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Title: Recollections of a Busy Life - Being the Reminiscences of a Liverpool Merchant 1840-1910
Author: Forwood, William B.
Language: English
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[Illustration: _Painted by S. Walters._ _Engraved by R. G. Reeve._









     "_Work for some good, be it ever so slowly;
     Cherish some flower, be it ever so lowly;
     Labour! True labour is noble and holy._"




Many of the following pages were written for private circulation.
Influential friends have, however, urged me to publish them, as they may
appeal to a wider circle of readers. I have consented, with diffidence,
but have availed myself of the opportunity to add some chapters upon
local affairs, which I trust may be of public interest, and recall
pleasing memories of bygone times.

W. B. F.

_December 1st, 1910_.


There are but few men whose lives are worthy to be written for general
publication, but there are many who have accumulated recollections and
experiences which must be interesting and instructive to those of their
own kith and kin, and it is for these I am about to jot down a few
reminiscences of a life which has been largely spent in public work--in
helping to build up the fortunes of a great seaport, in the local
government of an important Municipality, and in the administration of
Justice. Should these pages fall into the hands of friends I am sure
they will be read with kindly and sympathetic feelings, and strangers
will, I hope, accord to them the consideration and indulgence due to a
narrative written only for private publication.

Life is said to be short, but when I look back upon the events which
have crowded into mine I seem to have lived a long time, and one cannot
but reflect that if the prospect had always looked as long as the
retrospect, how much more patience and deliberation might have been
thrown into the ordering of one's affairs, and how entirely this might
have altered the course of events and changed the goal of one's
endeavours. It is perhaps a merciful and wise ordinance that no man can
reckon beyond the day that is before him, and therefore each day should
be so lived as to be typical of our life; for it is the only portion of
time of which we may truly say it is our own, and at our own disposal
for good or for evil.

As each life, therefore, has its ambitions--small or great--its
conquests, its trials, and its failures, so each day has to bear its own
burden of trials and anxieties; and as the daily life is lived, and the
daily task accomplished, so will our life's work be fulfilled; but how
few there are who can look back and say their lives have been a success,
and that they have accomplished all they should or all they might have

A great philosopher and thinker, who passed away only recently, stated,
on the Jubilee of his Professorship, when his contemporaries were saying
that future generations would proclaim him as having accomplished
greater things than Sir Isaac Newton, that "his life had not been a
success, that he had given his time and his mental powers to the
solution of practical problems of everyday life rather than to the
claims of the higher philosophy;" and so, in our more humble spheres
each of us must feel that we have neglected opportunities, and perhaps
the opportunities which we most regret having neglected are those by
which we could have done good to our fellow-men, and not those which
made for the satisfying of our ambition.

There can be no isolation more dreary than the isolation of an old age,
cut off by the lack of training and habit from sympathy with humanity,
alone in its selfishness, untouched by the joy of feeling and caring for
others. But even short of this isolation of a selfish old age, there
must come to all of us a feeling of disappointment that our part in
helping forward the well-being of others has not been larger and more

     "Frail is the web the tired worker weaves
         Left incomplete:
     Fair was life's promise, scanty are its sheaves;
     What are its laurels, but a few sere leaves
         Withering beneath our feet."

I will, however, cease to moralise, and will conclude with this thought
which, I think, forms an appropriate preface to an autobiography.

How much greater would be the sum total of human happiness if men would
accept as their guide the experience of those who had gone before! How
many disasters might be avoided! How many successful careers might be
shaped and built up! But I suppose as long as men are as they are they
will refuse to accept the experience of others, but will make their own,
and through blunders and mistakes a certain proportion will arrive at
success, but a larger proportion will struggle on, on the ragged edge
and under the cold shade of adversity until the end of their days.

W. B. F.

_January 21st, 1910_.


CHAPTER I.--EARLY YEARS                                      1

      My Father                                              2
      Edge Hill                                              4
      Everton                                                5
      Bootle                                                 5
      Seaforth                                               6
      The "Great Britain," s.s.                              7
      Wrecks on the Seaforth shore                           8
      Walton                                                10
      Aigburth                                              10
      The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone                        12
           His last speech                                  13
1848--Waterloo and Southport Railway: Opening               15
      Edge Lane                                             16
      Early School-days                                     17
      Home Life                                             21
      Wavertree Park                                        23

CHAPTER II.--VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD                         25

1857--Sail in the "Red Jacket"                              25
      Australia                                             26
      West Coast of South America                           27
      Easterly gales in the Channel                         28

CHAPTER III.--LIVERPOOL                                     31

      Liverpool in 1860-1870                                32
      The Town                                              33
      The Docks                                             35
      The Dock Board                                        37
           Election                                         38
           Birkenhead                                       39
           Bootle                                           41
      The Exchange                                          42
      Cotton Brokers                                        44
      Commerce                                              47
           Shipowners                                       48
           Merchants                                        49
      The American War of 1861-1865                         51
           Blockade Running                                 53
      The Southern Bazaar                                   55
      The Volunteer Movement                                55
      Intellectual Life                                     57
      Society                                               60

CHAPTER IV.--BUSINESS LIFE                                  64

      My Father's Office                                    64
      Financial Panics, 1857-1866                           65
1861--Wrecked in the "Great Eastern"                        67
1861--Arrested in New York                                  69
      Leech, Harrison and Forwood                           71
      My brother Arthur                                     72

CHAPTER V.--PUBLIC LIFE, 1867                               78

1868--President Philomathic Society                         78
      Professor Huxley                                      78
1868--Elected to the TOWN COUNCIL: Early Experiences        79
           1870--Elected Vice-President                     80
           1871-1874--President of the Chamber              80
           1878-1881--Elected President of the
             re-constituted Chamber by the votes of the
             subscribers to the Exchange News Room          80
           1870--Fellow Royal Statistical Society           80
1872--President of the American Chamber of Commerce         81
1873--Chairman of the Joint Committee of the Northern
        Towns on Railway Rates                              81
1877--President United Cotton Association, the precursor
        of the Cotton Association                           82
1877--President of the International Cotton Convention      83
1880--Mayor of Liverpool                                    83
           Visit of General Sir Frederick Roberts           83
           Visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales        84
           The Opening of the North Docks                   84
           Fenian Scare                                     85
1903--Lord Mayor                                            87

CHAPTER VI.--THE FENIAN TROUBLES                            88

1882--Attempt to blow up the Town Hall                      88
           Infernal Machines                                90
           The Pensioner's cork leg                         91
           Thanks of the Home Secretary                     92

CHAPTER VII.--THE TOWN COUNCIL                              93

      The Town Hall--Its Hospitality                        97
      Work in the City Council                             100
1868-1882--WATCH COMMITTEE                                 100
      Burning of the Landing Stage                         101
1870-1884--WATER COMMITTEE: The Vyrnwy Scheme              102
                            Hawes Water                    102
1874-1886--PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE                         106
      Chairman                                             106
      Extension of the Boundaries                          106
      The Manchester Ship Canal                            107
      The Dock Board and the Bridgwater Canal              108
1887--CORPORATION LEASEHOLDS: Chairman of Special
        Committee to enquire into                          109
      Report                                               110
1908--ESTATE COMMITTEE: Chairman                           110


1889--Chairman                                             114
1908--Extension of Free Libraries                          114
      Mr. Carnegie                                         115
      The Museum Extended                                  116
      The Art Galleries                                    117
      Among the Studios                                    118
           Lord Leighton                                   118
           Mr. Greiffenhagen                               119
           Sir John Millais                                120
           Sir Hubert Herkomer                             121
           Sir John Gilbert                                122
           Mr. Whistler                                    123
1908--Retired from the Committee                           123
      Mr. R. D. Holt                                       128


1883--KNIGHTHOOD: At Windsor Castle                        130

CHAPTER X.--POLITICAL WORK                                 141

      Party politics in Liverpool                          141
      Conservative Whip                                    142
1865--S. R. Graves, M.P.                                   143
1873--John Torr, M.P.                                      143
1868--Viscount Sandon, M.P.                                144
1880--Edward Whitley, M.P.                                 144
      Mr. Rathbone, M.P.                                   145
1868--Election, South-West Lancashire: Mr. Gladstone
        and Mr. R. A. Cross                                145
1869--Chairman Waterloo Polling District                   146
1880--Chairman of the Southport Division                   146
1886  {The Hon. George A. Curzon                           146
to    {
1899  {Mr. Curzon Member for Southport                     147
      Lord Curzon's work as the Viceroy of India           149
      Duties of a Chairman of a Division                   151
      Free Trade and Protection                            152

CHAPTER XI.--JUDICIAL WORK                                 154

1873--Placed on Liverpool Bench                            154
1882--Placed on Lancashire County Bench                    154
1900--Placed on Cheshire County Bench                      154
1890--Deputy-Chairman of Quarter Sessions, West Derby
        Hundred                                            154
1894--Chairman of Quarter Sessions                         154
1894--Chairman of the County Bench                         155
1894--Chairman of the Licensing Justices                   155
      Chairman of the Visiting Justices, Walton Jail       157
1902--Appointed a Deputy-Lieutenant for Lancashire         154
1909--HIGH SHERIFF FOR LANCASHIRE                          159
      Interesting Ceremony at Lancaster Castle             161
      The King and Queen at Knowsley                       162


      Blundellsands                                        164
      Crosby Grammar School                                166
      Bromborough                                          168

CHAPTER XIII.--DIRECTORSHIPS                               171

1889--Chairman Overhead Railway                            172
1893--Opening by the Marquis of Salisbury,
        Prime Minister                                     173
1898--Chairman of the Bank of Liverpool                    176
1888--Director of the Cunard Company                       177
           Some incidents                                  179
      Castle Wemyss                                        181
      Making of the Cunard Company                         181
      Liverpool and Mediterranean Trade                    182
      White Star Line                                      184
      Mr. T. H. Ismay                                      185
      Sir Alfred Jones, K.C.M.G.                           186
1888--Director Employers' Liability Assurance Company.

CHAPTER XIV.--THE CHURCHES                                 188

      The Church, 1860-1870                                188
           Dr. McNeile                                     189
           Dr. Ryle, first Bishop of Liverpool             190
           Nonconformists                                  192
      THE BUILDING OF A CATHEDRAL                          194
           Early History                                   194
           Chairman of Executive Committee                 198
           Foundation-stone laid by the King               199
           Consecration of the Lady Chapel                 201
      Convocation                                          203
      Church Congress                                      204
      New York Cathedral                                   204


      Crusade against intemperance                         207
      Workmen's dwellings                                  208
      Local workers                                        209


1905--ROYAL COMMISSION ON MOTORS                           212

CHAPTER XVII.--THE EARL OF DERBY                           215

      Appointments to the County Bench                     215
      Prince Fushimi of Japan                              220

CHAPTER XVIII.--TRAVELS                                    223

      Improvements in Modern Travel                        223
1871--Franco-Prussian Battlefields                         225
1891--Costa Rica                                           225
      Jamaica                                              228
1892--Mexico                                               228
      Conversion of Mexican Southern Railway Bonds         229
      President Diaz                                       230
1905--America: Tour with Lord Claud Hamilton               235
      President Roosevelt                                  236
1906--The Desert of Sahara                                 238
      The Count's Garden, Biskra                           240
      Egypt                                                243
1907--India: Impressions of                                244
1906--Lord Clive: The result of a Motor Tour               250

CHAPTER XIX.--RECREATIONS                                  253

      Yachting                                             253
1874--Obtained Certificate from the Board of Trade as a
        Master Mariner                                     255
      Windermere: Happy Days                               256
      History of the Royal Windermere Yacht Club           257
      Yacht Racing Association                             258
           One of the Founders                             258
           Member of the Council                           258
           Chairman of the Committee of Measurement        258
      Royal Canoe Club                                     258
1879--Rear-Commodore Royal Mersey Yacht Club               257
      Gardening                                            259
      Orchids                                              260

CHAPTER XX.--OBITER DICTA                                  261

      Success in Life                                      263
      Observation                                          266
      Imagination                                          267
      Integrity                                            267


Liverpool, 1836                            _Frontispiece_.

Shaw's Brow                          _Facing page_      34

Dock Offices                                            37

The Old Liverpool Exchange                              42

The Town Hall                                           93

Laying Foundation Stone, Vyrnwy                        102

Free Libraries                                         112

"Ramleh," East Front                                   162

Bromborough Hall, Garden Front                         168

The Old Dutch Garden                                   170

The Lady Chapel, Liverpool Cathedral                   201

Fatehpur Sikri                                         244

Benares                                                245

The Himalayas                                          248

The Taj Mahal                                          249

Yachting on Windermere                                 256

Portrait                                               261



A Great City--its people and its institutions, as seen by a contemporary
presents incidents that do not specially appeal to the historian, who is
more concerned with the larger features and events which mark its
growth; but those incidents may serve as sidelights upon the movements
and the spirit of the times, and woven round the outlines of a life
which has been threaded in the weft of its activities, may afford a
background to bring into more prominent relief and give juster
proportion to the characters and the actions of the men who have built
up its prosperity.

My story will therefore be of the men and the incidents of my time,
which I think may perhaps possess more than a passing interest, and I
hope serve to awaken pleasant memories.

As I do not intend to write a record of my family life, which with its
abounding happiness--some great sorrows--successes and
disappointments--must be a sacred thing, I shall only make such
references to my family, or to those friends still happily with us, as
may be necessary to my narrative.

My great-grandfather, who was born at Plymouth, was a Lieutenant in the
Royal Navy and served on board the "Foudroyant." He was killed in
action, and his widow, in recognition of his courage, was awarded a Post
Captain's pension. She had one son, my grandfather, George Forwood, who
came to Liverpool, where in 1812 he joined Mr. John Moss as partner in
the Otterspool Oil Works (Mr. Moss was the father of the late Sir Thomas
Moss, Bart.). My grandfather appears to have been a man of considerable
ability. Mr. Hughes, in his _History of Liverpool Bankers_, describes
him as "an exceedingly able man, possessing some public spirit." His
published letters and pamphlets on economic subjects show that he took
much interest in the pressing questions of the day, and was very active
in promoting the repeal of the Corn Laws and in the amendment of the
Poor Laws.

My father, the late Thomas Brittain Forwood, was born in Russell Street
in 1810, and was educated at Dr. Prior's school in Pembroke Place; he
received what was known as a good classical education, and up to the
close of his life his knowledge of Latin was fresh and accurate, and he
could quote freely and aptly from Latin authors.

He was gifted with a love for mechanics, and he claimed to have made a
locomotive when a boy, using as cylinders two surgical syringes.

He entered the office of Leech, Harrison and Co. in 1824, when he was 14
years of age, became a partner at the age of 27, and retired in 1862,
when he purchased the estate of Thornton Manor, in Cheshire; here he
resided for the remainder of his life. My father was endowed with a
quick and bright intelligence, and was a most excellent correspondent in
days when letter writing was a fine art. He had a love and capacity for
hard work.

He was too much absorbed in his own business to take an active part in
public life, but he was for a time a vice-president of the Chamber of
Commerce, and took a leading part in the effort to obtain a reduction in
the railway charges levied upon Liverpool traffic. He was for twenty-two
years a member of the Mersey Dock Board, and chairman of the Traffic
Committee. After he retired from business he became a magistrate for the
county of Cheshire, and greatly interested himself in the restoration of
Chester cathedral.

He died at his London house, in Regent's Park, December 18th, 1884, and
was buried at Thornton Hough, Cheshire. My mother was a daughter of
William Bower, the founder of the firm of William Bower and Sons, cotton
brokers. My grandmother, Mrs. Bower, was left a widow when quite young,
but must have been a woman of much ability, for during the minority of
her eldest son, for several years she carried on the business, going
down to the office every day. In this she was actively assisted by the
late Mr. Geo. Holt, the founder of the firm of Geo. Holt and Co., with
the result that when her son came of age the business was one of the
largest and most prosperous on the Cotton Exchange. I often heard her
speak with gratitude of the noble self-sacrifice of Mr. Holt during all
these years.

I was born at Edge Hill, Liverpool, in 1840--it gives some perspective
to this date when we remember that the year 1839 witnessed the first
publication of Bradshaw's Railway Guide, and the inauguration of the
penny post. It was the year after the accession and marriage of Queen
Victoria, and one of the last of the dark years of the fiscal policy of
Protection in England; so that I may claim that my seventy years have
witnessed a material progress on every side, which has been simply
marvellous, and has eclipsed in the brilliancy of achievement any former
period in the history of our country. The use of the steam-engine has
been increased and extended until it has become the handmaiden of every
industrial occupation; and following in its train we have seen the
development of the spinning jenny, and the blast furnace. And to-day we
see that steam is being dethroned from its high position by the
electrical dynamo and the hydraulic ram, and the turbine is taking the
place of the reciprocating engine. The internal combustion engine has
been invented, and the motor-car is rapidly superseding the horse-drawn
vehicle; while the biplane and monoplane have given a reality to
aviation which never entered the most visionary dreams of a few years

My father's house at Edge Hill overlooked the grounds of Mount Vernon
Hall and the gardens of the vicarage; to the east were open fields, with
a few large villas dotted about. Fashionable Liverpool still dwelt in
the large Georgian houses fringing Everton Hill, which looked down upon
one of the loveliest views imaginable. In the foreground were the trees
and woods which ran along what is now Netherfield Road; beyond these the
river flowed; in the distance the Wirral peninsula stretched out, backed
by the Welsh hills. But the town of Liverpool was pushing its way up to
Everton, and San Domingo Road was ceasing to be fashionable; while
Aigburth, Prince's Park, and Edge Lane were rapidly becoming the most
popular suburbs of the fast-rising seaport.

Soon after I was born my father removed to Marsh Lane, Bootle, and there
were few more charming spots at that time. I remember the grand trees
which encircled Bootle Hall and overarched Marsh Lane; here dwelt in
sylvan retreats the Mathers, the Birches, and the Tyrers. The trees
extended down to the sea-shore, where Miller's Castle stood sentinel--a
modern building remarkable for its keep and battlemented walls. About
half a mile nearer Liverpool there was a row of large houses, known as
Fort Terrace; here one of my uncles lived. The garden ran down to the
sea-shore, and we as boys passed out of the garden to bathe. The Canada
dock is built on the site of Fort Terrace.

My father removed again, further out, to Seaforth, to a large house on
the Crosby Road, facing an open space known as "Potter's Field," which
was bounded on the further side by the shore. I was sent to school at
Mrs. Carter's, a celebrated dame's school, where many young Liverpool
boys were educated. Mr. Arthur Earle was one of my classmates. Seaforth
was a very prettily wooded village, fine elm trees margining the highway
right up to the canal at Litherland. The village at that time contained
two other important schools, Miss Davenport's and the Rev. Mr. Rawson's.
Mr. Rawson was Vicar of the Parish. Mr. Gladstone, Lord Cross, and Dean
Stanley were educated at Mr. Rawson's. Mr. Rawson was very fond of
telling the story of Mr. Gladstone, when a boy, spending his holiday
afternoons lying before the fire reading Virgil; even in those days he
had formed great expectations of his pupil's future career. Seaforth
vicarage stood between the church and the railway, and was surrounded by
large gardens. Litherland was also a charming rural village, containing
many grand old elm trees, and several large houses. Waterloo was a
rising seaside place, very fashionable in the summer; here Liverpool
merchants occupied cottages, for in those times a cottage at the seaside
was the usual method of spending the summer: fishings in Norway, moors
in Scotland, and tours all over the world not then being in vogue.

Our home at Seaforth commanded a very beautiful marine view. I remember
seeing the "Great Britain" sail, and the same night she was stranded on
the coast of Ireland. For years the "Great Britain" was regarded as one
of the wonders of the world. She was considered to be such a leviathan
that people said she would never pay, and I believe she never did; her
tonnage was under 4,000 tons. She remained the largest ship afloat for
many years. The "Great Britain" went ashore in Dundrum Bay on the 22nd
September, 1846, and was refloated and towed to Liverpool, August 25th,
1847. She remained for some time in the North Atlantic trade, was
afterwards engaged in the Australian trade, and subsequently was
converted into a four-masted sailing ship. Her final use was as a coal
hulk at the Falkland Islands.

I also saw the Glasgow steamer "Orion" sail on her fatal voyage. She was
stranded on the Mull of Galloway, and many lives were lost; this was in

Very frequently after the prevalence of easterly winds, the entire
channel between the Rock Light and the Crosby Lightship was crowded with
ships, large and small, working their way out to sea--a lovely sight. I
have frequently counted over 300 sail in sight at one time.

On the Bootle shore, somewhere about where the Hornby dock is situated,
there stood two high landmarks--very conspicuous objects marking the
fairway through the Rock Channel, then very much used; they linger in my
memory, associated with many pleasant donkey rides around them. Bootle
church in those days had two towers, and the old church was quite as
ugly as the one now existing. The Dock Committee built the sea wall of
the Canada dock some time before the docks were constructed. I remember
about the year 1848 seeing seven ships wrecked against this sea wall;
they had dragged their anchors and were driven ashore by a north-west
gale. Wrecks on the Bootle and Seaforth shores were quite common
occurrences. The farmers in the district fenced their fields with timber
from ships stranded on the shore, and the villagers were not above
pilfering their cargoes. The barque "Dickey Sam" with a cargo of tobacco
from Virginia was stranded on the Seaforth sands in 1848, and an
onslaught was made on her cargo by the villagers; and to protect it, my
father organised a body of young men to stand guard over it--not an easy
matter, as the hogsheads of tobacco were strewn along the beach for
several miles. His efforts were rewarded by the underwriters presenting
to him a silver salver with an appropriate inscription.

Access to Seaforth and Waterloo from Liverpool was afforded by a
four-horse 'bus, which ran in the morning and evening; express boats
also sailed along the canal in summer, starting from the bridge at
Litherland. It was a pretty walk through the fields to Litherland, and
a charming sail along the canal to the wharf in Great Howard Street.

Riding on horseback on the sea-shore was a very favourite pastime. Many
business men rode into town, keeping to the shore as far as Sandhills

On the road to Liverpool, and midway between Bootle and Liverpool,
surrounded by fields, were the ruined walls of Bank Hall, which for 500
years had been the residence of the Moores, one of the most celebrated
Liverpool families; they were large owners of property, and for that
long period were closely identified with the public life of the little

The Hall had been pulled down and the materials used for the erection of
the large stone farm buildings and an important farm-house. In my
boyhood days the barns and farm-house still remained, and also the
ancient garden wall, flanked with high stone gate-posts and surmounted
by large carved stone urns, such as were common in the early Georgian
period. A deep and wide ditch ran along the front of the wall, which was
part of the old moat. The Ashcrofts were the tenants of the farm, and I
can remember making hay in a field which would be about the site of the
present Bankhall railway station. Further along again, in Great Howard
Street, stood the jail, commonly called the French prison, many French
prisoners of war having been confined there during the Peninsular war.

Near Sandhills Station there stood a large house, surrounded by trees,
the residence of John Shaw Leigh, one of the founders of the present
Liverpool. I remember being taken to see the icehouse in the grounds,
which formed a sort of cave. Walton was a very pretty village, and
remained so until a comparatively recent date; its lanes were shaded by
stately trees, amid which there nestled the charming old thatched
cottages which formed the village. The church, the mother church of
Liverpool, was a landmark for miles, and amid its rustic and rural
surroundings was picturesque and romantic. Near at hand were Skirving's
nursery gardens, quite celebrated in their time.

The southern end of the town preserved its suburban aspect for a much
longer period. Aigburth Road and its great elm trees remained untouched
by the builder of cottages until quite recent times. Prince's Road was
made in 1843, and was margined on either side by fields, which for long
years remained in a more or less ragged condition, some of the land
being occupied by squatters, living in wooden tenements such as we are
familiar with when property lies derelict, past cultivation, but not yet
ripe for the builder.

Aigburth Road and St. Michael's Hamlet retained their charming and
picturesque features until such a recent period that I need not dwell
upon them. Few towns had more attractive and beautiful suburbs; now the
tramways have encouraged the building of small property in every
direction, and suburban Liverpool is almost destroyed. The area
available for residences has always been limited to the east and south,
owing to the proximity of St. Helens, Wigan, Widnes, and Garston. It
would have been a wise policy if our City Fathers had set apart a
sanctuary for better-class houses, from which tramways were excluded,
and thus avoid driving so many large ratepayers to the Cheshire side to
find a home.

My sketch of Seaforth and its neighbourhood would not be complete unless
I say a word about several rather celebrated houses which existed in the
district. One was Seaforth Hall, long known as "Muspratt's folly." Mr.
Muspratt, who built the house, and who lived and at the age of 96 died
in it, had the prescience to see that the sandhills, which he bought for
a nominal price, would some day become a part of Liverpool, and he had
also the enterprise to erect one of the finest houses about Liverpool.
Another important house was Seafield, near Waterloo, the residence of
Dr. Hicks; it was surrounded by a large park. This has since been laid
out and built over, and is now known as Waterloo Park. The third
interesting house was Seaforth House, the residence of Sir John
Gladstone, and where his famous son spent his young days. In the
'seventies Mr. Robertson Gladstone, the brother of the Premier, had a
scheme to modernise the old family house, which his brother, Mr. W. E.
Gladstone, who owned the property, allowed him to carry out. Mr.
Robertson Gladstone was my colleague on the Watch Committee, and he
invited me to go out with him to see the alterations he was making,
which I found comprised the construction of a large circular saloon in
the centre of the house. This was a very fine apartment, but it ruined
the rest of the house, making all the other rooms small and ill-shaped.
The house never found a tenant, and some years after, when Mr. W. E.
Gladstone sold his Seaforth estate, it was pulled down.

When Mr. Robert Holt was Lord Mayor, in 1893, Mr. W. E. Gladstone
visited Liverpool to receive the Freedom of the City. He sent for me to
the Town Hall, and said he understood I was the chairman of the Overhead
Railway, and he wanted to know where we had placed our station at
Seaforth. I told him it was on the south side of the old Rimrose Brook,
and gave him some further particulars. He at once replied, "I remember
as a boy catching what we called 'snigs' in the Rimrose Brook, and from
what you tell me your station is on the north side, and as a boy I
played cricket in the adjoining field, from whence in the far, far
distance we could see the smoke of Liverpool." From enquiries I have
made I find Mr. Gladstone's memory as to the position of the brook was
more accurate than my own. It was a considerable stream and the
cobble-paved highway of Crosby Road was carried over it by a high white
stone bridge. Before leaving the Town Hall Mr. Gladstone asked me if I
knew Seaforth House. On my saying yes, he replied, "What a mess my
brother Robertson made of it!"--alluding to the incident already

Perhaps I may here interpose another recollection of Liverpool's great
son. When the late Lord Derby was Lord Mayor I was deputed to assist him
when my services were required. One day he sent for me and showed me a
letter he had received from Mr. Gladstone expressing his wish to address
a Liverpool Town's meeting on the Bulgarian Atrocities. Mr. Gladstone,
in a magazine article, had recently used strong language in reference to
the Sultan of Turkey, calling him an assassin. Lord Derby considered it
would not be proper for such language to be used at a Town's meeting,
but he added, "Mr. Gladstone was above everything a gentleman, and if he
received his promise that he would avoid strong language he would be
quite satisfied and would take the chair." Mr. Gladstone at once
assented. The meeting was held in Hengler's Circus. It was crowded from
floor to ceiling. Mr. Gladstone arrived with Mrs. Gladstone, and after a
few introductory remarks by the Lord Mayor, Mr. Gladstone rose to speak.
Walking with the aid of a stick to the front of the platform, placing
his stick upon the table, he clutched hold of the rails and "let himself
go," and for an hour and a quarter he poured out a perfect torrent of
eloquence which held the audience spellbound. It was a great oration,
remarkable not so much for what he said, as for the marvellous restraint
he was evidently exercising to avoid expressing himself in the forcible
language which he considered the circumstances demanded. He was much
exhausted after this great effort; Mrs. Gladstone had, however, some
egg-flip ready, which seemed to revive him. This was Mr. Gladstone's
last great speech; it was fitting it should be delivered in his native

There was another house at Seaforth which I must also mention, Barkeley
House, the residence of Mr. Smith, commonly known as "Square-the-Circle
Smith," from the fact of his claiming to have solved this problem. Mr.
Smith was the father of Mr. James Barkeley Smith, who for many years did
good work in the City Council. A sketch of the Seaforth of those days
would not be complete without a reference to Rector Rothwell of Sefton,
reputed to be one of the most beautiful readers in the Church; he drove
down to the shore in his yellow gig, winter and summer, and bathed in
the sea. Another grand old man was Archdeacon Jones, who succeeded his
son as the Incumbent of Christ Church, Waterloo, and who died at the age
of 96. I look back upon his memory with reverence, for he was a charming
man; his presence was dignified, his features refined, almost
classical, and he was endowed with a soft, silvery voice, and, both as a
reader and preacher, he was greatly appreciated. I must mention a
touching little incident. About two years before he died he broke his
leg. I called with my wife to see him; before leaving he begged us to
kneel down and he gave us his blessing, expressed in simple but
beautiful language, and spoken with deep feelings of love and kindness.

I must now revert to my story. The railway from Waterloo to Southport
was opened in July, 1848; it was called the "Shrimpers' Line," and it
was thought it would never pay, as there was apparently no traffic. I
remember, as a small boy, seeing the first train start from Waterloo;
the occasion was a visit made by the directors to inspect the bridge
over the river Alt, and my father was one of the party. The train
consisted of two first-class coaches, and it was drawn by three grey
horses, driven by a man seated on the top of the first coach. Some time
after I saw the first locomotives brought from Liverpool. The Crosby
Road was good enough, but the roads leading from the main Crosby Road to
Waterloo were simply sandy lanes, and along these the heavy lorries,
which carried the locomotives, had to be hauled. It was a work of great
difficulty, as the wheels of the lorries sank up to their axles in the
deep sand.

The railway was opened from Waterloo to Southport for some years before
it was extended to Liverpool. To-day this line is probably the most
profitable part of the Lancashire and Yorkshire system.

In 1849 my father bought a house in Edge Lane, then a very charming and
attractive suburb. After passing Marmaduke Street, Edge Hill, there were
no houses in Edge Lane on the south side until Rake Lane was reached.
Here were the residences of Sir John Bent, Mr. George Holt, and others.
The north side of Edge Lane, from the Botanic Gardens up to Laurel Road,
was fringed with villas, surrounded by large gardens containing many
fine trees, and the houses in this part were large and handsome; many of
them still remain. Among those who then resided in Edge Lane were James
Ryley, William Holt, F. A. Clint, Simon Crosfield, Mr. Lowndes, and
Dashper Glynn. Mr. Heywood lived in Edge Lane Hall, then considered a
house of much importance, surrounded as it was by a pretty park.

The principal events which dwell in my memory as having taken place at
this time are the Fancy Fair held in the Prince's Park, in aid of our
local charities, a very brilliant affair; and the opening of the great
exhibition of 1851 in Hyde Park. It was a matter of grave consideration
with my parents if I was of sufficient age to appreciate the exhibition,
but in the end I was allowed to go to London; and I can only say, for
the benefit of all youngsters of 10 and 11 years, that I greatly
enjoyed that magnificent display, and it produced a lasting impression
upon my mind. I recall at this day every detail. The wonderful show of
machinery impressed me most, but the weaving of cloth and the various
industrial processes were all of absorbing interest to my youthful mind,
so much so that on one day I lost my party, and had to find my way back
to our lodgings. Fortunately, half-a-crown had been placed in my pocket
for this contingency, and with the help of a friendly policeman I had no

The building of the church of St. John the Divine, at Fairfield, greatly
interested me, and during my holidays I was taken up to the top of the
tower to lay the first stone of the steeple. When the church was
consecrated in 1854, Bishop Graham, of Chester, lunched at the
"Hollies," my father being the chairman of the Building Committee.

After spending two years at a dame's school at Kensington, I was sent to
the upper school of the Liverpool Collegiate. I was placed in the
preparatory school, under the Rev. Mr. Hiley. From the preparatory
school I proceeded to the sixth class. My career was by no means
distinguished; four times a day I walked up and down from Edge Lane to
school. My companions were Tom and Hugh Glynn; they, like myself, made
but little headway. Dr. T. Glynn is now one of the leaders of our
medical profession, and a short time ago I asked him how it was that we
as boys were so stupid. He replied that our walk of eight miles a day
exhausted all our physical and mental energies, and we were left good
for nothing; and I might add we had in those days little or no
relaxation in the shape of games. There was a little cricket in the
summer, but this was the only game ever played, so that our school-days
were days of unrelieved mental and physical work, which entirely
overtaxed our strength. The Rev. J. S. Howson, the principal of the
Collegiate, was very much beloved by the boys. I was a very small boy,
but not too small for the principal to notice and address to him a few
kindly words; in after life, when he became Dean of Chester, he did not
forget me. His sympathy and love for boys and his power of entering into
their feelings made him a very popular head-master.

At the age of 14 I was sent to Dr. Heldenmier's school at Worksop, in
Nottinghamshire, where the Pestalozzian system of education was carried
on. It was a celebrated school; many Liverpool boys were there with me,
the Muspratts, Hornbys, Langtons, etc., and though we worked hard we had
plenty of relaxation in the workshop and the playing fields, besides
long walks in the lovely parks that surround Worksop, and which are
known as the Dukeries. During these walks we were encouraged to
botanise, collect birds' eggs, etc., and the love of nature which was in
this way inculcated has been one of the delights of my life. The noble
owners of these parks were most kind to the boys. We were frequently
invited to Clumber, the residence of the Duke of Newcastle, who was
Minister of War. The Crimean war was then being waged, and we considered
the duke a very great person; and a few words of kindly approbation he
spoke to me are among the sunny memories of my school days. The Duke of
Portland, who was suffering from some painful malady, which caused him
to hide himself from the world, was also always glad to see the boys,
and to show us the great subterranean galleries he was constructing at
Welbeck; but our greatest delights were skating on the lake at Clumber
in winter, and our excursions to Roch Abbey and to Sherwood Forest in
the summer. The delight of those days will never fade from my memory. We
used to return loaded with treasures, birds' eggs, butterflies, fossils,
and specimens of wild flowers. In the autumn Sir Thomas White always
gave us a day's outing, beating up game for him; this we also greatly
enjoyed; and how we devoured the bread and cheese and small beer which
the keepers provided us for lunch!

We were taken by the directors of the Manchester, Sheffield and
Lincolnshire Railway to the opening of the new docks at Grimsby. The
directors had a special train which stopped to pick up the boys at
Worksop. Charles Dickens was of the party. On the return journey, I was
in his carriage; he gave me a large cigar to smoke--the first, and the
last cigar I ever smoked, for the effect was disastrous.

My school days at Worksop were happy days. We spent much time in
studying the natural sciences; we became proficient in joinery and
mechanics; and there was a nice gentlemanly tone in the school. My great
friend was George Pim, of Brenanstown House, Kingstown, Ireland. We
never lost sight of each other. He entered the office of Leech, Harrison
and Forwood, and became a partner with us in Bombay, and afterwards in
New York; he died there in 1877, at the age of 34. A fine, handsome,
bright fellow; to me he was more than a brother, and his like I shall
never see again. The friend of my boyhood, of my young manhood, my
constant companion; he was a good fellow.

Richard Cobden's only son was at Worksop, a bright, handsome boy. His
father doted upon him, and often came down to visit him, when he took
some of the boys out to dine with him at the "Red Lion"; he was a very
pleasant, genial man, fond of suggesting practical jokes, which we
played off on our schoolmates on our return to school. Poor Dick Cobden
was too full of animal spirits ever to settle down to serious school
work. He had great talent, but no power of application. He died soon
after leaving Worksop.

When at Worksop I distinguished myself in mathematics, and my master was
very anxious I should proceed to Cambridge, but my father had other
views, and thought a university training would spoil me for a business
career. I have ever regretted it. Every young man who shows any
aptitude should have the opportunity of proceeding to a university, but
in those days the number of university graduates was small, and the
advantage of an advanced education was not generally recognised. Life
was more circumscribed and limited, and a level of education which
suited our forefathers, and had made them prosperous men, was considered
sufficient: more might be unsettling. The only thing to be aimed at and
secured was the power and capacity to make a living; if other
educational accomplishments followed, all well and good, but they were
considered of very secondary importance.

Our home life was quiet and uninteresting, very happy in its way because
we knew no other. Our greatest dissipations were evening parties, with a
round game of cards; dinner parties were rare, and balls events which
came only very occasionally. Sundays were sadly dull days; all
newspapers were carefully put away, and as children we had to learn the
collect and gospel. Our only dissipation was a short walk in the
afternoon. Oh! those deadly dull Sundays; how they come up before me in
all their depressing surroundings; but religion was then a gloomy
business. Our parsons taught us Sunday after Sunday that God was a God
of vengeance, wielding the most terrible punishment of everlasting fire,
and only the few could be saved from his wrath. How all this is now
happily changed! The God of my youth was endowed with all the
attributes of awe-inspiring terror, which we to-day associate with the
evil one. It is a wonder that people were as virtuous as they were:
there was nothing to hope for, and men might reasonably have concluded
to make the best of the present world, as heaven was impossible of
attainment. In my own case, partaking of the Holy Communion was fraught,
I was taught, with so much risk, that for years after I was confirmed I
dare not partake of the Sacrament. What a revolution in feeling and
sentiment! How much brighter and more reasonable views now obtain! God
is to us the God of Love. We look around us and see that all nature
proclaims His love, and the more fully we recognise that love is the
governing principle of His universe, the nearer we realise and act up to
the ideal of a Christian life. Love and sympathy have been brought back
to the world, and we see their influence wrought out in the drawing
together of the classes, in the wider and more generous distribution of
the good things of life, and in the recognition that heaven is not so
far from any of us. We see that as the tree falls so will it lie; that
in this life we are moulding the life of our future, and that our heaven
will be but the complement of our earthly life, made richer and fuller,
freed from care and sin, and overarched by the eternal presence of God,
whose love will permeate the whole eternal firmament.

Charles Kingsley was one of the apostles of this new revelation, which
brought hope back to the world, and filled all men with vigour to work
under the encouragement which the God of Love held out to us. It has
broadened and deepened the channels of human sympathy and uplifted us to
a higher level of life and duty.

During my school days I spent several of my summer holidays in Scotland
with my mother, who was a patient of Professor Simpson in Edinburgh, and
usually resided two or three months in that city. One summer holiday I
stayed with old John Woods, at Greenock. He was the father of
shipbuilding on the Clyde. He was then building a wooden steamer for my
father to trade between Lisbon and Oporto. Another summer holiday I
spent with Mr. Cox, shipbuilder, of Bideford, in Devon, who was building
the sailing ship "Bucton Castle," of 1,100 tons, for my father's firm.
The knowledge of shipbuilding I obtained during these visits has been of
incalculable value to me in after life. Another of my summer vacations
was occupied in obtaining signatures to a monster petition to the
Liverpool corporation praying them to buy the land surrounding the
Botanic Gardens, and lay it out as a public park. I stood at the Edge
Lane gate of the Botanic Gardens with my petition for several weeks, and
I obtained so many signatures that the petition was heavier than two men
could carry.

I am glad to think it was successful, and the Wavertree Park has
contributed greatly to the pleasure and enjoyment of the people of
Liverpool, and has been the means of preserving to us the Botanic
Gardens. I think it was one of the most useful things I ever



Leaving school I entered the office of Salisbury, Turner and Earle, one
of the oldest and leading brokerage houses in the town. The partners
were Mr. Alderman John H. Turner (remarkable for the smallness of his
stature), Mr. Horace Turner, and Mr. Henry Grey. My senior apprentice
was the late Colonel Morrison. I had not been very long in this office
when I contracted a very severe cold, the result of being out all night
on Ben Lomond. I had gone up with my father and a party of friends to
see the sunset; on the way down I lost my way, and finding myself with
darkness coming on, in very boggy land, I sat down on a rock to await
daylight. Heavy rain fell and I was soaked through, which resulted in a
cold that took such a strong hold of me that the doctor ordered me a sea
voyage, and on the 20th November, 1857, I set sail on board the clipper
ship "Red Jacket," for Melbourne. The gold fever was at its height, and
the passenger trade with Australia was very active. Our ship was crowded
with passengers; she was the crack clipper of the day, and carried a
double crew, that she might be enabled to carry sail until the last
moment. We had a very pleasant passage and beat the record, making Port
Phillip Heads in sixty-three days.

I visited the gold fields at Ballarat, making the journey from Geelong
by stage-coach, drawn by six horses, the roads being mere tracks cut
through the bush. I descended several of the mines; at this time the
alluvial deposits had been worked out, and most of the mines were being
worked at a considerable depth. At Melbourne I stayed with Mr.
Strickland, at a charming villa on the banks of the Yarra-Yarra. Leaving
Melbourne, I took a steamer for Sydney, where my father had many
business friends, and had a very good time yachting in the bay and
riding up country. I managed to lose myself in the bush, and for a whole
day was a solitary wanderer, not knowing where I was. It was a period of
strange sensations and of much anxiety. Eventually, late in the evening
I came across a shepherd, who gave me the best of his simple fare and
guided me to the nearest village.

From Australia I sailed in a small barque, the "Queen of the Avon," for
Valparaiso; she was only 360 tons register, and I was the only

The voyage across to Valparaiso was eventful. We had bad weather
throughout, and a heavy cyclone which did us great damage about the
decks. We were hove to for two days with a tarpaulin in the mizzen
rigging. We sailed right through the storm centre, where we had no wind,
but a terrific and very confused sea, and here we saw hundreds of
sea-birds of all kinds. At Valparaiso we obtained a charter to load
cocoa at Guayaquil. We had a lovely cruise up the coast, and the sail up
the river to Guayaquil was heavenly; we had the panorama of the Andes on
our right, with the richly verdured island of Puna on the other hand;
flocks of flamingoes were wading in the shallow sea channels, and
pelicans were busy fishing along the margins of the sandbanks. At
Guayaquil we had some good crocodile shooting, not the easiest game to
bag. These reptiles had to be stalked in the most approved fashion;
although they lay seemingly basking and asleep in the sun, with their
great mouths wide open, their ears were very much on the alert, and it
was most difficult to come within shot. We succeeded better from a boat
than from the land, for by allowing the boat to drift with the tide we
were able to get within easy shot without being heard.

I visited Bodegas and some of the Indian villages at the foot of the
Andes. The whole country was very interesting, and very rich in tropical
birds and flowers. There were too many snakes to make travelling quite
comfortable, but in time we found they all did their best to get away
from us, and we gained more confidence.

I had a little adventure in Guayaquil which might have been very
unpleasant. There was a revolution, and the government troops had only
just regained possession of the city; I had the misfortune to walk
unwittingly through a barricade, which consisted of some half-dozen
ragged black soldiers, who quite failed to suggest to me a military
outpost. I was at once arrested and taken to the jail. Here I remained
for some hours surrounded by the most horrible looking ruffians, and was
in mortal dread of the time when I should be locked up with them in one
of the foul dens which led off the court-yard. I was fortunately set
free through the kind intervention of an American who had been a witness
of my capture and incarceration.

At Guayaquil we loaded a cargo of cocoa and sailed for Falmouth for
orders. We arrived off this port in November, 1859, after an uneventful
voyage of 110 days. We tacked the ship off the Manacle Rocks, at the
entrance to the harbour; the wind flew round to the east, and we were
driven out again into the chops of the channel; it was twenty-four days
before we again saw Falmouth. We fought our way against a succession of
easterly gales, sometimes driven out as far west as the Fastnet. The
fleet of ships kept out by the long continued easterly winds was very
large, and the Admiralty was obliged to dispatch relief ships with
stores for their succour.

No one who has not experienced an easterly gale in the Channel can form
any idea of the toil of a constant fight against a succession of heavy
gales, cold and bleak with sleet and snow. Sometimes the wind would
decrease and we were able to make some headway, and perhaps work our
way within sight of the Scilly Islands, raising our hopes of an early
arrival at our port, then another gale would spring up and drive us back
again to the west of Ireland, and the same thing was repeated over and
over again. The Channel was full of ships detained by adverse gales, and
the home markets were disorganised by the lack of supplies of raw
produce. All this is now a thing of the past, steamers are independent
of head winds, and winter easterly gales no longer strike terror into
the hearts of shipowners and merchants.

Whilst on this voyage, to relieve the monotony of the daily routine of
sea life, I taught myself navigation, took my trick at the wheel, and
had my place aloft when reefing next to the weather earing, where I
worked with an old man-of-war's man named Amos. Amos was a noble
specimen of the old-fashioned British sailor. He was the king of the
fo'castle, and while he was on hand no swearing or bad language was
heard. The knowledge I then obtained of navigation and seamanship has
been most valuable to me through life. It was a great opportunity, which
I was wise enough to avail myself of. During the whole time I was on
board this ship--nearly eight months--I never missed taking my trick at
the wheel, or going aloft to reef. I well remember laying out on the
fore yardarm, off Cape Horn, for two hours, while we got a close reef
tied. We had to take up belaying pins to knock the frozen snow and ice
off the sail before we could do anything, and the ship was labouring so
heavily in the seaway that our task was most difficult. In navigation I
became so proficient that I could work lunars with ease, and after the
passage home of 110 days without seeing land I placed the position of
the ship within three miles of her true position, near the Wolf Rock,
Land's End, the old captain being ten to twelve miles out in his
longitude. I remember feeling very proud of my good landfall. I told the
old skipper that I thought we should see land at noon. He smiled and
replied that we should not make it before three o'clock. I went aloft on
to the fore yard-arm at one o'clock, and had not been there many minutes
when I shouted "Land Ho!" I saw the sea breaking over the Wolf Rock.



Liverpool occupies the unique position of having filled two important
places in the history of England. There was, firstly, the little town
clustered round about its castle, and holding a charter from King John
dated 1207, its estuary affording a safe haven for the trifling commerce
passing between England and its sister island, Ireland. Thus situated it
had to bear its part in the political movements and the foreign and
civil wars which for long years harassed and distressed the country and
checked its progress. Although the six centuries which intervened
between 1200 and 1800 are filled with many incidents which clothe this
portion of the history of Liverpool with much that is picturesque and
romantic, at the close of the eighteenth century we still find Liverpool
a small if not insignificant place, with a population in 1790 of only
55,000, while the tonnage of her shipping was only 49,541 tons.

This may be said to close the history of "old" Liverpool. With the dawn
of the nineteenth century a new Liverpool sprang into existence. The
opening of the American trade, the peace of 1814, and the introduction
of steamships, gave an enormous impetus to the growth of the trade of
the port and laid the foundations of that vast and world-wide commerce
which has made the name of Liverpool synonymous with the greatest
achievements in commerce and in science. The building of the Liverpool
and Manchester Railway, the mother of railways, the docks, and the
bridging of the Atlantic by what is practically a steam ferry, will ever
stand out as epoch making.

Thus in little over a hundred years Liverpool has grown from a small
town into a great city, the city of to-day.

LIVERPOOL IN 1860-1870.

My story must, however, begin with the 'sixties, when I commenced my
business career. The growth of the city and its commerce has since been
fully commensurate with the growth of the country. In the fifty years
which have intervened the Empire has doubled its area and population,
and the United Kingdom has trebled its trade. The population of
Liverpool, including the newly added areas, has during the same period
increased from 433,000 to 750,000, and the tonnage of our shipping from
4,977,272 tons to nearly 17,000,000 tons. She conducts one-third of the
export trade and one-third of the import trade of the United Kingdom,
and she owns one-third of the shipping of the kingdom, and one-seventh
of that of the world. It has been a privilege to have been engaged in
the commerce of the port during this remarkable expansion, and to have
been associated with the conduct of public affairs during this period of
growth and development in the city. Very much of this has been due to
the enterprise and enlightenment of her own people. Liverpool shipowners
have been in the vanguard of steamship enterprise, which has contributed
so greatly to her prosperity; her merchants have built up her great
trade in cotton and grain, and her citizens have not been slow to
promote every sanitary improvement which made for the health and
well-being of her people.

During the past fifty years the town has been re-sewered, the streets
paved with an impervious pavement, and a new water supply has been
introduced. The city has been encircled by a series of public parks and
recreation grounds, baths and washhouses have been established, free
libraries have been opened in the various suburban centres of
population, cellar dwellings have been abolished, and rookeries in the
shape of courts and tenement houses have been done away with, and in
their place clean and comfortable working-men's cottages and flats have
been substituted. The curse of drink has been effectively checked by the
closing of twenty-five per cent. of the public-houses. To quote from
Professor Ramsay Muir's interesting _History of Liverpool_: "Thus, on
all sides and in many further modes the city government has, during the
last thirty years especially, undertaken a responsibility for the health
and happiness of its citizens unlike anything that its whole previous
history has shown, and if any full account were to be given of what the
city as a whole now endeavours to do for its citizens much ought also to
be said of the extraordinary active works of charity and religion which
have been carried on during these years."

The Liverpool of to-day is a city very different from the Liverpool of
the 'sixties and 'seventies, indeed it is difficult to recognise them as
being one and the same; the streets remain, but they are widened and
improved, and their inferior and often squalid surroundings have
disappeared; and if our modern architecture is not always of the best,
our new buildings at least impart dignity and importance. Shaw's Brow,
with its rows of inferior, dingy shops, a low public-house at the corner
of each street, has given way to William Brown Street, adorned on one
side by our Museum, Libraries, Art Gallery, and Sessions House, and the
other by St. George's Hall and St. John's Gardens. The rookeries which
clustered round Stanley Street, and were occupied by dealers in old
clothes and secondhand furniture, have been replaced by Victoria Street,
which is margined by banks and public buildings. The terrible slums
which surrounded the Sailors' Home and Custom House, veritable dens of
iniquity, have disappeared.

[Illustration: _Drawn by William P. Herdman._


[Illustration: _Drawn by William P. Herdman._


The dirty ill-paved town is now the best paved and the best scavenged
town in the United Kingdom. With the growth of the town and the
extension of tramways, residential Liverpool has been pushed further out
until it can get no further, and it is now finding its way into
Cheshire. No private dwelling-house of any importance has been erected
on the Liverpool side for many years. The charming suburb of Aigburth
has long since been destroyed, but the greatest change has taken place
in the docks. The old docks have had to be remodelled to give sufficient
depth of water and quay space for the larger vessels now employed, and
special docks have had to be constructed for the Atlantic steamship
trade. In the 'sixties the Prince's dock was filled with sailing ships
trading to India and the West Coast of South America. They discharged on
the west side and loaded on the east side. It was quite a common thing
for a sailing vessel to occupy four and five weeks loading her outward
cargo. On the walls of the docks and on the rigging of the ships,
posters were displayed notifying that the well-known clipper ship ----,
A1 at Lloyd's, would sail for Calcutta or Bombay, and giving the agent's
name, etc.

At the south end of the Prince's dock was the George's basin, a tidal
basin through which ships going into the Prince's or George's dock
entered. I remember seeing one of Brocklebank's Calcutta ships, the
"Martaban," enter this basin under sail; it was done very smartly, and
the way in which the canvas was taken in and the sails clewed up and
furled, was a lesson in seamanship. The George's dock was dedicated to
schooners, mostly fruiterers from Lisbon or the Azores, and during the
herring season fishing boats used to discharge in one corner, the fish
girls going down planks to get on board to buy their fish. The Mariners'
church, an old hulk in which Divine Service was held every Sunday,
occupied another corner.

The Albert dock was filled with East Indiamen discharging their cargoes
of sugar, jute, and linseed, and tea clippers from China; they loaded
their outward cargoes in the Salthouse dock, which adjoined; further
south again, the King's and Queen's docks were occupied by small foreign
vessels, trading to the continental ports. The old New York liners,
sailing ships, loaded in the Bramley Moore dock; and the docks further
north, the Canada being the most northerly, were filled with steamers
trading to the Mediterranean, and the Cunard and Inman lines of

To-day one may hunt from one end of the docks to the other without
finding a dozen sailing ships larger than a schooner. With the exit of
the sailing ship much of the romance has been taken out of the life of
Liverpool. It was a joy to walk round the docks and admire the smart rig
and shipshape appearance of the old sailing vessel. The owner and
captain, and, indeed, all connected with her, became attached to their
ship and took a pride in all her doings. In those days the river Mersey
was a glorious sight with probably half a dozen or more Indiamen lying
to an anchor, being towed in or out, or sailing in under their own

[Illustration: Photo by Randles.


The river Mersey, at all times beautiful with its wonderful alternations
of light and its brisk flowing waters, has never been so beautiful since
the old sailing ship days, when at the top of high water the outward
bound fleet proceeded to sea, and the entire river from the Pier Head to
the Rock Light was filled with shipping of all sizes working their way
out to sea, tacking and cross tacking, the clipper with her taut spars
and snow-white canvas, and the small coaster with her tanned sails all
went to make up a picture of wonderful colour and infinite beauty.


There is no branch of the public service of which Liverpool people are
more proud than the administration of the Mersey Docks and Harbour
Board. The members of the Board have always been recruited from our
leading merchants, shipowners, and brokers, and they have been fortunate
in selecting as their chairmen men of exceptional ability. I can
recollect Charles Turner, M.P., Robert Rankin, William Langton, Ralph
Brocklebank, T. D. Hornby, Alfred Holt, John Brancker; and the Board is
to-day presided over by Mr. Robert Gladstone, who worthily maintains the
best traditions of his office.

Of late years the members have been elected without any contests, but it
was not always so. In the 'seventies there were severe contests, which
arose not upon questions of personal fitness, but were prompted by trade
rivalries. It had become the fashion for the various trades to nominate
members who would look after the particular interests of their trade.
Jealousy was aroused if one trade obtained larger representation than
others. The interests of the steamship owners were opposed to those of
the sailing-ship owner. The one wanted allotted berths to secure
dispatch, the other quay space free and unappropriated. Cotton men
wanted special facilities for cotton, and the timber people yard space
for the storage of timber and deals. Each trade had its associations,
and in addition there was a ratepayers' association, which sought to
break up this system of trade delegation by electing independent men.
The payment of £10 in dock dues gave a vote. So faggot votes were easily
and extensively manufactured. Shipowners and merchants qualified every
clerk in their employ. The nomination of members took place on the 1st
January, and the election on the day following. The elections were hotly
contested, but always in a gentlemanly way, and with much good humour.
It required skill to fill up the voting papers so as to secure a
majority for any particular candidate.

Among those who busied themselves over these elections I remember
William Johnston, Robert Coltart, Worsley Battersby, Edmund Taylor,
Arthur Forwood, G. B. Thomson, George Cunliffe, and James Barnes.

The ratepayers' association accomplished much good by the election of
some men of independence. My particular desire at this time was to try
and induce the Board to fund their debt. It was felt that such a large
floating debt was not only cumbrous and inconvenient, but in times of
financial stress, or with a cycle of years of bad trade, might be a
source of danger. I urged the funding of the debt on the nomination
days, and also through the press and Chamber of Commerce. It met with
the strong opposition of the Board, led by Mr. Brocklebank, but in
course of time after the Corporation had taken the lead, the Dock Board
wisely funded a portion of their debt.

The gradual increase of steamers, the passing of the sailing vessel, and
the large share of the trade of the port being now conducted by
"liners," have to a very large extent done away with trade rivalries;
hence the little interest now taken in the Dock Board elections.

The present generation scarcely know that the docks were up to 1857
administered by a Committee of the Corporation. In my young days
Liverpool people were very sore and angry at the action of Parliament
in foisting upon them the Birkenhead docks. These docks had been
constructed by a private company, and were insolvent and a hopeless
failure. Birkenhead had, however, powerful influence in Parliament, and
stoutly opposed any extension of the Liverpool docks, contending that
the Birkenhead docks had not had fair play, and could accommodate the
surplus trade of Liverpool. In the end, in 1857, Liverpool was obliged
to buy them for £1,143,000, and within a very few years had to expend
upon them £3,859,041. This outlay has ever since been a serious burden
upon Liverpool. Nor did the hostile action of Parliament stop here. The
town dues were taken from Liverpool, and commuted for a payment of
£1,500,000. The management of the dock estate was placed in the hands of
the trustees, who are, except three, elected by the dock ratepayers.

In olden time the Dock Board had an annual excursion to inspect the
lightships, to which they invited the whole of the Council. They were
pleasant days, and it was supposed that the Mayor for the coming year
was selected on these occasions. These excursions contributed to a good
feeling between the Dock Board and the Corporation, which is so
essential if we are to preserve the prosperity of the port. I sometimes
think that our City Fathers apparently forget that our docks and our
commerce are the life-blood of Liverpool.

Mr. John Bramley Moore's great work on the Dock Board was completed
before my day, but he continued his interest in Liverpool to the last,
and was present at the opening of the North Dock system in 1882, where I
saw him. He used to tell how indefatigably he worked to secure the
extension of the docks in a northerly direction, how he asked Lord Derby
to present the Bootle shore to the Dock Board, urging that it would be
greatly to the gain of the Derby family. Lord Derby replied that it
would be very difficult to convince him of that, and that he had already
refused £90,000 for it. Mr. Bramley Moore then offered if Lord Derby
would transfer his foreshore rights the Dock Committee would raise all
the back land by using it for the deposit of their spoil, which would,
he thought, be an adequate compensation. The deal was closed on this
basis, the Dock Committee secured two miles of river frontage, and the
Derby family the site of the most important part of Bootle, and now
forming one of the most valuable of their estates.

One of the first docks constructed on this newly-acquired land was the
Bramley Moore, so named after the chairman.

No one can fail to acknowledge the enterprise and wisdom which have
characterised the administration of the dock estate. Municipal work
follows the demand of the people, and seldom goes ahead of it; but the
provision of docks must anticipate the demand likely to be experienced.
In all this the Dock Board has acted with boldness and with prudence,
under circumstances of much embarassment. The construction of the
Manchester Ship Canal presented a problem of considerable difficulty,
but the Dock Board adopted the courageous but wise policy of looking to
Liverpool and Liverpool trade only, and the facilities they have
provided for the changed conditions of trade have done not a little to
conserve the commerce of the port.


A great change has taken place in the Liverpool Exchange. In the early
'sixties the old Exchange buildings were still in existence. The
building which surrounded Nelson's monument was classic in design, with
high columns surmounted by Ionic capitals and a heavy cornice. The
newsroom was in the east wing, with windows overlooking on the one side
Exchange Street East, and on the other the "flags." The room had two
rows of lofty pillars supporting the ceiling; and there was ample room
in the various bays not only for newspaper stands, but for chairs and
tables, and it had very much more the appearance of a reading-room in a
club than its elaborate, but less comfortable successor. On the western
and northern side of the Exchange were offices with warehouses overhead.
The Borough Bridewell stood in High Street, its site being now covered
by Brown's Buildings, and the Sessions House occupied part of the site
upon which the newsroom now stands. In the 'sixties high 'change was in
the afternoon between four and five o'clock, but much business was also
transacted during the morning. No merchant or broker considered that he
could commence the work of the day until he had read the news on the
"pillars" in the newsroom. Instead of the work on the Exchange being
done by clerks, it was transacted by the principals, who considered it
only respectful to appear in a tall hat and frock coat. Although in
those days there may have been a little too much formality in dress, in
these there is sadly too little, and with the disappearance of the tall
hat and frock coat one has also to regret the abandonment of those
courtly manners and that respectful consideration which gave a charm to
commercial intercourse, and was not confined to the Exchange and the
office, but was reflected in the home and in private life.

[Illustration: _Drawn by W. G. Herdman._


Merchant shipbrokers and general produce brokers transacted their
business in the newsroom, while the cotton brokers, braving all
weathers, were to be found on the "flags."

The present newsroom was opened in 1867, and shortly afterwards the
Mayor, Mr. Edward Whitley, gave a ball in honour of Prince Arthur and
the Prince and Princess Christian, the ballroom in the Town Hall being
connected with the newsroom by a long corridor constructed of wood.
Dancing took place in both rooms.

Upon several occasions after a heavy fall of snow, fights with snowballs
were waged on the "flags," until, becoming serious, the police were
obliged to interfere and put a stop to them. A playful seasonable
exchange of snowballs degenerated into a combat with the rougher element
which frequented the "flags."

I still recall many of the habitués of the Exchange from 1860 to 1870,
men who well represented the varied interests of the great port. While
frock coats and tall hats were the rule, many still wore evening dress
coats, and not a few white cravats. There was old Miles Barton, a
picturesque figure, with his genial smile, and his hat drawn over his
eyes; Isaac Cook, the Quaker, in strictest of raiment; Harold
Littledale, the friend of Birkenhead, and the critic of the Dock Board;
Michael Belcher, the opulent and prosperous cotton broker; the two
Macraes, the principal buyers of cotton for the trade; Tom Bold, the
active Tory political tactician, who in olden days knew the value of
every freeman's vote; H. T. Wilson, the founder of the White Star Line
and the Napoleon of the Tory party; Edmund Thomson, the pioneer of
steamers to the Brazils, who, like most pioneers, was unsuccessful; John
Newall, the "king" of the cotton market, who had an enormous clientele
of very wealthy men; C. K. Prioleau, the representative of the
Confederate Government, who was also the great blockade runner. Mrs.
Prioleau was considered to be the most beautiful woman in Liverpool. Mr.
Prioleau built the house in Abercromby Square which the Bishop now
occupies as his palace. R. L. Bolton, a very successful and bold
operator in cotton, though in appearance the most shy and timid of men
was another well-known figure; he rarely made his appearance until late
in the day, being credited with a love of turning night into day. James
Cox, the opulent bachelor, doyen of the nitrate trade, held his court
always well attended in one corner of the room. I well remember J.
Aspinall Tobin, tall of stature, distinguished in appearance, fluent of
speech, a welcome speaker on every Tory platform; John Donnison, famous
for his little dinners and excellent port; Sam Gath, the tallest man on
the Exchange; Joseph Leather, the forceful partner in Marriotts, a
leading nonconformist, who built and lived at Cleveley, Allerton;
Maurice Williams, the writer of a cotton circular, and a reputed oracle
on cotton--he lived at Allerton Priory, afterwards bought and rebuilt by
Mr. John Grant Morris; Thomas Haigh, the courtly and stately chief of
Haigh and Co., cotton brokers; Edwin Haigh, his son, and the most
vivacious and talkative of men, popular with all; Lloyd Rayner and his
brother Edward, the largest brokers in general produce; S. Bigland,
plain and honest of speech; the two Reynolds, skilled in Sea Island and
Egyptian cotton; John Joynson and his brother Moses; John Bigham, portly
and prosperous; and not far away, his son, John C. Bigham, who was
destined soon to leave the "room" and become the able Queen's Counsel,
the learned President of the Admiralty and Divorce Court, and afterwards
a peer of the realm (Lord Mersey), and whose brilliant career was
doubtless largely due to his early business training; Studley Martin,
the active secretary to the Cotton Brokers' Association, buzzing about
like a busy bee, collecting opinions as to the amount of business doing
in cotton; Thos. Bouch, the dignified representative of the old firm of
Waterhouse and Sons; Edgar Musgrove, an ideal broker, ever present and
ever active. Nor must I forget the noble band of shipbrokers who
collected the cargoes for ships loading outwards: Robert Ashley, Louis
Mors, W. J. Tomlinson, J. B. Walmsley, John McDiarmid, Robert Vining,
Dashper Glynn, Tom Moss, G. Warren, S. B. Guion, all of whom, with many
others, represented vigorous interests which in those days made the
trade of Liverpool.

Outside the Exchange, but yet very necessary to the success of its
business, were the lawyers and insurance brokers and average adjusters.
Amongst lawyers Mr. Bateson and Mr. Squarey enjoyed the largest
commercial practice; R. N. Dale was the leading underwriter; and Mr. L.
R. Baily was not only very prominent as an average adjuster, but as an
arbitrator he afterwards became one of the members for Liverpool. In
those days, before the establishment of the system of trade
arbitrations, there was abundant employment for lawyers and professional

A sketch of the Liverpool Cotton Exchange would not be complete without
a reference being made to the dealings of Maurice Ranger, and others,
who in the 'seventies on several occasions tried to corner the market by
buying "futures" for delivery in a given month, and then obtaining such
a control of the spot market as would prevent the sellers fulfilling
their contracts. Mr. Ranger's operations were on a gigantic scale, but
there was always a "nigger on the fence." The unexpected happened, and I
do not think he ever fully succeeded in these enterprises. He had many
imitators, who were equally unsuccessful. Mr. Joseph B. Morgan did a
useful work for the cotton trade, by establishing the cotton bank to
facilitate clearances in future contracts.

The removal of the Cotton Exchange to the new premises has taken place
since my active business days, and the whole course and methods of the
trade have changed.


In the 'sixties, sailing-ships filled the Liverpool docks, and fully
one-half of them flew the American flag. The great trades of Liverpool
were those carried on with America, Australia, Calcutta, and the West
Coast. The clipper ships belonging to James Baines and Co., and H. T.
Wilson and Co., were renowned for their fast passages to Melbourne,
while the East India and West Coast ships of James Beazley and Co.,
Imrie and Tomlinson, McDiarmid and Greenshields, and the Brocklebanks
were justly celebrated for their smartness and sea-going qualities.
Charles MacIver ruled over the destinies of the Cunard Company, and this
line then paid one-third of the Liverpool dock dues. Mr. MacIver was a
man of resolute purpose, and a power in Liverpool; in the early
volunteer days he raised a regiment of field artillery, 1,000 strong,
which he commanded. Many stories are told of his stern love of
discipline. A captain of one of the Mediterranean steamers asked his
permission as a special favour to be allowed to take his wife a voyage
with him. Mr. MacIver whilst granting the request, remarked that it was
contrary to the regulations of the Cunard Company. The captain, upon
proceeding to join his ship with his wife, to his surprise found another
captain in command, and a letter from Mr. MacIver enclosing a return
passenger ticket for himself and his wife. William Inman was building up
the fortunes of the Inman Line, and was the first to study and profit by
the Irish emigration trade. The Bibbys and James Moss and Co.
practically controlled the Mediterranean trade. The "tramp" steamer was
then unknown, and outside the main lines of steamers there were few
vessels; but the Allans were forcing their way to the front, and Mr.
Ismay was establishing the White Star Line, which revolutionised
Atlantic travel. Mr. Alfred Holt was doing pioneer work in the West
India trade, with some small steamers with single engines. These he sold
and went into the China trade, in which he has built up a great concern.

The Harrisons were sailing ship owners, but they had also a line of
small steamers trading to Charente. They afterwards started steamers to
the Brazils and to Calcutta. Looking back, they appear to have been most
unsuitable vessels, but freights were high, and to Messrs. T. and J.
Harrison belongs the credit of quickly finding out the most suitable
steamer for long voyages, and always keeping their fleets well up to

We must not forget to mention the merchants of Liverpool, for in those
days the business of a merchant was very different from that of to-day.
He had to take long and far-sighted views, as there was no such thing as
hedging or covering by a sale of futures; his business required
enterprise and the exercise of care and good judgment. Among our most
active merchants we had T. and J. Brocklebank; Finlay, Campbell and Co.;
Baring Brothers; Brown, Shipley and Co.; Malcolmson and Co.; Charles
Saunders; Sandbach, Tinne and Co.; Wm. Moon and Co.; Ogilvy, Gillanders
and Co.; T. and W. Earle and Co.; J. K. Gilliat; J. H. Schroeder and
Co.; Rankin, Gilmour and Co., and others.

In the 'sixties Liverpool had two great trades. The entrepôt trade, the
produce of the world, centred in Liverpool, and was from thence
distributed to the various ports on the continent. The opening of the
Suez Canal, and the establishment of foreign lines of steamers, have
largely destroyed this trade, and produce now finds its way direct to
Genoa, Antwerp, and Hamburg. The other great trade was in American
produce. For this Liverpool offered the largest and best market. This
trade is unfortunately seriously threatened. The increase in the
population of America is now making large demands upon her productions,
and reducing the quantities available for export.

Liverpool was also a considerable manufacturing centre. It was the
principal place for rice-milling and sugar-refining, while shipbuilding
and the making of locomotives and marine engines contributed largely to
her prosperity.

One cannot review the past trade of Liverpool and its present economic
surroundings, without feeling some anxiety for the future. Not only have
the trades which so long made Liverpool their headquarters been to some
extent diverted, but the efforts of rival ports (in many cases railway
ports or ports which have little or no concern as to the payment of
interest on the money employed in their construction) are directed to
the capture of our trade; in this they are still being actively assisted
by the railway companies, who grant to them preferential rates of
carriage. There can be little doubt that our merchants and shipowners
will find new avenues for their enterprise, and new trades will take the
place of those partially lost; but Liverpool has in front of her a fight
to obtain the just advantage of her geographical position, and it is a
fight in which the city must bear its part.

The city will also have to adopt a more enlightened policy, and
encourage manufacturing industries. This can only be done by reductions
in the city rates, and also in the charges for water. The loss would
only be nominal; we should be recouped by an increased volume of trade,
and by our people obtaining steady occupation instead of the present
casual employment.


The great war between the Northern and Southern States of America, which
was waged from 1861 to 1865, had a far-reaching influence upon

Prior to this date American shipping filled our docks, and 82 per cent.
of our cotton imports were derived from the Southern States.

The election of Lincoln as President of the United States, and the
rejection of the democratic candidate precipitated a crisis which had
been long pending.

Slavery was a southern institution, and although it was conducted in the
most humane manner, and many of the worst features of the system were
absent, the principle of slavery was abhorrent to a large section of the
northern people, and the south feared that with the election of Lincoln
this section would become all-powerful. South Carolina was the first
state to assert her sovereign right to secede from the union. Other
states followed slowly and with hesitating steps, and by the end of 1861
the north and south were engaged in mortal combat. The southern states
were ill equipped for the struggle, they had no war material and were
dependent for clothing and many of the necessities of life upon the
northern manufacturers.

The policy of the north was, therefore, to establish a blockade of the
south, both by land and by sea, which caused prices of many commodities
to rapidly advance in the south, and cotton, their main export, to
quickly decline in value.

The English people sympathised with the south, as the weaker power, and
also having been actively associated with them in trade. The arrest of
the southern envoys Mason and Slidell upon the British mail steamer
"Trent," by the federal commander, did not improve the relationship
between Great Britain and the Government at Washington, and created ill
feeling against the north.

Under these circumstances Liverpool merchants fitted out many costly
expeditions to run the blockade and to carry arms and munitions of war
into the southern ports. The _modus operandi_ was to send out a depot
ship to Nassau or Bermuda and employ in connection with this swift
steamers to run the blockade and bring back cargoes of cotton. The
profits of the trade were great, but the risk was also very

The trade at best was a very questionable one; it was justified on the
ground that a blockade cannot be recognised unless effectual. The United
States started with a blockading fleet of 150 vessels, but at the end of
the war they had 750 vessels employed in this service. The blockade
runner had to rely entirely upon her speed, as to fire a gun in her own
defence would at once have constituted her a piratical vessel. The
fastest steamers were bought and built for the purpose. They usually
made the American coast many miles from the port and then under the
cover of darkness they stole along the shore until they came to the
blockading fleet, when they made a dash for the harbour. It was exciting
work, and appealed to many adventurous spirits, and the prize if
successful was great. I think all this had a demoralising influence upon
Liverpool's commercial life, and the intense spirit of speculation
created by the cotton famine was also very injurious. Fortunes were made
and lost in a single day. Prices of cotton, while peace and war hung in
the balance, fluctuated violently, and when war was seen to be
inevitable, they advanced with fearful rapidity. A shilling per lb. was
soon reached. The mills went upon short time. By the summer of 1862
cotton was quoted at 2s 6d per lb. The speculative fever became
universal; men made fortunes by a single deal. When the recoil came
after the war most of these fortunes were lost again. Legitimate trade
had been sacrificed to speculation. Mansions luxuriously furnished,
picture galleries, horses, and carriages had to be sold, and in not a
few instances, their owners, having lost both their legitimate business
and their habits of industry, were reduced to penury and want, and were
never able to recover themselves. The results of the war were
far-reaching. The spirit of speculation was rampant for many years, with
disastrous results; it was only when a system of weekly and bi-weekly
settlements was introduced that speculation was brought within
legitimate limits.

A Nemesis seemed to follow this violent outburst of speculation, and but
few houses actively engaged in it survived very long.

Liverpool was also active in assisting the south to build and fit out
vessels of war to prey upon American commerce. The "Alabama" was built
at Birkenhead; she sailed away to a remote island and there took on
board her armament. She and her sister ship, the "Shenandoah," did
immense damage to American shipping, for which England had in the end
to pay, as by the Geneva arbitration she was held responsible for
allowing the "Alabama" to be built and escape.

American shipping has never recovered from this blow, but it is only
fair to say that the cost of shipbuilding in America, by reason of her
prohibitive tariffs, has mainly prevented her resuming her former
position on the ocean.


Near the close of the war a huge bazaar was held in St. George's Hall,
in aid of the southern prisoners of war. It was designated the Southern
Bazaar, and the stalls were called after the various states, and were
presided over by the leading ladies of the town, assisted by many of the
nobility and society people. It was a brilliant success, money was
plentiful, and men and women vied with each other in scattering it
about. Upwards of £30,000 was realised in the three days.


No account of the doings in Liverpool in the 'sixties would be complete
that did not describe the beginnings of the great volunteer movement,
which was destined to occupy so much public attention, and to form such
an important portion of our national defence. Liverpool can certainly
claim to have initiated the movement. Mr. Bousfield endeavoured to
revive this branch of the service in 1853. A few years later he formed a
drill club, a very modest beginning, consisting of only 100 men, wearing
as their uniform a cap and shell jacket. Captain Bousfield endeavoured
several times to obtain recognition by the Government, but failed; and
he had to encounter a considerable amount of chaff and ridicule. The
public had but little sympathy with the young men who "played at being
soldiers." Captain Bousfield was not discouraged, he loved soldiering
and was an enthusiast, and his opportunity was soon to arrive. In 1859
the Emperor Napoleon III. became very threatening in his words and ways,
and it was apprehended that he might attempt to invade our shores.
Captain Bousfield quickly obtained the support of the Government for his
volunteers, and the 1st Lancashire Volunteer Regiment was formed. The
movement made rapid headway, until we had enrolled in the country
upwards of 300,000 men. Colonel Bousfield soon obtained the command of a
battalion, and in 1860 was presented with a sword of honour and a purse
of £1,800. Liverpool furnished her full quota of volunteers. Colonel
Brown commanded a regiment of artillery: Colonel Tilney the 5th
Lancashire, a crack regiment; Colonel MacCorquodale the Press Guards;
Colonel Bourne, with Major Melly and Captain Hornby (afterwards Colonel
H. H. Hornby), the 1st Lancashire Artillery; Colonel MacIver commanded
1,000 of his own men; and among other active volunteers at this time we
remember Colonel Steble, Colonel Macfie, Colonel Morrison, Colonel Clay,
and many others.

We had also a squadron of cavalry, called the Liverpool Light Horse,
Captain Stone in command. I joined the squadron in 1859, and greatly
fancied myself mounted on one of my father's carriage horses. We
exercised in some fields behind Prospect Vale, Fairfield.

I remember the 1st Lancashire being encamped on the sandhills between
Waterloo and Blundellsands. It was the first time any volunteers had
been under canvas, and the camp was visited by crowds of people.


Liverpool has been always too much absorbed in her commerce to take any
prominent position in the world of literature and education, until
recent years, when we have atoned in some degree for our remissness in
the past, by the founding of our University. Professor Ramsay Muir, in a
recent speech, however, claims that we had a Renaissance in Liverpool in
the early years of the 19th century, when a group of thinkers, scholars,
and writers, finding its centre in William Roscoe, gave to Liverpool a
position and a name in the literary world, and she became a real seat of
literary activity. To that remarkable man, William Roscoe, we owe the
Athenæum, the Literary and Philosophical Society, and the Roscoe
collection of pictures now in the Walker Art Gallery. This intellectual
effort quickly lost its vitality, and for long years the Literary and
Philosophical Society, and the Philomathic Society, struggled alone to
keep burning the light of higher culture and literary activity.

Elementary education was almost entirely in the hands of the Church;
middle class education depended upon the Liverpool Collegiate, the
Mechanic's Institute, afterwards the Liverpool Institute, and the Royal

The fashion of sending boys to our great public schools did not set in
until the 'seventies.

Such was the condition of intellectual life when, in 1880, the Liverpool
University College was established, mainly through the efforts of the
late Earl of Derby, William Rathbone, Christopher Bushell, E. K.
Muspratt, David Jardine, Sir Edward Lawrence, Robert Gladstone, Mr.
Muspratt, Sir John Brunner, John Rankin, and William Johnston. The first
Principal, Dr. Rendall, rendered excellent service in these early
struggling years, which were happily followed by still greater and even
more successful efforts under Vice-Chancellor Dale, resulting in the
granting of a Royal Charter in 1903, and the founding of a University.
The Earl of Derby became Chancellor, and Dr. Dale Vice-Chancellor. The
University has been nobly and generously supported by Liverpool men;
indeed a reference to the calendar fills me with surprise that so much
could have been accomplished within such a brief period. Its work is
making itself felt in the general uplifting of the level of education,
while the presence in Liverpool of such a distinguished body of
professors has had considerable influence in giving a higher and more
intellectual tone to society, and in opening up new avenues for thought
and activity.

We must not omit to record the excellent work done by the School Board.
When first established in 1873, the election of members provoked much
sectarian animosity, but in the course of time, through the exertions of
Mr. Christopher Bushell and Mr. Sam Rathbone, this hindrance to its
success was overcome, and the excellence of its organisation was
generally recognised. Its functions have, during the past few years,
been transferred to the City Council.

One of the results of the School Board was the founding of the Council
of Education, which provided, in the shape of scholarships, the means by
which boys could advance from the elementary school to the higher grade
schools and the universities. Mr. Sam Rathbone, Mr. Gilmour, and Mr.
Bushell were very active in promoting this association.


Society was much more exclusive forty or fifty years ago than it is
to-day. The old Liverpool families were looked up to with much respect.

The American war considerably disturbed Liverpool society, and brought
to the front many new people. Liverpool became more cosmopolitan and
democratic, but there was no serious departure from the old-world
courtesy of manner and decorum in dress until the 'eighties, when it
gradually became fashionable to be less exacting in dress, and the
customs of society grew less conventional.

In the 'sixties people of wealth and position surrounded themselves with
certain attributes of power and wealth, which gave to the populace some
indication of their rank and their social status, and in manners they
were reserved and dignified.

Their homes were in the country or in the fashionable suburbs of the
city, and their importance was measured by the extent of their broad
acres. A house in London, in which they dwelt for three or four months
of the year, was the luxury only of the older families, or of those of
great wealth; the fashion of having a flat in London, with a week-end
cottage in the country, was not known--this has followed the more
democratic tendencies of our times. The bringing of people together in
our railway trains, in steamers, in hotel lounges, and foreign travel,
have had a distinctly levelling influence. In the 'sixties some old
county families still made their annual pilgrimage to visit their
friends in the family coach, and the circle of their acquaintances was
limited and exclusive. The family carriage with the rumble at the back
was a dignified and well-turned-out equipage. The dress carriage, with
powdered footmen, was commonly seen in Hyde Park, and was _de rigeur_ at
Court drawing rooms, then held in the afternoon; the array of carriages
at these functions made a splendid show.

Motors may have the charm of convenience and speed, but can never
replace the smart appearance of the well-turned-out carriage-and-pair.

The 'sixties were the days of crinoline and poke bonnets, and although
the wearing of crinoline was much ridiculed, ladies' dress in those days
was much more becoming and graceful than many of our more recent
fashions, and girls have never looked more fascinating than when they
wore their pretty little bonnets; but perhaps I may be called
old-fashioned; as we grow older our view points change. We had many old
maids in those days--we have none now--and the old ladies with their
hair worn in dainty curls surmounted by a lace cap were picturesque, and
looked their part.

The Wellington rooms, which were opened in 1814, were regarded as the
centre of fashionable society.

These rooms, which are only used five times in each year, are unique in
their exquisite proportions and their charming Adams' decorations
unspoiled by the modern painter and decorator. The floor of the large
ballroom is celebrated for its spring, being, it is stated, suspended by

Admission to the rooms was carefully safeguarded, its members belonging
almost exclusively to the families of position and standing. The balls
were conducted on the strictest lines of propriety, carefully enforced
by vigilant stewards, who would not admit of any rough dancing; and such
a thing as kitchen lancers would not have been tolerated. Six or seven
balls were given each year. The first before Christmas was often called
the dirty-frock ball, as new frocks were reserved for the débutantes'
ball, the first ball of the season. No supper was given, only very light
and indifferent refreshments. The attendance gradually fell away, and it
was felt that the time had arrived when something should be done to
revive their interest. Accordingly, about 1890, during my presidency,
the supper room was enlarged, electric light was introduced, and a
supper with champagne provided, and in order to meet the extra expense
the balls were cut down to five. These changes were very successful in
increasing the attendance. There were great misgivings as to the
introduction of the electric light, and its effect upon the complexions
of the ladies. The old form of illumination by wax candles suffused a
very soft light, but the candles were unreliable and often did damage to
ladies' dresses.

In the 'sixties the only out-door games played were cricket and
croquet. One of the most striking developments of modern days is the
time now devoted to games, especially to golf and lawn tennis. In the
'sixties the facilities for getting about were very limited. The public
conveyances consisted of a few four-horse 'buses, which started from
Castle Street. To-day the bicycle and the motor-car bridge over
distances with rapidity and little fatigue, and make us familiar with
the beauties of our country, which was in old days impossible, while the
electric tram carries the working man to his game at football or to his
cottage in the suburbs. All this is a great gain, adding new interests
to life, and is also very conducive to health and happiness.

The conditions of life during the past fifty years in every grade of
society have greatly improved; they are brighter, healthier and happier.

There has been a decrease in the consumption of alcohol, less
intemperance, and a striking diminution in crime and pauperism. With an
increase of over fifty per cent. in the population there is less crime.

While the necessaries of life have not increased in cost, wages are from
twenty-five to fifty per cent. higher, and the working classes no longer
live in damp cellars or in dark courts and alleys, but have at their
disposal cheerful, sanitary, and convenient homes.



On my return home from Australia and South America I entered my father's
office. It was noted for hard work and late hours. The principals seldom
left for home before seven and eight in the evening, and on Friday
nights, when we wrote our cotton circular, and despatched our American
mail, it was usually eleven o'clock before we were able to get away, and
many of the juniors had to work all night. In those days everything was
done by correspondence, and mail letters often ran to a great length,
frequently ten and twelve pages; and unfortunately the principals wasted
much of their time in the middle of the day. The morning's work always
commenced with reading the letters aloud by the head clerk, and
afterwards the principals gave instructions as to replies to be sent,
and laid out the work for the day.

In those times the business of a merchant's office was much more
laborious, and the risks they ran were greater and longer than they are
to-day, when we have the assistance of telegraphic communication with
all the world. We often refer to the good old days, but they were days
of much anxiety and hard work, and I doubt if the profits were as large;
the risks were certainly much greater, and added to this there was a
constant recurrence of panics. We had a money panic almost every ten
years, 1847, 1857, 1866, of the severity of which we to-day can form
very little idea. It was not merely that the bank rate advanced to
eight, nine, and even ten per cent., but it was impossible to get money
at any price. Bank bills were not discountable, and all kinds of produce
became unsaleable. In addition to these great panics we had frequent
small panics of a very alarming character. I well remember the panics of
1857 and 1866; the intense anxiety and the impossibility of converting
either bills or produce into cash.

The main cause of all these troubles was that the banks kept too small
reserves, and the provisions of the Bank Charter Act of Sir Robert Peel
were too rigid. The object of the Act was to secure the convertibility
of the bank note into gold, and it would no doubt have worked well had
sufficient reserves been kept, but practically the only reserve of gold
was in the Bank of England, and this was frequently allowed to fall as
low as five or six million in notes. All other institutions, both banks
and discount houses, depended upon this reserve, and employed their
entire resources, relying upon discounting with the Bank of England in
an emergency. This emergency arose about every ten years. The Bank of
England was unable to meet the demand--a panic took place, and the bank
had to apply to the Government to suspend the Bank Act, and allow it to
issue bank notes in excess of the amount allowed by the Act. All this
took time, the suspense was terrible, and many banks and honest traders
were cruelly ruined. Immediately the Act was suspended the panic
disappeared as if by magic, and traders began to breathe freely again.

Happily far larger reserves are now held by all banks, and banking
business is also conducted on more prudent lines, and trade generally is
worked on a sounder basis; payment by bills is now the exception;
margins and frequent settlements on our produce exchanges prevent undue
speculation, and the system of arbitration now universal has put a stop
to the constant litigation which was a frequent cause of contention and
trouble and loss of valuable time.

I was admitted a partner in my father's firm on the 1st January, 1862.
The previous year had been a very successful one. My brother Arthur had
visited America, and believing that war between the North and South was
inevitable, had bought cotton very heavily, upon which the firm realised
handsome profits. But it was at the expense of my father's health; the
anxiety was too much for him, and this, coupled with my mother's death
on the 1st August, 1861, so prostrated him, that he was ordered to take
a sea voyage, and it was arranged that I should accompany him.


On the 7th September, 1861, we embarked on board the steamer "Great
Eastern," for New York, the Liverpool dock walls being lined with people
to see the great ship start. She was far and away the largest vessel
built up to that time, being 679 feet long, 83 feet beam, 48 feet deep,
with a tonnage of 18,915; she was propelled by two sets of engines,
paddle and screw. It was a memorable voyage. Three days out we
encountered a heavy gale, which carried away our boats, then our paddle
wheels. Finally our rudder broke, and the huge ship fell helplessly into
the trough of the sea. Here we remained for three days, rolling so
heavily that everything moveable broke adrift, the saloon was wrecked,
and all the deck fittings broke loose. Two swans and a cow were
precipitated into the saloon through the broken skylights. The cables
broke adrift, and swaying to and fro burst through the plating on one
side of the ship. The captain lost all control of his crew, and the
condition of things was rendered still more alarming by the men breaking
into the storerooms and becoming intoxicated. Some of the passengers
were enrolled as guards; we wore a white handkerchief tied round our
arms, and patrolled the ship in watches for so many hours each day.

My father was badly cut in the face and head by being thrown into a
mirror in the saloon, during a heavy lurch. I never knew a ship to roll
so heavily, and her rolls to windward were not only remarkable but very
dangerous, as the seas broke over her, shaking her from stem to stern,
the noise reverberating through the vessel like thunder. We remained in
this alarming condition three days, when chains were fixed to our rudder
head and we were able with our screw-engines to get back to Queenstown.
My father returned home, not caring to venture to sea again, but I
embarked on board the "City of Washington," of the Inman Line, and after
a sixteen-day passage arrived in New York.

An amusing incident occurred during the height of the storm we
experienced in the "Great Eastern." We were rolling heavily, the
condition of the great ship was serious and much alarm was naturally
felt. At this juncture a small brig appeared in sight under close-reefed
sails. As she rode over the big seas like a bird without taking any
water on board, we could not help contrasting her seaworthiness with the
condition of our giant ship, which lay like a log at the mercy of the
waves. The brig seeing our position bore down upon us and came within
hailing distance. My father instructed Captain Walker, of the "Great
Eastern," to enquire if she would stand by us, and to offer her master
£100 per day if he would do so, but no answer came. The little vessel
sailed round us again and again, and the next time she came within
hailing distance my father authorised Captain Walker to say he would
charter the ship, or if necessary buy her, so anxious was he that she
should not leave us. She continued to remain near us all day, and then
the weather moderating she sailed away on her voyage. Two years
afterwards the captain of the brig called at the office, saying he had
been told by a passenger that Mr. Forwood had offered him £100 per day
for standing by the "Great Eastern," and claiming £200, two days'
charter money. I need not say he was not paid, but I think my father
made him a present.


On my arrival in New York I was arrested, searched, and confined in the
Metropolitan Police Station while communications passed with Washington.
On my demanding to be informed of the reason of my detention, the Chief
of Police told me that an Englishman had been hanged by President
Jackson for less than I had done; this was not very cheerful, and he
added he expected orders to send me to Fort Lafayette--the place where
political prisoners were detained--but he declined to give any reason. I
was however released the following day, but kept under the surveillance
of the police, which became so intolerable that I went to Canada, and
returned home through New Brunswick to Halifax. The journey from Quebec
over the frozen lake Temiscuata, through Fredericton to St. John's, was
made on sleighs. I slept one night in the hut of a trapper, another at a
log hut on a portage where I was detained for a day by a snowstorm. An
amusing incident happened on this journey. At Grand Falls I was called
upon by the Mayor, who wished, he said, to show me some attention and
prove his loyalty to the old country, as he understood I was an envoy
going from the Southern States to England. I told him he was mistaken,
but he would not accept my denial, and insisted on driving me part of
the way in his own magnificently appointed sleigh, and giving me a
supper at a place called Tobique. At Halifax another incident befel me.
The hotel in which I stayed was burnt down in the night. I escaped with
my luggage, but none too soon, for the hotel was only a wooden erection
and the fire very quickly destroyed it.

On our arrival home at Queenstown, we heard with great sorrow of the
death of the Prince Albert, and of the probability of war between
England and America, arising out of the "Trent" affair. I received a
communication from the War Office, requesting me to send full notes of
my journey across New Brunswick, giving approximately the size of the
villages and farm buildings I observed, as it was proposed to march
10,000 British troops up by this route to protect Canada.

The reason of my arrest in New York was, I learned, that the authorities
believed that I was conveying despatches and money and intended to cross
the military lines and enter the Southern States. My father's firm being
largely engaged in business with the South, there was some foundation
for this impression. I should add that I received through Secretary
Seward an expression of President Lincoln's regret that I should have
been subjected to arrest, and an intimation that if I visited Washington
he would be glad to see me, but I was then in Canada and did not care to
return to the United States.

Political feeling ran very high in New York. I was passing one afternoon
the St. Nicholas Hotel, Broadway, when I heard someone call out "Sesesh"
(which meant a Southerner), and a man fell, shot down almost at my feet.


The business of the firm of Leech, Harrison and Forwood was mainly that
of commission merchants, and receiving cotton and other produce for sale
on consignment. It was an old firm with the best of credit, and a good
reputation. The business was large but very safe, and we never
speculated. I was very proud of the old concern. The business was
founded in 1785 by Mr. Leech, who took into partnership Mr. James
Harrison, whom I remember as a cadaverous looking old gentleman with a
wooden leg, and as he always wore a white cravat his nickname of
"Death's Head and a Mop Stick" was not inappropriate. He retired about

Shortly after I was admitted a partner my father's health became
indifferent, and at his wish we bought him out of the firm and took over
the business. We decided to also become steamship owners, and by
arrangement with a firm in Hartlepool we became the managing owners of
several steamers, which we put into the West Indian trade in opposition
to Mr. Alfred Holt. We had not been very long in the trade before the
principal shippers, Imrie and Tomlinson and Alex. Duranty and Co., also
formed a line of steamers, and it seemed at the moment as if we must be
crushed out of the trade, the opposition was so formidable; but with the
dogged determination so characteristic of my brother Arthur we
persevered, and in the end forced both our competitors to join us. We
then formed a large company, the West Indian and Pacific Co., which was
an amalgamation of the three concerns, my firm retaining the management.
The business rapidly grew and separate offices had to be taken. For nine
years my brother devoted his time to the management of the steamship
company, leaving me to work our own business. It was a heavy
responsibility for one so young. Our capital was small, and our business
in cotton and in making advances upon shipping property very active, but
we were well supported by our bankers, Leyland and Bullins. I was a
neighbour of Mr. Geo. Arkle, the managing partner, and shall be ever
grateful for the confidence he reposed in us. I remember his sending
for me in 1866, telling me that we were face to face with a panic, and
as he wanted us to feel comfortable we must cheque upon the bank and
take up all our acceptances against shipping property. The system of
banking was then very much a matter of confidence. During the whole of
my business career we never gave our bankers any security. Mr. Arkle
perhaps carried this principle too far. I remember his refusing to open
an account for a man who was introduced to my firm by highly respectable
people in America, and who had brought with him a draft on Barings for
£80,000 as his capital, Mr. Arkle requiring that my brother and I should
ask him to open the account as a guarantee to him that we were satisfied
as to the man's character, to which he attached more value than to his
capital. About the year 1870 we admitted my brother Brittain into
partnership. Prior to this we opened a house in Bombay, which was
managed by my old school friend, G. F. Pim, who was afterwards joined by
my brother George.

We retained the management of the West Indian and Pacific Co. for nine
years. The company had prospered under our care, the shares were at a
premium, and the directors were willing to renew our agreement; but they
wanted my brother Arthur to promise to devote less of his time to
politics; this he was unwilling to do, and so our connection ceased. It
was an unfortunate thing for the firm, but luckily we sold out our
shares at a substantial premium, and formed a new company, the Atlas
Company, to run steamers between New York and the West Indies, my
brother still devoting his time to the Atlas Company's interests, and I
attending to the general business. At this I worked very hard, from
early morning to late in the evening, taking only a fortnight's holiday
each year. The business of the firm prospered greatly. At first our
principal business was receiving consignments of cotton, but these led
to such large reclamations, which were seldom paid by the consignors,
that we were on the alert to find some other way of working our cotton
trade, and a visit I made to Mobile to collect reclamations revealed to
me a secret which for years gave us large profits. I stayed in Mobile
with a Mr. Maury, and found that he was the holder of a very large stock
of cotton, against which he sold cotton for future delivery, which
always commanded a substantial premium in New York. When the time for
delivery came round, he tendered the cotton he had bought; in this way
he made a certain and a handsome profit over and above the holding
expenses. What was possible in New Orleans was, I thought, possible in
Liverpool, and on my return home we commenced this cotton banking
business. It was very profitable, and for some time we had it all to

When we started the Atlas Line in New York, we opened a house under the
title of Pim, Forwood and Co., Mr. Pim leaving Bombay for New York, my
brother George at the same time opening a house for us in New Orleans.
George Pim died in 1878, and my brother George moved from New Orleans to
New York. Here he remained until 1885, when he entered the Liverpool
firm, and my brother Brittain took his place in New York; Brittain
retired in 1885.

Looking back over my business career, it was a period of strenuous hard
work, but of much happiness and great prosperity. It was always a matter
of regret to us that we had not more of the active co-operation of my
brother Arthur, who was a man of singular ability and remarkable power
of organisation. Unfortunately for the firm, from a very early period in
our partnership he devoted most of his time to politics, which led to
his eventually becoming a member of the House of Commons, and in a very
short period Secretary to the Admiralty. In this office, which he held
for six years, he did most excellent work. To use the words of the then
First Lord of the Admiralty--Lord George Hamilton--he made it possible
to build a ship of war in twelve months when it had previously taken
four and five years. The fusion of the Conservative and Unionist parties
prevented my brother's advance to Cabinet rank. He was one of the ablest
men I ever knew, but he had not the faculty of delegating his work; this
and his overmastering determination to carry out everything to which he
put his hand, entailed upon him an amount of personal work and thought
which few men could have borne, and which in the end proved even more
than he could support without loss of nervous power. I was his partner
for twenty-five years and we never had a serious difference of any kind.
He was a candidate for the representation of Liverpool in Parliament in
1882, but was defeated by Mr. Samuel Smith. He afterwards was elected
member for the Ormskirk division, which he represented at the time of
his death in 1898. He was made a Privy Councillor and afterwards created
a baronet.

Liverpool owes much to him, for in every position which he filled, as
Chairman of the Finance Committee and of the Health Committee, and as a
Member of Parliament, he did a great work for the city. In politics he
was _facile princeps_, a born leader of men; he built up the
Conservative party in Lancashire, and kept it together in face of many

It was impossible that a man with such a strong individuality and
determination could avoid making some enemies. He always tried to reach
his goal by the nearest road, even if in doing so he had to tread upon
susceptibilities which might have been conciliated, but withal he was
one of the ablest men Liverpool has produced in recent years; he had at
heart the good of his native city, and no sacrifice of time or thought
was too much if he could only benefit Liverpool or promote the welfare
of the Conservative party. His statue, erected by public subscription,
stands in St. John's Gardens, and each year on the anniversary of his
death a wreath of laurels is placed at its foot by the Constitutional
Association--"Though dead, his spirit still lives."

In 1890 I retired from business at the age of 50. I was tired with the
fag and toil of twenty-five years' strenuous work, but it was a mistake
to retire. The regular calls of one's own affairs are less trying than
the irregular demands of public work. _Punch's_ advice to those about to
marry, "Don't," is equally applicable to those about to retire from



My public life began in 1867, when I was 27 years of age. I then joined
the Council of the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce. In the following year
(1868) I was elected the President of the Liverpool Philomathic Society,
a position I was very proud of. The Society at that time possessed many
excellent speakers; we had among others Charles Clark, John Patterson,
and James Spence.

During the year I was President, Professor Huxley came down and
delivered his famous address on "Protoplasm: or the beginnings of life,"
and this started a discussion upon the evolution of life, which has
continued to this day. Professor Huxley was my guest at Seaforth and was
a very delightful man. We had also a visit from Professor Huggins, now
the revered President of the Royal Society. He greatly charmed us with
his spectroscope, which he had just invented. I had an observatory at
the top of my house at Seaforth, with a fair-sized astronomical
telescope. The professor gave us some very interesting little lectures
upon his discoveries of the composition of the various stars and

In November of the same year I was invited to offer myself as a
candidate for the Town Council to represent Pitt Street Ward, in
succession to Mr. S. R. Graves, M.P. My opponent was Mr. Steel, whom I
defeated, polling 189 votes against his 135 votes. I represented Pitt
Street for nine years, and every election cost me £150. I do not know
what became of the money, but Pitt Street was a very strange

Looking back it seems to me that the Town Council was composed of
Goliaths in those days, men of large minds, and that our debates were
conducted with a staid decorum and order which have long since
disappeared. William Earle, J. J. Stitt, Charles Turner, M.P., F. A.
Clint, Edward Whitley, J. R. Jeffery, are names which come back to me as
prodigies of eloquence. I remember venturing to make a modest speech
shortly after I was elected, and one of the seniors touching me on the
shoulder and saying, "Young man, leave speaking to your elders"; but
they did queer things in those good old days. Many of the aldermen were
rarely seen; they only put in an appearance on the 9th November to
record their vote on the election of the Mayor.

I was early placed on a deputation to London. I think there were six or
seven deputations in London at one time, each attended by a deputy town
clerk. We stayed at the Burlington Hotel, and had seats provided for us
in the theatre and opera, and carriages to drive in the parks. It was
said that the bill at the Burlington Hotel, at the end of that
Parliamentary session, was "as thick as a family Bible."


In 1870 I was elected Vice-President of the Chamber of Commerce,
becoming the President in 1871, and was also made a Fellow of the Royal
Statistical Society of London. My work at the chamber was very pleasant
and congenial, and together with the late Mr. Lamport, Mr. Philip
Rathbone, and Mr. John Patterson, we did a good deal in moulding the
commercial legislation of that time, the Merchant Shipping Bill and the
Bankruptcy Bill being drafted by our Commercial Law Committee.

In 1878 the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce was reconstituted, the old
chamber having got into bad repute through becoming too political. The
election of the president of the re-organised chamber was left to the
vote of the three thousand subscribers to the Exchange News Room. Eight
names were submitted, and I was elected president for the second time.
During the following three years excellent work was done by the chamber,
it became very influential with the Government and took rank as the
first chamber in the country. We declined all invitations to be
associated with other chambers, deeming that Liverpool was sufficiently
strong and powerful to stand alone, and in this I think we acted wisely.


The American Chamber of Commerce existed for the purpose of safeguarding
the interests of the American trade, and was supported by dues levied on
every bale of cotton imported into Liverpool. In its day it did great
and useful work, and accumulated quite a large capital, which it spent
in giving very gorgeous banquets to the American Ministers and
distinguished strangers. I became president of this chamber in 1872, and
during my term of office we entertained General Skenk, the new American
Minister, and others.


In 1873 an attempt was made by the London and North-Western Railway to
amalgamate with the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. This aroused great
indignation. Liverpool was already suffering severely from the high
railway charges levied upon her commerce, and it was feared that the
proposed amalgamation would increase these charges. Meetings were held,
and in the end all the towns in Lancashire and Yorkshire were invited to
join with Liverpool in opposing the scheme in Parliament. I was elected
the chairman of this Joint Committee, and we inaugurated an active
Parliamentary campaign. We induced Parliament to remit the bill to a
joint Committee of Lords and Commons. The bill was thrown out, and our
suggestion that a railway tribunal to try cases of unfair charges should
be formed was accepted, and is now known as the Railway Commission; but
by a strange irony of fate, it has become too expensive to be used by
the users of the railways, and is now mainly occupied in settling
differences between railway companies themselves.


In 1877 there was some friction between the various cotton interests,
brokers, and merchants, and an association--entitled "The United Cotton
Association"--was formed to endeavour to bring all the branches of the
trade together and to remodel the rules, and I was elected chairman. Up
to this time the Brokers' Association ruled the market, and as many
brokers had become also merchants it was felt that some re-arrangement
of the relative positions of brokers and merchants was necessary. The
position of chairman was one of considerable delicacy, as a very
unpleasant feeling had grown up between merchants and brokers, and there
existed considerable friction; however, in the end we managed to compose
these difficulties and to lay the foundation of the Cotton Association
which now rules the trade.


An International Cotton Convention was held in Liverpool, also in 1877;
it was composed of delegates from all the cotton exchanges of America
and those on the Continent. I was appointed the president; our meetings
extended over ten days and were interspersed with excursions and
entertainments. The convention was productive of much advantage to the
trade, in ensuring a better supervision of the packing, weighing and
shipment of cotton from America, and I think the measures taken
practically put an end to the system of false packing which had become
so injurious to the cotton business.


In 1880 I was elected Mayor of Liverpool, an honour which I very greatly
esteemed. It was an eventful year, for many distinguished strangers
visited Liverpool. General Sir Frederick Roberts came as the hero of the
hour after his wonderful march from Cabul to Candahar. He was
entertained at a banquet, and an At Home at the Town Hall, and he with
Lady Roberts stayed with us for three days at Blundellsands.

Among other visitors we entertained were Lord Lytton, then
Governor-General of India; and King Kallikahua, the King of the Sandwich
Islands. His Majesty was very dignified, and accepted quite as a matter
of course the royal salutes fired by the guard ship in the river as we
passed by in the Dock Board tender. At the banquet in the evening I was
warned by his equerry that I must try and prevent His Majesty imbibing
too freely. It was not an easy thing to do, but to the surprise of my
guests I stopped the wine and ordered cigars; this had the desired
effect. I believe this was the first time smoking was allowed at a Town
Hall banquet.

The King had with him a big box full of Palais Royal decorations which
he showed me, but with which, fortunately, he did not offer to decorate


Our heaviest function at the Town Hall was the reception and
entertainment of the Prince and Princess of Wales on the occasion of the
opening of the new north docks.

The Prince and Princess stayed with Lord Sefton at Croxteth, and their
children, the three Princesses, stayed at Knowsley, Lord Sefton's
children having the measles.

The day of the Royal Visit was lovely. We met the Prince and Princess at
the city boundary, Newsham Park, proceeding thither in the mayor's
carriage, drawn by four horses with postillions and out-riders. After
presenting the Princess with a bouquet we followed to the landing
stage, where the royal party embarked on the river for the new docks.
The course of the royal yacht was kept by our large Atlantic liners, and
by several battleships. The Princess christened the new Alexandra dock
and then we adjourned to a lunch in one of the large sheds, and after
lunch the Prince and Princess entered the mayor's carriage and drove to
the Town Hall, where an address was presented to them.

The Fenians had been very active in Liverpool, and during the evening at
Croxteth I was told by the aide-de-camp that the Prince had received
several threatening letters, to which his Royal Highness paid no
attention, but he would be glad to know if every precaution had been
taken for the Prince's safety. Although I was able to assure him that
every precaution would be taken, this intimation made me feel anxious
and I drove from Croxteth to the police station in Liverpool to consult
with the superintendents as to what more could be done. We were
compelled to drive the Prince and Princess for two miles through that
portion of the town inhabited by the Irish; we therefore decided to
quicken the pace of the carriage procession, and to instruct the
out-riders to ride close in to the wheels of the royal carriage. These
precautions were however fortunately not necessary, for right along
Scotland Road the Prince and Princess had the heartiest reception, and
when we turned out of Byrom Street into Dale Street it was with a sense
of relief that I turned to the Prince and said, "Sir, you have passed
through the portion of Liverpool in which 200,000 Irish people reside."
He replied, "I have not heard a 'boo' or a groan; it has been simply

We had taken some trouble to obtain a very pretty jewelled
bouquet-holder for the Princess, and it was sent to the florist who was
making the bouquet. In the morning he brought it to the Adelphi Hotel,
broken in two. I showed it to Admiral Sir Astley Cooper, who was one of
the suite. He said, "Whatever you do, have it repaired." Every shop was
shut, the day being a general holiday. The boots at the hotel at last
thought of a working plumber, and to his hands the repairs were
entrusted. All he could do was to solder the handle to the
bouquet-holder, and he did this in such a clumsy fashion that great
"blobs" of solder protruded themselves all round; but it held together
and the bouquet was duly presented by the Mayoress. During the drive
from the dock the Princess, showing me the holder, exclaimed how lovely
it was; alas! my eyes could only see the "blobs" of solder! At Croxteth
that evening, while the presents were being exhibited to the guests, the
holder broke in two, and the story had to be told.

The three young princesses were entertained all day at the Town Hall by
my daughters. Princess Maud managed to evade the vigilant eyes of Miss
Knollys, and unattended made her way into Castle Street amid the crowd.


For six weeks in 1903 I again occupied the civic chair. In January of
that year the Lord Mayor, Mr. Watson Rutherford, was anxious to become a
candidate for Parliament, a vacancy having arisen in the West Derby
Ward. As Lord Mayor he could not act as his own returning officer, and
it became necessary that he should resign his office for a time. Both
political parties in the Council were good enough to invite me to accept
the position, and thus I became Lord Mayor for the brief period I have
mentioned. Mr. Rutherford, on retiring, informed me that he had already
spent all the allowance, and all he could offer me were a few cigars.
The duration of my reign was too short to admit of much entertaining,
but I welcomed the opportunity of showing hospitality to many of my old
colleagues and friends.



My year of office as Mayor was made very anxious by the aggressive
tactics of the Fenian agitators. A bomb was placed at the side door of
the Town Hall, and exploded, breaking in the door, destroying the
ceiling and window of the mayor's dressing-room and doing considerable
damage to the furniture. The bomb consisted of a piece of iron gas
piping about 3 inches in diameter and 18 inches long, filled with
explosives and iron nails. The miscreants, after lighting the fuse, ran
away; but the Town Hall was watched by a double cordon of police; the
first took up the chase, the second joined in, and the two men
eventually jumped into a canal boat filled with manure, and were then
secured. They were tried, and sentenced to fourteen years' penal
servitude. They were two Irish stokers, mere tools in the hands of an
Irish-American, who had planned the blowing up of all our public
buildings, but managed to get away. An attempt was also made on the
Custom House, but failed.

The Home Secretary, Sir William Harcourt, was much exercised by the
position of things in Liverpool, and telegraphed to me enquiring how
many troops were available in Liverpool. I replied fifty, of whom
twenty-five were raw recruits. Next morning the General in command at
York called at the Town Hall, and stated that he had been instructed to
send 2,000 infantry, and two squadrons of cavalry, and wished me to
arrange for their accommodation. He startled me by adding, "I should
like to send you a Gatling gun; they are grand things for clearing the
streets." I felt this was getting serious. I assured him that we did not
apprehend any grave trouble, or disturbances, and if it was known that I
had consented to a Gatling gun being sent for the purpose he mentioned,
I should make myself most unpopular, and that I hoped that the troops
would be sent down gradually so as not to cause alarm. We arranged to
place some of the troops at Rupert Lane, and some in volunteer
drillsheds, but several hundred had to be quartered in the guard ship on
the Mersey. All this was carried out so quietly that no notice of it
appeared in the newspapers. We were congratulating ourselves upon the
success of our scheme, when I received a note from Lord Chief Justice
Coleridge, then presiding at the assizes, requiring my presence at St.
George's Hall. I immediately obeyed the summons, and was ushered into
the judge's private room. The Chief Justice at once stated that he was
informed that a large number of troops had been brought into the town,
without his sanction as the Judge of Assize. In vain I pleaded my
ignorance that his Lordship's permission was necessary, that the troops
had not been requisitioned by me, but had been sent by orders of the
Home Secretary. His Lordship was much annoyed and said I ought to have
known that a Judge of Assize was the Queen's representative, and no
troops could be moved during an assize without the judge's sanction. His
anger was however short-lived; he came to dine with me at the Town Hall
the same evening, and made a capital speech, as he always did, and the
morning's episode was not again mentioned.

Things in Liverpool continued very unsettled and anxious, and to add to
the difficulty a strike began. We were obliged to show the troops; the
cavalry paraded the line of docks for two or three days, producing an
excellent effect.

The Home Secretary was very anxious, and wrote to me long letters. The
chief constable, Major Greig, was away ill, and this threw much
responsibility upon the mayor. We were able to collect much information,
which led to the arrest of many notable Fenians, and we stopped the
importation of several consignments of infernal machines. An amusing
incident occurred in connection with one of these. We were informed that
a consignment of thirty-one barrels of cement was coming from New York
by a Cunard steamer, each barrel containing an infernal machine. We
placed a plain clothes officer in the Cunard office to arrest whoever
might claim the cement, which, however, no one did, and we took charge
of the casks as they were landed. Several casks were sent up to the
police office and were there opened and the machines taken out. I was
asked to go down to see the machines, and found them lying on a table in
the detective office, several police officers being gathered round. I
lifted the cover of one; a rolled spill of paper was inserted in the
clock work; this I withdrew, and immediately the works started in
motion, and with equal rapidity the police vanished from the room. I
simply placed my hand on the works and stopped them, and invited the
police to return. On unrolling the spill of paper I found it to be one
of O'Donovan Rossa's billheads; he was at that time the leader of the
Fenian brotherhood in America.

The machines were neatly made; on the top were the clock works, which
could be regulated to explode at a given time the six dynamite
cartridges enclosed in the chamber below.

Having taken all the machines out of the casks of cement, the difficulty
arose what to do with them, and eventually we chartered a tug and threw
them overboard in one of the sea channels.

An amusing incident occurred showing how excited public feeling was at
the time. I was sitting one morning at the table in the Mayor's parlour
in the Town Hall, when I heard a crash of broken glass, and a large,
black, ugly-looking object fell on the floor opposite to me. I rang the
bell and the hall porter came in; I said, "What is that?" "A bomb!" he
exclaimed, and immediately darted out of the room, but he had no sooner
done so than he returned with a policeman, who exclaimed, "Don't be
alarmed, sir, it's only an old pensioner's cork leg." A crowd had
collected in the street outside, in the centre of which was the old
pensioner, who was violently expostulating. On ordering the police to
bring him inside, he said he was very sorry if he had done wrong, but he
was so angry at the many holes in the street pavements, in which he
caught his wooden leg, that he had adopted this rather alarming method
of bringing his complaint under the notice of the Mayor and the
authorities. The cork leg, both in form and colour, much resembled a
bomb made out of a gas pipe, of which we had seen several at the Town

At the end of my year of office I received the thanks of the Home
Secretary, Sir William Harcourt, for my assistance and, at his request,
I pursued enquiries in America which had an important bearing in
checking the Fenian movement at that time.

[Illustration: LIVERPOOL TOWN HALL.]



The council chamber in the Town Hall has of late years undergone many
alterations. In my early experience it occupied only part of the present
site, and at the eastern end we had a luncheon room. It was a shabby
chamber, badly heated and ventilated; the Mayor's chair was placed on a
raised dais at the western end, and the members of the Council sat at
long mahogany tables running lengthwise. It was a comfortless room, and
very cold in winter.

The Council met at eleven in the morning, adjourned for lunch at one
o'clock, and usually completed its labours by four or five o'clock in
the afternoon. But we had periods when party feeling ran high, and
obstructive tactics were adopted. At such times we not infrequently sat
until ten o'clock at night. Most of these battles took place upon
licensing questions in which the late Mr. Alex. Balfour, Mr. Simpson, of
landing stage fame, and Mr. McDougal took a leading part.

It was the practice to deliver long and well considered speeches. Some
of these were excellent, many very dreary. The present conversational
debates would not have been tolerated. We had some very able speakers,
of whom I think the most powerful was Mr. Robertson Gladstone, the elder
brother of the late Premier. He seldom spoke, but when he did he gave
utterance to a perfect torrent of eloquence which seemed to bear
everything before it. He was a remarkable man in many ways, very tall of
stature, and broad in proportion, he wore a low-crowned hat and used to
drive down in a small four-wheeled dogcart. He delighted to give any old
woman a lift, and every Saturday morning he visited the St. John's
market, and took infinite pleasure in bargaining with the market folk.
Mr. J. J. Stitt was also a very fluent and effective speaker, perhaps
too much after the debating society style. Mr. J. R. Jeffery was a good
speaker, so was Mr. William Earle. One of the most useful men in the
Council was Mr. Weightman, who had been the Surveyor to the Corporation,
and became a most efficient Chairman of the Finance Committee. One of
the most laborious members was Mr. Charles Bowring, the father of Sir
William Bowring, Bart. Mr. Bowring was for years Chairman of the Health
Committee. He had a big and difficult work to do, but he did it well,
and was always courteous and considerate. Mr. Beloe was at that time
Chairman of the Water Committee, and was largely responsible for the
Rivington water scheme. I think Mr. Sam Rathbone was one of the most
cultured and able men we ever had in the Council. He spoke with
knowledge and much elegance, and everything he said was refined and
elevating. Mr. John Yates--"honest John Yates"--was a frequent speaker,
and always with effect. Mr. Barkeley Smith was our best and most ready
debater, Mr. Clarke Aspinall our most humorous speaker.

The first important debate which took place in the Council after I
entered it was on the proposal to purchase land from Lord Sefton for the
purpose of making Sefton Park. It was a prolonged discussion and the
decision arrived at shows that the Council in those days was long
sighted and able to take large views and do big things. Not only was
power taken to purchase land for Sefton Park but also to make Newsham
and Stanley Parks, costing in all £670,000; and this movement to provide
open spaces has continued to this day, and has been supplemented by
private munificence, until Liverpool is surrounded by a belt of parks
and open spaces containing upwards of 1,000 acres, and in addition many
churchyards have been turned into gardens, and small greens have been
provided in various parts.

I have often been asked if the work of the city was as well done with a
Council of 64 as it is now with a Council of 134. I think the smaller
Council took a more personal interest in the work. The Committees were
smaller and better attended, and the Council more thoroughly discussed
the subjects brought before them. With the larger Council and larger
Committees more work and more responsibility falls upon the chairman and
the permanent officials. I fear the larger and more democratic Council
scarcely appreciates this fact, also they fail to see that if you want
good permanent officials you must pay them adequately. We have
fortunately to-day an excellent staff who do their work well with a full
sense of their responsibility.

One peculiarity of the larger Council is the time given to the
discussion of small matters, and the little consideration given to large
questions of policy and finance. This I attribute to the fact that the
Council contains many representatives who have not been accustomed to
deal with large affairs, and who refrain from discussing what they do
not fully understand. In this respect I think the present Council shows
to some disadvantage.

An immense work has been done municipally during this period in
re-modelling and re-making Liverpool. In the 'sixties the streets of
Liverpool were narrow and irregular, the paving and scavenging work was
imperfectly done, the system of sewerage was antiquated, and the homes
in which her working people had to live were squalid and insanitary;
cellar dwellings were very general. To change all this demanded a great
effort and a large expenditure of money, but in the 'seventies and
'eighties we had men in the Council capable of taking large views.

Although the improvement of Liverpool has been so remarkable, it is
difficult to say to whom it is mainly due; there have been so many
active public-spirited men who have given the best of their time and
thought to the promotion of municipal undertakings. Liverpool has been
fortunate in possessing so many sons who have taken an active interest
in her welfare, and have done their work quietly and unobtrusively. The
re-making of Liverpool has been accomplished in the quiet deliberation
of the committee room, and not in the council chamber.


The hospitalities of the Town Hall were in my early years limited to
dinners, and most of these took place in the small dining room, which
will only accommodate about forty guests. When the fleet visited
Liverpool the Mayor gave a ball, but these occasions were rare. To
Dowager Lady Forwood, who was Mayoress in 1877, the credit belongs of
introducing the afternoon receptions, which have proved so great an
attraction. The Town Hall and its suite of reception rooms are unique,
and although built over 100 years ago, are sufficiently commodious for
the social requirements of to-day. The late King, when Prince of Wales,
on his visit to Liverpool in 1881, remarked to me that next to those in
the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg he considered them the best
proportioned rooms in Europe.

The Lord Mayor receives an allowance of £2,000, and is in addition
provided with carriages and horses. In olden time this allowance was
ample, but it is no longer so, and it is impossible to maintain the old
traditional hospitality of the Town Hall unless the Lord Mayor expends a
further £2,000 out of his own pocket, and many Lord Mayors have
considerably exceeded this sum. It has often been urged that the
allowance should be increased. I doubt if this is desirable. The
invitations to Town Hall functions might be more strictly limited to
representative people, or the entertainments might, as in Manchester, be
placed in the hands of a Committee, but it must not be forgotten that
more is expected of the Lord Mayor in Liverpool than in other places. He
is not only the head of the municipality, but of all charitable and
philanthropic work. The initiation of every undertaking, national as
well as local, emanates from the Town Hall. All this throws upon the
Lord Mayor duties which directly and indirectly involve the dispensing
of hospitality, and I do not think the citizens would wish it should be

Although Mr. Alderman Livingston was always supposed to have a candidate
ready for the office of Mayor, and loved to be known as the "Mayor
maker," the finding of a candidate for the office has not been always
easy. I remember in 1868 we had some difficulty. The caucus decided to
invite Mr. Alderman Dover to accept the office. I was deputed to obtain
Mr. Dover's consent. I found him at the Angel Hotel smoking a long
churchwarden clay pipe; when I told him my mission he smiled and replied
that his acceptance was impossible, and one of the reasons he gave was
that if his wife once got into the gilded coach she would never get out
of it again. However, after much persuasion he accepted the office, and
made a very good and a very original Mayor. In those days we had a
series of recognised toasts at all the Town Hall banquets:

                  "_The Queen_,"
     "_The Prince and Princess of Wales, and the
        other Members of the Royal Family_,"
              "_The Bishop and Clergy,
        and Ministers of other denominations_,"
     "_The Army and Navy and Auxiliary Forces_,"

and very frequently

     "_The good old town and the trade thereof_."

This was a very serious list, as it involved two or three speakers being
called upon to reply for the church and the army. Mr. Dover prepared
three speeches for each toast, which he carefully wrote out and gave to
the butler, with instructions to take a careful note of those present,
and to hand him the speech which he considered had not been heard before
by his guests. So the butler, after casting his eye over the tables,
would hand a manuscript to the Mayor, saying "I think, your Worship, No.
2, 'Royal Family,' will do this evening." At the close of his mayoralty
he offered to sell his speeches to his successor, and he handed to the
charities a cheque for £500, which he had saved out of his allowance as


On entering the Council in 1868 I was placed upon the Watch Committee,
and remained on that committee for fifteen years. The work was of a very
routine character; we had, however, an excellent chairman in Mr. F. A.
Clint, and I have never forgotten the lessons I received from him in the
management of a committee, and how to get the proceedings of a committee
passed by the Council. "Never start a hare" was his motto, "you never
know how it will run, and the amount of discussion it may provoke."
Another lesson which he taught me was always to take the Council into
your confidence. "Tell them everything, and if you make a mistake own up
to it;" and there can be no doubt that there is great wisdom in adopting
this course. Deliberative assemblies are naturally critical and
suspicious: but treat them with confidence and they will return it; once
deceive them, or keep back what they are entitled to know, and your task
thereafter becomes very difficult.

Mr. Alderman Livingston was the deputy-chairman, and was quite a
character in his way. In personal appearance he resembled Mr. Pickwick,
and his ways were essentially Pickwickian. In the selection of Mayors he
was always very much in evidence, and he was before everything a Tory of
Tories. Politics were his delight, and even when quite an old man he did
not shirk attending the November ward meetings, where his oracular and
often amusing speeches were greatly enjoyed by the electors.

At one period during the agitation against licensees of public-houses,
the Watch Committee was composed of all the members of the Council with
Mr. S. B. Guion as chairman; and the committee met in the Council
Chamber, but a committee of this size was too unwieldy for
administrative business, and the arrangement did not last long.


The original George's Landing Stage was replaced by a new one in 1874,
and this was connected with the floating bridge and the Prince's stage,
the whole forming one floating stage, 2,200 feet in length. On the 28th
July, a few days after the completion of this work, I was attending the
Watch Committee when word reached us that the landing stage was on fire.
We could scarcely believe the report, as it was about the last thing we
thought likely to be burnt. We hurried down to find the report only too
true; huge volumes of dense black smoke enveloped all the approaches.
The fire, commencing at the foot of the northern bridge leading to the
George's stage, spread with great rapidity. The fire engines were
brought on the stage and immense volumes of water were poured upon the
burning deck, but the woodwork was so heavily impregnated with tar that
the flames were irresistible. We worked all afternoon and all night, and
in the end only succeeded in saving the centre of the stage at the foot
of the floating bridge, for a length of about 150 feet. And this was
only done by cutting a wide gap at either end, over which the fire could
not leap. It was very arduous, trying work, as the fumes from the tar
and creosoted timber were very nauseating. The portion salved was very
valuable in preserving a place for the Birkenhead boats. The other
ferries had to land and embark their passengers from temporary platforms
and the adjacent dock walls.


In the 'seventies I joined the Water Committee, at a time when further
supplies of water for Liverpool had become a pressing necessity. We had
opened the Beloe "dry dock" at Rivington (so called because many people
believed when this reservoir was being made it would never be filled),
and it was felt that no further supply could be obtained from this
source; nor could we rely upon any further local supply from the red
sandstone, although Mr. Alderman Bennett made long speeches in his
endeavour to prove that the supply from the red sandstone was far from
being exhausted.

POWIS, 1881.]

When it was decided to seek for a new watershed our attention was first
directed to the moors round about Bleasdale, some ten miles north of
Preston, but the prospective supply was not sufficiently large. We then
turned our attention to Hawes Water, in Cumberland, the property of Lord
Lonsdale, and appointed a deputation to inspect this lake. We dined and
stayed all night at Lowther Castle, and drove to the lake next morning.
We came away much impressed with the quality of the water and the
cleanness of the watershed, as there were no peat mosses or boggy lands
to discolour the water.

Mr. Deacon, our young water engineer, had however a more ambitious
scheme in view; he proposed to impound the head waters of the Severn in
the valley of the Vyrnwy. The battle of the watersheds, Hawes Water
_versus_ the Vyrnwy, was waged furiously for several years. The
committee made many visits to the Vyrnwy, taking up its abode at the
Eynant Shooting Lodge, a very picturesque spot (now submerged) standing
at the western end of the lake. Mr. Wilson and Mr. Anthony Bower, the
chairman and deputy-chairman of the committee, were strongly in favour
of the Vyrnwy scheme.

Alderman Bennett continued to be the persistent advocate of obtaining
additional supplies from the wells, and his opposition to every other
scheme was only set at rest by the Council authorising Mather and Platt
to put a bore-hole down at Bootle at a point which he selected; with the
result that no water was found. During all this period Mr. J. H. Wilson
had a very arduous task, demanding great patience and endurance, and to
him and to Mr. Deacon belong the credit of ultimately securing the
adoption of the Vyrnwy scheme.

I led the section of the committee in favour of the Hawes Water scheme.
There was no question as to the Vyrnwy yielding an abundant supply, but
the opposition contended that it was brown peaty water, and would remain
brownish after being treated by filtration, and the cost would greatly
exceed that of Hawes Water. I spent days on the moors at Vyrnwy
collecting samples of water. My samples were brown and bad; the samples
collected by Mr. Deacon, on the contrary, were clear and translucent.
The committee were divided as to the relative merits of the two schemes,
and the Council were equally divided.

When the question came for the ultimate decision of the Council the
debate lasted two days, and I spoke for one hour and a half. We thought
the Hawes Water scheme was winning, when the Mayor, Mr. Thomas Royden,
rose and spoke for half an hour all in favour of the Vyrnwy. His speech
turned many waverers, and the Council voted in favour of the Vyrnwy by
a small majority of three.

It was a great debate, perhaps the most important we have had in the
Council, certainly in my time. Mr. Royden (now Sir Thomas Royden, Bart.)
was an effective speaker, both in the Council and on the platform; his
voice and his genial smile were a valuable asset of the Conservative

I was greatly assisted in drawing up a pamphlet in favour of Hawes
Water, and in conducting the opposition, by the town clerk, Mr. Joseph
Rayner. Mr. Rayner was an exceedingly able man, but unfortunately died
comparatively young.

It fell to my lot, as Mayor in 1881, to take the Council to lay the
foundation stone of the great Vyrnwy dam. It was on a very hot day in
July; the stone was laid by the Earl of Powis, who made a very eloquent
and poetical address, comparing the Vyrnwy with the fountain of Arethusa
which would spring up and fructify the valley, and convey untold
blessings to the great community in the far-off city of Liverpool.

The building of the dam, and the laying out of the banks of the lake,
called for many charming visits to the Vyrnwy; and although I was not in
favour of the adoption of this scheme I now believe on the whole the
Council did the wisest thing, as there can be no question of the
abundance of the supplies secured by the city.


For twelve years I was chairman of this committee, and had much
interesting work to carry through Parliament. The widening of St.
Nicholas' Place and the throwing of part of St. Nicholas' churchyard
into the street was a great improvement, relieving the congestion of
traffic at this point.

We also endeavoured, during my term of office, to extend the boundaries
of the city. We had a fierce fight in the House of Commons. The local
boards of the districts we intended to absorb assailed us with a perfect
torrent of abuse, and criticised severely our system of local
government. We failed to carry our bill, the chairman of the committee
remarking that Parliament would not grant any extension of city
boundaries when it was objected to by the districts to be absorbed; but
he added, "We are quite satisfied from the evidence you have given that
Liverpool is excellently governed in every department." We made a
mistake in pushing forward this bill on "merits" only, we should have
done some missionary work beforehand, and arranged terms and conditions
with our neighbours. My successor in the chair of this committee, Sir
Thomas Hughes, profited by our experience, and succeeded where we

We were greatly assisted in our Parliamentary work by Mr. Harcourt E.
Clare, who was most able and diplomatic, and an excellent negotiator.
His appointment as Clerk of the County Council, though a gain to the
county, was a serious loss to Liverpool.


With the attitude of Liverpool in regard to the construction of the
Manchester Ship Canal I was very prominently identified. I had to
conduct the opposition to the Canal Bill through three sessions of
Parliament, six enquiries in all. The Dock Board took the labouring oar,
but it fell to me to work up the commercial case, to prove from a
commercial point of view that the canal was not wanted, and would never
pay. I prepared a great mass of figures, and was under examination
during the six enquiries altogether about thirty hours. Mr. Pember,
Q.C., who led the case for the promoters, paid me the compliment of
saying I was the only witness he had ever had who had compelled him to
get up early in the morning to prepare his cross-examination.

We defeated the bill in the first two enquiries. At the close of the
second enquiry Mr. Lyster, the engineer to the Mersey Docks and Harbour
Board, completely gave the Dock Board case away. Mr. Pember remarked:
"Mr. Lyster, you have told us that if we make our canal through the
centre of the estuary of the Mersey we shall cause the estuary to silt
up and destroy the bar. What would you do if you had to make a canal to
Manchester?" Mr. Lyster jumped at the bait, and replied, "I should enter
at Eastham and carry the canal along the shore until I reached Runcorn,
and then I would strike inland." Next year the Manchester Corporation
brought in a new bill carrying out Mr. Lyster's suggestion, and as
Liverpool had no answer they succeeded in getting their bill.

There can be no doubt that the railways had for long years greatly
overcharged their Liverpool traffic. The rate of 12s 6d per ton for
Manchester goods for the thirty-two miles' carriage from Manchester to
Liverpool was a gross overcharge. I had headed deputation after
deputation to the London and North-Western Railway to represent this;
Mr. Moon (afterwards Sir Richard Moon) always received us with much
civility, but nothing was done. The Dock Board had the remedy in their
own hands; they could have bought the Bridgewater Canal, and made a
competitive route; but the prosperity of Liverpool was great, and they
altogether failed to see that Manchester, with its Ship Canal, might one
day be a serious competitor to Liverpool.

The promoters of the Ship Canal secured an option over the Bridgewater
Canal, and this was really the backbone of their scheme. At the close of
the first parliamentary enquiry, when the Canal Bill was thrown out, Mr.
Wakefield Cropper, the chairman of the Bridgewater Canal, came to me
and said, "The option given to the Ship Canal people has expired; can
you not persuade the Dock Board to buy up the Bridgewater Canal, and
this will put an end to the Ship Canal project?" I walked across the
Green Park with Mr. T. D. Hornby, the chairman of the Dock Board, and
Mr. Squarey, the solicitor, and told them of this conversation, and they
both agreed with me that the Dock Board ought to make the purchase, but,
unfortunately, nothing was done. In the following year the Ship Canal
Bill was again thrown out, and Mr. Cropper again urged that we should
secure the Bridgewater Canal. I called at the Liverpool Dock office in
London and saw Mr. Hornby and Mr. Squarey; they both agreed that the
purchase of the Bridgewater Canal ought to be made, but again no step
was taken, and the Ship Canal made their third application to
Parliament, and succeeded. I have always felt that the Dock Board thus
missed a great opportunity, which in years to come may prove to have
been the golden chance of securing the prosperity of the port.


One of the most important enquiries in which I engaged was into our
system of fines on renewals of the leases of the property belonging to
the Corporation.

The Corporation owns a very large estate within the city. The first
important purchase was made by the Corporation in 1674, when a lease
for 1,000 years was obtained from Sir Caryl Molyneux, of the Liverpool
Heath, which bounded the then town of Liverpool on its eastern side.
This land had been sold on seventy-five years' leases, and as the leases
ran out the lessees had the option of renewal on the payment of a fine;
and in order to encourage the frequent renewal of these leases the fines
during the first twenty years of a lease were made very light. It has
been the practice of the Corporation to use the fines received as income
in the year in which they are received. The fines received in the fifty
years, 1835 to 1885, amounted to £1,762,000. This system of finance is
radically wrong. The fines ought to be invested in annuities, and if
this had been done these fines would now have returned an income of
£66,000 per annum, and would have gone on increasing.

The committee, of which I was the chairman, held a prolonged enquiry,
and examined many experts and actuaries, and our report is to-day the
standard authority on the leasehold question. Our conclusions and
recommendations are as sound to-day as they were then, but unfortunately
the Council declined to accept or adopt them, and we still pursue the
economically bad system of spending in the first year the fine which
should be spread over the term of the lease.

When I retired from the Library, Museum, and Arts Committee in 1908, I
was invited to take the chair of the Estate Committee, and found myself
again face to face with the leasehold question. The revenue of the
Corporation from fines on renewal of leases had fallen off to so
alarming an extent that something had to be done to stop the shrinkage
in revenue and restore the capital value of the estate. We had for so
long used the fines as income that the position was a difficult one, and
one only to be surmounted by a self-denying policy of accumulating a
large portion of the assured income from fines for at least twenty-five
years and encouraging leaseholders to extend their leases from
seventy-five to ninety-nine years.



Liverpool can justly lay claim to be the pioneer of free public
libraries. William Ewart, one of the members for the borough, succeeded
in 1850 in passing through Parliament the Public Libraries Act. But
before this act had become law, a subscription had been raised in
Liverpool for the purpose of starting a library, and a temporary library
was opened in Duke Street. This was afterwards transferred to the
Corporation, and was the beginning of the great library movement in
Liverpool. The Council encouraged by this obtained a special act
empowering them to establish not only a library, but a public library,
museum, and art gallery--thus from the earliest days these three
institutions have been linked together. Sir William Brown provided the
funds for erection of the Library and Museum in William Brown Street. In
1851 the thirteenth Earl of Derby presented to the town his fine
collection of natural history specimens; in 1857 Mr. Joseph Mayer gave
his collection of historical and archæological objects, and in 1873 Mr.
A. B. Walker completed this remarkable group of institutions by building
the Walker Art Gallery. Liverpool has thus been most fortunate in
possessing a public library, a museum, and an art gallery, which have
cost the ratepayers nothing. It would be difficult to find a more unique
cluster of institutions, each so perfectly adapted to its work, and all
furnished with collections which have not only a local but a European


I was placed upon the Library and Museum Committee on entering the
Council, Mr. Picton, afterwards Sir James Picton, being the chairman.
The committee met at nine o'clock in the morning, and seldom rose before
twelve. I could not afford so much time, and therefore resigned, but
when master of my own time I joined the committee again, and found the
work very interesting. Sir James Picton had an extensive knowledge of
books, and he is entitled to the credit of building up our splendid
reference library, and of making the excellent collection of books on
architecture which it contains, but he had little sympathy with lending
libraries, and when he died the three branch lending libraries were very
indifferent and poor, which was the more extraordinary bearing in mind
that the act of parliament instituting free libraries was promoted by
Liverpool, and although Liverpool was not the first town to take
advantage of it, she was only six weeks behind Manchester in adopting

Sir James Picton, the historian of Liverpool, was endowed with an
excellent memory, and his mind was a storehouse of knowledge. He took an
active part in the various literary societies, and was for many years
one of our leading and most enlightened citizens.

After his death the chair of the Library Committee was occupied for
three years by Mr. Samuelson, and in 1889 I was elected his successor,
and held this chair for nineteen years. There is no public position in
Liverpool more full of interest and with such wide possibilities for
good as the chairmanship of the Library Committee. I very early decided
that the right, and, indeed, only policy to pursue was to make the
institutions placed under my care as democratic and as widely useful as
possible, and this could best be done by breaking down all the barriers
erected by red tape and by trusting the people; and, further, extending
the system of branch libraries and reading rooms. In carrying out this
work I always enjoyed the sympathy and active co-operation of my
committee, and had the valuable assistance of Mr. Cowell, the chief
librarian, and his staff. The acceptance of the guarantee of one
ratepayer instead of two for the respectability of a reader has been a
very popular reform, and the introduction of open bookshelves,
containing the most recent and popular books of the day, has been
greatly appreciated, and I am glad to say the books we have lost have
been very few. Branch lending libraries were opened at the Central
Library, Everton, Windsor Street, Sefton Park, West Derby, Wavertree,
and Garston. At several of these libraries we have reading-rooms and
special books for boys, which are much appreciated by them.

We were fortunate in inducing Mr. Andrew Carnegie to open the new
library in Windsor Street, and he was so much pleased with it that he
offered to build for us a duplicate in West Derby. He remarked it was
the first time he had ever offered to give a library, making it a rule
that he must be invited to present one, and then if the site was
provided, and a suitable income assured to maintain it, he gave the
necessary funds for the building as a matter of course. Mr. Carnegie
subsequently presented us with another library for Garston, and more
recently he gave me £19,000 for two more libraries, making his gift to
Liverpool £50,000 in all.

Mr. Carnegie's munificence has been remarkable, not only in its extent,
but in its method. He has given £30,000,000 for the erection of
libraries and other institutions, but all of his gifts have been made
after careful investigation, and in conformity with certain rules which
he has laid down. When he opened the Windsor Street Library he stayed at
Bromborough Hall, and we took him also to the opening of St. Deiniol's
Library, at Hawarden. If Mr. Carnegie had not been a millionaire he
would still have been a remarkable man. Endowed with a keen power of
observation, rapidity of judgment, and great courage, he has all the
elements which make for success in any walk in life. He told me that as
a superintendent of the Pennsylvania Railway he saw that iron bridges
should take the place of their wooden bridges. He formed an iron company
to supply these bridges. Another opportunity offered, of which he was
not slow to avail, when the iron bridges had in course of time to be
replaced with steel. The example of this great railway was quickly
followed by others, and the Carnegie Steel Works grew larger and larger.
The carriage of the iron ore 400 miles by rail, from Lake Superior, was
a costly item, so he constructed his own railway, which enabled him to
greatly reduce the carriage. All these things indicate his enterprise
and courage, which have made him not only a millionaire, but also a
great public benefactor.

The Council entrusted the Library Committee with the administration of
the moneys granted for technical education, and as it took some years to
lay the foundations of a technical system of education the funds
accumulated, and we were able to pay off the debt on the libraries,
about £8,000, and to build the extension to the museum, costing £80,000.
The foundation stone was laid by me on the 1st July, 1898. Liverpool has
always been rich in museum exhibits, and particularly in natural history
and ethnography, and we have added recently to our collection by
purchasing Canon Tristram's collection of birds. Out of this great
storehouse our director, Doctor Forbes, has arranged the galleries so
admirably, both on the scientific and popular sides, that they are the
admiration of all naturalists, and Liverpool has every reason to be
proud of her museums, which are admittedly the finest out of London. The
galleries were opened by the late Earl of Derby on the 19th October,

I was anxious to bring the libraries, and especially the museums, into
closer touch with the University, and have always maintained that
co-operation between these institutions is absolutely necessary, if we
are to get the best out of each.


The work in connection with the Walker Art Gallery has always been to me
one of absorbing interest, and the annual visit in the spring to the
London studios a very great treat. It is not merely that one has the
opportunity of seeing the pictures of the year, but also to hear the
views of the artists; men who lead lives of their own, in their art, and
for their art, and whose views upon art matters open up new avenues for
thought, and continually suggest new methods of action. Mr. Philip
Rathbone was our first chairman of the Art Sub-Committee, and he did a
great work in popularising our Autumn Exhibition in London. He was
almost a bohemian by nature, and was quite at home in the artist world
of London. He was a genius in many ways; he knew much about art; was a
poet whose verses had a charm of their own; he was a delightful
companion and inherited many of those remarkable traits of character
which have distinguished the Rathbone family and have made them such
benefactors of their native city.


We had some interesting experiences during our visits to the studios,
and were often asked to criticise and suggest a name for a picture.

On one occasion when visiting Lord Leighton's studio, he was painting a
charming picture entitled "Persephone," the coming of spring. He had
painted some brown figs in the foreground. Mr. Rathbone remarked that in
spring the figs should be green. Lord Leighton replied, "You are right,"
and dabbing his thumb into some green paint on his palette he smeared
the figs with green, and when the picture was finished they remained
green; but inasmuch as you see green and brown figs on a fig-tree at the
same time, in spring and in autumn, Lord Leighton was not incorrect, and
brown figs would, I think, have better suited his colour scheme. Mr.
Byam Shaw painted a picture of "the Princes in the Tower" at Ludlow
Castle, and looking out of the tower upon the landscape beyond, the eye
rested upon a copse of larches, but as larches were not grown in
England for a hundred years after the incident portrayed in the picture,
they had to be painted out and other trees substituted.

Visiting the studio of Mr. Greiffenhagen we found him engaged upon a
pastoral idyll, a shepherd boy embracing a red-headed girl in a field of
poppies. He had as his models an Italian and his boy. Upon my remarking
upon this, he explained his only inducement to paint the subject was a
promise made by two of his friends, who were engaged to be married, to
sit as his models. They came, and appeared to greatly enjoy the
situation; but alas! they got married and did not return, and he was
obliged to finish his picture with this Italian and his boy. It was a
lovely picture, and now adorns our permanent collection. One is much
impressed when visiting the studios by the comparative poverty of the
profession. I don't suppose the average income of the London artist
exceeds £200 to £300 per annum. They paint pictures but do not sell
them. Formerly they were able to supplement their incomes by working in
black and white, but machine processes have now superseded black and
white, and the architect and house decorator have dealt pictorial art a
severe blow by introducing styles of decoration which leave no room for
the picture.

Lord Leighton was a great friend to Liverpool, but we did not treat him
kindly. Whenever we had any difficulty in obtaining a picture for our
exhibition he was always ready to take trouble and use his influence to
secure it for us. We bought from him one of the best pictures he ever
painted, the "Andromeda"; the price was £3,000, and he agreed to accept
the amount payable over two years. The purchase was noised abroad, but
unfortunately the Council declined to confirm it. Sir James Picton was
not happy in the way he submitted the proposal to the Council.
Manchester immediately secured the picture. Meeting Lord Leighton a year
or so afterwards I apologised to him for the action of the Council, when
he most magnanimously said, "I was not troubled for myself, but for you,
and it pained me when I heard that Mr. Samuelson, your deputy chairman,
twice came to my house to explain matters, but his courage failed him,
and he went away without even ringing the bell."

Sir John Millais was appointed President of the Royal Academy in
succession to Lord Leighton. It fell to me to call at his studio only a
few months before he died, when he remarked: "You have in Liverpool my
picture with a kick in it" (alluding to the picture of "Lorenzo and
Isabella," in which the figure in the foreground is in the act of
kicking a dog), and he continued, "I well remember that picture." This
was spoken evidently with a sad recollection. I knew what was passing in
his mind, for the late Sir Henry Tate told me that Mr. Millais painted
the picture when quite a young man, for a dealer, and was to receive in
payment £50. The dealer failed, and Mr. Millais found himself in great
financial difficulty, when a stranger called and said, "I understand
you have painted a picture for Mr. ----" (naming the dealer), and asked
to look at it. He immediately bought it, giving £50, and the painter's
difficulties were removed.

Mrs. Fraser, the wife of Dr. Fraser, the Bishop of Manchester, told me a
good story of Millais. He was painting the Bishop's portrait, and the
picture had reached the stage of the last sitting. Mr. Millais' dog
jumped upon the chair upon which the artist had placed his palette. The
palette fell on to the floor, paint side downwards. Millais was annoyed
and kicked at the dog. The situation had an amusing side which caused
the Bishop to laugh heartily, whereupon Millais looked still more angry,
and exclaimed, "I have painted the wrong man, I had no idea you had such
a sense of humour." The picture, although an excellent likeness,
represents the Bishop as a demure ecclesiastic. Those who remember him
will recollect how genial and full of humour he was.

When Mayor in 1881, I acted as honorary secretary to a committee
entrusted with the painting of a likeness of the late Charles MacIver.
We gave the commission to Professor Herkomer, who called at the Town
Hall to enquire what sort of a man Mr. MacIver was. I told him that he
was a man of exceptionally strong character, a perfect autocrat in his
management of the Cunard Company, of which he was one of the founders.
Professor Herkomer called at the Town Hall a few days after, and said,
"I am returning home as I have been unable to find the Mr. MacIver as
you described him: he has lost a near relative and appears broken in
health." The Professor called upon me again a few months after and said
"I have found Mr. MacIver, the strong man you told me he was, and have
painted the portrait." The picture hangs in the permanent collection at
the Walker Art Gallery.

In 1893, when Mr. Robert Holt was Lord Mayor, he received a telegram
from Sir John Gilbert, R.A., saying he wished to present some of his
pictures to Liverpool, and desiring that some one should go up to select
them. The Council was sitting. The Lord Mayor passed the telegram on to
me, and asked me to go up to London. I did so the same day, and called
upon Sir John Gilbert, at Blackheath, the next morning. On my entering
his room the veteran artist said "I see one of your names is 'Bower,'
are you any relation to Mr. Alfred Bower, who married the daughter of my
old friend Lance, the fruit painter." On my stating that I was his
nephew, he replied, "Well, I intended giving Temple, of the Guildhall,
the first pick, but you shall have it for my old friend's sake."

I found the house stacked with pictures from the cellar to the attic.
Sir John had been painting and keeping his pictures to present to the
nation, together with an art gallery; but he had suddenly changed his
mind, and resolved to divide them between the great cities. I selected
some twelve or fourteen large canvases, which now adorn our art
gallery. Sir John was our greatest painter of historical pictures, and
one of our most brilliant colourists.

Mr. Whistler came down to hang our Autumn Exhibition one year. He was
most _difficile_, finding fault with every picture brought before him.
We could not get on, and should have had no exhibition at all had we not
hit upon the expedient of offering him a room all to himself, in which
he should hang the pictures of his own choice and in his own way. He
accepted the offer. This room has ever since been filled with pictures
of the impressionist school.

Upon Mr. Rathbone's death Mr. John Lea became his successor, and he has
done yeoman service for our Autumn Exhibition. For many years he gave an
annual dinner to the artists in London, and he was honoured by the
presence of the leading members of the Royal Academy and their wives.
The dinners took place at the Grand Hotel, and were exceedingly well
done. They greatly assisted us in our work of collecting the best
pictures of the year.

It has been a great pleasure to us to entertain at Bromborough Hall many
of the artists entrusted with the hanging of the exhibitions.

On retiring from the Library Committee in 1908, after nineteen years'
service as chairman, I gave an account of my stewardship, which was
reported as follows in the local press:--

"In returning thanks Sir William Forwood said it was with very deep
regret that he had to take leave of them as their chairman. He felt the
time had come when the trust should be placed in younger hands. On the
9th of next month it would be forty years since he entered the City
Council, and his first committee was the Library Committee, of which he
was elected chairman in 1890. Much had happened during that time. In
1890 they had only two small branch libraries, and there were no
reading-rooms in the great centres of population. Early in that year the
Kensington Branch Library and Reading-room was opened. The total issue
of books and periodicals at all the libraries was 1,514,545; last year
the issue was 4,417,043, an increase of nearly 300 per cent. These
figures became more striking when it was remembered that the population
during this period had increased only 17 per cent. Not only had the
appetite for reading grown, but the growth had been in a very
satisfactory direction. Whereas in 1890 76 per cent. of the total issues
were of prose fiction, last year this percentage had fallen to 55 per
cent. He did not wish to disparage the reading of good fiction; on the
contrary, he had always contended that the reading of fiction frequently
formed the habit of reading, which would otherwise never be obtained.
They had worked upon this view, and gave to the borrower of a work of
fiction the right to take out another book of a more serious character.
In 1890 the number of our home readers was 7,300; to-day they had
41,000, and during this period they had added 145,672 books to the
shelves. The total issue of books, etc., during the past eighteen years
reached the enormous total of 47,343,035. In place of forty-nine free
lectures, all given at one centre, they now gave 186 lectures
distributed over nineteen centres.

"In 1890, out of a rate of one penny in the £, they maintained the
Central Reference Library and three branch libraries, the Art Gallery,
and the Museum. To-day, with the rate of a penny three-farthings, they
maintained three greatly enlarged central institutions, ten lending
libraries and reading-rooms, and gave 186 free lectures. They were now
completing the erection of a library at Garston, and had secured the
land for a library at Walton. The encouraging result of the system of
free access to open bookshelves in the Picton and the branch
reading-rooms induced him to hope that the new library at Walton might
be entirely run upon this principle. They had also done a great deal to
encourage juvenile readers and with most gratifying and encouraging
results. Juvenile libraries and reading-rooms were provided, and free
lectures to the young formed an important branch of their work. They had
been very much helped by the handsome gifts made by Mr. Andrew Carnegie,
the collection of fine art books and prints made by the late Mr. Hugh
Frederick Hornby, to whose generosity they were indebted for the room in
which they were now displayed--and the 978 books in the Braille type
contributed by Miss Hornby, of Walton.

"The growth of the Natural History Museum had been remarkable.
Liverpool received as a bequest from the 13th Earl of Derby a very large
collection of natural history specimens, which was enriched from time to
time by other gifts. The limited space in the Museum was choked by
specimens which could not be properly displayed or scientifically
arranged, and the greater part of the specimens remained stowed away in
cases in the cellars. In 1899 it was decided to greatly extend the
museum by building further galleries over the new Technical Schools.
This extension cost £80,000. This additional space had been entirely
filled by the zoological collections, which had been most carefully and
scientifically arranged by the director, Dr. Forbes, and they now only
awaited the completion of the descriptive catalogue to make this
department complete and worthy of its high reputation.

"The Permanent Collection of Art had been greatly enriched by the
pictures purchased and also by pictures presented to the city. The wall
space in the galleries was so limited that the work of the committee was
carried on under great difficulty. An enlargement of the Art Gallery was
urgently needed. Under the active chairmanship of Mr. Lea, assisted by
Mr. Dibdin, the curator, the Autumn Exhibition of pictures continued to
grow in excellence; but, notwithstanding this, it was remarkable that
the interest of the public in pictorial art appeared to be on the
decline. Whereas in 1891 the total receipts of their exhibition reached
£4,138, and in 1892 £3,609, last year they were only £3,068; and while
in 1891 pictures were sold of the value of £7,603, last year the sales
only reached £4,446. This falling off was, however, not peculiar to
Liverpool. The art exhibitions in London had the same experiences. It
was no doubt attributable largely to the beautiful art processes by
which pictures were reproduced, which appeared to satisfy the public
taste and destroyed the desire to see the originals. Another cause might
be attributed to the changes which had taken place in the art decoration
of houses, which did not admit of the display of pictures. No doubt in
time a reaction will take place. Art might sleep but it could never die.
It was not thinkable that a love for pictures could for long be dormant;
but in the meantime they must appeal to the Liverpool public for a
generous support to the efforts made by the Art Committee to bring to
their doors every year the very best pictures produced in this country.

"In looking back over the past eighteen years," remarked Sir William in
conclusion, "I feel very proud of the excellent work done by these
institutions. We have ministered largely to the education and
entertainment of the people. We have carried brightness and sweetness
into many a home, and have done not a little, I hope, to refine and
elevate the masses of our fellow-citizens, and I think we can also claim
to have been faithful stewards of the funds placed at our disposal. In
taking leave of you I thank you all for your kindness and consideration.
To Mr. Holt, our senior member, who has occupied the vice-chair all
these years, I tender my grateful thanks for his help always so
cheerfully given. I am also greatly indebted to our staff for the
assistance they have invariably extended to me, and I wish to especially
record my obligations to our veteran chief librarian (Mr. Cowell), who
has rendered to me the greatest service in many ways, and especially in
keeping a careful oversight upon our finances. If I might take the
liberty of leaving behind me a word of counsel and advice, I would
say--strive always to popularise these institutions; they belong to the
people, and the more they are brought into close contact with the people
the more generous will be their appreciation and support, and greater
will be the amount of real good accomplished.

"A cordial vote of thanks was tendered to the vice-chairman, Mr. R. D.
Holt, on the proposition of Alderman Stolterfoht, seconded by Mr.

Of Mr. Robert Holt I could say much. We were for so long, and so
pleasantly associated on this committee, where for over twenty years he
acted as my deputy-chairman. He was most loyal, most kind and helpful.
He had a temperament which shrank from responsibility, and was naturally
critical and hesitating. Yet he was kindness itself, and inspired a
feeling of love and respect. He had considerable artistic taste and
knowledge of pictures. He passed away at the age of 76, deeply mourned
by all his colleagues. Up to the last he was the most punctual and
regular member in his attendance at the Library Committee.



Some two years after the conclusion of my Mayoralty, in 1883, Mr.
Gladstone, the Prime Minister, wrote to me stating that it would give
him pleasure to submit my name to the Queen for the honour of a

I attended a special Council at Windsor to receive the "accolade." We
were entertained at luncheon, and after waiting about in the corridors
for some time we were ushered one by one into the oak dining-room. The
gentleman who preceded me, being lame, could not kneel, and the Queen
knighted him standing. When I entered the room there was no cushion to
kneel upon. Her Majesty noticed it at once, and exclaimed, "Where is the
cushion?" and A.D.C.'s flew in all directions in search of one. Meantime
I was kept standing, feeling not a little nervous; the Queen apparently
thought it was a good joke, and laughed, for it appeared from the time
occupied in finding a cushion that cushions did not abound at Windsor.

I received through Lord Claud Hamilton a very kind message of
congratulation from the Prince of Wales, who had evidently been greatly
impressed by his visit to Liverpool.

Although the honour of knighthood was ostensibly bestowed in connection
with the visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales, and the opening of
the new docks, I was semi-officially informed that it was really a
recognition of my work in connection with the Fenian movement.


Much as I valued the honour of knighthood, I still more greatly esteemed
the distinction conferred upon me by my fellow-citizens when they
bestowed upon me the freedom of the city--the greatest honour any man
can receive. Other honours are conferred for political and other
services, all more or less meritorious; but to be singled out by those
among whom you have lived all your life in order to receive the greatest
distinction it is in their power to offer is an honour worth living for,
and particularly when its bestowal is so jealously safe-guarded and kept
so entirely free from political bias as it is in Liverpool. It then
becomes doubly precious. It is easy in a great community to make
enemies. Even the very success which may crown one's efforts to do good
may produce them. A unanimous vote of a large City Council is,
therefore, not an easy thing to obtain, and is in itself a great
compliment. I may perhaps be pardoned if I venture to insert a short
account of the proceedings of the Special Council when the Freedom was
conferred, taken from the _Liverpool Post and Mercury_:--

"In the presence of a large and distinguished assembly of ladies and
gentlemen, the freedom of the city of Liverpool was yesterday afternoon
presented, in the Council chamber at the Town Hall, to Sir William
Forwood, the father of the City Council. Sir William was first elected
to the Council as a representative of Pitt Street Ward in November,
1868, and nine years later, in 1877, he was promoted to the aldermanic
bench, of which he is still a member. He was Mayor of the city in
1880-81. He is also a member of the city bench, of the county bench for
Lancashire and Cheshire, chairman of the Liverpool County Quarter
Sessions, and a deputy-lieutenant for Lancashire. The Lord Mayor
(Alderman Charles Petrie) presided, and, preceded by the city regalia,
he was accompanied into the Council chamber by Sir Thomas Hughes, Mr.
John Brancker, and Mr. B. Levy (freemen of the city), Mr. R. A. Hampson,
Mr. R. D. Holt, and Mr. T. Burke (the mover, seconder, and supporter of
the resolution of the City Council in favour of conferring the freedom
on Sir William Forwood), Sir William Tate, Sir John A. Willox, M.P., Mr.
A. Crosthwaite (ex-Lord Mayor), Mr. John Williamson, and many other
prominent citizens. There was also a very large attendance of members
of the City Council. Alderman W. B. Bowring sent a telegram regretting
his inability to be present through indisposition.

"The Lord Mayor, in opening the interesting proceedings said: I have
much pleasure in asking the Recorder, Mr. Hopwood, kindly to read the
resolution of the Council conferring the honorary freedom of the city
upon Sir William Bower Forwood.

"The Recorder: My Lord Mayor, I read the minute of the Corporation. 'At
a meeting of the Council of the City of Liverpool, holden on Wednesday,
the 4th day of June, 1902, under the Honorary Freedom of Boroughs Act,
1885, present the Right Hon. Charles Petrie (Lord Mayor), and a full
Council, it was moved by Councillor Hampson, seconded by Councillor R.
D. Holt, supported by Councillor Burke, and resolved unanimously that,
in pursuance of statute 48 and 49 of Victoria, chap. 29, entitled an act
to enable municipal corporations to confer the honorary freedom of
boroughs upon persons of distinction, the honorary freedom of the city
be conferred upon Alderman Sir William Bower Forwood, in recognition of
the eminent services he has rendered to the municipality throughout his
membership of the Council, extending over a period of thirty-three
years, during the course of which he has filled the office of chief
magistrate and other public positions with credit to himself and benefit
to the community, and especially for the deep interest he has taken in
the establishment of libraries and reading-rooms in the city.'

"The Lord Mayor: Sir William Forwood, ladies and gentlemen, it is not
often we meet in this chamber as a Council under such happy auspices as
we are met to-day. We are gathered here with one accord to do honour to
one of our number whom we are pleased to term the Father of the Council,
Sir William Forwood. Not that he is by any means the oldest man amongst
us, but he happens to have been in the Council longer than any other
member. It is now nearly thirty-four years since Sir William was first
returned as member for Pitt Street Ward, on the 2nd November, 1868, and
ever since then he has held a seat in the City Council, and, as you all
know, he has served upon nearly all the important committees of the
Council--for instance, the Finance, Estate, Watch, Water, Library,
Museum and Arts, and Parliamentary Committees. As chairman of the
Parliamentary Committee he rendered very valuable services in the
opposition to the Manchester Ship Canal, and also with regard to railway
rates. But for many years past Sir William has unstintingly devoted his
time and his great ability to the Library, Museum, and Arts Committee.
And I am sure the city is very greatly indebted to him for the valuable
work that that committee has done."

The Lord Mayor proceeded to enlarge upon Sir William's services to the
city, and in conclusion said:--"I have now great pleasure, Sir William,
as chief magistrate of the city, in asking you on behalf of the
citizens to accept this illuminated resolution of the Council and also
this casket, and I am sure I am only echoing the sentiment of everyone
here to-day, and not only those here, but those outside, when I say that
we wish you long life, health, and happiness to continue in the honour
which you hold. I will now ask you to sign the roll of honorary freemen.

"The scroll on which is inscribed the freedom of the city is designed
and illuminated by James Orr Marples (Mr. Rutherfoord), Liverpool and
London Chambers, Exchange. The vellum is bound and backed with royal
blue silk and attached to an ivory roller. At the top of the composition
is the Liver crest and tridents between the arms and supporters of the
city, and a view of the Town Hall. Below, on the left side, beautifully
emblazoned, are the armorial bearings of Sir William B. Forwood, with
the crest and knight's helmet, the steel visor raised. On a scroll
beneath the shield is the motto 'Fide virtute et labore.' The civic
regalia and the port of Liverpool occupy the bottom of the design.
Pendant by a broad blue ribbon from the scroll is the official seal of
the city of Liverpool.

"The scroll was enclosed in a handsome silver-gilt box, decorated with
panel pictures of the Town Hall, Free Libraries, and Museum, in enamels.

"Sir William Forwood, having signed the roll, said:--My Lord Mayor,
aldermen, councillors, and ladies and gentlemen,--Believe me it is most
difficult, indeed it is well nigh impossible to find words adequately to
convey to you all the gratitude which fills my heart, to tell you how
deeply I appreciate and value the very great honour and distinction you
have so very generously and graciously conferred upon me, or to thank
you, my Lord Mayor, for the very eloquent, kind, but sadly too
flattering terms in which you have made this presentation. The honorary
freedom of the city of Liverpool, guarded by this Council with so much
jealousy, and bestowed with such a frugal hand, is the greatest honour
which this city can confer--it is a unique order of merit, it is not
conferred by the favour of a monarch or minister, but by the spontaneous
and unanimous voice of a great representative assembly, and as such is
not surpassed by any similar order in this country. It is justly
esteemed and valued by distinguished statesmen and philanthropists, and
not less by successful soldiers who in the hour of their country's great
anxiety have turned defeat into victory. How much more, then, must I
prize it, the freedom of my native city, as one born in Liverpool, and
who has spent his life in your midst, and whose only claim to this great
honour is that he has endeavoured to be of some use to his
fellow-citizens. How imperfect this service has been, how much more I
might have done, no one is more conscious of than I am; but you in your
great kindness and generosity have been good enough to overlook my
shortcomings, and are content to recognise only my long services and my
desire at all times to the best of my ability to promote the welfare of
this important community. I thank you most sincerely and with all my
heart; my children and my children's children will, I am sure, look upon
this beautiful casket and the record which it contains with feelings of
pride and gratification. It is an added charm to the presentation which
you have made to me that I am permitted to associate with it the memory
of my late brother, who gave to this city the best of his life, the best
of his thought and work, and died in their service. His memory will be
long cherished by all those who witnessed his public spirit, his long
and his unselfish devotion to the interests of the people of Liverpool.
I remember well the first time I entered this Town Hall. As a boy I had
spent my summer holidays at the Edge Lane entrance to the Botanic
Gardens, obtaining signatures to a petition to the Town Council asking
them to purchase the land adjoining the Botanic gardens for a park. I
obtained 62,000 signatures. I brought the petition down in a cab. I
remember it was too bulky to carry, and it had to be rolled through the
vestibule to the Town Clerk's office, which was then in this building.
That petition was successful, and the Wavertree Park was the first of
those beautiful parks which now girdle the city. My next appearance
within these walls was as the proud representative for Pitt Street Ward.
It serves to mark the flight of time when I call to mind that of the
members of the Council when I entered it in 1868 only three now
survive--Mr. Samuel Greg Rathbone, Mr. Philip Holt, and myself. Mr.
Rathbone is already a freeman, and our roll of freemen would be greatly
enriched if we could add the name of Liverpool's anonymous and great
benefactor. Of the members who have since entered this Council, many
have fallen by the wayside, many have retired into private life, some
have gone forward to the Commons House of Parliament to bear their part
in the government of the country; but a goodly number have, I am glad to
say, remained faithful to the municipal government of the city,
recognising that they can undertake no more noble or useful work.
Municipal work is many sided: it is full of interests; it is very
attractive, and even fascinating; and it brings with it its own reward
in the satisfaction of feeling that you are doing good. It may lack the
glamour and prestige of the Imperial Parliament, but it has this great
advantage: the City Council affords greater opportunities of initiating
and carrying into effect measures for the benefit of the people among
whom we live, and we have the added advantage of seeing the growth and
fruition of our work. Who can compare the Liverpool of to-day with the
Liverpool of thirty years ago without feeling thankful for what has been
done, and proud that he has been privileged to take part in the doing of
it? It seems only the other day we were wrestling with such an
insanitary condition of things that the unhealthiness of Liverpool was a
byword, and the prevalence of drunkenness and crime caused this city to
be alluded to as the 'black spot on the Mersey.' Great social and
sanitary problems had to be solved, which for years defied all attempts
at their solution--it was only when broader and more enlightened views
of municipal responsibility and duty came to the front, supported by a
healthy and more vigorous public opinion outside, that these problems
were grappled with, with such intelligence and determination that the
Liverpool of to-day can challenge comparison with any city in the
world--not only in the excellence and efficiency of its municipal
government and administration but in its enlightened policy in dealing
with insanitary property, housing the poor, the treatment of infectious
disease, and last but not least, in the suppression and prevention of
drunkenness and crime. You have, my Lord Mayor, alluded to the work done
by the Library, Museum, and Arts Committee over which it is my privilege
to preside. This may not bulk very largely in the public eye, but
nevertheless it is very real, and is doing much for the intellectual and
moral welfare of the people, and helping to make their lives brighter
and happier. When we get those additional funds which I hope the
generosity of the Council will give to us at no distant date, our work
must progress by leaps and bounds. While the freedom of Liverpool which
you have so very generously presented to me is the symbol of the highest
honour conferred by a great city, whose ships cover the seas and whose
commerce fills every corner of the globe, it is more than all this--it
is the kind expression of goodwill and approval of friends with whom it
has been my high privilege to work for so many years--an expression
which I greatly value and appreciate, and for which I return you once
again my most sincere and heartfelt thanks."



Party politics have always been very prominent in Liverpool, partly no
doubt due to the old Conservative associations, and partly to the
presence in the city of so many Orangemen. Liverpool in my time has been
mainly Conservative, and indeed, except for a brief period, this party
has held the Town Hall and ruled over the municipal destinies of the
town. It is, however, pleasant to recognise the good work done by the
Liberals, who have always taken their share of committee work and most
loyally helped forward the government of the city. The annual fight for
the possession of the Town Hall has not been so much to secure party
domination in the city as to control its representation in Parliament.
This was an important consideration when the city voted as one unit for
its three members. But it is of less importance now that the city is
divided up into nine wards, each having its own representative in
Parliament. The day may come when politics will happily cease to
influence the municipal elections.

My earliest recollection of a general election is of being present on
the hustings erected in front of the Town Hall. The nominations took
place on the hustings, and the occasion was taken advantage of to ply
the candidates with questions, and the proceedings seldom ended without
some horse-play, the throwing of rotten eggs and bags of flour, etc. Of
those prominent in these early elections I remember Tom Bold, the Tory
tactician; Alderman Livingston, always to the front in a political
fight; Mr. Alderman Rigby, the Blucher of the party. Money flowed
freely, and also beer on the day of the election, and the town was kept
more or less in a turmoil. All must rejoice in the quiet and orderly
character of an election day under the new conditions which now prevail.

Very shortly after entering the Town Council I was asked to undertake
the duties of "Whip," though we did not then dignify the position by
that high-sounding name; in other words I acted as honorary secretary to
the Conservative party in the Council. The appointment was probably made
at the instance of my brother Arthur, who was already very active in the
political world, but for business reasons could not at that time make
himself very prominent. "Party" politics were never very congenial to
me, although all my leanings were Conservative. I have felt that "Party"
makes one acquainted with strange bedfellows, and induces men to do and
say things from which they would shrink in everyday life; and I think
"party" considerations are carried too far, and the best interests of
the country are too often sacrificed at its call.

In my early years the parliamentary representation of the borough was
divided, Mr. T. B. Horsfall and Mr. Ewart being our members. I knew them
only slightly. Mr. S. R. Graves defeated Mr. Ewart in 1865. Mr. Graves
had a fine commanding presence and all the address and _bonhomie_ of an
Irishman. He quickly became very popular at Westminster and did
excellent work for Liverpool. His knowledge of shipping was much
appreciated in the House, and it was generally expected that he would be
the Secretary or the First Lord of the Admiralty, but his career was
prematurely cut off, to the great grief of Liverpool; he died in 1873.
His statue stands in St. George's Hall. I was secretary to the memorial
committee. After defraying the cost of the statue we devoted the balance
of the money collected to the endowment of "Graves" scholars at the
Seamen's Orphanage, an institution with which Mr. Graves had been very
closely identified.

The parliamentary candidates for the vacancy were Mr. John Torr, a
prominent merchant, who stood in the Conservative interest, and Mr.
William S. Caine, another Liverpool man, supported by the Radicals and
teetotalers. I acted as the honorary Secretary for Mr. Torr. The
election was hotly contested, but Mr. Torr was returned by a majority
of nearly 2,000. In those days we paid much court and deference to our
members. They were held in high personal esteem, always received the
hospitality of our leading men, and were never allowed to stay at an

Lord Sandon became our member in 1868, defeating Mr. William Rathbone.
Naturally a very delicate man with a highly strung nervous system, the
representation of such an important constituency as Liverpool was a
source of much anxiety to him. Any subject brought under his notice
became to him a matter of the first and most urgent importance. Lord
Sandon was a true aristocrat, refined in manner and most courteous and
considerate to all. He continued to represent Liverpool until 1880, when
he succeeded his father in the Peerage and became the Earl of Harrowby.

Upon the death of Mr. Torr in 1880, Mr. Edward Whitley became our
member. Mr. Whitley had for many years been the most popular man in
Liverpool. An ardent Conservative, a good Evangelical Churchman, and
excelling in good works, the name of Edward Whitley was a household word
in Liverpool. He was the leader of the Tory party in the Council, and
was a frequent speaker, but his speeches, though fluent, were not
convincing. Mr. Whitley, although a very diligent member, was not a
conspicuous success in Parliament; he failed to catch the ear of the
House. Few men have done more for their native town or were more highly
respected in their day and generation. He died in 1892.

In 1885 the party representation of Liverpool underwent an important
change, a partition of the city into nine divisions being effected, each
returning one member. It has seemed to me that this has involved some
loss of individuality on the part of the nine members, and that
Liverpool has taken comparatively little interest in their doings, and I
am inclined to doubt if the city exercises as much influence in the
affairs of the nation, or if our local parliamentary business is as well
looked after.

The effacement of the private member is due very much to his inability
to initiate legislation. If he introduces a bill it has to run the
chances of the ballot, and if it is a good measure and gets a good place
in the ballot, it is too frequently adopted by the Government, and in
this way the private member loses his individuality and there is little
inducement for him to originate legislation.

Mr. Rathbone, when he was our member, had an office and a staff of
clerks in his house at Prince's Gate, London, for the purpose of looking
after the parliamentary business of Liverpool, and it has never since
been so systematically and so well attended to.

The contest for the County in 1868, when Mr. Gladstone and Mr. R. A.
Cross (now Lord Cross) were the candidates, is very fresh in my memory.
The question of the day was the Irish church. Mr. Gladstone delivered a
series of very brilliant addresses, but to the surprise of everyone Mr.
Cross's replies were equally brilliant, and we thought very crushing. We
took the candidates, Cross and Blackburn, in a coach and four, to
canvass Colonel Blundell at Crosby Hall, and Mr. Weld Blundell at Ince.

I was shortly afterwards made chairman of the Waterloo Polling District,
and in 1880 became chairman of the Southport Division. The first contest
in this division was between our candidate, Mr. John Edwards Moss (now
Sir John Edwards Moss, Bart.), and Dr. Pilkington (now Sir George
Pilkington). It was an uphill fight; Southport had always been a Radical
place, and remained true to her Radical principles. The electors were
very fastidious; they took exception to our candidate wearing rings on
his fingers, and helping himself while speaking to a little sherry and
water out of his flask. We unfortunately lost the election.

When the next election came round, we had to look about for another
candidate, and tried for several, but they were not attracted to
Southport; in the end we invited the Honourable George Curzon, the
eldest son of Lord Scarsdale, of Kedleston. He had lately been defeated
at Derby, but he was a young man, only 27, with a record of a very
brilliant university career, and had been president of the Union at
Oxford. Mr. Curzon accepted our invitation, and came down to Southport
to deliver his first speech, which was very brilliant, and quite took
everyone by surprise. He was very boyish in looks, which occasioned one
rough Lancashire man to get up in the meeting and exclaim, "Thou art
o'er young for us." Mr. Curzon quickly replied, "If you will return me
as your member I promise I will improve upon that every day I live."

In moving a vote of confidence in Mr. Curzon I predicted that he would
one day be Prime Minister, he so greatly impressed me with his
intellectual power and great eloquence.

Mr. Curzon made a splendid and most active candidate. He addressed
meetings in every village in the division, every speech was carefully
thought out and prepared, and his industry was remarkable. When he
stayed, as he frequently did, at "Ramleh," he retired to his room after
breakfast and we did not see him again until dinner-time; he had been
engaged all day working at his speech. He had the gift of taking pains.
We won the election only by a majority of 460. Mr. Curzon remained our
member for thirteen years, until he was appointed Viceroy of India. We
fought three contests, winning each with an increased majority, until at
the last election, in 1895, Mr. Curzon's majority was 804. His opponent,
then Sir Herbert Naylor-Leyland, was formerly a Conservative, and as
such stood for Colchester. He was made a baronet by the Liberals, and
came and fought Southport as a Radical. When he stood for Colchester as
a Conservative he had made abundant use of Mr. Curzon's speeches at
Southport, delivering them as his own, and we did not fail to make
capital of this amusing episode when he stood as a Radical for

Lady Naylor-Leyland was a beautiful American woman, one of the society
beauties of the day, and she created a sensation as she drove about in
an open carriage all decked with roses. But Mrs. Curzon was equally
attractive; she was a bride, and had most charming and winning manners,
and her presence on our platforms was a great help. It was my duty as
chairman to escort her to our meetings, and I remember almost the last
words she said to me on leaving Southport were, "Sir William, I shall
always think of you getting me through crowds." Mr. Curzon occupied a
furnished house at Southport during the election, and I stayed part of
the time with them; and shall never forget Mrs. Curzon's gracious manner
and her loving devotion to her husband. Alas for him and his great
career, she died too soon. She gave her life, I fear, that she might
support her husband in the splendid discharge of his duties in India.

Lord Curzon has gone into the House of Lords, where he will, I have no
doubt, render great and distinguished service to the country; but had
Lady Curzon lived I feel he would have entered the more congenial
atmosphere of the Commons, and my prophecy that he would one day be
Prime Minister would have been fulfilled.

The following incident proves the one great secret of Lord Curzon's
success in life has been his remarkable industry. He made a journey to
Persia, and wrote a book which is to-day the standard work on Persia. He
was anxious to make an index, which he could have had done for him for a
small expenditure, but he preferred to do it himself in his own way, and
for this purpose he remained in rooms at Croydon for a month hard at
work, and I believe I was the only person who knew his address.

The value of Lord Curzon's work in India cannot very well be overstated.
Travelling through India some two years after his return home, we found
everywhere the impress of his remarkable industry and thoughtfulness.

One day when visiting the _cutcherry_ of a far distant province, we
found the entire system of correspondence had been personally revised by
the late Viceroy. On another occasion, the engineer of a coal mine to
whom I was talking told me that the Viceroy visited his mine and
personally interested himself in obtaining improved traffic facilities
on the railway. On another day, when visiting a palace at Delhi, we
found a number of Italians restoring the mosaics; they informed us they
were still in the pay of Lord and Lady Curzon. I could go on enumerating
instances of his activity and his abiding interest in India. In the
restoration of the old landmarks and monuments in India, Lord Curzon has
done a work which for generations to come will make his name memorable.

After Lord Curzon retired from Southport we had another election; this
time Lord Skelmersdale, now the Earl of Lathom, was our candidate, and
Sir Herbert Naylor-Leyland our opponent. The fight was a severe one. We
missed the great personality of Mr. Curzon, and although Lord
Skelmersdale was an industrious candidate, and was very ably assisted by
Lady Skelmersdale, we lost the election. After this I retired from the
chairmanship of the division, and was presented by the Southport
Conservative Association with a handsome silver bowl.

I congratulated myself as a political leader that I was able to
accomplish the conversion of the two largest landowners in the Southport
Division, Mr. Weld-Blundell, of Ince Hall, and Colonel Blundell, of
Crosby Hall. They had been for generations Liberal, and in the 1868
election Mr. Gladstone stayed with Mr. Weld-Blundell; but in 1886, on
the Home Rule for Ireland question, they both supported Mr. Curzon, held
meetings for us in their villages, and on the day of the election
Colonel Blundell rode down to the poll at the head of his tenants.
These, however, did not all vote for us. They had always voted Liberal
and did not know why they should change because the squire had done so.

Crosby Hall and Ince were pleasant country houses to visit in the days
of the old squires. It is strange that although the two estates march
together the families have never inter-married since 1401.

The duties of a chairman of a division, in which both parties are evenly
balanced, are not light, and can only be successfully accomplished if
made personal. The secret of political success lies largely in
organisation, and this must be vigilantly carried on in times when there
is no political excitement, and when there is apparently no reason to
work. A political organisation to be of any value must be continuous and
must be thorough; it is not possible to organise a party on the eve of
an election; you must have trusty lieutenants who know their work and do
it. One of the weaknesses of any party organisation is the number of
loafers, men ready to shout, but who are not capable of steady work. The
quiet, but not very exciting task of looking after the register,
watching removals, and having a careful canvass and cross-canvass of
every elector, is the organisation and work which wins elections.

We had in Southport many excellent leaders, Mr. John Formby, Mr.
Beauford, Mr. Clinning, and many others I could name, with whom it was a
great pleasure to work, and my political association with the Southport
Division will ever remain with me as a sunny memory.

I have declined several invitations to stand for Parliament--on two
occasions from Southport, one from Walton, one from Everton, and more
recently one from Westmorland. When in business it was not possible for
me to enter Parliament, as my brother Arthur was already a member; and I
have since felt that if a member is to make any position in Parliament
he should enter the house on the right side of fifty.

Of late years my Free Trade principles have been a barrier to my taking
an active part on the Conservative side. I did my best to prevent my
friends delivering themselves up to Tariff Reform, and published a
series of letters in the _Daily Post_ on Free Trade _v._ Protection,
which were afterwards published in pamphlet form, and had a very
extensive circulation.

Economic subjects have been my favourite studies, and I have seen much
of the working of Protection in America. In 1870 I delivered an address
on Free Trade before the New York Chamber of Commerce, and at their
request I repeated this address before the Chambers of Commerce in
Cleveland, Chicago, etc., but with little success. The question of a
Tariff had already become "political." I was present in America during
some of their industrial crises, upon which I addressed several letters
to the London _Times_ and _Standard_. It is difficult to describe the
intensity and the prolonged suffering caused by the over-production
encouraged by Protection, with no outlet save the home market. The only
relief was the "scrapping" of the surplus manufacturing power, which
brought great suffering to the working people. I have since written many
papers on the subject; the controversy does not therefore come upon me
as something new. This is not the place, however, to discuss these
matters, but one cannot understand Liverpool becoming enamoured with
Tariff Reform. Liverpool lives on her shipping and carrying trade, and
whatever else may happen, this is at least certain, that Tariff Reform
must reduce the quantity of imports and exports, and there must be less
freight for our shipping to carry. Tariff Reform may give temporary
prosperity to the manufacturer, but if ever adopted will be a serious
blow to the trade and prosperity of Liverpool, and indeed of Lancashire,
as the cotton manufacturing industry depends entirely upon our ability
to turn cotton into yarn and cloth at the lowest possible cost.



I was placed on the Liverpool Borough Bench of Magistrates in 1873; on
the Lancashire County Bench in 1882; on the Cheshire County Bench in
1900; and was made a Deputy-Lieutenant for Lancashire in 1902.

In 1900 Mr. Aspinall Tobin, on behalf of the Lancashire County Bench,
invited me to be nominated as the deputy-chairman of Quarter Sessions.
Lord Derby had retired from the chair, and Mr. Hugh Perkins had taken
his place, therefore a deputy-chairman was wanted.

In accepting this invitation, I decided if elected to this important
position to devote myself to the study of the criminal law, and to
qualify myself as a magistrate, as far as a layman could do so. My spare
time for several years was spent in reading the law of evidence and
criminal law, and I also learnt a great deal from my chairman, who was a
very painstaking magistrate, and who very kindly gave me much good
advice. Mr. Perkins retired in 1894 and I was appointed chairman, and
became the only lay chairman in Lancashire, the other three chairmen
being all Queen's counsel. I was also elected chairman of the County
Bench and of the Licensing Justices.

We had eight sessions in our court in each year, and this with the
licensing work kept us very busy on several occasions. The sessions in
those days lasted seven and eight days, and once even ten days.

The appeals from the decisions of the City Justices on licensing
questions were very numerous; at one sessions we heard thirty-eight
appeals, and as in most cases they involved the loss of the license
these appeals were fought with great vigour, and Queen's counsel were
generally engaged in their conduct.

Lord Mersey and the Honourable Justices Walton, Pickford, and Horridge,
practised at our Quarter Sessions. I was gratified to receive a letter
from one of these learned judges saying that what he knew of the rules
of evidence had been mainly acquired in our court. Quarter sessions may
be termed the nursery of the Bar. Young men get their first briefs,
called "soups," at quarter sessions, and are naturally anxious to air
their knowledge of the law, but many have to learn that the theory and
the practice of the law are not quite the same, and that the application
of the theory can only be obtained by practical experience in court, and
this more particularly applies to the rules of evidence.

In addition to the judges named many eminent King's counsel have made
their first start at our Quarter Sessions. I can recall the names of
Messrs. McConnell, K.C., Steel, K.C., Collingwood Hope, K.C., W. F.
Taylor, K.C., Alfred Tobin, K.C., and F. E. Smith, K.C., M.P.

For fifteen years we had no deputy-chairman of Quarter Sessions, which
made my position somewhat arduous, as I could not absent myself from my
post. In the end my old friend, Mr. W. Scott Barrett, the chairman of
the County Council, was appointed my deputy, and a better selection
could not have been made.

No part of my judicial work gave me more anxiety than the licensing
appeals. One naturally felt great sympathy with the City Justices in
their desire to reduce the drinking facilities which had been the cause
of so much misery and wretchedness in Liverpool, but at the same time
the scales of justice had to be held evenly. Whatever our decisions
were, we felt they would meet with severe criticism; but this did not
deter us from doing what we considered to be our duty, though we knew
that our decisions might involve in many cases serious pecuniary loss
and hardship. I am happy to think that our conduct of this very
difficult business gave satisfaction, both to the public and to the

My experience on the bench has not been fruitful in incidents, although
one day when sitting at Petty Sessions in the city a lame woman was
charged with breaking a window by throwing her crutch through it. The
police evidently apprehended that she might use her crutch as a weapon
while standing for her trial in the dock, for she had a bad character,
and they carefully surrounded her; but she was too clever for them, and
managed to hurl her crutch with great force at the Bench. Fortunately,
it fell short and dropped harmlessly upon the clerk's chair, which was
happily vacant.

At Petty Sessions in 1889 Mr. Scott Barrett sat with me to hear the
charge against Mrs. Maybrick for the murder of her husband by
administering arsenic. The enquiry lasted two days and we committed her
for trial on the capital charge, feeling no doubt as to our duty, though
of course we heard only the evidence for the Crown. It afterwards became
a _cause celèbre_. Mrs. Maybrick was condemned to death, but the
sentence was commuted to penal servitude. She had many influential
friends, and the agitation to obtain her release was continued with
great activity for many years.


In connection with my duties as chairman of the County Bench, I also
acted as chairman of the Visiting Justices of the Jail at Walton. We
visited every month, inspected the prison, heard any complaints which
the prisoners had to make, sanctioned any extraordinary punishments,
and distributed the funds subscribed to assist prisoners upon their
discharge. During the ten years of my chairmanship, great reforms were
introduced by the Prison Commissioners. The "treadmill" was abolished;
the "cat o' nine tails," which originally was composed of nine strings
of hard whipcord, each string having nine knots, was robbed of its
terror, each string now being made of soft string without any knots,
until, as a warder said to me, "I cannot even warm them up with it."
Although these changes are all in the right direction, I cannot but
think they have gone too far, as among the 1,200 prisoners at Walton
there are many very rough characters, very difficult of control. Walton
is now a great industrial reformatory, with prison discipline and prison
diet. The governor told me he never saw the prisoners work with so much
energy as when engaged breaking up the "treadmill"; every prisoner on
entrance had to do a month on the "treadmill," whatever his sentence
might be, and there is no doubt it was a severe punishment. The only
severe punishment now left is solitary confinement, which is a terrible
ordeal, and its abolition is now under the consideration of the prison

I must tell one good story. Mr. Platt, the head of the great engineering
firm at Oldham, was the High Sheriff, and was inspecting the jail, and
saw on the "treadmill" one of his workmen; he exclaimed, "Thomas, I am
sorry to see you here." Thomas replied, wiping the beads of perspiration
off his brow, "Aye, Master Sam, if they had this 'ere machine in Holdham
they would work it by steam, wouldn't they?"

One day, when visiting the firewood factory, in which we gave temporary
employment to discharged prisoners, we directed that about a dozen men
should be sent away to seek work, as they had been too long in the
factory. The following week there was an outbreak of burglaries in
Bootle, and the whole crowd were back again in jail.


The shrievalty of the County Palatine has always been esteemed the blue
riband of shrievalties. Unlike his compeers elsewhere, the Lancashire
sheriff is specially nominated by the King, whilst the office has always
been maintained in circumstances of considerable splendour, and entails
upon the sheriff the arduous duty of attending eleven assizes in the
year, occupying on an average 130 days. The hospitalities attached to
the office are also considerable, for the sheriff has to give a dinner
to the grand jury and members of the bar at each assize.

Much deference has to be paid to the Judges of Assize, and many points
of old-world courtesy and etiquette have to be observed, which add to
the interest attaching to the office; and there can be little doubt
that the sheriff's turn-out--a coach-and-four, with trumpeters and
javelin men in their handsome liveries of dark blue and old gold--serves
to impart dignity to the administration of the law, and to impress the
multitude with its majesty and power.

The High Sheriff is the representative of the King, and takes precedence
of everyone in the county, except the Judges of Assize and the Lord

I was nominated to the office in 1893, and again in 1896, but, there
being no one to take my place at Quarter Sessions, I asked to be
excused. It was, however, a position which appealed to me--it seemed to
me to be the coping-stone to my long devotion to judicial work--and when
I was again nominated in 1908, I accepted, and was duly "pricked" by the

I appointed the Rev. Canon Armour, D.D., as my chaplain, and my son
Miles as the under-sheriff.

The Shire-reve, or high sheriff, was in the old Saxon days a position of
great authority and power. He not only was the criminal judge of his
shire, but also collected the King's exchequer, and the office was one
which brought considerable profit to the holder. All this has been
changed, the judicial functions and the collection of the King's revenue
have long since been transferred to others; but theoretically the
sheriff has considerable powers left in his hands--the power of arrest
and the charge of the jails in the county, while the empanelling of
juries and all legal processes of every kind are made in his name. He is
also the returning officer at all elections; this in Lancashire involves
considerable work, as the sheriff is responsible for parliamentary
elections in twenty-three divisions, but fortunately for him, the detail
work is discharged by the under-sheriff or acting under-sheriff, of whom
in Lancashire there are three.

At the Lancaster Assizes in June, 1909, we had an interesting and
picturesque ceremony. We drove up in the State carriage to the castle,
and were received there by the Constable of the Castle, Mr. Dawson,
supported by his two retainers, who were dressed in their costume of the
fourteenth century. We proceeded into the Shire Hall, and the Constable
requested me to hang my coat-of-arms on the walls with those of my
predecessors since 1188. Having done so the trumpeters sounded a
fanfare, and afterwards played "A fine old English gentleman." I then
made a short speech, and the Constable, with similar ceremony, proceeded
to place on the walls the shields of six of his predecessors as
Constables. The Constables go back to the time of John of Gaunt. The
shields of the Sheriffs and Constables are grouped under the shields of
the various monarchs under whom they served, and make a very brave and
interesting show. The Shire Hall was filled with spectators, and the
function was quite mediæval and interesting in character.

In July, 1909, His Majesty King Edward visited Lancashire to present
the colours to the newly-created Territorial Army. This was a special
compliment to Lancashire, which had very nobly responded to the call
made upon her and had raised a force of 36,000 men. The King and Queen
stayed at Knowsley. In the park 15,000 Territorials were reviewed; and
on the day following their Majesties proceeded to Worsley Park, where a
further 12,000 were reviewed. The high sheriff being a civil officer, I
had nothing to do with these functions as they were military, but we
were invited to lunch at Knowsley and were then presented to the King
and Queen, and afterwards at lunch we had the seats of honour, as it
appears that when the King is present the high sheriff takes precedence
even of the lord lieutenant. It was an interesting function, and in
spite of indifferent weather passed off well.

One of the pleasantest incidents of the shrievalty is the number of
distinguished and interesting people one meets. Upon the grand jury we
altogether summoned 250 of the leading men of the county, and at our
banquets we entertained, in addition to the grand jury, all the official
world of the county and many others. During my year I had not only the
honour of meeting our late King Edward, but King George, who, as Prince
of Wales, was on a visit to Knowsley. I had some years ago the honour of
escorting King George and the Queen over the Overhead Railway, when I
was surprised and gratified with his interest in commerce, and the
knowledge he displayed of the trade of the port; and in the somewhat
lengthy conversation his Majesty honoured me with last year at Knowsley,
I was still further impressed with his knowledge of Liverpool and his
interest in the construction and movements of our great Atlantic liners.
His Majesty struck me as being very "human" in his thoughts and
sympathies, and ardent in his wish to be in touch with the activities
which make for the advance and progress of the country; and I therefore
look forward to a reign that will not only be distinguished and
brilliant, but in which our King will be found to recognise and
encourage by his interest the efforts of his subjects in all that makes
for the advancement of the country and the well-being of his subjects.

[Illustration: "RAMLEH," EAST FRONT.]

The judges at our Spring Assizes this year were Lord Coleridge and Mr.
Justice Hamilton. They spent the week-end with us at Bromborough. At the
Winter Assizes in November we had Mr. Justice Ridley and Mr. Justice
Bray. These Assizes will be memorable as having introduced what will be
practically continuous sittings in Liverpool and Manchester of the civil

I have been much interested in sitting on the bench during the progress
of trials at Assizes. It is an education, and one cannot but be
impressed with the great care the judges exercise, and with their
patience and solicitude for the prisoner.



Having already described the pretty suburbs of Bootle, Seaforth and
Litherland, lying to the north of Liverpool, and the little seaside
resort, Waterloo, as they were in the 'forties and 'fifties, we will now
proceed further afield. Two miles to the north-west of Waterloo the
quaint old-fashioned village of Crosby stood, with its thatched black
and white cottages and its old church built of red brick with its square
tower. Between Crosby and the seashore there were no houses. Immediately
to the north of Waterloo, Squire Houghton had built a large house
(Sandheys) surrounded by quite a park, but to the north of this there
was only a long stretch of sandhills until Hightown Lighthouse was
reached. About 1860 Mr. Arnold Baruchson built a large house on the sea
front, which for some years was the only house on the shore, and was the
beginning of Blundellsands. Other large houses followed, lining both
sides of Burbo Bank Road. The splendid air and magnificent marine views
quickly made Blundellsands an attractive place, but it had no roads,
only sandy lanes, and the only approach was the circuitous one through
Crosby. Its little iron church nestled in the sand dunes. Altogether it
was a very quiet, secluded place. We took up our residence at "Ramleh"
in 1871. Shortly afterwards an American friend expressed his surprise
that people who could afford to live in the fine houses he saw scattered
about should be content to worship God in a "tin" church, as he termed
it. This made me think. I called upon the clergyman, the Rev. B. S.
Derbyshire, and put the matter before him, and offered, if he would
accompany me, to go round and try to raise money to build a permanent
church. Our first effort was not very successful, we received promises
of only £1,450; but by dint of begging, bazaars, etc., we eventually got
together sufficient money to build St. Nicholas' church, of which Mr.
Derbyshire was appointed the first incumbent. Before the iron church was
erected a service was held every Sunday by the Rev. S. C. Armour (now
Canon Armour) in a schoolroom at Brighton-le-Sands, to which he
attracted large congregations by his excellent preaching.

In the slight allusion made to Blundellsands--my home from 1871 to
1898--I have scarcely done justice to its attractions. Probably no place
in the United Kingdom possesses a finer marine prospect. Its wide
expanse of sea, with its background of the Welsh mountains, Snowdon
standing in the far distance, and in the near foreground the constant
parade of great merchant ships and steamers, which pass and repass all
the day long, make a picture which for beauty and varying interest it is
difficult to surpass.

The Earl of Northbrook, when First Lord of the Admiralty, stayed with us
at "Ramleh," and remarked that when he looked out of his bedroom window
in the morning he was amazed at the lovely view expanded before him, and
could not resist getting up, although it was only seven o'clock, and
taking a walk along the terrace in front of the house. At breakfast he
told us he knew of no marine view so charming except the Bay of Naples.
Of course, it is not possible to compare the two places; each has its
points of attractiveness.

"Ramleh" was a fine, commodious house, on the sea front. We bought it
partly built; its completion and the various additions we made gave us
much pleasure and delight, and we were greatly attached to it.


We had in Crosby an old school, endowed some three hundred years ago by
a Crosby boy who made his fortune in London, a part of which he handed
to the Merchant Taylors' Company for educational purposes in the village
in which he was born.

The school was established, the old schoolhouse erected, and it was
carried on with varying, but no great success, for over two hundred
years. At one time when the Merchant Taylors came down to inspect it,
they found it had been closed for some years, whilst the head-master was
living at Sefton quietly drawing his salary. Within my recollection the
scholars numbered only fifteen to twenty, and the head-master frequently
adjourned the school in the afternoon to go rat-hunting. But when Canon
Armour was appointed head-master, he at once sought to bring about a
change and extend the area of the school's usefulness. The city property
belonging to the school had meantime greatly increased in value, and the
opportunity appeared favourable to make the school a great middle-class
institution. In this I was in hearty accord with Canon Armour. We called
meetings of the inhabitants to promote a petition to the Charity
Commissioners in favour of our project. The Vicar of Crosby offered very
strong opposition on the ground that we were robbing the poor man of his
school. In the end we were successful, the present schools were built at
a cost of £37,000, and were soon filled with 250 pupils, and under Canon
Armour's able guidance quickly took a leading position for scholarship,
and became celebrated for the success attained by the pupils at Oxford
and Cambridge. Canon Armour made this school his life's work, and right
well he did it.


Bromborough Hall became our residence in 1898. It is a very old house
built in 1617, but enlarged several times since, with the result that
the exterior, though quaint, is not pleasing--partly Georgian and partly
an old English homestead; it cannot be said to have been built in any
style of architecture. Fortunately, the entire south front is wreathed
with wisteria, jasmine and clematis, and this makes it harmonise with
the charming old Dutch garden which stretches out before it. The
interior is rambling, but possesses some interesting features. The hall
has a stone staircase which winds round the walls as in old Georgian
houses. It also has a capacious lounge, a minstrel gallery, and a quaint
old oak chimney-piece. It opens out into an alcove which forms a very
pleasant resort in summer; and beyond again is the Dutch garden, which
is bright and gay in spring with tulips and in summer with begonias and
roses. We have a ghost, which however we have never seen, and a priest's
room with a cupboard carved in stone for the chalice and patten. The
charms of Bromborough Hall are the gardens, which cover about thirteen
acres and contain probably the most extensive lawns and the largest
trees in Wirral. The outlook from the grounds across the river Mersey is
extensive and very lovely. The park is beautifully planted with copses
and groups of trees, and being 500 acres in extent, it forms a very
attractive feature. We have a walk three miles in length which passes
through the woods down to the river, then along the river bank above the
red sandstone cliffs, which at this point margin the river, and back
through the woods, which form our boundary on the south.


Although the present house dates back only to 1617, a Bromborough Hall
has existed since the year 1100; this former hall probably stood in the
park, as there are clear indications of a moated grange having existed
there. The present house was built by a Bridgeman, who became chancellor
of the diocese, one of his sons becoming Bishop of Chester, when for a
time the hall was the bishop's palace. Another son was made Lord
Bradford. The hall afterwards passed into the hands of the Mainwaring
family, who for 150 years were the squire rectors of the parish. The
family is now represented by Mr. E. Kynaston Mainwaring, of Oteley Park,

Bromborough was an active village in very remote days. There is strong
evidence that the battle of Brunaburg was fought in its
neighbourhood--this battle was the "Waterloo" of Anglo-Saxon times, and
secured the Saxon ascendancy in England. The story goes that the Danes
were encamped at Bromborough, and were joined by the five Irish kings;
and that Athelstan, hearing of this, marched out from Chester, gave them
battle, and utterly defeated them. The Queen of Mercia afterwards
erected a monastery in Bromborough as a thank-offering for this victory.
This monastery stood for 200 years, but was destroyed in the times of
the Normans. The old Saxon church remained, and was pulled down only in
1822. The Runic stone decorations still exist in the gardens of the
rectory, and from these archæologists say the church must have been
built about A.D. 800. The two large fields which adjoin Bromborough Park
and run down to the sea are known as the "Wargraves," and Bishop Stubbs,
the great historian, stated it to be his opinion that this was the site
of the famous battle celebrated in verse by Cædmon.

Bromborough was for centuries the chief market town in the Wirral; the
village cross around which the market was held still exists, also the
manor house in which Charles I. stayed after his defeat near Chester in

[Illustration: THE OLD DUTCH GARDEN.]




The Liverpool dock estate margins the Lancashire shore of the Mersey for
six miles, and the offices of the shipowners and merchants, who have
their business with the docks, are about the centre. In old days the
difficulty of getting to and from the various docks was greatly
increased by the crowded state of the adjacent streets. 'Buses ran along
the dock lines of rails, but having frequently to pull up for traffic
they proved a very slow mode of conveyance, but notwithstanding this
they carried 2,500,000 passengers each year. The trade of the port was
consequently greatly hindered by the want of rapid communication, and
the expenses of the port were increased by the difficulty of moving
large bodies of men about. Crews were delayed in getting to their ships,
and stevedores and master-porters lost the greater part of the day in
going from dock to dock.

Under such circumstances much pressure was brought to bear upon the Dock
Board to construct a railway along the line of docks. In the end they
obtained Parliamentary powers, but for years they hesitated to proceed
with the work.

Some of us thought the Dock Board was unduly timid, and we felt that the
trade of the port was being seriously hampered. We approached the Dock
Board and offered to find the capital to construct the railway. The Dock
Board agreed to our proposals, subject to terms, and Parliament approved
of the transfer of these powers to me as representing the directors of
the proposed new Overhead Railway. In 1889 we issued a prospectus, the
first directors being myself (chairman), Richard Hobson, Harold
Brocklebank, George Robertson, Edward Lawrence, and James Barrow. Our
capital was subscribed for twice over.

We were fortunate in making our contracts for the ironwork, which we
purchased at the lowest price ever known. Our first intention was to
work the line with steam locomotives, but during the course of its
construction we very seriously thought out the question of electric
traction. There was much to deter us from adopting the new motive power.
It had not been tried on a large scale; there were unknown risks and
dangers, and the cost of the electric equipment would involve an
additional outlay of £100,000. Nevertheless we eventually decided to
adopt electric traction, laying down as a fundamental principle that
everything should be of the best, and that we would try as few
experiments as possible. We were fortunate in having Sir Douglas Fox and
Mr. Francis Fox as our engineers, and Mr. Cottrell as their local

We had many difficulties. The Dock Board, very foolishly I think,
refused to allow us to make our structure strong enough to carry goods
traffic. The Corporation declined to allow us to carry our line along
the foot of St. Nicholas' Churchyard and through the Back Goree, and so
avoid our unsightly structure crossing St. Nicholas' Place and
destroying one of the most beautiful sites and vistas in Liverpool. I
have often been upbraided in the Council for this; but nobody could have
done more than I did to avoid it, and the entire responsibility lies at
the door of the Health Committee, of which Mr. Hawley was at that time
the chairman.

Neither the Dock Board nor the Corporation was sympathetic to our
undertaking. The former called upon us to re-make the entire line of
dock railway at a cost of £60,000, and the Health Committee, for the
privilege of moving one of our columns a few inches outside our
Parliamentary limits, required us to re-pave Wapping at a cost of


Early in 1893 the railway was completed and ready for opening, and the
Marquis of Salisbury, then Prime Minister, kindly undertook to perform
the opening ceremony. The opening was fixed for the 3rd February. Lord
Salisbury arrived from London the night before, and came direct to my
house at Blundellsands. We had a large house party to meet him,
including the first Earl of Lathom, Sir William Cooper, Mr. Walter Long,
Lord Kelvin, and a number of electrical experts.

The National Telephone Company kindly connected the dinner table with
the various theatres in Manchester and in London, and at ten o'clock
each guest took a little receiver from under the cloth and enjoyed
listening to the various performances at the theatres, where the
pantomimes were still running. The Telephone Company had laid special
direct wires from my house to the trunk wires from Liverpool, so that
the telephonic communications were very clear and distinct.

On a side table was placed a special instrument for Lord Salisbury,
which was connected directly with the House of Commons. He went to it,
and, taking up the receiver, spoke to Mr. Sydney Herbert, who gave him a
report on the progress of the debate on the address. Lord Salisbury was
both surprised and delighted, and said: "I can hear someone talking
about Uganda." It was the first time the House of Commons was ever
connected by telephone.

The next morning we drove down to the generating station of the
Overhead, escorted by mounted police. Lord Salisbury started the
engines and then rode in a special train from one end of the line to the
other, and afterwards we adjourned to the Town Hall for luncheon. He was
apparently delighted with the function, and said it was a great pleasure
to him to meet scientific men. He was very well up in the details of
electric traction, and minutely examined every part of our machinery. A
few days after he wrote expressing the pleasure the visit had given him.
He said:--"I thank you heartily for a very interesting evening and day
at the end of last week. I hate political functions, but this was a very
different occasion; it was one of the most interesting twenty-four hours
I have passed." Thus was opened the first full-gauged electric railway
in the world, and I am glad to think that electrically it has been an
unqualified success and has proved a great benefit to the trade of the
port. The railway carried in 1908, 9,500,000 passengers.

It also promised to be a good property for our shareholders. Our
dividend gradually increased; we had paid 5 per cent. and were well
within sight of 6 per cent., when the whole circumstances of our dock
traffic were changed by the Corporation introducing electricity into the
working of their tramway system and extending their lines so as to
parallel the Overhead Railway. We also suffered from the introduction of
the telephone and from the substitution of steamers for sailing ships,
and of large steamers for small steamers, all tending to reduce the
number of men employed about the docks.

Still I hope and believe there is a future for our little railway, but
it is heartbreaking work to run a railway which does not earn a

We have had many important people to visit our railway, affording as it
does an excellent view of the docks, and we have always arranged a
special train for their conveyance. Among others whom I have had the
honour of escorting over the line are the present King and Queen when
Prince and Princess of Wales. Our most amusing and difficult visitor was
the Shahzada of Afghanistan. He had no idea of the value of time, and
when we arrived at the end of our journey he called for his doctor and
then for his apothecary, and it was useless my trying to impress upon
his A.D.C. that the whole traffic of the line was being stopped while
his Highness took a pill.


I was elected a director of the Bank of Liverpool in 1888, and became
the chairman in 1898. It was during my chairmanship that the old bank in
Water Street was pulled down and the new bank built, which I had the
privilege of opening. I also initiated and conducted the negotiation for
the purchase of Wakefield Crewdsons Bank in Kendal.


I was elected a member of the board of directors of the Cunard Company
in 1888, and found the work of looking after a great and progressive
steamship company to be extremely interesting. For two years I was the
deputy-chairman. I resigned this position as it required almost
continual attendance at the Cunard offices, which I could not, with all
my other engagements, possibly give.

To have been identified with the most forward policy in the shipping
world has always been a source of great pride and pleasure to me.

A few years after I joined the board we built the "Lucania" and
"Campania," steamers of 13,000 tons and 27,000 horse-power with a speed
of 22 knots. They were in size and in speed a long way ahead of any
steamer afloat, and created very general and great interest.

At the Jubilee naval review in 1897, held in the Solent, a small steamer
made her appearance. She was little more than a big launch, and was
called the "Turbinia"; she was propelled by a steam turbine and attained
an extraordinary speed. We little thought when we saw this boat rushing
about at a great speed that she would create a revolution in the mode of
using steam for high-speed vessels.

In 1905 the Germans placed in the Atlantic trade several vessels which
steamed 23 and 23½ knots, which secured for them the blue riband of the
Atlantic. About the same time the White Star fleet and other Atlantic
lines were bought by an American combine, and it appeared as if the
whole Atlantic trade was destined to pass into the hands of the Germans
and Americans. The country was much excited at the prospect, and
pressure was brought upon the Government to assist the Cunard Company,
and thus to preserve to the country the "premier" line of Atlantic
steamers. The Government offered to lend the Cunard Company the money
necessary to build two steamers of 24½ knots speed, and to grant to them
a subsidy of £150,000 per annum. These terms being accepted the Cunard
Company had then to determine the style both of boat and engines which
would best fulfil the conditions of the contract.

Engines indicating 60,000 and 70,000 horse-power were considered
necessary for a vessel to attain the guaranteed speed, and this power
with reciprocating engines would involve shafting of dangerous size;
hence it was decided to appoint a committee of experts to make enquiry
as to the working of the "Parsons'" turbines in some channel steamers
which were already fitted with this new form of engine. After a
prolonged consideration the committee reported in favour of turbine
engines. Meantime, experimental models of hull forms had been made and
tested in the tanks belonging to the Government, to ascertain the lines
which would give the necessary displacement, and be the most easily
propelled. It was eventually decided to build ships of 780 feet in
length by 86 feet beam, having a gross register of 34,000 tons, with
turbine engines indicating 70,000 horse-power.

The order for one of these ships, the "Lusitania," was placed on the
Clyde with Messrs. John Brown and Co., for the other, the "Mauretania,"
with Messrs. Swan, Hunter and Co., at Newcastle.

The planning of the cabins and the furnishing and decorating of these
steamers gave us much thought, as we were anxious they should be a
distinct advance on anything yet produced. These ships have fully
realised all our expectations, the "Mauretania" having completed four
round trips across the Atlantic at an average speed of over 25 knots. On
one voyage she averaged over 26 knots on a consumption of 1,000 tons of
coal per day, and on another voyage she made an average speed out and
home of 25.75 knots.

The "Britannia," the first ship of the Cunard Company, built in 1840,
was only 1,139 tons, with a speed of 8½ knots.


An amusing incident occurred in connection with the building of the
"Campania." On her engine trial she vibrated excessively, even
dangerously, breaking some stanchions and deck plating. It was decided
to ask Lord Kelvin, then Sir William Thomson, to investigate the cause
of the vibration, and I was deputed to attend him upon the necessary
trials on the Clyde. After several days' trials Sir William announced
that the vibration would all disappear if the ship was loaded down.
Three thousand tons of coal were put on board, and a large party of
guests were invited for the trial trip. It was arranged that the ship
should upon this trip start at a slow speed, at which there was no
vibration, and when the guests were seated at lunch the directors were
to quietly come on deck and the ship be put at full speed. This was no
sooner done than she began to shake from stem to stern so violently that
the whole of the guests streamed on deck enquiring what was the matter,
and the speed of the ship had to be reduced. The vibration was
afterwards cured by following the suggestion of our old Scotch engineer
and altering the pitch of the screws, so that their revolutions did not
synchronise with the vibratory period of the ship.

Some few years after this event I was invited to dine one Sunday evening
at Balliol College, Oxford. After dinner I was taken into an adjoining
room to wine by the president, Professor Cairns, well known as a great
philosophical thinker and writer. On passing out of the dining hall a
friend whispered to me, "I am sorry for you; the president never utters
a word to his guest." We sat at a small table _vis-à-vis_. I tried to
draw the president into conversation on several subjects, but failed
lamentably. Eventually I asked him if he knew Lord Kelvin. He at once
said he was an old friend; whereupon I told him the story of my
experience on the "Campania." He became quite excited and interested. On
my leaving the room my friend, who was a don on the classical side,
again came up to me, and asked what we had been talking about. I
answered "Vibration." He replied, "What is that? I never saw the
president so interested and so excited before."


In connection with the building of the "Campania," I have a pleasing
recollection of a visit to Castle Wemyss, on the Clyde, the residence of
the then chairman of the Cunard Company, Mr. John Burns. Mr. Burns took
me to call upon his father, Sir George Burns, who resided at Wemyss
House. He was then a very old man, over 90 years of age, and as he lay
upon his bed he looked very picturesque, with his handsome aquiline
features and his snow-white locks resting upon the pillow. He told me
with evident pride of the early days of the Cunard Company, of which he
was one of the founders, the others being Mr. Cunard of Halifax, Mr.
Charles MacIver of Liverpool, and his brother Mr. David MacIver; and he
narrated his recollections of the old sailing brigs which used to
convey the mails to Halifax, before the days of steamships. Sir George
died soon after my visit, and was succeeded in his baronetcy by his son,
Mr. John Burns, who at the Diamond Jubilee of the Queen, in 1897, was
created a Peer (Lord Inverclyde). He died in 1901, and was succeeded by
his son George, who died in 1905, after holding the title only a few
years, and was succeeded by his brother James, the present Peer. The
second Lord Inverclyde, who was also chairman of the Cunard Company, was
a man of conspicuous ability, with a big grasp of affairs. It was he who
carried through the agreement with the Government, which resulted in the
building of the "Mauretania" and "Lusitania." During these negotiations
he displayed so much energy, tact, and knowledge of shipping, that had
he lived he was marked out for high position in the Government. It has
been my privilege during the twenty-two years I have been a director of
the Cunard Company, to serve under five chairmen--the first Lord
Inverclyde, Mr. Jardine, the second Lord Inverclyde, Mr. Watson, and Mr.


Sir George Burns' reference to the making of the Cunard Company brings
to my mind the story told by my father-in-law, William Miles Moss, of
the beginnings of the Mediterranean steamship trade, which has made for
Liverpool people so many great fortunes. He said that his firm, James
Moss and Co., Vianna Chapple and Co., and John Bibby and Sons, were
engaged in the Mediterranean trade, which they conducted with sailing
schooners and brigs. In 1848 he thought the time had arrived to replace
these by steamers, and his firm chartered a paddle steamer, which traded
to the Isle of Man, for an experimental voyage to the Mediterranean. She
made a most successful voyage to Genoa, Leghorn, etc., and he was so
encouraged that he made a contract to build a screw steamer for the
Egyptian trade to cost £21,000. Mr. Moss invited the heads of the firms
I have named to dinner at his house, in Lower Breck Road, and told them
what he had done, and asked them to take shares in his new venture, and
then passed a paper round the table that they might write down the
interest they were willing to take. It was returned to him with only
£12,000 subscribed. He said, "I told them they were a shabby lot, and
that I would take the balance." This was the first steamer built to
trade between Liverpool and Alexandria.

Mr. Moss was a very shrewd, long-sighted man, and for years was the
moving spirit in the Mediterranean steamship trade, being largely
interested in Bibby's as well as being the principal owner of the fleet
of James Moss and Co. He was for many years a member of the Dock Board,
in which he was followed by his son and his grandson.


The "making" of the White Star Line must always remain an interesting
incident in the history of our commerce. In the 'sixties the Atlantic
trade was in the hands of the Cunard, the Inman, the National, and the
Guion Companies. At this time the Bibby line of Mediterranean steamers
had been most successful. One of the principal owners in these steamers
was Mr. Schwabe, whose nephew, Mr. Wolff, had just started in business
as a shipbuilder in Belfast, in partnership with Mr. Harland. Mr. T. H.
Ismay had recently formed a partnership with Mr. William Imrie, and had
taken over the business of the White Star Line, then engaged in owning
sailing ships employed in the Australian trade. The story at the time
was that during a game of billiards at Mr. Schwabe's house, in West
Derby, Mr. Schwabe proposed to Mr. Imrie that his firm should start
another line of steamers to New York, adopting as their type the models
which had proved so very profitable in the Mediterranean trade, and
offered if they were built by Messrs. Harland and Wolff to find the
greater part of the capital. The scheme thus inaugurated quickly took
shape. Mr. G. H. Fletcher associated himself with the project, and the
first White Star steamer, the "Oceanic," was built, followed quickly by
the "Celtic," "Baltic," "Germanic," and "Britannic." The steamers were
the first vessels constructed with their cabin accommodation amidships,
where there is the least motion and vibration. This proved a very
attractive feature. Mr. Ismay also took a personal interest in studying
the comfort of the travellers by his line, which quickly became very
popular. Mr. Ismay lived to see the début of his masterpiece, the
"Oceanic," the second of this name, but had passed away in 1899 before
the White Star Line became a part of the great American steamship


Mr. Ismay was a remarkable man. He was of a very retiring disposition,
but had great strength of character, with an aptitude for organisation,
he was able to select good men to assist him, and to obtain from them
the best of their work. Mr. Ismay was one of the ablest men of my time.
He declined all honours, and found his pleasure in surrounding himself
with beautiful pictures and _objets d'art_ in his home at Dawpool, and
he was not unmindful of others, for he founded the Seamen's Pension
Fund, to which he was a large contributor.

To commemorate the Jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1887, and Her Majesty's
Diamond Jubilee in 1897, grand reviews of the fleet took place at
Spithead. Mr. Ismay invited a large party of his Liverpool friends on
board the "Teutonic" on both of the occasions to see the reviews. At
Spithead the "Teutonic" was joined by a large and very distinguished
company from London, comprising many of Her Majesty's Ministers, the
leaders of the opposition, and men renowned in literature, science and
art. At the first review the German Emperor and the Prince of Wales came
on board, and spent some time inspecting the ship, and especially her
armament. Other Atlantic liners had on board the members of the House of
Lords and the House of Commons. These reviews were very successful, the
great array of battleships being imposing and impressive, although we
could not avoid remarking their small size compared with the "Teutonic,"
"Campania," and other liners present.

The "Teutonic's" trips will be for long remembered for the munificent
manner in which Mr. Ismay entertained his guests, and the perfection of
all the arrangements.


The late Sir Alfred Jones is another of our great shipowners whose
career conveys many striking lessons. Enthusiastic about everything he
put his hand to, intense in his application to work, and resourceful in
finding out the ways and means to success, he had one fault not uncommon
in forceful men--he had not the power of delegation. He would do
everything himself, and the strain was more than even his robust nature
could stand. On my asking him a few weeks before he died why he did not
take a partner, he replied: "I will do so when I can find a man as
intense as myself."

As indicating his resourcefulness, when he found bananas were not
selling freely in Liverpool, he brought down a number of hawkers from
London with their barrows and peddled his fruit about the streets. On my
suggesting to him that he would make nothing of Jamaica, on account of
the lazy habits of the negro, he replied: "I will change all that. I
will send out a lot of Scotchmen."

When he travelled to London he was always accompanied by two clerks, to
whom he dictated letters _en route_. Every moment of his time was filled
up, he told me: "My work is done on a time table. A certain hour each
day I devote to my steamers, another to my oil-mills, another to my
hotels, and so on."

Sir Alfred Jones' name will, however, ever dwell with us as the founder
and most active supporter of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine,
which has destroyed the ravages of yellow fever and made the malarial
and waste places of the world habitable.



In my young days eloquent preachers were still much in the fashion, and
attracted large congregations, but the building of churches and
appointing to them preachers of eminence as a financial speculation had
happily ceased. The church in Liverpool was largely recruited from
Ireland, and we had certainly many able men, who were not only eloquent
but whose discourses were also very lengthy. The hearing of sermons was
not merely an act of devotion but a form of religious entertainment and
enjoyment, and a short discourse would not have been appreciated. I
remember one very eloquent divine, to whose church it was impossible to
obtain admission unless you were at the door a quarter of an hour before
the service commenced, being when advanced in years removed to another
church. He continued to preach the same sermons with much of his old
fire and vigour, but he emptied the church, for people would no longer
tolerate fifty minutes every Sunday of the old fashioned controversial
discourse. We had in those days many eminent divines, Dr. Lowe at St.
Jude's, Dr. Taylor at St. Silas', Dr. Falloon at St. Bride's, and Mr.
Ewbank at Everton, and most eloquent of all, Dr. MacNeile at St. Paul's,
Prince's Park. He was a great power, both in the pulpit and the
platform, and in the press. Clergy and laity, rich and poor, were
stirred by his eloquent appeals. I never heard him preach, but his
speeches to the boys at the Collegiate on our prize days still linger in
my memory as marvels of eloquence. His presence was very dignified, and
he was stately in manner. He had a profusion of snow-white hair, which
added impressiveness and solemnity to his handsome appearance. He
wielded a giant's strength in debate, and some thought he used his power
without mercy. He died in 1879 at the age of 83.

In the 'seventies Dr. Forest, who afterwards became Dean of Worcester,
Mr. Lefroy, afterwards Dean of Norwich, and the Rev. Nevison Loraine,
were among our most prominent and eloquent divines; nor must I forget
the Rev. John MacNaught, of St. Chrysostom's, our first broad churchman,
earnest, eloquent, and courageous, but looked upon with much misgiving
and some suspicion.

The Bishops of Chester were unable to devote much of their time to the
Liverpool portion of their diocese. The result was that the leaders of
the evangelical party became little autocrats in their way. Under these
conditions church life became dormant, and the church narrow and formal,
and wanting in spirituality. Her liturgy and the devotional part of her
services were sacrificed, and made secondary to preaching. This was the
state of things in 1880, when the see of Liverpool was founded.

Two great influences were, however, quietly operating in the church. The
school of the Oxford tract writers gave prominence to the sacramental
system and corporate powers of the church, which enlisted a new class of
energies in her service, and the publication of _Essays and Reviews_,
although they gave a temporary shock to church people, was productive of
good, by broadening the theological outlook, and inviting that higher
criticism which quickened more interest in the truths of the Bible, and
deepened the reverence for the wider conception of the love of God.

Dr. Ryle, our first Bishop, was a recognised leader of the evangelical
party, and a prolific writer of church tracts. He was an able preacher,
a good platform speaker after the old-fashioned pattern, and had a very
imposing and apostolic presence.

Dr. Ryle's work as our first Bishop was a difficult and arduous one. He
tried to be fair and just to all parties in the church, but he was urged
by some of his evangelical followers to take action in restraint of the
high church practices which prevailed in some churches, and to give his
episcopal sanction to the prosecution of the Rev. J. Bell-Cox. He
consented with reluctance. The Bishop at this time frequently came to my
house and I know how unhappy he was at this juncture; not that he in
any way sympathised with the practices sought to be checked--they were
most repugnant to him--but he appreciated the self-sacrificing work of
the high church clergy, and thought that other and gentler means and
methods might be adopted to bring about the desired result.

In his later years his Lordship's ecclesiastical views became broader
and more liberal. In face of many difficulties he did an excellent and
most successful work in building churches and schools. Beneath an
apparently haughty manner he had a big and kind heart, and those who
were privileged to know him best loved him most.

I am sometimes asked are church people as good and zealous as in the
days gone by. I think they are more so. They are more devout, more
earnest, more spiritual. They may be less emotional and do not crowd the
churches to hear sermons, but they are to be found in their hundreds at
the Lord's Supper. The church, which was formerly locked up all week, is
now open for daily prayer. The Holy Communion, which was only
administered on the first Sunday in the month, is now administered every
Sunday, and frequently twice in the day. Strong language and swearing
are less frequently heard, and there is in life a diffusion of light and
sweetness, which can only come from the influence of holy things and the
power of love which has taken a stronger possession of our thoughts and

The church is broader, has a wider mission, and it stands upon a higher
pinnacle in men's minds. We recognise that men are differently moulded
in temperament and thought, that a national church must within limits
provide the means of worship suitable to all; and that while the simple
conventicle may to some present the most suitable temple of God, others
are happier if their prayers are winged to His Throne amid beautiful
surroundings and to the sound of choral music.

The nonconformists have always been active in Liverpool, and have had
many able ministers. The most influential of these churches has always
been the Unitarian. I remember Dr. Martineau only as a name, but the
Rev. Charles Beard I knew and greatly esteemed. He was a power for good
in Liverpool, and much of the uplifting and purifying of Liverpool in
the 'seventies was due to his influence. He had powerful supporters
amongst his congregation in Renshaw Street Chapel: the Holts, the
Rathbones, Gairs, Mellys, Gaskells, Thornleys, etc.

It has often been said that our University had its birth in Renshaw
Street Chapel. It certainly found there its warmest and most active

Hugh Stowell Brown was another bright light among the nonconformists, a
robust and rugged preacher, who did not neglect his opportunities of
advocating higher ideals of civic life and duty. The Rev. C. M. Birrell,
of Pembroke Chapel, was stately in figure and highly cultured; he won
the respect and esteem of all Christian communities. The Rev. Charles
Garrett was a power in Liverpool and the country, as the great apostle
of temperance.

In the Roman Catholic church there is one remarkable outstanding figure,
Monsignor Nugent, or as he preferred to be known, Father Nugent: priest,
philanthropist, and friend of all, but particularly of the outcast boy
and fallen woman. I could write pages of this worthy priest's great
goodness, his big heart, his wide and tender sympathies, and his work
among the wreckage of society. His memory will linger with us as an
incentive to all that is noble, all that is loving and tender.

We must not forget the many laymen who have helped forward church work
in Liverpool: Charles Langton, Charles Grayson, Christopher Bushell,
Hamilton Gilmour, Charles Groves, the builder of churches; Clarke
Aspinall, who spent all his leisure in assisting the clergy in their
church and temperance work; and the Earle family. Among the
nonconformists we had W. P. Lockart, a merchant and an ex-cricketer, who
took up evangelistic work in Toxteth Park, and exercised a wide and
great influence among young men. I have elsewhere mentioned the Rev. Dr.
Lundie, and his influence upon the temperance movement; and I must not
omit Alexander Balfour, Samuel Smith, and Thomas Mathieson, all
prominent and most active lay nonconformists.

To the active efforts of our clergy we owe much of the improvement in
the social condition of our working classes. Their exertions on behalf
of temperance are worthy of all praise; in training the young in habits
of self-control and self-respect, they are saving the child and making
the man who is to control the future destinies of the empire.


The see of Liverpool was founded in 1880. There was little difficulty in
raising the endowment fund, thanks to the personal exertions of Mr.
Torr, M.P., and Mr. Arthur Forwood, but the selection of a bishop was a
matter for grave thought. Liverpool contained many low churchmen and
many Orangemen, and it was also recognised that the high churchmen had
done most excellent work. The views of the evangelical party, however,
prevailed, and Lord Sandon and Mr. Whitley were instructed to use every
influence with Lord Beaconsfield to secure the appointment of an
evangelical churchman. In this they were successful. Lord Beaconsfield
appointed Dr. Ryle, whom he had but recently created a Dean, as the
first Bishop of Liverpool.

The proposal to erect a cathedral was first made in 1887. A committee
was formed; a site on the west side of St. George's Hall--where St.
John's Church stood--was selected, and a design by Sir William Emerson
was approved by Mr. Ewan Christian, the architectural assessor. I was
appointed one of the treasurers to the fund, and at once began an active
canvass for donations. There was, however, a great lack of enthusiasm;
many objected to the site chosen, and the Bishop did not help the cause,
for though he was in a way anxious that a cathedral should be built, he
freely expressed his opinion, both in public and in private, that
additional churches and mission halls would be more useful. We received
promises of only £41,000, and then we had to allow the scheme to drop,
for it was quite impossible to make further headway. I think the Bishop
was disappointed. He was an earnest, good man, and during his episcopate
great progress was made in church building in the diocese, but in his
heart I do not think he was ever enthusiastic in favour of the cathedral

No further steps were taken towards the erection of a cathedral during
the episcopate of Dr. Ryle. When his successor, Dr. Chavasse, had been
consecrated bishop the scheme took shape again, and shortly after he had
been installed at his suggestion a small committee was formed to
formulate a proposal. The Bishop was good enough to ask me to become the
treasurer. I had so ignominiously failed in my first attempt to collect
money that I declined, but his lordship was very pressing, and after
thinking the matter well over I said I would make an attempt to start a
fund, provided no site was selected and no general committee formed
until we had received sufficient promises to make the scheme a success;
and I added that if my conditions were accepted I would give up all
other work for six weeks and devote myself to working up a cathedral
fund. I made those conditions because I found on my previous effort the
selection of a site and a design was a serious hindrance, as they
afforded reasons and excuses for not giving. The Bishop agreed to this
proposal. I wrote six or eight begging letters every night and followed
them by a call on the day following, and I wrote a series of articles in
the daily press, and managed to arouse a considerable amount of interest
and enthusiasm in our scheme. We started our list with a handsome
donation of £10,000 each from Lord Derby, Sir Alfred Jones, and others.
Canvassing was hard work, but Liverpool people were very good and very
generous. In my daily rounds I met with much kindness, but with some
disappointments. Only one man, whose father made his millions in
Liverpool as a steamship owner, was rude and unpleasant, but even he in
the end relieved his conscience by sending in a small donation. At the
close of six weeks' work I was able to announce to the Bishop's
Committee that we had promises amounting to £168,000. We did not,
however, stop at this. The ball was rolling and must be kept rolling,
and before we called a halt we had promises in meal or malt amounting to
£325,000. In this amount are included special donations for windows,
organ, etc.

The Earle and Langton families most liberally gave £25,000 towards the
cost of the Lady Chapel, and ladies of old Liverpool families were most
generous in their contributions.

This success would have been impossible of achievement if it had not
been for the wonderful influence of the Bishop. Everyone recognised his
saintly character, his arduous work, and the statesmanlike manner in
which he ruled over his diocese. Perhaps the Bishop's strongest point in
dealing with men is his power of "enthusing" others. He always looks
upwards, and in the darkest days is full of brightness and words of

The next step was the selection of a site, and this aroused considerable
discussion. There were many advocates for what was known as the London
Road site, at the junction of that thoroughfare and Pembroke Place, a
very commanding position; but as the cost of the site alone would have
been £150,000 it was placed on one side. The sites of St. Peter's and
St. Luke's were considered and pronounced too small. Eventually St.
James' Mount was decided upon as being central and commanding, and
having picturesque surroundings. The fourteen acres comprising the Mount
were purchased from the Corporation for £20,000.

It was decided to advertise for designs and give premiums for the two
best, and Mr. Norman Shaw, R.A., and Mr. Bodley, R.A., were appointed

Many designs were sent in and exhibited at the Walker Art Gallery. From
these the assessors selected the design of Mr. Gilbert Scott, a young
man of only 19, a grandson of the great Gothic architect, Sir Gilbert
Scott, R.A. It was a design which did not commend itself entirely to the
committee, and Mr. Scott being a Roman Catholic it was feared some
objection might be taken, and the committee very wisely decided to link
Mr. Bodley, R.A., with Mr. Scott as joint architects--a very happy
combination, for while we secured the genius of Mr. Scott, we also
secured the ripe experience and exquisite taste of Mr. Bodley.

We elected the Earl of Derby as our president, and I was made the
chairman of the executive committee, a position of much honour and of
absorbing interest, but involving considerable responsibility. We were
fortunate in having on the committee Mr. Arthur Earle, who has rendered
yeoman service both in collecting funds and finding donors of the
windows. We have also received great assistance from Mr. Robert
Gladstone, the deputy-chairman, and Mr. F. M. Radcliffe.

We had some difficulty with our foundations, as part of the Mount was
made-ground, and the rock when we reached it was very friable. The
consequence was that on the east side we had to go down forty, and even
fifty feet before we obtained a satisfactory foundation. The
foundations for the Choir, Lady Chapel, Vestries, and Chapter House cost


It was decided to invite the King and Queen to lay the foundation-stone,
as it was the only cathedral likely to be built in this century. The
King graciously consented, and fixed the afternoon of July 19th, 1904,
for the ceremony, the arrangement being that he was to come down from
London in the morning, lunch with the Lord Mayor at the Town Hall, and
afterwards lay the foundation-stone; and on the conclusion of the
ceremony embark upon the royal yacht in the river to proceed to Cardiff,
_en route_ to open the waterworks constructed in South Wales for the
supply of Birmingham. The arrangements for the foundation-stone laying
required much thought, as my experience has taught me that "functions"
are successful only if every detail is well thought out beforehand.

Around the foundation-stone a huge amphitheatre of wood was constructed
capable of seating 7,000 persons, and in the centre we erected an
ornamental dais upon which the King and Queen were received and where
they stood during the religious service; and in front of the dais, about
thirty feet away, the foundation-stone stood ready for lifting and
laying. We also formed a choir of 1,000 voices to take the musical part
of the service, led by the band of the Coldstream Guards.

The day was beautifully fine and the city splendidly decorated, quite a
royal day. Lord Derby and the High Sheriff met their Majesties on their
arrival at Lime Street Station, when presentations were made to their
Majesties. The King was in the uniform of an Admiral of the Fleet; Lord
Derby appeared as Lord-Lieutenant, and uniforms and court dress were
worn by the guests. Their Majesties proceeded from the station to the
Town Hall, where a very select company was assembled. After luncheon the
King knighted the Lord Mayor, who became Sir Robert Hampson. At Lord
Derby's request I proceeded to the site to receive their Majesties on
their arrival, and afterwards had the honour of presenting the
architects and the members of the committee.

The service was conducted by the Archbishop of York and the Bishops of
Liverpool and Chester. It was grand and majestic, worthy of the
occasion. Most of the bishops of the northern province were present in
their robes, and also about 300 of the clergy. At the conclusion of the
service the King expressed to me his great satisfaction, and the Queen
did the same, adding that the music was beautifully rendered. Everything
passed off well, but during the service heavy banks of clouds began to
gather, and the royal party had scarcely left the site when the rain



The consecration of the Lady Chapel took place on Wednesday, 29th June,
1910, St. Peter's Day, and was a most imposing and impressive ceremony.
The Lord Bishop conducted the service, the Archbishop of York preached
the sermon, and they were supported by the Archbishop of Dublin and
twenty-four other bishops, all wearing their convocation robes. There
was a large assembly, the difficulty being to accommodate all who wished
for seats.

The Bishops' procession was formed in the vestries, and was composed of
the Chapter and Clergy, the Cathedral Choir, the Bishops and their
Chaplains, the Bishop of the Diocese, and the Archbishop of York. The
procession marched round the chapel through the street to the door of
the Lady Chapel, the choir singing an appropriate anthem. Arriving at
the door, after the recital of some prayers, the Bishop knocked,
demanding admission. Upon entering the church, the Earl of Derby, the
president, in his chancellor's robes, and attended by Mr. Arthur Earle,
Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Radcliffe, Sir Robert Hampson, and myself, as the
chairman, advanced and handed the Bishop a request that he would
consecrate the chapel, and also a deed conveying the chapel and its site
to the Bishop and the Chapter. The procession then proceeded to their
places in the choir, and the service commenced, the musical part being
beautifully rendered by the choir, Mr. Burstall presiding at the organ.
The service was interesting and quaint, especially the blessing by the
different bishops of the various votive offerings. The Archbishop
preached a most eloquent sermon, taking as his text: Habakkuk 2nd
chapter, 20th verse, "The Lord is in his holy temple: let the whole
earth keep silence." The consecration was followed by a luncheon at the
Town Hall. An octave of special services was held in the chapel in the
following week, at which several bishops preached.

This is not the place to describe the architectural features of the Lady
Chapel, but it seems to have won the admiration of all by its charming
proportions, its chaste but rich beauty, and its quiet, devotional

The gifts to the chapel by the Earle and Langton families were both
numerous and costly; and of the total cost of the chapel, about £70,000,
these families generously contributed nearly one-half. Their offerings
were supplemented by those of other friends, so that the chapel when
opened was complete in every detail, and with every accessory.

To the Dowager Countess of Derby and her committee of lady workers, with
Miss Stolterfoht as secretary, we are indebted for the beautiful
embroideries which do so much for the adornment and enrichment of the

We launched this first and great instalment of the cathedral "in humble
thankfulness to Almighty God that He has prospered our handiwork, and
pray that in this holy and beautiful house prayer and praise may be ever
offered unto Him; that He will assist with His blessing our effort to
complete the cathedral for His Glory; that He will endue with wisdom the
heads that guide, preserve from evil the hands that work, provide the
silver and gold, and carry to a glorious completion the building thus


In 1902 the Lord Bishop was good enough to nominate me as a member of
Convocation. We met at York once each year, when the clergy held their
meetings within the precincts of the cathedral, and the laymen in a
temperance hall. Our debates were purely academical and bore no fruit,
and no notice was taken of us by the Archbishop or the cathedral
authorities. If the clergy and laity were to meet together, Convocation
would have a reality and a value, for if nothing should come of their
public discussions they would at least get to know each other, and an
interchange of ideas could not be otherwise than advantageous to both.
Under the rule of Archbishop Lang I have no doubt Convocation will
become a very valuable institution.


The opportunity was afforded me to take part in several meetings of the
Church Congress. At some I read papers and at others I was a special
speaker. The most interesting congress was the one held in Exeter in
1894, when I was the guest of Bishop Bickersteth, at the Palace. The
other guests at the Palace were Dr. Temple, then Bishop of London; Dr.
Wordsworth, Bishop of Salisbury; Dr. Gott, Bishop of Truro; and Lord

We were all much interested with the rugged intellectual power of the
Bishop of London. His epigrammatic utterances interjected into our
after-dinner talk were full of wisdom, and often bubbled over with
quiet, quaint humour. Many stories were told of the Bishop when he was
the Bishop of Exeter; of the kindness which was concealed under his
brusque, outspoken manner, and his remarkable influence for good. He
delivered at Exeter a striking and very forcible address upon
temperance. His eyesight was already very defective and Mrs. Temple had
to lead him about. To the surprise of everybody he not only became
Archbishop of Canterbury, but will also be remembered as one of our
great archbishops.


When in New York I had the opportunity of visiting their cathedral, the
construction of which had been recently commenced. The clerk of the
works took me into a room to show me the model of the cathedral, and he
also showed me a list of cathedrals with their principal dimensions. At
the foot of the list came the New York cathedral, the largest of all. I
said to him, "You have forgotten one cathedral, the Liverpool
cathedral." He replied, "So I have; where will it come?" I told him to
put it at the bottom. He looked at me for a few moments in evident
surprise, and said, "Is it to be larger than New York?" and on my
answering "Yes" he replied, "Oh, we will make that all right; we will
add another bay to our nave." I thought this was truly American, a
determination not to be beaten.



In no department of Liverpool life has more distinct progress been made
than in its social regeneration. Liverpool was always liberal and
generous in her charities, but there was an absence of enlightenment in
her municipal administration, and an utter failure to realise the social
degradation in which so many of her people lived; her streets in the
'sixties were not fit places for respectable people after dark, while
the neighbourhood of the Sailors' Home at all times of the day was a
place to be avoided. Liverpool was known as the "black spot" on the
Mersey, and well earned that title.

It is difficult to make people sober or moral by act of parliament, and
the Liverpool people did not wait for Parliament, but aroused and set in
motion a strong public opinion, which demanded radical social changes.
The town had been flooded with licensed public-houses at a time when Mr.
J. R. Jeffery, Mr. Robertson Gladstone, and other justices advocated the
free license system, and the increased competition in the sale of drink
had led to many evils. The justices thought that by extending licences
they would do away with what was called the "gin palace," as it would no
longer be worth the publican's while to invest large sums of money to
make his house attractive and alluring. The multiplicity of licences,
however, increased intemperance to such an extent that in 1874 things
were so bad that the _Times_ commented on the dreadful moral condition
of Liverpool, and its unparalleled death-rate, as indicating that "the
leading inhabitants were negligent of their duties as citizens." The
public conscience was aroused, and a band of very earnest temperance
men, headed by Mr. Alexander Balfour, the Rev. Dr. Lundie, and Mr. Sam.
Smith began a crusade against the licensing justices and the Watch
Committee, whom they considered to be sympathetic with the drink
"trade," and a Vigilance Committee was formed. The struggle was a long
and fierce one, but great reforms have taken place. The streets of
Liverpool have been purified, and the temptations to drink have been
largely reduced. The name of Alexander Balfour will ever stand out
prominently as the chief of this movement, in the days when strong men
were wanted to lead, and in these latter days Sir Thomas Hughes is
entitled to much credit for the firm and consistent manner he has ruled
over the licensing bench.

Liverpool now breathes freely, and is no longer "the black spot" on the

Throughout this long and angry controversy the Conservative party
occupied a difficult position. Many of its most active supporters were
connected with what is termed the "trade," they were endeavouring to
conduct a very difficult business respectably, and in conformity with
the licensing laws, they have also been called upon to make large
sacrifices. The Conservative party were always sympathetic with the
"trade," and felt that the measures meted out to them were unduly harsh,
but have always recognised that something heroic must be done to win
back the city's good name. It is regrettable that a great and
much-needed social reform should have become so much mixed up with party
politics, but under the circumstances it was perhaps unavoidable.

The reforms which have taken place owe much of their success to our
press. _Porcupine_ in the 'seventies, under the editorship of Hugh
Shimmin, was their active and strong advocate; and more recently the
_Daily Post_ under the direction of Sir Edward Russell, has also done
good service, and sad to say, both editors had to appear in the law
court to vindicate their actions.

While this movement to exercise increased supervision over public-houses
and to diminish their number was in progress, the City Council was
actively engaged in the problem of not merely demolishing insanitary
property, but of replacing the rookeries thus destroyed by suitable and
well designed houses. This new policy began in 1885, when the group of
dwellings known as Victoria Square was erected. This good work has
proceeded rapidly, and the Corporation has already expended considerably
over £1,000,000 in this direction.

Perhaps no one obtains such a full insight into the charitable and
philanthropic work of the city as the Lord Mayor. He is called upon to
preside over annual meetings of some ninety of our charities, and is
brought into close contact with the many smaller societies, doing what
they can for bettering and brightening the lives of the people. Whatever
may have been the shortcomings of Liverpool in other respects, her
people have always liberally supported her charities, and these have
been far-reaching and generous in the benefits they have conferred upon
the community.

In the wide realm of philanthropy Liverpool has had many active workers,
for the most part unknown to fame, who plod away day after day in our
slums, with no prospect of reward, save the satisfaction of doing
something to ameliorate and brighten the lives of others. Recently a
short paragraph in a newspaper told us of the death of a clergyman who
had a distinguished university career, and who for twenty-four years
lived and worked unknown in the by-ways of Liverpool, attached to no
church, but doing what he could to uplift those around about him--and
there are many such. Among our workers in the good cause of
philanthropy we have had Mr. Edward Whitley, M.P., Mr. Clarke Aspinall,
Mr. Christopher Bushell, Mr. William Rathbone, M.P., Mr. William
Crosfield, Mr. Charles Langton, Canon Major Lester, and Monsignor

Mr. William Rathbone was not only an ideal local member of Parliament,
but for more than half a century he was foremost in every good work in
Liverpool. As a member of the Select Vestry he made the poor laws a
special subject of study. In the founding of our University, and the
District Nursing Association (the first in the country) Mr. Rathbone
rendered a great service.

Mr. Christopher Bushell was another leader of men; tall and dignified in
appearance and a good speaker, he was active in the cause of
philanthropy in support of the church and of education.

Nor must we forget the many ladies who have devoted their energies to
charitable and philanthropic work. Miss Calder has accomplished great
things for the school of cookery, and we have Miss Melly and Miss
Rathbone working for the Kyrle Society. The late Countess of Lathom was
ever ready with her handsome and distinguished presence and eloquent
voice to help forward every good work. Only a few months before she met
with her sad and tragic death she said to me, "When I am gone you must
write as my epitaph, 'She opened bazaars.'" Liverpool has had few
friends more devoted or more capable than the late Lady Lathom.



On the death of Mr. Alfred Turner in 1896, I was made president of the
Seamen's Orphanage. The detail work of the institution is carried on by
the chairman of the committee. The first chairman was Mr. Robert Allan,
whose devotion to the interests of the institution was beyond all
praise. On his retirement his place was filled by Mr. J. H. Beazley, one
of the sons of the founder, the late James Beazley. No institution in
the city of Liverpool is doing a better or a nobler work. We can all
realise how much our safety, and how greatly our prosperity as a nation,
depend upon our sailors, yet we scarcely appreciate how little chance a
sailor has of saving money for a rainy day, and how entirely dependent
his widow and family generally are upon public support.

The institution is worked upon right lines; a high moral and religious
tone is inculcated, and the children are brought up to be good Christian
boys and girls and to take a pride in their school. I do not know
anything more refreshing than to visit the school, with its hundreds of
bright, joyous children, all so glad to make you welcome with their
cheery "Good morning, sir!"

Our anniversary Sunday is a red-letter day in the institution, the
sermon being preached by a bishop. After the service an inspection of
the institution is made. It has been my privilege to entertain the
bishops during their visit, and we have had staying with us the Bishops
of Carlisle, Hereford, Bangor, Sodor and Man, Manchester, and the
Archbishop of York.


The advent of the motor vehicle, driven by an internal combustion
engine, was remarkable for its suddenness and its rapid development.

The motor was only in the experimental stage in 1896, yet four years
later several thousand were on the roads, and this number increased in
another five years to 60,000. That vehicles should be driven along the
public highways at thirty and forty, and even fifty miles an hour, was
subversive of all ideas of what was prudent and safe, and when these
vehicles set up clouds of dust in their progress, there was a public
outcry. This was fully justified, for the speed at which motors were
driven was undoubtedly excessive. On the other hand, the public did not
realise the complete control which the drivers could exercise, even at
high speeds.

The Government, in response to the popular demand in 1905, appointed a
Royal Commission on Motors, of which I was nominated a member. Viscount
Selby was appointed the chairman, and the other members were the Marquis
of Winchester, Sir Edward Henry, Chief of the Metropolitan Police, Sir
David Harrel, K.C.B., and Mr. Munroe, C.B., of the Local Government

We held about fifty sittings, extending over a year, and examined over
sixty witnesses, representing the Highway Authorities, the various motor
clubs and manufacturers, and a large number of persons who were opposed
to the use of motors on the high roads, unless limited to a low rate of

The enquiry was interesting and instructive. It brought out the fact
that much as many people object to motors, they one and all agreed that
they had come to stay. It was also proved that since railways had
withdrawn the heavy traffic from the highways, the roads had been
allowed to fall into poor condition, and to this could be attributed
some part of the complaints as to dust. I was personally in favour of
limiting the speed to twenty-five miles an hour in the open and ten
miles through towns and villages; but as all the other members of the
Commission felt that in the open country we should rely upon the powers
of the present Highway Act, which makes it a serious offence to drive at
a speed causing danger to the public, and were in favour of a no-speed
limit, except through villages, I gave way so that our report might be
a unanimous report. We made a long list of recommendations for the
better regulation of motor traffic. I am glad to say our report was well
received, and although no bill has been introduced to give legal force
to its recommendations, they are being very generally acted upon.

I have often since regretted that I did not press my recommendation
restricting the speed in the open to twenty-five miles an hour, as I
feel it would have largely solved the speed question. The powers under
the Highway Act would still have remained, compelling motorists to drive
at all times with due regard to public safety.




I was brought into such frequent contact with the late Lord Derby, in
connection with my duties as chairman of Quarter Sessions, that I should
like to add a few words of appreciation of his lordship's great kindness
and consideration. I must, however, in order to make my story quite
clear, preface my remarks by a reference to the late Earl of Sefton, who
was the Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire for so many years. Lord Sefton in
his appointments to the bench, took an infinite amount of trouble to
select good men, and men who when appointed would do their work. He was
good enough frequently to consult me, and I certainly did my best to
support him in his choice of suitable men for the office of magistrate,
which I hold to be a position of importance and responsibility.

It is not generally recognised that magistrates are endowed with very
great power over the liberties of the people, and they ought therefore
to be selected with great care. Two magistrates sitting at Petty
Sessions have in a sense more power than a judge sitting at an Assize.
They not only determine the guilt of the prisoner, but can and do
impose considerable terms of imprisonment. At the Assizes the jury
decide if the prisoner is guilty, the judge only awards the punishment.

Lord Sefton unfortunately made a mistake in some of his appointments to
the Salford Division. He was, however, entirely free from blame.
Erroneous information was given to him, and he made, quite unawares,
some political appointments. He added to the bench the names of several
Conservative politicians, which gave great offence to the Liberal
Government then in power. Mr. Bryce, then Chancellor of the Duchy,
wished to rectify the mistake by insisting upon Lord Sefton appointing a
number of active Liberals. This he declined to do, and it led to a
deadlock. Lord Sefton threatened to resign, and would have done so had
we not been able to build a bridge over which both he and the Chancellor
were able to retire without loss of dignity. I was much helped in these
negotiations by my friend, the late Mr. Robert D. Holt.

Upon Lord Sefton's death Lord Derby was appointed the Lord Lieutenant.
Naturally a timid man, he was very anxious to avoid the mistake made by
his predecessor, and for several years he created no new magistrates in
some Petty Sessional Divisions, and the administration of justice was
rendered most difficult through the lack of justices.

I was at this time frequently at Knowsley, and spent hours in going over
lists of names with his lordship, and always came away with a promise
that some appointments should be made forthwith, but still he hesitated.
It was quite impossible to feel disappointed. Lord Derby was always so
courteous and kind, and one could not help feeling that his hesitation
arose from his extreme conscientiousness and high sense of duty, and
also one could not fail to recognise that his task was delicate and

When the Liberal Government came into office in 1905, they set about to
adjust the inequality between the political parties as represented on
the bench, and the Lord Chancellor practically made all the
appointments, the Lord Lieutenant merely confirming. Under this
arrangement the bench in Lancashire has been greatly increased, but I
doubt if its status has been maintained.

Lord and Lady Derby from time to time extended great kindness to us,
Lady Derby frequently inviting us to dine and sleep at Knowsley, to meet
her distinguished guests. In this way we had the opportunity of meeting
the Prince and Princess of Wales, the Lord Chancellor (Lord Halsbury),
the Prime Minister (Mr. Balfour), and others. The hospitality of
Knowsley is proverbial, Lord and Lady Derby were ideal host and hostess,
and we have paid no pleasanter visits than those to Knowsley.

When Lord Derby was elected Lord Mayor of Liverpool I was asked to act
as his deputy, as it was not expected that his lordship would do more
than the formal and official work. For some time I called at the Town
Hall every morning to see if I could be of any service, but I quickly
discovered that Lord Derby was not going to discharge his duties in a
perfunctory manner, and my services were required very little. I
remember on one of my visits his lordship telling me his horse was the
favourite for the Oaks, which was to be run on the day following. I
begged him to go up to see the race, but he replied his first duty was
at the Town Hall.

The race was run, and Lord Derby's horse won. I often narrated this
episode as a proof of his lordship's devotion to his duties, and once in
his presence, when he intervened and said: "Do not give me too much
credit; I must confess the temptation to see my horse win was too strong
for me. I went up by the midnight train, and returned by the first train
after the race."

Lord Derby proved a most excellent Lord Mayor, and the debates in the
Council were never before--and have never since been--conducted with so
much decorum and dignity. The hospitality of the Town Hall was
maintained on a splendid scale. Lady Derby took a keen personal interest
in all the arrangements, and her own charming personality contributed
greatly to the popularity and success of his lordship's year of office,
which I have also reason to believe he greatly enjoyed.

It may be interesting to narrate how Lord Derby became Lord Mayor. I
had heard it stated that his brother and predecessor in the title had
often expressed his wish that the old tradition of the family might be
revived, and that he might be asked to become Mayor of Liverpool; and
bearing this in mind I ventured one day to mention the subject to Lord
Stanley. I found it not only interested him greatly, but he said he was
sure his father would appreciate the honour, provided it was the
unanimous wish of the Council. I mentioned the matter to our leader in
the Council, and an early opportunity was availed of to elect Lord Derby
as the first Lord Mayor of the extended Liverpool.

By the death of Lord Derby, Liverpool sustained a grievous loss. He had
filled many great public positions--Governor-General of Canada,
Secretary of State for War--but in no position did he do more useful
work than in the management of his own vast estates, and in furthering
good work of every description round and about Liverpool. He fully
realised that great responsibility attached to his position, and he
devoted himself to the discharge of his many duties in the county and in
Liverpool with an assiduity and earnestness which won the admiration of
all, while all were fascinated by his great courtesy and old-world charm
of manner.

Lord Derby took a deep and active interest in the building of the
cathedral, always making a point of attending our meetings when in
Liverpool, and his encouragement and wise words of advice were most


In June, 1907, I received a letter from Sir Edward Grey, the Secretary
of State for Foreign Affairs, asking me if I could entertain at
Bromborough Hall the Prince Fushimi of Japan, a royal prince, who was
visiting England on a special mission from the Emperor. I replied that,
while I should be delighted to do all I could to extend hospitality to
the Prince, I could only place ten bedrooms at his disposal. Sir Edward
Grey replied that as the suite comprised twenty-two he had asked Lord
Derby to invite the Prince to Knowsley, but would be glad if I would
make the necessary arrangements for his visit to Liverpool. This was
followed by a letter from Lord Derby asking me to send to his
comptroller a list of the guests I thought he ought to invite,
intimating that he could put up thirty and dine forty all told. I made
out a purely official list, and arranged for the Lord Mayor to give the
Prince a luncheon at the Town Hall, and for the Dock Board to take him
in their tender for a sail on the river, and afterwards to proceed to

The suite in attendance on the Prince was most distinguished, including
the Grand Chamberlain to the Emperor, the Admiral who had been Minister
of Marine during the Russo-Japanese war, the General who commanded the
cavalry during the war, and many other men of eminence. They mostly
spoke English, and were very interesting. They were charmed with the
park at Knowsley, and were familiar with the history of many of the
great personages whose portraits were displayed upon the walls of the
Knowsley dining-room. They asked innumerable questions, and among other
things wanted a plan of Knowsley. The only plan Lord Derby could produce
was a plan made to show the drainage system. Strange to say, they were
delighted with it.

The following morning, shortly before leaving, the Prince came
downstairs, preceded by two of his suite, bearing a beautiful cabinet,
which he placed at Lady Derby's feet, a present from the Emperor. Lady
Derby was much gratified, and said she was more than repaid for all the
trouble she had taken in opening the house and bringing all the
servants, carriages, and horses from London, adding, "They are such
perfect gentlemen."

Knowsley was in the hands of the painters, and, being in the middle of
the London season, it was not an easy thing to arrange to entertain the
Prince; but as the King had expressed a wish that Lord Derby should be
his host, it had to be done. Liverpool had a good friend in the late
Lord Derby, and no one will ever know the trouble he took to entertain
royal and distinguished visitors to Liverpool, oftentimes at
considerable personal inconvenience.

During the war between Russia and Japan, it was for long a question if
the fleet of Japan would be strong enough to meet the Russian fleet. At
the close of the war it came out for the first time that the most
powerful ship in the Japanese fleet had in the early days of the war
been blown up by a mine, with the loss of 800 lives. I ventured to ask
the Minister of Marine how they managed to keep the secret so well. He
simply replied, "Our people are very patriotic." I also asked the
general who was in command of the cavalry how it was that their great
strategical movements did not leak out. He answered with a twinkle in
his eye, "The newspaper gentlemen were very pleasant, and we managed to
interest and amuse them elsewhere."



One of the most remarkable developments of modern times has been the
increase in the facilities for foreign travel, with the consequence that
travelling has become the pastime of the many, and not the privilege of
the few. In the 'sixties and 'seventies travelling was difficult. In the
first place, a passport had to be obtained, with the visé of the
ambassador of every country through which it was intended to pass. It
usually took ten days to procure this, and there also had to be faced
the difficulties of the Customs at the various frontiers, the absence of
through train services, and the general halo of suspicion with which
foreigners were regarded on the continent, and which led frequently to
unpleasantness. In 1860, on my way to Trieste, I was detained at Turin,
and at the hotel I met Mr. Ed. Lear, R.A., the author of the _Book of
Nonsense_, who was on his way to paint a picture in Italy. Mr. Lear made
a few pen-and-ink sketches for me. When I arrived at the Austrian
frontier at Verona, these were found in my baggage, and I was detained
for twelve hours while enquiries were made about me by telegraph.
Another time, I was staying at the little Portuguese town of Elvas, and
walked across the frontier to see Badajos, the scene of the memorable
siege during the Peninsular war. On entering the town, I was asked for
my passport, which I produced, but as it had no Spanish visé I was
placed in charge of a gendarme, who with a drawn sword marched me across
the frontier back into Portugal. These little incidents serve to
illustrate the suspicion which surrounded travellers on the continent.

In addition to my voyage round the world, already described, I paid
annual visits to the Southern States of America, in connection with my
firm's cotton business, and I also spent some time in Portugal and the
West Indies.

In no department of travel has more progress been made than in ocean
travel. I crossed the Atlantic in 1861 in the "City of Washington," of
the Inman Line, and returned in the Cunard steamer "Niagara," the voyage
each way lasting twelve days, and they were twelve days of great
discomfort. The sleeping accommodation was below the saloon; the cabins
were lit by oil lamps, which were put out at eleven o'clock at night;
the air was foul and stifling; and there was an entire absence of

In the saloon, above the dining-tables, trays filled with wine-glasses
swung from side to side with every roll of the ship; the saloon was lit
by candles, which spurted grease and smelt abominably. There was no
smoking room provided, and we sat in the "fiddlee" upon coils of rope,
while the sea washed to and fro, or else we tried to get under the lee
of the funnel. What a change has taken place, and how greatly the
electric light has contributed to the comfort of travellers by sea!


The most interesting journey I ever made was in 1871, when with my
father and the late Dr. Grimsdale and Mr. Ryley I visited the
Franco-Prussian battlefields. The war was not ended and the German army
was still surrounding Paris, which made travelling difficult, but we met
with great civility from the Prussian officers, and visited the
battlefields of Saarbrück, where the Prince Imperial received his
baptism of fire, Wörth, Hagenau, Weissenburg, Gravelotte, where we found
men still burying the horses slain in the battle, Mars-le-Tour, Metz,
and finally Sedan. We gathered many trophies, but were not allowed to
bring them away. Wherever the Prussians made a stand and were
slaughtered in their hundreds, as at Gravelotte, we found pieces of
small German Bibles, and we were told that every German soldier, from
the Emperor William downwards, carried a Bible in his haversack.


The year after I retired from business, in 1891, I visited Costa Rica
with my eldest daughter, to inspect the railway in which we were much
interested. The country from Port Limon, which lies on the shores of the
Gulf of Mexico, bathed in a tropical sun, to San José, the capital, is
most picturesque and remarkable for its deep ravines, its rapid rivers,
and its wealth of vegetation. On leaving Port Limon we passed through
long and deep valleys filled with palms and every species of tropical
plants, which made us exclaim that we might be in the Kew
conservatories. We gradually worked our way up 5,000 feet to the plateau
upon which San José is situated, and the scenery hereabouts reminded us
of an undulating English landscape, such as we have in Kent or Surrey.

The railway was then in its infancy, and in a very rickety condition; it
was said that the man who travelled by it for the first time was a hero,
and if he travelled a second time he was a fool. But reconstruction was
already in progress.

We were much interested in the banana cultivation, as it supplied
cargoes for our steamers sailing between Port Limon and New York, a
trade which has since developed into gigantic dimensions. We had all the
anxiety of finding the capital necessary to finance both the banana
industry and the railway, and like most pioneers we did not secure the
reward; it went to an American company, who reaped where we had sown. My
daughter and I had a charming trip to Cartago, and ascended the volcano
of Iritzu, 13,000 feet, and from the summit had a view of both the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. We made also a trip to the Pacific coast on
horseback; it was a long journey, and in order to escape the heat of the
sun we travelled chiefly by night. We passed innumerable waggons drawn
by bullocks and laden with coffee for shipment from the Pacific coast.
It required some vigilance on our part to prevent our horses being
struck by the long horns of the bullocks as we passed by. We had
eventually to leave the high road and strike through the bush, the
Indians going before cutting down with their _machettes_ the vines and
tree branches which blocked the path. We returned only a few days later,
yet such is the rapid growth of tropical vegetation that the Indians had
again to clear the track. We stayed the second night at the village of
Esperanto, and early next day reached the Trinidad gold mines, situated
on the mountain side looking down on the Pacific coast. I shall never
forget the view which stretched out before us. There was the Pacific
Ocean lying opalescent in the bright beams of the morning sun, and
studded with little blue islands, looking like so many blue beads upon a
silvered mirror.

On our way out from Jamaica to Limon we spent two days at Colon. The
works on the Panama Canal were in active operation. We went a little way
up and saw enough to convince me that the French would never make the
canal. The waste of money was prodigious. We saw a train of trucks
loaded with cases side-tracked into the bush and completely grown over.
The sickness was also terrible. Every day a funeral train came down to
Colon from the works with bodies for interment, and grave spaces in the
cemetery were so scarce that they were let at a rental of so much a
month. Now, thanks to the researches of the Liverpool Tropical School of
Medicine, these pestiferous swamps have been rendered innocuous.


I made a voyage to Jamaica in 1864, the year of the rebellion, and had
the pleasure of staying with Governor Eyre. The rebellion at one time
assumed a very grave aspect, and the governor got into serious trouble,
because, to save the situation, he shot several of the rebel
ringleaders, after a trial by drumhead court-martial. I fully believed
from what I knew of the circumstances that he was justified in doing so,
and his action prevented a serious outbreak, but he was made the

I have visited Jamaica several times, and until I had seen Ceylon,
considered it the most beautiful island in the world.


In 1892, when on a visit to America with my daughter, I was asked to
proceed to Mexico, to endeavour to induce the Mexican Government to
give their National Bonds in exchange for the bonds of the Mexican
Southern Railway. These had been guaranteed by the several Mexican
States through which the railway passed, but there had been default in
the interest payments, and the bonds were in consequence greatly
depreciated in value, the $100 bond selling in London for $25. I thought
it was a hopeless mission, but decided to go. We proceeded from New York
through Arkansas and Texas. It took us thirty-six hours in the train to
cross Texas, travelling all the while; this will give some idea of the
great size of this state.

On our way we saw in the newspapers that an insurrection had broken out
in Mexico, headed by Gusman. The New York papers had long detailed
accounts. This induced me to break our journey at Laredo, which is
situated on the frontier of Mexico, as I did not wish to expose my
daughter to any danger. On my arrival at the hotel at Laredo, I sent for
the landlord and asked him where the rebellion was. He replied, "Right
here, sir, in this hotel." I could not understand what he meant, and
desired him to explain himself. "Well," he said, "I will tell you how it
was. Some reports reached the north that a civil war had broken out, and
one day fourteen newspaper reporters arrived. They came to this hotel
and sent for me, and demanded how they could get to the seat of the war,
and where Gusman, the leader of the rebels, was to be found. I told
them there was no rebellion, and that I had seen Gusman in Laredo a few
days before, selling cattle. They were not, however, satisfied, and said
that they had come down to write up a civil war, and a civil war there
must be. They stayed in this hotel ten days, sending to the north every
day long accounts of the progress of hostilities, and then they returned
home." I thought this was one of the best stories of the methods of
American journalists that I had ever heard, and as I knew it to be true,
I repeated it to President Diaz a few days later, on my arrival at the
city of Mexico. The old President was much amused, and said it reminded
him of the story of a tiger. He received news that the people of a
certain village were being destroyed by a tiger, and dared not venture
out for fear of the animal, so he sent down a company of soldiers; they
found it was quite true that the villagers were scared to death, but
there was no tiger. A puma is called in Mexico a tiger.

When I told the President the object of my mission to Mexico he laughed,
and exclaimed, "Did I think he was going to give me his good money for
my bad money?" In my heart I thought he had very aptly described the
situation, but I replied that I hoped to convince him that the good
credit of Mexico was in jeopardy by my railway bonds being in default,
and if the Government would step into the breach it would place the
credit of Mexico in a high position in the London money market. I,
however, made very little impression upon him. I was asking for Mexican
bonds worth £900,000 for my railway bonds worth at the outside £250,000.
I had several interviews, but met with very little encouragement. I,
however, got to know the President, and he became very friendly and
pleasant to me. On one of my visits he told me of his birthplace,
Oaxaca, situated about 200 miles south of the city of Mexico; he was
evidently very proud of it. He spoke of the beauty of the situation, the
richness of the country, both in the fertility of its soil and mineral
resources, and the industry of the Indian population.

I thought it would not be a bad idea to run down and see Oaxaca. I was
doing no good in Mexico, and I should also be able to see something of
the Mexican Southern Railway, which ran about half the way to a place
called Tehuacan. We proceeded by train to Puebla, where I left my
daughter, and then down the long broad valley of Tehuacan. Every few
miles we came to a magnificent church, which formerly had been the
centre of a village or town, for during the Spanish occupation this
valley contained a population of 1,000,000, and was very fertile and
rich. We saw now and again the aqueducts and tunnels which had conveyed
water through the valley for irrigation.

At Tehuacan we passed through several fine cañons; here we took horses,
as the railway was not completed beyond this point, and rode through a
very delightful country. The first night we slept at an Indian village,
or tried to sleep, but were disturbed by the barking of dogs. Every
house appeared to possess a dog, which made it its business to howl and
make the night hideous. The village was quite tidy, the houses mostly
built of bamboo and thatched with dried palm leaves. The Indians
themselves, in their wide-brimmed hats and white calico clothes, often
wearing woollen ponchos, were picturesque and interesting.

On our arrival at Oaxaca we put up at the hotel, which was far from
inviting, and then called upon the governor and the archbishop, the
latter an Irishman with a decided brogue; he is a very rich and powerful
man, and practically rules over his diocese, both in temporal as well as
in spiritual affairs.

Oaxaca was a charming little town, prettily situated in a valley; in the
centre of the town is a public garden and bandstand. One of the secrets
of President Diaz's popularity is his sympathy with the love of music so
general among the Indians, and he has wisely provided every little town
with its orchestra.

We were much interested in the market, and saw the country people bring
in with their produce little nuggets of gold, which they had washed out
of the gravel beds on their farms.

The Indians in these parts consist of two clans or tribes, the "Black"
and the "White Hats"; the "Black Hats" were a troublesome people to
control, but so far as I could see, the Indians are an industrious and
well-conducted people.

On my return to the city of Mexico, the President was greatly surprised
and delighted when I told him where I had been. He was much interested
and asked me many questions, and from this moment my mission appeared to
make headway; I had made the President my friend. A bill was introduced
into the Legislature authorising the issue of Mexican bonds in exchange
for my railway bonds. Although it met with some opposition, the
President was all-powerful, and it passed the Legislature, and in six
weeks I received the new Mexican government bonds for £1,000,000. I can
well remember the smile of the chief clerk in the Treasury when he
handed me the bonds. I asked him why he laughed; he said such a rapid
thing had never been done in Mexico before, and he could not quite see
why they should have hurried in this way; nor could I, save that my
daily presence at the Treasury acted as a gentle stimulus.

We returned home via El Paso and Denver. The directors of the Mexican
Southern Railway were greatly delighted at my success, and presented me
with a cheque for £1,000. I look back upon this journey with much
pleasure, not only from recollections of a very beautiful and
fascinating country and people, but having enjoyed the friendship of two
very remarkable men--President Diaz and Signor Don Limantour, the
present finance minister in Mexico. One day in course of conversation
with the President, I mentioned my great admiration for Signor Don
Limantour, and I added that he had been educated at Stonyhurst, in
England, which I considered a great advantage to him. It was, therefore,
very gratifying to me to learn shortly after I had reached England that
he had been made finance minister, with the understanding that he would
succeed Diaz as President. In the hands of two such capable men the
future of Mexico is assured.

President Diaz is a man of great commonsense and of strong will. To
consolidate his rule in the early years of his presidency he was obliged
to be severe. The country was infested with banditti, who put a stop to
all commerce and travel. Diaz, when he caught the banditti, made them
into rural guards, on the principle of setting a thief to catch a thief,
and by this means he quickly restored law and order. Even when I was in
the country gibbets were still to be seen, some having hanging to them
the remains of their former victims. For some years after I returned
President Diaz occasionally corresponded with me, and I kept him
informed of the condition of things in Europe, and in particular of the
position of Mexican finance in London.


In company with Lord Claud Hamilton I again visited America in 1905. We
sailed from Liverpool in the "Ivernia." When we arrived at Boston Lord
Claud received a letter from the president of the New York Central
Railway placing at his disposal a private car which would be attached to
any train we required, and in which we were free to go to any part of
the United States. This was a personal compliment to Lord Claud as
chairman of the Great Eastern Railway.

We found the car contained a dining saloon, four state rooms, and at one
end was a smoking room and observatory in which we could sit and view
the scenery.

There was an excellent _chef_ and a very attentive steward; and in this
car we travelled and lived for three weeks, being most sumptuously
entertained. We picked up two friends, so we had a very pleasant party
of four. We visited Niagara, Chicago, St. Louis (to see the Exhibition),
Washington, and other places _en route_. At St. Louis we were received
by the president of the Exhibition, Mr. Francis, who drove us round the
grounds in a Western prairie coach, painted yellow, and drawn by six
white horses. It was a curious experience. The coach was fully laden,
and as we rushed around the corners it lurched and heeled over in a
truly alarming manner. We felt for the time as if we were part of a Wild
West circus troupe.

The Exhibition was very well worth seeing. Of all the great exhibitions
it was quite one of the best. The illuminations in the evening were on a
magnificent scale.

During our railway progress we were surprised at the number of wrecks of
trains we passed; seventeen in all. Many had been accompanied by loss of
life, but little or no allusion was made to them in the newspapers. We
began to feel anxious for our own safety, and we were congratulating
ourselves upon our escape from all trouble, when, nearing New York on
our way from Washington, suddenly we saw our locomotive sail away in
front of us, and looking back saw the remainder of the train standing
half-a-mile behind us. The couplings had broken, but the automatic
brakes, fortunately, brought us to a standstill.

When we arrived at any important place at which we intended to make a
stay, we placed the private car on a siding while we took up our
quarters at an hotel or a country club. These country clubs are charming
institutions in America, and the members are most generous in extending
their hospitality to travellers.

When at Washington President Roosevelt kindly invited us to dine at the
White House. We were unable to accept this invitation, and he then asked
us to lunch. With the exception of General Chaffee, we were alone with
the President. The White House has a very English homelike aspect. It is
a large Georgian house furnished and decorated in Adams style, and
resembles an English gentleman's country residence.

President Roosevelt is a thick-set man of medium height, very vivacious
and active, both mentally and physically. He had all the energy and
strenuous activity, while his Chief Secretary of State, Mr. Hay, had the
wisdom and discretion, and the two made a strong combination. When Mr.
Hay died this salutary restraint was removed, and President Roosevelt
tried to carry out reforms with a rush. Though his intentions were
excellent the rough and hasty methods he adopted plunged the country
into a disastrous and far-reaching financial disaster.

At lunch the President told me that he had that morning been reading
Macaulay for the third or fourth time, and was anxious to know when
Tories in England ceased to be called Tories. I replied, "It was after
Macaulay's time; about the 'sixties." He then told me that he had been
to see the Jiu-jitsu clan of Japanese perform with their grips; they had
300 grips, and being fond of athletics he had learned thirty of them.
After lunch, while I was standing near the fire, the President rushed at
me and said, "Let me try a few of the grips on you," and before I could
answer he had my right arm over his shoulder, and I had to follow
bodily. He did not hurt me, and relinquished his grip when he found he
was my master. He then took hold of my legs below the knees and threw
me over his shoulder, and finally, taking hold of my hands, placed me on
my back. The easy way in which he caught me and prevented my falling was
a proof of his great muscular strength. He attacked Lord Claud Hamilton
in a similar fashion, but Lord Claud shrank from the contest. I think
this was a proof of the extreme human character of the President. He
will live as one of America's greatest Presidents, and I suppose there
are not many men who can say they have wrestled with this great
uncrowned king of America.


Of our winter travels in the Mediterranean, our visits to Egypt, Greece,
Algiers, Norway, etc., I need not say much, the ground is now so
familiar to most people.


We had one little experience, to which I look back with much interest.
Staying at Biskra, on the borders of the Sahara, we formed a camp and
went four or five days' sojourn into the desert, quite a unique and
pleasant tour. We were joined by two American ladies, and our camp
consisted of eleven men and about a dozen mules, and four or five
camels. We had an excellent native dragoman, who turned out to be a
very good cook. The camels carried the tents and bedding, and the
kitchen utensils, while we rode the mules. As we marched out of Biskra
we formed quite an important cavalcade and all the people in the hotel
turned out to see us. After marching about ten miles we halted for
lunch, and it was surprising how soon Achmed had a ragout ready for us.
We afterwards marched about fifteen miles, and pitched our camp just
outside an oasis, and not very far from an encampment of Bedouins.

The days were very hot, but the nights quite cold. Our beds were spread
on the ground in the tents, and we required all our blankets and rugs to
keep the cold out. An armed Arab slept on the ground outside the door of
each tent. The desert at this season of the year--the spring--was
covered, more or less, with short grass and an abundance of wild
flowers. In many places we had to pass over large areas of sand dunes,
which were very trying, and to cross the dried-up beds of rivers. These
rivers come down from the mountains when the snows melt and rush along
in mighty torrents, scooping out water courses, until they finally lose
themselves in the burning sands of the desert. As we got away from the
mountains, the desert began to look more and more like the ocean, with
its clean-cut horizon all round, the hummocks of sand reminding one of
Atlantic seas. The clear blue sky and the translucent atmosphere
imparted an enchanting aspect to the scene; indeed, it became
fascinating, and I can quite enter into the spirit of the Bedouin, who
sees in the wastes of his Sahara so much to love and to attract him.

The intense sense of loneliness is a new experience for an Englishman,
and awakens within him strange emotions, giving him new views of his
environment and throwing new lights upon the future. The starlight
nights were lovely, and on one night we were able to play bridge by
starlight up to midnight.

We passed through several oases, which usually consist of a village
surrounded by two or three thousand date-palm trees, the houses being
built of mud and thatched with palm leaves. Palms constitute the riches
of this country, and a man's wealth is computed by the number of
date-palm trees or camels he possesses.

The Bedouin tribes we came across seemed a well-behaved, peaceable
people. They move about with their flocks of sheep and goats. At night
their flocks are tethered about their tents, and by day they wander in
search of pasture. The men beguile their time while watching their
flocks by doing embroideries, and also in making garments. They lead the
simple life.


All lovers of a garden will take great delight in the Count's garden at
Biskra, rendered famous by the beautiful poetic description given of it
by Mr. Hichens in his novel the _Garden of Allah_.

The garden is situated just outside Biskra, on the banks of the river
Benevent. It was laid out fifty years ago by the Count Landon, who
lavished his money upon it to make this the most perfect tropical garden
in the world. Every species of palm tree, every plant known in the
tropics, finds here a home. On the south side it is bordered by the
river, with terraces overlooking the desert wastes of the Sahara beyond;
running streams of water intersect the garden and afford the means of
the constant irrigation which is necessary. The borders and walks are
wonderfully kept by an army of Arab gardeners, so vigilant in their
attention that it is almost impossible for a falling leaf to reach the
ground before it is caught and removed; thus everything is tidy and

It was in this garden Domini met the Count Anteoni and listened to his
reasons for finding his happiness in its leafy solitudes: "I come here
to think; this is my special thinking place." It was to him an ideal
place for finding out interior truth. The Arabs of the Sahara sing, "No
one but God and I knows what is in my heart," and so the vast solitudes
of the desert in their terrible stillness, overwhelming distances, and
awe-inspiring silence, make men think and think. The Arabs say in truth
that "No man can be an atheist in the desert."

We enter the garden through a large gateway, flanked on one side by a
two-storied Moorish dwelling-house which contains the sleeping
apartments of the Count. We cross a large court-yard margined by
hedgerows, towering up twenty feet or more, deeply cut to form a shade
for the benches underneath. At the far end of the quadrangle is the
salon, the walls of which are covered with bougainvillea of a deep
violet colour. On the far side the salon looks out upon a broad avenue
of date-palms, fringed with hedgerows of dark red hibiscus and scarlet
geranium. A few yards beyond is the Arab divan, embowered by purple
bougainvillea. Huge date-palms lift their heads above all and afford a
welcome shade from the direct rays of the sun; but its rays glint
through and light up the orange trees, with their red golden fruit,
which stand on the far side, and throw a yellow shimmering tint over the
feathery foliage of the bamboos which fill in the space between the

Everywhere overhead the date-palms and the cocoanut-palms meet and form
a series of leafy arcades, throwing a canopy over the undergrowth,
protecting it from the scorching rays of the sun. This undergrowth
consists of hedgerows of bamboos, hibiscus, and alamanders, intersected
by avenues of date and cocoanut-palms, alcoves in shady corners,
pergolas shrouded with creepers leading out of mysterious paths and
by-ways, groves of phoenix-palms and bananas, thickets of scarlet
geraniums, and large clearings filled with fan-palms. Everywhere is the
music of running water rippling as it flows through its tortuous
channels, distributing life and luxuriance in its path.

It is difficult to enumerate all the trees which give so much charm to
the garden, but I must not forget the acacias, gums, indiarubber trees,
eucalyptus, and many varieties of mimosa.

The garden is thrown open to the public upon a small payment, and forms
one of the great attractions of Biskra. It is difficult to conceive a
more wonderful contrast than that between the luxuriant tropical
vegetation of the Count's garden and the arid, sandy wastes of the
Sahara with which it is surrounded, and out of which indeed it has been
created. It was amusing to run across in out-of-the-way nooks and
corners so many people diligently reading, and it was always the same
book, the _Garden of Allah_.


There is probably no country so fascinating to the traveller as Egypt.
It is not merely that it is Oriental and picturesque, but it is a Bible
land and the seat of the early dawn of civilisation. Its explorers have
made discoveries out of which they have been enabled to build up the
history of an ancient and most remarkable people; and while the
traveller beholds in wonder the gigantic proportions of pyramid, pylon
and temple, he is fascinated by the story which recent discoveries have
woven around them. One cannot visit Egypt without becoming an
Egyptologist in a small way. My two visits to Assouan gave me a very
good grasp of the centuries of history rolled up within the Nile valley,
and enabled me to deliver on my return several lectures in the Picton
Lecture Hall in connection with our course of free lectures.

Things have been changed very much in Egypt. The lovely island of Philæ,
with its Ptolemean temple, is submerged, and the valley of the Nile has
changed its character by the raising of its waters. Cairo has become the
pilgrimage of the fashionable, and much of what was primitive and
interesting has been improved away, but still the Egypt of history
remains, and will remain, to charm and fascinate with its spell of
romance--its reverence for the dead and the grandeur of its religious
rites and ceremonies.


India awakens within us such a sense of vastness and distance, and so
strongly appeals to our imagination, that one is much tempted to write
at length that others may enter into our enjoyment of a country and a
people so great, so picturesque, and so remarkable. It was this feeling
which prompted me, while in India, to write a series of letters to the
_Liverpool Daily Post_. These letters are too long to be reproduced
here, and I must, therefore, confine myself to a brief résumé of our
impressions of India. The first thing which almost staggers the
imagination is the extent of our Indian Empire.



Landing in Ceylon, which lies only seven degrees north of the Equator,
we were surrounded by the most profuse and luxuriant tropical
vegetation; and the vertical rays of the sun kept us indoors, except in
the early morning and late evening. A few days later we had passed
through Calcutta and found ourselves at Darjeeling, with snow lying all
about us, and with the mighty snow-ranges of the Himalayas piled up
before us, and yet we had not left India. We were surrounded by
300,000,000 of people belonging to six hundred nationalities, and
speaking as many languages, differing not only in nationality and in
language, but in religion, in civilisation, and in their manners and
customs, and all this multitude of peoples, nations, and languages were
comprised in "India."

Nothing brings this great diversity among the people of India more
vividly before the mind than a walk through one of the main streets of
Calcutta. Here one meets with natives from every part, some arrayed in
simple white garments, but others clothed in gorgeous apparel. Their
costumes of silk and satin are radiant with a dazzling wealth of colour,
every nationality having its distinctive dress, the Bengalese, the
Pathan, the Sikh, the Nepaulese, the Tamils, and the Mahrattas, and all
walk with that dignified bearing which proclaims them to be members of a
princely class. Our wonder increases. How comes it that this multitude
of peoples, these descendants of martial races, live together in peace
and amity?

The plains of Delhi, which for 2,000 years were the arena of perpetual
conflict as nations were made and unmade, proclaim the warlike character
of the people, the intensity of their national hatred, and the ferocity
of their bloody feuds. They are now held together in peaceful union by
legions of British troops--there are but 70,000 British troops in all
India--and probably 250,000,000 out of the 300,000,000 people in India
have never seen a British soldier.

This great phalanx of nations is held together, is made happy and
prosperous, by the just rule which appeals to their imagination and
their sense of justice, and which is administered by 900 British
civilians, who are for the most part men under 40 years of age. I think
this is one of the most remarkable spectacles the world has ever seen.
It speaks well for the English public-school system which has trained
these men. It speaks also well for honest administration and the
influence and power which it exerts, exercising a moral influence
greater and more far-reaching than any military rule.

The most interesting study in India is that of the people, among whom
there is the greatest difference in physique. We have the lithe, active
little coolie of Southern and Central India, the hewer of wood and the
drawer of water; the fat, astute, and subtle Bengalee, devoid of moral
or physical courage, a born agitator; the stalwart hillmen of the
North-West who furnish our Indian army with its best recruits; and the
Mahrattas, the descendants of warlike races, who to-day are among the
most active traders.

The student of character has a wide and fruitful field for
investigation, but there are certain features which stand out
prominently--their marvellous patience, their devotion to their
religion, which is almost fanatical. Like the Egyptians of old, they
live in the contemplation of death, and look upon death as the great
consummation. The elaborate and magnificent tombs we see everywhere
correspond to the pyramids and monumental buildings of ancient Egypt;
while their ruinous condition attest the wisdom of Solomon, that "Vanity
of vanity, all is vanity."

The poverty of India is also striking, but it is not so great as it
appears. When we talk of a daily wage of twopence it seems almost
impossible that life can be supported on any such sum; but in India a
penny will buy all the rice the coolie can eat, and his other expenses
are very small. Still, it must be considered a poor country.

There is no scenery in India until we reach the hills, which occupy a
considerable area in the Madras presidency, and margin the whole of the
North-West. Central and Southern India are vast plains. The grandest
mountain view in the world is that of the Himalayas, from Darjeeling.
Darjeeling stands at an elevation of 7,000 to 8,000 feet, on the foot
hills of the Himalayas, about forty miles from "Kinchin Junga," which is
the centre of one of the highest ranges. In the foreground are several
deep valleys, usually filled with clouds. Looking over these, a further
great bank of clouds appears high up in the heavens. On closer
examination we begin to see they are not clouds; their opaque, snowy
whiteness and their sharp peaks and serrated edges tell us that this is
a range of mountains. "Kinchin Junga" stands in the centre, with an
altitude of 28,000 feet, but in this mighty mountain group there is no
mountain less than 24,000 feet, and not one of these has been scaled by
man. On a clear evening, when the setting sun throws its roseate rays
over the snows, no view can be more sublime and beautiful. Away on the
west they dip down into Nepaul, and on the extreme right the deep
indentation marks the pass by which the British troops entered Tibet.



We do not travel to India to see scenery, but Oriental life: the
splendours of Agra and Delhi, the pilgrim city of Benares, and the
silent, deserted cities of Fatehpur Sikri and Amber, all rich in
historical records of the great Mogul kings, who for so many centuries
held sway in India. It is only by seeing these places that one can form
some idea of the magnificence and splendour which surrounded these
monarchs, which has never been surpassed.

[Illustration: AGRA--THE TAJ MAHAL.

WIFE, A.D. 1648.]

While we were in India we saw the beginnings of that unrest which has
caused so much anxiety and has led to those outrages which the best
Indians must deplore. We have in promoting education in India forgotten
that there is but a limited opening for mere students, and in the
absence of fitting occupation they become agitators. We ought to train
the young men for some definite calling as agriculturists, engineers, or

We also thought that the Europeans in India hold themselves too much
aloof from the educated Indians. Caste prevents any great intimacy, but
more might be done to bridge this over.

With small and reasonable concessions to native ambition, but, above
all, with that firmness of administration which alone appeals to the
Oriental mind, the present feeling of unrest will pass away, and India
will continue to pursue that remarkable development and progress which
have done so much for the happiness and well-being of her people.


In the summer of 1906, when motoring through Shropshire, I turned aside
to visit the little village church of Morton Saye, of which my
great-grandfather, Samuel Peploe, was vicar in 1770. I had not visited
the church for nearly fifty years. Then it was a very quaint,
old-fashioned place, with black oak pews and a black oak minstrel
gallery at one end close to the pulpit. This was the singing gallery,
the choir of three voices being led by a violin and cornet.

I found all had been changed. The church had been restored; the old
features had disappeared; but fortunately the restoration had been
carried out in good taste. I spoke to the vicar, who had followed us in,
and who was evidently proud of his little church; he showed me the brass
plate he had taken off the coffin of my grandfather, and had placed as a
memorial on the walls of the church. I knew the great Lord Clive had
been buried in the church, and asked to see his grave. The vicar pointed
to a flag-stone under some pews. There was no inscription upon it, and
he said that the only record they had that the great soldier was buried
in the church was the small brass plate above the vestry door, and he
added:--"Strange to say, there is no memorial to the man who made India,
either in England or India, except in Shrewsbury, his native town. I
suppose," he added, "it was because he committed suicide." On his return
home from India Lord Clive was furiously attacked by political enemies,
and the man who had shown on so many occasions such conspicuous courage
on the field of battle quailed and fell, struck down by the venom of his

When I was in India during the year following I enquired everywhere for
a memorial to Lord Clive, but, although India bristles with statues to
its governor-generals and eminent soldiers, there is in India to-day no
record of Lord Clive. I was so much impressed with this that I wrote the
following letter to _The Times_:--

     Grand Hotel, Calcutta, Feb. 8th, 1907.


     To the Editor of _The Times_.

     Sir,--India has many monuments erected in honour of successful and
     popular viceroys and others who have served her well, but I have
     been unable to discover any monument to Lord Clive, to whom more
     than any human being we owe our great empire of India. Westminster
     Abbey contains no record of the great soldier-statesman.

     In the by-ways of Shropshire, in the quaint little church of
     Morton-Saye, the village swain sits Sunday after Sunday over the
     grave of Lord Clive. No inscription marks it, not even his name; a
     small brass plate hid away over the vestry door and scarcely
     legible is the only record that the remains of Robert Clive rest
     within its walls.

     Truly Lord Clive made India, but in the making of it he aroused
     jealousies and political enmities which, acting upon a too
     sensitive nature, brought him to a premature death. But should he
     be forgotten?

     The good work which Lord Curzon did for India in every direction
     is, I am glad to find, gratefully recognised and appreciated by her
     people. Among the many excellent things he accomplished was the
     preservation of her ancient monuments and historical records; and,
     if he had remained in office, I am sure the memory of his
     illustrious predecessor would not have been forgotten.

     The Maidan, in Calcutta, would be enriched if it embraced a
     monument to Lord Clive. Westminster Abbey would more truly reflect
     all that is great and worthy in England's history if it contained
     some appropriate record of Robert Clive and what he did to build up
     her empire.

     Yours truly,

     (Signed) WILLIAM B. FORWOOD,
     Chairman of Quarter Sessions for Lancashire.

_The Times_ wrote a leading article; Lord Curzon followed with a
brilliant letter, and other letters appeared, with a result that a
committee was formed, the sum of between £5,000 and £6,000 was
subscribed, and we shall shortly have memorials of the great
soldier-statesman both in London and in India.



It is a good thing to have a "hobby." Perhaps in these days we have too
many, and pursue them with too much intensity, to the neglect of more
important matters. To this I must, to some extent, plead guilty. I have
devoted much time and thought to boating and to gardening.

My boating days commenced in the 'sixties, when I frequently sailed with
my uncle, Alfred Bower, who owned some of the crack yachts belonging to
the Birkenhead Model Yacht Club--the "Presto," "Challenge," "Enigma,"
etc. They were large beamy boats, of about eight to ten tons, with
centre boards. Our racing was mostly in the upper reaches of the Mersey,
lying between Eastham and the Aigburth shore.

In 1866 I made my first venture, buying the American centre-board yacht
"Truant," which had greatly distinguished herself for speed, and taking
her up to Windermere. She was not, however, of much use on that
expansive but treacherous sheet of water. The heavy squalls were too
much for her huge sail plan. I also owned and sailed on the Mersey the
"Glance," eight tons; "Satanella," fifteen tons; "Saraband," fourteen
tons; and "Leander," twenty tons.

I then for a time gave up yachting on the Mersey, and in 1868 bought a
racing boat on Lake Windermere, the "Spray." She was most successful,
winning in 1870 every race we sailed.

In 1871 I was induced to build a twenty-ton racing cutter for the sea,
and called her the "Playmate." She was built by Ratsey, at Cowes, and
was the first boat to carry all her lead ballast on her keel, and in
consequence her advent was watched with considerable interest. I sailed
her for two years in the various regattas round the coast, on the Solent
and on the Clyde, but she was only fairly successful. The competition in
the class was very keen, and the boats built by Dan Hatcher carried away
most of the prizes.

This was the time when yachting, I think, reached its highest point of
interest, and the matches of the forty, twenty, and ten ton classes were
watched with great keenness throughout the country. In the forty-ton
class we had the "Norman," "Muriel," "Bloodhound," "Glance," etc.; and
in the twenty-ton class the "Vanessa," "Quickstep," "Sunshine," etc. We
had also some very fine sixty-tonners, and an excellent class in
schooners. Our regattas were conducted with much keenness, and created
great enthusiasm. Locally we had many active yachting men, Mr. David
MacIver, M.P., who sailed the "Sunshine," the "Shadow," and the
"Gleam"; Mr. Gibson Sinclair, Mr. Astley Gardner, Mr. Coddington, Mr.
Andrew Anderson, Mr. St. Clair Byrne, and others.

It is always wise, and I am sure in the long run pays best, to do
everything thoroughly, even although it is only for sport or pastime;
and when the Board of Trade allowed yacht owners to present themselves
for examination and obtain their certificates as master mariners, I
entered my name, and was the fourth yacht owner to qualify, Lord Brassey
being the first. My sea experience was, of course, of great service to
me. I afterwards found my Board of Trade certificate as a master mariner
gave me increased pleasure in yachting, and my crew great confidence in
my skill as a navigator.

Selling the "Playmate," I returned to Windermere; indeed I had never
left it, but sailed the regattas each year, and in the year 1908 I
completed my forty consecutive years' racing upon the lake, winning, for
the second year in succession, the Champion Cup. The competition for
this cup is limited to yachts which have won first or second prizes. My
yacht, the "Kelpie," was designed by Mr. A. Mylne, of Glasgow. She is
quite one of the smartest boats on the lake, particularly in light

During my forty years' sailing upon the lake I have witnessed great
changes in the designs of the competing yachts. The boats starting with
a length of 20 feet on the water line, were gradually enlarged by being
designed to immerse the whole of the counter, making the water line
length 26 feet 6 inches. We carried about 750 feet area of sails,
including in this a huge foresail. The boats were large and powerful,
but difficult to manage, and it is a wonder no accident took place. We
afterwards introduced a load line length of 22 feet with overhangs, with
the result that we have established a very smart and useful class of

I built many yachts on the lake--the "Althea," "Truant," "Charm,"
"Brenda," "Playmate," "Breeze," "Pastime," and "Kelpie"--and several
boats for the smaller class. I also built in 1881 the steel launch
"Banshee." She was designed by Alexander Richardson, and is to-day the
prettiest launch on the lake. I have raced on Windermere with varying
success, but it has been the source of enormous enjoyment, and the days
spent on Windermere are among my happiest. When we first visited Bowness
we were content to reside in lodgings, but in 1879 we rented
"Fellborough," a charming little house on the lake shore below the
ferry. After remaining here three or four years, we occupied for longer
or shorter periods Wynlass Beck, Loughrigg Brow, Ambleside, High Wray
Bank; and in 1889 I took on a long lease "Wykefield," at the head of
Pull Wyke Bay, a charming house with lovely gardens, and furnished also
with a boathouse and pier. Here we remained until 1902, and since that
time we have occasionally occupied Wray Cottage, a pretty dwelling
nestling under the shadow of Wray Castle.

[Illustration: YACHTING ON WINDERMERE, 1909.]

It would indeed be very difficult to describe the enjoyment Windermere
has afforded us during all these years. Our long walks, mountain climbs,
picnics on the lakes, fishing, and last, but not least, our regattas,
filled our days with pleasure, and we look back upon our holidays with
sunny memories of great happiness.

In 1904 I wrote a history of the Royal Windermere Yacht Club. The Rev.
Canon Rawnsley added an interesting chapter descriptive of the lake, and
the book was illustrated by some excellent photographs.

As a thankoffering to God for permitting us to enjoy such great
happiness, in 1908 we placed a stained-glass window in the Parish Church
at Bowness representing the _Te Deum_.

In 1880 we built at Lymington a fifty-ton yawl, which was named the
"Leander." In this we cruised for three summers off the west coast of
Scotland and south coast of England; but I found I could not spare the
necessary time, and was obliged to give up sea yachting for good in

I was elected rear-commodore of the Royal Mersey Yacht Club in 1879, and
was for a time also commodore of the Cheshire Yacht Club.


In my early days of sea racing, being much impressed by the want of a
central authority to regulate all matters connected with yacht racing, I
brought the question under the notice of Mr. Dixon Kemp, the yachting
editor of the _Field_. He consulted Colonel Leach, a very leading and
influential yachtsman, with the result that we formed the Yacht Racing
Association. We secured the Prince of Wales as our president, and the
Marquis of Exeter as our chairman, and very speedily recruited a large
number of members.

I was elected a member of the Council and subsequently chairman of the
Measurement Committee, which had very important work to do in connection
with the rating of yachts for racing purposes. The old Thames rule was
played out; yachts had become of such excessive length and depth that a
new rule of measurement became necessary. We took a large amount of
expert evidence, and finally drafted a rule which was adopted and
remained in force until the present international rule superseded it.


This club was founded in the 'sixties by "Rob Roy" Macgregor, who had
built a small decked canoe, in which he had navigated the principal
rivers in Europe and the Holy Land. Macgregor was not only an
enthusiastic boating man, but he was a good Christian worker and
philanthropist, well known in the East End of London. "Rob Roy" appealed
to me and others to form a Northern branch of the Canoe Club on the
Mersey. We did so in 1868, establishing our headquarters at Tranmere.
The club was very flourishing, and the upper reaches of the Mersey
formed a very attractive cruising ground; but the increase in the number
of steamers destroyed canoeing on the Mersey as it has destroyed
yachting. Living, as we did, at Seaforth, I was able to run my canoe
down to the shore and enjoy many pleasant sails in the Crosby Channel.
Finding an ordinary "Rob Roy" was too small and very wet in a seaway I
designed and built a sailing canoe with a centre board, which was a
great success and was the pioneer of sailing canoes.


There can be no more delightful pastime than gardening. I may claim this
to be my pet "hobby." Other pastimes are evanescent and leave behind
them no lasting results or afford no more than a passing pleasure; but
in gardening we have seedtime and harvest, all the pleasures of sowing
and planting, watching the gradual growth, training, and nurturing the
young plant, and in due time gathering in the flowers or fruit, and in
these days when so much is done in "hybridising" we have the added charm
of experimenting in raising new varieties. We began to import orchids
in 1866, bringing them from the West Indies and Central America in large
wooden boxes, thinking it necessary to keep them growing, but we lost
more than half on the voyage. They are now roughly packed in baskets or
bales and a very large percentage arrive safely.

When in India in 1907, at Darjeeling, I hired two men and two donkeys to
go down into the valleys of Bhutan to collect orchids. They returned in
about ten days with four large baskets full, chiefly denrobiums. Among
them there was a good deal of rubbish, but also many good plants, which
I sent home, and which have since flowered and done well. There are no
plants more difficult to kill than orchids; but, on the other hand,
there are no plants more difficult to grow and to flower. Their habits
must be known and studied, and, above all, they must be provided with
the exact temperature and degree of moisture they have been accustomed
to. But the reward of successful cultivation is great and worth striving
for. No flowers can be more lovely in form and in colour, and they have
the great merit of lasting for days and even weeks in all the wealth of
luxuriant beauty. They are the aristocracy of flowers.

[Illustration: _Photo by Medrington._ William B. Forwood]



Life viewed in retrospect down the vista of half a century of activity,
presents many lessons which may be both interesting and
instructive--lessons from one's own experience, lessons derived from
watching the careers of others, of those who have made a brilliant
success, of others who have made a disastrous failure, and of the many
who have lived all their lives on the ragged edge between plenty and

It is also instructive to notice the conditions under which the great
problem of life had to be worked out, as they vary to some extent with
each decade. The world does not stand still, it will not mark time for
our convenience; we have to go with the times, and the enigma of life is
how to turn them to the best account.

The outstanding features of the present day are the keenness of
competition in every walk of life, and the rapidity with which events
occur, creating a hurry which is prejudicial to the careful ordering of
one's own life.

Competition has always been very keen, and the cry has ever been for
the return of those good old days when competition was less. If they
ever existed, it was before my time.

Everything, however, is comparative. With larger numbers of people there
must be more competition, but there are also more opportunities, more
employment, more people to feed, and more to clothe.

But with the advance of education, particularly of technical knowledge,
the competition has become more intense in the higher branches of
industrial and intellectual activity; still, there is room, and ample
room, on the top. The lower rungs of the ladder are well occupied, but
the numbers thin off as we approach the top, and this must be more and
more the case as education advances.

The hurry of the present day is prejudicial to that thoroughness which
is necessary if we are to attain efficiency. The hurry of everyday life
becomes more and more conspicuous. Living at high pressure, in this
super-heated atmosphere we are apt to lose our sense of proportion, and
crowd our minds with thoughts, schemes and projects regardless of our
power of assimilation and arrangement. Our minds are apt to become mere
lumber rooms, into which everything is tossed. Many things are
forgotten, and cannot be found when wanted. How much better it would be
for ourselves and for the world at large if we could live with more
deliberation, if we could specialise more, be more intense within a more
limited range of thought and activity, less casual, more thorough in the
commonplaces of life. Life would not lose in interest or
picturesqueness, and it would gain in symmetry and value. It may be said
that while it might add to the effectiveness of life, it would deprive
it of much of its colour and romance; this would not, however,
necessarily follow. On the contrary, greater effectiveness would open
out new avenues for thought and action, new spheres of usefulness, more
refined and elevating in their character, and more satisfying in their

These appear to be surroundings in which we have to work out the
problems of our lives, and this leads us to the consideration of how we
are to achieve success under these conditions of competition and hurry.


There are various kinds of success in life: business success, social
success, and success in public affairs. Perhaps to the ordinary
individual business success is the most important; it is a source of
happiness, promotes social success, and opens up avenues of public

If we look back and endeavour to trace the careers of those with whom we
have been associated when young, I think we shall observe that those
who have been most successful in their business careers have, with few
exceptions, not been the brilliant and clever boys, but rather those of
duller intellect, who have had the gift of steady application. This
faculty is not born in us; we are by nature casual, and apt to follow
the lines of thought and endeavour which require the least labour, and
offer the most varied interest. We hate the grind of sustained effort,
it bores us, and we long for something new. This dislike of prolonged
application, and desire for change, has made more shipwrecks of business
careers than perhaps any other cause. In its craving for change and
excitement, it leads to speculation as a possible road to wealth without

The power of steady application must be inculcated in the school, by
insisting that every subject taught shall be mastered by the boy, and
not left until he has made it his own, and is able to clasp his hands on
the far side of it. A few subjects taught and mastered in this way are
of more value than a whole curriculum of studies learnt in a superficial
and casual manner. We are apt to forget that the primary object of all
education must be to train the mental faculties and to educate the
judgment. We are too prone to cram the boy with knowledge which he has
not the power to assimilate and make his own. We set out too often with
the presumption that as a boy is born with legs and arms which are ready
for use, so he must be born with a brain ready cultivated. The arms and
legs do their work very much better if they are trained and strengthened
by gymnastic exercises. In like manner the brain requires training--for
this reason I have always regretted the gradual elimination of Greek and
Latin from our national system of education. I know of nothing to take
their place as a gymnastic for the mind.

We too often send boys into the world to handle the most mighty weapons
for weal or for woe, "capital and credit," without any proper mental

The lack of hard mental training is more far-reaching and disastrous
than is generally supposed. The want of accuracy leads to many mistakes.
Mistakes lead to excuses, and excuses mark the high road to lies. The
absence of accuracy is the fruitful parent of carelessness in thought,
in habit, and in the discharge of the duties of everyday life. I fear
this is a national weakness, for I have found that the German clerk
excels in accuracy; he may be wanting in initiative, but he is accurate
and reliable in his work. Englishmen have, however, remarkable gifts for
a business career, if they are properly trained and educated. A good
English man of business is the best in the world, he has great
initiative, the power of getting through work, the talent to observe and
to form a rapid judgment, but he is not born with these accomplishments,
they are largely the result of education and training.

There is a great reluctance in this country to introduce any system of
compulsory military service. Without dwelling upon its advantages to the
nation, as likely to increase the physique of our men, military
discipline would have a very beneficial moral effect. Probably one of
the most valuable traits of character is that of "obedience," and this
would be cultivated and enforced by military drill, and I think it would
also add to our self-respect. As things are moving we are in danger of
becoming a nation of "slackers," both physically and mentally.

I have already spoken of the necessity for steady perseverance and
accuracy if we are to make a success in life, but there are two other
qualities which are also essential to success, the capacity to observe,
and the gift of imagination.


The number of men who go through life with their eyes closed is
astonishing. These men regret their want of luck, they say they have had
no chances; alas! they have had their chances but either failed to see
them, or lacked the courage or capacity to take advantage of them.

The world is so constituted that changes are ever taking place, and
every change is fruitful of opportunities. We hear it said of some that
everything they touch turns into gold. It is only another way of saying
that they are ever on the look-out for opportunities, and are not
laggards in turning them to good account.


The want of imagination prevents many men from making use of their
opportunities. Upon a dull day, when the clouds hang in the valleys, and
obscure from view the tops of the mountains, imagination fills up the
picture, and probably paints the crests of the mountains much higher
than they really are. Too many men travel only in the valleys of life,
content with what they see; and imagine nothing above or beyond.
Suppose, for instance, a serious disaster overtakes the harvest. The man
endowed with imagination will look beyond the disaster and note its
far-reaching effects, and in them recognise his opportunities for

General Sir Richard Baden-Powell is doing an excellent work with his
"boy scouts," not only in teaching discipline, but in encouraging the
habits of observation and imagination, which will be of the greatest
value to them in after-life.

I have touched upon three points necessary to success in life,
"thoroughness and accuracy," the faculty of "observation," and the gift
of "imagination," because they are but seldom prominently referred to.
It is not needful to enlarge upon the value of character nor upon the
necessity for "integrity." Of nothing am I more certain, than that
"Honesty is the best policy." I can think of no career which has been
permanently successful, in which this "golden rule" has not been
observed. Speculation is the gambler's road to fortune. It has many ups
and downs, and generally leads to disaster and the "slough of despond."
But there is a wide gulf separating speculation from the enterprise of
the genius that foresees and devises new methods of trade, or
anticipates, as the result of careful observation and calculation,
changes in the market value of securities and commodities.

Enterprise degenerates into speculation when the dictates of caution and
prudence are set aside. To use the words of an old and much respected
Liverpool merchant, who recently passed away, "Commercial success
requires the concurrence of two contrary tendencies, caution and
enterprise. Caution is necessary in avoiding risks, in foreseeing
consequences, and in providing against contingencies, even remote ones.
But this will not carry a man far, he must also have the brain to
originate, and the courage to strike when a favourable opportunity
occurs. What we call a sound judgment is the due balance and just
proportion of a well-stored mind. In no department of life is there more
need for this balance and proportion than in the higher walks of
commerce. The head of a great firm needs be a statesman, an economist,
and a financier, as well as a merchant."

I had proposed to conclude this sketch by a short account of the men of
my time still living, who have been active in the making of Liverpool,
but so many have lent a helping hand, the work having been that of the
many rather than of the few, that it would be impossible to avoid being
invidious. Events move so rapidly, the men and circumstances of to-day
are crowded out and their memory obliterated in the new interests of
tomorrow, that no man's work or influence can be said to have exercised
more than an evanescent power; yet Liverpool has been built up--its
commerce, its municipality, and its charitable and philanthropic
work--by leaders of men who have found their work lying at their hand
and have done it, and have done it well.

My story must now end. It has necessarily been told in a somewhat
desultory manner, leaving out many details and many incidents which
might have added to its completeness. But if it interests any of my kin
or my friends, and still more, if it inspires them to make some effort
on behalf of our great and glorious city--to elevate its social and
intellectual life, to adorn and beautify its public streets and places,
to brighten the lives and homes of the people, to carry forward and
onward the great temple we are building to the glory of God--it will not
have failed in its purpose.



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