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Title: A Hand-book to the Primates,  Volume 1 (of 2)
Author: Forbes, Henry O.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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II.).

       *       *       *       *       *



_ALLEN'S NATURALIST'S LIBRARY._

EDITED BY R. BOWDLER SHARPE, LL.D., F.L.S., ETC.

A HAND-BOOK
TO THE
PRIMATES.

BY
HENRY O. FORBES, LL.D., F.Z.S., ETC.,
DIRECTOR OF MUSEUMS, LIVERPOOL,
_Author of "A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago,"
etc., etc., etc._

_VOL. I._

LONDON:
W. H. ALLEN & CO., LIMITED,
13, WATERLOO PLACE, S.W.
1894.



PREFACE.


The great increase in our knowledge of animals which has taken place since
the volume on Monkeys was published in "Jardine's Naturalist's Library"
some sixty years ago, cannot be better illustrated than by the fact that
our excellent contributor, Dr. H. O. Forbes, has found it impossible to
compress that knowledge into a single volume of the present issue. There
is, moreover, no Museum which contains such a complete series of skins of
the Primates, as to render a perfect "monograph" of the Order possible. Dr.
Forbes has endeavoured in these volumes to bring the subject up to date,
and has devoted some years of study to the two which now appear under his
name, and he has had the great advantage of having seen many of the species
of which these volumes treat, in a state of nature. If diligent research
and patient work, combined with a sound anatomical knowledge and an
acquaintance with many species of Monkeys in their natural habitat, avail
anything, then these volumes should present to the student a more concise
epitome of the characteristics of the Primates than any other essay yet
offered to the public. It has been found impossible to reproduce any of the
plates in the old "Naturalist's Library" of Jardine. They would have
formed, with appropriate inscriptions, a very good instalment of a series
of "Comic Natural History" volumes, as they were, in fact, nothing but a
set of extraordinary caricatures of Monkeys. I have, therefore, again to
acknowledge the liberality of the publishers, in adopting my suggestion
that a perfectly new set of illustrations should be prepared. These have
been executed by Mr. J. G. Keulemans, with a result, I hope, that will
satisfy the reader.

R. BOWDLER SHARPE.



INTRODUCTION.


In the first volume will be found an account of the _Lemuroidea_, and the
_Anthropoidea_ as far as the group of the Macaques of the family
_Cercopithecidæ_. The second volume continues with the latter genus, and
contains the rest of the Monkeys, and the Apes, as well as a summary of the
geographical distribution of the species of the Order Primates.

I have not attempted to write a complete synonymy of the species of
Monkeys. The literature is scattered over many, often obscure, periodicals,
and without seeing the actual specimens described by some of the older
writers, it would be easy to introduce a great deal of confusion into the
synonymy. I have, therefore, only attempted to give the principal
references.

I must express my obligation to Dr. Günther, F.R.S., the Keeper of the
Zoological Department in the British Museum, for the facilities of study
afforded to me in that institution. To Mr. Oldfield Thomas I am likewise
greatly indebted for much assistance, and for many a kindly hint.

Dr. Forsyth Major, who is well-known as one of the foremost authorities on
the Lemurs, not only gave me valuable information as to the species and
literature of the _Lemuroidea_, but was even so good as to furnish me with
the descriptions of several new species.

Lastly, to my friend the Editor, I have to return my sincere thanks for the
patience with which he has revised my MSS., and for the verification of
numbers of references, only to be found in the great libraries of London,
and inaccessible to an author dwelling in the provinces.

HENRY O. FORBES.



SYSTEMATIC INDEX.



                                                    PAGE
  ORDER PRIMATES                                       1

  SUB-ORDER I. LEMUROIDEA                              8

  FAMILY I. CHIROMYIDÆ                                14

  I. CHIROMYS, Cuvier                                 14
     1. madagascariensis (Gm.)                        14

  FAMILY II. TARSIIDÆ                                 18

  I. TARSIUS, Storr.                                  18
     1. tarsius (Erxl.)                          20, 286
     2. fuscus, Fischer                               21

  FAMILY III. LEMURIDÆ                                22

  SUB-FAMILY I. LORISINÆ                              24

  I. PERODICTICUS, Bennett                            26
     1. calabarensis, Smith                           27
     2. potto (Geoffr.)                               28

  II. LORIS, Geoffr.                                  31
     1. gracilis, Geoffr.                             31

  III. NYCTICEBUS, Geoffr.                            33
     1. tardigradus (Linn.)                      33, 286

  SUB-FAMILY II. GALAGINÆ                             37

  I. GALAGO, Geoffr.                                  38
     1. garnetti (Ogilby)                             40
     2. senegalensis, Geoffr.                         41
     3. alleni, Waterh.                               43
     4. demidoffi, Fischer                            44
     5. monteiri, Bartlett                            46
     6. crassicaudata, Geoffr.                        47

  II. CHIROGALE, Geoffr.                              49
     1. milii, Geoffr.                                50
     2. melanotis, Forsyth Major                      51
     3. trichotis, Günth.                             52
     4. crossleyi, Grandid.                           53

  III. MICROCEBUS, Geoffr.                            54
     1. minor (Gray)                                  55
     2. myoxinus, Peters                              56
     3. smithii (Gray)                                57
     4. furcifer (Blainv.)                            59
     5. coquereli (Grandid.)                          60

  IV. OPOLEMUR, Gray                                  61
     1. samati (Grandid.)                             62
     2. thomasi, Forsyth Major                        63

  SUB-FAMILY III. LEMURINÆ                            64

  I. LEMUR, Linn.                                     65
     1. varius, Is. Geoffr.                           68
     2. macaco, Linn.                                 69
     3. mongoz, Linn.                                 71
      [alpha]. rufipes                                72
      [beta]. rufifrons                               72
      [gamma]. cinereiceps                            72
      [delta]. collaris                               72
      [epsilon]. rufus                                73
      [zeta]. nigrifrons                              73
      [eta]. albifrons                                73
     4. nigerrimus, Scl.                              73
     5. albimanus, Is. Geoffr.                        74
     6. coronatus, Gray                               75
     7. rubriventer, Is. Geoffr.                      76
     8. catta, Linn.                                  76

  II. MIXOCEBUS, Peters                               78
     1. caniceps, Peters                              78

  III. HAPALEMUR, Is. Geoffr.                         79
     1. griseus (Geoffr.)                             81
     2. simus, Gray                                   82

  IV. LEPIDOLEMUR, Is. Geoffr.                        83

  _Section A.--Species Majores._
     1. mustelinus, Is. Geoffr.                       86
     2. ruficaudatus, Grandid.                        86
     3. edwardsi, Forsyth Major                       87
     4. microdon, Forsyth Major                       88

  _Section B.--Species Minores._
     5. globiceps, Forsyth Major                      89
     6. grandidieri, Forsyth Major                    89
     7. leucopus, Forsyth Major                       89

  SUB-FAMILY IV. INDRISINÆ                            90

  I. AVAHIS, Jourdan                                  94
     1. laniger (Gm.)                                 94

  II. PROPITHECUS, Bennett                            96
     1. diadema, Bennett                              98
      [alpha]. sericeus                               99
      [beta]. edwardsi                                99
     2. verreauxi, Grandid.                          100
      [alpha]. deckeni                               101
      [beta]. coquereli                              102
     2a. majori, Rothschild                          286
     3. coronatus, Milne-Edwards                     102

  III. INDRIS, Cuv. et Geoffr.                       105
     1. brevicaudatus, Geoffr.                       105

  EXTINCT LEMUROIDEA                                 110

  FAMILY I. MEGALADAPIDÆ                             112
     1. Megaladapis, Forsyth Major                   112

  FAMILY LEMURIDÆ                                22, 114

  FAMILY ANAPTOMORPHIDÆ                              114
     1. Microchærus, Wood                            115
     2. Mixodectes, Cope                             116
     3. Cynodontomys, Cope                           116
     4. Omomys, Leidy                                117
     5. Anaptomorphus, Cope                          117

  FAMILY ADAPIDÆ                                     119
     1. Adapis, Cuvier                               120
     2. Tomitherium, Cope                            120
     3. Laopithecus, Marsh                           121
     4. Pelycodus, Cope                              121
     5. Microsyops, Leidy                            122
     6. Hyopsodus, Leidy                             123

  SUB-ORDER II.--ANTHROPOIDEA                        123

  FAMILY I. HAPALIDÆ                                 129

  I. HAPALE, Illig.                                  131
     1. jacchus (Linn.)                              132
     2. humeralifer, Geoffr.                         133
     3. aurita (Geoffr.)                             133
     4. leucopus, Günther                            134
     5. chrysoleuca, Wagn.                           135
     6. pygmæa (Spix)                                135
     7. melanura (Geoffr.)                           136

  II. MIDAS, Geoffr.                                 138
     1. rosalia (Linn.)                              138
     2. geoffroyi (Pucher.)                          139
     3. oedipus (Linn.)                              140
     4. labiatus, Geoffr.                            141
     5. rufiventer, Gray                             142
      [alpha]. mystax, Spix                          142
      [beta]. pileatus, Is. Geoffr.                  143
     6. weddelli, Deville                            143
     7. nigrifrons, Geoffr.                          143
     8. fuscicollis, Spix                            144
     9. chrysopygus (Wagner)                         144
    10. nigricollis, Spix                            145
    11. illigeri (Pucher.)                           145
    12. bicolor, Spix                                147
    13. midas (Linn.)                                148
    14. ursulus, Geoffr.                             148

  FAMILY II. CEBIDÆ                                  150

  SUB-FAMILY I. NYCTIPITHECINÆ                       152

  I. CHRYSOTHRIX, Kaup                               152
     1. usta (Is. Geoffr.)                           154
     2. entomophaga (d'Orb.)                         155
     3. sciurea (Linn.)                              156
     4. oerstedi, Reinh.                             158

  II. CALLITHRIX, Geoffr.                            158
     1. torquata (Hoffm.)                            159
     2. cuprea, Spix                                 160
     3. amicta (Humb.)                               161
     4. cinerascens, Spix                            161
     5. moloch (Hoffm.)                              162
     6. ornata, Gray                                 162
     7. personata, Geoffr.                           163
     8. nigrifrons, Spix                             164
     9. castaneiventris, Gray                        164
    10. melanochir, Neuwied                          165
    11. gigot, Spix                                  165

  III. NYCTIPITHECUS, Spix                           166
     1. trivirgatus (Humb.)                          168
     2. lemurinus, Is. Geoffr.                       168
     3. rufipes, Sclater                             169
     4. azaræ (Humb.)                                170
     5. felinus, Spix                                170

  SUB-FAMILY II. PITHECIINÆ                          173

  I. BRACHYURUS, Spix                                174
     1. melanocephalus (Humb.)                       175
     2. rubicundus, Is. Geoffr.                      176
     3. calvus, Is. Geoffr.                          177

  II. PITHECIA, Geoffr.                              182
     1. monachus, Humb. and Bonpl.                   182
     2. pithecia (Linn.)                             185
     3. satanas (Hoffm.)                             186
     4. chiropotes (Humb.)                           187
     5. albinasa, Is. Geoffr.                        188

  SUB-FAMILY MYCETINÆ                                189

  I. ALOUATTA, Lacép.                                192
     1. seniculus, Linn.                             192
     2. nigra (Geoffr.)                              195
     3. beelzebul (L.)                               197
     4. ursina (Humb.)                               198
     5. villosa (Gray)                               199
     6. palliata (Gray)                              202

  SUB-FAMILY CEBINÆ                                  204

  I. CEBUS, Erxl.                                    204
     1. hypoleucus (Humb.)                           207
     2. lunatus, F. Cuv.                             208
     3. flavus, Geoffr.                              208
     4. monachus, F. Cuv.                            209
     5. fatuellus (Linn.)                            211
     6. variegatus, Geoffr.                          211
     7. cirrifer, Geoffr.                            212
     8. robustus, Kuhl.                              212
     9. annellatus, Gray                             213
    10. albifrons (Humb.)                            213
    11. capucinus (Linn.)                            215
    12. vellerosus, Is. Geoffr.                      217
    13. flavescens, Gray                             217
    14. chrysopus, F. Cuv.                           218
    15. subcristatus, Gray                           218
    16. capillatus, Gray                             219
    17. azaræ, Rennger                               219
    18. fallax, Schl.                                220

  II. LAGOTHRIX, Geoffr.                             220
     1. lagothrix (Humb.)                            222
     2. infumatus (Spix)                             223

  III. BRACHYTELES, Spix                             224
     1. arachnoides (Geoffr.)                        226

  IV. ATELES, Geoffr.                                227
     1. variegatus, Wagner                           231
     2. geoffroyi, Kuhl                              233
     3. rufiventris, Scl.                            236
     4. paniscus (Linn.)                             237
     5. marginatus, Kuhl                             239
     6. ater, F. Cuv.                                241
     7. grisescens, Gray                             242
     8. fusciceps, Gray                              242
     9. cucullatus, Gray                             243
    10. vellerosus, Gray                             244

  FAMILY CERCOPITHECIDÆ                              249

  SUB-FAMILY CERCOPITHECINÆ                          252

  I. PAPIO, Erxl.                                    253
     1. maimon (Linn.)                               258
     2. leucophæus (F. Cuv.)                         260
     3. doguera (Pucher. and Schimp.)                262
     4. porcarius (Bodd.)                            263
     5. babouin (Desm.)                              265
     6. anubis (F. Cuv. and Geoffr.)                 266
     7. thoth (Ogilby)                               268
     8. ibeanus, Thomas                              269
     9. sphynx (Geoffr.)                             269
    10. hamadryas (Linn.)                            272
    11. langheldi, Matschie                          275

  II. THEROPITHECUS, Is. Geoffr.                     276
     1. gelada (Rüpp.)                               276
     2. obscurus, Hengl.                             278

  III. CYNOPITHECUS, Is. Geoffr.                     280
     1. niger (Desm.)                                281



LIST OF PLATES.


      I.--Aye-Aye                       _Chiromys madagascariensis._
     II.--Spectral Tarsier              _Tarsius tarsius._
    III.--Javan Slow-Loris              _Nycticebus tardigradus._
     IV.--Allen's Galago                _Galago alleni._
      V.--Black-eared Mouse-Lemur       _Chirogale melanotis._
     VI.--Smith's Dwarf-Lemur           _Microcebus smithii._
    VII.--Red-ruffed Lemur              _Lemur ruber._
   VIII.--Grey Gentle-Lemur             _Hapalemur griseus._
     IX.--White-footed Sportive-Lemur   _Lepidolemur leucopus._
      X.--Woolly Avahi                  _Avahis laniger._
     XI.--Coquerel's Sifaka             _Propithecus coquereli._
    XII.--Endrina                       _Indris brevicaudatus._
   XIII.--Geoffroy's Tamarin            _Midas geoffroyi._
    XIV.--Red Titi                      _Callithrix cuprea._
     XV.--Red-footed Douroucouli or
            Night-Monkey                _Nyctipithecus rufipes._
    XVI.--Bald Uakari                   _Brachyurus calvus._
   XVII.--White-nosed Saki              _Pithecia albinasa._
  XVIII.--Red Howler                    _Alouatta senicula._
    XIX.--Smooth-headed Capuchin        _Cebus monachus._
     XX.--Humboldt's Woolly-Monkey      _Lagothrix lagothrix._
    XXI.--Variegated Spider-Monkey      _Ateles variegatus._
   XXII.--Drill                         _Papio leucophæus._



{1}_ALLEN'S NATURALIST'S LIBRARY._

MAMMALS.



ORDER PRIMATES.

LEMURS, MONKEYS AND APES.


INTRODUCTION.

Of the varied forms of animal life that people the globe, those that
possess a back-bone and two pairs of limbs (the VERTEBRATA) are considered
the highest in the scale. Of the _Vertebrata_, those are held to be of
superior organisation which possess warm red blood and suckle their young
with milk from the breast (_i.e._, MAMMALIA). Our present volume deals with
the highest and most specialised group of the Mammalia, and, therefore, of
the whole Animal Kingdom.

Man, in respect of his mental endowments, stands alone and unapproachable
among living creatures. Considered as to his "place in nature," however, he
must be described as an erect-walking Mammal, possessing anterior
extremities developed into hands of great perfection, for exclusive use as
tactile and grasping organs, and posterior limbs, on which his body is
perfectly balanced and entirely supported, exclusively devoted to
locomotion, as well as highly specialised cerebral characters. These
attributes in part constitute the standard by which we estimate superiority
in animal structure, and fitness of adaptation.

Notwithstanding the numerous varieties and races of {2}mankind distributed
over every region of the globe, each exhibiting differences in habits,
customs and superficial complexion, Man forms but one species, _Homo
sapiens_, the sole representative of the unique genus of his family. Though
the genus _Homo_ is thus far apparently zoologically isolated, there is a
remarkable group of animals, which we designate "Apes," and which,
possessing many of the same structural characters more or less modified,
stand apart from all the other Mammalia, and make a distinct approach to
Man. Between Man, however, and the Apes, even the untrained eye at once
perceives, amid obvious marks of inferiority, unmistakable resemblances,
while anatomical investigations reveal that "the points in which Man
differs from the Apes most nearly resembling him, are not of greater
importance than those in which the Ape differs from other and universally
acknowledged members of the group." (_Flower_ and _Lydekker_.) The Apes, on
the other hand, are so nearly related to the Monkeys, the Baboons and the
Marmosets, by characters which insensibly merge into each other that they,
along with Man, must logically be embraced in the same zoological division.
The animals known to us as Lemurs, called by the Germans "Half-Apes" and by
the French "False-Monkeys," are the nearest to the Apes and Man of all the
remaining Mammals, though there are many points of divergence from the
above-named groups. The Lemurs, in fact, exhibit considerable affinity to
lower forms of Mammalia, especially to the Insectivora, but in internal
structure and habit they approach the Anthropiform[1] group just referred
to--in the flattened form of the digits, the opposable great toe, with its
ankle-bone (the ento-cuneiform) rounded for its articulation, as in the
higher Apes and Man.

{3}The Lemurs have, by many distinguished naturalists, been relegated to a
distinct Order quite separate from the latter; but by such pre-eminent
authorities as Linnæus, Lesson, Huxley, Broca and Flower, they have been
assigned a subordinate position within that great Order, on which has been
conferred the rank of the Primates of the Animal Kingdom.

The Order PRIMATES, therefore, comprises two very homogeneous
sub-orders--(1) The Lemur-like animals (LEMUROIDEA) including the Aye-Aye,
the Tarsier, and the True Lemurs; and (2) the Man-like animals (the
ANTHROPOIDEA), which embrace the Marmosets, the Baboons, the great Apes,
and Man.

In common with all other Mammals, the Primates are furnished with an
epidermal covering, which, except in Man, consists of a woolly or hairy
fur. They possess four limbs and a tail, which may be long, short, or
concealed, and which is often used as a prehensile organ. The young are
born in a condition of greater or less helplessness, with their eyes, as a
rule, unopened, and the framework of their bodies incompletely ossified,
and consequently requiring protective care and entire nourishment from the
mother, for a considerable period. At maturity this skeleton consists of a
skull, a breast- and a back-bone of many pieces, ribs, jointed limbs, and a
pair of collar-bones. As a knowledge of many of these bones and some of the
more prominent organs of the body are necessary for an accurate
comprehension of the description and classification of the animals
discussed in this volume, a few of the more important must be briefly
referred to.

The _cranium_, formed of many bones firmly united together, consists of a
cerebral region, or box, containing and guarding the brain, and a facial
region, in which are situated, besides the mouth, the organs of sight and
smell. The bones connected with the {4}mouth are the two maxillæ, along the
margins of which are placed the grinding- or cheek-teeth; the two
pre-maxillæ, in which are set the cutting- and the eye-teeth; and lastly,
the palatine bones which form the roof of the mouth. Hinged on to the sides
of the cranium is the toothed mandible, or lower jaw, composed of two
halves, which may be solidly or loosely joined together in the mid-line, or
symphysis. Along the under surface of the skull, there are, besides the
great (often posterior) orifice for the entrance of the spinal cord,
numerous _foramina_, or openings, for the passage of blood-vessels for the
nourishment of the brain, and of nerves which bring all parts of the body
into relation with the supreme directing centre. Conspicuous near its
posterior part, on each side, is an ivory-like capsule, the periotic bone,
containing the essential organ of hearing. Lying beneath the lower jaw is
the hyoid arch, a slender framework of bones, supporting the tongue and the
upper end of the windpipe with the organ of voice. In a few of the Monkeys
and Apes certain of the bones of this arch are much enlarged and hollowed
for increasing the volume of sound emitted by them. On either side of the
great opening which is so conspicuous at the hinder part of the skull, for
the reception of the spinal cord, is a smooth kidney-shaped surface, called
a "condyle." These two condyles serve for the articulation of the first
segment of the back-bone to the cranium, and by the possession of this pair
of condyles the Mammalian skull can always be distinguished from that of
Birds and Reptiles. The pieces of which the back-bone are composed are
named the _vertebræ_. Those of the neck, the "cervical" vertebræ, are
recognised by having no true ribs attached to them, and are, in all
Primates, seven in number. Those of the back, or "dorsal" vertebræ, may be
distinguished by having articulated to them, on each side, {5}a movable
rib, the other end of which is attached to the breast-bone; they follow
next to the cervical vertebræ, while to them succeed the "lumbar" vertebræ
which carry no complete ribs. The dorsal and lumbar segments vary in
number, but together they rarely exceed seventeen. Behind these extend the
"sacral" vertebræ--completely ossified together, and lastly, the bones of
the tail or "caudal" vertebræ, which may be many or few, according to the
length of that appendage.

The fore-limb is composed of three segments, the arm, fore-arm, and hand,
together with a block by which it is attached to the side of the body. To
this block--the blade-bone or _scapula_--is articulated the arm-bone, or
_humerus_, which at its elbow-joint hinges with the two bones, the _ulna_
and the _radius_, of the fore-arm, on which in turn the hand is rotated.
The hand is made up of three parts, the wrist-bones, or _carpus_, closely
united together in two transverse rows with a central bone intervening
between them; next the elongated bones of the palm of the hand, or
_metacarpus_, one to each finger, and lastly the _phalanges_, or
finger-bones, three to each digit, except in the thumb, where there are but
two. The hind-limb is formed on exactly the same plan. It has a connecting
block--the pelvis; giving suspension to the thigh, with its single bone,
the _femur_, to which articulates the leg, with two bones (_tibia_ and
_fibula_), and the tripartite foot, composed of _tarsus_, _metatarsus_, and
_phalanges_.

Of the digestive organs of the Primates the teeth present very important
characters, from the point of view of the classification of the Order. They
differ in form and number, and have distinct functions to perform. The
teeth situated in front are the _incisors_ and _canines_, sharp and
pointed, for seizing, cutting, and holding the food. Behind them come the
{6}_pre-molars_, and still further back the _molars_, both with broad
crowns of complicated tubercles and ridges for milling the hard portions
contained in the food. Animals provided--as all the Primates are--with
these different sorts of teeth, are said to be _Heterodont_,[2] in
contradistinction to forms like the Dolphins and Whales, which are termed
_Homodont_,[3] because the whole of these teeth are of the same pattern.
The Primates are _Diphyodont_[4] as well, because many of their permanent
teeth are preceded by another set, commonly known as the _milk-teeth_. In
order to present to the eye at a glance the number of each sort that any
species possesses, a _dental formula_ has been adopted by naturalists. Such
a formula as I2/2, C1/1, P3/3, M3/3 = 36, indicates that in _one half of
the mouth_, above and below, there are 2 incisors, 1 canine, 3 pre-molars,
and 3 molars = 18; and therefore in the _two halves_ of the mouth together
there are 36 teeth in all.

The masticated food, partially digested by the saliva of the mouth,
descends the gullet by the muscular contractions of its walls to the
simple, sac-like, stomach, and thence to the intestines. These latter
consist of two portions, one smaller and narrower, nearer to the stomach,
and a second portion further down, larger and wider; the junction of the
two portions being marked by a process of varying length, the _cæcum_. The
stomach and intestines, with other important structures, such as the liver,
kidneys and generative organs, are contained in a lower cavity, separated
by a muscular midriff, the diaphragm, from the upper part or thorax,
containing the blood-purifying and pumping organs, the lungs and the heart.

{7}The upper part of the windpipe is, in all Primates, modified to form the
larynx, or organ of voice, constituted by fibrous strings stretched across
its orifice, where they may be set in vibration by the air, in its passage
to and from the lungs.

The brain is relatively large in proportion to the body, and attains in the
higher of the two sub-orders its most perfect development. The main brain
(or cerebral hemispheres), when viewed from above, in size preponderates
over, and conceals (except in the Lemurs) all the other parts of that
organ. The surface of its lateral halves, which are connected by transverse
bands so as to insure harmony of action between them, is marked by fissures
and foldings, or convolutions, which vary in number and complexity,
evidently in relation to the intelligence of the animal. The brain within
the skull gives origin to the nerves for the chief organs of sense; while
from its posterior part it is continued along the back--within a canal
formed by the neural arches of the vertebræ--as the spinal column, from
which arise the rest of the nerves for the body.

The young of all the Primates are nourished in the mother's womb by the
passage of material from the blood-vessels of the parent through an organ
known as the _placenta_. They are all born in a helpless condition, and
remain unable to look after themselves for a considerable period, during
which they are dependent on the milk secreted on the ventral surface of the
mother by two or four glands, the teats or _mammæ_--those characteristic
organs from which the "Mammalia" have derived their name. These glands are
present in both sexes, but are functional only in the female.

We shall now proceed to describe more minutely the first of the two
sub-orders of the Primates--the Lemur-like animals.


{8}I. THE LEMURS--SUB-ORDER LEMUROIDEA.

The Aye-Aye, the Tarsier, and the True Lemurs constitute this first
sub-order. They are characterised by having the muzzle long and narrow,
more or less Dog-like in shape, and the upper lip often divided into two by
the nose-pad. The external ears (Fig. 1) are enlarged, with flattened
margins, but have no "hem" as in the higher Anthropoids. (Fig. 2.)


[Illustration: Fig. 1. Lemuroid Ear.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Anthropoid Ear.]


The trunk is relatively long and compressed, and the tail when long is
never truly prehensile. Of the limbs, the posterior are longer than the
anterior, and all have five digits, each bearing a flat nail except the
second toe, which has invariably a long pointed claw, their tips ending in
prominent discoidal tactile pads. (Fig. 3.)

Of the digits, the index is sometimes quite rudimentary, while the thumb is
large, and the great toe especially so, both being opposable. Teats occur
on the breast, on the abdomen, or on both.

Of the skeleton, the eye-sockets, or orbits, are directed forward, and have
complete bony margins, which, however, are not {9}closed in by bone behind
(as in Monkeys), but freely communicating beneath the post-orbital process
(except in _Tarsius_) with the temporal hollow behind. In the young of some
species the orbit is more enclosed than it is in the adult: the orifice for
the lachrymal duct of the eye is placed external to the margin of the
orbit: the hollow for the olfactory lobes of the brain is always large.

[Illustration: Fig. 3. Foot of _Chirogale trichotis_, Günther.
(P. Z. S., 1875, p. 79.)]

Having four kinds of teeth, and a set in succession to the milk-teeth, they
are Heterodont and Diphyodont. The dental formula is I2/2, C1/1, P3/3, M3/3
= 36 (_vide_ anteà, p. 6), and the upper jaw has a toothless space in the
centre (except in the Aye-Aye). Of the upper teeth, the _incisors_ are
sometimes absent, but generally present; if unequal in size the inner one
is the larger of the two. The canines are prominent; the pre-molars all
have a _cingulum_, or girdle, round the base, more or less enlarged
backwards into a process ("talon" or "heel"); the anterior pre-molar
vertically long and canine-shaped; the median and posterior with three main
points (tubercles or cusps) and one or two smaller ones on the crown, and
having a bar or ridge uniting the front inner with the hind outer cusp. The
anterior and median _molars_ have three or four main cusps, and one {10}or
two smaller or subsidiary ones on the crown; the cingulum is well
developed. The posterior molars have generally three cusps.

In the lower jaw the _incisors_ are close-set and comb-like, remarkable for
protruding in front, like the teeth of a Rat or a Rabbit. The _canines_
also protrude horizontally, and, being placed alongside of the incisors,
are difficult to distinguish from the latter excepting that they are
broader and thicker.


[Illustration: Fig. 4. Skull of Lemuroid.

From Blanford's "Mammalia of British India" (by permission of the author).]

[Illustration: Fig. 5. Skull of Anthropoid.

From Blanford's "Mammalia of British India" (by permission of the author).]


Of the _pre-molars_ the anterior are canine-shaped, the median and
posterior ones have three main, and one or two subordinate, cusps on the
crowns. In both the upper and lower _molars_, cross-bridges stretch between
the outer and inner front cusps as well as between the outer and inner hind
cusps. {11}There is an oblique ridge between the hind outer and the front
inner cusp, and another is often present between the front outer cusp and
the anterior "heel," producing, as Huxley has pointed out, almost a double
crescentic pattern, as in many lower Mammals. The posterior molar has four
or five cusps.

Of the _milk-teeth_, the incisors in the upper jaw change first. Of the
molars, two are developed before the change of the pre-molars. In the lower
jaw the incisors change first, and when two or three pre-molars have
developed the last molar has still to come.

The arm-bone, or _humerus_, has one perforation (_entepicondylar foramen_)
on its inner margin, and another above the joint (except in
_Perodicticus_). The bones of the fore-arm (_radius_ and _ulna_), and those
of the leg (_tibia_ and _fibula_) are not co-ossified (except in
_Tarsius_), so that the palm or sole can be turned up at will.

The bones of the _digits_ are more or less flat and rounded at the tips
(differing in this respect from the _Insectivora_). One of the ankle-bones,
for the articulation of the opposable great toe, the ento-cuneiform, as it
is called, is rounded, as in the Anthropoid Apes and Man. The thumb is
opposable, but its articulating bone in the wrist is not rounded, except in
_Avahis_ and _Indris_, which genera agree in this respect with
_Anthropopithecus_ and Man. The wrist has its central bone (_os centrale_)
present; it is absent in Man and the higher Apes.

The knee is free and not united to the side of the body by integument.

The two halves of the lower jaw are not always co-ossified (as is the case
in the _Anthropoidea_).

The opening in the base of the skull (the _foramen rotundum_) which
transmits from the brain a branch of the fifth nerve {12}for the upper jaw,
and the sphenoidal fissure, which gives exit to the third, fourth and sixth
cranial nerves, have but one aperture, as in the Rabbit, which belongs to
the _Rodentia_.

The sacral vertebræ are generally three in number, and the lumbar and
dorsal together vary from nineteen to twenty-three.

The brain, as Sir William Flower has observed, departs considerably from
the form of what may be called the primatial type, and approaches in form
to that of the carnivorous animals. The hind-brain, or _cerebellum_, is not
completely covered by the cerebrum. The latter has but few convolutions
(indicating a low intelligence), but its posterior lobe is always present,
though more or less rudimentary, and so also are many fissures, which are
characteristic of its surface in the higher Primates. The olfactory lobes
are usually large and not covered by the cerebrum.

The uterus and structures for the nutrition of the young prior to birth are
low in type, and approximate to the conditions seen in the Pig, the Horse,
the Chevrotains, and the Ruminants. The unborn Lemur is often encased (as
among the Sloths) in a skin-like covering (_epitrichium_) which breaks into
patches before birth.

The tongue has a horny supplementary under-tongue (_sublingua_) attached
beneath it. The stomach is simple, not formed of several compartments. The
transverse portion of the great intestine is convoluted in a remarkable
manner upon itself, the cæcum also being very large. The main arteries of
the arm and leg break up (as in the Sloths) into an immense number of small
vessels (called _retia mirabilia_) parallel to one another instead of being
simple branching trunks.

The long tendons of the muscles for flexing the digits (the {13}_flexor
longus digitorum_) differ generally in arrangement from those of the higher
Primates.

The Lemuroids are of no commercial value to Man.

As regards their distribution, the _Lemuroidea_ are now absolutely confined
to the Old World, and predominate in the island of Madagascar, where, as M.
Grandidier remarks in his magnificent work on that country, there is
scarcely a little wood in any district in which they are not found. Indeed,
of the nearly seventy species of Mammals inhabiting that island,
thirty-five, or one-half, are Lemurs. Members of the family also occur
across the whole of the neighbouring continent of Africa, but their
northern range does not reach quite to the tropic, whereas it extends some
few degrees beyond it in the Southern Hemisphere. Elsewhere they are
confined to the forests of the Oriental region. More or less isolated in
Southern India, they re-appear in China, and spreading south to Java they
reach as far east as Celebes and the Philippine Islands. The present
isolation of the Lemurs in two such distant areas--in Africa and Madagascar
and some of the Mascarene Islands on the one hand, and in Southern India,
China, Ceylon, and the Malayan Islands on the other--has been considered by
some naturalists as weighty evidence in favour of a former land connection
between these distant regions.

Though so restricted in their distribution at the present day, this group
was more widely represented in past ages of the world's history, as we
shall have to point out later on. Abundant fossil remains prove that they
lived in Europe and in North America, where to-day they are quite unknown.

The _Lemuroidea_ are almost entirely arboreal, and seldom come to the
ground, except the Sifakas, which then progress {14}on their hind legs by a
series of bounds, holding their hands over their head in a ludicrous
fashion. Most of them are nocturnal, or crepuscular, sleeping the greater
part of the day in holes or on a branch of a tree coiled up in a ball.
Their food consists chiefly of leaves, fruits, honey, birds' eggs, and
birds, or any small animals they can pounce upon.

The Lemurs now living are divided into three families. The Aye-Aye and the
Tarsiers, on account of their very special characters, constitute each a
distinct family--named _Chiromyidæ_ and _Tarsiidæ_ respectively--while the
True Lemurs form the third, the _Lemuridæ_, to which all the remaining
forms belong.



THE AYE-AYES. FAMILY CHIROMYIDÆ.


This very aberrant family contains only one species; the characters of the
family and of the genus _Chiromys_ are, therefore, necessarily those of the
single species known.


THE AYE-AYE. CHIROMYS MADAGASCARIENSIS.

  _Sciurus madagascariensis_, Gmel., S. N., i., p. 152 (1788).

  _Daubentonia madagascariensis_, Geoffr., Décad. Philos., iv., p. 193
  (1795); Dahlbom, Studia, p. 326, t. 12.

  _Chiromys madagascariensis_, Cuv., Leçons d'Anat. Comp., Tabl. de Class.,
  1 (1800); Owen, Tr. Z. S., vol. v., p. 33; Peters, Abhandl. K. Akad.
  Berlin, 1865, p. 79.

  (_Plate I._)

PLATE I.

[Illustration: THE AYE-AYE.]


{15}CHARACTERS.--Head short and round; face short-snouted, with a patch of
bristles below the eye, between the ear and the angle of the mouth; eyes
round, prominent; eyebrows long and bristly; pupils wide, furnished with a
false eyelid (a nictitating membrane); ears large, rounded, directed
backwards, naked, and studded with small protuberances; tail longer than
the body, bushy, with hair 3-4 inches long; hind-limbs longer than the
fore-limbs, the thigh-bone being one third longer than the humerus, the
hand the longest segment of the fore-limb; fingers long--the fourth the
longest--with compressed and pointed claws, which are proportionately much
longer than the toes; the middle or third digit slender and very
remarkable, being extremely attenuated and wire-like; thumb opposable, and
placed at an acute angle to the short index; great toe opposable, set at an
open angle to the other digits, its nail flat; the remaining toes with
pointed compressed claws (like the second toe of _Lemuridæ_ and second and
third of _Tarsiidæ_). Teats, two, placed low down on the abdomen. Length of
body and tail together 36 inches. Skull highly arched, convex transversely;
muzzle short and deep; bony palate not extending behind the middle of the
posterior molar tooth; lower jaw with condyle elongated from before
backwards and on a level with the cheek-teeth, its two halves united at an
acute angle by elastic tissue, allowing each half to play independently of
the other. Its dental formula, I1/1, C0/0, P1/0, M3/3 = 18. Incisors very
large, curved, with persistent pulp, and enamel only in front, growing up
as fast as worn away; canines absent (the last two characters as in the
Rodents); long vacuity between incisors and pre-molar; pre-molar much
smaller than molars; molars with flat crowns and very indistinct
tubercules; milk-teeth agreeing more in number and form with those seen
among Lemurs than with the permanent set; the upper jaw having its full set
of two incisors, one canine, and a pre-molar tooth present; the lower jaw
having one incisor, no canine, and one pre-molar tooth on each side. Dorsal
and lumbar vertebræ together 18, sacral 3, and caudal 22-27.

{16}Olfactory lobes of brain covered by the cerebrum; convolutions and
grooves of cerebrum similar to those in normal Lemurs. Intestine 26 inches
long; no striped tissue in the muscular sheath of the gullet at the
anterior end of the stomach. Digastric muscle (for moving the jaws) very
much developed in accordance with the great gnawing powers of the species.

Fur on back, flanks, tail, and limbs dark brown, nearly black, but with the
white of the basal half of the hairs shining through; hair woolly at base;
long hairs on top of head and back of neck tipped with white; short hairs
of face dirty white. Nose and lips naked, flesh-coloured; ears black; sides
of head and throat greyish-yellow; chest often bright yellow, the chin
paler. Inner sides of limbs yellowish-white, and on the under surface of
the body the basal part of hairs showing through, producing a pale
yellowish-white, or sub-rufous, colour. Feet and digits black. Tail black,
at its base greyish-white or greyish-brown, and often with long white hairs
throughout. The species is more nearly related to the members of the genus
_Galago_ to be described later on, than to any other of the _Lemuroidea_.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Aye-Aye is confined to the island of Madagascar. It
makes its home in the dense parts of the great forest that runs along the
eastern border of its central plateau, but only in that part of it which
separates the Sihànaka Province from that of the Betsimisàraka, which is
about 25 miles from the east coast, in latitude 17° 22[prime] S. It is more
common than has been supposed, its noctural habits and the superstitious
awe with which it is regarded accounting for its apparent rarity, and for
the contradictory reports given of its habits.

HABITS.--The Aye-Aye, whose name is derived from its call of "hai-hay," is
one of the most singular of living animals. It was first discovered by
Sonnerat during his travels in {17}Madagascar in 1780, and by him sent to
Paris. The skin remained unique in Europe for the best part of a century.
Greatly owing to the superstitious dread in which the creature is held by
the natives, it was for a long period, and is still, very difficult to
procure, or to induce the natives to capture, specimens. Mr. Baron says
that it is sometimes accidentally caught in traps by the natives, "but the
owner of the trap, unless one of those versed in the Aye-Aye mysteries who
know the charm by which to counteract its evil power, smears fat over it,
thus securing its forgiveness and goodwill, and sets it free." In 1863 Dr.
Sandwith sent a second example to Europe, the anatomy of whose body was
made the subject of an exhaustive monograph by the late Sir Richard Owen.
Since that date more than one specimen has been received alive, and its
habits and constitution are now fairly well known. The Aye-Aye is entirely
arboreal and nocturnal, sleeping during the day, with its body coiled
round, lying on its side with its bushy tail spread over it as a covering.
It suspends itself by its hind-limbs, and in this position it has been
observed in captivity by Mr. Bartlett, using its hook-like finger to comb
out its tail, to cleanse its face, the corners of its eyes, its nose,
mouth, and ears, keeping meanwhile its other fingers closed. It lives in
the depths of the forests, going about in pairs. Exquisitely keen of
hearing, it can detect by sound the boring of insects within the dead
branches of trees. Its attenuated wire-like finger acts as a probe to
discover their position, and its powerful incisor teeth are used to cut
down upon the tunnel of its prey, which consists principally of the
Andraitra, the larva of a Beetle, which it then extracts with the same
digit. The juices of plants are also supposed to form part of its food. It
drinks after the manner of many Monkeys, by dipping its fingers into the
water, and {18}drawing them through its mouth. The Aye-Aye is fearless of
Man, but in its wakeful hours, during the night, when irritated it can be
very savage and strike out with its hands. The female produces but one
young at a birth, and builds, in the fork of a tree, a ball-like nest, two
feet in diameter, with an entrance hole in the side, forming it of the
rolled up leaves of the Travellers'-tree, and lining it with small twigs
and dry leaves. (_Baron._)



THE TARSIERS. FAMILY TARSIIDÆ.


This family, like the preceding, has been constituted for the reception of
two animals which are so remarkably distinct from all the other species of
Lemurs, as to necessitate their being thus segregated. Between these two
forms however, so close a relationship exists, that they have often been
considered as only varieties of the same species. The family, therefore,
consists, as in the _Chiromyidæ_, of a single genus, the characters of
which constitute also those of the family.


THE TARSIERS. GENUS TARSIUS.

  _Tarsius_, Storr. Prod. Method. Mamm., p. 32 (1780).

The Tarsiers are distinguished externally by the possession of a rounded
head, and a very short, pointed muzzle; by their very large, long and naked
ears, and eyes so remarkably large and protruding, as to form the most
prominent feature of the face. The hind-limb, which is much longer than the
fore-limb, is also very remarkable on account of the great elongation of
the ankle-region (or tarsus) of the limb. The long and slender toes
terminate in round, sucker-like discs, and are furnished with flat nails,
except on the second and third toes, where the nails are merely compressed
claws. The {19}fore-limb, with or without the hand, is longer than the
trunk; its digits also are long and slender (the third being longest, and
the second equal to the fourth) and, like those of the foot, terminate in
round sucker-like discs. Both the wrist and ankle are haired.

The long and Rat-like tail is longer than the body, and has a tufted
termination. The skull presents enormous eye-cavities, the inner margins of
the latter almost meeting in the centre. The orbits are nearly closed in
from the temporal fossa by the union of the malar and alisphenoid bones--a
character in which they differ from all other Lemurs, and approach the
Anthropoid section of the Primates. Their dental formula is I2/1, C1/1,
P3/3, M3/3 = 34. Of the upper jaw, the incisors are prominent and unequal,
the anterior ones being larger than the posterior, and in contact in the
middle line, thus leaving no central gap in the front of the jaw, as is the
rule among Lemurs; the canines are about as long vertically as the inner
incisor, and are smaller than the corresponding tooth in the True Lemurs;
the pre-molars are canine-like, sharp, pointed, and furnished with a
cingulum; the anterior pre-molar is smaller than the two others; the
posterior pre-molar has one external and one internal cusp; the molars, all
nearly equal in size, are wide transversely, strongly cingulate, and have
two prominent external cusps. In the lower jaw, the solitary incisor in
each half is small, and, instead of protruding horizontally, is nearly
erect; the canines are also almost erect, and less like incisors than is
usual in the Sub-order. The pre-molars are sharp, but the anterior is
smaller than the two posterior; the anterior and median molars have four
cusps, and are cingulate, while the posterior molar has five cusps.

{20}The Tarsiers have nineteen dorsal and lumbar vertebræ together, and
twenty-seven in the tail. The humerus presents a perforation (the
entepicondylar foramen) at its lower inner side, and another nearly in the
centre above the hinge. The femur is more than twice the length of the
arm-bone; the lower half of the slender fibula is co-ossified with the
tibia, while two of the tarsal, or ankle-bones (the _calcaneum_ and
_naviculare_), are remarkably elongated, thus giving to the hind-limb of
these animals the singular conformation from which they derive their name.
The large intestine is not convoluted upon itself as in so many of the
Lemurs, nor is there a cæcum at the junction of its smaller and larger
portions.


I. THE SPECTRAL TARSIER. TARSIUS TARSIUS.

  _Lemur tarsius_, Erxl., Syst. Regn. Anim., Mamm., p. 71 (1777).

  _Tarsius spectrum_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 168 (1812); Dahlb.,
  Studia, p. 231, tab. 11.

  _Lemur spectrum_, Pallas, Nova Sp. Glir. Ord., p. 275, note (1778).

  (_Plate II._)

CHARACTERS.--On the upper lip, sides of nostrils, and over the eyes long,
delicate black hairs (_vibrissæ_); hair on nose very short, longer in front
of ears and at angles of mouth. Fur of body generally thick, woolly, the
basal two thirds slate-grey, the terminal third brownish-yellow. Face to
forehead fawn-brown, somewhat darker around and between the enormous liquid
brown eyes. Top and back of head and shoulders of a more uniform and darker
shade; rest of back apparently mottled, owing to the light-tipped hairs of
that region gathering into locks. Under side of body, inside of arms and
legs paler. Tail darker brown, rufous at base of upper side. Size not
exceeding that of a small Rat.

PLATE II.

[Illustration: THE SPECTRAL TARSIER.]


{21}DISTRIBUTION.--Found only in the jungles of the Malayan islands of
Sumatra, Java, Banka, Billiton, and Borneo.


II. THE DUSKY-HANDED TARSIER. TARSIUS FUSCUS.

  _? Lemur podje_, Kerr, Linn. Anim. Kingdom, p. 86 (1792).

  _Tarsius fuscus, s. fuscomanus_, Fischer, Anat. der Maki, pp. 3, 7
  (1784).

  _Tarsius fuscomanus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 168 (1812); Max Weber,
  Zool. Ergebn. Reis. Nederl. Ost-Indien, iii., p. 264 (1893).

  _Tarsius fischeri_, Burm. Tarsius, pp. 29, 129 (1846).

CHARACTERS.--Closely related to the preceding species in size and other
characters, but distinguished by the colour of the hands, which are dark
brown.

DISTRIBUTION.--Inhabits the islands of the Indian Archipelago, farther to
the eastward than those in which _Tarsius Tarsius_ is found. It has been
recorded from Celebes, and the neighbouring groups of Salayer and Sanghir,
and from some of the Philippine Islands, such as Bohol and Mindanao.

HABITS.--The habits of both species of Tarsier are identical, and may be
described together. They are almost entirely nocturnal and arboreal
animals, rarely, of their own accord, coming to the ground. They move from
place to place by leaping along the larger branches, or from tree to tree,
even when these stand several feet distant. When they do descend, however,
they advance on the ground by the same curious Frog-like leaps, without
bringing their fore-limbs down to the ground. The Tarsier is said to climb
easily, even without grasping, by means of the round discs on its slender
finger-tips, which, like suckers, enable it to hold on by the side pressure
of its limbs to any smooth surface, such as the stems of the
{22}bamboo-brakes which it frequents. Mr. Charles Hose, in his "Mammals of
Borneo," states that, in that island, the Tarsier is found in the jungles
of the low country, skipping about from branch to branch. According to the
notes of this excellent field-naturalist, it has a habit of turning its
head almost completely round without moving the rest of its body. This very
remarkable creature lives in pairs in the tropical forests, in holes in the
tree stems, or under their roots, feeding chiefly on insects and small
lizards, which, as Mr. Cuming has recorded, it holds by its fore-paws while
devouring, sitting up the while on its posterior. In drinking it is also
said to lap water like a Cat. The Tarsier seldom makes any kind of noise,
but when it does emit a sound, it is a sharp, shrill call. The female
produces one, rarely two, young at a birth; these are similar to the
parents. They are covered with hair, and have the eyes open. Mr. Hose
further states that the mother often carries her young one about in her
mouth, after the manner of a Cat. On the second day after its birth, the
infant Tarsier can move about by itself. By the natives of Sumatra, and,
indeed, of most of the islands inhabited by these animals, the Tarsiers are
held in superstitious dread, their presence in the neighbourhood of the
rice-fields being supposed to portend misfortune to the owner or to some
member of his family.

Their elongated ankle-bones, and their leaping habits, seem to indicate
that the Galagos and the Chirogales, or Mouse-Lemurs, are the nearest
relatives of the Tarsiers.



THE TYPICAL LEMURS. FAMILY LEMURIDÆ.


Under this family heading are included the whole of the remaining members
of the Sub-order. They all possess certain main characters in common; but
on account of the presence or {23}absence of certain subordinate features
in some of the groups, the family has been further subdivided into four
sub-families. The more important characters which they have in common are
the thick woolly fur, the Dog- or Fox-like snout and nostrils--a character
obviously distinguishing them from the bulk of the Monkeys, in which the
nose forms a subsidiary feature, and is not the main part of the face,--and
especially the number and form of their teeth. In the centre of the upper
jaw there is always a toothless gap, or _diastema_, on each side of which
the teeth are arranged according to the following formula: I2/2, C1/1,
P3/3, M3/3 = 36. Among the Endrinas, however, the formula is I2/2, C1/(1 or
0), P2/2, M3/3 = 32 or 30 in number. In the upper jaw the incisors are
small and perpendicular; but in the lower, where they are long and narrow,
they protrude horizontally in front, and then follow, parallel and close to
them, the somewhat thicker canines, the six teeth together forming a
comb-like series. The anterior pre-molar is always vertically longer than
the others, and assumes the form and function of the canines in other
animals.

In some genera (e.g., _Propithecus_), Milne-Edwards has observed that in
the young animal the cerebellum is more overlapped by the cerebrum (or main
brain) than it is later in life; and Dr. Major believes that the _Lemuridæ_
are highly specialised members of the Sub-order, developed from ancient
types which were not unlike the American Monkeys of the family _Cebidæ_.

The Typical Lemurs are arranged in the following four sub-divisions: The
Pottos and Slow-paced Lemurs (_Lorisinæ_); the Galagos and Mouse-Lemurs
(_Galaginæ_); the True Lemurs (_Lemurinæ_); and the Endrinas (_Indrisinæ_).



{24}THE SLOW-LEMURS. SUB-FAMILY I. LORISINÆ.


This Sub-family has been constituted to receive a small number of Lemurs,
which, although occupying limited areas in two widely separated
continents--one genus being African and the others Asiatic--present certain
characters in common. They are recognised by having soft woolly fur, a
triangular head and pointed face, very large and staring eyes, set close
together, while their ears are naked along their margin. Their fore- and
hind-limbs are nearly equal. In the Asiatic genera the index finger is very
small, while in the African it is quite rudimentary and nail-less. In both
groups the thumb diverges widely from the other fingers, and the great toe
is directed backwards, but the ankle-bones of the foot are not elongated.
The tail is either so short as to be quite concealed in the fur, or is less
than one-third of the length of the body.

[Illustration: Fig. 6. Front Teeth of Perodicticus, Nycticebus and Loris,
after Mivart (P. Z. S., 1864, p. 631).]

In the skull the squamosal region with the outer and posterior portion of
the ear capsules (the periotic) are inflated. The dental formula of the
Slow-Lemurs is the same as given above for the family generally. In the
upper jaw, the two incisors are usually equal, but, if unequal, the inner
incisor is always the larger (Fig. 6); the vertically long canine, which is
separated by a gap from the anterior pre-molar, presents both in front and
behind a neck or cingulum, which is cusped behind; the pre-molars are
canine-like, and have the cingulum produced behind into a heel (or talon).
The anterior of the three is {25}vertically longer than the median, while
both the median and posterior have, to the outside, one main cusp with a
minute one on each side of it, and two inner cusps; the molars are all
cingulate, and have to the outside two main cusps (separated by a minute
cusp) and two inner cusps, the outer and inner cusps alternating. Of the
anterior and median molars, the two main outside cusps are sub-equal, and
are flanked on each side by a minute cusp; the posterior molar is short and
wide, and has only one minute cusp in front of its anterior main cusp. Of
the lower jaw, the pre-molars are canine-like, the anterior being
vertically long and having a posterior heel; the posterior pre-molar, which
differs in size from the anterior, presents two main cusps to the outside
and one minute cusp in front; the molars, both anterior and median, are
four-cusped, with a minute cusp in front, the posterior being five-cusped,
while all have their front cusps vertically taller than the hind ones.

Among the _Lorisinæ_ the dorsal and lumbar vertebræ together number from
twenty-one to twenty-three. The cæcum, at the junction of the larger and
smaller intestine, is long. The main artery of the fore- and hind-limbs
breaks up into a _rete mirabile_ of numerous small parallel branches.

The Slow-Lemurs are distributed in the western parts of the African
continent, and in the Indian, Malayan and Indo-Chinese portions of the
Oriental region. It is a remarkable fact that this group should be confined
to one portion of Africa and be entirely absent from Madagascar, the
country where the Lemurs form so characteristic a feature in the fauna.

The _Lorisinæ_ embrace three genera, the Pottos (_Perodicticus_) from the
African continent; the Slender Loris (_Loris_), and the Slow-Loris
(_Nycticebus_), both of which inhabit the Oriental region.


{26}THE POTTOS. GENUS PERODICTICUS.

  _Perodicticus_, Bennett, P. Z. S., 1839, p. 109; Huxley, P. Z. S., 1864,
  p. 235.

  _Arctocebus_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 150; Mivart, P.Z.S., 1864, p. 644.

This genus contains two species, both confined to the West Coast of Africa.
The Pottos are slender-bodied animals, with oval heads and blunt Dog-shaped
muzzles. Their eyes are large and full, and their external ears erect, with
shelf-like lamellæ inside. They have slender and sub-equal limbs. The
second digit of the fore-limb is rudimentary and nail-less; it is supported
on one wrist-bone, and has two phalanges or finger-bones. The great toe is
opposable, and the fourth and fifth digits of both limbs are united
together by membrane as far as the first joint. The processes of the
vertebræ in the neck and back are long and protruding. The tail is very
short.

The pre-maxillæ (which carry the incisor teeth) do not project in front,
nor does the bony palate extend farther back than the end of the posterior
molar teeth. Of the upper teeth the incisors are equal in size (Fig. 6);
the median and posterior pre-molars have on their crowns three cusps, of
which the two outer are the larger; the anterior and median molars are
cingulate, have four-cusped crowns, and are larger than the pre-molars; the
posterior is narrow from before backwards, and its crown presents only two
or three cusps. Of the lower teeth, the anterior pre-molar is recurved and
larger than the canine, with a ridge on its inner face and a cusped heel
behind; the median and posterior ones are shorter than their anterior
fellow, each having a strong posterior cusped heel; the anterior and median
{27}molars have their crowns four-cusped and are nearly equal in length;
the crown of the posterior molar is 4-5-cusped, and has a ridge joining its
anterior heel to its front outer cusp. Transverse and oblique ridges are
well marked on the crowns of both the upper and lower cheek-teeth.


I. THE CALABAR POTTO. PERODICTICUS CALABARENSIS.

  _Perodicticus calabarensis_, Smith, Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc., Edinb., 1860,
  p. 172, figs. 1, 2.

  _Arctocebus calabarensis_, J. E. Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 150; Huxley, P.
  Z. S., p. 314, pl. 28 (1864).

  _Nycticebus calabarensis_, Schlegel, Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 287 (1876).

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Hand and Foot of _P. calabarensis_ (after Huxley, P.
Z. S., 1864, p. 319).]

CHARACTERS.--Hair long, wool-like; face, hands, and feet thinly haired.
Head 2½ inches long, tapering in front; muzzle prominent and blunt; ears
large, pointed, and projecting above the level of the head, with short
hairs, two lamellæ inside, and marginal tufts; neck short; hind-limbs
slightly larger and {28}longer than the fore-limbs; hands smaller than the
feet; thumb thick, with a tubercle at base; the wrist-bone of the very
rudimentary index-finger supporting two rudimentary finger-bones; third
finger not parallel to fourth and fifth; the fourth longest (Fig. 7). Great
toe with a tubercle at its base, opposable. Tail ¼ inch long, hidden in the
fur of the body.

Fur grey at base of hairs, fawn-coloured farther up, and tipped with dark
brown, uniform over the body and limbs; face darker; sides of head lighter;
line from brow down the nose white. No vibrissæ on face and no eyebrows;
chin, throat, inner surface of limbs, and under side of body,
greyish-white.

Posterior upper molar nearly equal to posterior pre-molar, with the hind
inner cusp of the crown rudimentary. Lower incisors not visible beyond the
lip, cingulate; posterior molar five-cusped and relatively larger than in
the next species (_P. potto_). Bony palate with large perforations behind
the incisors. Intestines, 40 inches long; cæcum, 2½ inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--The "Angwantibo," as this species is called, is known only
from Old Calabar, on the west coast of Africa.


II. BOSMAN'S POTTO, PERODICTICUS POTTO.

  _Potto_, Bosman, Beschrijving van de Guinese Goudkust, ii., p. 32, fig. 4
  (1704).

  _Nycticebus potto_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 165 (1812); Schlegel,
  Mus. Pays Bas vii., p. 287 (1876).

  _Perodicticus geoffroyi_, Bennett, P. Z. S., 1830, p. 109.

  _Perodicticus potto_, V. der Hoeven, Tijdschr. v. Natuurl. Gesch., xi.,
  p. 41 (1844); Wagner, in Schreber's Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 183 (1855).

  _Stenops potto_, Pel, Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 1852, p. 41.

CHARACTERS.--More common than the Angwantibo and {29}distinguished from it
by its rounder, shorter, and wider head, less produced muzzle, smaller
mouth, and eyes farther apart; ears shorter, rounder, and directed more
backwards, with one lamella on the inner surface. Hands longer, flat and
thin; index-finger not so reduced as in _P. calabarensis_. Tail very short,
little more than an inch long, but visible beyond the fur. Length of body,
8 inches.

Upper pre-molars less canine-like than in the preceding species; posterior
upper molar differing in size from and set farther out than the others,
short and wide, with the crown elliptical and only two-cusped, the two
hind-cusps wanting. Lower incisors more prominent and projecting than in
_P. calabarensis_; crown of posterior lower molar four-cusped.

ADULT.--Upper surface rich reddish-brown with a black dorsal stripe
widening opposite the shoulders, and fading out towards the tail; under
side yellowish or reddish-white. Hair on face shorter and paler, with a
dark ring round the eyes.

YOUNG.--Reddish-brown all over, redder on the back of the head and neck,
darker on the shoulders; creamy-white, washed with rufous, beneath.

Fur silver-grey at the base of the hairs, with reddish-brown tips in
younger, and dark golden-brown in older, individuals.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Potto is one of the oldest known members of the Lemuroid
group, having been described in 1704 by Bosman, who met with it on his
voyage to Guinea. It was, however, lost sight of until 1825, when it was
rediscovered in Sierra Leone and fully described by Bennett in 1830. It is
known also from Gaboon.

HABITS.--Both species of Potto are nocturnal and arboreal, and are
exceedingly slow in their movements. In catching {30}insects or flies,
which form part of their food, they proceed with extraordinary
deliberation, never quickening their movements, and yet rarely, if ever,
missing their prey.

Bosman in his description of the Gold Coast of Guinea, gives a woodcut of
the Potto, which, he says, is a "Draught of a Creature, by the _Negroes_
called _Potto_, but known to us by the Name of Sluggard, doubtless from its
lazy, sluggish Nature; a whole day being little enough for it to advance
ten Steps forward.

"Some Writers affirm, that when this Creature has climbed upon a Tree, he
doth not leave it until he hath eaten up not only the Fruit, but the leaves
intirely; and then descends fat and in very good case in order to get up
into another Tree; but before his slow pace can compass this, he becomes as
poor and lean as 'tis possible to imagine: And if the trees be high, or the
way anything distant, and he meets with nothing on his journey, he
inevitably dies of Hunger, betwixt one tree and the other. Thus 'tis
represented by others, but I will not undertake for the Truth of it; though
the _Negroes_ are apt to believe something like it.

"This is such a horrible ugly Creature that I don't believe anything
besides so very disagreeable is to be found on the whole Earth; the Print
is a very lively Description of it: Its Fore-feet are very like Hands, the
Head strangely disproportionately large; that from whence this Print was
taken was of a pale Mouse colour: but it was then very young, and his Skin
yet smooth, but when old, as I saw one at _Elmina_ in the year 1699, 'tis
red and covered with a sort of Hair as thick set as Flocks of Wool. I know
nothing more of this Animal, than that 'tis impossible to look on him
without Horrour, and that he hath nothing very particular but his odious
Ugliness."


{31}THE SLENDER LORIS. GENUS LORIS.

  _Loris_, Geoffr., Mag. Encycl., Ann. 2, i., p. 48 (1796).

  _Stenops_, Illiger, Prodr., p. 73 (1811).

As this genus contains only a solitary species, its characters are
necessarily those of the species.


I. THE SLENDER LORIS. LORIS GRACILIS.

  _Loris gracilis_, Geoffr., Magas. Encycl. Ann. 4, i., p. 48 (1796); id.
  Catal., p. 37, no. 1 (1803); id. Ann. Mus., xix., p. 163 (1812); Is.
  Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 79 (1851); Blyth, Cat. Mamm. As. Soc.,
  p. 19 (1863); Anderson, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus., p. 97 (1881); Blanf., Faun.
  Brit. Ind. Mamm., p. 47 (1888).

  _Nycticebus gracilis_, Fischer, Syn. Mamm., p. 70 (1829); Schl., Mus.
  Pays Bas, vii., p. 284 (1876).

  _Stenops tardigradus_, Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm., p. 73 (1811, pt.).

  _Stenops gracilis_, Van der Hoeven, Tijdschr., Nat. Ges., xi., p. 39
  (1844); Kelaart, Prod. Fauna Zeyl., p. 9 (1852).

CHARACTERS.--A slender-bodied animal covered with close, soft, and woolly
fur. Head short and round; eyes very large; nose narrow and much pointed;
ears small and haired externally; tips nude. Limbs long, remarkably slender
and angularly bent; hands and feet covered with short hair; index-finger
with three phalanges and finger-bones.

Skull with eye-sockets closely approximating, in the centre separated only
by a thin plate of bone; nasal and premaxillary bones prolonged forward to
support the narrow pointed nose; cranium, along its base to end of nasal
bones, two inches long, broader across the orbits than behind in front of
the articulation of lower jaw; bony palate extending back beyond the
{32}posterior molar tooth. In the upper jaw the incisors are small and
equal (Fig. 6); posterior pre-molar similar to, but smaller than the
anterior molar; anterior molar with the oblique ridge on crown well
developed; crown of posterior molar four-cusped, that of the posterior
lower molar five-cusped. Dorsal and lumbar vertebræ together, 23; caudal
vertebræ, 6-8.

The alimentary canal is four times the length of the body.

ADULT.--Dingy grey above, darker on back, paler on lower back; the hairs
tipped with white. Sides of body, outside of fore- and hind-limbs dingy
white, with a faint rufous wash on the outside of the hind-limbs. Face and
ring round eyes dark greyish-brown; streak along nose white, branching on
forehead above the eyes on each side into a broad ring encircling the dark
ocular ring; this frontal branch sometimes absent. Under side
greyish-white. Hairs of fur greyish-white at base, dark in the middle, and
tipped with white. Length, 8 inches.

YOUNG.--More rust-coloured than the adult.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Slender Loris is common in the lower forests of Ceylon
and of Southern India, south of the Godaveri river, as well as in those of
the Eastern Ghats.

HABITS.--This curious, emaciated-looking, little creature is nocturnal,
living entirely in trees. It sleeps during the day rolled up in a ball,
with its head between its legs, grasping its perch with its hands.
According to Jerdon these animals are occasionally brought in large numbers
to the Madras market, their eyes being a favourite remedy of the Tamil
doctors for ophthalmic diseases.

In its movements it is slightly more active than the Slow-Loris. Its food
consists of succulent leaves, honey, insects, birds' eggs, and small
animals.

PLATE III.

[Illustration: THE JAVAN SLOW-LORIS.]



{33}THE SLOW-LORIS. GENUS NYCTICEBUS.

  _Nycticebus_, Geoffr., Ann. du Mus., xix., p. 162 (1812).

  _Stenops_ (nec Illiger), Van der Hoeven, Tijdsch. Nat. Ges., xi., p. 39
  (1844).

  _Bradycebus_, Cuv. et Geoffr., Mém. Class. Mamm. (1795).

This genus, like the last, is represented by a single species, and its
characters, therefore, are detailed below.


I. THE JAVAN SLOW-LORIS. NYCTICEBUS TARDIGRADUS.

  _Lemur tardigradus_, Linn., S. N., i., p. 44 (1766, pt.).

  _Nycticebus bengalensis_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 164 (1812).

  _Nycticebus javanicus_, Geoffr., t. c. p. 164 (1812); id. Cat. Primates,
  p. 78 (1851); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 286 (1876).

  _Nycticebus tardigradus_, Fischer, Syn. Mamm., p. 71, no. 2 (1829); Is.
  Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 78 (1851); Blyth, Cat. Mam. As. Soc., p.
  18 (1863); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 285 (1876); Anderson, Cat.
  Mamm. Ind. Mus., p. 94 (1881); Blanf., Faun. Brit. Ind. Mamm., p. 44
  (1888).

  _Stenops tardigradus_, Van der Hoeven, Tijdschr. Nat. Ges., xi., p. 39
  (1844); Wagner in Schreb., Säug. Suppl., v., p. 151 (1855).

  _Stenops javanicus_, Van der Hoeven, _op. cit._, p. 40 (1844); Wagner,
  _op. cit._, p. 152 (1855).

  _Nycticebus cinereus_, Milne-Edw., Ann. Mus., vii., p. 161 (1867); id. N.
  Arch. Mus., iii., p. 9, pl. 3 (1867); Anderson, Rep. Zool., Yun-nan, p.
  103 (1879); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 286 (1876).

  _Lemur menagensis_, Nachtrieb, Zool. Anz., xv., p. 147 (1892).

  (_Plate III._)

CHARACTERS.--Body larger and fuller than in _Loris_, and covered {34}with
close and woolly fur. Head short and round. Eyes large, set close together,
and having a gentle expression; face short and flat; muzzle less projecting
than in _Loris_; ears small, rounded, hairy, and nearly buried in the fur;
neck short; tail invisible externally. Limbs short; index-finger small,
containing three bones; toes remaining spontaneously contracted after
death. Top of skull with prominent crests, globular behind; facial bones
conspicuously projecting in front; orbits large, their inner margins
separated from each other by a narrow flat space. Pre-maxillæ not produced
far in front; hind border of bony palate not extending backwards beyond the
median molar. Of the upper teeth, the inner incisor larger than the outer,
one often absent on each side; canine vertically very long, with a gap
between it and the anterior pre-molar; anterior pre-molar elongate, the
posterior differing considerably from the anterior molar, and having a
short cusped heel behind; posterior molar with a three-cusped crown. Teeth
of lower jaw agreeing with those in the diagnosis of the family (_suprà_,
p. 24). Vertebræ in dorsal and lumbar regions together 23 or 24. The long
flexor muscle of the thumb, so characteristic of the Anthropoid Apes, is
present in _Nycticebus_. The interlacement of the tendons of the muscles of
its foot (according to Huxley and Murie) closely resembles the arrangement
in the higher Primates. The long flexor muscle of the toes (_flexor longus
digitorum_) is very large, and has one important origin on the lower end
(internal condyle) of the thigh-bone correlated with the powerful grasp of
its hind-limbs. The female bears one young at a birth.

Above, ashy-grey, rather paler below; more or less silvery on the back,
often rufescent on the rump, with the hairs dark ashy at the roots; dorsal
stripe from crown to loins chestnut {35}brown; circle round the eyes dark
brown; a white line down the nose between the eyes; oral patch, including
the ears, brown.

The Slow-Loris varies greatly in size and colour in the different regions
it inhabits, and its varieties have been recognised by many naturalists as
distinct species.

Every shade of colour occurs among specimens from different habitats. The
colour varies between rufescent grey, or greyish-rufous, or white (with a
brown tinge showing through from below) and silvery grey. The dorsal stripe
varies from rufous to dull grey or even black, expanding out, or not, on
the crown of the head, arms, and cheeks, bifurcating to the orbital rings
and ear-patches, or to one or other only. Sometimes the dorsal stripe and
face-markings are wanting altogether. Under side varying from pale
rufescent grey to light rufous or dull grey. Length of head and body
varying from 12¾ to 16 inches.

"It is an interesting fact," observes St. George Mivart, "that as far as
concerns the skull and dentition, the Asiatic _Nycticebus_ far more
resembles the African _Perodicticus_ than it does its Oriental neighbour
_Loris_."

DISTRIBUTION.--The Slow-Loris has a comparatively wide and interrupted
range. It is common in the dense mountain forests of Assam and Burma (where
it has received the distinctive appellation of _N. bengalensis_), as well
as in Tenasserim and the Malayan Peninsula. It has also been obtained in
Siam and Cochin-China, whence it has been described as a distinct species
(_N. cinereus_), from its silvery-grey fur; while it also occurs--somewhat
reduced in size--and often (but not invariably) without the upper incisor
teeth--in the islands of Sumatra, Java, and Borneo with its surrounding
islet groups, {36}as well as in the Philippine Islands. The form from the
last-named localities (figured on Plate III.) has generally been recognised
as _N. javanicus_; but, from a careful examination of the material in the
British Museum, it appears to the present writer that the specimens from
all these localities merge so insensibly into each other that it is
impossible to separate them into distinct species. The Slow-Loris, though
occurring on the north-eastern frontier of India, has not yet been
discovered in the Himalayas.

HABITS.--Like the Slender Loris, the Slow-Loris is arboreal and nocturnal,
hardly differing in its food and general habits from the latter. It lives
alone or in pairs, and moves about very slowly, with its head curiously
drawn up close to its body, with the latter arched and its limbs very
angularly disposed. Colonel Tickell has observed it, however, to raise
itself on its hind-legs and throw itself upon an insect. It is generally
silent, but can utter a low growl when angry. In captivity it becomes
docile, but is never very long-lived. Tickell records that "it never by
choice leaves the trees.... It climbs readily and grasps with great
tenacity. If placed on the ground, it proceeds, if frightened, in a
wavering kind of trot, the limbs placed at right angles. It sleeps rolled
up in a ball, its head and hands buried between its thighs, and wakes up in
the dusk of the evening to commence its nocturnal rambles." Another
observer records: "When he climbs he first lays hold of the branch with one
of his hands and then with the other. When he has obtained a firm hold with
both hands, he moves one of his hind-paws, and after firmly grasping the
branch with it, he moves the other. He never quits his hold with his
hind-paws until he has obtained a secure grasp with his hands." The
remarkable tenacity of grasp in its feet is largely due to the
{37}automatic action of the flexor muscles of the toes (the digits
continuing flexed even after death), and the mere extension of the leg
largely contributes to the "effortless suspension of the body" (_Murie_),
as in the Fruit-Bats and other species which hang passively by their
hind-limbs. (_Huxley._)

Dr. Coghlan, speaking of the Chinese race (_N. cinereus_), says: "They make
a curious chattering noise when angry, and when pleased at night they utter
a short though tuneful whistle of one unvaried note; this whistle is
thought by Chinese sailors, who take them to sea, to denote the coming of
wind.... Their intelligence seems to be much below that of the Monkey....
The Slow-Loris, when newly-born, is about four inches long, and covered
with fur; it holds on by its four hands to the mother's fur, and in that
attitude sucks the milk from its parent's breast."



THE GALAGOS. SUB-FAMILY II. GALAGINÆ.


The Lemurs comprised in the present Sub-family are divisible into two
groups--those inhabiting the mainland of Africa and those confined to the
island of Madagascar. The exclusively African species, the True Galagos,
constitute the single genus _Galago_; while the Malagasy group is
represented by three genera, the so-called Fat-tailed Lemurs (_Opolemur_),
the Dwarf-Lemurs (_Microcebus_), and the Mouse-Lemurs (_Chirogale_). The
members of this Sub-family vary considerably in size, and are all covered
with soft woolly fur. Their ears especially are largely developed, being
more or less membranaceous and naked, and their sense of hearing very
acute. The eyes are large and the tail always elongated. In the skull the
length of the muzzle is less that the greatest longitudinal diameter of the
orbit (except in the genus _Galago_). {38}Their teeth number 36--18 above
and 18 below--as in the bulk of the _Lemuridæ_; the upper molars present on
their crown an oblique ridge from the outer hind cusp to the inner front
cusp. The ankle region (_tarsus_) of the hind-limb is much elongated,
through the lengthening of two of its bones (the _calcaneum_ and
_naviculare_): this feature occurring to a greater extent among the African
than among the Malagasy species. The mammæ are four in number, two on the
breast and two on the abdomen.

Many of the species hibernate during the dry winter season, and to enable
them to survive, they accumulate during the summer months a thick deposit
of fat over their bodies, more especially at the root of the tail, a fact
first conspicuously observed in the Opolemurids. This fat is absorbed for
their sustenance during their prolonged torpidity.


THE AFRICAN GALAGOS. GENUS GALAGO.

  _Galago_, Geoffr., Mag. Encycl., Ann. 2, i., p. 49 (1796).

The African Galagos are generally larger in size than the Madagascar
members of the group, and have the snout produced beyond the lower jaw.
Their ears are large, membranaceous, and have a very mobile contractile
hinder edge, the animal having the power of folding them up at will. The
eyes are also large and approximated; the fingers and toes very long and
slender, and the tail thick and bushy.

The skull presents a high, broad, and round brain-case, with a relatively
short facial region. The pre-maxillary bones are very much reduced, so that
the muzzle, measured from the anterior margin of the orbit forward, is
shorter than the longitudinal diameter of the orbits. The bony palate is
also relatively short. Compared with those of the Madagascar genera {39}the
orbits are, according to Dr. Forsyth Major, much broader vertically and
horizontally in the genus _Galago_. The squamosal region of the skull and
the outer portion of the ear-capsules (the periotic) are large and
inflated. The mandible (or lower jaw) has its lower hind edge, or angle,
produced backward.

The dentition of the Galagos presents several important characters. In
respect to their upper teeth, the incisors are small, equal, and have a
hind cusp on the cingulum. A distinct gap exists between the canine and the
pre-molar teeth. Of the pre-molars, the anterior one is canine-like, and is
equally distant from the canine and its own next neighbour. To the outside
it has one main cusp, and generally one minute supplementary cusp on each
side. The median pre-molar shows three cusps, and one strong inner front
cusp. The posterior pre-molar is always molar-like. It has one front
supplementary and two main cusps to the outside; and one front and one
supplementary hind cusp to the inside: it has also on the crown the oblique
ridge spoken of above.

The molars have a deep concavity on their hind border, due to the
development of the cingulum on the inner half only of that border of the
tooth; to the outside they present two main cusps (and often supplementary
minute fore and hind cusps); while to the inside they present two cusps,
and also an intermediate cusp in front between the two fore cusps; the
oblique ridge is also here present; the hindmost molar is three-cusped. The
five hind molars are, therefore, nearly equal in size. In the lower jaw the
pre-molars are complicated. The anterior and median are canine-like and
procumbent, with a cusped heel behind; the posterior is distinguished from
a molar only by the lesser size of its fore-part. The molars are also
complicated; the anterior and median are equal in size {40}and
four-cusped--the two front cusps (united by a ridge) are taller than the
two hind ones, and there is a minute cusp between the two hind cusps. The
posterior molar, though smaller than the others, is five-cusped. The
oblique ridge is not present in the lower molars.

The brain of the Galagos is narrower and shallower than that in the
_Lemurinæ_.

The female gives birth to two or three young at a time.

According to Dr. Forsyth Major, who has made the Lemuroidea a special
study, the smaller African Galagos have departed less from the primitive
Lemuroid type than the Madagascar genera, in which greater specialisation
has taken place.

The members of the genus _Galago_ are widely distributed on the African
continent, but are unknown in Madagascar. They range throughout the dense
forest regions, from Abyssinia in the north-east, to Senegambia in the
west, and southward as far as Natal and Mozambique.

Almost all the Galagos are nocturnal. They are chiefly arboreal, and when
they descend to the ground they advance by hops on their long hind-limbs.
They feed chiefly on fruits, insects, birds, and birds' eggs.


I. GARNETT'S GALAGO. GALAGO GARNETTI.

  _Otolicnus garnettii_, Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1838, p. 6.

  _Otolemur agisymbianus_, Coquerel, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1859, p. 457.

  _Otogale garnettii_, J. E. Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 140.

  _Galago garnettii_, Sclater, P. Z. S., 1864, p. 711, pl. xi. Schlegel,
  Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 429 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Head round; snout elongate, protruding over {41}the lower jaw;
ears very long, wide and rounded; eyes large and approximated. Toes and
fingers not united by a membrane. Posterior upper molar with its fourth
cusp little developed; the posterior lower molar four-cusped.

Fur woolly, the basal part of the hair Mouse-grey, the tips dull
yellowish-white. Ears greyish-black; face from the middle of crown along
the nose and round the eyes greyish-white. Top of head and neck dark
pepper-grey; rest of upper side yellowish-grey, with longer black hairs
distributed over the body; outside of arms and legs washed faintly with
faded rufous. Under side and inner side of arms and legs greyish-white.
Tail brownish-red at base, darker at tip. Length, 8 inches; tail, 8¾
inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--East coast of Africa.

HABITS.--Garnett's Galago is essentially nocturnal in its habits, feeding
on fruits. According to Mr. Bartlett, it exhibited in confinement no fear
of Cats or Dogs, and was very sprightly and tricky. It kills all it can
pounce upon and overpower. On the ground it jumps upright, like a Kangaroo,
on its hind-limbs, without using its fore feet, covering several feet at a
spring.


II. THE SENEGAL GALAGO. GALAGO SENEGALENSIS.

  _Galago du Sénégal_, Geoffr., Mag. Encycl. Ann. 4^e, p. 1 (1796).

  _Galago senegalensis_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 166 (1812); Is.
  Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 81 (1851); Schlegel, Mus. Pays Bas,
  vii., p. 329 (1876).

  _Galagoides senegalensis_, Smith, S. Afr. Q. Journ., ii., pt. 1, p. 32
  (1833).

  _Galago moholi_, Smith, Ill. Zool. S. Afr. Mamm., pls. 8, 8 _bis_ (1839);
  Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 147.

  {42}_Otolicnus galago_, Wagner in Schreber's Säug. Suppl., i., p. 292
  (1840); Van der Hoeven, Tijdschr. Nat. Ges., xi., p. 41 (1844).

  _Otolicnus senegalensis_, Peters, Reis Mozamb. Säug., p. 11 (1852).

  _Galago senaariensis_, J. E. Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 147, Mivart, P. Z.
  S., 1864, p. 647.

  _Galago (Otolicnus) moholi_, Mivart, P. Z. S., 1864, p. 647.

CHARACTERS.--Body slender; head broad and sub-globular; nose high and
pointed; ears large, bare, and with narrow rounded tips; hind-limbs longer
than the fore-; tail with longer hair at tip. Fur very thick and soft on
body and tail. Upper side pinkish-grey, or faded white with a slight wash
of pink; back, sides of body, and outer surface of limbs pearly to
yellowish-white; sometimes a dark ring round the eyes; a streak down the
nose white or yellowish-white; ears flesh-coloured, sprinkled with pure
white down; head, face, whole of under sides and inner sides of limbs
white, yellowish, or whitish-buff; tail yellowish or reddish brown, darker
at tip, lighter beneath; upper surface of hands and feet white, washed with
yellow. Length of body, 7-8½ inches; tail of about the same length. The
male and female are of the same size and of the same colour, but the male
is somewhat more washed with yellow. Muzzle shorter than the diameter of
the eye-socket; the bony palate not extending past the hinder end of the
median molar. Anterior and median upper molars slightly larger than the
posterior pre-molar; the latter as well as the two anterior molars with a
small cusp between the two front cusps.

DISTRIBUTION.--This beautiful little Lemur was first recorded from Senegal,
in West Africa. It occurs, however, from about 25° S. lat. in South Africa
northwards to Tete on the Zambesi, through the mountainous regions of East
Africa, on the shores of Lake Nyasa, to as far north as Senaar.

PLATE IV.

[Illustration: ALLEN'S GALAGO.]


{43}HABITS.--The Senegal Galago is nocturnal and arboreal, occurring in the
forests singly or in pairs. It makes a nest of leaves in the fork of a
tree, and during its diurnal rest it either retreats thither, or composes
itself on a branch, unwilling to move, and staring at passers-by, with its
tail invariably folded across its body and round its neck. After sunset,
these Galagos become lively, and in their movements they evince great
activity; they spring from branch to branch, and even from tree to tree,
with extraordinary facility (as both Sir Andrew Smith and Sir John Kirk
have recorded), often clearing at single leaps distances of six feet. When
seen in the dim light they may easily be taken for Bats. "They always seize
with one of their fore feet the branch upon which they intend to rest. In
their manners they manifest considerable resemblance to Monkeys,
particularly in their propensity to the practice of ridiculous grimaces."
(_Sir A. Smith._) In this habit they resemble also some species of the
genus Lemur. Their food consists chiefly of fruits and of insects. The
female produces generally two young at a birth.


III. ALLEN'S GALAGO. GALAGO ALLENI.

  _Galago allenii_, Waterh., P. Z. S., 1837, p. 87; Sclater, P. Z. S.,
  1863, p. 375, pl. xxxii.

  _Galago allenii_, var. _gabonensis_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 146.

  _Galago gabonensis_, Mivart, P. Z. S., 1864, p. 630.

  _Galago (Otolicnus) allenii_, Mivart, P. Z. S., 1864, p. 647.

  _Otogale pallida_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 140, pl. xix.

  _Otolicnus apicalis_, du Chaillu, Equat. Africa, App., p. 471.

  _Galago elegantulus_, Slack, Proc. Ac. Sc. Phil., 1861, p. 153.

  (_Plate IV._)

{44}CHARACTERS.--Head round; muzzle pointed; eyes very large; ears also
very large, long, nude, and membranaceous; fingers and toes very long,
slender, and fine. Tail thick, round, and longer than the body; ankle-bones
elongated. Length of body, 8¼ inches; tail, 10 inches. Head brownish-grey;
a narrow black ring round the eyes; a streak from the forehead down the
nose whitish; back greyish-brown, washed (sometimes markedly) with rufous
on the upper back, fading out towards the root of the tail; the latter
black or greyish-black. Outside of arms and legs washed with rufous,
sometimes with a white spot on the shoulder-joint and over the groin;
posterior aspect of legs sooty-black; cheeks, sides of nose, entire under
surface, and inner side of limbs creamy-white with a rufous-washed bar
across the chest. Muzzle shorter than the diameter of eye-socket. Incisors
seen from the side, more or less hidden by the canines; anterior upper
pre-molar very canine-like, relatively much produced longitudinally, with
an interval between the anterior and median pre-molars; posterior upper
pre-molar four-cusped, and with an intermediate cusp on the oblique ridge;
posterior upper molar almost equal in size to the median one.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species has been recorded from the Gaboon, in West
Africa, and from Fernando Po, whence it was first obtained by Captain
Allen, R.N., in 1837.

HABITS.--Although little or nothing has been recorded of its habits, it is
unlikely that they differ much from those of the species already known.


IV. DEMIDOFF'S GALAGO. GALAGO DEMIDOFFI.

  _Galago demidoffi_, Fischer, Act. Soc. des Nat. Mosc., i., p. 24, f. 1
  (1806); Peters, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 380, pl. xxxv.; Mivart, P. Z. S.,
  1864, p. 648.

  {45}_Otolicnus peli_, Temm., Esquis. Zool. Mamm., p. 42 (1853).

  _Otolicnus demidoffi_, Wagner in Schreb., Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 160
  (1855).

  _Hemigalago demidoffi_, Dahlb., Stud. Zool., p. 230 (1856).

  _Galago murinus_, Murray, Edinb. Phil. Journ. (n.s.), x., pp. 243-251,
  pl. 11 (1859).

CHARACTERS.--Head round; body short and thick; snout very narrow; long
bristles on the face, corners of the eyes, and sides of the nose; ears
long, oval, membranaceous, transparent, the inner margin haired; eyes large
and projecting; nose elongated in front, and projecting above the upper
lip; fingers slender; wrist, ankle, hands and feet short-haired; digits
naked; tail longer than body, round and slender. Length, 5 inches; tail, 8
inches.

Basal part of hair Mouse-grey. Upper side reddish-brown, more rufous down
the back, and on the tail, except its distal half, which is darker. Top of
head and sides of face darker; a narrow white streak from the brow down the
nose; ring round the eyes dark, wider on the inner side; chin, throat,
inner side of limbs, and under surface of body creamy-white. In the young,
which remains blind for several days after birth, the white nose-streak is
less defined, and the fur is shorter and lighter than that of the parents.

Orbits approximating; front bones of jaw (the pre-maxillæ) projecting
beyond the incisors; upper median pre-molar teeth with enlarged heel, and
with one or two diminutive cusps; upper molars with a small cusp on the
oblique ridge; wrist-bones elongated.

DISTRIBUTION.--Demidoff's Galago occurs in Senegal, in West Africa, and has
been obtained in Central Africa in the {46}Niam-Niam country by Dr.
Schweinfurth, and in the Monbuttu country by the late Emin Pasha.

HABITS.--Writing of Demidoff's Galago in a letter from Africa addressed to
Mr. A. Murray, Mr. Thomson says: "It was a most interesting and amusing
pet, not only quite tame, but manifesting strong attachment. It was a very
epitome of zoology, of the size and colour of a large Rat; it had the tail
of a Squirrel, the facial outline of the Fox, the membranous ears of the
Bat, the eyes and somewhat of the manners of the Owl in its cool odd way of
peering at objects, the long slender fingers of a lean old man who
habitually eats down his nails, and all the mirthfulness and agility of a
diminutive Monkey. It hated its cage at night, but delighted to leap among
the bars of the chairs ranged purposely round the table for it. It could
clear a horizontal distance of at least six feet at a bound.... It
possessed a curious power of folding its membranous ears back upon
themselves and somewhat corrugating them at pleasure; and it appeared to me
that the palms of its hands and feet were endowed in some degree with the
power of suction.... I have seen it maintain itself in positions where the
mere lateral pressure of its limbs appeared to be inadequate for the
purpose.... I never saw it muster courage enough to attack either a
Grasshopper or a Mantis."...


V. MONTEIRO'S GALAGO. GALAGO MONTEIRI.

  _Galago monteiri_, Bartlett, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 231, pl. xxviii.

  _Callotus monteiri_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 145.

CHARACTERS.--Fur Mouse-grey at base, with white tips; pupils of eyes oval
and vertical; ears very large and naked; hairs on face and cheeks short;
feet broad, short, and strong; toes {47}broad, with rounded discs; thumb
very broad; tail very long. Entirely pale grey over the head, face, cheeks,
body, and tail; throat nearly white; hands and feet dark brown, nearly
black; nose black; ears nearly black. One of the largest species of the
Sub-family. Length, 12 inches; tail, 16 inches long.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species was discovered by Mr. Monteiro in Cuio Bay on
the West Coast of Africa, to the south of Loanda; and the late Captain
Cameron, R.N., brought a few specimens home with him from Bailunda, on his
return from his celebrated march across the Continent.

HABITS.--Little is known of this species from observation in the field. A
few specimens have reached Europe, and on one that lived in the Zoological
Gardens in London, Mr. Bartlett made the following observation: "The animal
has the power of turning its ears back by the complex muscles of their
external aspect, and folding them up when at rest. When moving about or in
search of food they spread out and stand upward and forward, reminding one
of those of the Aye-Aye; but when folded back and down, the animal's face
bears a strong resemblance to the Douroucouli (_Nyctipithecus_)."


VI. THE GREAT GALAGO. GALAGO CRASSICAUDATA.

  _Galago crassicaudatus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 166 (1812).

  _Otolicnus crassicaudatus_, Peters, Reis, Mossamb. Saügeth., t. 2, t. 4,
  figs. 1-5.

  _Otogale crassicaudata_, var. kirkii, Gray, P. Z. S., 1864, p. 456.

  _? Galago lasiotis_, Peters, S. B. Ges., Nat. Fr. Berl., 1892, p. 224.

CHARACTERS.--Hair long and woolly. Head round; muzzle more elongated than
in other Galagos; nose-pad with a deep {48}furrow; eyes large; ears large,
the upper half membranaceous and nude; tail long, thick and bushy; fourth
digit of hand and foot longest; fingers and toes not united by a membrane,
but with flat disc-like terminations.

Hair Mouse-grey at base, silver-grey at tips; the hair on the belly white
tipped, sometimes entirely white; hairs on back longer and with black tips.
General colour yellowish-brown, with a lighter band from the forehead along
the centre of the nose and round the eye-circles, which are darker. Iris
reddish-brown. Top of head rusty-brown; back grey; sides of body, cheeks,
and outer side of limbs grey, faintly washed with rusty-red; whole under
side grey or yellowish-white. Tail ferruginous; hands and feet deep
rufous-brown; short hairs of digits blackish-brown. Length, 13 inches;
tail, 16 inches. The female has the pelage similar to that of the male.

The coast form, which has been described as Kirk's Galago (_G. kirkii_), is
only a variety of the present species. In it the fur is pale ashy-grey; the
hairs at the base Mouse-grey, tipped with grey, with longer black hairs
distributed over the body; cheeks, inner sides of limbs, and under side
greyish-white; face, crown, and nape washed with reddish-brown, which
extends on the outer side of the limbs; lower back more lightly washed;
tail, dirty grey.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Great Galago is found on the south-east coast of Africa
to 24° S lat., and extends into the interior for about 140 miles from
Quilimane. Kirk's Galago (_G. crassicaudata_, var. _kirkii_) is confined to
the maritime regions and mangrove forests of the east coast. Sir John Kirk
states that it has been observed at the Luabo mouth of the Zambesi, at
Quilimane, and at Mozambique. It has also been procured at Taveita.

{49}HABITS.--This species, named by the Portuguese "Rat of the Cocoanut
Palm," nestles by day among the palm fronds, its ears folded up like a
Beetle's wing, and, if disturbed, it performs feats of agility, darting
from one palm to another. "It will spring with great rapidity," says Sir
John Kirk, "adhering to any object as if it were a lump of wet clay. It has
one failing,--should a pot of palm-wine be left on the top of the tree the
creature drinks to excess, comes down and rushes about intoxicated," and
can then be easily caught. "It becomes active just after darkness sets in.
The rapidity and length of its leaps, which were absolutely noiseless, must
give great facilities to its capturing live prey. I never knew it give a
loud call, but it would often make a low chattering noise."


THE MOUSE-LEMURS. GENUS CHIROGALE.

  _Cheirogaleus_, Geoffr., Ann. du Mus., xix., p. 171 (1812).

  _Chirogale_, Forsyth Major, Nov. Zool., i., p. 1 (1894).

In this genus are included a group of Lemurs of very small dimensions, and
of which the following are the more important characters: The rounded head
has a short face covered with fur. The eyes are very large and set close
together, agreeing well with their nocturnal life. The ears are
conspicuous, projecting beyond the fur, thin, and membranaceous. The
hind-limbs are larger than the fore-, the foot being remarkably elongated
by the lengthening of the heel-bone (_Astragalus_). The nail of the second
finger is pointed, but all the rest are flat. The length of the tail
exceeds that of the body. In some the orbits are directed outwards instead
of directly forwards as is generally the case among the members of the
Sub-order. Of the teeth in the upper jaw, the inner incisors are larger
than the outer; the anterior pre-molar is as long {50}vertically as its
median neighbour; while the posterior, which is smaller than the anterior
molar, has one internal and one large external cusp. Of the molars, the
inner hind cusp is either small or wanting. The bony palate is long, its
hind margin extending behind the posterior molar. The pre-maxillary bones,
carrying the incisor teeth, are largely developed. The mastoid portion of
the ear-capsules (periotic) is not inflated as in many species of Lemurs.
Several of the species of this genus remain somnolent and torpid throughout
the dry season, in regions where it is then impossible to obtain the
vegetable food they require. The Mouse-Lemurs are confined to the island of
Madagascar.


I. MILIUS' MOUSE-LEMUR. CHIROGALE MILII.

  _Cheirogaleus milii_, Geoffr., Cours de l'Hist. Nat., Mamm., ii^e. leçon,
  p. 24 (1829).

  _Cheirogaleus typicus_, A. Smith, S. Afr. Q. Journ., ii., p. 56 (1833).

  _Chirogale milii_, Forsyth Major, Nov. Zool., vol. i., p. 21 (1894), Taf.
  ii., figs. 1, 8, 9 (with full synonymy).

CHARACTERS.--Snout pointed; eyes prominent; ears moderately large, oval,
membranaceous, and sparsely-haired externally; tail Rat-like, thick at
base, becoming thinner towards its extremity. Brain-case of skull less
vaulted than in the true Lemurs. Bony palate prolonged behind the posterior
molar, its hind perforations large; mastoid portion of ear-capsule
(periotic) not swollen. No gap in upper jaw between the canines and
anterior pre-molar teeth; anterior upper pre-molar canine-like, and longer
than the median; no gap between the anterior and median pre-molars;
posterior lower molar reduced in size. The anterior milk pre-molar changes
first, the posterior next, and median last. The posterior upper
{51}milk-molar has one inner and two outer cusps. (_Forsyth Major._)
Heel-bone elongated.

General colour varying considerably; top of head, neck, and upper part of
back, brownish-grey or uniform delicate fawn-brown, sometimes "grizzled
with silvery-grey" or washed with rufous, more especially on the head; rest
of back, sides, outer sides of limbs and tail ashy-brown; under side and
inner side of limbs greyish-white, or white slightly washed with yellowish.
Ring round orbits and side of nose, black; space between the eyes lighter
than the back of the head. Length, 7-8 inches. The young are dark
Mouse-grey.

DISTRIBUTION.--Milius' Mouse-Lemur, though a rare species, is widely
distributed in Madagascar, being found in the Ankay Forest on the
north-east coast as well as along the west coast as far south as
Mouroundava.

HABITS.--This beautiful little Lemur, no bigger than a Guinea-pig, is, like
most of the other species of its group, nocturnal and arboreal, feeding on
fruits and probably honey. It runs on all fours, but sits up to eat,
holding its food in its hands. In the winter months it is believed to
hibernate in hollow trees. Having scooped out a cavity big enough to
contain its body, the little animal collects, according to the Rev. G. A.
Shaw, sufficient loose leaves and grass to cover it; it then retires, and,
burying itself in the heap, is sustained during its period of hibernation
by the store of fat which, during the summer months, becomes deposited at
the root of the tail, and swells the latter out to an enormous size.


II. THE BLACK-EARED MOUSE-LEMUR. CHIROGALE MELANOTIS.

  _Cheirogaleus typicus_ (nec Smith), Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus. App.,
  p. 133 (1870); id. P. Z. S., 1872, p. 855 (partim), pl. lxxi., fig. 3.

  {52}_Chirogale melanotis_, Forsyth Major, Nov. Zool., vol. i., p. 25,
  Tab. ii., fig. 10 (1894).

  (_Plate V._)

CHARACTERS.--Very similar to _C. milii_, but distinguished by the far less
woolly and more silky fur; face pointed; ears rounded, somewhat large, the
outside and half the inside haired; lips flesh-colour. Upper side rather
light brownish (almost reddish) grey; upper side of tail darker; tips of
hair silvery, but less so than in _C. milii_. No white stripe between the
eyes as in that species, the space not lighter than the top of the head and
back; ears very dark brown; a dark brown ring round the eyes; a white
stripe along the side of the neck. Under side of body and inner side of
limbs greyish-white. Length, 10½ inches; tail, 9 inches. Skull smaller in
all its dimensions than _C. milii_; the face longer and more tapering; the
nasal bones broader before and behind; the posterior perforations in the
palate large, as in _C. milii_; mandible less spread; the inner cusp of the
anterior upper pre-molar less developed; basal heel of upper and lower
canines stronger; posterior lower molar longer and with a distinct heel.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species is known from a single skin in the collection
of the British Museum, which was obtained at Vohima, on the north-east
coast of Madagascar.


III. THE HAIRY-EARED MOUSE-LEMUR. CHIROGALE TRICHOTIS.

  _Chirogaleus trichotis_, Günther, P. Z. S., 1875, p. 78, pl. xv.

  _Chirogale trichotis_, Forsyth Major, Nov. Zool., vol. i., p. 26 (1894).

PLATE V.

[Illustration: THE BLACK-EARED MOUSE-LEMUR.]


{53}CHARACTERS.--Brownish-grey above; lower parts grey with the hairs
white-tipped; a spot in front of the eye black; the lips and a line down
the nose, white. Hands and feet grey, the hairs white-tipped. Ears short,
concealed in fur, with tufts of long hair on the lower part and on the
space in front of the ears. Tail shorter than the body, its hair short
except forwards, where it is longer.

Skull depressed and flattened; cranial portion short.

DISTRIBUTION.--The only known specimen of this species is the type in the
British Museum, obtained by Crossley during his journey from Tamatave to
Mouroundava.


IV. CROSSLEY'S MOUSE-LEMUR. CHIROGALE CROSSLEYI.

  _Chirogaleus crossleyi_, Grandid., Rev. et Mag. de Zool., xxii., p. 49
  (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Smaller than _C. melanotis_ (Major); tail short and very
hairy. Head very large, rounded; ears small and haired. Hind-limbs longer
than fore. Upper side, especially the head, rufous; under side
greyish-white. Round the eyes a black ring; inner aspect of the ears dark
brown, the upper border black. (_Grandidier._)

Length, 8 inches; tail, 4¾ inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--Crossley's Mouse-Lemur is known as yet only from the forests
to the east of Antsianak, in Madagascar.

HABITS.--The two species last described (_Chirogale trichotis_ and _C.
crossleyi_) are very closely related together. They are nocturnal animals,
and very rare; consequently but little is known of their habits. It is,
however, very improbable that they depart widely from those of the better
known Mouse-Lemurs.


{54}THE DWARF-LEMURS. GENUS MICROCEBUS.

  _Microcebus_, Geoffr., Cours de l'Hist. Nat., Mamm., leçon vi., p. 24
  (1828).

Under this genus are arranged five species of very small Lemurs, whose
hind-limbs are longer than their fore-, though less so in proportion than
is the case among the African Galagos. Their snout is also shorter; their
eyes are large, approximated together, very prominent and very bright, and
their ears are elongated. On the ventral surface are situated four mammæ,
two on the breast and two on the abdomen.

Of their bony framework, the brain-case is high, broad, and more vaulted
than that of either the Mouse-Lemurs or the species of the next genus,
_Opolemur_. The facial region is also shorter. The mastoid portion of the
ear-capsules (periotic bones) and the squamosal region is somewhat less
inflated than in _Galago_. With regard to their dentition, the inner upper
incisor is larger than its outer fellow. Between the upper canine and the
anterior pre-molar of its own side there exists no gap, nor is there a
space between the anterior and the median upper pre-molars. The molars have
three-cusped crowns, but these cusps are very sharp, and are weaker than
those in _Galago_; the intermediate cusp between the two main cusps to the
front is wanting. The concavity also of the hinder margin (so marked in
_Galago_) is here very slight, but the basal ring (_cingulum_) is swollen
internally to form an inner hind cusp. The posterior upper molar is smaller
than the anterior, and its inner hind cusp is rudimentary. The hind border
of the bony palate extends to behind the last molar tooth, its posterior
perforations being very large. The angle of the lower jaw is not produced
downwards.

{55}The foot in the Dwarf-Lemurs is long, on account of the elongation of
two of its ankle-bones (the _cuboid_ and the _naviculare_).

The species of this genus are confined to the island of Madagascar. They
are entirely nocturnal, as their large eyes and inflated ear-capsules might
suggest. They are chiefly arboreal and frugivorous.


I. SMALL DWARF-LEMUR. MICROCEBUS MINOR.

  _Microcebus murinus_, Martin, P. Z. S., 1835, pp. 125.

  _Galago minor_, Gray, Ann. and Mag. N. H., x., p. 255 (1842).

  _? Chirogalus gliroides_, Grandid., C. R., 14 Dec., 1868.

  _Chirogaleus pusillus_, Flower and Lydekker, Mammalia, p. 690 (1891
  partim).

  _Microcebus minor_, Forsyth Major, Nov. Zool., vol. i., p. 8 (1894), Taf.
  i., fig. 2; ii., figs. 5-7, 14, 15 (with full synonymy).

CHARACTERS.--Head rounded; muzzle short and pointed; eyes large and
brilliant; ears large and naked; tail longer than body. Length of body, 5
inches; of tail, 6 inches.

Upper side, either for the most part Mouse-grey, washed with light
rufous-brown, with the stripe down the back more or less distinct and
somewhat darker; or with the rufous-brown colour preponderating. In grey
specimens the upper side of the tail is washed with rufous, the under side
being somewhat lighter. Cheeks, throat, breast, belly, and inner side of
limbs almost pure white, here and there washed with grey. Between the eyes
a white stripe; over the eyes in grey specimens a rusty-brown spot. Base of
the hairs slate-grey; the tips silvery. (_Forsyth Major._) Skull variable;
the brain-case short and high, or long and depressed; the facial region
short; posterior {56}upper pre-molar less than the anterior molar. Length
of intestine, 20 inches; cæcum blunt, 1¾ inches long; main arteries of
fore- and hind-limbs not broken up into a _rete mirabile_ of small parallel
vessels.

DISTRIBUTION.--This beautiful little animal, sometimes called the "Rat" of
Madagascar, the smallest of all the Lemurs, is known from Ambulisatra on
the south-west coast of Madagascar, and from Fort Dauphin on the south-east
coast.


II. THE DORMOUSE DWARF-LEMUR. MICROCEBUS MYOXINUS.

  _Microcebus myoxinus_, Peters, Reis, Mossamb. Zool., i., Säugeth., pp.
  14-20, Taf. iii. and iv. (1852); Forsyth Major, Nov. Zool., vol. i., p.
  11 (1894).

CHARACTERS.--Head Cat-like and round; muzzle pointed and broader than in
_M. minor_. Ears large, one-third shorter than the head and short-haired;
eyes large and round. Fourth digit of hand longest; second and fifth
shortest. Tail longer than the body, its hair stronger and shorter than on
the body, but longer at the tip and on the upper side than it is beneath.
Two pairs of teats, one pair on the breast, and one pair on the abdomen.

Resembles _M. minor_, but is redder in colour. Back reddish-yellow, washed
with ferruginous, brighter on the forehead and under the eyes; a dark brown
spot on the upper and lower corners of the eyes; sides of body between the
limbs, hands and wrists, feet and ankles, as well as the external margins
of the limbs, and the whole under side, as well as a spot on the brow, a
line down the centre of the nose, and the sides of the head and cheeks,
pure white, washed with yellowish-brown. {57}Tail golden-yellow, washed
with ferruginous on the upper side, the entire distal third darker; rest of
the under side of the tail paler. Naked part of ears flesh-colour.
(_Peters._) Hairs slate-grey at base, the tips ferruginous.

Mastoid portion of ear-capsules (periotic-bones) not so inflated as in _M.
minor_; hind border of bony palate extending to the posterior border of the
last molar, its posterior foramina being large; pre-maxillary bones very
large and projecting beyond the incisor teeth; angle of lower jaw pointed
and hooked. Upper inner incisors standing in front of the canines, and
nearly twice the size of the outer; no gap between the canines and the
anterior pre-molar; the pre-molars vertically sub-equal, and with one
external cusp; molars with two external cusps, the hinder of the two united
to the large inner front cusp by an oblique ridge, their inner side bounded
by the cingulum; the posterior molar smaller than the two anterior.
Anterior and median lower molars four-cusped; the posterior, the largest of
the cheek-teeth, five-cusped.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Dormouse Dwarf-Lemur inhabits the south-west coast of
Madagascar; it has also been obtained at Bambotoka in St. Augustin's Bay on
the west coast.


III. SMITH'S DWARF-LEMUR. MICROCEBUS SMITHI.

  _Microcebus pusillus_, G. R. Waterh., Cat. Mamm. Mus. Zool. Soc., 2nd
  ed., p. 12 (1838).

  _Cheirogaleus smithii_, J. E. Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1842, p. 257.

  _Chirogaleus pusillus_, Flower and Lydekker, Introd. Mamm., p. 690 (1891,
  pt.)

  {58}_Microcebus smithii_, Mivart, P. Z. S., 1864, p. 641; Forsyth Major,
  Nov. Zool., vol. 1., p. 12; Taf. ii., figs. 3, 4, 12, and 13 (1894) (with
  full synonymy).

  (_Plate VI._)

CHARACTERS.--Closely related to the foregoing; the fur in most specimens
less woolly than in the other species; eyes large; snout longer and more
pointed; ears shorter, less than half the length of the head; ankles
proportionally shorter; fingers and toes longer; fur generally darker, the
tail not markedly different from the back, very Rat-like in form; the dark
marks in front of the eye extending to the tip of the nose, inside of the
ears more ferruginous; size about that of a Rat. Muzzle longer and more
pointed than in _M. myoxinus_; pre-maxillæ more produced in front, and
nasals more produced above the nostrils; bony palate less prolonged
backwards beyond the posterior molar, the hind perforations of the latter
large; the line of union of the two halves of the lower jaw shorter than in
_M. myoxinus_; upper incisors set anterior to the canines, and distant from
the inner margin of the pre-maxillæ, the inner pair larger than the outer
pair; the anterior upper pre-molar less vertically extended than the median
one; median and posterior lower molars having the hind outer cusp lower and
longer than the front outer cusp.

DISTRIBUTION.--Smith's Dwarf-Lemur is known from Fort Dauphin, on the
south-east coast, from Betsileo in the centre, and from the south coast of
Madagascar.

PLATE VI.

[Illustration: SMITH'S DWARF-LEMUR.]


{59}HABITS.--Of the habits of both this and of the preceding species little
is known, for they have rarely, if ever, been seen alive by Europeans.
According to the Rev. G. A. Shaw, the present species lives in the belt of
forest-land stretching from the eastern forest into the heart of Betsileo,
a few miles north of Fianarantsoa, where they are tolerably abundant,
frequenting the tops of the highest trees. Among these it moves about on
all fours (its very stout limbs having beautifully perfect hands), using
its tail as a balance by twisting it round a branch. The tail is, however,
not truly prehensile, the animal only employing it to steady itself, or to
hold on slightly by. This species, whose food consists chiefly of fruit and
insects, builds a nest in a fork amid the smallest branches near the top of
some very high tree, the female bringing forth two and sometimes three
young at a birth.


IV. THE FORK-MARKED DWARF-LEMUR. MICROCEBUS FURCIFER.

  _Lemur furcifer_, Blainv., Ostéogr. Mamm., 1841, p. 35, pl. vii.

  _Cheirogaleus furcifer_, Isid. Geoffr., C. R., xxxi., p. 876 (1850);
  Mivart, P. Z. S., 1867, pp. 960-975 (skull and tarsus figured).

  _Lepilemur furcifer_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 145.

  _Phaner furcifer_, J. E. Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus. App., pp. 132,
  135 (1870).

  _Microcebus furcifer_, Forsyth Major, Nov. Zool., vol. i., p. 16 (1894).

CHARACTERS.--Ears large and long; snout pointed; tail longer than the body,
and equally haired; foot elongate. General colour reddish-grey.
Unmistakably recognisable by the black dorsal streak bifurcating on the
forehead into two branches, extending on the inner side of the ears and
terminating over each eye.

Facial portion of skull longer than cranial; angle of lower jaw much
produced backwards and downwards; hind margin of palate extending back to
hinder margin of posterior molar; hind perforations of palate large; border
of maxillary swollen {60}in the canines and pre-molars. Upper anterior
incisors much larger than the posterior, and both anterior to canines;
anterior pre-molars canine-like, both vertically and proportionately longer
than the median pre-molars of any other species of the family; median
pre-molar compressed, with a fore and hind heel; the posterior pre-molar
with a large internal talon. Molars comparatively small, but longer and
narrower than in _M. coquereli_; anterior molar much larger than the
posterior pre-molar, its hind inner cusp rudimentary; the posterior molar
longer than the posterior pre-molar, and smaller than the other molars, its
inner cusp wanting. Lower anterior pre-molar lance-shaped, vertically
longer than the two posterior sub-equal grinders; molars sub-equal, much
larger than the posterior pre-molar; posterior molar comparatively short,
five-cusped.

DISTRIBUTION.--Chiefly found on the west coast of Madagascar.


V. COQUEREL'S DWARF-LEMUR. MICROCEBUS COQUERELI.

  _Cheirogalus coquereli_, Grandid., Rev. Mag. de Zool., xix., 1867, p. 85.

  _Microcebus coquereli_, Mivart, P. Z. S., 1867, pp. 966-967; Forsyth
  Major, Nov. Zool., vol. i., p. 14 (1894; with full synonymy).

  _Mirza coquerelii_, J. E. Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus. App., pp. 131,
  135, 136 (1870); Schlegel, Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 321 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Similar to _M. furcifer_, but slightly smaller; ears large,
long, and almost naked; tail longer than the body; fur soft and woolly.
Above dark grey, washed with rufous; tail, at base, of the same colour as
the back; remainder of tail dark rufous; throat, breast, and under side of
body yellowish-grey. {61}Length of body, 8½ inches; tail, 13 inches; skull
high and arched; outer and hinder portion of ear-capsules (periotic-bones)
and squamosal swollen; frontal bone longer than in _Opolemur_ and
_Chirogale_; occiput less sloping from behind and above forwards and
outwards. Upper median and posterior molars with one inner and two outer
cusps, united by a curved ridge, cingulate all round, and with a small cusp
or cingulum at the hind inner angle; posterior pre-molars smaller and
shorter than the molars, with strong and vertically longer outer cusp, and
a much more feeble inner cusp; posterior lower molar lengthened behind by a
fifth cusp.

DISTRIBUTION.--Coquerel's Dwarf-Lemur, or the "Sisiba," as the natives call
it, is found round Passandava Bay, near Mouroundava, on the south-west
coast of Madagascar.

HABITS.--The Sisiba, like its congeners, is nocturnal and arboreal,
constructing in the trees a nest of twigs. It feeds on fruits and leaves.


THE FAT-TAILED LEMURS. GENUS OPOLEMUR.

  _Opolemur_, J. E. Gray, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 853.

The term _Opolemur_, by which this genus is designated, is not altogether
appropriate, and is, indeed, even somewhat misleading. It was applied in
the first instance to the typical species on account of the thickened base
of its tail, which in the type-specimen was a very conspicuous character.
The deposit of fat by which this thickening was caused was not then known
to be merely transitory--a store of food collected at the base of the tail
and on other parts of the body, to supply the needs of the animal during
the arid and foodless season, when it retires into a state of torpidity. It
is now known that {62}other species of this sub-family (as we have seen
above in the case of the Mouse-Lemurs), which are generically distinct from
_Opolemur_, share this peculiarity.

The two species included in this genus are intermediate between the
Mouse-Lemurs and the Dwarf-Lemurs, and are really more nearly related to
the former than to the latter. The skull is flat and depressed as in
_Chirogale_, and the brain-case small and almost vertical behind. The
posterior foramina in the palate are small. In respect to their dentition,
the cusps of the upper molars are blunter and shorter than in the
Mouse-Lemurs, but less so than among the Dwarf-Lemurs; the hind inner cusps
of the anterior and median molars are large, and the ridge from the inner
cusp is less intimately joined to the two outer cusps than in the
Dwarf-Lemurs.


I. SAMAT'S FAT-TAILED LEMUR. OPOLEMUR SAMATI.

  _Chirogalus samatii_, Grandid., Rev. et Mag. de Zool., xx., p. 49 (1868).

  _Opolemur milii_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1872, pp. 853-4, pl. lxx., fig. i. (in
  part).

  _Opolemur samati_, Forsyth Major, Nov. Zool., vol. i., p. 18 (1894).

CHARACTERS.--Head, Cat-like; hair on body and tail very short, longer at
tip of tail; tail very thick at base, from accumulation of fat, especially
in the month of August. Length, 7½ inches; tail, 6½.

Fur above dark grey, washed with ferruginous, the tips of the hairs
silvery-grey; tail faded rufous; a white spot on the forehead, becoming a
line down the centre of the nose; a black circle round the eyes; ears
slightly longer; tail shorter {63}and thicker proportionately than in
_Chirogale milii_; under surface and inner side of limbs fulvous.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species, according to M. Grandidier, to whom all our
knowledge of it is due, has been obtained on the River Tsidsibon, but is
reported from other places on the west coast of Madagascar.


II. THOMAS' FAT-TAILED LEMUR. OPOLEMUR THOMASI.

  _Opolemur thomasi_, Forsyth Major, Nov. Zool., vol. i., p. 20, Taf. i.,
  fig. 1 Taf., ii., figs. 2 and 11 (1894).

CHARACTERS.--Nearly allied to _O. samati_. Head broad, flat; snout short;
ears short. Above grey, with a wash of rusty brown, the tips of the hair
glistening silvery-grey; top of head somewhat darker; under side of tail
lighter; a white band between the eyes extending down to the nose-pad,
which is naked; round the neck a white ring broken by a grey spot; ring
round the eyes, and hair of ears, brownish-black; cheeks, lips, chin,
throat, breast, belly, inner side of limbs, upper side of hands and feet,
yellowish-white, and inclining to greyish-white, where it merges into the
upper side. Length, 9¼ inches; tail, 8 inches.

Skull depressed; brain-case flat and short; facial portion blunt;
inter-parietal bone broad and short. Posterior upper pre-molar broader than
the median, and broader than the same tooth in _O. samati_, the median
pre-molar lacking the inner cusp. Nasal bones sharply keeled in the
mid-line.

DISTRIBUTION.--Of this species only the three specimens, in the British
Museum, are yet known. They were obtained near Fort Dauphin, on the
south-east coast of Madagascar.

HABITS.--Nothing is known of the habits of either of these two species of
_Opolemur_.



{64}THE TRUE LEMURS. SUB-FAMILY III. LEMURINÆ.


The third sub-family of the _Lemuridæ_ contains the True Lemurs, which are
characterised by the possession of a soft, thick, and woolly fur, the head
rounded behind, with a specially elongated muzzle. They have small and oval
ears, with the exterior aspect covered with long hair, but the inside
naked, except round the margin. Their hind-limbs do not show so great a
disproportionate length compared to that of the fore-limbs, as in the next
sub-family, the _Indrisinæ_. The ankle-bones (_tarsus_) are only slightly
elongated, and their toes are not united by a membrane. Their long and
bushy tail is sometimes longer and sometimes shorter than the body. The
females produce one or two, nearly naked, young at a birth, the mammæ being
either two or four in number. The skull presents a central ridge on the
frontal bone, and its facial portion is much elongated, the inter-orbital
space being depressed and wider, and the orbits also directed somewhat
outward and less straightforwardly than in several of the genera already
noticed. The maxillary bones are generally much reduced, and the incisor
teeth carried by them not unfrequently entirely aborted. The teeth in this
Sub-family vary in number from 32 to 36, the dental formula being I(0-2)/2,
C1/1, P3/3, M3/3. The foot is slightly elongated by the lengthening of the
_naviculare_ bone of the ankle, the others being short. In the wrist
(_carpus_) the central bone (_centrale_) may be present or absent; its
absence, however, is a character which is met with otherwise only in Man,
the Chimpanzees, and the Endrina and some other Lemurs, to be described
later on. The cæcum is not markedly developed.

{65}The external coloration of the species of this Sub-family is remarkably
variable, the variation being chiefly in the upper portion of the hairs, as
their base is generally slate-grey.

The sub-family _Lemurinæ_ embraces four genera: the True Lemurs (_Lemur_),
of which there are now eight recognised species; the Hattock (_Mixocebus_),
with a solitary species; the Gentle-Lemurs (_Hapalemur_), containing two
species, and the Sportive-Lemurs (_Lepidolemur_), with seven species. Some
of the most elegantly coloured species in the Animal Kingdom belong to this
group. They are gregarious, and most of them arboreal, though some are not
so. They form rather an exception to the general rule among Lemurs, in not
being nocturnal. They feed during the morning and evening, emitting loud
cries as they move about, and during the heat of the day, they often lie
stretched out in the sun; at night they rest with their long tails coiled
about them. In their mode of progression they are more quadrupedal than
most of the other Lemuroids; they jump, walk, or run on all fours. Their
food consists of fruits, birds' eggs, birds and insects. Their infants are
carried about close to, and concealed amid, the hair of their mother's
breast; when older they cling to her back.

The True Lemurs are all inhabitants of Madagascar and of the adjacent
Comoro Islands. They are unknown on the African continent.


THE TRUE LEMURS. GENUS LEMUR.

  _Prosimia_, Brisson, Regn. Anim., p. 220 (1756).

  _Lemur_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 44 (1766).

  _Varecia_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 135.

This genus contains the typical Lemurs, in their most restricted sense.
They are characterised by having a very {66}Fox-like head, and an elongate
and tapering face, shelving on each side of the nose. A long fringe of hair
surrounds their chin and cheeks. They have all large and tufted ears, and
large eyes, with superciliary ridges rising higher than the forehead. Their
tail is always half as long as the body at least. The fore-limbs are
somewhat shorter than the hind-limbs, and both the wrist and ankles are
haired. The ankle is not elongated, nor is the great toe as large as in the
next family--the _Indrisinæ_. On the outside of the palm of the hand and
under the base of the fingers are situated fleshy pads, giving them greater
grasping power. The True Lemurs have only one pair of mammæ, which are
situated on the breast.

In the skull the facial region is much elongated, its measurement from the
anterior margin of the orbit forward being greater than the longitudinal
diameter of the orbit, and the space between the eye-sockets is narrow and
depressed. The bony palate is short, extending back only to the posterior
end of the median molar. The posterior portion of the ear-capsules (the
mastoidal and squamosal regions) is not inflated--a character which
separates this genus from _Galago_. The pre-maxillary bones are large and
protrude in front, if the skull be viewed from the side. The angle of the
lower jaw is not produced downwards and backwards. In some species a large
maxillary sinus projects into the anterior part of the orbit; in some also
the _foramen rotundum_ does not coalesce with the sphenoidal fissure (see
page 11), but has a distinct opening. The teeth are of the normal number,
namely thirty-six. In the upper jaw the incisors are small, sub-equal, and
situated anteriorly to the canines and are not in contact with each other,
or with the latter. The canines are very large, tusk-like, and set in an
excavated notch on the jaw. All the pre-molars {67}have one main cusp to
the outside; the anterior pre-molar, however, has a supplementary minute
front cusp, while the median has in addition one large interior cusp; both
it and the posterior pre-molars are vertically taller than their anterior
fellow. The molars have two inner cusps, and two main outer cusps with a
supplementary minute fore cusp, as well as two cusps on the ridge joining
the fore and hind outer cusps; the posterior molar--the smallest of the
three--is, however, larger than the posterior pre-molar, and has only the
front inner cusp and no supplementary external cusp. The lower jaw shows a
gap between the canine and the anterior pre-molar. The anterior pre-molar,
which is vertically taller than the rest, is edged and cutting, taking the
place of a tusk; the anterior and median pre-molars are also separated by a
small space; the latter, which is equal in vertical height to the
posterior, has an inner cusp and a low cusped heel. The molars have two
outer main cusps, of which the front one is more developed than the hind
one, and two inner cusps, often with an intermediate cusp between them; the
pair of fore and the pair of hind cusps are joined by transverse ridges,
and the two outside cusps by a backwardly directed semicircular ridge; the
posterior molar is four-cusped.

The dorsal and lumbar vertebræ together do not exceed twenty in number.

The hind portion of the cerebellum is large, which points to intellectual
inferiority in the True Lemurs as compared with the Apes.

The species of this genus are all confined to the island of Madagascar and
some of the smaller adjacent islands. They are gregarious, living in large
companies in the forests, feeding on fruits, insects, and such small
animals, birds, and lizards {68}as they may capture. Like the Howlers of S.
America and the Gibbons of the East Indies, they are very noisy. Their
agility is wonderfully great, and is displayed chiefly in the evening.
During the brighter hours of the day they sit somnolent, either alone with
their heads buried between their arms, their tail coiled round the neck, or
in twos or threes embracing each other with their arms. In walking they use
their fore-limbs less as hands, and more as feet than do the members of the
next family--the _Indrisinæ_--both when on the ground, as well as when
climbing among the trees.


I. THE RUFFED LEMUR. LEMUR VARIUS.

  _Lemur macaco_, _var._ Schreber, Säugeth., p. 142, pl. 40 B (1775).

  _Lemur macaco et L. ruber_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 159 (1812).

  _Lemur varius_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 71, no. 2 (1851);
  Schl., Mus. Pays. Bas., vii., p. 301 (1876); Milne-Edwards et Grandid.,
  H. N. Madag., Mamm., Atlas, pls. 123-129 (1690).

  (_Plate VII._)

CHARACTERS.--Face and top of head black; a stripe over the eyes, ridge of
nose and tip of nostrils, creamy-white; a patch on the shoulder, the inside
of the fore-legs, the inner surface of body, a patch on the front of the
thighs, the inner side of the limbs, and the feet, black; tail black,
washed with white on the upper surface; rest of body creamy-white.

PLATE VII.

[Illustration: THE RED-RUFFED LEMUR.]


{69}The Ruffed or Variable Lemur derives its name from the remarkable
variability of its external markings: so much is this the case, indeed,
that not a few of them have been described as distinct species. This
variability appears to be entirely individual, and is by no means constant.
The Black-mantled variety has the back of the neck, the shoulders and
interscapular region entirely black. Another form has the ears, the ruff,
and a bar across the muzzle extending over and in front of the eyes,
joining the ruff, pure white; the fore-arms, legs, a bar across the
buttocks joining the thighs greyish-white; face, legs, and tail black; a
ring encircling the body like a belt between the fore- and hind-limbs,
yellowish-white; rest of body dark reddish-brown. A third variety has the
ears, ruff, and outer side of the arms and legs pure white; the flanks
rusty-red, the rest of the body black.

THE RED-RUFFED LEMUR (_L. ruber_) is a very well-marked variety of the same
species, and may easily be recognised by the ears, ruff and whole upper
surface of body being dark rusty-red, with the outer surface of thighs and
legs white; or, the ears, ruff and whole upper surface (except a white
patch on the back of the neck) may be dark brown, with a white garter on
each ankle; otherwise it may be entirely black. It is this variety which we
have figured on Plate VII.

DISTRIBUTION.--Throughout the north-east of Madagascar.

HABITS.--The Ruffed Lemur, called by the natives "Varikossi," has a loud,
harsh and powerful voice, which can be heard for a long distance.


II. THE BLACK LEMUR. LEMUR MACACO.

  _Lemur macaco_, Linn., S. N., i., p. 44 (1766); Schl. Mus. Pays. Bas.,
  vii., p. 302 (1876); Milne-Edwards et Grandid., H. N. Madag., Mamm., pls.
  131, 132 (1890).

  _Lemur niger_, Schreb., Säugeth., pl. 40 A (1775).

  _Lemur leucomystax_, Bartlett, P. Z. S., 1862, p. 347, pl. xli. (female).

  _Varecia nigra_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 136.

{70}CHARACTERS.--Ears tufted, with long hairs continuing down the side of
the neck to the angle of the mouth.

MALE.--Entirely black.

FEMALE.--Formerly described as a distinct species, and known as the
White-whiskered Lemur (_L. leucomystax_). Face and lips black, darkest on
the nose, round the eyes and hinder part of the head; forehead
blackish-grey; whiskers and ear-tufts white, almost concealing the ears.
General colour of body rich ferruginous brown, darker on the middle of the
back; arms, legs and neck reddish-yellow; tail whiter; throat, under side
of body and inner side of limbs creamy-white.

There is a considerable amount of variation in this species. Some
individuals have the lower back and base of tail white; the belly
greyish-white, the feet brown, and the toes black. In others the black
frontal spot is wanting, the back of the head being reddish-white; the
basal half of the tail is dark orange-red, remainder of the body rich
rusty-brown. On the fore-arm is a cluster of stiff hairs, which occurs in
association with a large underlying sweat-gland, whose function is not yet
understood.

DISTRIBUTION.--The north-west coast of Madagascar.

HABITS.--The special habits of this species of Lemur are unknown, but in
all probability they agree with those of the group in general, as given
under the heading of the genus. It is said to utter a coarse grunting
call-note.

The young males are born black like the father, and the young females have
the colour of the mother. Dr. Sclater has observed that in specimens in
confinement in the Zoological Gardens, in London, the female carried her
young one transversely across her belly, its long tail passing round her
back and then round its own neck.


{71}III. THE MONGOOSE LEMUR. LEMUR MONGOZ.

  _Lemur mongoz_, Linn., S. N., p. 44, no. 2 (1766); Scl., P. Z. S., 1871,
  p. 231, figs, 1, 2; Schl., Mus. Pays. Bas., vii. p. 312 (1876);
  Milne-Edw. et Grandid., H. N. Madag., Mamm., pls. 133-153 (1890).

  _Lemur anjuanensis_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 161 (1812).

  _Prosimia melanocephala_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 137, pl. xviii.

  _Prosimia xanthomystax_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 138, pl. xvii.

CHARACTERS.--Fur woolly and thick; eyelashes long; some long bristles
behind the angle of the mouth; face long; no ear-tufts and whiskers, but a
sub-auricular patch of long hair; some long hairs on the digits; tail
bushy.

MALE.--Head, face, streak across the crown of head and down the forehead
brownish-black; ears of the same colour, white-fringed; cheeks and a spot
on the sides of the forehead iron-grey; sub-auricular cheek-patch white,
slightly washed with rufous; rest of upper surface reddish-grey; tail
darker; chest and under side rufous-grey.

FEMALE.--Rufous-brown above; neck and shoulders white; throat white;
frontal spot black; face whitish.

The colour of the fur in this species varies to an extraordinary degree,
and before this fact was recognised, a number of supposed species, founded
on the colour of the animals alone, were described. In course of time,
however, as specimens were obtained in greater number, it became evident
that the variation was only in the colour of the fur, and that there was
none in their anatomical and osteological structure to warrant their being
considered distinct species. They have, therefore, all been now classified
by Professor Milne-Edwards and M. Grandidier in their great work on the
Natural History {72}of Madagascar, as so many varieties of one species,
_Lemur mongoz_. Of these varieties, the most important are:--


THE RED-FOOTED LEMUR. LEMUR RUFIPES.

MALE.--Face in front of a line above the eyes, dark reddish-brown; hands
and feet bright rufous-brown; under side of body and inner side of limbs
reddish-grey.

FEMALE.--Wrist and ankles with adjacent part of limbs above brownish-red.


THE RED-FRONTED LEMUR. LEMUR RUFIFRONS.

MALE.--Grizzly, washed with rufous; fore-arms, hands, feet, haunches, outer
side of legs, and top of the head between the ears, rufous.

FEMALE.--Grizzly brown; top of head grizzly black; patch over and round the
eyes greyish-white.


THE GREY-HEADED LEMUR. LEMUR CINEREICEPS.

Face and frontal spot black; cheeks, sides, top of head, side of neck, and
outside of ears grey; rest of body orange-red.


THE COLLARED LEMUR. LEMUR COLLARIS.

MALE.--Head blackish-brown; cheeks, sides of throat, mark over eyes, and
base of ears, yellowish-grey, washed with orange-red or rufous; a spot at
the side of the nose, grey; chin, throat, and under side of the body,
blackish-grey.

FEMALE.--Centre of nose black; sides of nose, chin, cheeks, including the
eyes, ears, sides of throat, iron-grey, slightly flushed at the lower side
of the neck under the ears with reddish-orange. Specimens from the island
of Mayotte (_L. mayottensis_, Schl.) differ from _L. collaris_ in having a
blackish spot over the root of the tail.


{73}THE RUFOUS LEMUR. LEMUR RUFUS.

Has a yellowish-white frontal band and whiskers.


THE BLACK-FACED LEMUR. LEMUR NIGRIFRONS.

Has a brownish-black band over the forehead, including the eyes; muzzle,
patch on top of head including the ears, the side of the head below the
ears, sub-auricular tufts, throat and under surface, grey.


THE WHITE-FACED LEMUR. LEMUR ALBIFRONS.

Forehead, top of head, ears, throat, and chest white.

Pure albino varieties are also quite common.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Mongoose Lemur with its numerous varieties is found
throughout the island of Madagascar, in Mayotte, and in Anjuan or Johanna
Island, one of the Comoro group.

HABITS.--Gregarious and diurnal, feeding on fruits, insects, and small
animals.


IV. SCLATER'S LEMUR. LEMUR NIGERRIMUS.

  _Lemur nigerrimus_, Scl., P. Z. S., 1880, p. 451, figs. 1 and 2;
  Milne-Edw. et Grandid., H. N. Madag., Mamm., pls. 154, 155 (1890).

  _Lemur macaco_ (nec L.), Scl., P. Z. S., 1878, p. 1016.

  _Prosimia rufipes_, Gray, Ann. N. H., 1871, p. 339 (female).

CHARACTERS.--Face covered with short hair; ears nude and without tufts;
nose-pad and lower lips nude. Similar to _L. macaco_, but larger and more
intensely black, with a raised crest of upstanding hair on the head, formed
by the longer fur of the body terminating arcuately on the forehead.
External ears pinkish flesh-colour. Eyes blue, turning to green. Length, 16
inches; tail, 20 inches.

{74}FEMALE.--(_Prosimia rufipes_ of Gray) Brown; eyes brownish-yellow.

DISTRIBUTION.--Cap d'Ambra, N. Madagascar.

Nothing is known of the habits of this species.


V. THE WHITE-HANDED LEMUR. LEMUR ALBIMANUS.

  _Le Maki aux pieds blancs_, Audebert, H. N. Singes, p. 10, pl. 1 (1797:
  male).

  _Lemur albimanus_, Is. Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., pp. 161-169 (1812);
  Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., Mamm., Atlas, pls. 156, 157,
  162-164, 165, figs, 1 and 2 (1890).

  _Lemur mongoz_ (nec L.), Schl., Mus. Pays. Bas., vii., p. 312 (1876,
  pt.).

CHARACTERS.--Nose sharp and Dog-like; eyes oblique; ears, except the
central portion, haired.

MALE.--Face, anterior to a line over the forehead, cheeks, snout (except a
greyish wash on its sides and the upper lip) umber-brown; rest of head,
neck, down to the middle of the back, and fore-limbs, grey; margins of
ears, chin, and under surface of body white; rest of back and hind-limbs
umber-brown; tail darker, except for a short distance at the base; upper
surface of hands and feet grey. The nose varies in different species in the
amount of grey colouring, and the forehead and face in depth of brown. Some
specimens also have an arcuate black band over the forehead from one outer
corner of the eye to the other.

FEMALE.--Greyish-black; nose grey; rest of face washed with brick-red,
deeper on the forehead, cheeks, ears, and sides of neck, fainter in tint on
the upper back; lower back and tail darker, except at the base, where it is
washed with reddish-yellow. Hands and feet greyish-white. The colour of the
face varies much in different specimens, being deeper or lighter rufous.
{75}The arcuate band from the corners of the eyes over the forehead varies
in breadth and depth of colour.

DISTRIBUTION.--Madagascar; the precise locality unknown.


VI. THE CROWNED LEMUR. LEMUR CORONATUS.

  _Lemur coronatus_, Gray, Ann. and Mag. N. Hist., x., p. 257 (1842);
  Schl., Mus. Pays. Bas., vii., p. 313 (1876); Milne-Edwards et Grandid.,
  Hist. Nat. Madag., Mamm., Atlas, pls. 158-161, 165, 166.

  _Lemur chrysampyx_, Scheurm. Mém. Cour. Acad. Brux., xxii., p. 6 (1848 =
  female).

  _Prosimia coronata_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 138.

CHARACTERS.--Tips of ears naked; tail a little more than the length of the
body.

MALE.--Face, nose, and region round the eyes greyish-white; cheeks and
forehead rufous or yellowish-red; a conical spot in the centre of the head
between the eyes, dark brown or black, intruding sometimes on the rufous of
the forehead; ears white; inner side of limbs and under side of body
greyish-white; tail rufous at base, the upper side blackish, and the under
side lighter; rest of body sienna-grey.

FEMALE.--Upper side entirely grey, washed with yellowish cream-colour on
the middle and lower part of the back, and on the upper side of the tail;
long black hairs present in the tail; the under side entirely silvery-grey;
fur at base black, the tips grey or silvery; instead of the black spot on
the forehead there is a golden yellow-hooped, or widely V-shaped, bar above
the eyes, narrower in the centre over the nose.

Albino specimens are sometimes found, which are entirely white, except for
the golden bar over the eyes.


{76}VII. THE RED-BELLIED LEMUR. LEMUR RUBRIVENTER.

  _Lemur rubriventer_, Is. Geoffr., C. R., xxxi., p. 876 (1850); Schl.,
  Mus. Pays. Bas., vii., p. 311 (1876); Milne-Edw. & Grandid., Hist. Nat.
  Madag., Mamm., Atlas, ii., pls. 167-170 (1890).

  _Lemur flaviventer_, Is. Geoffr., _tom. cit._, p. 876 (1850).

CHARACTERS.--Inner margins and outside of ears haired, the interior nude.

MALE.--Face, a line down the forehead, and snout dark maroon-brown; a ring
round the eyes cobalt-blue; rest of head and cheeks reddish-brown; upper
side of body speckled reddish-brown, darker on the lower back; tail almost
black, with long white hairs distributed throughout its length; feet
rufous; under side of body pale.

FEMALE.--Like the male, but having the cheeks whitish; a narrow ring round
the eyes pale blue; upper surface umber-brown, washed with reddish-yellow;
under side and inner sides of limbs yellowish; ruff reddish-chestnut.

YOUNG.--Head entirely rufous; nose black.

DISTRIBUTION.--Madagascar.


VIII. THE RING-TAILED LEMUR. LEMUR CATTA.

  _Lemur catta_, Linn., S. N., i., p. 45, no. 4 (1766); Schl., Mus. Pays.
  Bas., vii., p. 314 (1876); Milne-Edw. et Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag.,
  Mamm., Atlas, pls. 171-172 (1890).

CHARACTERS.--Inside of ears naked; no ruff round the face; top of head
greyish-black; face, rest of head, lower surface of body, and inner side of
the limbs pearl-grey; upper surface sienna-grey. Tail pearl-grey, banded
with from ten to twelve black rings, distinguishing it from all other
Lemurs, which have the tail of one colour. Length of body and tail
together, 40 inches.

{77}On the fore-arm above the wrist-joint there is, in both sexes, a
comb-like bony outgrowth (becoming in old males a prominent spur)
continuous with the palm of the hand by means of a narrow strip of black,
hairless skin; near it there is a cluster of long stiff hairs over an
underlying sweat-gland, the function of which is still unknown.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species inhabits chiefly the rocky and treeless regions
of the south and south-western borders of the Betsileo province of
Madagascar. It is, however, not entirely confined to these treeless
districts, for it has been recorded as occurring in bands of some numbers
in the neighbouring forest regions.

HABITS.--The Ring-tailed Lemur--one of the handsomest species of the genus
and the only one in which the tail is not uniformly coloured--is of gentle
manners, active, and graceful. According to the notes of the Rev. G. A.
Shaw, as recorded in a paper in the Zoological Society's "Proceedings," it
lives among the rocks where a few stunted trees occur, and over this rocky
ground it can easily travel, in places where it is impossible for the
natives, although bare-footed, to follow it. The palms of its hands and
feet are smooth and leather-like, enabling the animal to apply them firmly
to the wet rocks. This Lemur feeds on bananas and wild figs. In the winter
its chief sustenance consists of the prickly-pear, peeling off the spiny
skin with its long upper canines. According to the same observer, this
Lemur rarely drinks water; indeed, it is said that the species living in
the west of Madagascar, including two kinds of White Lemur, subsist without
water, while those on the east coast invariably drink water with their
meals. When fighting, the Ring-tailed Lemur scratches vigorously and
strikes out with its hands.


{78}THE HATTOCKS. GENUS MIXOCEBUS.

  _Mixocebus_, Peters, M. B. Akad. Berlin, 1874. p. 690.

This genus contains but one species, whose characters are therefore those
of the genus also.


THE HATTOCK. MIXOCEBUS CANICEPS.

  _Mixocebus caniceps_, Peters, M. B. Akad. Berlin, 1874, p. 690, pl. i.,
  pl. ii. (Skull.)

CHARACTERS.--Snout sharp, with a naked nose-pad; eyes very large; ears very
short, rounded, higher than broad, scarcely appearing beyond the fur, and
sparsely covered with short hair; limbs long, the digits with unkeeled
nails; tail as long as the body, or slightly longer; inter-maxillary bones
more prominent than in the species of the next genus, and containing a
small incisor tooth on each side; no inter-parietal bone; upper canine not
vertically longer than the grinders; the upper pre-molar and molar series
of teeth arranged to converge but slightly anteriorly, forming, as seen
from the front, a somewhat convex line, differing in this from some species
of _Lepidolemur_, in which these teeth are arranged in a nearly straight
line.

Top of head grey, the base of the hairs Mouse-grey, with black or white
tips; a triangular patch on the middle of the head, darker; band on the
sides and middle of the nose dark brown, widening out on the forehead and
over the eyes; a dark ring round the eyes, merging into the dark brown
colour of the nose; front border of the ears, a patch behind the latter,
the lips, chin, sides of cheek, and chest a creamy- or yellowish-white;
throat grey; upper side of the body, outside of the limbs, and dorsal end
of the tail, rufous-grey; back portion of {79}the upper part of the thigh,
the hinder part of the belly, and the greater part of the upper side of the
tail yellowish-rufous; the upper side of hands dark brown, of the feet
yellowish-grey; extremity of tail blackish-brown. Length of body, 12½
inches; tail, 13½ inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--Confined to Madagascar.

HABITS.--The habits of the Hattock, as the natives name this animal, are
quite unknown.


THE GENTLE-LEMURS. GENUS HAPALEMUR.

  _Hapalemur_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 74 (1851).

This genus has been constituted for two species of a specialised type of
Lemur, characterised by a globose head, a short muzzle, with a tapering
nose and short hairy ears. The hind-limbs are longer than the fore-limbs,
the feet short and broad, and the tail hairy and equal in length to the
body. The female has four teats, two on the breast, or on the shoulder, and
two on the abdomen.

In regard to their skeletal characters, the facial portion of the skull is
short and narrow in front--the nasal bones being arched--and the brain-case
rounded. The cranium presents no elevated frontal crests, as among the
members of the next genus (_Lepidolemur_). The pre-maxillary bones are very
small. The hind margin of the bony palate, which dilates posteriorly, does
not extend behind the mid-line of the last molar. The squamosal region of
the skull and the outer and posterior--the mastoidal--portion of the
ear-capsules (periotic bones), is not inflated in the members of this
genus. Their lower jaw is very characteristic, being massive in front and
possessing a very long symphysis (or line of junction of its two halves),
its angle being {80}also very large, and produced downward, inward, and
backward, even more than in the genus _Indris_. The _naviculare_ bone of
the ankle (_tarsus_) is relatively short, thus differing from the same
region in _Microcebus_ and in _Galago_; the _carpus_ (or wrist) has no
central (_os centrale_) bone.

In _Hapalemur_ the teeth are of the normal Lemurine number, viz., 36; but
the dentition as a whole is peculiar and characteristic. Each series of
teeth is very uniform and equal, and those anterior to the molars are
serrated. In the upper jaw the incisors are very small, sub-equal, and
situated close together; the posterior tooth on each side being (when the
skull is viewed from the side) internal to and touching the canines. The
canines are small, and the gap between them and the anterior pre-molar is
very small. The anterior pre-molar is slightly taller vertically than its
median fellow, and stands close up to it without an interval; it has one
main (and sometimes one rudimentary) outer cusp; the posterior pre-molar,
which closely resembles a molar, and is often the largest tooth in the jaw,
having one inner cusp united by ridges to its two outer cusps. The molar
teeth are sub-equal to the hindmost pre-molar, and have one front inner and
two outer cusps, without an oblique ridge between them, and also a
well-developed cingulum, cusped externally. Of the lower teeth, the
anterior and median pre-molars are set obliquely, the median having three
outer and two inner cusps (the two inner being united to the two hind outer
by ridges). The posterior pre-molar is quite molariform, and, with the
molars, presents three outer and two (or three) inner cusps, of which the
two inner are united by ridges to the outer hind cusps, while transverse
ridges unite the main outer and inner cusps together. The molars are
cingulate towards the outside.

PLATE VIII.

[Illustration: THE GREY GENTLE-LEMUR.]


{81}The brain is narrower and shallower than that of the genus _Lemur_, and
presents no specially close resemblance to the same organ in the
_Indrisinæ_ or the _Lorisinæ_.


I. THE GREY GENTLE-LEMUR. HAPALEMUR GRISEUS.

  _Lemur griseus_, Geoffr., Mém. sur les Makis. Mag. Enc., i., p. 48
  (1796).

  _Hapalemur griseus_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 74 (1851);
  Mivart, P. Z. S., 1864, p. 613 (Skull); Schleg., Mus. P. B., vii., p. 361
  (1876).

  _Hapalemur olivaceus_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 75 (1851);
  Schl., Mus. P. B., vii., p. 316 (1876).

  _Cheirogaleus griseus_, Giebel., Säugeth., p. 1018 (1856); V. der Hoeven,
  Tijds. Natuurl. Gesch., p. 38, pl. i., fig. 1 (1844).

  _Hapalolemur griseus_, Scl., P. Z. S., 1863, p. 161; Gray, P. Z. S.,
  1863, p. 828, pl. lii.

  (_Plate VIII._)

CHARACTERS.--Fur long and soft, not woolly; ears short, hairy, with long
black vibrissæ between them; tail bushy, and as long as the body; general
shade above greyish Mouse-colour, washed with rufous and speckled with
black on the crown, back and external surface of limbs; shoulders and
fore-limbs bluish-grey; cheeks, throat, breast, and inner side of limbs
ochraceous white; under side of body whitish-yellow; tail and hands grey,
washed with black. Body and tail equal, 15 inches in length.

Facial portion of skull short; brain-case rounded; lower jaw shorter and
higher than in Lemurs generally; great toe large and broad; on the inner
side of both arms close to the wrist occurs a rough patch (extending down
to the bare skin of the palm) corresponding to a gland beneath, {82}in the
male, spine-like, while in the female hairy processes are present, together
with a tuft of long hairs; external to this patch is a callous pad; mammæ
opening on the shoulder; intestine large; cæcum small.

YOUNG.--Reddish-yellow below.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Grey Gentle-Lemur inhabits the eastern side of the
Betsileo province of Madagascar.

HABITS.--The "Bokombouli," as the natives name this animal, is the smallest
of any of the True Lemurs. It is nocturnal, and lives, according to the
Rev. G. A. Shaw, among the bamboos in the higher-level forests of the
island. Its lower incisors are used as scrapers, and nearly all its teeth
are serrated and very effective in cutting off the bamboo shoots, on which
it feeds. To enable it to grasp smooth surfaces, such as the stems of the
bamboo and other trees it frequents, it possesses a broad pad under each
great toe.


II. THE BROAD-NOSED GENTLE-LEMUR. HAPALEMUR SIMUS.

  _Hapalemur (Prolemur) simus_, J. E. Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus. App.,
  p. 133 (1870); id. P. Z. S., 1870, p. 828, pl. lii., pp. 829, 830, figs.
  1-4 (Skull).

  _Prolemur simus_, J. E. Gray, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 851.

  _Hapalemur simus_, Beddard, P. Z. S., 1884, p. 392; Jentink, Notes Leyd.
  Mus., vii., p. 33 (1885).

CHARACTERS.--Nose broad and truncated; ears short, covered with long hair
on the outside and along the margin inside.

Very similar to _H. griseus_; head and upper back dark reddish-grey,
faintly washed with rufous; sides of head, neck, and region round the eyes
lighter; sides of nose and region between the eyes black; ears dirty grey;
lower back, sides of {83}body, and outer surface of limbs sooty-grey, with
here and there a wash of rufous; the patch on the end of the rump and upper
part of the base of the tail uniform pale yellowish rust-colour; remainder
of tail sooty-grey; from the chin to the chest yellowish-grey; under side
of body and inner side of arms pale sooty-grey.

No spines on the fore-arm above the wrist as in _H. griseus_. In the skull,
the nose is broad, square, and truncated; the pre-maxillæ very small; the
lower jaw weak and narrow in front.

DISTRIBUTION.--Only known from Madagascar.

HABITS.--The habits of the Broad-nosed Lemur are said to differ in no
respect from those of the foregoing species.


THE SPORTIVE-LEMURS. GENUS LEPIDOLEMUR.

  _Lepilemur_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 75 (1851).

  _Lepidolemur_, Peters, M. B. Akad. Berlin, 1874, p. 690 (1874).

This genus contains, according to Dr. Forsyth Major, as many as seven
species. This excellent comparative anatomist has made a very careful
revision of the group, and the present writer has gratefully to acknowledge
from him many valuable notes incorporated under this section, as well as
his kindness in supplying for publication the diagnoses of his new species.

Dr. Major divides these seven species into two series:--(A) a group of four
larger species, and (B) a group of three smaller species.

The members of this genus are smaller than the True Lemurs of the genus
_Lemur_. Their head is conical and short, their ears large, round, and
membranaceous, and the tail is shorter than the body. In this latter
character and in their shorter limbs they differ from _Mixocebus_. The
fourth finger and toe are the longest digits of their respective
extremities, the nails of all are keeled, and that of the great toe is very
large and flat.

{84}In the skull, the muzzle is longer than the longitudinal diameter of
its orbit in the series of larger species (Section A); in the smaller
species (Section B) the muzzle is shorter.

Their dentition presents several important characters. The series of upper
molars and pre-molars form almost a straight line, both sides being almost
parallel, or only slightly convergent towards the front. In the upper jaw
the incisors are wanting; the canines are very large and grooved
internally, and have a posterior heel. There is no gap between them and the
anterior pre-molar, which last is vertically taller than the rest, and has
one cusp to the outside, whereas the median and posterior have an inner
cusp as well. The anterior and median molars have the inner hind cusp
rudimentary, but the cingulum rises into a minute cusp, both at the fore
and hind edge; the posterior molar is three-cusped. The whole of the
cheek-teeth gradually broaden and decrease in vertical height from before
backward as far as the median molar. In the lower jaw the anterior
pre-molars are large, canine-like, and decumbent, and have a strong process
on their anterior margin (resembling that in the corresponding tooth in
_Indris_); the median and posterior pre-molars have one external cusp, and
the latter tooth one interior cusp in addition. The anterior and median
molars have a rudimentary fifth cusp, which is large in the posterior
molar.

The pre-maxillæ are very much reduced, so that the teeth they usually carry
are generally wanting. The bony palate is short, its hind margin extending
back only to the middle of the median molar; its anterior foramina are
small; and it differs from that of _Microcebus_ and _Chirogale_ in having
its posterior perforations small. The angle of the lower jaw is produced
downwards and backwards. The mastoid portion of the ear-capsules (periotic
bones) as well as the squamosal are markedly {85}enlarged and swollen, in
this respect differing from the skulls of _Lemur_ and _Hapalemur_. The
ridges in the temporal bone unite into a frontal (sagittal) ridge, and the
space between the orbits is depressed; a depression is also present on the
cheek in front of the lachrymal foramen. The foot is slightly elongated by
the lengthening of the _naviculare_ bone of the ankle (_tarsus_), the thin
bones of which are short. In the wrist (_carpus_) there is no _os centrale_
or central bone, which is otherwise invariably present in the Primates,
except in Man, the Chimpanzees, the Gentle-Lemurs, and the Endrina.

The Sportive-Lemurs are confined to Madagascar and are nocturnal and
arboreal creatures, feeding on leaves and fruits.

In Group A (the larger species) are included: 1, The Weasel-like Lemur (_L.
mustelinus_); 2, the Red-tailed Sportive-Lemur (_L. ruficaudatus_); 3,
Edwards' Sportive-Lemur (_L. edwardsi_); and 4, the Small-toothed
Sportive-Lemur (_L. microdon_). Group B (consisting of the smaller species)
comprises: 1, The Round-headed Sportive-Lemur (_L. globiceps_); 2,
Grandidier's Sportive-Lemur (_L. grandidieri_); and 3, the White-footed
Sportive-Lemur (_L. leucopus_). With the exception of the two first-named
species, all the others are here made known for the first time by Dr.
Forsyth Major. Very little is recorded of the habits of these animals. They
are so rare that at present the various species are known from a few skins
or alcoholic specimens in European museums. They are said to be inhabitants
only of the forest-country, nocturnal in their habits, sleeping coiled up
in some retreat all day, but issuing forth at night, at which time they are
very agile in their movements.


{86}SECTION A. (SPECIES MAJORES.)


I. THE WEASEL-LIKE SPORTIVE-LEMUR. LEPIDOLEMUR MUSTELINUS.

  _Lepilemur mustelinus_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 76 (1851);
  Schl. et Pollen, Faun. Madag., Mammif., p. 10, pls. 4, 6, fig. 3; Schl.,
  Mus. P. B., vii., p. 317 (1876).

  _Lepilemur dorsalis_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus. App., p. 135 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Fur soft and woolly; ears rounded, naked excepting at the base
behind; muzzle elongated. Above, reddish-grey. Face and cheeks grey; throat
white; under side of body and inner side of limbs, pale grey; tail
short-haired, the posterior third dark brown. Length of body, 14 inches;
and tail 10 inches.

Skull large and massive; the brain-case small and inflated; facial region
long, differing in this character from _L. ruficaudatus_; orbits very
large, thus differing from the three remaining species of the larger group
(A); the process of the maxilla intervening between the nasal and lachrymal
bones; molar teeth large.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species occurs in the north-east of Madagascar, and,
according to Grandidier, in the north-western corner of the island.

HABITS.--The "Fitili-ki," as the natives have named this animal, is found
in the forests in small companies. It is nocturnal in its habits, feeding
on leaves and fruits.


II. THE RED-TAILED SPORTIVE-LEMUR. LEPIDOLEMUR RUFICAUDATUS.

  _Lepilemur ruficaudatus_, Grandidier, Rev. et. Mag. de Zool., 1867, p.
  256.

  {87}_Lepilemur pallidicauda_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 850.

  _Lepilemur mustelinus_ (nec. Is. Geoffr.), Schl., Mus. P. B., vii., p.
  317 (in part).

CHARACTERS.--Smaller than the last species; head much broader than it is
long; snout short and conical; ears ovate, exposed, short-haired; tail
long, thicker at the end, and covered with softer and longer hairs. Fur
pale or reddish-grey; head dark brown; the shoulders and outer side of the
arms grey, washed with brown; chin, breast, and inner side of limbs and
under side of body whitish; upper side of the base of the tail rather dark
brown, this colour extending further down in the tail of the female; rest
of the tail uniform pale brownish or greyish-red.

Skull very broad compared with its length, more massive, and showing a
shorter muzzle than in _L. mustelinus_; orbits smaller than in any of the
other species in Group A.

DISTRIBUTION.--South-western Madagascar.


III. MILNE-EDWARDS' SPORTIVE-LEMUR. LEPIDOLEMUR EDWARDSI.

  _Lepidolemur edwardsi_, Forsyth Major.[5]

CHARACTERS.--"Similar to _L. ruficaudatus_; upper part of head grey; ears
membranaceous, but encircled on the inner and posterior side by an
incomplete belt of dark brown colour, which distinguishes the species from
_L. ruficaudatus_; shoulders and outer side of the fore-limbs
reddish-brown. Back greyish-brown, lighter on the outer side of the
hind-limbs; an uninterrupted dark dorsal streak from the middle of the back
to the centre of {88}the forehead is very conspicuous between the
shoulders. Breast, inner sides of the fore- and hind-limbs, and lower
surface of the body greyish-white.

"The skull long and narrow; molars and pre-molars large, especially
transversely; orbits small, yet larger than in _L. ruficaudatus_; the
mastoidal portion of the ear-capsules and squamosal region of the skull
conspicuously inflated. Bony palate more elongate than in _L. mustelinus_;
par-occipital process present."

DISTRIBUTION.--Betsako, north-west of Madagascar.


IV. THE SMALL-TOOTHED SPORTIVE-LEMUR. LEPIDOLEMUR MICRODON.

  _Lepidolemur microdon_, Forsyth Major.

CHARACTERS.--"Somewhat similar to the Weasel-like Lemur (_L. mustelinus_)
in coloration, but having the back and the outer portion of the shoulder
and fore-limbs bright chestnut, passing into russet on the back (darker
between the shoulders), on the outer parts of the hind-limbs and tail, as
well as on the top of the head, where it is washed with greyish. A dark,
dorsal stripe from the centre of the forehead to the middle of the back,
where it is darkest. Breast and under surface of body yellowish-grey.

"Skull markedly distinguished from that of the other species by the small
size of the molars; pre-molars not diminished in size; a depression at the
base of the nasals; the bony palate more elongated than in _L.
mustelinus_."

DISTRIBUTION.--The eastern districts of the Betsileo province, Central
Madagascar.

PLATE IX.

[Illustration: THE WHITE-FOOTED SPORTIVE-LEMUR.]



{89}SECTION B. (SPECIES MINORES.)


V. THE ROUND-HEADED SPORTIVE-LEMUR. LEPIDOLEMUR GLOBICEPS.

  _Lepidolemur globiceps_, Forsyth Major.

CHARACTERS.--"The smallest of the Sportive-Lemurs. Similar to _Lepidolemur
ruficaudatus_, but less rufous down the fore-limbs; the tail drab colour.

"Skull very characteristic; the brain-case broad, high, and globose, the
facial region short; the premaxillæ more reduced than in any other species;
the external auditory channel very large; the occipital region less
vertical than in the species of Section A."

DISTRIBUTION.--Ambulisatra, south-west Madagascar.


VI. GRANDIDIER'S SPORTIVE-LEMUR. LEPIDOLEMUR GRANDIDIERI.

  _Lepilemur mustelinus_, Gray (nec Geoffr.), P. Z. S., 1863, p. 144.

  _Lepidolemur grandidieri_, Forsyth Major.

CHARACTERS.--"General colour cinnamon; head greyish; an indistinct median
dorsal streak from the forehead along the back; inner side of the limbs and
under side of the body yellowish-grey.

"Skull remarkable for the large size of its orbits, and for the anterior
convergence of its upper dental cheek-series being greater than in the
other members of the group."

DISTRIBUTION.--North-west Madagascar.


VII. WHITE-FOOTED SPORTIVE-LEMUR. LEPIDOLEMUR LEUCOPUS.

  _Lepidolemur leucopus_, Forsyth Major, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xiii.,
  p. 211 (1894).

  (_Plate IX._)

{90}CHARACTERS.--Ears large, long, membranaceous; tail shorter than the
body. Upper side Chinchilla-grey, with an indistinct median brownish stripe
from the neck to the root of the tail. Top of head brownish-grey, with a
darker median stripe; cheeks and chin whitish. Ears encircled by a broad
ring of whitish hair. Neck, shoulders, and upper parts of the fore-arm pale
rufous. Breast and belly greyish-white; inner surfaces of the hind-limbs
and the heels pure white.[6] Tail greyish, with a rusty tinge. Length, 12
inches; tail, 10½ inches.

The skull is longer and broader than that of _L. grandidieri_; the
mastoidal portion of the ear-capsules and the adjacent squamosal region
very largely inflated; bony palate elongated; dental cheek-series short;
molar teeth small and slender, distinguishing this species from _L.
grandidieri_, their small size also separating it from _L. globiceps_.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species is at present known only from Fort Dauphin in
the south-east of Madagascar. [Type in British Museum.]



THE ENDRINAS. SUB-FAMILY INDRISINÆ.


This, the last sub-family of the _Lemuridæ_, is considered to contain the
highest members of the whole Sub-order. They are distinguished by having
their fur abundant, longer and woolly above, shorter beneath, with the
hands and feet haired to the tips of the digits. Their head, set at right
angles to the spinal column, is rounded, the face elongated and naked, with
a deep furrow separating the nostrils. The eyes are large, and have a third
eyelid, or nictitating membrane, to draw across the pupil during the day.
The ears, which are naked inside and fringed {91}on the outside, are
moderately long and buried in the fur, but are less movable at will than is
the case with the Galagos. Their fore-limbs are much shorter than the hind
ones. The arms, which are united to the body by a parachute-like fold of
integument, have long, narrow, and strong hands, of which the thumb is
short, set far back, and but little opposable. The rest of the fingers,
except the index, which is short, are long and slender, and terminate in a
round disc. The feet are elongate, and the great toe, which is freely
opposable to the other toes, is very large and broad, being, indeed, nearly
as wide as the rest of the digits together; the remaining toes are united
by a membrane as far as the second segment. The females have the mammæ
situated on the breast.

In the skull the facial region is relatively small, and the cranial region
relatively large. The external nostrils communicate with a cavity on the
underlying bone; the pre-maxillary bones are deeply excavated in front, and
the anterior perforations in the bony palate, behind the incisor teeth, are
large. The lower jaw has its angle large, produced backwards, the line of
union of its two halves being long, and its lateral movements very limited.
In regard to their dentition, the number of the milk-teeth in the young
individual is greater than that of the permanent set in the adult, the
formula of the former being I2/2, C1/1, P2/3 [M3/3], while that of the
latter is I2/2, C1/0, P2/2, M3/3, the lower canine and one lower pre-molar
having disappeared. In the upper jaw the incisors are very small, the outer
one standing behind the inner one, with a space between the former and the
canine; the canines are long, curved behind, and set close up to the
anterior pre-molar. The pre-molars are longer than they are broad,
laterally compressed, and present to the outside one main triangular cusp
with a small accessory cusp on each {92}side, the posterior tooth of the
series having a hind inner cusp. The anterior and median molars are
four-cusped, of which the outer and inner pairs are separated by a
longitudinal groove; to the outside they have one supernumerary cusp on
each main cusp, and one between them. The median molar is the largest tooth
of the jaw, and the posterior is small, triangular and three-cusped. Of the
lower jaw, the outer pair of the long, and almost horizontally protruding
incisors, is larger than the inner pair, and is separated by a space from
the anterior pre-molar. Of the elongate laterally compressed pre-molars,
the anterior is the larger, and is vertically taller than its fellows,
being slightly depressed forward and curved behind; the posterior pre-molar
has one cusp. The molars have four cusps, of which the inner ones alternate
with the outer cusps.

The intestinal canal in the _Indrisinæ_ is very long, the cæcum, or blind
diverticulum at the junction of its two portions, being extremely long and
large, occupying, indeed, a great part of the abdominal cavity. The main
arteries of the fore- and hind-limbs do not break up into a _rete
mirabile_, or series of small parallel vessels, as in many other Lemuroids.

In this group, while the sense of smell is very perfect, that of hearing is
less acute than in the other Sub-families; and that of touch conspicuously
blunt, both in the fingers and toes, which are chiefly climbing and not
tactile and prehensile organs, as they are in the corresponding limbs of
the Anthropoids. The female never produces more than one young at a birth.

The convolutions of the brain are few, but they are more complicated than
in many of the South American Monkeys. In very young individuals the
cerebellum is more covered by the cerebrum than it is in the adult.

{93}The species of this Sub-family are confined to the island of
Madagascar. Our knowledge of their general characters, anatomical structure
and habits, is very complete, through the researches, both in the field, of
M. Grandidier, and in the study, of Prof. Alphonse Milne-Edwards. These
results are published in their magnificent "Histoire de Madagascar," to
which the reader is referred for fuller information.

The _Indrisinæ_, on account of their superior organisation, and especially
their relatively large brain, are considered to be the highest of all the
Lemuroids. They are essentially arboreal. If they come to the ground they
sit upright on their hind-legs, and progress by jumps, holding their arms
above their heads. They are easily tamed, and become gentle in confinement;
but they are not very intelligent. The Endrinas "never manifest in any very
marked manner," so MM. Milne-Edwards and Grandidier tell us, "the passions
that affect the Apes so vividly; their countenance, almost as immobile as
that of an herbivorous or carnivorous animal, exhibits neither anger nor
pleasure. In captivity they do not seek to be caressed; they appear neither
to become attached to their master, nor to take interest in anything about
them." Many of their actions, however, and the peculiar sounds they often
utter, recall those of Monkeys.

Some of the species are diurnal and others nocturnal.

The Sub-family has been divided into three genera, _Avahis_ with one
species; _Propithecus_, with three species, and _Indris_ with a single
species. All its members are remarkable for the extraordinary amount of
variation in the coloration of their fur.


{94}THE AVAHI LEMURS. GENUS AVAHIS.

  _Avahi_, Jourdan, C. R., Journal l'Inst., ii., no. 62, p. 231 (1834).

  _Avahis_, Milne-Edwards and Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., Mamm., i., p.
  320 (with full synonymy).

This genus is monotypic, containing but a single species, whose characters
include necessarily those of the genus.


I. THE WOOLLY AVAHI. AVAHIS LANIGER.

  _Lemur laniger_, Gm., Syst. Nat., i., p. 44, no. 10 (1788).

  _Microrhynchus laniger_, Jourdan, Thèse inaug. Soc. Phys., Grenoble,
  1834; Mivart, P. Z. S., 1866, p. 151, pi. xv.

  _Avahis laniger_, Milne-Edwards and Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., Mamm.,
  p. 325 (with full synonymy), Atlas, pls. 9, 10.

  (_Plate X._)

CHARACTERS.--Fur woolly; the head nearly round; the face short in
proportion to the head; muzzle short, covered with hair; the nose and
region of the chin hairy; nose-pad on lip large; nostrils opening into a
cavity on the upper lip below the skin. Eyes large, the pupil vertical;
ears small, concealed in fur. Tail a little longer than the body; body
short, stumpy. Third, fourth and fifth fingers flattened; third and fourth
toes united by a membrane as far as the first joint.


PLATE X.

[Illustration: THE WOOLLY AVAHI.]


{95}Cranium more vaulted and the muzzle remarkably shorter than in the
genera _Indris_ and _Propithecus_; eye-sockets very large; the space
between the eyes hollow. Temporal ridges not uniting into a single median
ridge. Nasal bones projecting as far as the front end of the very small
pre-maxillary bone. Lower jaw remarkably deep and broad behind; line of
union of its two halves nearly half the length of the jaw, and in a
straight line with the incisor teeth. Toothless space in front of upper jaw
greater than in the other two genera. Dentition of the upper jaw:
_incisors_ small, the outer larger than the inner, set close to the canines
and not at the inner edge of the toothless space; _canines_ vertically
short; _pre-molars_, with no inner cusp, but having a prominent outer
cingulum (a character seen in no other species of Lemur); _molars_,
four-cusped. Lower jaw: _incisors_ larger than in the two other genera, and
less horizontal, the inner ones more slender than the outer. Anterior and
posterior _molars_, five-cusped. Hind margin of palate reaching to the
middle of the median molar. Central bone of wrist wanting (of all Primates
agreeing in this character only with Man, the Chimpanzees, the Gentle- and
Sportive-Lemurs and the Endrina); fourth digit of the hands and feet
longest. Tail long. The small intestine not spirally coiled upon itself,
but folded many times transversely.

Hair long, woolly, dark Mouse-grey at base, reddish-brown in the middle,
black at the tips. Face broad, entirely covered with short greyish-brown
hairs; nose-pad alone nude. Ears concealed and covered by rufous hair;
pupil of eye very contractile, very narrow and linear during the day;
across the forehead and over the eyes a transverse lunulate whitish band,
margined anteriorly by a black band. Back greyish-brown, the nape darker; a
patch over the rump, and the base of the tail and buttocks white, washed
with rufous; back and inner side of thighs and round the arms whitish; a
narrow fringe on the lower margin of arms and legs ashy-grey, washed with
rufous; fore-arm, hands and feet rusty-brown; tail bright dark red, deepest
at its extremity. Under side and inner surface of limbs grey, washed with
rufous. Length of body, 12½ inches; tail, 15¾ inches.

{96}Of this species there are two forms, an _eastern_ and a _northern_, the
latter being always smaller in size, with the fur lighter and less rusty.
In some varieties the upper surface is dark rusty-red all over, and the
inner sides of the limbs pure white. Examples from the north-west coast are
constantly smaller; the head rounder, and the facial hairs grey; no white
band on the forehead; upper surface bright yellowish-brown; tail
rusty-grey; under side of hind-limbs pure white, the under surface and
inner side of the arms whitish. The variation in coloration is due to the
middle part of the hairs, which in typical specimens is rusty-red, but is
yellow in the above-mentioned form. Hands and feet grey.

YOUNG.--Ashy-grey, slightly washed with red.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Woolly Avahi seems to inhabit only the forests of the
parallel ranges of the mountains which face the whole eastern coast of
Madagascar; it extends round the bay of Passandava on the west coast,
opposite to the northern termination of this eastern range of mountains.

HABITS.--This species--the smallest of the _Indrisinæ_--being essentially
nocturnal, is torpid during the day, and is the wildest and least docile of
the family. The first specimen of the "Avahi," the name by which this
animal is known among the Anatala tribe, was brought to Europe by Sonnerat,
the French traveller, in 1781, and nearly half a century elapsed before a
second one was obtained. Since then several specimens have been kept in
captivity in the different zoological gardens of Europe.


THE SIFAKAS. GENUS PROPITHECUS.

  _Propithecus_, Bennett, P. Z. S., 1832, p. 20; Milne-Edwards and
  Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., Mamm., i., p. 288 (with full synonymy).

{97}The characters which distinguish this genus from _Avahis_ and _Indris_
are the following: The fur with which they are covered is more silky than
woolly, and in general appearance is white, more or less washed with
yellow, varying to red or black. The head is very slightly longer than it
is broad, with a black and almost naked muzzle; the ears, half buried in
the fur, are flatter and wider than in _Indris_, the inner surface being
naked and black, and the outer haired. The nostrils are large and semilunar
in shape. The tail is long. The index-finger is not united by a membrane to
the others; their hands and feet are in a much less degree organs of
prehension than in most of the other Lemurs.

The skull in proportionate length is intermediate between that of _Avahis_
and _Indris_. Compared with _Avahis_ it is less vaulted, its muzzle is
longer, and the orbits are smaller. The space between the eyes is high, and
not depressed, on account of the presence of a large air-cavity in the
underlying bone. Their nasal bones do not reach as far forward in front as
the level of the incisor teeth. In the dentition of the upper jaw, the
incisors protrude somewhat in front, and are dilated laterally in a regular
series--thus distinguishing the genus _Propithecus_ from _Lemur_,--the
inner incisors being larger than the outer ones, with their tips
approximating. Between the canine and the anterior pre-molar there is a
short gap. The anterior and median molars have the cusps of the crown
alternate; the posterior has them opposite. In the lower jaw the incisors
are shorter and stronger than in _Avahis_, and the molars are four-cusped.

The genus _Propithecus_ contains three species; (1) The Diademed Sifaka
(_P. diadema_), (2) Verreaux's Sifaka (_P. {98}verreauxi_), both having
numerous very marked varieties; and (3) the Crowned Sifaka (_P.
coronatus_).

These species are found all round the coasts of Madagascar; as well in the
luxuriant forests on the east side as in the arid deserts and the
sparsely-wooded plains of the south-western and western coasts. Of the
three species of the genus, one (_P. diadema_) is confined to the eastern
and southern coasts, the other two (_P. verreauxi_ and _P. coronatus_) are
found only on the west coast. More or less distinctly coloured varieties or
races of these three species occur, and it is very remarkable that each of
them is rigorously restricted to localities distinct from that of the
typical species.


I. THE DIADEMED SIFAKA. PROPITHECUS DIADEMA.

  _Propithecus diadema_, Bennett, P. Z. S., 1832, p. 20; Milne-Edwards and
  Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., Mamm., p. 296 (with full synonymy), Atlas,
  pl. 1-3.

CHARACTERS.--Fur long, silky, the muzzle naked. Head shorter and rounder
than in the other species of the genus; thumb slender, like the toes, set
far back, free; great toe very strong, and in the same plane with the other
digits; a marked depression exists in the skull behind the orbits. Body, 21
inches; tail, 19 inches in length.

Forehead crossed by a broad white bar; cheeks in front of the ears, and the
under side of the chin, white or fulvous white; face black, with a few
short black hairs. Back of head, neck, shoulders, sides of body, outer
sides of arms, sometimes grey, but generally very dark brown, merging into
dark grey on the lower back. Tail at its root washed with orange-yellow,
paler in the middle, greyish-white at its extremity. Fore-arm, lower part
of arm, sacral region, and external face of hind-limbs, bright
{99}orange-yellow. Hands black-haired to the ends of the fingers, but with
long and yellow tufts of hair at the tips. Feet pale orange and haired to
the nails. Chest dark brown. Under surface white, or white tinged with
yellow, or dark brownish-grey. Internal face of the fore-limbs grey, from
the intermixture of black hairs; that of the hind-limbs pale yellow.

YOUNG.--Similar in colour to the adults, but lighter; the frontal band
yellow, not white; limbs light yellow.

VARIETIES.--Several varieties of this species--the "Simpona" of the
natives--have been described, of which the following deserve special
notice:--


THE SILKY SIFAKA. PROPITHECUS SERICEUS.

Face black, with flesh-coloured spots; the body entirely white, faintly
washed with yellow; the base of the tail washed with rust-red. It is of the
same size as the type-form, and appears to be only an albino variety.
Specimens showing every gradation in coloration between that of the type
and the absolute albino are now well known. This form, however, is more or
less restricted to the narrow belts of forest on the eastern side of the
mountains in the north-east of Madagascar, between the rivers Lokoi and
Bemarivo, a region conterminous with that inhabited by the typical species.


MILNE-EDWARDS' SIFAKA. PROPITHECUS EDWARDSI.

Differs from the true _P. diadema_ in having the face slightly haired
between the eyes and on the chin; a patch on each flank rufous-white or
orange-yellow, separated by a reddish-black band; a spot at the root of the
tail bright rusty-red, and all the rest of body black, washed slightly with
rufous. The young are like the parents. This form is also of the {100}same
size as the type, but is a melanistic variety, for a series of specimens
show every intermediate shade between that here described and the BLACK
SIFAKA (_P. holomelas_), which is of an entirely black colour, and
inhabits, as has been shown by MM. Milne-Edwards and Grandidier, the same
region as _P. edwardsi_.

DISTRIBUTION.--The typical form of the species is confined to the extended
region on the east coast of Madagascar lying between the Bay of Antongil on
the north, and the River Masora in the south, in the forest-belts on the
eastern aspect of the mountains, where rain falls abundantly and the whole
region is covered with luxuriant vegetation. Its melanistic variety (_P.
edwardsi_) extends south from the Masora as far as the Faraouny river, but
it ranges to higher and colder altitudes on the mountains; while its
albinistic variety (_P. sericeus_) lives in the somewhat warmer region to
the north of Antongil Bay, each being, to south and north respectively,
conterminous with the central habitat of the typical form.


II. VERREAUX'S SIFAKA. PROPITHECUS VERREAUXI.

  _Propithecus verreauxi_, Grandid., Album de l'île de la Réunion, iv., pp.
  153-162, pls. 1, 2 (1867); Milne-Edwards and Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag.,
  Mamm., i., p. 305 (with full synonymy), Atlas, pls. 4, 6, 8.

CHARACTERS.--Fur short and woolly; face entirely naked; head longer than
broad; a well-marked swelling of the skull between the eyes; the upper
incisors sub-equal. Smaller and more robust than _P. diadema_, the head
longer, the hair on the limbs shorter, the tail longer.

{101}Body yellowish-white; a spot on the top of the head dark brown,
sometimes washed with rufous, separated from the face by a white frontal
bar. Face black; eyes brownish-yellow; interior of ears black, and naked; a
grey patch on the middle of the back; outer aspect of the fore-arms, and
hind-legs, ashy-grey; rest of the body white. Hands and feet white. Tail
yellowish-white. Length of body, 18 inches; of tail, 22 inches.

YOUNG.--Entirely white, with a dark brown spot on the head; the under
surface of the body washed with rufous.

VARIETIES.--Two well-marked varieties of this species are known, both of
which were for many years considered to be distinct species. Continued
exploration has, however, now resulted in the accumulation in various
museums of a large amount of material from many localities, and this proves
that the two forms really belong to but one species.


VON DER DECKEN'S SIFAKA. PROPITHECUS DECKENI.

Differs from the true _P. verreauxi_ in having the face and ears black, and
the body otherwise entirely grey, or white, washed more or less with yellow
(sometimes rufous on the limbs); or of an ashy-grey colour on the loins,
neck, and outer aspect of the limbs; the under side bright rufous; chest
and inner sides of the limbs rusty-white, with a fulvous spot at the base
of the tail. Specimens from the forests of the interior have a grey spot on
the back of the neck expanding into a collar, which is absent in those from
the coast. An albino variety comes, so far as is at present known, only
from the wooded belts on the extensive plains between the rivers Manambolo
and Manjaray, on the west coast.


{102}COQUEREL'S SIFAKA. PROPITHECUS COQUERELI.

(_Plate XI._)

Has the face naked and black, but the centre of the nose white; the ears
showing as black points amid the white hair; head and back of neck white,
slightly washed with yellow; outer side of arm and fore-arm dark
maroon-red, the lower border fringed with long white hair; a maroon patch
on the upper and outer surface of the thighs, lighter on the chest and
central part of the belly. Loins dark rusty-grey; hands white; tail
rusty-grey.

DISTRIBUTION.--Verreaux's Sifaka, with its two varieties, is confined to
the small thin woods on the sandy and almost rain-less plains along the
western and southern coasts of Madagascar. The type-form is found, alone,
and unassociated, in the extensive plains of Mesozoic geological
formation--between the southern base of the eastern range of mountains and
the River Tsidsubon, which flows into the sea on the west coast. Von der
Decken's Sifaka inhabits the middle of the west coast, while Coquerel's
Sifaka has its home further to the north. It occupies the area between the
south side of Narendry Bay and the north side of Bembatoka Bay, the
Betsiboka River being its extreme southern limit.

Though first observed by Flacourt, and described by him in 1661, Verreaux's
Sifaka remained practically unknown from that time till re-discovered by M.
Grandidier in 1867.


III. THE CROWNED SIFAKA. PROPITHECUS CORONATUS.

  _Propithecus coronatus_, Milne-Edwards, Rev. Scient., 1871, p. 224; id.
  et Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., Mamm., i., p. 316 (with full synonymy),
  Atlas, pl. 7.

PLATE XI.

[Illustration: COQUEREL'S SIFAKA.]


{103}CHARACTERS.--Muzzle very broad and naked; nose-pad wide; inside of
ears naked. Face, top of head, sides of neck, and throat, deep
brownish-black; muzzle black; a band across the temples, and a streak down
the nose, white. Ears black inside, fringed externally with white; neck and
upper surface white, washed with rust-colour on the limbs and root of the
tail. Tail, hands, and feet, pure white. Under side rich orange-red, darker
across the chest; inside of limbs white, washed with rufous. Of the same
size as _P. verreauxi_.

Cranium larger in all its parts than in other species. Nasal bones
elongated beyond the incisor teeth; nose very flat, this being due to the
large air-cavity (called false nose) in the jaw-bone below, connected with
the nose. The length and breadth of the muzzle gives a peculiar expression
to the face of _P. coronatus_.

This species, like the preceding, is subject to considerable variation.

The whole head is sometimes grey, washed with rufous; the upper surface and
root of the tail white, flushed with rust-colour.

In examples living further in the interior than the habitat of the type
(Bay of Bembatoka), the back is more rufous, the neck has a large grey or
brown patch, and the chest is very dark brownish rust-colour. The abdomen
and the inner sides of the limbs are bright red.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species occurs on the north-west coast of Madagascar,
between the Bay of Mozamba to the north and the River Manjaray on the
south, ranging over the country to a considerable distance into the
interior. The lighter-coloured specimens come from the more northern range
of the species, while the more brightly-marked varieties have been obtained
{104}in the interior more to the south. It is curious, remarks M.
Grandidier, to find races and species of the same genus so exactly
restricted, that one has only to cross a river, not necessarily large, in
order to obtain on one bank certain species of _Propithecus_, whereas those
occurring on the opposite bank may be of a very distinct species or race.
To what influence in their surroundings can all these variations be
ascribed? One can understand that species inhabiting a wooded and humid
country, or living among granitic mountains (as _P. diadema_ does), would
differ in size and fur from other members of the same genus which live in
dry and arid plains (as in the case of _P. verreauxi_); but how can the
great variations that occur in members of the same species living a few
miles, and perhaps only a few metres, apart, be explained, when the
external conditions are almost the same?

HABITS.--The habits of the different species of Sifaka are very similar.
They live in companies of six or eight, and are very gentle and inoffensive
animals, wearing always a most melancholy expression, and, as a rule, being
morose, inactive, and more silent than other Lemurs. They rarely live long
in captivity. In their native state they are most alert in the morning and
evening, as during the heat of the day they conceal themselves amid the
foliage of the trees. When asleep or in repose, the head is dropped on the
chest and buried between the arms, the tail rolled up on itself and
disposed between the hind-legs. The Sifakas live exclusively on vegetable
substances--leaves, fruits and flowers--their diet not being varied, as in
the other groups, by small birds, eggs, or insects. Their life is almost
entirely arboreal, for which the muscles of their hands and feet, as well
as the parachute-like fold of skin between their arms and body, and their
peculiarly hook-like fingers, are most fitted. The young one is carried
about by its mother on her back, its hands grasping her arm-pits tightly.
The Sifakas are held in great veneration or fear by the natives of
Madagascar, and are never intentionally killed by them.

PLATE XII.

[Illustration: THE ENDRINA.]



{105}THE ENDRINAS. GENUS INDRIS.

  _Indris_, Cuv. et Geoffr., Mag. Encycl., 2 ed. Ann. i., p. 46 (1796);
  Milne-Edwards and Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag., Mamm., i., p. 330 (with
  full synonymy).

This genus is, like the first of the sub-family, monotypic, no second
species having rewarded the many explorers of Madagascar in the long period
that has elapsed since its solitary species was discovered. This species is
known as


I. THE ENDRINA. INDRIS BREVICAUDATUS.

  _Indris brevicaudatus_, Geoffr., Mag. Encycl., 2 ed. Ann., p. 46 (1796).

  _Indris variegatus_, Gray, Ann. and Mag. N. H. (4), x., p., 474 (1872).

  _Indris brevicaudatus_, Milne-Edwards and Grandid., Hist. Nat. Madag.,
  Mamm., i., p. 336 (with full synonymy), Atlas, pls. xi.-xii.

  (_Plate XII._)

CHARACTERS.--The peculiar features of the species, as given below, are
necessarily those of the genus also.

Fur long and woolly, extremely variable in its coloration. Head rounded,
longer than it is broad; muzzle moderately long, covered with very short
hairs; fingers and toes haired to the finger-tips; external ears rounded,
exserted, and more developed than in _Avahis_ or _Propithecus_, with long
and tufted {106}hair forming a fringe all round. Median nose-pad high and
narrow; pupil of eye circular; body elongated; arms about one quarter of
the length of the legs; hands very long, the four outer fingers united by a
membrane as far as the first joint, and the toes to the centre of their
middle segments; hands and feet haired to the tips. Tail rudimentary.

Skull longer and less vaulted; brain-case proportionately more compressed
from side to side; the muzzle longer, and the orbit smaller, than in
_Avahis_; floor of orbit higher than the bony margin of the jaw;
inter-orbital space flat; nasal bones, though long, not extending in front
as far as the end of the pre-maxillary bone; mandible elongated, narrower,
and less deep than in _Avahis_. Bony palate short, posterior margin
thickened, and with a foramen behind the posterior molar; line of union of
the two halves of the lower jaw shorter than in _Avahis_; its angle very
large. No central bone in the wrist (or _carpus_); hind-limb (with or
without the foot), compared with the fore-limb (with or without the hand),
longer than in any other of the Primates, except _Galago_. _Upper teeth_:
Incisors, sub-equal, set close together and subject to variation in size;
canine, vertically taller than, and not separated by a gap from, the
pre-molar; pre-molars compressed, and having an inner cusp; anterior
molars, four-cusped, with the supplementary cusps weak, and with no oblique
ridge; anterior and median, with their outer and inner cusps opposite;
posterior molar, which is the smallest grinder of the jaw--four-cusped,
with transverse, but no oblique ridges. _Lower teeth_: Incisors, with
marked longitudinal ridges to the outside (peculiar to this genus);
pre-molars sub-equal; molars all four-cusped, and the posterior ones
expanded behind.

Brain highly organised. A large laryngeal pouch (present {107}also in the
foetus), but differing from that of the Apes, is placed between the gullet
and windpipe, communicating with the latter by an orifice: main arteries of
the fore- and hind-limbs not broken up into a _rete mirabile_ of small
parallel vessels, as in many species of Lemurs.

Face naked, sometimes blackish, generally dark grey; lips downy; head,
neck, back, shoulders, arms, and hands, deep black; fore-arms faintly
washed with rufous; a large patch, widening from the middle of the back
downwards to the lower back, rump, and root of the tail pure white, washed
with orange or red; a patch on each flank, pale, becoming rufous or
greyish-white, separated from the rump-spot by black bands continuing down
the outer side of the inner face of the thighs, and the front and inner
sides of the legs; thighs ashy-grey, their upper two-thirds greyish,
becoming black on the front, and ashy-grey on the hinder surface, of the
leg. Feet black; tail stumpy, fawn-colour, brownish-grey at the tip; under
side rusty brown; abdomen grey; heel rufous.

Many varieties of this species have been met with. Of these, some have the
top of the head and between the eyes greyish-white, mixed here and there
with black; jaws and throat, grey; ears, neck, back and upper part of arms,
black; the fore-arms grey; the hands black; a patch on the lower back
ashy-grey; flanks bright rufous; legs grey; band on front of the thighs
black; heel bright rufous.

Other examples have a mark over each eyebrow, the fore-limbs nearly to the
hands, the hinder part of the thighs, the legs from the knee to the ankle,
and the whole under side iron-grey; the ankles and hind part of the heels
white, yellow below. (_Indris variegatus_, Gray.)

All stages between the forms here described and complete {108}albinos are
known; so that the various differences observed prove them to be only
individual variations of the same species.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Endrina is confined to the woods looking eastward, on
the two high ranges along the eastern coast, between the Bay of Antongil on
the north and the River Masora on the south.

HABITS.--The "Endrina," "Bàbakòto," or "Amboanala" (Dog of the Forest), as
the natives variously name this species, has the same habits as the
Sifakas. It is the largest of the Lemurs, and is diurnal. It derives its
appellation of "Dog of the Forest" from the doleful, dog-like howls which
it utters. In this habit it differs, therefore, from most of the other
groups (except the True Lemurs), which are, as a rule, rather silent. Its
powerful voice is due to the distensible resonator which it possesses in
its laryngeal pouch, described above. Essentially diurnal, the Endrinas
live in small companies, and feed only on vegetable diet. The hook-like
fingers of their hands are better adapted for climbing than for prehension,
and much of their food is, indeed, seized by the mouth. They are entirely
arboreal, and move about the trees in an erect position, rarely coming to
the ground. The "Bàbakòto" is held in great veneration by most of the
native tribes.

M. Pollen gives several other particulars of these Lemurs, and of the
curious notions of the Malagasy respecting them. Their native name is
"Bàbakòto," literally "Father-child" (or "boy"), not "Indri," as stated by
Sonnerat, who discovered the species. _Indri_, or _Indry_, is a Malagasy
word meaning "lo!" or "behold!" and was probably mistaken by him and other
Europeans for the vernacular name of the animal when the {109}natives
exclaimed, "Indry izy!" ("There he is!"). Dr. A. Vinson says that, in
passing through the great Eastern forest, he was assailed for two days by
the incessant clamour of these Lemurs, which seem to keep together in large
companies, but are invisible in the dense foliage. The natives have a
superstitious veneration for these animals, and consider them as sacred.
They believe that their ancestors change after death into _Bàbakòto_, and
that the trees where these animals live supply infallible remedies against
otherwise incurable diseases. The people say that it is very dangerous to
kill these Lemurs with spears, because if a spear is hurled against one of
them it seizes the spear in its flight without being itself hurt, and in
its turn stabs with certain aim those attacking it. They also relate that
when the female has borne a young one, she takes the little creature in her
arms and tosses it to her mate, who is seated on a neighbouring tree, and
that he throws it back to the female. If the little one does not fall to
the ground after being subjected to this exercise for a dozen times, the
parents bring it up with the greatest care; but, if the contrary event
happens, they abandon it, not even troubling to pick it up. In certain
parts of Madagascar, says M. Pollen, the people employ the _Bàbakòto_ in
chasing birds, and they say that it renders as good service as a Dog. These
animals, although principally fruit-eaters, do not disdain small birds,
which they catch with much skill, in order to eat their brains.

This Lemuroid is probably the best known to travellers in Madagascar, at
least by ear, as no one can travel along the most frequented route in the
island, that from Tamatave to Antananarivo, without often hearing the cries
of these animals as he passes through the great forest. They are not often
seen, but their long drawn-out melancholy cries are frequently heard, a
{110}strange wailing sound, as if of people in distress, or children
crying. Dr. Vinson says that the Bètànimèna tribe let these animals at
liberty if they find them in captivity, and give them burial should they
find them dead. They relate that a certain tribe, at war with its
neighbours, took refuge in the forests; their enemies, in pursuing them,
led by the sound of human voices, as they supposed, found before them a
troop of _Bàbakòto_, at whose appearance they were struck with terror. They
fled, persuaded that the fugitives had been changed into beasts. These, on
the other hand, vowed eternal gratitude to the Lemurs who had saved them,
and have ever since religiously refrained from injuring them in any way.



EXTINCT LEMUROIDEA.


On a former page (_anteà_, p. 13), attention was drawn to the interrupted
distribution of the Lemurs, and to their present restricted range to the
tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa, of Madagascar, and of part of
the mainland and of the islands of the Asiatic continent. In times
geologically not very remote, they were inhabitants of both worlds.

The earliest appearance of the Primates in time is at the beginning of the
Tertiary period. Lemuroids, some of them of a more or less primitive type,
then lived in Europe in the Lower Eocene period. In the higher beds of the
same epoch (to which the fresh-water deposits of the London clay of
England, the Plastic clay of France, and the prolific Wasatch beds of
Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado of America belong) undoubted Lemurs are
represented by many genera, which in the Middle Eocene attained to a great
development.

In the Upper Eocene of Europe many distinctively {111}Lemuroid genera
(_Adapis_, _Microchærus_, &c.) "formed," as Zittel remarks, "a very
characteristic element of the fauna; they are connected with old Tertiary
fore-runners, and combine features of the existing Lemurs and true Apes."
The presence of these heat-loving animals in such northern latitudes
undoubtedly indicates the existence there of a climate more genial at that
epoch than now. In the corresponding period in North America remains have
been less plentifully found; but for the most part the genera are
representatives of those of the European beds.

In strata of Oligocene and older Miocene age no Lemuroid remains have come
to light in Europe, and they are represented by only one or two doubtful
forms in America. After that date they apparently vanished from the New
World and from the northern portions of the Old.

Many of these extinct Lemuroids so combine the characters of the
_Insectivora_ and the _Ungulata_ (or hoofed animals), with those of their
own Sub-order, that it is often extremely difficult, even impossible,
sometimes, to determine to which Order they really belong, owing to a
blending of characters due to their common origin. The Upper Eocene forms
present many affinities with the South American Capuchin Monkeys
(_Cebidæ_). Dr. Forsyth Major is of opinion, however, that they are more
highly, and not (as is generally believed) less specialised than those now
living, which appear to have been the subject of retrogressive development.

The species to be noticed below are some of the more important of those
which have been ascertained to belong to the present Sub-order.

No remains assignable with certainty to the families _Chiromyidæ_ or
_Tarsiidæ_, have as yet been discovered. The first form {112}to be
mentioned belongs to a family which has now no living representatives.



FAMILY MEGALADAPIDÆ.


This family has recently been established by Dr. Forsyth Major, for a
fossil species represented by the greater portion of a large cranium and
part of its lower jaw, found in a marsh at Amboulisatra, on the south-west
coast of Madagascar. This species is the only representative of the single
genus of the family.


GENUS MEGALADAPIS.

  _Megaladapis_, Forsyth Major, Phil. Trans., vol. 185 B, p. 15 (1894).

The cranium, about 10 inches long, indicates an aged animal three or four
times as long as the common Cat, which is an enormous size as compared with
any living Lemur. Brain-case straight, narrow, short, low, and situated at
a higher level than the facial region; an enormous lateral development of
the region between the eyes; orbits small in diameter, communicating freely
with the temporal fossa, protruding outwards and forwards, and surrounded
by a thickened ring; facial region elongate and bent upward; palate convex
downwards from front to back; ridges for attachment of the temporal muscles
uniting in a great central crest; frontal bones constricted behind the
orbits; maxillary bones behind the molar teeth greatly inflated by
air-cavities; the two halves of the lower jaw ossified together. In the
upper jaw the pre-molars have one outer and one inner cusp, and the molars
one internal and two external cusps, the former being deeply separated from
the hind outer cusp, and joined by a ridge to the front outer cusp. In the
lower {113}jaw, the posterior pre-molar has one outer cusp, a fore and hind
inner cusp (each joined by a crescent to the outer cusp), and a central
inner cusp; the three molars have two outer and three alternating inner
cusps, and to the outer side a basal cingulum; the posterior molar has a
strongly cusped heel.

MEGALADAPIS MADAGASCARIENSIS, Forsyth Major, the only species of the genus,
presents many marsupial and insectivorous characters and features which
show some approach towards the South-American Howlers (_Alouatta_), a
specialisation "not in the least," according to Dr. Major, "implying a near
relationship, but probably only an adaptation to a corresponding function"
implied in the "vocal organs of unusual size," which, he believes,
_Megaladapis_ to have possessed. Lemurine characters, however, predominate.
In the shape of its molars it is related to _Lepidolemur_, and still more
closely to _Microcebus_ and _Chirogale_, while by the characters of its
inter-orbital region it approaches to the Sifakas (_Propithecus_) and the
extinct _Adapis_.

The small diameter of its orbits suggests, according to Dr. Major, that in
habits this extinct giant Lemur was diurnal; and from the conformation of
its lower jaw "there exists," continues the same distinguished
investigator, "a strong assumption that, as in _Alouatta_, it was provided
with vocal organs of unusual size."

The age of this Howling Lemur, estimated either geologically or by years,
cannot be of very great antiquity. Its remains were found associated with
those of the giant Moa-like bird, the _Æpyornis_, of Tortoises and
Hippopotami, all now extinct, and of Crocodiles still living in the
interior lakes of the island. Some of these animals were certainly
{114}contemporaneous with the now vanished Dodo and the large flightless
Rail (_Aphanapteryx_), both of which were seen alive by Europeans little
more than two centuries ago, and it is not improbable that Megaladapis may
have been living in the Madagascar forests at the same period.



FAMILY LEMURIDÆ (_anteà_, p. 22).


In this family, and in its sub-family _Lemurinæ_ (because of its affinities
with _Hapalemur_), has to be included a large extinct species from Nossi
Vey, in North-west Madagascar. Its fossil remains were recently described
(P. Z. S., 1893, p. 532), but not named by Dr. Forsyth Major. They will
prove, he believes, when more fully known, to be the type of a new genus.
At present, however, owing to their incomplete state, it is not possible to
describe the species fully. "The Lemuroid nature of the specimen is at once
demonstrated by the great elevation and downward bending of the
post-orbital processes ... showing that the osseous ring of the orbit was
complete." Unusual for a Lemuroid is the very strong post-orbital
constriction of the frontals, a character, however, seen in _Adapis_, an
Eocene European form, and in _Hapalemur_. With the latter it agrees in the
voluminous cranial and very short facial portion, and the "cuttingly sharp"
inferior margin of its post-orbital process. Seen from the side, this
fossil cranium is almost vertically truncated behind, as in the skull of
_Alouatta_. The region between the eyes is vaulted by underlying
air-chambers.



FAMILY ANAPTOMORPHIDÆ.


This family includes certain fossil forms of Lower Eocene age from the
phosphatic deposits of Quercy in France, the {115}Wasatch strata of
Wyoming, and the Puerco beds in New Mexico. Their dental formula is the
same as that of existing Lemurs, namely I2/(2-1), C1/(1-0), P(2-3)/(2-3),
M3/3. In some of the genera there is a tendency to develop, as Cope has
pointed out, large cutting teeth in the position of incisors, "thus
approaching the Aye-Aye." The posterior pre-molars are more simple than the
anterior true molar, a character which indicates some relationship to the
Mouse-Lemurs (_Chirogale_). The mastoidal or posterior portion of the
ear-capsules, and the neighbouring squamosal region of the cranium are
swollen, as among the Galagos.


GENUS MICROCHÆRUS.

  _Microchærus_, Wood, Lond. Geol. Journ., i., p. 5 (1846).

  _Heterohyus_, Gerv., Zool. et Pal. Fr., p. 202, pl. 35, fig. 14.

  _Necrolemur_, Filhol, C. R., lxxxvii., p. 1112 (1873); id. Ann. Sc.
  Geol., viii., p. 55, pl. iv., figs. 213-217 (1877).

This genus is distinguished from all other Lemurs by "the angle of the
mandible being produced into a large hook-like flange." (Flower and
Lydekker.) The orbits are large, indicating a nocturnal animal; the
inter-orbital space is wide, and distinguishes it from _Loris_. The dental
formula is I2/1, C1/1, P3/3, M3/3. The canine teeth are not prominent; the
anterior lower pre-molar is only slightly developed; a gap separates the
anterior and the median upper pre-molars.

This genus is represented by five species. MICROCHÆRUS ANTIQUUS (Filhol) is
of very small size, and has many affinities with _Galago_, as exhibited in
the well-preserved cranium that has been recovered from the Phosphorites of
Central France. The two lower molars have only one root. M. ERINACEUS,
{116}Wood, from the Upper Eocene of Hampshire; M. EDWARDSI (Filhol), from
Central France, a species larger than _M. antiquus_, presents dental
characters similar to the Galagos and the Mouse-Lemurs; M. PARVULUS
(Filhol), and M. ZITTELI (Schlosser), are both from the Quercy Phosphorites
of France; while M. ARMATUS is from the Eocene of Alsace, and M.
(CRYPTOPITHECUS) SIDEROLITHICUS from the Bonerg of Frohnstellen.


GENUS MIXODECTES.

  _Mixodectes_, Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., p. 447 (1883); id., Rep. U.
  S. Geol. Surv., iii., p. 240, pl. xxiv. f, figs. 1 and 2.

The members of this genus, founded on fragmentary mandibles from the Puerco
(Lower Eocene) strata of New Mexico, have a large front tooth "issuing from
the ramus at the symphysis like a rodent incisor, the second tooth being
similar but smaller and posterior and external to the first." The genus is
represented by two species, M. PUNGENS, Cope, and M. CRASSIUSCULUS, Cope.


GENUS CYNODONTOMYS.

  _Cynodontomys_, Cope, Palæont. Bull., p. 151 (1882); id., Rep. U. S.
  Geol. Surv., iii., p. 243, pl. xxiv., fig. 2.

This genus contains but one species, founded on several lower jaws
disinterred from the Wasatch beds in the Big-Horn Bad-lands, in Northern
Wyoming. The lower incisors, or perhaps, canines, are very large and close
to the line of union of the two halves of the jaw; the molars have three
cusps in front and a heel behind. The dental characters of the genus
"resemble considerably those of _Anaptomorphus_ and _Necrolemur_
[_Microchærus_] but the large size of the inferior canine {117}or incisor
tooth distinguishes it from both." (Cope.) C. LATIDENS, Cope, is the only
species.


GENUS OMOMYS.

  _Omomys_, Leidy, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., vii., p. 408 (1869).

This genus was established for the first Mammalian fossil--a lower
jaw--described from the Bridger-beds as O. CARTERI. The posterior lower
molar has cusps in opposing pairs; pre-molars, three in number, the two
anterior one-cusped, the posterior two-cusped. The chin was longer and less
rounded than in _Anaptomorphus_.


GENUS ANAPTOMORPHUS.

  _Anaptomorphus_, Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., 1872, p. 554; id., Rep. U.
  S. Geol. Surv., iii., p. 245, pl. xxiv. e, fig. 1; xxv., fig. 10.

This genus was founded by Cope on an almost entire cranium discovered in
the Bridger (Eocene) beds of the upper Valley of Green river, and on other
remains from what is known as the Wasatch formation of the Big-Horn Basin
in Wyoming Territory, in North America. The external upper incisor is small
and set close to the small canine; the pre-molars have each a large
external and a smaller internal cusp; the true molars are wide and have one
internal and two external cusps. In the lower jaw the two anterior molars
are four-cusped, with a transverse ridge between the anterior pair, and an
oblique ridge between the hind inner, and the front outer, cusp; the
posterior is three-cusped and has a heel. The orbits are enclosed, as in
typical Lemurs. Not less typical characters are the position of the
lachrymal foramen, external to the orbit, and the unossified halves of the
lower jaw. "Its dental formula (I2/2, {118}C1/1, P2/2, M3/3) agrees only
with the _Indrisinæ_. But no known _Lemuridæ_ possess anterior lobes and
cusps on all the pre-molars, so that in this respect, as in the number of
its teeth, this genus resembles the higher Monkeys, the _Simiidæ_ and
_Hominidæ_, more than any existing member of the family.... It has ... a
number of resemblances to _Tarsius_, which is, perhaps, its nearest ally
among the Lemurs, although that genus has three pre-molars.... There is no
doubt but that the genus _Anaptomorphus_ is the most Simian Lemur yet
discovered...." (_Cope._)

The species included in this genus are A. ÆMULUS (Cope), which did not
exceed the size of a Marmoset or a Red Squirrel, and had short erect
incisors; A. HOMUNCULUS (Cope), a species founded on a cranium without a
lower jaw, with the orbits not so large as in _Tarsius_, and the skull wide
behind the eyes. "The _A. homunculus_ was nocturnal in its habits,"
according to Professor Cope, "and its food was like that of the smaller
Lemurs of Madagascar and the Malayan islands. Its size is a little less
than that of the _Tarsius tarsius_."

Two other insufficiently characterised genera, both considered to be
primitive Lemuroids, are _Plesiadapis_, Gervais, containing the species P.
REMENSIS, P. GERVAISI, P. TOURNESARTI, and P. DAUBREI, from the Lower
Eocene strata of Rheims, which have five-cusped lower molars, and enlarged
upper and lower incisors; and _Protoadapis_, Lemoine, with one or two high
front cusps, and a low heel to its three pre-molars; the anterior molars
with two pairs of opposite cusps, the posterior molar with a fifth cusp on
the hind border. P. CRASSICUSPIDENS, Lemoine, and P. RECTICUSPIDENS,
Lemoine, are its two species.


{119}FAMILY ADAPIDÆ.

The different species associated together under this family are abundantly
known from the Upper Eocene of France, England, and North America. They are
remarkable in having an extra pre-molar in both jaws, the dental formula
being I2/2, C1/1, P4/4, M3/3.


GENUS ADAPIS.

  _Adapis_, Cuvier, Ossem. Foss. (2) iii., p. 265 (1822); Flower, Ann. and
  Mag. N. H., xvii., (1876), p. 323.

  _Palæolemur_, Delfort., Act. de la Soc. Linn. Bord., xxix., pp. 87-95,
  pl. 5 (1873); id. C. R., lxxvii., p. 64 (1873).

  _Aphelotherium_, Gervais, Zool. et Pal. Franç. (1), ii., Exp. 34
  (1848-52).

  _Cænopithecus_, Rütim, Denksch. Schw. Ges. Nat., xix., p. 88 (1862).

  _Notharctus_, Leidy, Geol. Surv. Mont., p. 364 (1871).

  _? Thinolestes_, Marsh, Am. Jour. Sci., 1872 (2), p. 205.

  _? Telmalestes_, Marsh, _op. cit._, p. 206.

"The general form of the cranium," to quote Sir W. Flower, "the large size
and anterior direction of the orbits, the small and narrow muzzle ... show
its affinity to the Lemurine animals, and especially to the African forms.
The whole skull, however, is more depressed than in the slow Lemurs and
Galagos; the orbits are smaller, the brain cavity relatively smaller and
more constricted behind the orbits, and the muscular ridges more
developed."... The lower jaw is deep and stout. The posterior upper
pre-molar is very similar to a true molar. "The upper molar teeth are
nearly equal in size, and have nearly square crowns, with four distinct
cusps, one at each angle, rather obliquely placed"; the hind inner cusp
{120}of the posterior molar inconspicuous. The lower molars have two pairs
of obliquely placed cusps, connected by transverse ridges, anterior and
posterior, with an oblique ridge running forwards and inwards from the
outer hind cusp. The hindmost lower pre-molar has an internal cusp; the
lower incisors have upright spatulate crowns like those of true Apes.

Several species of this genus have been described. ADAPIS PARISIENSIS (with
the synonyms of _Aphelotherium duvernoyi_, Gervais, and _Palæolemur
betillei_, Delfortrie) is one of the best known, and its remains have been
found in Upper Eocene strata at Egerkingen, in Switzerland, at Sainte
Néboule de Béduer, and in the Paris Gypsum, in France, as well as in
England. It "more nearly resembles the Indo-African Lemurs, and not those
of the island of Madagascar, or of the extreme east, having no near
relationship with the Tarsius, the Aye-Aye, or the Indris, and not much
with the true Lemurs." (_Flower._) From the Eocene of Switzerland comes A.
LEMUROIDES. ADAPIS MAGNA (Filhol) is larger than the preceding species, has
a larger face, and a greater constriction between the cerebral and facial
regions of the skull. It has been found in the phosphatic deposits at
Raynal, in France. ADAPIS ANGUSTIDENS (Filhol), from the Quercy Phosphates
of France, is distinguished by the structure of its molars, and by the
great size of its two anterior pre-molars. A. TENEBROSUS (Leidy) has a
large lower canine. A. MINOR (Filhol) is an additional species.


GENUS TOMITHERIUM.

  _Tomitherium_, Cope, Vert. Bridg. Eoc. Wyom., p. 2, 1872.

  _Limnotherium_, Marsh, Am. Journ. Sci., 1871, ii., p. 43 (in part).

This genus, which is allied to _Adapis_, is characterised by {121}having
its lower incisors with cutting edges; the first and second lower
pre-molars with one root; the third with one cusp and a posterior heel, and
the fourth an interior lateral cusp in addition. The lower true molars have
two anterior cusps (the inner being double) and two posterior. The thigh is
long and the knee free from the body as in the _Anthropoidea_, the hand
capable of turning freely upwards at the wrist; the hind-limbs longer than
the fore-, and "the details of the lower jaw, which is co-ossified in the
centre, and teeth similar to that of the lower Monkeys." The remains of the
only known species, T. ROSTRATUM (Cope), which was about the size of the
Capuchin Monkey (_Cebus capucinus_) of Brazil, were found in the Bridger
(Eocene) beds in an isolated spot on Blacks' fork, Wyoming.


GENUS MENOTHERIUM.

  _Menotherium_, Cope, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. Territ., 1874, i., p. 22.

  _Laopithecus_, Marsh, Am. Journ. Sei., 1875, i., p. 240.

This genus was established on an under jaw from the Lower Miocene
White-river beds of Nebraska. Its molars are successively larger from
anterior to posterior; the two pairs of cusps are obliquely opposite, the
hinder pair longer than the front pair, and presenting a strong cingulum.
Its discovery was the first indication of Lemurs in the Miocene of the
United States. M. ROBUSTUM, Marsh, was as large as a Coati; and M.
LEMURINUM (Cope) about the size of a domestic Cat.


GENUS PELYCODUS.

  _Pelycodus_, Cope, Cat. Verteb. Eoc. New Mex., p. 13 (1875).

  _Tomitherium_, Cope, Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. W. of 100° mer., ii., p. 135
  (in part).

  _Lemuravus_, Marsh, Amer. Journ. Sci., 1875, i., p. 239.

{122}This genus is characterised by the second pre-molar having always two
roots; the anterior has one root and the third three; the posterior has one
external and one internal cusp. Of the true molars, all have two external
cusps; the anterior and median have two internal cusps and the posterior
has only one; of the lower teeth the posterior pre-molar has an internal
cusp and a heel; the next one has no internal cusp; the molars often have
the fore inner cusps double; the posterior molar has a strong heel. This
genus contains three species, all described by Cope (P. JARROVII, P. TUTUS,
P. FRUGIVORUS), with the hind inner cusp of the upper molars distinct from
the heel; and P. ANGULATUS, in which that cusp is small and is on the heel.
Their remains have been found in the Lower Eocene (Wasatch) beds of New
Mexico. P. HELVETICUS has been described from the Upper Eocene of
Egerkingen.


GENUS MICROSYOPS.

  _Microsyops_, Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad., 1872, p. 20.

  _Limnotherium_, Marsh, Amer. Journ. Sci., 1871, ii., p. 43 (in part).

This genus is easily distinguished, as Cope points out in his sumptuously
illustrated "Vertebrata of the Tertiary Formations of the West," by the
absence of the first (anterior) inferior pre-molar, and probably of the
superior first pre-molar also. The canine tooth of the lower jaw is very
large. The posterior pre-molar has an internal cusp, and the molars two
front inner cusps. There are three species, distinguished chiefly by size,
M. SPIERIANUS (Cope), very small; M. ELEGANS (Marsh), the largest, with
seven teeth succeeding the canine in the lower jaw; and M. SCOTTIANUS
(Cope); all from the Eocene of Wyoming.


{123}GENUS HYOPSODUS.

  _Hyopsodus_, Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philad., 1870, p. 109.

The present genus is recognised by the front inner cusp of the lower molars
being single, and their heel presenting a cusp at its inner hind angle
(except in _H. acolytus_). Of the upper pre-molars, the median and
posterior have an internal cusp; and the molars have two outer and two
inner cusps with two small intermediate tubercles. There are six species
known, from the Wasatch and Bridger beds of Wyoming and New Mexico, of
which H. ACOLYTUS is distinguished by having the heel of the anterior and
median lower molars without an inner hind cusp. Professor Cope remarks that
though the species of this genus are not numerous, individuals of some of
them are exceedingly common in the Eocene beds of Wyoming. H. PAULUS and H.
MINUSCULUS, Leidy, H. VICARIUS and H. POWELLIANUS, Cope, with H. JURENSIS,
Rutimeyer, from the Upper Eocene of Egerkingen, are the best known species.

The genera INDRODON, Cope, from the Lower Eocene Puerco formation of New
Mexico, with three cusped upper and four cusped lower molars; OPISTHOTOMUS,
APHELISCUS, and SARCOLEMUR, Cope, from the Wasatch of Wyoming; HIPPOSYUS,
Leidy; BATHRODON, MESACODON, and STENACODON, Marsh, from the Middle Eocene
Bridger beds; are of doubtful affinities.



II. THE MONKEYS AND APES--SUB-ORDER ANTHROPOIDEA.


This Sub-order, though containing animals of much higher organisation than
the _Lemuroidea_, embraces species presenting many different grades of
intelligence, and ranging in size from the Pigmy Marmoset, not larger than
a small Kitten, to the {124}ponderous Gorilla and the genus _Homo_. In
external characters the Monkeys and Apes have in general a shorter and less
Dog-like nose than the Lemurs, thin lips and a more distinct face; while
their eyes, situated on the face, are invariably directed forwards, and
never outwards, or to the side. The opening of their nostrils is either
outward (as in those inhabiting the New World), or downwards (as in the
bulk of the Old World species). All of them are covered with hair; the tail
may be long, short, or wanting. The proportions of the fore-limbs to the
hind- vary much in the different groups. The great toe, as well as the
thumb, is (except in a few species) fully opposable, so that in the
majority of members of the Sub-order, the foot is as good a prehensile
organ as the hand. From this circumstance comes the designation,
_Quadrumana_, or "four-handed," so often applied to these animals. In a few
species the thumb is rudimentary or absent, but the fore-finger, the
absence of which characterised some of the Lemurs, is always present and
well developed, and the corresponding digit in the foot (except in the
Marmosets) has a flat nail instead of a claw. The mammæ of the
_Anthropoidea_ are always situated on the breast. If we examine the
structures underlying the skin, we find that in the skull the orbits are
entirely shut in by a bony wall, so that the finger cannot be passed into
the temporal depression behind, as could be done in the Lemurine skull, and
that the lachrymal foramen opens within the cavity for the eye. In the
present Sub-order there is no toothless space in the mid-line of the upper
jaw, the incisor teeth being set close together; but there is always a
vacuity, except in Man, between the incisors and the canine tooth. The
lower canine teeth do not resemble in form the incisors, nor do they
protrude horizontally, as in the Lemurs. {125}The two halves of the lower
jaw are always co-ossified together, when the animal is full grown. The
_humerus_, or arm-bone, never has an entepicondylar foramen on the inner
side of its lower portion, and the bones of the fore-arm (the _ulna_ and
_radius_) are never ossified together, nor are those of the lower leg (the
_tibia_ and _fibula_); so that there is perfect freedom for every movement
necessary for grasping and walking, or for rotating the hand or foot on the
wrist and ankle.

With regard to the brain, the anthropoid cerebrum, or fore-brain, is
greatly convoluted, and differs from that of the Lemurs by its
proportionately larger size, the cerebellum, or hind-brain, being as a rule
entirely covered by it.

The uterus and structures for the nutrition of the young prior to birth
differ greatly in this Sub-order from the conditions existing in the
_Lemuroidea_. The uterus is a simple and not a two-horned sac, and its
inner layer, in which the foetal and maternal structures intermingle during
the growth of the embryo, is shed after the birth of the young, which is
not the case in the Lemurs.

"The resemblance of Monkeys to Man," says Mr. Darwin, "is greatly caused by
the relative position of the features of the face. The eyes are arched
over; they are separated by a long nose, the end of which in some is very
human. The mouth is not carried back, but occupies the same general
position as in Man, and the forehead, so often wrinkled, is usually
prominent and like that of a child. The likeness is increased by the fact
that anger, sorrow, pleasure, and satisfaction, are displayed by the Monkey
by nearly similar movements of the muscles and skin, chiefly above the
eyebrows and round the mouth. Some few expressions are indeed almost the
same, as in the weeping of certain kinds of Monkeys, and in the
{126}laughing noise made by others, during which the corners of the mouth
are drawn backward and the eyelids wrinkled. In Man the nose is much more
prominent than in most Monkeys; but we may trace the commencement of an
aquiline curvature in the nose of the Hoolock Gibbon, and this in the
Great-nosed Monkey (_Nasalis larvatus_) is carried to a ridiculous
extreme."

In regard to the distribution of the _Anthropoidea_, excluding Man
(_Hominidæ_), two families (the _Hapalidæ_ and _Cebidæ_) are known only
from the New World; and two others (the _Cercopithecidæ_ and _Simiidæ_) are
exclusively confined to the Old World. No fossil remains of Eastern
Hemisphere forms have as yet been found in the Western, or _vice versâ_, a
fact which indicates, doubtless, a separation of great antiquity between
the two groups. The various species of these families are to be found
chiefly in the warmer regions on both sides of the equator. In the New
World some species range as far north as to 20° N. lat. in Mexico; and
South, to 30° below the equator. In the Eastern Hemisphere, the Old World
species predominate in the tropical and sub-tropical regions; but certain
forms have spread as far north as Thibet and Japan, and others have made
the high altitudes of the Himalaya Mountains their home; while to the
southward they extend in Africa nearly to the Cape of Good Hope. No
indigenous species have ever been found in New Guinea, Australia, New
Zealand, or in the Pacific, or West Indian Islands.

The Apes of the Old World differ in many important characters from those of
the New. Among the former, as already mentioned, the openings of the
nostrils are directed downwards, as in Man; the nose is narrow, and the
nostrils themselves are set close together, being separated from each other
by a thin septum, or partition, of cartilage. On this account, {127}they
have received the name of Catarrhine Monkeys (_Catarrhini_).[7] The New
World Monkeys, on the other hand, have the nose flat and the opening of
their nostrils directed outwards, and the one nostril widely separated from
the other by a broad cartilaginous septum, and they are therefore
designated Platyrrhine Monkeys (_Platyrrhini_).[8]

The dental formula of the Old World forms is I2/2, C1/1, P2/2, M3/3, making
a total of thirty-two teeth in all; but those of the Western Hemisphere
differ in having invariably three pre-molars, and sometimes two molars,
instead of three, so that they possess either thirty-two or thirty-six
teeth altogether. There is always a gap, or _diastema_, in the series of
the teeth in front of the upper and behind the lower canines; the latter
teeth being taller than the rest. Many of the Catarrhine Apes have large
cheek-pouches as well as bare patches, or callosities, often brightly
coloured, on the part they apply to the ground when sitting. None of the
Platyrrhine group have cheek-pouches or callosities, but in many of them
the tail is marvellously prehensile, which is not the case in any of the
Old World species. Again, in the Apes of the Eastern Hemisphere, the
ear-capsules of the skull have an external bony channel (or _meatus_) for
conveying the sound vibrations into the ear, which is absent in the
American species.

As a rule the Platyrrhine Monkeys have the fore-limbs shorter than the
hind-, and are more quadrupedal than those of the Old World. Their thumb is
also more like a finger than the same digit in their Eastern brethren.

Of the New World Monkeys, the _Hapalidæ_, or Marmosets, have thirty-two
teeth, and the _Cebidæ_, with several {128}sub-families, have thirty-six
teeth. The former include the Marmosets (_Hapale_) and the Tamarins
(_Midas_). The latter comprise the Capuchins (_Cebus_), which may be taken
as the representative genus of American Monkeys, the Woolly Monkeys
(_Lagothrix_), the Spider-Monkeys (_Ateles_ and the allied _Eriodes_), the
Howlers (_Mycetes_), the Sakis (_Pithecia_ and _Brachyurus_), the
Night-Monkeys or Douroucolis (_Nyctipithecus_), and the Squirrel Monkeys or
Saimiris (_Chrysothrix_), with the allied _Callithrix_.

"The extensive equatorial forests of the Amazon and Orinoco, and their
tributaries, constitute _par excellence_ the home of the American Monkeys,
but the majority of the genera have a very extended range, appearing in one
or more species throughout the greater portion of the tract covered by the
entire family. This is more particularly the case with the Sapajous
(_Cebus_), Spider-Monkeys, Howlers, and the species of _Callithrix_. The
range of the species, on the other hand, is not unfrequently very sharply
defined, as, for example, when a natural barrier, offering insurmountable
obstacles to further migration, suddenly interposes itself. Examples of
such limitation, as brought about by the dominant water-courses of the
equatorial forests," are numerous. Mr. Wallace cites the case of certain
species of Saki Monkey (_Pithecia_), found on either side of the Amazon
river, whose range, either southward or northward, appears to be limited by
that river. "The number of species of these American Apes found in, and
north of, the Isthmus of Panama is ten, of which only one (_Ateles
vellerosus_) extends into Mexico; _Mycetes villosus_, the Guatemalan
Howler, or 'Mono,' has thus far been found only in Guatemala and Honduras.
It is a little surprising that the range of only two of the species--the
Black-faced Spider-Monkey (_Ateles ater_) {129}and one of the Night-Apes
(_Nyctipithecus vociferans_)--extends beyond Colombia, in South America."

"None of the South American Monkeys appear to pass west of the Andean chain
of mountains south of Ecuador, and even north of the Peruvian boundary the
number of such transgressional forms is very limited. Indeed, even among
the wooded slopes, a habitation along the basal line of the mountain axis
seems to be much preferred. The greatest altitude at which Monkeys were
observed by Tschudi in Peru was 3,000 feet (_Lagothrix humboldti_); _Ateles
ater_ and _Cebus robustus_ were found at 2,500 feet. On the other hand,
Salvin and Godman state that in the district of Vera Paz, in Guatemala, the
'Mono' or Howler is most abundant at an elevation of 6,000 feet; and on the
Volcano of Atitlan, in the same country, Mr. Salvin found troops of the
Mexican Spider-Monkey (_Ateles vellerosus_) in the forest region of 7,000
feet elevation.

"The range of the Marmosets and Oustitis (_Hapalidæ_) is nearly
co-extensive with that of the Monkeys proper." (_Heilbrin._) The Pigmy and
the Silky Marmoset range as far north as Mexico.



THE MARMOSETS AND TAMARINS. FAMILY HAPALIDÆ.


Of the New World, or Platyrrhine, Apes, the Marmosets come to be described
first, as they have many characters which mark them out as the lowest of
the _Anthropoidea_, and rank them nearer to the _Lemuroidea_ than any of
the others. They are specially characterised by having only thirty-two
teeth, their dental formula being I2/2, C1/1, P3/3, M2/2. In the actual
number of their teeth they agree with their Eastern relations, but with
this {130}difference, that in the latter the pre-molars are two, and the
molars three, above and below on each side. Their flattened nose, with its
wide partition between the nostrils, and their non-prehensile bushy tails,
are also distinguishing characters. The face is nude, the ears large and
sometimes fringed. Their hind-limbs are proportionately larger and longer
than their fore-limbs, while the nails of their fingers and toes are not
flattened as in the Old World Apes, but all form sharp curved claws, except
on the much shortened great toe. The thumb is elongated and lies parallel,
but quite unopposable to, nor indeed is it separable at will from, the rest
of the digits. The fore-foot, consequently, "is a mere paw, and the term
'hand' is not applicable to it."... The plantar surface of the hind-foot
"is very long, and the digits are very short. It follows from these facts
that the term 'quadrumanous' is not applicable in any sense to the
Marmosets." (_Huxley._) These animals have no callosities over the ischial
(or buttock) bones, and no cheek-pouches. In their smooth and rounded skull
superciliary ridges are conspicuously absent; and the ear-capsules have, as
has been already observed, no external bony canal for conducting sound
vibrations to the inner ear. The hyoid bone resembles that of the Lemurs.

This family has been divided into two genera, distinguished from each other
only by a variation in the relative length of their incisor and canine
teeth, which is so slight as to render it doubtful whether these
differences really warrant the generic separation of the two groups. As,
however, the distinction has been maintained by nearly all writers upon
these animals, the arrangement has been followed here, and the various
species of the family will be described as true Marmosets (_Hapale_) and
{131}Tamarins (_Midas_). They are most numerous in the equatorial forests
of South America.


THE MARMOSETS. GENUS HAPALE.

  _Hapale_, Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm., p. 71 (1811).

The members of this genus, which are often kept in captivity as pets, are
very small animals, covered with thick and silky fur, and having bushy
tails, equal to or even exceeding the length of their body. The head is
round, the eyes large and watchful, the face short and nude, and often
abundantly whiskered. The mouth is large; the ears also large and often
fringed, and the neck sometimes clothed, with long hair. They are
distinguished from the Tamarins (_Midas_) by having their upper incisor
teeth long, narrow, and protruding outwards and forwards; the incisors of
the lower jaw are also very long, and its canines small and shorter than
the incisors, both being protrusive, as among the Lemurs. The cranial
region of the smooth skull is conspicuously large in comparison with its
facial portion, but the cerebrum shows a low type of organisation, and
indicates a small degree of intelligence in its possessor; it is smooth and
almost devoid of convolutions; the cerebrum, too, unlike that of the
_Lemuroidea_, completely covers the cerebellum. The orbits are large, and
almost completely walled in from the temporal depression behind. The
stomach in form resembles that found in the higher groups, but its orifices
for the entrance and exit of food are nearer to each other than in any of
the other American Monkeys.

The female produces two or three young at a birth, instead of one, as is
the general rule among the _Anthropoidea_. The species vary much in
coloration, and some of them resemble the Lemurs in being ring-tailed.

{132}The Marmosets are all gentle and playful in disposition, and are, on
this account, very largely brought to Europe as pets; but they are very
delicate, and rarely survive long in confinement after the advent of the
Northern winter. They are arboreal, living in troops, and feeding on
insects and fruit, and not disdaining flesh, especially of fishes, when
they can obtain it. They emit a characteristic chirping noise.


I. THE COMMON MARMOSET. HAPALE JACCHUS.

  _Simia jacchus_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 40 (1766).

  _Jacchus pencillatus_, Geoffr. Ann. Mus., xix., p. 119 (1812); Spix, t.
  c. p. 34, pl. 26 (1823).

  _Jacchus leucocephalus_, Geoffr., t. c. p. 119.

  _Jacchus vulgaris_, Geoffr., t. c. p. 119; Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus.,
  p. 63 (1870, in part).

  _Hapale jacchus_, Kuhl, Beitr., Zool., p. 46 (1820); Schleg., Mus. Pays
  Bas, vii., p. 271 (1876).

  _Hapale albicollis_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 33, pl. 25 (1823);
  Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 59 (1851).

CHARACTERS.--Head small; eyes gentle; nose flat; face black, with a white
spot in front; ears naked, with a tuft of long hairs on the front edge of
its opening, either black, white, or grey; hair of the sides of the head
elongated; back cross-banded with black and grey, the hair at the base
dusky, reddish-brown in the middle, grey at the top. Tail banded with black
or grey.

Several species have been described under the names of the White-necked
Marmoset (_H. albicollis_, Spix), the Black-eared Marmoset (_H.
penicillata_, Kuhl), and the White-headed Marmoset (_H. leucocephala_,
Kuhl), but Dr. Gray considered these to be only varieties of the common
species, which has {133}sometimes the head and neck greyish-white, or the
head, neck and ear-tufts black, or the head alone white.

DISTRIBUTION.--Island of Marajo, at the mouth of the Amazon.

HABITS.--The Common Marmoset is an inhabitant of the forests, feeding
chiefly on fruits and insects. It is very susceptible to cold, and lives
but a short time when removed from the tropics, unless extreme care be
taken. Mr. Bates, the author of "The Naturalist on the River Amazons,"
states that when in Para, he counted in a short time thirteen different
species of Monkey in semi-domestication in the city, either at the doors or
windows of houses, or in the native canoes. Two of them he did not meet
with afterwards in any other part of the country. One of these was the
well-known _Hapale jacchus_, a little creature resembling a Kitten, banded
with black and grey all over the body and tail, and having a fringe of long
white hairs surrounding the ears. It was seated on the shoulder of a young
mulatto girl as she was walking about the street, and he was told that it
had been captured in the island of Marajo.


II. THE WHITE-SHOULDERED MARMOSET. HAPALE HUMERALIFER.

  _Hapale humeralifer_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 120 (1812); Bates,
  Nat. Amaz., ii., p. 55 (1863).

CHARACTERS.--Face partly naked, flesh-coloured; ears fringed with long
white hairs. Fore-part of body white; hands grey; hind part black, with the
rump and under side reddish-tawny; tail banded with grey and black; long
white hair on the shoulders. Length about 8 inches, exclusive of the tail.

DISTRIBUTION.--Mr. Bates says that this species seems to occur {134}only in
the dry woods bordering the Campos in the interior of Brazil.

HABITS.--"One would mistake it," writes Mr. Bates in reference to this rare
little Marmoset--the prettiest species of its family--"at first sight for a
Kitten, from its small size, varied colours, and the softness of its fur.
It was a most timid creature, screaming and biting when anyone attempted to
handle it. It became familiar, however, with the people of the house, a few
days after it came into their possession. When hungry or uneasy, it uttered
a weak querulous cry, a shrill note which was sometimes prolonged so as to
resemble the stridulation of a grasshopper."


III. THE WHITE-EARED MARMOSET. HAPALE AURITA.

  _Jacchus auritus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 19 (1812).

  _Hapale aurita_, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 48 (1820); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas,
  vii., p. 276 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Larger than _Hapale jacchus_; ears naked, external, exposed,
with a band of long hairs across the inner surface of the conch, forming a
short grey tuft; tail ringed, blackish, the hair minutely punctulated with
yellow or red; sides of the head, limbs, and hinder part of body
blackish-brown; face more or less white; back blackish, without indication
of cross-bands.

DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil.


IV. THE WHITE-FOOTED MARMOSET. HAPALE LEUCOPUS.

  _Hapale leucopus_, Günth., P. Z. S., 1876, p. 743, pl. lxxii.

CHARACTERS.--Hair of back and sides moderately long, silky, brownish-grey;
nape and occiput darker; face and head covered with short sparse white
hair; ears large, naked, and without tufts; throat greyish-brown; under
side of body and {135}inside of legs rusty-red; fore-arm, hands, and feet
white--the hairs short, blackish or black, with white tips. Head and body,
11½ inches long; tail, 14½ inches. Dorsal and lumbar vertebræ together, 19.

FEMALE.--Similar to the male, but with the hairs of the upper parts
silver-tipped.

DISTRIBUTION.--Medellin, in the province of Antioquia, United States of
Colombia.

HABITS.--Unknown.


V. THE GOLDEN MARMOSET. HAPALE CHRYSOLEUCA.

  _Hapale chrysoleucos_, Wagner in Wiegm. Arch., 1842, i., p. 357; id. in
  Schreb. Säugeth., Suppl., v., p. 125 (1855); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1869, p.
  594.

  _Mico sericeus_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 256, pl. xxiv.

  _Miocella chrysoleucos_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 131 (1870).

  _Miocella sericeus_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus. App., p. 131 (1870).

  _Hapale chrysoleuca_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 227 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Ears large, naked, exposed, margined with long white hairs.
General colour white; limbs, under surface, and tail, uniform
greyish-yellow, or reddish-brown in some varieties.

DISTRIBUTION.--Forests of Brazil; vicinity of Borba, on the Rio Madeira.


VI. THE PIGMY MARMOSET. HAPALE PYGMÆA.

  _Jacchus pygmæus_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., pl. xxiv., fig. 2
  (1823).

  _Hapale pygmæa_, Wagner in Schreber, Säugeth., v., p. 126 (1855).
  Castelnau, Voy. Amér. Sud, pl. 5, figs. 1, 2; Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii.,
  p. 277 (1876).

  {136}_Cibuella pygmæa_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 64 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Face with long brown whiskers, naturally brushed back over the
ears; ears small, with a few scattered hairs over them, but no ear-tufts,
sunk in the long fur of the head. General colour brownish-tawny; tail
ringed with black. The young resemble the adults from their earliest days.

This is the most diminutive Monkey known, and measures only six inches in
length.

DISTRIBUTION.--Forests of Brazil, extending north into Mexico. Mr. Bates
remarks in reference to this species: "I was surprised on my return to
England to learn that the Pigmy Marmoset was found also in Mexico, no other
Amazonian Monkey being known to wander far from the great river plain. Thus
the smallest, and apparently the feeblest, species of the whole order is
one which has by some means become the most widely dispersed."

HABITS.--Little or nothing is known of the habits of this individual
species, but there is very little doubt that they agree closely with those
of the Common Marmoset.


VII. THE BLACK-TAILED MARMOSET. HAPALE MELANURA.

  _Simia argentata_, Linn., Syst. Nat., p. 40 (1766), albino var.

  _Jacchus melanura_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 120 (1812); Gray, P. Z.
  S., 1865, p. 734.

  _Jacchus argentatus_, Geoffr., t. c. p. 120.

  _Hapale melanura_ (nec Kuhl); Wagner in Schreb., Säugeth., i., p. 127,
  fig. 36 (1840), and Suppl. v., p. 15, fig. 13 (1855); Scl., P. Z. S.,
  1875, p. 419, pl. l.; Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 267 (1876).

  _Midas argentatus_, Bates, Nat. Amaz., i., p. 162 (1863).

  {137}_Mico melanurus_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 64 (1870).

  _Hapale argentata_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 268 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Face naked, flesh-coloured; ears naked, flesh-coloured,
exposed; no ear-pencils, as in _H. chrysoleuca_; tail uniform black; head
and fore-limbs pale brown; front of the body paler; front edges of the
thighs, and a band across the loins, white. Length, 7 inches, without the
tail. Some varieties have the body entirely covered with long, white, silky
hairs.

DISTRIBUTION.--Bolivia and Brazil. Mr. Bates says that the Black-tailed
Marmoset is one of the rarest of the American Monkeys. He did not hear of
its being found anywhere in Amazonia except near Cametá, on the River
Tocantins.

HABITS.--Little is known of the habits of this species, few naturalists
having had the good fortune to observe it in its native state. Mr. Bates,
however, once saw three individuals together, running along a branch, and
looking like white Kittens. "I afterwards saw a pet animal," he says in his
book, "of this species, and heard that there were many so kept, and that
they were esteemed as choice treasures.... It was a most timid and
sensitive thing. The woman who owned it carried it constantly in her bosom,
and no money would induce her to part with her pet.... The nervous little
creature would not permit strangers to touch it. If anyone attempted to do
so, it shrank back, the whole body trembling with fear, and its teeth
chattered, whilst it uttered its tremulous, frightened tones. The
expression of its features was like that of its more robust brother, _Midas
ursulus_; the eyes, which were black, were full of curiosity and mistrust,
and it always kept them fixed on the person who attempted to advance
towards it."


{138}THE TAMARINS. GENUS MIDAS.

  _Midas_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 120 (1812).

This genus differs from the preceding only in the characters of some of the
teeth. The canine teeth in the lower jaw are longer than their neighbouring
incisors; but, as has been pointed out by Prof. St. George Mivart, it is a
question whether this generic distinction can be maintained, as an
intermediate condition exists in some forms.

For the convenience of description the species of this genus have been
divided into two groups--(_a_) those with long hair on the head and neck,
and (_b_) those with short hairs on the back of the head. The number of
species in the latter group is greater than in the former; and they are
further divided into those with, and those without, white lips.


I. THE SILKY TAMARIN. MIDAS ROSALIA.

  _Simia rosalia_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 41, pl. i. (1766).

  _Midas rosalia_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 121 (1812).

  _Leontopithecus rosalia_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 65 (1870).

  _Hapale rosalia_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 250 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--This is the first species of the long-whiskered and maned
group; fur soft and silky; tail equal in length to the body, bushy at the
tip; hair round the face and on the back of the neck very long, forming a
conspicuous ruff. Face, hands, and feet purple; general colour of the hair
golden yellow, more or less red, and glossy.

These animals are said to possess an air-sac in the throat, at the back of
the _trachea_ (or windpipe), as in _Ateles_. Length, 11 inches; tail, 12
inches.

{139}DISTRIBUTION.--The Silky Tamarin is found in the forests of
South-eastern Brazil, in the coastal forests of New Granada, and as far
north as the Isthmus of Panama.

HABITS.--The "Marakina," as this exceedingly beautiful species is often
called, lives in small troops, ascending to the slender branches at the
tops of the highest trees in the forest. The species is very playful and
intelligent.

Closely related to the Silky Tamarin, if indeed it is really distinct from
it, is the Maned Tamarin (_M. leoninus_, of Humboldt), which inhabits the
same region, and is only seven inches in length, exclusive of the tail. "It
is named _leoninus_," remarks Mr. Bates, "on account of the long brown mane
which depends from the neck, and which gives it very much the appearance of
a diminutive Lion." In referring to their intelligence, the same writer
continues, "Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire relates of a species of this
genus, that it distinguished between different objects depicted on an
engraving. M. Audouin showed it the portraits of a cat and a wasp; at these
it became much terrified, whereas at the sight of a figure of a grasshopper
or beetle it precipitated itself on the picture as if to seize the objects
there represented."

Another species, the Golden-headed Tamarin (_M. chrysomelas_, of Kuhl),
which is in general colour black, with the head, fore-arms, hands, and a
line beneath the tail, golden-yellow, is, according to Dr. Gray, "very like
a melanism of _Leontopithecus_ (= _Midas_) _rosalia_; but the hands and
feet, which are sometimes blackish in that species, are yellow--that is to
say, not changed."


II. GEOFFROY'S TAMARIN. MIDAS GEOFFROYI.

  _Midas oedipus_, var. Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 30, pl. 23 (1823).

  {140}_Hapale geoffroyi_, Pucher., Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 336; Schl., Mus.
  Pays Bas, vii., p. 258 (1876).

  _Midas geoffroyi_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 63 (1851);
  Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 478, pl. xxxviii.

  _Midas ursulus_ (nec Geoffr.), Rep. Council Zool. Soc., 1858, p. 16.

  _Oedipus geoffroyi_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 65 (1870).

  (_Plate XIII._)

CHARACTERS.--Face black; a patch on the top of the head white; back of neck
and shoulders, lower part of back, and upper side of base of tail
rusty-brown; ears, back, outer side of arms and thighs, and outer side of
upper part of leg, brownish-grey; throat, under surface of body, outer and
inner surface of fore-arms and legs, white; remainder of tail black.

Hair on the crown of the head short, forming a narrow oblong patch; that on
the nape of the neck elongated.

DISTRIBUTION.--At present only known from Panama.

HABITS.--Unknown.


III. THE PINCHÉ MONKEY. MIDAS OEDIPUS.

  _Simia oedipus_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 41 (1766); Audeb. Singes, Fam.
  vi., Sect, ii., pl. iv fig. 2. (1727).

  _Midas oedipus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 122 (1812).

  _Oedipus titi_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 65 (1870).

  _Hapale oedipus_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 258 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Face and sides of head nearly naked; top of head with large,
erect, crest; hair of neck elongated; tail not ringed.

General colour greyish-brown; outside of limbs and base of tail, washed
with rusty-red; crest, throat, and lower surface of body, fore-limbs and
front edge of hind-limbs white; extremity of the tail black.

PLATE XIII.

[Illustration: GEOFFROY'S TAMARIN.]


{141}Differs from the preceding species, _M. geoffroyi_, in having a crest.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Pinché Monkey is found in the forests of New Granada,
near the coast.

With the succeeding species we commence the description of the Tamarins
which have no conspicuous mane on the back of the neck, and that section
whose members have a patch of white hairs around the mouth, each looking at
a short distance, as Mr. Bates remarks, "as though it held a ball of
snow-white cotton in its teeth."


IV. THE WHITE-LIPPED TAMARIN. MIDAS LABIATUS.

  _Midas labiatus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 121 (1812); Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 66 (1870).

  _Jacchus labiatus_, Desmarest, Mammalog., p. 95 (1820); Humb., Rec.
  d'Obs. Zool., Prod. sp. 44 (1811).

  _Hapale labiata_, Wagner in Schreb., Säugeth., i., p. 246 (1840); Mus.
  Pays Bas, vii., p. 260 (1876, part).

CHARACTERS.--General colour black; under side reddish, the black
terminating on the front of the chest in a straight line, the hinder part
of the back washed with grey; the hinder part of the chest, belly, inside
of the limbs, and the under side of the root of the tail, rust-colour; tip
of nose and edges of upper and lower lips white.

DISTRIBUTION.--The forests on the north side of the Amazon.


{142}V. THE RED-BELLIED TAMARIN. MIDAS RUFIVENTER.

  _Midas rufiventer_, Gray, Ann. and Mag. N. H., xii., p. 398 (1843); id.
  P. Z. S., 1865, p. 735; id. Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 66 (1870).

  _Midas elegantulus_, Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., 1861, p. 463.

  _Hapale labiata_ (nec Geoffr.), Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 260
  (part).

CHARACTERS.--Head, throat, fore-limbs, tail, and hands deep glossy black;
hairs of back, sides, and posterior limbs black, broadly tipped with white,
not regularly ringed; belly, breast and inner surface of limbs bright
brick-red, separated by a distinct line from the black of the back and
outer surface of the limbs. On the back of the head a small patch of the
same colour as the back; on the top of the head a golden-yellow triangular
patch. Lips and tip of the nose, white.

This species is distinguished from the White-lipped Tamarin (_M. labiatus_)
by the spot on the crown and nape; and by the rufous of the under side
extending forward nearer to the throat.

DISTRIBUTION.--Banks of the Upper Amazon. Mr. Bates shot a specimen at
Tunantins in 69° W. long., and 4° S. lat.

HABITS.--Nothing is known of the habits of this species.

Closely allied to the Red-bellied Tamarin is the so-called MOUSTACHED
TAMARIN (_Midas mystax_, Spix), in which the head, shoulders, and tail are
black; the body above brown, sometimes ringed with white, and the belly
bright rust-coloured. It can be distinguished, as Dr. Slack points out,
from _M. rufiventer_, by the want of the ashy tips to the hairs of the back
{143}and posterior limbs, and the triangular golden spot on the vertex. The
hairs of this spot are golden throughout their entire length, in this
respect resembling another closely related Upper Amazonian species, the
so-called BONNETED TAMARIN (_M. pileatus_, Is. Geoffr.), from which it can
readily be distinguished by the black colour of the under surface. The back
of the Bonneted Tamarin is also varied, black and grey, the limbs and tail
are blackish, and the lips white.


VI. DEVILLE'S TAMARIN. MIDAS WEDDELLI.

  _Midas weddellii_, Deville, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1849, p. 55.

  _Midas devillii_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 64 (1851);
  Castelnau, Expéd. Amér. Sud, Mamm., pl. vi., fig. 2 (1855); Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 67 (1870).

  _Midas leucogenys_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 735; id. Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 67 (1870).

  _Hapale devillei_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 262 (1876).

  _Hapale weddelii_, Schl., t. c. p. 262.

CHARACTERS.--Fur of back ringed with grey; that of the head, neck, and
front of the fore- and hind-limbs, tail, hands, and feet black; loins,
thighs, legs, and base of tail bright maroon.

DISTRIBUTION.--Obtained by MM. Castelnau and Deville, at Sarayacu, in the
Peruvian Amazons.


VII. THE BLACK-FRONTED TAMARIN. MIDAS NIGRIFRONS.

  _Midas nigrifrons_, Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 64 (1851).

  _Midas flavifrons_, var. c. _Midas nigrifrons_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 67 (1870).

  _Hapale nigrifrons_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 263 (1876).

{144}CHARACTERS.--Differs from _M. weddelli_ in having the fur washed with
rufous, and the hairs finely ringed.

DISTRIBUTION.--Unknown.


VIII. THE BROWN-HEADED TAMARIN. MIDAS FUSCICOLLIS.

  _Midas fuscicollis_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 27, pl. 20 (1823).

  _Midas flavifrons_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 64 (1851);
  Castelnau, Expéd. Amér. Sud, Mamm., pl. vi., fig. 1 (1855); Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 67 (1870).

  _Midas devillii_ (nec Is. Geoffr.), Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad.,
  1861, p. 464.

  _Hapale fuscicollis_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 264 (1876).

  _Hapale chrysomelas_ (nec Kuhl), Schl., t. c. p. 254.

CHARACTERS.--Pelage mostly black; head and face brown or reddish-brown,
with some grey hairs; lips white, but the nose black; top of the head
yellow, or yellowish-red; back yellow and black; hands and feet black;
outside of the limbs and base of the tail reddish; under side of the body
and inside of the limbs brownish-red.

The female differs in having the outside of the limbs and the underpart of
the body blackish.

DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil.

HABITS.--Nothing is known of the individual habits of this species.


IX. THE YELLOW-TAILED TAMARIN. MIDAS CHRYSOPYGUS.

  _Hapale chrysopyga_, Wagner, in Schreb. Säugeth., i., Simiæ, p. 249
  (1840); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 254 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Similar to _M. fuscicollis_. Black, with the thighs, legs, and
base of tail rusty-red.

DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil, near Ypanéma, Province of St. Paulo.


{145}X. THE BLACK AND RED TAMARIN. MIDAS NIGRICOLLIS.

  _Midas nigricollis_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 28, pl. 21 (1823).

  _Midas rufoniger_, I. Geoffr. et Deville, C. R., xxvii., p. 499 (1848);
  Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 64 (1851); Castelnau, Expéd. Amér.
  Sud, pl. v., fig. 3 (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 67 (1870).

  _Hapale nigricollis_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 264 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Differs from _M. fuscicollis_ in having the back, loins,
thighs, and legs bright reddish-chestnut. (_Gray._) Mouth bordered with
longish white hairs.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Upper Amazon Region. (_Bates._) The Black and Red
Tamarin is considered by Mr. Bates to be a form or race of the same stock
as _M. ursulus_, modified to suit the altered local conditions of its home,
for in the Upper Amazon Region, as Mr. Wallace has pointed out, the
seasons, as well as the nature of the country, differ very considerably.

HABITS.--Mr. Bates states that in its habits the present species is similar
to _Midas ursulus_. "One day," he says, "whilst walking along a forest
pathway, I saw one of these lively little fellows miss his grasp as he was
passing from one tree to another along with his troop. He fell head
foremost from a height of at least fifty feet; but managed cleverly to
alight on his legs on the pathway; quickly turning round, he gave me a good
stare for a few minutes, and then bounded off gaily to climb another tree."


XI. ILLIGER'S TAMARIN. MIDAS ILLIGERI.

  _Hapale illigeri_, Pucher., Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 336.

  {146}_Midas illigeri_, Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 65 (1851); Schl.,
  Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 65 (1876).

  _Midas flavifrons_, var. _d._ Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 67
  (1870).

  _Midas devillii_ (nec Geoffr.), Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 220, pl.
  xiii.

CHARACTERS.--Head black; back black, washed with grey; back of head, nape
of neck, shoulders and humeral region black, washed with reddish-brown;
under side and the outer and inner surface of both limbs red; tail at base
and tip red, intermediate portion black.

The sexes hardly differ; the male being merely rather larger and darker,
especially on the head and nape, where the hair is longer.

DISTRIBUTION.--Mr. E. Bartlett says that this was the only _Midas_ met with
by him in Eastern Peru. It was plentiful everywhere in the Peruvian
Amazons; and he obtained specimens both on the Huallaga and Ucayali rivers.

HABITS.--This species is extremely delicate, and will not bear the least
cold. "I have had them alive," writes Mr. Edward Bartlett, "for two or
three weeks; but they appear to suffer from cold and die. They are kept,
however, by the Indian women, who make pets of them and put them into the
long hair on their heads. With this protection they are able to live for a
long time. Having become tame, they frequently hop out and feed, or, having
captured a spider or two, scamper back again, and hide under the luxuriant
crop of their owners, who are generally unwilling to part with them."

 em00With the succeeding species commences the group of Tamarins with no
 mane and without white lips.


{147}XII. THE PIED TAMARIN. MIDAS BICOLOR.

  _Midas bicolor_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras, p. 31, pl. 24, fig. 1
  (1823).

  _Hapale bicolor_, Wagner in Schreb., Säugeth., v., p. 135, pl. 12 (1855);
  Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 257 (1876).

  _Seniocebus bicolor_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 68 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Head naked in front of the ears in the adult; hind-part of the
head covered with long white hairs; ears exposed, naked; tail not ringed,
the upper side black; nose and lips black; neck, chest and arms white;
face, body, and hind-limbs brown; under side of tail, inner side of limbs,
and the abdomen ferruginous.

In the young animal, the face is rather hairy and the forehead naked.
(_Gray._)

DISTRIBUTION.--The eastern bank of the Rio Negro, a northern tributary of
the Amazon. Mr. Bates obtained a specimen at Barra, where it was rather
common in the forest; and, he adds: "This place, a waterfall near Barra,
which its citizens consider as the chief natural curiosity of their
neighbourhood, is classic ground to the naturalist, from having been a
favourite spot with the celebrated travellers Spix and Martius, during
their stay at Barra in 1820. Von Martius was so much impressed by its
magical beauty, that he commemorated the visit by making a sketch of the
scenery, to serve as background in one of the plates of his great work on
the Palms."

HABITS.--Keeping together in small troops, running along the main boughs of
the loftier trees, climbing perpendicular trunks, but never taking flying
leaps.


{148}XIII. LACÉPEDE'S TAMARIN. MIDAS MIDAS.

  _Simia midas_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 42 (1766).

  _Simia lacepedii_, Fischer, Bull. Soc. Mosc., 1806, p. 23.

  _Midas rufimanus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 121 (1812).

  _Midas ursulus_, var. Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 68 (1870).

  _Hapale midas_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 266 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--General colour black; hands and feet golden-yellow or bright
rusty-red; ears short, haired. The young males resemble the adults.

DISTRIBUTION.--Surinam.


XIV. THE NEGRO TAMARIN. MIDAS URSULUS.

  _Midas ursulus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 121 (1812); Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 68 (1870).

  _Midas tamarin_, Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad., 1861, p. 464.

  _Hapale ursula_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 265 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Body long, slender, covered with soft thick fur; ears large,
naked; the face haired. General colour black; nose and lips black; hinder
part of the body rather mottled or banded with reddish-brown or
greyish-white; the hands sometimes black and sometimes yellow. Length, 9
inches; tail, 15 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--Found on the Lower Amazon, near Para. Mr. Bates says it is
not met with in the Upper Amazon Region, but in its stead a closely allied
species (_Midas nigricollis_), presents itself.[9]

{149}HABITS.--"The _Midas ursulus_ is never seen," writes Mr. Bates, "in
large flocks; three or four is the greatest number observed together. It
seems to be less afraid of the neighbourhood of Man than any other Monkey.
I sometimes saw it in the woods which border the suburban streets, and once
I espied two individuals in a thicket behind the English Consul's house at
Nazareth. Its mode of progression along the main boughs of the lofty trees
is like that of the Squirrels; it does not ascend to the slender branches,
or take wonderful flying leaps like those Monkeys whose prehensile tails
and flexible hands fit them for such headlong travelling. It confines
itself to the larger boughs and trunks of trees, its long nails being of
great assistance to the creature, enabling it to cling securely to the
bark; and it is often seen passing rapidly round the perpendicular
cylindrical trunks. It is a quick, restless, timid little creature, and has
a great share of curiosity, for when a person passes by under the trees
along which a flock is running, they always stop for a few moments to have
a stare at the intruder." In Para, the Negro Tamarin "is often seen in a
tame state in the houses of the inhabitants.... When first taken, or when
kept tied up, it is very timid and irritable. It will not allow itself to
be approached, but keeps retreating backwards when anyone attempts to coax
it. It is always in a querulous humour, uttering a twittering, complaining
noise; its dark, watchful eyes, expressive of distrust, are observant of
every movement which takes place near it. When treated kindly, however, as
it generally is in the houses of the natives, it becomes very tame and
familiar.... It is generally fed on sweet fruits, such as the banana; but
it is also fond of insects, especially soft-bodied spiders and
grasshoppers, which it will snap up with eagerness when within {150}reach.
The expression of countenance in these small Monkeys is intelligent and
pleasing. This is partly owing to the open facial angle, which is given as
one of 60°, but the quick movements of the head, and the way they have of
inclining it on one side, when their curiosity is excited, contribute very
much to give them a knowing expression.... In mobility of expression of
countenance, intelligence and general manners, these small Monkeys resemble
the higher Apes far more than they do any rodent animal with which I am
acquainted, notwithstanding their apparently low organisation in many
points."

This description of the habits of the Negro Tamarin may be taken as
representative of those of the various species of the genus, of whom only
glimpses can be caught in their homes, which are the safe altitudes of the
giants of the virgin forests of Brazil.



THE CAPUCHINS, HOWLERS, AND SPIDER-MONKEYS, &c. FAMILY CEBIDÆ.


This family embraces the typical Platyrrhine Monkeys, and to it belongs the
great majority of the American species. As already pointed out (p. 127)
their nose is flat, and the partition between the nostrils, which open
sideways, is very broad, and separates them widely. They are essentially
quadrupedal, and walk with the soles of both pairs of limbs flat to the
ground. The Spider-Monkeys occasionally, however, assume an erect posture.
"They all possess tails, and in some genera (_e.g._, _Ateles_) this organ
becomes very flexible and muscular, and the under surface of its curled
extremity is devoid of hair and highly sensitive. The tail thus modified is
a powerful prehensile organ and serves for a fifth hand." (_Huxley._) In
these {151}Monkeys there are no cheek-pouches, nor ischial callosities.
Except in the Spider-Monkeys the hind-limbs are longer than the fore-;
"while the thumb, even where it is best developed, is capable of but a
partial opposition to the other fingers, bending almost in the same plane
with the latter, so as to be more like a fifth finger." (_Mivart._)
Nevertheless, all its muscles, except the long flexor, are present. The
great-toe is large and can be moved from and to the side of the other
digits, but is not opposable to them.

The skull is smooth and has no muscular crests; the external bony tube to
the ear is not ossified. The two extremes in its form are presented by the
Howling Monkeys (_Alouatta_) and the Squirrel-Monkeys (_Chrysothrix_), as
pointed out by Professor Huxley in his "Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals":
"In the former the face is very large and prominent, with a low facial
angle. The roof of the brain-case is depressed; the plane of the _occipital
foramen_ [for the passage of the spinal cord] is almost perpendicular" to
the axis of the base of the skull. "In _Chrysothrix_, on the contrary, the
face is relatively small, with a high facial angle; the brain-case is
moderately arched;" and the plane of the _occipital foramen_ is horizontal.

The dentition of the _Cebidæ_ is very characteristic of the family. The
dental formula is I2/2, C1/1, P3/3, M3/3 and the teeth thirty-six in all--a
larger number than is found in any of the Old World forms, or in the
species of the last family (the _Hapalidæ_); for they possess an extra
pre-molar tooth above and below on each side. Their molar teeth are
four-cusped; and in the upper molars of the Spider-Monkeys (_Ateles_) and
of the Howlers (_Alouatta_) there is an oblique cusp, such as is found in
the molars of the _Lemuroidea_, joining the hind inner to the front outer
cusp. Among the _Cebidæ_ the brain varies {152}very much; the posterior
lobes of the main brain (or cerebral hemispheres, which are almost always
convoluted) are also almost always so large as to entirely cover over the
cerebellum (or hind brain), a relation which does not exist between these
two regions of the brain in the _Lemuroidea_. The cerebellum, however, in
the Howlers is slightly uncovered. The absolute size of the brain never, in
any Ape, approaches that of Man. None of the _Cebidæ_ attain the size of
even the medium-sized Old World Apes.

The _Cebidæ_ are all arboreal, and strictly confined to the forest regions
of Tropical America, from the southern part of Mexico to about the parallel
of 30° S. lat. They are divided into four sub-families, namely: The
Douroucolis, or Night-Monkeys (_Nyctipithecinæ_); the Saki Monkeys
(_Pitheciinæ_); the Howlers (_Mycetinæ_); and the Capuchin Monkeys
(_Cebinæ_).



THE NIGHT-MONKEYS. SUB-FAMILY NYCTIPITHECINÆ.


The Night-Monkeys are small and elegant animals covered with long hair, and
having long bushy tails, which are not prehensile, although they can be
curled round a branch of a tree. The caudal vertebræ in these creatures are
consequently not flattened from above downward, as is the case in the
prehensile-tailed groups, but rounded. Their lower incisor teeth are set
vertically and their thumb is fairly well developed.

This sub-family contains three genera, the Squirrel-Monkeys
(_Chrysothrix_); the Whaiapu-Sais, or Titis (_Callithrix_); and the typical
Night-Monkeys, or Douroucolis (_Nyctipithecus_).


THE SQUIRREL-MONKEYS. GENUS CHRYSOTHRIX.

  _Chrysothrix_, Kaup., Thierreich., i., p. 51 (1835).

{153}The Saimiris, or Squirrel-Monkeys, are very beautiful and active
little animals, characterised by their soft, close, and erect fur, and
especially in having the head produced posteriorly. The face is relatively
small and has a high facial angle. The eyes are large, directed forwards,
and set very close together. The ears are large; and the nose has a very
broad partition between its nostrils. The tail is long, round, and covered
with short hair; but tufted at the extremity and non-prehensile.

As regards the skeleton, the skull is elongated, and the arched cranial
portion prolonged backwards, the length of the base of the skull being
shorter than the cerebral cavity. The facial portion of the skull is
relatively smaller and the cranial larger even than in Man; this character
being, however, common to all the smaller representatives of particular
groups, and "obviously necessary to provide the requisite amount of
brain-space." (_Mivart._) The angle of the lower jaw is narrow behind. The
bony partition between the nostrils is very thin and membranaceous; and
that between the large orbits is also thin and imperfect. The lower incisor
teeth are vertical, and in regular series with the canines, and the latter
are well developed. No Primate has the teeth placed in one uninterrupted
series except Man; but there is always a small interval between each upper
canine and the adjacent incisor, and between each lower canine and the
adjacent pre-molar.

The skeleton of the hand is one-fifth of the length of the spinal column.
The wrist-bones are nine in number, the central--_os centrale_--being
present as in the majority of Monkeys. In _Chrysothrix_ and in
_Nyctipithecus_ also, the thumb is proportionately shorter than in any
other genus, except among the Spider-Monkeys (_Ateles_), and the Old World
{154}Guerezas (_Colobus_). In the length of their foot the members of this
genus approximate to the proportion existing in Man; and its length,
compared with that of the hand, is greater in _Chrysothrix_ than in any
other group of Monkeys.

The cerebral hemispheres project beyond the hind brain (_cerebellum_) to a
greater relative extent than in any other mammal, namely, to one-fifth of
their total length. (_Huxley._) The external surface of the cerebral
hemispheres is almost as little convoluted as in the Marmosets and
Tamarins, in which it is almost quite smooth, yet on the inner faces of the
hemispheres the more important grooves (_sulci_) are present. The opening
for the passage of the spinal cord lies nearly in the middle of the base of
the skull, whereas in other genera it is situated closer to the hinder
region.

The Squirrel-Monkeys are entirely arboreal, and found in most of the
tropical regions from Costa Rica to Brazil and Bolivia, being among the
commonest of the Anthropoids of the American forests. They are diurnal, and
feed chiefly on insects; but they will also often attack and devour small
birds.


I. THE SHORT-TAILED SQUIRREL-MONKEY. CHRYSOTHRIX USTA.

  _Saimiris usta_, Is. Geoffr., Arch. Mus., iv., p. 15, pl. 1 (1844).

  _Saimiris ustus_, Bartlett, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 219; Sclater, P. Z. S.,
  1872, p. 688, fig. of head.

  _Chrysothrix ustus_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 53 (1870).

  _Saimiri sciureus_ (nec L.), Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 242 (1876,
  pt.)

CHARACTERS.--Face white; head grizzled grey, minutely punctulated with
black, the hairs grey with black tips; outer side of fore-arm grizzled
grey, but in some species golden; back {155}grizzled grey, washed with
golden, the tips of the hairs black; tail short, thick and grey, but with
the tip black.

DISTRIBUTION.--The forests of Bolivia and Brazil. This is a common species,
inhabiting the whole of the Peruvian Amazons, and may be met with on every
stream. (_E. Bartlett._)

HABITS.--Arboreal and gregarious, moving about in large numbers through the
forest, feeding on insects--chiefly orthoptera and spiders--small birds,
and fruits.


II. THE BLACK-HEADED SQUIRREL-MONKEY. CHRYSOTHRIX ENTOMOPHAGA.

  _Callithrix entomophagus_, d'Orb., Voy. Amér. Mér., iv., Mamm. pl. 4
  (1836).

  _Callithrix boliviensis_, d'Orb., Nouv. Ann. Mus., iii., p. 89 (1834).

  _Saimiris entomophagus_, d'Orb., Voy. Amér. Mér., iv., Mamm., text, p. 10
  (1847); Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 38 (1851).

  _Saimiri entomophagus_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 246 (1876).

  _Chrysothrix sciurea_ (nec L.), Frantz. in Wiegm. Arch. f. Nat., xxxix.,
  p. 260 (1869).

  _Chrysothrix entomophagus_, Wagn., Ann. Nat. Hist., xii., p. 42 (1843);
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 53 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Face grey, washed with yellow; ears haired; head black; hairs
of back black, with long yellow tips, or yellow with black tips, producing
a shade of brown washed with golden; outer side of upper part of arms and
legs yellow, peppered with black; throat, under surface of body and inside
of limbs yellowish-grey; tail long, black.

{156}In some species the upper part of the head has a shade of yellow,
caused by the colour of the lower half of the hairs showing through the
black tips.

DISTRIBUTION.--Bolivia; Veragua, Central America; and the warmer regions of
Costa Rica, where it inhabits the humid forests.


III. THE COMMON SQUIRREL-MONKEY. CHRYSOTHRIX SCIUREA.

  _Simia sciurea_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 43 (1766); Humb., Obs. Zool.,
  p. 334 (var. _cassiquiarensis_).

  _Callithrix sciureus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 113 (1812).

  _Saimiri sciureus_, Cuv., Reg. An., p. 103, pl. 1 (1829); Schl., Mus.
  Pays Bas, vii., p. 242 (1876).

  _Chrysothrix lunulata_, Geoffr., Arch. Mus., iv., p. 18 (1844).

  _Chrysothrix sciurea_, Wagner in Schreb., Säugth. Suppl., v., p. 120, pl.
  9, (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 53 (1870); Sclater, P. Z.
  S., 1880, p. 395.

  _Chrysothrix nigrivittata_, Wagn., Abh. bay. Ak. München, v., p. 461.

CHARACTERS.--Smaller than the two preceding species; face greyish-white;
chin round and prominent; head blackish-grey; back grey, or grey washed
with gold, the basal part of the hairs golden and the tips black; outer
side of the fore-arm yellow; tail long, slender, grizzled grey, with the
tip black. Length of the body, 10 inches; of the tail, 14 inches.

Certain females, examined by Dr. Sclater, had a distinct black line along
the side of the crown above each ear and extending in front, down the side
of the face, nearly to a level {157}with the angle of the mouth; but Mr.
Buckley says the Indians consider the black lines to be merely a sign of
age.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species has an extensive range, being found on both
banks of the Amazon, Rio Negro, and on the Copataza river; also in Guiana,
Surinam, and Colombia, near Bogotá.

HABITS.--Like its congeners, the Common Squirrel-Monkey is arboreal, going
about in large flocks. Their food consists of insects and fruits. Mr. Bates
observes that the "pretty little _Chrysothrix sciureus_ contents itself
with devouring what fruit it can on the spot," thus differing from certain
species of _Cebus_, which destroy more than they eat, and when about to
return to the forest, carry away all they can in their hands or under their
arms.

Mr. Darwin has remarked in his "Expression of the Emotions in Man and
Animals," that "with Monkeys the expression of any painful emotion is not
easily distinguished from that of anger." "Humboldt," he adds, "also
asserts that the eyes of the _Callithrix sciureus_ 'instantly fill with
tears when it is seized with fear'; but when this pretty little Monkey in
the Zoological Gardens was teased, so as to cry out loudly, this did not
occur. I do not, however, wish to throw the least doubt on the accuracy of
Humboldt's statement."

This species is a great favourite wherever it has been kept in captivity.
It is very bright coloured, has a baby-like face, large and bright eyes,
and most gentle manners. These Monkeys are very sensitive to cold, and when
a sudden fall in the temperature takes place, they huddle close together,
clasping each other with their arms, and embracing their neighbours and
themselves with their long tails.


{158}IV. THE RED-BACKED TITI. CHRYSOTHRIX OERSTEDI.

  _Saimaris sciurea ?_ (nec Linn.), Sclater, P. Z. S., 1856, p. 139.

  _Chrysothrix sciurea_ (nec Linn.), Scl., N. H. Rev., 1861, p. 510;
  Frantz. Arch. f. Naturg., xxxv. (1), p. 260.

  _Chrysothrix oerstedi_, Reinh. Vidensk. Medd. Nat. For. Kjöbenh., p. 157,
  pl. iii. (1872); Alston, in Godm. et Salv., Biol. Centr. Am. Mamm., p.
  16, pl. ii. (1879).

  _Saimiris entomophaga_, Sclater, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 3 (nec d'Orb.).

  _Saimiri örstedii_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 245 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Differs from _C. sciurea_ in having the top of the head black,
the back and sides shining red, and the limbs olive.

DISTRIBUTION.--Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, especially their hotter
districts,--being particularly abundant in the Valley of Terraba and on the
plain of Piris.


THE TITI MONKEYS. GENUS CALLITHRIX.

  _Callithrix_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 112 (1812).

This genus is intermediate between the Squirrel-Monkeys and the typical
Night-Monkeys. In the Titis, sometimes known by the name also of
Whaiapu-Sai Monkeys, the fur is soft, the head small, depressed, and not
produced backward as in _Chrysothrix_; the tail is long and bushy; the eyes
are small, and the orbits intermediate in size between those of the last
and the next genus; the nasal partition is broad, and the ears large. The
canine teeth are small, and the angle of the lower jaw expanded, somewhat
as in the Howlers (_Mycetes_), though to a less extent.

{159}The Titi Monkeys are diurnal animals, arboreal and gregarious, very
lively in disposition, noisy and agile, living on fruit, insects, birds'
eggs, and even small birds. They range all over South America, from Panama
to the southern limits of the forest regions.


I. THE WHITE-COLLARED TITI. CALLITHRIX TORQUATA.

  _Cebus torquatus_, Hoffm., Mag. Ges. Nat. Freund. Berlin, x., p. 86
  (1807).

  _Simia lugens_, Humb., Obs. Zool., i., p. 319 (1811).

  _Callithrix lugens_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 113 (1812).

  _Saguinus vidua_, Lesson, Species Mamm. Bimanes et Quadrum., p. 165
  (1840).

  _Callithrix torquatus_, Geoffr., t. c. p. 114; Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 55 (1870).

  _Callithrix torquata_, Schleg., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 235 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Head round; face short; ears short, nearly naked; nose flat.
Fur soft and woolly, intermixed with many long, stiff, dark reddish-brown
hairs,--the hairs red at the base, and black at the tips; forehead black;
crown of head dark brown; a narrow band round the face, white; a narrow
collar round the neck, reddish-white; hands white; hair of feet red at the
base, but black at the tips. Length of the body, about 12 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--Confined to the upper reaches of the Rio Negro, Brazil.

HABITS.--This species, often known under the name of the Widow Monkey, is
said to be very gentle in disposition. {160}When approaching to capture
insects or small birds, which form its prey, it becomes keen and excited,
but at other times it appears to be dull and listless. They roam about in
flocks of about half a dozen individuals, on the large branches of the
great forest trees. They are noisy animals, and in the early morning they
make the forest resound with their yelping cries.


II. THE RED TITI. CALLITHRIX CUPREA.

  _Callithrix cuprea_, Spix, Sim. et Vesper. Bras., p. 23, pl. 17, (1823);
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 54 (1870); Schleg., Mus. Pays Bas,
  vii., p. 236 (1876); Thomas, P. Z. S., 1880, p. 394.

  _Callithrix discolor_, Is. Geoffr., C.R., xxvii., p. 498 (1848); id. Cat.
  Méth. Primates, p. 41 (1851); id. Arch. Mus., v., p. 551, pl. 28; Wagner
  in Schreb., Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 114 (1855).

  (_Plate XIV._)

CHARACTERS.--Fur soft and woolly, mixed with numerous long stiff hairs;
face black; back grizzly blackish-grey in colour; tail the same but darker;
the basal part and tips of the hairs grey, with an intermediate band below
the tips, black; tip of the tail sometimes white; the cheeks, throat,
hands, feet, legs, and the under side of the body, dark reddish bay; the
ears coppery-red.

PLATE XIV.

[Illustration: THE RED TITI.]


{161}DISTRIBUTION.--This species is found throughout the whole of the
Peruvian Amazons, though not in very large numbers--indeed, it is said to
be rare. It has been recorded from Cashiboya on the Ucayali, and Santa Cruz
on the Huallaga. Mr. O. Thomas mentions his having examined twelve
specimens from the Copataza river, and one from Andoas in Ecuador. Of these
he says: "The Andoas specimen, which is a male, differs from the rest in
having the fur on the back of a dirty orange-grey colour, without
annulations, instead of being of a bright annulated black and white. One of
the others, a female, shows a tendency to this condition of the hair, which
is, therefore, probably a seasonal change, as the Andoan specimen was shot
in September, while the others were obtained between December and
February."


III. THE WHITE-CHESTED TITI. CALLITHRIX AMICTA.

  _Simia amicta_, Humboldt, Obs. Zool., i., p. 357 (1811).

  _Callithrix amicta_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 19, pl. xiii.
  (1833).

  _Callithrix amictus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 114 (1812); Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 54 (1870).

  _Callithrix torquata_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 235 (part, 1876).

CHARACTERS.--Agrees with the last species in the character of the fur; but
the general colour is black, washed with rufous; the forehead is black; the
chest has a pure white spot; the hands are white, but the feet black; the
tail has the hairs entirely black throughout.

DISTRIBUTION.--Guiana.


IV. THE REED TITI. CALLITHRIX CINERASCENS.

  _Callithrix cinerascens_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 20, pl. 14
  (1823).

  _Callithrix donacophilus_, d'Orb., Voy. Amér. Sud, iv., p. 10, pl. 5
  (1826); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 55 (1870).

  _Callithrix donacophila_, Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 41 (1851);
  Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 240 (1876).

{162}CHARACTERS.--Fur long and similar in character to that of _C.
torquata_; chest and under side of body pale grey or dark reddish-grey;
hands and feet grey; back of the same colour; tail mottled grey,--the hairs
being grey, with black tips.

In some species the fur varies from dark grey washed with rufous, to almost
white, the red wash, where it occurs, sometimes deepening, or almost
vanishing.

DISTRIBUTION.--Mr. Bates observed this species at Serra dos Parentins, in
the Lower Amazon Region above the confluence of the Tapajos with the
Amazon. It also extends to Bolivia and Peru.


V. THE ORABASSU TITI. CALLITHRIX MOLOCH.

  _Cebus moloch_, Hoffman, Mag. Gesell. Berlin, x., p. 97 (1807).

  _Callithrix moloch_, Geoffr., Arch. Museum, iv., p. 33, pl. 3(1844), id.,
  Ann. Mus., xix., p. 114 (1812); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 55
  (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Differs from the Reed Titi in having the cheeks, chest, and
belly red. Hands and feet of the same colour as the back, grey.

The cerebral convolutions of this animal are, according to M. C. Dareste,
exactly those of a "Maki," or _Lemur_.

DISTRIBUTION.--Throughout Brazil.


VI. THE ORNATE TITI. CALLITHRIX ORNATA.

  _Callithrix discolor_, Verreaux, M.S. (nec Geoffr.).

  _Callithrix ornata_, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xvii., p. 57 (1866).

  _Callithrix ornatus_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 55 (1870).

{163}CHARACTERS.--General colour black and grey, grizzled; forehead and
ears white, instead of black as in _C. caligata_, or coppery-red as in _C.
cuprea_; temples, cheeks, throat, under side of body, and inner side of
legs, bright chestnut; hands and feet grey; tail black, with a grey
tinge,--the hairs being grey, with a dark ring near the tip of each; hands
and feet the colour of the back.

DISTRIBUTION.--U. S. Colombia; vicinity of Bogotá.

HABITS.--This species is arboreal, like the other members of its genus, and
it is said to be nocturnal. It spends the day rolled up very much as many
of the Lemurs do.


VII. THE MASKED TITI. CALLITHRIX PERSONATA.

  _Callithrix personatus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 113 (1812); Spix,
  Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 18, pl. 12 (1823); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 56 (1870).

  _Callithrix brunnea_, Wagner, Arch. f. Naturg., 1842, i., p. 357 (ex
  Natterer, MSS.).

  _Pithecia melanops_, Vigors, Cat. Coll. Zool. Soc., p. 6.

  _Callithrix personata_, Schl., Mus. Pays. Bas, vii., p. 231 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Size larger than that of the other Titis. Style of fur the
same as in the previous species, but longer, and the long stiff hairs more
bristly; general colour black, mottled with grey rings on the hairs; back
grizzled grey; entire head, hands, feet, and lower part of limbs, black;
chest, under side of the body, and tail dark ashy-grey, the latter washed
at the base, sometimes extensively, with rufous, and grey towards the tip
below.

FEMALE.--Body strongly washed with whitish-yellow, and the tail with
rufous; forehead between the ears, black.

{164}DISTRIBUTION.--Upper Amazon. Of all the species of the genus, this
ranges furthest to the south--to 14° S. lat.


VIII. THE BLACK-FRONTED TITI. CALLITHRIX NIGRIFRONS.

  _Callithrix nigrifrons_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 21, pl. 15
  (1823); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 56 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays
  Bas, vii., p. 232 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Nearly allied to the Masked Titi (_C. personata_), but
distinguished by the nearly white back of the head and nape of the neck,
and by the hairs at the base of the tail being entirely red.

DISTRIBUTION.--Upper Amazonia.


IX.  THE RED-BELLIED TITI. CALLITHRIX CASTANEIVENTRIS.

  _Callithrix castaneoventris_, Gray, Ann. and Mag. N. H., xvii., p. 58
  (1866); id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 56 (1870).

  _Callithrix caligata_, Wagner, Arch. f. Naturg., 1842, i., p. 454 (ex
  Natterer, MSS.); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 237 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Fur of the same nature as in _C. cuprea_, black, ringed with
grey; face grizzled, whiskers, throat, chest, under side of the body, and
inner surface of the limbs reddish-chestnut; outside of the limbs grizzled,
washed with rufous; forehead, hands, feet and tail black; tip of the tail
paler.

DISTRIBUTION.--Paraguay and Brazil; Borba, Rio Madeira.

The two following species may be distinguished from those already described
by having their soft woolly fur entirely free from the long bristly hairs,
which were dispersed through the fur of the others.


{165}X. THE BLACK-HANDED TITI. CALLITHRIX MELANOCHIR.

  _Callithrix melanochir_, Neuwied, Beitr., ii., p. 114, et Abbild., iv.;
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 57 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii.,
  p. 233 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--General colour red, but the crown of the head, the throat, and
inner side of the limbs, mixed black and grey; the hands and feet black.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species has been recorded from Bahia, on the east coast
of Brazil.


XI. THE GREY TITI. CALLITHRIX GIGOT.

  _Callithrix gigot_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 22, pl. 16 (1823);
  Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 234 (1876); Weldon, P. Z. S., 1884, p. 6.

  _Callithrix gigo_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 57 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Hair about two inches long, soft and slightly woolly over the
trunk; hair on the forehead shorter and more thickly set; that over the
limbs short and loose. General colour of the back reddish-grey behind, more
ashy over the forehead and limbs; the hair black at the base,
cream-coloured further up, the tips ringed with chestnut and black. Muzzle
and chin black, with a few short, strong, white hairs; a black line along
the nose and round the eyes; the eyelids white; the eye-lashes and long
eye-brows black; forehead thickly covered with loose grey hairs, slightly
tipped with black; a faint ridge across the brow between the ears; the ears
black, covered with soft black hairs, except for a small grey tuft at their
hind outer angle. In front of the ears a light grey band over the cheeks,
continued above on to the forehead, below to the chest; throat naked, light
pink; under surface {166}of the limbs pale grey; the hands and feet black;
tail red, the hair bushy at its base. Length of the body, 14 inches; of the
tail, 13½ inches. (_Weldon._)

Cæcum with dilated end; liver more divided than in _C. moloch_; the two
halves (_rami_) of the lower jaw enormously deep, resembling those of the
Howlers (_Mycetes_).

DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil; Bahia, and the country between the Parahyba and the
mountains to the north of the Bay of Rio de Janeiro.

HABITS.--This species is very rare, and nothing is known of its habits.

Professor Weldon writes, in his paper in the "Proceedings of the Zoological
Society," referred to above: "Sir W. Flower has suggested to me that the
enormous depth of the _ramus_ of the mandibles in this _Callithrix_ pointed
to the existence of some arrangement resembling that of _Mycetes_. It was
difficult to determine this point in a young female; but the swollen
condition of the thyroid, together with the existence of a patch of
ossification on each side, seem to show the possible existence of a howling
apparatus in the male."


THE DOUROUCOLIS. GENUS NYCTIPITHECUS.

  _Nyctipithecus_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 24 (1823).

The members of this genus, usually called "Douroucolis," are small animals,
somewhat Lemurine in appearance, possessing a short, thick body, a rounded
head produced behind, and a short, round face, encircled by a ruff of
whitish fur. The muzzle is not prominent; the mouth and chin are small; the
{167}ears are very short, scarcely appearing above the hair of the head;
the eyes are enormous and yellowish in colour, imparting to them the
staring expression of nocturnal animals of prey. Their tail is bushy,
moderately long and non-prehensile; and the nostrils are separated by a
narrower partition than in the other genera of the sub-family. Their
physiognomy reminds one of an Owl or Tiger-cat (_Bates_). They are covered
with close, soft, woolly fur.

In the skull the orbits are enormously large and closely approximated, but
yet separated by a complete bony wall; the nostrils, on the other hand,
though separated in the living animal by a wide, fleshy partition, have
only a thin plate of bone between them. The upper incisors are broad; the
canines long; and the lower incisors project forwards, somewhat as in the
Lemurs. The arm-bone has a perforation (the ent-epicondylar foramen) on its
inner side above the articulation of the elbow joint, to give passage and
protection to an important artery and nerve. The thumb is very short; the
claws are small and weak. The dorsal and lumbar vertebræ together number
twenty-two, the greatest number possessed by any American monkey. As in
_Chrysothrix_, the external surface of the cerebral hemispheres is smooth
and almost devoid of convolutions, but their inner faces exhibit several of
the more important grooves seen in the higher Apes.

All the species are arboreal and nocturnal, hiding away in the daytime and
roaming during the night, giving vent to loud howls, or Cat-like cries, as
they move in quest of the insects, small birds, and fruits, which form
their food. They range from Nicaragua to the Amazon and Eastern Peru, and
are called "Devil monkeys" by the Indians. They are very delicate, and soon
die in captivity.


{168}I. THE THREE-BANDED DOUROUCOLI. NYCTIPITHECUS TRIVIRGATUS.

  _Aotus trivirgatus_, Humboldt, Obs. Zool., p. 306, fig. 28 (1811).

  _Nyctipithecus trivirgatus_, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist., x., p. 256 (1842);
  id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 58 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii.,
  p. 213 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Fur short, grey and brown, with a silvery lustre; on the crown
of the head three long black linear streaks, distinct from each other;
frontal spot whitish; back greyish-brown with a dark dorsal band and a long
chestnut patch; chest and lower surface of body rusty-red; throat, and
inside of limbs, greyish-ashy; tail long, cylindrical, and with short,
blackish-brown hair, more yellow on the under surface of the base. Length
of the body, 12 inches; of the tail, 14 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--The type specimen was obtained by Humboldt on the banks of
the Cassiquiare, near the head waters of the Rio Negro. Mr. Bates found it
at Ega and at other places on the Upper Amazon region. It has been recorded
also from Guiana; and from Chanchamayo in Peru, at 3,000 feet above the
sea.

HABITS.--The habits of the Three-banded Douroucoli are entirely nocturnal.
They hide in small troops in a hole in the trunk of a tree from morning
till twilight, hunting for food during the night. They have a singularly
loud and far-reaching voice for such small animals.


II. THE LEMURINE DOUROUCOLI. NYCTIPITHECUS LEMURINUS.

  _Nyctipithecus lemurinus_, Is. Geoffr., Arch. Mus., iv., p. 24, pl. 21
  (1844); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 58 (1870).

  {169}_Nyctipithecus felinus_, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus., p. 14 (1843);
  Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., 214 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Fur of body and head long; tail depressed, broad, with the
hair bushy and spreading on the sides as in a Squirrel. Head presenting a
dark frontal area with a round white spot over each eye.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Lemurine Douroucolis are found in Colombia and in Upper
Amazonia; at Macas, on the eastern side of the Andes; and on the upper
branches of the main streams of the Amazon, as far as a congenial habitat
is met with.


III. THE RED-FOOTED DOUROUCOLI.[10] NYCTIPITHECUS RUFIPES.

  _Nyctipithecus rufipes_, Sclater, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 3, pl. 1.

  _Nyctipithecus vociferans_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 25, pl. 19
  (1823; part); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 214 (1876; part).

  (_Plate XV._)

CHARACTERS.--Above grey, slightly washed on the back with rufous; under
side reddish fulvous; three vertical black stripes on the head, similar to
_N. trivirgatus_, but much less distinct, narrower, and showing a prominent
triangular white patch over each eye; ears large and prominent, almost nude
(perhaps the result of captivity). Hands and feet rufous; tail
short-haired, cylindrical; the basal half rufous, the remainder
reddish-black. Length of the body, 11 inches; and of the tail, 16 inches.
The absence of the long chestnut patch on the back distinguishes _N.
rufipes_ from _N. trivirgatus_, and its paler colour and the indistinctness
of its head-stripes, separate it from _N. felinus_.

DISTRIBUTION.--Nicaragua; San Juan del Norte.


{170}IV. AZARA'S DOUROUCOLI. NYCTIPITHECUS AZARÆ.

  _Simia azaræ_, Humb., Obs. Zool., p. 359 (1811).

  _Pithecia miriquouina_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 117 (1812); Kuhl,
  Beitr., p. 43 (1820).

  _Nyctipithecus azaræ_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 212 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--A large rhomboidal black patch between the two large
superciliary spots, the two acute angles of which are prolonged, the one
under the base of the nose, the other in the median line to the top of the
head; the inner side of the limbs, the under side of the body, throat, and
chin of a reddish-ochre colour.

DISTRIBUTION.--The right bank of the River Paraguay, in the north-east of
the Argentine Republic, but not in Paraguay proper.


V. THE FELINE DOUROUCOLI. NYCTIPITHECUS FELINUS.

  _Nyctipithecus felinus_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 24, pl. 18
  (1823); Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 39 (1851); Gray, Ann. N. H.,
  x., p. 256 (1842).

  _Nyctipithecus oseryi_, Is. Geoffr. et Deville, C. R., xxvii., 1848, p.
  498 (juv.); Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 39 (1851).

  _Nyctipithecus commersonii_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 58 (1870).

  _Nyctipithecus vociferans_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 214 (1876;
  part).

CHARACTERS.--Closely related to the last species, but differs in having the
three facial streaks irregular and combining together on the crown, the
middle one broad and lozenge-shaped; the frontal spots short, and white.
Fur longer and more woolly; neck, chest, under surface of body, inner sides
of the limbs, and the base of the tail yellowish; tail round.

PLATE XV.

[Illustration: THE RED FOOTED NIGHT-MONKEY.]


{171}DISTRIBUTION.--This species is rather rare, but it has been obtained
at Ega and at Tabatinga on the Upper Amazons; on the Ucayali, and near
Yurimaguas on the Huallaga River--in the warm and humid virgin forests--in
fact, generally along the Peruvian Amazons.

In speaking of his collections made at Ega on the Upper Amazons, which he
describes as a fine field for a Natural History collector, Mr. Bates gives
an interesting account of the Night-Apes, called "Ei-á" by the Indians,
observed by him during his various journeys. "Of these I found two species
(_Nyctipithecus trivirgatus_ and _N. felinus_) closely related to each
other, but nevertheless quite distinct, as both inhabit the same forests,
namely, those of the higher and drier lands, without mingling with each
other or inter-crossing. They sleep all day long in hollow trees, and come
forth to prey on insects and eat fruits only in the night. One cannot help
being struck by this curious modification of the American type of Monkeys,
for the Owl-faced Night-Apes have evidently sprung from the same stock as
the rest of the _Cebidæ_, as they do not differ much in all essential
points from the Whaiapu-Sais (_Callithrix_) and the Sai-miris
(_Chrysothrix_). They have nails of the ordinary form on all their fingers,
and semi-opposable thumbs; but the molar teeth (contrary to what is usual
in the _Cebidæ_) are studded with sharp points, showing that their
nocturnal food is principally insects.

"I kept a pet animal of _N. trivirgatus_ for many months, a young one
having been given to me by an Indian compadre as a present from my
newly-baptized godson. These Monkeys, although sleeping by day, are aroused
by the least noise, so that, when a person passes by a tree in which a
number of them are concealed, he is startled by the sudden apparition of
{172}a group of little striped faces crowding a hole in a trunk. It was in
this way that my compadre discovered the colony from which the one given to
me was taken. I was obliged to keep my pet chained up; it, therefore, never
became thoroughly familiar. I once saw, however, an individual of the other
species (_N. felinus_) which was most amusingly tame. It was as lively and
nimble as the _Cebi_, but not so mischievous, and far more confiding in its
disposition, delighting to be caressed by all persons who came into the
house. But its owner, the Municipal Judge of Ega, Dr. Carlos Mariana, had
treated it for many weeks with the greatest kindness, allowing it to keep
with him at night in his hammock, and to nestle in his bosom half the day
as he lay reading. It was a great favourite with everyone, from the
cleanliness of its habits and the prettiness of its features and ways. My
own pet was kept in a box in which was placed a broad-mouthed glass jar;
into this it would dive, head foremost, when anyone entered the room,
turning round inside, and thrusting forth its inquisitive face an instant
afterwards to stare at the intruder. It was very active at night, venting
at frequent intervals a hoarse cry like the suppressed barking of a dog,
and scampering about the room, to the length of its tether, after
cockroaches and spiders. In climbing between the box and the wall it
straddled the space, resting its hands on the palms and tips of the
outstretched fingers with the knuckles bent at an acute angle, and thus
mounted to the top with the greatest facility. Although seeming to prefer
insects, it ate all kinds of fruit, but would not touch raw or cooked meat,
and was very seldom thirsty. I was told by persons who had kept these
Monkeys loose about the house, that they cleared the chambers of bats as
well as insect vermin. When approached gently, my Ei-á allowed {173}itself
to be caressed; but when handled roughly it always took alarm, biting
severely, striking with its little hands, and making a hissing noise like a
Cat.

"I have mentioned the near relationship of the Night-Apes to the Sai-miris
(_Chrysothrix_), which are among the commonest of the ordinary Monkeys of
the American forests. This near relationship is the more necessary to be
borne in mind, as some Zoologists have drawn a comparison between them and
the nocturnal Apes of the Lemur family, inhabiting Ceylon and Java, and it
might be inferred that our American Ei-ás were related more closely to
these Old World forms than they are to the rest of the New World Monkeys.
The large nocturnal eyes and short ears of the Eastern Lemurs are simply
resemblances of analogy, and merely show that a few species, belonging to
utterly dissimilar families, have been made similar by being adapted to
similar modes of life...."



THE SAKIS. SUB-FAMILY PITHECIINÆ.


The Sakis are characterised by having their lower incisor teeth inclined
forward at their summits somewhat as among the Lemurs; and separated from
the long canines by an interspace. The molar teeth are small; the tail,
which in some is long, in others short, is non-prehensile. The nostrils
are, as usual, far apart, and the thumb is well developed. The ears are
large. Great differences in the character of the fur exist in the group:
some species having long hair over the whole body, others on the chin and
cheeks; some are well bearded, while others again are quite bald.

The Sakis are divided into two genera, a short-tailed group (_Brachyurus_),
containing the Uakarí Monkeys, and a long-tailed {174}section, the Sakis
(_Pithecia_). Their various species are restricted to the great equatorial
forests of South America.


THE UAKARÍ MONKEYS. GENUS BRACHYURUS.

  _Brachyurus_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 11 (1823); W. A. Forbes,
  P. Z. S., 1880, p. 644.

  _Ouakaria_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1849, p. 9.

The species of this genus are at once recognised by their short tail, being
the only American Monkeys in which this organ is short. The fur is short
and silky; the face short, and often brightly coloured. The mammæ are
situated on the breast. In the skull the lower jaw is dilated behind, and
certain bones, the parietal and the malar, are in contact with each other
for a more or less considerable extent on the side walls of the skull. (Cf.
W. A. Forbes, P. Z. S., 1880, p. 639, figs. 5 and 6.) In Old World Monkeys
this contact _never_ (except slightly in _Hylobates_) takes place. This is
a useful mark for discriminating between the skulls of New and Old World
Monkeys. (_Forbes._) The shortness of the tail is due, not to a reduction
in the number of the vertebræ, which may be 15 to 17, but in their size.

In the brain the cerebrum exhibits the more important grooves
characterising the brain of the higher Apes (_Simiidæ_) well developed; the
cerebellum (or hind brain) is also well developed. Thus in its general
characters the brain of the Uakarís approaches most nearly to that of the
genera _Cebus_ and _Pithecia_ (next to be described). By reason of its
greater complication and development, it departs widely from that of the
Titis (_Callithrix_) and the Squirrel-Monkeys (_Chrysothrix_).

A relationship to the Howlers (_Mycetes_), suggested by the external
appearance of the Uakarís and the form of their lower {175}jaw, is not
borne out by their internal anatomy. The caudate lobe of the liver is very
large. This character distinguishes the whole of the _Cebidæ_ from the Old
World families.

The Uakarís are arboreal Monkeys, very gentle and timid. The distribution
of the various species is singularly restricted, each being confined to a
small and particular district.


I. THE BLACK-HEADED UAKARÍ. BRACHYURUS MELANOCEPHALUS.

  _Simia melanocephala_ (Cacajao), Humboldt, Obs. Zool., p. 317, pl. xxix.
  (1811).

  _Pithecia melanocephala_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 117 (1812); Schl.,
  Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 227 (1876).

  _Brachyurus ouakary_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 12, pl. viii.
  (1823).

  _Ouakaria spixii_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1849, p. 10, cum fig.

  _Ouakaria melanocephala_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 62 (1870).

  _Brachyurus melanocephalus_, W. A. Forbes, P. Z. S., 1880, p. 645, pl.
  lxiii.

CHARACTERS.--Head and nude face-black; back, sides, thighs, upper surface
of tail, and outer and inner sides of legs more or less chestnut-brown;
shoulders, arms, hands, feet, and rest of tail, black. Ears large, naked,
and similar in form to those in Man.

DISTRIBUTION.--Confined, so far as at present known, to the forests
traversed by the Rio Casiquiare, Rio Negro, and Rio Branco. This is the
most northern form of the three species of the genus, and apparently the
most widespread also (see map, p. 180). This is doubtless the "black-faced,
grey-haired" species, neither white nor red, which Mr. Bates was
{176}assured took the place of _B. calvus_, at 180 miles northward from the
mouth of the Japurá.

HABITS.--Living in the high trees of the forest, feeding on fruits; and not
differing in habits from those of the other species of the genus, which are
referred to below.


II. THE RED UAKARÍ. BRACHYURUS RUBICUNDUS.

  _Brachyurus rubicundus_, Is. Geoffr. and Dev., C. R., xxvii., p. 498
  (1848); Is. Geoffr., Arch. Mus., v., p. 564, pl. 30 (1845); Castelnau,
  Expéd. Amér. Sud, Mamm., p. 19, pl. 4, fig. 2 (1855); W. A. Forbes, P. Z.
  S., 1880, p. 646, pls. lxi., lxii.

  _Ouakaria rubicunda_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 62 (1870).

  _Pithecia rubicunda_, Schleg., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 228 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Face, chin, lips, forehead, and sides of face, bare (except
for a few superciliary hairs, and scant representatives of moustache and
beard), all bright vermilion red, deepening with emotion. Eyes brown; ears
square in shape, without a lobule; hair on top of head short, silky, and
grey; that on the side of the lower jaw and throat long and rich
chestnut-red, running forward as far as the symphysis, and forming
whiskers. Hair of upper surface of body entirely rich chestnut-red, more or
less black-tipped and long, especially on the shoulders and limbs; hair of
head, nape, and neck paler than on the rest of the body; tail, haired below
at tip, rich chestnut-red; under surface of body rich chestnut-red, and
less hairy. The fur in general colour and texture resembles that of the
Orang, the red hair, continued on to the limbs and tail, being particularly
long on the arms and shoulders (forming a sort of cape), and {177}along the
hind border of the thigh and leg. (_W. A. Forbes_). Between the thigh and
the lower part of the leg there is a wide expansion of the skin behind the
knee.

The thumb is in the same plane with the other digits and not opposable;
digits with compressed and rather elongated nails; the nail of the thumb
and the great-toe shorter and more "nail"-like; upper surface of the hands
and feet haired, on to the fingers. The cæcum (6 inches) and intestines (22
inches) are absolutely and relatively longer than in any other New World
Monkey.

Length of the body, 27-28 inches; of the tail, 6½

DISTRIBUTION.--Forests on the north bank of the Amazons, opposite Olivença,
not passing eastwards of Iça on the Iça river. The exact westward extension
of this species still remains unknown. The young specimen seen at Fonteboa
by Bates, and by him referred to this species, was more probably _B.
calvus_, as we know from the account given by Geoffroy St. Hilaire and
Castelnau, that the young of _B. rubicundus_ resembles in coloration the
adult, and is _not_ paler.

HABITS.--Gregarious and diurnal; living in the high trees, and feeding on
fruits, probably exclusively, the length of its intestines seeming to
indicate that it is more of a vegetarian than its allies.


III. THE BALD UAKARÍ. BRACHYURUS CALVUS.

  _Brachyurus calvus_, Is. Geoffr., C. R., xxiv., p. 576 (1847); id., Arch.
  Mus., v., p. 560 (1845); Castelnau, Expéd. Amér. Sud, Mammif., p. 17, pl.
  4, fig. 1 (1855); W. A. Forbes, P. Z. S., 1880, p. 646; Beddard, P. Z.
  S., 1887, p. 119, pl. xii.

  {178}_Ouakaria calva_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 62 (1870).

  _Pithecia calva_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 228 (1876).

  _Pithecia alba_, Schl., t. c. p. 229.

  (_Plate XVI._)

CHARACTERS.--Fur very long, straight, and shining from neck to tail. Face
scarlet; top of head nearly bald, greyish, passing into brown anteriorly
and at the sides, with bushy sandy whiskers meeting below the chin; throat
dark brown, mixed with numerous black hairs, the general tint being rich
chestnut-brown; back whitish-grey, with black hairs mixed with white ones,
which are in greater number. Under surface fulvous brown, darker on the
breast, where brown hairs are numerous; the same brown tinge is visible on
the arms, legs, the hinder region of the thighs, at the wrist, and ankle,
and especially on the tail; eyes reddish-yellow. Length, 18 inches.

Some species are paler than the above description, being pale sandy-white,
slightly rufous below and on the inside of the limbs.

Cæcum 10 inches long along its greater curvature, and not sacculated.

According to Mr. Beddard, _B. calvus_ and _B. rubicundus_ agree very
closely in external and in internal characters, while _B. melanocephalus_
differs more in external characters from the other two than they do from
each other.

DISTRIBUTION.--Opposite Fonteboa; banks of the Japurá river west of its
mouth. This species appears to be confined to the triangle formed by the
union of the Japurá river and the Amazon. It does not pass east of Ega, nor
does it cross to the south of the Amazon, but keeps to the forests of the
low lands to the north of that boundary and south of the Japurá.

PLATE XVI.

[Illustration: THE BALD UAKARI.]


{179}HABITS.--"This scarlet-faced monkey," says Mr. Bates, "lives in
forests, which are inundated during the greater part of the year, and is
never known to descend to the ground; the shortness of its tail is,
therefore, no sign of terrestrial habits, as it is in the Macaques and
Baboons of the Old World.... It seems to be found in no other part of
America than the banks of the Japurá near its mouth; and even there it is
confined to the western side of the river. It lives in small troops amongst
the crowns of the lofty trees, living on fruits of various kinds. Hunters
say it is very nimble in its motions, but it is not much given to leaping,
preferring to run up and down the larger boughs in travelling from tree to
tree. The mother, as in other species of the Monkey order, carries her
young on her back. Individuals are obtained alive by shooting them with the
blow-pipe and arrows tipped with diluted Urari poison. They run a
considerable distance after being pierced, and it requires an experienced
hunter to track them. He is considered the most expert who can keep pace
with a wounded one and catch it in his arms when it falls exhausted. A
pinch of salt, the antidote to the poison, is then put in its mouth, and
the creature revives.... Adult Uakarís, caught in the way just described,
very rarely become tame. They are peevish and sulky, resisting all attempts
to coax them, and biting anyone who ventures within reach. They have no
particular cry, even when in their native woods; in captivity they are
quite silent. In the course of a few days or weeks, if not carefully
attended to, they fall into a listless condition, refuse food, and die....
The bright scarlet of its face is, in health, spread over the features up
to the roots of the hair on the forehead and temples, and down to the neck,
including the flabby cheeks, which hang down below the jaws. {180}The
animal, in this condition, looks at a short distance as though someone had
laid a thick coat of red paint on its countenance....  After seeing much of
the morose disposition of the Uakarí, I was not a little surprised one day,
at a friend's house, to find an extremely lively and familiar individual of
the species. It ran from an inner chamber straight towards me after I had
sat down on a chair, climbed my legs and nestled in my lap, turning round
and looking up with the usual Monkey's grin after it had made itself
comfortable. It was a young animal, which had been taken when its mother
was shot with a poisoned arrow; its teeth were incomplete, and the face was
pale and mottled, the glowing scarlet hue not supervening in these animals
before mature age; it had also a few long black hairs on the eyebrows and
lips. The {181}frisky little fellow had been reared in the house among the
children, and allowed to run about freely...." This species is rare, even
in the limited district which it inhabits. A Government official sent six
of his most skilful Indians, who were absent hunting for three weeks before
they obtained twelve specimens.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.

Map of part of the basin of the Amazons to show the distribution of the
Uakarí Monkeys. (Forbes, P. Z. S., 1880, p. 647.)

Supposed area of ''B. melanocephalus'', ''B. calvus'', and ''B.
rubicundus'' shown by shading.]

In reference to the singularly restricted range of these Uakarís, Mr.
Wallace's observations in his paper "On the Monkeys of the Amazon," before
the Zoological Society of London, are of great interest.

"During my residence," he says, "in the Amazon district, I took every
opportunity of determining the limits of species, and I soon found that the
Amazon, the Rio Negro, and the Madeira formed the limits beyond which
certain species never passed. The native hunters are perfectly acquainted
with this fact, and always cross over the river when they want to procure
particular animals, which are found even on the river's bank on one side,
but never by any chance on the other. On approaching the sources of the
rivers, they cease to be a boundary, and most of the species are found on
both sides of them. Thus several Guiana species come up to the Rio Negro
and Amazon, but do not pass them; Brazilian species, on the contrary, reach
but do not pass the Amazon to the north. Several Ecuador species from the
east of the Andes reach down into the tongue of land between the Rio Negro
and Upper Amazon, but pass neither of those rivers, and others from Peru
are bounded on the north by the Upper Amazon, and on the east by the
Madeira. Thus there are four districts whose boundaries on one side are
determined by the rivers I have mentioned. In going up the Rio Negro, the
difference on the two sides of the river is very remarkable.

{182}"In the lower part of the river you will find on the north the
_Jacchus_ [_Hapale_] _bicolor_, and the _Brachyurus couxui_ [_Pithecia
satanas_], and on the south the red-whiskered Pithecia. Higher up you will
find on the north the _Ateles paniscus_, and on the south a black _Jacchus_
and the _Lagothrix humboldtii_."


THE SAKIS. GENUS PITHECIA.

  _Pithecia_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 115 (1812).

  _Chiropotes_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 60 (1870), in part.

The Sakis form the second section of the present Sub-family, and are
characterised by their long, thick, and bushy non-prehensile tail. A thick
beard conceals the large chin. Hair on the crown long, divided by a central
line, and hanging over the head, half concealing the pleasing diminutive
face, or confined to the head, cheeks, and chin. The ears are large. The
upper and lower incisor teeth project forward, the upper inner pair being
moderately large, the outer very small; canines strong and conical; first
pre-molar smaller than the others, and one-cusped; molars with square
crowns, grooved in the middle and slightly four-cusped.

In the brain the whole of the cerebellum and the olfactory lobes are
covered by the cerebrum. In general form the latter resembles that of the
species of _Cebus_. The frontal and occipital regions of the skull
approximate in form to those in Man; the angle of the mandible is expanded,
but less so than among the Howlers (_Mycetes_). The ribs are relatively
broader in this genus than in any other of the American Monkeys.


I. THE HAIRY SAKI. PITHECIA MONACHUS.

  _Simia monachus_, Humb. and Bonpl., Obs. Zool., p. 359 (1811).

  {183}_Pithecia monachus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 116 (1812);
  Flower, P. Z. S., 1862, p. 326, pl. xxxvii.; Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 59 (1870).

  _Pithecia hirsuta_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 14, pl. 9 (1823).

  _Pithecia inusta_, Spix, t. c. p. 15, pl. x. (1823).

  _Pithecia irrorata_, Gray, Voy. Sulphur, Zool., p. 14, pl. 3 (1844).

  _Pithecia albicans_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1860, p. 231, pl. lxxxi.

  _Pithecia monacha_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 220 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Fur harsh, long and loose, with a hood of forwardly-directed
hairs on the upper part of the head, neck, and shoulders. Face bare, long,
and narrow; nose large and full; nostrils widely separated and lateral.
Face dark purplish-brown, and black on the nose, paler round the eyes, and
sparingly covered with short coarse whitish hairs; a yellowish-white patch
on the cheeks, terminating in front in a distinct line from the inner
corner of the eye to below the angle of the mouth; margin of upper lips
white; ears large, round, naked, and of the same colour as the face; upper
part and back of head, neck, shoulders, back, arms, thighs, and tail,
black, washed with yellowish-white, becoming yellowish-brown on the hinder
part of the body. Throat, breast, under side of body, and inside of thighs,
pale yellowish-brown, sparingly haired. Tail 18 inches long, cylindrical,
and bushy at the end; the hair long, coarse, curled, black, washed with
pale yellowish-brown. Legs black; fore-arm black, washed with white; upper
surface of hands, feet, and digits, white. Hands small, thumbs short,
parallel to the other fingers; nails black, somewhat compressed, pointed,
that of the thumb flatter; great-toe well developed, standing apart from
the other toes, its nail flat {184}and pointed; nails of the other toes
long, curved, and compressed.

DISTRIBUTION.--Mr. Bates states that the "Parauacú," as this Monkey is
called by the natives of its own country, is found on the "terra firma"
lands of the north shore of the Solimoens, or Upper Amazon, from Tunantins
to Peru. It exists also on the south side of the river on the banks of the
Teffé, but there under a changed form, which differs from its type in
colours, as much as the red differs from the white Uakarí. This variety is
Dr. Gray's _Pithecia albicans_.

HABITS.--The Hairy Saki is a very timid and inoffensive animal, and is
also, as Mr. Bates tells us in his well-known book, "very delicate, rarely
living many weeks in captivity; but anyone who succeeds in keeping it alive
for a month or two, gains by it a most affectionate pet. One of the
specimens now in the British Museum was, when living, the property of a
neighbour of mine at Ega. It became so tame in the course of a few weeks
that it followed him about the streets like a dog. My friend was a tailor,
and the little pet used to spend the greater part of the day seated on his
shoulder whilst he was at work on his board. It showed, nevertheless, great
dislike to strangers, and was not on good terms with any other member of my
friend's household than himself.... The eager and passionate _Cebi_ seem to
take the lead of all the South American Monkeys in intelligence and
docility, and the Coaita, one of the Spider-Monkeys (_Ateles paniscus_),
has, perhaps, the most gentle and impressionable disposition; but the
Parauacú, although a dull, cheerless animal, excels all in this quality of
capability of attachment to individuals of our own species, nor is it
wanting in intelligence."


{185}II. THE WHITE-HEADED SAKI. PITHECIA PITHECIA.

  _Simia pithecia_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 40 (1766).

  _Simia leucocephala_, Audeb. Singes., Fam, vi., Sect, i., p. 9, fig. 2
  (1797).

  _Pithecia adusta_, Illig., Abh. Berl. Ak., 1804-1811, p. 107; Kuhl,
  Beitr. Zool., p. 44 (1820).

  _Pithecia nocturna_, Illig., l. c.; Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 217
  (1876; part).

  _Pithecia leucocephala_, Geoffr., Ann. du Mus., xix., p. 117 (1812);
  Gray, Voy. Sulphur, Zool., p. 12, pl. 2; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p.
  59 (1870; part); Scl., P. Z. S., 1871, p. 228.

  _Pithecia ochrocephala_, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 44 (1820, = young).

  _Pithecia rufibarbata_, Kuhl, t. c. p. 44 (1820).

  _Pithecia capillamentosa_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Bras., p. 16, pl. 11
  (1823).

  _Pithecia rufiventer_, Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 55 (1851); Gray,
  Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 60 (part, 1870); Wagner, Abhandl. Akad.
  Münch., v., pt. 2, p 436 (1848: = [female]).

  _Pithecia chrysocephala_, Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 55 (1851).

  _Pithecia pogonias_, Gray, Voy. Sulphur, p. 13, pl. 2 (1844).

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Hair black, very long over the body, and especially on
the tail. Head with short hair, white, washed with yellow and divided by a
central nude black streak; the white hair becoming yellow on the cheeks.

FEMALE.--Greyish-black, washed with pale yellow, the hairs being tipped
with the latter colour; moustache yellow; belly red.

YOUNG MALE.--Belly rufous brown.

{186}DISTRIBUTION.--Interior of Demerara, Kaicteur Falls; Rio Negro, and
Rio Branco in Amazonia; Cayenne; Surinam.


III. THE BLACK SAKI. PITHECIA SATANAS.

  _Saki noir_, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mammif., pl. 78.

  _Simia satanas_, Hoffm., Mag. Ges. Berl., x., p. 93 (1807); Humb., Obs.
  Zool., i., p. 314, pl. xxvii. (1811).

  _Pithecia satanas_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 115 (1812); Scl., P. Z.
  S., 1864, p. 712, pl. xli.; id., t. c. p. 138; Schl., Mus. Pays Bas,
  vii., p. 224 (1876).

  _Chiropotes cuxio_, Lesson, Sp. Mamm. Bimanes et Quadrum., p. 179 (1840).

  _Chiropotes ater_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 61 (1870).

  _Chiropotes satanas_, Gray, t. c. p. 61.

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Fur soft; tail bushy and as long as the body; crown
with long black hair arranged on each side, divided by a central line. "The
hair of the head sits on it like a cap, and looks as if it had been
carefully brushed." (_Bates._) Long whiskers on each side, and the chin
with a moderate beard. Fur black and shining; back sometimes washed with
grey or ashy-brown.

FEMALE.--Similar to the male, but having a browner back.

YOUNG.--Beard absent or rudimentary; hair of crown radiating from centre
and projecting forwards.

The skull in this species is sometimes ossified into one piece.

DISTRIBUTION.--Lower Amazonia; Para; British Guiana; the River Orinoco,
towards the Rio Negro.

HABITS.--Little is known of the habits of the Black Saki, which is also
known under the names of "Cuxio" and "Mono {187}Capuchino." It lives in the
most retired parts of the forest, where the ground below it is not
inundated by the river, and feeds on fruits.

It is said that this animal--unlike the next species--drinks freely, always
bending down on its hands and putting its mouth to the surface of the
water, heedless of wetting its beard and indifferent to the observation of
onlookers. Sir Robert Porter says that he never saw it take up water in the
hollow of its hand, and convey it to its mouth to drink. Its voice is a
weak and chirping whistle, which becomes shrill and loud when the animal is
angry.

A young male of this species, which died in the Zoological Society's
Gardens in 1882, presented an abnormal condition. The peculiarity
consisted, as Mr. W. A. Forbes, the late distinguished prosector to the
Society, has pointed out in the "Proceedings," in the completely "webbed"
condition of the third and fourth digits of the manus (hand) on each side,
these two fingers being completely connected together, down to their tips,
by a fold of nude skin, and with their nails closely apposed, though not
connected along their contiguous margins. The other digits of the hands, as
well as those of the feet, were quite normal, the webbing not extending
beyond the middle of the first phalanx. Mr. Forbes remarks: "The case is
interesting, partly as affording an excellent instance of an abnormal
condition affecting homologous parts of opposite sides in an exactly
similar way, and partly as showing that the lower Primates are subject,
occasionally, to a condition of things which, as is well known, also occurs
not at all rarely in Man."


IV. THE RED-BACKED SAKI. PITHECIA CHIROPOTES.

  _Simia chiropotes_, Humb., Obs. Zool., i., p. 311 (1811).

  {188}_Simia sagulata_, Traill, Mem. Wern. Soc., iii., p. 167 (1821).

  _Brachyurus israelita_, Spix, Bras., Sim. et Vespert., p. II, pl. 7
  (1823).

  _Pithecia chiropotes_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 116 (1812); Scl., P.
  Z. S., 1871, p. 228; Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 223 (1876).

  _Brachyurus satanas_, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus., p. 13 (1843).

  _Chiropotes sagulata_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 60 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Larger than _P. satanas_; black, with a
reddish-chestnut patch on the back, with a coarse brownish beard, longer
than in _P. satanas_; tail very thick, bushy.

FEMALE.--Similar to the male, but without the beard.

DISTRIBUTION.--Amazonia, Rio Negro, and Rio Branco; Upper Orinoco; British
Guiana.

HABITS.--This species is said to be solitary, or to go about only in pairs.
It derives its scientific name from its habit of drinking by lifting the
water to its head with its hands, instead of stooping down and applying its
mouth to the water. It is difficult to tame, being fierce and
ill-dispositioned.


V. THE WHITE-NOSED SAKI. PITHECIA ALBINASA.

  _Pithecia albinasa_, Is. Geoffr. et Dev., C. R., xxvii., p. 498 (1848);
  id., Arch. Mus., v., p. 559 (1845); Gervais in Castelnau, Expéd. Am. Sud,
  ii., p. 16, fig. 2 (1855); Scl., P. Z. S., 1881, p. 258, pl. xxix.

  _Chiropotes albinasa_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 61 (1870).

  (_Plate XVII._)


PLATE XVII.

[Illustration: THE WHITE-NOSED SAKI.]


{189}CHARACTERS.--Uniformly, but rather sparingly, covered with black
hairs. Face black, naked; nose broad and naked, and with a bright scarlet
line down its bridge, broadening out on the latter and on the upper lip;
tip of nose white, from the presence of a few white hairs.

Long hairs on the head falling to all sides; tail long and clothed to the
tip with long hairs hanging down from its under side, slightly prehensile.
Length of the body, 15 inches; of the tail, 18 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--Amazonia.

HABITS.--The White-Nosed Saki, which might much more appropriately have
been called the "Red-Nosed Saki," is very rare; its habits are quite
unknown. The type specimen in the Paris Museum remained unique in Europe
from 1848 till 1881, when a living specimen was brought to the Zoological
Gardens in London.



THE HOWLERS. SUB-FAMILY MYCETINÆ.


This sub-family embraces only one genus, which is very distinct from all
the others. The Howlers are the largest of the South American Apes, and are
characterised by their thick unwieldy body, their pyramidal head, and small
facial angle, owing to their long, somewhat Dog-faced muzzle. The angle of
the lower jaw is very large and massive, and their chief characteristic is
the conspicuous thickening of the throat, owing to the great enlargement of
the hyoid bones--which are widely inflated and cavernous--to form the
curious vocal organ which the males of these animals possess, and by which
their voice can be so augmented as to be heard at a distance of several
miles.[11] The skull is truncated behind {190}in the male (less so in the
female) for the reception of the vocal apparatus. Their incisor teeth are
small and equal, the canines are prominent and have an oblique ridge across
the crown from the outer front, to the inner hind, cusp, and the upper
molars are large. The tail is powerful and prehensile, naked towards the
tip, where it is tactile and very sensitive. The thumb is movable, the face
is naked, and the chin bearded. Some have short, and some have long, fur
over their bodies, but it is generally more plentiful about the head. In
appearance they are the most unattractive and repulsive of the American
Monkeys. Their intelligence is also of a very low order.

The roof of the brain-case is depressed; the plane of the opening for the
passage of the spinal-cord from the brain is almost perpendicular to that
of the base of the skull; the condyles for the articulation of the neck are
situated as far back as possible. Sir William Flower, in his valuable
monograph on the brain of _Mycetes_, has shown that the frontal lobes are
small and the cerebral hemispheres only just cover the cerebellum. In
regard to its grooves and convolutions, the main brain (_cerebrum_) of
_Mycetes_ can be distinguished from that of all other Monkeys. The whole
organ is small as compared with the size of the animal; it wants the
roundness and fulness of that of the Spider-Monkeys (_Ateles_) and of the
Capuchins (_Cebus_). Its surface markings are comparatively few and simple,
and depart remarkably from the ordinary type seen in the order. In the Old
World Apes there is a striking similarity in the character of the surface
markings of their cerebral hemispheres. There is a slight ascensive
development from _Cercopithecus_ towards _Hylobates_; and further
complications overlying the same primitive type--such as large
proportionate {191}size, and complexity of convolutions--are observed in
the Chimpanzee and Gorilla, leading up to the brain of Man. Among the New
World genera there is a much greater divergence. Among the Capuchins
(_Cebus_), and among them only, there is a precise repetition of the Old
World type; but in the genus _Mycetes_ we have modifications in which there
is no parallel among the Catarrhine (or Old World) series. There is an
absence in its brain of signs of serial elevation; and it exhibits a great
dissimilarity to all, even the lowest of the Old World forms, and to those
American Monkeys, which in brain-character closely resemble Old World Apes.
It shows an affinity in some of its more striking characters to such low
forms of New World Apes as _Nyctipithecus_. The low type of brain is in
keeping, as Sir William Flower further observes, with their surly and
untameable disposition, and with the observation that their intelligence is
of a very different order from that of their neighbours, the Spider-Monkeys
and Capuchins of higher cerebral organisation.

"When Howlers are seen in the forest," remarks Mr. Bates, "there are
generally three or four of them mounted on the topmost branches of a tree.
It does not appear that their harrowing roar is emitted from sudden alarm;
at least, it was not so in captive individuals. It is probable, however,
that the noise serves to intimidate their enemies." The muscular power
employed in giving vent to their cavernous roar appears to be small. Their
food consists chiefly of fruits and leaves.

In colour the Howlers vary very much. The young of both sexes often differ
from their parents, and the females from the males, and there is also great
individual variation.

The geographical distribution of some of the species is very restricted,
several of them being confined to a special district {192}of the Amazon,
into which no other species intrudes. They are found, however, from Eastern
Guatemala to Paraguay.


THE HOWLERS. GENUS ALOUATTA.

  _Alouatta_, Lacép., Mém. Inst., iii., p. 490 (1801).

  _Mycetes_, Illig., Prodr. Syst. Mamm., p. 70 (1811).

  _Stentor_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 107 (1812).

The characters of the genus _Mycetes_, which is the only one of the
sub-family, are the same as those given above under the sub-family heading.

The genus contains six well-recognised species. According to Mr. Wallace
the red and black species of the Amazon have females of the same colour as
the males. Humboldt also remarks, speaking of the thousands of Arguatoes
(_M. seniculus_) which he observed in the provinces of Cumana, Caracas, and
in Guiana, that he never saw any change in the reddish-brown fur of the
back and shoulders, either in isolated individuals or whole troops. Many of
the species, however, do have the sexes of quite different colours.

The Howlers are semi-nocturnal in their habits, uttering their cries late
in the evening and before sunrise, and also on the approach of rain.
(_Wallace._)

When a _Mycetes_ is shot it always hangs to the tree, even if quite dead,
and does not fall till the muscles of the feet and tail relax.

The species of this genus range through Central America, Colombia, and the
Amazonian region, to Southern Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay.



PLATE XVIII.

[Illustration: THE RED HOWLER.]


{193}I. THE RED HOWLER. ALOUATTA SENICULUS.

  _Simia seniculus_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 37 (1766).

  _Alouatta seniculus_, Lacép., Mém. de l'Inst., iii., p. 489 (1800).

  _Stentor ursina_ (nec fig.), Humb. and Bonpl., Obs. Zool., v., p. 354
  (1811).

  _Mycetes seniculus_, Illig., Prod. Syst. Mamm., p. 70 (1811); Geoffr.,
  Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 52 (1851); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 156
  (1876); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 39 (1870, part.).

  _Stentor seniculus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 108 (1812).

  _Mycetes stramineus_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert., Bras., p. 45, pl. 31 (1823;
  nec Geoffr.).

  _Mycetes chrysurus_, Geoffr., Mém. Mus., xvii., p. 66 (1829).

  _Mycetes auratus_, Gray, Ann. N. H., xvi., p. 220 (1845); id. Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 40 (1870).

  _Mycetes laniger_, Gray, Ann. N. H., xvi, p. 219 (1845); id. Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., p. 40.

  _Aluatta senicula_, Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1862, p. 517.

  (_Plate XVIII._)

CHARACTERS.--Head, neck, limbs and tail, dark chestnut-brown; back and
sides golden-yellow; beard in the full-grown male long, the hair
golden-yellow at the root, otherwise chestnut-brown; face naked, black;
chest naked, the abdomen sparsely covered with long brown hairs.

The hair of the body is soft. The tail varies in colour in individual
specimens, being sometimes, at its termination, of the same colour as the
back, and sometimes bright golden-yellow. The _mammæ_ are occasionally
situated in the _axillæ_ (or arm-pits). Length of body, 19½ inches; tail,
20 inches.

YOUNG.--Of the same colour as the parents, only a little darker, the hair
hard and rigid.

{194}DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil; New Granada; Venezuela; Copataza river,
Ecuador; Eastern Peru, along the Ucayali and Huallaga rivers.

HABITS.--The Red Howlers always travel in large companies, keeping to the
forests of the low lands and shores of the rivers. "We stopped," writes
Humboldt, "to observe the Howling Monkeys, which, to the number of thirty
or forty, crossed the road by passing in a long file from one tree to
another upon the horizontal and intersecting branches." On another occasion
the same celebrated naturalist records that "on approaching a group of
trees, we perceived numerous bands of Arguatoes going as in a procession
from one tree to another with extreme slowness. A male was followed by a
great number of females, several of which carried their young on their
shoulders. The uniformity with which the Arguatoes execute their movements
is extremely striking. Whenever the branches of neighbouring trees do not
touch, the male that leads the band suspends himself by the callous and
prehensile part of his tail; and letting fall the rest of his body, swings
himself till in one of his oscillations he reaches the neighbouring branch.
The whole file performs the same action on the same spot. It is almost
superfluous to add how dubious is the assertion that the Arguatoes and
other Monkeys with prehensile tails form a sort of chain, in order to reach
the opposite side of a river. We had opportunities, during five years, of
observing thousands of these animals, and for this very reason we place no
confidence in these stories."

"The Arguatoes are sometimes accused of abandoning their young, that they
may be more free for flight when pursued by Indian hunters. It is said that
mothers have been {195}seen taking off their young from their shoulders and
throwing them down to the foot of the tree. I am inclined to believe that a
movement merely accidental has been mistaken for one that was premeditated.
The Arguatoes, on account of their mournful aspect and their uniform
howlings, are at once detested and calumniated by the Indians."

Mr. Wallace, in a paper "On the Monkeys of the Amazon," in the "Proceedings
of the Zoological Society," says: "Humboldt observes that the tremendous
noise which these Howlers make can only be accounted for by the great
number of individuals that unite in its production. My own observations,
and the unanimous testimony of the Indians, prove this not to be the case,
one individual alone making the howling, which is certainly of a remarkable
depth and volume and curiously modulated; but on closely remarking the
suddenness with which it ceases and again commences, it is evident that it
is produced by one animal, which is generally a full-grown male."

The flesh of this species is very good to eat, and furnishes the principal
food of the inhabitants of the regions in which it abounds.


II. THE BLACK HOWLER. ALOUATTA NIGRA.

  _Stentor caraya_, Humb. and Bonpl., Obs. Zool., i., p. 355 (1811 ex
  Azara).

  _Mycetes barbatus_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert., Bras., p. 46, pls. 32, 33
  (1811).

  _Stentor niger_ (male), _S. stramineus_ (female), Geoffr., Ann. Mus.,
  xix., p. 108 (1812; nec Spix).

  _Mycetes caraya_, Less., Sp. Mamm. Bimanes et Quadrum., p. 122 (1840);
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 41 (part).

  {196}_Aluatta nigra_, Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1862, p. 518.

  _Mycetes niger_, Thomas, P. Z. S., 1880, p. 394; Schl., Mus. Pays Bas,
  vii., p. 149 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Hair rather long and entirely of a deep black; hair on
the back of the head directed forward, meeting at right angles that of the
forehead, which is directed backward, forming a well-marked semi-circular
ridge. Length, 20 inches; tail, 17 inches.

FEMALE AND YOUNG.--Pale straw-colour washed with black; the tips of the
frontal ridge of hair black; at birth the young are entirely straw-colour.

Dr. Slack observes that, in the young, about the period of the second
dentition, the hairs upon the mid-line of the back become black at their
bases; soon after, the change takes place upon other parts of the body, the
black gradually taking the place of the straw-colour, until the entire body
in the adult male is of an intense black colour--the adult female having
the coloration of the half-grown male.

Mr. Oldfield Thomas, who examined a specimen collected by Mr. Buckley, in
Ecuador, points out that it agreed exactly with Humboldt's original
description of the female of his _Simia caraya_, which he describes as
having a black head and back, while the sides and belly are yellow. In all
recent descriptions, however, the male is described as being nearly
uniformly black, and the female uniformly yellow; so that Mr. Buckley's
specimen appears to be just such an intermediate specimen as Humboldt
described.

According to Prof. Schlegel, adult males sometimes have the black on the
hands and feet mixed with yellow.

{197}DISTRIBUTION.--This is the species of Howler which ranges furthest to
the south. It occurs most abundantly in Southern Brazil, Paraguay, and
Bolivia, but Mr. Bates records his having obtained a specimen at Villa
Nova, on the Upper Amazons, which had come from above Borba, on the Rio
Madeira. He did not, however, meet with it on any other part of the Amazon
region. Mr. Graham Kerr saw it in troops on the banks of the Pilcomayo
river.

HABITS.--Like nearly all the Howlers, the present species is of a sulky
disposition, in captivity slinking away out of sight when approached. The
members of this genus are the only Monkeys which the Indians have not
succeeded in taming. They rarely survive their captivity many weeks.


III. THE YELLOW-HANDED HOWLER. ALOUATTA BEELZEBUL.

  _Simia beelzebul_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 37 (1766).

  _Mycetes rufimanus_, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 31 (1820).

  _Mycetes discolor_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert., Bras., p. 48, pi. xxxiv.
  (1823).

  _? Colobus chrysurus_, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist., xvii., p. 77 (1866).

  _Mycetes beelzebul_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 41 (1870); Schl.,
  Mus. Pays Bas, p. 150 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Black, slightly washed with yellow on the under side of the
body and inner side of the limbs; hairs of the body soft, brown at the
roots, black at the tips; hands and feet variable, reddish-yellow or
reddish-brown, or grey, or black. Upper surface and tip of the tail, spot
in front of the ears, and on the knees, reddish-yellow. Length of the body,
17½ inches; tail, 18½ inches.

This species differs from the Black Howler (_A. nigra_) by the {198}brown
colour of the roots of the hair; and from the species next to be
described--the Brown Howler (_A. ursina_)--by the length of the fur and the
absence of the reddish-brown tips to the hairs.

DISTRIBUTION.--Apparently confined to the Lower Amazon, in the vicinity of
Para.

HABITS.--The same as those of the species already described.


IV. THE BROWN HOWLER. ALOUATTA URSINA.

  _Stentor ursina_, Humb. and Bonpl., Obs. Zool., i., pl. 30 (fig. nec
  descr.; 1811).

  _Stentor flavicauda_, Id. t. c. p. 355 (1811).

  _Stentor ursinus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 108 (1812).

  _Stentor fuscus_, Geoffr., t. c. p. 108 (1812).

  _Mycetes fuscus_, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 29 (1820); Spix, Sim. et
  Vespert., Bras., p. 43, pl. 30 (1823).

  _Mycetes bicolor_, Gray, Ann. N. H., xvi., p. 214 (1845); id. Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 40 (1870).

  _Mycetes ursinus_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 55 (part., 1851);
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 39 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii.,
  p. 155 (1876).

  _Aluatta ursina_, Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1862, p. 517.

  _Mycetes flavicauda_, Schl., t. c. p. 147 (part., 1876).

CHARACTERS.--General colour shining yellowish-red, or dark brownish-yellow;
hairs rather rigid, black with yellowish tips; hairs of the shoulder ringed
with black. When half-grown the limbs and tail are very dark brown, nearly
black; tail shorter than the body, olive black, with two yellow lateral
stripes. Length of the body, 23 inches; of the tail, 22 inches.

{199}YOUNG.--Black, with the tips of the hairs of the body yellowish-brown;
base of the tail and the surrounding region reddish-brown.

This species is remarkable for great variation in colour. The young at
first sight, as Dr. Slack has pointed out, appear to be of an intense black
colour, but upon a closer examination, the hairs, more especially those of
the back and sides of the head, are found to be tipped with reddish-brown.
As the animal becomes older the black gradually vanishes, a yellowish-brown
colour appearing in its place, until in the adult the only remains of the
black are to be found in a few annulations in the hairs of the shoulders.

The skins are an article of commerce, for saddle cloths and saddle
coverings.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Rio Negro and Upper Amazonia. Mr. Bates remarks that
this is the only species seen in this region.


V. THE GUATEMALAN HOWLER. ALOUATTA VILLOSA.

  _Mycetes villosus_, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist., xvi., p. 220 (1845); id. Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 41 (1870); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 5, figs, 1
  and 2; Alston, in Godm. and Salvin, Biol. Centr. Amer. Mamm., pp. 3 and
  5, pl. i.

CHARACTERS.--Differs from _M. niger_ by its abundant, long, and soft hairs,
which below, towards their bases, show a rufescent tinge, and by the
frontal hairs being _sometimes_ directed downwards at the base, instead of
upwards; hair on cheeks under the ears, brownish.

MALE.--Entirely black.

FEMALE AND YOUNG.--Also quite black, like the adult male, {200}instead of
being pale yellow, like the corresponding age and sex of _A. nigra_, and
having also the hair shorter and not so glossy.

DISTRIBUTION.--This Howler is known only from the virgin forests of the
eastern and north-eastern portions of Guatemala. Mr. Osbert Salvin has
given the following account of this species. "The _Mycetes_ of Guatemala is
commonly known as the 'Mono.' It is abundant throughout the virgin forests
of the eastern portion of the Republic, but is unknown on the forest-clad
slopes which stretch towards the Pacific Ocean. In the former region it is
found at various altitudes over a wide expanse of country. I have heard its
cry on the shores of the lake of Yzabal; and all through the denser forests
of the valley of the River Polochic it is very common, from the steep
mountain road which lies between the upland village of Purulá and S.
Miguel-Tucuru, and especially in the wilderness of uninhabited forest,
which stretches from Teleman to the lake of Yzabal. In the unbroken
forest-country which occupies the whole of the northern portion of Vera
Paz, from Coban and Cahabon to the confines of Peten, it is also abundant;
for seldom an hour passes but the discordant cry of the Mono strikes upon
the ear of the traveller, as he threads the lonely path to Peten. The
elevation of this district varies from 700 to 3,000 feet, and the _Mycetes_
is found at all elevations. When travelling through the forest in 1862, I
was dependent for the animal food, to supply my party of Indians, entirely
upon my gun, and Monos contributed not a little to the larder. The Indians
eat Monkey without demur, but the meat looks dark and untempting. For my
own part I far preferred the delicate Tinamou or Curassow, a sufficient
supply of which never failed for my own consumption. Perhaps there is no
district in Vera Paz where Monos are more abundant than the mountains of
{201}Chilasco, a cold and damp region, elevated at least 6,000 feet above
the sea, but where the forest-growth is of the densest description and
trees of the largest size abound. It was here that the specimens were
obtained that are now in the British Museum."

HABITS.--These animals are found in small companies of five or six. They
are usually met with on the upper branches of the highest trees, and when
disturbed crawl sluggishly along the boughs. "The wonderful cry whence
_Mycetes_ gets its trivial name of Howling Monkey is certainly most
striking; and I have sometimes endeavoured to ascertain how far this cry
may be heard. It has taken me an hour or more to thread the forest
undergrowth from the time the cry first struck my ear to when, guided by
the cry alone, I stood under the tree where the animals were. It would
certainly not be over estimating the distance to say two miles. When the
sound came over the lake of Yzabal, unhindered by trees, a league would be
more like the distance at which the Mono's cry may be heard." (_O.
Salvin._)

To this species, we believe, belongs the following description given by
Captain Dampier: "The Monkeys that are in these parts are the ugliest I
ever saw. They are much bigger than a Hare, and have great Tails about two
Foot and a half long. The under side of their Tails is all bare, with a
black hard Skin; but the upper side and all the Body is covered with
coarse, long black staring Hair. These Creatures keep together, twenty or
thirty in a company, and ramble over the Woods, leaping from Tree to Tree.
If they meet with a single Person they will threaten to devour him. When I
have been alone I have been afraid to shoot them, especially the first Time
I met them. They were a great company, dancing {202}from Tree to Tree over
my Head; chattering and making a terrible Noise; and a great many grim
Faces, and shewing antick Gestures. Some broke down dry Sticks and threw at
me; ... at last one bigger than the rest came to a small Limb just over my
Head; and leaping directly at me made me start back, but the Monkey caught
hold of the Bough with the tip of his tail; and there continued swinging to
and fro, and making mouths at me.... The Tails of these Monkeys are as good
to them as one of their hands; and they will hold as fast by them.... The
Females with their young ones are much troubled to leap after the Males;
for they have commonly two: one she carries under one of her Arms, the
other sits on her Back, and clasps her two Fore-Paws about her Neck. These
Monkeys are the most sullen I ever met with, for all the Art we could use
would never tame them.... These Monkeys are very rarely or (as some say)
never on the Ground."


VI. THE MANTLED HOWLER. ALOUATTA PALLIATA.

  _Mycetes palliatus_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1848, p. 138, pl. vi.; Frantz.,
  Wiegm. Arch., xxxv., p. 254 (1869); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 40
  (1870); Scl., P. Z. S., 1872, p. 7; Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 152
  (1876); Alston, in Godm. and Salvin, Biol. Centr. Am. Mamm., p. 4 (1879).

  _Aluatta palliata_, Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1862, p. 519.

CHARACTERS.--Face naked; hair of forehead short, reflexed, forming a slight
crest across the middle of the head; hairs of the back of the head rather
longer; those of the cheeks few, short and grey; those of the fore neck
lengthening into a short beard. General colour brownish-black; middle of
back and {203}upper part of sides, yellowish-brown; lower part of sides
brownish-yellow, lengthened into a mantle; arms, legs, and tail black.
Length, 19½ inches; tail, 20¾.

The late Mr. Alston, in describing the Mammals of Central America, in
Messrs. Godman and Salvin's monumental work, "Biologia Centrali-Americana,"
observes that "this Howler presents considerable variety in the depth of
the black or brown-black ground-colour, and in the extent of the fulvous
tints of the flanks and loins. Dr. v. Frantzius states that the Howlers
which he saw in Costa Rica were darker than is indicated by Dr. Gray's
description; and in several of the Panama examples the light markings are
much reduced, but in others they are quite as conspicuous as in the
Nicaraguan types." Mr. Alston, therefore, agrees with Prof. Schlegel, that
the variation does not depend on locality.

DISTRIBUTION.--Shores and islands of the lake of Nicaragua; Costa Rica;
Panama; Islet of Hicaron, at the southern extremity of Quibo Island, off
the Coast of Veragua. South of the Isthmus of Panama, the Red Howler (_A.
senicula_) replaces the Mantled Howler.

HABITS.--The habits of the Mantled Howler do not differ widely from those
of the species already described. It prefers the highest branches of the
trees of the dense forests; and is harmless to the plantations of the
natives. In disposition it is dull and melancholy, and is rarely kept in
confinement. It is said, however, to reconcile itself to captivity more
than some of the others referred to in previous pages. According to Dr. v.
Frantzius, a tame male individual of this species was observed to howl
whenever rain-clouds gathered, and also regularly at five o'clock every
morning.



{204}THE CAPUCHINS AND SPIDER-MONKEYS. SUB-FAMILY CEBINÆ.


We now come to describe the remaining Monkeys of the New World. The
_Cebinæ_ are characterised by having the incisors vertical, not procumbent;
they have no inflated hyoid bone as in the foregoing Sub-family. The tail
in all is long and prehensile, although in some species it is a less
perfect grasping organ, being clothed with hair to the tip, instead of
being there naked and highly sensitive. The thumb may be present or absent.

This Sub-family contains four genera: the Capuchins (_Cebus_); The Woolly
Monkeys (_Lagothrix_); the Woolly Spider-Monkeys (_Eriodes_); and the
Spider-Monkeys (_Ateles_). The species belonging to these genera are very
numerous, and are found over the whole region from Mexico in the north, to
Paraguay and Bolivia in the south, or from about 25° N. lat., to 30° S.
lat.


THE CAPUCHINS. GENUS CEBUS.

  _Cebus_, Erxleb., Syst. Regne Anim., p. 44 (1777).

This is the typical genus of the American Monkeys. They are distinguished
by having a robust body, covered with woolly fur, with a rounded head and a
face which, instead of having a protruding muzzle, is more erect and
Man-like. They are the commonest Monkeys seen in captivity in our streets.
Their tail is long and covered with hair to the tip, and, though
prehensile, it is not the perfect substitute for an additional hand noticed
in several other genera. Their limbs are only moderately long, and are less
slender than in the Spider-Monkeys. The fore-limbs have a well-developed
thumb, which, as compared with the length of the hand, is the most
{205}Man-like of all the Apes; in some species the nails of the digits are
compressed laterally.

In the skull the cranial portion exceeds the facial. Professor Mivart
observes that in this group the facial part is relatively smaller than in
many of the higher Old-World Apes. The skull has no external bony canal (or
_meatus_) to the ear; and its frontal bones possess large air-cavities. In
the Capuchins the incisor teeth are erect, and are always shorter than the
canines. The molars are four-cusped, and have, on their crowns, two
transverse ridges and the oblique ridge, already described in the
_Lemuroidea_, from the front inner cusp to the hind outer cusp. These
animals have also one milk-molar tooth more than in Man.

The outer surface of the main brain (_cerebrum_) is almost as much
convoluted as in the Old World Apes.

The Capuchins range from Costa Rica to Paraguay, and are represented by
about eighteen species. They are very gentle and docile animals.

F. Cuvier observes in his "Histoire Naturelle des Mammiferes," that of all
the Quadrumana--indeed, of all the Mammals--there are none so difficult to
characterise as the Capuchins of America, whose colours vary almost with
every individual. No two authors agree in the number of species the genus
contains. Brisson recognised three, Linnæus four, Gmelin six, Buffon two,
and George Cuvier supposed it possible that they all belonged to but one
species. Two causes help to produce this diversity of opinion; one is, as
remarked above, the natural disposition which these animals have to vary,
and to become lighter or darker in colour according to circumstances, and
the other is the extremely close relationship that exists between the
different species of the genus. Observations, {206}however, are not yet
numerous enough, nor exact enough, to enable those who have only studied
the species alive in Europe, or had skins, to decide with such imperfect
data as to their sex, age, and habitat. Not until some naturalist has made
a prolonged study of these animals in their native country, and watched
their conduct and relations in the living state, can we hope to attain to
any certain knowledge of how many species the genus contains; and of the
differences between the old and young of both sexes at different periods
from youth to age.


I. THE WHITE-THROATED CAPUCHIN. CEBUS HYPOLEUCUS.

  _Saï á gorge blanche_, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Mamm., p. 64, pl. 15, fig. 9
  (1767); Fr. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., livr. xvi.; Audeb., Hist. Nat.
  Singes, fam. v., sect. 2, pl. 5 (1797).

  _Simia hypoleuca_, Humb., Obs. Zool., i., p. 337 (1811); Pucher., Rev. et
  Mag. de Zool. (2), 1857, p. 348.

  _Cebus hypoleucus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 111 (1812); Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 50 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 190
  (1876).

  _Cebus leucocephalus_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 827, fig. 4; Sclater, P.
  Z. S., 1872, p. 4; Alston in Godman and Salvin, Biol. Centr. Am. Mamm.,
  p. 13 (1879).

CHARACTERS.--Hair very silky, smooth and stiff, and thicker above than
below. Face and forehead nude, flesh-coloured; hands and feet nude, of a
violet hue, as also the thinly-haired skin of the under side of the body.
The tip of the tail for a short distance being naked, distinguishes this
species from all others. Shoulders, arms, and sides of the head behind the
ears pure white; chest and throat yellowish; rest of the body deep black.

{207}Older individuals have the head longer than the younger ones, and the
shoulders yellowish instead of white. Length of the body, 13½ inches; of
the tail, 17 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species was discovered by Humboldt in the low lands of
Colombia. From Colombia its range extends north to Nicaragua. It has been
obtained in Veragua, in Panama, in Costa Rica, and in the north-east of the
country between the Pacuar and Chirripo rivers, and also on the mountains
of Candalaria.

HABITS.--The White-throated Capuchin feeds partly on fruit, as Mr. Belt has
narrated in his well-known "Naturalist in Nicaragua." He adds:--"It is
incessantly on the look out for insects, examining the crevices in trees
and withered leaves, seizing the largest beetles and munching them up with
the greatest relish. It is also very fond of eggs and young birds, and must
play havoc amongst the nestlings. Probably owing to its carnivorous habits,
its flesh is not considered so good by Monkey-eaters as that of the
fruit-eating Spider-Monkey; but I never myself tried either."

Mr. Salvin saw a troop of these Monkeys in company with several
Spider-Monkeys by the margin of a watercourse in Nicaragua, and remarked
that the actions of the latter were bolder and more active than those of
the Capuchins, which were slower and more timid.

According to Cuvier, the cry of this animal in captivity is a continuous
soft whistle until its wants are satisfied; if it wants nothing this
whistle is intermittent, and very soft. When in terror, its cry is a
veritable bark, broken by silent intervals.

It is extremely docile and very intelligent; the look in its eyes is
remarkably penetrating, and it appears to read in the {208}eyes of its
observer what is passing within him, and to comprehend every motion and
gesture.

When pleased it utters a reiterated shrill note, and draws back the corners
of its mouth, producing a smile by contracting the same muscles as in the
human face.


II. THE WHITE-CHEEKED CAPUCHIN. CEBUS LUNATUS.

  _Cebus lunatus_ (Sajou cornu), male; F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., pl. 70
  (nec Kuhl).

  _Cebus vellerosus_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 44 (1851, pt.).

  _Cebus leucogenys_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 824, pl. xlv.; id. Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 48 (1870).

  _Cebus frontatus_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 206 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Fur soft, elongate, silky, with thick under-fur. Hair on front
of head elongate and reflexed, forming across the brow a short crest,
higher above each eye; hair on top of head lying flat; that on cheeks short
and adpressed; base of nose large, and corrugated longitudinally; toes
long; tail longer than in other species; under surface of body less haired.

General colour silky brown, almost black on the head and limbs, paler on
the shoulders and arms; the whiskers forming a white, or sometimes pale
yellow, band, bordering the cheeks from opposite the eyes to the chin. Face
and hands naked, violet; skin below the hair of the same colour.

The hair of the body is longer in winter than in spring; but the crests, or
"horns," and the white whiskers appear only when the animal is fully adult.

DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil.


III. THE SLENDER CAPUCHIN. CEBUS FLAVUS.

  _Cebus barbatus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 110 (1812); Schl,. Mus.
  Pays Bas, vii., p. 197 (1876).

  {209}_Cebus albus_, Geoffr., t. c. p. 112 (albino).

  _Cebus flavus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 112 (1812); Kuhl, Beitr.
  Zool., p. 33 (1820); d'Orbig., Voy. Amér. Mérid., iv., Mamm., p. 1, pl. 3
  (1847); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 204 (1876).

  _Cebus gracilis_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert., Bras., p. 8, pl. 5 (1823,
  young).

  _Cebus libidinosus_, Spix, t. c. p. 5, pl. 2 (1823).

  _Cebus unicolor_, Spix, t. c. p. 7, pl. 4 (1823).

  _Simia flavia_, Schreb., Säugeth., pl. 31B (1840).

  _Cebus elegans_, Is. Geoffr., C. R., xxxi., p. 875 (1850).

  _Caiarára branca_, Bates, Nat. Amaz., ii., p. 100 (1863).

  _Cebus pallidus_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 49 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Hairs of crown short and reflexed, forming a small short
crest, separated by a median furrow on each side of the dark crown patch.
Fur soft; the coronal patch on the back of the head small, black or brown;
crest black.

General colour golden fulvous or greyish fulvous; limbs and tail dark
brown; beard golden-red.

Varieties of this species are sometimes entirely fulvous, with the forehead
white; others are entirely albino.

DISTRIBUTION.--Bolivia.


IV. THE SMOOTH-HEADED CAPUCHIN. CEBUS MONACHUS.

  _Cebus monachus_, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mammif., livr. xix. (1820).

  _Le Saï a grosse tête_, male, F. Cuvier, _loc. cit._

  _Cebus xanthocephalus_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert., Bras., p. 6, pl. 3
  (1823); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 50 (1870).

  _Cebus cucullatus_, Spix, t. c. p. 9, pl. 6 (1823).

  {210}_Cebus olivaceus_, Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth., Suppl., v., p, 87,
  pl. 8 (1855).

  _Cebus variegatus_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 208 (1876).

  (_Plate XIX._)

CHARACTERS.--Fur soft and stiff. Head large and round covered with short
recumbent hairs. Face naked, pale round the prominent eyes; muzzle sharp,
and of the same colour as that which surrounds the eyes; forehead, temples,
throat, chest, under surface of body, sides of jaws, and front of arms,
pale orange-yellow; outer side of arms, pale orange, washed with white;
fore-arms, rump, hind-limbs, and tail black; a mixture of black and brown,
expanding irregularly into spots on the yellow, covering the back,
shoulders, and sides of body; a spot on the crown, black; a superciliary
ridge forming a band of whiskers extending down the cheeks, and meeting
under the chin, also black. Hands naked, violet, almost black.

Varieties occur with the shoulders and loins pale yellow, instead of mixed
black and brown, and the outside of the thighs and the base of the tail,
reddish. In some specimens the pale yellow of the back gives place to a
white ground.

DISTRIBUTION.--Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Paraguay (?); Guiana.

HABITS.--Little is known of the habits of this species; but F. Cuvier, who
had one under his care in the "Ménagerie Royale," in Paris, remarks that it
had the confiding disposition characteristic of the Capuchins, although
very timid. It exhibited a great desire to be caressed, was very
affectionate and most intelligent. Its physiognomy, however, he says, was
involuntarily repellent, being one that, among ourselves, would indicate a
person steeped in ignorance and sensuality.

PLATE XIX.

[Illustration: SMOOTH-HEADED CAPUCHIN.]



{211}V. THE BROWN CAPUCHIN. CEBUS FATUELLUS.

  _Simia trepida_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 39 (1766).

  _Simia apella_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 42 (1766).

  _Simia fatuellus_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 42 (1766).

  _Cebus fatuellus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 109 (1812).

  _Cebus apella_, Geoffr., t. c. p. 109 (1812); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 48 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 199 (1876).

  _Cebus macrocephalus_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert., Bras., p. 3, pl. 1 (1823).

CHARACTERS.--Fur thick, harsh; hair of crown short, reflexed; on the sides
of the crown a dark spot, elongated and elevated into two longer or shorter
crests, according to the season and the age of the animal. General colour
reddish-brown, darker on the hind-limbs, tail, and middle of the back;
fore-arms, crown-spot, and whiskers, black; front of shoulders greyish or
yellow; Face naked, purplish flesh-colour.

This species is subject to great individual variation. Its general colour
is sometimes pale yellowish, with the whiskers yellow.

DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil; Guiana, near the coast; on the mountains of the
Upper Magdalena Valley; Tolima, U.S. Colombia, from 5,000 to 7,000 ft.

HABITS.--This species, called "Mico Maizero" by the inhabitants of Tolima,
lives as all the _Cebi_ do, in considerable troops in the forests. When
wild, it is restless and destructive, but in captivity it is docile and
affectionate.


VI. THE VARIEGATED CAPUCHIN. CEBUS VARIEGATUS.

  _Cebus variegatus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 111 (1812).

{212}CHARACTERS.--Head round; muzzle protruding. Fur black, ringed with
golden-yellow; under side of body rufous. Hairs of back brown at base, red
higher up, black at the tips.

DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil.


VII. THE TUFTED CAPUCHIN. CEBUS CIRRIFER.

  _Le Sajou negre_, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Mamm. Suppl., p. 109, pl. 28.

  _Cebus cirrifer_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 110 (1812); Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 49 (1870).

  _Cebus cucullatus_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert., Bras., p. 9, pl. 6 (1823,
  juv.).

  _Macaco prego_, Bates, Nat. Amazon., i., p. 323 (1863).

  _Cebus niger_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 202 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Head round; hairs of crown short and reversed, sometimes
elongated into two retrorsal tufts. Fur short, close, and in general colour
maroon, turning to black, darker on the under surface; face, chin, sides of
forehead and a streak above the eyebrows, yellowish-white.

DISTRIBUTION.--Lower Amazon region.

HABITS.--Little is known of this Monkey beyond what Mr. Bates has told us,
viz., that it is a great depredator of the fruit trees. "It is a most
impudent thief; it destroys more than it eats by its random, hasty way of
plucking and breaking the fruits, and when about to return to the forest,
carries away all it can in its hands or under its arms."


VIII. THE CRESTED CAPUCHIN. CEBUS ROBUSTUS.

  _Cebus robustus_, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 35 (1820, ex Neuwied MSS.); Is.
  Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 43 (1851); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 51 (1870).

  {213}_Cebus frontatus_, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 34 (1820); Schl., Mus.
  Pays Bas, vii., p. 206 (1876, part).

  _Cebus variegatus_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 208 (1876, part).

CHARACTERS.--Crown with hairs elongated into a conical central crest. Fur
bright red; crown bright red like the back, with a black spot.

DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil.


IX. THE GRIZZLED CAPUCHIN. CEBUS ANNELLATUS.

  _Cebus annellatus_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 827, fig. 3; id. Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 51.

CHARACTERS.--Hair of crown long and erect, forming a central conical crest.
Fur brown, reddish-washed, especially on the thighs, the hairs with several
pale rings; a streak on the sides of the neck bent down on the front of the
shoulders, yellow; belly reddish; crown, temples, whiskers, outer and inner
side of the limbs and tail, black; hair of face deep black; crown-spot
broad, with a broad line to the forehead and another, on each side, to the
whiskers.

DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil.


X. THE WHITE-FRONTED CAPUCHIN. CEBUS ALBIFRONS.

  _Simia albifrons_, Humb., Obs. Zool., p. 323 (1811).

  _Cebus chrysopes_ (Le Sajou à pieds dorés), Fr. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mammif.,
  pl. 51 (part.).

  _Cebus albifrons_, Is. Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 111 (1812); Gray,
  Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 50 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 195
  (1876, part.)

  _Cebus leucocephalus_, Gray, t. c. p. 50.

  _Cebus versicolor_, Pucher., Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 335 (part).

{214}CHARACTERS.--Head large in proportion to the body. Hair of crown
short, reflexed, without crest or "horns." Tail with rather long hair.
Face, forehead, throat, shoulders, and crest white. General colour of body
light or reddish-brown; back and outer side of the limbs, brownish-red.

DISTRIBUTION.--Generally distributed through the forests of the level
country of the Upper Amazon.

HABITS.--The Caiarara, as the Tupi Indians name this species, lives in
troops in the forests and feeds on fruits. Mr. Bates, who kept one in
captivity for a considerable period during his stay in the Upper Amazon
region, describes it as "a most restless creature, but not playful like
most of the American Monkeys; the restlessness of its disposition seeming
to arise from great nervous irritability and discontent. The anxious,
painful, and changeable expression of its countenance, and the want of
purpose in its movements, betray this. Its actions are like those of a
wayward child; it does not seem happy even when it has plenty of its
favourite food, bananas; but will leave its own meal to snatch the morsels
out of the hands of its companions. It differs in these mental traits from
its nearest kindred, for another common _Cebus_, found in the same parts of
the forest, the Prego Monkey (_C. cirrifer_), is a much quieter and better
tempered animal.... The Caiarara [called Ouavapavi, by Humboldt] is always
making some noise or other, often screwing up its mouth and uttering a
succession of loud notes resembling a whistle." It is the most wonderful
leaper of the whole tribe. Mr. Bates has also recorded:--"The troops
consist of thirty or more individuals which travel in single file. When the
foremost of the flock reaches the outermost branch of an unusually lofty
tree he springs forth {215}into the air without a moment's hesitation and
alights on the dome of yielding foliage belonging to the neighbouring tree,
maybe fifty feet beneath; all the rest following the example. They grasp,
on falling, with hands and tail, right themselves in a moment, and then
away they go along branch and bough to the next tree." Mr. Belt also
mentions having kept a White-fronted Capuchin in captivity for a long time.
Its actions, he tells us, were very human-like. "He had quite an extensive
vocabulary of sounds, varying from a gruff bark to a shrill whistle; and we
could tell by them, without seeing him, when it was he was hungry, eating,
frightened, or menacing; doubtless one of his own species would have
understood various minor shades of intonation and expression that we, not
entering into his feelings and wants, passed over as unintelligible."


XI. THE WEEPER CAPUCHIN. CEBUS CAPUCINUS.

  _Simia capucina_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 42 (1766).

  _Cebus capucinus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 111 (1812); Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 49 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 19
  (1876).

  _Cebus nigrovittatus_, Wagner, Acad. Münch., v., p. 430 (1847, ex Natt.
  MSS.).

  _Cebus olivaceus_, Schomb., Reis. Brit. Guiana, ii., p. 246, et iii., p.
  770 (1848).

  _Cebus castaneus_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 46 (1851).

  _Cebus versicolor_, Pucher., Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1857, p. 346 (part).

CHARACTERS.--Hairs of crown short, reflexed, but not elevated into a crest.
Fur brown, washed with yellow; crown-spot dark brown, narrow, prolonged
down the nose, and expanded {216}backward on to the nape of the neck; sides
of face, throat, chest, and front part of shoulders, greyish-yellow.

DISTRIBUTION.--Widely distributed in the great forests from Paraguay to the
United States of Colombia.

HABITS.--This Capuchin wanders about among the high forest trees in small
companies of from ten to a dozen, the larger number being females. It is
very timid, and keeps well out of sight, so that it is difficult to watch
its habits. Rengger, in his "Säugethiere von Paraguay," had more than once
an excellent opportunity of observing these interesting Monkeys, and has
given a capital account of them. He specially mentions the great affection
the mother has for her offspring. "The mother's love," he says, "shows
itself by the great care with which every old one handles her young, by
laying them on the breast, by watching them, by searching their fur, and by
the attacks they make on any intruder." In January the female gives birth
to a single young one, and keeps it at her breast for the first week; later
on she carries it partly on her back, partly under her arm. When sleeping
the Weeping Çai curls itself up, covering its face with its arms and tail.

The leader of a troop shares his feelings with the others by various
motions, and by giving utterance to certain noises, which are taken up by
the others. Their feelings are also exhibited by a kind of laughing and
crying. Rengger kept some of these Monkeys for several years in captivity
in their own country, and says that, when happy, they uttered a peculiar
tittering sound; they express agreeable sensations by drawing back the
corners of the mouth without uttering any sound; this he supposed to be
laughing, but, as Mr. Darwin remarks, it would be more appropriately called
a smile. When {217}crying, their eyes fill with tears, but never flow down
the cheeks. When in pain or terror, the form of the mouth, as observed by
Mr. Darwin at the Zoological Gardens in London, is quite different from
that expressing pleasure or satisfaction; and high shrieks are uttered.

Specimens of this species have been kept in captivity in Europe for six and
seven years.


XII. THE THICK-FURRED CAPUCHIN. CEBUS VELLEROSUS.

  _Cebus vellerosus_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 44 (1851,
  part.); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 49 (1870).

  _Cebus frontatus_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 206 (1876, part.).

CHARACTERS.--Hairs of crown short; those on the side of the dark and narrow
crown-spot, produced on the sides into two horns or crests. Fur thick and
long, mingled with still longer glancing hairs; general colour
blackish-brown; top of head, nape of neck, and whiskers black. (_Gray._)

DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil.

The following species has been described by Dr. Gray, but very little, if
anything, is known of its habits or of the exact locality in which it
lives.


XIII. THE PALE CAPUCHIN. CEBUS FLAVESCENS.

  _Cebus unicolor_ (nec Spix), Spix, Sim. et Vespert., Bras., p. 7 pl. 4
  (1823, part).

  _Cebus gracilis_ (nec Spix), Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus., p. 12 (1843).

  _Cebus flavescens_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 827; id. Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 51 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Fur nearly uniform pale yellowish-fulvous; the {218}cheeks,
whiskers, and hair under the throat, greyish; the crown, nape, and middle
part of the back rather darker; outside of the leg somewhat redder; hair on
top of head and nape rather elongate, directed backward, but not forming a
crest.

DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil.


XIV. THE GOLDEN-HANDED CAPUCHIN. CEBUS CHRYSOPUS.

  _Cebus chrysopes_, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm., pl. 51 (part.).

  _Cebus chrysopus_, Fischer, Syn. Mamm., p. 51 (1829); Is. Geoffr., Cat.
  Méth. Primates, p. 47 (1851); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 51
  (1870).

  _Cebus albifrons_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 195 (1876, part.).

CHARACTERS.--Fur soft; hairs of crown of head radiating from a centre,
directed forward in front, forming a transverse crest on the middle of the
crown. Face, throat, chest, and front of shoulders, pale greyish-brown;
back of head and eyebrows blackish. General colour of body pale
sooty-brown, washed with golden; outer side of limbs golden-buff.

DISTRIBUTION.--United States of Colombia.


XV. THE BONNETTED CAPUCHIN. CEBUS SUBCRISTATUS.

  _Cebus subcristatus_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 827; id. Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., p. 52 (1870).

  _? Cebus frontatus_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 206 (1876, part.).

CHARACTERS.--Hair of crown elongate, divided by a central line diverging to
the eyebrows, forming an erect transverse crest behind them. Fur
blackish-brown; sides of face pale ashy; {219}front of shoulders and of
arms and outer side of legs, yellowish. Digits long and very slender.

DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil.


XVI. THE CAPPED CAPUCHIN. CEBUS CAPILLATUS.

  _Cebus capillatus_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 827, fig. 1; id. Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 52 (1870).

  _? Cebus frontatus_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, viii, p. 206 (1876, part.)

CHARACTERS.--Hairs of head elongate, diverging in all directions; fur long,
brown, slightly washed with yellow, more markedly on the thighs; sides of
forehead paler; sides of neck, outer sides of shoulders and arms, fulvous;
crown and nape of neck, blackish.

DISTRIBUTION.--Brazil.


XVII. AZARA'S CAPUCHIN. CEBUS AZARÆ.

  "_Le Cay_," Azara, Essais Hist. Nat. Quadr. Prov. Paraguay, ii., p. 230
  (1801).

  _Cebus azaræ_, Rengger, Naturg. Säugeth., Paraguay, p. 26 (1830).

CHARACTERS.--Top of head black, with a band of the same colour passing in
front of the ears, and terminating on the lower jaw; forehead, temples, and
face, white; ear-tufts white; chin, throat, and upper side of feet white;
upper side of tail, anterior part of the fore-feet and ankles, dusky; rest
of body brown, lighter on the sides, becoming yellowish on the rump, the
lower part of the body, and the under side of the tail. Length of the body,
17 inches; of the tail, 19 inches.

FEMALE.--Paler in colour above than the male; the dark colour of the tail
and of the limbs more extended.

{220}DISTRIBUTION.--Paraguay.

HABITS.--This rare Capuchin lives, as Azara relates, in the forests of
Paraguay, and is met with both in single couples and in small troops. They
are very lively little animals, ever in motion, swinging themselves from
tree to tree by means of their tails, the mothers of the company generally
carrying their single young one on their back. When once tamed they become
very affectionate; when angry they can give vent to excruciating screams.
Their ordinary voice resembles that of someone laughing with all their
might, and crying Hu! hu! hu!

Only once has a specimen of this Capuchin been an inmate of the Zoological
Gardens in London.


XVIII. SCHLEGEL'S CAPUCHIN. CEBUS FALLAX.

  _Cebus fallax_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 210 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--In colour closely resembling _C. fatuellus_, but the hair is
longer all over, silky, and of a dusky hue, especially on the hinder part
of the body. The lumbar vertebræ are four in number, and there are also
fourteen pairs of ribs.

DISTRIBUTION.--Unknown.


THE WOOLLY MONKEYS. GENUS LAGOTHRIX.

  _Lagothrix_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 106 (1812).

The animals grouped under the genus _Lagothrix_ are readily distinguished
by having a heavy body, and a rounded head, with the muzzle much flattened,
and the nostrils nearly circular, but not approximated. More conspicuous
than any other external character is the woolliness of their under-fur.

The name _Lagothrix_ was given by Humboldt to the first specimen he found,
because of the similarity of its fur to that {221}of the hare, and hence
this name, from [Greek: lagôs], a hare, and [Greek: thrix, trichos], hair,
was adopted for the new genus, which was afterwards established by Geoffroy
St. Hilaire.

The hair of the crown is short and directed backwards; the tail is long and
perfectly prehensile, being naked and sensitive for a considerable distance
back from the tip. The limbs are moderately long, and the thumb and
great-toe are well developed, the nails of the digits being compressed and
pointed.

In regard to the skeleton, the skull of _Lagothrix_, as Dr. Slack points
out, can be readily distinguished from that of the Capuchins by a broad,
well-marked, articulation taking place between the pre-maxillary and the
nasal bones at right angles to the suture between the latter, while in the
Capuchins no true articulation takes place between these bones. The lower
jaw is larger than in _Cebus_, approaching the size and form of _Mycetes_.
The incisor teeth are small and unequal, the upper inner incisor being the
largest; the canines are very large and grooved in front.

The Woolly Monkeys are slow in motion, gregarious, diurnal, and arboreal.
The "Barrigudos," as they are called by the Portuguese colonists, live
exclusively on fruits, and are larger and less active than the Capuchins.
They are confined to the forests of the Ecuador district of the Upper
Amazon Valley, and along the slopes of the Andes, north to Venezuela and
south to Bolivia.

They are of a mild disposition, and, as Mr. Wallace remarks, they are the
species "most frequently seen in confinement, and are great favourites,
from their grave countenances, which resemble the human face more than
those of any other Monkeys, their quiet manners, and the great affection
and docility they exhibit."


{222}I. HUMBOLDT'S WOOLLY MONKEY. LAGOTHRIX LAGOTHRIX.

  _Simia lagothrica_, Humb. and Bonpl., Obs. Zool., i., p. 322 (1811).

  _Lagothrix cana_, Id. tom. cit. i., p. 354 (1811).

  _Lagothrix lagotricha_, Id. tom. cit. p. 354.

  _Lagothrix humboldtii_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 107 (1812); Scl., P.
  Z. S., 1863, p. 374, pl. xxxi.; Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 162 (1876,
  part.).

  _Lagothrix canus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 107 (1812).

  _Gastrimargus olivaceus_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert., Bras., p. 39, pl. 28
  (1823).

  _Lagothrix tschudii_, Pucher., Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1857, p. 296.

  _Lagothrix geoffroyi_, Pucher., t. c. p. 297.

  _Lagothrix cana_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 162 (1876; part.).

  _Lagothrix olivaceus_, Spix, ?; Bates, Nat. River Amazon, ii., p. 320
  (1863).

  (_Plate XX._)

CHARACTERS.--Body large and heavy; face naked, black, and wrinkled;
forehead low, the eyes projecting; a few scattered white hairs on lips.
Hair of under surface hoary, and longer than that of the upper surface.

ADULT MALE.--General colour blackish, hoary-grey, the hairs being dark
grey, tipped with black. Head, chest, hands, under surface of body, and tip
of tail, black. Length of the body, from 19 or 20 inches to 27 inches in
very large specimens; tail from 24 to 26 inches.

YOUNG.--Hoary grey, darker on the belly and inner surface of the limbs;
hands and top of head black.

PLATE XX.

[Illustration: HUMBOLDT'S WOOLLY MONKEY.]


{223}DISTRIBUTION.--This Monkey was discovered by Humboldt on the Guaviaré,
a branch of the Orinoco river. It occurs in the Upper Magdalena Valley,
Colombia, where it is known as the "Churuco" river. Its true habitat is the
district south-west of the Rio Negro towards the Andes. It is unknown in
the Lower Amazon Region.

HABITS.--The "Caparro," as the Orinoco Indians named this species to
Humboldt, or "Macaco barrigudo," as the Portuguese settlers call it, is
entirely an arboreal animal, living exclusively on fruits, on which it is a
most voracious feeder. The name of "big-bellied," which _barrigudo_ means,
is probably obtained from the effects of this habit. Its manners in
captivity are grave, and its temper, according to Mr. Bates, is mild and
confiding, like that of the Coaitas, or Spider-Monkeys. Owing to these
traits, the Barrigudo is much sought after as a pet; but it is not hardy
like the Coaitas, and seldom survives a passage down the river to Pará.
Nevertheless, the Zoological Society has had a considerable number of these
Monkeys in confinement during the past twenty years. Mr. Bates also states
that it is much persecuted by the natives on account of the excellence of
its flesh as food. "From information given me," he says, "by a collector of
birds and mammals whom I employed, and who resided a long time among the
Tacuna Indians, near Tabatinga, I calculated that one horde of this tribe,
200 in number, destroyed 1,200 of these Monkeys annually for food. The
species is very numerous in the forests of the higher lands, but, owing to
long persecution, it is now seldom seen in the neighbourhood of the larger
villages."


II. THE BROWN LAGOTHRIX. LAGOTHRIX INFUMATUS.

  _Gastrimargus infumatus_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert., Bras., p. 41, pl. 29
  (1823).

  {224}_Lagothrix poeppigii_, Schinz, Synops. Mamm., i., p. 71 (1844);
  Pucher., Rev. et Mag de Zool., p. 299 (1857); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii.,
  p. 164 (1876).

  _Lagothrix geoffroyi_, Schinz, Synops. Mamm., i., p. 72 (1844).

  _Lagothrix castelnaui_, Is. Geoffr. et Deville, C.R., xxvii., p. 498
  (1848); Casteln., Voy. Amér. Sud, Zool., p. 5, pl. 1.

  _Lagothrix infumatus_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 46 (1870); Scl.,
  P. Z. S., 1871, p. 219 (Note).

CHARACTERS.--Large in size; face naked, black; general colour dark
reddish-grey, the hairs being reddish-brown at the base, and tipped with
grey or black; head, face and hind hands darker brown; chest, upper side of
fore-arms, and under surface of body dark brown, or almost black; sides of
body, base of the tail and perineal region brownish-red; hair of chest and
under surface long and rather rigid.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Brown Lagothrix, also called "Capparo" by Humboldt, is
common in the forests of the low country over the whole of the Valley of
the Peruvian Amazons. It has been recorded from the Valley of the Copataza
river, and also from Macas, both in Cis-Andean Ecuador.

HABITS.--These Monkeys go about in pairs, in troops of about twelve to
fourteen, and frequent the great forest trees. They are often found in
company with species of other genera, such as the Howlers. They are
exclusively fruit-eaters, and are in great request as food; large numbers,
consequently, are destroyed annually for this purpose.


THE WOOLLY SPIDER-MONKEYS. GENUS BRACHYTELES.

  _Brachyteles_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert. Brazil, p. 36 (1823).

  _Eriodes_, Is. Geoffr., Dict. Class., xv., p. 143 (1829).

The members of this genus resemble in general form the {225}Spider-Monkeys,
to be presently described, and they present also many resemblances to the
foregoing species of the Woolly Monkeys. Their limbs are long and slender,
and their body heavy, and covered with a woolly under-fur. Their head is
rounder than in the Capuchins. The face is flat, and the facial angle
large. The nose has the partition between the nostrils narrower than in the
other species of the family, and the nostrils are themselves more
approximated, circular in form, and directed more downward than outward,
thus showing some approach to the position of the nostrils in the Old World
Apes. Their fore-limbs are long and slender, and the thumb is often
entirely absent (as in the Guerezas of Africa), or there may be a very
rudimentary digit, which sometimes ends in a small nail. The nails of the
digits are, as in _Lagothrix_, very compressed and sharp. The tail is
longer than the body, naked on the under side, and sensitive at its
termination, and therefore prehensile.

The skull is globular, and the pre-maxillary bones articulate with the
nasal bones by a broad surface. The incisor teeth are equal in size; the
canines are small, and of the same length as the incisors, and the molars,
which are vertically higher than the canines, are thick and quadrangular.
The lower jaw is dilated behind, somewhat less than in _Lagothrix_.

The Woolly Spider-Monkeys are very rare, and little is known of their
habits. They are confined to the south-eastern coast forests of Brazil,
that region to the south of Cape San Roque, whence, as far as Rio Grande do
Sul, ever-verdant forests, as Mr. Wallace has described, clothe all the
valleys and hills of the lowland region, stretching as far west as the
higher mountain ranges parallel to the coast, and even up the valleys of
the larger rivers a long way into the interior of the country.


{226}THE BROWN WOOLLY SPIDER-MONKEY. BRACHYTELES ARACHNOIDES.

  _Ateles arachnoides_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., vii., p. 271 (1806); xiii., p.
  90, pl. 9 (1809); xix., p. 106 (1812); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 184
  (1876, part.).

  _Ateles hypoxanthus_, Desm., Mamm., p. 75 (1820); Neuwied, apud Kuhl,
  Beitr. Zool., p. 25 (1820); Schl., t. c. p. 185 (1876, part.).

  _Brachyteles macrotarsus_, Spix, Sim. et Vespert., Bras., p. 36, pl. 17
  (1823).

  _Eriodes hemidactylus_ and _E. tuberifer_, Geoffr., Mém. Mus., xvii., pp.
  161, 163 (1828).

  _Eriodes arachnoides_, Geoffr., Mém. Mus., t. c. p. 160 (1828).

  _Brachyteles arachnoides_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 45 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Size small; face nude, flesh-coloured; general colour
of body yellowish-brown, darker on the back of the head, with a few long
black hairs on the forehead; hairs of head short and directed backward;
buttocks, vent, base of tail and perineal region dark ferruginous-brown;
the thumb wanting or rudimentary. Length of body, 22 inches; tail, 26
inches.

FEMALE.--Ashy-brown, instead of yellowish-brown, in appearance.

YOUNG.--In some young specimens the general colour is dark brown, with the
sides of the face white.

Dr. Slack observes, in the "Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences
of Philadelphia" for 1862, in reference to this species: "I had long
suspected that the three species of this genus described by Isidore
Geoffroy St. Hilaire, were in reality one and the same; no specific
characters are manifest in their coloration, or skulls, the supposed
differences being {227}based upon the development of the anterior thumbs,
this member being absent in _B. arachnoides_, replaced by a small nailless
tubercle in _B. tuberifer_, and surmounted by a nail in _B. hemidactylus_.
In the "Magazin" of Messrs. Verreaux, in Paris, I found specimens having
upon one hand the tubercle, and upon the other the nailed thumb, others
with the tubercle on one hand, but absent upon the other. St. Hilaire
himself, in his "Catalogue of the Primates," expresses a doubt as to
whether _B. arachnoides_ and _B. hemidactylus_ are really distinct. In
September and October, 1860, I was unable to find _B. hemidactylus_ in the
Paris Museum, all the _Brachyteles_ being labelled _Eriodes arachnoides_."

DISTRIBUTION.--Confined to the wooded region of the south-east of Brazil.

HABITS.--Arboreal, diurnal, and (it is supposed) gregarious, frequenting
the high forest trees, and subsisting on fruits.


THE SPIDER-MONKEYS. GENUS ATELES.

  _Ateles_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., vii., p. 262 (1806).

This is the fourth remaining genus of the _Cebinæ_, the last Sub-family of
the _Cebidæ_. With the description of the Spider-Monkeys, therefore, we
shall have passed in review all the species of the New World Platyrrhine
section of the _Anthropoidea_. The species of this group derive their
trivial name from their long and slender limbs; the name applied to them,
however, in their native forests by the Indians of Brazil is "Coaita." They
are characterised by their light and slender body, which is narrower across
the loins than across the chest. The head is rounded, the forehead salient,
and the muzzle somewhat projecting. Both pairs of limbs are much elongated,
the {228}hind-limbs being shorter, however, than the fore-, and the thumb
of the fore-limb is sometimes very rudimentary, being only a nailless
tubercle--or, in the majority of the species, entirely absent, rendering
the hand a much less perfect organ for holding or picking up small objects,
such as fruits, &c.; but its absence probably does not affect, if it does
not even benefit, the hand as an organ for climbing and catching hold again
after a long leap. The nails and other digits of both limbs are compressed,
but much less so than in _Brachyteles_ and _Lagothrix_. The tail is very
long, generally exceeding the length of the body and head, and is nude on
the under side, and very sensitive towards its termination. As a prehensile
organ it has reached the summit of strength and perfection. "It even serves
as a fifth hand, as detached objects, otherwise out of reach, can be
grasped by it, and brought towards the hand or mouth." (_Mivart._) The body
is covered with long, rather coarse, generally black, hair, and has no
woolly under-fur, as in _Lagothrix_ and _Brachyteles_.

With regard to the skeleton of _Ateles_, the lumbar region of the vertebral
column is short, and the dorsal segment attains a greater relative length
than in any other Ape, being over nine-twentieths of the total length of
the spine, without the tail. (_Mivart._) The dorsal and lumbar vertebræ
together number eighteen. In the tail there are twenty-three vertebræ,
flattened on the under side, and exceptionally provided with bony
processes, serving as points for the attachment of muscles for rendering it
as efficient a prehensile organ as possible. The length of the whole arm
and hand in _Ateles_, in proportion to that of the spine, is 174 to 100;
but without the hand it is shorter than the spine, the hand itself being
only slightly shorter than the latter. The proportion of the hind-limb to
the spine is somewhat less, being 169 to 100. The thumb is reduced to a
single metacarpal bone, to {229}which, usually, a single minute nodular
phalanx [finger-bone] is articulated, and is completely hidden beneath the
integument. Although thus rudimentary and functionless, all its
characteristic muscles, except one (the long-flexor) are present.
(_Huxley._) The upper incisors are unequal, the interior being the larger.
There is a space (diastema) between the incisor and the canine teeth (as in
all _Anthropoidea_, except Man); the canines are large and conical; the
upper molars large, and their crowns four-cusped, with transverse ridges
between the outer and inner front cusps and the outer and inner hind cusps,
and also an oblique ridge crossing from the outer front cusp to the inner
hind one. In the larynx of _Ateles_ there is a single median air-sac
opening from the back of the windpipe, but there is no such extension of
the resonating apparatus as is seen in the Howlers (_Alouatta_). In its
brain _Ateles_ exhibits in some respects a higher type than in even the Old
World Apes.

In regard to this group of Monkeys, the late Mr. H. W. Bates made the
following interesting observations:--"In the Coaitas the tail reaches its
highest perfection as a prehensile organ; and on this account it would
perhaps be correct to consider the Coaitas as the extreme development of
the American type of Apes. As far as we know from living and fossil
species, the New World has progressed no further than the Coaita towards
the production of a higher form of the Quadrumanous order. The tendency of
Nature here has been, to all appearance, simply to perfect these organs,
which adapt the species more and more completely to a purely arboreal life;
and no nearer approach has been made towards the more advanced forms of
Anthropoid Apes, which are the products of the Old World solely. The tail
of the Coaita is endowed with {230}a wonderful degree of flexibility. It is
always in motion, coiling and uncoiling like the trunk of an Elephant, and
grasping whatever comes within reach.... The flesh of the Coaitas is much
esteemed by the natives in this part of the country [Obydos, on the
Amazon].... One day I went on a Coaita hunt. When in the deepest part of a
ravine we heard a rustling sound in the trees overhead, and Manoel [the
guide] pointed out a Coaita to me. There was something human-like in its
appearance [which is very characteristic of them], as the lean, dark,
shaggy creature moved deliberately amongst the branches at a great height.
I fired, but unfortunately only wounded it in the belly. It fell with a
crash headlong about twenty or thirty feet, and then caught a bough with
its tail, which grasped it instantaneously, and then the animal remained
suspended in mid-air. Before I could re-load it recovered itself, and
mounted nimbly to the topmost branches out of the reach of a fowling-piece,
where we could perceive the poor thing, apparently probing the wound with
its fingers. Coaitas are more frequently kept in a tame state than any
other kind of Monkey. The Indians are very fond of them as pets, and the
women often suckle them when young at their breasts.[12] They become
attached to their masters, and will sometimes follow them on the ground to
considerable distances.... The disposition of the Coaita is mild in the
extreme; it has none of the painful, restless vivacity of its kindred, the
_Cebi_, and no trace of the surly, untameable temper of its still nearer
relatives, the _Mycetes_, or Howling-Monkeys. It is, however, an arrant
thief, and shows considerable cunning in pilfering small articles of
clothing, which it conceals in its sleeping place."

PLATE XXI.

[Illustration: THE VARIEGATED SPIDER-MONKEY.]


{231}The Coaitas are like the rest of the _Cebidæ_, essentially
quadrupedal, but they occasionally assume the erect posture. They are
purely arboreal in habit, living in small companies in the very high trees
of the forest.

Their geographical distribution is very wide. They extend over the whole
area of the _Cebidæ_, _i.e._, over two of the sub-regions, the Brazilian
and Mexican, of the Neotropical Region.


I. THE VARIEGATED SPIDER-MONKEY. ATELES VARIEGATUS.

  _Ateles marginatus_ (nec Geoffr.), Humb. Obs. Zool., pp. 340, 354 (1811).

  _Ateles variegatus_, Wagner in Schreb., Säugeth., i., p. 313 (1840); id.
  Abhandl. Akad. Münch., v., p. 420 (1847); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1870, p.
  668; 1871, pp. 39, 225; Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist. (4), vi. (1870), p. 472.

  _Sapajou geoffroyi_ (nec Kuhl), Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.,
  1862, p. 511 [= [male]].

  _Ateles bartletti_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 992, pl. xlvii.

  _Ateles melanochir_, var. Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 43 (1870, in
  part).

  _Ateles chuva_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 175 (1876).

  (_Plate XXI._)

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Fur of body abundant, long, and soft; hair of back and
top of head long and directed forwards, and projecting over the forehead;
beneath and behind the cheeks a band of longish hairs, directed forwards.
Top of head, back, front aspect of the entire arms, and of the legs to the
knees, hands, feet, and upper side of tail glossy blue-black; a band
{232}across the forehead rufous-yellow; the hairs directed upwardly,
bordered by a narrower streak of deep black over the eyes; the under side
of the fore-limbs, the posterior aspect of the thighs, and the entire leg,
the buttocks, and the whole of the under side of the tail as far as the
nude portion (which is black), rich orange-yellow; under surface of body
paler. Face naked, black, and bordered by a broad white patch of whiskers,
reaching from the temple nearly to the angle of the mouth. The black part
of the limbs and legs near to the yellow colour, varied with more or fewer
yellow hairs.

FEMALE AND YOUNG MALE.--Similar to the adult male, but less in size, and
the coloration paler than in the adult male. Elbows and feet black; under
side of the body greyish-yellow. The white stripe on the sides of the face
is wanting in the young female.

DISTRIBUTION.--Chyavetas, Nauta, and Elvira in the Peruvian Amazons; Upper
Rio Negro, Serra de Cocoi; Upper Cauca river, a southern confluent of the
Orinoco; Venezuela. "This species is found on both sides of the Peruvian
Amazon (or Marañon), on both shores of the Huallaga, and in the interior
forest near the town of Chamicuros. I was told by some of the oldest
Indians that these animals are common in the dense forest on the hills near
the latter town, their range extending between the Huallaga river and
Ucayali river to the head-waters of the Huallaga, between the towns of
Lamas and Sarayaçu.... Then again on the Rio Tigri ... and over the
head-waters of the Rio Napo, Rio Japurâ and Rio Negro, where Natterer first
discovered it." (_Bartlett._)

HABITS.--This Monkey, the "Chuva de Baracamorros" of {233}Humboldt, which
is the most beautifully coloured of its group, is said to go about in small
parties, passing through the forest at a rapid rate, feeding on different
kinds of berries.


II. GEOFFROY'S SPIDER-MONKEY, ATELES GEOFFROYI.

  _Ateles geoffroyi_, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 26 (1820); Schl., Mus. Pays
  Bas, vii., p. 181 (1876); Alston, in Godman and Salvin, Biol. Centr.
  Amer. Mamm., p. 8 (1879).

  _Ateles melanochir_, Desmar., Mamm., p. 76 (1820); Gray, Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., p. 43 (1870); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 226, pl. xv., 1875,
  p. 419, pls. xlviii. and xlix.

  _Eriodes frontatus_, Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist., x., p. 256 (1842); id. Voy.
  H.M.S. "Sulphur," Zool., p. 9, pl. i.; Scl., P. Z. S., 1882, p. 186; Von
  Frantzius, Arch. f. Naturg., xxxv., 1869, pp. 257, 258.

  _Sapajou geoffroyi_, Slack, Pr. Ac. Sc. Philad., 1862, p. 511 (= female).

  _Ateles variegatus_ (nec Wagn.), Von Frantzius, Arch. f. Naturg., xxxv.,
  1869, p. 257.

  _Ateles hybridus_, _A. ornatus_ et _A. albifrons_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., pp. 43 and 44 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Body light greyish-drab all over; hands, elbows, feet, knees,
and the upper side of the extremity of the tail, black; face black, with
the exception of the lips and a ring round the eyes, broad above and narrow
below, flesh-coloured. Hair of forehead reflexed, meeting that of the crown
above the eyes, forming a triangular patch of erect black hairs. Top of the
head and upper part of the tail buff. Length of body, 17 inches; of tail,
21 inches. Thumb entirely wanting.

This species is remarkably variable. The description given above belongs to
the form described as _A. melanochir_ by {234}Desmarest from the same
specimen in Paris, which Kuhl described under the name of _A. geoffroyi_.
Every gradation is to be met with between this and the form described by
Dr. Gray as _A. ornatus_, in which the face is entirely black, the whiskers
pale reddish-yellow, the patch of erect black hair on the forehead
yellowish at its base; the top of the head, sides, lower back, rump, upper
part of the arms, outer, inner and posterior portion of the thighs and
legs, and under side of the base of the tail, brownish-red; nape, shoulders
and remainder of the tail reddish-brown, washed with black; lower part of
arms, fore-arms, hands, feet, and anterior aspect of thighs and legs,
black.

In some specimens the grey, or reddish-black colour, merges on the under
surface, into yellowish-cream, or rufous, and the black wash is more or
less distributed.

Mr. Alston, in speaking of this species, remarks that the best character by
which the darker (_A. ornatus_) forms may be distinguished from our next
species (_A. rufiventris_) is the want of a distinct line of demarcation
between the colours of the upper and lower parts, the tint of the flanks,
whatever it may be, passing almost insensibly into that of the breast and
belly in all the varieties.

DISTRIBUTION.--The variation in colour described above is not due to local
causes, every variety occurring between the lightest and darkest, in all
the regions which this species is known to inhabit. The localities from
which it has been recorded are on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of
Nicaragua; Costa Rica, where it occurs in large numbers from the coast
forests up to nearly 7,000 feet on the mountains; Panama, and the U.S. of
Colombia.

HABITS.--Geoffroy's Spider-Monkey is gregarious and arboreal,
{235}frequenting the highest trees of the forest, both in the low country
and at high elevations, and living on fruits and insects, but chiefly on
the former. Mr. Belt relates that on the banks of the Antigua he saw a
valuable tree, the "Nispera" (_Achras sapota_), growing on the dryer
ridges. "It bears a round fruit about the size of an apple, hard and heavy
when green, and at this time it is much frequented by the large
yellowish-brown Spider-Monkey (_Ateles_), which roams over the tops of the
trees in bands of from ten to twenty. Sometimes they lay quite quiet until
I was passing underneath, when, shaking a branch of the Nispera tree, they
would send down a shower of the hard round fruit; but fortunately I was
never struck by them. As soon as I looked up they would commence yelping
and barking and putting on the most threatening gestures, breaking off
pieces of branches and letting them fall, and shaking off more fruit, but
never throwing anything, simply letting it fall.[13] Often when on lower
trees, they would hang from the branches, two or three together, holding on
to each other and to the branch with their fore-feet and long tail, whilst
their hind-feet hung down, all the time making threatening gestures and
cries. Sometimes a female would be seen carrying a young one on its back,
to which it clung with legs and tail, the mother making its way along the
branches, and leaping from tree to tree, apparently but little encumbered
by its baby. A large black and white Eagle is said to prey upon them, but I
never saw one, although I was constantly falling in with troops of the
Monkeys. Don Francisco Velasquez, one of our officers, told me that one day
he heard a Monkey crying out in the forest for more than two hours, and at
last, going to see what was {236}the matter, he saw a Monkey on a branch
and an Eagle beside it trying to frighten it to turn its back, when it
would have seized it. The Monkey, however, kept its face to its foe....
Velasquez fired at the Eagle, and frightened it away. I think it likely,
from what I have seen of the habits of this Monkey, that they defend
themselves from the Eagle's attack by keeping two or three together, thus
assisting each other, and that it is only when the bird finds one separated
from its companions that it dares to attack it."

Mr. Osbert Salvin met with several of these Monkeys near the town of San
Juan del Sur, in Nicaragua. He was walking up the course of a half-dry
stream when he came upon a troop of Monkeys which had come to a pool to
drink, and were climbing about the low trees on the bank of the
watercourse. Most of the troop consisted of _Cebus hypoleucus_, but with
them were several _Ateles_ of the present species, of one of which Mr.
Salvin wrote a description as it sat jabbering at him and throwing down
sticks from a branch above his head. Mr. Salvin also told Mr. Alston that
it was not unusual to see Monkeys kept in confinement in the court-yards of
the Spanish houses in Guatemala. Amongst them were occasionally to be seen
specimens of Geoffroy's Spider-Monkey; but he always found that they had
been brought from Nicaragua or Costa Rica, the species not extending into
Guatemala.


III. THE RED-BELLIED SPIDER-MONKEY. ATELES RUFIVENTRIS.

  _Ateles vellerosus_ (_?_) (nec Gray), Scl., P. Z. S., 1871, p. 478.

  _Ateles rufiventris_, Scl., P. Z. S., 1872, p. 688, pl. lvii.; Schlegel,
  Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 182 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Fur rough, upstanding less on the tail than on {237}the body,
that on the forehead erect and directed backwards, that on the top of the
head long, projecting forward. Face and muzzle, except a black line from
the side of the nose and inner corners of the eyes to the cheeks,
flesh-coloured. General colour uniform black, but the whole under surface
deep bright rufous, this colour extending but slightly on to the inner
surface of the limbs. Thumbs entirely wanting.

Differs from _A. geoffroyi_ by its flesh-coloured face and by the two
colours of the upper and under sides being clearly defined. Length of body,
12 inches; of tail, 15½ inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species was first discovered on the Atrato river, in
Northern Colombia, and has since been found in Panama.

HABITS.--The Red-bellied Spider-Monkey is very rare, only one or two
specimens having yet been obtained. Nothing is, therefore, known of its
habits.


IV. THE RED-FACED SPIDER-MONKEY. ATELES PANISCUS.

  _Simia paniscus_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 27 (1766).

  _Ateles pentadactylus_, Geoff., Ann. Mus., vii., p. 269 (1806); Schl.,
  Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 172 (1876, in part).

  _Ateles paniscus_, Geoff., Ann. Mus., vii., p. 270 (1806); Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 42 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 169
  (1876, part.).

  _Le coaita_, F. Cuv. et Geoffr., Nat. Hist. Mamm., liv., v. (Avril,
  1819).

  _Sapajou paniscus_, Slack, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., p. 509 (1862).

CHARACTERS.--Very similar to _A. ater_ in its coarse and entirely black
fur, but differing in the naked and flesh-coloured {238}face. Hairs of
forehead long and projecting anteriorly; tail one-quarter longer than the
body; hands generally entirely lacking the thumbs, though sometimes a
rudimentary thumb is present, and that occasionally on one hand only. Naked
portion of tail covered with sensory papillæ, rendering it more sensitive,
so it is said, than the hand. Length of body, 24 inches; tail, 30 inches.
The skull in some specimens of the thumbed variety is compressed laterally,
and shows a sagittal crest along the top.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species is spread over Guiana, the forests of the
Ucayali and Huallaga rivers in eastern Peru, and the northern part of
Brazil, where it is known as the "Coaita," taking the place of the more
northern _Ateles ater_. "It occurs," says Mr. Bates, "throughout the
lowlands of the Lower and Upper Amazons, but does not range to the south
beyond the limits of the river plains." In the higher part of the Rio Negro
it comes down to the north bank, but does not cross to the south bank of
the river.

HABITS.--This species is the best known of all the Spider-Monkeys. It is
captured in large numbers, when young, by the natives of Guiana, and as
they bear captivity well, many of them have been brought to Europe. They
live in larger troops than do some of the other members of its genus;
indeed, these companies are said to number as many as a hundred. They are
very easily tamed, and become very affectionate. They live chiefly on
fruits, principally on a species of palm-nut. Dampier, however, says,
apparently of this species of _Ateles_: "The Monkeys come down by the
Sea-side [at low water] and catch them [the Periwinckles and Muscles];
digging them out of their Shells with their Claws." Large numbers of this
species {239}are also annually killed for food, their flesh being held in
high esteem by the natives.


V. THE WHITE-WHISKERED SPIDER-MONKEY. ATELES MARGINATUS.

  _Ateles marginatus_ (nec Humb.), Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xiii., p. 92, pl. 10
  (1809); Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 24 (1820); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus.,
  p. 43 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 174 (1876).

  _Coaita à front blanc, femelle_, Fr. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., livr. lxii.
  (Avril, 1830).

  _Ateles frontalis_, Bennett, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 38.

CHARACTERS.--Similar in size and coloration to _A. paniscus_. Body lean;
hair moderately long and coarse. Face naked, black, except the skin round
the eyes, which is flesh-coloured; general colour black; under surface of
body and inner sides of limbs, ashy-grey. It differs from _A. paniscus_ by
having the forehead, crown of head, a spot on each side of the nose, and
the whiskers, white.

A specimen in the British Museum has four pre-molars in each upper jaw,
instead of the normal three of the _Cebidæ_.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species was discovered by Humboldt on the banks of the
Santiago river. Mr. Bates says "it is never met with in the alluvial plains
of the Amazons," nor, he believes, on the northern side of the great
river-valley, except towards its head-waters near the Andes.

HABITS.--According to Von Humboldt, this Spider-Monkey--known as the
"White-Whiskered Coaita"--is very fierce and libidinous. Mr. Bates
encountered this large and handsome species on the Cupari river, a
tributary of the Tapajos, one {240}of the large southern affluents of the
Amazon. Here he could get scarcely anything but fish to eat, and, as this
diet did not agree with him, he was obliged to have recourse to the Coaita
flesh. "I thought," he says, "the meat the best flavoured I have ever
tasted. It resembled beef, but had a richer and sweeter taste.... We
smoke-dried the joints instead of salting them; placing them for several
hours on a framework of sticks arranged over a fire. Nothing but the
hardest necessity could have driven me so near to cannibalism as this, but
we had the greatest difficulty in obtaining here a sufficient supply of
animal food." Von Humboldt has also referred to the cooking of these
Monkeys by the natives of the Upper Orinoko. "The manner of roasting these
anthropomorphous animals," he writes, "contributes singularly to render
their appearance disagreeable in the eyes of civilised Man. A little
grating or lattice of very hard wood is formed, and raised one foot from
the ground. The Monkey is skinned and bent into a sitting posture; the head
generally resting on the arms, which are meagre and long; but sometimes
these are crossed behind the back. When it is tied on the grating a very
clear fire is kindled below.... On seeing the natives devour an arm or leg
of a roasted Monkey, it is difficult not to believe that this habit of
eating animals which so much resemble Man in their physical organisation,
has in a certain degree contributed to diminish the horror of anthropophagy
among savages. Roasted Monkeys, particularly those that have a very round
head, display a hideous resemblance to a child; the Europeans, therefore,
who are obliged to feed on Quadrumanes, prefer separating the head and the
hands, and serve up only the rest of the animal at their tables. The flesh
of Monkeys is so lean and dry that Mr. Bonpland has {241}preserved in his
collections at Paris an arm and hand, which had been boiled over the fire
at Esmeraldas; and no smell arises from them after a great number of
years."


VI. THE BLACK-FACED SPIDER-MONKEY. ATELES ATER.

  _Ateles ater_ (Le Caijou), F. Cuvier, Mamm., i., pl. xxxix. (1823);
  Sclater, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 5; Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 42
  (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 170 (1876).

  _Sapajou ater_, Slack, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1862, p. 510.

CHARACTERS.--Entirely black; fur silky, and longer on the head and tail
than on the body; fur on top of head directed from behind forwards, falling
over the forehead, meeting the backwardly directed hairs of the forehead
and forming a tuft. Face black, the upper part naked; chin with stiff black
hairs mixed with a few white ones. Ears oval and human-like in form, the
upper part movable at will. Thumbs entirely wanting. Length of body, 19
inches; tail, 26 inches.

Distinguished from _A. paniscus_, which it closely resembles, by the black
colour of its face, and the direction of the hairs on the forehead.

YOUNG.--Lighter in colour than the adults; sometimes brown on the back and
the outer side of the limbs.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Black-Faced Spider-Monkey ranges from Panama, through
the United States of Colombia to Eastern Peru.

HABITS.--Entirely arboreal, living in large troops, and feeding on fruits.


{242}VII. THE GRIZZLED SPIDER-MONKEY. ATELES GRISESCENS

  _Ateles grisescens_, Scl. MSS.; Gray, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 732; id. Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 42 (1870); Scl., P. Z. S., 1871, p. 223; Schl.,
  Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 168 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Hair of forehead elongate. Fur in general moderately long,
black, with greyish-white hairs intermingled, giving it a grizzled
appearance; under side of tail grey. Similar to _A. ater_ and _A.
paniscus_, but distinguished by the intermixture of grey hairs, and by the
colour of the under side of the tail. Thumbs absent.

YOUNG MALE.--Rather lighter in colour, especially on the under side of
body; tail black above, grey beneath. Length of body, 14 inches; tail, 16
inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--The habitat of this species is not certainly known. Dr.
Sclater considers it probable that it will turn up in some part of the
Central American or the Colombian coast.


VIII. THE BROWN-HEADED SPIDER-MONKEY. ATELES FUSCICEPS.

  _Ateles fusciceps_, Fraser MSS.; Gray, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 733; Sclater,
  P. Z. S., 1872, p. 663, pl. lv.; Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 42
  (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 173 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Fur thick. Hairs long, shining, crisp, deep black above, the
hairs of the back with brownish tips; the under side of the body and inside
of the limbs black; crown of head deep coffee-brown. Length of body about
20 inches; of the tail, 26 inches, according to the dimensions taken from
the skin of a young animal by Dr. Sclater. Thumbs entirely wanting.

{243}DISTRIBUTION.--In 1860, when Mr. L. Fraser returned from Ecuador, he
spoke of a large Monkey he had seen, but had not obtained, in the valleys
of Western Ecuador. It remained unknown until it was shot, and brought to
England by Mr. Buckley some ten years later. It was the only Monkey, he
says, except a _Mycetes_, which he saw in Trans-Andean Ecuador.

HABITS.--These, doubtless, do not differ from those of other
Spider-Monkeys.


IX. THE HOODED SPIDER-MONKEY. ATELES CUCULLATUS.

  _Ateles cucullatus_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 733; id. Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 42 (1870); Murie, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 739; Schl., Mus. Pays Bas,
  vii., p. 169 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Hairs of body long, but thin on the head, body, limbs and
tail; hair of crown very long and projecting over the face and the sides of
head, forming what has been called a "hood." Face nude, flesh-coloured;
cheeks and lower jaw nearly nude also, but the skin of a blackish hue. Hair
on back black, intermingled with numerous others which are yellowish-grey
in colour; crown and back of head, hands, and feet black--the hairs black
throughout. Nude part of tail flesh-coloured. The hands have a rudiment of
a thumb in the shape of a small tubercle. Length of body, 14½ inches; of
tail, 27½ inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Hooded Spider-Monkey is very rare, and very different
from any other member of its group in regard to the hair of its head. Its
native country is still a matter of uncertainty. Dr. Sclater, however,
remarks in the "Proceedings of the Zoological Society" for 1881: "I have
some reason to suppose {244}it may be from the northern coast of Colombia,
as I am told that a black Spider-Monkey, with long hair over its head, is
occasionally brought for sale into Cartagena."


X. THE LONG-HAIRED SPIDER-MONKEY. ATELES VELLEROSUS.

  _Ateles belzebuth_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., vii., p. 27, pl. xvi. (1806);
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 44 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii.,
  p. 178 (1876).

  _Le marimonda_, Humb. Obs. Zool., p. 325 (1811).

  _Ateles frontatus_ (nec Gray), Sclater, Nat. Hist. Rev., 1861, p. 509.

  _Ateles vellerosus_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 733; Reinh., P. Z. S.,
  1872, p. 797; Sclater, P. Z. S., 1873, pp. 5, 798, pl. ii.; Alston, in
  Godman and Salvin, Biol. Centr. Amer. Mamm., p. 10 (1879).

  _Ateles fuliginosus_ (nec Kuhl), Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 179
  (1876).

  _Ateles pan_, Schl., t. c. p. 180 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Closely allied to _Ateles geoffroyi_. Hair abundant, long,
soft, and flaccid. Face flesh-coloured, except for a black bar from the
corner of the eye to the cheek; forehead black, its hair short, reflexed,
and uniting, so as to form an erect, crest-like ridge, with the fur on the
top of the head, which is directed forward. General colour above black to
reddish-brown; the head, back, outer side of the entire fore-limb and of
the lower part of the hind-limb, hands, and feet, and upper surface of tail
deep black; sides of body, loins, and thighs yellowish-brown or dull black
washed with rufous; whiskers, throat, whole of under surface of body,
inside of fore- and hind-limbs, and under surface of tail (this sometimes
black) yellowish-cream colour, but very variable, sharply defined from
{245}the dark colour of the upper parts. Thumb entirely wanting. Eyes dark
yellowish-grey. May be distinguished from the dark form of Geoffroy's
Spider-Monkey by the sharp definition of the colours of the upper and under
sides of the body.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species, also spoken of as the Mexican Spider-Monkey,
is known to occur right across Guatemala; it is by no means uncommon, Mr.
Salvin says, in the forest country on the northern part of Vera Paz, and he
also saw a troop at the summit of the ridge of mountains which connects the
Volcan de Fuego with the main Cordillera, at about 8,000 feet above the
sea.

The late Prof. Liebmann, the Danish botanist, obtained a specimen,
according to Prof. Reinhardt, "in the neighbourhood of the small place
Mirador, situated not far from the volcano of Orizaba, in the State of Vera
Cruz.... He met with it also in the eastern parts of the State of
Oaxaca.... But at the same time he expressly states that he never met with
this _Ateles_, nor, indeed, with any other Monkey, on the Pacific slope of
the Great Cordillera in Oaxaca, and that, as far as he could learn, Monkeys
are to be found on the western coast only south of Tehuantepec." This
species is the only Spider-Monkey certainly known to range as far north as
Mexico. According to M. Sallé, the most northern locality for Monkeys with
which he was acquainted, was in the State of San-Louis Potosi, about 23° N.
latitude, on the upper part of the basin of the Tampico river. (_Alston._)

HABITS.--The Mexican Spider-Monkey is, like the foregoing members of the
genus, arboreal, consorting together in small troops, and feeding on
fruits. Prof. Liebmann observed it in small troops in the deep barrancas,
up to an elevation of 2,000 {246}feet above the sea, on the Orizaba
volcano, and in the forests of Oaxaca, to 4,000 feet. Mr. Salvin, on the
volcano of Atitlan, in Guatemala, at a height of between 5,000 and 6,000
feet, met several troops of this species on the tops of the higher trees of
the forest. These parties of Monkeys were usually about twenty in number
and of all ages. On approaching them they did not evince any alarm, but
kept uttering a constant querulous sort of bark, and moved from time to
time so as to get a better view of the intruder. A few days afterwards,
during an excursion to the same volcano, when the summit, 11,800 feet above
the sea, was reached, numerous troops of _Ateles_ were seen in the forest,
from an elevation of 7,000 feet to as low as 2,500 feet on the outskirts of
the coffee plantations of San Agustin.

Now that we have passed in review the whole of the Anthropoid species
inhabiting the New World, a short account of the regions to which they are
confined will be of some interest. The most northern limit of Monkeys is,
as mentioned above, the State of San-Louis Potosi, about the latitude of
23° North. Their most southern limit attains to nearly 25° of South
latitude. They are now confined to the Mexican and Brazilian sub-regions of
what has been defined as the Neotropical Region, by Dr. A. R. Wallace, in
his great work, "The Geographical Distribution of Animals." The Mexican
sub-region belongs to the Neotropical Region, one of those six great areas
into which the globe has been divided off by Dr. Sclater on the basis of
the geographical distribution of the animals that now inhabit it--the final
product of the slowly-changing features of the earth's surface, and of the
form, structure, and habits of its animal and vegetable life.

The Mexican sub-region forms the northern part of the {247}Region, and, to
condense Mr. Wallace's account of it, it is of comparatively small extent;
but the whole of its area is mountainous, being, in fact, a continuation of
the great range of the Rocky Mountains. It varies in elevation above the
sea from 6,000 to 18,000 feet. "With the exception of the elevated plateaus
of Mexico and Guatemala, and the extremity of the peninsula of Yucatan, the
whole of Central America is clothed with forests; and as its surface is
much broken up into hill and valley, and the volcanic soil of a large
portion of it is very fertile, it is altogether well adapted to support a
varied fauna, as it does a most luxuriant vegetation." In this region only
species of Spider-Monkeys (_Ateles_), of Howlers (_Alouatta_), of Capuchins
(_Cebus_), of Night-Monkeys (_Nyctipithecus_), and of Squirrel-Monkeys
(_Chrysothrix_) are found. The Spider-Monkeys and the Howlers alone extend
so far North as Mexico, and the Night-Monkeys reach to Nicaragua, while the
Squirrel-Monkeys and Capuchins have penetrated no further than to Costa
Rica.

The Brazilian Sub-region includes all the open plains and pasture lands,
surrounded by, or intimately associated with, the forests. Its central mass
consists of the great forest plain of the Amazons, from the north-east
coast of Brazil to high up in the Andes on the west, a stretch of more than
2,000 miles; and from the mouth of the Orinoko to near La Paz in the
Bolivian Andes, a distance of 1,900 miles, of continuous forest in both
directions. Within this area are some open "campos" or patches of pasture
lands, along several of the tributaries of the Amazon, and Llanos--open
flat plains generally flooded in the wet season--on the northern bank of
the Orinoko. Unbroken forest also covers the country from Panama southwards
by the Magdalena Valley along the western aspect of the {248}Andes to
Guayaquil. There is a very arid tract on the northeast coast of Brazil; but
south of Cape San Roque the coast forests extend to 30° south latitude,
"clothing all the valleys and hill-sides as far inland as the higher
mountain ranges, and even penetrating up the great valleys far into the
interior. To the south-west the forest country reappears in Paraguay, and
extends in patches and partly wooded country till it almost reaches the
southern extension of the Amazonian forests. The interior of Brazil is thus
in the position of a great island plateau, rising out of, and surrounded
by, a lowland region of ever-verdant forests." Of its Anthropoid life the
Woolly Monkeys (_Lagothrix_), the Sakis (_Pithecia_), and the Uakaris
(_Brachyurus_) are confined to its Amazonian forests. The Woolly
Spider-Monkeys (_Brachyteles_) keep to the wooded coast-regions of
South-east Brazil, while the Titis (_Callithrix_) do not range out of the
tropics of South America. The Howlers (_Alouatta_), the Spider-Monkeys
(_Ateles_), and the Capuchins (_Cebus_) roam nearly over the whole
region--the first and last ranging from Costa Rica to Paraguay as well. The
Spider-Monkeys indeed extend over to the west side of the Equatorial Andes,
and in Guatemala across to the Pacific coast. No species of Monkey,
however, is known to inhabit the western side of the Andes, to the south of
the Gulf of Guayaquil.


THE BABOONS, GUEREZAS AND LANGURS. FAMILY CERCOPITHECIDÆ.

With the following account of the numerous species of the genera of this
family, we come to consider the first section of the Old World, or
Catarrhine[14] Monkeys. These are {249}distinguished from their New World
cousins, described in the previous pages, by many important and obvious
characters. The partition dividing the nostrils is narrow, instead of
broad, and the openings of the nostrils themselves are directed downwards
and outwards. Certain genera possess also sacs formed by distensible folds
of the skin in the cheeks. These "cheek-pouches" serve as a storing-place
by the side of the jaws, for food which they cannot masticate at the
moment. When this store is disposed of, the folds of skin come together
again and give no indication of the presence of the pouch, which, moreover,
when full does not interfere with the mastication of other food in the
mouth, or with the utterance of the animal's usual cries.

The hind-limbs are never shorter than the fore-; they may be equal in
length, but they are generally somewhat longer, the animal being more or
less quadrupedal, or very partially erect in gait. Their thumb is not
invariably present, but when it is, it is always opposable to its fellow
digits. The great-toe is never rudimentary, and is never, as it is in Man,
the longest, but is the shortest digit of the foot, and it is capable of
free motion to and from the others. All of the digits possess nails. The
length of the foot among this group approximates more to the proportions of
the foot in Man. The hairs on the arms and fore-arms are directed downwards
from the shoulder to the wrist.

The tail in this family varies very much; it may be long or short, or even
externally absent, but it is never prehensile. All the species, however,
possess "callosities," or hard fleshy pads--often of large size--on the
buttocks or seat, which, like the naked skin of the face, are usually
brilliantly coloured and often of large size. The perineal region and
organs are at certain periods, especially in the females, subject to great
turgescence and brilliant coloration.

{250}Besides these external characters, we find, on examining their bony
structure, much variation in the skull. Some have a rounded forehead, the
ascending portion of the lower jaw being high, broad, and flat, with a
large facial angle; in others, we have great production of the upper jaw
(the horizontal part of the lower jaw being greater than the ascending
portion), and a low facial angle. The cerebral portion of the skull is long
and flattened, and the palate long and narrow. The dental formula is I2/2,
C1/1, P2/2, M3/3 = 32, that of the milk-teeth I2/2, C1/1, M (the
forerunners of the permanent _pre-molars_) 2/2 = 20, exactly the same as in
a Man. The outer lower incisors are equal to, or sometimes smaller than,
the inner pair. The permanent canines--which are long and sharp--come in
before, or with the posterior molars of both jaws. Between them and the
incisors above, and between the canine and the anterior pre-molar below,
occurs a gap (or diastema). The anterior upper pre-molar has its outer cusp
modified and sharpened; the anterior lower pre-molar has the anterior
margin of its crown so shaped as to work "as a scissors'-blade against the
posterior edge of the upper canines." (_Henley._) The crowns of the molar
teeth are long from before backwards, and their fore and hind cusps are
united by transverse ridges, a third being present in the same genera, on
the posterior lower five-cusped molar.

The nasal bones are often ossified together to form one bone. The surface
of the skull is in general oval and smooth, but in some of the Baboons
there appear strong ridges over the eyes (hiding the forehead) and along
the top of the head, being stronger, when present, in the male than in the
female. The external orifice to the ear has a considerable bony tube, or
meatus, a distinguishing character which is absent in the New {251}World
Monkeys; their tympanic (or ear) cavity being close to the outer wall of
the skull. The line of junction (or suture) between the upper jaw-bones,
the pre-maxillary and the maxillary, remains unclosed until long after the
permanent teeth have come in. Sometimes it remains unclosed throughout
life. The foramen for the passage of the spinal-cord, and the condyles for
the articulation of the skull with the neck, lie far back.

In the spinal column there are nineteen dorsal and lumbar vertebræ
together. The number of caudal vertebræ varies greatly; in some there are
as many as thirty-one, in others only three. The posterior ends of the
ischiatic bones of the pelvis are rough, flattened, and broad, for the
attachment of the fleshy callosities mentioned above.

The bones of the thigh and leg (_femur_ and _tibia_) together, are longer
than those of the arm and fore-arm (_humerus_ and _radius_) together. The
bones of the thumb are modified more for support and progression than for
the actions of a true hand; by these modifications the movements of
rotation (pronation and supination) are much restricted.

The ankle (_tarsus_) does not exceed one third of the length of the foot.

The stomach is simple, or but very slightly sacculated, in those genera
which possess cheek-pouches; but is tripartite--the middle compartment
being sacculated--in those that have not store-pockets in their mouths, "a
groove with raised edges leading from the gullet-entrance to this middle
compartment." The intestine has a cæcum, or blind diverticulum. "When
laryngeal air-sacs are developed, they are formed by a single sac, with a
median aperture--immediately beneath the epiglottis. This median air-sac is
very large, extending down {252}over the front of the neck, and sending [in
some genera] processes into the _axillæ_" or arm-pits. (_Huxley._)

The main brain (or cerebrum) covers the cerebellum in all the members of
the _Cercopithecidæ_; and in them the principal convolutions and fissures
found in the human brain are more or less developed.

The family _Cercopithecidæ_ includes all the Old World Monkeys except the
Anthropoid or true Apes, and Man, these latter constituting the two
remaining families of the _Anthropoidea_, namely _Simiidæ_ and _Hominidæ_.
The _Cercopithecidæ_ have been again divided into two Sub-families, the
_Cercopithecinæ_ and the _Semnopithecinæ_. The first contains the Baboons
(_Cynocephalus_), the Gelada Baboons (_Theropithecus_), the Mangabeys
(_Cercocebus_) and the Guenons (_Cercopithecus_), all of which inhabit the
African continent; and likewise the Black Apes (_Cynopithecus_) from
Celebes, and the Macaques (_Macacus_), which are almost exclusively
confined to the Asiatic continent. In the second Sub-family are included
the Nosed-Monkeys (_Nasalis_) of Borneo; the Langurs (_Semnopithecus_) of
India, Malaizia, and the Sunda Islands; and the Guerezas (_Colobus_) of
Africa.


THE BABOONS, MANGABEYS, AND MACAQUES. SUB-FAMILY CERCOPITHECINÆ.

This Sub-family is characterised by the presence, in all its members, of
cheek-pouches, and a simple stomach. The tail is variable in length, being
long or externally invisible. The callosities on the ischiatic bones are
large; in many species they become very turgescent at certain seasons, the
enlargement extending sometimes to the tail. The hues of the skin on and
round the face also become more vivid periodically. {253}Many of the
species of this Sub-family are arboreal; some, however, are found only in
barren rocky regions; others in low jungle in the neighbourhood of
villages, water-tanks, and cultivated patches. Fruits and insects form
their principal diet.


THE BABOONS. GENUS PAPIO.

  _Papio_, Erxleb., Syst. Regne Anim., p. 15 (1777).

  _Cynocephalus_, Lacép., Mem. de l'Inst. iii., p. 490 (1801). Type, _P.
  sphinx_ (Geoffr.).

The members of this genus may easily be recognised by their very Dog-like
face, their muzzle being greatly elongated and truncated at the end, with
the nostrils set in the truncated termination. Their eyes are directed
downwards along the visage. In form and massiveness of body and in length
of tail they vary very much. Their fore- and hind-limbs are nearly equal in
length, and consequently they progress on all fours, with the palms of the
hands and the soles of the feet flat to the ground. Their "fore-paws" are,
however, very efficient _hands_, which some species use very dexterously in
turning over stones in their search for food. Their feet are long. Their
hair is grizzled or ringed with various colours.

The facial region of the skull is more developed in this genus relatively
to the flattened brain-case, than in other Monkeys. In several of the
species longitudinal osseous ridges are developed on the bones of the upper
jaws, especially in the adult males, adding to the hideousness of the
countenance of these animals. The neck is elongated. The _radius_ is longer
than the _humerus_ (or arm-bone), and the elbow projection of the _ulna_
(of the fore-arm), named the _olecranon_ process, is prolonged upwards
beyond what occurs in Man. The thumb, though relatively shorter than in
Man, is much {254}longer proportionately than in other Monkeys, reaching to
the middle of the first joint of the forefinger.

Both halves of the liver are much sub-divided.

Gestation lasts seven months, and the young are suckled for six months.

The Baboons are the lowest of the Catarrhine or Old World Monkeys. Most of
them are large, ferocious, dangerous, and gregarious animals, and when
disturbed or alarmed they give utterance to screams, barks, and guttural
murmurs.

Both Dr. Emil Holub and Sir Richard Burton have spoken of the ferocity of
the Baboons. "The South African farmers," says the first-named naturalist,
"complain of these animals as a great and perpetual nuisance." They were
always on the look-out, and no sooner was a field or a garden left
unguarded than they would be down at once, breaking through the hedges and
devouring the crops. They were likewise very destructive amongst the Sheep.
If a shepherd happened to leave his post for ever so short a time, or even
to fall asleep, the Baboons, who had been watching their chance from the
heights, would be down upon the flock in the valley, and, seizing the Lambs
and ripping up their stomachs with their teeth, would feast upon the milk
they contained, then leaving the poor mangled victim writhing on the
ground. Then they would lose no time in repeating the terrible operation
upon another. "About the middle of the morning," says Dr. Holub, "we
started eastwards in the hope of catching the herd at their
drinking-place.... When we had advanced some distance along the hill we
found ourselves approaching the pool ... and could distinctly hear the
hoarse barking of the Baboons. Looking across to the opposite side, about
300 yards away, we caught sight of a herd of seven, only four of them
full-grown; {255}they seemed to pause and scan us carefully before they
decamped to a glen on the right. With all speed we followed them.... As one
of our party had only small shot, and the other nothing but a stick, I
insisted upon their remaining close at my side, knowing that a full-grown
Baboon, when infuriated, is as dangerous a foe as a Leopard.... Behind one
of the embankments we took our position. Only a few minutes had elapsed
when we could distinctly recognise them as a herd of Baboons. The boy said
he was quite sure that they were on their way to the water; but to our
surprise they did not make any further advance. A quarter of an hour
passed--half an hour--still no symptom of their approach. All at once, as
if they had started from the earth by magic, at the open end of the pond,
not sixty yards from our place of ambush, stood two huge males.... Being
anxious to watch the movements of the animals I refrained from firing, and
determined to see what would follow next. Both Baboons sprang towards the
water, and leaning down, drank till they were satisfied; then, having
gravely stretched themselves, they stalked away solemnly on all fours in
the direction of the herd. There was little doubt, therefore, that they had
been sent forward to reconnoitre; for as soon as they got back, the entire
herd put itself in motion, and made its way towards the pond. There were
mothers taking care of their little ones; there were the half-grown
animals, the boys and girls of the company; but there did not seem to be
more than three or four full-grown males. At first only one Baboon at a
time came to the water's edge, and having taken its draught retired to the
rest; but when about ten of them had thus ventured separately, they began
to come in small groups, leaving the others rolling and jumping on the
sand.... It was not {256}long before two males--the same, I had no doubt,
which we had noticed before--came and squatted themselves one on each side
of the little creek.... Crack went my rifle. But instead of either of them
dropping, the two Baboons started up; by a mutual instinct they both
clutched their noses, gave a ringing bark and scampered off. The whole herd
took the alarm, and joining in the shrieking clamour were soon lost to
sight."

On another occasion Dr. Holub and his servant had a _rencontre_ with a herd
of Baboons. He writes:--"We caught sight of them in one of the glens. They
were on the further side, and being anxious to obtain a specimen of their
skulls, I fired and killed one Baboon; but unfortunately for me, the
creature fell into the river. At my second shot I wounded two more. This
induced the right wing of the herd to retreat; but the main body kept their
ground, and the left flank, moreover, assumed the aggressive, and commenced
pelting us so vigorously with stones, that, remembering that I had only one
cartridge, I considered it far more prudent to withdraw than to run the
risk of a hand-to-hand encounter." On a still further occasion the same
well-known traveller says: "I was turning to leave the ravine when some
stones came pattering down the rocks in my direction. I soon became aware
that the stones were being designedly aimed at me; and, looking up, I saw a
herd of Baboons."

"The Nyanyi or Cynocephalus," writes Sir Richard Burton in his "Lake
Regions of Central Africa," "in the jungles of Usukuma attains the size of
a Greyhound, and, according to the natives, there are three varieties of
colour--red, black and yellow. They are the terror of the neighbouring
districts; women never dare to approach their haunts; they set the
{257}Leopard at defiance, and when in a large body, they do not, it is
said, fear the Lion."

"Baboons often show their passion," as Mr. Darwin has related, "and
threaten their enemies in a very odd manner, namely, by opening their
mouths widely, as in the act of yawning. Mr. Bartlett has often seen two
Baboons, when first placed in the same compartment, sitting opposite to
each other, and then alternately opening their mouths; and this action
seems frequently to end in a real yawn. Mr. Bartlett believes that both
animals wish to show to each other that they are provided with a formidable
set of teeth, as is undoubtedly the case. As I could hardly credit the
reality of this yawning gesture, Mr. Bartlett insulted an old Baboon and
put him into a violent passion; and he almost immediately thus acted....
Baboons likewise show their anger, as was observed by Brehm with those
which he kept alive in Abyssinia, in another manner, namely, by striking
the ground with one hand, 'like an angry man striking the table with his
fist.' I have seen this movement with the Baboons in the Zoological
Gardens; but sometimes the action seems rather to represent the searching
for a stone or other object in their beds of straw.... With several species
of Baboons, the ridge of the forehead projects much over the eyes, and is
studded with a few long hairs, representing our eyebrows. These animals are
always looking about them, and in order to look upwards they raise their
eyebrows. They have thus, as it would appear, acquired the habit of
frequently moving the latter. However this may be, many kinds of Monkeys,
especially the Baboons, when angered, or in any way excited, rapidly and
incessantly move their eyebrows up and down, as well as the hairy skin of
their foreheads."

{258}Baboons are confined to the African continent and to Arabia, to the
region, indeed, termed Ethiopian, as defined by Sclater and Wallace. They
live chiefly on the ground, especially in rocky and barren hills, and less
frequently among trees, for which their equally long front and hind limbs
are not so well adapted. Mr. H. H. Johnson, C.B., now H.M. Commissioner in
Nyasa-land, found, however, on his Kilimanjaro Expedition, that Baboons
were singularly abundant in the big trees at Taveita, on the rise to that
mountain. Their food consists of fruits and Lizards, but principally of
insects, which they search for under stones, turning these over with their
hands. They are, indeed, nearly omnivorous, as the reader will have
gathered from Dr. Holub's observations.


I. THE MANDRILL. PAPIO MAIMON.

  _Simia maimon_, Linn., Syst. Nat., p. 35 (1766).

  _Simia mormon_, Altstr., Acta. Noem., p. 144, pl. 3 (1766).

  _Papio maimon_, Erxl., Syst. Regne Anim., p. 17 (1777); Schl., Mus. Pays
  Bas, vii., p. 130 (1876).

  _Cynocephalus mormon_, Fr. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mammif., pp. 143, 146, pls.
  52, 53 (1807).

  _Papio mormon_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 104 (1812).

  _Mormon maimon_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 36 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Body massive and strong; trunk declining backwards;
head disproportionately large; muzzle much elongated and protruding, with
large longitudinal rugose swellings along each side when full grown; mouth
large, and with very animal-like lips; brows strongly projecting over the
base of the nose and the small, approximated, deep-set eyes; {259}ears
black, naked, and pointed; under-jaw heavy; tail carried erect, very short,
two inches long, and naked beneath; limbs short and powerful; the Dog-like
nose shorter than the upper lip; nostrils large. Hair rising from the ridge
on the lower edge of the brow to a crest on the top of the head, descending
into a mane on the back of the head and neck; hair of the body bristly;
chin bearded; whiskers proceeding from over the cheek-bones and from under
the outer corner of the eyes, long, and directed from the face; the very
large callosities, parts of the rump in their neighbourhood, and the inside
of the thighs naked. Hands and feet naked.

Skull very massive, having numerous strong muscular crests; the jaws and
teeth very powerful, especially the canines, which are huge; the forehead
flat and the brain-case small, and further reduced by the great projection
backward of the orbits. The cheek-bones enormously swollen along the side
of the nose; in the neck a large air-sac. The back-bone has to some extent
the peculiar double curve characteristic of the human vertebral column  but
in the conformation of certain of their vertebræ a similarity to the lower
quadrupeds, especially to the Carnivora, is seen in the Mandrill, in
accordance with their quadrupedal mode of progression. The metacarpal
bones, except that of the thumb, are all of the same length, while in the
Man-like Apes they are unequal. The thumb is much restricted in its motions
on account of the disposition of certain of the muscles of the hand. The
pectoral and pelvic muscles are strongly developed.

Face-ridges bright blue, with purple in the intervening furrows. The bridge
of the nose (after the development of the permanent teeth) red, the tip
scarlet; lips greyish-black. {260}General colour of fur black, fringed with
yellow; centre of the crown of head, crest, nape (extending down the back),
and sides of the body black; beard citron-yellow; callosities and
surrounding naked skin violet; genital and anal regions scarlet.

FEMALE AND YOUNG MALE.--Facial rugosities less marked outwardly, as well as
on the skull, than in the adult male, and the purple colour of the grooves
wanting. The nose is black, not scarlet.

A hybrid between a female of this species and a male Macaque (_M.
cynomologus_) was born in the Zoological Gardens of London in October,
1878.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa, from Senegambia to the Congo.

HABITS.--These hideous and extraordinary animals live together in large
companies, and are a terror to the natives. They are less ill-dispositioned
when young, but when adult, they are very savage. They are nearly
omnivorous, but fruits and insects form their chief food. When the Mandrill
is in any way excited, the brilliantly-coloured naked parts of the skin are
said to become still more vividly coloured.


II. THE DRILL. PAPIO LEUCOPHÆUS.

  _Simia leucophæa_, F. Cuvier, Ann. Mus., ix., p. 477, pl. 37 (1807); id.
  Hist. Nat. Mamm., livr. iv., p. 637 (1807).

  _Papio leucophæa_, Gray, List Mamm., Brit. Mus., p. 10 (1843).

  _Chæropithecus leucophæus_, Gray, Cat. Mamm., Brit. Mus., p. 35 (1870).

  _Papio leucophæus_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 131 (1876).

  (_Plate XXII._)

PLATE XXII.

[Illustration: THE DRILL.]


{261}CHARACTERS.--Somewhat similar to _C. maimon_, but body less robust,
the limbs more slender. Face-swellings with only two furrows; crest and
mane less prominent; whiskers encroaching on the face less than in the
Mandrill; beard slightly shorter; ears naked, pointed; tail very short,
erect, covered with hair all round; the hair round the head, shoulders and
sides of body, in a band below the chin, on the under surface of the body,
and the outer surface of the limbs, long and fine; muzzle long and
truncated, the nostrils placed at its extremity, and somewhat tubular;
fingers and toes naked.

Face entirely black, without bright coloration; general colour of fur
brown, approaching that of the Mandrill, but washed with greenish on the
upper parts, and the shoulders darker. The hairs on the top of the head, on
the back, and wherever the greenish colour appears, are grey at the base,
alternating with black and yellow, thus producing the greenish coloration;
a band from the throat to behind the ear greyish; the whole of the under
surface and inner side of the limbs greyish-white; beard and whiskers
greyish-white, washed with greenish; hands and feet reddish-purple;
callosities bright scarlet.

YOUNG MALE.--Smaller; face-swellings less marked; fur and beard more washed
with greenish; neck-band paler grey; whiskers paler; callosities not
scarlet.

FEMALE.--Like the young male, but the head shorter, and the callosities
scarlet; the head and shoulders less haired; the grey neck-band absent; fur
in general paler; the greenish hue less marked except on the head and
limbs; the fur predominating on the lower part of the back and flanks.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Drill is confined to West Africa.

HABITS.--Little is known of the habits of the Drill. It has {262}the
reputation of being good-tempered when young, and of being, when old,
ferocious, like the Mandrill.


III. THE DOGUERA BABOON. PAPIO DOGUERA.

  _Cynocephalus babouin_, Rüpp., Neue Wirb. Säugeth., i., p. 7 (1835, in
  part).

  _Cynocephalus doguera_, Pucher. et Schimp., Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1856,
  p. 96, 1857, p. 57.

  _Cynocephalus porcarius_, Fitz. et Heugl., Syst. Uebers., 1866, p. 6;
  var. Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 64 (1870).

  _Papio doguera_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 126 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Face naked; tail moderately long, terminating in a tuft of
hairs. General colour of fur olive-brown, or yellowish-olive, the hairs
being ringed alternately with black and orange, or brownish-yellow, bars,
for their outer third; body and outer surface of hind-limbs and tail
olive-brown, the brown predominating; sides of head, under surface of body,
and inner surface of limbs pale yellow; hands and feet dark brown or
black--Length of body, 38 inches; of tail, 20 inches.

The canine teeth are very large, and the lower jaw very heavy.
Distinguished from _C. porcarius_ by its much lighter colour.

DISTRIBUTION.--The interior of Abyssinia.

HABITS.--This very rare Baboon, of which only a very few specimens are
known, was brought by Schimper from Central Abyssinia. He states, according
to Dr. Slack, that these animals are gregarious, as he met with them in
troops of from one to two thousand individuals. They hunt their prey, which
consists mainly of small Ruminants, in a manner similar to that of a pack
of Hounds, following the quarry till it is exhausted by fatigue, and then
capturing and devouring it. It {263}is also stated that the Lion and the
Leopard are unknown in the region inhabited by this Baboon. A glance at the
animal under consideration would convince anyone that it is of a most
ferocious disposition. Mr. Schimper also informs us that it wages continual
war against the Gelada Baboon (_Theropithecus gelada_) which inhabits the
same locality.


IV. THE CHACMA BABOON. PAPIO PORCARIUS.

  _Simia porcaria_, Bodd., Naturf., xxii., p. 17, figs. 1, 2 (1787).

  _Cynocephalus porcarius_ (Le Chacma), F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., p. 132,
  pl. 47 (? 1807); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 34 (1870).

  _Papio comatus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 103 (1812).

  _Papio porcarius_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 102 (1812); Schl., Mus.
  Pays Bas, vii., p. 124 (1876).

  _Cynocephalus ursinus_, Schinz, Synops. Mamm., i., p. 64 (1844).

CHARACTERS.--Face and ears naked; muzzle protruding, the nose extending
beyond the upper lip; the hair of the body long and shaggy, lengthening on
the shoulders and the neck, but not forming a conspicuous mane; whiskers
small and directed backwards; tail slightly exceeding half the length of
the body, elevated at its base, and then descending perpendicularly;
callosities small; hands and feet naked. Sense of smell acute.

Skull flattened, the cranial portion smaller than the facial; ridges above
and at the sides of the close-set orbits very large; nasal bones long and
prominent; canine teeth very large and triangular.

General colour dark brown or nearly black, washed with green, especially on
the forehead, the hairs being grey at the base, then ringed alternately
with black and green; some of {264}them, however, lighter. Head, arms, and
legs black; face, hands, feet, and ears dark blue; a white ring encircling
each eye; upper eyelids white; whiskers grey.

FEMALE AND YOUNG MALE.--Similar to the adult male in wanting a conspicuous
mane; head rounder; nose less protuberant; cranial portion of skull less
conspicuously disproportionate to the facial portion.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species inhabits South Africa; and in the Cape Colony
it is found in large troops.

HABITS.--The Chacma, which is the largest of all the Baboons, lives, like
the others, in troops, consisting of nearly a hundred individuals. They
inhabit rocky places, and apparently prefer country broken into steep
cliffs and rocky crags, very often in the neighbourhood of the sea. The
Chacmas are very ferocious and dangerous, and in captivity, when fully
adult, extremely jealous, but when young they are said to be playful and
well-dispositioned. They are, moreover, very intelligent. Their sense of
smell, especially for hidden water-springs in dry and arid districts, is
said to be remarkable. "An animal," says Le Vaillant, in his "Travels in
Africa," "that rendered me more effectual services; which, by its useful
presence, suspended and even dissipated certain bitter and disagreeable
reflections that occurred to my mind; which, by its simple and striking
instinct, seemed to anticipate my efforts; and which comforted me in my
languor--was an Ape, of that kind so common at the Cape, under the name of
_Cawiars_. As it was extremely familiar, and attached itself to me in a
particular manner, I made it my taster. When we found any fruit or roots
unknown to my Hottentots, we never touched them until my dear Kees [the
Chacma] had first tasted them; if it refused them, we {265}judged them to
be either disagreeable or dangerous, and threw them away." The food of the
"Chacma," an Anglicised form of the Hottentot name for this Baboon,
consists of Lizards, Scorpions, Centipedes, and all manner of insects;
birds' eggs, gum, and honey are particularly relished by it. When these are
difficult to find, it searches for the bulbous roots of certain liliaceous
plants, of which it is very fond, and which it very ingeniously disinters.
As Le Vaillant has recorded of the same individual to which we have just
referred: "He laid hold of the tuft of leaves with his teeth, and pressing
his four paws firmly against the earth, and drawing his head backwards, the
root generally followed; when this method did not succeed, he seized the
tuft as before, as close to the earth as he could, then throwing his heels
over his head, the root always yielded to the jerk he gave it."


V. THE YELLOW BABOON. PAPIO BABUIN.

  _Le petit papion_, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Mamm., xiv., pl. 14 (1766).

  _Papio cynocephalus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 102 (1812); Schl.,
  Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 127 (1876).

  _Cynocephalus babouin_, Desm., Mamm., p. 68 (1820); (Le babouin), F.
  Cuvier, Mem. du Mus., iv., p. 419, pl. 19 (1818); id. Hist. Nat. Mamm.,
  livr. iv. (1819); Is. Geoffr., Arch. Mus., ii., p. 579, pl. 34 (1841);
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 35 (1870).

  _Simia cynocephala_, Fischer, Synop. Mamm., p. 33 (1829).

  _Cynocephalus anubis_, var. Wagner in Schreb., Säugeth., Suppl., v., p.
  63 (1855).

CHARACTERS.--ADULT MALE.--Snout elongate, not surpassing the upper lip;
nostrils large, round, separated by a longitudinal furrow above; tail
shorter than the body, haired throughout its {266}length; curved upwards at
the root, and then descending straightly; no mane; hair of crown elongated,
a large tuft directed backwards on each cheek, forming large whiskers.

General colour of fur brownish-yellow; ears nude, coloured like the face;
face livid flesh-colour, deeper round the eyes; upper side of body uniform
brownish-yellow, the hairs being ringed alternately with broader yellow and
narrower black bars; sides of body somewhat darker; throat and under side
paler yellow than above; whisker-tufts pale citron-yellow; hands and feet
like the back in colour, their naked parts like the face.

YOUNG MALE.--Coloration of upper parts similar to that of the adult male,
but paler underneath; the snout less protuberant.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species inhabits Western Abyssinia, Nubia (Dongola),
and the Soudan (Sennaar), at elevations of from 2,000 to 5,000 feet. It
also occurs on the West Coast of Africa--having been brought from the
Coanza river by the late Captain Cameron, R.N.; in East Africa Mr. H. H.
Johnston has observed it on Mount Kilimanjaro; while from the remarks of
Sir John Kirk given below it would seem to extend also as far south as the
Zambesi (Tete).

HABITS.--Very little is known of the habits of the Baboons in a state of
nature; but it is probable that this species does not differ materially in
its ways and manners of life from those of its near relations described in
the preceding pages. Sir John Kirk says that in some parts of Africa, such
as Tete, Batoko, and Rovuma it is considered to be a sacred animal by the
natives, and is thus unmolested.


VI. THE ANUBIS BABOON. PAPIO ANUBIS.

  _Cynocephalus anubis_, F. Cuvier et Geoffr., Hist. Nat. Mammif., vol.
  iii., livr. 50 (1825).

  {267}_Cynocephalus anubis_, Waterh., Mamm., Zool. Soc. Lond. (2), p. 8
  (1838); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 34 (1870).

  _Cynocephalus olivaceus_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 34 (1851);
  id. Arch. Mus., v., p. 543, note (1848).

  _Papio anubis_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 125 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Snout very elongated; nape of the neck crested. Face black;
general colour uniform olive-green; the hairs being grey at the base and
ringed higher up with bars of black and yellow; arms and legs like the
back; the naked hands and feet flesh-colour.

DISTRIBUTION.--Interior of West Africa. Lagos, in the Bight of Benin, is
the port from which this species is generally shipped to Europe.

HABITS.--The Anubis Baboon is not a common species in captivity, as the
natives are terribly afraid of its strength and ferocity. The animals
wander about in companies, inhabiting chiefly the dry, rocky, mountainous
regions in the interior of West Africa, feeding on the peculiar vegetation
that they find there; digging up the roots of grasses, and gnawing with
their strong jaws the roots and stems of an extraordinary short, woody,
top-shaped plant, known as _Welwitschia_, which produces in its youth two
leaves, and never more in its lifetime, though attaining to a great age.
They feed also on the _Scytonema_, a moisture-storing plant, which grows
only on rocks. Though affecting dry, rocky regions from choice, the Anubis
Baboons often descend in large hordes to the cultivated country, and ravage
the gardens of the natives.

Mr. Darwin, in describing the expression of pleasure, joy, and affection in
Monkeys, observed that, when they were pleased, the form of the lips
differed a little from that when they were angered. In the case of an
Anubis Baboon which was first {268}insulted and put into a furious rage by
his keeper, who afterwards made friends with him, Mr. Darwin relates that,
"as the reconciliation was effected, the Baboon rapidly moved up and down
his jaws and lips, and looked pleased. When we laugh heartily, a similar
movement or quiver may be observed more or less distinctly in our jaws; but
with Man the muscles of the chest are more particularly acted on; whilst
with this Baboon, and with some other Monkeys, it is the muscles of the
jaws and lips which are spasmodically affected."


VII. THE THOTH BABOON. PAPIO THOTH.

  _Cynocephalus thoth_, Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1843, p. 11; Frazer, Zool.
  Typica, pl. 5; Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 35 (1870).

  _Cynocephalus babuin_ (nec Desm.), Rüpp., Neue Wirbelth. Säugeth., p. 7
  (1835-1840).

  _? Papio hamadryas_, Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 129, 1876, in part.

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Body massive, thick-set; face broad; cheekbones
protuberant; the nostrils placed at the extremity of the truncated snout;
nose as long as, but not exceeding, the upper lip. Hair of head and neck
longer and thicker than on the rest of the body, but not forming a
mantle-like mane as in _C. hamadryas_; the hair of the legs and outer
portion of the thighs and of the toes long; whiskers not intruding far on
the face, and directed backwards, less copious than in the Arabian Baboon;
ears naked, pointed; soles and palms also naked; callosities large, hips
naked. Tail nearly the length of the body, not tufted at the termination.

In colour somewhat similar to _C. sphinx_, and closely allied to _C.
babuin_. Face livid flesh-colour, lighter on the ridge of {269}the nose.
General colour of fur on back, sides of body, and outer side of limbs
olive-green; on the under side of the body and inner side of the limbs
light yellowish-green; breast, throat, and under part of chin silvery-grey;
whiskers silvery-grey; ears, palms of hands, and soles of feet dark brown;
callosities flesh-coloured; the surrounding naked parts purple-brown.

DISTRIBUTION.--Abyssinia.

HABITS.--Little or nothing is known of this species. It was obtained in
Abyssinia by Dr. Rüppell. A specimen was exhibited alive, however, in the
Zoological Gardens of London in 1843.


VIII. THE EAST AFRICAN BABOON. PAPIO IBEANUS.

  _Papio thoth ibeanus_, Oldfield Thomas, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xi., p.
  46 (1893).

DISTRIBUTION.--Lamu, East Africa.

Mr. Oldfield Thomas has described this sub-species, which has remarkably
coarse and shaggy fur all over the body, longer than in the typical form,
and of a blackish and dull tawny white, without any of its brighter yellow;
the hairs on the crown of the head broadly ringed with black; the chin and
throat whitish; hairs of the chest ringed with black and white; the belly
black and dull fawn; the inner side of the fore-limbs like the chest, and
of the hind-limbs clearer and less ringed fawn-colour. Length of the body,
33½ inches; of the tail 24 inches.


IX. THE GUINEA BABOON. PAPIO SPHINX.

  _Le papion_, F. Cuvier, Mamm., vol. i., livr. 6 ([male]); livr. 7
  ([female]), Hist. Nat. (1819).

  _Papio sphinx_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 103 (1812); Schl., Mus. Pays
  Bas, vii., p. 127 (1876).

  {270}_Cynocephalus papio_, Desmar., Mamm., p. 69 (1820).

  _Cynocephalus choras_, Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1843, p. 12.

  _Papio rubescens_, Temm., Esquisses Zool., p. 39 (1853); Schl., t. c. p.
  28.

  _Cynocephalus sphinx_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 35 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Snout tapering, longer than the upper lip; face, ears,
palms and soles of feet naked; whiskers bushy, directed backwards, nearly
hiding the quadrangular ears; tail of the form usual in this genus, shorter
than the body. Hair on back of the neck longer than on the body; facial
ridges present, but not very prominent; hinder part of belly, inside of
limbs, and chin, throat, and breast very scantily haired.

Face, ears, naked parts of hands and feet, black; upper eyelids white; fur
of head, back, and limbs in general brownish-yellow--the hairs being ringed
with alternate bars of black and light-brown; cheeks and whiskers
fawn-coloured; throat and under side of body paler. Scrotum, callosities,
and naked parts of buttocks bright flesh-coloured, but not so bright as in
_C. hamadryas_. Length of body (in young male), 27 inches; of tail, 20
inches.

FEMALE AND YOUNG MALE.--Similar to adult males in coloration; but less
thick-set, and with a shorter muzzle.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Guinea Baboon inhabits West Africa from Senegal and the
Niger to Central Africa. In East Africa, Mr. H. H. Johnston observed it in
the inhabited region of Kilimanjaro.

HABITS.--Little is known of the habits of this species; but it is
improbable that it departs widely from those of the other {271}members of
the genus. In regard to the bright coloration of the callosities and
posterior parts of this and other Baboons, Mr. Darwin remarks: "In the
discussion on sexual selection in my 'Descent of Man,' no case interested
and perplexed me so much as the highly-coloured hinder ends and adjoining
parts of certain Monkeys. As these parts are more brightly coloured in one
sex than the other, and as they become more brilliant during the season of
love, I concluded that the colours had been gained as a sexual
attraction.... I had, however, at that time no evidence of Monkeys
exhibiting this part of their bodies during their courtship.... I have
lately read [in an article by J. von Fischer, of Gotha, published in April,
1876] an account of the behaviour of a young male Mandrill when he first
beheld himself in a looking-glass, and it is added, that after a time he
turned round and presented his red hinder end to the glass. Accordingly I
wrote to Herr J. von Fischer to ask what he supposed was the meaning of
this strange action. He says that he was himself at first perplexed ... and
was thus led carefully to observe several individuals of various other
species of Monkeys, which he has long kept in his house. He finds that not
only the Mandrill (_C. mormon_) but the Drill (_C. leucophæus_) and three
other kinds of Baboons (_C. hamadryas_, _C. sphinx_, and _C. babuin_) ...
turn this part of their bodies, which in all these species is more or less
brightly coloured, to him when they are pleased, and to other persons as a
sort of greeting.... From these facts von Fischer concludes that the
Monkeys which behaved in this manner before a looking-glass ... acted as if
their reflection were a new acquaintance.... It deserves especial attention
that von Fischer has never seen any species purposely exhibit the hinder
part of its body, if not at all {272}coloured.... With respect to the
origin of the habit, it seems to me probable that the bright colours,
whether on the face or hinder end, or as in the Mandrill, on both, serve as
a sexual ornament and attraction.... The fact that it is only the Monkeys
(with those parts brightly coloured), which as far as at present known, act
in this manner as a greeting towards other Monkeys, renders it doubtful
whether the habit was first acquired from some independent cause, and that
afterwards the parts in question were coloured as a sexual ornament; or
whether the colouring and the habit of turning round were first acquired
through variation and sexual selection, and that afterwards the habit was
retained as a sign of pleasure, or as a greeting, through the principle of
inherited association."


X. THE ARABIAN BABOON. PAPIO HAMADRYAS.

  _Simia hamadryas_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 36 (1766).

  _Le tartarin_, F. Cuvier and Geoffr., Mamm., vol. i., livr. 5 (1819).

  _Cynocephalus hamadryas_, Fr. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mammif., p. 129, pl. 46
  ([male]).

  _Papio hamadryas_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 103 (1812); Schl., Mus.
  Pays Bas, vii., p. 129 (1876, in part).

  _Hamadryas ægyptiaca_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 34 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Size of a large Pointer Dog; muzzle long; nose slightly
longer than the upper lip; nostrils terminal, separated by a furrow above
and in front; face naked, the ridges parallel to the nose, and far less
prominent than in the Mandrill or Drill; eyes deep-set; brows overhanging;
ears naked; a large mane, mantle-like, on the throat, neck, {273}shoulders
and middle of the back; whiskers long, directed backwards, almost
concealing the ears; hair on the lower back, arms, thighs and legs short;
callosities large, and the surrounding part of the buttocks nude; tail
slightly shorter than the body, arched at the basal third, then descending
perpendicularly to its termination, which is tufted; under surface of body
and inner aspect of limbs thinly haired; fourth finger and second toe
strongly clawed.

Face flesh-coloured, darker round the margins of the mouth, lighter round
the eyes; snout, chin, eyebrows, ears, and naked parts of the hands and
feet, dark flesh-colour; general colour of the fur over the body ashy-grey,
lightly washed with greenish--the hairs being ringed with alternate bars of
black and greyish-green; the head, the mane on neck and shoulders, and the
front part of the body ashy-grey, washed with greenish; whiskers
greyish-white; hind part of body paler than the fore; forearms and legs
greyish-black or almost black; under side of body greyish-white; tip of
tail darker; callosities and neighbouring nude parts bright scarlet. Length
of body, 26 inches; of tail, 15 inches; height, when standing erect, 4
feet; when sitting, 2½ feet.

FEMALES AND YOUNG MALES.--Similar to adult males in coloration, but having
no mane; the females of the same size as the males.

Both sexes possess laryngeal pouches or air-sacs, extending down the neck
nearly to the arm-pits, and connecting with the windpipe by a single
opening above the larynx.

Facial portion of skull proportionately larger than the cranial. Top of
skull and forehead flattened; brain-case and front of cerebrum small and
intruded on by the orbits; the latter directed forwards and outwards.

{274}DISTRIBUTION.--Arabia, from the plains up to 9,000 feet; Abyssinia,
and the Soudan.

HABITS.--The Arabian Baboon, or "Tartarin," as it is often called, is
gregarious like its allies, occurring in troops of from two hundred and
fifty to three hundred individuals. When full-grown, they are very bold and
ferocious. They feed on fruits, berries, and the tubers of an edible grass;
but their chief food consists of insects, and such small animals as they
find under stones, or among the rocky cliffs and ravines, where they
usually dwell, for they seem to avoid the wooded country.

They have a loud voice, uttered as a grunting bark. They are said to be
extremely intelligent, "astonishingly clever fellows," as one traveller
records:--having chiefs whom they obey implicitly, and possessing a regular
system of tactics in war, with the posting of sentinels on pillaging
expeditions. They have variously modulated cries, to warn, to indicate
safety or false alarm, or to direct the general movements or conduct of the
troop. "The old males," as Mr. Blanford narrates, "are always most
conspicuous animals, all the fore part of their body being covered with
long hair. They usually take the lead when the troop is moving; some of
them also bringing up the rear; others placing themselves on high rocks or
bushes and keeping a sharp look-out after enemies. A troop collected on a
rocky crag presents a most singular appearance. I several times saw large
numbers assembled around springs in the evening in the thirsty Shoho
country.... On such occasions every jutting rock, every little stone more
prominent than the rest, was occupied by a patriarch of the herd, with the
gravity and watchfulness befitting his grizzled hair, waiting patiently
until the last of his human rivals had slaked his thirst and that of his
cattle. Around, the females were mainly occupied in taking {275}care of the
young, the smaller Monkeys amusing themselves by gambolling about." The
Arabian Baboon climbs heavily, but when moving quickly on the ground has a
regular steady gallop.

This is the Sacred Monkey of the ancient Egyptians, and its likeness is
often found engraved on their various temples and monoliths. "The
Cynocephalus Ape," as Sir Gardner Wilkinson writes, "which was particularly
sacred to Thoth, held a conspicuous place among the sacred animals of
Egypt, being worshipped as the type of the God of Letters, and of the Moon,
which was one of the characters of Thoth.... Sometimes a Cynocephalus
placed on a throne as a god, holds a sacred Ibis in his hand; and in the
judgment-scenes of the dead it frequently occurs, seated on the summit of a
balance, as the emblem of Thoth, who had an important office on that
occasion, and registered the account of the actions of the deceased. The
place where this animal was particularly sacred was Hermopolis, the city of
Thoth. In the necropolis of the capital of Upper Egypt, a particular spot
was set apart as the cemetery of the Sacred Apes."


XI. LANGHELD'S BABOON. PAPIO LANGHELDI.

  _Cynocephalus langheldi_, Matschie, S. B. Ges. Nat. Freunde, Berlin,
  1892, p. 233.

CHARACTERS.--Hair of back long and coarse; that of the hinder quarters
shorter. Length of body, 29½ inches; of tail, 18 inches.

General colour, dirty olive-grey--the hairs brown at the base, then
yellowish-grey, ringed further up with black and yellowish-grey and tipped
with black; the long and coarse hair {276}of the back lighter; chin
greyish-white; the hind-limbs externally washed with brownish-yellow; the
upper side of the hands and feet olive-yellow; tail brownish-grey; under
side of body and inside of limbs silvery-grey.

The bright olive-grey of the upper side and the silver-grey under side
distinguish this species from all others; it is most nearly related to _C.
babuin_.

DISTRIBUTION.--East Africa, from the Rovuma river to the Pangani, and
extending to the Victoria Nyanza.


THE GELADA BABOONS. GENUS THEROPITHECUS.

  _Theropithecus_, Is. Geoffr., Arch. Mus., ii., p. 576 (1841).

This genus has been established for the reception of two species which
differ from the true Baboons (_Cynocephalus_) in having the nostrils placed
on the side of the snout, instead of being terminal and opening, Dog-like,
on the blunt face of the truncated nose.


I. THE GELADA BABOON. THEROPITHECUS GELADA.

  _Macacus gelada_, Rüpp., Neue Wirbelth. Säugeth., p. 5, pl. 2 (1835);
  Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 107 (1876).

  _Theropithecus gelada_, Is. Geoffr., Arch. Mus., ii., p. 576 (1841).

  _Theropithecus senex_, Schimp. et Puch., Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1857, p.
  51.

  _Gelada rüppellii_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 33 (1870); Garrod,
  P. Z. S., 1879, p. 451.

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Body large and massive; head oblong; face produced,
rounded, and nude below the superciliary ridge; nose long and depressed in
its middle region, but elevated at {277}the tip upon the deep upper lip;
head crested, with long hair, rising from the superciliary ridge, and
descending to a long and mantle-like mane on the back of the neck and
shoulders, where the hair is longest, down to the loins behind, and as far
as the elbow joints in front; whiskers very long, directed backwards over
the ears, and downwards from the corners of the mouth; no beard; chin nude;
a patch on the chest and one on the throat naked, separated from each other
by a haired bar 1½ inches broad; tail long, round, erect for its basal
third, then falling straight down as in other Baboons, and terminating in a
long thick tuft.

Face, hands, feet and callosities deep black; nude chest-spaces florid;
hair of whiskers, neck-portion of mane, sides, arms, and lower margins of
the mantle-like mane dark sooty chocolate-brown; breast, chest, shoulders,
fore-arms, hind quarters and tail (except the terminal tuft) black;
tail-tuft brownish-black, with a few white hairs; abdomen paler brown than
the hair generally, though still dark; hair bordering the nude chest-spaces
iron-grey from the presence of numerous short grey and white hairs; nipples
close together on the lower nude chest-space; nails of hands longer than
those of the feet. Length of the body, 29 inches; of tail, 24¾ inches; to
tip of terminal tuft, 32 inches.

Skull shorter than in _Cynocephalus_; canine teeth very large; posterior
lower molars with a large fifth cusp; upper molars with a large front
talon; cranial crests strongly developed; nasal bones high, narrow,
separate, and not fused together.

The affinities of _T. gelada_ are more with _Cercopithecus_ than with
_Cynocephalus_, and still less with _Macacus_.

{278}YOUNG MALE.--Similar to the adult, but the mane shorter, and more
curly; and the brown colour, wherever it occurs in the male, is lighter in
colour.

FEMALE.--Coloured like the young male, but smaller than the adult male, and
with shorter hair, darker at the tips; hair longest between the shoulders;
loins paler than in the male; nude chest and throat-spaces united into one,
which is carunculated along its borders, and without white hairs along the
margins; callosities carunculated.

DISTRIBUTION.--Southern Abyssinia; in the provinces of Heremat and Godjan.

HABITS.--The habits of the "Gelada," as it is named by the natives of its
own country, are similar to those of the Baboons (_Cynocephalus_). They
live in large companies, and when full-grown--the males especially--are
very ferocious, pugnacious, and dangerous. It is a common habit of these
animals to roll down stones from the rocky cliffs amid which they live,
upon any approaching animal--the Arabian Baboon being an especial object of
their animosity. Their food consists of all sorts of fruits, as well as
grass, and the cultivated crops of the natives. They are chiefly found in
barren rocky regions, ascending the mountains to an altitude of from 7,000
to 8,000 feet above the sea.


II. THE DUSKY GELADA. THEROPITHECUS OBSCURUS.

  _Theropithecus obscurus_, Heuglin, Act. Acad. Leop., xxx., Nachtrag, p.
  10 (1863); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 107 (1876).

  _? Theropithecus senex_, Schimper et Puch., Rev. Zool., 1857, p. 244.

{279}CHARACTERS.--Nearly allied to _T. gelada_, but distinguished by its
darker colour, the flesh-coloured ring round the eyes, and the two naked
spots on the chest at the base of the neck, surrounded by white hairs,
extending to the inner side of the arm.

Face naked, the chin thinly haired, the nose-pad situated behind the blunt
and broad end of the muzzle; eyes small, set close together, deep sunk
beneath the prominent overhanging frontal ridges; ears small; sides of the
head entirely covered with woolly hair; mane long, soft, and thick. Length
of body, 53 inches; tail, 26 inches.

Face black, but with a broad flesh-coloured ring round each eye; scanty
hairs on the chin white; top of head and back dark brown; mane on fore-neck
and shoulders, arms, and hind part of the hands pure black; sides of head
and neck, rump, and tail dirty ochre; naked spots on breast dark
flesh-coloured, more vivid in passion; breast and inner side of fore-arm,
and middle of chest white; rest of under surface pale brown. Callosities
bluish-grey.

FEMALE AND YOUNG.--Almost uniform fulvous, but the mane less marked.

DISTRIBUTION.--North-east Africa; on the eastern boundary of Abyssinia,
near the sources of the Takazze river, on the confines of the Galla
country. Dr. Blanford observed it also near Magdala.

HABITS.--This large and "stately" Baboon, known to the natives as
"Tokur-Sinjero" (or Black Baboon), lives in large troops in the high
mountains of Abyssinia, at an altitude of from 6,000 to 10,000 feet. It is
seldom seen among trees, but generally in open plains, or in inaccessible
rocky cliffs, from which it hurls stones on anyone who dares to approach.
{280}During the night these Baboons hide together in holes in the rocks,
whence, on the return of the morning sun, they emerge and sit warming
themselves, before starting on their marauding expeditions in the
cultivated fields, or in the vegetation which clothes the sides of the deep
valleys, where they feed largely on the leaves of the trees. Their
disposition is, among themselves, harmless. As a rule two to six year old
males lead with grave strides a herd of twenty to thirty females and young,
the latter now playing with each other, and scampering about the troop, now
carried by their mothers, and sometimes pinched and boxed on the ears by
them. As soon as, but not before, the leader has assured himself of any
danger, he utters a gentle bark, to which the whole troop responds and
retreats back into safety among the rocks. The old males then stand on
their hind-feet barking and displaying to the intruder their long white
teeth. On their marauding expeditions, or when in flight, they do not
usually exhibit great haste, the whole troop generally going in single file
with an old Sultan bringing up the rear. Often several troops mingle
together during the day, but at nightfall each returns to its own
headquarters.

Their cry is a sharp bark, but that of the old males is very hoarse. One of
their great enemies is the Lämmergeier or Bearded Vulture.

These observations have been extracted from the account given of this
species by von Heuglin, who discovered it during his Abyssinian expedition
in 1853.


THE MALAYAN BABOONS. GENUS CYNOPITHECUS.

  _Cynopithecus_, Is. Geoffr., in Belanger's Voyage, p. 66 (1834).

This genus has been constituted to include the single species
{281}described below; the characters of the genus being thus, perforce, the
same as those of the species.


THE CELEBEAN BLACK BABOON. CYNOPITHECUS NIGER.

  _Cynocephalus niger_, Desm., Mamm., p. 534 (1820).

  _Macacus niger_, Bennett, Gard, and Menag. Zool. Soc., p. 189, with
  figure (1830); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 119 (1876).

  _Cynopithecus niger_, Is. Geoffr., in Bélanger's Voyage, p. 66 (1834);
  Lesson, Quadrum., p. 101 (1840); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 33
  (1870).

  _Papio niger_ et _P. nigrescens_, Temm., Possess. Néerl. Ind., iii., p.
  111 (1847).

  _Cynopithecus niger_, vel _nigrescens_, Wagner in Schreb., Säugeth.
  Suppl., v., p. 61, tab. 6 (1855).

  _Cynopithecus nigrescens_, Wallace, Malay Arch., i., p. 432 (1869).

CHARACTERS.--About the size of a Spaniel; head oblong; face very elongated,
naked; neck, hands, and feet also naked; nose triangular, the sides erect,
flattened behind nearly to the eyes, not extending to the end of the
muzzle, but leaving a broad upper lip; nostrils, with a long and broad
partition between them, directed downwards and outwards--a character seen
in the genus _Macacus_, and distinguishing this genus from the true Baboons
(_Cynocephalus_); cheek-swellings parallel to the nose, distinct, but not
conspicuously large; supra-orbital ridges very conspicuous; cheek-pouches
large; tail rudimentary, reduced to a fleshy tubercle, one inch long, and
hardly visible. Length, 24 inches.

Fur long and woolly over the body; especially long on the top of the head,
forming a crest; hair of the limbs shorter.

{282}Face, neck, hands, and feet black; fur all over the body and limbs
jet-black; callosities bright flesh-colour.

In the skull the maxillary bones are developed into strong lateral ridges
corresponding in structure to those of the most typical Baboons.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species is found far away from the habitat of the true
Baboons, whose home is in the Ethiopian Region. The Black Baboon is an
inhabitant of Celebes, one of the islands of the eastern portion of the
Malay Archipelago. It is found, however, also in the neighbouring island of
Batchian, further to the east--indeed the most easterly range of the
Quadrumana--as well as in some of the Philippine Islands to the west. In
both of these regions it is supposed to have been accidentally introduced
by the Malays. In Batchian, Mr. Wallace remarks, "it seems so much out of
place that it is difficult to imagine how it could have reached the island
by any natural means of dispersal, and yet not have passed by the same
means over the narrow strait to Gilolo--so that it seems more likely to
have originated from some individuals which had escaped from confinement,
these and similar animals being often kept as pets by the Malays and
carried about in their praus." Analogous to the distribution of this animal
in the Philippines and Celebes is that of a genus of
Parrots--_Prioniturus_--with racquet-shaped tails. The species of the
latter genus are divided between Celebes and its small adjacent islands and
the Philippines and the small islands adjacent to that archipelago, and
present a curious case of the restricted range of a well-marked group.

HABITS.--This interesting animal, geographically so isolated, lives in the
luxuriant forests in small companies, and feeds chiefly on the abundant
fruits which these forests provide. In its {283}disposition it appears to
be more amiable and docile than the African Baboons. Some kinds of Monkeys,
as Mr. Darwin observes, which have moveable ears, and fight with their
teeth, draw back their ears when irritated just like Dogs, and then they
have a very spiteful appearance.... Other kinds--and this is a great
anomaly in comparison with most other animals--retract their ears, "and
utter a slight jabbering noise when they are pleased by being caressed. I
observed this in the _Cynopithecus niger_.... With the _Cynopithecus_ the
corners of the mouth are at the same time drawn backwards and upwards, so
that the teeth are exposed. Hence this expression would never be recognised
by a stranger as one of pleasure. The crest of long hairs on the forehead
is depressed, and apparently the whole skin of the head is drawn backwards.
The eyebrows are thus raised a little, and the eyes assume a staring
appearance. The lower eyelids also become slightly wrinkled; but this
wrinkling is not conspicuous, owing to the permanent transverse furrows on
the face." When enraged, the _Cynopithecus niger_ depresses the crest of
hair on its forehead, and shows its teeth; "so that," as Mr. Darwin
continues, "the movements of the features from anger are nearly the same as
those from pleasure; and the two expressions can be distinguished only by
those familiar with the animal." See the figures in Mr. Darwin's "Emotions
in Man," &c., p. 136.



{285}APPENDIX.


While this volume was passing through the press, a valuable paper by
Messrs. Oldfield Thomas and Ernst Hartert has appeared in the Hon. Walter
Rothschild's Journal "Novitates Zoologicæ." It deals with the Mammalia
collected in the Natuna Islands by Mr. Alfred Everett, and the following
additional notes must be recorded.


p. 20. TARSIUS TARSIUS.

  _Tarsius spectrum_, Oldfield Thomas and Hartert, Nov. Zool., i., p. 655
  (1894).

Mr. Everett says that on Banguran Island he could hear nothing of the
existence of the Tarsier, but on Sirhassen Island the Malays described it
to him unmistakably under the name of "Imbing."


p. 33. NYCTICEBUS TARDIGRADUS.

Mr. Everett procured specimens of the Javan Slow-Loris on the island of
Banguran, where, he says, it is probably not rare, though not often
captured; the native name is "Kukáng." The natives of Banguran did not
appear to know the animal.


p. 100 _et sequent._ PROPITHECUS MAJORI.

  _Propithecus majori_, Rothschild, Nov. Zool., i., p. 666, pi. xiv.
  (1894).

{286}ADULT.--Head and neck black. Face, snout, and ears naked, and of a
blackish colour, encircled by a broad band of long white hairs, joining
under the throat, slightly mixed with darker hairs. Rest of fur, including
the tail, white on the upper surface; back and upper rump dark brown. The
large white patch on and between the shoulders much grizzled with brown
hairs. Under side of hind-limbs, to just below the knees, blackish-brown.
Inside of hind-limbs down to the heel also brown, joining the colour of the
upper surface, thus forming a continuous dark stripe along the legs. Inner
and upper surface of arms, thumb, and two following fingers, deep
blackish-brown; throat, chest, and greater part of abdomen, deep brown.
Size perceptibly larger than that of _Propithecus verreauxi_, with the tail
longer.

This species of _Propithecus_ is nearest to the typical _P. verreauxi_ of
Grandidier, which is white, with the top of the head black, and the lower
back and rump greyish-brown, but is no doubt an entirely different species.
(_Rothschild_, _l.c._)

DISTRIBUTION.--Antimosy country, S.W. Madagascar.


END OF VOL. I.



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LONDON:
W. H. ALLEN & CO., Limited, 13, Waterloo Place, S.W.



TENTATIVE SCHEME OF VOLUMES.


  _The following list will give an outline of the General Scheme, but it
  may be varied if, in the opinion of the Editor and Publishers, an
  alteration would improve the Series._

  MONKEYS, Vol.  I.            By HENRY O. FORBES, F.L.S., &c.
     "     Vol. II.                     "
  CETACEA                               "
  CATS                         By R. LYDEKKER, B.A., &c.
  DOGS                                  "
  RUMINANTS                             "
  BRITISH MAMMALS                       "
  MARSUPIALS                            "                    Ready.
  HORSES                                "
  PACHYDERMS                            "
  BRITISH BIRDS, Vol. I.       By R. BOWDLER SHARPE, LL.D.   Ready.
         "        "  II.                "
         "        " III.                "
         "        "  IV.                "
  SUN-BIRDS                             "
  HUMMING-BIRDS                         "
  BIRDS OF WEST AFRICA                  "
  PARROTS                      By HENRY O. FORBES, F.L.S., &c.
  PIGEONS                               "
  GAME BIRDS                   By W. R. OGILVIE GRANT.
  BUTTERFLIES (with special     } By  W. F. KIRBY, F.L.S.
  reference to British Species) }
  BUTTERFLIES, Vol. II.                 "
  MOTHS (with special reference to }    "
  British Species)                 }
  BEETLES, CRICKETS, &c.                "
  BEES                                  "
  FISHES, Vol. I.              By Professor R. H. TRAQUAIR, F.R.S.
     "     "  II.                       "
     "     " III.                       "

LONDON:
W. H. ALLEN & CO., LIMITED, 13, WATERLOO PLACE, S.W.

Notes.

 [1] [Greek: anthrôpos]--Man.

 [2] [Greek: heteros], different, [Greek: odous], a tooth.

 [3] [Greek: homos], the same, [Greek: odous], a tooth.

 [4] [Greek: diphuês], double, [Greek: odous], a tooth.

 [5] N.B.--These descriptions of new species have been kindly supplied by
     Dr. Forsyth Major from his MSS., and I am much indebted to him for
     allowing them to be first published in the present work.

 [6] N.B.--The white feet should have been more pronounced in the plate.

 [7] [Greek: Kata], down; [Greek: rhis, rhinos], nose.

 [8] [Greek: platys], flat; [Greek: rhis, rhinos], nose.

 [9] Vide anteà, p. 145.

[10] "Red-footed Night-Monkey," on plate.

[11] See the figures in Flower and Lydekker, Mammals, p. 711.

[12] This curious custom, of women suckling animals, was also observed by
     the present writer in New Guinea, where the native women suckle
     puppies and young pigs.

[13] Humboldt and Stedman both state that these Monkeys _threw_ pieces of
     branches towards them.

[14] [Greek: kata], down; [Greek: rhis, rhinos], nose or nostril.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed text

P. 15. 'long vacuity between incisors and pre-molar' corrected from '...
canines and pre-molar' (canines are absent!)

P. 147 (ears) 'exposed' corrected from 'ex-exposed' (line break).

P. 182 'Jacchus [Hapale] bicolor' corrected from 'facchus...'

P. 262 'terminating' (in a tuft of hairs) corrected from 'teminating'.





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