtes
  To ryse to the ruel,
  To rocke the cradel,
  Bothe to karde and to kembe,
  To clouten and to wasche,
  To rubbe and to rely,
  Russhes to pilie,
  That reuthe is to rede
  Othere in ryme shewe
  The wo that theese women
  That wonyeth in cotes,
  And of meny other men
  That muche wo suffren,
  Bothe a-fyngrede and a-furst,
  To turne the fayre outwarde;
  And beth abasshed for to begge,
  And wolle nat be y-knowe
  What hem needeth att here neihebores
  At non and at even.
  This Wit wot witerly,
  As the world techeth,
  What other byhoveth
  That hath meny children.
  And hath no catel bote hus crafte
  To clothy hem and to fede,
  And fele to fonge therto,
  And fewe pans taketh.
  Ther is payn and peny ale,
  As for a pytaunce y-take;
  Cold flesch and cold fyssh,
  For veneson y-bake.
  Frydays and fastyng-dayes
  Ferthyng worth of muscles
  Were a feste for suche a folke,
  Other so fele cockes.
  Theese were almes to helpe
  That han suche charges,
  And to comforte suche cotyers,
  And crokede men and blynde.
  Ac beggers with bagges, the wiche
  Brewhouses ben here churches,
  Bote thei be blynde other broke,
  Other elles syke,
  Thauh he falle for defaute,
  That faiteth for hus lyflode,
  Reicheth nevere, ye ryche,
  Thauh suche lorelles sterven;
  For all that han here hele
  And here eyen syghte,
  And lymes to laborye with,
  And lolleres lyf usen,
  Lyven ayens Godes lawe,
  And love of holy churche.
  And yut arn ther other beggers,
  In hele, as it semeth;
  Ac hem wanteth here witt,
  Men and women bothe,
  The wiche aren lunatik lollers
  And leperes aboute,
  And mad, as the mone sitt,
  More other lasse:
  Thei caren for no cold,
  Ne counteth of no hete,
  And are mevenge after the mone,
  Moneyles thei walke,
  With a good wil wit-lees,
  Meny wyde contreys,
  Ryght as Peter dude and Paul,
  Save that thei preche nat,
  Ne myracles maken;
  Ac meny tymes hem happeth
  To prophetien of the puple,
  Pleyninge, as hit were,
  And to oure sight, as hit semeth,
  Suththe God hath the myghte
  To yeven eche a whit wit,
  Welthe, and his hele,
  And suffreth suche so gon,
  Hit semeth to myn inwitt,
  Hit arn as hus aposteles suche puple,
  Other as his prevye disciples;
  For he sente hem forth selverles,
  In a somer garnement,
  Withoute bred and bagge,
  As the Bok telleth.
  _Quando misi vos sine pane et pera._
  Bar fot and bred-les,
  Beggeth thei of no man;
  And thauh he mete with the meyere
  In mydest the strete,
  He reverenceth hym ryght nouht
  No rather than another.
  _Neminem salutaveris per viam_,
  Suche manere of men,
  Matheu ous techeth,
  We sholde have hem to house,
  And help hem when thei come.
  _Et egenos vagosque induc in domum tuam._
  For hit aren murye mouthede men,
  Mynstrales of hevene
  And Godes boyes bordiours,
  As the Bok telleth.
  _Si quis videtur sapiens, fiet stultus ut
      sit sapiens._
  And alle manere mynstrales,
  Men wot wel the sothe,
  To underfonge hem faire
  Byfalle for the ryche;
  For the lordes love and ladies
  That thei with lengen,
  Men suffren al that suche seyn,
  And in solas taken;
  And yut more to suche men
  Doth, er thei passe,
  Gyven hem gyftes and gold,
  For grete lordes sake.
  Ryght so, ye riche,
  Rather ye sholde, for sothe,
  Wolcomen and worsshepen
  And with youre goode helpen
  Godes mynstrales, and hus messagers,
  And hus murye burdiers,
  The wiche are lunatik lollares
  And leperes aboute.
  For under Godes secré seel
  Here synnes ben y-keverede.
  For thei bereth no bagges,
  Ne non botels under clokes,
  The wiche is lollaren lyf
  And lewede eremytes,
  That loken ful louheliche
  To lacchen mennes almesse,
  In hope to suten at even
  By the hote coles,
  Unlouke hus legges abrod,
  Other lygge at hus ese,
  Reste hym and roste hym,
  And his ryg turne,
  Drynke drue and deepe,
  And drawe hym thanne to bedde,
  And when hym lyketh and lust
  Hus leve ys is to aryse;
  When he rysen, rometh out,
  And ryght wel aspieth
  War he may rathest have a repast,
  Other a rounde of bacon,
  Sulver other fode-mete
  And some tyme bothe,
  A loof other alf a loof,
  Other a lompe of chese,
  And carieth it hom to hus cote,
  And cast hym to lyve
  In ydelnesse and in ese,
  And by others travayle.
  And wat frek of thys tolde
  Fisketh thus aboute
  With a bagge at hus bak,
  Abegeneldes wyse,
  And can som manere craft,
  In cas he wolde hit use.
  Thorgh wiche craft he couthe come
  To bred and to ale,
  And ovar more to an hater
  To helye with hus bones,
  And lyveth like a lollere,
  Godes lawe him dampneth.
  Lolleres lyvinge in sleuthe,
  And overe lond stryken,
  Beeth nat in thys bulle, quath Peers,
  Til thei ben amended.
  Nother beggars that beggen,
  Bote yf thei have neede.
  The Bok blameth alle beggerye,
  And banneth in this manere: etc.

4645. Luke xix, 23.

4659. Ps. xxxvi, 25. Junior fui, etenim senui: et non vidi justum
derelictum, nec semen ejus quærens panem.

4695. Here again, after many verbal variations from our text, Whitaker's
text adds the following long passage, which is very curious, and well
worthy to be preserved. Whitaker calls it "one of the finest passages in
the whole poem."

  Ac eremites that enhabiten hem
  By the heye weyes,
  And in borwes among brewesters,
  And beggen in churches
  Al that holy eremytes
  Hateden and despisede,
  As rychesses and reverences
  And ryche mennes almesse.
  These lolleres, latche-draweres,
  Lewede eremytes,
  Coveyten the contrarie,
  As cotyers thei lybben,
  For hit beth bote boyes,
  Lolleres atten ale,
  Of linguage of lettrure
  Ne lyf-holy as eremytes
  That wonnede wyle in wodes
  With beres and lyones.
  Some had lyflode of here lynage,
  And of no lyf elles;
  And some lyvede by here lettrure
  And labour of here hondes;
  Some had foreynes to frendes,
  That hem fode sente;
  And bryddes brouhten to some bred,
  Werby thei lyveden.
  Alle thuse holy eremytes
  Were of hye kynne,
  Forsoke londe and lordshep
  And lykynges of the body;
  Ac thuse eremytes, that edefyen
  Thus by the hye weyes,
  Wylen were workmen,
  Webbes and taillours,
  And carters knaves
  And clerkus without grace,
  Heelden hungry hous,
  And had much defaute,
  Long labour and lyte wynnynge,
  And atte laste aspiden
  That faitours in frere clothynge
  Had fatte chekus;
  For-thi lefte thei here laboure,
  Theese lewede knaves,
  And clothed hem in copes,
  Clerkus as hit were.
  Other on of som ordre,
  Othere elles prophite,
  Ayens the lawe he lyveth,
  Yf Latyn be trywe:
  _Non licet nobis legem voluntate, sed voluntatem
      conjungere legi._
  Now kyndeliche, by Crist!
  Beth suche callyd lolleres,
  As by Englisch of oure eldres,
  Of olde menne techynge,
  He that lolleth his lame,
  Other his leg out of the joynte,
  Other meymed in som membre,
  For to meschief hit souneth;
  And ryght so sothlyche
  Suche manere eremytes
  Lollen ayen the bylyeve
  And lawe of holy churche.
  For holy churche hoteth
  Alle manere puple
  Under obedience to bee,
  And buxum to the lawe,
  Furst religious of religion
  Here ruele to holde,
  And under obedience to be
  By dayes and by nyghtes,
  Lewede men to laborie,
  Lordes to honte
  In frythes and in forestes
  For fox and other bestes
  That in wilde wodes ben,
  And in wast places,
  As wolves that wyrhyeth men,
  Wommen, and children,
  And upon Sonedayes to cesse,
  Godes service to huyre,
  Bothe matyns and messe,
  And after mete in churches
  To huyre here eve song
  Every man ouhte.
  Thus it bylongeth for lorde,
  For lered and lewede,
  Eche halyday to huyre
  Hollyche the service,
  Vigiles and fastyng dayes
  Forthere to knowe,
  And fulfille tho fastynges
  Bote infirmité hit made,
  Poverte othere penaunces,
  As pilgrymages and travayles.
  Under this obedience
  Arn we echone.
  Who so brekyeth this, be wel war,
  Bot yf he repente,
  Amenden hym and mercy aske,
  And meekliche hym shryve,
  Ich drede me, and he deye,
  Hit worth for dedlich synne
  Acounted byfore Crist,
  Bote Conscience excuse hym.
  Loke now were theese lolleres
  And lewede eremytes,
  Yf thei breke thys obedience
  That ben so fro churche,
  Wher see we hem on Sonedays
  The servise to huyre?
  As matyns by the morwe
  Tyl masse bygynne,
  Other Sonedays at eve songe,
  See we wol fewe;
  Othere labory for our lyflode
  As the lawe wolde
  Ac at mydday meel tyme
  Ich mete with hem ofte,
  Conynge in a cope
  As he a clerke were,
  A bachelor other a beaupere
  Best hym bysemeth,
  And for the cloth that kevereth hem
  Cald his here a frere,
  Whassheth and wypeth,
  And with the furste suteth.
  Ac while he wrought in thys worlde,
  And wan hus mete with Treuthe,
  He sat atte syd benche
  And secounde table,
  Com no wyn in hus wombe
  Thorw the weke longe,
  Nother blankett in hus bed,
  Ne white bred byfore hym.
  The cause of al thys caitifté
  Cometh of meny bisshepes,
  That suffren suche sottes
  And othere synnes regne.
  Certes ho so thurste hit segge,
  _Symon quasi dormit._
  _Vigilate_ were fairour,
  For thow hast gret charge:
  For meny waker wolves
  Ben broke into foldes.
  Thyne berkeres ben al blynde,
  That bryngeth forth thy lambren;
  _Disperguntur oves_, thi dogge
  Dar nat beerke.
  The tarre is untydy
  That to thyne sheep bylongeth;
  Hure salve ys of _supersedeas_
  In someneres boxes,
  Thyne sheep are ner al shabbyd,
  The wolf sheteth woolle.
  _Sub molli pastore lupus lanam cacat, et
      grex incustoditus dilaceratur eo._
  Hoow hurde wher is thyn hounde,
  And thyn hardy herte,
  For to wyne the wolf
  That thy woolle fouleth.
  Ich leyve for thy lacchesse
  Thow leest meny wederes,
  And ful meny fayre flus
  Falsliche wasshe.
  When thy lord loketh to have
  Alowance for hus bestes,
  And of the monye thow haddist thermyd,
  Hus meable to save,
  And the woolle worth weye,
  Woo ys the thenne!
  _Redde rationem villicationis tuæ_,
  Other arerage, ffalle.
  Then hyre hurde, as ich hope,
  Hath nouht to quyty thy dette,
  Ther as mede ne mercy
  May nat a myte avayle,
  Bote have this for that,
  Tho that thow toke
  Mercy for mede,
  And my lawe breke;
  Loke now for thi lacchesse
  Whether lawe wol the graunt
  Purgatorie for thy paye,
  Other perpetuel helle.
  For shal no pardone praye for yowe ther,
  Nother princes letteres.

4708. Matth. xxv, 46. Et ibunt hi in supplicium æternum; justi autem in
vitam æternam.

4721. Psal. xxii, 4.

4739. Psal. xli, 4.

4745. Luke xii, 22. Conf. Matth. vi, 25.

4764. "Dixit insipiens in corde suo, non est Deus," is the commencement of
Psalms xiii. and lii.

4769. Prov. xxii, 10. Ejice derisorem, et exibit cum eo jurgium,
cessabuntque causæ et contumeliæ.

4771. _Perkyn_, the diminutive of Peter, or Piers. Formerly the diminutives
of people's names were constantly used as marks of familiarity or
endearment, as Hawkyn or Halkyn for Henry, Tymkyn for Tim or Timothy,
Dawkyn for David, Tomkyn for Thomas, &c.

4796. Cato, Distich. ii, 31.

  Somnia ne cures, nam mens humana quod optans,
  Dum vigilat, sperat, per somnum cernit id ipsum.

4847. Matth. xvi, 19.

4941. Prov. xxiv, 16. Septies enim cadet justus, _et resurget_; impii autem
corruent in malum.

4963. _To falle and to stonde._ I by no means agree with Price's
interpretation of this phrase, or in his preference of the reading _to
falle if he stonde_. (Note on Warton ii, 67.) The motion of the boat causes
the firm man alternately to fall and stand; be he ever so stable, he
stumbles now and then, but his strength is shown in his being able to
recover himself. Such are the moral slips which even the just man cannot
avoid. But if the man in the boat be too weak to arise again and place
himself at the helm, his boat and himself will be lost for want of strength
and guidance. So it is with the wicked man. The completion of the phrase
quoted from Proverbs, as given in the preceding note, shows the justice of
this explanation.

5014. _if I may lyve and loke._ Price (in Warton) first pointed out the
identity between this expression and the one so common in Homer: it is "one
of those primitive figures which are common to the poetry of every

  [Greek: Outis, emeu zôntos kai epi chthoni derkomenoio,]
  [Greek: Soi koilêis para nêusi bareias cheiras epoisei.]
                                           Il. i, 88.

Whitaker's interpretation is nonsense, "If I have space to live and look in
the book." Other instances of this phrase occur in ll. 12132, 13268, and
13303 of Piers Ploughman.

5082. 2 Corinth. xi, 19.

5157. _of four kynnes thynges._ The medieval notion of the manner in which
the elements were mixed together in the formation of the human body, here
alluded to, appears to partake more of Western legend than of Eastern
tradition. In the English verses on Popular Science (given in my "Popular
Treatises of Science written during the Middle Ages," p. 138), we have the
following curious account of the four things forming the body, and the
influence of each:--

  Man hath of urthe al his bodi, of water he haveth wete,
  Of eyr he haveth wynd, of fur he haveth hete.
  Ech quic thing of alle this foure, of some hath more other lasse;
  Ho so haveth of urthe most, he is slou as an asse;
  Of vad colour, of hard hide, boustes forme, and ded strong,
  Of moche thoght, of lute speche, of stille grounynge, and wraththe long,
  A slough wrecche and ferblet, fast and loth to geve his god,
  Sone old, and noght wilful, stable and stedefast of mode.

And so on with the other elements. This doctrine of the composition of man
from the four elements became a very popular one in the sixteenth century,
when the poets frequently allude to it, as may be seen in the examples
given by Nares (_v._ ELEMENTS). In the _Mirror for Magistrates_ (_King
Forrex_, page 76), it is said:--

  If we behold the substance of a man,
    How he is made of _elements_ by kind,
  Of earth, of water, aire, and fire, than
    We would full often call unto our mind,
    That all our earthly joys we leave behind.

Massinger (_Renegado_ iii, 2) says:--

                      ----I've heard
  Schoolmen affirm, man's body is compos'd
  Of _the four elements_.

In Shakespeare (_Twel. N._ ii, 3), Sir Toby Belch inquires, "Does not our
life consist of _the four elements_?" and Brutus is commended for
possessing these elements properly blended, in which the perfection of a
man's nature was supposed to consist:--

  His life was gentle; and the _elements_
  So mix'd in him, that Nature might stand up
  And say to all the world, This _was a man_.
                        _Jul. Cæs._ v, 5.

On the other hand, the ill mixing of these elements was supposed to be
accompanied with a corresponding derangement of the intellectual faculties.
Thus, in one of the plays of Beaumont and Fletcher, a madman is

  I prithee, thou _four elements_ ill brew'd
  Torment none but thyself: Away, I say,
  Thou beast of passion.
                        _B. and Fl. Nice Valour_, act i, p. 312.

The more mythic form of this legend gives _eight things_ to the formation
of the body, instead of four. Our earliest notice of this legend in England
occurs in the prose Anglo-Saxon Dialogue between Saturn and Solomon
(Thorpe's Analecta, p. 95):--"Saga me þæt andworc þe Adám wæs of-ge-worht
se ærusta man? Ic þe secge of viii punda ge-wihte. Saga me hwæt hatton
þage? Ic þe secge þæt æroste wæs fóldan pund, of ðam him wæs flesc
ge-worht; oðer wæs fyres pund, þanon him wæs þæt blód reád and hát; þridde
wæs windes pund, þanon him wæs seo æðung ge-seald; feorðe wæs wolcnes pund,
þanon him wæs his módes unstaðelfæstnes ge-seald; fifte wæs gyfe pund,
þanon him wæs ge-seald se fat and geðang; syxste wæs blostnena pund, þanon
him wæs eagena myssenlicnys ge-seald; seofoðe wæs deawes pund, þanon him
becom swat; eahtothe wæs sealtes pund, þanon him wæron þa tearas
sealte."--_Tell me the matter of which Adam the first man was made? I tell
thee, of eight pound-weights. Tell me their names? I tell thee, the first
was a pound of earth, of which his flesh was made; the second was a pound
of fire, from which his blood was red and hot; the third was a pound of
wind, of which breath was given him; the fourth was a pound of cloud,
whereof was given him his instability of mood; the fifth was a pound of
..., whereof was given him fat and sinew; the sixth was a pound of flowers,
whereof was given him diversity of eyes; the seventh was a pound of dew,
whereof he had sweat; the eighth was a pound of salt, whereof he had salt
tears._ This legend was still prevalent in England as late as the fifteenth
century, when we find it among the curious collection of questions (closely
resembling those of Saturn and Solomon just quoted) entitled "Questions
bitwene the Maister of Oxinford and his Scoler" (Reliquiæ Antiquæ, vol. i,
p. 230),--"_C._ Whereof was Adam made? _M._ Of viij. thingis: the first of
erthe, the second of fire, the iij^{de} of wynde, the iiij^{th} of clowdys,
the v^{th} of aire wherethorough he speketh and thinketh, the vj^{th} of
dewe wherby he sweteth, the vij^{th} of flowres, wherof Adam hath his ien,
the viij^{th} is salte wherof Adam hath salt teres." A similar account is
given in an extract from an old Friesic manuscript communicated to the
Zeitschrift für Deutsches Alterthum, by Dr. James Grimm,--"God scôp thene
êresta meneska, thet was Adam, fon achta wendem; that bênete fon tha stêne,
thet flâsk fon there erthe, thet blôd fon tha wetere, tha herta fon tha
winde, thene togta (l. thochta) fon tha wolken, the(ne) suêt fon tha dawe,
tha lokkar fon tha gerse, tha âgene fon there sunna, and tha blêrem on
thene helga ôm."--_God created the first man, who was Adam, of eight
elements: the bone from the stone, the flesh from the earth, the blood from
the water, the heart from the wind, the thought from the cloud, the sweat
from the dew, the hair from the grass, the eyes from the sun._

5169. _a proud prikere of Fraunce._ A proud rider of France. Until the
fifteenth century there appears to have been a strong prejudice among the
lower orders against horsemen: their name was connected with oppressors and
foreigners. Horses appear to have been comparatively little used for riding
among the Anglo-Saxons until they were introduced by the Norman favourites
of Edward the Confessor, in whose reign we read that the Anglo-Saxon
soldiers in Herefordshire were defeated by the Welsh owing to their
awkwardness on horseback, having been unadvisedly mounted by their Norman
commander. The Anglo-Norman barons of the three following centuries, with
their numerous household of knights and attendants who plundered and
oppressed the peasantry and middle classes of society, kept alive the
prejudice alluded to, and we trace it in several popular songs. In a song
of the reign of Edward I (Political Songs, p. 240), we find the following

  Whil God wes on erthe
    And wondrede wyde,
  Whet wes the resoun
    Why he nolde ryde?
  For he nolde no grom
    To go by ys syde,
  Ne grucchyng of no gedelyng
    To chaule ne to chyde.
  Spedeth ou to spewen,
    Ase me doth to spelle;
  The fend ou afretie
    With fleis ant with felle!
  Herkneth hideward, horsmen,
    A tidyng ich ou telle,
  That ye shulen hongen,
    Ant herbarewen in helle!

5276. Epist. ad. Philippens. iii, 19.

5283. Epist. Joan. iv, 16.

5289. Matth. xxv, 12; Psal. lxxx, 13. Et dimisi eos secundum desideria
cordis eorum, ibunt in adventionibus suis.

5305. _the four doctours._ The four doctors _par excellence_ of the western
church were, I believe, Gregory, Ambrose, Augustine, and Jerome.

5354. Ecclesiast. i, 16.

5363. Epist. Jacob. ii, 10. Quicunque autem totam legem servaverit,
offendat autem in uno, factus est omnium reus.

5412. _as Caym was on Eve._ See further on l. 5549. According to a very
curious legend, which was popular in the middle ages, Cain was born during
the period of penitence and fasting to which our first parents were
condemned for their breach of obedience.

5415. Psa. vii, 15. Concepit dolorem et peperit iniquitatem.

5417. Whitaker's text inserts before this line--

  Caym, the cursed creature,
  Conceyved was in synne;
  After that Adam and Eve
  Hadden y-synged,
  Withoute repentaunce
  Of here rechelessnesse,
  A rybaud thei engendrede,
  And a gome unryghtful;
  As an hywe that ereth nat
  Auntreth hym to sowe
  On a leye lond,
  Ayens hus lordes wille,
  So was Caym conceyved,
  And so ben cursed wrettches
  That lycame han ayen the lawe
  That oure Lord ordeynede.

5433. Gen. vi, 7. pænitet enim me fecisse eos.

5464. Ezech. xviii, 20.

5470. Whitaker's text adds here:--

  Westminster lawe, ich wot,
  Worcheth the contrarie;
  For thauh the fader be a frankelayne,
  And for a felon be hanged,
  The heritage that the air sholde have
  Ys at the kynges wille.

5479. Matt. vii, 16.

5497. John xiv, 6.

5507. _many a peire, sithen the pestilence._ The continuator of William de
Nangis, who gives a detailed account of the effects of the great pestilence
on the Continent, mentions the hasty marriages which followed it, but he
gives quite a different account of their fruitfulness. "Cessante autem
dicta epidimia, pestilentia, et mortalitate, nupserunt viri qui remanserunt
et mulieres ad invicem, conceperunt uxores residuæ per mundum ultra modum,
nulla sterilis efficiebatur, sed prægnantes hinc inde videbantur, et plures
geminos pariebant, et aliquæ tres infantes insimul vivos emittebant." The
writer goes on to observe, "Sed proh dolor! ex hujus renovatione sæculi non
est mundus propter hoc in melius commutatus. Nam homines fuerunt postea
magis avari et tenaces, cum multo plura bona quam antea possiderent; magis
etiam cupidi et per lites, brigas, et rixas, atque per placita, seipsos
conturbantes.... Charitas etiam ab illo tempore refrigescere cæpit valde,
et iniquitas abundavit cum ignorantiis et peccatis; nam pauci inveniebantur
qui scirent aut vellent in domibus, villis, et castris informare pueros in
grammaticalibus rudimentis."--_Contin. G. de Nangis, in Dacherii Spicileg._
iii, 110 (_ed._ 1723).

5515. _do hem to Dunmowe._ This is, I believe, the earliest allusion at
present known to the custom of the flitch of bacon at Dunmow, which was
evidently, at that time, a matter of general celebrity. In Chaucer, about
half a century later, the Wife of Bath says of her two old husbands, and of
the way in which she tyrannized over them,--

  The bacoun was nought fet for hem, I trowe,
  That som men fecche in Essex at Donmowe.--_Cant. T._ 5799.

In a curious religious poem preserved in a manuscript in the Bodleian
Library at Oxford, written about the year 1460, from which some extracts
are printed in the "Reliquiæ Antiquæ," ii, 27-29, we have the following
satirical allusion to this custom:--

  I can fynde no man now that wille enquere
  The parfyte wais unto Dunmow;
  For they repent hem within a yere,
  And many within a weke, and sonner, men trow;
  That cawsith the weis to be rowgh and over-grow,
  That no man may fynd path or gap,
  The world is turnyd to another shap.

  Befe and moton wylle serve wele enow;
  And for to seche so ferre a lytill bakon flyk,
  Which hath long hanggid resty and tow
  And the wey, I telle you, is comborous and thyk,
  And thou might stomble, and take the cryk;
  Therfor bide at home, what so ever hap
  Tylle the world be turnyd into another shap.

One or two other allusions to this custom have been found in manuscripts of
the fifteenth century, and in the sixteenth century these allusions become
more numerous.

5563. 1 Corinth. vii, 1.

5613. _Margery perles._ A margarite pearl, _perle marguerite_. The Latin
name for a pearl (_margarita_) seems to be the origin of this expression.

5634. _a love day | to lette with truthe._ Love days (_Dies amoris_) were
days fixed for settling differences by umpire, without having recourse to
law or to violence. The ecclesiastics seem generally to have had the
principal share in the management of these transactions, which throughout
the Visions of Piers Ploughman appear to be censured as the means of
hindering justice and of enriching the clergy. A little further on,
Religion is blamed for being "a ledere of love-dayes." (l. 6219.) In
Chaucer, it is said of the friar:--

  And over'al, ther eny profyt schulde arise,
  Curteys he was, and lowe of servyse.
    .    .    .    .    .    .
  And rage he couthe and pleye as a whelpe,
  In love-dayes, ther couthe he mochil helpe.
  For ther was he not like a cloysterer
  With a thredbare cope, as a pore scoler,
  But he was like a maister or a pope.--_Cant. T._ 249, 259.

5646. The quotation is made up from Job xxi, 7; and Jerem. xii, 2.

5651. Psal. lxxii, 12.

5659. Psal. x, 4. Quoniam quæ perfecisti, destruxerunt: justus autem quid

5739. Psal. cxxxi, 6.

5769. Isai. lviii, 7.

5778. Tob. iv, 9. Si multum tibi fuerit, abundanter tribue; si exiguum tibi
fuerit, etiam exiguum libenter impertiri stude.

In what follows, Whitaker's text is in parts much more brief than the one
now printed; there are also many transpositions, and other variations,
which are not of sufficient importance to be pointed out more particularly.

5801. _in a pryvee parlour._ 5803. _in a chambre with a chymenee._ This is
a curious illustration of contemporary manners. The hall was the apartment
in which originally the lord of the household and the male portion of the
family passed nearly all their time when at home, and where they lived in a
manner in public. The chambers were only used for sleeping, and as places
of retirement for the ladies, and had, at first, no fire-places
(_chymenees_), which were added, in course of time, for their comfort. The
parlour was an apartment introduced also at a comparatively late period,
and was, as its name indicates, a place for private conferences or
conversation. As society advanced in refinement, people sought to live less
and less in public, and the heads of the household gradually deserted the
hall, except on special occasions, and lived more in the parlour and in the
"chambre with a chymenee." With the absence of the lord from the hall, its
festive character and indiscriminate hospitality began to diminish; and the
popular agitators declaimed against this as an unmistakeable sign of the
debasement of the times.

5829. Ezech. xviii, 19.

5835. Galat. vi, 5.

5844. Pauli Epist. ad Rom. xii, 3.

5911. _seven artz._ In the scholastic system of the middle ages, the whole
course of learning was divided into seven arts, which were, grammar,
dialectics, rhetoric, music, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy. They were
included in the following memorial distich:--

  Gram. loquitur, Dia. vera docet, Rhet. verba colorat,
  Mus. canit, Ar. numerat, Geo. ponderat, As. colit astra.

5963. _a baleys._ See before, the note on l. 2819.

5990. _Caton._ Distich. lib. i, 26.

6009. Galat. vi, 10.

6022. Epist. ad Rom. xii, 19.

6037. The second Trin. Coll. MS. reads here--

  Experimentis of Alkenemye
  Of Albertis makyng,
  Nigromancie and permansie
  The pouke to reisen,
  Gif thou thenke, etc.

6146. Matth. vii, 3.

6179. Matth. xv, 14; Luke vi, 39; Mark (?)

6186. _mausede._ An error of the press for _mansede_. See the Glossary.

6191. _Offyn and Fynes_. Ophni and Phinees. See 1 Samuel iv. (in the
Vulgate called 1 Kings).

6199. Psal. xlix, 21.

6207. Isai. lvi, 10.

6217. The text of the Trin. Coll. MS. 2, differs very much from ours in
this part of the poem. Instead of 6217-6277, we have the following lines:--

  Ac now is Religioun a ridere
  And a rennere aboute,
  A ledere of ladies,
  And a lond biggere;
  Poperith on a palfrey
  To toune and to toune;
  A bidowe or a biselard
  He berith be his side;
  Godis flessh and his fet
  And hise fyve woundis
  Arn more in his mynde
  Than the memorie of his foundours.
  This is the lif of this lordis
  That lyven shulde with Do-bet,
  And wel awey wers,
  And I shulde al telle.
  I wende that kinghed and knighthed,
  And caiseris with erlis,
  Wern Do-wel and Do-bet
  And Do-best-of-hem-alle.
  For I have seighe it myself,
  And siththen red it aftir,
  How Crist counseilleth the comune,
  And kenneth hem this tale,
  _Super cathedram Moisi sederunt principes_
  For-thi I wende that tho wyes
  Wern Do-best-of-alle.
  I nile not scorne, etc.

6223. _an heepe of houndes._ "Walter de Suffield, bishop of Norwich,
bequeathed by will his pack of hounds to the king, in 1256. Blomefield's
Norf. ii, 347. See Chaucer's Monke, Prol. v, 165. This was a common topic
of satire. It occurs again fol. xxvii, a [l. 3321, of the present Edition].
See Chaucer's Testament of Love, page 492, col. ii, Urr. The Archdeacon of
Richmond, on his visitation, comes to the priory of Bridlington in
Yorkshire, in 1216, with ninety-seven horses, twenty dogs, and three hawks.
Dugd. Mon. ii, 65." WARTON.

6251. Psal. xix, 8.

6259. _the abbot of Abyngdone._ There was a very ancient and famous abbey
at Abingdon in Berkshire. Geoffrey of Monmouth was abbot there. It was the
house into which the monks, strictly so called, were first introduced in
England, and is, therefore, very properly introduced as the representative
of English monachism.

6266. Isai. xiv, 4, 5.

6289. Ecclesiasticus x, 10.

6291. Catonis Distich. iv, 4.

  Dilige denari, sed parce dilige, formam;
  Quem nemo sanctus nec honestus captat ab ære.

6327. Colos. iii, 1.

6353. _moechaberis._ A mistake in the original MS. for _necaberis_, as it
is rightly printed in Crowley's edition.

6372. John iii, 13.

6414. Matth. xxiii, 2. Super cathedram Moysi sederunt Scribæ et Pharisæi.

6440. Psal. xxxv, 8.

6476. Ecclesiastes ix, 1.

6504. Matth. x, 18. The quotation is not quite literal.

6528. For _idiotæ irapiunt_, read _idiotæ vi rapiunt_: the error was caused
accidentally in the printing, and has escaped in the present edition.

6571. Matth. xx, 4.

6741. John iii, 3.

6755. Matth. vii, 1.

6764. Psal. l, 21.

6815. Isai. lv, 1.

6825. Mark xvi, 16.

6831. _may no cherl chartre make._ Such was the law of _vileinage_, then in
existence. There is a curious story illustrative of the condition of the
_cherl_ or peasant, in the Descriptio Norfolciensium, in my Early Mysteries
and other Latin Poems of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, p. 94. The
'cherl,' vilein, or bondman, could not even be put apprentice without the
licence of the lord of the soil. In the curious poem on the Constitution of
Masonry (14th cent.) published by Mr. Halliwell, the master is particularly
cautioned on this point:--

  The fowrthe artycul thys moste be,
  That the mayster hym wel be-se
  That he no bondemon prentys make,
  Ny for no covetyse do hym take;
  For the lord that he ys bonde to,
  May fache the prentes whersever he go.
            _Early History of Freemasonry in England_, p. 14.

6859. _Trojanus._ 6869. _Gregorie._ The legend here alluded to is given
briefly as follows, in the life of St. Gregory in the Golden Legend, fol.

"In the tyme that Trayan themperour regned, and on a tyme as he wente
toward a batayll out of Rome, it happed that in hys waye as he shold ryde a
woman a wydowe came to hym wepyng and sayd: I praye thee, syre, that thou
avenge the deth of one my sone, whyche innocently and wythout cause hath
ben slayn. Themperour answerd: yf I come agayn fro the batayll hool and
sounde, thenne I shall do justyce for the deth of thy sone. Thenne sayd the
wydowe: Syre, and yf thou deye in the bataylle, who shall thenne avenge hys
deth for me? And the wydowe sayd, is it not better that thou do to me
justice, and have the meryte thereof of God, than another have it for thee?
Then had Trayan pyté, and descended fro his horse, and dyde justyce in
avengynge the deth of her sone. On a tyme saynt Gregory went by the marked
of Rome whyche is called the marked of Trayan. And thenne he remembred of
the justyce and other good dedes of Trayan, and how he had ben pyteous and
debonayr, and was moche sorowfull that he had ben a paynem; and he tourned
to the chyrche of saynt Peter waylyng for thorrour of the mescreaunce of
Trayan. Thenne answerd a voys fro God, sayng: I have now herd thy prayer,
and have spared Trayan fro the payne perpetuelly. By thys thus, as somme
saye, the payne perpetuell due to Trayan as a mescreaunt was somme dele
take awaye, but for all that was he not quyte fro the pryson of helle; for
the sowle may well be in helle, and fele ther no payne, by the mercy of

6907. 1 John iii, 15.

6938. Luke xiv, 12.

6964. John viii, 34.

6981. Galat. vi, 2.

7015. Matth. vii, 3.

7063. Luke x, 40.

7072. Luke x, 42.

7113. Although our writer quotes the circumstance from Luke xviii, the
words he gives are from Matth. xix, 21.

7113. In Whitaker's text the following passage is here inserted:--

  Thus consaileth Crist
  In comun ous alle,
  'Ho so coveyteth to come
  To my kynriche,
  He mot forsake hymself,
  Hus suster, and hus brother,
  And al that the worlde wolde,
  And my wil folwen.'
  _Nisi renunciaveritis omnia quæ possidetis,
  Meny proverbis ich myghte have
  Of meny holy seyntes,
  To testifie for treuthe
  The tale that ich shewe,
  And poetes to preoven hit,
  Porfirie and Plato,
  Aristotle, Ovidius,
  And ellevene hundred,
  Tullius, Tholomeus,
  Ich can nat telle here names,
  Preoven pacient poverte
  Pryns of alle vertues.
  And by greyn that groweth,
  God ous alle techeth.
  _Nisi granum frumenti cadens in terra,
      et mortuum fuit, ipsum solum manet._
  Bot yf that sed that sowen is,
  In the sloh sterve,
  Shal nevere spir springen up,
  Ne spik on strawe curne;
  Sholde nevere wete wexe,
  Bote wete fyrste deyde;
  And other sedes also
  In the same wyse,
  That ben leide on louh eerthe,
  Y-lore as hit were,
  And thorw the grete grace of God,
  Of greyn ded in erthe
  Atte the laste launceth up
  Werby lyven alle.
  Ac sedes that ben sowen
  And mowe suffre wyntres,
  Aren tydyor and tower
  To mannes by-hofte,
  Than seedes that sowen beeth
  And mowe nouht with forste,
  With wyndes, ne with wederes,
  As in wynter tyme,
  As lynne-seed, and lik-seed,
  And Lente-seedes alle,
  Aren nouht so worthy as whete,
  Ne so wel mowen
  In the feld with the forst,
  And hit freese longe.
  Ryght so, for sothe,
  That suffre may penaunces
  Worth alowed of oure Lorde
  At here laste ende,
  And for here penaunce be preysed,
  As for puyre martir,
  Other for a confessour y-kud,
  That counteth nat a ruysshe
  Fere ne famyne,
  Ne false menne tonges;
  Bote as an hosebonde hopeth
  After an hard wynter,
  Yf God gyveth hym the lif
  To have a good hervest,
  So preoveth thees prophetes
  That pacientliche suffreth
  Myschiefs and myshappes,
  And menye tribulacions,
  Bytokneth ful triweliche
  In tyme comynge after
  Murthe for hus mornynge,
  And that muche plenté.
  For Crist seide to hus seyntes
  That for hus sake tholeden
  Poverte, penaunces,
  Persecution of body,
  Angeles in here angre
  On this wise hem grate,
  _Tristitia vestra vertetur in gaudium._
  Youre sorwe into solas
  Shal turne atte laste,
  And out of wo into wele
  Youre wyrdes shul chaunge.
  Ac so redeth of riche,
  The revers he may fynde,
  How God, as the Godspel telleth,
  Geveth hem foul towname,
  And that hus gost shal go,
  And hus good byleve,
  And asketh hym after
  Ho shal hit have,
  The catel that he kepeth so
  In coffres and in hernes,
  And ert so loth to lene
  Thet leve shalt needes.
  _O stulte, ista nocte anima tua egrediatur,
      thesauriza et ignorat._
  An unredy reve
  Thi residue shal spene,
  That menye moththe was ynne
  In a mynte while;
  Upholderes on the hul
  Shullen have hit to selle.
  Lo! lo! lordes, lo!
  And ladies taketh hede,
  Hit lasteth nat longe
  That is lycour swete,
  Ac pees-coddes and pere-ronettes,
  Plomes and chiries,
  That lyghtliche launceth up,
  Litel wile dureth,
  And that that rathest rypeth,
  Roteth most sannest.
  On fat londe and ful of donge
  Foulest wedes groweth,
  Right so, for sothe,
  Suche that ben bysshopes,
  Erles and archdekenes,
  And other ryche clerkes.
  That chaffaren as chapmen,
  And chiden bote thei wynne,
  And haven the worlde at here wil
  Other wyse to lyve;
  Right as weodes wexen
  In wose and in dunge,
  So of rychesse upon richesse
  Arist al vices.
  Lo! lond overe-layde
  With marle and with donge,
  Whete that wexeth theron
  Worth lygge ar hit repe;
  Right so, for sothe,
  For to sigge treuthe,
  Over plenté pryde norssheth
  Ther poverte destrueth hit.
  For how hit evere be y-wonne,
  Bote hit be wel dispended,
  Worliche wele is wuked thynge
  To hym that hit kupeth.
  For yf he be feer therfro,
  Ful ofte hath he drede
  That fals folke fetche away
  Felonliche hus godes.
  And yut more hit maketh men
  Meny time and ofte
  To synegen, and to souchen
  Soteltees of gyle,
  For covetyze of that catel
  To culle hem that hit kepeth;
  And so is meny men y-morthred
  For hus money and goodes;
  And tho that duden the dede
  Y-dampned therfore after,
  And he, for hus harde heldynge,
  In helle paraunter;
  So covetise of catel
  Was combraunce to hem alle.
  Lo! how pans purchasede
  Faire places, and drede,
  That rote is robbers
  The richesse withynne.

      [_Passus quartus de Dowel._]

  Ac wel worth Poverte,
  For he may walke unrobbede,
  Among pilours in pees,
  Yf pacience hym folwe,
  Oure prynce Jhesu poverte chees,
  And hus aposteles alle,
  And ay the lenger thei lyveden
  The lasse good thei hadde.
  _Tanquam nihil habentes, et omnia
  Yut men that of Abraam
  And Job were wonder ryche,
  And out of numbre tho men
  Menye meobles hadden.
  Abraam, for al hus good,
  Hadde muche teene,
  In gret poverte was y-put,
  A pryns as hit were
  Bynom hym ys housewif
  And heeld here hymself,
  And Abraam nat hardy
  Ones to letten hym,
  Ne for brightnesse of here beauté
  Here spouse to be byknowe.
  And for he suffrede and seide nouht,
  Oure Lord sente tokne,
  That the kynge cride
  To Abraam mercy,
  And deliverede hym hus wif,
  With muche welthe after.
  And also Job the gentel
  What joye hadde he on erthe,
  How bittere he hit bouhte!
  As the book telleth.
  And for he songe in hus sorwe,
  _Si bona accipimus a Domino_,
  Dereworthe dere God,
  Do we so _mala_;
  Al hus sorwe to solas
  Thorgh that songe turnede,
  And Job bycam a jolif man,
  And al hus joye newe.
  Lo how patience in here poverte
  Thees patriarkes relevede,
  And brouhte hem al above
  That in bale rotede,
  As greyn that lyth in the greot
  And thorgh grace atte laste
  Spryngeth up and spredeth,
  So spedde the fader Abraam,
  And also the gentel Job,
  Here joie hath non ende.
  Ac leveth nouht, ye lewede men,
  That ich lacke richesse,
  Thauh ich preise poverte thus,
  And preove hit by ensamples,
  Worthiour as by holy writ,
  And wise philosophers,
  Bothe two but goode,
  Be ye ful certayn,
  And lyves that our Lorde loveth,
  And large weyes to hevene.
  Ac the povre pacient
  Purgatorye passeth
  Rathere than the ryche,
  Thauh thei renne at ones.
  For yf a marchaunt and a messager
  Metten to-gederes,
  For the parcels of hus paper
  And other pryvey dettes,
  Wol lette hym as ich leyve
  The lengthe of a myle;
  The messager doth namore
  Bote hus mouth telleth,
  Hus lettere and hus ernde sheweth,
  And is anon delyvered;
  And thauh thei wende by the wey
  Tho two to-gederes.
  Thauh the messager made hus wey
  Amyde the whete,
  Wole no wys man wroth be,
  Ne hus wed take,
  Ys non haiwarde y-hote
  Hus wed for to take.
  _Necessitas non habet legem._
  Ac yf the marchaunt make hus way
  Overe menne cornne,
  And the haywarde happe
  With hym for to mete,
  Other hus hatt, other hus hed,
  Other elles hus gloves,
  The merchaunt mot for-go,
  Other moneys of huse porse,
  And yut be lett, as ich leyve,
  For the lawe asketh
  Marchauns for here merchandise
  In meny place to tullen.
  Yut thauh thei wenden on wey
  As to Wynchestre fayre,
  The marchaunt with hus marchaundise
  May nat go so swythe
  As the messager may,
  Ne with so mochel ese.
  For that on bereth bote a boxe,
  A brevet therynne,
  Ther the marchaunt ledeth a male
  With meny kynne thynges;
  And dredeth to be ded therefore,
  And he in derke mete
  With robbours and with revers
  That riche men despoilen,
  Ther the messager is ay murye,
  Hus mouthe ful of songes,
  And leyveth for hus letters
  That no wight wol hym greve.
  Ac yut myghte the marchaunt
  Thorgh monye and other yeftes
  Have hors and hardy men,
  Thauh he mette theoves,
  Wolde non suche asailen hym
  For hem that hym folweth,
  As safliche passe as the messager,
  And as sone at hus hostel.
  Ye, wyten wel, ye wyse men,
  What this is to mene.
  The marchaunt is no more to mene
  Bote men that ben ryche
  Aren acountable to Crist
  And to the kyng of hevene,
  That holden mote the heye weye,
  Evene ten hestes,
  Bothe lovye and lene,
  The leele and the unleele,
  And have reuthe, and releve
  With hus grete richesse
  By hus power alle manere men
  In meschief y-falle,
  Fynde beggars bred,
  Backes for the colde,
  Tythen here goodes tryweliche,
  A tol as hit semeth
  That oure Lord loketh after
  Of eche a lyf that wyneth,
  Withoute wyles other wrong,
  Other wommen atte stuwes,
  And yut more, to make pees,
  And quyte menne dettes,
  Bothe spele and spare
  To spene upon the needful,
  As Crist self comandeth
  To alle Cristene puple.
  _Alter alterius onera porta._
  The messager aren the mendinans
  That lyveth by menne almesse,
  Beth nat y-bounde, as beeth the riche,
  To bothe the two lawes,
  To lene and to lere,
  Ne lentenes to faste,
  And other pryvey penaunces
  The wiche the preest wol wel,
  That the law yeveth leve
  Suche lowe folke to be excused,
  As none tythes to tythen,
  Ne clothe the nakede,
  Ne in enquestes to come,
  Ne contumax thauh he worthe
  Halyday other holy eve
  Hus mete to deserve;
  For yf he loveth and byleyveth
  As the lawe techeth,
  _Qui crediderit et baptizatus fuerit, etc._
  Telleth the lord a tale,
  As a triwe messager,
  And sheweth by seel and suthe by lettere
  With wat lord he dwelleth,
  Kneweleche hym crystene
  And of holy churche byleyve,
  Ther is no lawe, as ich leyve,
  Wol let hym the gate,
  Ther God is gatwarde hymself
  And eche a gome knoweth.
  The porter of pure reuthe
  May parforme the lawe
  In that he wilneth and wolde
  Ech wight as hemself;
  For the wil is as muche worth
  Of a wretche beggere
  As al that the ryche may reyme
  And ryght fulliche dele,
  And as much mede
  For a myte that he offreth,
  As the riche man for al is moneye,
  And more, as by the Godspel:
  _Amen dico vobis quia hæc vidua paupercula,
  So that povre pacient
  Is parfitest lif of alle,
  And alle parfit preestes
  To poverte sholde drawe.

7128. Matth. xvii, 20.

7131. Psal. xxxiii, 11.

7141. Psal. xlii, 1.

7191. James ii, 10.

7194. _over-skipperis._ Those who skipped over words in reading or chanting
the service of the church. The following distich points out the classes of
defaulters in this respect:--

  Ecclesiæ tres sunt qui servitium maie fallunt;
  Momylers, for-scyppers, ovre-lepers, non bene psallunt.
            _Reliq. Antiq._ p. 90. _Poems of Walter Mapes_, p. 148.

A still more numerous list of such offenders is given in the following
lines from MS. Lansdowne, 762, fol. 101, v^o:--

  Hii sunt qui Psalmos corrumpunt nequitur almos:
  Jangler cum jasper, lepar, galper quoque, draggar,
  Momeler, for-skypper, for-reynner, sic et over-leper,
  Fragmina verborum Tutivillus colligit horum.

Tutivillus was the popular name of one of the fiends (see Towneley
Mysteries, pp. 310, 319; Reliq. Antiq. p. 257). According to an old legend,
a hermit walking out met one of the devils bearing a large sack, very full,
under the load of which he seemed to labour. The hermit asked him what he
carried in his sack. He answered that it was filled with the fragments of
words which the clerks had skipped over or mutilated in the performance of
the service, and that he was carrying them to hell to be deposited among
the stores there.

7195. Psal. xlvi, 7, 8.

7264. _Briddes I biheld._ A similar sentiment is expressed in the following
parallel passage of a modern poet:--

  But most of all it wins my admiration
  To view the structure of this little work--
  A bird's nest. Mark it well, within, without,
  No tool had he that wrought, no knife to cut,
  No nail to fix, no bodkin to insert,
  No glue to join; his little beak was all:
  And yet how neatly finished! What nice hand,
  With every implement and means of art,
  And twenty years' apprenticeship to boot,
  Could make me such another? Fondly then
  We boast of excellence, where noblest skill
  Instinctive genius foils.--_Hurdis._

7342. Ecclesiasticus xi, 9.

7344. Instead of ll. 7344-7363, Whitaker's text has the following

  'Ho suffreth more than God?' quath he,
  'No gome, as ich leyve.
  He myght amende in a mynt while
  Al that amys stondes.
  Ac he suffreth, in ensaumple
  That we sholde all suffren.
  Ys no vertue so feyr
  Of value ne of profit,
  As ys suffraunce, soveraynliche,
  So hit be for Godes love,
  And so wittnesseth the wyse,
  And wysseth the Frenshe,
  _Bele vertue est suffraunce,
      Mal dire est petite venjaunce;
      Bien dire e bien suffrer
      Fait ly suffrable à bien vener._
  For-thi.' quath Reson, 'Ich rede the,
  Rewele thi tonge evere;
  And er thow lacke eny lyf,
  Loke ho is to preise.
  For is no creature under Cryst,
  That can hymselve make;
  And yf cristene creatures
  Couthen make hemselve,
  Eche lede wolde be lacles,
  Leyf thow non othere.
  Man was mad of suche matere,
  He may nat wel asterte,
  That som tymes hym tit
  To folwen hus kynde.
  Caton acordeth herwith:
  _Nemo sine crimine vivit._

7347. Genes. i, 31.

7363. Cato, Distich. i, 5.

  Si vitam inspicias hominum, si denique mores,
  Quum culpent alios, nemo sine crimine vivit.

It may be observed here, that Whitaker, in his note on this passage, has
very much misunderstood Tyrwhitt (in Chaucer, Cant. T. 3227), in making him
the authority for calling the author of the _Disticha de Moribus_ an
obscure French writer. Tyrwhitt says that the mode in which Chaucer spells
his name (Caton) seems to show that the French translation was more read
than the Latin original. The same observation would apply to the present
poem: but I am very doubtful how far it is correct. The Distiches of Cato
were translated into English, French, German, &c., and were extremely
popular. The author of these Distiches, Dionysius Cato, is supposed to have
lived under the Antonines, and has certainly no claim to the title of _an
obscure French writer_.

7441-7642. Instead of these lines, Whitaker has the following:--

  And wissede the ful ofte
  What Dowel was to mene,
  And counsailede the, for Cristes sake,
  No creature to bygyle,
  Nother to lye nor to lacke,
  Ne lere that is defendid,
  Ne to spille speche,
  As to speke an ydel;
  And no tyme to tene,
  Ne trywe thyng to teenen;
  Lowe the to lyve forth
  In the lawe of holy churche,
  Thenne dost thow wel, withoute drede,
  Ho can do bet no forse.
  Clerkes that connen al, ich hope,
  Thei con do bettere;
  Ac hit suffuseth to be saved,
  And to be suche as ich tauhte:
  Ac for to lovye and lene,
  And lyve wel and byleyve,
  Ys y-calid _Caritas_,
  Kynde-love in English,
  And that is Dobet, yf eny suche be,
  A blessed man that helpeth,
  And pees be and pacience,
  And povre withoute defaute.
  _Beatius est dare quam petere._
  As catel and kynde witt
  Encombre ful menye,
  Woo is hym that hem weldeth,
  Bote he hym wel dispeyne.
  _Scientes et non facientes variis flagellis
  Ac comunliche connynge
  And unkynde rychesse,
  As lorels to be lordes,
  And lewede men techeres,
  And holy churche horen help,
  Averous and coveytous,
  Droweth up Dowel,
  And destruyeth Dobest.
  Ac grace is a gras therfore
  To don hem eft growe;
  Ac grace groweth nat,
  Til God wil gynne reyne,
  And wokie thorwe goode werkes
  Wikkede hertes;
  Ac er suche a wil wol wexe,
  God hymself worcheth,
  And send forth seint espirit
  To don love sprynge.
  _Spiritus ubi vult spirat, etc._
  So grace withoute grace
  Of God and of good werkes,
  May nat bee, bee thow siker,
  Thauh we bid evere.
  Cleregie cometh bote of siht,
  And kynd witt of sterres,
  As to be bore other bygete
  In suche constellacion
  That wit wexeth therof,
  And othere wordes bothe.
  _Vultus hujus sæculi sunt subjecti vultibus
  So grace is a gyfte of God,
  And kynde witt a chaunce,
  And cleregie and connyng of kynde
  Wittes techynge;
  And yut is cleregie to comende
  Fore Cristes love more,
  Than eny connynge of kynde witt,
  Bote cleregie hit rewele.
  For Moyses wutnesseth that God wrot
  In stoon with hus fynger,
  Lawe of love owre Lorde wrot,
  Long ere Crist were;
  And Crist cam and confermede,
  And holy-churche made,
  And in sond a sygne wrot,
  And seide to the Jewes,
  'That seeth hym synneles,
  Cesse nat, ich hote,
  To stryke with stoon other with staf
  This strompett to dethe.'
  _Qui vestrum sine peccato est, etc._
  For-thi ich consaily alle Cristene
  Cleregie to honoure, etc.

7453. Luke xii, 38.

7461. Heb. xii, 6.

7464. Psalm xxii, 4.

7470. _makynges._ 7483. _make._--There is a curious analogy between the
Greek and the Teutonic languages in the name given to the poet--the Greek
[Greek: poiêtês] (from [Greek: poiein]), the Anglo-Saxon _scóp_ (from
_sceopan_, to make or create), and the Middle-English _maker_, preserved in
the later Scottish _makkar_ (also applied to a poet), have all the same
signification. In the Neo-Latin tongues a different, though somewhat
analogous, word was used: the French and Anglo-Norman _trouvère_, and the
Provençal _trobador_, signify a finder or inventor.

7484. Catonis Distich. iii, 5.

7500. 1 Cor. xiii, 13. Nunc autem manent fides, spes, charitas, tria hæc:
major autem horum est charitas.

7528, &c. _Aristotle_, _Ypocras_, and _Virgile_.--These three names were
the great representatives of ancient science and literature in the middle
ages. Aristotle represented philosophy, in its most general sense; Virgil
represented literature in general, and more particularly the ancient
writers who formed the _grammar_ course of scholastic learning, whether
verse or prose; Ypocras, or Hippocrates, represented medicine. They are
here introduced to illustrate the fact that men of science and learning, as
well as warriors and rich men, experience the vicissitudes of fortune.

7534. _Felice._ Perhaps this name is only introduced for the sake of

7536. _Rosamounde._ I suppose the reference is to "fair Rosamond."

7554. Luc. vi, 38.

7567. John iii, 8.

7572. John iii, 11.

7582. John iii, 8.

7600. _thorugh caractes._ It was the popular belief in the middle ages,
that while the Jews were accusing the woman taken in adultery, Christ wrote
with his staff on the ground the sins of the accusers, and that when they
perceived this they dropped their accusation in confusion at finding that
their own guilt was known. See this point curiously illustrated in Mr.
Halliwell's Coventry Mysteries, pp. 220, 221. These are the _characters_
alluded to in Piers Ploughman.

7624. Luke vi, 37.

7701. 1 Cor. iii, 19.

7709. Luke ii, 15.

7714. Matth. ii, 1.

7721. Luke ii, 7.

7779. Psalm xxxi, 1.

7795. Luke vi, 39. The ignorance and inefficiency of the parish priests
appear to have become proverbial in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
In the latter century a canon of Lilleshul in Shropshire, named John Myrk,
or Myrkes, composed an English poem, or rather metrical treatise, on their
duties, which he commences by applying to them this same aphorism of our

  God seyth hymself, as wryten we fynde,
  That whenne the blynde ledeth the blynde,
  Into the dyche they fallen boo,
  For they ne sen whare by to go.
  So faren prestes now by dawe,
  They beth blynde in Goddes lawe, etc.
                                   _MS. Cotton. Claud._ A. II.

It had previously been applied in the same manner to the parish priests by
the author of a long French poem (apparently written in England in the
fourteenth century) entitled _Le Miroir de l'Ome_ (Speculum Hominis), as

  Dieus dist, et c'est tout verité,
  Qe si l'un voegle soit mené
  D'un autre voegle, tresbucher
  Falt ambedeux en la fossée.
  C'est un essample comparé
  As fols curetz, qui sanz curer
  Ne voient pas le droit sentier,
  Dont font les autres forsvoier,
  Qui sont après leur trace alé.
  Car fol errant ne puet quider,
  Ne cil comment nous puet saner,
  Qui mesmes est au mort naufré.
      _MS. in the possession of Mr. J. Russell Smith._

The following picture of the corrupt manners of the parish priests at this
time is extracted from a much longer and more minute censure in the same

  Des fols curetz auci y a,
  Qui sur sa cure demourra
  Non pour curer, mais q'il sa vie
  Endroit le corps plus easera.
  Car lors ou il bargaignera
  Du seculiere marchandie,
  Dont sa richesce multeplie;
  Ou il se donne à leccherie,
  Du quoy son corps delitera;
  Ou il se prent à venerie,
  Qant duist chanter sa letanie,
  Au bois le goupil huera.

7802. Psal. xv, 5. We might be led to suppose that this was the "neck
verse" in the time of Piers Ploughman. In later times the text which was
given to read to those who claimed the benefit of clergy is said to have
been the beginning of Psal. lv, _Miserere mei, &c._

7840. Eccl. v, 5.

7846. _Trojanus._ See the note on line 6859.

7854. Matth. xvi, 27. Filius enim hominis venturus est in gloria Patris sui
cum angelis suis: et tunc reddet unicuique secundum opera ejus.

7915. _his flessh is foul flessh._ Yet in spite of the "foulness" of its
flesh, the peacock was a very celebrated dish at table. For an account of
the use made of the peacock in feasts, see Le Grand d'Aussy, Histoire de la
Vie privée des Français, tom. i, pp. 299-301, and 361. In the Romance of
Mahomet, 13th century, it is said of Dives--

  Et dou Riche qui _tant poon
  Englouti_ et tant bon poisson,
  Tante piéche de venison,
  Et but bon vin par grant delit, &c.
                     _Roman de Mahommet_, l. 301.

7944. _Avynet._ In the 14th and 15th centuries, as any grammar was called a
_Donet_, because the treatise of Donatus was the main foundation of them
all, so, from Esop and Avienus from whom the materials were taken, any
collection of fables was called an _Avionet_ or an _Esopet_. The title of
one of these collections in a MS. of the Bibl. du Roi at Paris is,
_Compilacio Ysopi alata cum Avionetto, cum quibusdam addicionibus et
moralitatibus_. (_Robert, Fabl. Inéd. Essay_, p. clxv.) Perhaps the
reference in the present case is to the fable of the Peacock who complained
of his voice, the 39th in the collection which M. Robert calls _Ysopet_, in
the morality to which are the following lines:--

  Les riches conteront
  Des biens qu'il aront
  En ce siecle conquis.
  Cil qui petit ara,
  De petit contera
  Au Roy de paradis.
  Qui vit en povreté,
  Sans point d'iniquité,
  Moult ara grant richesse
  Es cieux, en paradis,
  O dieux et ses amis
  Seront joyeux et aise.

7961. Whitaker's text reads here:--

  Thus Porfirie and Plato,
  And poetes menye,
  Lykneth in here logyk
  The leeste fowel oute;
  And whether hii be saf other nat saf
  The sothe wot not clergie,
  Ne of Sortes ne of Salamon
  No scripture can telle,
  Wether thei be in helle other in hevene,
  Other Aristotle the wise.

7961. _Aristotle, the grete clerk._ From the eleventh to the sixteenth
centuries the influence of Aristotle's writings in the schools was
all-powerful. It was considered almost an impiety to go against his
authority. He was indeed "the great clerk."

7967. _Sortes._ I suppose this is an abbreviated form of the name Socrates.
It occurs again in one of the poems printed among the Latin Poetry
attributed to Walter Mapes (Camden Society's Publication), which has the
following lines:--

  Adest ei bajulus cui nomen Gnato,
  Præcedebat logicum gressu fatigato,
  Dorso ferens sarcinam ventre tensus lato,
  Plenam vestro dogmate, o _Sortes et Plato_.

7987. 1 Peter iv, 18.

8015. Psalm xxii, 4.

8073. _a maister._ This word was generally used in the scholastic ages in a
restricted sense, to signify one who had taken his degrees in the
schools--a master of arts.

8103. Luke x, 7.

8133-8137. These are the indications of different Psalms. Psalm li begins
with the words, _Miserere mei, Deus_, secundum magnam misericordiam tuam.
The thirty-first Psalm commences with the words, _Beati quorum_ remissæ
sunt iniquitates, _et quorum tecta sunt peccata_. _Beatus vir_, is the
beginning of Psalm i. The fifth verse of Psalm xxxi contains the words
_Dixi: Confitebor_ adversum me injustitiam meam Domino.

8141. Psalm xxxi, 6.

8145. Psalm l, 19.

8153. Isaiah v, 22.

8155. Whitaker's text has--

  And ete meny sondry metes,
  Mortrews and poddynges,
  Braun and blod of the goos,
  Bacon and colhopes.

The second Trin. Coll. MS. has--

  And sette many sundry metis,
  Mortreux and puddynges,
  Braun and blood of gees,
  Bacoun and colopis.

8167. 2 Corinth. xi, 24, 25, 27.

8173, 8180. 2 Cor. xi, 26.

8202. _Mahoun._ Mahoun was the middle-age name of Mohammed, and in the
popular writers was often taken in the mere sense of an idol or pagan

8204. _justly wombe._ MS. Trin. Coll. 2.

8225. _in a frayel._ Whitaker's text has _in a forel_, which he explains by
"a wicker basket." The second Trin. Coll. MS. has also _in a forell_.
_Forel_ is the Low-Latin _forellus_, a bag, sack, or purse: a _frayel_
(_fraellum_) was a little wicker basket, such as were used for carrying
figs or grapes.

8273. Matth. v, 19.

8292. Psalm xiv, 1.

8368. 1 John iv, 18.

8416. Luke xix, 8.

8418. Luke xxi, 1-4.

8444. _Surré._ Syria.

8474. _a mynstrall._ The description of the minstrel given here is very
curious. For a sketch of the character of this profession see Mr. Shaw's
"Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages;" and for more enlarged details
of the history of the craft the reader may consult the Introduction to
Percy's Reliques, and Chappell's History of National Airs.

8518. _a pardon with a peis of leed._ The papal bulls, &c., had seals of
lead, instead of wax.

8526. Marc. xvi, 17, 18.

8541. Acts iii, 6.

8554. Whitaker's text omits all that follows here to l. 8958 of our text,
entering very abruptly upon the subject there treated. Some of the
intervening matter had already been inserted in other places in Whitaker's
text. See our notes on ll. 2846 and 3030.

8567. _cart ... with breed fro Stratforde._ Stratford-at-Bow is said to
have been famous in old times for its numerous bakers, who supplied a great
part of the metropolis. Stowe, in his Survey of London, p. 159 (who appears
to have altered the text of Piers Ploughman to suit his own calculation,
for all the manuscripts and printed editions I have collated give "twice
_twenty_ and ten"), observes, "And because I have here before spoken of the
bread carts comming from Stratford at the Bow, ye shall understand that of
olde time the bakers of breade at Stratford were allowed to bring dayly
(except the Sabbaoth and principall feast) diverse long cartes laden with
bread, the same being two ounces in the pennie wheate loafe heavier than
the penny wheate loafe baked in the citie, the same to be solde in Cheape,
three or foure carts standing there, betweene Gutherans lane and Fausters
lane ende, one cart on Cornehill, by the conduit, and one other in Grasse
streete. And I have reade that in the fourth yere of Edward the second,
Richard Reffeham being maior, a baker named John of Stratforde, for making
bread lesser than the assise, was with a fooles whoode on his head, and
loaves of bread about his necke, drawne on a hurdle through the streets of
this citie. Moreover in the 44. of Edward the third, John Chichester being
maior of London, I read in the visions of Pierce Plowman, a booke so
called, as followeth. _There was a careful commune when no cart came to
towne with baked bread from Stratford: tho gan beggers weepe, and workemen
were agast, a little this will be thought long in the date of our Dirte, in
a drie Averell a thousand and three hundred, twise thirtie and ten, &c._ I
reade also in the 20. of Henrie the eight, Sir James Spencer being maior,
six bakers of Stratford were merced in the Guildhall of London, for baking
under the size appoynted. These bakers of Stratford left serving of this
citie, I know not uppon what occasion, about 30 yeares since."

8572. _a drye Aprill._ This is without doubt the dry season placed by
Fabyan in the year 1351, which, as he describes it, began with the month of
April. The difference of the date arises probably from a different system
of computation. Fabian says, "In the sommer of this xxvii yeare, it was so
drie that it was many yeres after called the drie sommer. For from the
latter ende of March, till the latter ende of Julye, fell lytle rayne or
none, by reason whereof manye inconveniences ensued."

8576. _Whan Chichestre was maire._ According to Fabyan, John Chichester was
mayor only once, in 1368, 1369, which was the period of the "thirde
mortalytie." The other authorities seem to agree in giving this as the year
of Chichester's mayoralty. He may perhaps have been mayor more than once.

8645. Galat. i, 10.

8685. Psalm x, 7.

8707, 8708. The two persons mentioned here (the shoemaker of Southwark and
dame Emma of Shoreditch) were probably eminent sorcerers and
fortune-tellers of the time.

8769-8778. To understand fully this passage, it must be borne in mind that
the corn lands were not so universally hedged as at present, and that the
portions belonging to different persons were separated only by a narrow
furrow, as is still the case in some of the uninclosed lands in

8812. _Brugges._ Bruges was the great mart of continental commerce during
the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries.

8813. _Pruce-lond_--Prussia, which was then the farthest country in the
interior of Europe with which a regular trade was carried on by the English

8827. Matth. vi, 21.

8858. Luke vi, 25.

8879. Psalm ci, 7.

8891. _a lady of sorwe._ The old printed edition has a _laye of sorow_.

8900. Whitaker has no division here, but continues the previous _passus_,
and omits many lines and has many variations in what follows.

8903. _I slepe therinne o nyghtes._ This passage is curious, because at the
time the poem was written, it was the custom for all classes of society to
go to bed quite naked, a practice which is said to have been not entirely
laid aside in the sixteenth century. We see constant proofs of this
practice in the illuminations of old manuscripts. The following memorial
lines are written in the margin of a MS. of the thirteenth century:--

  Ne be thi winpil nevere so jelu ne so stroutende,
  Ne thi faire tail so long ne so trailende,
  That tu ne schalt at evin al kuttid bilevin,
  And tou schalt to bedde gon so nakid as tou were [borin].
                              _MS. Cotton. Cleop. C._ VI, fol. 22, r^o.

In the Roman de la Violette, the old nurse expresses her astonishment that
her young mistress should retain her chemise when she goes to bed:--

  Et quant elle son lit fait a,
  Sa dame apiele, si se couche
  Nue en chemise en la couche;
  C'onques en trestoute sa vie
  La biele, blonde, l'escavie,
  Ne volt demostrer sa char nue.
  La vielle en est au lit venue,
  Puis li a dit: 'Dame, j'esgart
  Une chose, se Dex me gart,
  Dont je sui molt esmervillie
  C'onques ne vous vi despoillie,
  Et si vous ai vij. ans gardée;
  Molt vous ai souvent esgardée
  Que vo chemise ne sachiés!'
                    _Rom. de la Viol._ l. 577.

The lady explains her conduct by stating that she has a mark on the breast
which she had promised that no one should ever see.

8906. Luke xiv, 20.

8950. _noon heraud ne harpour._ Robes and other garments were among the
most usual gifts bestowed upon minstrels and heralds by the princes and
great barons. See before, ll. 8480, 8481.

8970. Matth. vi, 25, 26.

8999. John xiv, 13; xv, 16. Matth. iv, 4.

9037. Psalm cxliv, 16.

9039. _fourty wynter._ During the forty years that the children of Israel
wandered in the wilderness, they did not apply themselves to agriculture.

9049. _Sevene slepe._ The legend of the seven sleepers was remarkably
popular during the middle ages.

9101. Psalm xxxi. 1.

9176. Psalm lxxv, 6.

9178. Psalm lxxii, 20. Whitaker's _Passus sextus de Dowel_ ends with this

9317. Both in the Vision of Piers Ploughman, and in the Creed, there are
frequent expressions of indignation at the extravagant expenditure in
painting the windows of the abbeys and churches. It must not be forgotten
that a little later the same feeling as that exhibited in these satires led
to the destruction of many of the noblest monuments of medieval art.

9344. Mat. xix, 23, 24.

9347. Apocal. xiv, 13.

9352. Matth. v, 3.

9452. Compare the defence of poverty in Chaucer (Cant. T. 6774):--

  Juvenal saith of poverte merily:
  The poore man, whan he goth by the way,
  Beforn the theves he may sing and play.
  _Poverte is hateful good_; and, as I gesse,
  A ful gret _bringer out of besinesse_;
  A _gret amender_ eke _of sapience_,
  To him that taketh it in patience.
  Poverte is this although it seme elenge,
  _Possession that no wight wol challenge._
  Poverte ful often, whan a man is low,
  Maketh his God and eke himself to know:
  Poverte a spectakel is, as thinketh me,
  Thurgh which he may his veray frendes see.
  And therfore, sire, sin that I you not greve,
  Of my poverte no more me repreve.

The definition given in Piers Ploughman is taken from the Dialogues of
Secundus, where it is thus expressed:--"Quid est paupertas? Odibile bonum,
sanitatis mater, curarum remotio, absque sollicitudine semita, sapientiæ
reparatrix, negotium sine damno, intractabilis substantia, possessio absque
calumnia, incerta fortuna, sine sollicitudine felicitas." (MS. Reg. 9 A
xiv, fol. 140 v^o.) See also Roger de Hoveden, p. 816, and Vincent de
Beauvais, Spec. Hist. lib. x, c. 71.

9517. _the paas of Aultone._ Whitaker has _Haultoun_, and says that this
pass is Halton "in Cheshire, formerly infamous to a proverb as a haunt of

9529. _Cantabit, etc._ The author has modified, or the scribes have
corrupted, the well-known line of Juvenal,

  Cantabit vacuus coram latrone viator.

9665. These definitions will be found in Isidore, Etymol. lib. xl, c. 1,
and Different, lib. ii, c. 29. They are repeated by Alcuin, De Anim. Rat.
N. x, p. 149, _Anima_ est, dum vivificat; dum contemplatur, _spiritus_ est;
dum sentit, _sensus_ est; dum sapit, _animus_ est; dum intelligit, _mens_
est; dum discernit, _ratio_ est; dum consentit, _voluntas_ est; dum
recordatur, _memoria_ est.

9708. Prov. xxv, 27.

9740. Epist. ad Rom. xii, 3.

9751. _the seven synnes._ The seven deadly sins were--pride, anger, envy,
sloth, covetousness, gluttony, and lechery. "Now ben they cleped
chiefetaines, for as moche as they be chiefe, and of hem springen alle
other sinnes. The rote of thise sinnes than is pride, the general rote of
alle harmes. For of this rote springen certain braunches: as, ire, envie,
accidie or slouthe, avarice or coveitise, (to commun understonding)
glotonie, and lecherie: and eche of thise chief sinnes hath his braunches
and his twigges." Chaucer, Persones Tale, p. 40.

9766. Psal. xcvi, 7; iv, 3.

9828. _in Latyn._ The monks had collections of comparisons, similitudes,
proverbs, &c., to be introduced in their sermons, and even when preaching
in English they generally quoted them in Latin. This I suppose to be the
meaning of the expression here.

9918. Matth. xviii, 3.

9934. 1 Corinth. xiii, 4.

9946. 1 Corinth, xiii, 12.

9957. _a tunicle of Tarse._ Tarse was the name given to a kind of silk,
said to have been brought from a country of that name on the borders of
Cathai, or China. Chaucer (Cant. T. l. 2162), describing "the king of
Inde," says--

  His coote armour was of a cloth of Tars,
  Cowched of perlys whyte, round and grete.

Ducange (v. _Tarsicus_) quotes a visitation of the treasury of St. Paul's,
London, in 1295, where there is mention of Tunica et dalmatica de _panno
Indico Tarsico_ Besantato de auro, and of a Casula de _panno Tarsico_.

10004. Psal. vi, 7.

10009. Psal. l, 19.

10062. Matth. vi, 16.

10069. _Edmond and Edward._ St. Edmund the martyr, king of East Anglia, and
king Edward the Confessor.

10124. Psal. iv, 9.

10159. _Antony and Egidie._ Whitaker has _Antonie and Ersenie_. St. Antony
is well known as the father and patron of monks, and for the persecutions
he underwent from the devil. St. Giles, or Egidius, is said to have been a
Greek, who came to France about the end of the seventh century, and
established himself in a hermitage near the mouth of the Rhone, and
afterwards in the neighbourhood of Nismes. Arsenius was a noble Roman who,
at the end of the fourth century, retired to Egypt to live the life of an
anchoret in the desert.

10174. _after an hynde cride._ The monkish biographer of St. Giles relates,
that he was for some time nourished with the milk of a hind in the forest,
and that a certain prince discovered his retreat while hunting in his
woods, by pursuing the hind till it took shelter in St. Giles's hermitage.

10183. _Hadde a bird._ This incident is not found in the common lives of
St. Antony.

10187. _Poul._ Paul was a Grecian hermit, who lived in the tenth century in
the wilderness of Mount Latrus, and became the founder of one of the
monastic establishments there. He was famous for the rigorous severity of
his life.

10203. _Marie Maudeleyne._ By Mary Magdalen here is meant probably St. Mary
the Egyptian, who lived in the fifth century, and who, according to the
legend, after having spent her youth in unbridled debauchery, repented in
her twenty-ninth year, and lived during the remainder of her life
(forty-seven years) in the wilderness beyond the Jordan, without seeing one
human being during that time, and sustained only by the precarious food
which she found in the desert.

10239. Whitaker's text here adds a passage relating to Tobias:--

  Marie Magdalene
  By mores levede and dewes;
  Love and leel byleyve
  Heeld lyf and soule togedere.
    Maria Egyptiaca
  Eet in thyrty wynter
  Bote thre lytel loves,
  And love was her souel.
  Ich can nat rekene hem ryght now,
  Ne reherce here names,
  That lyveden thus for oure Lordes love
  Meny longe yeres,
  Whitoute borwyng other beggyng,
  Other the boke lyeth;
  And woneden in wildernesse
  Among wilde bestes;
  Ac dorst no beste byten hem
  By daye ne by nyghte,
  Bote myldeliche whan thei metten
  Maden louh chere,
  And feyre byfore tho men
  Fauhnede whith the tayles.
  Ac bestes brouhte hem no mete,
  Bote onliche the fouweles;
  In tokenynge that trywe man
  Alle tymes sholde
  Fynde honeste men in holy men
  And other ryghtful peuple.
  For wolde never feithful goud
  That freres and monkes token
  Lyflode of luther wynnynges
  In al here lyf tyme;
  As wytnesseth holy writt
  Whot Thobie deyde
  To is wif, whan he was blynde,
  Herde a lambe blete,--
  'A! wyf, be war,' quath he,
  'What ye have here ynne.
  Lord leyve,' quath the lede,
  'No stole thyng be here!'
  _Videte ne furtum sit. Et alibi, Melius
      est mori quam male vivere._
  This is no more to mene,
  Bote men of holy churche
  Sholde receyve ryght nauth
  Bot that ryght wolde,
  And refuse reverences
  And raveneres offrynges;
  Thenne wolde lordes and ladies
  Be loth to agulte,
  And to take of here tenaunts
  More than treuthe wolde;
  And marchauns merciable wolde be,
  And men of lawe bothe.
  Wold religeouse refuse
  Raveneres almesse,
  Then Grace sholde growe yut
  And grene-leved wexe,
  And Charité, that child is now,
  Sholde chaufen of hem self,
  And comfortye all crystene,
  Wold holy churche amende.
  Job the parfit patriarch
  This proverbe wrot and tauhte,
  To makye a man lovye mesure,
  That monkes beeth and freeres.
  _Nunquam dicit Job, rugiet onager, etc._

Throughout this part of the poem, Whitaker's text differs very much in
words and phraseology from the one now printed, but it would take up too
much space to point out all these variations.

10247. Job vi, 5.

10270. 2 Corinth, ix, 9.

10303. These sentences appear to be quotations from the fathers of the
Latin Church.

10322. _lussheburwes._ A foreign coin, much adulterated, common in England
in the middle of the fourteenth century. Chaucer (C. T. 15445) uses the
word in a very expressive passage:--

  This maketh that oure wyfes wol assaye
  Religious folk, for thay may bettre paye
  Of Venus payementes than may we:
  God woot! no _lusscheburghes_ paye ye.

Among the foreign money, mostly of a base quality, which came into this
country in the fourteenth century, the coinage of the counts of Luxemburg,
or, as it was then called, Lusenburg (hence called _lussheburwes_ and
_lusscheburghes_), seems to have been the most abundant, and to have given
most trouble. These coins were the subject of legislation in 1346, 1347,
1348, and 1351; so that the grievance must have been at its greatest height
at the period to which the poem of Piers Ploughman especially belongs. Many
of these coins are preserved, and found in the cabinets of collectors; they
are in general very much like the contemporary English coinage, and might
easily be taken for it, but the metal is very base.

10368. _Grammer, the ground of al._ In the scholastic learning of the
middle ages, grammar was considered as the first of the seven sciences, and
the foundation-stone of all the rest. See my Essay on Anglo-Saxon
Literature, introductory to vol. i. of the _Biographia Britannica
Literaria_, p. 72. The importance of grammar is thus stated in the _Image
du Monde_ of Gautier de Metz (thirteenth century):--

  Li primeraine des vij. ars,
  Dont or n'est pas seus li quars,
  A ichest tans, chou est gramaire,
  Sans laquele nus ne vaut gaire
  Qui à clergie veut aprendre:
  Car petit puet sans li entendre.
  Gramaires si est fondemens
  De clergie et coumenchemens;
  Cou est li porte de science,
  Par cui on vient à sapience.
  De lettres en gramaire escole
  Qui ensegne et forme parole,
  Soit en Latin ou en Roumans,
  Ou en tous langages palans;
  Qui bien saroit toute gramaire,
  Toute parole saroit faire.
  Par parole fist Dius le monde,
  Et sentence est parole monde.

10398. _Corpus Christi feeste._ Corpus Christi day was a high festival of
the Church of Rome, held annually on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday, in
memory, as was said, of the miraculous confirmation of transubstantiation
under pope Urban IV.

10418. _This Makometh._ This account of Mohammed was the one most popularly
current in the middle ages. According to Hildebert, who wrote a life of the
pseudo-prophet in Latin verse in the twelfth century, Mohammed was a
Christian, skilled in magical arts, who, on the death of the patriarch of
Jerusalem, aspired to succeed him:--

  Nam male devotus quidam baptismate lotus,
      Plenus perfidia vixit in ecclesia.
    .    .    .    .    .    .
  Nam cum transisset Pater illius urbis, et isset
      In coelum subito corpore disposito,
  Tunc exaltari magus hic et pontificari
      Affectans avide; se tamen hæc pavide
  Dixit facturum, nisi sciret non nociturum
      Si præsul fiat, cum Deus hoc cupiat.

His intrigues being discovered, the emperor drives him away, and in revenge
he goes and founds a new sect. The story of the pigeon (which is not in
Hildebert) is found in Vincent of Beauvais, Spec. Hist. lib. xxiii, c. 40.
This story is said to be founded in truth. Neither of them are found in the
Roman de Mahomet (by Alexander du Pont), written in the thirteenth century,
and edited by MM. Reinaud and Michel, Paris, 1831, 8vo, a work which
contains much information concerning the Christian notions relative to
Mohammed in the middle ages.

10478. John xvi, 24.

10481, 10486. Matth. v, 13.

10499. _Ellevene holy men._ The eleven apostles who remained after the
apostasy of Judas and the crucifixion of their Lord.

10550. _Ne fesauntz y-bake._ The pheasant was formerly held in the same
honour as the peacock (see before the note on l. 7915), and was served at
table in the same manner. It was considered one of the most precious
dishes. See Le Grand d'Aussy, Hist. de la Vie privée des François, ii, 19.
The Miroir de l'Ome (MS. in the possession of Mr. Russell Smith) says
(punning) of the luxurious prelates of the fourteenth century,--

  Pour le phesant et le bon vin
  Le bien-faisant et le divin
  L'evesque laist à nonchalure;
  Si quiert la coupe et crusequin,
  Ainz que la culpe du cristin
  Pour corriger et mettre en cure.

10553. Matth. xxii, 4.

10581. Mark xvi, 15.

10585. _So manye prelates._ 10699. _that huppe aboute in Engelond._ The
pope appointed many titular bishops of foreign sees in which, from the
nature of circumstances, they could not possibly reside, and who therefore
were a burthen upon the church. Some of these prelates appear to have
resorted to England, and to have exercised the episcopal functions,
consecrating churches, &c. The church of Elsfield, in Oxfordshire, was
consecrated by a foreign bishop. (See Kennett's Parochial Antiquities.)

10593. John x, 11.

10599. Matth. xx, 4, 7.

10606. Matth. vii, 7.

10617. Galat. vi, 14.

10632. _That roode thei honoure._ A cross was the common mark on the
reverse of our English money at this period, and for a long time previous
to it. The point of satirical wit in this passage of Piers Ploughman
appears to be taken from the old Latin rhymes of the beginning of the
thirteenth century. See the curious poem _De Cruce Denarii_, in Walter
Mapes, p. 223. Another poem in the same volume (p. 38) speaks thus of the
court of Rome:--

  Nummis in hac curia non est qui non vacet;
  _Crux_ placet, rotunditas, et albedo placet.

10637. _Shul torne as templers dide._ The suppression of the order of the
Templars was at this time fresh in people's memories. It was the general
belief, and not without some foundation, that the Templars had entirely
degenerated from their original sanctity and faithfulness, and that before
the dissolution of the order they were addicted to degrading vices and
superstitions; and they were accused of sacrificing everything else to
their grasping covetousness.

10659. _Whan Constantyn._ The Christian church began first to be endowed
with wealth and power under the emperor Constantine the Great.

10649. Luke i, 52.

10695-10699. Instead of these lines, Whitaker's text has the following:--

  And bereth name of Neptalym,
  Of Nynyve and Damaske.
  For when the holy kynge of hevene
  Sende hus sone to eerthe,
  Meny myracles he wroughte,
  Man for to turne,
  In ensample that men sholde
  See by sad reyson
  That men myghte nat be savede
  Bote thorw mercy and grace,
  And thorw penaunce and passioun,
  And parfyght byleyve;
  And bycam a man of a mayde,
  And _metropolitanus_
  And baptisede an busshoppede
  Whit the blode of hus herte,
  Alle that wilnede other wolde
  Whit inwhight byleyve hit.
  Meny seint sitthe
  Suffrede deth alsoo,
  For to enferme the faithe
  Ful wyde where deyden,
  In Inde and in Alisaundrie,
  In Ermanye, in Spayne;
  An fro mysbyleve
  Meny man turnede.
  In savacion of mannys saule
  Seynt Thomas of Cauntelbury
  Among unkynde Cristene
  In holy churche was sleye,
  And alle holy churche
  Honourede for that deyinge:
  He is a forbusur to alle busshopes,
  And a bryghthe myrour,
  And sovereynliche to alle suche
  That of Surrye bereth name,
  And nat in Engelounde to huppe aboute,
  And halewen men auters.

In the remainder of this passus, Whitaker's text differs much from the one
I have printed, but in such a manner that to give here the variations it
would be necessary to reprint the whole. In the remainder of the poem, the
variations are not great or important, being only such as we always find in
different copies of poems which enjoyed considerable popularity.

10716. Isai. iii, 7.

10721. Malach. iii, 10.

10733. Luke x, 27. Diliges Dominum Deum tuum ex toto corde tuo, et ex tota
anima tua, et ex omni mente tua, et proximum tuum sicut teipsum.

10755. John xi, 43.

10787. _litlum and litlum_, by little and little, gradually. It is the pure
Anglo-Saxon phrase. In the Anglo-Saxon version of Genesis xl, 10, the Latin
_paulatim_ is rendered by _lytlum and lytlum_.

10844. Psal. xxxvi, 24.

10891. Matth. xii, 32.

11000. Luke i, 38.

11023. Matth. ix, 12. Mark ii, 17. Luke v, 31.

11033. Matth. xxvi, 37.

11044. Matth. xi, 18.

11075. Matth. xxi, 13.

11121. Matth. xviii, 7.

11238. Matth. xxvii, 46, and Mark xv, 34.

11300. Rom. iv, 13.

11322. John i, 29 and 36.

11396. Matth. xx, 40.

11518, 11520. _lo! here silver ... two pens._ It must be remembered that at
this period the mass of the coinage, including pence, halfpence, and
farthings, was of silver; copper came into use for the smaller coinage at a
later period. Two pence of Edward III would be worth about two shillings of
our modern money.

11670. John xii, 32.

11708. _tu fabricator omnium._ This was one of the hymns of the catholic

11866. Luke xiii, 27.

11883. 1 Corinth. xiii, 1.

11894. Matth. vii, 21.

11998. _Thre thynges._ This proverb is frequently quoted by the satirical
and facetious writers of the middle ages. Thus in Chaucer (C. T. 5860):--

  Thou saist, that droppyng houses, and eek smoke,
  And chydyng wyves, maken men to fle
  Out of here oughne hous.

In the poem entitled Golias de Conjuge non ducenda, in Walter Mapes, p. 83,
the proverb is alluded to in the following words:--

  Fumus, et mulier, et stillicidia,
  Expellunt hominem a domo propria.

There was an old French proverbial distich to the same effect,--

  Fumée, pluye, et femme sans raison,
  Chassent l'homme de sa maison.

12040. 2 Corinth. xii, 9.

12097. _to be dubbed._ These and the following lines contain a continued
allusion to the ceremonies of knighthood and tournaments.

12106. Psal. cxvii, 26.

12211. Matth. xxvii, 54.

12232, 12244. _Longeus ... this blynde bacheler._ This alludes to one of
the many legends which the monks engrafted upon the scripture history.
Longeus is said to have been the name of the soldier who pierced the side
of Christ with his spear; and it is pretended that he was previously blind
from his birth, but that the blood of the Saviour ran down his spear, and a
drop of it touching his eye, he was instantly restored to sight, by which
miracle he was converted. See, in illustration of this subject, Halliwell's
Coventry Mysteries, p. 334; The Towneley Mysteries, p. 321; Jubinal,
Mystères inédits du quinzième Siècle, tom. ii, pp. 254-257; &c.

12319, 12418, 12420. _Mercy and Truthe, ... Pees ... Rightwisnesse._
Lydgate seems to have had this passage in his mind, when he described the
four sisters in the following lines at the commencement of one of his poems
(MS. Harl. 2255, fol. 21):--

  Mercy and Trouthe mette on an hih mounteyn
  Briht as the sonne with his beemys cleer,
  Pees and Justicia walkyng on the pleyn,
  And with foure sustryn, moost goodly of ther cheer,
  List nat departe nor severe in no maneer,
  Of oon accoord by vertuous encrees,
  Joyned in charité, pryncessis moost enteer,
  Mercy and Trouthe, Rihtwisnesse and Pees.

12361. _a tale of Waltrot._ This name, like Wade in Chaucer, appears to
have been that of a hero of romances and tales, or a personage belonging to
the popular superstitions. Perhaps it may be connected with the old German
_Waltschrat_ (_satyrus_, _pilosus_). See Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, p.

12438. Psal. xxix, 6.

12566. Matth. xiv, 28.

12599. _a spirit speketh to helle._ The picture of the "Harrowing of Hell,"
which here fol, bears a striking resemblance to the analogous scene in the
old Mysteries, particularly in that edited by Mr. Halliwell under this
title, 8vo, 1840. Compare the play on the same subject in the Towneley
Mysteries, p. 244.

12601. Psal. xxiii, 7, 9.

12645, 12669, 12676. _sevene hundred wynter ... thritty wynter ... two and
thritty wynter._ Our Anglo-Saxon forefathers always counted duration of
time by _winters_ and _nights_; for so many years, they said so many
winters, and so many nights for so many days. This form continued long in
popular usage, and still remains in our words _fortnight_ and _se'nnight_.

12663. _Gobelyn._ Goblin is a name still applied to a devil. It belongs
properly to a being of the old Teutonic popular mythology, a hob-goblin,
the "lubber-fiend" of the poet, and seems to be identical with the German
_kobold_. (See Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, p. 286.) _Gobelin_ occurs as the
name of one of the shepherds in the Mystery of the Nativity, printed by M.
Jubinal in his Mystères inédits, vol. ii, p. 71. It occurs as the name of a
devil in a song of the commencement of the fourteenth century, Political
Songs, p. 238:--

  Sathanas huere syre
    Seyde on is sawe,
  Gobelyn made is gerner
    Of gromene mawe.

12679. _to warne Pilates wif._ This is an allusion to a popular legend
prevalent at this time that the devil wished to hinder Christ's
crucifixion, and that he appeared to Pilate's wife in a dream, and caused
her to beseech her husband not to condemn the Saviour. It was founded on
the passage in Matthew xxvii, 19. Sedente autem illo pro tribunali, misit
ad eum uxor ejus, dicens: Nihil tibi et justo illi: multa enim passa sum
hodie per visum propter eum. The most complete illustration of the passage
of Piers Ploughman will be found in Halliwell's Coventry Mysteries, p. 308,
"Pilate's Wife's Dream."

12691. _And now I se wher a soule | Cometh hiderward seillynge, | With
glorie, &c._ With this beautiful passage may be compared a very similar one
in the Samson Agonistes of Milton:--

  But who is this, what thing of sea or land?
  Female of sex it seems,
  That so bedeck'd, ornate and gay,
  _Comes this way sailing_
  Like a stately ship
  Of Tarsus, bound for th' isles
  Of Javan or Gadire,
  With all her bravery on, and tackle trim.

12753. _y-lik a lusard._ In the illuminations of manuscripts representing
the scene of the temptation, the serpent is often figured with legs like a
lizard or crocodile, and a human face.

12759. Matth. v, 38.

12781. Matth. v, 17.

12801. _thorugh a tree._ Some of the medieval legends go still farther, and
pretended that the tree from which the wood of the cross was made was
descended directly from a plant from the tree in Paradise of which Adam and
Eve were tempted to eat the fruit.

12805. Psal. vii, 16.

12840. Psal. l, 6.

12876. 2 Corinth. xii, 4.

12886. Psal. cxlii, 2.

12896. _Astroth._ This name, as given to one of the devils, occurs in a
curious list of actors in the Miracle Play of St. Martin, given by M.
Jubinal, in the preface to his Mystères inédits, vol. ii, p. ix. It is
similarly used in the Miracle Play of the Martyrdom of St. Peter and St.
Paul, Jubinal, ib. vol. i, p. 69. In one of the Towneley Mysteries (p.
246), this name is likewise given to one of the devils:--

  Calle up _Astarot_ and Anaballe,
  To gyf us counselle in this case.

12937. Psal. lxxxiv, 11.

12943. Psal. cxxxii, 1.

13222. 1 Sam. xviii, 7.

13274. Luke xxiv, 46.

13317. John xx, 29.

13375. _Veni creator spiritus._ The first line of the hymn at vespers, on
the feast of Pentecost.

13412. 1 Corinth. xii, 4.

13550. Cato, Distich. 14, lib. ii:--

  Esto forti animo cum sis damnatus inique;
  Nemo diu gaudet qui judice vincit iniquo.

13789. _I knew nevere cardynal._ The contributions levied upon the clergy
for the support of the pope's messengers and agents was a frequent subject
of complaint in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

13807. _At Avynone among the Jewes._ In the middle ages there was a large
congregation of Jews at Avignon, as in most of the principal cities in the
south of France. In the civil dissensions which disturbed Italy during this
century, the pope was frequently obliged to take shelter at Avignon and
other places within the French territory.

13825. Matth. v, 45.

13855. Rom. xii, 19; Hebr. x, 30.

14142. _Kynde cessede._ The lines which follow contain an allusion to the
dissipation of manners which followed the pestilence.

14191, 14196. _Westmynstre Halle ... the Arches._ The law courts have been
held at Westminster from the earliest Anglo-Norman times, it being the
king's chief palace. The court of the arches was a very ancient consistory
court of the archbishop of Canterbury, held at Bow church in London, which
was called St. Mary de Arcubus or St. Mary le Bow, from the circumstance of
its having been built on arches.

14211. _leet daggen hise clothes._ An account of the mode in which the rich
fashionable robes of the dandies of the fourteenth century were dagged, or
cut in slits at the edges and borders, will be found in any work on
costume: it is frequently represented in the contemporary illuminations in
manuscripts. Chaucer, in the "Persones Tale," when treating of pride and of
the "superfluitee of clothing," speaks of "the costlewe furring in hir
gounes, so moche pounsoning of chesel to maken holes, so moche _dagging of
sheres_," &c. And again, "if so be that they wolden yeve swiche pounsoned
and _dagged_ clothing to the povre peple, it is not convenient to were for
hir estate," &c. In the Alliterative Poem on the Deposition of Richard II
(printed for the Camden Society), p. 21, the clergy is blamed for not
preaching against the new fashions in dress:--

  For wolde they blame the burnes
  That broughte newe gysis,
  And dryve out _the dagges_
  And alle the Duche cotis.

Whitaker gives the following singular explanation of this passage:--"_Let
dagge hus clothes_, probably, let them fall to the ground, or divested
himself of them; for warriors are 'succinct' for battle as well as 'for

14269. _A glazene howve._ I suppose this means that, in return for his
gold, Physic gave him a hood of glass, _i. e._ a very frail protection for
his person.

14367. _of the Marche of Walys._ Whitaker's text reads, _of the Marche of
Yrelonde_. The clergy of the Welsh border appear, from allusions in other
works, to have been proverbial for their ignorance and irregularity of

14438. Psal. cxlvi, 4.

14444. _wage menne to werre._ This is a curious account of the composition
of an army in the fourteenth century.

14482. Exod. xx, 17.

14511. _suffre the dede in dette_, _i. e._, The friars persuade people to
leave to them, under pretence of saving their souls, the property which was
due to their creditors, and thus, after their death, their debts remain

14615, 14617. _this lymytour ... he salvede so oure wommen._ The whole of
this passage, taken with what precedes, is an amusing satire upon the
limitour. Compare the description of the limitour given by Chaucer in the
Canterbury Tales, ll. 208-271, who alludes to his kindness for the women.
The limitour was a friar licensed to visit and beg within certain limits.
His pertinacity and inquisitiveness in visiting, alluded to in the name
given him in Piers Ploughman (Sir Penetrans-domos), is admirably satirized
by Chaucer, in the opening of the "Wif of Bathes Tale:"--

  In olde dayes of the kyng Arthour,
  Of which that Britouns speken gret honour,
  Al was this lond fulfilled of fayrie;
  The elf-queen, with hir joly compaignye,
  Daunced ful oft in many a grene mede.
  This was the old oppynyoun, as I rede
  I speke of many hundrid yer ago;
  But now can no man see noon elves mo.
  For now the grete charité and prayeres
  Of lymytours and other holy freres,
  That sechen every lond and every streem,
  As thik as motis in the sonne-beem,
  Blesynge halles, chambres, kichenes, and boures,
  Citees and burghes, castels hihe, and toures,
  Thropes and bernes, shepnes and dayeries,
  This makith that ther ben no fayeries:
  For ther as wont was to walken an elf,
  Ther walkith noon but the lymytour himself,
  In undermeles and in morwenynges,
  And saith his matyns and his holy thinges,
  As he goth in his lymytacioun.



65. _a Minoure._ These were the Gray or Franciscan Friars, founded at the
beginning of the thirteenth century by St. Francis of Assise. They are
supposed to have come to England in 1224, when they settled, first at
Canterbury, and afterwards at London.

75. _a Carm._ 95. _Maries men._ The Carmelites, or White Friars, pretended
to be of great antiquity, and were originally established at Mount Carmel,
from whence they were driven by the Saracens about the year 1238. They were
brought into England in 1244, and settled first at Alnwick in
Northumberland, and at Ailesford in Kent.

About the date (or a little before) of our poem, the Carmelites appear to
have been very active in asserting in a boasting manner the superiority of
their order over the others. An anecdote told by Fuller (History of
Cambridge, p. 113), under the year 1371, affords a curious illustration.
"John Stokes, a Dominican, born at Sudbury, in Suffolk, but studying in
Cambridge, as champion of his order, fell foul on the Carmelites, chiefly
for calling themselves 'The brothers of the Blessed Virgin,' and then by
consequence all knew whose uncle they pretend themselves. He put them to
prove their pedigree by Scripture, how the kindred came in. In brief, Bale
saith, 'he left red notes in the white coats of the Carmelites,' he so
belaboured them with his lashing language. But John Hornby a Carmelite
(born at Boston in Lincolnshire) undertook him, called by Bale Cornutus, by
others Hornet-bee, so stinging his stile. He proved the brothership of his
order to the Virgin Mary by visions, allowed true by the infallible popes,
so that no good Christian durst deny it."

130. _Freres of the Pye._ The Fratres de Pica, or Friars of the Pye, are
said to have received their name from the circumstance of their wearing
their outer garment black and white like a magpie. Very little is known of
their history. They are said to have had but one house in England.

143. _Robartes men._ See before the notes on the Vision, ll. 88 and ll.

155. _miracles of mydwyves._ The monks had many relics and superstitious
practices to preserve and aid women in childbirth. One of the commissioners
for the suppression of the monasteries mentions among the relics of a house
he had visited, "Mare Magdalens girdell, and yt is wrappyde and coveride
with white, sent also with gret reverence to women traveling:" he had
previously spoken of "oure Lades gyrdell of Bruton, rede silke, wiche is a
solemne reliquie sent to women travelyng wiche shall not miscarie _in
partu_." (MS. Cotton. Cleop. E. iv, fol. 249.) See the account of a gem,
which had a similar virtue, in Matthew Paris's History of the Abbots of St.

305. _the Prechoures._ The Black Friars, or Dominicans, were founded by St.
Dominic, a Spanish monk of the end of the eleventh century. They were
called Friars Preachers, because their chief duty was to preach and convert
heretics. They came into England in 1221, and had their first houses in

327. _posternes in privité._ These private posterns are frequently alluded
to in the reports of the Commissioners for the Dissolution of the
Monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII. One of them, speaking of the abbey
of Langden, says, "Wheras immediatly descendying fro my horse, I sent
Bartlett your servant, with all my servantes to circumcept the abbay and
surely to kepe _all bake dorres and startyng hoilles_, and I myself went
alone to the abbottes logeying joyning upon the feldes and wode, _evyn lyke
a cony clapper full of startyng hoilles_." (MS. Cotton. Cleop. E. iv, fol.
127.) Another commissioner (MS. Cotton. Cleop. E. iv, fol. 35), in a letter
concerning the monks of the Charter-house in London, says, "These
charterhowse monkes wolde be callyde solytary, but to the cloyster dore
ther be above xxiiij. keys in the handes of xxiiij. persons, and hit is
lyke my letters, unprofytable tayles and tydinges and sumtyme perverse
concell commythe and goythe by reason therof. Allso to the buttrey dore
ther be xij. sundrye keys in xij. [mens] handes wherin symythe to be small

351. _merkes of merchauntes._ Their ciphers or badges painted in the
windows. For examples, see the note in Warton's History of English Poetry,
vol. ii, p. 98, last edition.

481. _euelles._ Perhaps for _evel-les_, _i. e._ without evil.

534. _the Austyns._ The Austin Friars, or Friars Eremites of the order of
St. Augustine, came into England about the year 1250. Before the end of the
fourteenth century they possessed a great number of houses in this island.

566. _the foure ordres._ The four principal orders of Mendicant Friars. See
note on the Vision, l. 116.

721. _harkne at Herdforthe._ This appears to be an allusion to some event
which had recently occurred among the Franciscans at Hertford, or at
Hereford: if the latter, perhaps they had been active in the persecution of
Walter Brut. See below, l. 1309.

745. _than ther lefte in Lucifere._ Than there existed in Lucifer, before
his fall. See before, the note on l. 681 of the Vision.

771. _couuen_. Probably an error of the old printed edition for _connen_.

869. _lath._ Perhaps an error of the printer of the first edition for

911. Matth. vii, 15.

913. _werwolves._ People who had the power of turning themselves into, or
were turned into, wolves. This fearful superstition, which is very ancient,
was extremely prevalent in the middle ages. In French they were called
_Loup-garous_. The history of a personage of this kind forms the subject of
the Lai de Bisclaveret, by Marie de France. Sir Frederick Madden has
published a very remarkable Early-English metrical romance on the subject
of "William and the Werwolf." See on this superstition Grimm's Deutsche
Mythologie, pp. 620-622.

954. _Golias._ There is perhaps here an allusion to the famous satire on
the Monkish orders entitled Apocalypsis Goliæ, printed among the poems of
Walter Mapes.

967. _the kynrede of Caym._ In the popular belief of the middle ages,
hob-goblins and evil spirits (which haunted the wilds and the waters)
literally, and bad men figuratively, were represented as being descended
from the first murderer, Cain. In Old-English poetry, _Caymes kyn_ is a
common epithet for very wicked people. In the Anglo-Saxon romance of
Beowulf, the Grendel is said to be of "Cain's kin."

1051. _wytnes on Wyclif._ In the persecutions to which Wycliffe was
subjected for his opinions in 1382, his most violent opponents were the
Mendicants. He died in 1384, quietly at his living of Lutterworth.

1189. _a lymytoure._ See before, the note on l. 14615 of the Vision.

1178. _stumlen in tales._ An allusion to the idle and superstitious tales
with which the monks filled their sermons, in place of simple and sound

1309. _Water Brut._ Walter Brut (or Bright) was a native of Herefordshire,
and was prosecuted by the Bishop of Hereford for heresy in 1393. A long
account of his defence will be found in Foxe's Acts and Monuments.

1401. _Hildegare._ I suppose this refers to St. Hildegardis, a nun who
flourished in the middle of the twelfth century, and who was celebrated
among the Roman Catholics as a prophetess. Her prophecies are not uncommon
in manuscripts, and they have been printed. Those which relate to the
future corruptions in the monkish orders are given in Foxe's Acts and
Monuments, book vi, and in other works.

       *       *       *       *       *


    [The figures in the following Glossary refer to the _page_ of the text.
    Words preceded by a +, occur only in the CREED. A.S. and A.N.
    distinguish the two different languages of which our own is composed,
    Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman.]


a, prefixed to verbs of Anglo-Saxon origin, has sometimes a negative,
sometimes an intensative power: before nouns and adjectives it represents
_on_ and _at_, as, a-brood, a-fore (æt-foran), a-rowe (i. e. _on a row_),
a-loft (i. e. _on high_), &c. In words of Anglo-Norman origin, it answers
to the prepositions, _a_, _ab_, _ad_, of the original Latin words

a (A.N.) 355, _ah!_ (an interjection)

abidynge (A.S.) 413, _patient_

abiggen (A.S.) 35, 127, abien, 58, abugge, 122, abye, 164, abyen, 393, _to
make amends for_, _to atone for_. _pret. s._ aboughte, 168, 190, 231, 268.
_part. past_, abought, 392

abite (A.S.) 331, _to bite, nip_

a-blende (A.S.) 377, a-blynden, _to blinde, dazzle_. _pret. s._ a-blente,

abosten (A.N.) 126, _to assault_

abouten, aboute (A.S.) _about_

a-brood (A.S.) _abroad_

ac (A.S.) _but, and_

a-cale (A.S.) 393, _cold_. It occurs in the Romance of the Seven Sages
(Weber, p. 59):

  That night he sat wel sore _a-kale_,
  And his wif lai warme a-bedde.

accidie (A.N.) 99, _sloth, a fit of slothfulness_

acombren (A.N.) _to embarrass, bring into trouble_

acorden (A.N.) _to agree, accord_

acorse, acursen (A.S.) 375, _to curse._ acorsed, 375, _accursed_

acoupen (A.N.) 272, _to blame, accuse._ (for acoulpen)

a-drad (A.S.) 397, _afraid_

a-drenchen (A.S.) 198, _to drown_

afaiten, 291, affaiten 81, 119, (A.N.) _to tame_

a-feren (A.S.) 395, 435, _to frighten_, _drive away_. a-fered, 376,
_afraid_, _terrified_

affraynen (A.S.) 347, _to ask_, _question_, _interrogate_

afore (A.S.) _before_

aforthe (A.S.) 129, _to afford_

afrounte (A.N.) _to encounter_, _attack_, _accost rudely_. _pret. s._
afrounted, 425

a-fyngred (A.S.) 133, 176, 283, 403, _a-hungered_, _hungry_

a-furst (A.S.) 176, 283, _a-thirst_, _thirsty_. The two forms, _a-fyngred_
and _a-furst_, appear to be characteristic of the dialect of the counties
which lay on the Welsh border. They occur once or twice in MS. Harl. 2253,
which, in my Specimens of Lyric Poetry, I have shown to have been written
in Herefordshire. They also occur in several other manuscripts which may
probably be traced to that part of England. In the Romance of Horn, in the
MS. just mentioned, we have the lines:--

  Horn set at grounde,
  Him thohte he wes y-bounde,
  He seide, Quene, so hende,
  To me hydeward thou wende.
  Thou shench us with the vurste,
  The beggares bueth _a-furste_.

i. e. the beggars are thirsty. Whitaker gives a very remarkable translation
of _a-furst and a-fyngred_, i. e. _frost-bitten, and with aching fingers_.
Ritson has no less inaccurately explained _a-furste_ in the Romance of
Horn, by _at first_: the Cambridge MS. of this Romance, earlier and better
than the MS. Harl., reads:--

  Thu gef us with the furste,
  The beggeres beoth _of thurste_.

ayein (A.S.) _again_, _in return for_. ayeins, _against_, _towards_

a-gulte (A.S.) 273, 313, 318, 365, _to fail in duty towards any one_,
_offend_, _sin against_

aiels (A.N.) 314, _forefathers_

+aisliche (A.S.) 471, _fearfully_. The Anglo-Saxon _egeslice_

aken (A.S.) _to ache_. _pret. pl._ oke, 359

al (A.S.) _all_. _pl._ alle, _gen. pl._ alre, aller. oure aller fader, 342,
_the father of us all_. your aller heed, 424, _head of you all_

a-leggen (A.N.) 207, _to allege_

a-liry (A.S.) 124, _across_, _cross-legged_

alkenamye (A.N.) 186, _alchemy_

allowen (A.N.) 294, _to allow_, _approve_

a-loft (A.S.) 378, _on high_

almarie (A.N.) 288, _a cupboard_

almesse (A.S.) _alms_

a-lough, a-logh (A.S.) 241, 242, _below_

+aloute (A.S.) 495, _to salute_

als (A.S.) _also_

a-maistren, a-maistryen (A.N.) _to overcome_, _be master of_

amenden (A.N.) _to make amends for_

amercy (A.N.) _to amerce_

amortisen (A.N.) 314, _to amortize_, _to give property in mortmain_

ampulle (A.N.) 109, _a small vessel containing holy water or oil_

an (A.S.) 2, _on_

ancres (A.S.) 3, 308, _anachorites, monks who live in solitude_. It is
applied to nuns, in the early English Rule of Nuns. See Reliquiæ Antiquæ,
vol. ii, p. 1

and (A.S.) the conjunction, is frequently used in the sense of _if_. and
men crye, 362, _if men cry_

aniente (A.N.) 365, _to destroy, annihilate, reduce to nothing_

anoon (A.S.) _anon_

anoy (A.N.) _annoyance_

+anuel (A.N.) 475, _an annuity_: a yearly salary paid to a priest for
keeping an anniversary

apayen (A.N.) 123, _to satisfy, to please_

apeiren (A.N.) 80, 111, 125, 127, 141, _to lessen, diminish, impair_

apertli (A.N.) _openly_

appenden, apenden (A.N.) 17, _to belong, appertain to_

apposen (A.N.) 18, 43, 252, 318, _to raise questions, to object_

arate (A.S.) 208, 283, _to rate, scold, correct_ (the A.S. aretan?)

arayen (A.N.) _to array_

arere (A.N.) _backwards, back_

arwe, _pl._ arewes (A.S.) 438, _an arrow_

arst (A.S.) 287, _first, erst_

ascapen (A.N.) _to escape_

askes (A.S.) _ashes_

asondry (A.S.) 358, _separated_

aspare (A.N.) 303, _to spare_

aspien (A.N.) to _espy_. _part. s._ aspied, 350

assaien, assaie (A.N.) 334, 336, _to assay, try_

assetz (A.N.) 362, _assets sufficient to pay the debts or legacies of a
testator_. A law term

assoille (A.N.) 57, 188, 407, 419, _to assoil, absolve, to explain or

astronomien (Lat.) _an astronomer_

a-thynken (A.S.) 374, _to repent_

attachen (A.N.) 40, _to attach, indict_

atte (A.S.) _at the_. atte nale, 124, _at the ale_, a corruption of the
Saxon, æt þan ale

attre (A.S.) 243, _poison, venom_

a-tweyne (A.S.) _in two_

aught (A.S.) _something, anything, everything_

auncer (A.N.) 90, _a small vessel or cup_. In Low-Latin it is called
_anceria_. See Ducange, s. v., who quotes from a charter of the date of
1320 the words, Una cum cuppis, _anceriis_, tonis, et aliis utensilibus

auntren (A.N.) _to venture, adventure_, _pret. s._ auntrede, 382, auntred,

auter, _pl._ auteres (A.N.) _altar_

avarouser (A.N.) _more avaricious_

aventrous (A.N.) 370, _adventurers, adventurous persons_

aventure (A.N.) _an adventure, an accident_. an aventure, 47, _by
adventure, by chance_

avoutrye (A.N.) _adultery_

avowen (A.N.) _to make a vow_

avowes (A.N.) _vows, promises_

awaiten (A.N.) 346, _to watch, wait_. a-wayte, 193, _to see or discover by

awaken (A.S.) _to awake_. _pret. s._ awaked, 396, awakned, 424, a-wook,
147, _part. past_, awaked, 425

awreken (A.S.) _to avenge, revenge_. _part. pas._ a-wroke, 129

+awyrien (A.S.) 490, _to curse, execrate_

axen (A.S.) 71, _to ask_. _pret. s._ asked, 81

ay (A.S.) _ever, always_


bakstere (A.S.) 14, 47, _a woman who bakes_

bale (A.S.) 70, 209, 381, 371 (?), evil, mischief, punishment

+bale (A.S.) 490, _a bon-fire_ (_rogus_)

baleis (A.N.) 184, 229, _a rod_

baleisen (A.N.) 87, _to beat with a rod_

balled (A.S.) 436, _bald_. _balled reson_, 176, _a bald reason, a bare

ballok-knyf (A.S.) 302, _a knife hung from the girdle_

bannen, banne (A.N.) 18, 143, 167, 310, _to ban, curse, banish_. _pret. s._
banned, 173

banyer (A.N.) 321, _a banner-bearer, standard-bearer_

barn (A.S.) 353, _a child_

baselarde (A.N.) 61, 302, _a kind of large dagger, carried in the girdle_

batauntliche (A.N.) 286, _hastily_. Cotgrave gives the Fr. phrase, il
arriva tout batant, _he came very hastily_

baude (A.S.) _a bawd_

baudy (A.N.) 88, _dirty_, applied to garments. Thus in Chaucer, Cant. T. l

  His overest sloppe it is not worth a mite
  As in effect to him, so mote I go.
  It is al _baudy_ and to-tore also.

baw (A.S.) 210, 419, _an interjection of contempt_. Whitaker says that the
word is still used in Lancashire, and that "the verb means _alvum levare_"

bayard (A.N.) 72, a term for a horse. It means properly a _bay horse_

beau-peere (A.N.) 383, _a common title for a monk_. "Beau-pere, titre que
l'on donnoit aux religieux." _Roquef._

beche (A.S.) _a beech-tree_

bede, _pl._ bedes (A.S.) prayer. Our modern word _beads_ is derived from
this word, because it was by such articles, hung on a cord, that our
forefathers reckoned the number of their prayers

bedeman (A.S.) 45, _a person who prays for another_

+been (A.S.) 493, _bees_

beigh (A.S.) _pl._ beighes, _rings, bracelets, collars_

bekene (A.S.) 363, _a beacon_

+beldyng (A.S.) 483, _building_. belded, 483, _built_

+bellyche (A.N.) 461, _fairly_

bel-sire (A.N.) 168, _grandfather_, or rather, _an ancestor_

belwe (A.S.) 222, _to bellow_

ben (A.S.) _to be_. _pres. pl._ arn, aren _or_ ben, we beth, 391, ye aren,
301, they arn, 375. _subj. sing._ weere, 15, 19, 417, _pl._ were. what she
were, 19

bene (A.S.) _a bean_, +_pl._ benen (A.S.) 495, _beans_

+beneson (A.N.) 489, _blessing_

+beouten (A.S.) 489, _without_

beren, bere (A.S.) _to bear_. _pr. s._ he berth, 341. _pret. s._ bere, 54,
bar, 28, 109, _pl._ baren, 98. _part. pas._ born, y-bore, 377

bergh (A.S.) 112, _a hill, mount_

bern (A.S.) 416, _a barn_

best, beest, _pl._ beestes (A.N.) _a beast, animal_

bet (A.S.) 389, _better_

bete (A.S.) 375, _to beat_. _pret. s._ bette, 184, 436. _part. pas._ y-bet

bete (A.S.) 131, _to amend, heal, abate_. that myghtt not bete my bale (Sir
Amadas, l. 46), _that might not amend my misfortune_. bete his nede (Rom.
of Alexand. l. 5065, in Weber), _to satisfy his need_

bettre (A.S.) _better_

bi- _or_ be- is a very common prefix to words in our language derived from
the Anglo-Saxon, and has chiefly an intensative power, although it modifies
the meaning in various degrees. Many verbs are no longer known, except in
this compound form. Thus we have:--

    bi-dravelen (A.S.) 88, _to slobber or slaver on anything_

    bi-fallen (A.S.) _to befal, happen_. _pr. sing._ bifel

    bi-yete (A.S.) _begetting, offspring_

    bi-ginnen (A.S.) _to begin_. _pret. s._ bi-gonne, 106

    bi-heste (A.S.) 50, _a behest, command_

    bi-hest (A.S.) 432, _a promise_

    bi-holden (A.S.) _to behold_. _pr. sing._ biheeld

    +bi-hirnen (A.S.) 488 (?)

    bi-hoten (A.S.) _to promise_. _pres. s._ bi-hote, 104. _pret. s._
    bi-highte, 81, 345, 389. bi-hote God, 133, _an exclamation_

    by-japen (A.S.) 386, 453, _to mock_

    bi-kennen (A.S.) 31, 154, _to commit to_

    bi-knowen (A.S.) 13, 45, _to know, recognize, acknowledge_. _pret. s._
    bi-knewe, 404, _part. past_, bi-knowe, 370

    bi-lien (A.S.) 174, bi-lye, 101, _to calumniate_. _part. past_,
    bi-lowen, 29

    bi-love (A.S.) 184, _false love_ (?)

    bi-loven (A.S.) 130, _to make friends_ (?)

    by-menen (A.S.) _to signify_. _pret. s._ by-mente, 370

    by-molen (A.S.) 273, 274, _to spot, stain_

    by-nymen (A.S.) _to take from_. _part. past_, by-nomen, 62

    bi-quasshen (A.S.) 384, _to crush to pieces_

    bi-reve (A.S.) 132, _to take from, bereave_

    bi-rewe (A.S.) 242, _to rue_

    bi-seken, bi-sechen, 18 (A.S.) _to beseech_. _pret._ bi-soughte. _part.
    pas._ bi-sought

    bi-semen (A.S.) _to appear_

    bi-setten (A.S.) 93, 95, _to place, set_

    bi-seggen (A.S.) _to reproach, insult_. _part. past_, bi-seye, 437

    bi-sherewen (A.S.) 75, _to curse_

    bi-shetten (A.S.) 40, _to shut up_. _part. past_, bi-shet, 405

    bi-sitten (A.S.) 36, 195, _to beset_

    +be-slomered, 476, _bedaubed_

    bi-snewed (A.S.) 301, _snowed over, covered with snow_

    bi-speren (A.S.) 303, _to lock up_

    bi-swynken (A.S.) 323, _to labour hard_. _pret. pl._ bi-swonke, 442

    bi-tiden (A.S.) _to happen to, betide_

    bi-wicchen (A.S.) 405, _to bewitch_

bicche (A.N.) 98, _a bitch_

bidden, bidde (A.S.) _to pray, to ask, beg, to require, to order_. _pres.
s._ he bit, 308, 188. _pret. s._ bidde, bad, _pl._ beden, 372, 404. _part.
act._ biddynge. (if he) bede, 157

bidder (A.S.) _pl._ bidderes, _an asker, petitioner_

biden (A.S.) 387, 428, _to bide, wait_. _part. past_, boden

bienfait (A.N.) _a benefit_

bi-girdle (A.S.) 156, _a bag to hang at the girdle, a purse_

bi-hynde (A.S.) _behind_

bikere (A.S.) 429, _to skirmish, fight_

+bild (A.S.) 460, _a building_

bile (A.S.) _a bill_

bilyve (A.S.) 410, 425, _food_

bynden (A.S.) _to bind_. _pret. s._ bond, 352. _part. pas._ bounden

bisie (A.S.) _busy_

bismere, bismare (A.S.) 82, 413, _infamy, reproach, disgrace_

biten, bite (A.S.) 446, _to bite, urge_. _pres. s._ bitit, 225. _pret. s._
boot, 82

byte (A.S.) 381, _a morsel_, _bit_

bi-time (A.S.) _betimes_

bittre (A.S.) 393, _bitterly_

bi-yonde (A.S.) _beyond_: when used indefinitely it signifies _beyond sea_,
_ultra mare_

blancmanger (A.N.) 252, _a made dish for the table_. Receipts for cooking
it are given in most of the early tracts on cookery

bleden (A.S.) _to bleed_. _pret. s._ bledde, 402, 415

blenche (A.S.) 112, _to draw back_

blende (A.S.) 181, _to blind_. blent, _blinded_

+blenying (A.S.) 468, _blistering_

bleren (A.S.) _to blear, to make a person's sight dim, impose upon him_.
bler-eighed, 367, _blear-eyed_

blisse (A.S.) _joy, happiness_

blisful (A.S.) _joyful, full of happiness, blessed_

blody (A.S.) 129, 213, _by blood, of or in blood_

bloo (A.S.) _blue_

blosmen (A.S.) _to blossom_. _pret._ blosmede

blowen (A.S.) _to blow_. _pret. s._ blewe, _blew_. _part. past_, y-blowe,

blustren (A.N. ?) 108, _to wander or stray along without any particular

bochier (A.N.) _a butcher_

+bode (    ) 493 (?)

bolden (A.S.) _to encourage, embolden_

bole (A.S.) _a bull_

bolk (A.S.) 100, _a belching_

bolle (A.S.) 83, 99, _a bowl_

bollen, bolne (A.S.) _to swell_. _pres. s._ bolneth, 84

book, _pl._ bokes (A.S.) _a book_

boold (A.S.) 373, _bold_

boon (A.S.) _a bone_

boor (A.S.) _a boar_

boot (A.S.) _a boat_

boote (A.S.) 70, 139, 189, 209, 233, 266, _help, reparation, amendment,
restoration, remedy_

bootne (A.S.) _to restore, remedy_. _part. pas._ bootned, 128

boot-les (A.S.) 369, _without boots_

borde (A.S.) _table_. Hence the modern use of the word _board_ when we
speak of "_board and lodging_"

bord-lees (A.S.) 239, _without table_

borgh, 70, 143, 181, 346. borugh, 426, 439, _pl._ borwes, 19 (A.S.) _a
pledge, surety_. _s. in obj. case_, borwe, 285

borwen (A.S.) 71, _to give security, or a pledge to release a person or
thing, to bail, to borrow_. _pret. s._ borwed

bosarde (A.N.) 189, _a worthless or useless fellow_. It is properly the
name of a worthless species of hawk, which is unfit for sporting; and is
thus used in Chaucer's version of the Romance of the Rose, l. 4033:--

  This have I herde ofte in saying,
  That man ne maie for no daunting
  Make a sperhawke of _a bosarde_.

The original is,--

  Ce oï dire en reprovier,
  Que l'en ne puet fere espervier
  En nule guise _d'ung busart_.

bosten (A.S.) _to boast_. _part. past_, y-bosted, 351

bote-lees (A.S.) 381, _without remedy_

botenen (A.N.) _to button_. +_part. past_, y-botend, 468, _buttoned_

bothe (A.S.) _both_. The genitive, botheres, _of both_, occurs. hir
botheres myghtes, 340, _the might of both of them_. hir botheres right,
371, _the right of each of them_.

botrasen (A.N.) 113, _to make buttresses to a building_

bouchen (A.N.) 5, _to stop people's mouths (?)_

bouken (A.S.) 274, 306, _to buck (clothes)_

bour (A.S.) _a bower, chamber_

bourde (A.S.) _a game, joke_

bourdynge (A.N.) 297, _jesting_

bourn, _g._ bournes (A.S.) _a stream or river_

bowe (A.S.) 112, _a bough, branch_

bown (A.S.) 37, _ready_

boy (A.S.) 6 (?)

boye (A.S.) 214, _a lad servant_

breden (A.S.) _to breed_. _pret. pl._ bredden

brede (A.S.) _breadth_

breed (A.S.) _bread_

breeth (A.S.) 388, _breath_

breken (A.S.) _to break, tear_. _pret. s._ brak, 388. _part. pas._
y-broken, broke, y-broke, 416

breme (A.S.) 241, _vigorous, fierce, furious_. Chaucer, C. T. l. 1701,
speaking of Arcite and Palamon, says they--"foughten breme, as it were
bolles two," _fought as fiercely as two bulls_. In the Romance of Sir
Amadas (Weber, p. 250) a person is described as coming "lyke a breme bare,"
_like a fierce boar_. It appears to be most commonly applied to animals. In
the Towneley Mysteries, p. 197, Anna says to Cayphas, "Be not to breme,"
_be not too fierce_

brennen, brenne (A.S.) 360, _to burn_. _pret. s._ brende, 367. _part. pas._

bresten (A.S.) _to burst_, _pret. s._ brast, 127

brevet (A.N.) 5, _a little brief or letter_

brewestere (A.S.) 14, 47, _a woman who brews_

brid, _pl._ briddes (A.S.) _a bird_

bringen (A.S.) _to bring_. _pret. s._ broughte, broghte. _part. past_,
y-brought, broght, 235

brocage (A.N.) 33, 289, _a treaty by a broker or agent_. It is particularly
applied to treaties of marriage, brought about in this way. In Chaucer's
Romance of the Rose, l. 6971, Fals Semblant says,--

  I entremete me of _brocages_.
  I maken pece, and mariages.

So in the Miller's Tale (C.T. 3375), it is said of Absolon,

  He woweth hire by mene and by _brocage_,
  And swor he wolde ben hir owne page.

That is, he wooed her by the agency of another person, whom he employed to
persuade her to agree to his wishes.

broches (A.N.) _brooches, jewels_.

broches, 362, _matches_ (?)

brocour (A.N.) 31, 32, 45, 84, _a seller, broker, maker of bargains_

broke (A.S.) _a brook_

brok, _pl._ brokkes (A.S.) 119, _an animal of the badger kind_

brol (A.S.) 55, 494, 495, _a child, brat_. Reliquiæ Antiquæ, ii, 177:--

  Whan hi commith to the world, hi doth ham silf sum gode,
  Al bot the wrech _brol_ that is of Adamis blode.

brood (A.S.) _broad_

brotel (A.S.) 153, _weak, brittle, unsteady_

+brothels (A.S.) 496, _wretches, men of bad life_. In the Coventry
Mysteries (Ed. Halliwell, p. 308), the term is applied to the damned who
suffer punishment in hell:--

  In bras and in bronston the _brethellys_ be brent,
  That wene in this werd my wyl for to werke.

In another play in the same collection, p. 217, it is applied to the woman
taken in adultery:--

  Com forthe, thou bysmare and _brothel_ bolde.

brouke (A.S.) 209, _to enjoy, use, to brook_

brugg, _pl._ brugges (A.S.) _a bridge_

bruneste (A.S.) _brownest_

buggen, bugge (A.S.) 412, _to buy_. _pres. pl._ biggen. _pret._ boughte.
_part. act._ buggynge, 410

bummen (A.S. ?) 90, _to taste_ (?)

burde (A.S.) 44, 404, _a maiden, damsel, lady_

burdoun (A.N.) 108, _a staff_

burel (A.N.) _a kind of coarse brown woollen cloth_. burel clerkes, 191.
Tyrwhit (Glos. to Chaucer) thinks this means _lay clerks_. In the
Canterbury Tales, l. 7453, the friar says:--

  And more we se of Goddis secré thinges,
  Than _borel folk_, although that thay ben kinges,
  We lyve in povert and in abstinence,
  And _borel folk_ in riches and dispence.

The hoste says (l. 15440)--

  Religioun hath take up al the corn
  Of tredyng, and we _burel men_ ben schrympes.

_Borel folk_ and _borel men_ evidently mean _laymen_

burgage (A.N.) 48, _lands or tenements in towns, held by a particular

burgeise (A.S.) _burgess, inhabitant of a borough_

burghe (A.S.) 135, _burgh, town_

burghe (A.S.) _castrated_, applied to a hog. burghe swyn, 34, _a barrow

burjonen (A.N.) 299, _to bud, or spring_

burn (A.S.) _pl._ burnes, _a man_. buyrn, 341, 346

+burwgh (A.S.) 458, _a castle, palace, or large edifice_

busk, _pl._ buskes (A.S.) 223, _a bush_

busken (A.S.) 44, 167, _to busk, go, to array, prepare_

buxom (A.S.) _obedient_. buxomnesse, _obedience_

  C. K.

caas (A.N.) _case_

cacchen (A.S.) 236, _to catch, take_. _part. past_, caught, 361

cachepol (A.S.) 372, 373, _a catchpole_

kaiser, kayser (A.S.) 404, _an emperor_

cammoke (A.S.) 414, a weed more commonly known by the name of _rest-harrow

kan (A.S.) _can_

capul, caple (A.N.) 354, _pl._ caples, 415, 416, _a horse_ (said to be
derived from the Low-Latin _caballus_)

caractes (A.N.) 233, _characters_

cardiacle (Gr.) 266, 430, _a disease affecting the heart_

careful (A.S.) _pl._ carefulle, 403, _full of care_

carien (A.S.) _to carry_

caroyne, careyne (A.N.) _carrion, flesh, a corpse_

carpen (A.N.) 356, 400, _to talk, chat, tell_. _part. pas._ y-carped, 313

+cary (A.N. ?) 475, _a kind of coarse cloth_

casten (A.S.) _to cast_

catel (A.N.) 70, 78, 175, 437, _goods, property, treasure, possessions_

cauken (A.S. ?) 223, 241, a technical term, applied to birds at their time
of breeding. It is found in the St. Albans Book of Hawking, 1496, sign. A.
i.; "And in the tyme of their (the hawks') love, they calle, and not

kaurymaury, 81, _care, trouble_?

+cautel (A.N.) 469, _a cunning trick_

kaylewey (   .) 334 (?)

kemben (A.S.) 174, _to comb_

kene (A.S.) _sharp, earnest_

kennen, kenne (A.S.) 355, 396, 410, _to teach_, _pres pl._ konne, 3.
_imperat._ kenne (_teach_), 20. _pret._ kenned, 67, 241, kennede, 409

kepen, kepe (A.S.) _to keep, to abstain_, 60. _pret. pl._ kepten, 235, 404.
have kepe this man, 352, _have this man to keep_

kernelen (A.N.) 113, _to embattle a building, build the battlements_

kerse (A.S.) 174, _cress_

kerven (A.S.) _to carve_. +_part. past_, y-corven, 460

kerver, 184, _a sculptor_

cesse (A.N.) 375, _to end, cease_

kevere (A.N.) 445, _to recover_

kex (A.S.) 361, _the dried stalk of hemlock_

chace (A.N.) 351, _to race, to go fast_

chaffare (A.S.) 131, 292, 301, 305, 338, _to deal, traffic, trade_

chaffare (A.S.) 3, 31, 85, 268, 305, _merchandise_

chalangen (A.N.) _to challenge, claim_. chalangynge, 82. chalanged, 87

chapitle (A.N.) _a chapter_

+chaple (A.N.) 485, _a chapel_

chapman (A.S.) _a merchant, buyer_

+chapolories (A.N.) 483, _chapelaries_

+charthous (A.N.) 490, _Carthusians_

chastilet (A.N.) _a little castle_

chatre (A.N.) 287, _to chatter_

chauncelrie (A.N.) _chancery_

cheke (A.S.) 68, _the cheek_, maugree hire chekes, 68. We have in Chaucer,
_maugré thin eyen_, _maugré hire hed_, &c. See Tyrwhit's Gloss, v.
_Maugre_. One of these instances is exactly analogous to the passage of
Piers Ploughman (C. T. l. 6467):--

  And happed, al alone as sche was born,
  He saugh a mayde walkyng him by-forn,
  Of which mayden anoon _maugré hir heed_,
  By verray fors byraft hir maydenhed.

cheker (A.N.) _the exchequer_

chele (A.S.) 176, 439, _cold_

chepen (A.S.) 296, _to buy_

chepyng (A.S.) 68, 135, _market, sale_

cherl (A.S.) 210, _pl._ cherles, 337, 375, _a serf, peasant, churl_

+cherlich (A.N.) 485, _richly, sumptuously_

chervelle (A.S.) 134, _chervil, a plant which was eaten as a pot-herb

chese (A.S.) 296, _to choose_

cheeste, cheste (A.S.) 33, 169, 253, _dissension, strife, debate_

cheve (A.N.) 375, _to compass a thing, to succeed, or bring to an end, to
obtain, adopt_. _pres. s._ cheveth, 287. _pret. pl._ cheveden, 3, chewe,
381, 439. lat hem chewe as thei chosen, _let them take as they choose_

chewen (A.N.) 26, 490, _to eschewe_

chibolle (A.N.) 134, _a kind of leek_, called in French _ciboule_

chicke, _pl._ chicknes, 67 (A.S.) _a chicken_

chevysaunce (A.N.) 92, 426, _an agreement for borrowing money_

chiden (A.S.) _to chide_

child (A.S.) _a child_. _gen. pl._ childrene, 72

chymenee (A.N.) 179, _a fire-place_

chirie-tyme, 86, _cherry-time_

chyvelen (A.S. ?) 88, _to become shrivelled_

+chol (A.S.) 464, _the jowl_

kidde, _see_ couthen

kirk (A.S.) _a church_

kirtel (A.S.) _a kirtle, frock_

kissen (A.S.) 395, _to kiss_. _pret. s._ kiste, 394

kith, kyth (A.S.) 55, 324, 400, _relationship, family connection_. to kith
and to kyn, 268, _to family connection and kindred_

kitone (A.N.) _kitten, young cat_

clawe (A.S.) 274, _to brush, to stroke_

clene (A.S.) _pure, clean_. clenner, 410, purer. clennesse, _purity,

clepen, clepe (A.S.) _to call_. _pret._ cleped, 436. _part. pas._ cleped,

clergie (A.N.) _science, clergy_

clerk (A.N.) _pl._ clerkes, _gen. pl._ clerkene, 72, _a scholar_

cler-matyn (A.N.) 135, _a kind of fine bread_

cleven (A.S.) _to split, cleave_ (intransitive). _pret. s._ cleef, 373

cleymen (A.N.) 389, _to claim_. _pret. s._ cleymede, 430

cliket (A.N.) 114, _a kind of latch key_. cliketten, 114, _to fasten with a
cliket_. Tyrwhit explains the word simply as meaning a key--but in Piers
Ploughman it is put so in immediate apposition with the word key, that it
must have differed from it. In Chaucer, C. T. 9990, et seq. it appears to
be the key of a garden gate:--

  This freissche May, that I spake of so yore,
  In warm wex hath emprynted the _cliket_
  That January bar of the smale wiket,
  By which into his gardyn ofte he went;
  And Damyan, that knew al hir entent,
  The _cliket_ counterfeted prively.

In a document of the date 1416, quoted by Ducange, v. _Cliquetus_, it is
ordered that, Refectorarius semper teneat hostium refectorii clausum _cum

clyngen (A.S.) 276, _to shrink, wither, pine_. Reliq. Antiquæ, vol. ii, p.

  When eld me wol aweld, mi wele is awai;
  Eld wol keld, and _cling_ so the clai.

clippe (A.S.) 359, 394, _to embrace, enfold_

clips (A.N. ?) 377, _an eclipse_

clyven (A.S.) 367, _to cleave, stick to_

clokken (A.N.) 45, _to limp or hobble, to walk lamely_

clomsen (A.N.) 276, _to shrink or contract_. A verb used often in the
Wycliffite Bible. In Prompt. Parv. aclomsid.

clooth (A.S.) _cloth_

clouch (A.S.) _pl._ clouches, _a clutch_

clouten (A.S.) _to patch, mend_. _part. past_, y-clouted, 120

clucche (A.S.) 359, _to clutch, hold_

knappe (A.S.) 133, _a knop, a button_

knave (A.S.) 14, 66, _a servant lad_

+knoppede (A.S.) 476, _full of knobs_

knowelichen (A.S.) _to acknowledge_. _pret. s._ kneweliched, 239, 407.
_part. act._ knowelichynge, 400

knowes (A.S.) 98, _knees_

knowen, knowe (A.S.) 408, _to know_, _pres. pl._ knowen. _pret. s._ knew,
232. _pl._ knewen, 237. _part. pas._ knowen, knowe

coffe (A.S. ?) 120, _a cuff_

+cofrene (A.N.) 455, _to put in a coffer_

coghen (A.S.) 367, _to cough_

coke (A.S.) _a cook_

cokeney (A.N.) 134, _some kind of meager food, probably a young or small
cock, which had little flesh on its bones_. This meaning of the word (which
has been misunderstood) may be gathered from a comparison of the passage in
Piers Ploughman with one in the "Turnament of Tottenham," where the writer
intended to satirize the poorness of the fare:--

  At that fest were thei servyd in a rich aray,
  Every fyve and fyve had _a cokeney_.

Heywood, in his Proverbs, part i, chap. xi, gives a proverb in which the
word is evidently used in the same sense, and appears to be intentionally
contrasted with a _fat hen_:--

                            --Men say,
  He that comth every daie shall have _a cocknaie_,
  He that comth now and then, shall have a fat hen;
  But I gat not so muche in comyng seelde when,
  As a goode hens fether or a poore egshell.

I think that _cokenay_ in Chaucer is the same word, used metaphorically to
signify a person without worth or courage (C. T. 4205):--

  And when this jape is tald another day,
  I sal be hald a daf, _a cokenay_.

coker (A.S.) 120, _a short stocking, or glove, a sheath_

coket (A.N.) 135, _a kind of fine bread_

cokewold (A.N.) 75, _a cuckold_

cole (A.N.) 134, _cabbage_

coler (A.N.) _a collar_

collen (A.N.) 203, _to embrace, put one's arms round a person's neck_, in
French, _accoller_

colomy (A. .) 267 (?)

colvere (A.S.) 319, _a dove, pigeon_

come (A.S.) 416, _to come_. _pres. s._ he comth, 18, 332. _pret. s._ cam,
kam, coom, 168, com, 400. _pl._ comen, 438, come, 235, 237, 430, coome,
416, coomen, 438. _subj._, til he coome, 328, er thei coome, 353

comsen (A.N.) 23, 24, 49, 77, 81, 119, 136, 152, 244, 372, _to begin,
commence, to endeavour_. _pret. s._ comsede, 402, 403. comsynge, 382

comunes (A.N.) 80, 420, _commons, allowance of provision_

confus (A.N.) _confused_

congeyen, congeien (A.N.) 258, _to give leave, dismiss_

congie (A.N.) 258, _leave_

konne (A.S.) 401, 408, 437, _to learn, know_. _pres. s._ kan. _pret._
kouthe, 411, koude. _subj._ in case that thow konne, 424, and thou konne,
397, _if thou know_. _pret. act._ konnyng, 206, _knowing_

konnynge (A.S.) 409, _knowledge, science, cunning_

contenaunce (A.N.) 2, 203, _appearance, gesture, carriage_

contrarien (A.N.) 367, _to go against, vex, oppose_

contree (A.N.) _a country_

contreve (A.N.) _to contrive_. contreved, _contrived_

conying (A.N. ?) _a rabbit_

copen (A.N.) 51, _to cover with a cope, like a friar_

coppe (A.N.) 44, 191, _a cup, basin_

coroune (A.N.) _a crown_

corounen (A.N.) _to crown_. _part. p._ y-corouned

cors (A.N.) 295, _the body_

corsaint (A.N.) 109, _a relique, the body of a saint_

corsen (A.S.) 305, _to curse_

corsede (A.S.) _cursed_. corseder, 421, _more cursed, worse_

cost (A.N.) 33, 151, 376, _a side, region_

costen (A.N.) _to cost_. _pret. s._ costed, 13. _part. pas._ costned, 13

cote (A.S.) 152, _a cottage, cot_

coten (A.N.) 51, _to dress in a coat_

+cotinge (A.S.) 468, _cutting_

coupable (A.N.) 366, _guilty, culpable_

coupe (A.N.) 44, 95, _a cup_

coupen (A.N.) _to cut out, fashion_ (?) _part. past_, y-couped, 370

courben (A.N.) 19, 28, _to bend, stoop_

courtepy (A.N.) 82, 128, _a short cloak of coarse cloth_

couthen (A.S.) 87, _to make known, discover, publish_. _pret._ kidde, 103,

+couuen (A.S.) 473, perhaps an error in the old printed text for _connen_

coveiten (A.N.) _to covet_

covent (A.N.) 428, _a convent_

coveren (A.N.) 238, _to recover_

cracchen (A.S.) 211, 322, _to scratch_

crafte (A.S.) _craft, art_. crafty-men, 121, _artisans_

creaunt (A.N.) 239, _believing_

crepen (A.S.) _to creep_. _pret. s._ crope, _pl._ cropen

cryen (A.N.) _to cry_. _pret. s._ cried, cryde, 374, _pl._ cryden, cride

croft (A.S.) _a small inclosed field, a croft_

crokke (A.S.) 412, _a pot, pitcher, vessel of earthenware_

+crom-bolle (A.S.) 476, _a crum-bowl_

crop (A.S.) 332, 334, _the head or top of a tree or plant_; hence the
expression "root and crop," still in use

cropiers (A.N.) _the housings on the horse's back_

croppen (A.S.) 319, _to eat (said of a bird), to put into its crop or craw_

crouche (A.N.) 109, _a cross_. Hence is derived the name of _the Crutched

+crouken (A.S.) 495, _to bend_

+crucchen (A.S.) 495, _to crouch_

cruddes (A.S.) _curds_

cruwel (A.N.) 269, _cruel_

ku, _pl._ kyen (A.S.) 125, _a cow_

kulle (A.S.) 344, kille, 434, _to kill_. _pret. s._ kilde, 431. _part.
past_, kulled, 339. to kulle, 338

culorum (_Lat._) 60, 198, _the conclusion or moral of a tale_

cultour (A.S.) 123, kultour, 61, _a culter, blade_

cuppe-mele (A.S.) 90, _cup by cup_

kutte, 79 (A.S.) _to cut_. _imperat._ kut, 75. _pret. pl._ kitten, 128

kynde (A.S.) _nature, race, kind_

kynde (A.S.) _natural_. kyndeliche, 382, _naturally_

kyng (A.S.) _pl._ kynges. _gen. pl._ kyngene, 21, 400, _a king_

kyng-ryche (A.S.) _a kingdom_

kyn, _gen. s._ kynnes (A.S.) 40, _kin, kind_. This word is used in the
genitive case in such phrases as the following: of foure kynnes thynges,
151, _of four kinds of things_. othere kynnes men, 177, _other kinds of
men_. none kynnes riche, 213, _no kind of rich men, or rich men of no
kind_. many kynnes maneres, 359, _many sorts of manners_. any kynnes catel,
400, _any kind of property_


daffe (A.S.) _a fool_

daggen (A.S.) 433, _to dag, to cut the edges of the garment in jagged
ornaments, as was the custom at this period_

daren (A.S.) _to dare_. _pres. pl._ dar, 10, 280. _pret. s._ and _pl._
dorste, 11, 42, 253, 393

dawe (A.S.) 380, _dawn_. _pret. s._ dawed, 395

dawnten (A.N.) 319, _to tame_,--also, _to daunt, to fear_

decourren (A.N.) 285, _to discover, lay open, narrate_

dedeynous (A.N.) 156, _disdainful_

deed (A.S.) _dead_

deen (A.N.) _a dean_

dees (A.N.) _dice_

deef (A.S.) _pl._ deve, 403, _deaf_

defende (A.N.) 47, 485, _to forbid, prohibit_

defien, defyen, defie (A.N. ?) 84, 100, 141, 298, _to digest_

defyen (A.N.) _to defy_. _pret. s._ defyed, 429

degised (A.N.) 2, _disguised_

deyen (A.S.) _to die_. _pret. s._ deide, 214. to dye, 352

deyntee (A.N.) 205, _dainty, niceness, preciousness_

deys, dees (A.N.) 139, 250, _the dais, or high table in the hall_

deitee (A.N.) _deity, godhead_

del, deel (A.S.) _part, portion_. tithe deel, 323, _tenth part_

delen, dele, deelen (A.S.) 47, 175, 218, _share, distribute, give, deal_.
_pres._ ye deele, 144

deliten (A.N.) _to delight, take pleasure_

delitable (A.N.) _delightful, pleasant_

delven (A.S.) 417, _to dig, bury_. _pret. pl._ dolven, 128. _part. pas._
dolven, 128, 293

delvere (A.S.) _a digger, delver_

demen (A.S.) _to judge_. _pret._ demede

dene (A.S.) 373, _din, noise_

dene (A.N.) _a dean_

departable (A.N.) 355, _divisible_

depper (A.S.) 307, _deeper_

dere (A.S.) 140, 349, 370, _to injure, hurt_

derely (A.S.) 396, _expensively, richly_

dereworthe (A.S.) _precious, honourable_

derk (A.S.) _dark_

derne (A.S.) 38, 249, _secret_

destruyen, destruye (A.N.) 361, _to destroy_. _pret. s._ destruyed, 340

dette (A.N.) _pl._ dettes, _a debt_

devoir (A.N.) _duty_

devors (A.N.) 433, _divorce_

dya (A.N.) 435, _dyachylon_

diapenidion, 84, _an electuary_

dido (A. .) 256, _a trifle, a trick_

dighte (A.S.) 134, _to fit out, make, dispose, dress_. _pret. s._ dighte,

+digne (A.N.) 472, _worthy_

digneliche (A.N.) _worthily, deservedly_

dyk, 417 (A.S.) _dych, a ditch_

dikere, dykere (A.S.) 96, _a ditch or foss digger, ditcher_

dymes (A.N.) 326, _tithes_

dymme (A.S.) 388, _dark_. _adv._ dymme, 184, _darkly_

dymmen (A.S.) 98, _to become dim or dark_

dyngen (A.S.) 62, 125, 193, 295, _to strike, ding, knock_

dynt (A.S.) 370, _a blow, knock_

disalowed (A.N.) 281, _disallowed, disapproved. disalowyng_, 282,

discryven (A.N.) _to describe_

disour (A.N.) _a player at dice_

disour (A.N.) 120, _a teller of tales_

dyssheres (A.S.) 96, _a female who makes dishes_

+distrie (A.N.) 478, _to destroy_

doel (A.N.) 100, 124, 368, _grief, lamentation_

doughtier (A.S.) 83, _more doughty, more to be feared_. doghtiest, 403,
_bravest_. doghtiliche, 371, _doughtily, bravely_

doke (A.S.) 81, 352, _a duck_

dole (A.S.) 47, _a share, portion_. Another form of _del_.

donet (A.N.) 89, _grammar, elements, first principles_, from Donatus. See
note on l. 7944

domesman (A.S.) 414, _a judge_

dongeon (A.N.) _a fort, the chief tower of a castle_

doom, dome (A.S.) _pl._ domes, _judgment_

doon (A.S.) _to do_. _pres. sing._ dooth, _pl._ doon, don. _pret. s._ dide,
_pl._ diden, 278, 392, dide, 389. _part. pas._ doon, do. _imperat. pl._
dooth, 152. to doone, 226, 263

dore-tree (A.S.) _a door post_

+dortour (A.N.) 463, _a dormitory_

doted (A.S.) _foolish, simple_

doughtres (A.S.) _daughters_

doute (A.N.) _fear, doubt_

dowen (A.N.) _to endow_. _pret._ dowed, 325, _endowed_

dowve (A.S.) 319, _a dove_

draf (A.S.) 173, 419, _dregs, dirt_. Things thrown away as unfit for man's
food, particularly the dust and husks of corn after it has been threshed.
Chaucer's Parson (C. T. l. 17329) says:--

  Why schuld I sowen _draf_ out of my fest,
  Whan I may sowe whete, if that me lest?

+drane (A.S.) 493, _a drone_

drawen (A.S.) _to draw_. _pret. s._ drough, 89, 98. drogh, 280, 437. drow,
376, _pl._ drowen, 222. _part. pas._ drawe, 175

+drecchen (A.S.) 478, 480, _to vex, grieve, oppress_

drede (A.S.) 434, _to dread, fear_. _pres. s._ he drat, 165. _pret. s._
dredde, 280. _pl._ dradden, 429. _imperat._ dred, 17

dredfully (A.S.) 352, _fearfully, terrified_

dregges (A.S.) 419, _dregs_

dremels (A.S.) 148, 247, _a dream_

drenchen, drenche (A.S.) 154, 237, _to drown_. _pret. pl._ a-dreynten, 198

drevelen (A.S.) 175, _to drivel_

drye (A.S.) 276, _thirst_

drien (A.S.) 16, _to be dry, thirsty_

drihte (A.S.) 262, _lord_. drighte, 279

drinken (A.S.) _to drink_. _pret. s._ drank, _pl._ dronken, 277, dronke,
278. _part. pas._ dronken, y-dronke, 354

dryven (A.S.) _to drive_

droghte (A.S.) 134, _a drought, deficiency of wet_

dronklewe (A.S.) 156, _drunken, given to drink_. The word occurs in
Chaucer, C. T. l. 7625:--

  Irous Cambises was eek _dronkelewe_,
  And ay delited him to ben a schrewe.

Again (C. T. l. 12426):--

  Seneca saith a good word douteles:
  He saith he can no difference find,
  Betwix a man that is out of his mind,
  And a man whiche that is _dronkelew_.

The word used by Seneca is _ebrius_

drury (A.N.) 20, _courtship, gallantry_

duc (A.N.) 414, _a duke_. _pl._ dukes, 388

+duen (A.N.) 496, _to endue, or endow_


ech (A.S.) _each_. echone (i. e. _each one_) _every one, each_

edifie (A.N.) 371, _to build_

edwyte (A.S.) 99, _to reproach, blame, upbraid_

eest (A.S.) _east_

eft (A.S.) 354, 371, _again_

eggen (A.S.) 19, 386, _to egg on, urge, incite_

egreliche (A.N.) 334, 418, _sourly, bitterly_

+ey (A.S.) 464, _an egg_

eighe (A.S.) 180, 190, 306, _pl._ eighen, 5, 80, 127, eighes, 33, _the eye_

eylen (A.S.) _to ail_

eyr (A.N.) _air_

elde (A.S.) _old age_

elenge (A.S.) 12, 179, 425, _mournful, sorrowful_. elengliche, 231,
_sorrowfully, in trouble_

eller (A.S.) 19, ellere, 168, _an elder tree_

ellis (A.S.) 6, _else, otherwise, at other times_

enbawmen (A.N.) _to embalm_. _pret. s._ enbawmed, 352

enblaunchen (A.N.) 301, _to whiten over_

engyne (A.N.) 384, _to contrive, lay a plan, catch_

engleymen (A.N.) 298, _to beslime_

engreyned (A.N.) 29, _powdered_

enselen (A.N.) _to put a seal to_

+entayled (A.N.) 462, _carved_

entre-metten (A.N.) 226, 263, _to intermeddle_

envenyme (A.N.) _venom, poison_

er (A.S.) _before, formerly_

erchdekenes (A.N.) _archdeacons_

ere (A.S.) _pl. eris, the ear_

erien, erie, erye (A.S.) 117, 138, _to plough_. _pret. pl._ eriede, 411.
_part. past_, eryed, 117

eerl. _pl._ erles (A.S.) _an earl_

ernynge (A.S.) 418, _running_. _see_ yerne

ers (A.S.) 87, 180, 191, _the fundament, podex_

erst (A.S.) _first, most before_, _superl. of_ er

eschaunge (A.N.) _exchange_

eschetes (A.N.) 75, _escheats_

ese (A.N.) _ease_

eten, ete (A.S.) 386, _to eat_. _pret. s._ eet, 100, 135, 146, 241, &c.
_pl._ eten, 114, 248, ete, 278. _part. pas._ eten, 354.

+evelles (A.S.) 465, _without evil_

even (A.S.) _equal_. even-cristen, _equal christian, or equal by baptism_;
_fellow-christian_, evene, 76, _evenly, equally_. evene forth, 356,

+evesed (A.S.) 460, _furnished with eaves_

evesynge (A.S.) 361, _the ice which hangs on the eaves of houses_

ewage (A.N.) 29, _a kind of precious stone_

expounen (A.N.) 290, _to expound, explain_


fader (A.S.) 361, _a father_

fayn (A.S.) _fain, glad_

faiten (A.N.) 144, 308, _to beg, idle, to flatter_. _pret. pl._ faiteden,
3. faityng, 175, _deceiving_

faiterie (A.N.) 207, _flattery, deception_

faitour (A.N.) _a deceiver, an idle lazy fellow, a flatterer_

faithly (A.N.) 400, _truly, properly_

fallen (A.S.) _to fall_. _pres. s._ he falleth. _pret. s._ fel, 280, 297,
fil, 278, 312, 374, fille, 285, 336, _pl._ fellen, felle, 336, 388. _part.
pas._ fallen, 375

fals (A.N.) _false, falseness_. falshede, _falsehood_. falsliche, 390,

fangen (A.S.) 111, fonge, 282, 336, _to take, take hold of_. _pret. s._
_under_-feng, 19, _under_-fonged, 209. _part. past_, _under_-fongen, 115,

faren, fare (A.S.) 197, _to go, fare_. _pret. s._ ferde, 443, _pl._ ferden,
168 _part. past_, faren 77, 123, 228

fare (A.S.) 376, _proceeding, manner of going on, fare_

fasten (A.S.) _to fast_

fauchon (A.N.) 295, _a sword, falchion_

faunt (A.N.) 134, 144, 336, 403, _a child, infant_

fauntekyn (A.N.) 259, _a young child_

faunteltee, fauntelté (A.N.) 204, 304, _childishness_

faute, _pl._ fautes (A.N.) 179, _a fault_

fauten (A.N.) _to want_. _pret._ fauted, 163

favel (A.N.) 28, 30, _deception by flattery, cajolery_

feble (A.N.) 355, _feeble, weak_

fecchen (A.S.) 39, 385, 410, _to fetch_. _pres. s._ I fecche, thow fettest,
390. _pret. s._ fet, fette, 36, 104, 202, 385. _pl._ fetten, 134. _part.
pas._ fet, 444, fette water at hise eighen, _threw water at his eyes_; to
fetch a thing at another, for, to throw, is an expression still in use

feden (A.S.) _to feed_

fee (A.S.) _property, money, fee_

feere (A.S.) 367, _pl._ feeres, feeris, _companion_

feere (A.S.) 256, 367, 376, _fear_

feet (A.N.) 26, _a deed, fact_

feffement (A.N.) 32, _enfeofment_

feffen (A.N.) 33, 37, _to infeof, to fee, present_

feynen (A.N.) _to feign, dissemble_

feyntise (A.S.) 77, _faintness, weakness_

feire (A.N.) _a fair_

fel (A.S.) _the skin_

fele (A.S.) _many_. fele fold, _manyfold_

fellen (A.S.) _to fell, kill_

felonliche (A.N.) 390, _like a felon, in manner of a felon_

+fen (A.S.) 476, _mud, mire_

fend (A.S.) _pl._ fendes, _a fiend, devil_. fyndekynes, 391, _little

fennel-seed (A.S.) 95, _the seed of sweet-fennel was formerly used as a

fenestre (A.N.) 285, 370, _a window_

fer (A.S.) _far_

fere (A.S.) 140, _to frighten_

ferly (A.S.) _pl._ ferlies, _a wonder_, 196, 253, 376

ferie (A.N.) 270, _a week-day_

ferme (A.N.) 403, _adv._ _firmly_

fermed (A.N.) 177, _strengthened_

fernyere (A.S.) 103, 228, _in former times_

fernmerye (A.N.) 253, _the infirmary_

+ferrer (A.S.) 463, _further_

ferthe (A.S.) 413, _fourth_

festnen (A.S.) _to fasten_. _part. pas._ fest, 35

festynge (A.N.) _feasting_

festu (A.N.) 190, _a mote in the eye_. (festuca, _Lat._)

fetisliche, 28, fetisly, 38 (A.N.) _elegantly, neatly, featously_

fibicches (A.N. ?) 186 (?)

+fichewes (A.S.) 468, _a kind of weasel_, called a _fitchet_ in Shropshire

+fyen (A.N.) 487, _to say, fy!_ The exclamation, _fy!_ was originally one
of disgust, occasioned by anything that stunk, according to the old distich
(MS. Cotton, Cleop. B. ix, fol. 11, v^o. of the thirteenth cent.):--

  _Phi_, nota _foetoris_, lippus gravis omnibus horis,
  Sit _phi_, sit lippus semper procul, ergo Philippus!

fiers (A.N.) _proud, fierce_

fighten (A.S.) _to fight_. _pret. s._ faught, 391, 402. _pl._ foughten.
_part. pas._ y-foughte, 126, 336

fyle (A.N.) 86, _a daughter, girl_, apparently used here in the sense of a
_common woman_; as they say now in French, _elle n'est qu'une fille_, she
is no better than a strumpet

fyn (A.N.) 403, _fine, clever_

fynden (A.S.) _to find, to furnish_. _pres. s._ he fynt, 73, 146, 305, 367.
_pret. s._ fond, foond, 219, 304, 312

fir (A.S.) 360, _fire_. fuyr, _fire_

fithele (A.N.) 272, _to fiddle_. fithele, 165, _a fiddle_

flappen (A.S.) _to strike with a flail or with any flat loose weapon_.
_pret. pl._ flapten, 128

flatten (A.N.) _to slap_. _pret. s._ flatte, 104

flawmbe, flaumbe (A.N.) 360, 362, _a flame_

flawme (A.S.) 243, _to emit a fetid exhalation_ (?)

flawmen (A.N.) 361, _to flame_. flawmynge, 360, _flaming_

fle, 40, fleen, 168, 366 (A.S.) _to fly_. _pret. s._ fleigh, 40, 351, 353,
402, 435. _pl._ flowen, 42, 128. fledden, 42

fleckede (A.S.) 222, _spotted_

flesshe (A.S.) _flesh_

fleten (A.S.) 237, _to float, swim involuntarily_

flittynge (A.S.) 206, _disputing, flyting_

flobre (A.S. ?) 274, _to slobber_ (?)

florisshe (A.N.) 291, _to adorn_

floryn (A.N.) 74, _a florin_ (a gold coin)

+flurichen (A.N.) 479, _to flourish_

fode (A.S.) _food_

+foynes (A.N.) 468, _a kind of marten, of which the fur was used for

fold, foold (A.S.) 24, 141, 243, _the world, the earth_

fole (A.S.) _a foal_

follede, 321, _baptized_. see _fullen_

+folloke (A.S.) 489 (?)

folvyle (A.N.) 410 (?)

folwe, folwen (A.S.) 355, _to follow_. _pres. pl._ folwen. _pret. s._
folwed, folwede, 353. _pl._ folwede, 301. _part. past_, folwed

folwere (A.S.) _a follower_

fonden (A.S.) 238, _to try, tempt, inquire_. _pret. s._ fonded, fondede,
315, 344, 353

fondynge (A.S.) 291, _a temptation, undertaking_

fongen, _see_ fangen

foot (A.S.) _a foot_. foote, 354, _on foot_

for (A.S.) _for, for that, because_; for-thi, _because, therefore_

for-, in composition in verbs derived from the Anglo-Saxon, conveys the
idea of privation or deterioration, and answers to the modern German ver-.
It is preserved in a few words in our language, such as _forbid_,
_forbear_, _forlorn_, &c. The following instances occur in Piers

for-bete (A.S.) _to beat down, beat to pieces, or to death, beat entirely_.
_part. past_, for-beten, 436

for-bode (A.S.) _denial, forbidding_

for-biten (A.S.) 332, _to bite to pieces_

for-doon, for-do (A.S.) 78, 163, 371, _to undo, ruin_. _pret. s._ for-dide,
340, 390. _part. past_, for-do, 262, for-doon, 371

for-faren (A.S.) 303, _to go to ruin, perish, to fare ill_

for-freten (A.S.) 332, _to eat to pieces_

+for-gabben (A.N.) 488, _to mock_

for-yeten (A.S.) 362, _to forget_. _pret. s._ for-yat, 205

for-gyven (A.S.) _to forgive_. _pret. s._ 374. _part. pas._ for-gyve, 365

for-glutten (A.S.) 178, _to devour, swallow up_

for-pynede (A.S.) 126, _pined or starved to death, wasted away, niggardly_.
Chaucer, C. T. l. 1453:--

  In derknes and orrible and strong prisoun
  This seven yeer hath seten Palamon,
  _For-pyned_, what for woo and for destresse.

And C. T. l. 205:--

  He was not pale as a _for-pyned_ goost.

In this latter place Tyrwhit seems to interpret it as meaning _tormented_

for-shapen (A.S.) _to unmake_. _pret. s._ for-shapte, 365

for-sleuthen (A.S.) 103, _to be spoilt from lying idle_

for-stallen (A.S.) 68, _to hinder, forestall, stop_

for-sweren (A.S.) 170, _to perjure, swear falsely_. _part. pas._
for-sworen, 418, forsworn

for-thynken (A.S.) 167, _to repent, beg pardon_

for-wandred (A.S.) 1, _worn out with wandering about_

for-wanye (A.S.) 79, _to spoil_

+for-werd (A.S.) 476, 494, _worn out_

for-yelden (A.S.) 133, 257, _to make a return for a thing, repay_

forbisne (A.S.) 152, _an example, similitude, parable_

forceres (A.N.) 186, _coffers_

fore-ward, for-ward, for-warde (A.S.) 65, 119, 206, _a bargain, promise_

for-goer (A.S.) 39, _a goer before_

for-goers (A.S.) 31, _people whose business it was to go before the great
lords in their progresses, and buy up provisions for them_

formest (A.S.) 186, 403, _first, foremost_

+formfaderes (A.S.) 498, _first fathers_

formour (A.N.) 160, 358, _a creator, maker_

forreyour (A.N.) 430, _a scout, forager_

forster (A.N.) 354, _a forester_

+forytoures, 465, perhaps an error of the press in the old edition for

forwit (A.S.) 87, _prescience, forethought, anticipation_

fostren (A.S.) 360, _to foster_

foulen (A.S.) 414, _to defoul_

fowel (A.S.) _a fowl, bird_

fraynen (A.S.) _to ask, inquire, question_. _pret. s._ frayned, 18, 109,
151, 341, 370

+fraynyng (A.S.) 452, _questioning_

frankeleyn (A.N.) 398, _a large freeholder_, in rank in society classed
with, but after, the _miles_ and _armiger_. See Tyrwhit's note on the
Canterbury Tales, l. 333

frayel (A.N.) 252, _a wicker basket_. See note. In the romance of Richard
Coeur de Lion, l. 1547, King Richard says:--

  Richard aunsweryth, with herte free,
  Off froyt there is gret plenté;
  Fyggys, raysyns, in _frayel_,
  And notes may serve us fol wel.

fraytour (A.N.) 192, 463, _a refectory_

freke (A.S.) 74, 87, 130, 132, 188, 203, 246, 250, 341, _man, fellow_

frele (A.N.) _frail_

freletee (A.N.) 46, frelete, 367, _frailty_

fremmed (A.S.) 303, _strange_

frere (A.N.) _a friar, brother_

frete (A.S.) 265, _to fret_

frete, freten (A.S.) 33, _to eat, devour_. _pret. s._ freet, 381

fretien (A.S.) _to adorn_. _part. p._ fretted

fryth (A.S.) 224, 241, 355, _an inclosed wood_

frythed (A.S.) 112, _wooded_

frounces (A.N.) 265, _wrinkles_

fullen (A.S.) 322, _to full cloth_

fullen (A.S.) 176, _to become full_

fullen (A.S.) _to baptize_. _pret. s._ follede, 321. _part. past_,
y-fulled, 398

fullynge (A.S.) 244, 322, 398, _baptizing, baptism_

furwe (A.S.) _a furrow_

fust (A.S.) 356, _the fist_

  G. Y.

gabben (A.N.) 53, _to joke, trifle, tell tales_. gabbyng (A.N.) 423,
_joking, idle talk_

gadelyng (A.S.) 434, gedelyng, 165. _pl._ gedelynges, 171, gadelynges, 68,
_a vagabond_. In Anglo-Saxon the word _gædeling_ means a companion or
associate, apparently without any bad sense. Thus the romance of Beowulf
speaks of the armour of one of the heroes:--

  þæt Onela for-geaf,
  his gædelinges
  _which Onela had given him,
  the war-weeds of his comrade,
  the ready implements of war._

This, and most of the other similar Anglo-Saxon words, applied to their
heroes and warriors, became degraded under the Anglo-Normans. We may
mention as other examples the words, _fellow_, _renk_, _grom_, _wye_, &c.

+gaynage (A.N.) 462, _profit_

gaynesse (A.N.) 178, _gaiety_

galoche (A.N.) 370, _a shoe_. The word occurs in Chaucer

galpen (A.S.) 252, _to belch_

gamen (A.S.) _play_

gangen, gange (A.S.) _to go_

+garites (A.S.) 463, _garrets_

garnementz (A.N.) 379, _garments, ornaments_

gare (A.S.) _to make or cause to do a thing_. _pret. s._ garte, 22, 80,
135, 321, gart, 84, gerte, 428

gate (A.S.) 67, 171, 383, _way, going_. go thi gate, 351, 445, _go thy
way_. this ilke gate, 354, _this same way_

yate (A.S.) 385, 406, _a gate_

geaunt (A.N.) 384, _a giant_

gentile (A.N.) 26, 174, 175, _gentle, genteel_

gentilliche (A.N.) 44, _beautifully, finely, genteelly_

gentrie (A.N.) 370, _gentility_

gerl (A.S.) _pl._ gerles, girles, gerlis, 17, 184, 369, _youth of either
sex_. In the Coventry Mystery of the Slaughter of the Innocents (p. 181)
one of the knights engaged in the massacre says:--

  I xall sle scharlys,
  And qwenys with therlys,
  Here _knave gerlys_
      I xal steke.
  Forthe wyl I spede,
  To don hem blede,
  Thow _gerlys_ grede,
      We xul be wreke.

gerner (A.N.) _a garner_

gesene (A.S. ?) 262, _rare, scarce_

gesse (A.S.) _a guess_. up gesse, 102, _upon guess, by guess_

gest, _pl_. gestes (A.N.) _a deed, history, tale_

gest (A.S.) 312, _a guest_

geten, gete (A.S.) _to get_. _pres. pl._ geten. _pret. s._ gat, thow gete,
386, 389, 390, getest, 390, _part. past_, geten, 375, gete, 403

yiftes (A.S.) 49, _gifts_

gyle (A.S.) _guile, deceit_

gilour (A.S.) _a deceiver_

gyn (A.N.) 384, _a trap, machine, contrivance_

gynful (A.N.) 186, _full of tricks or contrivances_

gynnen (A.S.) _to begin_. _pret. sing._ gan, 2. _pl._ gonne, 158, gonnen,
262. gynnyng, _beginning_. The preterite is frequently used as an auxiliary
verb to form with others a kind of imperfect or preterite, as, gan drawe,
352, _drew_; gan despise, 374, _despised_

gyen (A.N.) 39, _to rule_

gyour (A.N.) 421, 429, _a ruler, leader_

girden (A.S.) 40, _to cast, strike_. _pret. s._ girte, 99. In the second
Towneley Mystery of the Shepherds, p. 115, Mak says, "If I trespas eft,
_gyrd_ of my heede."

gyterne (A.N.) 260, a _gittern_, a musical instrument, resembling, or
identical with, the modern guitar

gyven (A.S.) _to give_. _pres. pl._ gyven. _pret. sing._ gaf, yaf, 387.
_part. past_, yeven, y-gyve, 37

gyven (A.S.) 436, _to fetter, bind in gyves_

+gladdyng (A.S.) 481, _merry_ (?)

gladen, 404, gladie, 384 (A.S.) _to gladden, cause joy to_. _pret. s._
gladede, 435

+glaverynge (A.N.) 454, 492, _smooth, slippery, flattering_

glazene (A.S.) 435, _made of glass_ (?) See note

glee (A.S.) _the performance of the minstrel or jongleur_

gle-man (A.S.) 98, 165, _a minstrel_

glede, glade (A.S.) 94, 361, _a spark, glowing ember_

+gleym (    ) 479 (?)

+gloppynge (A.S.) 456, _sucking in_

glosen (A.N.) _to gloss, paraphrase, comment_

gloton (A.N.) _a glutton_

glotonye (A.N.) _gluttony_

glubben (A.S.) _to suck in, gobble up_. _part. pas._ y-glubbed, 97, _sucked
in_. glubbere, 162, _a glutton_

gnawen (A.S.) _to gnaw_

+gode (A.S.) 476, _a goad_

goky (A.S.) 220, _a gawky, clown_

goliardeis (A.N.) 9, _one who gains his living by following rich men's
tables, and telling tales and making sport for the guests_. See on this
word the Introduction to the Poems of Walter Mapes. It occurs in Chaucer,
C. T. l. 562

  He was a jangler and _a golyardeys_,
  And that was most of synne and harlotries.

gome (A.S.) 257, 263, 267, 288, 308, 312, 350, 354, 382, 403, _a man_

gomme (A.N.) _gum_

goon (A.S.) 37, _to go_. _pres. s._ he gooth, 354. _pl._ gon, goon, 303.
_pret. sing._ wente. _pl._ wenten, 233, 351

goost (A.S.) _spirit, ghost_

goostliche (A.S.) 427, _spiritually_

gorge (A.N.) 176, 177, _the throat, mouth_

gos (A.S.) _pl._ gees, _a goose_

gothelen (A.S.) 97, 252, _to grumble_ (as is said of the belly)

gowe (A.S.) 14, _a phrase of invitation, i. e. go we, let us go_

graffen (A.N.) 85, _to graft_

+graith (A.S.) 453, 464, _the truth_ (?)

graithe (A.S.) 27, _ready, prepared_

graithen (A.S.) _to prepare, make ready_. +_part. pas._ y-greithed, 462,
487. graythed, 494

graithly (A.S.) 386. graythliche, 482, _readily, speedily_

graunt (A.N.) 353, _great_

graven (A.N.) _to engrave_. _part. pas._ grave, 73, _engraved_

gravynge (A.N.) _engraving, sculpturing_

graven (A.N.) 206, _to put in grave_

greden (A.S.) 32, 47, _to cry out, shout, make a noise_. _pret. s._ thow
graddest, 421, he gradde, 335, 448

gree (A.N.) 375, _pleasure, will_

greete (A.S.) 100, _to lament_

greyne (A.N.) 412, 415, _a grain, seed_

greten (A.S.) 97, 379, _to greet_. _pret. s._ grette, 186, 344, 446

gretter (A.S.) _greater_

greven (A.N.) 354, _to grieve_

grys (A.S.) 14, 68, 134, _pigs_. See the story of Will _Gris_ in the
Lanercost Chronicle

grys (A.N.) 308, _a kind of fur_

+grysliche (A.S.) 485, _fearfully_

grom (A.S.) 99, _a man_: hence the modern groom

grote (A.N.) 51, _a groat, a coin of the value of four pennies_

grucchen, grucche (A.S.) _to grudge_


hailsen (A.S.) _to salute_. _pres. s._ hailse, 83. _pret._ hailsed, 148,

hayward (A.N.) 415, _a man employed to watch and guard the inclosed fields,
or hays_. An illustration of this word will be found in the passage from
Whitaker's text given in the note on l. 2473

hakke (A.S.) 420, _to follow, run after, cut along after_

half (A.S.) _half, side_

halie (A.S.) 156, _to hawl_

hals (A.S.) _the neck_

halwe (A.S.) 327, _to hallow, consecrate, make holy_

hamlen (A.S.) +_part. pas._ y-hamled, 468, _to tie or attach_ (?)

handy dandy (A.S.) 69, the expression still used in Shropshire and

hange, honge (A.S.) 348, 384, _to hang_ (intransitive). _pret. s._ hanged,

hange, hangen (A.S.) 39, 392, _to hang_ (transitive). _pret. pl._ hengen,

hanylons (A.N.) 181, _the wiles of a fox_. See Sir Frederick Madden's
Glossary to Gawawyn (v. _hamlounez_), who quotes the following lines from
the Boke of St. Albans:--

  And yf your houndes at a chace renne there ye hunte,
  And the beest begyn to renne, as hartes ben wonte,
  Or for to _hanylon_, as dooth the foxe wyth his gyle,
  Or for to crosse, as the roo doth otherwhyle.

hanselle (A.S.) 96, _gift, reward, bribe_. It is used in the alliterative
poem on the Deposition of Richard II, p. 30:--

  Some parled as perte
  As provyd well after,
  And clappid more for the coyne
  That the kyng owed hem,
  Thanne ffor comfforte of the comyne
  That her cost paied,
  And were behote _hansell_,
  If they helpe wolde.

hardy (A.N.) 413, _bold, hardy, courageous_. hardier, 354, _more bold_

hardie (A.N.) 321, _to encourage, embolden_

harewe (A.S.) 412, _a harrow_

harewen, harewe (A.S.) 412, 414, _to harrow_. _pret._ harewede, _ib._

harlot (A.N.) 175, 270, 271, 303, 354, _a blackguard, person of infamous
life_. The word was used in both genders. It appears to have answered
exactly to the French _ribaud_, as Chaucer in the Romance of the Rose
translates _roy des ribaulx_, by _king of harlots_. Chaucer says of the
Sompnour (C. T. l. 649):--

  He was a _gentil harlot_ and a kynde
  A bettre felaw schulde men nowher fynde.
  He wolde suffre for a quart of wyn,
  A good felawe to ban his concubyn,
  A twelve moneth, and excuse him atte fulle.

This passage gives us a remarkable trait of the character of the ribald, or
harlot, who formed a peculiar class of middle-age society. Among some old
glosses in the Reliquiæ Antiquæ (vol. i, p. 7), we find "_scurra_, a
harlotte." In the Coventry Mystery of the Woman taken in Adultery (p. 217),
it is the young man who is caught with the woman, and not the woman
herself, who is stigmatised as a _harlot_.

harpen (A.S.) _to harp_. _pret. pl._ harpeden, 394

harrow (A.N.) 430, an exclamation, or rather a cry, said to have been
peculiar to the Normans, the origin and derivation of which have been the
subject of much discussion among antiquaries. It was the cry which every
one was bound to raise and repeat, when any murder, theft, robbery, or
other violent crime, was attempted or perpetrated, in order that the
offenders might be hindered or secured. It was afterwards used in any great
tumult or disorder, and became a general exclamation of persons wanting
help. (See Ducange, in v. _Haro_.) In the Towneley Mysteries (p. 14), when
Cain finds that his offering will not burn, he cries:--

  We! out! haro! help to blaw!
  It wille not bren for me, I traw.

haspen (A.S.) _to clasp_. y-hasped, 26

hastilokest (A.N.) 424, _most quickly, speedily, hastily_

haten (A.S.) _to call, order_. _pres. s._ I hote. _pret. s._ highte, heet,
445. _part. pas._ y-hote, hoten, hote, _called, ordered_

haten (A.S.) _to be called or named_. _pres. s._ hatte, _is called_, I
hatie, 260, _am called_. _pret. s._ highte, _was called_

hater (A.S.) 273, _dress_

haterynge (A.S.) 299, _dressing, attire_

hatien (A.S.) 179, _to hate_

haven, have, han (A.S.) _to have_. _pres. pl._ han. _pret. s._ hadde, _pl._
hadden, hadde

haver (A.S.) _oats_, 134, an haver cake, _an oat-cake_

heed (A.S.) _the head_. _See_ heved

heele (A.S.) _health_

heep (A.S.) _a heap_

heeth (A.S.) 322, _heath_

hegge (A.S.) _pl._ hegges, _a hedge_

heigh (A.S.) _high_

+heyne (A.N.) 466, _hatred_ (?)

heyre (A.S.) _hair_. _gen._ heris, 193, _hair's_

hele, heele (A.S.) _health_

hele (A.S.) 150, _a heel_

helen, (A.S.) 87, 445. helien, 241, _to conceal, hide_

helen, heele, 355 (A.S.) _to heal_. _pret. s._ heeled, 337. an helyng, 355,
_in healing, in the course of recovering his health_

helpen, helpe (A.S.) _to help_. _pret. s._ halp, 403, 418, _pl._ holpen,
123. _part. pas._ holpen, 75, 303, 338, holpe, 115

hem (A.S.) _them_

hemselve (A.S.) _themselves_

hende (A.S.) 308, _gentle, polite_. hendenesse, 398, _gentleness,
worthiness_. hendely, hendiliche, 44, _politely, gently_

hennes (A.S.) _hence, from this time_

henten, hente (A.S.) _to take, seize_. _pret. s._ hente, hent, 435

heraud (A.N.) _a herald_

herberwe (A.S.) _a harbour_

herberwen (A.S.) _to harbour, shelter_. _pret. s._ herberwed, 352

heremite (A.N.) _a hermit_

heren, here (A.S.) _to hear_. _pret. s._ herde. _imperat._ y-heer, 356

herne (A.S.) 42, 393, _a corner_

herte (A.S.) _the heart_

heste (A.S.) _a commandment_

+hethen (A.S.) 475, _hence_

+hetheved (A.S.) 469, _head_

hethynesse (A.S.) 321, _heathenness, paganism, idolatry_

heved (A.S.) _a head_. heed, 352

hewe (A.S.) 110, _pl._ hewen, 71, 273, 281, _a husbandman, a workman_

hewe, _pl._ hewes (A.S.) 224, _hue, colour_

hiden (A.S.) _to hide_. _pret. s._ hidde, 354. _part. pas._ y-hudde, 199

+hyen (A.S.) 475, _to hie, go_. _pret. s._ hiede, 444

hyere (A.S.) _higher_

hii (A.S.) _they_

hil (A.S.) _pl._ hulles, _a hill_

hilen (A.S.) 113, _to cover over_. _pret. s._ hiled, 241, _pl._ hileden,

hynde (A.S.) 311, _a doe, female deer_

hyne (A.S.) _a servant, serf, rustic, labourer_

hyne, 72, 268, _a hen_ (?)

hippynge (A.S.) 351, _hopping_

hire (A.S.) _their_

hir (A.S.) _of them_. _gen. pl._ of he. hir neither, 67, _neither of them_.
hir eyther, 212, 446, _either of them_. hir noon, 237, _none of them_. hir
oon fordooth hir oother, 373, _one of them destroys the other of them_

his (A.S.) _pl._ hise, _his_

hitten (A.S.) _to hit_. _pret. s._ hite, 86, hitte, 96

+hod (A.S.) 476, _a hood_

+hok-shynes (A.S.) 476, _crooked shins_. hok seems almost superfluous: the
shin towards the _hock_ or ancle?

holden (A.S.) _to hold_. _pres. s._ he halt, 354, 357, _pl._ holde, 15,
holden, 18. _pret. s._ heeld, 156, 206, _pl._ helden, 294, 418, 438. _part.
pas._ y-holden, 358, holden, y-holde, 440, 441

hool (A.S.) _pl._ hole, 392, _whole, entire_. hooly, _wholly_. holly, 396,
_wholly_. +hollich, 452, _wholly_

homliche (A.S.) 179, _from house to house_

hoom (A.S.) _home_. the viker hadde fer hoom, 424, _the vicar had far to go

hoor (A.S.) _pl._ hore, 144, _hoary_. as hoor as an hawethorn, 341

hoord (A.S.) _a hoard_

hoors (A.S.) 367, _hoarse_

hoot (A.S.) 360, _hot_

hopen (A.S.) 329, _to expect, hope_

hoper (A.S.) 120, _the hopper of a mill_

hore (A.S.) 75, _pl._ hoores, 299, hores, 303, _a whore_

+hornes (A.S.) 461, _corners_

hostele (A.N.) 355, _to give lodging, to receive into an inn_

hostiler (A.N.) 352, 355, _the keeper of a hostelry or inn_

hostrie (A.N.) 352, _a hostelry, inn_

houpen (A.S.) 127, _to hoop, shout_

houres (A.N. heures, _Lat._ horæ) _the Romish service_

housel (A.S.) 419, _the sacrament of the Eucharist_

houselen (A.S.) _to receive the Eucharist_. _part. past_, housled, 396,
424, houseled, 419

hoven (A.S.) 13, _to tarry, hover, dwell_. _pret. s._ hoved, 374

howve (A.S.) _pl._ howves, 13, 60, 435, _a cap or hood_

hucche (A.S.) 72, _a hutch, chest_

huge (A.S.) 216, _great_

hukkerye (A.S.) 90, _huckstry_

hunten (A.S.) _to hunt_. _part. pas._ y-honted, 41

huppe (A.S.) 327, _to hop_

huyre (A.S.) 111, _hire, wages_

  I. Y.

ic, ich, ik (A.S.) _I_

+ich (A.S.) _each_. +ichon, 479, _each one_. _See_ ech

ydel (A.S.) _idleness, vanity_. on ydel, _in vain_

+iis (A.S.) 476, _ice_

ilke (A.S.) _same_

impe (A.N.) 85, _a sprig, twig growing from the root of a tree_

impen, ympen (A.N.) 85, _to graft_. +_part. past_, ymped, 469, _grafted_

in-going (A.S.) 115, _entrance_

inne (A.S.) the adverbial form of _in_

inne (A.S.) _a lodging_, hence our _inn_

inwit (A.S.) 160, 162, 364, _conscience, interior understanding_. with
inwit and outwit, 263

yren (A.S.) 288, _iron_

ysekeles (A.S.) 361, _icicles_


jangeleres, jangleris (A.N.) 3, 175, _praters_

jangle (A.N.) 9, 33, 74, 136, 164, 251, 337, 339, _to jangle, to talk
emptily, to prate_

janglynge (A.N.) 169, 419, _jangling, empty talking, nonsense_

jape (A.S.) 433, _a jest_

japen (A.S.) 19, 33, 260, _to jest, mock, cajole_. _part. past_, japed, 371

japer (A.S.) _pl._ japeres, japeris, 3, 164, 175, _a jester, mocker_

Jewe, _gen. pl._ Jewen, 19, Jewene, 384, 402, _a Jew_

jogele (A.N.) 260, _to play the minstrel, or jongleur_

jogelour (A.N.) 121, 175, _a minstrel, jongleur, one who played mountebank

jouke (A.S.) 336, _to rest, dwell_

joute (A.N.) 86, _a battle, combat_

jugge (A.N.) _a judge_

juggen (A.N.) 290, 427, _to judge_

jurdan (A.N.) 251, _a pot_. At a later period the word was only applied to
a chamber-pot, as in Shakespeare

juste (A.N.) 251, justes, 351, 352, 370, _a joust, battle, tournament_

justen, juste (A.N.) 336, 370, 374, _to joust, tilt (in a tournament)_.
_pret. s._ justed, 340, justede, 380

justere (A.N.) 396, _one who goes to jousts, engages in tournaments_

justice (A.N.) 404, _to judge_

juttes (A.N. ?) 201, _low persons_

juventee (A.N.) 402, _youth_

juwise (A.N.) 392, _judgment_, from _judicium_

  K. _See under_ C.


lachesse (A.N.) 153, _negligence_

ladde (A.S.) _pl._ laddes, 398, _a low common person_

+laiche (A.S.) 486, _to catch, obtain_. _see_ lakke

layk (A.S.) 287, _play_

laiken (A.S.) 11, _to play_. The writer of the romance of Kyng Alisaunder,
in describing a battle (Weber, p. 159), says,--

  There was _sweord lakkyng_,

_i.e. there was playing with the sword_. Weber, in his Glossary, has very
wrongly explained it by _licking_. It is the Anglo-Saxon poetic phrase,
sweorda ge-lác, _the play of swords_

lakke (A.S.) 189, _a fault, a lack, or something deficient or wanting_

lakken, lacche (A.S.) 31, 40, 130, 220, 262, 309, 333, _to obtain, catch,
take_. _pret. s._ laughte, 357, 388, 434. _part. act._ lacchynge, 21

lakken (A.S.) 85, 130, 185, 189, 208, 214, 234, 263, 307, 309, 329, 411,
_to mock, to blame, or reproach_. _pret. pl._ lakkede, 294. _part. pas._
y-lakked, 29

lakken (A.S.) 46, 218, 219, 262, 310, 365, 423, _to lack, to be wanting_.
_pret. s._ lakkede, 402, _was wanting_

lambren (A.S.) 307, _lambs_. So Lydgate (Minor Poems, ed. Halliwell), p.

  Takith to his larder at what price he wold,
  Of gretter _lambren_, j., ij., or thre,
  In wynter nyghtis frostis bien so colde,
  The sheppard slepithe, God lete hym never the!

lang (A.S.) _long_

lape (A.S.) 426, _to lap, as a dog_

large (A.N.) 398, _largess_ (?)

lasse (A.S.) _less_

late, lete (A.S.) 76, 386, _to let_. _pres. s._ leet, 305, 384. _pret. s._
leet, 25, 74, 127, 209, 346, _pl._ leten, lete, 294, 393. _subj. s._ late

+lath (   .) 476. Perhaps an error of the old edition for _lay_?

+latun (A.N.) 462, _a mixed metal of the colour of brass_

laughen (A.S.) 439, _to laugh_. _pret. s._ lough, 423. _part. pas._ lowen,

launde (A.N.) 155, 183, 312, _a plain, a level space clear of trees in the
midst of a forest, a lawn_

lave (A.N.) 273, _to wash_

lavendrye (A.N.) 306, _washing_

+lavoures (A.N.) 462, _lavers, ewers, basins to receive water_

leauté (A.N.) _loyalty_

leche (A.S.) 443, _a physician_

lechecraft (A.S.) 336, 435, _the art of healing, medicine_

lechen (A.S.) 261, _to cure_. _pret. s._ leched, 337

leden, lede (A.S.) 355, 393, _to lead_. pret. s. ladde, 352. _part. act._
ledynge. _part. pas._ lad, 160, 246

ledene (A.S.) 242, 243, _speech, language_. This is applied, as here, to
birds, by Chaucer, C. T. 10749:--

  This faire kynges doughter, Canace,
  That on hir fynger bar the queynte ryng,
  Thurgh which sche understood wel every thing
  That eny foul may _in his lydne_ sayn,
  And couthe answer him in _his lydne_ agayn.

ledes (A.S.) 326, _people attached to the land, peasants_

leef (A.S.) _dear, love_. his leef, _his dear_

leef (A.S.) 301, _pl._ leves, _a leaf_

leelly (A.N.) 19, lelly, 45, 146, _loyally, faithfully_. leele, lele,
_loyal_. lelest, 349, _most loyal_

leere, lere (A.S.) 15, 173, _countenance, mien, complexion_

leggen (A.S.) 30, 133, 235, 306, 426, leyen, 374, _to lay, to bet (to lay
down a wager)_. _pret. s._ leide, 352, 372, 432, leyde, 98, 436

legistre (A.N.) 139, _a legist, one skilled in the law._

ley, _pl._ leyes (A.S.) 138, _a lea_ (Lat. _saltus_)

leye (A.S.) 360, 364, _flame_

leme (A.S.) 376, 377, _brightness_

lemman (A.S.) _pl._ lemmannes, 303, _a sweetheart, a mistress_

lene (A.S.) _lean_

lenen, lene (A.S.) _to give_; hence our _lend_. _pret._ lened, 269. _part.
past_, lent, 275

lenen (A.S.) _to lean_. _pret. s._ lened, 369

lenge (A.S.) 27, 421, _to rest, remain, reside long in a place_. _pret. s._
lenged, 151, +_pret. pl._ lengeden, 469, _dwelt, remained_

Lenten (A.S.) _Lent_

lenten (A.S.) 369, _a linden tree_

leode (A.S.) 352, _people, a person_, whence our _lad_

lepen (A.S.) 41, 236, _to leap_. _pret. s._ leep, 10, 41, lope, 71, lepe,
107, lepte, 434. _pl._ lopen, 14, 22, 86, lope, 74. _part. pas._ lopen, 88

leperis (A.S.) _leapers_. lond leperis heremytes, _hermits who leap or
wander over different lands_

lered (A.S.) 45, _learned, educated, clergy_

leren (A.S.) 146, _to teach_. _pres._ he lereth. _pret._ lerned, 146, 412,
lered, 292, 336, 410

lerne (A.S.) 350, 351, 437, 441, _to learn_. _part. pas._ y-lerned, 141

lesen (A.S.) _to lose_. _pres. s._ lese, lees, 107, 148. _part. act._
lesynge. _part. pas._ lost, lore, 374, y-lorn, 388

lese (A.S.) 121, _to glean_. The word is still used in Shropshire and

lesynge (A.S.) 66, 387, 388, _a lie, fable, falsehood_

lethi (A.S.) 184, _hateful_

letten, leten, lette (A.S.) 352, 435, _to hinder, to tarry_, _pret. s._
lette, 368, letted, 335. _part. past_, letted, 418. lettere, 19, _a
hinderer_. lettyng, _a hindrance_

lettrede (A.N.) 49, _lettered, learned_. y-lettrede, _learned, instructed_

lettrure (A.N.) _learning, scripture, literature_

leve (A.S.) 385, _leave, permission_

leve (A.S.) _pl._ leeve, _dear, precious_. levere, _dearer, rather_.
leveste, levest, 364, _dearest_

leved (A.S.) 300, _leaved, covered with leaves_

leven (A.S.) 299, 301, _to leave_. _part. s._ lafte, 447

leven (A.S.) _to dwell, remain_. _pret._ lafte, 440. +_pret. s._ lefte,
473, _dwelt, remained_.

leven, leeve (A.S.) _to believe_, 304, 319. _pret. s._ leeved, 435. leved,
393. _pl._ leveden

lewed (A.S.) 26, 420, _lay, ignorant, untaught, useless_. lewed of that
labour, 237, _ignorant of_, or _unskilful in, that labour_. lewednesse, 45,
_ignorance, rusticity_

lewté (A.N.) _loyalty_

lyard (A.N.) 352, 368, a common name for _a horse_, but signifying
originally _a horse of a grey colour_

libben, libbe (A.S.) 275, _to live_. _part. act._ libbynge

lyen (A.S.) _to lie_. _pres. s. 2 pers._ thow lixt, 86. _pret._ thow
leighe, 393, _thou didst lie_

liere (A.S.) _a liar_

lif (A.S.) _pl._ lives, _life_

liflode (A.S.) _living, state of life_

lift (A.S.) 316, _air, sky_

lige (A.N.) 76, 390, _liege_

liggen, ligge (A.S.) 361, _to lie down_. _pres. s._ I ligge, he lith, lyth,
355, thei ligge, 421. _pret. sing._ lay. _part. act._ liggynge. _part.
pas._ leyen, 45, y-leye, 82, y-leyen, 198, 399

lighten (A.S.) _to alight, descend, or dismount from_. _pret. s._ lighte,

lightloker (A.S.) 112, 237, 321, _more lightly, more easily_

lik, lich, y-lik (A.S.) 389, _like, resembling_. liknesse, _likeness_,
y-liche, 401

liche (A.S.) 173, _the body_. Chaucer, C.T. l. 2960, speaks of the
_liche-wake_, or ceremonies of waking and watching the corpse, still
preserved in Ireland:--

  Ne how the _liche-wake_ was y-holde
  Al thilke night, ne how the Grekes pleye.

In the romance of Alexander (Weber, p. 145), the word is applied to a
living body (as in Piers Ploughman):--

  The armure he dude on his liche--
    _he put the armour on his body_

likame, lycame (A.S.) _the body_

liken (A.S.) 455, _to please, to like_ (i. e. _be pleased with_). liketh,
17, 262. _pret. s._ liked

likynge (A.S.) 203, _pleasure, love, liking_

likerous (A.N.) 133, _nice, voluptuous, lecherous_

likne (A.S.) 175, 190, _to imitate, to mimic, to make a simile_

lyme (A.S.) 436, _limb_

lyme-yerd (A.S.) 170, _limed twig_

lymitour (A.N.) 85, 445, _a limitour, a begging friar_

lynde (A.S.) 24, 155, _the linden tree_

lippe (A.S.) 324, _a slip, portion_

liser (A.N.) 89, _list of cloth_ (?)

lisse (A.S.) 160, 383, _joy, happiness, bliss_

liste (A.S.) _to please, list_. _pret._ list, 356, _it pleased_

listre (A.S.) 85, _a deceiver_

lite (A.S.) 262, _little_

litel (A.S.) _little_. litlum and litlum, 329, _by little and little_, the
uncorrupted Anglo-Saxon phrase. _See_ note

lyth (A.S.) 341, _a body_

lythe, lithen (A.S.) 155, 270, _to listen to_

lyven, lyve (A.S.) _to live_. _pr. pl._ lyveden, 2. _part. act._ lybbynge.
_See_ libben

lyves (A.S.) _alive_. lyves and lokynge, 405, _alive and looking_. _See_
note on l. 5014

lyveris (A.S.) 235, _livers, people who live_

lobies (A.S.) 4, _loobies, clowns_

loft (A.S.) _high, height_. bi lofte and by grounde, 372, _in height and in
ground-plan_. o-lofte, _aloft, on high_

lok (A.S.) 27, _a lock_

loken (A.S.) 388, _to look, to over-see_, 148. _pret. s._ lokede, 276

lollen (A.S.) 240, _to loll_. _part. pas._ lolled, 239. _part. act._
lollynge, 346

lolleris (A.S.) 308, _lollards_. The origin of this word is doubtful, but
it seems to mean generally people who go about from place to place with a
hypocritical show of praying and devotion. It was certainly in use long
before the time of the Wycliffites, in Germany as well as in England.
Johannes Hocsemius (quoted by Ducange, v. _Lollardi_) says, in his
chronicle on the year 1309, "Eodem anno quidam hypocritæ gyrovagi, qui
_Lollardisive Deum laudantes_ vocabantur, per Hannoniam et Brabantiam
quasdam mulieres nobiles deceperunt," &c. The term, used in the time of
Piers Ploughman as one of reproach, was afterwards contemptuously given to
the church reformers. The writer of the Ploughman's Tale, printed in
Chaucer, Speght, fol. 86, appears to apply it to wandering friars:--

  i-cleped _lollers_ and londlese.

lomere (A.S.) 439, _more frequently_

lond-buggere (A.S.) 191, _a buyer of land_

+lone (A.S.) 493, _a loan_ (?)

longen (A.S.) _to belong_

loof (A.S.) _a loaf_

loone (A.S.) 442, _a loan_. lenger yeres loone, _a loan of a year longer, a
year's extension or renewal of the loan_

loore (A.S.) 79, 244, _teaching, lore, doctrine, science_

loores-man, lores-man (A.S.) 164, 318, _a teacher_

loos (A.S.) 219, _honour, praise_

lorel (A.N.) 147, 294, 351, 369, _a bad man, a good-for-nothing fellow_.
Chaucer, in his translation of Boethius, uses it to represent the Latin
_perditissimus_. Compare the description of the _lorel_ in the Ploughman's
Tale (Speght's Chaucer) fol. 91:--

  For thou canst no cattell gete,
  But livest in lond as a _lorell_,
  With glosing gettest thou thy mete.

losel (A.N.) 5, 124, 176, 303, _a wretch, good-for-nothing fellow_. It
appears to be a different form of the preceding word. loselly, 240, _in a
disgraceful, good-for-nothing manner_

losengerie (A.N.) 125, 176, _flattery, lying_

lothen (A.S.) _to loath_

looth (A.S.) _loath, hateful_. lother, 318, _more loath_. lothliche,

lotebies (A.S. ?) 52, _private companions, bed-fellows_. In the romance of
the Seven Sages (Weber, p. 57) it is said of a woman unfaithful to her

  Sche stal a-wai, mididone,
  And wente to here _lotebi_.

Chaucer uses the word (in the romance of the Rose, l. 6339), in a passage
rather similar to this of Piers Ploughman:--

  Now am I yong and stout and bolde,
  Now am I Robert, now Robin,
  Now frere Minor now Jacobin,
  And _with me followeth my loteby_,
  To don me solace and company.

In the original the word is _compaigne_

lotien (A.S.) 354, _to lurk, lie in ambush_

louke (A.S.) 384, _to lock_

louren (A.S.) _to lower_

lous, lys (A.S.) _pl._ _a louse_

louten (A.S.) 50, 181, 182, 300, _to make a salutation, reverence_. _pret.
s._ louted, 294, 470

lovyen, lovye, lovien (A.S.) _to love_. hym lovede, 356, _it pleased him_

lowen (A.S.) _to condescend_ (?) _pret._ lowed, 8

luft (A.S.) 69, _fellow, person_

+lullyng (A.S.) 455, _lolling_ (?)

lurdayne (A.S.) 375, 436, _a clown, rustic, ill-bred person_

lusard (A.N.) 389, _a lizard, crocodile_

lussheburwes (A.N.) 316, _base or adulterated coins_; which took their name
and were imported from Luxemberg. See note on l. 10322

luten (A.N.) _to play on the lute_. _pret. s._ lutede, 395

luther (A.S.) 316, 390, _bad, wicked_


macche (A.S.) 248, 249, _companion, match-fellow_

macche (A.S.) 360, _a match_

macer (A.N.) 47, _one who carries a mace_

mayen (A.S.) _to be able_ (it is seldom or never used in the infinitive
mood). _pres. s._ may, _pl._ mowen, mowe. _pret. s._ myghte, _pl._ mighte

y-maymed (A.S.) 359, _maimed_

mayn-pernour, (A.N.) 71, 380. _See_ the next word

mayn-prise (A.N.) 70, 346, _a kind of bail_, a law term. "It signifieth in
our Common Law the taking or receiving a man in friendly custodie, that
otherwise is or might be committed to prison, and so upon securitie given
for his forth coming at a day assigned: and they that doe thus undertake
for any, are called _mainpernours_, because they do receive him into their
hands." MINSHEU. The persons thus received were allowed to go at large

mayn-prise (A.N.) 75, 426, meynprise, 39, _to bail in the manner described
under the foregoing word_

mair (A.N.) 290, _pl._ meires, 150, _a mayor_

maistrie (A.N.) 66, _a mastery, a feat of science_

make (A.S.) 50, 222, 230, _a companion, consort_

maken, make (A.S.) _to make_. _pret. s._ made. _part. pas._ y-maked, 2.
maad, 71, 248

make (A.S.) 229, _to compose poetry_. _See_ note

makynge (A.S.) 229, _writing poetry_

male (A.N.) 91, _a box, pack_

+malisones (A.N.) 493, _curses_

mamelen (A.S.) 78, 226, _to chatter, mumble_

menacen (A.N.) _to menace, threaten_

manere (A.N.) _manner_

mange (A.N.) 132, _to eat_

mangerie (A.N.) 209, 328, _an eating, a feast_

manlich (A.S.) 92. _humane_. manliche, _manfully, humanely_

mansed (A.N.) 30, 74, 190, 233, 438, _cursed, excommunicated_

marc (A.N.) 161, _a mark (a coin)_

marche (A.S.) 159, 321, _a border_. The word is preserved in the term
"Marches of Wales," "Marches of Scotland"

marchen (A.N.) _to march, go_

mareys (A.N.) _a marsh_

+masedere (A.N.) 499, _more amazed_

maugree (A.N.) 131, _ill thanks, in spite of_

maundee (A.S.) 339, _maunday_

maundement (A.N.) 348, _a commandment_

mawe (A.S.) 298, _mouth, maw_

maze (A.N.) 12, _doubt, amazement, a labyrinth_

meden (A.S.) 56, _to reward, bribe_

mede (A.S.) _meed, reward_

medlen (A.N.) _to mix with_

meel (A.S.) _meal_

meene (A.N.) _poor, moderate, middle_

mees (A.S.) 249, 313, _a mess_ or _portion of meat_

megre (A.N.) _meagre, thin_

meynee (A.N.) 178, _household, household retinue_

meken (A.S.) _to make meek, humiliate_

mele (A.S.) 262, _meal, flour_

mendinaunt, _pl._ mendinauntz (A.N.) _a beggar; friars of the begging

mene, meene (A.N.) _mean, middle_

mene (A.N.) 326, _a mean_

menen (A.S.) _to mean_. to meene, 15, 18. that is Crist to mene, 399, _that
means Christ_

menen (A.S.) _to moan, lament_. _pret._ mened

+menemong (A.S.) 497, _of an ordinary quality_

menever (A.N.) 433, _a kind of fur; the fur of the ermine and small weasel

mengen (A.S.) _to mix, meddle_

menyson (A.N.) 337, _a flux, dysentery_

menour (A.N.) _a Minorite_

menske (A.S.) 54, 455, _decency, honour, manliness_

mercien (A.N.) _to thank_

mercy (A.N.) 17, 353, _thanks_

mercy (A.N.) 360, 361, _mercy_

mercyment (A.N.) _amercement_

merk (A.S.) 316, _a mark_

merke (A.S.) 15, _dark_. merknesse (A.S.) 377, 379, _darkness_

merveillous (A.N.) _marvellous, wonderful_

meschief (A.N.) 197, _mishap, evil, mischief_

mesel (A.S.) _pl._ meseles, 51, 144, 337, _a leper_

meson-Dieux (A.N.) 139, _hospitals_

messe (A.S.) _mass, the Romish ceremony_

mestier (A.N.) 138, _occupation_

mesurable (A.N.) _moderate_

met (A.S.) 267, _measure_

mete (A.S.) _meat_. mete-less, (A.S.) _without meat_

metels (A.S.) 13, 31, 147, 149, 155, 202, 207, _a dream_

meten, meete (A.S.) 310, _to meet_. _pret. s._ mette, 351. _part. pas._
met, 216

meten (A.S.) _to dream_. _pret. s._ mette, 148, 155, 396. _part. s._
metynge, 221

metyng (A.S.) 246, _a dream_

+meter (A.S.) 476, _fitter_ (?)

meve (A.N.) 153, 228, _to move_. _pres. pl._ ye moeven, 298

myd (A.S.) _with_

myddel-erthe (A.S.) 221, _the world_

middes (A.S.) _middle, midst_

mynistren (A.N.) 231, _to administer_

mynnen (A.S.) 322, _to mind, to recollect_

mynours (A.N.) _miners, diggers of mines_

mys-beden (A.S.) 119, _to injure_

mysese (A.N.) 16, _ill ease_

mys-eise (A.N.) 139, _ill at ease_

mysfeet (A.N.) 224, _ill deed, wrong_

+myster (A.N.) 484, _kind species_

mystier (A.S.) _more misty, more dark_

+myteynes (A.N.) 476, _mittens, gloves_

mnam, 131, _a Hebrew coin_

mo (A.S.) _more_

mody (A.S.) _moody_. modiliche, _moodily_

moeble, meble (A.N.) 364, _goods_

molde, moolde (A.S.) _earth, mould_

moled (A.N.) 262, 264, _spotted, stained_

mom (A.S.) 13, _a mum, sound_

mone (A.S.) 295, _lamentation_

+monelich (A.N.) 457, _meanly_

monials (A.N.) 192, _nuns_ (_Lat._ moniales)

moore (A.S.) 403, _greater_

moost (A.S.) _greatest_

moot (A.N.) 113, 417, _a moat_

moot-halle (A.S.) 73, 74, _hall of meeting, of justice_

more (A.S.) 300, 330, 331, 334, _pl._ mores, 416, _a root_

mornen (A.S.) _to mourn_. _pret. s._ mornede

mortrews (A.N.) 248, 250, 252, _a kind of soup_

morwe (A.S.) _morning, morrow_

morwenynge (A.S.) _morning_

mote (A.S.) 25, _to hold courts of justice_

motyng (A.S.) 141, _judging, meeting for justice_

moton (A.N.) 44, _the name of a coin_. _See_ note on l. 1404

mous (A.S.) _pl._ mees, _a mouse_

mouster (A.N.) 267, _muster, arrangement_

muche (A.S.) 155, 417, _great_

muchel (A.S.) 401, _great, much_

muliere, mulliere (A.N.) 343, 344, _a wife, woman_

murie (A.S.) _pleasant, merry, joyful_. murye, 1, _pleasantly_, murier,
_more pleasant_

murthe (A.S.) 382, _pleasure, joy, mirth_

murthen (A.S.) 362, _to make merry or joyful_

muson (A.N.) 183, _measures_ (?)

must (A.S.) 391, _a liquor made of honey_


nale (A.S.) 124, _the ale_. _see_ atte

namoore (A.S.) _no more_

naught (A.S.) _not, nought_

ne (A.S.) _not_. The negative _ne_ is combined with the verb _to will, to
be_, &c.; as _nelle_, for _ne wille_, _nel, nyl_, for _ne wil_, _nere_, for
_ne were_, _nolde_, for _ne wolde_, _nyste_, for _ne wiste_. It is
sometimes combined with other verbs, as _naroos_, 399, for _ne aroos_. So
we have such expressions as, wol he nele he, 427, i. e. _whether he will or
he will not_

nede (A.S.) _need_

neddre (A.S.) 82, _an adder, venomous serpent_

nedlere (A.S.) 96, _maker of, or dealer in, needles_

neet (A.S.) 411, _cattle_. Farmers still talk of _neat cattle_

neghen (A.S.) _to approach, to near_. _pret. s._ neghed, 425, neghede, 438

neigh (A.S.) _near, nigh_

nempne (A.S.) 397, _to name, call_. _pret. s._ nempned, 397, 404. _part.
pas._ y-nempned, nempned

nevelynge (A.S.) 85, _sniveling_

nygard (A.S.) _niggard_

nymen, nyme (A.S.) 268, 304 426, _to take_. _part. pas._ y-nome, 427

nyppe (A.S.) 379, _a point_ (?)

noble (A.N.) 191, _a gold coin of the value of six shillings and

noght (A.S.) _nought, nothing_

noyen (A.N.) _to injure, annoy, plague_

nones (A.N.) 125, _the hour of two or three in the afternoon_

nonne (A.S.) 86, _a nun_

noon (A.S.) _none_

nounpere (A.N.) 97, _an umpire, an arbitrator_

noughty (A.S.) 130, _possessed of nothing_

noun (A.N.) 366, _no_

nouthe (A.S.) _now_


o (A.S.) 349, _one_

of-gon (A.S.) 166, _to derive_ (?)

of-walked (A.S.) 258, _fatigued with walking_

o-lofte (A.S.) _aloft, on high_

one, oone (A.S.) _singly, alone, only_. myn one, 154, _myself singly_

+onethe (A.S.) _scarcely_. _See_ unnethe

oon (A.S.) _one_

oost (A.N.) 416, _a host, army_

openen, opene (A.S.) _to open_. _pret. pl._ opned, 388

ordeigne, ordeyne (A.N.) 415, _to ordain_

organye (A.N.) 369, _a musical instrument_. by organye, _as an
accompaniment to music_

ote (A.S.) _an oat_

oughen (A.S.) _to own, possess, owe_. _pret. s._ oughte, 47

outher (A.S.) _other, either, or_

over-come (A.S.) _to overcome_. _pret. s._ over-coom, 405

over-hoven (A.S.) 55, 379, _to hover or dwell over, hang over_

over-hippen (A.S.) _to hop over, skip over_. _pret. pl._ thei over-huppen,
250, 318

over-leden (A.S.) 62, _to overlead, tyrannize over_

over-spreden (A.S.) _to spread over_. _pret. s._ over-spradde, 408

over-tilten (A.S.) _to tilt or throw over_. _pret. s._ over-tilte, 428,
433, _threw over, dug up_

owene (A.S.) 366, _own_


paast (A.N.) 275, _paste, dough_

payn (A.N.) _bread_

paynym (A.N.) 108, 326, _a pagan_

pays (A.N.) 340, _country_

pallen (A.S.) 333, _to knock_. _pret. s._ I palle, 332

palmere (A.N.) 83, _a palmer, pilgrim to distant lands_

paltok (A.N.) 370, 438, _a cloak_

panne (A.S.) 69, _the scull, head_

pardoner (A.N.) _a dealer in pardons_

parentrelynarie (A.N.) 220, _between the lines, interlineal_

parfiter (A.N.) 229, _more perfectly_

parfitly (A.N.) _perfectly_

parfourne (A.N.) _to perform_

parisshen (A.N.) 206, 441, _a parishioner_

parle (A.N.) _to talk_. _part. past_, parled, 385

parroken (A.N.) 312, _to park or inclose_

parten (A.N.) _to share, to part_. +_part. pas._ parten, 475

Pasqe (A.N.) 338, _Easter_

passhen (A.S.) 431, _to crush_

pawme (A.N.) 356, _the palm of the hand_

pece (A.N.) 276, _a piece_

peeren (A.N.) 320, _make themselves equal_

peeren (A.N.) 11, _to appear_

pees (A.N.) _peace_. preide hem be pees, 405, _prayed them to be quiet_

peire (A.N.) _a pair_

peiren (A.N.) 50, _to diminish, injure_. _see_ apeiren

peis (A.N.) 91, _weight_

peisen (A.N.) 90, _to weigh_

pelure (A.N.) 420, _fur_

pens (A.S.) _pence_

peraunter (A.N.) 202, _peradventure, by chance_

percell, _pl._ parcelles (A.N.) 177, 220, 349, _a parcel, part_

percel-mele (A.N.) 48, _piecemeal_

percile (A.N.) 134, _parsley_

pere (A.N.) 139, _a peer, an equal_

perfourne (A.N.) 251, _to finish, complete, to furnish_

perillousli (A.N.) _dangerously, rudely_

y-perissed (A.N.) 359, _perished, destroyed_

perree (A.N.) 173, _precious stones, jewellery_

persaunt (A.N.) 24, _piercing_

person (A.N.) 441, _a parson_. personage, _a parsonage_

pertliche (A.N.) 78, _openly_

pese (A.N.) _pease_

petit (A.N.) _little_

picche (A.S.) 123, _to pick_

pie (A.N.) 150, _a magpie_

pik (A.S.) _a pike_

pikstaf (A.S.) 123, _a pike-staff_

piken (A.S.) _to pick_

pyke-harneys (A.N.) 440, _plunderers_

pykoise (A.N.) 61, _a hoe_

pil, pyl, _pl._ piles (A.S.) 331, 332, 417, _a pile_

+pilche (A.S.) 465, _a coat of hair or some rude material_. We find the
word used by Lydgate, ed. Halliwell, p. 154:--

  Houndys for favour wyl nat spare,
  To pynche his _pylche_ with greet noyse and soun.

And in Caxton's Reynard the Foxe, cap. v, Reynard having turned hermit,
bare "his slayvne and _pylche_, and an heren sherte therunder."

+pild (A.N.) 500, _bald_

pilen (A.N.) 422, _to rob_

pilour (A.N.) 371, 420, _a thief_

+pylion (A.S. ?) 500, _a kind of cap_

pyne (A.N.) peyne, _pl._ peynes, _pain, punishment_

pyne, 78. _See_ wynen

pynynge-stoole (A.S.) 47, literally, _a stool of punishment, a

pynne (A.S.) 442, _to bolt_

piones (A.N.) 95, _the seed of the piony_, which was used as a spice. In
the Coventry Mysteries (ed. Halliwell, p. 22) we find the word joined, as
here, with pepper:--

  Here is pepyr, _pyan_, and swete lycorys,
  Take hem alle at thi lykying

pyries (A.N.) 78, _pear-trees_

pisseris (A.N.) 438 (?)

pistle (A.N.) _an epistle_

pitously (A.N.) _piteously, for the sake of pity_

pleyen (A.S.) _to play_. _pret. s._ pleide, _pl._ pleiden

pleyn (A.N.) _full_

pleyne (A.N.) 53, _to commiserate, to complain, make a complaint_

plener (A.N.) 209, 336, _full, fully_

pleten (A.N.) _to plead_. _pret. pl._ pleteden, 140

platten (A.N.) _to fall or throw down flat_. _pret. s._ platte, 81

plot (A.N.) 263, _pl._ plottes, 265, _a patch_

plow-foot (A.S.) 123, _a part of a plough_

po (A.S.) 243, _a peacock_

+poynttyl (A.N.) 462, the signification of this word appears to be the
_square tiles_ used for paving floors. See Warton's Hist. of Engl. Poetry,
ii, 99

poke (A.S.) 150, 259, 275, 288, _a sack_

poken (A.N.) _to urge, push forwards, poke, thrust_

pol, 205, polle (A.S.) 261, 430, _a head, poll_

polshen (A.N.) 105, _to polish_

pondfold (A.S.) 346, _the pinfold or pound_

poraille (A.N.) _the poor people_

poret (A.N.) _pl._ porettes, 134, 135, _a kind of leek_

porthors (A.N.) 302, _a breviary_, (_portiforium_, Lat.)

pose (A.N.) 365, _to place, put as a supposition_

possen (A.N.) _to push_

potente (A.N.) 156, _a club, staff_

pouke (A.S.) 256, 285, 333, 346, _the devil_

Poul (A.N.) _St. Paul_

pounde-mele (A.S.) 41, _by the pound_

pous (A.N.) 352, _the pulse_

poustee (A.N.) 79, 228, _power, strength_

povere (A.N.) _poor_

+povert (A.N.) 496, _poverty_

+powghe, terre powghe, 487, _a torn sack or poke_ (?) The imperfect
glossary appended to the old printed edition of the "Creed" explains it by
_tar box_

prayen (A.N.) 430, _to make prey of, plunder_

preessen (A.N.) 286, _to hasten, crowd_

preyen, preye (A.N.) _to pray_. _pret. s._ preide, preyde

preiere (A.N.) _prayer_

preynte (A.N. ?) 253 (?)

preise (A.N.) 97, _to appraise, value_

+prese (A.N.) 495, _to hasten_. _pret. s._ presed, 460

prest (A.N.) 287, _ready_. prester, 191, _more ready_. presteste, 110,
_readiest, quickest_. prestly, _readily_

preven, preve (A.N.) _to prove_

prikye (A.S.) 369, _to ride over, ride, spur_. _pret. s._ prikede, 368,
_part. past_, y-priked, 430

prikere (A.S.) 159, 191, prikiere, 370, _a rider_

pris (A.N.) 411, _prize, value_

prison (A.N.) 140, 315, 372, _a prisoner_

pryvee (A.N.) _private, intimate, confidential_

provisour (A.N.) 38, 73, _a purveyor, provider_

prowor (A.N.) 411, _a priest_

puffed (A.S.) 78, _blown_

+pulchen (A.N.) _to polish_. _part. past_, pulched, 458, pulchud, 460,

pulette (A.N.) _a chicken_

punysshen (A.N.) 407, _to punish_

pure (A.N.) _pure, simple, unmixed_. pure (_adv._) 213, _purely, simply_.
purely for-do, 262, _altogether destroyed or undone_. +puriche (A.N.) 467,
_purely_: perhaps it should be _purliche_

purfill, purfil (A.N.) 72, 78, _embroidery, tinsel_

purfilen (A.N.) 28, _to embroider_

put (A.S.) 195, 284, _pl._ puttes, _a pit, cave_

putten, puten (A.S.) 400, _to put, place_. _pres. s._ putte, _pl._ putten.
_pres. s._ and _pl._ putte, 68, 110, 372. _part. past_, y-put, 290


quatron (A.N.) 90, _a quartern_

quave (A.N.) _to shake, tremble_. _pret. s._ quaved, 373

queed (A.S.) 285, _the evil one, the devil_

queste-mongere (A.N. and A.S.) _one who made a business of conducting

queynt (A.S.) 390, _quenched, destroyed_

queyntely (A.N.) 416, _quaintly, cunningly_

queyntise (A.N.) 385, 417, _cunning_

quellen (A.S.) _to kill_. _part. past_, quelt, 337, _killed_

+quenes (A.S.) 456, _women_. The word is used in the modern sense of the
word _wench_

quyk (A.S.) 384, 399, _live, alive_

quykne (A.S.) 390, _to give life to, bring to life_. _pret. s._ I quikne

quite, quyte (A.N.) 389, 390, _to quit, pay off_. _part. past_, quit, 390

quod (A.S.) _quoth, says_


radegunde (A.S. ?) 430, _a disease, apparently a sort of boil_

rageman (A.N.) 5, 335, _a catalogue, list_

ray (A.N.) 89, _a ray, streak_

+raken (A.S.) 455, _to go raking about_

rakiere (A.S.) 96, _one who goes raking about_

rape (A.S.) 97, _haste_

rapen (A.S.) 65, 101, 124, _to prepare_. _pret. s._ raped, 352

rapeliche (A.S.) 347, rapely, 351, _readily, quickly_. rapelier, 352, _more

rappen (A.S.) 20, _to strike, rap_

rather, 155, _earlier_

rathe (A.S.) _early_. rathest, _earliest, first, soonest, most readily_

raton (A.N.) _a rat_

ratoner (A.N.) 96, _a rat-catcher_

raunsone (A.N.) 390, _ransom_

rave (A.S.) 380, _to rave_. ravestow, 380, _dost thou rave_

ravysshen (A.N.) 399, _to ravage, rob, plunder, ravish_

raxen (A.S.) 100, _to hawk, spit_

reaume, reme (A.N.) _pl._ remes, reames, _a realm_

recche (A.S.) 67, 204, _to reck, care for_. _pret. s._ roughte, 369

recchelees (A.S.) 369, _reckless_

rechen (A.S.) 359, _to reach_. _pret. s._ raughte, 5, 76, 153, 335, 369

recoverer (A.N.) 352, _a remedy_ (?)

recrayed (A.N.) 58, _recreant_ (?)

rede (A.S.) _red_

rede (A.S.) _to read_

reden (A.S.) _to advise, counsel_. _pret. s._ redde, 106, _pl._ radde, 71,
84. _imperat._ reed, 72

redel (A.S.) 257, _a riddle_

+redelich (A.S.) 498, _readily, promptly_

redyng-kyng, 96, _a class of feudal retainers_. _See_ Spelman's Gloss. in
v. _rodknightes_

reed (A.S.) _counsel, advice_

regne (A.N.) _to reign_. _pret. s._ regnede, 399, _reigned_

regratier, regrater (A.N.) 48, 90, _a retailer of wares and victuals_

regratrie (A.N.) 48, _retailing, selling by retail_

reyn (A.S.) _rain_

reckenen (A.S.) _to reckon, count_

relessen (A.N.) 46, _to forgive_

releve (A.N.) 377, _to raise again, restore, rally_

religious (A.N.) _pl._ religiouses 192, _a monk_

renable (A.N.) 10, _reasonable_

renden (A.S.) 13, _to rend, tear_. _imperat._ rende, 76

reneye (A.N.) 210, _to deny, be a renegade to_. _part. pas._ reneyed, 210,

renk (A.S.) 12, 101, 149, 231, 238, 280, 369, 385, _a man_

rennen, renne (A.S.) 353, _to run_. _imperative_, ren thow, 230. _pret. s._
ran, roon, 277, yarn, 205 (? y-arn). _part. past_, ronne, 156

renner (A.S.) 72, _a runner_

renten (A.N.) 140, _to give rents to_

+rentful (A.S.) 476, _meagre, miserable_ (?)

repen (A.S.) _to reap_. _pret. pl._ ropen, 268

repreven (A.N.) 236, _to reprove, blame_

rerages (A.N.) 91, _arrears_

retenaunce (A.N.) 31, _a retinue_

reve (A.S.) 34, 102, 411, 423, _an overseer, a reeve, steward, or bailiff_

reve (A.S.) 335, 385, _to take from_

revere, _pl._ reveris (A.S.) _reavers, people who deprive by force_

reward (A.N.) 364, _attention, warning_

+rewel (A.S.) 473, _rule_

rewen (A.S.) _to rue, to have mercy_

rewme (A.N.) 430, _a rheumatism, cold_

ribaud (A.N.) 108, 286, 339, 372, _a profligate low man_. The word belonged
properly to a particular class in society. See a detailed account of its
derivation and signification in a note in my Political Songs, p. 369

ribaudie (A.N.) _low profligate talk_

ribaudour (A.N.) 121, _a teller of low tales_

ribibour (A.N.) 96, _a player on_ _the ribibe_ (a musical instrument)

riche, ryche (A.S.) _a kingdom_. hevene riche blisse, _the joy of the
kingdom of heaven_

richen (A.N.) _to become rich_

riden, ryde (A.S.) _to ride_. _pres. s._ ryt, _pl._ riden. _pret. s._ rood,

rightwisnesse (A.S.) 393, _righteousness_

ringen (A.S.) _to ring_. _pret. pl._ rongen, 395, 428

ripe (A.S.) 415, _to ripen_

ripe (A.S.) 100, _ready_

rise, ryse (A.S.) 352, _to rise_. _pret. s._ roos, 91, 344

risshe (A.S.) 75, _a rush_ (_juncus_)

rody (A.S.) _ruddy, red_

roggen (A.S.) _to shake_ (explained in the Prompt. Parv. by _agito_.)
_pret. s._ rogged, 335

roynous (A.N.) 430, _scabby, rough_

rolle (A.N.) 93, _to enrol_

rome (A.S.) 209, 210, 328, _to roam_

romere (A.S.) _pl._ romeris, _a person who wanders or roams about_

ronges (A.S.) 333, _the steps of a ladder_

roost (A.N.) 14, _roast_

+rote (A.N.) _practice_. by rote, _by heart_. be pure rote, 473, _merely by

roten (A.S.) _to rot_

rotey tyme (A.N.) 222, _the time of rut_

+rotheren (A.S.) 476, _oxen_

rounen, rownen (A.S.) 66, 97, _to whisper, talk privately_

routhe (A.S.) _ruth, compassion_

rowen (A.S.) _to become red, as the dawn of day_ (?). _pret. s._ rowed, 376

rufulliche (A.S.) _ruefully_

rugge (A.S.) 286, 413, _the back_. rugge-bone (A.S.) 98, _the back-bone_

rulen (A.N.) 393, _to rule, govern_

rusty (A.S.) 121, _filthy_ (?). In the Coventry Mysteries, p. 47, Ham's
wife says, "rustynes of synne is cawse of these wawys;" i. e. _filthiness
of sin is the cause of these waves_

ruthe (A.S.) _compassion_

rutten (A.S. ?) 100, _to snore_. _pret. s._ rutte, 369

ruwet (A.S. ?) 98, _a small trumpet_


saaf (A.N.) _safe_

sadde (A.S.) 188, _to make serious, steady_

sadde (A.S.) 152, _serious, grave, steady_

sadder (A.S.) 77, _sounder_

safly (A.N.) _safely_

saille (A.N.) 260, _to leap_

salve (A.N.) 337, _to apply salves_

samplarie (A.N.) 234, _type, first copy_

saufté (A.N.) _safety_

saughtne (A.S.) 65, _to be pacified, reconciled_

saulee (A.N.) 331 (?)

saunz (A.N.) _without_

saute (A.N.) 260, _to jump_

sauter (A.N.) _the Psalter_

savoren (A.N.) 157, _to savour_

savour (A.N.) 147, _knowledge_

sawe (A.S.) 147, 165, 378, _pl._ sawes, 174, _a saying, legend, proverb_

scathe (A.S.) 46, 70, 71, 298, _injury, hurt_

scryveynes (A.N.) 193, _writers_

+se (A.N.) 483, _seat_

secte (A.N.) 106, 107, 216, _a suit_

see (A.S.) _the sea_

seel (A.S.) 348, _pl._ seles, _a seal_

seem (A.S.) 45, 67, _a seam_ (of wheat), a measure of eight bushels,
originally as much as a horse could carry

sege (A.N.) 443, _siege_

+seget (A.N.) 489, _subject_

segge (A.S.) 46, 78, 84, 100, 216, 341, 443, 445, _a man_

seyen, 290, seye, seyn, seggen, 53, 264, sigge, 208, 302, siggen, 264, 312,
318, 350 (A.S.) _to say_. _pres. s._ I seye, he seith, thei siggen, 320.
_pret. s._ seide, _pl._ seiden

seillynge (A.S.) 387, _sailing_

seynen (A.N.) _to sign_. _pret. s._ seyned, 104

seint (A.N.) _a saint_

seken, seche (A.S.) _to seek_; 273, _to penetrate_. _pret. s. & pl._
soughte. _part. pas._ y-sought

selde (A.S.) _seldom_. selden, 365

selen (A.S.) _to seal_

self (A.S.) _objec. s._ selve, _pl._ selves _self-same_. on the selve
roode, 427, _on the cross itself_

+sely (A.S.) 477, _simple, poor_

selkouth (A.S.) _pl._ selkouthe _wonderful, strange_

selles (A.N.) _cells_

semen (A.S.) 328, _to seem, appear, resemble_. +I semed, 460, _I looked_

semynge (A.S.) 318, _resembling_

semy-vif (A.N.) 351, _half alive_, i. e. _half dead_

sen, 25, see, 32 (A.S.) _to see_. _pres. sing._ thow sest, 15. he seeth,
_pl._ we seen. _pret. sing._ seigh, 77, 147, 200, 247, seyghe, 82, saugh,
29, 77, 347, 376, 437, _pl._ seighe. _part. pas._ y-seyen, seyen, 216, 308,
349, seene, y-seighen, 77, seighen, 177, y-seighe, 365

senden (A.S.) _to send_. _pret. s._ sent, 421, _pl._ senten

serelopes (A.S.) 358, _severally, by themselves_

serk (A.S.) 81, _a shift, shirt_

serven (A.N.) _to serve_

setten (A.S.) _to set_. _pret. s. & pl._ sette. _part. past_, seten, 248

sewen (A.S.) _to follow_. _see_ suwen

shaar (A.S.) 61, _the blade or share of a plough_

+shaf (A.S.) 490, _chaff_

shaft (A.S.) 161, 225, _make, creation_

shaken (A.S.) _to shake_. _pret. s._ shook, 268

shallen (A.S.) _the auxiliary verb. sing._ I shal, 15. thow shalt, _pl._ ye
shul, 14, shulle, 25, thei shulle, 22--sholde, sholdest, _pl._ sholden,

shapen, shape (A.S.) _to make, create, shape_. _pret. s._ shoop, 1, 163,
197, 225, 443, shapte, 361, 433, for-shapte, 365. _pl._ shopen. _part.
past_, mys-shapen, 144, shapen, 280

shappere (A.S.) 358, _a maker, creator_

sharpe (A.S.) 443, _pungent_

sheep (A.S.) 1, _a sheep, or a shepherd_

sheltrom (A.S.) 278, _a host, troop of soldiers_

shenden (A.S.) _to ruin, destroy_. _pret. s._ shente, 365. _part. pas._

shene (A.S.) 394, _bright_

shenfulliche (A.S.) 59, _shamefully, disastrously_

shepstere (A.S.) 265, _a sheep-shearer_ (?)

shere (A.S.) _a shear_

sherreve (A.S.) 31, 51, _a shire-reeve_, or _sheriff_

sherewe, shrewe (A.S.) _a shrew; a cursed one_

shrewednesse (A.S.) _cursedness_

sheten (A.S.) _to shoot_. _pret. pl._ shotten, 438

shetten, shette (A.S.) _to shut_. _pret. s._ shette

shide (A.S.) 167, 197, _a thin board, a billet of wood_

shiften (A.S.) _to move away_. _pret. s._ shifte 435

shyngled (A.S.) 168, _made of planks or boards_

shonyen (A.S.) 87, _to shun_

+shosen (    ) 491 qu. for chosen, i. e. _dispose, incline to_

shrape (A.S.) 84, _to scrape_

shryve (A.S.) 441, _to shrive, make confession_. _pret. s._ shrof, 45, 198.
_part. pas._ y-shryve, 82, shryven, 273

shrift (A.S.) _confession_

shroudes (A.S.) _clothes_

sib, sibbe (A.S.) _relation, companion_. Gossip is God-sib, _companion or
fellow in God_, and was originally applied to the attendants at a

sidder (A.S.) 88, _wider_

sike (A.S.) 355, _sick_

siken (A.S.) _to sigh_. _pret. s._ siked, 293, sikede, 385

siker, syker (A.S.) _sure, secure_. sikerer, 237, _more secure, more sure_

syn (A.S.) 444, _since_

syngen, synge (A.S.) 408, _to sing_. _pret. s._ songe, I song, 408. _pl._
songen, 369, 388, 405

sinken (A.S.) _to sink_. _pret. s._ sank, 373. _pl._ sonken, 278

sisour (A.N.) 31, 32, 38, 51, 75, 434, _a person deputed to hold assizes_.
_See_ Ducange in v. _assisarii_

sith (A.S.) _since_. sithen, _since, afterwards_. sithenes, 121,
_afterwards_. siththe (_adv._) _since afterwards_

sithe (A.S.) 102, _time_

sitten, sitte (A.S.) _to sit_. _pret. s._ thow sete, 386. I seet, 437. sat,
_pl._ seten, 109

skile (A.S.) 202, 240, 290, 359, 367, 412, _reason, argument_

+slaughte (    ) 456 (?)

sleighte (A.S.) 379, 401, _a trick, slight_

sleen (A.S.) _to slay_. _pres._ sleeth. 364, 421. _pret. s._ slow, 434

slepen (A.S.) _to sleep_. _pret. s._ sleep, 99, 100, I slepte, 247. _pl._
slepe, 277

slepying (A.S.) _asleep_

sleple (A.S.) 155, _to sleep gently_

sleuthe (A.S.) _sloth, idleness_

sliken (A.S.) 34, _to make sleek, smooth_

slombren (A.S.) _to slumber_. _pret. s._ slombred, 1

smal (A.S.) _pl._ smale, _small_

smecen (A.S.) _to taste, smack_. _pret. pl._ smaughte, 98

smythyen (A.S.) 61, 62, _to do the work of a smith, to forge_

so (A.S.) _so, as_. so soone so, 352, _as soon as_

soden (A.S.) 312, _to boil_. _part. pas._ y-soden, 321

sodenes (A.N.) 303, _sub-deans_

softe (A.S.) 1, _warm_ (like the Fr. _doux_)

sokene (A.S.) 34, _a district held by tenure of socage_

solas (A.N.) _comfort, solace_

soleyn (A.N.) 240, _one left alone_

solne (A.N.) 102, _to sing by note_

som (A.S.) _pl._ somme, _some_

somone (A.N.) 37, sompne, 62, 209, 408, _to summon_

somonour (A.N.) 31, 51, 75, _a somner_, an officer employed to summon
delinquents to appear in ecclesiastical courts, now called _an apparitor_

sonde (A.S.) _mission, sending_

sone (A.S.) _a son_

songewarie (A.N.) 147, 148, _the interpreting of dreams_

sonne (A.S.) _the sun_

sooth (A.S.) _truth_

soothnesse, sothnesse (A.S.) _truth_

sope (A.S.) 254, _a sop_

sope (A.S.) 273, _soap_

soper (A.N.) _supper_

sorwe (A.S.) _sorrow_

sorweful (A.S.) 353, _sorrowful_

soth (A.S.) _true_

sothe (A.S.) _truth_

sotile (A.N.) 184, 186, _to apply one's cunning or penetration_

sotil (A.N.) _pl._ sotile, 294, 297, 319, 372, _clever, cunning, subtile,
difficult to conceive or understand_

sotte (A.N.) _a fool_

souke (A.N.) 209, _to suck_

souter (A.S.) 101, 201, _a shoemaker_. +soutere, 494

souteresse (A.S.) 96, _a female shoemaker_

southdene (A.N.) _a subdean_

sowen (A.S.) 274, _to sow_. _pret. s._ sew, 268, 412, _pl._ sewe, 317.
_part. pas._ y-sowen, 416

spakliche (A.S.) 353, _hastily_ (?)

spede (A.S.) 353, _to haste, to speed_. _pret. s._ spedde, 353

speken, speke (A.S.) _to speak_. _pret. s._ spak

spelonke (LAT.) 311, _a cavern_

spences (A.N.) 285, _expense_

spillen (A.S.) (trans.) _to mix, spill, spoil, waste_, 414 (_intransitive_)
_to perish_, 303. _part. pas._ y-spilt

spire (A.S.) 348, _to look closely into, to inquire_

spores (A.S.) 370, _spurs_

spring (A.S.) 79, _a sprig, rod_

springen (A.S.) _to spring_. _pret. s._ sprong, 277, spronge, 404

stablisse (A.N.) 22, _to establish_

+stappyng (A.S.) 489, _stepping_

stede (A.S.) _pl._ stedes, _a place_

steere (A.S.) 153, _the helm of a ship_

steyen (A.S.) _to arise, mount_. +_pret. s._ steigh, 498, _arose_

stekie (A.S.) 22, _to stick fast_

stele (A.S.), 412, _a handle_

stelen (A.S.) _to steal_. _pret. s._ stale, 268. _pl._ stolen, 405

sterre, _pl._ sterne, 310 (A.S.) _a star_

+styghtle (A.S.) 469, _to establish, confirm_. Explained in the glossary
appended to the old edition by _to stay_

+stylle (A.S.) 473, _quietly, with a low voice_

+y-stongen (A.S.) 483, _stabbed, pierced_

stinken (A.S.) _to stink_. _pret. s._ stank, 328. +styncand, 489,

stynten (A.S.) 22, 186, _to stop_

stonden, stonde, stande, 354 (A.S.) _to stand_. he stondeth, it stant, 325,
he stant, 372, thei stonden. _pret. s._ stood, 204, 247

stoon (A.S.) 328, _a stone_

stotte (A.S.) 411, _an ox of three years old_

stounde (A.S.) 155, _a short space of time_

stoupe (A.S.) 204, _to bend, stoop_. Chaucer, in the first line of the
Nonne Preestes Tale, speaks of,--"A pore wydow somdel _stoupe_ in age."

+straken (A.S.) 456, _to proceed directly_

+stre (A.S.) 496, _straw_

streyte (A.S.) _straitly, narrowly_

streyves (A.N.) 6, _estreys, beasts which have strayed_, a law-term

striken (A.S.) _to strike_. _pret. s._ strook

struyen (A.N.) 328, _to destroy_. _pret._ struyede

stuwe (A.N.) 121, _a house of ill fame, a stew_. +stues, 488, _stews,

+sueres (A.S.) 459, _followers_

suffren (A.N.) _to suffer_

sulen (A.N.) _to soil_. +_part. pas._ y-suled, 495, _soiled_

suren (A.N.) _to assure_

surgenrie (A.N.) 336, _surgery_

surquidous (A.N.) 416, _overbearing, arrogant, conceited_

suster (A.S.) _pl._ sustren, _a sister_

suwen, sewe (A.S.) 203, 454 _to follow_. _pret. s. and pl._ suwed, 353,
suwede, 380. _part. p._ suwed, 110, sued, 155

swelte (A.S.) 86, _to die, to perish_. _pret. s._ swelted, 431

swerd (A.S.) _a sword_

sweren, swerye, 275 (A.S.) _to swear_. _pret. s._ swoor, 434, swor, 269.
_part. pas._ sworen, 328, swore

swetter (A.S.) _sweeter_

swevene (A.S.) _a dream_

sweyen (A.S.) _to sound_. _pret. s._ sweyed, 1

swich (A.S.) 385, _pl._ swiche, _such_

swynken (A.S.) _to labour_. _pret. pl._ swonken, 2.

swynk (A.S.) _labour, work_

swithe (A.S.) _very, immediately, quickly_

swowe (A.S.) 86, _to faint, to swoon_


tabard (A.N.) 88, _a short coat or mantle_. "Tabbard, _collobium_." Promp.
Parv. One of the stage directions in the Coventry Mysteries (p. 244) is:--

    Here xal Annas shewyn hymself in his stage, be seyn after a busshop of
    the hoold lawe, in a skarlet gowne, and over that _a blew tabbard_
    furryd with whyte.

tacches (A.N.) 168, _stains, blemishes_

taillé (A.N.) 68, _a tally, notched stick; an account scored on a piece of
wood_. _See_ note

tailen (A.N.) _to keep an account by notches on a stick, to give a tally
for a thing_. _part. a._ tailende, 156. _part. pas._ y-tailed, 102

taken (A.S.) _to take_. _pres. s._ took, _pl._ token, toke, 398. _part.
pas._ taken

taken, take (A.S.) _to give_. _pret. s._ took, 328, _pl._ toke, token, 383

tale (A.S.) _an account, reckoning_

tale-wis (A.S.) 51, _wise in tales_

tasele (A.S.) 322, _a teasel_. The burs of this plant are used in the
manufacture of cloth

tasten (A.N.) 266, 374, _to feel_. _pret. s._ tastede, 357

techen (A.S.) _to teach_. _pret. s._ taughte, 19, taghte, 135. _part. pas._
taught, 186, y-taught, 436

tellen, telle (A.S.) _to count, tell_, 405. _pret. s._ tolde. _pl._ tolden

teme, teeme (A.S.) 118, 125, 138, 411, 412, _a team of horses_

teme (A.N.) 48, 80, 147, 209, _a theme_

tenten (A.N.) _to offer, present, to hold out, stretch forth_. _pret. pl._
tendeden, 383

tenen, tene (A.S.) 256, 320, _to injure_. _pret. s._ tened, 432

tene (A.S.) 124, 125, 145, 209, 335, _anger, hurt_

teneful (A.S.) _injurious_

termes (A.N.) 242, _terms, times for their work_

teynten (A.N.) _to die, tint_. _part. past_, y-teynted, 322

y-termyned (A.N.) 20, _judged, determined_

thanne (A.S.) _then_

thecche (A.S.) 410, _to thatch_

theen (A.S.) _to thrive, be prosperous_. so thee ik! 90, _as I may

thef, theef (A.S.) _pl._ theves, 239, 353, 373, _a thief_. thefliche, 389,

theigh (A.S.) _though_

thenke, thynke (A.S.) 211, 228, _to think_. _pres. s._ he thenketh, 407

ther (A.S.) _there, where_. therafter, 90, _in proportion to it_. thermyd,

thesternesse (A.S.) 340, _darkness_

thynke (A.S.) 384, _to seem_. _pres. sing._ I thynke, me thynketh (_it
seems to me_). _pret. s._ thoghte, 1, 205, thoughte, 404

thirlen (A.S.) _to pierce, bore through_

thise (A.S.) _these_

tho (A.S.) _those, the_

tho (A.S.) _then, when_

tholien (A.S.) 70, thole, 392, _to bear, support, suffer_. _pret. s._
tholede, 251, 384, tholed, 377. _pl._ tholed, 373

thonkyng (A.S.) _thanking, thanks_

thorugh (A.S.) _through_

thow (A.S.) The second personal pronoun is in interrogative clauses
generally combined with its verb, as sestow, _seest thou_; slepestow,
_sleepest thou_, &c.

thral (A.S.) _pl._ thralles, 398, _a bond-man_

threve (A.S.) 333, _a bundle_

thridde (A.S.) 413, _third_

thringen (A.S.) _to crowd, to throng, to press forward_. _pret. pl._
thrungen, 108

tyd, tid (A.S.) 265, 334, _quickly, promptly, readily_

tidy (A.S.) 422, _clever, ready, neat_

tyen (A.S.) _to tie_

+y-tight, 461, _furnished, provided_

tikes (A.S.) 398, _low people_; literally, _dogs_. The word is still used
in Yorkshire

til (A.S.) 305, _to_

tilien, tilie, tilye (A.S.) 131, 138, 375, 410, _to till the earth_.
+_part. pas._ tylde, 461

tilthe (A.S.) 421, _tilth, the result or produce of tilling or ploughing_

tymbre (A.S.) 223, _to build_. _pret._ tymbred, 48

+tymen (A.S.) 494, _to compel_ (?) It appears to be the same word which
occurs in the alliterative poem on the Deposition of Richard II, p. 17:--

  Thus lafte they the leder
  That hem wrong ladde,
  And _tymed_ no twynte,
  But tolled her cornes,
  And gaderid the grotus
  With gyle, as I trowe.

tynen, tyne (A.S.) 416, _to lose_. _part. pas._ tynt, 377

titeleris (A.S. ?) 442, _tattlers_

tithe (A.S.) _tenth, tithe_

tixte (A.N.) 348, _text_

to (A.S.) _too_

to-, prefixed in composition to verbs of Anglo-Saxon origin, has the same
force as the German _zu-_, giving to the word the idea of destruction or

to-bollen (A.S.) 82, _to overswell_

to-breken (A.S.) 156, _to break to pieces, break down_. _part. pas._
to-broke, 139

to-cleve (A.S.) 236, _to cleave in pieces, cut open_

to-drawen (A.S.) _to draw to pieces_, or _to destruction_. _pret._
to-drowe, 175

to-luggen (A.S.) 41, _to lug about, tear_

to-rende (A.S.) 180, _to be torn or burst to pieces_

to-shullen (A.S.) _to cut off, destroy_. _part. pas._ to-shullen, 359

toft (A.S.) _an open exposed place, a hill_

to-fore (A.S.) _before_. to-forn 235, _before_

to-gidere, to-gidres, to-gideres (A.S.) _together_

+toylyng (A.S.) 495, _tugging_

tollen (A.S.) 89, _to measure out, count_

tollers (A.S.) _toll-gatherers_

tome (A.S.) 39, _leisure, time_. This form of the word seems to have been
in use in the fourteenth century. It occurs at the commencement of the
Seven Sages:--

  I sal yow tel, if I have _tome_,
  Of the seven ages of Rome.

Its occurrence in Piers Ploughman shows that Weber was not right in
supposing it a mere alteration of the word _time_ for the sake of rhyme.
See also Sir F. Madden's Glossary to Gawayne

tonder (A.S.) 362, _tinder_

+too (A.S.) _pl._ ton, 476, 489, _a toe_

torne (A.N.) 428, _to turn_. _pret. s._ tornede, 321, torned, 265, _turned_

torne, 325, turne, 324 (A.S.) _to turn_ (intransitive)

toten (A.S.) 331, 459, 461, _to look, observe, to peep_. _pret. s._ toted,
471. _pl._ toteden, 476. _part. past_, y-toted, 464

touken (A.S.) _to dye_. _part. pas._ y-touked, 322

toune, 315, _a tun_. Perhaps it should be printed _tonne_.

tour (A.N.) _a tower_

travaille (A.N.) _to labour_

traversen (A.N.) 245, _to transgress_

treden (A.S.) _to tread_. _pret. pl._ troden, 223. +_pret. s._ tredede,
476, _trod_

tree, 330 (A.S.) _pl._ trowes, 300, _a tree_

tresor (A.N.) _a treasure_

triacle, tryacle (A.N.) _a remedy, a cure_

tricherie (A.N.) _treachery, cunning, trickery_

trie (A.N.) 305, 330, _choice, select_. trieste, 23, _most choice_,
trieliche, _choicely_

+tryfler (A.S.) 479, _a trifler, a deceiver, a good-for-nothing_

+troiflardes (A.S.) 494, _triflers, idlers_

trollen (A.S.) 387, _to draw, to drag_

tronen (A.N.) _to throne_

trowe (A.S.) 358, _to believe, think, suppose_. trowestow, 237, _thinkest

trufle (A.S.) 236, 378, trefle, 471, _a silly tale, trifle,
good-for-nothing thing_ or _person_

trumpen (A.N.) _to sound a trumpet_. _pret. s._ trumpede, 395

tulien (A.S.) _to labour, to till_. _pret. pl._ tulieden, 277. _part. act._
tulying, 277

tweye (A.S.) _two_

twies (A.S.) _twice_

+twynnen (A.S.) 480, _to couple together_


umwhile (A.S.) 97, _once, on a time_

unbuxome (A.S.) _disobedient, inobedient_

underfongen (A.S.) 301, _to undertake, accept, receive_. _pret. s._
underfonged, 209

undernymen (A.S.) 214, _to undertake, take possession of_. _pres. s._
undernymeth, 84. _part. past_, under-nome, 263, 428

under-pight (A.S.) 331, _propped up_

unhardy (A.N.) 254, 354, _not bold_

un-hiled (A.S.) 367, _uncovered, unroofed_

unjoynen (A.N.) 384, _to disjoin, separate_

unkynde (A.S.) _unnatural_

unkouthe (A.S.) 148, _unknown, strange, foreign_

unlosen (A.S.) 356, _to unloose_

unlouken (A.S.) 380, 384, 385, 388, _to unlock_

unnethe (A.S.) _scarcely_

unpynne (A.S.) 385, _to unbolt_

unsperen (A.S.) 374, 385, _to open, undo, unbolt_

+un-teyned (A.S.) 481, _unfastened (?)_

unthende (A.S.) 87, _unserved, without sauce_

untidy (A.S.) 432, _slovenly, not clever_

until (A.S.) _to_

unwittily (A.S.) 49, _unwisely, unreasonably_

up (A.S.) _upon_. up so doun, 428, _upside down_

usen (A.S.) _to use_


vaunt-warde (A.N.) 430, _the avant-guard, the van_

veille (A.N.) 104, _an old woman_

vendage (A.N.) 391, _vintage, harvest_

venymousté (A.N.) 378, _the property of being poisonous or venomous_

venym (A.N.) 326, _poison_

vernycle (A.N.) 109, "diminutive of _Veronike_. A copy in miniature of the
picture of Christ, which is supposed to have been miraculously imprinted
upon a handkerchief, preserved in the church of St. Peter at Rome. Du
Cange, in v. _Veronica_. Madox, Form. Angl. p. 428. Testam. Joh. de Nevill,
an. 1386. Item Domino archiepiscopo Ebor. fratri meo. i. vestimentum rubeum
de velvet cum _le Veronike_ in granis rosarum desuper broudata. It was
usual for persons returning from pilgrimages to bring with them certain
tokens of the several places which they had visited; and therefore the
Pardoner [in Chaucer], who is just arrived from Rome, is represented with
_a vernicle sewed upon his cappe_."--TYRWHITT.

verrey (A.N.) 365, verrey, 405, _true_

verset (A.N.) 239, _a little verse_

viker (A.N.) 424, _a vicar_

vicory (A.N.) 420, _a vicar_


waast (A.N.) 10, _a waste, wilderness_

wafrestere (A.S.) 115, _a maker of wafers for the priests, to be
consecrated and administered at the sacrament_

wage, wagen (A.N.) 440, _to hire, to wage, pay wages, remunerate_

wage (A.N.) 71, _to be pledge for, to warrant_

waggen (A.S.) 332, _to shake_. _pret. s._ waggede, 335, 373, 408

wayte, waiten (A.S.) 89, 147, 157, 260, 269, _to watch, look about, wait_.
_pret. s._ waitede, 266. _pl._ waiteden, 345

waitynges (A.S.) 33, _watchings, lookings_

walkne (A.S.) 316, _air, sky, welkin_. wolkne, 357, 383

walnote (A.S.) _a wallnut_

wayven (A.N.) 113, 435, 482, 491, _to waive_

waken (A.S.) _to awake_. _pret. pl._ woken, 277, woke, 405, _awoke_

wanhope (A.S.) 34, 94, 140, 238, 366, _despair, hopelessness_

wanye (A.S.) 141, 153, _to fade, wane_. _pret. s._ wanyed, 294

war (A.S.) _ware, aware_. y-war, 17

warde (A.N.) 388, _a keeper_

wardemotes (A.N.) 6, _meetings of the ward_

wareyne (A.N.) 10, _a warren_

warisshen (A.N.) 336, _to cure_

warlawes (A.S.) 497, _wizards, sorcerers, warlocks_. See Jamieson, on this
latter word

warner (A.N.) 96, _a warrener, keeper of a warren_

warpen (A.S.) _to utter, cast_. _pret. s._ warpe, 82, 99

warroken (A.S.) 66, _to girt_

waselen (A.S.) _to become dirty, dirty one's self_. +_pret. s._ waselede,

wasshe (A.S.) 248, _to wash_. _pret. s._ I wessh, 344, wasshed, 352, _pl._
wesshen, 247. _part. pas._ y-wasshen, 167, whasshen, 272, wasshen, 392

wastel (A.N.) 94, _a cake, fine bread_

watlen (A.S.) _to cover with hurdles, to wattle_. _pret. s._ watlede, 415

wawe (A.S.) 153, _a wave_

webbe (A.S.) 89, _a weaver_

webbestere (A.S.) _a weaver_. wollen webbesters, 14, _woollen weavers_

wed (A.S.) 91, 346, _a pledge_

wedden (A.S.) 73, _to lay a wager_

weder (A.S.) _weather_. weder-wise, _weather-wise_

wedes (A.S.) _dress, clothes, apparel_

weer (A.S.) 209, 330, _a doubt, perplexity_

weet (A.S.) _wet_. weet-shoed, 369, _wet-shoed_

weg (A.S.) 426, _a pledge_

wey (A.S.) _a way_

weye (A.S.) 82, _a wey of cheese_

weyen (A.S.) _to weigh_. _part. past_, weyen, 25

weylaway (A.S.) 383, _an exclamation of lamenting under suffering_

weyves (A.S.) 6 (a law term), _animals lost or strayed_

weke (A.S.) 360, 362, _the wick of a candle_

welden (A.S.) 174, 175, 206, _to possess_. _pres. s._ he welt, 178, when he
weldeth, 426

wele (A.S.) 381, _weal, happiness, good fortune_

wellen (A.S.) _to boil, to gush out as water from a spring_. _pret. s._
wellede, 418

welle (A.S.) 296, _a spring_

welthe (A.S.) 88, _a welt_

wem (A.S.) 377, _a flaw, stain_

wenden (A.S.) 306, _to go, to wend_. _pres. pl._ wenden. _imperat._ weend,

wenen (A.S.) 264, 380, _to suppose, imagine, think, believe_. _pret. pl._
wende, 263, _supposed_

wepen (A.S.) _to weep_. _pret. s._ wepte, 374, _pl._ wepten

wepene (A.S.) 170, _membrum virile_

wepne (A.S.) _a weapon_

+werdliche (A.S.) 454, 473, _worldly_

were (A.S.) 322, _to wear_

werken, werche (A.S.) _to work_. _pres. pl._ werchen. _pret. s._ wroghte.
_pl._ wroughte, wroghten. _part. act._ werchynge. _part. pas._ wroughte,
wroght, y-wroght

+werly (A.S.) 491, _worldly_

wernard, wernarde (A.N.) 35, 53, _persons who lay information against
others_ (?)

wernen (A.S.) _to refuse, deny_. _pres. s._ werneth, 425, _refuses_

werre (A.N.) _war_

wers (A.S.) _worse_

+werwolves (A.S.) 478, _people turned into wolves by sorcery_. An ancient
superstition. _See_ note

wesshen (A.S.) _to wash_

weven (A.S.) _to weave_

wex (A.S.) 360, 361, wax

wexen, wexe (A.S.) 141, 209, 293, 401, _to wax, grow_. _pret. s._ weex, 63,
94, 202, 278, 294, 336, 369. _pl._ woxen, 161, 277, 333. _part. pas._
woxen, 177, 403

wexed (A.S.) 98, _washed_ (?)

what! (A.S.) 146, an interjection, _lo!_

whiche (A.S.) which a light, 376, _what light_

+whit (A.S.) 476, _a wight, creature_

whiten (A.S.) _to make white_

+whough (A.S.) 453, _how_. whou, 481

wicche (A.S.) 372, 373, _a witch_

wye (A.S.) 109, 223, 245, 248, 283, 352, 354, 388, 405, _a man_. It is the
Saxon _wig_, and was originally applied to a warrior or hero. I am inclined
to think this may be the origin of our present slang term, _a guy_

wif (A.S.) _in the objective_, wyve, _pl._ wyves, _a woman, wife_

wight (A.S.) 160, _active, brave_. wightly, _actively, bravely, well_.
wyghtliche, 40, _actively_. wightnesse, 410, _activity, cleverness_

wight (A.S.) _a creature, being_

wike (A.S.) _a week_. _pl._ woukes, 336

wikkedlokest (A.S.) 199, _most wickedly_

willen (A.S.) 400, _to will_. _pres. s._ wol, wole, _pl._ wol. _pret. s._
wolde, _pl._ wolde. thow willest, 241

wilne (A.S.) 49, _to will_. _pr. s._ wilneth, 20. _pl._ wilne, 15. _pret.
s._ wilned, 211, 369

wyn (A.S.) 402, _wine_

wynen pyne (A.S.) 78, _the wine pin, or place where wine was sold_ (?)

wynkyng (A.S.) 77, 99, _dozing, slumbering_

wynnen, wynne (A.S.) _to win, gain_. _pret. s._ wan, 123, 231, _pl._
wonnen, 2. _part. pas._ y-wonne, 82, 213, wonne, 410

+wynwe (A.S.) 476, _winnowing_

wis, _pl._ wise (A.S.) _wise_

wisloker (A.S.) 266, _more certainly_

wissen, wisse (A.S.) 399, _to teach_. _pres. sing._ I wisse. _pret. sing._
wissed, 19. _part. act._ wissynge, 205, _teaching_

wissen (A.S.) _to know_. _pret. sing._ wiste, 151, 211, _knew_ _part.
past_, wist, 381

wit (A.S.) _mind, wit, intelligence_

witen, wite (A.S.) 373, 377, _to know_. _pres. s._ he woot, 105, 199.
_pret. s._ woot, 3, 32, 35, 67. to witene, 152, _to know_. witynge, 418,

witen (A.S.) 140, 331, _to hinder, keep_

witen (A.S.) _to blame_. _pret. s._ witte, 17

withdrawen (A.S.) _to withdraw_. _pret. s._ withdrough, 373

withholden (A.S.) _to withold, retain_. _pres. s._ he withhalt, 110

withwynde (A.S.) 108, _crosswise_ (?) as if bound with a withy

witterly (A.S.) _truly_

witty (A.S.) 196, _knowing, wise_

+wlon (A.S.) 494, _the nap of cloth_ (?)

wo (A.S.) _woe_

wodewe (A.S.) 169, _pl._ widwes, _a widow_

woke (A.S.) 315, _to moisten_ (?)

wolleward (A.S.) 369, wolward, 497, _miserable, plagued_

wolves-kynnes (A.S.) 126, _of the nature of wolves_

wombe (A.S.) _the belly_

wombe-cloutes (A.S.) 250, _tripes_

womman, _pl._ wommen (A.S.) _a woman_

wone (A.S.) _a dwelling-place, residence_

woned (A.S.) 306, _accustomed, wont_

wonyen (A.S.) _to dwell_. _pres. s._ wonyeth, 18. _pret. pl._ woneden, 311

woon (A.S.) 435, _plenty, abundance_

+woon (A.S.) _a dwelling_

worden (A.S.) _to discourse, have words together_. _pret. pl._ wordeden,
68. wordynge, 351, _talking, using words, conversing_

worm (A.S.) 222, _a serpent_

worstow, 420, _shalt thou be_. _See_ worthe

wort (A.S.) 135, _a plant, vegetable_

worthe, y-worthe (A.S.) _to be, become_. to late the cat worthe, 12, _to
let the cat be_. worth, 26, 244, 359, _shall be_

wowen (A.S.) 69, _to woo, court_

wower, _pl._ woweris (A.S.) 206, _a wooer_

wowes (A.S.) 46, _walls_

wrathen (A.S.) _to be or become angry, wroth_

wreken (A.S.) _to avenge_. _part. past_, wroken, 39, 437, wroke, 392

wrighte (A.S.) 197, _a workman, artist, maker_

wringen (A.S.) _to wring_. _pret. s._ wrong, 42, 127

writen (A.S.) _to write_. _pret. s._ wroot, 183, 225, 233, 293, 328, 396.
_part. past_, writen, 349

writhen (A.S.) 358, _twisted, clenched_

wrooth (A.S.) _wroth_

wrotherhele (A.S.) 280, _ill fate, ill condition_


As a consonant; for other words beginning with _y_, see under _g_ and _i_

yarken (A.S.) 143, _to make ready, prepare_

ye (A.S.) _yea, yes_

yeden (A.S.) _to go_. _pret. s._ yede. _pl._ yeden, 324, 351, 354

yeepe (A.S.) 203, _active, alert, prompt_

yelde (A.S.) 419, _to yield, pay, give_. _pres. s._ he yelt, 375. _pret.
s._ yald, 239, 240. yeldynge

yeme (A.S.) 349, _heed, attention_

yemen (A.S.) 154, 171, 185, _to rule, guide, govern--to heed, take care of_

yepeliche (A.S.) 306, _promptly_

yerde (A.S.) _a rod, a yard_

yere (A.S.) _pl._ yeer, _a year_. yeres-gyve, 154. yeres-yeves, 49, _a
year's gift_

yerne (A.S.) _to yearn, desire eagerly_

yerne (A.S.) (_adverb_) _eagerly, earnestly, readily_

yerne (A.S.) 306, _to run_. _pret. s._ yarn, 205. _part. act._ ernynge,
418. _See_ rennen

yis (A.S.) _yes_

yit (A.S.) _yet_

ynowe (A.S.) _enough_. ynogh, 382

yvel (A.S.) _evil, wicked_. yvele, 87, _evilly, wickedly_.


       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed text

Lines 9010, 9011. "for cold", "for drye" corrected from "for-cold",

Line 9056 et seq.: Original line numbering preserved, appears to be 1 too

Line 9254 et seq.: Original line numbering preserved, appears to be a
further 2 too low.

Line 10204: printed "10240"

Line 10260 et seq.: Original line numbering preserved, appears to be a
further 1 too low.

Line 13205 "a-fyngred" corrected from "a fyngred".

Line 14038: printed "14083"

Line 14311 "hadde" corrected from "hande".

Creed, line 1238: "In penaunce" corrected from "Ia penaunce".

Notes generally: the abbreviations for Eccliastes and Eccliasticus are
confusing - they are retained as printed. References to Psalms sometimes
use the numbering of the Vulgate, sometimes the Hebrew/Protestant numbering
- these are also retained as printed.

Corrections to the line numbers for the notes: 1735 (corrected from 1734);
2497 (2499); 2881 (2882); 3408 (3407); 4618 (4620); 5433 (5423); 8167
(8164), 8173 (8170), 8180 (8177); 9176 (9177: the next line had incorrect
printed line number 9178), 9178 (9179); 9517 (9510); 10183 (10182); 10322
(10332); 10553 (10523); 11075 (11074); 11300 (11299); 10322 (10332); 10553
(10523); 11075 (11074); 11300 (11299); 12669 (12668); 12943 (12942); 14269
(14265); Creed 913 (911).

Note 1177. "ynowe" corrected from "ynome".

Note 3944 & 3948. "Psalm lxviii, 29" corrected from "Psalm xlviii, 29".

Note 4618. "popularly" corrected from "pupularly".

Note 6022. "Epist. ad Rom. xii, 19.", the only good match and confirmed by
Skeat. The original has "Galat. vi, 2.", which belongs to the note to line

Note 8418. "Luke xxi, 1-4." corrected from "Luke xx, 1-4.".

Note "8572", corrected from "8573".

Note 9766. "Psal. xcvi" corrected from "Psal. cxvi".

Note 10183. "Hadde" from "Hudde".

Note 10404. "looresmen" from "loorsemen" (cf. glossary).

Note 11396. "Matth. xx, 40" corrected from "Matth. v, 40".

Note 11670. "John xii, 32" corrected from "Cant. xii, 32".

Note 12040. "2 Corinth. xii, 9" corrected from "2 Corinth. xii, 19".

Corrected page references in the Glossary: affaiten (deleted 9); apeiren 80
(corrected from 8); arwe 438 (432); brok 119 (199); brotel 153 (133);
cacchen 236 (238); chaffare (merchandise) 85 (84); come: com 400 (401);
comsen: comsynge 382 (384); coveren 238 (228); daggen 433 (483); devors 433
(438); drawen: drogh 437 (487), drow 376 (375); dredfully 352 (252); duc
388 (188); eten 386 (385); fighten: y-foughte 336 (386); foote 354 (314);
for-yelden 133 (184); formest 403 (409); frete (deleted 4); goon: wenten
351 (321); graithen: graythed 494 (491); hastilokest 424 (434); hewen 273
(173); kennen: kenne 20 (621, which is the line number instead of the
page); kyn 359 (659); lakken 262 (260); leet 25 (27); leven (to believe):
leved 393 (392); manlich 92 (62); mees 249 (242); metels 207 (206); meve
228 (288); pil 331 (330); pulchen 460 (46); quellen 537 (337); quyk 384
(334); segge 216 (210); sleen: slow 434 (433); sleep 99 (96); spede: spedde
353 (352); torne: torned 265 (266); treden: tredede 476 (475); undernymen
214 (9); vaunt-warde 430 (409); wage (deleted 171); webbe (deleted 267);
witty 196 (96); writen 349 (249); yvele 87 (7).

Gloss "aspien", corrected from "aspein".

Gloss "avowen". "to make a vow" corrected from "... row".

Gloss "biten". "bitit" corrected from "betit".

Gloss "deitee". "daity" corrected from "deity".

Gloss "fondynge", corrected from "fongynge".

Gloss "liggen". "leyen" corrected from "leven".

Gloss "lomere". "frequently" corrected from "ferquently".

Gloss "sitten". "I seet" corrected from "I sete".

Gloss "speken", corrected from "peken".

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