Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Botanical Magazine,  Vol. 13 - Or Flower-Garden Displayed
Author: Curtis, William Eleroy, 1850-1911, Sims, John
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Botanical Magazine,  Vol. 13 - Or Flower-Garden Displayed" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



file made using scans of public domain works at the
University of Georgia.)



                                  THE
                          Botanical Magazine;
                        Flower-Garden Displayed:

IN WHICH

     The most Ornamental Foreign Plants, cultivated in the
     Open Ground, the Green-House, and the Stove, are
     accurately represented in their natural Colours.

TO WHICH ARE ADDED,

     Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according
     to the celebrated Linnæus; their Places of Growth,
     and Times of Flowering:

     TOGETHER WITH THE MOST APPROVED METHODS OF CULTURE.

A WORK

     Intended for the Use of such Ladies, Gentlemen, and Gardeners, as
     wish to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they
     cultivate.

By _WILLIAM CURTIS_,
Author of the Flora Londinensis.

VOL. XIII.

    "---- All alone, amid her Garden fair,
    "From morn to noon, from noon to dewy eve,
    "She spent her days, her pleasing task to tend
    "The flowers; to lave them from the water-spring;
    "To ope the buds with her enamoured breath,
    "Rank the gay tribes, and rear them in the sun. ---- ----
    "Thus plied assiduous her delightful task,
    "Day after day, till every herb she named
    "That paints the robe of Spring."
                                            Bruce.

_LONDON_:

Printed by Stephen Couchman, Throgmorton-Street,
For W. CURTIS, Nº 3, _St. George's-Crescent_, Black-Friars-Road;
And Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.

M DCC XCIX.



[433]

[Illustration: Nº. 433]

Azalea Pontica. Yellow Azalea.

_Class and Order._

Pentandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ campanulata. _Stamina_ receptaculo inserta. _Caps._ 2-5
     locularis polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     AZALEA _pontica_ foliis nitidis lanceolatis, utrinque glabris,
     racemis terminalibus. _Linn. Sp. Pl. App. p. 1669._ _Pall. Fl.
     Ross. t. 69. p. 51._

     CHAMÆRHODENDROS Pontica maxima Mespili folio flore luteo. _Tourn.
     Cor. Hist. Rei. Herb. 42._ _Act. Paris 1704. p. 348._ _Buxb. Cent.
     5. p. 36. t. 69._

Descr. Shrub from two to three feet or more in height, the thickest part
of the stem not exceeding the size of the little finger, covered with a
smooth brown bark, irregularly branched; Flowers appearing before the
leaves are fully expanded, and produced in umbels at the extremities of
the branches, from eight to twelve or more in an umbel, of a fine yellow
colour and agreeable fragrance; each blossom is about the size of that
of the horse-chestnut, and as some of them are produced much earlier
than others, the plant of course continues a considerable time in bloom,
standing on short peduncles; Calyx very short, viscous, and irregularly
divided, most commonly into five ovato-lanceolate segments; Corolla,
tube cylindrical, viscous, grooved, brim divided into five segments,
undulated and somewhat wrinkled, ovate, pointed, three turning upwards,
two downwards, of the three uppermost segments the middle one more
intensely yellow than the others and inclining to orange, with which it
is sometimes spotted; Stamina usually five, yellow, projecting beyond
the corolla, and turning upwards near their extremities; Antheræ
orange-coloured; Pollen whitish and thready; Germen somewhat conical,
evidently hairy, and somewhat angular; Style yellowish, filiform,
projecting beyond the stamina, and turning upwards; Stigma forming a
round green head.

The figure and description here given were taken from a plant which
flowered by means of artificial heat, in the spring of 1798, at Mr.
Watson's, Nurseryman, Islington, and which had been introduced the same
year, by Mr. Anthony Hove, of Warsaw.

As an hardy ornamental shrub, it bids fair to prove an acquisition truly
valuable, its flowers produced in the months of June and July, being
highly ornamental as well as fragrant.

We have the best authority for regarding this plant as the
_Chamærhodendros Pontica_ of Tournefort, it agrees with his own
specimens in Sir Joseph Banks's Herbarium, it accords also with his
description, and figures, more especially of those flowers which are of
their natural size; nor have we any doubts of its being the _Azalea
Pontica_ of Prof. Pallas, figured in the _Flor. Rossica_, since it
corresponds generally with his description, though not in all points
with his figure, which bears evident marks of inaccuracy, the stigma,
for instance, is represented as trifid.

Tournefort found this plant on the eastern side of the Black Sea, Mr.
Hove on the north side near Oczakow, and elsewhere; Professor Pallas on
Mount Caucasus.

As yet there has been no opportunity of ascertaining the best means of
propagating this new denizen, but there is every reason to suppose that
it will succeed with the treatment bestowed on the other _Azalea's_.

Prof. Pallas relates that the honey of bees frequenting the flowers of
this plant is supposed to be narcotic, and that goats, kine, and sheep
on eating its leaves have been poisoned thereby.

By permission and with the approbation of Mr. Anthony Hove, the
following extracts from his journal are here inserted.

"June 9, 1796, found a few of this species of _Azalea_ on the river
Dnieper in swampy ground, four feet high, beginning to blow, called here
the stupifying shrub, and considered by some as highly efficacious in
curing the venereal disease.

"June 20, found this species on the river Dniester, on the estate of
Count Stanislaus Sczesny Potocki, about sixteen English miles from the
town of Mohilow, in peat earth, from four to twenty feet high; regarded
by the common people as intoxicating, and used in the cure of various
diseases.

"July 4, near Oczakow, found thousands of these plants fully blown, in a
marsh, every spring-tide overflown by the sea; found there also, a
Tartarian farmer, who lived entirely by the profits arising from the
honey which the bees extracted from the flowers of this plant, sold to
Constantinople and other parts of Turkey for medicinal uses.

"July 15, arrived at Trebizond, found a valley about ten English miles
from the sea covered with these plants."

On cultivation, Mr. Hove relates that he found the _Azalea's_ from
Trebizond much more tender than those from the borders of the Dnieper
and the Dniester, and was therefore inclined to regard them as strong
varieties if not distinct species.

The leaves, when fully expanded, are in size and figure like those on
the plate, hairy on both sides, and terminating in a very remarkable
blunt mucro or point, which has not been noticed either by those who
have described or figured the plant as it deserves, for it appears to
form a very strong character.



[434]

[Illustration: Nº. 434]

Oxybaphus Viscosus. Viscid Umbrella-Wort.

_Class and Order._

Triandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-fidus campanulatus. _Cor._ infundibuliformis. _Nux_ 5-gona
     1-sperma calyce explanato persistenti circumdata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     OXYBAPHUS _viscosus_. _L'Herit. Monograph._

     MIRABILIS _viscosa_ floribus racemosis; foliis cordatis
     orbiculato-acutis tomentosis. _Cav. Icon. I. n. 17. t. 19._

The present is one of those plants which is entitled to our admiration,
for its curious and singular structure, rather than for any
extraordinary figure it makes in a collection; not that its flowers are
without a certain share of beauty.

It is an annual, growing to about the height of two feet; the whole
plant is viscous, and, if bruised, smells somewhat disagreeably; the
flowers do not open at any particular time as those of the _Mirabilis_
do, and each contains only three stamina; when they fall off, which they
do soon after expanding, the calyx closes on the germen, enlarges,
droops, and becomes deeply plaited; on the ripening of the seed it turns
brown, expands, and is suspended like a little umbrella over the seed,
which when perfectly ripe drops out on the ground; the expanded calyx in
this state appears somewhat like the flower of a Physalis.

This plant flowers from June to October, and ripens its seeds in the
open air; it is not difficult of culture, requires the same treatment as
other tender annuals from Peru.

Our figure was drawn from a plant which flowered 1796, in the collection
of the Marchioness of Bute, and was raised from Peruvian seeds, sent her
by Prof. Ortega of Madrid, under the name of _Mirabilis triandra_; Mons.
Cavanille has figured and described it as the _Mirabilis viscosa_; Mons.
L'Heritier, from a consideration of all its characters, has been induced
to make a new genus of it, which he has called _Oxybaphus_.



[435]

[Illustration: Nº. 435]

Gnaphalium Ericoides. Heath-Leaved Gnaphalium, or Everlasting.

_Class and Order._

Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua.

_Generic Character._

     _Recept._ nudum. _Pappus_ plumosus. _Cal._ imbricatus: squamis
     marginalibus rotundatis scariosis coloratis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     GNAPHALIUM _ericoides_ fruticosum foliis sessilibus linearibus,
     calycibus exterioribus rudibus, interioribus incarnatis. _Linn. Am.
     Acad. v. 6. p. 99._ _Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 746._ _Ait.
     Hort. Kew. p. 174._

In the 6th vol. of the _Amoenitates Academicæ_, Linnæus describes this
species of _Gnaphalium_, most probably from dried specimens collected at
the Cape, where it is a native; so insignificant did the plant appear to
him, that in his description, he calls it _misera_; compared with the
more magnificent species, such a term might not perhaps be inapplicable:
but, though small, the plant possesses much beauty when cultivated, and
hence is generally kept in our green-houses.

It flowers from March to August.

Its branches, naturally weak and trailing, require to be carefully tied
up; if this business be executed with taste and judgment, the natural
beauty of the plant may be considerably heightened.

It is readily increased by cuttings.

Was introduced to the royal garden at Kew, by Mr. Masson, in 1774.



[436]

[Illustration: Nº. 436]

Hibiscus Præmorsus. Bitten-Leaved Hibiscus.

_Class and Order._

Monadelphia Polyandria.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ duplex: exterior polyphyllus. _Caps._ 5-locularis,
     polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     HIBISCUS _præmorsus_ foliis subrotundis, dentato-serratis retusis
     pubescentibus. _Ait. Kew. v. 2. 454._

     HIBISCUS _præmorsus_ hirsutus, foliis ovatis basi
     angustato-cordatis apice præmorsis crenatis, calycibus tomentosis,
     seminibus tuberculatis. _Linn. Suppl. Pl. p. 309._

     PAVONIA _cuneifolia_. _Cavan. Diff. 3. p. 139. t. 45. f. 1._

     URENA _præmorsa_. _L'Herit. Stirp. nov. t. 51._

Though not so shewy a plant as many of the genus, we find this species
of _Hibiscus_ in most collections of green-house plants about London,
flowering from June to September.

Its foliage is singular, its blossoms sulphur coloured with a tint of
orange on the under side and without scent; if suffered to grow, this
shrub will acquire a considerable height; it seeds freely, by which the
plant is readily increased, and by these it requires to be renewed once
in two or three years.

Is a native of the Cape, from whence it was introduced, by Mr. Masson,
in 1774. _Ait. Kew._

It will be seen by the synonyms, that authors have been divided in their
opinions as to the genus of this plant; Linnæus the younger, in his
_Suppl._ makes it an _Hibiscus_; Cavanille, a _Pavonia_; L'Heritier, an
_Urena_; Mr. Aiton, an _Hibiscus_; not partial to the multiplying of
genera, unless there be an obvious necessity for it, we have in the
present instance followed the first and last of these writers.



[437]

[Illustration: Nº. 437]

Hydrangea Arborescens. Shrubby Hydrangea.

_Class and Order._

Decandria Digynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Caps._ 2-locularis, 2-rostris, infera, foramine inter stylos
     dehiscens.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     HYDRANGEA _arborescens_ caule arboreo. _Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 13._
     _Gmel. Syst. Veget. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 410._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p.
     76._

     ANONYMOS floribus albis parvis, in umbella lata magna dispositis
     odoratis, foliis amplis acuminatis serratis pediculis insidentibus
     ex adverso binis, caule fruticoso præalto non ramoso, vasculo
     parvo, bicapsulari, seminibus minutissimis repleto, duobus parvis
     filamentis seu corniculis recurvis coronato. _Clayt. n. 79._ _Mill.
     Icon. t. 251._ _Duham. Arb. 1. t. 3._

As a shrub commonly cultivated for ornament in our gardens and
plantations, the _Hydrangea arborescens_ has a right to appear in this
work, nevertheless it is more with a view to illustrate a peculiar
character of the genus that it is here figured.

This shrub is a native of Virginia, and was introduced in 1736, by P.
Collinson, Esq. it is of low growth, rarely exceeding four feet in
height; its flowers are produced on the summits of the branches,
somewhat in the manner of the _Laurustinus_; they are small, crowded,
nearly white, with a tinge of red in them which is not very brilliant,
and some fragrance; they are produced in July and August, and sometimes
followed by ripe seeds here.

Is easily propagated by parting its roots the latter end of October,
prefers a moist soil, but will grow in a dry one; if in severe frosts
the stalks, which are rather soft, should be killed, new ones will be
put up the following Spring.



[438]

[Illustration: Nº. 438]

Hydrangea Hortensis. Garden Hydrangea.

     HYDRANGEA _hortensis_ foliis ellipticis serratis glaberrimis
     staminibus æqualibus. _Smith icon. rar. t. 12._

     HORTENSIA. _Commmers. Jussieu Gen. 214._

     PRIMULA _mutabilis_ caule suffruticoso multiplici, foliis ovatis
     serratis, floribus nudis. _Loureir Coch. Chin. v. 1. p. 104._

     VIBURNUM _tomentosum_ foliis ovatis acuminatis serratis venosis
     subtus tomentosis, umbellis lateralibus. _Thunb. Jap. p. 123. ?_

     SAMBUCUS aquatica surculis pinguibus punctatis, &c. Sijo vulgo
     Adsai et Ansai et Adsiki. _Kæmpf. Am. Exot. p. 854._ var. fl. albo,
     pila florida major.

It appears to be a point not yet fully determined, whether the present
plant exhibits the appearances belonging to it in a state of nature, or
those which are in a certain degree the effect of accident, or of art;
in its fructification it certainly is not so completely barren as the
Guilder Rose, _Viburnum Opulus_, cultivated in our gardens, since it has
most of its parts perfect; yet as none of the authors who have seen it
in China or Japan (where it is said not only to be much cultivated but
indigenous[1]) describe its fruit, we are inclined on that account to
regard it, in a certain degree, as monstrous.

It will appear by the synonyms, that authors have entertained very
different opinions as to what this plant really is; Jussieu following
Commerson makes it an _Hortensia_, Thunberg a _Viburnum_, Loureiro,
ridiculously enough, a _Primula_, and Dr. Smith an _Hydrangea_.

In the original description of the characters of the genus _Hydrangea_
by Linnæus, there is no mention made of two different kinds of florets,
as in the _Viburnum_, nor has any author that I am acquainted with
described the _Hydrangea arbor._ as producing such; yet, to my great
surprise, in a plant of this sort which flowered in my garden at
Brompton in July 1797, three of the Cymæ, and three only, threw out each
of them from their circumference a very different flower from those
in the centre, smaller indeed, but very similar to the flowers of the
_Hydrang. hort._ see Pl. 437. In 1788, Mr. Walter published his _Fl.
Carolin._ in which he describes a second species of _Hydrangea_, which
he calls _radiata_,[2] having very distinctly, as in the _Viburnum_,
two different kinds of florets in the same Cyma, this variation in the
florets is added by him to the generic character: the similarity which
exists between the flowers of Mr. Walter's _Hydrangea radiata_, and
those of the present plant sufficiently justify Dr. Smith in making it
an _Hydrangea_; the appearances observed by Loureiro[3] on dissecting
the germen, and our discovery of the existence of two different kinds of
flowers in the _Hydrangea arborescens_, tend still more to confirm its
propriety; we may add, that in the very habit of these several plants
there exists a considerable similarity; still, however, it is only by
ripe seed-vessels of the present plant, that this doubtful matter can be
satisfactorily cleared up; but it will not follow, that if it be not an
_Hydrangea_ it must be a _Viburnum_.

This magnificent and highly ornamental plant, according to Dr. Smith,
was introduced from China to the royal garden at Kew, by Sir Joseph
Banks, Bart. in 1790; it was imported by Mr. Slater about the same time,
with whom it is said to have first flowered in this country.

If room were allowed us, it would be superfluous to describe minutely a
plant now so very common; suffice it to say, that from a strong
perennial root, rise a number of half-shrubby, irregular, somewhat
spongy stalks, strongly spotted when young with purple, from one to
three feet high, terminated by large bunches of flowers, at first green,
then rose-coloured, and finally green a second time; these are the most
common changes to which they are liable: but it will sometimes happen
that a plant which has produced red flowers one year, shall produce blue
another, though growing in the same pot; this we saw happen in the year
1796 to a plant in the possession of the Countess of Upper Ossory, whose
refined taste and superior judgment have in several instances
contributed to render our works more acceptable to the public: the
coloured changeable part of the flower is regarded as the calyx, in the
centre of which is the corolla, containing the stamina, &c. all varying
greatly in point of number; besides these, there are other flowers
without any calyx, but the parts which they contain do not seem to be
more perfect than those of the others, nor more productive of ripe
fruit.

Since the introduction of this plant, trials have been made in regard to
its hardiness, and it is found to survive mild winters if planted in
very warm sheltered situations; but in others, both stalks and leaves
are liable to be killed by slight frosts, though the roots are not; if
persons are anxious to have it in the open border, the best mode will be
to cut down the stems at the approach of winter, and cover over the root
with rotten tan, or some light substance; in the spring fresh stalks
will shoot forth, but it is more common to keep this plant during winter
in a green-house or well secured frame; by artificial heat it may be
brought to flower in April or May, without such, it begins to blossom
about June, and continues in bloom till October; when successfully
treated, it will acquire the height of three feet, and produce bunches
of flowers supremely magnificent: such plants in pots are admirably
adapted for decorating court-yards, balconies, &c. unless carefully cut
in, it is apt to grow too large for the green-house, therefore it is
proper to have a succession of young plants from cuttings, which strike
very freely; this plant loves water, is indeed almost an aquatic, a rich
soil, and plenty of pot room.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] _Habitat_ et ob pulchritudinem colitur Cantone Sinarum, _Loureir.
Coch. Chin. v. 1. p. 104._ Crescit in sylvis variis, inter Miaco et
Jedo, etiam cultum, _Thunb. Fl. Jap. p. 123_, who refers to Kæmpfer,
whose plant is certainly ours; yet it must be acknowledged that
Thunberg's description does not well accord with it.

[2] This plant, or one extremely similar to it, was introduced by Mr.
Williams, Nurseryman at Paris, a few years since; we saw it in full
bloom, at Mr. Colvill's, King's-Road, in the Summer of 1796.

[3] Pericarpium abortit, quod ex dissecto germine et per microscopium
viso apparet polyspermum.



[439]

[Illustration: Nº. 439]

Illicium Floridanum. Red-flowered Illicium, or Aniseed-Tree.

_Class and Order._

Polyandria Polygynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 6-phyllus. _Petala 27._ _Caps._ plures, in orbem digestæ,
     bivalves, monospermæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ILLICIUM _floridanum_ floribus rubris. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed.
     14. Murr. p. 507._ _Ellis Act. Angl. 1770. (v. 60.) p. 524. t. 12._
     _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 250._

Of the genus _Illicium_ there are at present only two known species,
viz. the _anisatum_ and _floridanum_, the former a native of China and
Japan, the latter of Florida; both of them are cultivated in this
country, but the latter more generally, on account of the superior
beauty of its flowers, which are of a fine deep red colour, and have the
appearance of being double, though the petals are not preternaturally
multiplied; when the plant is in bloom the peduncles hang down, when the
petals drop they become erect; the blossoms are not distinguished by
their fragrance, though the seed-vessels, and seeds (which do not come
to perfection with us) are said to be strongly odoriferous; the foliage
of this plant is also much admired: taking it indeed altogether, there
are few shrubs held in higher estimation.

According to Mr. Aiton, this species was introduced by John Ellis, Esq.
in 1776; but Isaac Walker, Esq. of Southgate, was the first who
possessed it in this country, he informs me by letter, that he received
plants of it from Pensacola in 1771, by the hands of Mr. John Bradley,
and that he communicated some of them to Dr. Fothergill, Dr. Pitcairn,
and Mr. Ellis. It flowers from April to July.

Cultivators differ widely as to their treatment of this plant, some
keeping it in the stove, others in the green-house, while some have
ventured to plant it in the open ground in warm situations; it probably
is more hardy than we imagine; all agree in propagating it by layers, or
by seeds if they can be procured. Linnæus, contrary to his usual
practice, distinguishes the two species by their colour only, and
Thunberg is disposed to regard them as mere varieties.



[440]

[Illustration: Nº. 440]

Erica Albens. Pallid Heath.

_Class and Order._

Octandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 4-phyllus. _Cor._ 4-fida. _Filamenta_ receptaculo inserta.
     _Antheræ_ apice bifidæ, pertusæ. _Caps._ 4-locularis, 4-valvis,
     polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ERICA _albens_ antheris muticis inclusis, corollis ovatis oblongis
     acutis, foliis ternis, racemis secundis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab.
     Murr. ed. 14. p. 367._ _Mant. 233._

     ERICA _albens_ mutica, foliis ternis trigonis pilosis, floribus
     lateralibus, calyce villoso. _Thunb. Prodr. p. 70._

This species, a native of the Cape, has been introduced since the
publication of the _Hort. Kew._ and is now to be found in most
green-house collections near town.

       *       *       *       *       *

In its habit, its foliage, and its flowers, it is very distinct from all
our other heaths; flowers from April to June, is readily increased by
cuttings, and easily kept with the common treatment.



[441]

[Illustration: Nº. 441]

Antholyza Merianella. Dwarf Antholyza.

_Class and Order._

Triandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ tubulosa, irregularis, recurvata. _Caps._ infera.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ANTHOLYZA _Merianella_ corollis infundibuliformibus, foliis
     linearibus. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 87._ _Ait. Kew.
     v. 1. p. 67._

     WATSONIA _humilis_ foliis lineari-ensiformibus, tubo floris
     longissimo. _Mill. ic. 198. t. 297. f. 2._

This very rare species is perfectly distinct from the _Meriana_, of more
humble growth, the flowering stem seldom rising to more than a foot in
height, and producing from four to six flowers, which are proportionably
longer, more closed, and of a deeper red colour than those of _Meriana_.

Was introduced from the Cape by Capt. Hutchinson, in 1754. _Ait. Kew._

Is readily increased by offsets, and requires the same treatment as the
_Anthol. Meriana_ already figured.

Flowers in May and June.

Our drawing was made from a plant which flowered with Mr. Fairbairn, at
the Apothecaries Garden, Chelsea, May 2, 1798.



[442]

[Illustration: Nº. 442]

Genista Linifolia. Flax-Leaved Broom.

_Class and Order._

Diadelphia Decandria.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 2-labiatus 2/3. _Vexillum_ oblongum, a pistillo
     staminibusque deorsum reflexum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     GENISTA _linifolia_ foliis ternatis sessilibus linearibus subtus
     sericeis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 645._ _Ait. Kew.
     v. 3. p. 14._

     CYTISUS _argenteus_ linifolius insularum stæchadum. _Tourn. Inst.
     648._

The _Genista linifolia_ is a native of Spain, and was introduced to the
royal garden at Kew, by Sir Francis Drake, in the year 1786. _Ait. Kew._

The bright yellow flowers, which are abundantly produced on this plant
during May and June, joined to the silky appearance of its foliage, has
rendered it worthy the notice of most lovers of plants, in whose
collections it is now generally found.

It is most successfully propagated by seeds, which usually ripen in this
country; it may also be raised from cuttings, but not readily, agreeing
in this respect with leguminous plants in general.

We do not find in Linnæus's works any figure of this plant referred to;
but there is a minute description of it in his _Sp. Pl._

It is usually kept in the greenhouse; being a native of Spain, it may
probably be more hardy than we imagine.



[443]

[Illustration: Nº. 443]

Erica Physodes. Sticky-Flowered Heath.

_Class and Order._

Octandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 4-phyllus. _Cor._ 4-fida. _Filamenta_ receptaculo inserta.
     _Antheræ_ apice bifidæ pertusæ. _Caps._ 4-locularis, 4-valvis,
     polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ERICA _physodes_ antheris cristatis, corollis ovatis inflatis,
     stylo incluso, foliis quaternis, floribus subsolitariis. _Linn.
     Syst. Vegetab. Murr. p. 366._ _Berg. Cup. 108._

     ERICA _physodes_ cristata, foliis quaternis linearibus, floribus
     umbellatis viscosis, calyce ovato brevi. _Thunb. Prodr. p. 74._

The _Erica physodes_ is a native of the Cape, and another of those
species which have been introduced since the publication of the _Hort.
Kew._ of Mr. Aiton.

       *       *       *       *       *

It is principally distinguished by the form, and delicate whiteness of
its blossoms, which are so extremely viscid as to retain flies and other
insects which settle on them.

       *       *       *       *       *

Is scarcely to be increased by cuttings, more readily by seeds, which
sometimes ripen here.



[444]

[Illustration: Nº. 444]

Canarina Campanula. Canary Bell-Flower.

_Class and Order._

Hexandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 6-phyllus. _Cor._ 6-fida, campanulata. _Stigmata 6._ _Caps._
     infera, 6-locularis, polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CANARINA _Campanula_ caule erecto, foliis hastatis ternis
     oppositisve. _Martyn Mill. Dict. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14._ _Murr.
     p. 344._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 480._ _Linn. Mant. p. 225._

     CAMPANULA _canariensis_ capsulis quinquelocularibus, foliis
     hastatis dentatis oppositis petiolatis. _Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p.
     238._

     CAMPANULA _canariensis_ regia _s._ medium radice tuberosa, foliis
     sinuatis cæsiis atriplicis æmulis ternis circum caulem ambientibus,
     flore amplo pendulo colore flammeo rutilante. _Pluk. Alm. 76. t.
     276. f. 1._

The flowers of this plant so strongly resemble those of the Campanula,
that it is no wonder the older Botanists regarded it as such, Linnæus
himself did so at first, and Miller also; and even now it may perhaps be
doubted whether it ought to be made a distinct genus of, since it is
found to differ principally in the number of its parts of
fructification.

It is a native of the Canary Islands, whence its name, was cultivated in
the royal garden, Hampton-Court, as long since as the year 1696[4], and
is a tender herbaceous plant, to be found in most of our greenhouses;
its stem rises to the height of six or more feet, its flowers produced
singly from the fork of the stalk are large and shewy, they begin to
open at the commencement of winter, and continue to blow till March.

"Is propagated by parting of its roots, which must be done with caution;
for, as the root is fleshy, if they are broken or wounded, the milky
juice will flow out plentifully; so that if these are planted before the
wounds are skinned over, it occasions their rotting: the best time for
transplanting and parting of their roots is in July, soon after the
stalks are decayed; the soil should he a light sandy loam, mixed with a
fourth part of screened lime rubbish." Miller.

FOOTNOTE:

[4] Ait. Kew.



[445]

[Illustration: Nº. 445]

Coronilla Emerus. Scorpion Senna.

_Class and Order._

Diadelphia Decandria.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 2-labiatus: 2/3: dentibus superioribus connatis. _Vexillum_
     vix alis longius. _Legumen_ isthmis interceptum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CORONILLA _Emerus_ fruticosa, pedunculis subtrifloris, corollarum
     unguibus calyce triplo longioribus, caule angulato. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 669._ _Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 57._

     COLUTEA siliquosa _s._ scorpioides major. _Bauh. Pin. p. 1046._

Authors have given to this plant the name of Scorpion Senna, its
seed-vessels, from their slender and jointed appearance, bearing some
resemblance to the tail of a scorpion.

It is a native of France and Germany, and a very old inhabitant of our
gardens, having been cultivated by Gerard in 1596; it is of low and slow
growth: there is a shrub of it in the Apothecaries Garden, Chelsea,
which grew there in the time of Miller, and which now is not more than
five feet high.

In the nurseries we have observed two varieties of it, one in which the
flowers have been tinged with bright red inclining to orange and which
is by far the most common, the other with flowers wholly yellow,
scarcely worth cultivating.

Its blossoms are produced in May and June, and sometimes again in
autumn; neatly trained to a wall or paling, it makes a beautiful
appearance when in flower, the shortness of its shoots renders it a very
proper object for this purpose.

Is propagated by seeds, layers, and cuttings; the first are not produced
in any great plenty with us.

The leaves by a proper fermentation are said to produce a dye like that
of Indigo.



[446]

[Illustration: Nº. 446]

Psoralea Bracteata. Oval-Spiked Psoralea.

_Class and Order._

Diadelphia Decandria.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ punctis callosis adspersus longitudine leguminis monspermi.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     PSORALEA _bracteata_ foliis ternatis obovatis recurvato-mucronatis,
     mucronatis, spicis ovatis. _Linn. Mant. 264._ _Berg. Cap. 224._
     _Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 79._

     TRIFOLIUM fruticans. _Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 1085._

     TRIFOLIUM africanum fruticans flore purpurascente. _Comm. Hort. 2.
     p. 211. t. 106._

The old authors, and indeed Linnæus himself at first, regarded this
plant as a Trifolium; afterwards the latter changed it to _Psoralea_,
and minutely described it in his _Mantissa_.

As a green-house plant, this small and delicate species has long been
cultivated[5], and still continues to hold a place in all collections of
note.

Its inflorence to us has more the appearance of a _capitulum_ than a
_spike_, and which when the plant is in full bloom, is by no means
ovate, but rather hemispherical; the purple colour of the vexillum,
contrasted with the white of the alæ, gives to the flowers a very
pleasing parti-coloured appearance.

In its leaves we have a good example of the _folium mucronatum_.

It is a native of the Cape, flowers in June and July, and is usually
propagated by cuttings.

FOOTNOTE:

[5] By Miller, in 1731.



[447]

[Illustration: Nº. 447]

Erica Empetrifolia. Crowberry-Leaved Heath.

_Class and Order._

Octandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 4-phyllus. _Cor._ 4-fida. _Filamenta_ receptaculo inserta.
     _Antheræ_ apice bifidæ pertusæ. _Caps._ 4-locularis, 4-valvis,
     polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ERICA _empetrifolia_ foliis oblongis ciliatis, floribus
     verticillatis: calyce ciliato. _Thunb. Prodr. p. 73._ _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 13. Gmel. p. 627._ _Linn. Pflanzen Syst. 3. t. 23. f.
     2._

     ERICA _empetrifolia_ antheris cristatis, corollis ovatis, foliis
     quaternis, floribus sessilibus lateralibus. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab.
     ed. 14. Murr. p. 366._ _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 19._

It is a most pleasing circumstance, when plants afford characters by
which they may with certainty be distinguished; most of the Heaths are
of this kind, and the present one in particular: exclusive of its great
peculiarity of growth, so obviously expressed in our representation of
it, its flowers diffuse a strong honey-like fragrance, which, if other
characters were wanting, would at once discriminate it.

It is one of those Heaths which are enumerated in the _Hort. Kew._ of
Mr. Aiton, and was introduced to the royal garden by Mr. Masson, in
1774; is now to be met with in most of the collections of green-house
plants about town, and flowers in May and June.

Is usually propagated by cuttings.



[448]

[Illustration: Nº. 448]

Mesembryanthemum Micans. Glittering Fig-Marygold.

_Class and Order._

Icosandria Pentagynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-fidus. _Petala_ numerosa, linearia. _Caps._ carnosa,
     infera, polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     MESEMBRYANTHEMUM _micans_ foliis subcylindricis papulosis
     distinctis, caule scabro. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 470._
     _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 190._

     MESEMBRYANTHEMUM _micans_ flore phoeniceo: filamentis atris.
     _Dill. Elth. 292. t. 215. f. 1282._

     FICOIDES capensis, tereti folio, flore croceo. _Pet. gaz. t. 7. f.
     9._

     FICOIDES capensis, folio tereti argenteo, petalis perplurimis
     aurantiacis. _Bradl. Succ. 1. p. 9. t. 8._

The _Mesembryanthemum micans_, so called from the glittering particles
which are conspicuous on its stalks and leaves, is a species which has
long been introduced to our gardens (having been cultivated by Prof.
Bradley in 1716) for the beauty of its flowers, which in richness of
colour are indeed surpassed by few; they are produced in the months of
July and August, but do not expand fully, unless the sun shines
powerfully on them; nor do they long retain that regular expansion
observable in some species, but quickly assume a somewhat ragged
appearance; nevertheless, upon the whole, it is one of those species
which is highly deserving of culture, by those who are partial to this
tribe of plants.

It is a native of the Cape, and readily propagated by cuttings.

Varies with flowers of a paler hue.



[449]

[Illustration: Nº. 449]

Dillenia Speciosa. Shewy Dillenia.

_Class and Order._

Polyandria Polygynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 5-phyllus. _Petala 5._ _Caps._ polyspermæ, connatæ, pulpa
     repletæ.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     DILLENIA _speciosa_ foliis oblongis rotundato-acutis denticulatis,
     pedunculis unifloris. _Thunb. in Linn. Trans. 1. p. 200._

     DILLENIA _indica_. _Linn. Syst Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 507._

     SYALITA Malabaris. _Rheede Hort. Malab. tom. iii. p. 39. t. 38.
     39._

The name of _Dillenia_ was given by Linnæus to this genus of plants, in
honour of John James Dillenius, Professor of Botany at Oxford, and the
celebrated author of the _Hist. Muscorum_, _Hort. Elthamensis_, &c.

Until the publication of the first volume of the _Linnean Transactions_,
only one species of _Dillenia_ was generally known; in that work Prof.
Thunberg minutely describes five others, three of which are there
figured; all these, and one more described by Dr. Roxburgh in his work
on the Coromandel plants, are inserted by Prof. Martyn in his new and
highly improved edition of Miller's _Dictionary_.

The present species, which now loses its name of _indica_ in that of
_speciosa_, and which though not enumerated in the _Hort. Kew._ has many
years been cultivated at Kew, and in the stoves of the curious near
town, is a native of Malabar and Java; in its native soil it becomes a
vast tree, here we rarely see it more than two or three feet high; its
flowers are large and shewy, but quickly deciduous, and remarkable for
the unpleasantness of their scent, which is like that of the _Lycium
japonicum_, but not being readily exhaled does not infect the air of the
stove.

This species is increased without difficulty by cuttings, which quickly
produce flowering plants.



[450]

[Illustration: Nº. 450]

Gladiolus Watsonius. Watson's Corn-Flag.

_Class and Order._

Triandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 6-partita, tubulosa, ringens. _Stamina_ adscendentia.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     GLADIOLUS _Watsonius_ corollis infundibuliformibus, limbi laciniis
     subæqualibus, foliis linearibus ad oras revolutis. _Jacq. Icon.
     rar. 2. t. 233. Collect. 3. p. 257._ _Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. Wilden. p.
     214._

     GLADIOLUS _Watsonius_ monostachyus corollis cernuis, tubo duplici,
     limbi laciniis oblongis, foliis linearibus glabris. _Thunb. Prod.
     p. 8._

Professors Jacquin and Thunberg have both described this rare bulbous
plant, a native of the Cape, and newly introduced to this country from
Holland among a great variety of others: it seems highly probable that
the descriptions of both these authors were taken from dried specimens,
since they accord so little with the living plant as it flowers with us.

At first sight, one would be led to regard this plant as an _Antholyza_
rather than a _Gladiolus_, its flowers bearing a great affinity to those
of the _Antholyza Meriana_, which differs widely from those of the
_Gladiolus communis_: Prof. Thunberg having thought fit to make a
_Gladiolus_ of that plant, he could do no less than regard this as a
_Gladiolus_ also; we regret that the infinite variety to which all the
productions of nature are subject should give occasion to versatile
minds perpetually to alter genera, often without due consideration. This
species flowers in February and March, requires the same treatment as
other Cape bulbs, and is propagated in the same manner.

Descr. Stalk from twelve to eighteen inches high, upright, smooth;
Leaves about three or four, the lowermost a sheath merely, the second
leaf springs from a long sheath, is puckered at its base, three inches
in length, upright, rigid, flat, linear-lanceolate, having three strong
ribs, one in the middle, two at the margin, which, projecting on each
side, give to the edge of the leaf a thick appearance, the leaves as
they ascend, gradually differ from this, and finally become hollow
bracteæ, which at first envelope the flowers, and afterwards contribute
to support them; Flowers from two to three, each standing on a
peduncle-like tube, enclosed by a bifid spatha, contained within and
about half the length of the bracteæ; Corolla bright red, funnel-shaped,
tube bent somewhat downwards, nearly cylindrical, a little flattened,
and glossy, limb divided into six ovato-lanceolate segments, spreading
outwards, the uppermost segment incumbent, the three lowermost smaller
than the others; Filaments three, whitish, nearly straight; Antheræ
oblong, straight, purple; Style red; Stigma trifid, each segment
dividing into two villous lips.



[451]

[Illustration: Nº. 451]

Blakea Trinervia. Three-Ribbed Blakea.

_Class and Order._

Dodecandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ inferus, 6-phyllus, superus, integer. _Petala 6._ _Capsula_
     6-locularis, polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     BLAKEA _trinervia_ bicalyculata, foliis enerviis transversim
     subtilissime striatis. _Linn. Suppl. p. 246._ _Syst. Veg. ed. 14._
     _Murr. p. 442._

     BLAKEA foliis ellipticis trinerviis nitidis, floribus lateralibus.
     _Brown. Jam. 323. t. 35._ The wild Rose.

"This vegetable is certainly one of the most beautiful productions of
_America_. It is but a weakly plant at first, and supports itself for a
time by the help of some neighbouring shrub or tree; but it grows
gradually more robust, and at length acquires a pretty moderate stem,
which divides into a thousand weakly declining branches, well supplied
with beautiful rosy blossoms on all sides that give it a most pleasing
appearance in the season.

"It is chiefly found in cool, moist, and shady places, and grows
generally to the height of ten or fourteen feet; but rises always higher
when it remains a climber, in which state it continues sometimes. It
thrives best on the sides of ponds or rivulets, and those that would
choose to have it flourish in their gardens, where it must naturally
make a very elegant appearance, ought to supply it with some support
while it continues young and weakly.

"It is called _Blakea_, after Mr. Martin Blake, of Antigua, a great
promoter of every sort of useful knowledge, and a gentleman to whose
friendship the Natural History of Jamaica chiefly owes its early
appearance." _Brown's Jamaic._

Our figure was drawn from a very fine healthy plant which flowered in
the collection of Lady Downe, at her villa of Bookham-Grove, near
Leatherhead, in April 1799; though not enumerated in the _Hortus
Kewensis_, it had produced blossoms in several other collections near
town long before this period; those when they once expand are of short
duration, but the foliage when healthy is always handsome.

It is usually kept in the stove with other Jamaica plants, and
propagated by layers.

We cannot see the propriety of applying _foliis enerviis_ to the
description of this species, since Linnæus himself, in his _Sp. Pl._
describes the leaves as _trinervia_; three strong ribs they always have,
and usually two others near the margin which are finer.



[452]

[Illustration: Nº. 452]

Cardamine Trifolia. Three-Leaved Cuckow-Flower.

_Class and Order._

Tetradynamia Siliquosa.

_Generic Character._

     _Siliqua_ elastice dissiliens valvulis revolutis. _Stigma_
     integrum. _Cal._ subhians.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CARDAMINE trifolia foliis ternatis obtusis, caule subnudo. _Linn.
     Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 593._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 387._

     NASTURTIUM alpinum trifolium. _Bauh. Pin. 104._

     CARDAMINE trifolia. Trefoile Ladies smockes. _Parkins. Parad. p.
     389._

Such as are attached to the smaller alpine plants, will regard this
species of _Cardamine_ as worthy a place in their collections; one would
scarcely have expected to find it in Parkinson's _Parad._ yet there it
is described, and the following account given of its introduction: "It
was sent me by my especial good friend John Tradescante, who brought it
among other dainty plants from beyond the seas, and imparted thereof a
root to me."

This species is perennial, hardy, and of very humble growth; the leaves
grow thickly together, forming a kind of tuft; the flowering stems
rarely rise above the height of six inches, and produce on their summits
numerous flowers, waved on their edges; all those which we have had an
opportunity of seeing have been perfectly white, Parkinson and Haller
describe them as being sometimes tinged with red or purple; they begin
to appear towards the end of March and continue through April, the
shelter of a hand-glass open at top is often necessary to protect and
improve the flowering of this and other such early-blowing plants.

It grows readily either in a pot or in the open border, succeeds best
when planted in bog earth in a situation moderately moist and shady, and
is readily increased by parting its roots, which are somewhat of the
creeping kind.

Grows spontaneously in most of the northern parts of Europe, especially
Lapland, Switzerland, and Austria.



[453]

[Illustration: Nº. 453]

Amaryllis Reginæ. Mexican Lily.

_Class and Order._

Hexandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ hexapetaloidea irregularis. _Filamenta_ fauci tubi inserta,
     declinata, inæqualia proportione vel directione. _Linn. fil._

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     AMARYLLIS _reginæ_ spatha subbiflora, pedicellis divaricatis,
     corollis campanulatis breve tubulosis nutantibus, fauce tubi
     hirsuta, foliis lanceolatis patulis. _Linn. fil. Ait. Kew. 416.
     Mill. ic. p. 16. t. 24._

     LILIUM americanum puniceo flore Belladonna dictum. _Herm. par. 194.
     t. 194._

Descr. "Bulb green, scape round, somewhat flattened: Corolla scarlet,
with a bottom of a whitish green, the three outer petals round at the
tip, the three inner fringed at the base; the style red, the flower
stems seldom rise more than one foot high; each stem supports two,
three, or four flowers, rarely more; they are large, and of a bright
copper colour, inclining to red; the spathe which cover the buds before
they open, divides into two parts to the bottom, standing on each side
the umbel of flowers joined to the peduncles.

"It flowered in Mr. Fairchild's garden at Hoxton, in 1728, when the late
Dr. James Douglass caused a figure of it to be drawn, and wrote a folio
pamphlet on it. He gave it the title of _Lilium Reginæ_, because it was
in full beauty on the first of March, which was the late queen's
birth-day. Mr. Fairchild told me the roots were brought from Mexico; so
he gave it the name of Mexican Lily, which is still continued to it by
the English gardeners. It flowers constantly in the spring, when it is
placed in a very warm stove. It is in beauty in February, and those
which are in a moderate temperature of air will flower in March or
April.

"Not being so hardy as some others, it must be placed in a warm stove,
and if the pots are plunged into a hot-bed of tanner's bark, the roots
will thrive better, and the flowers will be strong.

"It is increased by offsets." _Mill. Dict. ed. Mart._



[454]

[Illustration: Nº. 454]

Canna Indica. Common Indian Reed or Shot.

_Class and Order._

Monandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Corolla_ 6-partita erecta: labio bipartito, revoluto. _Stylus_
     lanceolatus, corollæ adnatus. _Calyx_ 3-phyllus.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CANNA _Indica_ foliis ovatis utrinque acuminatis nervosis. _Sp. Pl.
     1._ _Ait. Kew. vol. 1. p. 1._

     CANNACORUS. _Rumph. amb. 5. p. 177. t. 71. f. 2._

     ARUNDO indica latifolia. _Bauh. Pin. 19._

     CANNA Indica flore rubro. Red flowred Indian Reede. _Park. Parad.
     p. 376._

The _Canna indica_, a native of both the Indies, is a plant greatly
admired for the beauty of its foliage and flowers, and on that account
generally cultivated; it has been called by some _Indian Shot_, from the
roundness and hardness of its seeds.

We find it to have existed in our gardens in the time of Gerard, 1596.
Parkinson was acquainted with that variety of it which has yellow
spotted flowers: Prof. Martyn, in his edition of _Miller's Dict._ has
quoted the chief of what these authors say of it, which as a matter of
curiosity we shall here transcribe: "Gerard informs us, that in his time
it was in the garden at Padua, that he had planted it in his garden
divers times, but it never came to flowering; and that it must be set or
sown in a pot, with fine earth, or in a bed made of horse-dung, in such
manner as Cucumbers and Musk-Melons are: Parkinson says, in some kindly
years this beautiful plant has borne its brave flowers, but never any
ripe seed, and that it will not abide the extremities of our winters,
unless it meet with a stove, or hot-house, such as are used in Germany;
for neither house nor cellar will preserve it: Clusius saw it flowering
by house-sides in Spain and Portugal, and says, that the inhabitants
there use the seeds for making their rosaries."

Mr. Aiton enumerates four varieties of it, viz. _rubra_, _lutea_,
_coccinea_, and _patens_.

"Being a native of the warmest parts of America, it requires to be
placed in a moderate stove in winter, where they always flower in that
season, at which time they make a fine appearance, and in the summer
place them abroad in a sheltered situation with other tender exotic
plants, where they generally flower again, and produce ripe seeds
annually." _Mill. Dict._

"These plants will continue many years with proper management, but as
young plants always flower better than the old root, so it is scarce
worth while to continue them after they have borne good seeds, which
should be sown on a hot-bed in the spring." _Mill. Dict._



[455]

[Illustration: Nº. 455]

Aloe Retusa. Cushion Aloe.

_Class and Order._

Hexandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ erecta, ore patulo fundo nectarifero. _Filam._ receptaculo
     inserta.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ALOE _retusa_ acaulis foliis quinquefariis deltoideis. _Thunb.
     Aloe, n. 15. Ait. Kew. 471._

     ALOE _retusa_ floribus sessilibus triquetris bilabiatis labio
     inferiore revoluto. _Linn. Sp. Pl. 459._

     ALOE _africana_ brevissimo crassissimoque folio, flore viridi.
     _Comm. hort. 2. p. 11. t. 6._ _Till. pis. 6. t. 5._

Though the flowers of this Aloe have little to recommend them, there is
much to admire in the form and structure of its leaves; and this
pleasing circumstance attends it, it is perfectly distinct from all the
other species: when first introduced, it was no doubt an object of great
admiration; Fairchild, the celebrated Gardener of Hoxton, who preceded
Miller, had it engraved, with several other succulents, on a plate which
is prefixed to Dr. Blair's _Botanic Essays_, and which he described to
the Doctor, betwixt whom and Mr. Fairchild there appears to have
subsisted a great degree of intimacy: the Essays were printed in 1720.

This species is a native of the Cape, and flowers in June, but not
regularly so, increases very fast by offsets: Mr. Aiton makes it as he
does all the Aloes indiscriminately, Dry Stove Plants, but it may be
kept in a good green-house, taking care to place it in the driest and
most airy part, and to guard it at all times from much wet, but more
especially in the winter season.



[456]

[Illustration: Nº. 456]

Diosma Serratifolia. Serrated or Saw-Leaved Diosma.

_Class and Order._

Pentandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 5-petala. _Nectaria_ 5 supra germen. _Caps. 3. s. 5._
     coalitæ. _Sem._ calyptrata.

_Specific Character._

     DIOSMA _serratifolia_ follis lanceolatis glanduloso-serrulatis,
     pedunculis axillaribus oppositis subunifloris.

It was in the green-house of Mr. Whitley, Nurseryman at Old Brampton,
that we first saw this plant in flower, on the 25th of March 1799;
previous to this period it had flowered in the Royal Garden at Kew, and
specimens of it had been deposited in the Herbarium of Sir Joseph Banks,
under the name of _Diosma serratifolia_.

It forms a neat pretty shrub, which is rendered more desirable by its
early flowering; its blossoms are pure white, set off by Antheræ of a
lively purple colour; the whole plant has a strong scent very like that
of Pennyroyal, but more powerful.

This shrub is one of the many which have been raised within these few
years from Botany-Bay seeds, is a greenhouse plant, of easy culture,
blows freely, and is readily increased by cuttings.

Descr. Twigs somewhat angular, reddish purple; Leaves opposite, narrow,
on very short footstalks, spreading, slightly truncated at the
extremity, finely toothed, a transparent gland in the angle of each
tooth, beset on both sides with numerous glands, which project and give
to the upper surface a manifest roughness; Flowers from the alæ of the
leaves, opposite, on peduncles about one-third of an inch long, usually
supporting one, sometimes two flowers; Calyx composed of five leaves
which are tinged with red and permanent; Corolla five petals, white,
ovato-lanceolate; Stamina filaments five, white, hairy, at first
upright, afterwards bending back betwixt the petals; Antheræ before they
open purple; Pollen yellow; Nectaries of two kinds, five white,
springing up between each filament, and which may perhaps be considered
as so many imperfect stamina, they are broader, much smoother, and about
one-third of the length of the filaments, terminating in a transparent
gland instead of an anthera; five green, forming a kind of calyx to the
germen, from the top of which they spring, they consist of five
roundish, fleshy, spreading, green leaves, edged with hairs; besides
these, there is a glandular ring at the base of the germen; Style white,
tapering, very hairy; Stigma simple; Flowers usually dropping off
without ripening the seeds.



[457]

[Illustration: Nº. 457]

Aloe Plicatilis. Fan Aloe.

_Class and Order._

Hexandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ erecta, ore patulo, fundo nectarifero. _Filam._ receptaculo
     inserta.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ALOE _plicatilis_ subacaulis, foliis linguæformibus lævibus
     distichis, floribus racemosis pendulis cylindricis. _Ait. Kew. v.
     1. p. 470._

     ALOE _disticha_ var. [Greek: e]. _Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 459._

     ALOE _plicatilis_ foliis ensiformibus inermis ancipitibus, floribus
     laxe spicatis, caule fruticoso. _Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to._

     ALOE africana arborescens montana non spinosa, folio longissimo
     plicatili, flore rubro. _Comm. Hort. 2. p. 5. t. 3._

"The Fan Aloe grows to the height of six or seven feet, with a strong
stem, towards the upper part of which are produced two, three, or four
heads, composed of long, compressed, pliable leaves, of a sea-green
colour, and ending obtusely; these are placed in a double row, lying
over each other, with their edges the same way; the flowers are produced
in short loose spikes, are of a red colour, and appear at different
times of the year." _Mill. Dict._

Linnæus originally made this plant a variety of his _Aloe disticha_, the
leaves in their mode of growth are indeed truly distichous, few plants
afford a better example of such, but they differ materially from those
of the real _disticha_ both in form and colour: Mr. Miller, with great
propriety, made a distinct species of it, by the name of _plicatilis_,
or _Fan Aloe_, which Mr. Aiton has continued; and by the name of _Fan
Aloe_ it is very generally known: we may remark, however, that though
this term may be justified by the form into which the leaves expand, the
_folium plicatile_ of Linnæus is a very different kind of a leaf.

Both the foliage and flowers of this plant are very handsome, in the
course of many years it grows to a great size; in the Chelsea Garden
there are some fine plants of it, which grew there in the time of
Miller, by whom it was cultivated in 1731.

It is native of Africa, requires the same treatment as the other Aloes,
and is propagated by dividing and planting its heads.



[458]

[Illustration: Nº. 458]

Aristea Cyanea. Grass-Leaved Aristea.

_Class and Order._

Triandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Petala 6._ _Stylus_ declinatus. _Stigma_ infundibuliforme hians.
     _Caps._ infera polysperma.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ARISTEA _cyanea_. _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 67._

     IXIA _africana_ floribus capitatis, spathis laceris. _Linn. Sp. Pl.
     ed. 3. p. 51._

     MORÆA _africana_ floribus capitatis spathis laceris. _Murr. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14. p. 93._

     IXIA foliis ad radicem nervosis gramineis, floribus ac fructu
     convolutis. _Burm. Afric. 191. t. 70. f. 2._

     BERMUDIANA capensis, capitulis lanuginosis. _Pet. sicc. 242._

     GRAMEN eriophorum africanum flore lanato. _Pluk. Mant. 98._

It will be seen, on consulting the synonyms, that this native of the
Cape, though introduced to the Kew Garden by Mr. Masson in 1774, was
long before known to a considerable number of Botanists, and it is
curious to see the different opinions which they entertained of it; we
abide by that of Mr. Aiton, who has called it _Aristea_, from the
bearded appearance, we apprehend, of the Spathæ.

It is a small fibrous-rooted plant, rarely exceeding when in bloom the
height of six or eight inches, and would be too insignificant for a
green-house collection, were not its flowers of a very brilliant blue
colour; indeed Miller, who appears evidently to have cultivated it,
says, the flowers make little appearance, and so the plant is only kept
for the sake of variety. _Dict. 4to. ed. 6. Ixia africana._

Mr. Aiton tells us, that it flowers from April to June, yet Mr. Andrews,
intent on giving to Messrs. Lee and Kennedy the credit of flowering it
first, disregards this information, and is pleased to conjecture that
the plant never flowered at Kew, because Mr. Aiton, as he alleges, has
not given to it any specific character; not aware that, as a new genus,
its parts of fructification are described at the end of the _Hort. Kew._
and that no specific character is ever given to a plant, where there is
only one of a genus, and that for the most obvious reason.

The _Aristea_ is a plant easily propagated by parting its roots, as well
as by seeds, will succeed in a small pot, and though a green-house
plant, will not be hurt by the moderate heat of the stove, but flower
the better for it.

The blossoms do not expand fully unless the sun shines hot on them.



[459]

[Illustration: Nº. 459]

Convolvulus Cneorum. Silvery-Leaved Bind-Weed.

_Class and Order._

Pentandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ campanulata, plicata. _Stigmata 2._ _Caps._ 2-locularis
     loculis dispermis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CONVOLVULUS _Cneorum_ foliis lanceolatis tomentosis, floribus
     umbellatis, calycibus hirsutis, caule erecto. _Linn. Syst. Veg.
     203._ _Ait. Kew. vol. 1. p. 213._

     CONVOLVULUS argenteus umbellatus erectus. _Tournef. Inst. 84._

     CONVOLVULUS major erectus creticus argenteus. _Moris. Hist. 2. p.
     11 s. 1. t. 3. f. 1._

     CONVOLVULUS saxatilis erectus villosus perennis. _Barr. rar. 4. t.
     470._ _Bocc. Mus. 2. p. 79. t. 70._

     CNEORUM album folio argenteo molli. _Bauh. Pin. 463._

The _Convolvulus Cneorum_ is a native of Spain and the Levant, was
cultivated in the Botanic Garden at Chelsea in 1739, and flowers from
May to September. _Ait. Kew._

In size, habit, &c. this species has some affinity to the _Convolvulis
linearis_, figured pl. 289, but differs from it, and other species
usually cultivated with us, in the silky appearance of its foliage,
which it is not in the artist's power to imitate, and for the beauty of
which, more than that of its flowers, it is very generally kept in
collections of green-house plants; its blossoms are nearly white and
rarely or never productive of seeds in this country, hence it is
increased by cuttings.

It is a hardy green-house plant, requiring a dry rather than a moist
regimen.



[460]

[Illustration: Nº. 460]

Maurandya Semperflorens. Climbing Maurandya, or Bastard Foxglove.

_Class and Order._

Didynamia Angiospermia.

_Generic Character._

     _Caps._ bilocularis, truncata, bisulca, apice inæqualiter
     dehiscens. _Cor._ ringens, tubulosa campanulata, ventricosa,
     bisulcato-plicata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     MAURANDYA _semperflorens_ caule fruticoso scandente, foliis
     hastatis nervosis. _C. G. Orteg. Nov. Pol. Dec. 2. p. 21._

     USTERIA. _Cavanill. Icon. vol. 2. p. 5. num. 126. t. 116._

The plant whose elegant form is here so happily delineated by the
masterly pencil of Mr. Edwards, according to Dr. Ortega, is an
inhabitant of Mexico, where its seeds originally were collected by Dr.
Martin Sesse, and sent to the royal garden at Madrid, in which the plant
produced flowers and seeds in abundance; from thence seeds were obtained
by the Marchioness of Bute, about the year 1786, who most kindly
communicated them to different persons in the neighbourhood of London,
and among others to my most generous benefactor, James Vere, Esq. in
whose collection at his villa, Kensington-Gore, by the careful
management of his Gardener, William Anderson, it was first brought to
flower in this country, anno 1797.

Mons. Cavanille, who resides at Madrid, where he seizes every
opportunity of publishing whatever new plants appear there, has figured
and described the present one, under the name of _Usteria_, not aware
that Wildenou had previously bestowed that name on a different plant;
for this and other reasons[6], Dr. Ortega, in a new work of his above
referred to, has changed the term _Usteria_ to that of _Maurandya_; and,
though we cannot cordially coincide with the Doctor in the propriety
either of his generic or trivial name, we have adopted them.

This climber rises with a shrubby stalk to the height of many feet, is
very prolific in branches, and produces flowers abundantly from July to
September, which are succeeded by ripe seed-vessels and seeds.--As the
plant is easily propagated by cuttings, as well as by seeds, it will
soon become common to our greenhouses, though it is rather better suited
to the conservatory; if its blossoms, which have a great affinity to
those of the Foxglove, had more colour in them, the plant would be more
desirable: at some future period such may probably be obtained from
seeds.

FOOTNOTE:

[6] Observ. Quandoquidem Usteriæ nomen huic Generi à clar. Cavanilles,
qui primus id descripsit, impositum permanere non potest ut pote antea
ab illust. Wildenou alii Generi inditum; propterea illud D. Catharinæ
Pancratiæ Maurandy, lectissimæ feminæ, D. Augustini Juan, Reg. Botanic.
Horti Carthaginensis Professoris uxori, et Botanicorum laborum sociæ,
nuncupandum duxi; oblataque opportunitate usus plantam denuo recognovi,
et tum Characterem genericum, tum etiam descriptionem specificam ad
incudem revocans reformavi.



[461]

[Illustration: Nº. 461]

Jasminum Fruticans. Yellow Jasmine.

_Class and Order._

Diandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ 5-fida. _Bacca_ dicocca. _Sem._ arillata. _Antheræ_ intra tubum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     JASMINUM _fruticans_ foliis alternis ternatis simplicibusque ramis
     angulatis. _Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 56._

     JASMINUM _fruticans_ foliis alternis ternatis foliolis obovatis
     cuneiformibusque obtusis ramis angulatis laciniis calycinis
     subulatis. _Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 9._

     JASMINUM _luteum_, vulgo dictum bacciferum. _Bauh. Pin. 298._

     POLEMONIUM sieu Trifolium fruticans. Shrubby Trefoil. _Ger. Herb.
     p. 1129. f._

The Yellow Jasmine is often planted against walls, pales, &c. as the
branches are weak and slender and it will grow to be ten or twelve feet
high if thus supported; it may however be planted in shrubbery quarters,
to which it is better suited than the White Jasmine. The young shoots
are of a fine strong green colour, angular, and a little hairy. The
leaves are trifoliate, though sometimes they grow singly. They are
placed alternately on the branches, are of a thick consistence, smooth,
and of a fine deep green colour. These leaves in well-sheltered places
remain until the spring before they fall off, so that this plant may not
improperly be planted among the Evergreens, especially as the young
shoots are always of a strong green. The flowers are yellow, and do not
possess the fragrance of the common Jasmine. They are produced chiefly
in June, and the blow is soon over. They are succeeded by berries,
which when ripe are black, whence its name of Berry-bearing Jasmine.
Although this shrub possesses a certain stiffness, which gives it
somewhat the appearance of an artificial flower, yet the fine yellow
colour of its blossoms contrasts so well with the rich green of the
foliage, that in the flower-pot or bouquet it never fails to have a
conspicuous and pleasing effect.

Is a native of the South of Europe and the Levant, was cultivated by Mr.
John Gerard, in 1597, and flowers from May to October. _Ait. Kew._

Is easily propagated by suckers or layers; as the flowers have no scent,
is not so much cultivated as formerly. _Miller's Dict._



[462]

[Illustration: Nº. 462]

Anthemis Pyrethrum. Pellitory of Spain.

_Class and Order._

Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua.

_Generic Character._

     _Recept._ paleaceum. _Pappus_ nullus. _Cal._ hemisphæricus,
     subæqualis. _Flosculi_ radii plures quam 5.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     ANTHEMIS _Pyrethrum_ caulibus simplicibus unifloris decumbentibus
     foliis pinnato multifidis. _Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14._ _Murr. p.
     776._ _Woodville's Medical Botany, p. 286._

     CHAMÆMELUM specioso flore, radice longa fervida. _Shaw. Afr. 138._

     PYRETHRUM flore bellidis. _Bauh. Pin. 148._

The Pellitory of Spain is more celebrated as an useful than an
ornamental plant, the root which is of a very hot and biting nature
being a common application for the cure of the tooth-ach; but, divested
of its utility as a medicinal plant, it merits a place in collections on
account of the beauty both of its foliage and flowers, the latter are
more handsome when in bud than when fully expanded, the underside of the
florets being of a fine purple colour, the upper pure white; it is
moreover a very rare plant in this country, notwithstanding it was
cultivated here so long since as 1570: Parkinson evidently grew it, as
he observes that the roots of the cultivated plant, were much larger
than those of the wild one; he tells us also, that it was too tender to
endure our winters: to the latter cause, as well as to the difficulty of
propagating it, for it does not ripen its seeds in this country, we may
attribute its present scarcity: Mr. Miller raised this plant in 1732, in
a very curious way, from seeds picked out from among raisins.

In its place of growth it is not confined to Spain, but is found in the
Levant, Syria, Arabia, and elsewhere; flowers with us from May to July,
and may be increased by cuttings of the roots, a mode of propagating by
which we sometimes happily succeed with rare and valuable plants when
all others fail.

It is a plant not very nice as to the quality of the soil in which it
grows, but must have a warm dry situation, will succeed very well in a
pot, or it may be planted in the open border; but especial care must be
taken to secure it against frost in the winter.



[463]

[Illustration: Nº. 463]

Epidendrum Ciliare. Fringed Epidendrum.

_Class and Order._

Gynandria Diandria.

_Generic Character._

     _Cor._ 6-petala. _Nectarium_ turbinatum, obliquum reflexum. _Caps._
     infera 1-locularis, 3-valvis, fenestrata.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     EPIDENDRUM _ciliare_ foliis oblongis aveniis, nectarii labio
     tripartito ciliato: intermedia lineari, cauli bifolio. _Linn. Syst.
     Vegetab. ed. 14._ _Murr. p. 818._ _Jacq. Amer. pict. p. 110. t.
     209._

Of this parasitical tribe the number of species described in the third
edition of the _Sp. Pl. Linn. 1764_, amounts to thirty; in Gmelin's
thirteenth edition of the _Syst. Nat. Linn. 1791_, no less than
seventy-five are enumerated, which is a vast accession in so short a
period; most of these are natives of hot climates, and on that account
require a stove heat in this country; from their nature also they
require a situation not to be exactly imitated, they are therefore to be
regarded as plants very difficult of culture, and we are not to be
surprised that three species only are enumerated in the _Hort.
Kew._--but, since the publication of that work, many others have been
added to the royal collection, and this among the rest.

The rare and singular species here represented, a native of the warmer
parts of America, and the West-Indies, flowered with Mr. Whitley,
Nurseryman, Old-Brompton, in Feb. 1799, and at irregular periods before
that time; he informs me that it is not constant as to the time of its
blowing, and that though the plant flowers with him, it never assumes a
fine healthy green appearance, he propagates it by dividing its limbs or
branches, which often put forth small roots; the plant grows in a pot,
in a mixture of loam and peat or bog-earth, and is kept constantly
plunged in the tan-pit of the stove.



[464]

[Illustration: Nº. 464]

Sisyrinchium Gramineum. Grass-Leaved Sisyrinchium.

_Class and Order._

Gynandria Triandria.

_Generic Character._

     _Spatha_ 2-phylla. _Petala_ 6-plana. _Caps._ 3-locularis infera
     3-valvis.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     SISYRINCHIUM _gramineum_ caule ancipiti lato, germinibus glabris.

     SISYRINCHIUM _angustifolium_ foliis lineari-gladiolatis, pedunculis
     longioribus. _Mill. Dict._

     SISYRINCHIUM _cæruleum_ parvum, gladiato caule, virginianum. _Pluk.
     alm. 348. t. 61. f. 1._

     BERMUDIANA graminea, flore minore cæruleo. _Dill. Elth. 49. t. 41.
     f. 49._

     GLADIOLUS cæruleus hexapetalus caule etiam gladiato. _Banist. virg.
     1926._

In a former Number of this Work, we gave a figure of the large variety
of _Sisyrinch. Bermud._ of _Linn._ regarding it as a distinct species,
and naming it _iridioides_, conformably to Dillenius's specific
description; we regret now that we did not continue to it the name of
_Bermudiana_ (it being the true Bermudas plant) and which cannot with
propriety be applied to the present species, a native of Virginia, far
more diminutive, with flowers much smaller, of a paler blue colour, a
much hardier plant also, and of more ready growth; it is indeed a truly
hardy perennial, adapted to the open border, in which it will grow
readily, and produce abundance of flowering stems in June and July; the
flowers expand to the sun, and are followed by numerous seed-vessels
which ripen their seeds, by which the plant may be increased, or by
parting its roots in the autumn. Its stalk affords an excellent example
of the _caulis anceps_. We readily embrace the opportunity here afforded
us of correcting an error in regard to the hardiness of the _Sisyrinch.
iridioides_, which we were led into partly by Miller's account, and
partly from observing the plant to survive a mild winter in the open
ground; we have since found that it is a tender plant, and to be ranked
with those of the greenhouse; an additional proof of its being a
distinct species from the one here figured, which has long[7] been
cultivated in our gardens.

FOOTNOTE:

[7] By Mr. Jacob Bobart, in 1693. _Ait. Kew._



[465]

[Illustration: Nº. 465]

Indigofera Angustifolia. Narrow-Leaved Indigo.

_Class and Order._

Diadelphia Decandria.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ patens. _Cor._ carina, utrinque calcari subulato patulo.
     _Legumen_ lineare.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     INDIGOFERA _angustifolia_ foliis pinnatis linearibus, racemis
     elongatis, caule fruticoso. _Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14._ _Murr. p.
     678._ _Mant. 272._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 69._

This small, delicate, and rather elegant species of Indigo, to be found
in most collections of greenhouse plants near town, rises with an
upright, shrubby stem, to the height of several feet; its leaves, of a
lively green colour, are furnished with pinnæ, which are numerous and
unusually narrow, whence its name; its flowers, produced on long racemi
springing from the sides of the stem or branches, are of a singular dull
red colour, and rarely followed by seeds with us.

It is a native of the Cape[8], from whence it was introduced by Mr.
Masson, in 1774; flowers from June to October, and is usually increased
by cuttings.

There is a description of this species in the _Mantiss. Pl. Linn._ but
we know of no figure of it that has yet been published.

FOOTNOTE:

[8] _Ait. Kew._



[466]

[Illustration: Nº. 466]

Calycanthus Præcox. Japan All-Spice.

_Class and Order._

Icosandria Polygynia.

_Generic Character._

     _Cal._ 1-phyllus, urceolatus, squarrosus: foliolis coloratis.
     _Cor._ calycina. _Styli_ plurimi, stigmati glanduloso. _Sem._
     plurima, caudata, intra calycem succulentum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     CALYCANTHUS _præcox_ petalis interioribus minutis. _Linn. Sp. Pl.
     ed. 3. p. 718._ _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 220. tab. x._

     OBAI _s. Robai_. Jasminum flore pleno suavi foetido, fructu
     turbinato, semine phascoli. _Kæmpf. Amæn. exot. p. 878._

The learned and instructive Kæmpfer in his _Amæn. Exot._ that vast fund
of most useful information, gives a figure of this plant, in which it is
represented both with flowers and seed-vessels, accompanied with a
description and short account of it; from which we learn that it is
cultivated in Japan as an ornamental plant, that the flowers are
produced in February, before the leaves, that they have the scent of the
violet, but become unpleasant on being long smelt to.

Hearing that Lord Coventry was the first who possessed this plant in
England, I took the liberty of writing to his Lordship in January 1799,
to request some information on this point, as well as some others
relative to its culture, &c. On the 13th of the same month, his Lordship
had the goodness to send me a beautiful specimen of the plant in bloom,
a seedling plant one year old, together with a seed-vessel of the year
1798, and some seeds; in the Earl's letter is the following
passage:--"the beauty of the _Calycanthus præcox_ at this moment
surpasses all description, it is covered with blossoms from top to
bottom, and the fragrance of it may be perceived at the distance of
fifty yards from the conservatory."

By his Lordship's direction, I received at the same time from his
Gardener, Mr. William Dean, the following information, in answer to my
queries:--"My Lord received the plant from China in 1766:--it was
planted in a conservatory, is now sixteen feet high, and expands ten
feet wide:--bears a succession of flowers from September to March:--the
time of its first blowing I cannot precisely ascertain, but believe it
to be nearly twenty years back:--it is propagated by layers, cuttings,
and seeds, the latter it produces most years at Croome, but I believe at
no other place in England:--there are plants of it at Croome six feet
high, in a warm situation in the open border, which have stood out
several years by being covered with a single mat in severe weather."

Not expecting to receive a plant from Lord Coventry in bloom, our
drawing was made from one which flowered with Mr. Whitley, Nurseryman,
Old-Brompton, December 22, 1798, and which came originally from Croome,
his Lordship having presented most of the Nurserymen about town with
plants of it; the blossoms of that from Croome were somewhat larger than
those here represented, and the petals were less striped, indeed almost
wholly tinged with purple, the leaves also proceeded more from the
summit of the stalks and were of a much greener hue, owing no doubt to
its being kept in the conservatory, while Mr. Whitley's plant was tacked
to the outside of the bottom of the greenhouse.

In the number of its stamina, which is rarely more than five, it does
not accord with the character of the class icosandria, nor do the seeds
agree with the generic character as described by Linnæus.



[467]

[Illustration: Nº. 467]

Dracocephalum Virginianum. Virginian Dragon's-Head.

_Class and Order._

Didynamia Gymnospermia.

_Generic Character._

_Cor._ faux inflata: labium superius fornicatum.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     DRACOCEPHALUM _virginianum_ foliis lineari-lanceolatis serratis,
     floribus confertis. _Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 13. Gmel. p. 915._

     DRACOCEPHALUM _virginianum_ floribus spicatis, foliis lanceolatis
     serratis. _Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 543._

     DRACOCEPHALUM _virginianum_ floribus spicatis confertis, foliis
     lineari-lanceolatis serratis. _Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 317._

This elegant species of _Dracocephalum_, a native of Virginia, and other
parts of North-America, is a hardy herbaceous plant, rising to the
height of about two feet, and producing numerous flowers in long spikes,
usually arranged on each side of the stalk.

It comes near to the _denticulatum_ already figured, but differs in its
superior height, the form of its leaves, the number of its flowers, and
many other particulars.

It flowers from July to September, and with me has generally ripened
much of its seed, from which it may be easily raised, as also by parting
of its roots in spring or autumn; it succeeds best in a moist situation,
and its stalks require to be carefully and timely sticked.

Was cultivated as long since as 1683, by Mr. James Sutherland.



[468]

[Illustration: Nº. 468]

Oenothera Tetraptera. White-Flowered Oenothera.

_Class and Order._

Octandria Monogynia.

_Generic Character._

_Cal._ 4-fidus. _Petala 4._ _Caps._ cylindrica infera. _Sem._ nuda.

_Specific Character and Synonyms._

     OENOTHERA _tetraptera_ foliis lanceolatis, basi
     pinnatifido-dentatis, capsulis pedicellatis obovatis quadrialatis.
     _Linn. Sp. Pl. edit. Wildenou._

     OENOTHERA foliis alternis subpinnatis crispis, flore mutabili
     fructû tetraptero. _Cavanill. Icon. t. 3. p. 40. tab. 279._

Of this genus we have already figured six different species; this is
another newly discovered one, which, like most of its kind, displays its
beauties chiefly in the night. It is the only one, as far as we yet
know, that has white blossoms; these, when first expanded, are
beautifully so, but in the morning they change to a purple colour, fade,
and their place is supplied by a fresh succession. In this remarkable
change of colour, it bears some affinity to the _Oenothera anomala_,
which may be considered as strengthening our opinion that the latter
plant belongs to this genus rather than to that of _Gaura_. The
_Oenothera tetraptera_ is a native of Mexico, its duration as yet not
certainly ascertained, but may be treated as a tender annual; and such
plants as do not flower the first year, may be preserved under glasses
through the winter. It was raised from seeds sent by Mr. Donn, from
Cambridge; but was probably first introduced into this country from
seeds sent to the Marchioness of Bute, by Prof. Ortega, of Madrid.



INDEX.

     In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the _Thirteenth
     Volume_ are alphabetically arranged.

  _Pl._
   457 Alöe plicatilis.
   455 Alöe retusa.
   453 Amaryllis Reginæ.
   462 Anthemis Pyrethrum.
   441 Antholyza Merianella.
   458 Aristea cyanea.
   433 Azalea pontica.
   451 Blakea trinervia.
   466 Calycanthus præcox.
   444 Canarina Campanula.
   454 Canna indica.
   452 Cardamine trifolia.
   459 Convolvulus Cneorum.
   445 Coronilla Emerus.
   449 Dillenia speciosa.
   456 Diosma serratifolia.
   467 Dracocephalum virginianum.
   463 Epidendrum ciliare.
   440 Erica albens.
   447 Erica empetrifolia.
   443 Erica physodes.
   442 Genista linifolia.
   450 Gladiolus Watsonius.
   435 Gnaphalium ericoides.
   436 Hibiscus præmorsus.
   437 Hydrangea Arborescens.
   438 Hydrangea Hortensis.
   461 Jasminum fruticans.
   439 Illicium floridanum.
   465 Indigofera angustifolia.
   460 Maurandya semperflorens.
   448 Mesembryanthemum micans.
   468 Oenothera tetraptera.
   434 Oxybaphus viscosus.
   446 Psoralea bracteata.
   464 Sisyrinchium gramineum.



INDEX.

     In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the
     _Thirteenth Volume_ are alphabetically arranged.

  _Pl._
   466 Allspice, Japan.
   455 Aloe, cushion.
   457 Aloe, fan.
   441 Antholyza, dwarf.
   458 Aristea, grass-leaved.
   433 Azalea, yellow.
   444 Bell-flower, canary.
   459 Bindweed, silvery-leaved.
   451 Blakea, three-ribbed.
   442 Broom, flax-leaved.
   450 Corn-Flag, Watson's.
   452 Cuckow-Flower, three-leav'd.
   449 Dillenia, shewy.
   456 Diosma, serrated or saw-leaved.
   467 Dragon's Head, virginian.
   463 Epidendrum, fringed.
   448 Fig-Marygold, glittering.
   435 Gnaphalium or Everlasting, heath-leaved.
   447 Heath, crowberry-leaved.
   443 Heath, sticky-flowered.
   440 Heath, pallid.
   436 Hibiscus, bitten-leaved.
   438 Hydrangea, garden.
   437 Hydrangea, shrubby.
   461 Jasmine, yellow.
   439 Illicium, red-flowered or Aniseed tree.
   454 Indian Reed or Shot, common.
   465 Indigo, narrow-leaved.
   453 Lily, Mexican.
   460 Maurandya or Bastard Foxglove, climbing.
   468 Oenothera, white-flowered.
   462 Pellitory of Spain.
   446 Psoralea, oval-spiked.
   445 Senna, scorpion.
   464 Sisyrinchium, grass-leaved.
   434 Umbrella Wort, viscid.

_London_: Printed by STEPHEN COUCHMAN, Throgmorton-Street.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Botanical Magazine,  Vol. 13 - Or Flower-Garden Displayed" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home