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Title: A Hand-book to the Primates,  Volume 2 (of 2)
Author: Forbes, Henry O.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Hand-book to the Primates,  Volume 2 (of 2)" ***

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_). A carat character
is used to denote superscription: a single character following the carat is
superscripted (example: A^4). [)e] indicates "e breve" (short e), and so

On pp. 237-257 the extinct genera and species referred to as being in
"black type" are marked by a + sign.

Page numbers enclosed by curly braces (example: {25}) have been
incorporated to facilitate the use of the Alphabetical Index.

       *       *       *       *       *


[Illustration: ST. JOHN'S MACAQUE]




_Author of "A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago,"
etc., etc., etc._

_VOL. II._



The prefatory remarks in the preceding volume explain the purport of the
"Hand-book" of the Primates, which has been undertaken by Dr. Forbes. I
hope that the portion of the work devoted to the geographical distribution
of these animals will be found to be of some interest; but, as explained by
the author, the meagreness of the material in Museums renders the
definition of the exact habitats of Monkeys extremely difficult.



I have little to add to the remarks given in the first volume of this
"Hand-book." I may refer, however, to the interest which attaches to the
study of the extinct forms of life, in relation to those which exist at the
present day. Although I have endeavoured, to the best of my ability, to
present to the student as complete a review of the species of Monkeys known
to us at the present time, I am well aware that there is an enormous amount
of work to be done before our knowledge of the Primates can be said to be
complete. There is a natural repugnance to collecting specimens of Monkeys
on the part of sportsmen. To shoot one feels like killing a sort of
relation, and even our best collectors, who thoroughly understood the
necessity of obtaining specimens in the interests of science, speak with a
feeling of pain of the human-like distress which a wounded Monkey exhibits;
and it is, therefore, difficult to induce travellers to shoot animals which
offer so much of a "counterfeit presentment" to human beings.

The loose way in which the older naturalists expressed themselves in regard
to geographical distribution, has also rendered a correct appreciation of
the ranges of some of the Primates exceedingly difficult.   Thus "Brazil"
may mean any portion of the South American continent from the Argentine
Republic to the Amazons, and "Mexique" has done duty in many Museums for
any locality between Mexico and Panama. Much, therefore, remains to be done
to define the exact areas which the different species of Primates inhabit.



  ORDER PRIMATES (_continued_),                        1

  SUB ORDER II.--ANTHROPOIDEA (_continued_),           1

  FAMILY CERCOPITHECIDÆ (_continued_),                 1

  SUB-FAMILY CERCOPITHECINÆ (_continued_),             1

  IV. MACACUS, Lacép.,                            1, 213
     1. inuus (L.),                               4, 213
     2. arctoides, Is. Geoffr.,                        8
     3. rufescens, Anders.,                           11
     4. maurus, F. Cuv.,                              11
     5. fuscatus, Blyth,                              13
     6. leoninus, Blyth,                              14
     7. nemestrinus (L.),                             16
     8. silenus (L.),                                 18
     9. assamensis, McClell.,                         20
    10. rhesus (Audeb.),                              22
    11. lasiotis, Gray,                               25
    12. tcheliensis, Milne-Edw.,                      26
    13. sancti-johannis (Swinh.),                     28
    14. cyclops, Swinh.,                              28
    15. cynomologus (L.),                             31
    16. pileatus (Shaw),                              33
    17. sinicus (L.),                                 35

  V. CERCOCEBUS, Geoffr.,                             36
     1. fuliginosus, Geoffr.,                         37
     2. collaris, Gray,                               38
     3. æthiops (L.),                                 39
     4. albigena, Gray,                               40
     5. aterrimus, Oudem.,                            40
     6. galeritus, Peters,                            41

  VI. CERCOPITHECUS, Erxl.                            41

  Group I.--Cercopitheci rhinosticti                  44
     1. petaurista (Schreb.)                          44
     2. signatus, Jentink                             45
     3. erythrogaster, Gray                           46
     4. buettikoferi, Jentink                         47
     5. martini, Waterh.                              47
     6. ludio, Gray                                   48
     7. melanogenys, Gray                             49
     8. stampflii, Jentink                            50
     9. schmidti, Matschie                            50
    10. nictitans (L.)                                51
    11. erythrotis, Waterh.                           52
    12. cephus (L.)                                   53

  Group II.--Cercopitheci chloronoti                  54
    13. cynosurus (Scop.)                             55
    14. sabæus (L.)                                   56
    15. werneri, Geoffr.                              58
    16. callitrichus, Is. Geoffr.                     58
    17. pygerythrus, F. Cuv.                          60
    18. tantalus, Ogilby                              62

  Group III.--Cercopitheci erythronoti                63
    19. patas (Schreb.)                               63
    20. pyrrhonotus, H. and E.                        64
    21. rufo-viridis, Geoffr.                         65

  Group IV.--Cercopitheci melanochiri                 66
    22. mona (Schreb.)                                66
    23. albigularis (Sykes)                           67
    24. boutourlinii, Gigl.                           69
    25. campbelli, Waterh.                            70
    26. samango, Sundev.                              71
    27. labiatus, Geoffr.                             72
    28. opisthostictus, Scl.                          72
    29. stairsi, Scl.                                 73
    30. moloneyi, Scl.                                74
    31. neglectus, Schl.                              75
    32. leucampyx (Fischer)                           75

  Group V.--Cercopitheci auriculati                   76
    33. grayi, Fraser                                 77
    34. pogonias, Bennett                             78
    35. nigripes, Du Chaillu                          78
    36. wolfi, Meyer                                  79

  Group VI.--Cercopitheci barbati                     79
    37. diana (L.)                                    79
    38. palatinus, Wagn.                              81
    39. brazzæ, Milne-Edw.                            81

  Group VII.--Cercopitheci trituberculati             82
    40. talapoin, Erxl.                               82

  SUB-FAMILY SEMNOPITHECINÆ                           83

  I. COLOBUS, Illig.                             85, 214
     1. verus, Van Bened.                             87
     2. rufomitratus, Peters                          88
     3. kirki, Gray                                   89
     4. ferrugineus (Shaw)                            91
     5. satanas, Waterh.                              93
     6. ursinus, Ogilby                               93
     7. vellerosus (Is. Geoffr.)                      94
     8. angolensis, Scl.                              96
     9. guereza, Rüpp.                                97
    10. caudatus, Thomas                              98

  II. SEMNOPITHECUS, F. Cuv.                    100, 214
     1. barbii (Blyth)                               102
     2. pileatus, Blyth                              103
     3. entellus (Dufr.)                             104
     4. schistaceus, Hodgs.                          107
     5. priamus (Blyth)                              108
     6. hypoleucus, Blyth                            110
     7. johni (Fischer)                              111
     8. cephalopterus (Zimm.)                        112
     9. sabanus, Thomas                              116
    10. hosii, Thomas                                117
    11. thomasi, Collett                             119
    12. everetti, Thomas                             120
    13. cruciger, Thomas                             121
    14. ursinus (Blyth)                              122
    15. obscurus, Reid                               123
    16. holotephreus, Anders.                        124
    17. germaini, Milne-Edw.                         124
    18. maurus (Schreb.)                             125
    19. femoralis, Horsf.                            126
    20. rubicundus, S. Müll.                         128
    21. natunæ, Thomas and Hartert                   129
    22. phayrii (Blyth)                              131
    23. rutledgii, Anderson                          133
    24. frontatus, S. Müll.                          133
    25. nemæus (L.)                                  134
    26. nigripes, Milne-Edw.                         135
    27. melanolophus (Raffl.)                        136
    28. mitratus (Esch.)                             137
    29. roxellanæ, Milne-Edw.                        139

  III. NASALIS, Geoffr.                              140
     1. larvatus (Wurmb.)                            140

  FAMILY SIMIIDÆ                                     143

  I. HYLOBATES Illig.                           148, 216
     1. agilis, F. Cuv.                              151
     2. leuciscus (Schreb.)                          154
      [alpha]. leuciscus (Schreb.)                   154
      [beta]. concolor, Schl.                        155
     3. leucogenys, Ogilby                           158
     4. lar (L.)                                     159
     5. hoolock, Haslan.                             161
     6. hainanus, Thomas                             164
     7. syndactylus (Desm.)                          166

  II. SIMIA, L.                                 170, 217
     1. satyrus, L.                             170, 217

  III. GORILLA, Is. Geoffr.                          180
     1. gorilla (Wyman)                              180

  IV. ANTHROPOPITHECUS, Blainv.                 187, 217
     1. troglodytes (L.)                             194
     2. calvus (Du Chaillu)                          199

  FAMILY HOMINIDÆ                               203, 218

  I. HOMO, L.                                        203
     1. sapiens, L.                                  203
      [alpha]. Ethiopian Race                        207
      [beta]. Mongolian Race                         207
      [gamma]. Caucasian Race                        208

  EXTINCT ANTHROPOIDEA                               209

  FAMILY HAPALIDÆ                                    210

  I. HAPALE, Illig.                                  210
     1. grandis, Lund                                210

  FAMILY CEBIDÆ                                      210


  I. PROTOPITHECUS, Lund                             210
     1. brasiliensis, Lund                           210

  II. CALLITHRIX, Geoffr.                            210
     1. chlorocnomys, Lund                           210
     2. primæva, Lund                                210


  III. ALOUATTA, Lacép.                              210
     1. ursina (Humb.)                               210


  IV. CEBUS, Erxl.                                   210
     1. macrognathus, Lund                           210
     2. fatuellus (L.)                               210
     3. cirrifer, Geoff.                             210

  V. HOMUNCULUS, Amegh.                              211
     1. patagonicus, Amegh.                          211

  VI. ANTHROPOPS, Amegh.                             211
     1. perfectus, Amegh.                            211



  I. PAPIO, Erxl.                                    212
     1. sub-himalayamus (Meyer)                      212
     2. falconeri (Lydekker)                         212
     3. atlanticus, Thomas                           212

  II. OREOPITHECUS, Gerv.                            212
     1. bambolii, Gerv.                              212

  III. MACACUS, Lacép.                            1, 213
     1. sivalensis, Lydekker                         213
     2. priscus                                      213
     3. inuus, Gervais                            4, 213
     4. florentinus, Cocchi                          213
     5. suevicus, Heding.                            213
     6. trarensis, Pomel                             213

  IV. DOLICHOPITHECUS, Depéret                       214
     1. ruscinensis, Depéret                         214

  V. MESOPITHECUS, Wagn.                             214
     1. pentelici, Wagn.                             214


  I. COLOBUS, Illig.                             85, 214
     1. grandævus, Fraas.                            214

  II. SEMNOPITHECUS, F. Cuv.                    100, 215
     1. monspessulanus, Gerv.                        215
     2. palæindicus, Lydekker                        215

  FAMILY SIMIIDÆ                                     215

  I. PLIOPITHECUS, Gerv.                             215
     1. antiquus, Gerv.                              215
     2. chantrei, Gerv.                              216

  II. HYLOBATES, Illig.                         148, 216
     1. leuciscus (Schieb.)                          216

  III. DRYOPITHECUS, Lartet.                         216
     1. fontani, Lartet.                             217

  IV. SIMIA, L.                                 170, 217
     1. satyrus, L.                             170, 217

  V. ANTHROPOPITHECUS, Blainv.                  188, 217
     1. sivalensis (Lydekker)                        217

  FAMILY HOMINIDÆ                                    218

  I. HOMO, L.                                        218


     XXVI.--St. John's Macaque            _Macacus sancti-johannis._
    XXVII.--White-crowned Mangabey        _Cercocebus æthiops._
   XXVIII.--Green Guenon                  _Cercopithecus callitrichus._
     XXIX.--Boutourlini's Guenon          _Cercopithecus boutourlinii._
      XXX.--Erxleben's Guenon             _Cercopithecus grayi._
     XXXI.--De Brazza's Guenon            _Cercopithecus brazzæ._
    XXXII.--Talapoin                      _Cercopithecus talapoin._
   XXXIII.--Bay Guereza                   _Colobus ferrugineus._
    XXXIV.--White-tailed Guereza          _Colobus caudatus._
     XXXV.--Hose's Langur                 _Semnopithecus hosii._
    XXXVI.--Everett's Langur              _Semnopithecus everetti._
   XXXVII.--Proboscis Monkey              _Nasalis larvatus._
  XXXVIII.--Siamang Gibbon                _Hylobates syndactylus._
    XXXIX.--Orang-utan                    _Simia satyrus._
       XL.--Gorilla                       _Gorilla gorilla._
      XLI.--Bald Chimpanzee               _Anthropopithecus calvus._
     XLII.--MAP I. Showing the distribution of Living and Fossil
    XLIII.--MAP II. Showing the distribution of the Family _Tarsiidæ_, and
              of the Sub-family _Galaginæ_ of the _Lemuridæ_.
     XLIV.--MAP III. Showing the distribution of the Family _Chiromyidæ_,
              and of the Sub-families _Lemurinæ_ and _Indrisinæ_, and of
              the Sub-family _Lorisinæ_ of the _Lemuridæ_.
      XLV.--MAP IV. Showing the distribution of Living and Fossil
     XLVI.--MAP V. Showing the distribution of the Families _Hapalidæ_ and
    XLVII.--MAP VI. Showing the distribution of the Genera _Papio_,
              _Theropithecus_, _Cynopithecus_, _Cercocebus_,
              _Cercopithecus_, and _Macasus_.
   XLVIII.--MAP VII. Showing the distribution of the Genera
              _Semnopithecus_, _Nasalis_, and _Colobus_.
     XLIX.--MAP VIII. Showing the distribution of the Genera _Hylobates_,
              _Simia_, _Gorilla_, and _Anthropopithecus_.





  _Macacus_, Lacép., Mem. de l'Inst., iii., p. 450 (1801).

This genus embraces a large number of species which are characterised by
having a thick-set body and short stout limbs, with the thumb set backward.
The muzzle is considerably produced and rounded, but the nose does not
extend as far out as the plane of the upper lip; the nostrils open in
advance of its termination, and are directed obliquely outwards and
downwards; their cheek-pouches are large, and their lips thick and
protrusile; their eyes are approximated, and look out from below thick and
prominent superciliary ridges; their ears are naked and applied flatly to
the sides of the head and their hind upper angle is pointed; their
callosities, which extend with age, are often surrounded by a portion of
the buttocks, which is always nude. The tail is long, short, tufted, or
reduced to a mere tubercle, and it may be quite invisible externally. Some
have the hair of the head long, and radiating in all directions; others
have the face encircled by a kind of mane. In some northern forms, the
whole body is covered with a woolly fur, as a protection against cold.

{2}In the skull the facial region predominates over the cranial, and the
lower margin of the frontal bones are exserted to form a thick prominent
ridge over the orbits and nose; the mastoid process on each side of the
skull, behind the ear, is very prominent for the attachment of a muscle
which assists in opening the mouth and in swallowing their food. Strong
muscles also stretch from the back of the head to the spine for the support
of the head. The canine teeth are long, and press against the anterior
pre-molars of the lower jaw, the position of which is modified or distorted
by the pressure, thus enabling these animals to crush and open hard-shelled
fruits. Their anterior and median lower molars are four-cusped, while the
posterior is markedly larger, and has five cusps and a posterior talon. The
carpus, or wrist, possesses the central (_os centrale_) bone, and the
fingers have their metacarpal bones elongated. The caudal vertebræ in the
species of this genus are usually numerous; even in the short-tailed
species they vary from fifteen to seventeen in number, the reduction in the
length of the tail being the result of a great diminution in the size, not
in the number, of the vertebræ. In the tail of one species (_M. inuus_),
however, they are reduced in number to two or three; in the same species
the tail lacks the chevron (or V-shaped) bones on its under side, as well
as the processes to which the muscles for its movement are attached. Most
of the Macaques have a throat-sac, which communicates with the larynx under
the thyroid cartilage, and which fills with air, acting as a resonator to
their voice.

The Macaques are among the commonest Monkeys of India and the East Indian
islands. They occur also in Northern Africa (Morocco), and in Gibraltar,
across the Straits. Eastwards they extend into Thibet and Northern China.
They are {3}also found in Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, and in Timor,
this being the most eastern habitat of any of the _Anthropoidea_ except
that of _Cynopithecus niger_. Dr. Blanford, in his "Mammals of British
India," says that the species of the present genus resemble each other in
their habits; they are found in flocks, often of considerable size, and
generally composed of both sexes and of all ages. They are active animals,
though less agile in their movements, whether on trees or on the ground,
than the Langurs (_vide infrà_). Their food is varied, most of the species,
if not all, eating insects as well as seeds, fruits, &c., and one kind
feeding entirely on Crustacea. They have occasionally been known to devour
Lizards, and, it is said, Frogs also. All have the habit of cramming food
into their cheek-pouches for mastication at leisure.... The voice and
gestures of all the species (_M. silenus_ perhaps excepted) are similar,
and differ from those of both the Gibbons and Langurs. Tickell notices this
in his MS. Notes, and gives the following details, which are worthy of
quotation: "Anger is generally silent, or, at most, expressed by a low
hoarse monotone, 'Heu,' not so gular or guttural as a growl; ennui and a
desire for company by a whining 'Hom,' invitation, deprecation, entreaty,
by a smacking of the lips and a display of the incisors into a regular
broad grin, accompanied with a subdued grunting chuckle, highly expressive,
but not to be rendered on paper; fear and alarm by a loud harsh shriek,
'Kra,' or 'Kraouh,' which serves also as a warning to the others who may be
heedless of danger. Unlike the Langurs and Gibbons, they have no voice, if
calling to one another."

The majority of the species are very docile when young. They thrive well,
and several of them have bred in confinement. The period of gestation is
about seven months, only a {4}single young one, as a rule, being produced
at a birth. They become adult at the age of four or five years, but breed

In regard to the expression of emotion among these Monkeys, Mr. Darwin has
recorded of different species that when pleased they draw back the corners
of the mouth in a species of smile, become red in the face when angry, and
pale when afraid.

The term Macaque was given to these monkeys by Buffon, who took it,
however, from what is supposed to have been the native name of an _African_
species of Monkey, and misapplied it to this Indian group. _Macacus_ is
therefore the Latinised form of that word, which has now been applied too
long to be changed.


  _Simia inuus_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 34 (1766).

  _Simia sylvanus_, Linn., t.c. p. 35.

  _Inuus ecaudatus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 100 (1812); Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 32 (1870).

  _Le magot_, F. Cuvier et Geoffr., Mamm., livr. ii. (1819); F. Cuv.,
  Mammif., p. 114, pl. 41.

  _Macacus inuus_, Desmar., Mamm., p. 67 (1820).

  _Inuus pithecus_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth., Primates, p. 31 (1851).

  _Macacus sylvanus_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 115 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Body short and thick-set, and about as big as a
moderately-sized Dog. Head oblong, long, rounded, and wrinkled; face and
chin naked; eyes approximated, set deep below the superciliary ridges; brow
small; neck short. Ears pointed at their hind upper angle, and their
margins haired; nose not prominent; nostrils two slit-like orifices
converging at right angles to the partition; lips slender, extensile; upper
{5}lip broad; callosities less extensive than in the Baboons; tail
invisible externally; toes longer than the fingers, and both much haired.
Hair on the crown short and reflexed; hairs on the cheeks forming a
whisker, directed backward; hair of the fore-arms directed towards the

Crown, and sides of head, cheeks, neck, shoulders, upper back, and front of
fore-limbs golden-yellow, mixed with a few black hairs, the individual
hairs being dark grey at the base, ringed for the rest of their length with
yellow and grey; the rest of the upper part of the body greyish-yellow or
yellowish-brown; under side of lower jaw, lower side of body, and inner
face of limbs greyish-yellow, or yellowish-white; a dark spot of black
hairs tipped with yellow at the inner angle of each eye, and stretching
down on the cheeks; naked parts of face, ears, and callosities pale
flesh-colour, as also is the thinly-haired skin of the inner sides of the
limbs; tail represented by a small tubercle of naked skin. Length of the
body, 2½ feet.

FEMALE.--Exactly resembles the male in coloration, but is slightly smaller
in size, and more amiable in disposition; the canines scarcely larger than
the incisors.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species, named by the French "Magot," inhabits Morocco,
and Algeria in Northern Africa. It is found also on the Rock of Gibraltar,
and some distance inland in Spain; but whether it has been transported from
Africa, or has lived there since its ancestors were left isolated when the
Straits of Gibraltar subsided and separated Europe from Africa, is a
question impossible to decide now. It is certain that the Moors bring now,
and probably for ages have been in the habit of bringing, captive specimens
of this Monkey, to trade away on the European side; it is, therefore,
{6}not impossible that the "Apes of the Rock" may have thus been
introduced. This is the only African (or European) species of the genus.

HABITS.--This Monkey has been known to science for many centuries. It is
now certain, as M. Frederick Cuvier remarks in his "History of Mammals,"
thanks to the researches of M. de Blainville upon the Monkey dissected by
Galen, that the _Pithecus_ of Aristotle was our Magot, as we know of no
other species of Macaque without a tail. The Barbary Macaques, when on the
ground, invariably walk on their four legs, but in an uneasy and clumsy
manner compared with their motions when climbing; they are far more at home
in trees or rocks, where they climb with amazing rapidity. They live
chiefly on fruits and leaves, feeding themselves with their hands, and
smelling everything they are uncertain about, before putting it into the
mouth. They also eat grass very readily. They are found in large crowds in
the forests of Barbary, which reach to the sea, and are very destructive to
the cultivated fields of the Moors, on which they make constant raids, and
during which, like the Baboons, they post sentinels to give warning of
danger to their foraging friends. This Monkey sleeps on its side or in a
sitting posture with its head dropped between its knees.

On the European side of the Mediterranean, these Apes were at one time very
abundant on the Rock of Gibraltar, but as they robbed the gardens of the
garrison they were killed by every means for several years, till they were
eventually reduced to three. Orders were, however, issued by the
authorities for their preservation, and a few additional pairs were
imported from Africa. They now frequent the inaccessible ledges of the
Rock, especially on its Mediterranean face, on which they climb about with
marvellous rapidity.

{7}In reply to inquiries about the present condition of the Barbary Apes
(_Macacus inuus_) on the Rock, Dr. Sclater records in 1893 that General Sir
Lothian Bell, the Governor of Gibraltar, had informed him "that they were
now distinctly increasing in numbers. He had himself counted as many as
thirty in one group, and, according to some reports, there were altogether
as many as double that number on the Rock. In fact they were so numerous,
and their depredations had become so serious that a short time ago an
agitation had been got up for their reduction in numbers, and it would
perhaps be necessary to thin them a little, but their extermination was
quite out of the question, and would not be thought of."

These animals are remarkably affectionate parents, the mother constantly
tending her single young one, while the males may often be seen carrying
about some of the babies of the troop. When young the "Rock Ape" is playful
and gentle; but, when old, becomes ill-natured and vicious.

When angry their jaws are moved up and down with great rapidity, while they
give utterance to loud and harsh cries. The males fight with their strong
canine teeth and their long and strong, though flat, nails, with which they
are capable of inflicting deep wounds on each other. When in a good temper
their voice is generally soft; but Mr. Darwin observed in the Zoological
Gardens that a specimen there, when pleased, made a shrill note, and
likewise drew back the corners of its mouth, apparently through the
contraction of the same muscles as with human beings. The skin of the lower
eyelids also became much wrinkled. "At the same time it rapidly moved its
lower jaw or lips in a spasmodic manner, the teeth being exposed; but the
noise produced was hardly more distinct than that which we call silent
laughter. Two of the keepers affirmed that this {8}slight sound was the
animal's laughter, and when I expressed some doubt on this head (being at
the time quite inexperienced) they made it attack, or rather threaten, a
hated _Entellus_ Monkey, living in the same compartment. Instantly the
whole expression of the face of the _Inuus_ changed; the mouth was opened
much more widely, the canine teeth were more fully exposed, and a hoarse
barking noise was uttered."


  _Macacus speciosus_, F. Cuvier, Mamm., pl. xlvi. (Feb., 1825) (founded on
  a drawing).

  _Macacus arctoides_, Is. Geoffr., Mag. de Zool., 1833, p. cli., pl. ii.;
  Sclater, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 203; Anderson, Zool. Yun-nan, p. 45, pls. i.
  and ii. (1878) with full synonymy; Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p.
  17 (1891); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, viii., p. 116 (1876).

  _Papio melanotus_, Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1839, p. 31.

  _Macacus melanotus_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 29 (1870).

  _Macacus thibetanus_, Alph., Milne-Edwards, C. R., lxx., p. 341 (1870).

  _Macacus brunneus_, Anderson, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 628, 1872, p. 203, pl.
  xii. (Jun.), 1874, p. 652.

CHARACTERS.--Body short and stout; head large; muzzle short and truncated;
chin bulging; chin and throat almost nude; eyes large; ears large and
rounded, with a pointed projection behind; limbs short, stout and strong;
hands and fingers short, the terminal phalanges nude; tail almost
rudimentary; callosities and surrounding region of buttocks naked.

Fur long and woolly (especially in those living at high {9}altitudes),
longer on the head, back and limbs, shortest over the sacrum; hair on the
head parted outwards from the centre; fingers slightly haired; tail thinly
haired, or nude in old animals. In individuals living in the inclement
regions of Eastern Thibet, the tail is thickly haired.

General colour dark brown or blackish; cheeks, underside of body, inner
sides of arms and legs paler, washed with yellowish, the hairs being very
closely ringed (in some more distinctly than in others), for their outer
two-thirds, with alternating annulations of golden-yellow and brown, their
terminal points dark brown. Face, ears, sub-caudal callosities, bright
reddish flesh-colour, deeper round the eyes. Length of the body, 15-24
inches; tail 1½-2 inches.

In the young the fur is lighter. When first born it is of purely uniform
brown, the annulations appearing and increasing in number with advancing

In a young Bornean specimen the sides, abdomen, and legs are light chestnut
colour; the tips of many of the hairs golden, which with age changes more
and more into blackish-brown. The tail is 3½ inches long, and extremely
slender for the last two-thirds of its length--a part easily lost in

Tongue with numerous papillated glandular crypts for lubrication of the
cheek-pouches. Throat-pouch situated in an excavated hollow in the hyoid
bone, the pouch being continuous with the convergence of the vocal chords.

Skull with strong inwardly projecting supra-orbital processes; external
opening for the nostrils triangular. The anterior upper incisors appear
first, followed by the anterior pre-molar, the median molar, the median
pre-molar, and then the canines; anterior molar four-cusped; anterior lower
molar five-cusped. Caudal vertebræ eleven in number.

{10}DISTRIBUTION.--Moupin in N.W. China, living on the snow-clad mountains;
Upper Burmah (Bahmo); Siam; the Cachar and Kachin hill-region on the
western frontier of the Province of Yun-nan, China; North-west Borneo, on
the mainland opposite Labuan. This species has been recorded, but
erroneously, from Madras, whither specimens are imported from Burmah, or
from the Malayan Islands.

Dr. John Anderson, the distinguished naturalist of the Yun-nan Expedition,
gives the following interesting remarks in reference to the distribution of
this species: "_M. arctoides_ would seem to have a considerable range of
distribution, in which, however, it conforms to that which is distinctive
of a large series of the Mammalian forms which occur in the same region. It
has been obtained in Cachar, and I have learned of its existence in Upper
Assam, and have procured it alive in the Kachin Hills on the frontier of
Yun-nan, beyond which it spreads to the south-east of Cochin-China. It
seems essentially to be a hill or mountain form--occurring only in the
mountainous regions of Cachar, being absent in the valley of the Irawady,
but stretching round it into Yun-nan from Upper Assam, being doubtless
distributed over the mountainous region that intervenes between the Irawady
and Cochin-China."

HABITS.--Of this Macaque little is known in a wild state. It is, however,
very docile and gentle in captivity. In life the tail is rarely carried
erect, and is as a rule applied over the anus; its latter fourth being
doubled on itself to the left, and serving to fill up the interspace
between the divergent portion of the callosities, so that the animal sits
on this portion of its tail, which contains only a few rudiments of
vertebræ at its {11}base, and the upper surface of which is rough and
somewhat callous.... Here we have a monkey which sits on its tail, and
although it may be that it does not invariably do so, I am prepared to
state, after careful observation, that it does so very frequently; and
there is the more importance to be attached to this observation, because
this habit appears to be a peculiarity of the species. (_Anderson._)


  _Macacus rufescens_, Anderson, P. Z. S., 1872, p. 204 (Juv.); id., Zool.
  Exped. Yun-nan, p. 79 (1878); Scl., P. Z. S., 1872, p. 495, pl. xxiv.;
  1873, p. 194.

  _Macacus arctoides_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 116 (1876; part).

CHARACTERS.--Very nearly related to _M. arctoides_, of which it is perhaps
only a southern race. Face red, more brilliant round the orbits; nose and
lips brownish; tail stumpy, thinly haired. Fur rather brilliant brick-red,
especially on the cheeks, flanks, and outside of the limbs. This animal is
known, however, only from young specimens.

DISTRIBUTION.--Malay Peninsula.


  _Macacus maurus_, F. Cuvier, Mamm., pl. xlv. (Avril, 1823); Anderson,
  Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 80 (1878, pt.; with full synonymy); Schl., Mus.
  Pays-Bas, vii., p. 117 (1876).

  _Cynocephalus niger_ (?), Quoy et Gaim., Voy. de l'Astrol., Zool, i., p.
  67 (1830).

  _Macacus arctoides_, Is. Geoffr., Zool. Bélang. Voy., p. 61 (1834); id.,
  Arch. Mus., ii., p. 573.

  {12}_Macacus ocreatus_, Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1840, p. 56; Sclater, in Wolf,
  Zool. Sketches, ii., pl. i. (1865); id., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 420, pl.
  lxxxii.; Anderson, t.c., p. 81 (pt).

  _Macacus fusco-ater_, Schinz, Syn. Mamm. i., p. 58 (1844).

  _Macacus inornatus_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1866, p. 202, pl. xix.; id., Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 129 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Face narrow and elongated, nude, except for a few short hairs
on the upper lip; nose flat; ears rather long, rounded, thinly haired; hair
on one side of the head forming a somewhat large whisker; groin, region
external to the callosities, and down the thighs thinly haired; tail very
short, nude, curved upwards; frontal band, face, and ears black;
callosities and the surrounding parts thinly-haired; region of the buttocks
flesh-coloured; hairs on the upper lip black; whisker-tufts black, with
greyish tips; rest of the head and body sooty-black; lower side of neck,
rump, under surface of body, inside of limbs, fore-arms, legs, and back of
thighs grey; tail, black. Length of body, 21 inches; of tail, 1 inch.


In the skull the outer surface of the outer margin of the orbits is
flattened; the nasal bones are short and expanded.

This species is distinguished from _M. arctoides_ and _M. fuscatus_, by the
colour of the face being black, instead of bright red.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species, whose true home was for a long time unknown,
but was assumed to be Borneo, has been certainly ascertained to be confined
to the Southern Peninsula of Celebes, and to the neighbouring island of
Bouton. Dr. Anderson speaks of a Monkey from the Aru Islands, far to the
east of Celebes, "if not identical with _M. maurus_, {13}at least so
closely allied to it that I hesitate to separate it." The specimens both
from Borneo and from Aru, if truly brought from these islands, must have
been carried there in the stream of commerce from Celebes to the eastward
in the first instance.


  _Macacus speciosus_, F. Cuv., Mammif., pl. 46 (1825); Murie, P. Z. S.,
  1872, p. 780; Sclater, P. Z. S., 1875, p. 418, pl. xlvii.; Schl., Mus.
  Pays-Bas, vii., p. 114 (1876.)

  _Inuus speciosus_ (nec. F. Cuv.), Temm., Faun. Jap. Zool. Mamm., p. 9,
  pl. i., figs. 1 to 8; pl. ii., figs. 1 to 6 (1847); Gray, Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., p. 32 (1870).

  _Macacus fuscatus_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xliv., extra no., p. 6 (1875);
  Sclater, P. Z. S., 1876, p. 332; Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 78
  (1878; with full synonymy).

CHARACTERS.--Face nude, prolonged forwards; muzzle prominent; superciliary
ridges overhanging the eyes; eyebrows meeting in the mid-line; a bar over
the eyes across the forehead bald, except for a few very short hairs; fur
in general, long, soft, silky, and thick; short hairs forming a sort of
whisker on the cheeks, continuous with the hair on the head and the
moderately long beard; abdomen, chest, and inner surface of limbs thinly
haired; ears large and, except on the margins, covered with long silky
hairs; tail short, equally clad with long hairs, and with a terminal tuft,
varying from 2-3 inches in length. Length of body, 24 inches. Face in life
intensely red, with a purplish hue; nose and lower lip washed with brown;
callosities and naked parts of the scrotal region purplish-red; sparse
hairs of the face dark brown; general colour of fur dark brown, or
yellowish-brown, or olive, darkest along {14}the middle of the back, the
hairs being ringed with yellow and brown, or black and brown; sides of
head, breast, under surface of body, under sides of limbs, and under side
of tail greyish; beard yellowish-brown.

The hair is not annulated in the young animal.

DISTRIBUTION.--Japan. Common on the hills at Kioto, according to Mr. Gower,
who was H.B.M. Consul at Hiogo in 1875. Dr. J. Rein records that it is
found all over the island of Nippon up to 41° N. latitude, and has
consequently a further northern habitat than any other existing Monkey.

HABITS.--Nothing is known of the habits of the Japanese Macaque; but they
are in all probability similar to those of its Indian relatives.


  _Macacus leoninus_, Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. A. S. Beng., p. 7 (1863);
  Sclater, P. Z. S., 1870, p. 663, pl. xxxv. (male and female); Anderson,
  Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 52 (1878; with full synonymy); Blanford, Faun.
  Brit. Ind. Mamm., p. 18, fig. 6 (1891).

  _Macacus andamanensis_, Bartlett, _Land and Water_, viii., p. 57 (1869);
  P. Z. S., 1869, p. 467.

  _Inuus leoninus_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xliv., p. 2 (1875).

CHARACTERS.--A thick-set, short-limbed, somewhat Dog-like animal; head,
broad, flat above; the muzzle short; tail short, turned over the back,
about one-third the length of the body.

Upper surface of head with short fur radiating from the vertex, "surrounded
in front and on both sides by a horse-shoe-shaped crest, the supra-orbital
portion of which consists of very stiff hairs." (_Blanford._) Face thinly
covered with fine hairs; {15}along the sides of the face a backwardly
directed whisker meeting below the chin. Fur on the back of the neck,
shoulders, and upper part of the fore-limb, long, shorter behind the
shoulders and shortest on the rump; buttocks sparsely haired; tail somewhat
tufted; belly and upper and inner parts of the limbs thinly haired. Length,
23 inches; tail (without the tuft), 8 inches.

MALE.--Face brownish flesh-colour on the muzzle and between the eyes,
bluish-white round the latter; frontal bar white; a narrow line from the
outer corner of the eye backwards, red; a horse-shoe-shaped crest, mid-line
of back, lower back, sacral region, and upper surface of tail, black, the
hairs being grey at base, and dark brown, or black, along their outer
portion; ears flesh-coloured, and the hair on and round them white; region
above the eyes and round the face, chin, and throat, yellowish-brown--the
hairs being ringed, above their grey bases, with dark brown and orange, and
tipped with black; on the shoulders, back of the neck and upper part of the
arms orange olive--the hairs having the orange rings more predominant than
the brown; rest of the fore limb yellowish-olive; thighs dusky-grey, washed
with black; buttocks grey; lower parts of body, inner sides of limbs, and
under side of tail, light greyish-brown; caudal tuft often bright rufous.
Excepting on the head, loins, tail, and buttocks, all the hairs are
annulated, above their grey bases, with orange and brown, and dark-tipped.
Hands and feet dusky flesh-colour.

FEMALE.--Smaller than the males, but the black of the head and back absent,
and the hairs of the under-parts not annulated; shoulders brighter than the
rest of the body, which is yellowish-olive, and greyish-olive on the
outside of the limbs.

{16}MALE.--Skull smaller, shorter, and more globular than that of _M.
nemestrinus_, which is its nearest ally; muzzle less projecting; little or
no depression of the nose between the eyes; supra-orbital ridges prominent;
orbits large, approximated; skull of the female feebler in all respects.

DISTRIBUTION.--Southern portion of Arracan, and the valley of the Irawady
in Upper Burmah. The Andaman Islands, whence Mr. Bartlett described a
specimen as a new species, was an erroneous habitat, as the specimen had
been introduced there from Burmah.

HABITS.--Very little is known of this rare species in its native state. In
captivity the females and the males, when young, become very tame, and are
capable of being taught various performances. A female which lived in the
Zoological Society's Gardens in 1869 was educated by the blue-jackets of
one of Her Majesty's ships, who had obtained her at the Andaman Islands,
and kept her on board for three or four years before she was sent to the
Gardens. "Jenny" exhibited an extraordinary degree of cleverness, as Mr.
Bartlett, the Superintendent, has narrated in _Land and Water_. She could
drink out of a bottle and smoke a pipe. She walked upright on her hind legs
with remarkable facility, and with much less effort than even the
performing Monkeys of the London streets. When in an erect attitude she
would carry things.


  _Simia nemestrina_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 35 (1766).

  _Le Maimon_, Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes, Fam. ii., Sect. i., pl. i.

  _Inuus nemestrinus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 101 (1812).

  {17}_Macacus nemestrinus_, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm, livr. xlii.
  (1820); livr. xliv. (1822); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 29 (1870);
  Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 110 (1876); Anderson, Zool. Exped.
  Yun-nan, p. 77 (1878; with full synonymy).

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Of large size, even approaching that of "a good sized
Mastiff." (_Anderson._) Body short, and broad-chested; head flattened;
muzzle long and Baboon-like; supra-orbital ridges large; limbs long and
powerful; tail slender, about one-third the length of the body, pointed,
and carried erect; face, ears, and callosities nude; sometimes a short
membrane uniting the first phalanges of the fore and middle fingers and the
second and third toes.

Fur short, longer over the shoulders; that on the top of the head radiating
from a centre, short, erect and abundant; hair below and on the tail less
abundant, that on the belly very sparse.

In the skull the protruding facial region is much larger proportionately
than the cranial region; the orbits large, and nearly circular.

Face dark flesh-colour; ears and callosities the same; general colour of
fur olive, the hairs being at the base grey, ringed higher up with
alternate black and yellow bars, the predominance of the one bar over the
other producing a brighter olive, even a yellow, or a deep brown colour;
top of the head deep brown or brownish-black, extending along the middle of
the back, broadening on the rump and basal part of the tail. Sides of the
face blackish-grey; under surface of the body and inner side of the limbs
greyish white; arms and legs lighter than the back; outer surface of the
thighs olive-grey; hands and feet olive-brown.

{18}Length of body, 18½ inches; of tail, 8 inches.

FEMALES.--Similar to the males; the young of both sexes more brightly
coloured than the adults. Gestation in the Pig-tailed Macaque lasts,
according to Dr. Blanford, seven months and twenty days. A singular variety
of a female from the Baram river, in Sarawak, Borneo, is of a dark fulvous
above, darker in the mesial line, much paler on the lower surface, and
growing nearly white on the middle of the chest.

DISTRIBUTION.--Tenasserim, and chiefly in the southern parts of that
province; Southern Burmah, the Malay peninsula, Bangka, Sumatra, Java, and

HABITS.--The Pig-tailed Macaque inhabits the thick jungles in the lower
country, living in considerable companies, and feeding on fruits, seeds,
and insects. "When young, these Monkeys are easily tamed," as Mr. Charles
Hose records, "and in some places they are used to climb the cocoa-nut
trees to throw down the nuts, the Monkeys having been taught to throw down
only the ripe ones." This observation as to its collecting cocoa-nuts was
also made many years ago by Sir Stamford Raffles in Sumatra. When old, the
males are very savage, and will attack a Dog when provoked.


  _Simia silenus_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 35 (1766); Schreber, Säugeth.,
  i., p. 87, pl. xi. (1775).

  _Cercopithecus veter_, Erxl., Syst. Regn. An., p. 24 (1777).

  _Simia ferox_, Shaw, Gen. Zool., i., p. 30, pl. xvi. (1800).

  _Papio silenus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 102 (1812); Kuhl, Beitr.
  Zool., p. 18 (1820).

  {19}_Macacus silenus_, Desm., Mamm., p. 63 (1820); Anders., Zool. Exped.
  Yun-nan, p. 93 (1878; with full synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind.,
  Mamm., p. 16, fig. 5; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 109 (1876).

  _Silenus veter_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 32 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Head round; muzzle wide; hair on top of the head very short;
face surrounded by long hairs, concealing the ears, and meeting under the
chin; ears naked; face, hands, feet, and callosities naked; tail slender,
one-half to three-quarters the length of the body and tufted with hair.
Length, 24 inches; tail, 10 inches.

Skull rounded; muzzle wide in front, contracted at the base, concave
beneath the orbits; orbital ridges large, and the frontal bone widely
depressed behind them; pre-molars and molars small. The structure of this
animal is essentially that of the ordinary Macaques, although it differs
from them so much in external physiognomy. (_Anderson_).

Body, limbs, and tail deep black; a ruff of long hairs round the head,
darkish grey; chest greyish or white; tail tipped with greyish or white;
face, hands, and feet black; callosities flesh-coloured.

DISTRIBUTION.--"The Lion-tailed Macaque inhabits the Western Ghats from
below Goa to Cape Comorin, but there is no authentic record of its
existence in a wild state in Ceylon." (_Anderson._) It lives at a
considerable altitude above the sea.

HABITS.--This species, according to Jerdon (to whom, as Dr. Blanford
observes, we are indebted for the only authentic account of this animal in
a wild state), inhabits the most dense and unfrequented forests of the
hills near the Malabar coast, in herds of from twelve to twenty or more. It
is shy and wary. {20}In captivity it is sulky and savage, and not easily
taught. The call of the male is said to resemble the voice of a Man.


  _Macacus assamensis_, McClell.; Horsfield, P. Z. S., 1839, p. 148; Blyth,
  J. A. Soc. Beng., xiii., p. 746 (1844); Anderson, Zool. Exp. Yun-nan, p.
  64 (1878; with synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 15

  _Macacus pelops_, Hodgs., J. A. S., Beng., ix., p. 1213 (1840); Gray,
  Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 30 (1870).

  _Macacus problematicus_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 128 (1870);
  Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222.

  _Macacus rheso-similis_, Scl., P. Z. S., 1872, p. 495, pl. xxv. (Juv.)

  _Macacus erythræus_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas., vii, p. 112 1876; (part).

CHARACTERS.--Larger and more strongly-built than _M. rhesus_. Fur
moderately long, wavy, woolly (in some specimens), and without rings; the
hair of the crown radiating from the centre of the forehead outwards and
backwards; the hair round the face and on the chin rather long; that on and
between the shoulders, and on the sides of the chest, longer than on the
hind part of the body; hairs on the lower part of the flanks rather long;
tail about, or less than, half the length of the body, not tufted, but
longer, smaller, and much less densely furred than in _M. rhesus_;
callosities surrounded by fur; ears tufted, and haired inside; beard well
developed; face and ears dusky. Length, 26¾ inches; tail, 9¼ inches.

The fur above differs from that of _M. rhesus_, in the anterior half being
uniform dark brown, wanting the ashy-grey tint; and the hinder portion
brown, without the rufous seen in {21}_M. rhesus_; the outside of the
fore-limbs, the back of the neck, and region between the shoulders, brown,
washed with yellowish or golden; upper surface of head pale
yellowish-brown; flanks, front of fore-limbs, outer aspect of thighs, back
of feet and tail, darker; under surface of body and inside of limbs
yellowish-grey or greyish-yellow; behind the angle of the mouth, below and
behind the ears, and on the chin, the hairs are yellowish-grey, tipped with
black; face and callosities, pale flesh-coloured.

The skull and skeleton agree closely with those of _M. rhesus_, but are
somewhat larger. Canine teeth long, and deeply grooved in front.

DISTRIBUTION.--This Macaque inhabits the Himalayan ranges as far west as
Masuri, or perhaps further, from near the base of the hills to a
considerable elevation (_Blanford_); it extends eastwards from the Nepal
Region of the Himalaya through Assam and the north-eastern portion of
Bengal into the upper or hilly portion of the valley of the Irawady.
(_Anderson._) This species is said to have its home generally between 3,000
and 6,000 feet above the sea. Dr. Anderson obtained on the Irawady, 25
miles below Bhamo, a female out of a large colony "living below the huge
Deva-faced limestone cliff, at the foot of which lies the small pagoda of
Sessoungan. The crews of passing boats and pious visitors generally throw
rice and fruits to these Monkeys as a work of merit."

HABITS.--This species probably represents a Himalo-Burman race or
sub-species of _M. rhesus_. Its habits are much the same as those of that
species, but it is said to have a slightly different voice and to be more
sluggish, according to Blanford.


  _Simia rhesus_, var. Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes, Fam. ii., Sec. i., p. 5,
  pl. i. (1797).

  _Simia erythræa_, Schreber, Säugeth, Suppl., pl. 8, fig. c.

  _Macacus erythræus_, Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mamm., pl. xxxviii. (young; Oct.,
  1819); pls. xxxix. (1821) and xl. (1825; male); Gerv., Hist. Nat., Mamm.,
  p. 91 (figs. [male] and [female]; heads;  1834); Swinhoe, P. Z. S., 1870,
  p. 226; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 112 (1876).

  _Macacus rhesus_, Desm., Mamm., p. 66, pl. vii., fig. 2 (1820); Anders.,
  Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 55, pl. iii. (with synonymy); Blanford, Faun.
  Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 13.

CHARACTERS.--Body thick-set and with powerful limbs; face long and narrow,
the muzzle somewhat projecting; a few short and coarse hairs on the lips,
chin, and cheeks; eyes rather oval; ears somewhat large and sparsely
haired. Fur moderately long and straight; hair of head coarse, not
radiating, beginning on the orbital ridge, covering the forehead, and
directed backwards; fingers haired to the end of the first digits; nails
rather claw-like; toes haired; callosities surrounded by a semi-nude part
of the buttocks; tail tapering, nearly one-half the length of the body.
Length of males, 22 inches, with a tail of 10 inches; females, 16-18
inches, with a tail of 7-8 inches, the hair projecting 1½ inch beyond the

Face flesh-coloured, and sprinkled with short, silky, buff-coloured hair;
general colour of the fur on the anterior and upper surface of the body and
arms, greyish-brown, the hairs ashy at base, ringed with yellowish or light
brown, and tipped with darker brown, or even black, giving a rich rufous,
speckled appearance; hinder quarters and outer aspect of the thighs
{23}rufous-yellow, the hairs terminating in this colour; lower parts pale
yellowish-white, or pale rufous yellow; base of the tail
yellowish-chestnut, the rest browner; callosities flesh-colour; eyes

DISTRIBUTION.--The Bengal Monkey is distributed abundantly throughout
Northern India as far south as the Godaveri river on the one side, and
Bombay on the other, and was long considered to be a characteristic species
of Bengal and Upper India. It occurs, however, as Dr. Anderson records, in
the valleys of the mountain systems to the north and east of Akyab, and may
be traced across the range of mountains that defines Arracan from Burmah,
and also as far east as the left bank of the Irawady below Mandalay. It has
been obtained in Assam, and by Dr. Anderson in Yun-nan during the
expedition to that country. It is said to ascend to 10,000 feet in Kashmir.
Mr. Swinhoe obtained this Monkey also in Hainan, and in the Province of
Kiung Chow, in China.

HABITS.--The Bengal Macaque, or Bandar, as it is named by the Hindoos,
lives in troops of considerable size in jungle or low forest, and very
often in rocky places, feeding on insects, fruits, and leaves. It is very
frequently seen on the ground searching for food, according to Dr.
Blanford, and near cultivation, especially around tanks or amongst trees on
the banks of streams. It swims well and takes readily to water. It is a
very quarrelsome species, perpetually screaming and fighting. If not really
sacred to the Hindoos, it is at least rarely molested by them. Dr. Bowdler
Sharpe informs the present writer that he observed a flock of these
Macaques on the road to Simla, when nearing the latter place. They were
running along the road, and as the "tonga" approached, they scrambled up
the rocks, and jabbered vociferously, especially {24}the females, who were
carrying their young. On Jacko there was, in 1885, a large troop of these
animals, and they did considerable damage in the kitchen gardens of the
mountain residences, so that the gardeners had to keep a sharp look-out,
and fire at them occasionally. When he was staying at Mr. Hume's beautiful
place at Simla in 1885, it was often necessary to drive off the Monkeys,
and as one or two had been wounded by the head-gardener, the fakir who
lived at the top of Jacko was much offended. This man had tamed the Monkeys
to such an extent that, when he called them, the trees instantly began to
move in all directions with the approach of numbers of these animals
hastening to him for the peas which he had in readiness for them. They
clustered round him, and though they would not allow strangers to stroke
them, they came within arm's length and picked up their food. One
patriarch, who remained for some time after the tribe had disappeared into
the trees, was called the "Subadar," and wore quite a venerable appearance.
Mr. R. Swinhoe has, in the "Proceedings of the Zoological Society of
London," given the following curious Chinese observations, extracted from
the "Chinese Gazetteer," in reference to this species, which is often
called the Hainan Rock-Monkey: "How (or Monkey). The She-Show ('Notes on
Animals') states that the Monkey has no stomach, but digests its food by
jumping about. According to ancient authors, Kiung Chow abounds in Monkeys,
and its people make a trade by selling young ones."

"About the jungles of Nychow (S. Hainan) these Monkeys," says Mr. Swinhoe,
"were very common. On our landing, abreast of the ship we saw a large party
of them on the beach, but they at once retired into a grove above
high-water mark. We watched them running along the boughs of the trees and
{25}jumping from branch to branch. The discharge of a fowling-piece soon
made them scurry away into the thicket, but every now and again their heads
would appear from the higher bushes, watching the movements of the enemy.
At last, when they observed that our presence implied actual danger to
themselves, they climbed the hills and posted themselves about conspicuous
rocks, where they chattered and grunted out of danger. Their cries are very
like those of _Macacus cyclopis_ of Formosa."

The young clings to its mother's stomach for about a fortnight after birth,
and is nursed with the greatest care by her; after that time it is able to
move about by itself, and it thenceforward rapidly acquires the full use of
its powers.

Mr. Darwin records that the face of the _M. rhesus_, when much enraged,
grows red. When watching this species in the Zoological Gardens, he says:
"Another Monkey attacked a Rhesus, and I saw its face redden as plainly as
that of a Man in a violent passion. In the course of a few minutes, after
the battle, the face of this Monkey recovered its natural tint. At the same
time that the face reddened, the naked posterior part of the body, which is
always red, seemed to grow still redder, but I cannot positively assert
that this was the case."


  _Macacus lasiotis_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 61, pl. vi.; id., Cat.
  Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 129 (1870);  Anders., Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 83
  (1878; with synonymy).

  _Macacus rhesus_, Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222.

  _Macacus erythræus_ (nec Cuv.), Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 112

CHARACTERS.--Very nearly allied to _Macacus rhesus_, from which it differs
in its larger size, more hairy ears, and more richly {26}coloured fur, the
hairs having the yellow rings rich orange or brick-red, especially on the
hind quarters.

Fur long, fine, and silky, longest on the shoulders, neck, and upper
surface of feet; hair on the top of the head not radiated; ears hairy;
callosities surrounded by hair; a naked red spot at the outer angle of the
eyes; tail about one-fourth of the body in length.

MALE.--Dark rich olive-yellow; face pale flesh-colour; sides of the face,
neck, and front part of the body olive-grey; hinder parts of the body
brick-red; the slaty colour of the fore-limbs, and of the anterior aspect
of the legs becoming black on the hands and feet; ears flesh-colour;
callosities crimson; throat, chest, and inside of the fore-limbs greyish,
washed with rufous above the wrists; belly and inside of the hind limbs
greyish, washed with orange-red.

FEMALE.--Fawn-colour, washed with red, especially on the lower back. Face
brighter coloured than in the male. Tail one-fourth the length of the body.

Skull more massive, shorter, and markedly broader and with a more vertical
muzzle than _M. rhesus_.

DISTRIBUTION.--Province of Szechuen, W. China: Dupleix Mountains, 13,000
feet. (_Bonvalot._)

HABITS.--Little is known of the habits of this Chinese representative of
the Bengal Macaque. In the winter it is said to have a splendid coat of
rich brown hair, very long and thick. It is very fierce and powerful.


  _Macacus tcheliensis_, Milne Edwards, Rech. Mamm., p. 227, pls. xxxii.
  and xxxiii. (1868-1874); A. David, Journ. North China Branch As. Soc.,
  1873, p. 230.

  _Macacus rhesus_ (nec Audeb.), Scl., P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222.

  {27}_Macacus erythræus_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 112 (1876).

  _Macacus lasiotis_, Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 83 (1878 pt.).

CHARACTERS.--The _Macacus tcheliensis_ is another species with a very close
affinity to _M. rhesus_, and to _M. lasiotis_. Dr. Anderson, indeed, has
united the Tcheli and the Hairy-eared Macaques under one species; while Dr.
Sclater is not prepared to consider either of them, or _M. cyclopis_ in
addition, to be distinct from _M. rhesus_.

_M. tcheliensis_ has the tail as long only as the hind foot, and densely
clothed with long hair. Fur rather long, soft, and silky, and thicker than
in the normal _M. rhesus_. General colour brilliant reddish-fawn,
especially on the hinder part of the back and on the tail; sides of the
cheeks and shoulders greyish, the yellow rings of the hair being absent;
under surface of the body and inner side of the limbs grey; hands and feet

The skulls of _M. lasiotis_ and _M. tcheliensis_ are scarcely
distinguishable from each other.

DISTRIBUTION.--North China. Dr. Bushell, of H.M. Legation in Pekin, who was
the first to send this rare Monkey to Europe, writes, in a letter dated
17th January, 1880: "It was obtained by me from the mountains near
Yung-ling or Eastern Mausoleum, of the reigning Manchu dynasty, situated
about 70 li from Pekin, in latitude 40° N. It is covered with a thick fur
fitted to endure the bitterly cold winter of this part of North China,
where the thermometer frequently goes down to 10° below zero."

HABITS.--Nothing has yet been recorded of the habits of this Macaque in a
state of nature.


  (_Plate XXVI._)

  _Inuus sancti-johannis_, Swinhoe, P. Z. S., 1866, p. 556.

  _Macacus sancti-johannis_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus. App., p. 129
  (1870; in part); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222; Anderson, Zool. Exped.
  Yun-nan, p. 86 (1878).

  _Macacus rhesus_, pt. Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222.

  _Macacus erythræus_, pt. Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 112 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Male unknown.

YOUNG FEMALE.--Appears to be allied most nearly to _M. lasiotis_. Face
narrow and somewhat projecting; eyes bright hazel; face and ears
flesh-coloured; a black whisker-like tuft on either cheek; skin of the
upper parts tinted with blue, and sparsely covered with hairs of a light
grey; hairs of the belly buff; fur of the upper parts greyish-brown, washed
with buff, which is lighter on the head, and brick-dust-red round about the
rump. Tail, 4½ inches long, blackish; callosities flesh-coloured.

DISTRIBUTION.--China; North Lena Island, and most of the small islands near
Hong Kong.

HABITS.--Nothing is known of the habits of St. John's Macaque. "Dried
bodies of this animal," writes Mr. Swinhoe its describer, "split in two are
often exhibited hanging from the ceiling in druggists' shops, in Canton and
Hong Kong; and its bones are used for medicinal purposes."


  _Macacus cyclopis_, Swinh., P. Z. S., 1862, p. 353, pl. xiii., 1864, p.
  380; Sclater, P. Z. S., 1864, p. 711 (woodcut); Anderson, Zool. Exped.
  Yun-nan, p. 87 (1878; with synonymy).

  {29}_Macacus sancti-johannis_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus. App., p.
  129 (1870; in part); Scl., P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222.

  _Macacus rhesus_, Scl., P. Z. S., 1871, p. 222.

  _Macacus erythræus_, pt. Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 112 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Allied to _M. rhesus_, but the head round; the face flat, and
round; supra-orbital region bare, as in other species; cheeks
dark-whiskered; ears small and haired; a strong ruff-like beard; tail
stout, thickly haired and tufted, 12 inches long. Fur thick and woolly;
hair behind the mouth, and below and behind the ears ringed; hair not
longer on the shoulders than on the rest of the body.

General colour olive-grey, or slaty; the hairs finely freckled with yellow;
no rufous on the lower back and hind quarters; legs dark, and a distinct
black line along the top of the tail.

The characters of the head, face, whiskers, beard, and the thick tail, and
the absence of the rufous colour distinguish it from _M. rhesus_. _M.
assamensis_ is redder than _M. rhesus_ or _M. cyclopis_, and has a long
head, projecting face, and a short tail.

FEMALE.--Smaller and rather lighter coloured than the male. At the
love-period the naked posterior parts with the thighs and tail become
excessively swollen, and florid.

DISTRIBUTION.--The island of Formosa, where it is the only known species of

HABITS.--The late Consul Swinhoe was the discoverer of this interesting
animal. He has given an account of its habits in the "Proceedings of the
Zoological Society," from which we quote the following: "The Formosan
Rock-Macaque affects rocks and declivities that overhang the sea, and in
the solitary {30}caverns makes its abode. On the treeless mountain in the
south-west, called Apes' Hill, it was at one time especially abundant, but
has since almost entirely disappeared. About the mountains of the north and
east it is still numerous, being frequently seen playing and chattering
among the steep rocks, miles from any tree or wood. It seems to be quite a
rock-loving animal, seeking the shelter of caves during the greater part of
the day, and assembling in parties in the twilight, and feeding on berries,
the tender shoots of plants, Grasshoppers, Crustacea, and Mollusca. In the
summer it comes in numbers during the night, and commits depredations among
the fields of sugar-cane, as well as among fruit-trees, showing a
partiality for the small, round, clustering berries of the Longan
(_Nephelium longanum_). In the caverns among these hills they herd; and in
June the females may frequently be seen in retired parts of the hills with
their solitary young one at their breasts. These animals betray much
uneasiness at human approach, disappearing in no time, and skulking in
their holes till the intruder has passed. They seem, too, to possess
abundance of self-complaisance and resource; for I have frequently seen a
Monkey seated on a rock by himself, chattering and crying merely for his
own amusement and gratification. Whatever Mr. Waterton may say of the
tree-loving propensity of Monkeys in general, it is very certain that this
species shows a marked preference for bare rocks, covered only with grass
and bush; for if he preferred the forest he might very easily satisfy his
desire by retiring a few miles further inland, where he could find it in
abundance. But, on the contrary, in the forest he is only an occasional
intruder, resorting thither when food fails him on the grassy hills by the
sea, where he loves to make his home. The Chinese have a fanciful idea that
the tail of the {31}Monkey is a caricature of the Tartar pendant into which
they twist their long black hair, and they invariably chop it off any
Monkey that comes into their possession. Hence the difficulty of procuring
Monkeys in China with perfect tails."


  _Simia cynomologus_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 38 (1766); Schreber,
  Säugeth, i., p. 91, pl. xiii. (1775).

  _Le Macaque_, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mammif., livr. xxx., xxxi. (1819).

  _Macacus carbonarius_, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mamm. livr. xxxii. (Oct.,

  _Macacus aureus_, Geoffr. in Belang. Voyage, Zool., p. 58 (1834).

  _Macacus philippensis_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth Primates, p. 29 (1851).

  _Inuus (Macacus) palpebrosus_, Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth, Suppl., v., p.
  54 (1855).

  _Macacus fur_, Slack, Proc. Acad. Sc. Philad., 1867, p. 36, plate.

  _Macacus cristatus_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys, Brit. Mus., p. 30 (1870).

  _Macacus assamensis_, Gray, _t. c._, p. 31.

  _Cercocebus cynomologus_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 101 (1876).

  _Macacus cynomologus_, Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 73 (1878; with
  synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. India Mamm., p. 21 (1891).

CHARACTERS.--Body large and massive; head large and broad; legs short and
stout; loins slender; hinder quarters heavy; tail thick at the root, nearly
equalling the body in length; muzzle long; nose not prominent above the
face; eyes large; ears erect, pointed, nearly hairless; frontal ridges not
much overhanging the eyes.

Face pale brown, or livid with a bluish-white patch internal {32}to the
eyes, the eyelids bluish-white; ears, hands, and feet black; callosities
bright or dusky flesh-colour; fur straight; hair of the crown not
elongated, directed backwards, sometimes radiated or slightly crested;
general colour of the upper surface dusky or greyish-brown, varying to
reddish- or golden-brown; under surface of the body and inside of the limbs
brownish-grey to white, the hairs being dark at their roots, and higher up
ringed with yellow and brown or black; scrotum brown, blotched with livid
blue. Length, 22 inches; tail, 19 inches. The females are smaller.

Of this species there are several varieties or races, one in which the
prominent colour is golden-rufous (_M. aureus_, Geoffr.); another (_M.
carbonarius_, F. Cuv.) in which blackish-brown is the prevailing tint of
the face, naked hands, feet, and callosities; a third race has a light
yellow fur (_M. cristatus_, Gray); still another (_M. philippensis_), from
the Philippine Islands, is nearly white.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species is one of the most widely distributed of all
the Macaques. The more typical specimens are found in Burmah and Arakan. In
Siam a pale variety with less orange in the annulations of its hairs
occurs. In the Nicobar Islands (perhaps introduced as Dr. Blanford
suggests), in the Malay Peninsula, and in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombock, and
Timor, the darker (or _M. carbonarius_) variety seems to predominate. From
Borneo--where it ascends to 5,000 feet above the sea--comes the crested,
and perhaps also the golden-rufous coloured race (the true home of the
latter being still unknown). In the Philippine Archipelago--in Mindanao,
Basilan, Luzon, Negros, Samar, and others of the islets--the very light
yellow coloured race is met with.

{33}HABITS.--The Crab-eating Macaque is gregarious, going about in troops
of fifteen to twenty, of both sexes and all ages. They frequent the forests
near the river mouths, and coastal mangrove swamps, where they may be
constantly seen wading about in the mud, picking up Shrimps and Crabs,
which are their favourite food. Tickell says that they swim and dive well.
The females are easily trained, and also the young males; but these, when
old, are apt to become ill-natured and uncertain in disposition. The
mothers are good and tender to their young one, which clings closely with
hands and feet for the first few weeks to the hair of the chest or arm-pits
and abdomen.

Mr. Everett met with this species in the islands of Sirhassen and Bunguran
in the Natuna group, where he says they were abundant. He adds: "They come
down in large parties to the sea-shore, sitting in groups on the larger
boulders, or playing and hunting for prey along the sands, when the tide is
out. In mature animals, the face, hands, and feet are dark brown; the lower
eyelids a paler brown; the upper eyelids and upper halves of the orbits
whitish. In a very young male the bare skin of the face was livid brown,
rather paler on the eyelids, and the hands and feet were dark brown"
(_Oldfield Thomas and Hartert_, Nov. Zool., i., p. 654, 1894).


  _Simia pileata_, Shaw, Gen. Zool., i., p. 53 (1800).

  _Cercocebus sinicus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 98 (1812).

  _Macacus sinicus_, Desm., Mamm., p. 64 (1820); Kelaart, Fauna Zeyl., p. 8

  {34}_Macacus pileatus_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xvi., p. 1272 (1847);
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 29 (1870); Anderson, Zool. Exped.
  Yun-nan, p. 91 (1878; with synonymy); Blanf., Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p.
  24 (1891).

  _Cercocebus pileatus_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 98 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Closely allied to _M. sinicus_; muzzle narrow and protruding;
hair in general long, wavy, rough; on the head elongated, radiating from
the centre of the top of the head, extending down on to the forehead, and
occasionally rising into an erect tuft; tail equal in length to the body;
forehead thinly haired and wrinkled. Length, 13 inches; tail, 14¾, in some
reaching 21 inches; tail, 18 inches.

In coloration the Toque closely resembles the Bonnet Macaque, but the
upper-parts are more rufous, the hairs of the present species (though
ringed as in _M. sinicus_) being above the grey roots rufous-brown, or
golden with a shade of chestnut at the tips. It is easily distinguished,
however, by the face being livid flesh-coloured, with scattered black
hairs, and the margin of the upper lip black; a space about the ears
whitish; hands, feet, and ears blackish; the under surface of the body and
the inner aspect of the limbs whitish; upper surface of the tail brown, its
apex light brown or grey; callosities livid flesh-colour.

FEMALE.--Limbs redder than in the male; inner side of the arms, and patches
on the chest and belly indigo blue.

YOUNG.--Hair of the crown not so much flattened down or so radiating as in
the adult; the face more old-fashioned and exquisitely comical; the tail
nearly naked; and the cheeks, palms, soles, and callosities pale pinkish.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Toque Macaque holds in Ceylon the place occupied by the
Bonnet Macaque in Southern India.

{35}HABITS.--_Macacus pileatus_ closely resembles the Bonnet Macaque in
size, habits, and form. It is known to the Singhalese by the name of
Rilawa. "The little graceful grimacing _Rilawa_," as Sir J. Emerson Tennent
writes, "is the universal pet and favourite of both natives and Europeans.
The Tamil conjurers teach it to dance, and in their wanderings carry it
from village to village, clad in a grotesque dress, to exhibit its lively
performances. It does not object to smoke tobacco." Knox, in his
interesting account of the island, gives an accurate description of the
Rilawas, with "no beards, white faces, and long hair on the top of their
heads, which parteth and hangeth down like a man's, and which do a deal of
mischief to the corn, and are so impudent that they will come into their
gardens and eat such fruit as grows there."


  _Simia sinica_, Linn., Mantissa, Plant., p. 521 (1771).

  _Cercocebus radiatus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 98 (1812).

  _Le Toque mâle_, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat., Mamm., livr. xviii. (Juin, 1820).

  _Macacus sinicus_, Blyth, J. A. S., Beng., xvi., p. 1272 (1847); Gray,
  Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 28 (1870); Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p.
  91 (1878; with synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 23

  _Cercocebus sinicus_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 99 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Face nude; forehead thinly haired and wrinkled; cheeks hollow;
muzzle narrow and protuberant; ears naked and rather prominent; tail nearly
as long as the body.

Hair in general moderately long, straight and smooth, that on the crown
elongated and radiating in all directions from the vertex, but not covering
the forehead, on which the short and {36}sparse hairs are parted down the
middle. Length, 27 inches; tail, 24 inches, but often proportionately

General colour of the back and the upper side of the tail brownish-olive;
outside of the limbs greyish--the hairs grey at the roots, ringed higher up
with dull yellow and black bars; under surface of the body and inside of
the limbs, and under side of the tail whitish; face, ears, callosities, and
other nude parts livid flesh-colour.

Skull long, lower than that of _M. rhesus_; orbits with the transverse
diameter greater than the vertical.

DISTRIBUTION.--Inhabiting all Southern India, being conterminous with the
_M. rhesus_ on the east and west coast, the latter species coming as far
south as, and the Bonnet Macaque going no further north than, the Godaveri
river on the one side and Bombay on the other. (See page 23.)

HABITS.--The Bonnet Macaque agrees in habits with those of the species
already described. It lives in troops in the forests and jungles everywhere
throughout its range. It is much kept in captivity, owing to its docility
and its wonderful powers of mimicry.


  _Cercocebus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 97 (1812).

This genus has been established to receive a small, and but little known,
group of Monkeys, which is confined to West Africa. They are nearly related
to the Macaques on the one side, and even more closely to the genus
_Cercopithecus_, next to be described, on the other side. They all have an
oval head, and in form are more slender than the Macaques; they have also
the muzzle less prolonged, the supra-orbital ridges less developed, the
ischial callosities larger, and the limbs proportionately {37}longer. They
agree with the Macaques, and differ from the _Cercopitheci_, or Guenons, in
having a fifth hinder cusp to the posterior lower molar tooth in each jaw;
and differ from both in the hairs of the body rarely being ringed with
different coloured bars, as is the case with the species of both the genera
just mentioned. The nose is situated behind the end of the muzzle. Their
most obvious external character, however, and one from which they derive
their common name of "White-eyelid" Monkeys, is their pure white upper
eyelids, the white streak being more distinct on the inner half of the
eyelid than on the outer. These Monkeys want the laryngeal air-sacs seen in
the Macaques; but they have large cheek-pouches and a simple stomach, as in
the latter. Their tail is always long, quite equalling the length of the
body. The hands have a web between each of the fingers, that between the
thumb and index finger being very short; in their feet, the great-toe,
which is widespread, has a short web uniting it with its neighbour; the
second and third toes are united nearly throughout their whole length, the
fourth is webbed and united to the third and fifth as far as their

The Mangabeys are confined to West Africa. Like their relatives, the
Macaques and the Guenons, they are arboreal, living in troops in the forest
country, and feeding chiefly on fruits.


  _Cercocebus fuliginosus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 97 (1812); Gray,
  Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 27 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 95

  _Le mangabey_, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mammif., livr. vi. (May, 1819).

  {38}_Simia fuliginosa_, F. Cuv., Mamm., livr. xxxv. (Dec., 1821).

  _Cercopithecus fuliginosus_, Martin, P. Z. S., 1838, p. 117.

CHARACTERS.--Hair on the crown of the head not elongated, but directed
backward; no beard; eyebrows prominent. Face, ears, and hands nude; tail
long and carried over the back; whiskers small, directed backward, below
and behind the ears. Face of a livid brownish colour; ears, hands, and feet
darker; fur on the upper parts of the body and the outside of the limbs
sooty-black; chin, throat, breast, cheek-whiskers to below the ears, the
under side of the body, and inside of the limbs, ashy-grey; the whiskers
sometimes of the same colour as the back; tail darker grey.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: Liberia.

HABITS.--Writing of this species, Frederic Cuvier observes that it is of a
happy disposition, gentle and companionable, but rather petulant.
Ceaselessly active, it indulges in the most grotesque antics and attitudes,
so that it has been believed [of course erroneously] that they possess more
joints in their bodies than other species. The males especially have the
constant habit of making a grimace which exhibits their long canine teeth.
The females are still more gentle, and fond of being caressed.

Mr. Büttikofer found this species to be rather rare in Liberia. It was
occasionally seen on low trees, but chiefly on the ground, where it
searches for fallen fruits.


  _Mangabey à collier blanc_, Buffon, Hist. Nat., xiv., p. 256, pl. 33; F.
  Cuvier, Mamm., livr. xxxv. (Dec., 1821)

  _Cercocebus æthiops_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 97 (1812), (nec _Simia
  æthiops_, Linn.).



  {39} _Cercopithecus æthiops_, Kuhl. Beitr. Zool., p. 97 (1820, nec _S.
  æthiops_, Linn.).

  _Cercopithecus æthiopicus_, F. Cuvier, Mamm., livr. xxxv. (Dec., 1821).

  _Cercocebus collaris_, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus., p. 7 (1843); id.,
  Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 27 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, p. 96

CHARACTERS.--Hair on the crown of the head not elongated, but directed
backward; whiskers small, directed backward; no beard. Face, ears, hands,
and callosities nude; tail long, carried over the back.

Face, ears, and hands black; the top of the head rich reddish-brown; whole
of upper side of the body, hinder part of the shoulders, back, external
surface of both pairs of limbs, feet, and tail, greyish slate-colour;
throat, breast, whole under side of the body and inside of the limbs white,
as are the nape of the neck, sides of the face, the fore part of the
shoulder, and the front aspect of the arms, as far as the top of the
fore-arm; in many species a somewhat broad wash of slate-grey crosses the
side of the face from the cheeks to below the ear.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Coast of Africa.


  (_Plate XXVII._)

  _Simia æthiops_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 39 (1766).

  _Cercocebus æthiops_, Geoffr. Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 25 (1851); Gray,
  List Mamm. Brit. Mus., p. 7; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 27 (1870);
  Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 95 (1876).

  _Cercopithecus lunulatus_, Temm., Esquiss. Guin., p. 37 (1853).

CHARACTERS.--This species is very similar to _C. collaris_, but differs in
being slightly darker above, and in having a spot on {40}the back of the
head, as well as a narrow streak down the back greyish-white.



  _Presbytis albigena_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1850, p. 77, pl. xvi; Murie, P. Z.
  S., 1865, p. 740.

  _Cercocebus albigena_, Pucher., Rev. Zool., 1857, p. 241; Schl., Mus.
  Pays-Bas, vii., p. 97 (1876).

  _Cercocebus_ (_Semnocebus_) _albigena_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p.
  27 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Face nude, except for a few short hairs on the cheeks and
lips; a tuft of long stiff hairs projecting over each eye; hair of the body
elongated on the fore-quarter and arm; on the crown and nape the hair long
and directed backwards, forming a crest; hands and feet short, tail long,
thumb small, and great-toe large and broad; face black.

General colour of the body black; cheeks, throat, a spot behind the ear,
sides of the neck, shoulder, and front of the chest greyish; hairs on the
face and over the eyes black; tail black; callosities black.

A younger specimen, which died in 1865 in the Zoological Gardens in London,
had the throat, sides of the neck and front of the chest, dirty-brown;
hairs of the cheeks of the same colour, and some of them also black.



  _Cercopithecus aterrimus_, Oudem. Zool. Gart., xxxi., p. 267 (1890).

  _Cercocebus aterrimus_, Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 256 (note).

{41}CHARACTERS.--Closely allied to _C. albigena_, but distinguished by its
generally deep black colour, except on the shoulders and nape, which are
blackish-brown or brownish-grey--the hair here being no longer than on the
rest of the body; hairs on the cheeks, fine, velvety, and whitish; whiskers
thick, greyish-brown; beard very sparse, whitish.

DISTRIBUTION.--South-west Africa: Stanley Falls on the Congo.



  _Cercocebus galeritus_, Peters, M. B. Ak. Berl., 1879, p. 830, pls. i.B
  and iii. (Crania).

CHARACTERS.--A flat crest of blackish-brown hair radiating from the top of
the head all round and over the forehead; the entire upper surface covered
with long loose fur, the hairs grey at their base, and higher up ringed
with greyish-green and blackish-brown; the fore-arms, hands, feet, and the
basal three-fourths of the tail blackish-brown; the sides of the head and
the whole under surface yellowish; the inside of the limbs yellowish-grey;
the hair of the terminal part of the tail lighter than the rest, and ringed
with yellow; face, bluish-black.

DISTRIBUTION.--E. Africa; Mitola, at the mouth of the Osi and Tana rivers.

HABITS.--This species was found living in the woods on the coast in small
troops of from five to six in number.


  _Cercopithecus_, Erxleben, Syst. Regn. Anim., p. 22 (1777).

The genus _Cercopithecus_ includes a larger number of species than any
other of the _Anthropoidea_. Its members are {42}characterised by their
rather round head, slender but muscular bodies, narrow loins, and long hind
limbs. Their tail is long, though shorter than in the genera next to be
described, viz., the Langurs and the Guerezas. Their face is short, the
muzzle less elongated, the cheek-pouches larger than in the Macaques. The
nose is not prominent, and the nostrils are approximated, while whiskers
are generally developed, as well as a longer or shorter beard. Their
callosities are less extensive than in the Macaques. They have elongated
hands with fingers united by a web at their bases; their thumbs, though
distinct, being less developed in comparison than their great-toes. The fur
is thick and soft, and in most of the species is ringed with differently
and often brilliantly coloured bars.

The _Cercopitheci_ have the skull depressed, presenting no very distinct
brow, for its superciliary ridges are less prominent and angular, and their
outer margin less projecting in comparison with those of the skulls in the
genera already described. The orbits are considerably approximated. Their
molar teeth are strongly cusped, and the posterior lower molar has only
four cusps, and not five, as in the Macaques; but as in these animals, the
two front cusps are united together by a transverse ridge, and the two hind
ones are united together.

The Guenons are entirely confined to the African continent, where they
range from the Gambia to the Congo, and from Abyssinia to the Zambesi; but
the different species are each confined to small restricted areas. Being
essentially arboreal, they live entirely in the forest regions, herding
together in large troops. They can move from tree to tree with great
rapidity, and can climb even on vertical surfaces with surprising
quickness. They are abrupt and energetic in their movements, restless, and
noisy, incessantly chattering and {43}making grimaces. The latter habit is
so characteristic of them that they have obtained from it the name of
_Guenon_, by which they are now so generally known, bestowed on them by the
French. Their food consists of leaves, birds' eggs, and honey, but
pre-eminently of fruits, while they are especially destructive to the ripe
grain-fields of the natives near the woods in which they live. They feed
voraciously, and carry off all that their cheek-pouches can hold, even
after they are satisfied, or if they are called off by the warning cry of
the sentinel, who is said to be always placed on guard on some point of
'vantage when the troop is busy with its depredations. The Guenons are not
only restless, but very inquisitive; they are, therefore, when young, very
easily tamed, and as a consequence they are frequently to be seen as
performers in circuses and exhibitions. When aged they are unreliable in
temper, and often very ill-dispositioned. They are said, also, to repel
with missiles any intruders into the region in which they are established
in any numbers.

The known species--numbering about forty--have for the purposes of
description and easy subsequent discrimination, been arranged into groups
(based on a few of their more or less prominent characters) by different
zoologists. Of these M. Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire, of Paris, and
Professor Schlegel, of Leyden, may be specially mentioned; the arrangement
of the latter forming a very convenient key for the determination of the
species. Among the zoologists who have more recently revised this genus is
the well-known Secretary of the Zoological Society of London, Dr. P. L.
Sclater, who has to some extent followed and improved upon Professor
Schlegel's arrangement of the genus. In the present review, therefore, of
the numerous species of this genus, the six groups {44}suggested by Dr.
Sclater have been adopted. These are (I.) The Nose-spotted
Guenons--_Cercopitheci rhinosticti_; (II.) The Green Guenons--_C.
chloronoti_; (III.) The Rufous-backed Guenons--_C. erythronoti_; (IV.) The
Black-limbed Guenons--_C. melanochiri_; (V.) The Tufted-eared Guenons--_C.
auriculati_; (VI.) The Bearded Guenons--_C. barbati_; and lastly, The
Three-cusped Guenons--_C. trituberculati_.


The members of this group have a distinct nose-spot of white, red, or blue.


  _Simia petaurista_, Schreb., Saügeth., i., p. 103, pl. xix. B (1775).

  _Blanc-nez_, Buff., Hist. Nat., Suppl., vii., p. 67 (1789).

  _Cercopithecus petaurista_, Erxl., Syst. Regn. An., p. 35 (1777); Martin,
  Mammif. An., p. 539 (1841); Wagn. in Schreber's Säugeth., Suppl., v., p.
  250 (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 20 (1870); Schleg., Mus.
  Pays-Bas, vii., p. 86 (1876); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 244.

  _Ascagne_ (_Cercopithecus ascanius_), Audeb., Hist. Nat. Singes, Fam.
  iv., Sect. ii., fig. xiii.; F. Cuvier, Nat. Hist., Mamm., i., livr. xiv.
  (Fev., 1820).

CHARACTERS.--Head round, the forehead rather elevated; nose broad; face and
nose covered with short hairs; whiskers short; chin bearded. Head, back,
upper side of tail, olive-green--the hairs grey at the base--ringed with
darker or lighter yellow and black; facial hairs black, slightly washed
with fulvous on the cheeks; skin below bluish-red or violet; lower part of
the nose and half of the upper lip white; whiskers and beard white; line
across the forehead above the eyes and the ears, and {45}encircling the
crown behind, black; a pencil of hair below the ears directed backward,
white; throat, chest, under side of body, inside of limbs and under side of
tail white; posterior aspect of fore-arms and legs grey, washed with olive;
naked parts of chin, ears, and hands purplish-black.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: Gold Coast and Sierra Leone.

HABITS.--The Ascagne, as this animal is also named, is the most common of
the Guenons seen in menageries. It is gentle, graceful, and lively. They
are perpetually in motion, "gambolling with their companions, and pursuing
or being pursued by them, in the exuberance of playfulness. They are at the
same time docile and familiar, but dislike to be taken hold of, or
interfered with." (_Martin._) Allamand says that his specimen, which was in
general very gentle, became angry when interrupted while eating, or if it
was gibed at, but its irritation did not last long.


  _Cercopithecus signatus_, Jentink, Notes, Leyd. Mus., viii., p. 55
  (1886); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 257.

CHARACTERS.--Very similar to _C. petaurista_. Sides of head grizzled--the
hairs ringed with white, yellowish, and black--and separated abruptly from
the reddish upper portion of the head by a black band from ear to ear over
the orbits, but not running round the vertex; ears somewhat larger than in
_C. petaurista_.

Cranial portion of skull higher, and the facial portion more produced than
in _C. petaurista_; the jaws longer, and the orbits rounder and wider.

DISTRIBUTION.--Supposed to be from West Africa, but its habitat is not
known with certainty.


  _Cercopithecus erythrogaster_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1866, p. 169, pl. xvi.,
  1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p.  128 (1870); Murie, P. Z.
  S., 1866, p. 380; Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 69 (1876); Sclater, P.
  Z. S., 1893, p. 252, 1894, p. 1.

CHARACTERS.--Fur blackish, speckled with yellow, especially on the head,
the hairs being black ringed with yellow; face black; nose-spot white;
moustache and frontal band from the temple to the ears black; on each cheek
a whitish-yellow spot; whiskers, beard, throat, and sides of neck
yellowish-white; chest and under surface of body rufous; inner side of the
front of the thighs, and under side of the tail greyish-white; outer aspect
of thighs and hind legs grey, speckled with black. Length of body, 13½
inches; of tail, 16 inches.

In the young female the top of the head is yellowish, this colour extending
towards the nape.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa. This species has been only once exhibited in
the Zoological Gardens of London, viz., in 1866, but recently, according to
Dr. Sclater, a specimen lived for a short time in the Zoological Gardens of

HABITS.--Nothing is known of the habits of the Red-bellied Guenon in a
state of nature; but Dr. Murie has written of the one that lived for two
months in the Zoological Gardens: "Its nature appeared mild and harmless,
by no means grave or sedate, indeed rather inclined to be lively and
playful, with but little disposition to be quarrelsome. The keeper noticed
that it appeared timid, and somewhat distrustful of its more romping
companions, but freely approached him, and when {47}taking food out of his
hand seemed pleased, and gently played with his fingers without attempting
to bite."


  _Cercopithecus buettikoferi_, Jentink, Notes, Leyd. Mus., viii., p. 56
  (1886); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 244.

CHARACTERS.--Büttikofer's Guenon agrees in all respects with _C.
petaurista_, but wants the black band from ear to ear round the vertex. Of
this band "there is no trace, in a series of eight specimens, containing
adults and young, males and females" (_Jentink_). Irides brown.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: Liberia.


  _Cercopithecus martini_, Waterh., P. Z. S., 1838, p. 58; 1841, p. 71;
  Martin, Mammif. Anim., p. 542 (1841); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p.
  21 (1870); Scl., P. Z. S., 1884, p. 176, pl. xiv.; 1893, p. 245.

  _Cercopithecus nictitans_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 89 (1876).

DESCRIPTION.--Allied to _C. petaurista_. Fur tolerably long and but loosely
applied to the body. Face naked; whiskers bushy; beard short; tail very
long; callosities small. Length of body (type specimen), 22 inches; tail,
26. Length of a female, 19 inches; tail, 24. General colour of head, back,
and upper side of the basal part of the tail olive-green, distinctly
annulated, the hairs being grey at their base, ringed above with several
bars of yellowish-green and black. Face blue; nose-spot, commencing in the
middle of the ridge, and extending over its sides and the upper and lower
lips, yellowish-white; a black line extending up the ridge of the nose from
the end of the white spot to the brow and encircling the eyes; {48}a black
bar crossing the forehead from ear to ear; whiskers green; beard white;
throat, chest, under side of body, inside of limbs and under side of
three-fourths of the tail, greyish-white; fore-arms black; legs black; the
arms and thighs of the same colour as the back; upper side of the tail
beyond the basal region, and its terminal portion, black; hands and feet

As Dr. Sclater has pointed out (_loc. cit._): "It is at once
distinguishable from _C. petaurista_ by the black fore-limbs and feet, by
the greenish colour on the tail above; the greenish cheeks, without any
white stripe beneath the ears, and the bluish skin of the face."

DISTRIBUTION.--Martin's Guenon is generally brought to Europe from the
island of Fernando Po, where it is probably indigenous. It may also inhabit
the neighbouring coast of Western Africa.


  _Cercopithecus ludio_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1849, p. 8, pl. ix., fig. 1; id.,
  P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 21 (1870),
  Wagner, in Schreb., Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 51 (1855); Sclater, P. Z. S.,
  1893, p. 245.

  _Cercopithecus ascanias_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 87 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Spot on lower half of nose large, oblong, higher than broad.
General colour of fur black or dark greenish-olive, minutely speckled with
greyish-yellow. Face and lips blackish-blue, the nose-spot white; ridge of
nose above the white spot, superciliary band, crown of head, shoulders and
fore-limbs, black; outer and inner aspects of hind-limbs and extremity of
tail black; chin, chest, inner side of the upper part of the arms, and
under side of body, whitish; {49}whiskers black; rump and under side of the
base of the tail rufous.

Distinguished from _C. petaurista_ by its black limbs, reddish rump and
base of tail.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: Cameroons and the Delta of the Niger.


  _Cercopithecus melanogenys_, Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xvi., p. 212
  (1845); id., P. Z. S., 1849, p. 7, pl. ix., fig. 2; id., P. Z. S., 1868,
  p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 21 (1870); Scl., P. Z. S., 1860,
  p. 246; Monteiro, P. Z. S., 1860, p. 112; Jentink, Notes, Leyden Mus.,
  x., p. 11 (1888); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 245.

  _Cercopithecus picturatus_, Santos, Journ. Sci. Lisb., xi., p. 98 (1886).

CHARACTERS.--The white nose-spot cordate in shape; a band across the
forehead above the eyes passing backwards over the ears, and over the lower
cheeks, black; region between the eye and the ear whitish; back finely
grizzled with black and orange; centre of the back washed with deep rufous;
outside of the legs dark grey, becoming black on the hands and feet; tail
dark rufous. Length of body, 15¾ inches; tail, about 17 inches.

The black lower cheeks, and the white region between the eye and the ear
distinguish _C. melanogenys_ from _C. nictitans_ and _C. stampflii_.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: Angola. "It is very abundant at Encôge, three
days' journey to the south of Bemba." (_Monteiro._)


  _Cercopithecus melanogenys_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 90 (1876, nec

  _Cercopithecus stampflii_, Jentink, Notes, Leyden Mus., x., p. 10 (1888);
  Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 257.

CHARACTERS.--Nose-spot white, with its broader part lowest, and the point
upwards; crown of head, nape of neck, legs and hinder portion of tail
black; spot on lower lip black; chin, breast, anterior portion of belly,
and inside of fore-arms white; forehead, cheeks, back, sides of body, and
the basal portion of the tail, rufous-green, the hairs being ringed with
black and rufous-yellow. Length of body, 25¼ inches; tail, 38½ inches.

Distinguished from _C. nictitans_ by its white under surface.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: Liberia. Obtained in the Pessi country by
Messrs. Büttikofer and Stampfli.


  _Cercopithecus ascanias_ (?), Scl., P. Z. S., 1887, p. 502.

  _Cercopithecus schmidti_, Matschie, Zool. Anz., p. 161 (1892); Sclater,
  P. Z. S., 1893, p. 245, pl. xvi.

CHARACTERS.--Closely allied to _C. melanogenys_, the white nose-spot
cordate. Face and superciliary region blue; nose above the white spot
black; a bar between the nose-spot, reaching to the whiskers, on each side,
black; upper and lower lips flesh-coloured; whiskers white, conspicuous,
and with a very narrow black streak on their lower edge; beard white; above
the superciliary region, and between the flesh-coloured ears, a black
frontal bar; top of head, back, outer aspect of arms, thighs, and of the
basal third of tail, olive-green and more {51}punctulated than in _C.
melanogenys_; throat, under side of body, and inner side of the upper part
of the limbs, white; fore-arms, hands, legs, and feet black; posterior
two-thirds of tail rufous.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species was obtained by the Rev. W. C. Willoughby, in
1883, at Uniamwezi, in Eastern Equatorial Africa, and was said to have been
brought thither from the Manyuema country, on the western shore of Lake
Tanganyika. His specimen lived in the Zoological Gardens in London for
nearly three years. It has also been obtained in Uganda, further to the


  _Simia nictitans_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 40 (1766).

  _Cercopithecus nictitans_, Erxl., Syst. Règne Anim., p. 35 (1777);
  Martin, Mammif. An., p. 536 (1841); Wagner, in Schreber's Säugeth.
  Suppl., v., p. 50 (1855); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., p. 21 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 89 (1876); Scl.,
  P. Z. S., 1893, p. 246.

  _Cercopithecus nictitans_ (Hocheur), F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat., Mamm. i., pl.
  17 (1825); Audebert, Hist. Nat. des Singes, Fam. iv., Sect. i., p. 9, pl.

CHARACTERS.--Head round; forehead elevated; face depressed; nose broad,
short-haired. "Hair of the head very full; boldly over-reaching the eyes,
obscuring the ears, and adding to the breadth and elevation of the top of
the head." (_Martin._) Nose-spot narrow above, commencing between the eyes,
broad below; the lips and a broad ring round the eyes, nude, or very
short-haired, elsewhere haired; whiskers bushy; callosities covered with
hair; thumbs very short; muzzle shorter than is {52}usually the case in the
genus; no beard; tail long, thinly-haired, tapering.

General colour all over, black, speckled with white or yellowish, the hairs
being grey at their roots, then black, tipped with white or
yellowish-white; face purplish-black; nose-spot pure white; no white on the
lips; ears black; no black stripes on the face, a character distinguishing
it from all the other spotted-nosed Monkeys; under surface of body and
basal part of tail blackish-grey, the inside of the limbs less distinctly

Some specimens are not so black, but are greyer, especially on the under
side, which may be washed with brown.

The white colour of the nose not extending on to the upper lip
distinguishes this species from _C. petaurista_, independently of the
general colouring.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa. Although the "Hocheur" is not uncommon in
European menageries, it is still uncertain in exactly what part of that
extensive region it has its home.

HABITS.--Nothing is known of the habits of this species, except what has
been observed from examples living in captivity. In durance the species is
mild and gentle in disposition, and very active, and has a way of
incessantly shaking its head, a habit from which it derives its French
appellation of "Hocheur."


  _Cercopithecus erythrotis_, Waterh., P. Z. S., 1838, p. 59; 1841, p. 71;
  Martin, Mammif. An., p. 535 (1841); Fraser, Zool. Typ., pl. iv. (1848);
  Wagn., in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 49 (1855); Gray, P. Z. S.,
  1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 21 (1870); Schlegel, Mus.
  Pays-Bas, vii., p. 70 (1876); Scl., P. Z. S., 1884, p. 176, 1893, p. 246.

{53}CHARACTERS.--General colour of back, sides, and outer aspect of the
hind-limbs, black, speckled with yellowish-grey, or with golden-yellow on
the hinder part of the back--the hairs being black, ringed with yellow or
gold respectively; face nearly nude, except for a few short hairs on the
upper part of the nose; region round the eyes, livid blue; nose red; chin
white; a black bar from the eye to the ear; below this a broad white
whisker-streak on the cheeks, beneath which again there arises from the
corner of the mouth and cheeks another black, yellow-ringed, tuft of hair;
ears rusty-red internally; external aspect of the fore-limbs blackish;
throat, under surface of the body, and inner side of the limbs
greyish-white; tail bright rufous, except for a dark line along its upper
surface; anal hairs bright red. Length of body, 17 inches; tail, 23 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--This rare and very beautiful Monkey has its home in the
island of Fernando Po.


  _Simia cephus_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 39 (1766).

  _Cercopithecus cephus_ (Moustac), F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat., Mamm., i., livr.
  xxvi. (1821); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 532 (1841); Wagner, in Schreber's
  Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 49 (1855); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id.,
  Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 20 (1870); Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p.
  91 (1876); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 246.

  _Le moustac_, Audebert, Hist. Nat. Singes, Fam. iv., Sect, ii., p. 19,
  fig. xii.

CHARACTERS.--Face and nose naked; muzzle short; whiskers thick and bushy,
directed backward and downward. Face, except the lips, violet-blue; margin
of the upper lip black, this {54}colour extending as a bar back to the
whiskers; between this black margin and the nose is a white bar, extending
also across the cheek to the whiskers; under lip and chin, black; whiskers
between the eyes and ears golden-yellow, paler below the ears, and white on
the under jaw; ears black, with yellowish-white hairs. Head greenish,
darker on the back than on the front; the neck, back, shoulders, outer side
of arms, flanks, buttocks, and upper side of the base of the tail
greenish-brown--the hairs being grey at their roots and ringed above with
yellow and black, or brown, the predominance of the one or the other
producing the brown, or brighter or fainter green colour; on the outer side
of the thighs, the green hue is deeper. The rest of the outer aspect of the
limbs is grey washed with yellow; hands and feet dusky brown or dull black;
under side of the body and inside of the limbs dark grey, lighter on the
throat, breast, and fore part of the belly; under side of the base of the
tail dark grey; the remaining two-thirds rufous. Length of body, 19 inches;
of tail, 26 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: from Gaboon to the Congo.

HABITS.--This species is not at all uncommon in menageries. Numerous
specimens have from time to time been exhibited in the Zoological Gardens
in London. Little is known, however, of the habits of the Moustached Monkey
in its native forests. In captivity it is intelligent, lively, and
good-tempered, but very shy. Its delicate constitution cannot resist the
rigours of our climate for any length of time.


In this section of the Guenons, the fur is more or less olive-green above;
the under side and whiskers white, and the arms and legs grey.


  _Simia cynosurus_, Scop. Delic. Flor. et Faun. Insubr., i., p. 44, pl.
  xix. (1786).

  _Cercopithecus cynosurus_ (Malbrouck), F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat., Mamm., i.,
  livr. ii. (Janvier, 1819); Desmarest, Mamm., p. 60 (1820); Martin,
  Mammif. An., p. 515 (1841); Geoffr., Dict. d'Hist. Nat., iii., p. 306
  (1849); Wagner, in Schreber's Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 38 (1855); Schleg.
  Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 72 (1876); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 247.

  _Cercopithecus tephrops_, Bennett, P. Z. S., 1833, p. 109.

  _Chlorocebus cynosurus_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 26 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Head broad, and rounded above; muzzle thick. Face naked,
flesh-coloured; nose and cheeks black-haired; ears nude, black; hands
short, thumbs rudimentary; hairs on the side of the head not forming
whiskers. Top of head and upper surface of body olive-green--the hairs
being grey at their roots and ringed with black and yellow; external
surface of the fore-arms and legs grizzled-grey, the hairs with black and
white rings; sides of the neck, under surface of the body, inside of the
limbs, and the under side of the tail white; an indistinct band across the
forehead over the eyes, white; tail dark grey above; callosities scarlet;
scrotal region in the male deep blue; hairs beneath the tail and round the
scrotal region rufous. Length of body about 18 inches; tail, 16 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa. Probably Senegambia, but the exact habitat
still unknown.

HABITS.--Of the habits of the Malbrouck in its own home nothing has been
recorded; but Mr. Martin remarks that in captivity it combines in its
disposition a certain degree of {56}sluggishness with a savage and
vindictive temper. One of the specimens, he says, "in the menagerie of the
Zoological Society, an adult male, was gentle, familiar, and pleased to be
noticed or caressed; but, at the same time, it was neither lively nor
playful. The other was deceitful, and though apparently calm, very
suspicious; it was roused by the slightest provocation to anger, and would
turn upon its disturber with the utmost malevolence depicted in its
countenance, making every possible effort to assault him, exhibiting its
teeth and gazing fixedly in his face.... On the whole, indolence and
ferocity form the character of the adult, at least, in captivity."


  _Simia sabæa_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 38 (1766).

  _Cercopithecus griseus_ (Le Grivet), F. Cuvier, Mamm., i., livr. vii.
  (Juin, 1819).

  _Cercopithecus griseo-viridis_, Desmarest, Mamm., p. 61 (1820); Martin,
  Mammif. An., p. 518 (1841); Rüppell, Neue Wirbelth. Säugeth., p. 8
  (1835); Blanford, Zool. Abyss. Exp., p. 224 (1870); Sclater, P. Z. S.,
  1893, p. 248.

  _Cercopithecus sabæus_,  Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 22 (1851);
  Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 74 (1876).

  _Chlorocebus engythithea_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 26 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Head more pyramidal than in _C. cynosurus_, and the muzzle
thinner; an angular patch of hair at the corner of each eye, pointing
backwards; whiskers forming long and thick ear-tufts, directed backwards
and partly concealing the ears; ears small; hands short and small. Face,
ears, and lips dark {57}violet; region round the eyes livid flesh-colour;
the superciliary band joining the whiskers white; top of the head, back as
far as the rump, shoulders and arms greyish olive-green--the hairs ringed
with greyish-black and pale yellow; whiskers, chin, breast, under surface
of body, fore part of shoulders, the inner side of the limbs, and the under
side of the tail, white; forearms, rump, and thighs grey, slightly washed
with olive; hands and feet entirely grey; upper side of the tail
greyish-black, the tip paler. Scrotal region coppery-green, covered with
orange hairs.

Distinguished from the Malbrouck by the form of the head, the greyer shade
of the hair, and the colour of the scrotal region; and from _C.
callitrichus_, described below, by the more sombre colour of its hair, the
white superciliary band, and the long white whiskers. Length of body, about
19 inches; tail, 22 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--North-east Africa: throughout Abyssinia, Sennaar, and
Kordofan, up to 4,000 feet.

HABITS.--According to Dr. Blanford, this species is a true tree Monkey, and
is very rarely seen except in the forest. "On the highlands of Abyssinia,"
he says, "I only once saw a flock--this was near Dildi, south of Lake
Ashangi. I met with larger flocks on the Anseba, where they inhabited the
high trees on the banks of the stream. The flocks seen were small, not
exceeding twenty to thirty individuals. I had but few opportunities of
observing their habits, but they appeared to differ but little from those
of _Macacus_ or _Inuus_, except that _Cercopithecus_ is a quieter animal
and less mischievous. In captivity they are well known as excessively
docile and good tempered, and fairly intelligent."


  _Cercopithecus werneri_, Geoffr., C. R., xxxi., p. 874 (1850); id., Arch.
  Mus., v., p. 539, pl. xxvii. (1851); Wagner, in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl.,
  v., p. 42 (1855); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 258.

CHARACTERS.--Nearly related to _C. sabæus_, but all the parts are
olive-green where that species is greyish-green--the hairs being ringed
with reddish-fawn and black; the former taking the place of the green rings
in the hairs of the _C. sabæus_, and the black ones being much broader; the
face black; the tail yellow at the tip as in _C. sabæus_.

DISTRIBUTION.--The exact habitat of this species is unknown.


  (_Plate XXVIII._)

  _Singe Verte_, Adanson, Voy. Sénég., p. 178 (1735).

  _Cercopithecus sabæa_ (nec Linn.), Erxleb., Syst. Regne An., p. 33

  _Cercopithecus sabæus_, Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth., v., p. 40 (1855);
  Martin, Mammif. An., p. 519 (1841).

  _Le Callitriche_, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mamm., i., livr. iv. (Mars, 1819).

  _Simia sabæa_, Audebert, Singes, Fam. iv., Sect., ii., p. 7, fig. iv.

  _Cercopithecus callitrichus_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 23
  (1851); Schleg, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 73 (1876); Sclater, P. Z. S.,
  1866, p. 79; 1893, pp. 248, 616.

  _Chlorocebus sabæus_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 25 (1870).


[Illustration: GREEN GUENON.]

{59}CHARACTERS.--Muzzle rather long; ears large, naked, and somewhat
pointed behind; hairs on the side of the head long, thick, frill-like, and
directed backwards toward the ears; hands and feet long, but the feet
longer than the hands. Face, ears, palms, and soles, black; superciliary
band bright yellow or white; head, back, shoulders, arms, and upper part of
the forearms, the thighs, upper part of the legs, and upper side of the
tail rich yellowish-green,--the hairs being ringed with broader bars of
yellow, and narrower bars of black; external surface of the lower part of
the fore- and hind-limbs grey, the hairs being ringed with white, or very
pale yellow and black; cheeks, throat, under surface of the body, and inner
side of the limbs, white, washed with yellow on the cheeks, throat, and
along the mid-line of the belly. Tail tipped with a long tuft of bright
yellow; under side of the tail greyish-green; hairs beneath the tail and on
the scrotal region bright yellow; naked skin of the scrotal parts, green.
Length of body, 24 inches; of tail, 29 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: from Senegambia to the Niger. It is said to be
now abundant in a wild state in the island of St. Kitts, in the West
Indies, and Colonel Feilden identified it in Barbadoes. Into both of these
islands it has been introduced from Africa, in the same way as into St.
Jago, one of the Cape Verde Islands.

HABITS.--The Green Monkeys frequent high trees in the great forests, living
in small troops or sitting alone. They move about very noiselessly, and
would seem to be devoid of voice, remaining silent even when attacked or
wounded; although they knit their brows, gnash their teeth, and evince
every sign of vexation and anger. This species is one of the commonest
Monkeys introduced into Europe, as it appears to be able to stand, better
than most of the other members of the genus, the northern climate. It has
even bred in the Zoological {60}Gardens in London. It is very active and
intelligent, and when young it is gentle and of a good disposition, but as
it grows older it becomes treacherous, malicious, and savage.


  _Cercopithecus pygerythra_ (Le Vervet), F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm.,
  iii., livr. xxiv. (Janvier, 1821).

  _Cercopithecus pygerithræus_, Desmarest, Mamm., Suppl., p. 534 (1820).

  _Cercopithecus pygerythrus_, Lesson, Spec. des Mamm. Bimanes et Quadrum.,
  p. 83 (1840); Geoffr., Dict. Hist. Nat., iii., p. 305 (1849); id., Cat.
  Méth. Primates, p. 21 (1851); Wagner, in Schreb. Säugeth., v., p. 39
  (1855); Peters, Reis. Mossamb. Säugeth., p. 4; Martin, Mammif. An., p.
  521 (1841); Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, vii., p. 76 (1876); Thomas, P. Z. S.,
  1885, p. 219; H. H. Johnston, Kilimanjaro Exped., p. 352 (1886); Scl., P.
  Z. S., 1893, p. 249 (nec Martin, nec. Schl.).

  _Cercopithecus pusillus_, Delalande in Desmoul, Dict. Class., vii., p.

  _Cercopithecus lalandii_, Geoffr., Dict. d'Hist. Nat., iii., p. 305
  (1849); Wagner, in Schreber's Säugeth., v., p. 39 (1855); Sclater, P. Z.
  S., 1893, pp. 248 and 615.

  _Cercopithecus rufo-viridis_, Is. Geoffr., C. R., xv., p. 1038 (1842);
  Scl., P. Z. S., 1860, p. 420.

  _Chlorocebus pygerythrus_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus, p. 25 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Very nearly allied to the Grivet (_C. sabæus_), to the
Malbrouck (_C. cynosurus_), and to the last species, the Green Guenon.
Distinguished from the Grivet by the chin, the hands and the feet, beyond
the ankle, and the wrist being very black, instead of grey; and the tip of
the tail (or its {61}entire length) black, instead of being grey or yellow,
as in the Malbrouck. It differs from both the Malbrouck and Grivet in
having, according to Martin, long coarse fur, greyer in tint above, with a
slighter wash of olive (= _C. lalandii_ of Geoffroy); or in being more
reddish-yellow or yellowish-green above (the true _C. pygerythrus_); also
by having conspicuous superciliary bristles. The less thick and heavy
muzzle and the green scrotal region distinguish it from the Malbrouck; the
rust-red coloured hair on the space below the root of the tail
distinguishes it from the Grivet. Length of body, 22 inches; tail, 27

The female is slightly smaller than the male.

DISTRIBUTION.--South Africa: Cape Colony. "The Vervet is common in the
forests along the Great Fish river, and other streams between Algoa Bay and
Cape Town. Its range extends also along the Natal coast, throughout the
Amakozi country, and Caffreland generally." (_Martin._) Zambesia. On
Kilimanjaro. Mr. H. H. Johnston observed it to be common, at 5,000 feet, in
the cultivated gardens round the village of Moshi, and in the forests lower
down, at Taveita.

HABITS.--Their food consists of fruits, and particularly of the gum which
exudes from various species of Acacia. In confinement, when irritated, they
utter, it is said, a barking noise, display their teeth, and gaze with
hatred in their eyes. They are very treacherous, ferocious, and daring, and
their cage requires to be approached with much precaution. Mr. Johnston,
when living on the slopes of Kilimanjaro, found them to be exceedingly
familiar and mischievous, and given to stealing fruits, &c. They are
entirely without the fear of Man.

This Monkey is very commonly to be seen alive in European {62}menageries,
where it appears to stand the northern climate fairly well. At a meeting of
the Zoological Society in November, 1893, Dr. Sclater remarked that
_Cercopithecus callitrichus_ (= _C. pygerythrus_) had recently bred in the
Gardens. Concerning the latter birth a curious fact had been observed and
reported by the keepers--that the young Monkey, which lived about two
months, had been in the habit of sucking both of the mother's teats at


  _Cercopithecus tantalus_, Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1841, p. 33; Sclater, P. Z.
  S., 1893, p. 258; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 73 (1876).

  _Cercocebus tantalus_, var. f., Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 26

CHARACTERS.--Head rounder and face shorter than in _C. callitrichus_. Face
covered with very short hairs; nose prominent, and narrow between the eyes,
flatter and broader towards the tip. Head, back, and sides, a mixture of
yellowish-brown and green, of the same shade as prevails in the upper parts
of _C. callitrichus_ and _C. pygerythrus_; outer surface of the limbs
clearer ashy-grey; whiskers, throat, breast, under side of the body, and
inner side of the limbs, yellowish-white; tail brown at the root, pale grey
at the tip; back of hands and feet light grey; face livid flesh-colour
round the eyes, the short hairs on the nose and cheeks black; lips light
brown; eyebrows black, surmounted by a broad white band across the
forehead; scrotal region covered with yellowish hairs. (_Ogilby._)

DISTRIBUTION.--Africa, but the exact habitat is unknown.



The next three species constitute the red-furred group of Geoffroy and
Sclater, being bright rufous above, and white beneath.


  _Simia patas_, Schreber, Säugeth., i., p. 98, pl. xvi. (1775).

  _Cercopithecus patas_, Erxleb. Syst. Règne An., p. 34 (1777); Schleg.,
  Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 84 (1876); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 249.

  _Simia rubra_, Gm., Syst. Nat., i., p. 34 (1788); Fischer, Synops. Mamm.,
  p. 24 (1829).

  _Cercopithecus ruber_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 96 (1812); id., Dict.
  d'Hist. Nat., iii., p. 307 (1849); Desmar. Mamm., p. 59 (1820); Martin,
  Mammif. An., p. 509 (1841, pt.); Wagner, in Schreber, Säugeth. Suppl.,
  v., p. 42 (1855); Scl., P. Z. S., 1874, p. 664.

  _Le Patas et Le Patas à bandeau noir_, F. Cuvier, Hist. Mamm. i., livr.
  xv. (Avril, 1820).

  _Chlorocebus ruber_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 25 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Head broad and flattened; nose depressed; muzzle short; fur
long and silky on the back of the head, elsewhere short. Orbits narrow;
cheeks and muzzle naked; whiskers thick and bushy, encroaching far on the
cheeks, and extending back below the ears; chin with a few hairs, but no
beard. Head, back, sides, and hinder aspect of the arms and fore-arms, and
of the thighs and legs, and of the upper and lower sides of the base, and
the upper side of the rest of the tail, foxy red; shoulders, chest, front
and rest of the fore-limbs, entire under side of the body, and of the
terminal portion {64}of the tail, and inner side of the limbs, with the
entire hands and feet, grey or greyish-white,--the hairs being ringed with
black and white. The nude parts of the face and of the ears, hands, and
feet, violet flesh-colour; a distinct superciliary arch black; a white bar
from the eye to behind the ear; a black line from the superciliary stripe,
extending down the nose-ridge and expanding on the tip; on the upper lip, a
short moustache of black hairs; whiskers greyish-white, washed with yellow.
This species varies considerably in size and in coloration.

In young animals the grey is often washed with rufous.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: Senegal.

HABITS.--The Patas in its native forest lives in large troops, which unite
together, as De la Brue has recorded, against a common enemy. He relates
that as he passed along a river in his boat, the Patas came down to the
tips of the branches out of curiosity, but after watching the party for a
time they threw dry branches and other handy objects at them, till some of
their number were at last shot. This so infuriated the survivors, that they
redoubled their attack with stones and other missiles, giving utterance
meanwhile to the most frightful cries. Mr. Martin, from whom we have
condensed De la Brue's account, says that this species is lively in
captivity, but very spiteful and capricious, its temper becoming worse with


  _Cercopithecus pyrrhonotus_, Hempr. et Ehrenb., Symb. Phys., pl. x.
  (1838); Geoffr., Dict. Hist. Nat., iii., p. 307 (1849); Wagner, in
  Schreber's Säugeth., v., p. 42 (1855); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 623;
  1893, p. 250; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 84 (1876).

  {65}_Cercopithecus ruber_, Rüpp., Neue Wirb. Säugeth., p. 8 (1835);
  Martin, Mammif. An., p. 509 (1841) (in part).

  _Le Nisnas_, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm., i., pl. 27 (1830).

  _Chlorocebus ruber_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 25 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Of the same size as _C. patas_, and very similar to it. Fur
above, and on the lower part of the limbs rufous, and on the lower part of
the back, and under side of the tail, much darker rufous than elsewhere;
nose white, not black as in the preceding species; shoulders and external
aspect of arms rufous like the rest of the body, and not grey as in _C.

DISTRIBUTION.--North-east Africa: Kordofan and Darfur, to a height of 3,000
feet above the sea. A specimen living in the Zoological Gardens in 1882 was
stated to have come from Somali-land.

Allied to the Patas and the Nisnas is Peters' Guenon (_Cercopithecus
ochraceus_, Peters, Reis. Mossamb. Säugeth., p. 2, pl. 1a), from Querimba,
Mozambique, which has the upper side yellowish, and is probably but a
variety of _C. pyrrhonotus_.


  _Cercopithecus rufo-viridis_, Geoffr., C. R., xv., p. 1038 (1842); id.
  Dict. Hist. Nat., iii., p. 307 (1849); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 78
  (1876); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 258.

  _Chlorocebus rufo-viridis_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 25 (1870).

  _? Cercopithecus flavidus_, Peters, Reis. Mossamb., p. 3, pl. i.b.

CHARACTERS.--Face black; a large frontal band white; head above
olive-green; back green washed with rufous, gradually becoming bright
rufous, slightly speckled with black on the sides {66}of the body between
the fore- and hind-limbs; shoulders and thighs grey, washed with green; the
rest of the external aspect of the limbs grey; under side of body and inner
side of limbs white; hands speckled black; the feet greyish; tail, dark
grey above, pale grey below.

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITS.--Unknown. The form described by Peters as _C.
flavidus_ comes from Mozambique.


The species which we now proceed to describe belong to Prof. Schlegel's
Section v., and Dr. Sclater's _Cercopitheci melanochiri_, of which the
members have the arms and legs either black or dark grey, and have a black
band from the outer corner of the eyes to the ears.


  _Simia mona_, Schreber, Säugeth., i., p. 97, pl. xv. (1775).

  _Cercopithecus mona_, Erxleb. Syst. Regne An., p. 32 (1777); Geoffr.,
  Dict. Hist. Nat., p. 304 (1849); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 527 (1841);
  Wagner, in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 47 (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., p. 22 (1870); Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 80 (1876);
  Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 250.

  _La mone_, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm., i., livr. ix. (Août, 1819).

CHARACTERS.--Top of the head brilliant golden-green, the hairs being black
at the roots, yellow further up and tipped with black; back, sides of body,
shoulders, and haunches chestnut-brown, speckled with black,--the hairs
being grey at the base, ringed alternately with red, or brown and black;
frontal band pale greenish; rump, with the exception of a distinctive
elliptical white bar on each side, at the base of the tail, black; the
hands and feet, and external aspect of the legs, {67}thighs, and fore-arms,
black; the under side of the body and inner side of the limbs pure white,
separated by an abrupt line from the colours of the outer surfaces; the
transverse black band above the eyebrows extending from the outer corner of
the eyes to the ears; nude parts of face, ears, and hands livid
flesh-colour; the whiskers bushy, covering much of the cheeks, descending
on the sides and lower part of the neck, pale yellow, speckled with black

The white bars on each side of the tail, on the rump, and the white frontal
band distinguish this species from all others.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: Cameroons.


  _Semnopithecus albogularis_, Sykes, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 106.

  _Cercopithecus albigularis_, Sykes, P. Z. S., 1832, p. 18; Owen, P. Z.
  S., 1832, p. 18 (anatomy); Martin, Mamm. An., p. 512 (1841); Frazer,
  Zool. Typ., pl. ii. (1848); Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 45
  (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 24 (1870); Schleg., Mus.
  Pays-Bas, vii., p. 79 (1876); True. Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus., xv., p. 448
  (1893); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 251; Matschie, S.B., Nat. Fr. Berl.,
  1893, p. 215; Thomas, P. Z. S., 1894, p. 137.

  _Cercopithecus erythrarchus_, Peters, Reis. Mossamb. Säugeth., p. 1, pl.
  i.; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 77 (1876); Kirk, P. Z. S., 1864, p.
  649; Reuvens, Zool. Gart., xxx., p. 207 (1889); Oudem, _op. cit._, xxxi.,
  p. 267 (1890); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 249 (female).

  _? Cercopithecus monoides_, Geoffr., Arch. du Mus., ii., p. 558, pl. 31
  (1841); id., C. R., xv., p. 1038 (1842); id., Dict. Hist. Nat., iii., p.
  303 (1849); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 256.

{68}CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Head rounded, short; ears small, rounded, and
nearly concealed in the long fur of the head; eyes deep-set; superciliary
hairs long; whiskers thick and bushy; no beard; facial angle large;
cheek-pouches small but distinct, not observable even when filled, being
concealed by the bushy whiskers; thumbs short; great-toes long; very small
callosities; tail half as long as the body. Larynx with the usual two wide
lateral sacs and a middle pouch extending forward about three inches under
the skin of the neck, communicating with the larynx by a large opening.

Entire upper surface black, mixed with yellow,--the hairs being black,
ringed with brownish-yellow bars. Face, cheeks, and lips black; shoulders,
fore-limbs and hind-limbs (washed with yellowish), black, from the absence
of the yellow bars, which predominate on the back and sides; under side of
the body black, speckled with white; chin and throat white; no white thigh
patches; tail, black.

FEMALE.--Differs from the male in being smaller, and in having the rump,
the upper and lower sides of the base of the tail, the region round the
anus, and the posterior aspect of the upper part of the thighs and arms
strongly tinged with reddish-brown. The lower side of the body and inner
sides of the limbs whitish--the hairs towards their extremities being
ringed with black and greyish-yellow. It has been described as
_Cercopithecus erythrarchus_ of Peters and other writers.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: Gold Coast (_Pel_); also said to have been
obtained on the Congo. East Africa: Mozambique; believed to abound about
Cape Corrientes (_Peters_). Quilimane and the Lower Zambesi are further
given as habitats both by Dr. Peters and Sir J. Kirk.  Mr. H. H. Johnston,
H.M. Commissioner in Nyasa Land, has sent it from the Milanji Plateau,
where it ranges from 3,000 to 6,000 feet above the sea. This species was at
one time supposed, but quite erroneously, to come from Madagascar.



{69}HABITS.--This Monkey is very frequently brought alive to Europe, and
almost all that we know of its habits has been obtained from observing it
in captivity. Colonel Sykes, who first brought this species to England and
described it, says that "its manners in captivity are grave and sedate. Its
disposition is gentle, but not affectionate; and though free from that
capricious petulance and mischievous irascibility characteristic of so many
of the African species, still it quickly resents irritating treatment, and
evinces its resentment by very smart blows with its anterior hands. It
never bit any person on board ship, but so seriously lacerated three
Monkeys, its fellow passengers, that two of them died from the wounds. It
readily ate meat, and would choose to pick a bone even when plentifully
supplied with vegetables and dried fruits." Another individual, seen by Mr.
Ogilby, exhibited the same antipathy to other Monkeys.


  (_Plate XXIX._)

  _Cercopithecus boutourlinii_, Giglioli, Zool. Anz., x., p. 510 (1887);
  Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, pp. 256, 441.

  _Cercopithecus albigularis_, Giglioli, Ann. Mus. Genov. (2), vi., p. 8

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Body-hairs long and rough; upper surface black, with
pale fulvous annellations, except on a line between the shoulders, which is
nearly black; ears nearly nude, with an inner hairy pencil; nose, upper
lip, chin, and throat, pure white; rest of the under surface and of the
limbs and tail black, {70}except the base of the tail, which has ringed
hairs like the back all round. Length of body, 21 inches; of tail, 24
inches. (_Sclater._)

FEMALE.--Nearly similar, but smaller, and having the hairs less ringed on
the back and the head. (_Sclater._)

Distinguished from _C. albigularis_ by its white nose and upper lips, black
under surface, and blacker limbs.

DISTRIBUTION.--North-east Africa: Kaffa, a province to the south of Shoa;
and Gimma, a province in Central Abyssinia, to the south of Gojan.


  _Cercopithecus campbelli_, Waterh., P. Z. S., 1838, p. 61; Fraser, Zool.
  Typ., pl. iii. (1848); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 544 (1841); Wagner in
  Schreber Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 47 (1855); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182;
  id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 24 (1870); Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii.,
  p. 82 (1876); Jentink, Notes, Leyden Mus., x., p. 9 (1888); Sclater, P.
  Z. S., 1893, p. 251.

  _Cercopithecus burnetti_, Gray, Ann. N. H., x., p. 256 (1842).

CHARACTERS.--Fur long, longer on the hinder part of the back than on the
front, separated along the back--the hairs black with broad yellow rings.
Face bluish-black; lips flesh-coloured; band across the forehead white,
washed with rufous--the hairs tipped with black; head as far as the nape of
the neck, yellowish-brown; the fore part of the back brownish-black, the
lower part of the back, the outer side of the hind-legs, the fore-legs, and
basal third of the tail olive-black, washed with yellow; the long hair on
the cheeks and side of the neck, which partly conceals the ears,
greyish-white, ringed towards the tips with black and {71}yellow; the inner
side of the ears furnished with long yellow-flecked grey hairs; the chest,
throat, under side of the body, inner side of limbs and fore part of the
thighs white; posterior two-thirds of the tail yellowish-grey, the hairs
ringed with black and faded yellow, those of the under side with brown and
grey; tip of the tail with a small black tuft.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: from Sierra Leone to the Gold Coast.

HABITS.--This is the commonest Monkey, both in the interior and on the
coast of this region of Africa. It frequents the moderate-sized trees of
the forest in troops of fifty or more in number; and it occasionally even
takes to the water of its own accord.


  _Cercopithecus samango_, Sundev. Öfvers. K. Vet.-Akad. Förh. Stockh., i.,
  p. 160 (1844); Wagner in Schreber Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 44 (1855);
  Peters, Reis. Mossamb., Säugeth., p. 4; Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182;
  id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 24 (1870); Schleg., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii.,
  p. 79 (1876; in part); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 251.

CHARACTERS.--Distinguished by the dirty white tint along the basal half of
the tail, except along the median line of the upper side, which is black;
end of the tail black. Back entirely blackish-olive--the hairs being
yellowish-olive, ringed with black; inner side of the limbs, and entire
under surface from the arms to the chin, dirty white; outer surface of the
arms black, of the legs grey; the feet black; ears covered with whitish

DISTRIBUTION,--South and East Africa: Natal and Mozambique; extending to
Angola in the west.


  _Cercopithecus labiatus_, Geoffr., C. R., xv., p. 1038 (1842); id., Dict.
  d'Hist. Nat., iii., p. 302 (1849); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 256.

  _Cercopithecus samango_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 79 (1876; in

CHARACTERS.--Fur thick; a bunch of long hairs directed backwards on the
cheeks; inner aspect of the ears covered with reddish-grey hairs; upper
side of the body dark grey, speckled with pale olive-yellow; top of the
head black, speckled with yellowish-green; forehead and jaws
greenish-yellow, speckled with black; a black spot on the face above the
commissure of the lips; rest of the lips and region of the mouth white;
outer side of the fore-limbs, hands, and feet black; outer side of the
hind-limbs greyish-brown; under side of the body faded white; inner side of
the limbs ashy-grey; round the anus and the greater part of the under side
of the tail, pale yellowish-brown; upper side of the tail, for same
distance, reddish-black; remainder black.



  _Cercopithecus opisthostictus_, Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 725.

CHARACTERS.--Back black, speckled with pale grey; head darker; back of the
neck, shoulders, external aspect of the hands and feet, and the tail
(except at its base), black; a small spot on the lower back on each side of
the tail rufous; under side blackish. Length of body, 24 inches; of tail,
25 inches. (_Sclater._)

{73}DISTRIBUTION.--British Central Africa: near Lake Mweru.

HABITS.--Unknown. The skin of this Monkey is used by the natives to form
dresses, and from specimens of these, collected by Mr. A. Sharpe, H.B.M.
Vice-Consul in Southern Nyasa Land, during his journey from the north end
of Lake Nyasa to Lake Mweru and the Luapula, this species has been
described by Dr. P. L. Sclater.


  _Cercopithecus stairsi_, Sclater, P. Z. S., 1892, p. 580, pl. xl.; 1893,
  pp. 252, 443, and 612.

CHARACTERS.--ADULT MALE.--Face black, except a ring round the eyes, which
is flesh-coloured; ridge of the nose and a band above the eyes from ear to
ear black, surmounted by another band of long erect yellowish-white hairs;
ears naked; whiskers bushy, greyish-white, washed with greenish-yellow; on
each side of the forehead a bright chestnut band is carried over the head
behind the ears; back of the head, nape, and anterior part of the back
grey, variegated by black lines and washed with yellowish; back of the
shoulders dark grey; back, especially the lower part, yellowish-grey, with
a rufous patch on the rump above the tail; external surface of the arms
blackish-grey; hands black; outside of the legs grey; feet not so black as
the hands; anal region, and about three inches of the base of the tail
rufous-yellow; scrotum dark indigo blue; throat, under surface of body, and
inner side of limbs milky white; the whole of the hair of the upper parts
minutely grizzled. Length of body, 18 inches; tail injured. (_Sclater._)

YOUNG FEMALE.--Differs from the male in being lighter in colour; back below
the nape, sides, thighs, legs, and upper {74}surface of the basal third of
the tail ochre yellow, washed with rufous; shoulders and fore-limbs grey;
hands and feet black, under side of the body and inner side of the limbs
and the throat (where the hairs are long) milky white; terminal two-thirds
of the tail blackish-grey, darker at the tip.

The chestnut auricular spots in both sexes of this species distinguish it
from all others.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Zambesi Delta. The typical specimen (which is the female
above described) was given, as Dr. Sclater tells us in his original account
of this beautiful species, by Mr. Hillier, at Chindi, to Dr. Moloney (of
Lieut. Stairs' Expedition). The latter brought it home alive, and presented
it in 1892 to the Zoological Society's Gardens, where it lived till the
beginning of 1893. The type specimen is now in the British Museum. A second
specimen, the adult male (described above) was presented to the Society in
June, 1893, by Mr. F. Hintz, whose brother had brought it from Mozambique,
and had had it in captivity for eight years.



  _Cercopithecus moloneyi_, Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 252, pl. xvii.

CHARACTERS.--Related to _C. samango_, but larger; hairs long above,
olivaceous, speckled with black; head darker; a broad band covering the
middle and lower back, and the base of the upper side of the tail
rufous--the hairs ringed with black; arms, externally from the shoulders
down to the hands, and internally on the lower part of the fore-arm, black;
outer aspect of the thighs and legs blackish-grey, washed posteriorly with
yellowish; tail, except at the very tip, deep black; the face, lips,
{75}and ears naked, and black; a fulvous band across the forehead above the
eyes; sides of the head fulvous, speckled with black; throat, creamy
yellow; under side of body pale fulvous, the hairs ringed with black; the
inside of the arms, thighs, and upper part of the legs greyish fulvous;
feet black. Length of body, 28 inches; of tail, 26 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--British Central Africa. Procured from the natives of
N-Konde, and brought from Karonga, at the north end of Lake Nyasa, by Dr.



  _Cercopithecus leucocampyx_ (nec Fischer), Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus.,
  p. 22 (1870).

  _Cercopithecus neglectus_, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 70 (1876);
  Giglioli, Zool. Anz., x., p. 510 (1887); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 253.

CHARACTERS.--General colour greyish-brown, finely grizzled; under side of
body black; crown, outside of limbs and base of tail black; anterior aspect
of thighs and a band across the haunches white.

Distinguished from the true _C. leucampyx_ by the colour of the front of
the thighs, and by its banded haunch.

_Distribution._--The White Nile, where it was obtained by Consul Petherick.


  _Simia leucampyx_, Fischer, Syn. Mamm., p. 20 (1829).

  {76}_Le Diane femelle_, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mamm., livr. xlii. (June,

  _Cercopithecus diadematus_, Geoffr. in Bélang., Voy. Zool. p. 51 (1834).

  _Cercopithecus leucampyx_, Martin, Mamm. An., p. 529 (1841); Geoffr.,
  Dict. Univ. Hist. Nat., iii., p. 304 (1849); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii.,
  p. 83 (1876); Giglioli, Zool. Anz., x., p. 510 (1887); Sclater, P. Z. S.,
  1893, p. 253 ([female]).

  _Cercopithecus pluto_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1848, p. 56, pl. iii.; 1868, p.
  182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 23 (1870); Wagner in Schreb.
  Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 48 (1855); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1870, p. 670, 1871,
  p. 36, 1892, p. 97.

CHARACTERS.--Face, nose, and lips black; whiskers rounded and bushy; no
beard; fur long and harsh; form robust and powerful; whiskers grizzled, the
hairs ringed with black and white; across the forehead, over the eyes, a
broad white bar (or diadem); the back beyond the shoulders, the sides and
haunches, and the posterior aspect of the thighs, grizzly-grey, the hairs
ringed with numerous greenish-white and black bars; tail grey at its base,
rest black; a few yellowish hairs on the callosities, but all the rest of
the body deep black. Length of body, 23 inches; of tail, 21.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: Angola, and the Congo, to Nyasa Land.



The following three species form the fifth group of the Guenons,
distinguished by their yellowish or rufous ear-tufts, and the three black
lines over the forehead.


[Illustration: ERXLEBEN'S GUENON.]


  _Cercopithecus grayi_, Fraser, Cat. Knowsl. Coll., p. 8 (1850); Gray, P.
  Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 22 (1870); Sclater,
  P. Z. S., 1893, p. 256.

  _Cercopithecus erxlebenii_, Dahlb. et Puch., Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1856,
  p. 96; 1857, p. 196; Dahlb., Zool. Stud., p. 109, pl. 5 (1856); Gray, P.
  Z. S., 1868, p. 182; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 23 (1870; in part);
  Sclater, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 36; 1893, p. 254; 1894, p. 484.

  _Cercopithecus pogonias_, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 82 (part).

  (_Plate XXX._)

CHARACTERS.--Face and ears naked, flesh-coloured; whiskers commencing under
the eyes, bushy, yellow; the ears with a rufous or yellow tuft internally;
head yellow, but interrupted by three broad black streaks, extending from
above each eye and from the nose to the back of the head; back, anterior
aspect of the thighs, and the sides yellowish rufous, darker towards the
lower back--the hairs ringed with black and yellow, upper surface and
entire terminal third of the tail black. Under surface of the body, inner
side of the limbs, anterior aspect of the thighs and legs, and the under
side of the basal two-thirds of the tail, yellow or rufous yellow; region
of the anus white; external aspect of the fore-limbs black; the hands and
feet black.

A female specimen of this species which lived for some years in the
menagerie of Lord Derby at Knowsley, and died in 1836, is now in the Derby
Museum, Liverpool. It is the type of _C. grayi_, with which _C. erxlebeni_
is identical.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: River Congo.


  _Cercopithecus pogonias_, Bennett, P. Z. S., 1833, p. 67; Wagner in
  Schreber Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 43 (1855); Lesson, Spec. Mamm., p. 74
  (1840); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 543 (1841); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182;
  id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 23 (1870); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p.
  254; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 82 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Similar to _C. grayi_, but differs in the yellow forehead
being interrupted in the middle by only a few black hairs, and not by a
streak; the whiskers paler; the back part of the head, the fore part of the
back, and the sides grizzled, the hairs being black, ringed with white;
while down the middle of the back to the base of the tail runs a broad
black stripe.



  _Cercopithecus nigripes_, Du Chaillu, Pr. Bost. N. H. Soc., vii., p. 360
  (1860); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 182; Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 254.

  _Cercopithecus erxlebenii_, var. _nigripes_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 23 (1870).

  _Cercopithecus pogonias_, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 182 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Very similar to _C. pogonias_, but differs in being darker,
and in having the dorsal stripe wider and more diffused lower down. It is
probably only a variety of the preceding.

DISTRIBUTION.--Gaboon, where it was discovered by Du Chaillu.


  _Cercopithecus wolfi_, Meyer, Notes, Leyden Mus., xiii., p. 63 (1891);
  id., P. Z. S., 1894, p. 83, pl. vii.; Sclater, P. Z. S, 1893, p. 258.

CHARACTERS.--Face, except the lips, which are flesh-colour, and the
temples, greyish-black; a yellowish-white bar across the forehead from ear
to ear; whiskers greyish-yellow; ear-tufts reddish-brown; upper surface
dark slate-grey; sides blue-grey, the hairs barred with several pale rings,
and tipped with black; dorsal stripe, narrowing towards the tail,
olive-yellowish, brighter on the crown, and brownish-yellow towards the
tail; basal half of the tail above, ashy-grey, below white; an
orange-yellow patch on the sides; chin, sides of neck, under surface of
body and inner side of limbs white; belly washed slightly with orange;
shoulders and outer aspect of the fore-limb, black--the hairs ringed with
grey; on the hinder edge of the fore-arms an ochre-coloured stripe; outer
side of thighs and legs bright red-brown, becoming orange on their anterior
and posterior internal margin. Length of body, 18¼ inches; of tail, 24

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: the exact locality is unknown.


The members of this group are distinguished by possessing a beard and a
frontal crest.


  _Simia diana_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 38 (1766).

  {80}_Cercopithecus diana_, Erxleb., Syst. Regne An., p. 30 (1777);
  Desmar., Mamm., p. 60 (1820); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 523 (1841);
  Geoffr., Dict. Hist. Nat., iii., p. 304 (1849); Wagner in Schreb.
  Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 48 (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 22
  (1870; pt.); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 92 (1876; pt.); Jentink,
  Notes, Leyd. Mus., x., p. 12; Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893, p. 254.

  _Cercopithecus diana_, var. _ignita_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p.
  22 (1870).

CHARACTERS.--Face black. Sides of face with long bushy whiskers,
terminating on the chin in a pointed white beard a few inches long; across
the forehead run two arched lines of erect hairs, the lower black, the
upper white; top of the head, back of the neck, shoulders, the sides,
middle of belly, ashy-grey--the hairs being white and black ringed, and
white-tipped; outside of limbs darker, the hands black; tail grey, the tip
black; neck, chest, and anterior part of the arms white; from the middle of
the back a deep chestnut spot extends, and widens to the root of the tail;
from the base of the tail, the outer aspect of the thighs, white; posterior
part of under side of body and inner side of thighs, orange-yellow, or
orange red, or bright red bay (_C. ignita_ of Gray). Length of body, 18
inches; of tail, 24 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: from Liberia to the Congo.

HABITS.--This beautiful and graceful Monkey is not uncommon in captivity,
and nearly all we know of its habits has been obtained from such specimens.
"Like the rest of its tribe," writes Mr. Martin, "it is gentle, lively,
active, and familiar while young, but as age advances it becomes reserved
and treacherous.... Its frontal crest of white hairs, and its white peaked
beard 'of formal cut,' give a singular aspect to its physiognomy. This
latter ornament it has been observed, so Mr. Ogilby states, to be
solicitous in keeping neat and clean; when about to drink it takes the
beard in its hand with amazing gravity, and holds it back in order to
prevent it from dipping into the fluid."


[Illustration: DE BRAZZA'S GUENON.]


  _Le Roloway_ ou _la Palatine_, Buff., Hist. Nat. Suppl., xv., p. 77

  _Cercopithecus roloway_, Erxleb., Syst. Régn. An., p. 42 (1777); Geoffr.,
  Dict. Hist. Nat., iii., p. 304 (1849); Fisch., Synop. Mamm., p. 20

  _Cercopithecus palatinus_, Wagner, in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 47
  (1855); Scl., P. Z. S., 1893, p. 257.

  _Cercopithecus diana_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 22 (1870; pt.);
  Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 92 (1876; pt.).

CHARACTERS.--Very similar to _C. diana_, but differs in having the back
very dark brown, nearly black, instead of chestnut; the head, flanks,
thighs, limbs dark grey; where the belly in _C. diana_ is black, in _C.
palatinus_ it is white.



  (_Plate XXXI._)

  _Cercopithecus brazzæ_, Milne-Edwards, Rev. Sc. (3), xii., p. 15 (1886);
  Sclater, P. Z. S., 1893 pp. 255, 443, pl. xxxiii.

CHARACTERS.--Top of head, back, sides of face, outside of thighs, and root
of tail pale fulvous, densely ringed with black; a frontal band, of dense
erect hairs, chestnut, {82}white-tipped, bordered behind by a broad black
band from ear to ear; ears nearly naked; upper part of nose and a narrow
line above the eyes, in front of the chestnut band, black; lower nose and
upper lip white; a longish white beard on the chin and throat; belly dark
fulvous, the hairs densely ringed with black; hands and feet black; inner
side of thighs, arms, and a streak along the posterior aspect of the
thighs, white; tail, except at its base, black. Length, 21 inches; tail, 22
inches. (_Sclater._) Nearly related to _C. neglectus_.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: Upper Congo.


This section of the Family contains but one species, distinguished by the
posterior lower molars having only three, instead of four, tubercles to
their crowns. On this account it has been considered by some systematists
to be the type of a distinct genus, _Miopithecus_.


  (_Plate XXXII._)

  _Talapoin_, Buff., Hist. Nat., xiv., p. 287, pl. xl. (1766).

  _Cercopithecus talapoin_, Erxleb., Syst. Régn. Anim., p. 36, no. 15
  (1777), Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 93 (1812); Desm., Mamm., p. 56;
  Martin, Mammif. Anim., p. 534 (1841); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 71

  _Simia talapoin_, Gm., Syst. Nat., i., p. 101 (1788); Schreber, Säugeth.,
  i., p. 101, no. 18, pl. 17; Fischer, Synops. Mamm., p. 21 (1829).

  _Cercopithecus pileatus_, Desm., Mamm., p. 57 (1820; nec Shaw).

  _Miopithecus talapoin_, Geoffr., Dict. Nat. Hist., iii., p. 308 (1849);
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 20 (1870).


[Illustration: THE TALAPOIN.]

  {83}_Miopithecus capillatus_, Geoffr., C. R., xv., p. 720 (1842.)

  _Simia melarhinus_, Schinz, Synop. Mamm., i., p. 47 (1844).

CHARACTERS.--Small in size; head globular; muzzle very short; eyes large;
ears very expanded; nose but slightly protruding, with oblong nostrils
opening laterally, the septum thick; hands short, fingers united by a web.

Skull large; superciliary ridges and orbits also large; posterior molar in
both jaws small; those in the lower jaw only three-cusped (two cusps in
front, one behind); anterior and median lower molars four-cusped.

Naked skin round the eyes orange; upper lip yellow; whiskers directed
downward, bright straw-yellow; upper eyelids white; nose black; ears naked,
black; frontal hairs erect, forming a distinct curved crest. Fur speckled
olive-green--the hairs grey at the roots, olive-green in the middle and
black-tipped; fur darker on the body, paler and more washed with yellow on
the outer side of the body and upper side of the hands and feet. Under
surface of the body and the inside of the limbs white; tail ashy-grey.
Length of body, 13½ inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: Gaboon.

HABITS.--Nothing is known of the habits of this rare species, which is the
smallest of the Guenons.


The members of this Sub-family are characterised, externally, by having
elongated slender bodies, with their hind pair of limbs longer than their
front pair, and a very long tail. {84}Internally their digestive organs
differ from those of the _Cercopithecinæ_, the stomach being three times as
large as that organ in any Guenon of the same size. Instead of being a
simple rounded sac, it is elongate and composed of several pouches. These
compartments are quite different, however, from those seen in a Ruminant's
stomach, such as that of the Ox. In the latter, each of the various
divisions is differently constructed, and its mucous membrane is peculiarly
modified; in the Guenon it is divided into two portions, the left of which
forms a very considerable cavity, while the right is long and narrow. Two
great, strong, muscular bands run along its entire length, one along the
greater, the other along the lesser, curvature, like the muscles of the
great intestine, forming a series of large cells. (_Otto._) In addition to
this, the whole organ is twisted upon itself, so that the entrance and exit
regions come to be close together. Its mucous membrane is throughout of the
same character and form. The cæcum has no _appendix vermiformis_, or
worm-shaped tube, which is the representative (as in Man) of the elongate
cæcum found among the Lemuroids, as among most of the Mammals. The muzzle
in this Sub-family is very short, and the nose is generally, but slightly,
prominent. There are ischial callosities, but no cheek-pouches among the
Langurs, though small ones have been described in certain of the Guerezas
(_Colobus_). When laryngeal sacs are present they are formed of a single
sac with a median aperture into the windpipe, in the space below its
superior opening; it may have large prolongations down the front of the
neck, as far indeed as the arm-pits.

The frontal region of the skull is rounded, and the facial angle is
comparatively large. The ascending portion of the hinder part of each half
of the lower jaw is high, and its {85}hindmost molar on each side has five
cusps to its crown. Their breast-bone is very narrow. The vertebræ forming
the tail are much elongated. All have the central (_os centrale_) bone in
the _carpus_ (or wrist).

The posterior lobes of the cerebrum project beyond the cerebellum and
conceal it; they are very short among the Langurs. The principal grooves
and foldings seen in the human brain are represented, and there is a
perfectly distinct _hippocampus minor_--an eminence in the cavity of the
posterior lobe, which was for a long time supposed to be a character
peculiar to the human brain, and the presence or absence of which was once
a celebrated cause of difference between certain distinguished anatomists.

The food of the _Semnopithecinæ_--of which they consume a large bulk at a
time--consists chiefly of leaves and young shoots of trees. For this
purpose their sacculated stomach forms a necessary receptacle and store for
their food during their hasty collection of it.

The Sub-family practically consists of but two genera--_Colobus_ and
_Semnopithecus_. One species, forming a third genus (_Nasalis_), is closely
related to the latter. The _Colobi_ are confined to Africa, and the
_Semnopitheci_--of which there are a large number of species--inhabit the
mainland of India, the Malayan Peninsula, and the neighbouring Archipelago
as far east only as _Wallace's line_, which runs between the islands of
Bali and Lombock, and northwards to the east of Borneo.


  _Colobus_, Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm., p. 69 (1811).

The Guerezas are a group of Monkeys entirely confined to the African
continent. The character which especially {86}distinguishes them from the
Langurs, which (with the exception of the monotypic Nosed Monkeys of
Borneo) form the remaining members of the Sub-family, is the condition of
their thumbs. In these animals the thumb is practically absent, being
either quite invisible externally, or presenting merely a tubercle, which
may or may not have a nail upon it. The hands are long and straight, and
the nails of the fingers are compressed and pointed. In these animals the
body is slender, though somewhat more robust than in _Semnopithecus_. The
face is naked or covered only with a sparse and soft down, the nostrils
being separated by a wide division. From this feature these Monkeys have
been described by some naturalists as Platyrrhine or Megarrhine. The ears
are rounded above, with the posterior upper angle pointed or square, and
generally naked, but they are sometimes haired or tufted inside. All the
Guerezas have a specially elongated tail, which is often tufted at the end.
Their fur is long and slightly harsher than that of the Langurs, but it is
not ringed with differently coloured bands. Their callosities are large and

The skulls in _Colobus_ and _Semnopithecus_ are very similar in shape; but
those of the former are often longer, larger, and have a greater cranial
capacity than those of the _Semnopitheci_. The muzzle is short, and the
hind molar of the lower jaw has five tubercles. The thumbs, even when
apparently absent, are represented under the skin by a single bone, the
ungual phalanx, which articulates directly with the metacarpal bone. The
Guerezas differ from the Guenons in having very small cheek-pouches and no
laryngeal sacs. Their stomach is transversely sacculated like the upper
part of the great intestine in the human body.

The Guerezas, which represent the Langurs in Asia, inhabit {87}Tropical
Africa, ranging from Abyssinia and Zanzibar in the east, to Senegambia,
Angola, and perhaps the island of Fernando Po on the west--between about
15° N. lat. on the eastern and 12° on the western side, to 10° S. lat. They
live in small troops in the forest, both on the plains and on the
mountains, their food consisting of fruits, but principally of leaves,
which they eat in large quantities, as the peculiar and capacious form of
their storehouse-like stomach, in lieu of cheek-pouches, would indicate.

Of their habits in their native state very little indeed is known, for they
prefer to keep to the great trees of the forests far from human habitation;
while, owing to their very delicate constitution enabling them to resist
for a very short period the rigours of a climate cooler than their own,
scarcely anything has been learnt of them in captivity. The beautiful skins
of many of the species form a considerable article of commerce in Europe
and America to adorn the costumes of the most refined and cultivated
ladies, who vie for their possession with the semi-nude and barbarous
warriors of Equatorial Africa, by whom they are also used as ornaments for
their persons and for decorations for their weapons.


  _Colobus verus_, Van Bened., Bull. Acad. Sc., Brux., v., p. 344, pl. 13
  (1838); Less., Spec. Mamm., p. 70 (1840); Martin, Mammif. Anim., p. 503
  (1841); Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 17, no. 4 (1851); Wagner, in
  Schreber, Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 37 (1855); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p.
  182; Schl. Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 28 (1876).

  _Semnopithecus_ (_Colobus_) _olivaceus_, Wagner, in Schreber's Säugeth.
  Suppl., i., p. 309 (1840).

  {88}_Colobus cristatus_, Gray, Ann. and Mag. N. H. (3), xvii., p. 77
  (1866); id., P. Z. S., 1886, p. 182, pl. xv.; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 19, et Suppl., p. 128 (1870).

  _Procolobus verus_, Rochebr., Faun. Sénég., Mamm. Suppl., p. 97, pl. 1

CHARACTERS.--Body stout; limbs robust; head oval, the muzzle slightly
prominent; face and ears naked, brownish-black; thumb entirely absent;
callosities large. Hair on the top of the head, forming a median crest,
reddish-olive; whiskers, directed backward, pale yellow; over the eyes a
frontal bar of the same colour, coalescing with the whiskers opposite the
eyes; upper part of body to base of tail and down to the knees, covered
with short dark olive-brown hair, finely ringed with black, and washed with
rufous on the back of the neck and on the outside of the thighs; the tail
long and thin, olive-brown or brownish-grey; shoulders, flanks, and outer
surface of the limbs, pale greyish-green; upper sides of the hands and feet
reddish-brown; throat, chest (the hair of which is elongated), under
surface of the body and inner side of the limbs, ashy-grey.   Length of
body, 21 inches; of tail, 24¼.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa. Forests of Fanti and Ashanti.


  _Colobus rufomitratus_, Peters, M. B. Akad. Berl., 1879, p. 829, pl. iA.
  and ii.

  _Tropicolobus rufomitratus_, Rochebr., Faun. Sénég., Mamm., Suppl., p.
  102 (1887).

CHARACTERS.--Body thick-set and covered with short hair; face {89}and ears
naked and brownish-black, the long superciliary hairs and the transverse
crest, from ear to ear, black; front and back of the head to the nape of
the neck brownish-red; cheeks and chin dark grey; back, from the nape of
the neck, flanks, outer and hinder surfaces of the limbs, and the feet,
dark brownish-olive; front of the shoulder, of the arm and part of the
fore-arm, and the front of the thighs, pale reddish-yellow; breast, under
side of the body and inner side of the limbs, of the same colour, but
paler; tail coloured like the back, the tip tufted, brownish-black. Length
of body, 26¾ inches; tail, 27¾.

DISTRIBUTION.--This very rare species lives in East Africa. Forests at
Muniuni, near Mombasa.


  _Colobus kirkii_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 180, pl. xv.; id., Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 127 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 25
  (1876); Kirk, Ann. and Mag. N. H. (5), xiii., p. 307 (1884).

  _Guereza kirkii_, Trouess., Consp. Mamm., p. 14 (1879).

  _Piliocolobus kirki_, Rochebr., Faun. Sénég., Mamm. Suppl., p. 112, pl.
  vi. (1887).

CHARACTERS.--Face and ears naked, bluish-black; tip of the nose
greyish-white; head, with long divergent hairs, forming a kind of cap, bent
backwards over the forehead; crown of head, back, and tail, reddish-brown,
paler towards the extremity; the nape, shoulders, arms, outer and anterior
aspects of the fore-arms, the centre of the outer aspect of the thighs and
legs, and the hands and feet, black; forehead, cheeks, chest, front aspect
of the shoulders, the whole of the under side of the body, {90}and the
inner side of the limbs, white; anterior aspect of the lower part of the
arm, the hind-margin of the fore-arms, and the anterior and posterior
aspects of the thighs and legs, greyish-white. (_Gray._) Length of body,
25½ inches; of tail, 31 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--Island of Zanzibar. This Monkey was first sent to Europe by
Sir John Kirk in 1868. Its discoverer, writing in 1884, says that even in
1868 the Monkey was rare, but was still to be found in many of the wooded
districts of that island. He writes: "I am not aware that it has been found
in Pemba Island or on the mainland; and now I discover that, if not
extinct, it has become so rare as not to be procurable, even when I sent
the hunters over the island. I have a report that it exists still in one
spot, which they could not reach. I believe that two specimens were sent to
Germany some time ago; but it looks as if the animal will be lost to
science. This is due to the destruction of forest and jungle over the

"_Colobus kirkii_," writes Mr. H. H. Johnston, in 1886, "had disappeared
from nearly every part of the island of Zanzibar, but a rumour prevailed
that it still lingered on a clump of forest as yet unvisited by hunters.
Thither Sir John sent his _chasseurs_ to report on the Monkey's existence.
After a week's absence they returned, triumph illumining their swarthy
lineaments. 'Well, did you find them?' asked the British Consul General.
'Yes,' replied the men with glee, 'and we killed them every one!' wherewith
twelve Monkey-corpses were flung upon the floor, and _Colobus kirki_ joined
the Dodo, the Auk, the Rhytina and the Moa, in the limbo of species
extinguished by the act of man."


[Illustration: BAY GUEREZA.]


  (_Plate XXXIII._)

  _Simia ferruginea_, Shaw, Gen. Zool., i., p. 59 (1800); Desm., Mamm., p.
  53 (1820); Fischer, Synops. Mamm., p. 13 (1829).

  _Colobus ferrugineus_, Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm., p. 69 (1811);
  Gervais, H. N. Mamm., i., p. 66 (1854); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 181;
  Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 27 (1876); Rochebr., Faun. Sénég., Mamm.,
  p. 25 (1883-5); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1890, p. 590, pl. xlviii.

  _Colobus ferruginosus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 92 (1812); Martin,
  Mammif. Anim., p. 498 (1841).

  _Colobus temminckii_, Kuhl, Beitr., Zool., p. 7 (1820); Desm., Mamm., p.
  53 (1820); Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1835, p. 99; Martin, _op. cit._, p. 499

  _Colobus pennantii_, Waterh., P. Z. S., 1838, p. 57; Martin, op. cit., p.
  501; Geoffr., Dict. H. N., iv., p. 209 (1849); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p.
  181, var. 2.

  _Colobus ferruginea_, Less., Spec. Mamm., p. 68 (1840); Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 18 (1870).

  _Colobus fuliginosus_, Ogilby, Cat. Mamm. Z. S., p. 97 (1839); Is.
  Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Prim., p. 17 (1851); Temm., Esquiss. Zool., p. 24
  (1853); Dahlb., Consp. Mamm. p. 95 (1857).

  _Colobus rufo-fuliginosus_, Ogilby, Cat. Mamm. Z. S., p. 270 (1839).

  _Colobus rufo-niger_, Ogilby, Cat. Mamm. Z. S., p. 273 (1839); Martin,
  _op. cit._, p. 500 (1841); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 181, var. 1.

  _Piliocolobus ferrugineus_, Rochebr., Faun. Sénég., Mamm. Suppl., p. 105,
  pl. iii. (1887).

  {92}_Piliocolobus bouvieri_, Rochebr., _tom. cit._, p. 108, pl. iv.

  _Piliocolobus tholloni_, Rochebr., _tom. cit._, p. 110, pl. v.

CHARACTERS.--Body robust, covered with rather long hairs; face naked,
blackish-blue, except the tip of the nose, corners of the mouth and edge of
lower lips, which are flesh-colour; ears naked, blackish-blue; nose short
and somewhat prominent; frontal hairs erect, directed forward, black; top
and back of the head as far as the nape, black; back, sides, outer aspect
of the thighs, base and upper surface of the tail, bluish or olive-black,
with whitish hairs mingled on the shoulders and thighs; sides of the face
from the middle of the cheek backwards to a point behind (enclosing the
ears), neck, chin, and throat, the under surface of body, as well as the
whole of the limbs (except the outer aspect of the thighs), and the under
surface of the tail, rich rufous; tips of the fingers and toes black.
Length of body, 29 inches; of tail, 31 inches. The hairs are all uniformly
coloured. The thumb is often fairly well developed, and may have a nail.

This species is extremely variable in the coloration of its fur; the back
in some varieties is rufous, the cheeks and throat may be sandy-yellow or
white, and the under side whitish or white, and the outside of the
fore-limbs may be black, or agreeing in colour with the outside of the
thighs. The well-developed _foetus_ shows no signs of the varied coloration
of later life, but is quite white.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa. Not uncommon along the whole West Coast.

HABITS.--Like many of the other species of the genus, this species keeps to
the tops of the highest trees of the forest. Its food consists of fruits
and leaves.


  _Colobus satanas_, Waterhouse, P. Z. S., 1838, p. 58; Martin, Mammif.
  Anim., p. 497 (1841); Gervais, H. N. Mamm., p. 65 (1854); Sclater, P. Z.
  S., 1860, p. 246; Reichenb., Naturg. Affen, p. 88 (1862); Is. Geoffr.,
  Dict. H. N., iv., p. 208 (1849); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 181; id., Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 17 (1870); Schleg, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 27
  (1876); Matschie, S.B. Ges. Natur. Fr. Berlin (1892), p. 226.

  _Semnopithecus anthracinus_, Leconte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1857,
  p. 10.

  _Guereza satanas_, Truess. Consp. Mamm., p. 10 (1879).

  _Stachycolobus satanas_, Rochebr. Faun. Sénég. Suppl. Mamm., p. 114, pl.
  vii. (1887).

CHARACTERS.--Fur very long, coarse; face naked, black; ears rounded, black;
superciliary and frontal hairs very long; hairs of the cheeks long, very
coarse, and directed backwards; fur entirely and uniformly black on the
body and tail; hairs on tail short; tip not tufted. Length of body, 40
inches; of tail, 59½ inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa. Forests of Senegambia, Sierra Leone, Gaboon,
and the Congo. This is one of the commonest species in West Africa.


  _? Full-bottom Monkey_, Pennant, Quad., i., p. 197, pl. 24 (1781).

  _? Colobus polycomus_, Illig., Prodr., p. 69 (1811).

  {94}_Colobus ursinus_, Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1835, p. 98; Less. Spec. Mamm.,
  p. 70 (1840); Martin, Mammif. Anim., p. 495 (1841); Fraser, Zool. Typ.,
  pl. i. (1849); Is. Geoffr., Dict. H. N., iv., p. 208 (1849); Sclater, P.
  Z. S., 1860, p. 245; Reichenb. Naturg. Affen, p. 86 (1862); Schl., Mus.
  Pays-Bas, vii., p. 24 (1876).

  _Colobus personatus_, Temm., Mus. Lugd., _fide_ Reichenb. _t.c._, p. 88

  _Colobus polycomus_, var., Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 18 (1870);
  Rochebr., Faun. Sénég., Suppl. Mamm., p. 117, pl. viii. (1887), Matschie
  S.B. Ges. Natur. Fr. Berlin, 1892, p. 227.

  _Guereza ursinus_, Trouess., Consp. Mamm., p. 10 (1879).

CHARACTERS.--Body large; fur long and glossy; face and ears naked and
black; fur on neck, shoulders, and along the back forming a mantle; fur
over the whole of the body and limbs deep black; front and back of head,
auricular region, sides of the neck and throat, greyish-white, mingled with
greyish-black; the tail long, short-haired, white at the extremity.

YOUNG.--White, with a few scattered black hairs; tail well tufted.

DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: Sierra Leone.

N. B.--Sinoe is the most easterly region whence skins come to the coast.

HABITS.--This species is often found alone, not in large troops. It is more
rare in collections than _C. ferrugineus_.


  _Semnopithecus vellerosus_, Is. Geoffr. in Bélang. Voy. Mamm., p. 37

  {95}_Semnopithecus bicolor_, Wesmael, Bull. Acad. Sc. Brux., ii., p. 236

  _Colobus leucomeros_, Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1837, p. 69; Martin, Mammif.
  Anim., p. 497 (1841).

  _Colobus ursinus_, Temm., Esquiss. Zool. Guin., p. 21 (1853).

  _Colobus vellerosus_, Is. Geoffr., Dict. H. N., iv., p. 116 (1849); id.,
  Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 17 (1851); Gervais, H. N. Mamm., i., p. 65
  (1854); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1860, p. 246; Reichenb., Naturg. Affen, p. 87
  (1862); Matschie, S.B. Ges. Natur. Fr. Berlin, 1892, p. 226.

  _Colobus bicolor_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 181; id., Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 18 (1870); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 26 (1876);
  Rochebr., Faun. Sénég., Mamm., p. 24 (1885).

  _Guereza vellerosus_, Truess. Consp. Mamm., p. 10 (1879).

  _Pterycolobus vellerosus_, Rochebr., _op. cit._, Suppl. Mamm., p. 125,
  pl. x. (1887).

CHARACTERS.--Hair on the back, flanks, and loins, very long and silky; the
fur everywhere deep black, excepting a frontal band, which coalesces with
the long hair of the auricular region and sides of the neck, which are
white, as well as the chin, the throat, a spot on each side of the
buttocks, the external and posterior aspects of the thighs, and the
short-haired tail, which is tufted at the tip; the thumbs very short, but
distinct, and having a flat nail. Length of body, 28½ inches; of tail, 31

The young are similar in coloration to the adults, but the hair is not

{96}DISTRIBUTION.--West Africa: from the Gold Coast to Senegambia, where it
is not uncommon.


  _Colobus angolensis_, Sclater, P. Z. S., 1860, p. 245; Reichenb., Naturg.
  Affen, p. 88 (1862); Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 181; id., Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., p. 18 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, p. 24 (1876); Rochebr.,
  Faun. Sénég., Suppl. Mamm., p. 119; Bocage, Jorn. Sc. Lisb., 1889, p. 10;
  Matschie, S.B. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, 1892, p. 226.

  _Colobus palliatus_, Peters, M. B. Akad. Berl., 1868, p. 637; id., op.
  cit., 1879, p. 830, pl. iv.A.; Gray, Ann. Mag. N. H. (4) iii., p. 171
  (1869); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1880, p. 68; Matschie, S.B. Ges. Natur. Fr.
  Berlin, 1892, p. 227.

  _Guereza angolensis_ et _G. palliatus_, Trouess. Consp. Mamm., pp. 10 and
  20 (1879).

CHARACTERS.--Face and ears naked, black; hair radiating round the face,
long, and directed backward, especially on the temples and sides of the
face, and on the shoulders, where it forms a lengthy mantle; hairs on the
top of the head shorter than on the back. General colour deep glossy black,
except the frontal band over the eyes, the temporal hairs, whiskers and
mantle, which are white. Tail long and black, except for the terminal
third, which is white, and has a thick tufted tip; a white spot on the
perinæum. Length of body, 23½ inches; of tail, 34 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--East Africa: the valley of the Pangani. Said to extend to
Angola on the south-west coast.


  _Colobus guereza_, Rüpp, Neue Wirbelth. Saügeth., p. 1, pl. 1 (1835);
  Lesson, Spec. Mamm., p. 68 (1840); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 494 (1841);
  Is. Geoffr., Dict. H. N., iv., p. 117 (1849); id., Cat. Méth. Primates,
  p. 17 (1851); Temm., Esquiss. Zool. Guin., p. 23 (1853); Dahlb., Zool.
  Stud., i., p. 95 (1857); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1860, p. 246; Gray, P. Z. S.,
  1868, p. 182; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 25 (1876); Thomas, P. Z. S.,
  1885, p. 219; Matschie, S. B. Gesell. Natur. Fr. Berlin, 1892, p. 225, et

  _Guereza rueppelli_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 19 (1870);
  Rochebr., Faun. Sénégamb., i., Mamm., p. 25 (1885); id., t.c., suppl., p.
  129, pl. xi. (1887).

  _Guereza guereza_, Trouess., Consp. Mamm., p. 10 (1879.)

  _Guereza occidentalis_, Rochebr., _op. cit._, Suppl., p. 140, pl. xiii.

CHARACTERS.--Face thinly covered with greyish-white hairs; nose and upper
lip black; ears, naked, black; a bar across the forehead, expanding on the
sides of the head, throat, sides of the neck, and chin, white; from the
shoulders a mantle of long white silky hairs extending down each side and
meeting on the lower back, so as to hang down over the sides of the body,
the hips, and thighs; the outside of the latter greyish-white; the hinder
third of the tail tufted and white, each hair ringed with numerous fine
bands of brown; the whole of the rest of the body deep shining black.
Length of the body, 28 inches; of the tail, 28½.

DISTRIBUTION.--This remarkably beautiful Monkey inhabits North-Eastern
Africa, where it is not uncommon in the {98}provinces of Godjan and the
kingdom of Shoa. Dr. Blanford, however, did not hear of it during his
journey with the British army to Magdala. It is found also in the
neighbourhood of Mount Kilimanjaro, and was shot in the forested plains
near the coast by Mr. H. H. Johnston. The form of this species which has
been described under the name of _C. occidentalis_ is more or less confined
to the south of Lulongo, in the Upper Congo, between 6° N. latitude and 12°
East longitude.

HABITS.--The "Guereza," as the natives of Abyssinia name this species,
lives in small troops in the very highest trees of the forest, in the
neighbourhood of streams. It is very active and lively, and quite harmless
in disposition. The food of this _Colobus_ consists of wild fruits,
insects, and such like, which it searches for throughout the day only,
retiring during the night. "The _Colobus_ Monkey," observes Mr. H. H.
Johnston, "is almost the only one that quite avoids the neighbourhood of
Man; the other genera frequent the vicinity of native plantations, and
doubtless profit by the abundance of cultivated food." The skin of this
Monkey is in great request among the Masai warriors both for dresses,
capes, and caps, the long white mantle of the creature forming a most
ornamental costume; and also to cover their shields with.


  _Colobus guereza caudatus_, Thomas, P. Z. S., 1885, p. 219, pl. xii.;
  Johnston, Kilimanj. Exped., pp. 174, 388, 389, fig. 72; Matschie, S. B.
  Gesell. Naturf. Fr. Berlin, 1892, p. 225.

  _Guereza caudatus_, Rochebr., Faun. Sénég. Suppl., Mamm., p. 136, pl.

  (_Plate XXXIV._)



{99}CHARACTERS.--Very similar to _C. guereza_, but "characterised by having
the white brush of the tail very much larger and finer than is the case in
the true Abyssinian _C. guereza_. In the latter animal the proximal 12-16
inches of the tail is short-haired and quite black, only the terminal 8-12
inches being white and tufted, so that the white mantle hangs down from the
body and hides only about one-third of the black part of the tail."
(_Oldfield Thomas._) In _Colobus caudatus_, Mr. Thomas adds, only some
three or four inches of the base of the tail are black, and the remainder
(with the hairs about 20 or 21 inches) is developed into a magnificent
white brush, of which individual hairs are from seven to nine inches in
length. The hairs of the white body-mantle--washed like the tail with
yellowish cream-colour--entirely cover the black at the base of the tail,
the white of the latter and of the mantle being quite continuous.

DISTRIBUTION.--East Africa; very common all round the base of Mount
Kilimanjaro, as Mr. Johnston--who discovered the species--reports. On Mount
Kenia Dr. Gregory, of the British Museum, during his adventurous and
remarkable journey, met with it at a great altitude. It has also been found
at Kisongo, south-east of Lake Victoria and in Uniamuezi, where Sir Richard
Burton obtained it.

HABITS.--The habits of the White-tailed Guereza are very similar to those
of the foregoing; but it would appear to be much more of a mountain-loving
animal than the latter. A creature so strikingly--even
glaringly--ornamented might be supposed to be a very conspicuous object
among its native forests. Dr. Gregory, however, has informed the present
writer that, notwithstanding its distinctive coloration when examined in
{100}the hand, he found it very difficult to detect it in its home amid the
forest-trees at high altitudes, where all the branches are clothed with
long grey-beard lichens, with which its fur very closely harmonizes. Mr. H.
H. Johnston, in describing Mandara's soldiers, says: "On their heads were
crescents made of ostrich feathers, or caps of the _Colobus_ Monkey-skin.
This last-mentioned animal also supplied them with mantles of long black
and white fur, and contributed the heavily-plumed tails which these Çaga
soldiers fixed on to that portion of their body where tails should rightly
appear, if man had not dispensed with such appendages."

"The 'Polume,' as Dr. Livingstone calls this species, is in Uniamuezi known
as the 'Mbega,' and is admired on account of its polished black skin and
snowy-white mane. It is a cleanly animal, ever occupied in polishing its
beautiful garb, which, according to the Arabs, it tears to pieces when
wounded, lest the hunter should profit by it. The 'Mbega' lives in trees,
seldom descending to the ground, and feeds upon fruits and young leaves."


  _Semnopithecus_, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mammif. (1821).

  _Presbytis_, Eschsch. Kotzeb. Entdeck. Reis., iii., p. 196 (1821).

The members of this genus have thin and elongated bodies, long limbs, and a
very long and slender tail. The head is rounded, and shorter than in the
Guenons; the muzzle short, depressed, and but little prominent. The thumb,
although shorter than that digit among the Guenons and Macaques, is present
in all the species, and forms a good prehensile finger with a flat nail.
The hands and feet are long and narrow, and {101}the finger-nails convex;
the great-toe is thick and well-developed. The callosities are small as
compared with the Guenons; the fur is abundant, and generally long, soft,
and often glossy; and over the eyes they have usually a ridge of stiff
hairs projecting in front. The members of this genus, as already observed,
have no cheek-pouches; they have, however, a large laryngeal sac formed and
situated as described above (p. 84).

The skull is round; the eye-sockets large, with a very prominent
superciliary ridge projecting over them; the space between the eyes is
broad, and the lower jaw is deep. The upper molars are four-cusped, and the
posterior lower molar five-cusped.

The Langurs are, when young, good tempered and easily tamed; but when old
they become sulky and ill-natured. They live chiefly in forest regions, in
troops of considerable size. "This genus is spread over almost the whole of
the Oriental region wherever the forests are extensive. They extend along
the Himalayas to beyond Simla, where a species has been observed at an
altitude of 11,000 feet, playing among fir-trees laden with snow-wreaths.
On the west side of India they are not found to the north of the 14th
parallel of latitude. On the east they extend into Arakan, and to Borneo
and Java, but not apparently into Cambodia. Along the eastern extension of
the Himalayas they again occur in Eastern Thibet, a remarkable species (_S.
roxellana_) having been discovered at Moupin (about lat. 32° N.), in the
highest forests, where the winters are severe and where the vegetation is
wholly that of the Palæarctic region." (_Wallace._)

The total number of Monkeys inhabiting the islands of the Eastern
Archipelago is, according to the most recent census, as follows: In
Sumatra, 12; Banka, 4; Borneo, 14; Java, 5; Celebes, 2; Natuna, Bali,
Lombock, Flores, Sumbawa, and Timor, 1 each; the Philippine and Sulu
Archipelagos, 1 each.


  _Presbytis barbei_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xvi., p. 734 (1847); id., Cat.
  Mamm. As. Soc. Mus., p. 14 (1863); id., Mamm. Burma, p. 11 (1875).

  _Semnopithecus barbei_, Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 12
  (1878); id., Cat. Mus. Calc., p. 48; Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm.,
  p. 39 (1891).

CHARACTERS.--Nearly related to _S. obscurus_. Hair on the side of the head,
and in front of the ears, long, projecting outwards; that on the top of the
head long and directed backwards; beard short; face almost nude,
bluish-black; lips thinly furnished with short yellowish hairs. General
colour of the body everywhere black, except on the shoulders, the
fore-limbs to the wrist, the joint of the legs, the back and sides of the
head, and tail, which are washed with pale grey. Length of body, 19½
inches; of tail, 29 inches. The adult female is similar in coloration to
the male. In the skull the orbits are rounded, and the inter-orbital region
elongated. Dr. Anderson observes: "The differences which exist in certain
dimensions between the skulls of well-authenticated examples of the two
sexes are far greater than are generally found in the same sexes of
different species."

DISTRIBUTION.--Northern Tippera hills; Assam; and Mount Mooleyit, in
Tenasserim. Dr. Anderson observed it in the Valley of the Tapeng, in the
centre of the Kachin hills in Upper Burma, and in the defile of the

HABITS.--This species inhabits the thick forest, and is found in troops of
from thirty to fifty individuals, distributed, according to Dr. Anderson,
over three or four high forest-trees overhanging the mountain streams. It
is generally tame and fearless.


  _Semnopithecus pileatus_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xii., p. 174 (1843);
  xiii., p. 467 (1844); Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 30, pl.
  xxvi., fig. 3 (1855); Hutton, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 946; Schl., Mus.
  Pays-Bas, vii., p. 57 (1876); Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 13
  (1878); id., Cat. Mus. Calc., p. 40; Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm.,
  p. 37, fig. 9 (1891).

  _Presbytis pileatus_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xvi., p. 735 (1847); id.,
  Cat. Mamm. As. Soc. Mus., p. 12 (1863); id., Mamm. Burma, p. 11 (1875).

  _Semnopithecus potenziani_, Bp., C. R., xliii., p. 412 (1856).

  _Presbytis chrysogaster_, Licht.; Peters, P. Z. S., 1866, p. 429; Blyth,
  Mamm. Burma, p. 10 (1875).

  _Semnopithecus chrysogaster_, Licht.; Peters, M. B. Akad. Berl., 1879, p.
  830, pl. iv.b; id., P. Z. S., 1866, p. 429; Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind.,
  Mamm., p. 38 (1891).

CHARACTERS.--Nearly allied to _S. entellus_. Face flattened and black;
muzzle long and broad; head without a crest; some long superciliary hairs
projecting in front, black; whiskers long, running down to the chin, and
projecting outwards and backwards, partly concealing the ears, and of a
reddish-yellow colour; beard short, also reddish-yellow; hair on the top of
the head longer than on the back of the head and temples, black or dark
ashy-grey, washed, especially on the front of the head, with rufous; neck,
back, upper part of arm, lower portion of the fore-arm, outside of the
thighs, and tail (except the tufted tip, which is black), ashy-grey--all
these parts being slightly washed with rufous; hands and feet, black;
remainder of the limbs rufous; throat, chest, and fore part of the under
surface, rich {104}orange-yellow, paler on the hind part of the belly and
on the inner side of the limbs. Length of body, 18 inches; of tail, 28½
inches, and with the tuft, 31 inches. Cranium globular; supra-orbital
ridges not prominent.

The young have the fur soft, silky, and rather long, and are much paler
than the adults, and of a soft delicate grey, yellowish-white taking the
place of the rufous colour of the adults. (_Anderson._)

DISTRIBUTION.--Northern Assam, Arracan, Upper Burma, and Tenasserim. Dr.
Anderson observed a troop of this species at Tsingu Myo on the left bank of
the Irawaddy, at the lower end of the first defile.

HABITS.--This species lives in small troops in the forest. When young it is
of a mild disposition; but, when fully adult, the males are ill-natured and


  _L'entelle_, Audeb., Singes, Fam. V., sect. ii., fig. 2 (1797).

  _Simia entellus_, Dufresne, Bull. Soc. Philom., i., p. 49 (1797).

  _Cercopithecus entellus_, Latr., Hist. Nat. Buff., xxxvi., p. 283 (1809).

  _Semnopithecus entellus_, Desm., Dict. Class. H. Nat., vii., p. 568
  (1825); Sykes, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 199; Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xii.
  (1843), p. 169; xiii. (1844), p. 470; Hutton, P. Z. S., 1867, p. 944;
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 14 (1870); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas,
  vii., p. 60 (1876); Anderson, Rep. Zool. Exped. Yun-nan p. 15 (1878; with
  full synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 27 (1891).

  _Semnopithecus anchises_, Elliot; Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xiii. (1844), p.
  470; xvi. (1847), p. 733.

  {105}_Presbytis entellus_, Gray, Hand-List Brit. Mus., p. 4 (1843; in
  part); Blyth., _op. cit._, xvi., pp. 732, 1271, pl. liv., fig. 1 1847;
  id., Cat. Mamm. As. Soc. Mus., p. 11 (1863); Jerdon, Mamm. Ind., p. 4

  _Semnopithecus albogularis_, Müll. u. Schl., Verh. Nat. Gesch., 1839-44,
  p. 58 (_fide Anderson_).

CHARACTERS.--Nearly allied to _S. schistaceus_. Crestless; hair on top of
head radiating in all directions; ears large, whiskers short, not
concealing the ears; prominent supra-orbital projecting hairs, black; face,
ears, hands, and feet black. Head, body, limbs, and tail--which is a fourth
longer than the body--pale yellowish-brown, darker on the shoulders and the
outside of the limbs; under surface paler.

FEMALE.--Smaller than the male.

DISTRIBUTION.--According to Dr. Anderson, this species ranges from the
Deccan northwards to the south bank of the Ganges; its distribution to the
north-west, west, and south being uncertain.

HABITS.--"Few, if any, wild animals," observes Dr. Blanford, "afford better
opportunities for observation than the Hanuman Monkey of Northern and
Central India. Generally protected and looked upon as sacred by many of the
Hindu inhabitants, it has no fear of Man, and may be found in groves near
villages, or even on the village trees, as often as in the depths of the
forest. In many parts of India it is a common occurrence to see these
Monkeys on the roofs of houses. They frequently pilfer food from the
grain-dealers' shops, whilst the damage they inflict on gardens and fields,
renders them a great nuisance to the natives. They feed on fruit and grain,
but especially on {106}leaves and young shoots. They live in the high trees
of the forest and near to water, or in rocky hills, in moderately-sized
troops composed of males, females, young, and infants clasping their
mothers. An old male is occasionally found solitary. Two communities often
enter into deadly combat for possession of some fruit grove, an interesting
account of one of which is given by Mr. J. Hughes in the 'Proceedings of
the Asiatic Society of Bengal' for 1884." They are at all times very
active. "Their voice," continues Dr. Blanford, whose account we have
condensed, "is loud and is often heard, especially in the morning and
evening. The two commonest sounds emitted by them are a loud, joyous,
rather musical call, a kind of whoop generally uttered when they are
bounding from tree to tree, and a harsh guttural note, denoting alarm or
danger. The latter is the cry familiar to the tiger hunter, among whose
best friends is the Hanuman. Safely ensconced on a lofty tree, or jumping
from one tree to another as the tiger moves, the Monkey by gesture and cry
points out the position of its deadly enemy in the bushes or grass beneath,
and swears at him heartily."

The Hanuman is of very tender constitution, and cannot bear up against
great changes of climate and temperature and necessarily of elevation; it
is, therefore, entirely restricted to the warm lowland regions. There is,
according to Captain T. Hutton, no true migration of this species from the
upper to the lower districts of Bengal, as has been stated. "I am
inclined," writes this observer, "to restrict its range, somewhat loosely
perhaps, to between 10° and 25° N. lat. and 75° to 88° E. long., forming
with the line drawn across the country from Allahabad to Boondee, a
triangular range entirely south of the rivers Jumna and Ganges."


  _Semnopithecus entellus_ (nec Dufr.), Hodgs., P. Z. S., 1834, p. 95;
  Ogilby, Madr. Journ., xii., p. 144 (1840).

  _Semnopithecus schistaceus_, Hodgs., J. A. S. Beng., ix., p. 1212 (1840);
  Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii. p. 6 (1876); Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan,
  p. 16 (1878; with full synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. India, Mamm., p.
  30 (1891).

  _Semnopithecus nepalensis_, Hodg., J. A. S. Beng., ix., 1840, p. 1212.

  _Presbytis entellus_ (nec Dufr.), Gray, Cat. Hodgs. Mamm. Nepal, p. 1
  (1846); id., Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., pp. 14 and 15 (1870).

  _Presbytis schistaceus_, Blyth, Cat. Mamm. As. Soc. Mus., p. 11 (1863);
  Jerdon, Mamm. India, p. 6 (1867); Blanford, J. A. S. Beng., xli., 1872,
  p. 32.

CHARACTERS.--Fur long; hair radiating on the crown; hair of cheeks long,
hiding the small ears; tail slightly tufted; top and sides of head pale
yellow, or whitish; face and ears, palms and soles black; back, sides,
outside of limbs, tail, hands, and feet, dark slaty, or greyish-brown,
sometimes washed with purple.

Aged specimens are grey or white on the head; young ones often have the
feet darker than the adult.

Facial portion of the skull longer and the superciliary ridges less
projected forward than in _S. entellus_. The nasal bones project beyond a
line from the supra-orbital ridge to the front border of the
pre-maxillaries; in _S. entellus_ they do not project beyond it.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Himalayas, from Kashmir to Bhutan from {108}5,000 to
12,000 feet above the sea, this species taking the place in those high
altitudes of the lowland _S. entellus_.

HABITS.--Similar to those of the Hanuman. According to Dr. Blanford, Capt.
Hutton has observed it near Simla, at 11,000 feet, sporting amongst the
fir-trees that were loaded with snow-wreaths at the time. "But," writes Dr.
Anderson, "there is no evidence that any species of Monkey in the Himalaya
is naturally resident at those heights at which snow annually lies, as was
supposed by Hodgson, and it is the rarity of their occurrence at these high
elevations, and during winter, that has directed so much attention to their
hibernal wanderings. In the summer, they are much more widely distributed
than in the winter, when, as a rule, they are driven to lower heights and
into the warmer valleys."


  _Semnopithecus priam_, Elliot, MSS.; Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xiii, p. 470

  _Semnopithecus pallipes_, Blyth, Ann. and Mag. N. H., 1844, p. 312.

  _Presbytis priamus_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xvi., pp. 732, 1271, pl. liv.
  (1847); xx., p. 313 (1851); id., Cat. Mamm. As. Soc. Mus., p. 12 (1863);
  Kelaart, Prod. Faun. Zeylan., p. 3 (1852); Jerdon, Mamm. India, p. 7

  _Semnopithecus albipes_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 14 (1851);
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 15 (1870); Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped.
  Yun-nan, p. 18 (1878).

  _Semnopithecus priamus_, Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 31 (1891);
  Anderson, Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 19 (1878; with full synonymy).

  {109}_Presbytis  thersites_, Tennent, Ceylon, p. 132, plate, fig. 1

CHARACTERS.--Nearly allied to _S. entellus_. Hair on head indistinctly
radiated; back of head crested longitudinally; supra-orbital hairs very
long and projecting forward; ears large, not hidden by the whiskers. Fur
long; face and ears black; back, sides, outer aspect of fore-limbs, upper
part of the thigh, and the tail, ashy-grey, or earthy-brown, sometimes
slightly washed with purple; sides of the head, nape, lower half of the
thighs, hands, and feet, yellowish, as also the under surface of the body
and inside of the limbs. Length of body, 21 inches; tail, 28 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Coromandel coast of India, ascending to 6,000 feet;
Ceylon, from the north as far as the Kandyan hills in the south.

HABITS.--The same as those of _S. entellus_ and _S. schistaceus_.

This species inhabits the northern and eastern provinces of Ceylon, and the
wooded hills which occur in these portions of the island. In appearance it
differs both in size and in colour from the common Wanderoo, being larger
and more inclined to grey; and in habits it is much more reserved. At
Jaffna, and in other parts of the island, where the population is
comparatively numerous, these Monkeys become so familiarised with the
presence of Man as to exhibit the utmost daring and indifference. A flock
of them will take possession of a Palmyra palm; and so effectually can they
crouch and conceal themselves among the leaves that, on the slightest
alarm, the whole party becomes invisible in an instant. The presence of a
Dog, however, excites such an irrepressible curiosity that, in order to
watch his movements, they never fail to betray themselves. {110}They may be
frequently seen congregated on the roof of a native hut.

The Singhalese have the impression that the remains of a Monkey are never
to be found in the forest; a belief which they have embodied in the proverb
that "he who has seen a white Crow, the nest of a paddi bird, a straight
coco-nut tree, or a dead Monkey, is certain to live for ever." This piece
of folk-lore has evidently reached Ceylon from India, where it is believed
that persons dwelling on the spot where a Hanuman Monkey, _Semnopithecus
entellus_, has been killed, will die, and that even its bones are unlucky,
and that no house erected where they are hid underground can prosper; and
Buchanan observes that "it is perhaps owing to this fear of ill-luck that
no native will acknowledge his having seen a dead Hanuman."


  _Semnopithecus hypoleucos_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., x., p. 839 (1841);
  xiii., p. 470 (1844); Anderson, Res. Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 20 (1878;
  with full synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. India, Mamm., p. 33 (1891).

  _Semnopithecus johnii_, var., Martin, Mammif. Anim., p. 489 (1841); Gray,
  Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 14 (1870).

  _Semnopithecus dussumieri_, Is. Geoffr., C. R., xv., p. 719 (1842); id.,
  Descr. An. Nouv. Fam. des Singes, p. 54, pl. xxx.; id., Cat. Méth.
  Primates, p. 13 (1851); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 62 (1876).

  _Presbytis hypoleucos_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xvi. (1847), p. 733.

  _Presbytis johnii_ (nec Fischer), Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xxviii., p. 283
  (1859); id., Cat. Mam. As. Soc. Mus., p. 12 (1863); Jerd., Mamm. India,
  p. 7 (1867).

{111}CHARACTERS.--Similar to _S. entellus_. No crest; hair radiating on
crown; back, sides, posterior aspect of thighs and tail dusky brown, darker
on the middle of the back; fore-arm, front of thighs, and lower portion of
legs, black; head dirty yellow; under surface yellowish-white; face, hands,
and feet, black. Length of body, 21 inches; of tail, 32 inches.


DISTRIBUTION.--The forests and woods near cultivation along the Malabar
coast of India, below 1,500 feet.

HABITS.--Same as those of the Hanuman. It is, however, rather more shy.


  _Simia johnii_, Fischer, Syn. Mamm., i., p. 25 (1829).

  _Semnopithecus cucullatus_, Is. Geoffr. in Bélang. Voy. Zool., pp. 38,
  72, pl. i. (1834); Wagner in Schreber Säugeth. Suppl., i., p. 98 (1846);
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 14 (1870).

  _Semnopithecus johnii_, Waterh., Cat. Mamm. Mus. Zool. Soc., p. 5 (1838);
  Anderson, Res. Zool. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 21 (1878; with synonymy);
  Blanford, Fauna Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 33 (1891); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas,
  vii., p. 50 (1876).

  _Semnopithecus jubatus_, Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl., i., p. 305
  (1840); Horsf., Cat. Mamm. E. Ind. Co. Mus., p. 14 (1851).

  _Semnopithecus cephalopterus_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xiii., p. 469
  (1844; in part).

  _Presbytis johnii_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xvi., pp. 734, 1272 (1847).

  _Presbytis cucullatus_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xxviii., p. 283 (1859);
  id., Cat. Mamm. As. Soc. Mus., p. 14 (1863).

  _Presbytis jubatus_, Jerd., Mamm. India, p. 7 (1867).

{112}CHARACTERS.--Hair long and glossy, entirely black or brownish-black;
hairs of crown and sides of head very long, not radiating, yellowish-brown;
lower back and root of tail grey. Length of body, 26 inches; of tail, 30
inches; a very large individual measured, body, 29 inches; tail, 37.

Nearly allied to the next species (_S. cephalopterus_) of Ceylon, and _S.
obscurus_, which inhabits the eastern side of the Bay of Bengal.

FEMALE.--With a yellowish-white patch inside each thigh. (_Davison._)

DISTRIBUTION.--In the thick, sharply circumscribed woods of the Nilgiri
hills, south to Cape Comorin, above 2,500 feet.

HABITS.--This species lives in small troops of ten to twelve individuals,
and is remarkable for the extraordinary leaps it can make. "It is shy and
wary, the result," as Dr. Blanford states, "of human persecution. It is
very noisy, having a loud guttural alarm cry, used also to express anger,
and a long loud call." Jerdon relates "that when the sholas of the Nilgiri
range were beaten for game, these Monkeys made their way rapidly, and with
loud cries, to the lowest portion, and thence to a neighbouring wood at a
lower level. In consequence of the beauty of their skins, and the
circumstance that certain castes eat their flesh, these Monkeys are more
frequently shot than most of the Indian species: hence their shyness."


  _Cercopithecus vetulus_, Erxl., Syst. Régn. An., Mamm., p. 25 (1777; in

  {113}_Cercopithecus senex_, Erxl., _t.c._, p. 24 (1777); Zimm., Geogr.
  Gesch., ii., p. 183 (1780); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 35

  _Cercopithecus kephalopterus_, Zimm., _op. et t.c._, p. 185 (1780);
  Bodd., Elench. An., p. 58 (1785); Fischer, Syst. Mamm., p. 17 (1829).

  _Simia veter_, Shaw, Gen. Zool., i., p. 36 (1800).

  _Cercopithecus leucoprymnus_, Otto, N. Acta. Acad. Cæs. Leop., xii., p.
  505, pl. xlvi. _bis_ (1825).

  _Semnopithecus fulvo-griseus_, Desmoul., Dict. Class. Hist. Nat., vii.,
  p. 570 (1825); Geoffr., C. R., xv., p. 719 (1842).

  _Semnopithecus leucoprymnus_, Desmaret, Dict. Sci. Nat., xlviii., p. 439
  (1827); Wagner, in Schreber, Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 25 (1825); Gray,
  Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 14 (1870).

  _Macacus silenus_, var. _alba_, Fischer, Syn. Mamm., 1829, p. 28.

  _Semnopithecus nestor_, Bennett, P. Z. S., 1833, p. 67; Waterh., P. Z.
  S., 1844, p. 1.

  _Presbytes cephalopterus_, Gray, Hand-List Mamm., p. 4 (1843); Blyth, J.
  A. S. Beng., xvi., pp. 734, 1271 (1847); Kelaart, Prodr. Faun. Zeylan.,
  p. 1 (1852); Tennent, Ceylon, p. 5, plate, fig. 3 (1861); Blyth, Cat.
  Mamm. Mus. As. Soc. Beng., p. 13 (1862).

  _? Presbytis thersites_, Elliot MSS.; Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xvi., p.
  1271, pl. liv., fig. 3 (1847); Blanford, P. Z. S., 1887, p. 626 (1891).

  _Presbytis albinus_, Kelaart, Faun. Zeylan., p. 7. (1852).

  _Semnopithecus cephalopterus_, Martin,  Mammif. An., p. 482 (1841);
  Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 51 (1876); Anderson, Rep. Zool. Exped.
  Yun-nan, p. 22 (1878; full synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm.,
  p. 34 (1891).

  {114}_Semnopithecus kelaartii_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 52 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Hair of crown not radiating; top of head and nape dusky-brown;
back and limbs darker smoky-brown; lower back, base of tail, and upper
posterior surface of thighs varying from ashy-grey to greyish-white,
washed, in immature specimens, with brown; hands and feet black;
supra-orbital hairs black, projecting outwards, extending nearly to the
ears; the long and conspicuous whiskers white, concealing the base of the
ears, and forming a sort of ruff, encircling the face; chin and throat
white. Face purplish-black. Tail beyond the base dark grey, tufted at the
tip and whitish. Under surface dusky-grey; inner sides of the thighs
anterior to the callosities pale yellow or white. Length of body, 21
inches; tail, 31 inches.

YOUNG.--Generally similar to the parents. A young female from Ceylon
examined by Dr. Anderson was uniform pale-yellowish, the top of the head
slightly washed with brownish, and the shoulder and mid-back washed with

A white variety (_S. senex_) sometimes occurs. "There can be no doubt,"
says Dr. Anderson, "that _S. cephalopterus_, _S. ursinus_, and _S. johni_
are extremely closely allied to each other"; and indeed it is doubtful
whether they are not local races of the same species.

DISTRIBUTION.--The island of Ceylon.

HABITS.--Sir E. Tennent, in his "Natural History of Ceylon," has given the
following account of this species:--

"Although common in the southern and western provinces, this Monkey is
never found at a higher elevation than 1,300 feet. It is an active and
intelligent creature, little larger than the common Bonneted Macaque, and
far from being so {115}mischievous as others of the Monkeys in the island.
In captivity it is remarkable for the gravity of its demeanour, and for an
air of melancholy in its expression and movements which are completely in
character with its snowy beard and venerable aspect. In disposition it is
gentle and confiding, sensible in the highest degree of kindness, and eager
for endearing attention, uttering a low, plaintive cry when its sympathies
are excited. It is particularly cleanly in its habits when domesticated,
and spends much of its time in trimming its fur, and carefully divesting
its hair of particles of dust.

"Those which I kept at my house near Colombo were chiefly fed upon
plantains and bananas, but for nothing did they evince a greater partiality
than the rose-coloured flowers of the red Hibiscus (_H. rosa-sinensis_).
These they devoured with unequivocal gusto; they likewise relished the
leaves of many other trees, and even the bark of a few of the more
succulent ones.

"A White Monkey, taken between Ambepusse and Kornegalle, where they are
said to be numerous, was brought to me to Colombo. Except in colour, it had
all the characteristics of _Presbytes cephalopterus_. So striking was its
whiteness that it might have been conjectured to be an albino, but for the
circumstance that its eyes and face were black. I have heard that White
Monkeys have been seen near the Ridi-galle Wihara in the Seven Korales, and
also at Tangalle; but I never saw another specimen. The natives say they
are not uncommon, and Knox states that they are 'milk-white both in body
and face: but of this sort there is not such plenty.' The Rev. R. Spence
Hardy mentions, in his learned work on 'Eastern Monachism,' that on the
occasion of his visit to the great temple of Dambool, he encountered a
troop of White Monkeys {116}on the rock in which it is situated--which
were, doubtless, a variety of the Wanderoo. Pliny was aware of the fact
that White Monkeys are occasionally found in India.

"When observed in their native wilds, a party of twenty or thirty of these
creatures is generally busily engaged in the search for berries and buds.
They are seldom to be seen on the ground, except when they may have
descended to recover seeds or fruit which have fallen at the foot of their
favourite trees. When disturbed, their leaps are prodigious; but, generally
speaking, their progress is made, not so much by _leaping_, as by swinging
from branch to branch, using their powerful arms alternately; and when
baffled by distance, flinging themselves obliquely so as to catch the lower
boughs of an opposite tree, the momentum acquired by their descent being
sufficient to cause a rebound of the branch, that carries them up again,
till they can grasp a higher and more distant one, and thus continue their
headlong flight. In these perilous achievements, wonder is excited, less by
the surpassing agility of these little creatures, frequently encumbered as
they are by their young, which cling to them in their career, than by the
quickness of their eye, and the unerring accuracy with which they seem
almost to calculate the angle at which a descent will enable them to cover
a given distance, and the recoil to attain a higher altitude."


  _Semnopithecus sabanus_, Thomas, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), xii., p.
  230, pl. vii. (head), (1893).


[Illustration: HOSE'S LANGUR.]

{117}CHARACTERS.--Allied to _S. hosii_, _S. everetti_, and _S. thomasi_.
Body, tail, and limbs grey; forehead with a high vertical median crest,
commencing on the brow, black, with some white hairs; superciliary bristles
long, black, projected forward over the eyes; hairs of the forehead on each
side of the crest, flat against the head, white over the whole crown (with
a few black hairs), but darker tipped on the back of the head; sides of the
face from the orbits to the ears quite black; occipital hairs directed
backward, not forward as in _S. thomasi_. Chin, sides of neck, throat, and
chest greyish, not white as in the allied species. Under side of the body
and inner side of the upper arms, and the legs to the ankles white,
becoming greyer distally; hands and feet shining black; fore-arms to the
wrists, and legs to the ankles, grizzled grey, as also the tail, above and
below. Skin of face probably flesh-coloured between and across the orbits
and round the cheeks, elsewhere black. Length of body, 23½ inches; tail, 30

Cranium broader and rounder than in the allied species; the ascending
process of the maxillary bones articulating with the frontals, shutting out
the former bones from the side of the nasals. In the allied species the
skin of the face is nearly, or quite, black all over, and the chin, sides
of the neck, the throat, and the chest are pure white.

DISTRIBUTION.--Paitan, N. Borneo. Discovered by the veteran Bornean
traveller Alfred Everett.


  (_Plate XXXV._)

  _Semnopithecus hosii_, Thomas, P. Z. S., 1889, p. 159, pl. xvi.; Hose,
  Mamm. Borneo, p. 10 (1893).

CHARACTERS.--Crown with a longitudinal central crest, the hairs sloping
evenly backward, with no reversed tuft of hair on the back of the head;
general colour of back, shoulders, outer sides of limbs, and tail (though
darker above than below) {118}hoary grey, the hairs being commingled black
and white; crest, centre of crown, and nape deep glossy black; all the rest
of the head, forehead, temples, sides of crown and neck, cheeks, lips,
septum of nose, tufted chin, front of neck, chest, under side of body and
the inside of the limbs as far as the middle of the fore-arm and lower leg
pure white; hands and feet deep black; face black.

Nasal bones long and thin, the profile quite straight and continuous with
the line of the forehead. Length of body, 20½ inches; of tail, 26¼ inches.

This handsome species differs from all known _Semnopitheci_ in the marked
contrast in colour presented by its black crest and white forehead and

DISTRIBUTION.--Niah, in the Baram district; Mount Dulit, Mount Batu Song:
all in Sarawak, Borneo.

HABITS.--"The type of this Monkey--the Bangat of the Kayans--was shot,"
writes Mr. Charles Hose (after whom the species is named), "at a place
called Niah, in the Baram district. I have procured several specimens in
different parts of the country, but although it is often seen in the low
country, I think we must consider it to be a mountain species, which leaves
the mountains at certain times in search of fruit. It ascends Mount Dulit
to the height of 4,000 feet, but is more common at 2,000 feet. It frequents
the salt-springs, which are common in the interior, churning up the mud,
and it is at these salt-springs that the Punans procure numbers of
specimens with the blow-pipe and poisoned arrows. From this Monkey the
Bezoar stones are obtained, being found either in the gall bladder or the
intestines. The noise that the animal makes is loud and distinct--_Gagah,
gagah_. The young {119}resemble the colour of the adult, and are
exceedingly pretty little things, but they do not live long in confinement,
and would never bear a voyage to England, as they suffer severely from


  _Semnopithecus thomasi_, Collett, P. Z. S., 1892, p. 613, pl. xlii.

DESCRIPTION.--A central occipital crest sloping at first backwards,
reversed on the back of the head, black on the crown; with a lower
indistinct crest on each side of the white forehead. General colour above
dark grey--each hair being partly black and partly white; underneath,
white; a black stripe from the upper jaw to the ear, and a black central
stripe on the forehead; hands and feet black. (_Collett._)

Very old males are darker in colour, with the upper part of the head
brownish-black, the front whitish. Old females are smaller; the young are
silky and nearly white all over.

Closely related and very similar to _S. hosii_, but the cheeks do not form
a connected white area with the white forehead, the space being broken by a
black band from the edge of the mouth to the ear (in the young male and in
the female). In the old male the upper parts of the cheeks are quite black.
Length of body, 24½ inches; tail, about 32 inches.

DISTRIBUTION.--The present species was discovered in the Langkat district
in the North-east of Sumatra, by Mr. Iversen, a Norwegian traveller in that
island, and is named after Mr. Oldfield Thomas, the well-known Mammalogist
of the British Museum.

HABITS.--These Monkeys live in small companies composed of both sexes, in
the highest trees in dry spots of the forest, never descending of their own
accord to the ground, nor {120}visiting the rice-fields, as their food
appears to consist exclusively of fruits. They may be met with, according
to Mr. Iversen, the discoverer of this species, at all seasons of the year
in the same parts of the forest. They hardly ever visit the more open
places, but keep to the highest tree-tops, and make most astonishing leaps
from one branch to another. Those observed were very shy, and, on being
perceived, would seek to hide in the leafy tops of the trees, even leaving
their young exposed on the lower branches. The mother carries her young one
under her belly. The species was often observed in company with the Siamang
(_Hylobates syndactylus_), but not with other Monkeys.


  _Semnopithecus everetti_, Thomas, P. Z. S., 1892, p. 582, pl. xli.; Hose,
  Mamm. Born., p. 15 (1893).

  (_Plate XXXVI._)

CHARACTERS.--Very closely allied and very similar to _S. hosii_ in size and
coloration, but the white is everywhere replaced by dull cream-colour,
giving a yellowish wash to the mixed grey of the back and tail; shoulders
and middle of back darker; under surface of body and light parts of head
cream-colour, instead of white; whole of the forehead and top of the head
black, the lower limit of the black passing across the middle of the ear;
entire back of neck black; spot in the centre of the forehead above where
the eyebrows meet, yellowish-white. The colour of the face, cheeks, and
sides of the neck, in contrast to the dark crown, distinguish this species
from _S. chrysomelas_. Length of body, 21¾ inches; of tail, 25¾ inches.

"Since Mr. Thomas described this Monkey," writes Mr. C. Hose in his
"Mammals of Borneo," "I have obtained several other specimens, ... and the
marking is quite constant."


[Illustration: EVERETT'S LANGUR.]

{121}DISTRIBUTION.--Borneo: Mount Kina Balu. Mount Dulit and Mount Batu
Song in Sarawak, ranging from 3,000 to 3,500 feet above the sea.

HABITS.--This species is a purely mountain form, and does not descend to
the plains.


  _Semnopithecus cruciger_, Thomas, Ann. N. H. (6), x., p. 475 (1892); id.,
  P. Z. S., 1893, p. 3; Hose, Mamm. Borneo, P. 15 (1893).

CHARACTERS.--Fur long and soft on the head and shoulders; hairs of the
crown standing upright everywhere, but somewhat longer in the median line;
crown chestnut; sides of the body from the axillæ, the haunches, and the
outer aspect of the legs to the ankles, brilliant red, paler on the lower
legs; shoulders and outer side of the fore-limb, the hands, nape, and
median dorsal line, deep glossy black, sometimes broken with red and black
hairs; eyebrows black; short facial hairs, whiskers, hair of the ears, the
sides of the neck, chin, and the whole of the under side of the body, and
lines down the inner sides of the limbs, glossy white, washed with yellow;
tail at the base above, black, and duller at the tip.

The young are marked like the adults.

DISTRIBUTION.--Borneo; Bakam, in the Baram district of Sarawak, where it
was discovered by Mr. Charles Hose. He has since obtained it on the Batang
Lupar river, in Western Sarawak.


  _Presbytis ursinus_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xx., pp. 155, 182 (1851);
  id., Cat. Mamm. As. Soc. Mus., p. 13 (1863); Kelaart, Prod. Faun.
  Zeylan., p. 2 (1852).

  _Semnopithecus ursinus_, Anderson, Rep. Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 24
  (1878); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind. Mamm., p. 36 (1891).

CHARACTERS.--Very nearly allied to _S. cephalopterus_, but larger; hair on
the sides very long. Hair more rufous on the top of the head; the back of
the head greyish; the lower back and thighs wanting the grey colour;
whiskers, beard, throat, and chest, whitish; beneath, of the same colour as
the back.

DISTRIBUTION.--The island of Ceylon, where it is confined to the mountains.

HABITS.--For an account of the habits of this species, we have again
recourse to the pages of that delightful historian, Sir E. Tennent:--

"The low-country Wanderoo," he records, "is replaced in the hills by the
larger species, _P. ursinus_, which inhabits the mountain zone. The
natives, who designate the latter the 'Maha,' or Great Wanderoo, to
distinguish it from the 'Kaloo,' or black one, with which they are
familiar, describe it as much wilder and more powerful than its congener of
the lowland forests. It is rarely seen by Europeans, this portion of the
country having, till very recently, been but partially opened; and even now
it is difficult to observe its habits, as it seldom approaches the few
roads which wind through these deep solitudes. At early morning, ere the
day begins to dawn, its loud and peculiar howl, which consists of a quick
repetition of the sounds '_How, how!_' may be frequently heard in the
{123}mountain jungles, and forms one of the characteristic noises of these
lofty situations. It was first captured by Dr. Kelaart in the woods near
Nuera-ellia, and from its peculiar appearance it has been named _P.
ursinus_ by Mr. Blyth."


  _Semnopithecus obscurus_, Reid, P. Z. S., 1837, p. 14; Martin, Mammif.
  An., p. 486 (1841); Murie, P. Z. S., 1865, p. 742; Gray, Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., p. 14 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 49 (1876);
  Anders., Zool. Res. Yun-nan Exped., p. 25 (1878; with full synonymy);
  Thomas, P. Z. S., 1886, p. 66; Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 41

  _Semnopithecus leucomystax_, Müll. and Schl., Verhandl., p. 59 (1839-44).

  _Semnopithecus albocinereus_, Less., Sp. Mammif., p. 65 (1840).

  _Presbytis obscura_, Gray, Hand. List Mamm. Brit. Mus., p. 3 (1843);
  Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xiii., p. 467 (1844).

  _Semnopithecus halonifer_, Cantor, Proc. Linn. Soc., 1845, p. 235.

CHARACTERS.--Hair on crown not radiating; longer at the back, forming a
tuft of yellowish-white. Body blackish-brown, darker on the forehead, sides
of face, sides of body and limbs; hands and feet black; nape of neck, and
along the middle of back, brownish; tail brownish, not tufted; under
surface and inside of limbs not so dark as the back or sides; face black,
but the mouth and eyelids whitish; length of body, 21 inches; of tail, 32

FEMALE.--Slightly browner than the male.

YOUNG.--Bright golden-red, but very soon changing to the colour of the

{124}Mr. Thomas mentions (P. Z. S., 1886, p. 66) a very remarkably coloured
individual, differing from all others in having its crest, nape, arms,
legs, and tail, yellow, contrasting markedly with the dark hues of the
face, body, and feet. It is, however, approached by a specimen in the
British Museum from Malacca, collected by Dr. Cantor, which has the crest
yellow, and the limbs and tail lighter than usual. Its auditory bullæ,
however, are larger and more projecting, and its teeth smaller than is
usually the case with _S. obscurus_.

DISTRIBUTION.--Siam; the Malayan Peninsula; Tenasserim, Mt. Mooleyit, at
5,000 feet.


  _Semnopithecus holotephreus_, Ander., Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 27

CHARACTERS.--"Uniform dark slaty-grey passing into black on the fore-arm
and hands, and also on the feet. Under surface and inner side of the
fore-limbs and thighs, pale yellowish-grey. Head slightly crested over the
vertex, but with only a feeble tendency to lateral compression.
Supra-orbital hairs moderately long and black. Whiskers rather long,
directed backwards and outwards, hiding the ears in front. Face
bluish-black; area round the eyes and lips white. Length of body, 21½
inches; tail, 24½ inches." (_Anderson._)



  _Semnopithecus germaini_, Milne-Edwards, Bull. Soc. Philom., Séance, 12,
  Feb., 1876; Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 27 (1878); Schl.,
  Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 34 (1876).

{125}CHARACTERS.--Body blackish, washed with pale silvery-grey; hands and
feet black. Supra-orbital hairs, projecting outwards and backwards, black;
whiskers, long and grey; hairs of flanks, long and grey; tail, grey; under
surface, grey.

YOUNG.--"Bright orange-yellow; top of head, fore-arm, and feet, blackish."

DISTRIBUTION.--Cochin-China, where it was discovered by M. Germain.


  _Simia maura_, Schreber, Säugeth., i., p. 107, pl. xxii. B. (1775); Shaw,
  Gen. Zool., i., p. 47 (1800).

  _Cercopithecus maurus_, Erxleben, Syst. Régn. Anim., p. 41 (1777).

  _Simia cristatus_, Raffles, Tr. Linn. Soc., xiii., p. 245 (1822).

  _Semnopithecus maurus_, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mamm., pl. xii. (1822);
  Wagner, in Schreber, Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 23 (1855); Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 15 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 54
  (1876); Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 27 (1878; with full

  _Semnopithecus pyrrhus_, Horsfield, Zool. Res. Java, plate (1821); Schl.,
  Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 50 (1876).

  _Semnopithecus pruinosus_, Desmar., Mammolog., 1820, Suppl., p. 333;
  Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 58 (1876); Jentink, Notes Leyd. Mus., xi.,
  p. 215, pl. ix. (1887); id., _op. cit._, xiii., p. 207 (1891).

  _Simia ceylonicus_, Desmoul., Dict. Class. Hist. Nat., vii., p. 572

  {126}_Semnopithecus cristatus_, Müll., Tijds. V. Nat. Gesch., ii., p. 316
  (1835); Müll. et Schl., Verhandl., pp. 61, 77, pl. 12, fig. 1 (young;
  1839-44); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 15 (1870); Anderson, Zool.
  Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 29 (1878); Hose, Mamm. Borneo, p. 15 (1893).

CHARACTERS.--Hair radiating from a centre, or divergent all round the face,
which is reddish-black; long and bushy whiskers on the sides of the face
and passing behind the ears. Hair generally long. General colour all over,
deep black, the hairs tipped with silver-grey in aged individuals; spot at
the under side of the base of the tail white. Length of body, 17½ inches;
of tail, 23½ inches.

YOUNG.--Uniform reddish-brown, changing soon to the colour of the adult;
the rufous vanishing from the whiskers last of all. The colour of the young
is said especially to be the case in females only, and to persist through
life; but, as Dr. Anderson remarks, it is not a common variety, and such
coloured adults are highly prized in Java.

DISTRIBUTION.--Malay Peninsula. Sumatra; Padang, Bencoolen, the Lampongs.
Java. Billiton. Borneo; on the Baram river, and also on Mt. Dulit.

HABITS.--These Monkeys ascend the mountains in Borneo to about 2,000 feet;
they are also fairly common in the low country, and are called by the Dyaks
"Bigok," and by the Kayans "Chikok," from the noise they make. (_C. Hose._)


  _Simia maura_, Raffles (nec. Schreb.), Tr. Linn Soc., xiii., p. 247

  {127}_Semnopithecus femoralis_, Horsf. App. Life Raffl., p. 643 (1830);
  Martin, Mammif. An., p. 480 (1841; in part); Horsf., Cat. Mamm. E. I. Co.
  Mus., p. 10 (1851); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 45 (1876); Anderson,
  Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 30 (1878; with full synonymy); Thomas, P.
  Z. S., 1886, p. 66; Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 42 (1891);
  Hose, Mamm. Borneo, p. 13 (1893).

  _Semnopithecus chrysomelas_, Müll. Tijds., Nat. Ges., v., p. 138, plate
  (1838); Wagner, in Schreb., Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 22 (1855; in part).

  _Semnopithecus sumatranus_, Müll. und Schl. Verh., pp. 6, 73, pl. 10 bis,
  fig. 1 (1839-44).

  _Simia femoralis_, Cantor, J. A. S. Beng., xv., p. 175.

CHARACTERS.--Head with a rather short vertical crest directed backward, and
the hair in front directed forward over the eyes. The dominant colour is
brownish-black, replaced by white on the hinder part of the belly and tail,
which is slightly tufted at the tip, and more or less on the inner side of
both limbs, and on the centre of the chest. Face, ears, palms, and the
sides of the feet, black.

YOUNG.--Similar to the adults, but the throat, chest, abdomen,

DISTRIBUTION.--The islands of Sumatra and Borneo.

HABITS.--This is a low-country Monkey, according to that excellent observer
Mr. C. Hose, and is seldom to be found on the mountains, and then only up
to about 1,000 feet. It is fond of living near the seashore, and is
generally found, in numbers of from ten to thirty, sitting on the branches
of tall trees in open spaces. Its Dyak name is "Bigit," and its Kayan name

{128}Very nearly related to this species, if indeed it be really distinct,
is the GOLDEN LANGUR, or Lootoong of the Malays, S. AURATUS, Geoffr. (Ann.
Mus., xix., p. 93, 1812), which is synonymous with the _S. chrysomelas_ of
Wagner, for the two agree in every respect except that the latter is
lighter coloured, and has black hairs intermixed among the yellowish hairs
on its head, tail, and limbs.

Professor Schlegel has (Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 47) separated a specimen
from Singapore, and closely related to _S. femoralis_, as a distinct
species, under the name of S. NEGLECTUS. It is easily distinguished, as he
points out, by the general hue of its fur being black turning insensibly
into greyish-brown, speckled here and there with white; in the middle line
of the chest, on the lower belly, and on the inner side of the fore-arm,
and thighs alone, is there any white; this and the uniformly dark tail
distinguish _S. neglectus_ from _S. femoralis_ and _S. chrysomelas_.


  _Semnopithecus rubicundus_, Müller, Tijdschr., Nat. Gesch., v., p. 137,
  _cum_ tab. (1838); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 473 (1841); Gray, Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., p. 17 (1870); Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 33
  (1878; with synonymy); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 36 (1876); Hose,
  Mamm. Borneo, p. 9 (1893).

CHARACTERS.--Differs from _S. rubicundus_ in its rich deep maroon-red
colour, the radiating hair on the forehead, and its compressed, semi-erect,
crest. As Dr. Anderson points out, it is the only species with radiating
hair on the forehead.

HABITS.--Mr. Hose observes: "This handsome red Monkey is called by the
Dyaks of Sarawak, 'Jellu merah,' and by the {129}Kayans 'Kaladi,' and is
common everywhere. It is usually seen in large numbers, and some thirty or
forty often pass one in the jungle, darting from branch to branch and
making a tremendous noise. They will sometimes, when barked at by a dog,
attack it and inflict a very bad bite. They ascend the mountains to the
height of 3,000 feet; but at that height the colour of their hair becomes
of a much deeper red. They are very destructive in the fruit gardens."


  _Semnopithecus natunæ_, Oldfield Thomas and Hartert, Nov. Zool. i., p.
  652 (1894).

CHARACTERS.--ADULT MALE.--Size, proportions, and coloration showing a
general resemblance to the _S. femoralis_ group, the prevailing colours
being black and white. While, however, the forehead, the fore-arms and
hands, lower legs and feet, and tail (both above and below) are all deep
glossy black, the back itself, with the occiput, nape, and shoulders, is
brown. Thighs along a narrow strip on their outer aspect, ashy grey,
darkening distally into the black of the lower legs, but their posterior
aspect, continuous with their inner sides, is perfectly white, giving a
very peculiar and characteristic appearance to the animal, and one which is
quite unlike any species known to us, with the one exception that _M.
siamensis_ has whitish patches in somewhat the same position. Whole of
under surface, with the sides of the neck, the hairs on the inside of the
ears, and lines down the inner sides of the arms and legs, pure creamy
white. Face thinly haired throughout, the hairs black, except those on the
nose, where there is a whitish patch. Forehead with the hairs radiating
outwards and backwards {130}from a single central point about half or
three-quarters of an inch behind the eyebrows; posteriorly these hairs are
much lengthened, as are those on the occiput, the latter being directed
forwards and upwards in such a way that the black hairs of the forehead and
the brown ones of the occiput meet to form a high crest on the crown.
(_Oldfield Thomas_ and _Hartert_, _l.c._).

YOUNG.--Messrs. Oldfield Thomas and Hartert describe a new-born specimen as
follows: "Middle line of dorsal surface from crown to anus, and whole of
tail, deep black, the breadth of the black on the back being about an inch
and a half; the outer sides of the shoulders greyish, and also the backs of
the hands and feet commencing to become black. The whole of the rest of the
animal, including the forehead, arms, and legs, wholly pure white."

"Although among the many closely allied species of _Semnopithecus_ it is
difficult to be at all sure of their mutual affinities, it would seem that
_S. natunæ_ is most nearly related to _S. femoralis_, Horsf., and _S.
siamensis_, M. and S. Both of these have a similar arrangement of the hairs
on the crown and nape; and, on the other hand, the former possesses the
wholly black hands, feet, and tail of _S. natunæ_, and to a certain extent
the browner tint of the back, while, on the other, _S. siamensis_ has its
whitish under side and light thigh-patch, although united with a widely
different coloration."

HABITS.--Mr. Everett gives the following note: "Native name 'K[)e]káh,'
which is onomatopoeic. These animals were common about the base of Mount
Ranai, going in troops, and they commit great depredations on the native
gardens. The irides are light cinnamon-brown; face livid black, the eyelids
and muzzle, {131}white; feet and hands very dark brown; the ears blackish
externally, the outer edge and interior dull white, marbled to some extent
with livid blackish spots. In an immature individual, barely half-grown,
the white of the eyelids, nose, and chin was tinged with dull pink; and at
the exterior angle of each orbit was a bare spot of bluish-white, showing
very distinctly, owing to its different tinge of colour, the skin of the
face otherwise being livid black. With maturity these naked white spots at
the angle of the orbits disappear. I kept this animal alive, intending to
bring it home, but it succumbed to the severity of our return passage. It
fed on the leaves of sweet potatoes and tapioca, and, although it had been
recently captured, in a few days it was very gentle and timid. The
breeding-season with these Monkeys is either very prolonged, or is not
defined at all, for I obtained them in October, when the rains were
beginning, in all stages, from a foetus three inches long, to half-grown


  _Semnopithecus obscurus_ (nec Reid), Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xiii., p. 466

  _Presbytis phayrei_, Blyth, _op. cit._, xvi., p. 733, pl. xxxvii., fig. 3
  (1847); Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl. v., p. 28 (1855); Tickell, J.
  A. S. Beng., xxviii., p. 428 (1859).

  _Semnopithecus argentatus_, Blyth in Horsf. Cat. Mamm. E. I. Co. Mus., p.
  7 (1851).

  _Presbytis cristatus_, Raffl. apud Blyth, Mamm. Burma, p. 9 (nec

  _Semnopithecus rubicundus_, var. _C._, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p.
  17 (1870).

  {132}_Semnopithecus phayrei_, Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 34
  (1878); id., Cat. Mamm. As. Soc. Beng., p. 49; Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas,
  vii., p. 33 (1876); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 39 (1891).

CHARACTERS.--Top of the head with a peaked longitudinal crest; hair of
crown not radiating, but elongated and directed backward; whiskers long and
outwardly directed, partly covering the ears; back, sides, fore-arm, hands
and fore part of the feet blackish-brown, the middle of the back washed
with yellowish; the chin, chest, and under surface of the body pale yellow;
inside of the fore-arm and thighs brown; face livid, but the eyelids, lips,
and a ring round the eyes, white, flushed with flesh-colour; length of
body, 18½ inches; tail, 21½ inches.

Supra-orbital ridges of the skull not prominent, the occipital region
vertical; facial region sloping downward.

The Babu Ram Bramha Lányal, writing in July, 1893, from the Zoological
Gardens, Calcutta, to Dr. Sclater, says: "I am not aware whether closely
allied species of _Semnopitheci_ have ever inter-bred anywhere. They are
rather exclusive in their ideas in respect to matrimonial relationship.
Anyhow, such an event has just happened in this Garden. The Phayre's
Langur, or as it is often called, Phayre's Leaf Monkey (_Semnopithecus
phayrii_, Blyth) has given birth to a young one--a lovely little babe, of a
delicate light orange colour. As there has been no other male in the same
cage except the _S. cristatus_, there is no doubt of the young one being a
hybrid between these two species. These Monkeys have been living together
since 1880, and although they agreed very well, they were never observed to
be over friendly. Even now the male does not appear to take any interest in
the offspring."

DISTRIBUTION.--Confined, as far as is known, to Aracan.


  _S. rutledgii_, Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 38 (1878).

CHARACTERS.--Head with a very well-defined erect median compressed crest;
frontal hairs not projecting over the face. General colour black, the hairs
tipped with lustrous grey on the head, crest, trunk, and limbs. Hands and
feet black. Under surface paler and the hairs more tipped with grey; tail
black above, yellow below, tipped with grey; whiskers long, backwardly and
upwardly divided, and broadly tipped with yellowish-grey; beard greyish;
face bluish-black. Length, 17 inches; tail, 24½ inches. (_Anderson._)



  _Semnopithecus frontatus_, Müll., Tijds., Nat. Ges., v., p. 136, pls. i.
  and ii. (1838); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 475 (1841); Gray, Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., p. 16 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 34 (1876);
  Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 39 (1878; with full synonymy);
  Hose, Mamm. Borneo, p. 12 (1893).

CHARACTERS.--General colour dark yellowish-brown, with a wash of red on the
flanks in some specimens; the tail tufted. This species is at once
recognised by the bald triangular wrinkled area between the eyebrows, of a
milky-white colour, the rest of the face being deep black, except the
flesh-coloured lips. It is also remarkable for the erect median crest
over-arching the forehead; and by the long dependent black hairs on the
cheeks from near the nose, increasing in length on {134}the hindmost part
of the cheek, and reaching nearly to the shoulder.

The skull has a highly arched, narrow and retreating forehead; the facial
portion is short.

DISTRIBUTION.--South-east Borneo, where it is very rare.


  _Simia nemæus_, Linn., Mantiss. Plant., p. 521 (1771); Schreber,
  Säugeth., i., p. 110, pl. xxiv. (1775).

  _Cercopithecus nemæus_, Erxl., Syst. Règn. An., p. 42 (1777); Kuhl,
  Beitr. Zool., p. 8 (1820).

  _Pygathrix nemæus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 90 (1812).

  _Lasiopyga nemæus_, Desm., Mamm., p. 54 (1820); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 13 (1870).

  _Semnopithecus nemæus_, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mamm., livr. 14 (May, 1825);
  Martin, Mammif. Anim., p. 459 (1841); Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl.
  v., p. 35 (1855); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 64; Anderson, Zool. Res.
  Exped. Yun-nan, p. 40 (1878; with full synonymy).

  _Presbytis nemæus_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xliv., p. 11 (1875).

CHARACTERS.--Head without a crest. The naked face, the callosities, and the
naked portions of the hands and feet yellow; head brown, with a narrow band
of chestnut passing under the ears backwards, and a second but broader one,
margined with black, across the chest, from shoulder to shoulder; whiskers
long and directed backwards, pale grey--the hairs ringed with black and
white; upper surface of the body and sides grey; base of the neck, chest,
and shoulders as well as the upper part of the fore- and hind-limbs, with
the hand and feet, black; the forehead paler; the fore-arm to the middle
{135}of the hands, the rump, posterior region of the loins, and the tail
pure white; the lower portion of the hind-limbs to the middle of the feet
reddish-brown. Tail shorter than the body. Length of body, 25 inches; of
tail, 20½ inches.

In the skull the forehead is low, the intra-orbital region broad and the
facial portion broad at the base. (_Anderson._) The thumb is well
developed. The foetus is remarkable for its motley coloration, and shows
also the white rump-spot.

FEMALE.--Like the male. The young differ but little from the parents. Aged
individuals retain the coloration of their maturity.

DISTRIBUTION.--Northern Cochin-China; Hainan. (_Meyer._)

HABITS.--The Douc goes about in large troops.


  _Semnopithecus nigripes_, A. Milne-Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. vi., p. 7
  (1871); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 32 (1876); Anderson, Zool. Res.
  Exped. Yun-nan, p. 4 (1878).

CHARACTERS.--Similar to _S. nemæus_, but differing in having the posterior
limbs black, and the fore-arms grizzled, instead of white. The whiskers are
short and black, the body more slender, longer, and entirely white. The
hind-limbs are also more elongated. Both sexes are alike; and the young
differ little from the adults.

The brain-case is depressed, the face short, and the inter-orbital swelling
peculiar to so many of the crested _Semnopitheci_, is wanting.

DISTRIBUTION.--Saigon in Cochin-China, and the forests bordering the Mekong
river towards its mouth.


  _Simia melalophus_, Raffles, Tr. Linn. Soc., xiii., p. 244 (1821).

  _Semnopithecus melalophus_ (Le Cimepaye), F. Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mammif.,
  livr. xxx. (July, 1821); Raffles, Tr. Linn. Soc., xxii., p. 245 (1822);
  Desmar., Dict. Sc. Nat., xlviii., p. 38 (1827); Martin, Mammif. Anim., p.
  470 (1841); Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 16 (1851); Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 16 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 43
  (1876; in part); Anders., Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 34 (with full
  synonymy; 1878).

  _Semnopithecus flavimanus_, Lesson, Cent. Zool., p. 109, pl. xl. (1830);
  Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 16 (1851).

  _Semnopithecus sumatranus_, var. _auratus_ (nec Geoffr.), Müller and
  Schl. Verhandl., pl. x. _bis_, fig. 2 (1839-44).

  _Presbytes melanophus_, Gray, Hand. List Mamm. Brit. Mus., p. 2 (1843).

  _Presbytes flavimana_, Gray, _t.c._, p. 2 (1843).

  _Semnopithecus nobilis_, Gervais, Hist. Nat., Mammif., p. 63 (1854);
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 17 (1870).

  _Semnopithecus ferrugineus_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 42 (1876).

CHARACTERS.--Head crested; the crest dark-brown, tipped with dusky;
forehead pale yellow; a line from the outer corner of the eye to the ear,
dark brown; back, sides, and shoulders reddish, washed with pale brown; the
rest of the fore-limbs, the whole of the hind-limbs, and the tail,
orange-red. Length of body, 18 inches; of tail, 32 inches.

The golden variety (_S. auritus_) from Sumatra, is generally yellowish-red

{137}The skulls present a good deal of variation in the form of the
internal orbital angles of the frontal, and in the occipital, bones.

DISTRIBUTION.--Sumatra: Padang, Indrapoera, Bencoolen, Palembang, and the

HABITS.--The "Simpai," as the Malays call this Langur, is very abundant in
Sumatra, where the present writer has obtained it both in the north of the
Palembang Presidency and in the south of the Lampongs. It is undoubtedly in
part to this species that Dr. Wallace refers in his "Malay Archipelago,"
when, at Lobo Raman, he says that they frequented the trees overhanging the
guard-house in which he was staying. "Two species of _Semnopithecus_ were
most plentiful--Monkeys of a slender form and long tails. Not being much
shot at, they are rather bold, and remain quite unconcerned when natives
alone are present, but when I came out to look at them, they would stare
for a minute or two and then make off. They take tremendous leaps from the
branches of one tree to those of another a little lower, and it is very
amusing when one strong leader takes a bold jump, to see the others
following with more or less trepidation; and it often happens that one or
two of the last seem quite unable to make up their minds to leap till the
rest disappear, when, as if in desperation at being left alone, they throw
themselves frantically into the air, and often go crashing through the
slender branches and fall to the ground."


  _Presbytis mitrata_, Escholtz, in Kotzeb. Reis., p. 196, _cum tab._

  {138}_Semnopithecus comatus_, Desmar., Mamm. Suppl., p. 533 (1822);
  Martin, Mammif. Anim., p. 468 (1841); Wagner in Schreber Säugeth. Suppl.
  v., p. 24 (1855).

  _Semnopithecus fulvo-griseus_, Desmoul., Dict. Hist. Nat., vii., p. 570

  _Semnopithecus fascicularis_, Owen, P. Z. S., 1833, p. 75.

  _Semnopithecus mitratus_, Schl., Essai Phys. Serp., p. 237 (1837);
  Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 16 (1851); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 16 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 37 (1876); Anders.,
  Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 36, (1878; with full synonymy).

  _Semnopithecus siamensis_, Müll. u. Schl., Verh., p. 60 (1841); Anders.,
  _t.c._, p. 37 (with synonymy).

  _Semnopithecus albo-cinereus_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xii., p. 175
  (1843); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 38 (1876).

  _Presbytes argentatus_, Blyth; Horsf. Cat. Mamm. E. I. Co. Mus., p. 7

  _Semnopithecus nigrimanus_ et _S. cinereus_, Mivart, P. Z. S., 1864, pp.
  625, 626.

  _Presbytes cristatus_ (nec Raffles) et _P. melanolophus_, Blyth, Mamm.
  Burma, p. 9 (1875).

CHARACTERS.--Head with a compressed blackish crest; hairs radiating from
the forehead over the eyes; crown above grey, mingled with black, becoming
black on the front of the crest and nape of the neck; flanks, under surface
of the body and tail, as well as the inner side of the limbs, dirty white;
hands and feet whitish, mixed with black or reddish hairs; upper surface of
the tail dark grey, the tip paler and tufted; ears and face deep black;
legs flesh-coloured; chin and throat white. Length of body, 20½ inches; of
tail, 28½ inches.

The hind-most lower molar has generally only four tubercles.

{139}The variety of this species inhabiting Siam has a fleshy-white area
round the eyes and mouth.

DISTRIBUTION.--Siam; the Malay Peninsula; and Sumatra.


  _Semnopithecus roxellanæ_, A. Milne-Edwards, C. R., lxx., p. 341 (1870);
  Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 65 (1876).

  _Rhinopithecus roxellanæ_, id., Rech., Mammif., p. 233, pls. xxxvi.,
  xxxvii. (1868-1874); Blyth, Mamm. Burm., p. 11 (1875).

  _Semnopithecus_ (_Nasalis_) _roxellanæ_, Anders., Zool. Res. Exped.
  Yun-nan, p. 43 (1878).

CHARACTERS.--Face naked, nose depressed in the middle, the tip elevated and
terminating in a singular leaf-like point; sides of the face and brows
clothed with a thick ruff, which extends in a line across the face towards
the nose; face green; the frontal region, sides of the face, auricular
region, sides of the neck and shoulder, chin, chest, inner side of the
fore-limbs, and upper aspect of the feet, yellow; top of head greyish-black
washed with rufous; from the nape (with the outer aspect of the fore-limb)
to the lower back silvery-grey, darker towards the neck, brightening
towards the tail and front of the thighs, where it is washed with bright
yellowish-grey; callosities and outer aspect of the thighs, bright yellow;
under surface of the body grey washed with yellow; tail grey at the base,
tufted at the tip and yellow; thumb very short. Length of body, 26 inches;
of tail, 21 inches.

FEMALE.--Similar to the male, but duller.

YOUNG.--Also paler, with more yellowish-grey round the ears, but the top of
the head not black. (_Anderson._)

{140}DISTRIBUTION.--The present species inhabits the forests of the high
mountains which clothe the western region of the Principality of Moupin, in
North-western China, to Kokonoor and Kansu Kinsu.

HABITS.--This very remarkable animal, whose discovery we owe to the
researches of that renowned traveller, the Abbé David, lives in large
troops on the highest trees of the forest, in regions where the snow lies
throughout the greater part of the year. It feeds on fruits, leaves, and
the young shoots of the forest-trees, and of the wild bamboo. It has been
placed by some systematists in a separate genus, _Rhinopithecus_, along
with _Nasalis larvatus_, from Borneo, on account of the extraordinary form
of its nose and of the length of the arm being greater than the fore-arm;
but in its structural characters it is very closely related to


  _Nasalis_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 90 (1812).

This genus contains only one species,


  (_Plate XXXVII._)

  _Cercopithecus larvatus_, Wurmb., Verhand. Bat. Genootsch., iii., p. 145
  (1781); Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 12 (1820).

  _Simia nasica_, F. Cuv., Dict. Sc. Nat., xx., p. 32 (1821).

  _Nasalis larvatus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 90 (1812); Lesson, Spec.
  des Mamm., p. 66 (1840); Jacq. et Puch., Voy. au Pole Sud, Zool. iii., p.
  17, pls. 2, 2A, 2B (1853); Lenz, Zool. Gart., xxxii., p. 216; Gray, Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 13 (1870); Hose, Mamm. Borneo, p. 8 (1893).



  {141} _Cercopithecus nasicus_, Desmar. et Virey, Nouv. Dict. d'Hist.
  Nat., xv., p. 574 (1817); Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl. i., p. 102,
  pl. x.B (1840).

  _Semnopithecus nasicus_, Desmoul., Dict. Class. d'Hist. Nat., vii., p.
  570 (1825); Schinz, Syn. Mamm., i., p. 43 (1844); Wagner in Schreb.
  Säugeth. Suppl. v., p. 35 (1855).

  _Nasalis recurvus_, Vigors et Horsf., Zool. Journ., iv., p. 109 (1828-9;
  head of young figured); Martin, P. Z. S., 1837, p. 71.

  _Semnopithecus larvatus_, Fischer, Syn. Mamm., p. 16 (1829); Martin,
  Mammif. An., p. 453, figs. 279, 280-2 (1841).

  _Rhynchopithecus larvatus_, Dahlb., Stud. Zool., p. 93, pl. iv. (1856).

  _Semnopithecus_ (_Nasalis_) _larvatus_, Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped.
  Yun-nan, p. 42 (1878; with full synonymy).

CHARACTERS.--Face cinnamon-brown; ears blackish, as also the palms and
soles; upper surface of the head, neck, back and sides yellowish-brown,
conspicuously marked with reddish-brown and white; rump, tail and limbs
yellowish-grey; tails of old specimens quite white; sides of face yellow,
and a stripe of the same colour on the shoulders. Under surface

Hair on the head, which is parted down the centre, on the sides of the
face, neck and shoulders, long; the chin full-bearded and the tail tufted;
ears small; the nose the most conspicuous feature of the face, produced
into a proboscis capable of dilatation, with large nostrils opening
downwards, separated from each other by a septum of thin cartilage
extending to the extremity. In old males the point of the nose reaches
quite below the lowest part of the chin; it is pear-shaped, and furrowed
down the middle, giving it the {142}appearance of being double tipped; it
is widest in the middle of the free portion. The proboscis is fully
developed only at an advanced age in both sexes, being much shorter in the
young, and turned upwards. Vigors and Horsfield described their _N.
recurvus_ from a specimen which appeared to them to be perfectly adult. The
forehead is low; the eyes are wide apart, and the neck is short and much
dilated from the presence of a very large laryngeal sac. Length of the
body, 29½ inches; of the tail, 26 inches.

FEMALE.--Similar to the male, but it is smaller, and wants the greyish rump
markings; while the proboscis is somewhat less developed.

YOUNG.--Have the face blackish and the cheeks wrinkled; the back of the
head, down to the shoulders and upper part of the fore-limb is dark
reddish-brown. "Through a series of changes during which the red-brown of
the upper parts first increases in strength, and the grey-brown of the hips
and upper side of the tail change to yellowish-white, the adult pelage is
reached." (_Anderson._)

This extraordinary animal presents all the structural characters of the
genus _Semnopithecus_; but the lower border of the nasal bones, forming the
entrance to the nasal chamber, extends considerably below the lower border
of the eye-sockets. The facial portion of the skull does not much exceed
the brain-case.

The Proboscis Monkey has the sacculated stomach already described in the

DISTRIBUTION.--The Proboscis Monkey is confined to the island of Borneo.
Mr. Hornaday found it along the west bank of the Sarawak river, both near
the sea and two miles below the {143}town. It occurs also in some abundance
on the Batang Lupar river. Mr. Hose says that it is chiefly found near the
mouths of the rivers in Southern Sarawak.

HABITS.--The Proboscis Monkey, variously called Blanda (or White Man) and
"Rasong" by the natives, is an arboreal creature living in small troops.
"As usual," writes Mr. Hornaday, "they were over water, and, being swift
climbers and quite shy, were hard to kill. I saw altogether, during my
ramblings in the forests of Borneo, perhaps a hundred and fifty Proboscis
Monkeys, and, without a single exception, all were over water, either
river, lake, or submerged forest. As long as they are in sight they are
very conspicuous objects, choosing the most commanding positions in open
tree-tops. Once I saw thirteen in one tree, sitting lazily on the branches,
as is their habit, sunning themselves and enjoying the scenery. It was the
finest sight I ever saw in which Monkeys played a part. The cry of the
'Blanda,' is peculiar and unmistakable. Written phonetically it would be
'Honk,' and occasionally 'Kec-honk,' long drawn and deeply resonant, quite
like the tone of a bass viol.... The Proboscis Monkey is a large animal of
striking appearance both in form and colour. Taken altogether, _Nasalis
larvatus_ is, to the hunter-naturalist, a very striking object of pursuit,
and were he not partially eclipsed by the Orang he would be the most famous
Quadrumane in the East Indies."


In this family are included the Gibbons, the Orangs, the Gorillas, and the
Chimpanzees, the most highly organised and the nearest to Man in structure
of all the _Anthropoidea_. To {144}these groups the term "Ape," has been by
many writers chiefly restricted, the remaining families of the Old World,
and all of the Western Hemisphere, being designated "Monkeys" as a
convenient method of nomenclature. The outward resemblance of the _Simiidæ_
to Man has made the various members of the family objects of the greatest
interest, not alone to the naturalist, but to every intelligent person; and
has naturally suggested a constant inter-comparison between the characters
of both.

They are all essentially arboreal climbing animals, yet when they come to
the ground they progress in a semi-erect position of their own accord.
Their front-limbs are always so much longer than their hind-limbs, that
when walking on a level surface their fingers reach the ground, without
stooping lower than their semi-erect attitude. Their front-limbs vary in
length in the different genera; so does the thumb; but their great-toe is
always smaller in proportion to the foot than it is in Man, and, unlike
his, is opposable to the other toes. As they belong to the Catarrhine
group, their nose has a narrow partition between the nostrils, which are
directed downwards. In all, an external tail, cheek-pouches, and (except
among the Gibbons) ischial callosities are wanting. All are covered with
hair, some more thickly than others, but no Ape has on its head the long
abundant locks which Man possesses.

The form of the skull varies very greatly in the _Simiidæ_. It is, however,
always longer than broad. In its frontal region it is never so rounded and
elevated as in Man. The roof of the eye-sockets projects into the fore part
of the brain-cavity, and considerably reduces its capacity. The
pre-maxillary bones (carrying the incisor teeth) are relatively more
distinct and much larger than in Man, "the sutures {145}separating them
from the maxillary bones remaining visible after the adult dentition has
been obtained." (_Mivart._)[1] The _Simiidæ_ have a bony meatus or canal to
the ear. The back part of the head, which among the Guenons is flat, is
convex among the _Simiidæ_. The palate is long and narrow, and the margins
of the jaws nearly parallel. The lower jaw is always in one piece, the two
halves being firmly ossified in the middle. The dental formula of the
Man-like Apes is I2/2, C1/1, P2/2, M3/3 (_i.e._, 32 teeth in all); their
inner upper incisors are larger, and the lower are smaller than the outer
pair; the canines are large, and between them and the neighbouring incisor
above there is a vacuity (or diastema), and, below, between them and the
nearest pre-molar. The upper pre-molars have three roots, and the lower,
two; the upper molars have four tubercles, their crowns being relatively
wide; the lower molars have five tubercles, but the posterior has no hind

The opening for the passage of the spinal cord is situated towards the
posterior portion of the base of the cranium, and is thus further from the
centre than in Man.

Except among the Gibbons, the vertebral column shows in the sacral region
indications of that curve--or concavity in the back between the two
convexities of the neck and loins--which is one of the distinctive
characters of the human skeleton. The processes for the interlocking of the
vertebræ, which are large in the lower Anthropoids, are much reduced in the
Man-like Apes, and become inconspicuous in Man.

The breast-bone is flat, and resembles that of Man, and, in all, except the
Orang, is composed of two bones. The {146}arm-bone is often shorter than
the fore-arm. The _radius_ and _ulna_ can be completely rotated. The
articulating surface of the _trapezium_, the wrist-bone (_carpus_), to
which the thumb is attached, has a rounded face like that of the
_ento-cuneiform_ bone in the ankle (_tarsus_), a form which, as already
pointed out (Vol. I., p. 11), was in the Lemuroids correlated with an
opposable great-toe, so here it is correlated with a true opposable thumb.
In the Monkeys and Lemuroids this bone is not generally rounded, and they
have not the thumb opposable in the strict sense that it is among the
higher Apes.

The thigh-bone (_femur_) is shorter than the arm-bone (_humerus_); and the
foot is very long; yet the absolute length of the _tarsus_ is never so
great as in Man; it is the rest of the foot which is so much longer
relatively in Apes. The _ento-cuneiform_, or articulating bone of the ankle
for the great-toe, has a sub-cylindrical surface, which gives a great range
of motion to that digit, towards and from the plane of the foot.

The brain of the Apes closely resembles in general form and structure that
of Man; but the cerebral hemispheres differ in being much elongated and
depressed, and the cranial capacity of the skull, which is never less than
55 cubic inches in any normal human subject, is in the Chimpanzee 27½ cubic
inches; in the Gorilla 35 inches; in the Orang 26 inches; and in the
Gibbons very much less. The cerebrum has its surface richly convoluted; and
its posterior lobes always entirely over-arching the cerebellum, except in
the Siamang (_Hylobates syndactylus_).

"As to the convolutions, the brains of the Apes exhibit every stage of
progress, from the almost smooth brain of the Marmoset, to the Orang and
the Chimpanzee, which fall but little below Man. And it is most remarkable
that as soon as {147}all the principal sulci [or grooves] appear, the
pattern according to which they are arranged is identical with that of the
corresponding sulci of Man. The surface of the brain of a Monkey exhibits a
sort of skeleton map of Man's, and in the Man-like Apes the details become
more and more filled in, until it is only in minor characters, such as the
greater excavation of the anterior lobes, the constant presence of fissures
usually absent in Man, and the different disposition and proportions of
some convolutions, that the Chimpanzee's or the Orang's brain can be
structurally distinguished from Man's.... And the difference between the
brains of the Chimpanzee and of Man is almost insignificant when compared
with that between the Chimpanzee's brain and that of a Lemur." (_Huxley._)

The Anthropoid Apes have no cheek-pouches. The larynx has large dilatations
of the shallow depressions--called ventricles--of the mucous membrane on
each side of its inner surface--which may extend down as far as the
arm-pits, and be connected with powerful voice possessed in most of the
species. The stomach is simple, like that of Man, and not sacculated, as in
the last family (the _Cercopithecidæ_).

The uterus and other structures connected with the reproductive system
resemble those in the human subject. The length of gestation varies
probably in the different genera, and is unknown in many of the species.
The period for which the young are suckled by the mother lasts about six
months. "The proportions of the limbs to one another and to the body do not
sensibly change after birth; but the body, limbs, and jaws enlarge to a
much greater extent than the brain-case." (_Huxley._) Observations are
still required, in regard to most of the species, as to the age at which
they arrive at maturity, and are able to reproduce.

{148}The _Simiidæ_--the most intelligent of the animal kingdom--are all
diurnal animals, and essentially arboreal. Many of the members of the
family have, when walking, a tendency to tread on the outer edge of the
foot, turning, therefore, the toe inward on account of the free motion
which is possible between the various bones of its ankle, whereas, in the
human foot, these bones are more solidly bound together. When climbing, the
power of turning in the sole is, as is evident, of the greatest advantage
to the Ape. Their food is chiefly vegetable; a few species exhibit slight
carnivorous tendencies.

"Of the various genera of the _Simiidæ_, the Gibbons are most remote from
Man. The Orangs come nearest in the number of the ribs, the form of the
cerebral hemispheres, and certain other characters of the brain and skull;
but they differ from him much more widely in other characters, especially
in the limbs, than the Gorilla and the Chimpanzee do. Of the Chimpanzees
the Gorilla is more Man-like in the proportions of the leg to the body, and
of the foot to the hand; and likewise in the size of the heel, the
curvature of the spine, and the absolute capacity of the cranium. The true
Chimpanzees approach Man most closely in the skull, dentition, and
proportionate length of the arms." (_Huxley._)

The _Simiidæ_ are confined to the Ethiopian and Indian Regions. The
Gorillas and Chimpanzees live exclusively in the Tropical Regions of
Western and Central Africa; the Gibbons range into all the four provinces
of the Indian Region; while the Orangs are confined to two islands of the
Indo-Malayan Sub-region.


  _Hylobates_, Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm., p. 67 (1811).

The group of Tree-walkers, as the term _Hylobates_ signifies, {149}embraces
the smallest-sized, the slenderest-bodied, the longest-limbed, and the most
perfectly arboreal of all the Man-like Apes. All are covered with thick
woolly hair, which, on the arms and fore-arms, converges (except in _H.
agilis_) towards the elbow.

Their head is small and round, and the face compressed. Except the Orangs,
the Gibbons have the longest arms of all the Apes, so long that when they
stand erect the points of their fingers can touch the ground. Compared with
the spinal column, their arms are as 19 to 11, while the legs are one-third
longer than it. The fore-arm is much longer than the arm itself; the hand
is longer than the foot, and the thumb is very long in proportion to the
hand. The knee is free from the side of the body, and the great-toe is well
developed and nearly one-half the length of the foot. The nails of both the
thumb and the great-toe are flat. Callosities, which are wanting in all the
other genera, are present in _Hylobates_, but are very small.

In the skull the occiput is convex; the orbits are very large and deep, and
the supra-orbital ridges prominent. The canine teeth are much larger than
the others, and equally large in both sexes. They are generally the last of
the permanent teeth to come in, but in the Gibbons they generally precede,
or are developed along with, the last molar.

The vertebral column is nearly straight, presenting but little of the
spinal curvature seen in Man; it has also in the dorso-lumbar region one
vertebra more than in the human skeleton. The articulating head of the
arm-bone (_humerus_) loses the direction it had among the Monkeys, and
looks upward and forward as in Man. The wrist (_carpus_) has nine bones, as
in the lower _Anthropoidea_. The skeleton of the hand is more {150}than
half the length of the spine, and the foot is slightly under half its
length. The Gibbons have two pairs of ribs more than Man. The ends of the
ischial bones are much everted to support the callosities.

With regard to the brain, this genus is remarkable for the great reduction
of the occipital lobes of the cerebrum.

The tongue is very similar to that in Man, but it is furnished with a
sub-lingual process like that already described among some of the
Lemuroids. The Gibbons (except the Siamang) have no laryngeal sacs. The
stomach closely resembles the human organ.

The Gibbons are very delicate, and rarely live long in confinement, even in
their own country. They are in general highly intelligent, very gentle, and
become most affectionate and engaging animals if kindly treated. They are,
however, occasionally irascible and ill-tempered, especially when adult.

Their feats of climbing and leaping are almost proverbial. It would be
impossible to excel them as acrobats. When walking on the ground they
assume the erect posture, putting the soles of their feet to the ground,
separating the thumb and the great-toe widely from the neighbouring digits.

"They walk erect, with a waddling or unsteady gait, but at a quick pace;
the equilibrium of the body requiring to be kept up, either by touching the
ground with the knuckles, first on one side then on the other, or by
uplifting the arm so as to poise it. As with the Chimpanzee, the whole of
the narrow, long sole of the foot is placed upon the ground at once and
raised at once, without any elasticity of step." (_Martin._)

Their voice is very powerful and can be heard at a great distance,
especially when they are howling in chorus. The {151}Wau-Wau and the
Siamang, the one without, and the other with, a laryngeal sac, are equally
vigorous in this respect.

The female produces but a single young one at a birth, of which she takes
the greatest care. She carries it about, clinging to the under side of her
body, for many months. It is said that she even takes it to the waterside
from time to time, and with much solicitude, and in spite of its cries and
resistance, washes its face.

The Gibbons frequent the great upland forests; but the Siamang (_H.
syndactylus_) may be met with at quite low levels and close to the coast.
Their food consists of fruit, leaves, and insects, eggs of birds, and
apparently birds and lizards, and especially spiders. They drink either by
putting the mouth down to the water, or by dipping in their hands and thus
carrying it to their mouths.

The Gibbons are confined to two Sub regions of the Indian Region. With the
exception of the Siamang, all the so-called species of _Hylobates_ are so
closely allied to each other, and differ by characters of such slight
importance, that they seem to be hardly worthy of specific distinction.


  _Pithecus lar_ (nec L.), Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 88 (1812).

  _Hylobates agilis_, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. des Mammif., Sept. 1821, pls. v.,
  vi.; Müller, Tijdschr. Nat. Gesch., ii., p. 326 (1835); Martin, Mammif.
  Anim., p. 416 (1841); Fry, P. Z. S., 1846, p. 11; Gray, Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., p. 12 (1870); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 17 (1876);
  Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 9 (1878; with full synonymy).

  _Pithecus agilis_, Desmar., Mamm., p. 532 (1820).

  {152}_Simia lar_ (nec L.), Raffl., Tr. Linn. Soc., xiii., p. 242 (1822).

  _Hylobates lar_ (nec L.), F. Cuv., Hist. Nat., Mamm., pls. 7, 8 (1824);
  Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xliv., ex. no., p. 2 (1875).

  _Hylobates variegatus_, Temm., Monogr. Mamm., i., p. xiii. (1827); Wagner
  in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl. v., p 16 (1855); H. O. Forbes, Nat. Wand.
  East. Arch., p. 156 (1885).

  _Hylobates rafflesii_, Is. Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 8 (1851);
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 11 (1870).

  _Hylobates pileatus_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1861, p. 136, pl. xxi.; id., Cat.
  Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 10 (1871); Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p.
  6 (1878).

CHARACTERS.--Face black; colour entirely black, but becoming brown on the
back and sides, and with a white superciliary band, and sometimes ashy-grey

This is the typical form of the species in Mid-Sumatra, where the present
writer had the opportunity of examining it alive. It was with difficulty
distinguished from _H. syndactylus_, except from its size and the presence
of the white superciliary band.

Other specimens (but none of them met with to the south of the Moesi river
by the present writer) have been described, with the occiput, the back from
immediately behind the shoulders, the flanks, the hips, and the outer
surfaces of the fore- and hind-limbs, pale yellow. The shoulders, chest,
and belly, and the inside of the limbs and feet dark brown; eyebrows and
whiskers pale grey. (_Anderson._)

The variety described as _H. pileatus_ is distinguished by a black cap-like
patch on the top of the head; the chest, throat, and belly black; the back
of the head, the upper surface of the body, the limbs and area round the
black cap grey. This variety may also be entirely white, except for the
coronal cap {153}and chest being black, and the back brown; or the
pervading colour may be brown, the sides of the face and the under surface
black, and the whiskers white. The index and middle fingers are
occasionally webbed together.

All the hairs on the arm and fore-arm converge towards the wrist.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species is confined to Sumatra and to Siam. In the
former country it is known by the name of "Ongka" by the Malays, who, with
the keen powers of observation they possess in regard to all natural
objects, recognise two varieties, the white or yellow variety--"Ongka
putih," and the black one--"Ongka itam" (_H. rafflesi_). The capped variety
(_H. pileatus_) with its variously coloured forms inhabits Siam.

HABITS.--The habits of the "Ongka" are very similar to those of the
Wau-wau, or the Siamang (_H. syndactylus_). The natives, however, aver that
it is much more silent, rarely howling as either of these other two species
do. They are also seen generally in quite small troops, and often in pairs

"It is almost impossible," writes Mr. Martin of a specimen that lived
formerly in the Zoological Gardens, "to convey in words an idea of the
quickness and graceful address of her movements: they may, indeed, be
termed aërial, as she seems merely to touch, in her progress, the branches
among which she exhibits her evolutions. In these feats her hands and arms
are the sole organs of locomotion; her body hanging as if suspended by a
rope, sustained by one hand (the right, for example), she launches herself
by an energetic movement to a distant branch, which she catches with the
left hand. But her hold is less than momentary; the impulse for the next
{154}launch is acquired; the branch then aimed at is attained by the right
hand again, and quitted instantaneously, and so on, in alternate
succession. In this manner spaces of twelve and eighteen feet are cleared
with the greatest ease, and uninterruptedly for hours together, without the
slightest appearance of fatigue being manifested; and it is evident that if
more space could be allowed, distances very greatly exceeding eighteen feet
would be as easily cleared.... Sometimes on seizing a branch in her
progress, she will throw herself, by one arm only, completely round it,
making a revolution with such rapidity as almost to deceive the eye, and
continue her progress with undiminished velocity. It is singular to observe
how suddenly this Gibbon can stop, when the impetus given by the rapidity
and distance of her swinging leaps would seem to require a gradual
abatement of her movements. In the very midst of her flight a branch is
seized, the body raised, and she is seen, as if by magic, quietly seated on
it, grasping it with her feet.... A live bird was let loose in her
apartment; she marked its flight, made a long swing to a distant branch,
caught the bird with one hand in her passage, and attained the branch with
her other hand; her aim, both at the bird and the branch, being as
successful as if one object only had engaged her attention. It may be
added, that she instantly bit off the head of the bird, picked its
feathers, and then threw it down, without attempting to eat it."


A. _Javan Race_ (_H. leuciscus_).

  _Simia leucisca_, Schreber, Säugeth. i., pl. iii. b. (1775).

  _Pithecus leuciscus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 89 (1812).

  {155}_Hylobates leuciscus_, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 6 (1820); Desmar.
  Mamm., p. 51 (1820); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 416 (1841); Is. Geoffr.,
  Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 7 (1851); Wagner, Schreb., Säugeth. Suppl. v., p.
  16 (1855); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 15 (1870); H. O. Forbes,
  Nat. Wand. East. Arch., p. 70 (1875); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 19
  (1876); Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 7 (1878; with full

B. _Bornean Race_ (_H. concolor_).

  _Simia concolor_, Harlan, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil., v., p. 229 pl. ii.

  _Hylobates harlani_, Less., Bull. des Sc. Nat., xiii., p. 111 (1827).

  _Hylobates concolor_, Schl., Essai Phys. Serp., p. 237 (1837); S. Müller,
  Verhand. Gesch., p. 48 (1841); Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., x., p. 838 (1841);
  Martin, Mammif. An., p. 417 (1841); Fry, P. Z. S., 1846, p. 15; Wagner in
  Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl. v., p. 17 (1855; in part); Schleg., Mus.
  Pays-Bas, vii., p. 20 (1876); Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 11

  _Hylobates mülleri_, Martin, Mammif. Anim., p. 444 (1841); Is. Geoffr.,
  Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 7 (1851);  Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 21
  (1876);  Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 8 (1878; with full
  synonymy); Hose, Mammals of Borneo, p. 6 (1893).

  _Hylobates funereus_, Is. Geoffr., C. R., xxxi., p. 874 (Dec., 1850);
  Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth. Suppl. v., p. 18 (1855).

  _? Hylobates fuscus_, Winslow Lewis, Bost. Journ. N. Hist., i., pt. i.,
  p. 32, pls. i., ii. (1834).

CHARACTERS.--Fur thick, long and woolly. General colour ashy-grey, paler on
the lower back and rump; hair round {156}the face grey; superciliary streak
white; top of the head black; fingers and toes black.

This species has been found to possess occasionally a supernumerary finger
on each hand.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Indo-Malayan Sub-region. Java, Borneo, and the Sulu
Archipelago between Borneo and the Philippines.

HABITS.--The Wau-Wau--the Malay name for this Gibbon--is one of the first
of the Quadrumana that makes its presence known to the traveller in Java,
when he reaches its upland forest regions. In the evening, just about
sundown, and more especially in the early morning commencing before sunrise
and finally ceasing when the sun is above the tops of the trees, he will be
surprised by a sudden outbreak of what appears to be now the loud plaintive
wailings of a crowd of women, now the united howling of a band of
castigated children. The present writer's first acquaintance with this
charming genus of Monkeys was made among the Kosala hills in Western Java,
and it will ever remain with him as one of many most pleasant recollections
of a long tropical sojourn. Their "woo-oo-ut--woo-ut--woo-oo-ut--wut-wut-
wut--w[)u]t-w[)u]t-w[)u]t," always more dolorous on a dull heavy morning
previous to rain, is just such a cry as one might expect from the sorrowful
countenance so characteristic of the species of _Hylobates_. The Wau-Wau
has a wonderfully human look in its eyes; and it was with great distress
that the writer witnessed the death of the only one he ever shot. Falling
on its back with a thud on the ground, it raised itself on its elbows,
passed its long taper fingers over the wound, gave a woeful look at them
and at his slayer, then fell back at full length--dead--"saperti orang"
(just like a man), as his Malay companion remarked. He kept in captivity
for a short time a specimen which was brought to him by a native, and it
{157}became one of the most gentle and engaging creatures possible; but
when the calling of its free mates reached its prison house, it used most
pathetically to place its ear close to the bars of its cage and listen with
such intense and eager wistfulness that it was impossible to retain it in
durance any longer. It was accordingly set free on the margin of its old
forest home. Strange to say, its former companions, perceiving perhaps the
odour of captivity about it, seemed to distrust its respectability, and
refused to allow it to mingle with them. Amid the free woods we may hope
that this taint was soon lost and that it recovered all its pristine

In general habits it in no way differs from the other species of
_Hylobates_ already described.

In regard to the Bornean specimens of this species, Dr. Anderson makes the
following observations: "This species varies from grey to dark
yellowish-brown, but the grey tint in certain lights appears pure ashy, and
in others of a brownish tint. In some the chest and abdomen are frequently
yellow, and this seems to be the character of individuals met with on the
west coast of Borneo, while those inhabiting the meridional parts of the
island have the hands and fore part of the body of a black-brown or
reddish-brown. In both of these varieties there is a yellowish-white
superciliary streak. The last of them leads into the varieties of
_Hylobates_ from the neighbouring islands of Sulu, to the north-east of
Borneo, in which the upper parts of the body are either grey or brownish,
the lower part of the back and the loins being a little more clear than the
rest." The outer surface of the limbs, the back part of the head, the
supercilium, and the sides of the face are more or less pure ashy-grey.
"Specimens of this Gibbon obtained by me," writes Mr. Charles Hose, who is
well known for his Bornean researches, {158}"at Claudetown, and now in the
British Museum, show that the colouring in different parts of the body must
be considered of little importance, as I obtained eleven specimens, five of
which were in the same troop and the other six from the same locality,
varying in colour as much as it is possible for them to do; some had
yellowish backs and black chests, others black backs with yellowish chests,
and some were nearly black all over; whilst others were almost a complete
silver-grey. I, therefore, come to the conclusion that _H. muelleri_ and
_H. leuciscus_ cannot be separated. The peculiar bubbling noise they make
is similar. I think it very unlikely that two distinct species should be so
constantly found together as they are in Sarawak.

"The natives call the silver-grey variety 'Emplian' or 'Wa-Wa,' and the
dark one, 'Emplian arang' (coal), because of its colour."


  _Hylobates leucogenys_, Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1840, p. 20; Blyth, J. A. S.
  Beng., x., p. 838 (1841); Martin, Mammif. Anim., p. 445, _cum fig._
  (1841); Is. Geoffr., C. R., xv., p. 717 (1842); id., Arch. Mus., ii., p.
  535 (1843); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 11 (1870); Schl., Mus.
  Pays-Bas, vii., p. 13 (1876); Scl., P. Z. S., 1877, p. 679, pl. lxx.;
  Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 6 (1878; with synonymy).

CHARACTERS.--Fur glossy, thick, and woolly; the hair of the upper and back
part of the head standing vertically erect; the face, chin, and ears black;
round the face from the level of the eyes and meeting below the chin runs a
white border, forming {159}whiskers and beard; elsewhere the colour is
entirely black. Length of the body, 26 inches.


HABITS.--This rare species is very active and gentle in confinement. It
will hang suspended, as Martin observed in the first specimen brought to
Europe, from a branch for the whole day, except when asleep or reposing.

The type specimen was described in 1840,--its skin being preserved in the
British Museum; but it was not till 1877--after a lapse of thirty-seven
years--that a second specimen was brought to this country. It was sent to
the Zoological Gardens by Mr. W. H. Newman, H.B.M. Consul at Bankok.


  _Homo lar_, Linn., Mantiss. Plant., App., p. 521 (1771).

  _Simia longimana_, Wagner in Schreb. Säugeth. i., p. 66, pl. iii., figs.
  1, 2 (1775); Erxl., Syst. Reg. An., p. 9 (1777).

  _Simia lar_, Bodd., Elench. An., p. 55 (1785); Fischer, Syn. Mamm., p. 12
  (1829; in part).

  _Pithecus lar_, Latr., Hist. Nat. Buff., xxxvi., p. 276 (1809).

  _Pithecus varius_, Latr., _op. et loc. cit._

  _Pithecus variegatus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 88 (1812).

  _Hylobates lar_, Illig., Abhandl. Akad. Berl., p. 88 (1815); Martin,
  Mammif. Anim., pp. 416, 433 (1841); Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., x., p. 838
  (1841); Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 10 (1870); Scl., P. Z. S.,
  1870, p. 86, pl. v.; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 15 (1876);
  Anders., Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan, p. 5 (1878; with full synonymy);
  Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 7 (1891).

  {160}_Hylobates variegatus_, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 5 (1820; young);
  Desmar., Mamm., p. 51 (1820); Is. Geoffr., Zool. Bélang. Voy., p. 27

  _Simia albimana_, Vig. et Horsf., Zool. Journ., iv., p. 107 (1828).

  _Simia variegatus_, Fischer, Syn. Mamm., p. 11 (1829).

  _Hylobates albimanus_, Is. Geoffr., Zool. Bélang. Voy., p. 29 (1834).

  _Hylobates entelloides_, Is. Geoffr., C. R., xv., p. 717 (1842).

  _Hylobates leuciscus_, Cantor, Ann. and Mag. N. H., xvii., p. 338 (1846).

CHARACTERS.--MALE.--Everywhere deep black, except the face, which is
reddish-brown, with the thick hair round it light grey or white, and the
hands and feet, which are pale yellow or white; superciliary ridges,
whiskers and beard, white. The hair on the fore-arm is nearly erect, with
only a very slight forward inclination. The species is subject to great
variation, and may be of all shades, from deep black to entirely
whitish-yellow (_H. entelloides_).

Head round; the eyes large; the cheeks flat and depressed; the nose
slightly projecting, its tip furrowed, and its nostrils small and
converging; the upper lip is divided in the centre by a vertical furrow. In
very young individuals the top of the ear is markedly pointed.

Skull with the orbital ridges larger, the muzzle shorter, and the teeth
smaller than in _H. hoolock_; the second and third toes sometimes united by
a membrane.

FEMALE.--Generally similar to the male, but more frequently entirely pale
yellow, with the hands and feet paler.

DISTRIBUTION.--Aracan, Lower Pegu, Tenasserim, and the Malay Peninsula.

HABITS.--The White-handed Gibbon inhabits the upland {161}forests as high
as 3,500 feet above the sea; living in troops numbering from ten to
twenty-five. Its habits are very similar to those of other Gibbons,
although Tickell observed that they were less light and active than the
Hoolock, and had a different voice. It is said to drink, as the Siamang
does, by dipping its hands into the water, and not to put its mouth down to
it like the Hoolock. "So entirely does it depend on its hands for
locomotion amongst trees," remarks Dr. Blanford, "that it carries
everything in its feet. Tickell, from whom I take these details, says that
he has seen a party of _H. lar_ escape thus with their plunder from a Karen
garden in the forest." "The young are born in the early part of the cold
season," continues Dr. Blanford, "and each sticks to the body of its mother
for about seven months, after which it begins gradually to shift for


  _Simia lar_, Phil. Trans., lix., p. 607 (1769.)

  _Simia hoolock_, Harlan, Tr. Am. Phil. Soc., iv. (n. s.), p. 52, pl. 2

  _Hylobates coromandus_, Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1837, p. 689; Martin, Mammif.
  Anim., p. 415 (1841); Is. Geoffr., Arch. Mus., ii. P. 535 (1843); Blyth,
  J. As. Soc. Beng., xiii., p. 464 (1844.)

  _Hylobates hoolock_, Waterh., Cat. Mamm. Mus. Zool. Soc., p. 3 (1838);
  Martin, Mammif. Anim., p. 416 (1841); Is. Geoffr., Arch. Mus., ii., p.
  535 (1843); id., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 9 (1851); Sclater, P. Z. S.,
  1860, p. 86, pl. v.; Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 11 (1870); Schl.,
  Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 14 (1876); Anderson, Zool. Res. Exped. Yun-nan,
  p. 1 (1878; with full synonymy); Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Mamm., p. 5

  {162}_Hylobates hulok_, Wagner, in Schreb., Säugeth. Suppl., v., p. 20

  _Hylobates niger_, Harlan; Ogilby, P. Z. S., 1840, p. 21.

CHARACTERS.--Black all over, except a frontal band, continuous or
interrupted, above the eyes. There is a good deal of variation in this
species, more in the female than in the male, the black being in many
individuals of a brownish tinge.

YOUNG MALES.--Often of a brownish-black, like many of the females.

FEMALE.--With the black generally of a brownish tinge, but often pale or
greyish-yellow; sometimes the upper parts are pale yellow and the under
parts and side of the head brown, and the area round the nude parts of the
face white. (_Anderson._)

DISTRIBUTION.--Lower ranges of Bhutan--its furthest western
range--(_Pemberton_); hill ranges of Upper Assam (_Blyth_), Sylhet,
Chittagong, Aracan.

HABITS.--"I first met with this species in Upper Burma," Dr. Anderson
relates, "in passing through the magnificent defile of the Irawaddy, below
Bhamo, where the river is enclosed by high hills, covered with dense
forest, for about fifteen miles of its course. It was early morning, and
the air was resonant with the loud cries of this Gibbon; large troops were
answering each other from the opposite banks, and the hills echoed and
re-echoed the sound. The Hoolock is also common on the Kakhyen hills, on
the eastern frontier of Yun-nan; and there, too, my attention was called to
them at daybreak, when they passed up from their sheltered sleeping-ground
in the deep and warm valleys to heights of about 4,000 feet. We, in the
middle distance, first caught a faint murmur of voices, but {163}every
minute it became more and more distinct, till at last the whole troop
rushed past in a storm of sound, vociferating _Whoko! whoko!_ and in a few
more minutes their cry was heard far up the mountain-side. Considering that
their progress is almost exclusively arboreal, the rapidity with which they
make their ascent is wonderful.

"Associated with this arboreal habit of progression, we find that _H.
hoolock_ derives its nourishment from leaves, insects, eggs, and birds, the
essential features of sylvan life." It also eats the leaves of _Ficus
religiosa_, the aquatic Convolvulus (_Ipomoea reptans_), and the brilliant
red flowers of the _Canna indica_. It "has a marked partiality," continues
the same naturalist, "for Spiders and their webs, which become tangled in
its long slim fingers, and Orthopterous insects are regarded by it with
special favour, and over which it utters its peculiar cry of satisfaction.
Eggs also are to it a _bonne bouche_. It was first in the Calcutta gardens
that I become aware of the circumstance that small living birds were
devoured by it with a method and eagerness which has left no doubt in my
mind that this species, in its natural state, must be a scourge to the
feathery tribe."

The Hoolock lives in large flocks as a rule, keeping chiefly to the hill
forests. Sometimes, however, an old male may be discovered living by

They move chiefly by means of their long arms, by which they swing
themselves for prodigious distances from branch to branch, and from tree to
tree. They descend hill-sides at a surprising pace, their descent being
accomplished by grasping bamboos or branches that bend beneath their
weight, and allow them to drop until they can seize the ends of other
bamboos or branches lower on the slope and take another mighty {164}swing
downwards. They also ascend with great rapidity, swinging themselves from
tree to tree. (_Blanford._)

When walking on the ground the Hoolock rests on its hind feet alone, with
the sole flat on the ground and the great-toe widely separated from the
other digits. "They walk erect," writes Dr. Borrough, "and when placed on
the floor, or in an open field, balance themselves very prettily by raising
their hands over their head and slightly bending the arm at the wrist and
elbows, and then run tolerably fast, rocking from side to side; and if
urged to greater speed they let fall their hands to the ground and assist
themselves forward, rather jumping than running, still keeping the body,
however, nearly erect."


  _? Hylobates pileatus_, Swinhoe, P. Z. S., 1870, p. 224 (nec Gray).

  _Hylobates hainanus_, Thomas, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), ix., p. 145

CHARACTERS.--Very closely related to _H. hoolock_, but differs by the
entire absence of the white superciliary streak, the animal being jet black
all over.

DISTRIBUTION.--The island of Hainan.

HABITS.--This species has not been seen alive in its native haunts by any
European naturalist. Consul Swinhoe made many efforts to obtain a living
specimen in the island of Hainan, but was unsuccessful. "I never ceased,"
he says, "to enquire after it. Every one knew that such an animal did
exist, and many had seen it; but they all spoke of the great difficulty of
keeping it alive. At Taipingsze (Central Hainan) the wonderful stories that
were told about it showed that the Yuen was not often seen there. The
magistrate of that district assured me, {165}with a serious face, that it
had the power of drawing into its body its long arm-bones, and that when it
drew in one arm, it pushed out the other to such an extraordinary length,
that he believed the two bones united in the body; and he said that the
bones of the arm were used for chop-sticks." Mr. Swinhoe, however,
published, in 1870, some curious extracts from the Chinese gazetteer of the
Kiung-shan district of Hainan, which with little doubt relate to this
interesting animal, of which skins have, since he wrote, been received at
the British Museum, while a young individual lived for some months in 1893
in the Zoological Gardens of London, where it attracted much attention. The
gazetteer says as follows: "Yuen: male black, female white; like a Macaque
but larger, with the two fore-arms exceedingly long. Climbs to tree-tops
and runs among them backwards and forwards with great agility. If it falls
to the ground, it remains there like a log. Its delight is in scaling
trees, as it cannot walk on the ground. Those desiring to rear it in
confinement should keep it among trees; for the exhalations of the earth
affect it with diarrhoea, causing death; a sure remedy for this, however,
may be found in a draught made of the syrup of fried Foo-tsze (seeds of
_Abrus precatorius_, Linn.)." The gazetteer then continues: "Hainan has
also the Rock Yuen. It is small, about the bigness of one's fist. If
allowed to drink water, it grows in size. This is also called Black Yuen,
and is now likewise difficult to obtain."

Those who had an opportunity of observing the specimen that lived in the
Zoological Gardens, will recall its extraordinary acrobatic feats, which
were performed with marvellous precision and certainty, either with one or
with both hands, and yet with the most careless air. It offered a striking
contrast to an Orang-utan, which occupied the adjoining cage. This more
{166}robust Ape exhibited in its arms equally perfect powers of climbing;
but it moved with the greatest circumspection, deliberation, and composure,
exhibiting none of the volatile activity so characteristic of the Gibbons;
but moving only one pair of its limbs at a time, and only when the other
pair had firm hold of some support.


  _Pithecus syndactylus_, Desmar., Mamm., p. 531 (1820).

  _Hylobates syndactylus_, F. Cuv., Hist. Nat. Mammif., pl. iv. (1821); Is.
  Geoffr., Cat. Méth. Primates, p. 9 (1851); Bennett, Wanderings in N. S.
  Wales, ii., p. 151 (1834); Martin, Mammif. An., p. 420 (1841); Flower,
  Nat. Hist. Rev., 1863, p. 279 (cum fig.); Giebel, Z. Ges. Nat., p. 186
  (1866); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 22 (1876); Anderson, Zool. Res.
  Exped. Yun-nan, p. 10 (1878; with full synonymy).

  _Simia syndactylus_, Raffl., Tr. Linn. Soc., xiii., p. 241 (1822).

  _Siamanga syndactyla_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 9 (1870), id.,
  _op. cit._, p. 9 (1870); H. O. Forbes, Nat. Wand. East. Arch., p. 129

  (_Plate XXXVIII._)

CHARACTERS.--This is the largest species of the genus, measuring more than
three feet; it is stouter than _H. hoolock_, and its hair is entirely
glossy black, having no white hairs anywhere; the face is black, as is also
the distensible skin of the large bare patch on the throat, which overlies
its great laryngeal pouch. The second and middle toes are united by a web
as far as the last joint. The hair on the arms and fore-arms converges
towards the elbow.

The skulls in most of the species of this genus closely resemble each
other; that of the Siamang is distinguished by its larger size, and in
having the supra-orbital ridges more developed, while the occipital region
is more truncated, and there is at the symphysis of the lower jaw a true,
though slight, chin.


[Illustration: THE SIAMANG GIBBON.]

{167}The frontal lobes of the brain are broad and much flattened, and not
full and rounded as in the Orang. The olfactory bulbs project forward,
slightly beyond the frontal lobes of the cerebrum; the occipital lobes are
much reduced, while the large cerebellum projects distinctly backwards from
below the cerebrum--characters in which this very highly organised member
of the genus shows a retrogressive development, thus differing from all the
other Man-like Apes, in all of which the cerebrum entirely covers both the
olfactory lobes in front, and the cerebellum behind.

The large laryngeal sac, communicating by two openings with the larynx, and
formed by the extension of the thyro-hyoid membrane, distinguishes this
from all the other Gibbons.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Siamang is confined to the island of Sumatra. It has
been recorded from Malacca and Tenasserim; but some doubt exists as to the
accurate determination of the individuals referred to, no really authentic
specimen having yet been obtained out of Sumatra.

HABITS.--The Siamang is gregarious, frequenting the great forest-trees from
200 to 300 feet above the sea up to 3,000 or 4,000 feet.

I made the acquaintance of this species in Southern Sumatra, and during my
stay in that island had various opportunities of observing many of them in
their homes. It was not uncommon to come suddenly on a colony of them both
in the forest and among the tall isolated outliers, when they happened to
be covered with fruit. The satiated members of the company {168}might then
be often seen hanging by one arm from a bare branch, with perhaps eighty
unobstructed feet between them and the ground, making the woods resound
with their loud barking howls, uttered apparently for pure love of making a
noise. On one occasion a young one, found clinging to its mother, which had
been shot, was brought in alive. It had been only stunned by a pellet on
the head, and had no bones broken. In a very short time it became a most
delightful companion. The following observations in reference to it are
taken from the writer's Journal: "Its expression of countenance is most
intelligent and often very human; but in captivity it generally wears a sad
and dejected aspect, which quite disappears in its excited moods. With what
elegance and gentleness it takes with its delicate taper fingers whatever
is offered to it! Except for their hairiness, its hands, and, in its youth
at all events, its head, seem to me more human than those of any other
Ape's. It rarely, however, brings its thumb into opposition with the other
fingers, but usually clasps the whole hand, without that digit, on an
object. It will never put its lips to a vessel to drink, but invariably
lifts the water to its mouth, by dipping in its half-closed hand and then
awkwardly licking the drops from its knuckles. It generally sits with its
arms crossed over its chest, and its fingers overlaid behind its head. The
gentle and caressing way in which it clasps me round the neck with its long
arms, laying its head on my chest, and watching my face with its dark brown
eyes, uttering a satisfied crooning sound, is most engaging. Although it
often inflates its laryngeal sac, it rarely gives utterance to more than a
yawn-like noise or suppressed bark; but this dilatation has no reference
apparently to its good or bad temper, although, when very eager and
{169}impatient for anything, a low pumping bark is uttered. Every evening
it makes with me a tour round the village square, with one of its hands on
my arm. It is a very curious and ludicrous sight to see it in the erect
attitude on its somewhat bandy legs, hurrying along in the most frantic
haste, as if to keep its head from outrunning its feet, with its long free
arm see-sawing in a most odd way over its head to balance itself, and now
and again touching the ground with its finger-tips or its knuckles. That
they can leap the great distances from tree to tree ascribed to them is no
doubt an accurate observation; but they appear to be sometimes
terror-stricken and unable to perform these feats to save their lives.
During the felling of the forest near this village, a small colony of
Siamangs got isolated on a tree separated from the next clump by some
thirty feet or so. They scampered up and down in the crown of the tree
howling in the most abject terror at every stroke of the axe; yet they
would not venture to leap the intervening space, and even, when the tree
was falling, they did not attempt to save themselves by springing to the
ground, but perished in its downfall.

"When teething my companion suffered severely--as the human infant so often
does--both locally and constitutionally, as indicated by boils and inflamed
finger-tips. On lancing and poulticing the latter, and extracting some of
its obstructing teeth, the poor creature seemed greatly relieved, and I was
delighted to watch it recover, without contracting for me any antipathy for
the pain I had inflicted on it, but rather the reverse." At a later date
the following extract occurs:--

"During my march to the coast my Siamang accompanied me, occupying, with
the most grave demeanour, a seat on one of the packages carried in the
rear, near to myself. Here it {170}sheltered its head, to the amusement of
all whom we met, under a Chinese umbrella, which I had bought for it to
protect it from the midday sun, and for which, after every halt, it held
out its hands in the most knowing way, screaming lustily if the porters
dared to move on before it had comfortably arranged itself. To my intense
regret, a misadventure put an end to a most charming existence, before I
could send it to London."


  _Simia_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 34 (1766); Erxl., Syst. Régne An., p.
  6 (1777; part).

  _Pithecus_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 87 (1812); Huxley, Anat. Verteb.
  An., p. 403.

  _Pongo_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 89 (1812).

This genus contains one species, well known as


  _Simia satyrus_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 34 (1766); Kuhl, Beitr. Zool.,
  p. 4 (1820); Schreb., Säugeth., i., p. 54, pls. 2, 2 B. (1775); Fischer,
  Syn. Mamm., p. 9 (1829); Owen, Tr. Z. S., i., p. 344, pls. 49, 53-56
  (1835); Wallace, Malay Archip., i., p. 62 (1869); Gray, Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., p. 8 (1870); Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 9 (1876).

  _Simia agrias_, Schreb. Säugeth, i., pl. 2, ii. B et ii. C (1775).

  _Pongo wurmbii_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 89 (1812); Kuhl, Beitr.
  Zool., p. 21 (1820).

  _Papio wurmbii_, Latr. Singes, i., p. 196.


[Illustration: THE ORANG-UTAN.]

  {171} _Pithecus satyrus_, Blumenb., Abbild., Naturh. Geg., fig. xii.
  (1810); Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 88 (1812); Latr., in Buff. Hist.
  Nat., xxxv., p. 166, pl. 3; xxxvi., p. 276; Cuv. et Geoffr., Hist. Nat.,
  Mamm., livr. xlii.; Desmar., Mamm., p. 50 (1820); Martin, Mammif. Anim.,
  p. 388 (1841); Owen, Tr. Z. S., iv., p. 82, pl. 29 (1862).

  _Simia wurmbii_, Kuhl, Beitr. Zool., p. 21 (1820); Fischer, Syn. Mamm.,
  p. 32 (1829); Owen, Tr. Z. S., ii., p. 165, pls. 30-32 (1841); Brooke, P.
  Z. S., 1841, p. 55 (Mias Pappan).

  _Pithecus wurmbii_, Owen, Tr. Z. S., iv., p. 95, pl. xxxiii. (1862).

  _Pongo abelii_, Clarke, Asiat. Res., xvi., 489 (1826); id., Edinb. Phil.
  Journ., p. 375 (1827).

  _Simia abelii_, Fischer, Syn. Mamm., p. 10 (1829; Sumatra).

  _Simia morio_, Owen, P. Z. S., 1836, p. 92; id., Tr. Z. S., ii., p. 168,
  pls. 33, 34 (1838); Brooke, P. Z. S., 1841, p. 55 (Mias Kassar); Wallace,
  Malay Archip., i., p. 84 (1869); Sclater, P. Z. S., 1891, p. 301;
  Beddard, Tr. Z. S., xiii., p. 20 (1893; Sumatra and Borneo).

  _Pithecus morio_, Martin, Mammif. An., p. 395 (1841).

  _Simia gigantica_, Pearson, J. A. S. Beng., x. (2), p. 660 (1841).

  _Pithecus bicolor_, Is. Geoffr., Arch. Mus., Paris, ii., p. 526 (1841;

  _Pithecus owenii_, Blyth, J. A. S. Beng., xxii., p. 375 (1853).

  _Pithecus curtus_, Blyth, _op. cit._, xxiv., p. 525 (1855).

  (_Plate XXXIX._)

CHARACTERS.--The Orangs are large and heavy in build, with the head set on
a very thick neck, the hair long and directed forward, and the abdomen
round and protuberant. The naked face is melancholy. On each side of the
face there is, in the {172}full grown male, but not in the female, a large,
soft, smooth tumour-like and flexible expansion, which gives a remarkable
breadth to the visage. The forehead is nude and purplish in colour; the
middle of the face across the nose is sooty-brown. The lips are broad,
extremely mobile, and of the colour of the skin--generally of a yellowish
brown; and, when eating and drinking, the animal thrusts them far out. The
lower jaw retreats at once from the lips, and there is therefore no chin,
as so recognised in Man. The ears are more like those of Man, small and
flat. The arms are very long, reaching to the ankles in the erect posture,
their span being twice the animal's height. The arm is equal in length to
the fore-arm; the hands are long and narrow. The fingers are united by a
web; the thumb short and often without its terminal joint. The back of the
hand is but slightly haired. The hair on the arm is directed downwards and
that on the fore-arm upwards, so as to meet at the elbow. The legs are very
short and bowed at the ankles; the long and narrow foot, which is
articulated obliquely to the leg, is longer than the hand and (except in
the Gorilla) is longer than in any other Ape. The great-toe is very short
and is often destitute of a nail.

The cranium is very variable in form; the crown is high and pointed, the
forehead round and elevated, and the occipital region convex. No two
individuals are exactly alike. "The slope of the profile, the projection of
the muzzle, together with the size of the cranium, offer differences as
decided as those existing between the most strongly marked forms of the
Caucasian and African crania in the human species. The orbits vary in width
and height; the cranial ridge is either single or double, either much or
little developed, independent of age, being sometimes more strongly
developed in the less {173}aged animal." (_Wallace._) The supra-orbital
ridges are prominent, without being particularly so. The contour of the
head is more human in form, however, in youth than in age, when the
forehead is large and convex. The canine teeth are very large and tusk-like
in the male, but smaller in the female. The upper molars exhibit on their
crowns complex rugosities; they have four cusps and an oblique ridge, as in
Man, from the front inner, to the hind outer, cusp; the lower molars are
five-cusped. The permanent canine teeth sometimes appear before the last
permanent molar has come into place.

The thigh-bone (_femur_) has no round ligament binding its articular head
into its socket in the pelvis, a disposition which, while it affords
greater flexibility and freedom to the hind-limbs in climbing, gives it
much less firmness in walking on the ground. The proportionate length of
the foot to its limb is greater in this genus than in any other of the
_Anthropoidea_. The ankle (_tarsus_) is very short, and the bones
(_phalanges_) of the toes form the longest part of the foot. The great-toe
is especially short and divergent, its terminal bone being often absent,
while the bones of the digits are long and curved. On account of the form
of certain bones of the tarsus and their inter-mobility the foot is set
obliquely to the leg through the action of one of its muscles (the
_tibialis anticus_), so that the sole is pulled to the inside when walking.
The outer edge of the foot, with the upper side of the fourth and fifth
toes, is therefore applied to the ground in the act of progression, while
the spread thumb supports most of the animal's weight. The wrist (_carpus_)
contains the complete number of nine bones, as it possesses the _os
centrale_ wanting in Man and the Chimpanzees.

The breast-bone in the Orang is composed of ossifications {174}arranged in
pairs, instead of being formed of only two bones, as in the other members
of the family.

Between the neck and the complex and solid sacral bone there are sixteen
vertebrae, and there are twelve pairs of ribs, as in Man. The vertebral
column presents slight but distinct indications of the curvature so
characteristic of Man, and is nearly as much concave forward in its
dorso-lumbar region as in a child.

The Orang-utan has no uvula as in Man and in the Chimpanzees. It possesses
enormous air sacs--dilatations of the lateral cavities (ventricles) of the
larynx, found in Man--which extend over the throat, the top of the chest,
and as far as the arm-pits; these may even unite in the middle line. Its
great-toe and thumb lack the long flexor muscles which are present in Man
and in the Chimpanzees.

"Of all Apes, the Orang has the brain which is most like that of Man;
indeed, it may be said to be like Man's in all respects, save that it is
much inferior in size and weight, and that the cerebrum is more
symmetrically convoluted and less complicated with secondary and tertiary
convolutions." (_Mivart._) The cerebral hemispheres are higher in
proportion to their length than in any other _Anthropomorpha_, but they are
elongated and depressed, as compared with Man. (_Huxley._)

The colour of the hair of the Orang is a brick- or yellowish-red all over,
but in old males it is sometimes darker on the limbs. Its length (twelve to
sixteen inches) is greatest, and its character coarsest, on the arms,
thighs, and shoulders; the face, ears, and throat are bare, and the skin of
a reddish- or yellowish-brown colour; but there is a thin beard on the
chin. The back of the hand and fingers are also thickly haired; on {175}the
arms the hair grows towards the elbow, as on the fore-arm, both meeting in
a point at the elbow.

Between childhood and middle age the skin varies in colour from dark
yellowish in the younger individuals to blackish-brown, or black, in the
adults (the latter colour largely predominating). Very often the face and
neck are almost or quite black, the palms light brown, and the breast and
abdomen mulatto-yellow. (_Hornaday._)

In size also the Orang varies greatly; the males being larger than the
females. The largest male shot by Wallace measured 4 feet 2 inches.
Hornaday, however, shot several exceeding 4 feet 4 inches, his tallest
being 4 feet 6 inches, and one male was 3 feet 10½ inches; while his
largest female measured 4 feet, and the smallest adult female 3 feet 6
inches. The breadth across the face in males varies from 11½ to 13½ inches,
and in females 5½ to 6 inches. The young at birth is large in comparison
with the size of the female. A male weighs often from 120 to 160 lbs.

DISTRIBUTION.--The Orang-utan is confined to the islands of Borneo and
Sumatra, in the East Indian Archipelago. In Sumatra it is far less common
than in Borneo, and is found on the lowlands of the eastern coast, in the
Palembang Residency, and the Djambi Sultanate. As far as I could ascertain,
the natives of the southern portion of Palembang and of the Lampongs were
quite ignorant of the animal, except as a name. In Borneo it inhabits the
low forest-covered swamplands between the coast and the interior mountains,
from the north of the island, round the west, southern, and eastern coasts,
as far as the Mahakkam river, if not round the entire coast, as is most
likely. In the dry season they retire into the {176}depths of the forest.
In the fruit season they come nearer to the coast, while at the height of
the rains they frequent the river banks.

HABITS.--The Orang-utan, the "forest-living Man" of the Malays, and the
"Mias" of the Bornean natives, lives solitary in the leafy tops of the
trees in the forests, except at the pairing season. A female is generally
accompanied by one of her progeny, sometimes by two, the one always an
infant, and the other a more or less grown but immature individual of a
previous birth; for her young--of which she has only one at a birth--do not
shift for themselves before they are approaching two years of age. At what
age they attain maturity is unknown, but it is probably not before twelve
to fifteen years. The infant clings by its arms to its mother when she is
climbing, by grasping the hair of her arm-pits, while its legs embrace her
sides above the hip. As already observed, the Orangs have none of the
marvellous agility of the Gibbons. They are slow and deliberate in their
movements; "surprisingly awkward and uncouth," according to Sir James
Brooke; but their long and extremely powerful arms and hook-like fingers,
which close with an amazing rigidity of grip, and their mobile legs and
hand-like feet, enable them to lift and swing their bodies with great
precision from branch to branch and tree to tree. "I have frequently seen
them," says Hornaday, "swing along beneath the large limbs as a gymnast
swings along a tight rope, reaching six feet at a stretch. When passing
from one tree to another, the Orang reaches out and gathers in its grasp a
number of small branches that he feels sure will sustain his weight, and
then swings himself across." On the ground all this is very different. He
walks very badly and unsteadily; he uses his arms as crutches, leaning his
weight upon them with his fingers as already described, and {177}swings
himself forward on them. On the ground the Orang does not move, according
to Sir James Brooke, so fast as to preclude a man keeping up with him
easily through a clear forest. "The very long arms, which, when he runs,
are but little bent, raise the body of the Orang remarkably, so that he
assumes much the posture of a very old man bent down by age, and making his
way along by the help of a stick." (_Huxley._) The Orang, however, rarely
comes to the ground of his own accord.

Mr. Martin gives the following account of a specimen which lived in the
Zoological Gardens in London many years ago:--"Its attitudes were as varied
as can be imagined, its actions slow and deliberate; excepting, indeed, on
one or two occasions when it wished to follow its keeper, who had opened
the door of its cage; even then it did not bound from branch to branch like
a Monkey, but stretching out its arms, and grasping the branches within its
reach, it swung itself onward, and so descended to the floor, along which
it hobbled awkwardly and unsteadily. One thing, as respects both the hands
and feet of this Orang, could not be overlooked; namely, that their mode of
application to the branches, during the arboreal evolutions of the animal,
was hook-like; and, from the power of the adductor muscles of the thumb,
and flexor muscles of the fingers, tenacious and enduring, rather than
tight and fixed. This observation is especially applicable to the feet; in
these the shortness of the thumb, though capable in itself of firm and
close application, renders it rather a fulcrum, against which the long
fingers oppose their stress, than, by folding upon them, an adjunct to them
in the act of prehension; and hence, though admirably fitted for the
movements of the animal among the trees of the forest, and the kind {178}of
hold necessary for freedom and security, the foot of the Orang is, perhaps,
less energetic in the grasp than that of the semi-arboreal Chimpanzee, in
which the hind-thumb is proportionately longer, and the foot broader, than
in the Orang."

The Orang drinks by dipping its fingers into the water, as the Siamang
does, and sucking the water off its knuckles, or dropping it into its
protruded trough-like lower lip.

"The rude _hut_ which they are stated to build in trees, would be more
properly called a seat or nest, for it has no roof or cover of any sort.
The facility with which they form this nest is curious, and I had an
opportunity of seeing a wounded female weave the branches together and seat
herself within a minute." (_Sir James Brooke._) "The Orang usually
selects," writes Mr. Hornaday, "a small tree, a sapling, in fact, and
builds his nest in its top, even though his weight causes it to sway
alarmingly. He always builds his nest low down, often within twenty-five
feet of the ground, and seldom higher than forty feet. Sometimes it is
fully four feet in diameter, but usually not more than three, and quite
flat at the top. The branches are merely piled crosswise. I have never been
able to ascertain to a certainty, but it is my opinion that an Orang, after
building a nest, sleeps in it several nights in succession, unless he is
called upon to leave its neighbourhood." In this nest he sleeps during the
night or lies spread out on his back during the day, with his hands and
feet grasping the nearest branches. The food of the Orang-Utan--whose
eating-time is during the middle of the day--consists of leaves and nuts,
especially of the durian, the rambutan, and the mangosteen.

The Orang-Utan is of a very shy and uncertain disposition. If captured when
full-grown, it is wild and ferocious; when {179}young it is easily trained;
but never lives in captivity to attain maturity. When attacked and hard
driven by human enemies, and it gets to close quarters with them, it can be
a formidable and dangerous antagonist, and has been known to fatally injure
its assailants. It will rarely, unprovoked, attack a man. "In one case," as
Dr. A. R. Wallace has recorded, "a female Mias on a durian-tree kept up for
at least ten minutes a continuous shower of branches and of the heavy
spined fruits as large as 32-pounders, which most effectively kept us clear
of the tree she was on. She could be seen breaking them off and throwing
them down with every appearance of rage, uttering at intervals a loud,
pumping grunt, and evidently meaning mischief." They fight and defend
themselves with their hands, and appear to seize and bite each other's
fingers. Many of the specimens shot in the forest of Borneo have lost one
or more of their fingers or toes; and present scars on the face (especially
on the lips) and bodies from the teeth of their antagonists.

"When wounded he betakes himself to the highest attainable point of the
tree, and emits a singular cry, consisting at first of high notes, which at
length deepen into a low roar, not unlike that of a panther. While giving
out the high notes, the Orang thrusts out his lips into a funnel shape; but
in uttering the low notes he holds his mouth wide open, and at the same
time the great throat bag, or laryngeal sac, becomes distended."

The name given by the Dyaks to the larger species is "Mias Pappan." There
is, however, a smaller variety, which they designate "Mias Kassu," of which
Dr. Wallace has given an excellent and detailed account. These Mias Kassu
have no tumour-like expansions on the sides of the head; the median crest
is {180}absent from the skull, for the muscular ridges remain some distance
apart; the teeth are very large, especially the canines and the middle
upper incisors. The females, which are smaller than the males, are also
without the cheek-swellings and the prominent crests of the male, and have
smaller canine teeth. This variety, named _Simia morio_ by Sir R. Owen,
bears a close similarity to that found in Sumatra. It has been considered a
distinct species both by Owen and Wallace, but the variation, as the latter
naturalist himself admits, is so very great in just those characters which
have been considered to separate "Mias Kassu" from "Mias Pappan," that it
is highly probable that both are of the same species, but of different
ages. Mr. Beddard found that an Ape exhibited in the Zoological Gardens as
an adult example of _S. morio_ was in reality immature.


  _Troglodytes_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 87 (1812).

  _Gorilla_, Is. Geoffr., C. R., xxxiv., p. 84, note (1852).

This genus, like the preceding, contains but a single species,


  _Troglodytes gorilla_, Wyman, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. (2), v., p. 419,
  pls. 1-4 (1847); Winwood-Reade, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 171; Owen, Tr. Z. S.,
  ii., p. 381; v., pp. 1, 243, pls. i.-xiii., and xliii.-xlix; Scl., P. Z.
  S., 1877, p. 303; Cunningham, Mem. Roy. Irish Ac., p. 1 (1886).

  _Gorilla gina_, Is. Geoffr., Arch. Mus., viii., pls. 2-4 (1852).

  _Troglodytes savagei_, Owen, P. Z. S., 1848, p. 29.

  _Gorilla savagei_, Is. Geoffr., Rev. et. Mag. de Zool., p. 104 (1853);
  Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 7 (1870).

  _Pithecus gorilla_, Blainv., Osteogr., pls. 2, et 5 bis (errore _P.


[Illustration: THE GORILLA.]

  {181} _Satyrus adrotes_, Meyer, Arch. f. Naturg., p. 182 (1856).

  _Simia gorilla_, Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 8 (1876).

  _Gorilla mayema_, Alix et Bouv. C. R., lxxxv., p. 58 (1878).

  (_Plate XL._)

CHARACTERS.--The face of this massive and most ponderous of all the Apes is
naked and black, very wide and elongated. The large head has a ridge of
hair along the central crest, and its lower jaw is very wide and far
extended backward. The nose is long and high, and broad and flat at its
extremity, and is also grooved longitudinally. The muzzle is broad, the
mouth wide; the upper lip short, and the lower mobile and protrudable. The
eyes are large; the ears naked and black, with the posterior upper angle
pointed, and the lower margin produced into a rudimentary pendulous lobule.

The cranial region is comparatively small. The supra-orbital ridges, in
which the eye-brows are set, form, from their prominence, a marked feature
of the face. They overhang the eyes, causing them to appear very much sunk
in the skull. The neck is short, the chest and shoulders wide, thickly
haired and suggestive of great strength.

The arms are much longer than the fore-arms, and the feet, which have no
in-step, exceed the hands in length, and are much broader than in other
genera of the _Simiidæ_. The heel, which in the Orangs is small, is in the
Gorilla strongly developed, on which account it can easily stand erect. Its
opposable great-toe is large and flattened, and has a wide nail; while the
lower joints of the second, third, and fourth toes--which are also short
and thick--are united by a web. The arms, on which the hair converges on
both sides of the joint towards the elbow, are so long as to reach down to
the middle {182}of the leg when the Gorilla stands erect. The thumb is
short and thick, and is tipped with a broad nail. The hand is broad,
thickly haired on the back, and wrinkled from the wrist to the fingers. The
fur of the Gorilla consists of long, thick, straight, or stiffly curved
bristles, beneath which is a shorter curled woolly hair, or under-fur.

The skull of the adult male has very protruding jaws, and enormous
supra-orbital ridges. The cheek-bones are broad; the temporal muscles meet
along the top of the cranium, and have enormous bony crests for their
attachment. The same is the case on the back of the head for the powerful
neck-muscles. The true form of the skull is obscured by these great ridges
and by the extent to which the face protrudes. The brain-case is better
shaped internally than appears externally. The orbits have the same form as
in Man.

The canine teeth are enormously developed. The upper molars are
four-cusped, and have the oblique ridge, already often referred to, from
the front inner to the hind outer cusp, the posterior of the three being
much larger than the other two, a character distinguishing its jaw from
that of Man and the Chimpanzees. The anterior lower molars have five cusps,
three on the outer side and two on the inner, as in Man.

The lower jaw has no true chin, and its symphysis is very long and quite
different from what is seen in the human symphysis. The opening for the
passage of the spinal cord is situated in the posterior third of the base
of the skull, and not, as in Man, nearly in the centre.

The vertebræ of the neck, back, and loins number the same--seventeen--as in
Man; but there are thirteen parts of ribs instead of twelve. The
neck-vertebræ have long spines which contribute to the thickness of the
neck. The curvature, characteristic of {183}Man, in the lumbar region of
the vertebral column of the young Gorilla, is more developed than in the
Chimpanzee, and in both are earlier developed than in Man. (_Symington._)

The wrist (_carpus_) contains but eight bones, as there is no central (_os
centrale_) bone, a character in which it agrees with Man and the
Chimpanzee, but differs from the Orang.

The volume of the brain in the largest Gorilla rarely exceeds 34½ cubic
inches, which is only half the capacity of the human skull. It may be
safely said that an average European child, of four years old, has a brain
twice as large as that of an adult Gorilla. The weight of a healthy human
brain never falls below 31 ounces; that of the largest Gorilla has probably
never reached 21. (_Huxley._)

In the brain of the Gorilla the cerebellum can be seen between the deep
longitudinal fissure which separates the two halves of the cerebrum. It
agrees in this with the Orang and _Anthropopithecus calvus_--the latter
exhibiting even a greater divergence of the cerebral lobes.

The young male Gorilla differs much from the adult; its central cranial
crest is less prominent than the occipital ridge for the neck muscles.

The female is much smaller than the male, but the cheeks are relatively
broader; the cranial crests and ridges are less strongly marked, and the
canines shorter and less powerful. Her breasts are long and pointed, not

The height of the adult male Gorilla is over six feet, but the female
rarely exceeds four feet six inches.

The general colour of the Gorilla is black or blackish; the whole skin of
the face is glossy, set with a few hairs, and deep black; the crown
reddish-brown, sometimes of a dark brown, the hairs being dun-coloured at
the root, grey in the middle, {184}and dark brown at the tip; on the sides
of the face the hair is dark brown or black, grey at the root; on the neck
and shoulders the hair is grey at the root, and lighter towards the point.
The back, the region of the humerus, and the thighs are brownish, the hair
being pale grey at the root, blackish-brown further up, and dark grey at
the termination; the fore-arms, the hands, ankles, and feet, dark brown or
black; round the posterior is a circle of white hair in some, in others of
brownish-yellow. Old individuals become grey or grizzled.

DISTRIBUTION.--Western Equatorial Africa, between the Cameroons and the
Congo. This region presents a variety of hill and dale; the uplands are
clothed with forest, and the dales are covered with grass and low bush,
with abundance of fruit-yielding trees.

HABITS.--This extraordinary animal, round which have gathered so many
myths, derived mostly from the inexact and magnified tales of the natives,
still further exaggerated by careless or imaginative visitors to the West
Coast of Africa, was first brought to the knowledge of science by Dr.
Thomas Savage, an American Medical Missionary, in 1847. From that time
downwards numerous preserved specimens of the animal have been received in
excellent condition, so that its anatomy is very fully known. In 1860 the
first living individual reached Europe, and lived for some months in
Wombwell's Menagerie. Since that date both English and continental
menageries have had specimens in captivity. What we know of the habits of
the Gorilla is greatly based on observations made on these captive animals.
Abundant statements to the contrary notwithstanding, very few persons,
competent to give an intelligent account of their habits, have ever seen
the Gorilla alive in its native state. {185}Even now, for our best
accounts, we are indebted to Dr. Savage, who obtained most of his
information from the natives, whose language and character he understood so
thoroughly that he was able to extract from them, by carefully sifting
their statements, most accurate information free from exaggeration and

The Gorillas live in small companies, or rather families, consisting of
their young of different ages, along with the father and mother. Like the
Orang, the Gorilla is said to build a sort of platform-nest or shelter to
pass the night in, of sticks or twigs laid crosswise on the branch of a
strong tree, and within about twenty feet from the ground. The male sits,
it is said, on guard below, the female and her family occupying the
platform above. "My informants," says Savage, "all agree in the assertion
that but one adult male is seen in a band." One gets the mastery by killing
or driving out the other males.

Professor Hartmann writes: "The Gorillas roam [during the daytime only]
through the tracts of the forest, which surround their temporary
sleeping-places, in order to seek for food. In walking they place the back
of their closed fingers on the ground, or, more rarely, support themselves
on the flat palm, while the flat soles of their feet are also in contact
with the ground. Their gait is shuffling; the motion of the body, which is
never upright as in Man, but bent forward, is somewhat rolling, or from
side to side. The arms being longer than those of the Chimpanzee, it does
not stoop so much in walking; like that animal it makes progression by
thrusting its arms forward, resting its hands on the ground, and then
giving its body a half-jumping, half-swinging motion between them. In this
act, it is said not to flex the fingers to rest on its knuckles, like the
Chimpanzee, but to extend them, making a fulcrum {186}of the hand. When it
assumes the walking posture, to which it is said to be much inclined, it
balances its huge body by flexing its arms upward."

The Gorilla has the power of moving the scalp freely forward and
backward--as Man in many instances has the power of doing--and, when
enraged, of corrugating his brows and erecting the hair over the central
bony crest "so as to present an indescribably ferocious aspect." He is
capable of emitting a "terrific yell that resounds far and wide through the
forest"; and when shot his cry is like that of a human being in sudden and
acute distress. The Gorilla is very ferocious and never runs away, as the
Chimpanzee does; he advances to attack his enemies, but according to some
observers, however, only when molested, rushing forward in a stooping
attitude, then rising to his feet to strike. He is also credited with
fighting with his teeth, as well as his hands, biting his antagonist, as
the Orangs and the Chimpanzees do. He exhibits great intelligence, though
less, perhaps, than the Chimpanzee.

The females prove affectionate mothers, bravely protecting their young at
the cost of their own lives. "In a recent case," writes Dr. Savage, "the
mother, when discovered, remained upon the tree with her offspring,
watching intently the movements of the hunter. As he took aim, she motioned
with her hand, precisely in the manner of a human being, to have him desist
and go away. When the wound has not proved instantly fatal, they have been
known to stop the flow of blood by pressing with the hand upon the part,
and when this did not succeed to apply leaves and grass."

The food of the Gorilla consists of all sorts of forest and cultivated
produce; but the top of the fruiting stem of the oil-palm (_Elais
guineensis_), the Papaia (_Carica_), and plantains {187}appear to be the
fruits he most appreciates. Its dexterity in captivity in eating from
utensils of civilised life is particularly remarkable, as Dr. Falkenstein
records of a Gorilla he had alive for a considerable period. "He took up
every cup or glass with instinctive care, clasped the vessel with both
hands, and set it down again so softly and carefully that I cannot remember
his breaking a single article.... He drank by suction, stooping over the
vessel without even putting his hands into it or upsetting it, and in the
case of smaller vessels he carried them to his mouth.... When he was
anxious to obtain anything, no child could have expressed its wishes in a
more urgent and caressing manner." When he was refused anything he had
recourse to cunning, and looked anxiously to see if he was watched, and it
was "impossible not to recognise a deliberate plan and careful
calculation." When he had done what he had been forbidden or prevented from
doing, "his whole behaviour made it clear that he was conscious of
transgressing." The Gorilla is said by Dr. Savage to be very filthy in its
habits, but Dr. Falkenstein's observations disagree with this statement. On
this point the latter says "his cleanliness was remarkable."

The Gorilla generally adopts a squatting position, with its arms folded
across its breast. When asleep he lies stretched out at full length on his
back or side, with one arm under his head.

The Gorilla is very delicate, and rarely lives long in captivity, even in
his own land.


  _Anthropopithecus_, De Blainville, Leçons Orales (1839).

  _Troglodytes_ (nec V.), Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 87 (1812).

{188}This genus contains those Apes which stand highest, next to Man, in
the animal kingdom. This proximity, however, refers only to his external
conformation and his anatomical structure.

The Chimpanzees approach very closely to the Gorilla in structure. Indeed
the Gorilla was at first placed in the same genus as the Chimpanzee, which
was much earlier known to science than its larger cousin, although an
excellent description of the Gorilla, under the name of Pongo, was brought
to this country by Andrew Battell, an English prisoner of the Portuguese in
Angola, early in the seventeenth century, and published in "Purchas his
Pilgrimage," in 1613, a story which for the first time referred definitely
to the Chimpanzee.

The body is heavily built, but shorter and less robust than that of the
Gorilla. The crown is depressed, and the supra-orbital ridges, from which
rise stiff strong eye-brows, are prominent, but not remarkably so. The
eye-lids are wrinkled, and their margins set with eye-lashes. The nose, of
which the ridge is shorter than in the Gorilla, is depressed in the middle,
flatter at the extremity, and, as in the last-named species, is furrowed
longitudinally, its nostrils looking more downward and forwards. The lips
are extremely mobile and protrusile, the upper one broad and the lower one
retreating from the mouth, and not forming a true human-like chin, though
it is more prominent than in the Orang. The cheeks are more wrinkled than
in that Ape. The ears are large and projecting from the side of the head,
and often carry a lobule. They are strangely like those of Man, and, as Mr.
Darwin has remarked, the Chimpanzee never moves or erects its ears, so that
they are equally rudimentary, as far as that function is concerned, as in
Man. The shoulders and chest are broad, and indicate great strength. Their
lower limbs are longer in proportion than in the Orang. {189}The foot,
which is anatomically in no respect a hand, is sometimes shorter than the
latter, the great-toe is thick, opposable, and thumb-like, the other four
toes are united together by a web, the heel is somewhat developed, and the
whole of the sole of the foot is applied to the ground when walking. The
arms, of which the humeral segment is about equal in length to the
fore-arm, are long, but reach only a little below the knee--their span
being about a half more than the height of the body. The hands, which are
wonderfully human in form, are broad, comparatively short, and less
hook-like than in the Orang. The hair on the arm and fore-arm converges
towards the elbow, as in the Gorilla and Orang. The thumb is short in
comparison with the same digit in Man, and, as in the human hand, the
middle finger is the longest; the outer four fingers being united by a web
reaching up to the first joint. The palm of the hand can be applied flat to
the ground; but though the Chimpanzees can stand or run erect on the flat
sole of the foot, they prefer to advance leaning forward, supporting
themselves on the knuckles of the hand. They have no callosities on the
ischiatic bones, on which they sit.

The female Chimpanzees are slightly smaller than the males, but the
disparity between them is much less than between the two sexes of the
Gorilla. The nose and teeth are less prominent, and the belly is more
tun-shaped. The young males also exhibit fewer differences from the adult
than among the Gorillas, though differing in many points of their soft
anatomy and osteology. The nose lengthens, and its extremity widens, while
the face becomes more prognathous with increasing years. In the young the
frontal bone is low and flat. The skull in the Chimpanzee is elongated, and
small in proportion to the body; the forehead is smaller, the crown more
rounded than {190}in the Gorilla, and the back of the head convex.[2] The
central (sagittal) crest, so strongly developed in the Gorilla and the
Orang, is here wanting; the supra-orbital ridges which extend across the
face, and the occipital prominences for the back-muscles, though large, are
also less marked. The orbits have a circular rim, and are less prominent
than in the Gibbons. The nasal bones are but slightly arched, and the
openings for the nostrils round and small. The jaws, which are smaller,
proportionately to the cranium, in this genus, than in any other of the
_Simiidæ_, protrude far forward, but the symphysis of the lower jaw is
smaller than in the Gorilla, and its two halves low and wide. The bones of
the skull are much hollowed out into cavities (sinuses) in the forehead,
nose, and jaws, all of which communicate with each other. The plane of the
_foramen magnum_ (for the passage of the spinal cord) is oblique to the
plane of the base of the skull.

The volume of the cranium is from twenty-six to twenty-seven cubic inches,
or about one-half of the lowest capacity of a normal human cranium. A
styloid process is more or less distinctly visible in the Chimpanzees.

The canine teeth are long and conical, but less than in the Gorilla; and
the diastema, or gap, between them and their neighbouring teeth is smaller
than in the other Apes. The molar teeth are four-cusped, and have the
oblique ridge already described extending from the front inner to the hind
outer cusp; and the middle lower molar has five cusps, both these dental
characters being similar to those in Man. The anterior lower pre-molar,
however, is pointed, and has a long sharp anterior edge, as in the

{191}The vertebral column begins to show the S-shaped flexure,
characteristic of Man's back-bone; it presents also a human character in
the form of its second neck vertebræ, and there are thirteen pairs of ribs,
as in Man. The hindmost vertebræ "give the impression of a rudimentary
tail." (_Hartmann._)

The humerus is nearly equal in length to the fore-arm; the wrist (_carpus_)
has only eight bones (the central bone being absent), agreeing, therefore,
with the number in Man.

All the ridges and grooves seen in the human brain are present in that of
the Chimpanzee, but "they are simpler and more symmetrical, and larger in
proportion to the brain." (_Huxley._) The cerebellum, and the nerves also,
are larger in proportion to the cerebrum than in Man; and certain
structures (the _corpora trapezoidea_) which exist in the brains in the
lower Mammalia are absent. These prominences, which are situated in that
portion of the brain known as the _medulla oblongata_, at the summit of the
spinal cord, disappear, as we have seen, in all the genera of higher rank
than the _Cebidæ_, one of the lowest families of the _Anthropoidea_. The
brain in its convolutions and in many other respects conforms to that of
the Orang. This is especially the case in _A. calvus_.

The uvula, which is absent in the throat of the Orang, is pendulous in the
Chimpanzees, as in Man. Large air-sacs are also present, and the hyoid bone
is excavated posteriorly, suggesting the conformation of the same bone in
_Alouatta_ (the South American Howlers). The stomach is very similar to
that of Man, and so are the digestive and reproductive organs. The round
ligament, attaching the head of the thigh-bone into its pelvic socket, is
present, and restricts the flexibility of the hind-limb of the Chimpanzees,
compared with that of {192}the Orang. Its presence, however, while acting
somewhat less favourably in regard to the climbing capacities of these
animals, whose habits are less essentially arboreal than the Orangs',
beneficially assists them in walking, affording them a firmer support on
the ground. In the Chimpanzee there is always a semi-lunar fold (_plica
semilunaris_) in the inner corner of the eye, corresponding to the
nictitating membrane (or third eyelid) of birds. In some of the Lemuroids
it is well developed (_suprà_, vol. i., p. 90), and is large in some races
of men.

The Chimpanzee is confined to the West African Sub-region, as defined by
Dr. Bowdler Sharpe. It is known from Loango, along the banks of the Upper
Congo, and Mr. Monteiro (P. Z. S., 1871, p. 544) says it is quite unknown
to the south of the Congo; it also occurs throughout the country of the
Manyema, in Central Africa, where Livingstone describes it under the name
of Soko; and southward as far as 10° south latitude, to Lake Moero.
Schweinfurth has recorded it from the Niam-niam country.

The Chimpanzees inhabit forest regions, and feed on wild fruits in the
woods, and the products of cultivated gardens, not rejecting, when they can
capture it, animal food. They live in separate families, or in limited
communities of small families mixed together, but each male lives with his
own single female. They are more arboreal than the Gorilla, but much less
so than the Orangs. In many districts they seem to live on the ground.

They emit loud cries, shrieks, and howls in the morning and evening, and
often during the night. "Since they are really accomplished in the art of
bringing forth these unpleasant sounds, which may be heard at a great
distance, and are reproduced by the echoes, it is impossible to estimate
the number {193}of those who take part in the dreary noise, but often we
seemed to hear more than a hundred." (_Pechuel-Lösche._) These Apes also
build resting-places, not far from the ground, like the Orangs, composed of
twigs and sticks on the branch of a tree or a crotch, in which the female
and her young take refuge for the night, the male placing himself on guard

They seldom make an unprovoked attack on the natives wandering in the
forest; on the contrary, they are peaceably disposed animals, glad to get
out of the way of danger or possible enemies. Yet, when pressed, they form
no mean antagonist. Biting is their principal mode of defence.

"As seen here," says Savage, "they cannot be called gregarious, seldom more
than five or ten at most being found together. It has been said on good
authority, that they occasionally assemble in large numbers in gambols. My
informant asserts that he saw once not less than fifty so engaged, hooting,
screaming, and drumming with sticks upon old logs, which is done in the
latter case with equal facility by the four extremities.... When at rest,
the sitting posture is that generally assumed. They are sometimes seen
standing or walking, but when thus detected, they immediately take to all
fours, and flee from the presence of the observer. Such is their
organisation that they cannot stand erect, but lean forward. Hence they are
seen, when standing, with the hands clasped over the occiput, or the lumbar
region, which would seem necessary for balance or ease of posture."

Most of the accounts of the habits we have of Chimpanzees, refer to those
of young individuals kept in captivity. There is still much to be
discovered as to the ways and modes of life of the adults of both the
Chimpanzee and the Gorilla. They are both very delicate, and in temperate
climates rarely live {194}more than a few months; a Bald Chimpanzee (_A.
calvus_), however, survived five years in the Zoological Gardens, in


  _Homo sylvestris_ (Ourang-outang), Tyson & Cowper, Phil. Trans., xxi., p.
  338 (1699); Tulpius, Observ. Anat., p. 270, pl. 14 (1641).

  _Homo troglodytes_, Linn., Syst. Nat., i., p. 32 (1766; pt.).

  _Simia troglodytes_, Gm., Syst. Nat., p. 26 (1788); Blumenb., Handb., x.,
  p. 73 (1803); Owen, Tr. Z. S. I., p. 344, pls. 48, 50-52, 55, 56 (1835);
  ii., p. 169 (1841); Schl., Mus. Pays-Bas, vii., p. 8 (1876).

  _Troglodytes niger_, Geoffr., Ann. Mus., xix., p. 87 (1812); Desmar.,
  Mammolog., p. 49 (1820); Lesson, Spec. Mamm., p. 37 (1840); var.
  _Marungensis_, Owen, Tr. Z. S., v., p. 3, pls. i.-ix.; p. 279, pl. xlix.
  (1866); Noalk, Zool. Jahrb., ii., p. 291 (1887).

  _Pseudanthropos (Troglodytes) leucoprymnus_, Less., Ill., Prod. Syst.
  Mamm., pl. 12 (1811); Reichenb., Naturg. Affen., p. 191 (1862).

  _Pithecus leucopryma_, Less., Ill. Zool., pl. 31 (1836; young).

  _Satyrus lagaros_, Meyen, Arch. f. Naturg., p. 282 (1856).

  _Mimetes troglodytes_, Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit. Mus., p. 6 (1870).

  _Troglodytes vellerosus_, Gray, P. Z. S., 1862, p. 181; id., Cat. Monkeys
  Brit. Mus., Append., p. 127.

  _Troglodytes schweinfurthi_, Gigl., Studii Craniol. sui Cimpanzé iii., p.
  56 (1872).

  _Troglodytes aubryi_, Grat. et Alix, Nouv. Arch. Mus., ii., p. 1, pls. 1,
  9 (1866).

  {195}_Troglodytes tchego_, Duvernoy, Arch. Mus., viii., p. 8 (1855).

  _Anthropopithecus troglodytes_, Flower & Lydekker, Mamm., p. 736, fig.
  357 (1891).

CHARACTERS.--Face, ears, hands, and feet dark-reddish flesh-colour, or more
rarely of a blackish-brown colour; in general the colour of the hair is
wholly black, except on the upper and lower lips, where it is white and
very short, and in the region of the buttocks, where it is washed with

Hair on the body straight and silky, with coarser hair interspersed; on the
top of the head it lies smoothly to each side, away from a median line;
round the face it forms bushy whiskers, extending down into a slight beard;
it encroaches on the brow, leaving only a triangular central space naked;
on the upper and lower lips are short, bristly hairs; the rest of the face
naked and much wrinkled; on the shoulders, the back, and the hips, the hair
is longer than elsewhere; the back of the hands and feet are thinly haired,
the fingers and toes nude. The margin of the ears is often folded in for
the greater part of its length.

The skin of the body is of a peculiar light, yet muddy, flesh-colour,
sometimes verging on brown. Brownish or black spots on many parts of the
body seem to vary in different individuals.

The expression of the face is grave, but less melancholy and pre-occupied
than in the Orangs.

The weight of the brain in _A. troglodytes_ varies from 6½ to 6-3/5 ounces.

This celebrated Man-like Ape has been known, by vague report at least, for
nearly three hundred years. The earliest clear account of its existence,
however, is derived from the "Strange {196}Adventures of Andrew Battell, of
Leigh in Essex, sent by the Portugals prisoner to Angola, who lived there
and in the adioining regions neere eighteene yeares." It was first
published in 1613 in "Purchas his Pilgrimage," and later more fully in
1625, in "Purchas his Pilgrimes."[3] Here it is related that in the
Province of Mayombe, "which is nineteen leagues from Longo along the Coast,
the woods are so covered with baboones, monkies, apes, and parrots that it
will fear any man to travaile in them alone. Here are also two kinds of
monsters, which are common in these woods, and very dangerous. The greatest
of these two monsters is called Pongo, in their language, and the lesser is
called Engeco." The Pongo turned out to be the Gorilla, the description
given by the old prisoner Battell proving to be wonderfully accurate. The
lesser monster, the Engeco, is equally certainly the Chimpanzee. The first
record of a specimen actually seen in Europe is in 1641, and is noticed by
Tulpius in his "Medical Observations," and the earliest scientific
description of a Chimpanzee--a young specimen of _A. troglodytes_--is that
of the anatomists Tyson and Cowper, published by the Royal Society in 1699.
It was, however, not till 1835, that the osteology of a full-grown specimen
was described, when Sir Richard Owen's memoir appeared, and shortly after a
very detailed account of its habits was given to the world by Dr. Thomas
Savage, the missionary to whom we have already referred (p. 184), followed
by a further anatomical investigation of its structure by Dr. Wyman, of
Boston, U.S.A.

DISTRIBUTION.--This species is found over the greater part of Tropical
Central Africa, and its range is co-extensive with that given above for the
genus. Loango and the Gaboon, however, {197}are the districts from which
this Chimpanzee has chiefly been imported into Europe.

HABITS.--The more characteristic habits of the common Chimpanzee have
already been given under the description of the genus.

Its food consists of all sorts of forest fruits, and especially of the
young shoots of the _Scitamineæ_, or ginger-plants.

The Chimpanzee can move the skin of its head, as the Gorilla does, but
without causing the erection of the hair, which the Orang and the Gorilla
are both able to accomplish. It can also to some considerable extent
wrinkle its forehead, if disappointed or pleased, as when refused anything,
or if tickled, when in the latter case it also utters a chuckling sound
like that of smothered laughter, draws back the corners of its mouth, and
wrinkles its eyelids.

The _Soko_ observed by Livingstone in the Manuyema country would seem to be
the common Chimpanzee. "According to Livingstone," to quote Mr. H. H.
Johnston's note in his excellent "Life" of the great traveller, "these
creatures often walk in an erect position, but steady their bodies by
placing the hands on the back of the head. He represents this beast as
being of great intelligence, and so cunning, that it is difficult to stalk
him in front without being seen, and, therefore, when he is killed, it is
usually from behind. The Manuyema people frequently string a number of nets
round some enclosure in the forest and drive the _Sokos_ into them and
spear them. Brought to bay like this, they will frequently turn on their
assailants, and will snatch their spears from them, and break them, and
perhaps also bite off the ends of the men's fingers. But, as a rule, the
Soko is not ferocious. They are said to kidnap children and {198}run up the
trees with them, and have to be lured down by bananas. When wounded the
creature tries to staunch the blood by stuffing leaves into the wound. It
lives in communities of about ten, and is monogamous. The female produces
occasionally twins. As parents, they are very affectionate towards their
offspring, the father relieving the mother of the burden of her young one
in dangerous places. Their food consists of wild fruits. At times the
_Sokos_ collect together and drum with their fists on the trunks of hollow
trees, and accompany this performance with loud yells and screams."

"According to the statements of the Niam-niam themselves," says
Schweinfurth, "the chase of the Chimpanzee requires a party of twenty or
thirty resolute hunters, who have to ascend the trees, which are some
eighty feet high, and to clamber after the agile and crafty brutes until
they can drive them into the snares prepared beforehand. Once entangled in
a net the beasts are without much further difficulty killed by means of
spears. However, in some cases, they will defend themselves savagely and
with all the fury of despair. Driven by the hunter into a corner, they are
said to wrest the lances from the men's hands and to make good use of them
against the adversary. Nothing was more to be dreaded than being bitten by
their tremendous fangs." The stories as to their carrying off young girls,
and constructing nests are pure fabrications, according to Schweinfurth.
Its name among the Niam-niam is "Ranya." "The life which the Ranya leads is
very much like what is led by the Orang-Utan in Borneo, and is spent almost
entirely in the trees, the woods on the river banks being the chief resort
of the animals.... Like the Gorillas, they are not found in herds, but
either in pairs, or even quite alone, and it is only the young which
occasionally may be seen in groups."


[Illustration: THE BALD CHIMPANZEE.]


  _Troglodytes calvus_, Du Chaillu, Pr. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vii., p. 296
  (1861); id., Travels, pp. 32, 48, 63 (1861); Gray, P. Z. S., 1861, p.
  273; Bartlett, P. Z. S., 1885, p. 673, pl. xli.; Beddard, Tr. Z. S.,
  xiii., p. 177 (1893); Romanes, P. Z. S., 1889, p. 316.

  _Troglodytes kooloo-kamba_, Du Chaillu, Pr. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vii.,
  p. 358 (1861); id., Travels, pp. 39, 49, 50 (1861); Gray, P. Z. S., 1861,
  p. 273.

  _Mimetes troglodytes_, var. a (_T. calvus_), Gray, Cat. Monkeys Brit.
  Mus., p. 6 (1870).

  _Anthropopithecus calvus_, Flower & Lydekker, Mammals, p. 736 (1891).

  (_Plate XLI._)

CHARACTERS.--This species was first indicated by Du Chaillu on his return
from his celebrated journey to the Gaboon, but based on poor skins, which
left much doubt as to the species being distinct. Excellently preserved
specimens were, however, brought home by Marche and Dr. Compiégne, and some
of them passed into the Dublin Museum, but it was not till 1885, when a
living specimen, now known to fame as "Sally," was received at the
Zoological Gardens in London, and lived there for five years, that the
correctness of Du Chaillu, as to the distinctness of his "Kooloo-kamba,"
_A. calvus_, from _A. troglodytes_, was proved and accepted.

Similar to _A. troglodytes_, but distinguished from it by the face, hands,
and feet being quite black, or brownish-black, instead of pale
flesh-colour; the front, top, and sides of the head and face are nearly
naked, having only a few short hairs on the head, which is quite destitute
of any signs of the parting so {200}conspicuous in _A. troglodytes_. The
hair is blacker than in the latter species, and extends only for a short
distance in front of the level of the ears, and on the sides of the face;
the temporal region and cheeks show a scanty growth; on the chin and upper
lip a sparse crop of short hairs, chiefly white; long scattered black
eyebrows, which do not meet in the mid-line, spring from the supra-orbital
ridges. The ears are as large as in _A. troglodytes_, very flat, but stand
out more prominently from the side of the head; their margin is nude, and
there is no lobule. The hands are haired across the knuckles, and again
(after a naked band) on the back of the hand and arm; the foot is haired
down to the first joints of the toes; the nails and fingers are very human
in appearance.

Face very prognathous; the nasal bones ridged in the mid-line; the foot
less like a human hand than even in the Orang. "Sally's" brain weighed
8-3/5 ounces.

The expression of the face, the expanded nostrils, the thicker lips,
especially the lower lip, and the more elevated skull, all distinguish _A.
calvus_ from _A. troglodytes_; in its muscular anatomy and in its brain it
also shows points of difference.

DISTRIBUTION.--The interior of Gaboon, in Western Africa.

HABITS.--The Bald Chimpanzee showed in captivity a disposition to live on
animal food, which the Common Chimpanzee never does. "Sally" had also the
singular habit of producing pellets, resembling the castings thrown up by
Raptorial birds; they were composed of feathers (of the birds she had
eaten) and other indigestible substances taken with her food. Moreover,
"Sally," as this Chimpanzee, now famous in the annals of zoology, was
named, was an expert rat-catcher, and caught and killed many rats that
entered her cage. "Her intelligence was {201}far above that of the ordinary
Chimpanzee. With but little trouble she could be taught to do many things
that require the exercise of considerable thought and understanding."
(_Bartlett._) In general habits _A. calvus_ differs, so far as known, in no
respect from _A. troglodytes_.

It was on this Ape that the late Dr. G. J. Romanes, attracted by its high
intelligence, made his interesting psychological experiments, which are
related in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1889. "Her
intelligence was conspicuously displayed by the remarkable degree in which
she was able to understand the meaning of spoken language--a degree fully
equal to that presented by an infant a few months before emerging from
infancy, and, therefore, higher than that which is presented by any brute,
so far at least as I have met with any evidence to show. Having enlisted
the intelligent co-operation of the keepers, I requested them to ask the
Ape repeatedly for one straw, two straws, or three straws. These she was to
pick up and hand out from among the litter of her cage. No constant order
was to be observed in making these requests, but whenever she handed a
number not asked for, her offer was to be refused, while if she gave the
proper number her offer was to be accepted, and she was to receive a piece
of fruit as payment. In this way the Ape was eventually taught to associate
these three numbers with their names.... As soon as the animal understood
what was required, and had learnt to associate these three numbers with
their names, she never failed to give the number of straws asked for. Her
education was then extended in a similar manner from three to four and four
to five straws." "Sally" rarely made mistakes up to that number, but above
five and up to ten, to which one of the keepers endeavoured to advance her
education, the result is uncertain. {202}"It is evident that she
understands the words seven, eight, nine, and ten, to betoken numbers
higher than those below them, and when she was asked for any of these
numbers above six, she always gave some number over six and under ten. She
sometimes doubled over a straw to make it present two ends, and was
supposed to hasten, with the small stock of patience she possessed, the
attainment of her task." Dr. Romanes was disposed to think that the
uncertainty which attended her dealing with the numbers six and seven was
due to her losing patience rather than to her losing count. It was at all
events evident that "Sally" could count accurately up to five. Dr. Romanes
tried to teach her colours in the same way, but the result was so uniformly
negative that he was disposed to think that she was colour-blind, as she
was taught to distinguish between white straws and the straws of any other
colour, but she could not be taught to go further.

In 1875 a female Ape, which received the name of "Mafuca," was received
from the Loango coast at the Dresden Zoological Gardens. "This," says Dr.
Hartmann, "was a wild unmanageable creature, 120 cm. in height, reminding
us in many respects of the Gorilla. The face was prognathous [more so than
in _A. troglodytes_]; the ears were comparatively small, placed high on the
skull, and projecting outwards; the supra-orbital arch was strongly
developed, and the end of the nose was broad, and there were rolls of fat
on the cheeks. The creature was, moreover, strongly built, and the region
of the hips and the belly was contracted, while the hands and feet were
large and powerful. The general physiognomical resemblance between Mafuca
and a female Gorilla [whose dead body I had examined] was very great." It
was suggested that the creature might be a cross between a Chimpanzee and a
Gorilla, as the traveller {203}Koppenfels had affirmed he had shot such
cross-bred animals. It is still an undecided question to what species it

Of the four genera of the _Simiidæ_, "the Gibbons are obviously most remote
from Man, and nearest to the _Cynopithecini_ (_Cercopithecidæ_).

"The Orangs come nearest to Man in the number of the ribs, the form of the
cerebral hemispheres, the diminution of the occipito-temporal sulcus
[groove] of the brain, and the ossified styloid process; but they differ
from him much more widely in other respects, and especially in the limbs,
than the Gorilla and the Chimpanzee do.

"The Gorilla is more Man-like in the proportions of the leg to the body,
and of the foot to the hand; further, in the size of the heel, the
curvature of the spine, the form of the pelvis, and the absolute capacity
of the cranium.

"The Chimpanzee approaches Man most closely in the character of its
cranium, its dentition, and the proportional size of the arms." (_Huxley._)


With this family we reach the culminating point of the zoological tree. It
contains but one monotypic genus, HOMO, with its single species, HOMO
SAPIENS. Although deriving his specific designation from the unique
characteristic of his mental attributes, Man comes under review here alone
in his physical aspect as one of the mammalian animals.

"Identical in the physical processes by which he originates--identical in
the early stages of his formation--identical in the mode of his nutrition
before and after birth, with the animals which lie immediately below him on
the {204}scale--Man, if his adult and perfect stature be compared with
theirs, exhibits, as might be expected, a marvellous likeness of
organisation. He resembles them as they resemble one another--he differs
from them as they differ from one another." (_Huxley._) On comparing his
external form and internal organisation with that of all the other known
zoological forms, he is found to fit no niche in the scale of
classification, founded on the same principles of likeness and
dissimilitude as applied to them, except in the vicinity of the Gibbons,
the Orangs, the Gorillas, and the Chimpanzees, of whose order--the
Primates--he forms only an additional though higher Family, solely on his
structural characters and entirely apart from those intangible mental
attributes which remove him supremely above all other creatures. Unbridged
as is the chasm between the Ape and Man, "the structural differences which
separate Man from the Gorilla and the Chimpanzee, are not so great as those
which separate the greater from the lower Apes." (_Huxley._)

Of the three higher Apes, the Chimpanzees are those which appear to
approach Man most closely; but he is distinguished from them and from all
the other members of the _Simiidæ_ by his body being supported in the erect
position upon the outer edge of a broad, arched, short-toed foot,
articulated at right angles to the leg. This foot has a prominent heel and
a stout great-toe, longer than all the digits, except the second, but lying
parallel and not opposable to them, or capable of being moved away from
them, because of the flat unrounded articular surface of the ento-cuneiform
bone of the ankle. His back-bone has a strongly-marked, open S-shaped
curvature, with its concavity in the lower back, giving it its elasticity
and breaking any shock which might be transmitted otherwise to the brain
through the jolt of walking in the vertical position. His arms are
{205}proportionately much shorter than the legs, and also the spine; the
thumb is also longer in proportion than in the Apes, and, as the fingers
have all separate movements, the hand is thus better able to be adjusted to
minute operations. The head in Man is equipoised on the vertebral column
just under the centre of its mass, and is thus easily supported and moved,
whereas, in all lower forms of Vertebrates, it is placed further and
further from the centre towards the back, with its weight thrown towards
the front. In Man the skull cavity, not intruded upon and diminished by the
roof of the orbits, is characteristically high and arched, its capacity
being twice as great as any Ape's; still the difference in the cranial
capacity of different races of Man is much greater absolutely than that
between the highest Ape and the lowest Man. (_Huxley._) His facial and
jaw-bones are smaller, and project far less, even in the most prognathous
of men, than in the Apes; the lower front margin of the under jaw is
characteristically human, being produced forward to form the chin. In the
human skull there is always a spike-like bone--the styloid
process--dependent from and ossified to the ear-bones.

In Man the form of the pelvis--the large osseous block to which the legs
are articulated--is very characteristic in its width; its great
basin-shaped cavity receives and supports his lower internal organs; to its
extensive external surface the muscles for enabling him to retain the erect
position are attached, while its width, by separating the thigh-bones,
gives to the body a form favourable to stability, which is increased by the
wide angle at which the articulating head of the femur is attached to its
shaft. "Were he to desire it, Man could not, with convenience, walk on all
fours: his short and nearly inflexible foot, and his long thigh, would
bring the knee to the ground; his widely separated shoulders and his arms,
too far {206}extended from the median line, would ill support the fore-part
of his body; the great indented muscle which, in quadrupeds, suspends the
trunk between the blade-bones as a girth, is smaller in Man than in any one
among them; the head is heavier, on account of the magnitude of the brain,
and the smallness of the sinuses or cavities of its bones; and yet the
means of supporting it are weaker, for he has neither cervical ligament,
nor are the vertebræ so modified as to prevent their flexure forward; he
could, therefore, only maintain his head in the same line with the spine,
and then, his eyes and mouth being directed towards the ground, he could
not see before him." (_Cuvier._)

The breadth of the sacrum is equal to or exceeds its length, and the width
of the pelvis exceeds its height, the reverse of what is seen in Apes. The
wrist (_carpus_) in Man has no _central bone_; the ankle (_tarsus_) is
longer than the metatarsal segment, and that is again longer than the
toe-bones, which are more compressed than the finger-bones. In Man the
teeth form a continuous series--there is no diastema, which, with the
exception of the extinct _Anoplotherium_, is alone true of Man; his canine
teeth are never prominent or tusk-like.

The human brain differs from that of the Man-like Apes in regard to its
convolutions and their separating grooves, only in minor characters; but in
weight, as in capacity, very greatly. The weight of a healthy full-grown
human brain never descends below thirty-two ounces, that of the largest
Gorilla, far heavier than any Man, never attains to more than twenty. Yet,
"the difference in weight of brain between the highest and the lowest Men
is far greater relatively and absolutely than between the lowest Man and
the highest Ape." (_Huxley._)

Notwithstanding the enormous differences presented between {207}the highest
and lowest races of mankind, and widely as they are separated
geographically, these dissimilar characters are not considered sufficient
to constitute more than one species, since throughout the series one form
graduates into another, and all of them are fertile with each other.
Although there is but one species of Man, he is distinguishable, however,
according to Sir William Flower, into three main races.

A. _The Ethiopian Race._

Under this heading are included all the dark-skinned negroes, with black
frizzly hair, long heads (_i.e._, whose breadth is less than four-fifths of
its length), moderately broad faces, flat nasal bones, prominent legs,
thick everted lips, protruding jaws, and long fore-arms. To this race
belong (1) the Negroes, inhabiting Central Africa, of which there are
numerous tribes: (_a_) the yellowish-brown Hottentots of the South African
plains, and (_b_) the dwarfed straight-faced Bushmen, living outcast among
the mountains and rocks, remarkable for their tufted hair, their great
fatty buttocks, and the peculiar "click" in their speech; (2) the
_Negrillos_, of Central and West Africa, with short heads (_i.e._, whose
breadth is greater than four-fifths of its length); (3) the _Melanesians_,
composed of the Papuans of New Guinea, New Caledonia, and the Solomon
Islands, with strong supra-orbital ridges, and a narrow and prominent nose:
the "hyper-typical" mountaineers of Fiji, the Tasmanians, and the
Australians, especially of the northern portion of that continent, all
belong to this race; (4) the round-headed _Negritos_ of the Andamans, the
Philippines, and the Malay Archipelago.

B. _The Mongolian Race._

These are short in stature, have the skin yellow or brown, the hair black
and straight, abundant on the head, but sparse {208}elsewhere; the skull
low and intermediate between long and broad; the face broad, flat, and with
large cheek-bones; the eye-sockets high and round. To this stock belong (1)
the Eskimo of Greenland and all the sub-arctic regions of Eurasia and N.
America; (2) the Mongols, of whom the Japanese, the nomad Lapps, the Finns,
both of mixed Caucasian and Mongol blood, and those descendants of the
Mongols, the Magyars and the Turks, form a northern and much modified
group, while the Chinese, the Thibetans, the Burmese, and the Siamese
constitute a southern, more civilised, group; (3) the Malays of the Malayan
Peninsula and Sumatra, in which the Mongolian features are very apparent;
(4) the Brown Polynesians, inhabiting Samoa, Tonga, the Eastern Polynesian
islands, and New Zealand; (5) the native American races inhabiting the
continent from Terra del Fuego in the south, to the sub-arctic regions
occupied by the Esquimo.

C. _The Caucasian Race._

Of this stock there are two very distinct groups: (1) the tall, blond,
straight, fair-haired, blue-eyed, light-skinned, well-bearded peoples of N.
Europe, Scandinavia, Scotland, N. Germany--named _Xanthochroi_
("yellow-haired" and pale of complexion) by Huxley: these have extended, as
a mixed race, also into N. Africa and Afghanistan; and by intermingling
with the Mongols have produced the Finns and the Lapps; and (2) the
_Melanochroi_ ("black-haired") people, shorter in stature, with long heads,
pale skins, prominent noses, but with black wavy hair and beards and dark
eyes, who inhabit S. Europe, N. Africa, and S.W. Asia, and are found also
in the British islands. They are known as Kelts, Iberians, Romans,
Pelasgians and Semites. The Dravidians of India, the Veddahs {209}of
Ceylon, and probably the Ainos of Japan and the Maoutze of China belong to
the Caucasian stock. The ancient Egyptians, of whom the Kopts and the
Fellahs of Egypt of to-day are the descendants, are pure _Melanochroi_.


As we have seen above (vol. i., p. 110) the earliest Lemuroids appeared in
the Lower Eocene division of the Tertiary period in the New World, and in
the Old World in its upper strata; they continued during the whole of the
Eocene in the Western Hemisphere, and are last seen in the Lower Miocene of
North America.

Fossil Apes, on the other hand, appear first in South America, in the Santa
Cruz beds of Patagonia, in strata of Upper Eocene or Oligocene age. In the
Old World they come on the scene only during the tropical ages of the
Miocene epoch. When the middle and upper strata of the latter period were
being deposited in Europe, Anthropoid Apes ranged from the Mediterranean
shores to further north than the present northern limit of the Old World

In the Pliocene age _Anthropoidea_ were living in Southern Asia, around
where the Sivalik hills now stand, and in Southern Europe, as at Pikermi
and Samos, being represented almost entirely by species of still existing
genera, and one living species--the Orang. Chimpanzees had already then
become differentiated, and perhaps Man had even appeared, though the
evidence is not sufficiently conclusive.

In the Pleistocene, remains of many still living species have been brought
to light both in the New and the Old Worlds, and unmistakable osseous
remains, as well as abundant evidences {210}of his handiwork, prove the
existence of Man at that remote epoch.

FAMILY HAPALIDÆ (Vol. I., p. 129).

GENUS HAPALE (_op. cit._, p. 131).

Of this genus abundant remains of two species have been found in many of
the Brazilian caverns of Pleistocene or recent age. These have been
referred to two species: HAPALE GRANDIS (Lund), and the still-living H.
JACCHUS (Linn.; cf. Vol. I., p. 132).

FAMILY CEBIDÆ (Vol. I., p. 150).


  _Protopithecus_, Lund, Ann. Sc. Nat. (2), xi., p. 230 (1839); Zittel,
  Handb. Palæont., iv., p. 705 (1893).

This genus is founded on a very large leg-bone from the Pleistocene
bone-caves of Brazil. The species has been described as PROTOPITHECUS

GENUS CALLITHRIX (Vol. I., p. 158).

Two species have been described from the Pleistocene bone-caves of Brazil:
CALLITHRIX CHLOROCNOMYS, Lund, and C. PRIMÆVA, Lund (= _C. antiqua_, Lund).

GENUS ALOUATTA (Vol. I., p. 192).

Remains of one species, ALOUATTA URSINA (p. 149), has been discovered in
the Pleistocene bone-caves of Brazil.

GENUS CEBUS (Vol. I., p. 204).

The Pleistocene bone-caverns of Brazil have preserved three species: one
extinct, CEBUS MACROGNATHUS, Lund, and two still living, C. FATUELLUS,
Linn., and C. CIRRIFER, Geoffr.


  _Homunculus_, Ameghino, Rev. Argent. Hist. Nat., i., pp. 290, 384 (1891).

  _Ecphantodon_, Mercenat, Rev. Mus. La Plata, ii., p. 74, pl. ii.; Zittel,
  Handb. Palæont., iv., p. 704 (1893).

The dental formula of this genus is I2/2, C1/1, P3/3, M3/3. The diastema,
or break, in the dental series is very small; the incisors are
chisel-shaped, the outer pair smaller than the inner pair. The canines,
which have a small basal cusp behind, are only slightly prominent; the
pre-molars have one root, and one low outer cusp, and two higher inner
cusps. The molars are quadrangular, with two pairs of cusps, each united
obliquely by a ridge; the anterior molar is smaller than the two hinder.
The arm-bone (_humerus_) has an ent-epi-condylar foramen. (_Zittel._) The
front surface of the line of union of the two halves of the lower jaw is
vertical. The terminal joints of the digits have nails. The thumb and the
great-toe are opposable. HOMUNCULUS PATAGONICUS, Ameghino (= _Ecphantodon
ceboides_, Mercenat), the only known species, is found in the Upper Eocene
or Oligocene of Santa Cruz, Patagonia.


  _Anthropops_, Ameghino, Rev. Arg. Nat. Hist., i., p. 387 (1891); Zittel,
  Handb. Palæont., iv., p. 704 (1893).

This genus is known from only a fragment of a lower jaw containing four
small incisors, two strong canines, and anterior and median pre-molars,
both one-rooted. One species, ANTHROPOPS PERFECTUS, Ameghino, from the
older Tertiary (Upper Eocene or Oligocene) beds of Santa Cruz, Patagonia,
is known.

Two genera, _Homocentrus_ (H. ARGENTINUS, Amegh.) and {212}_Eudiastus_ (E.
LINGULATUS, Amegh.), described by Ameghino, from the Santa Cruz beds in
Patagonia, are not yet sufficiently characterised.


GENUS PAPIO (_suprà_, p. 253).

Several species of this still living genus have been recovered from strata
of the Tertiary epoch: PAPIO SUB-HIMALAYANUS (Meyer), from the Sivalik
hills, of Lower Pliocene age; P. FALCONERI (Lydekker), from the Pleistocene
bone-caves of Madras, India, and in the superficial deposits of Algeria,
North Africa; and P. ATLANTICUS (Thomas).

The Sivalik species was closely related to the existing North-African


  _Oreopithecus_, Gervais, C. R., p. 1223, lxxiv. (1872); Ristori, Boll.
  Com. Geol. (3), i., pp. 178, 226, pls. vii., viii. (1890); Zittel, Handb.
  Palæont, iv., p. 705 (1893).

The characters which distinguish this genus are the incisors, which are
chisel-shaped above and scoop-shaped below; the large upper and lower
canine teeth; the upper pre-molars, which approach in shape to the molars,
with the outer cusps higher than the inner, and the inner one strong; the
upper molars with two pairs of opposite conical cusps, separated by a
longitudinal furrow, and with a strong cingulum; the posterior upper molar
smaller than the median; the lower molars smaller than the upper, with two
pairs of cusps, and a fifth on their hind border, which in the hindmost
tooth is developed into a strong talon. The face is short, and the chin
rounded. OREOPITHECUS BAMBOLII, Gervais, is the best known species, and was
obtained from the Mid-Miocene lignites of Monte Bamboli, {213}Casteani, and
Monte Massi, in Tuscany. It has been placed by some Palæontologists among
the _Simiidæ_, and by others in the _Cercopithecidæ_. According to Ristori,
the under jaw shows its alliance with _Papio_ and _Cercopithecus_; while
the upper jaw more resembles the Anthropoid Apes. It is the largest known
fossil Ape, and is excelled in strength only by _Dryopithecus_, Zittel.

GENUS MACACUS (_suprà_, p. 1).

Species belonging to this still living genus, occurred in Asia and in
Europe in the age--the Pliocene--which immediately preceded the Great Ice
age, as well as in the Pleistocene epoch itself. MACACUS SIVALENSIS is the
oldest fossil of the genus, and was described by Mr. Lydekker from the
Sivalik beds of the Punjaub. M. PRISCUS is known from the Pliocene of
Montpellier, in France; M. FLORENTINUS, Cocchi (the same as _Aulaxinuus
florentinus_ of Cocchi, and _M. ausonianus_ of Forsyth Major), from the
Upper Pliocene beds in the valley of the Arno. M. SUEVICUS (Hedinger),
which has been described from a well-preserved palate-bone, having all the
molar, and two of the pre-molar teeth present, was found at Heppenlochs, in
Würtemberg. M. TRARENSIS (Pomel) is found in Algeria, in beds of the Ice
age; while, in holes on the rock of Gibraltar, remains of the same species
as is now living there--_M. inuus_--were discovered by Mr. Calderon in
1879. From another crevasse at Monstaines, in the Haute Garonne, M. Harlé
obtained a fragment of a lower jaw of a species of _Macacus_, associated
with the bones of Mammals of the Ice age. (_Zittel._) Of the same antiquity
is a jaw found, according to Mr. Lydekker, near the village of Grays, in
Essex, a fact which indicates a very great difference in the climate of
that part of England from that of the present day.


  _Dolichopithecus_, Depéret, Mem. Soc. Geol. Fr., Palæont., i., p. 11
  (1890); Zittel, Handb. Palæont., iv., p. 707 (1893).

Allied to _Semnopithecus_, but having the muzzle longer and the limbs
shorter and stouter. The genus has been based on three crania, several
teeth, and a number of the bones of the skeleton, belonging to the species
DOLICHOPITHECUS RUSCINENSIS, Depéret, from the Pliocene strata of
Perpignan, in France. (_Zittel._)


  _Mesopithecus_, Wagner, Abh. K. Bayer, Ak. (1) iii., p. 154; vii., abth.,
  ii., p. 9; Zittel, Handb. Palæont., iv., p. 706 (1893).

This genus is based on a skull and teeth, which indicate an alliance with
_Semnopithecus_, while the skeleton more resembles that of _Macacus Inuus_
(the Barbary Ape). The male had much longer and more powerful canines than
the female. MESOPITHECUS PENTELICI, Wagner, the typical species, was
founded on a fragment originally brought by a soldier in 1838 from Pikermi
to Munich. Since then the whole skeleton has been recovered, and this is
now one of the best-known species of the fossil _Anthropoidea_. It lived in
Pliocene times, apparently in troops in the forests of the Pikermi plains,
which at that date extended far into what is now the Mediterranean Sea.
Remains of the same species have been discovered near Baltavar, in Hungary.

GENUS COLOBUS (_suprà_, p. 85).

In the Mid-Miocene forests of Europe this genus was represented by a
species described by Professor Fraas as COLOBUS GRANDÆVUS, from Steinheim,
in Würtemburg.

{215}GENUS SEMNOPITHECUS (_suprà_, p. 100).

Among the forests in which bamboos, liquidambars, tulip-trees, magnolias,
laurels, and pomegranates flourished in Upper Pliocene days, in the middle
of Europe, there lived troops of Langurs, closely allied to those of our
own time. SEMNOPITHECUS MONSPESSULANUS, Gervais, has been recovered from
the strata of that age, at Montpellier, and near Casino in Tuscany. S.
PALÆINDICUS (Lydekker) inhabited the forests in the region where the
Sivalik hills now rise at the foot of the Himalayas, while S. ENTELLUS
roamed over that region in the Pleistocene age, as its actual descendants
do to-day.

FAMILY SIMIIDÆ (_suprà_, p. 143).


  _Pliopithecus_, Gervais, C. R., xliii., p. 221 (1856); id., Zool. et Pal.
  Franc., p. 8 (1859); Forsyth Major, Atti. Soc. Ital. Sc. Nat., xv., p. 82
  (1872); Zittel, Handb. Palæont., p. 708 (1893).

  _Protopithecus_, Ed. Lartet (nec Lund), Ann. Dep. Gers., 1851, p. 11.

This genus is very nearly allied to _Hylobates_, but differs from it in the
form and proportions of its teeth. The genus is based on a lower jaw found
in the Mid-Miocene of Central Europe. The incisors are small and long; the
canines strong and but little taller than the incisors; the pre-molars are
low, the anterior having one cusp, and the next two cusps; the molars have
two pairs of opposite short, thick, conical cusps, with an additional one
on the hind border, which enlarges into a talon in the hindmost of the set.
The type species, PLIOPITHECUS ANTIQUUS, which very closely resembles the
Gibbons, lived in the luxuriant forests of Sansan (Gers), and a variety of
{216}it, described as P. CHANTREI, Depéret, inhabited the woods round Mont
Ceindre. Remains of the same animals have been obtained in the Brown-coal
beds of Elgg, in Switzerland and Göriach, in Steyermark.

GENUS HYLOBATES (_suprà_, p. 148).

True Gibbons, indistinguishable from those now living in the island, have
been found in the caves of Borneo.

A finely preserved limb-bone, from the Eppelsheim beds of the Pliocene age,
has also been ascribed to a species of this genus.


  _Dryopithecus_, Lartet, C. R., xliii., p. 221 (1856); id., Mem. Soc.
  Geol., Palæon., i., p. 1, pl. 1 (1890); Gaudrey, C. R. Cx., p. 373
  (1890); Zittel, Handb. Palæont., iv., p. 709 (1893).

This genus is based on remains from the Mid-Miocene of St. Gaudens (Haute
Garonne), which indicate the former existence of an Ape more Man-like than
any other. In size it approached the dimensions of the Chimpanzee; the
incisors are smaller--an elevated character--and shorter than those in the
Gorilla or the Chimpanzee. The canines are, as in the Gorilla, thick, sharp
behind, and taller than the cheek-teeth; the anterior pre-molar is large,
as in the Gorilla, has one root, and a strong cingulum on the inner side;
the posterior pre-molar is longer than broad, is two-cusped, and has a
flattened talon. The molar teeth have two pairs of opposite cusps, and a
fifth on the hind border, which develops, on the hindmost tooth, into a
two-cusped talon. The line of union of the lower jaw is high, {217}projects
obliquely forward, and is longer and narrower than in Man. The late
appearance of the last molar in the upper jaw was supposed to be a
character which was alone common to _Dryopithecus_ and Man; but Dr. Forsyth
Major has observed that in _Macacus_ the same late in-coming of the "wisdom
tooth" occurs. The type species, DRYOPITHECUS FONTANI, Lartet, which lived
in the Mid-Miocene forests of St. Gaudens, though the most Man-like of all
the Tertiary Apes, was nevertheless further distant from Man than the
Chimpanzees (_Anthropopithecus_). The form of the symphysis of its lower
jaw indicates that its snout was considerably lengthened. Certain molar
teeth found in the Bohnerz strata from Melchingen and Salmendingen, in
Würtemberg, and at one time considered to be human, have now been ascribed
to _D. fontani_.

GENUS SIMIA (_suprà_, p. 170).

To this genus has been referred a molar tooth found in the Pliocene Strata
of the Sivalik hills in India. It is considered to belong to an Orang-Utan,


A fragmentary jaw, also from the Pliocene beds in the Sivalik hills, has
been described as ANTHROPOPITHECUS SIVALENSIS by Lydekker, who at first
placed it in a new genus, _Palæopithecus_, but has more recently determined
it to belong really to this now exclusively African genus. The relative
smallness of the premolars distinguish it from the Orang. Should this
determination be confirmed, the presence of a true Chimpanzee in Asia will
be a fact of the highest interest in the geographical distribution of the

{218}FAMILY HOMINIDÆ (_suprà_, p. 203).

GENUS HOMO (_suprà_, _p. 203_).

Although, as has been stated above, the _Primates_, represented by lowly
Lemuroids evincing relationship with the ancestors of the hoofed animals
(_Ungulata_), first appeared in Eocene times, it would be a hopeless quest,
as Professor Boyd-Dawkins points out, to seek for a highly specialised Man
in a fauna where no living genus of Mammals was present.

The earliest appearance of Man on the globe has been considered by Dr. Hamy
and M. de Mortillet to be in France in the middle of the Miocene age. They
base their belief on flint fragments supposed to be artificially made, and
on a cut upon the bone of an extinct Manatee considered to be of human
handiwork. The evidence is, however, doubtful and unsatisfactory. In this
age appeared such Anthropoids as _Pliopithecus_ and the highly-developed
_Dryopithecus_ (p. 216), when the climate was tropical in mid-Europe, and
warm and genial even within 8° 15[prime] of the North Pole. Professor
Boyd-Dawkins believes that notwithstanding the favourable climate and the
existence of so highly-developed an Ape as _Dryopithecus_, "were any
Man-like animal living in the Miocene age, he might reasonably be expected
to be not Man, but intermediate between Man and something else."

The Pliocene, _i.e._, that portion of the Tertiary period in which the
_genera_ of mammals are mostly the same as those now living--only one
_species_ is known to be identical,--is the next horizon in which human
remains have been asserted to have been found. The evidence is based on a
skull found in a railway cutting in France after a landslip, and on a
supposed artificially incised bone; but both these data require
confirmation. Senhor Ribeiro has, however, obtained in Portugal implements
{219}said to be of undoubted human manufacture in strata of this age, 1,200
feet below the surface; and it has been claimed by Professor Whitney that,
in California, a skull, as well as a mortar and pestle, have been recovered
from Pliocene beds. The latter evidence has also been called in question.

The discovery at Crayford and in Kent's Hole in England, and in the Grotte
d'Église in France, of flint implements of human manufacture, demonstrates
without doubt that Man was living in Europe in the Pleistocene age--at
which time most of the species of Mammals were identical with those now
living--before the climate (which had been cooling since the Miocene) had
become so cold as to cause the Arctic Mammals to swarm down in front of the
approaching glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere. At that epoch the
River-drift Men, as they are called, would have had to contend with Wolves,
Bears, and Lions; while Elephants and Rhinoceroses, Horses, Oxen, and Bison
roamed wild around them. The implements of this "long-headed" race were
stones, conveniently picked up and rough-hewn into rude choppers and
scrapers, pointed borers, and cutting chips. There is evidence that their
makers ranged across a more extended Europe than now, into Africa and
continental India. After the River-drift Men, who disappeared with the Ice
age, there came on the scene a race known as the Palæolithic "Cave Men."
Associated with their bones there have been found, in numerous caverns,
remains of the Reindeer (_Cervus tarandus_), the Woolly Rhinoceros (_R.
tichorhinus_), and the Mammoth (_Elephas primigenius_). They were an
artistic people, who have left drawings of extraordinary fidelity of the
animals with which they were familiar, scratched on bones and horns of the
animals themselves. Their implements were better chipped and shaped than
were those of the {220}River-drift Men. They appear to have been ignorant
of the potter's art; but they clothed themselves in skins, wore
teeth-ornaments, and hunted the Reindeer and other animals--they were men,
as Sir A. Geikie remarks, who must have had much similarity with the
Esquimo--an identification, however, which has lately been strongly
contested. Many fragments of their skeletons have been found in caverns in
various parts of Europe: a lower jaw and an _ulna_ at Naulette, a skull at
Cro-Magnon, a lower jaw in the Grotte des Fées at Arcy-sur-Cure (Yonne),
another from the rock shelter of La Madelaine in the Dordogne; portions of
skulls from Neanderthal, Cannstatt, and Gibraltar, and as far north as
Derbyshire, in England. The remains are, unfortunately, all very
fragmentary, and afford little more information as to the physical
characters of the Palæolithic races, than that they were "long-headed." In
1886, however, in the Grotto of Spy, in the Belgian Province of Namur, were
discovered two nearly complete skeletons, which showed that the Neanderthal
skull, the lower jaw from Naulette, and the skulls from Cannstatt and
Gibraltar all belonged to the same race. This race, which was widely spread
over Europe in the Palæolithic age, presents more Simian characters than
any yet unearthed. MM. Lohest and Fraipont, of Liege, who discovered and
described the remains from Spy, have given in detail the following Simian
characteristics which they present: The superciliary crests are far
greater, and the forehead more retreating, than in any other known
race--characters which closely resemble those in female and young male
Orangs and Chimpanzees; and the occipital region of the skull shows a
transverse crest as in some African tribes and in the above-named
Anthropoid Apes. The lower jaw presents little or none of that markedly
{221}human character--the chin; and the slope of the interior (or
posterior) surface of its symphysis is intermediate between that of Man and
the higher Apes. The bones of the fore-arm (the _ulna_ and _radius_) are
curved so as to produce a space between them, wider than in any human
subject, and resembling what is seen in Apes. The thigh-bone (_femur_) is
so shaped and articulated to the leg-bone (_tibia_) "that in order to
maintain equilibrium the head and body must have been thrown forward." This
relation of the _femur_ and _tibia_ is found in the Apes, and it is highly
probable that the Man of Spy presented a somewhat similar figure when
walking; that is to say, the knees were bent and the body thrown forward.
The crowns of the molar teeth of this race have, as in the lowest races of
Man, four cusps, but with distinct and divergent roots, as among the
Chimpanzees, but they increase in size from in front to behind, as they do
in Apes. "The other and much more numerous characters of this long-headed
skull, of the trunk and of the limbs, seem to be all human." (_Fraipont._)
"Under whatever aspect we view this [the Neanderthal] cranium ... whether
we regard its vertical depression, the enormous thickness of its
supra-ciliary ridges, its sloping occiput, or its long and straight
squamosal suture--we meet with Ape-like characters, stamping it as the most
pithecoid of human crania yet discovered." The cranial capacity being,
however, about seventy-five cubic inches, "so large a mass of brain as this
would alone suggest that the pithecoid tendencies indicated by the skull
did not extend deep into the organisation.... In no sense, then, can the
Neanderthal bones be regarded as the remains of a human being intermediate
between Man and Apes." (_Huxley_, 1867.) "The distance which separates the
Man of Spy from the {222}modern Anthropoid Ape is undoubtedly enormous;
between the Man of Spy and the _Dryopithecus_ it is a little less. But we
must be permitted to point out that if the Man of the later Quaternary age
is the stock whence existing races have sprung, he has travelled a great
way. From the data now obtained, it is permissible to believe that we shall
be able to pursue the ancestral type of Man and the Anthropoid Apes still
further, perhaps as far as the Eocene, and even beyond." (_Fraipont._) As
these fossil human remains are now admitted to be of the Palæolithic age of
the Pleistocene period, they give some idea of "the rate of evolution of
the human species, and indicate that it has not taken place at a much
faster or slower pace than that of other Mammalia. And if that is so, we
are warranted in the supposition that the genus _Homo_, if not the species
which the courtesy or the irony of naturalists has dubbed _sapiens_, was
represented in Pliocene or even Miocene times.... There is no reason to
suppose that the genus _Homo_ was confined to Europe in the Pleistocene
age; it is much more probable that this, like other Mammalian genera of
that period, was spread over a large extent of the surface of the globe. At
that time, in fact, the climate of regions nearer the equator must have
been far more favourable to the human species, and it is possible that
under such conditions it may have attained a higher development than in the
north." (_Huxley._) Professor Huxley points out also, in the interesting
article "The Aryan Question," in _The Contemporary Review_ for November,
1890, from which we have taken the above extracts, that the Irish river-bed
skulls, belonging to a dark-haired, long-headed race, and those of the
Frisians, the blond, long-headed race, now living on the North German
coast, unmistakably approach the Neanderthal and Spy type in many of their
distinctive {223}characters, "a sure indication" of the physiological
continuity with the Pleistocene Neanderthaloid Men. The skulls of some of
the Australian aboriginals and of the broad-headed people of Borreby, in
Denmark, also present a remarkable similarity to the Neanderthal
skull--perhaps an indication that those are characters of a stage in the
pedigree of the human species before it differentiated into any of the
existing races. (_Huxley._)

The next palæontological evidence of Man is found in the Neolithic cavern
deposits, alluvial accumulations, peat mosses, lake bottoms, pile
dwellings, and shell-mounds in various parts of Europe. Between the time
that Palæolithic Man left the caves he occupied, and the date when the
earlier Neolithic people began to deposit fragments of the records of their
history in the kitchen-midden, which they piled in front of their shelters,
a long period appears to have elapsed in many districts. The objects found
in these refuse-heaps are not associated with the remains of the Mammoth,
the Woolly Rhinoceros, or the Elephant, but with those of animals still
living, or such as have lived down to within historical times. The remains
of his skeleton indicate that Neolithic Man varied very much in stature.
Some were tall, some short; some had long and others broad skulls. The
long-skulled people had the same tall stature and cranial peculiarities as
the blue-eyed, light haired, and long-headed _Xanthochroi_ living at the
present day in Eastern Prussia, North Belgium, Northern France, and
Britain, though their bony fabric "bears marks of somewhat greater
ruggedness and savagery." The broad-skulled Men were short, and agreed in
physical characters with the majority of the people now inhabiting the
Mediterranean sea-board--the _Melanochroi_--with black hair and black eyes.
Many Neolithic graves have {224}given up also the remains of a tall,
broad-skulled, and a short, long-skulled race.

Such are the only recovered links in the pedigree of our race, and
extremely unsatisfactory they are; indeed, beyond these few spots in
Western Europe, in California, and the Mississippi valley in North America,
Palæontology is silent as to the history of Man, and sheds no light upon
his origin, or his last pithecoid parents; for, in Professor Huxley's
impressive words, "so far as that light is bright it shows him
substantially as he is now, and when it grows dim it permits us to see no
sign that he was other than he is now."


By means of the accompanying tables and maps I have attempted to present in
a concise and clear manner the distribution of the _Lemuroidea_ and the
_Anthropoidea_ in time and in space.

For the distribution of existing forms I have followed the divisions of the
Globe proposed by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe in his essay on the Zoo-Geographical
Areas of the World, published in "Natural Science" (Vol. III., pp.

I. Table showing the genera of PRIMATES peculiar to, and common to, the Old
and New Worlds.


                                OLD WORLD.         NEW WORLD.
                                (Palæogæa.)        (Neogæa.)
                              Living. Extinct.  Living. Extinct.
       Chiromys                 [+]     --        --      --

       Tarsius                  [+]     --        --      --

  Fam. MEGALADAPIDÆ.                                                {226}
       Megaladapis              --      [+]       --      --

       Perodicticus             [+]     --        --      --
       Loris                    [+]     --        --      --
       Nycticebus               [+]     --        --      --
       Galago                   [+]     --        --      --
       Chirogale                [+]     --        --      --
       Microcebus               [+]     --        --      --
       Opolemur                 [+]     --        --      --
       Lemur                    [+]     [+]       --      --
       Mixocebus                [+]     --        --      --
       Hapalemur                [+]     --        --      --
       Lepidolemur              [+]     --        --      --
       Avahis                   [+]     --        --      --
       Propithecus              [+]     --        --      --
       Indris                   [+]     --        --      --

       Microchærus              --      [+]       --      --
       Mixodectes               --      --        --      [+]
       Cynodontomys             --      --        --      [+]
       Omomys                   --      --        --      [+]
       Anaptomorpha             --      --        --      [+]
       Plesiadapis              --      [+]       --      --
       Protoadapis              --      [+]       --      --

  Fam. ADAPIDÆ.                                                     {227}
       Adapis                   --      [+]       --      [+]
       Tomitherium              --      --        --      [+]
       Laopithecus              --      --        --      [+]
       Pelycodus                --      [+]       --      [+]
       Microsyops               --      --        --      [+]
       Hyopsodus                --      [+]       --      [+]
       Indrodon                 --      --        --      [+]
       Opisthotomus             --      --        --      [+]
       Apheliscus               --      --        --      [+]
       Sarcolemur               --      --        --      [+]
       Hipposyus                --      --        --      [+]
       Bathrodon                --      --        --      [+]
       Mesacodon                --      --        --      [+]
       Stenacodon               --      --        --      [+]


       Hapale                   --      --        [+]     [+]
       Midas                    --      --        [+]     --

  Fam. CEBIDÆ.
       Chrysothrix              --      --        [+]     --
       Protopithecus            --      --        --      [+]
       Callithrix               --      --        [+]     [+]
       Nyctipithecus            --      --        [+]     --        {228}
       Brachyurus               --      --        [+]     --
       Pithecia                 --      --        [+]     --
       Alouatta                 --      --        [+]     [+]
       Cebus                    --      --        [+]     [+]
       Homunculus               --      --        --      [+]
       Anthropops               --      --        --      [+]
       Lagothrix                --      --        [+]     --
       Brachyteles              --      --        [+]     --
       Ateles                   --      --        [+]     --

       Papio                    [+]     [+]       --      --
       Theropithecus            [+]     --        --      --
       Cynopithecus             [+]     --        --      --
       Oreopithecus             --      [+]       --      --
       Macacus                  [+]     [+]       --      --
       Cercocebus               [+]     --        --      --
       Cercopithecus            [+]     --        --      --
       Dolichopithecus          --      [+]       --      --
       Mesopithecus             --      [+]       --      --
       Colobus                  [+]     [+]       --      --
       Semnopithecus            [+]     [+]       --      --
       Nasalis                  [+]     --        --      --

  Fam. SIMIIDÆ.                                                     {229}
       Pliopithecus             --      [+]       --      --
       Hylobates                [+]     [+]       --      --
       Dryopithecus             --      [+]       --      --
       Simia                    [+]     [+]       --      --
       Gorilla                  [+]     --        --      --
       Anthropopithecus         [+]     [+]       --      --

It will be apparent from the above tables that, while the living
_Lemuroidea_ are confined to the Eastern Hemisphere, in past times some
genera were not only common to both Hemispheres, but the Order was equally
well, if not indeed better, represented in the New, than in the Old, World.
Among the _Anthropoidea_, on the other hand, then, as now, none of the
genera were common to both Hemispheres; and a large number of the genera,
which then existed, were identical with genera now living, to a greater
extent than among the _Lemuroidea_.

II. Tables to illustrate the distribution of the genera of Primates in
time, in the different Zoo-Geographical Regions into which the World has
been divided.


  Column headings

  L: Lower.  M: Middle.  U: Upper.
  P: Pleistocene.  R: Recent.  G: Genus.  S: Species.

                    |             TERTIARY.             |  POST-  |  NOW
                    +-----------+-----------+-----------+TERTIARY.| LIVING.
                    |  EOCENE.  |  MIOCENE. | PLIOCENE. |         |
                    | L | M | U | L | M | U | L | M | U | P  | R  | G  | S
     LEMUROIDEA.    |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
  Fam. Chiromyidæ   |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
  ,, Tarsiidæ       |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
  ,, Megaladapidæ   |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
  ,, Lemuridæ       |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
  ,, Anaptomorphidæ | 2 | 1 |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
  ,, Adapidæ        | 2 | 3 | 3 |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
                    |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
     ANTHROPOIDEA.  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
  Fam. Hapalidæ     |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
  ,, Cebidæ         |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
  ,, Cercopithecidæ |-- |-- |-- |-- | 2 | 1 | 1 | 4 | 1 |  2 |  2 |  1 |  3
  ,, Simiidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- | 2 |-- |-- | 1 |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
  ,, Hominidæ       |-- |-- |-- |-- | ? |-- |-- | ? |-- |  1 |  1 |  1 |  1


  Column headings

  L: Lower.  M: Middle.  U: Upper.
  P: Pleistocene.  R: Recent.  G: Genus.  S: Species.

                    |             TERTIARY.             |  POST-  |  NOW
                    +-----------+-----------+-----------+TERTIARY.| LIVING.
                    |  EOCENE.  |  MIOCENE. | PLIOCENE. |         |
                    | L | M | U | L | M | U | L | M | U | P  | R  | G  | S
  LEMUROIDEA.       |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
    Chiromyidæ      |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- |  1 |  1
    Tarsiidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Megaladapidæ    |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- |  1 | -- | --
    Lemuridæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- |  1 | 12 | 42
    Anaptomorphidæ  |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Adapidæ         |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
                    |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
  ANTHROPOIDEA.     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
    Hapalidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Cebidæ          |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Cercopithecidæ  |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- |  6 | 68
    Simiidæ         |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- |  2 |  3
    Hominidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- |  1 |  1


  Column headings

  L: Lower.  M: Middle.  U: Upper.
  P: Pleistocene.  R: Recent.  G: Genus.  S: Species.

                    |             TERTIARY.             |  POST-  |  NOW
                    +-----------+-----------+-----------+TERTIARY.| LIVING.
                    |  EOCENE.  |  MIOCENE. | PLIOCENE. |         |
                    | L | M | U | L | M | U | L | M | U | P  | R  | G  | S
  LEMUROIDEA.       |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
    Chiromyidæ      |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Tarsiidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- |  1 |  2
    Megaladapidæ    |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Lemuridæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- |  2 |  2
    Anaptomorphidæ  |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Adapidæ         |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
                    |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
  ANTHROPOIDEA.     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
    Hapalidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Cebidæ          |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Cercopithecidæ  |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | 3 |-- |  2 | -- |  4 | 42
    Simiidæ         |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | 2 |-- | -- |  1 |  2 |  8
    Hominidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- |  1 |  1 |  1



[Illustration: _I. MAP, Showing the distribution of Living (Blue) and
Fossil (Red) Lemuroidea._]



[Illustration: _II. MAP, Showing the distribution of the Family Tarsiidæ
(Blue), and the Sub-family Galaginæ (Red) of the Lemuridæ._]


  Column headings

  L: Lower.  M: Middle.  U: Upper.
  P: Pleistocene.  R: Recent.  G: Genus.  S: Species.

                    |             TERTIARY.             |  POST-  |  NOW
                    +-----------+-----------+-----------+TERTIARY.| LIVING.
                    |  EOCENE.  |  MIOCENE. | PLIOCENE. |         |
                    | L | M | U | L | M | U | L | M | U | P  | R  | G  | S
  LEMUROIDEA.       |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
    Chiromyidæ      |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Tarsiidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- |  1 |  1
    Megaladapidæ    |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Lemuridæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Anaptomorphidæ  |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Adapidæ         |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
                    |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
  ANTHROPOIDEA.     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
    Hapalidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Cebidæ          |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Cercopithecidæ  |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- |  3 |  4
    Simiidæ         |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Hominidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- |  1 |  1


  Column headings

  L: Lower.  M: Middle.  U: Upper.
  P: Pleistocene.  R: Recent.  G: Genus.  S: Species.

                    |             TERTIARY.             |  POST-  |  NOW
                    +-----------+-----------+-----------+TERTIARY.| LIVING.
                    |  EOCENE.  |  MIOCENE. | PLIOCENE. |         |
                    | L | M | U | L | M | U | L | M | U | P  | R  | G  | S
  LEMUROIDEA.       |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
    Chiromyidæ      |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Tarsiidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Megaladapidæ    |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Lemuridæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Anaptomorphidæ  | 3 | 1 |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Adapidæ         | 8 | 8 | 1 | 1 |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
                    |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
  ANTHROPOIDEA.     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
    Hapalidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Cebidæ          |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Cercopithecidæ  |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Simiidæ         |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Hominidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- |  1 |  1


  Column headings

  L: Lower.  M: Middle.  U: Upper.
  P: Pleistocene.  R: Recent.  G: Genus.  S: Species.

                    |             TERTIARY.             |  POST-  |  NOW
                    +-----------+-----------+-----------+TERTIARY.| LIVING.
                    |  EOCENE.  |  MIOCENE. | PLIOCENE. |         |
                    | L | M | U | L | M | U | L | M | U | P  | R  | G  | S
  LEMUROIDEA.       |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
    Chiromyidæ      |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Tarsiidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Megaladapidæ    |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Lemuridæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Anaptomorphidæ  |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Adapidæ         |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
                    |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
  ANTHROPOIDEA.     |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |    |
    Hapalidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |  1 |  1 |  2 | 22
    Cebidæ          |-- |-- | 4 |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |  7 | -- | 10 | 65
    Cercopithecidæ  |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Simiidæ         |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | -- | -- | -- | --
    Hominidæ        |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- |-- | ? |-- |  1 |  1 |  1 |  1

{236}The above tables show that during the Eocene epoch of the Tertiary
Period the _Lemuroidea_ were confined to the Palæarctic and Nearctic
Regions; and, if the geological record were more perfect, we should
probably find that they were distributed across the greater part of the
Northern Hemisphere, which at that period was sub-tropical in climate.
Outside these two regions no Lemuroid remains have been found after the
close of the Eocene (with the exception of the solitary Lower Miocene genus
_Laopithecus_) till the Recent Period, when the superficial deposits of
Madagascar have yielded the sub-fossil _Megaladapis madagascariensis_ and a
large undescribed species (probably of a new genus) of _Lemuridæ_, both of
which may have been living in the historic period. At the present day
Lemuroids are unknown in either the Palæarctic or Nearctic Regions, and,
with the exception of four species, none are now found outside the
Ethiopian Region.

The _Anthropoidea_, on the other hand, first appear in the Neotropical
Region, in the upper Eocene, but the age of the Santa Cruz formation, in
which the remains occur, has not yet been settled with certainty. In the
Eastern Hemisphere they appear in the Mid-Miocene, and continue through the
Pliocene, the Pleistocene and Recent deposits. As yet no remains have been
found in the Nearctic Region, where Lemuroid remains occur so abundantly.

{237}The subjoined tables indicate the number of species in each of the six
great Zoo-Geographical Regions, followed by others showing those peculiar
to, and those living and fossil in, the various sub-divisions of these

                   _A._      _B._     _C._     _D._      _E._       _F._
                Palæarctic Ethiopian Indian Australian Nearctic Neotropical
                  Region.   Region.  Region.  Region.   Region.   Region.
    Chiromys          --         1       --       --        --        --
    Tarsius           --        --        2        1        --        --
    Megaladapis+      --         1       --       --        --        --
    Perodicticus      --         2       --       --        --        --
    Loris             --        --        1       --        --        --
    Nycticebus        --        --        1       --        --        --
    Galago            --         6       --       --        --        --
    Chirogale         --         3       --       --        --        --
    Microcebus        --         5       --       --        --        --
    Opolemur          --         2       --       --        --        --
    Lemur             --         8       --       --        --        --
    Mixocebus         --         1       --       --        --        --
    Hapalemur         --         2       --       --        --        --
    Lepidolemur       --         7       --       --        --        --
    Gen. ined.+       --         1       --       --        --        --
    Avahis            --         1       --       --        --        --
    Propithecus       --         4       --       --        --        --
    Indris            --         1       --       --        --        --
    Microchærus+       7        --       --       --        --        --
    Mixodectes+       --        --       --       --         2        --
    Cynodontomys+     --        --       --       --         1        --
    Omomys+           --        --       --       --         1        --
    Anaptomorphus+    --        --       --       --         3        --
    Plesiadapis+       4        --       --       --        --        --
    Protoadapis+       2        --       --       --        --        --
    Adapis+            5        --       --       --         1        --
    Tomitherium+      --        --       --       --         1        --
    Laopithecus+      --        --       --       --         2        --
    Pelycodus+         1        --       --       --         4        --
    Microsyops+       --        --       --       --         3        --
    Hyopsodus+         1        --       --       --         6        --
    Opisthotomus+     --        --       --       --         ?        --
    Apheliscus+       --        --       --       --         ?        --
    Sarcolemur+       --        --       --       --         ?        --
    Hipposyus+        --        --       --       --         ?        --
    Bathrodon+        --        --       --       --         ?        --
    Mesacodon+        --        --       --       --         ?        --
    Stenacodon+       --        --       --       --         ?        --

    Hapale            --        --       --       --        --         8
    Midas             --        --       --       --        --        14
    Chrysothrix       --        --       --       --        --         4
    Callithrix        --        --       --       --        --        13
    Nyctipithecus     --        --       --       --        --         5
    Brachyurus        --        --       --       --        --         3
    Pithecia          --        --       --       --        --         5
    Alouatta          --        --       --       --        --         6
    Cebus             --        --       --       --        --        19
    Lagothrix         --        --       --       --        --         2
    Brachyteles       --        --       --       --        --         1
    Ateles            --        --       --       --        --        10
    Protopithecus+    --        --       --       --        --         1
    Homunculus+       --        --       --       --        --         1
    Anthropops+       --        --       --       --        --         1
    ? Homocentrus+    --        --       --       --        --         1
    ? Eudiastus+      --        --       --       --        --         1
    Papio              1        11        2       --        --        --
    Theropithecus     --         1       --       --        --        --
    Cynopithecus      --        --        1        1        --        --
    Oreopithecus+      1        --       --       --        --        --
    Macacus            8        --       14        2        --        --
    Dolichopithecus+   1        --       --       --        --        --
    Mesopithecus+      1        --       --       --        --        --
    Cercocebus        --         6       --       --        --        --
    Cercopithecus     --        41       --       --        --        --
    Colobus            1        10       --       --        --        --
    Semnopithecus      1        --       31       --        --        --
    Nasalis           --        --        1       --        --        --
    Pliopithecus+      1        --       --       --        --        --
    Hylobates          1        --        7       --        --        --
    Dryopithecus+      1        --       --       --        --        --
    Simia             --        --        1       --        --        --
    Gorilla           --         1       --       --        --        --
    Anthropopithecus  --         2        1       --        --        --

The following is a sketch of the past and present distribution of the
Primates in the different Sub-regions and Provinces recognised by Dr.
Bowdler Sharpe in his paper on the "Zoo-Geographical Areas of the World"
already referred to.

{241}The black type indicates extinct or fossil species. The names of
species peculiar to a certain area are printed in ordinary type, and those
which are common to two or more areas are indicated by italics.



                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species    --        --


_A^2._ [alpha]. EUROPEAN PROVINCE.

                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --         3    | Peculiar genera     --         3
     ,,    species    --        20    |    ,,    species    --         9

The following species formerly existed in the Province:--


  1. Michrochærus antiquus.+ 2. M. erinaceus.+ 3. M. edwardsi.+ 4. M.
  parvulus.+ 5. M. zitteli.+ 6. M. armatus.+ 7. M. (Cryptopithecus)
  siderolithicus.+ 8. Plesiadapis remensis.+ 9. P. gervaisi.+ {242}10. P.
  tournesarti.+ 11. P. daubrei.+ 12. Protoadapis crassicuspidens.+ 13. P.
  recticuspidens.+ 14. Adapis parisiensis.+ 15. A. lemuroides.+ 16. A.
  magna.+ 17. A. augustidens.+ 18. A. minor.+ 19. Pelycodus helveticus.+
  20. Hyopsodus jurensis.+


  1. Macacus priscus.+ 2. M. pliocenus.+ 3. M. suevicus.+ 4.
  Dolichopithecus ruscinensis.+ 5. Colobus grandævus.+ 6. Pliopithecus
  antiquus.+ 7. P. chantrei.+ 8. Hylobates sp.+ 9. Dryopithecus fontani.+


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
  Peculiar genera        absent.      | Peculiar genera         absent.
     ,,    species         ,,         |    ,,    species          ,,


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --       --     | Peculiar genera      --       --
     ,,    species    --       --     |    ,,    species      2       --

In this Sub-region the following species are found at the present day:--

  1. Macacus fuscatus. 2. M. tcheliensis.



                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --         2
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species     1         6

The following species are characteristic of this Province:--

  1. Papio atlanticus.+ 2. Oreopithecus bambolii.+ 3. Macacus inuus (living
  and fossil). 4. M. florentinus.+ 5. M. trarensis.+ 6. Mesopithecus
  pentelici.+ 7. Semnopithecus monspessulanus.+


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
  Peculiar genera        absent.      | Peculiar genera         absent.
     ,,    species         ,,         |    ,,    species          ,,


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species    --        --



                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species    --        --


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species     3        --

In this Sub-region the following species appear to be found:--

  1. _Galago senegalensis._ 2. _G. demidoffi._ 3. _Papio maimon._ 4. _P.
  babuin._ 5. _P. sphinx._ 6. _P. hamadryas._ 7. _Cercopithecus sabæus._ 8.
  C. neglectus. 9. C. patas. 10. C. pyrrhonotus.


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera      1        --    | Peculiar genera      2        --
     ,,    species     4        --    |    ,,    species    37        --

{245}In this Sub-region the following species occur:--

  1. Perodicticus calabarensis. 2. P. potto. 3. Galago alleni. 4. _G.
  demidoffi._ 5. G. monteiri. 6. _Papio maimon._ 7. P. leucophæus. 8. _P.
  babuin._ 9. P. anubis. 10. _P. sphinx._ 11. Cercocebus fuliginosus. 12.
  C. æthiops. 13. C. albigena. 14. C. aterrimus. 15. Cercopithecus
  petaurista. 16. C. signatus. 17. C. erythrogaster. 18. C. buettikoferi.
  19. C. martini. 20. C. ludio. 21. C. melanogenys. 22. C. nictitans. 23.
  C. stampflii. 24. C. erythrotis. 25. C. cephus. 26. C. cynosurus. 27. C.
  callitrichus. 28. C. mona. 29. _C. albigularis._ 30. C. campbelli. 31.
  _C. leucampyx._ 32. C. grayi. 33. C. pogonias. 34. C. diana. 35. C.
  palatinus. 36. C. brazzæ. 37. C. talapoin. 38. C. nigripes. 39. C. wolfi.
  40. Colobus verus. 41. C. ferrugineus. 42. C. satanas. 43. C. ursinus.
  44. C. vellerosus. [?45. _C. angolensis._] 46. _C. guereza._ 47. Gorilla
  gorilla. 48. Anthropopithecus niger. 49. A. calvus.


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera      1        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species     5        --

This Sub-region is the habitat of the following species:--

  1. Papio doguera. 2. _P. babuin._ 3. P. thoth. 4. _P. hamadryas._ 5.
  Theropithecus gelada. 6. T. obscurus. 7. _Cercopithecus sabæus._ 8. C.
  boutourlini. 9. _Colobus guereza._


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species     1        --    |    ,,    species    11        --

In this Sub-region occur the following species:--

  1. _Galago senegalensis._ 2. G. garnetti. 3. _G. crassicaudata._ 4.
  _Papio babuin._ 5. P. ibeanus. 6. _P. sphinx._ 7. P. langheldi. 8.
  Cercocebus galeritus. 9. Cercopithecus rufo-viridis. 10. C. schmidti. 11.
  _C. albigularis._ 12. _C. pygerythrus._ 13. C. ochraceus. 14. C. stairsi.
  15. C. moloneyi. 16. _C. leucampyx._ 17. Colobus rufo-mitratus. 18. C.
  kirki. 19. C. angolensis. 20. _C. guereza._ 21. _C. caudatus._



                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species     1        --

The following species inhabit this Province:--

  1. Papio porcarius; _Cercopithecus pygerythrus_.


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species     1        --

The following species occur within this Province:--

  1. _Galago senegalensis._ 2. _G. crassicaudata._ 3. _Cercopithecus
  pygerythrus._ 4. _C. albigularis._ 5. _C. samango._


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species    --        --

In this Sub-region the following species occur:--

  1. _Cercopithecus albigularis._ 2. _Colobus caudatus._


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     12         2    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    34         2    |    ,,    species     1        --

{248}The following species are peculiar to this Sub-region:--

  1. Chiromys madagascariensis; Chirogale, 4 species; Microcebus, 4
  species; Opolemur, 2 species; Lemur, 8 species; Megaladapis
  madagascariensis+; Gen. ined.+; Mixocebus caniceps; Hapalemur, 2 species,
  Lepidolemur, 7 species; Avahis laniger; Propithecus, 3 species; Indris



                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera      1        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species     1        --    |    ,,    species     6         4

The following species are characteristic of this Sub-region:--

  1. Loris gracilis. 2. Papio sub-himalayanus.+ 3. P. falconeri.+ 4.
  _Macacus rhesus._ 5. M. pileatus. 6. M. sinicus. 7. M. sivalensis.+ 8.
  Semnopithecus entellus.[4] 9. S. priamus. 10. S.  hypoleucus. 11. S.
  cephalopterus. 12. S. palæindicus.+


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera      2        --
     ,,    species     1        --    |    ,,    species    19        --



[Illustration: _III. MAP, Showing the distribution of the Family
Chiromyidæ, and of the Sub-families Lemurinæ and Indrisinæ (Blue), and of
the Lorisinæ (Red) of the Lemuridæ._]



[Illustration: _IV. MAP, Showing the distribution of Living (Blue) and
Fossil (Red) Anthropoidea._]

{249}The following species are found in this Sub-region:--

  1. Tarsius tarsius. 2. _T. fuscus._ 3. _Nycticebus tardigradus._ 4.
  Macacus rufescens. 5. M. nemestrinus. 6. _M. cynomolegus._ 7.
  Semnopithecus sabanus. 8. S. hosii. 9. S. thomasi. 10. S. everetti. 11.
  S. cruciger. 12. _S. obscurus._ 13. S. maurus. 14. S. femoralis. 15. S.
  rubicundus. 16. S. natunæ. 17. S. frontatus. 18. S. melanolophus. 19. S.
  mitratus. 20. Nasalis larvatus. 21. _Hylobates agilis._ 22. H. leuciscus.
  23. _H. lar._ 24. H. syndactylus. 25. Simia satyrus.


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species    13        --

The following species inhabit this Sub-region:--

  1. _Nycticebus tardigradus._ 2. Macacus leoninus. 3. _M. rhesus._ 4. M.
  sancti-johannis. 5. M. Cyclops. 6. _M. cynomologus._ 7. Semnopithecus
  barbii. 8. S. pileatus. 9. _S. obscurus._ 10. S. germaini. 11. S.
  phayrii. 12. S. nemæus. 13. S. nigripes. 14. S. siamensis.[5] 15.
  _Hylobates agilis._ 16. H. leucogenys. 17. H. hoolock. 18. _H. lar._ 19.
  H. hainanus.


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species     3        --

{250}The following species occur in this Sub-region:--

  1. _Macacus arctoides._ 2. M. lasiotis. 3. Semnopithecus roxellanæ. 4. S.


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species     4        --

The following species occur in this Sub-region:--

  1. _Macacus arctoides._ 2. M. assamensis. 3. M. silenus. 4. Semnopithecus
  johni. 5. S. ursinus.



                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species     2        --

The following species are found within this Sub-region:--

  1. _Tarsius fuscus._ 2. Cynopithecus niger. 3. Macacus maurus. 4. _M.


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species    --        --

Only one species is found in this Sub-region:--

  _Macacus cynomologus._ (Timor; Lombock.)

_D^3._ PAPUAN. _D^4._ AUSTRALIAN. _D^5._ NEW ZEALAND. _D^6._ FIJIAN. _D^7._

                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species    --        --

Both orders are unknown in these Sub-regions.




1. Lemuroidea and Anthropoidea--recent and extinct--unknown.


1. Lemuroidea and Anthropoidea--recent and extinct--unknown.


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        15    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        30    |    ,,    species    --        --

The following species have been found fossil in this Sub-region:--

  1. Mixodectes pungens.+ 2. M. crassiusculus.+ 3. Cynodontomys latidens.+
  4. Omomys carteri.+ 5. Anaptomorphus æmulus.+ 6. A. homunculus.+ 7.
  Adapis tenebrosus.+ 8. Tomitherium rostratum.+ 9. Laopithecus robustus.+
  10. L. lemurinus.+ 11. Pelycodus jarrovii.+ 12. P. tutus.+ 13. P.
  frugivorus.+ 14. P. angulatus.+ 15. Microsyops spierianus.+ 16. M.
  elegans.+ 17. M. scottianus.+ 18. Hyopsodus acolytus.+ 19. H. paulus.+
  20. H. minusculus.+ 21. H. vicarius.+ 22. H. powellianus.+ 23. Indrodon
  sp.+ 24. Opisthotomus sp.+ 25. Apheliscus sp.+ 26. Sarcolemur sp.+ 27.
  Hipposyus sp.+ 28. Bathrodon sp.+ 29. Mesacodon sp.+ 30. Stenacodon sp.+


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species    --        --

Both the orders of Primates are absent from this Sub-region.



                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species    --        --

Both orders of the Primates are absent from this Sub-region.



                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species    --        --

{254}The following species is recognised from this Province[6]:--

  1. _Ateles vellerosus._


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species     4        --

The following species are inhabitants of this Province:--

  1. _Midas rosalia._ 2. _M. geoffroyi._ 3. Chrysothrix oerstedi. 4.
  Nyctipithecus rufipes. 5. Alouatta villosa. 6. A. palliata. 7. _Cebus
  hypoleucus._ 8. _Ateles geoffroyi._ 9. _A. rufiventris._ 10. _A. ater._
  11. _A. vellerosus._


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species     7        --

The following species are recorded as inhabiting this Sub-region:--

  1. Hapale leucopus. 2. _Midas rosalia._ 3. _M. geoffroyi._ 4. M. oedipus.
  5. _Chrysothrix sciurea._ 6. Callithrix ornata. 7. _Nyctipithecus
  {255}temurinus._ 8. _N. felinus._ 9. _Alouatta senicula._ 10. _Cebus
  hypoleucus._ 11. _C. fatuellus._ 12. _C. capucinus._ 13. _C. albifrons._
  14. C. chrysopus. 15. Lagothrix lagothrix. 16. _L. infumatus._ 17.
  _Ateles variegatus._ 18. _A. geoffroyi._ 19. _A. rufiventris._ 20. _A.
  ater._ 21. A. fusciceps. 22. A. cucullatus.


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera      2        --
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species    34        --

The following species are found in this Sub-region:--

  1. Hapale jacchus. 2. H. humeralifer. 3. H. chrysoleuca. 4. H. pygmæa. 5.
  _H. melanura._ 6. Midas labiatus. 7. M. rufiventer. 8. M. mystax. 9. M.
  pileatus. 10. M. weddelli. 11. M. nigricollis. 12. M. illigeri. 13. M.
  bicolor. 14. M. midas. 15. M. ursulus. 16. _Chrysothrix sciurea._ 17. _C.
  usta._ 18. Callithrix torquata. 19. C. cuprea. 20. C. amicta. 21. C.
  cinerascens. 22. C. personata. 23. C. nigrifrons. 24. _C.
  castaneiventris._ 25. Nyctipithecus trivirgatus. 26. _N. lemurinus._ 27.
  _N. felinus._ 28. Brachyurus melanocephalus. 29. B. rubicundus. 30. B.
  calvus. 31. Pithecia monachus. 32. P. pithecia. 33. P. satanas. 34. P.
  chiropotes. 35. P. albinasa. 36. _Alouatta senicula._ 37. A. beelzebul.
  38. A. ursina. 39. _Cebus monachus._ 40. _C. fatuellus._ 41. C. cirrifer.
  42. _C. albifrons._ 43. _Lagothrix infumatus._ 44. _Ateles variegatus._
  45. A. paniscus. 46. A. marginatus. 47. _A. ater._


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera      1         1
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species    20         5

The following species are recorded from this Sub-region. In many cases,
however, the habitat "Brazil" may be found to be erroneous, as it was often
made, in olden days, to include Amazonia.

  1. Hapale aurita. 2. _H. melanura._ 3. H. jacchus.+ 4. H. grandis.+ 5.
  _Midas rosalia._ 6. M. fuscicollis. 7. M. chrysopygus. 8. _Chrysothrix
  usta._ 9. C. entomophaga.[7] 10. Callithrix moloch. 11. _C.
  castaneiventris._ 12. C. melanochir. 13. C. gigot. 14. C. chlorocnomys.+
  15. C. primæva.+ 16. Nyctipithecus azaræ. 17. Alouatta nigra. 18. A.
  ursina.+ 19. Cebus lunatus. 20. C. flavus. 21. _C. capucinus._ 22. _C.
  monachus._ 23. C. variegatus. 24. C. robustus. 25. C. annellatus. 26. _C.
  albifrons._ 27. C. flavescens. 28. C. fatuellus.+ 29. C. cirrifer.+ 30.
  C. macrognathus.+ 31. C. vellerosus. 32. C. subcristatus. 33. C.
  capillatus. 34. C. azaræ. 35. Brachyteles arachnoides. 36. Protopithecus



[Illustration: _V. MAP, Showing the distribution of the Families Hapalidæ
(Red), and Cebidæ (Blue)._]



[Illustration: _VI. MAP, Showing the distributions of the Genera Papio,
Theropithecus, Cynopithecus, Cercocebus and Cercopithecus (Blue), and
Macacus (Red)._]


                     I. Lemuroidea.   |                   II. Anthropoidea.
                    Living.  Extinct. |                   Living.  Extinct.
  Peculiar genera     --        --    | Peculiar genera     --         4
     ,,    species    --        --    |    ,,    species    --         4

The following fossil species have been recorded from this Sub-region:--

  1. Homunculus patagonicus.+ 2. Anthropops perfectus.+ 3. Homocentrus
  argentinus.+ 4. Eudiastus lingulatus.+


During the passage of this volume through the press, a good deal of
additional material has come into the author's hands, while the results of
important recent explorations have also been published. The following
appendix has, therefore, been added to include the latest additions to our
knowledge of the Anthropoids dealt with in its pages.

On page 82, the Talapoin (_Cercopithecus talapoin_) has been relegated to a
group (and, indeed, it had been assigned by Geoffrey to a distinct
genus--_Miopithecus_), in which it is the sole example on account of the
supposed peculiarity of possessing but three tubercles on the posterior
lower molar. A specimen which the author has recently examined shows that
this character is not invariable, and the species should, therefore, in his
opinion, be transferred to among the Green Guenons--Group II., CERCOPITHECI
CHLORONOTI--and be placed next after the Tantalus Guenon on page 62.

The extremely important collections made by his friend Dr. Forsyth Major
during his adventurous explorations in Madagascar in the years 1894 to
1896--from which he has but just returned--have made it necessary to add on
page 212 a new family to the _Anthropoidea_. In the marshes of Sirabé, in
Central Madagascar, he discovered the fossil remains of a species of true
monkey--a group hitherto unknown to occur in that island--which must have
been a contemporary of the Æpyornis, the well-known giant moa-like ratite
bird which once lived there, but is now extinct. The fragments so far
recovered show that in this creature the orbits were directed straight
forward and {260}were separated from the temporal fossæ by a bony wall. The
lachrymal foramen was situated inside the margin of the orbit; the inner
upper incisors were in contact in the middle line; the nasals were broad
and concave in profile, while the facial contour, viewed from the side, was
very high. The pattern of the molars closely agreed with that seen in the
Guenons (_Cercopithecidæ_). "The nasals are broad," continues Dr. Major,
"and so is the whole of the interorbital region, its transversal diameter
almost equalling that of the orbits, and therefore exceeding that obtained
in the genera of _Anthropoidea_, which show the maximum of external
extension of the region (_Mycetes_, _Hylobates_, _Homo_)." This is about
the only point in which the fossil approaches some of the _Lemuroidea_. The
formula of its upper teeth is I 2, C 1, P 3, M 3 = 18, or that which has
been found heretofore to be characteristic of the New World monkeys. "The
three molars are each composed of four tubercles, the outer and inner pairs
being placed opposite one another and connected together by transverse
ridges. This is the pattern of the _Cercopithecidæ_; but, unlike the Old
World monkeys, the molars decrease in size from before backwards"
(_Major_). In the lower jaw the formula appears to have been I 2, C 1, P 2,
M 3 = 16. Hence "whilst the dental formula of the upper teeth agrees with
that of the _Cebidæ_, it is quite peculiar in the lower jaw, and whilst the
pattern of the molars is that of the _Cercopithecidæ_, the premolars differ
alike from Old and New World monkeys.... These combined characters amply
justify the establishment of a separate family of _Anthropoidea_ for the
Malagasy fossil, intermediate in some respects between the South American
_Cebidæ_ and the Old World _Cercopithecidæ_, besides presenting characters
of its own." Dr. Forsyth Major has, therefore, proposed the new genus
_Nesopithecus_ for the reception of this most remarkable monkey, under the
new family of _Nesopithecidæ_. The discovery of _Nesopithecus roberti_,
{261}as he has designated the species, suggests, as Dr. Major has set forth
in the _Geological Magazine_ for October, 1896, page 436, "the following
general conclusions:--

"(1) We may look forward in Continental Africa likewise for the discovery
of Tertiary monkeys, intermediate between _Cebidæ_ and _Cercopithecidæ_.

"(2) The recent African _Cercopithecidæ_ are not invaders from the
North-East, as has been supposed; on the contrary, most, if not all, of the
Tertiary monkeys of Europe and Asia are derived from the Ethiopian region.
The home of a part at least of the _Anthropoidea_ seems to have been in the
Southern Hemisphere. This assumption is corroborated by the two facts--that
_Anthropoidea_ make their appearance for the first time in the later
Tertiary of Europe and Asia, and that they are entirely absent from the
Tertiary of North America."

After the first paragraph on page 219, the discoveries of Dr. Eugene
Dubois, made since these pages were written, necessitate the insertion of
the following paragraphs.

In the year 1892 this distinguished geologist made one of the most
important contributions to our knowledge of the antiquity of man. In that
year he disinterred a large number of vertebrate remains from
beds--determined to be of late Pliocene, if not of Miocene age--"of
cemented volcanic tuff, consisting of clay, sand, and consolidated
lapilli," at Trinil on the slope of the Kendeng Hills in Java. Among these
remains were a portion of a cranium, two molar teeth, and a femur,
presenting mixed simian and human characters. The dimensions of the
skull-cap showed that the internal capacity of the cranium was about 1,000
cubic centimetres, while the largest skulls of the _Simiidæ_ averaged only
about 500 centimetres. With the exception of this large capacity, the
calvarium presented few characters which were not strongly {262}simian, and
of all the apes it most resembled the Gibbons' (_Hylobates_); but it was
far superior in its cranial arch--low and depressed as the arch was--to
that of any ape. The frontal region was narrow and the supraciliary ridges
prominent. The neck area of the occipital bone was also ape-like in form.
The thigh-bone (_femur_), on the other hand, presented human characters in
a very marked degree, and gave no indication that the individual who owned
it was in the habit of sitting on his hams. The molar teeth were likewise
more human than ape-like, although they presented many strong simian
characters. Dr. Dubois has assigned these remarkable fossils to a species
which he has named _Pithecanthropus erectus_ (the Erect Ape-man), as he
believes that their owner occupied a place in the genealogical tree below
the point of devarication of the anthropoid apes from the human line. Dr.
Cunningham, of Dublin, however, who is one of our most eminent anatomists
and anthropologists, would place it "on the human line, a short distance
above the point at which the anthropoid branch is given off"; for he could
"not believe that an ape-form with a cranial capacity of 1,000 centimetres
could be the progenitor of the man-like apes, the largest of which had a
capacity of only 500. Such a supposition would necessarily involve the
assumption that the anthropoid apes were a degenerated branch from the
common stem." Altogether, then, a study of these important remains tends to
show that _Pithecanthropus_ had the lowest human cranium known, and was the
most ape-like ancestor of the human race yet described. He was very nearly
as much below the Neanderthal man as he was below the normal European. It
should be stated that some doubt has been expressed whether all the remains
belong to one and the same species of animal. Dr. Dubois' arguments for
their really belonging to the same individual appear, however, very

{263}On page 223, after the close of the first paragraph, insert:--

In the Palæolithic Terrace-Gravels at Galley Hill, in Kent, in strata in
which numerous palæolithic implements have been found, one of the most
interesting discoveries of the ancient inhabitants of England was made in
1895. In these strata was discovered a human skull with a lower jaw, and
parts of the limb bones. The skull is very long and narrow; its breadth
index being above 64, and its height index 67. The supraciliary ridges were
large and the glabella prominent, with the forehead receding and the
occiput flattened below, while the hindmost molar was larger than the
first. The skull showed numerous points of resemblance to the Neanderthal
and Spy crania; as well as presenting affinities with the skulls of the
early Neolithic race. The limb bones gave indication that the individual
was short of stature, standing slightly over five feet. The evidence that
these remains were embedded naturally in the Pleistocene age in the
apparently undisturbed gravels in which they were found, and not interred
at a much later period, was very strong.



[Illustration: _VII. MAP, Showing the distribution of the Genera
Semnopithecus (Blue), Nasalis (Brown), and Colobus (Red)._]



[Illustration: _VIII. MAP, Showing the distribution of the Genera Hylobates
(Red), Simia (Blue), Gorilla (Brown), and Anthropopithecus (Green)._]


  abelii, Simia, ii. 171
    Pongo, ii. 171
  acolytus, Hyopsodus, i. 123; ii. 252
  Adapidæ, i. 119
  Adapis, i. 111, 113, 114, 119; ii. 227, 238
    angustidens, i. 120; ii. 242
    lemuroides, i. 120; ii. 242
    magna, i. 120; ii. 242
    minor, i. 120; ii. 242
    parisiensis, i. 120; ii. 242
    tenebrosus, i. 120; ii. 252
  adrotes, Satyrus, ii. 181
  adusta, Simia, i. 185
  ægyptiaca, Hamadryas, i. 272
  æmulus, Anaptomorphus, i. 118; ii. 252
  æthiopicus, Cercopithecus, ii. 39
  æthiops, Cercocebus, ii. 38, 39, 245
    Cercopithecus, ii. 38
    Simia, ii. 38
  Agile Gibbon, ii. 151
  agilis, Hylobates, ii. 149, 151; ii. 249
    Pithecus, ii. 151
  agisymbianus, Otolemur, i. 40
  agrias, Simia, ii. 170
  alba, Pithecia, i. 178
  albicans, Pithecia, i. 183
  albicollis, Hapale, i. 132
  albifrons, Ateles, i. 233
    Cebus, i. 213, 218; ii. 255, 256
    Simia, i. 213
    Lemur, i. 73
  albigena, Cercocebus, ii. 40, 41, 245
    Presbytis, ii. 40
    Semnocebus, ii. 40
  albigularis, Cercopithecus, ii. 67, 69, 70, 245, 246, 247
  albimana, Simia, ii. 160
  albimanus, Hylobates, ii. 160
    Lemur, i. 74
  albinasa, Chiropotes, i. 188
    Pithecia, i. 188; ii. 255
  albinus, Presbytis, ii. 113
  albipes, Semnopithecus, ii. 108
  albocinereus, Semnopithecus, ii. 123, 138
  albogularis, Semnopithecus, ii. 67
    Semnopithecus, ii. 105
  albus, Cebus, i. 209
  alleni, Galago, i. 43; ii. 245
    Otolicnus, i. 43
  Allen's Galago, i. 43
  Alouatta, i. 192, 229, 247; ii. 210, 228, 239
    beelzebul, i. 197; ii. 255
    niger, i. 199
    nigra, i. 195, 197, 199, 200; ii. 256
    palliata, i. 202; ii. 254
    seniculus, i. 192, 193; ii. 255
    ursina, i. 198; ii. 210, 255, 256
    villosa, i. 199; ii. 254
  Aluatta nigra, i. 196
    palliata, i. 202
    senicula, i. 193, 203
  Amboanala, i. 108
  American Monkeys, i. 204
  amicta, Callithrix, i. 161; ii. 255
    Simia, i. 161
  amictus, Callithrix, i. 161
  Anaptomorphidæ, i. 114
  Anaptomorphus, i. 116, 117; ii. 226, 238
    æmulus, i. 118; ii. 252
    homunculus, i. 118; ii. 252
  anchises, Semnopithecus, ii. 105
  andamanensis, Macacus, ii. 14
  Anderson's Langur, ii. 124
  Angolan Guereza, ii. 96
  angolensis, Colobus, ii. 96, 245
    Guereza, ii. 96
  angulatus, Pelycodus, i. 122
  angustidens, Adapis, i. 120; ii. 242
  Angwantibo, i. 28
  anjuanensis, Lemur, i. 71
  annellatus, Cebus, i. 213; ii. 256
  anthracinus, Semnopithecus, ii. 93
  Anthropoidea, i. 123, 124, 227, 229, 252; ii. 3, 41, 143, 149, 173, 191
  Anthropomorpha, ii. 174
  Anthropopithecus, ii. 183, 188, 217, 229, 240
    calvus, ii. 183, 194, 199, 200, 201, 245
    niger, ii. 145, 195
    sivalensis, ii. 217
    troglodytes, ii. 194, 195, 196, 199, 200, 201, 202
  Anthropops, ii. 211, 228, 229
    perfectus, ii. 211
  antiquus, Microchærus, i. 115; ii. 241
    Pliopithecus, ii. 215, 242
  Anubis Baboon, i. 266
  anubis, Cynocephalus, i. 265, 266, 267
    Papio, i. 266, 267; ii. 245
  Aotus trivirgatus, i. 168
  Ape, Black, i. 252
    Rock, ii. 7
  apella, Cebus, i. 211
    Simia, i. 211
  Aphanapteryx, i. 114
  Apheliscus, i. 123; ii. 227, 238, 252
  Aphelotherium, i. 119
    duvernoyi, i. 120
  apicalis, Otolicnus, i. 43
  Arabian Baboon, i. 272, 274
  arachnoides, Ateles, i. 226
    Brachyteles, i. 226, 227; ii. 256
    Eriodes, i. 226, 227
  arctoides, Macacus, ii. 8, 10, 11, 12, 250
  Arctocebus, i. 26
    calabarensis, i. 27
  argentata, Hapale, i. 137
    Simia, i. 136
  argentatus, Jacchus, i. 136
    Midas, i. 136
    Presbytes, ii. 138
    Semnopithecus, ii. 131
  argentinus, Homocentrus, ii. 211
  armatus, Microchærus, i. 116; ii. 241
  Ascagne, ii. 44, 45
  ascanias, Cercopithecus, ii. 44, 48, 50
  assamensis, Macacus, ii. 20, 29, 31, 250
  Ateles, i. 128, 190, 204, 227, 228, 229, 235, 236, 238, 245, 246, 247,
      248; ii. 228, 239
    albifrons, i. 233
    arachnoides, i. 226
    ater, i. 128, 129, 237, 238, 241, 242; ii. 254, 255
    bartletti, i. 231
    belzebuth, i. 244
    chuva, i. 231
    cucullatus, i. 243; ii. 255
    frontalis, i. 239, 244
    fuliginosus, i. 244
    fusciceps, i. 242; ii. 255
    geoffroyi, i. 233, 234, 237, 244; ii. 254, 255
    grisescens, i. 242
    hybridus, i. 233
    hypoxanthus, i. 226
    marginatus, i. 231, 233, 239; ii. 255
    melanochir, i. 231, 233
    ornatus, i. 233, 234
    pan, i. 241
    paniscus, i. 237, 239, 241, 242; ii. 255
    pentadactylus, i. 237
    rufiventris, i. 234, 236; ii. 254, 255
    variegatus, i. 231, 233; ii. 255
    vellerosus, i. 128, 129, 236, 244; ii. 254
  ater, Ateles, i. 128, 129, 237, 238, 241, 242; ii. 254, 255
    Chiropotes, i. 186
    Sapajou, i. 241
  aterrimus, Cercocebus, ii. 40, 245
    Cercopithecus, ii. 40
  atlanticus, Papio, ii. 212, 243
  aubryi, Troglodytes, ii. 194
  aulaxinus, Macacus, ii. 213
  auratus, Mycetes, i. 193
    Semnopithecus, ii. 128
  aureus, Macacus, ii. 31, 32
  aurita, Hapale, i. 134
  auritus, Jacchus, i. 134
    Semnopithecus, ii. 136
  ausonianus, Macacus, ii. 213
  Avahi Lemurs, i. 94
    Woolly, i. 94
  Avahis, i. 94; ii. 226, 238
    laniger, i. 94; ii. 248
  Aye aye, i. 14
  azaræ, Cebus, i. 219; ii. 256
    Nyctipithecus, i. 170
    Simia, i. 170
  Azara's Capuchin, i. 219
    Douroucoli, i. 170

  Babakoto, i. 108
  Baboon, Anubis, i. 266
    Arabian, i. 272, 274
    Celebean Black, i. 281
    Chacma, i. 263
    Doguera, i. 262
    East-African, i. 269
    Gelada, i. 252, 276
    Guinea, i. 269
    Langheld's, i. 275
    Thoth, i. 268
    Yellow, i. 265
  Baboons, i. 248, 252, 253; ii. 1
    Gelada, i. 276
    Malayan, i. 280
  babouin, Cynocephalus, i. 262, 265
  babuin, Cynocephalus, i. 268, 271, 276
    Papio, i. 265; ii. 244, 245, 246
  Bald Chimpanzee, ii. 199
  Bald Uakarí, i. 177
  bambolii, Oreopithecus, ii. 212, 243
  Bandar, ii. 23
  Banded Langur, ii. 126
  Barbary Macaque, ii. 4, 6
  Barbe's Langur, ii. 102
  barbei, Presbytis, ii. 102
  barbii, Semnopithecus, ii. 102, 249
  barbatus, Cebus, i. 208
    Mycetes, i. 195
  Barrigudo, i. 221
  bartletti, Ateles, i. 231
  Bathrodon, i. 123; ii. 227, 239, 252
  Bay Guereza, ii. 91
  Bearded Guenons, ii. 44, 78
  beelzebul, Alouatta, i. 197; ii. 255
    Mycetes, i. 197
    Simia, i. 197
  belzebuth, Ateles, i. 244
  Bengal Macaque, ii. 22, 23, 26
    Monkey, ii. 23
  bengalensis, Nycticebus, i. 33, 35
  betillei, Palæolemur, i. 120
  bicolor, Colobus, ii. 95
    Hapale, i. 147
    Midas, i. 147; ii. 255
    Mycetes, i. 198
    Pithecus, ii. 171
    Semnopithecus, ii. 95
    Seniocebus, i. 147
  Black and Red Tamarin, i. 145
  Black Apes, i. 252
  Black-cheeked Guenon, ii. 49
  Black-crested Langur, ii. 136
  Black-eared Mouse-Lemur, i. 51
  Black-faced Lemur, i. 73
  Black-faced Spider-Monkey, i. 241
  Black-footed Guenon, ii. 78
  Black-footed Langur, ii. 135
  Black-fronted Tamarin, i. 143
  Black-fronted Titi, i. 164
  Black Guereza, ii. 93
  Black-handed Titi, i. 165
  Black-headed Squirrel-Monkey, i. 155
  Black-headed Uakarí, i. 175
  Black Howler, i. 195
  Black Lemur, i. 69
  Black-limbed Guenons, ii. 44
  Black Mangabey, ii. 40
  Black Saki, i. 186
  Black Sifaka, i. 100
  Black-tailed Marmoset, i. 136
  Blanc-nez, ii. 44
  boliviensis, Callithrix, i. 155
  Bonnet Macaque, ii. 34, 35, 36
  Bonneted Capuchin, i. 218
    Langur, ii. 103
    Macaque, ii. 114
    Tamarin, i. 143
  Bosman's Potto, i. 28
  boutourlinii, Cercopithecus, ii. 69
  Boutourlini's Guenon, ii. 69
  bouvieri, Piliocolobus, ii. 92
  Brachyteles, i. 204, 224, 227, 228, 248; ii. 228, 239
    arachnoides, i. 226, 227; ii. 256
    hemidactylus, i. 227
    macrotarsus, i. 226
  Brachyurus, i. 128, 174, 248; ii. 228, 239
    calvus, i. 177; ii. 255
    israelita, i. 188
    melanocephalus, i. 175; ii. 255
    ouakary, i. 175
    rubicundus, i. 176; ii. 255
    satanas, i. 188
  Bradycebus, i. 33
  brasiliensis, Protopithecus, ii. 210, 256
  brazzæ, Cercopithecus, ii. 81, 245
  brevicaudatus, Indris, i. 105; ii. 248
  Broad-nosed Gentle-Lemur, i. 82
  Brown Capuchin, i. 211
  Brown-headed Spider-Monkey, i. 242
  Brown-headed Tamarin, i. 144
  Brown Howler, i. 198
  Brown Lagothrix, i. 223, 224
  Brown Macaque, ii. 8
  Brown Woolly Spider-Monkey, i. 226
  brunnea, Callithrix, i. 163
  brunneus, Macacus, ii. 8
  buettikoferi, Cercopithecus, ii. 47, 245
  burnetti, Cercopithecus, ii. 70
  Büttikofer's Guenon, ii. 47

  Çai, Weeping, i. 216
  Caiarara, i. 214
    branca, i. 209
  Calabar Potto, i. 27
  calabarensis, Arctocebus, i. 27
    Nycticebus, i. 27
    Perodicticus, i. 27; ii. 245
  caligata, Callithrix, i. 164
  Callithrix, i. 128, 158, 248; ii. 210, 227, 239
    amicta, i. 161; ii. 255
    amictus, i. 161
    boliviensis, i. 155
    brunnea, i. 163
    caligata, i. 164
    castaneiventris, i. 164; ii. 255, 256
    chlorocnomys, ii. 210, 256
    cinerascens, i. 161; ii. 255
    cuprea, i. 160; ii. 255
    discolor, i. 160, 162
    donacophilus, i. 161
    entomophagus, i. 155
    gigo, i. 165
    gigot, i. 165; ii. 256
    lugens, i. 159
    melanochir, i. 165; ii. 256
    moloch, i. 162; ii. 256
    nigrifrons, i. 164; ii. 255
    ornata, i. 162; ii. 254
    personata, i. 163; ii. 255
    primæva, ii. 210, 256
    torquata, i. 159; ii. 255
  Callitriche, Le, ii. 58
  callitrichus, Cercopithecus, ii. 57, 58, 62, 245
  calva, Ouakaria, i. 178
    Pithecia, i. 178
  calvus, Anthropopithecus, ii. 194, 199, 200, 201, 245
    Brachyurus, i. 177; ii. 255
  campbelli, Cercopithecus, ii. 70, 245
  Campbell's Guenon, ii. 70
  cana, Lagothrix, i. 222
  caniceps, Mixocebus, i. 78; ii. 248
  canus, Lagothrix, i. 222
  Caparro, i. 223, 224
  Capped Capuchin, i. 219
  capillamentosa, Pithecia, i. 185
  capillatus, Cebus, i. 219; ii. 256
    Miopithecus, ii. 83
  Capuchin, Azara's, i. 219
    Bonneted, i. 218
    Brown, i. 211
    Capped, i. 219
    Crested, i. 212
    Golden-handed, i. 218
    Grizzled, i. 213
    Pale, i. 217
    Schlegel's, i. 220
    Slender, i. 208
    Smooth-headed, i. 209
    Thick-furred, i. 217
    Tufted, i. 212
    Variegated, i. 211
    Weeper, i. 215
    White-cheeked, i. 208
    White-fronted, i. 213, 215
    White-throated, i. 206, 207
  Capuchins, i. 204, 205, 210, 221, 247
  capucinus, Cebus, i. 121, 215; ii. 255, 256
  capucina, Simia, i. 215
    Mycetes, i. 195
  caraya, Stentor, i. 195
  carbonarius, Macacus, ii. 31, 32
  carteri, Omomys, i. 117; ii. 252
  castaneiventris, Callithrix, i. 164; ii. 255, 256
  castaneus, Cebus, i. 215
  castelnaui, Lagothrix, i. 224
  Catarrhini, i. 127
  catta, Lemur, i. 76
  caudatus, Colobus, ii. 98, 99
    Guereza, ii. 98
  Cawiars, i. 264
  Cay, Le, i. 219
  Cebidæ, i. 127, 128, 150, 231, 239
  ceboides, Ecphantodon, ii. 211
  Cebus, i. 174, 190, 204, 214, 217, 221; ii. 210, 228, 239
    albifrons, i. 213, 218; ii. 255, 256
    albus, i. 209
    annellatus, i. 213; ii. 256
    azaræ, i. 219; ii. 256
    apella, i. 211
    barbatus, i. 208
    capillatus, i. 219; ii. 256
    capucinus, i. 121, 215; ii. 255, 256
    castaneus, i. 215
    chrysopes, i. 213, 218
    chrysopus, i. 218; ii. 255
    cirrifer, i. 212, 214; ii. 210, 255, 256
    elegans, i. 209
    fallax, i. 220
    fatuellus, i. 211, 220; ii. 210, 255, 256
    flavescens, i. 217; ii. 256
    flavus, i. 208, 209; ii. 256
    frontatus, i. 208, 213, 217, 218, 219
    gracilis, i. 209, 217
    hypoleucus, i. 206, 236; ii. 254, 255
    leucocephalus, i. 206, 213
    leucogenys, i. 208
    libidinosus, i. 209
    lunatus, i. 208; ii. 256
    macrocephalus, i. 211
    macrognathus, ii. 210, 256
    moloch, i. 162
    monachus, i. 209; ii. 255, 256
    niger, i. 212
    nigrovittatus, i. 215
    olivaceus, i. 210, 215
    pallidus, i. 209
    robustus, i. 129, 212; ii. 256
    subcristatus, i. 218; ii. 256
    torquatus, i. 159
    unicolor, i. 209, 219
    variegatus, i. 210, 211, 213; ii. 256
    vellerosus, i. 208, 217; ii. 256
    versicolor, i. 213, 215
    xanthocephalus, i. 209
  Celebean Black Baboon, i. 281
  cephalopterus, Presbytes, ii. 113, 115
    Semnopithecus, ii. 111, 112, 113, 114, 122, 248
  cephus, Cercopithecus, ii. 53, 245
    Simia, ii. 53
  Cercocebus, i. 252; ii. 36, 228, 240
    æthiops, ii. 38, 39, 245
    albigena, ii. 40, 41, 245
    aterrimus, ii. 40, 245
    collaris, ii. 38, 39
    cynomologus, ii. 31
    fulginosus, ii. 37, 245
    galeritus, ii. 41, 246
    pileatus, ii. 34, 35
    radiatus, ii. 35
    sinicus, ii. 33, 35
    tantalus, ii. 62
  Cercopitheci, ii. 37, 42
    auriculati, ii. 44, 76
    barbati, ii. 44, 79
    chloronoti, ii. 44, 54
    erythronoti, ii. 44, 63
    melanochiri, ii. 44, 66
    rhinosticti, ii. 44
    trituberculati, ii. 44, 82
  Cercopithecidæ, i. 248, 252; ii. 42, 147, 191, 200
  Cercopithecus, i. 252, 277, 280; ii. 41, 56, 57, 140, 228, 240
    æthiopicus, ii. 39
    æthiops, ii. 38
    albigularis, ii. 67, 69, 70, 245, 246, 247
    ascanius, ii. 44, 48, 50
    aterrimus, ii. 40
    boutourlinii, ii. 69
    brazzæ, ii. 81, 245
    buettikoferi, ii. 47, 245
    burnetti, ii. 70
    callitrichus, ii. 57, 58, 62, 245
    campbelli, ii. 70, 245
    cephus, ii. 53, 245
    cynosurus, ii. 55, 56, 60, 245
    diana, ii. 79, 80, 81, 245
    diadematus, ii. 76
    entellus, ii. 104
    erythrarchus, ii. 67, 68
    erythrogaster, ii. 46, 245
    erythrotis, ii. 52, 245
    erxlebenii, ii. 77
    ferrugineus, ii. 94
    flavidus, ii. 65, 66
    fuliginosus, ii. 38, 245
    grayi, ii. 77, 78, 245
    griseo-viridis, ii. 56
    griseus, ii. 56
    ignita, ii. 80
    kephalopterus, ii. 113
    labiatus, ii. 72
    lalandii, ii. 60, 61
    larvatus, ii. 140
    leucampyx, ii. 75, 76, 245, 246
    leucoprymnus, ii. 113
    ludio, ii. 48, 245
    lunulatus, ii. 39
    martini, ii. 47, 245
    maurus, ii. 125
    melanogenys, ii. 49, 50, 51, 245
    moloneyi, ii. 74, 246
    mona, ii. 66, 245
    monoides, ii. 67
    nasicus, ii. 141
    neglectus, ii. 75, 82, 244
    nemæus, ii. 134
    nigripes, ii. 78, 245
    nictitans, ii. 47, 49, 50, 51, 245
    ochraceus, ii. 65, 246
    opisthostictus, ii. 72
    palatinus, ii. 81, 245
    patas, ii. 63, 65, 244
    petaurista, ii. 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 52, 245
    pileatus, ii. 82
    pluto, ii. 76
    pogonias, ii. 77, 78, 245
    pusillus, ii. 60
    pygerythra, ii. 60
    pygerythrus, ii. 60, 61, 62, 246
    pyrrhonotus, ii. 64, 65, 244
    roloway, ii. 81
    ruber, ii. 63, 65
    rufo-viridis, ii. 60, 65, 246
    sabæa, ii. 58
    sabæus, ii. 56, 58, 60, 244, 245
    samango, ii. 71, 72, 74, 247
    schmidti, ii. 50, 246
    senex, ii. 113
    signatus, ii. 45, 245
    stairsi, ii. 73, 246
    stampflii, ii. 49, 50, 245
    talapoin, ii. 82, 245
    tantalus, ii. 62
    tephrops, ii. 55
    veter, ii. 18
    vetulus, ii. 112
    werneri, ii. 58
    wolfi, ii. 79, 245
  Cervus tarandus, ii. 218
  ceylonicus, Simia, ii. 125
  Chæropithecus leucophæus, i. 260
  Chacma Baboon, i. 263, 264, 265
  chantrei, Pliopithecus, ii. 215, 242
  Cheirogaleus furcifer, i. 59
    typicus, i. 50, 51
    milii, i. 50
  Chimpanzee, ii. 146, 148, 153, 188, 194
    Bald, ii. 199
  Chirogale, i. 49, 113, 226, 237; ii. 248
    melanotis, i. 51, 52
    milii, i. 50
    trichotis, i. 9
  Chirogaleus, i. 49
    gliroides, i. 55
    pusillus, i. 55, 57
    samati, i. 62
    trichotis, i. 52
  Chiropotes, i. 182
    ater, i. 186
    cuxio, i. 186
    satanas, i. 186; ii. 255
  chiropotes, Pithecia, i. 187, 188
    Simia, i. 187
  Chiromyidæ, i. 14
  Chiromys, i. 14; ii. 225, 237
  Chiromys madagascariensis, i. 14; ii. 248
  Chlorocebus cynosurus, ii. 55
    engythithea, ii. 56
    pygerythrus, ii. 60
    ruber ii. 63, 65
    rufo-viridis, ii. 65
    sabæus, ii. 58
  chlorocnomys, Callithrix, ii. 210, 256
  choras, Cynocephalus, i. 270
  chrysampyx, Lemur, i. 75
  chrysocephala, Pithecia, i. 185
  chrysogaster, Presbytis, ii. 103
    Semnopithecus, ii. 103
  chrysoleuca, Hapale, i. 135; ii. 255
  chrysoleucos, Miocella, i. 135
  chrysomelas, Hapale, i. 144
    Semnopithecus, ii. 120, 127, 128
  chrysopes, Cebus, i. 213, 218
  chrysopus, Cebus, i. 218; ii. 255
  chrysopygia, Hapale, i. 144
  chrysopygus, Midas, i. 144; ii. 256
  Chrysothrix, i. 128, 152, 274; ii. 227, 239
    entomophagus, i. 155; ii. 256
    lunulata, i. 156
    nigrivittata, i. 156
    oerstedi, i. 158; ii. 254, 256
    sciurea, i. 155, 156, 158; ii. 254, 255
    usta, i. 154; ii. 255, 256
  chrysurus, Colobus, i. 197
    Mycetes, i. 193
  chuva, Ateles, i. 231
  Chuva de Baracamorros, i. 232
  Cibuella pygmæa, i. 136
  cinerascens, Callithrix, i. 161; ii. 255
  cinereiceps, Lemur, i. 72
  cinereus, Nycticebus, i. 33, 35, 37
    Semnopithecus, ii. 38
  cirrifer, Cebus, i. 212, 214; ii. 210, 255, 256
  Coaita, Le, i. 237
  Coaita à front blanc, femelle, i. 239
  Coenopithecus, i. 119
  Collared Lemur, i. 72
  collaris, Cercocebus, ii. 38, 39
    Lemur, i. 72
  Colobi, ii. 85
  Colobus, i. 252; ii. 84, 85, 86, 98, 100, 215, 228, 240
    angolensis, ii. 96, 245, 246
    bicolor, ii. 95
    bourtoulini, ii. 69, 245
    caudatus, ii. 98, 99, 246, 247
    chrysurus, i. 197
    cristatus, ii. 88
    ferruginea, ii. 91
    ferrugineus, ii. 91, 245
    ferruginosus, ii. 91
    grandævus, ii. 215, 242
    guereza, ii. 97, 99, 245, 246
    kirkii, ii. 89, 90, 246
    leucomeros, ii. 95
    occidentalis, ii. 98
    olivaceus, ii. 87
    palliatus, ii. 96
    pennantii, ii. 91
    personatus, ii. 94
    polycomus, ii. 93, 94
    rufo-fuliginosus, ii. 91
    rufo-mitratus, ii. 88, 246
    rufo-niger, ii. 91
    satanas, ii. 93, 245
    temminckii, ii. 91
    ursinus, ii. 93, 94, 95, 245
    vellerosus, ii. 94, 95, 245
    verus, ii. 87, 245
  comatus, Papio, i. 263
    Semnopithecus, ii. 138
  commersoni, Nyctipithecus, i. 170
  Common Chimpanzee, ii. 194
  Common Marmoset, i. 132
  Common Squirrel-Monkey, i. 156
  concolor, Hylobates, ii. 155
    Simia, ii. 155
  coquereli, Cheirogaleus, i. 60
    Microcebus, i. 60
    Mirza, i. 60
  Coquerel's Dwarf-Lemur, i. 60
    Sifaka, i. 102
  coquereli, Propithecus, i. 102
  coromandus, Hylobates, ii. 161
  coronatus, Lemur, i. 75
    Propithecus, i. 102, 103
  Crab-eating Macaque, ii. 31, 33
  crassicaudata, Galago, i. 47; ii. 246, 247
    Otogale, i. 47
    Otolicnus, i. 47
  crassiusculus, Mixodectes, i. 116
  crassicuspidens, Protoadapis, i. 118; ii. 242
  Crested Capuchin, i. 212
  Crested Mangabey, ii. 41
  cristatus, Colobus, ii. 88
    Macacus, ii. 31, 32
    Presbytis, ii. 131, 138
    Semnopithecus, ii. 132
    Simia, ii. 125, 126
  Cryptopithecus siderolithicus, ii. 241
  Cross-Bearing Langur, ii. 121
  crossleyi, Chirogale, i. 53
    Chirogaleus, i. 53
  Crossley's Mouse-Lemur, i. 53
  Crowned Lemur, i. 75
  Crowned Sifaka, i. 102
  cruciger, Semnopithecus, ii. 121, 249
  cucullatus, Ateles, i. 243; ii. 255
    Cebus, i. 209, 212
    Presbytis, ii. 111
    Semnopithecus, ii. 111
  cuprea, Callithrix, i. 160; ii. 255
  curtus, Pithecus, ii. 171
  cuxio, Chiropotes, i. 186
  cyclops, Macacus, ii. 25, 27, 28, 29, 249
  cynocephala, Simia, i. 265
  Cynocephalus, i. 252, 253, 276, 277, 278, 281
    anubis, i. 265, 266, 267
    babouin, i. 262, 265
    babuin, i. 268, 271, 276
    choras, i. 270
    doguera, i. 262
    hamadryas, i. 268, 270, 271, 272
    langheldi, i. 275
    maimon, i. 258, 260
    mormon, i. 271
    niger, i. 281; ii. 11
    olivaceus, i. 267
    papio, i. 270
    porcarius, i. 262, 263
    sphinx, i. 269, 270, 271
    thoth, i. 268
    ursinus, i. 263
  cynocephalus, Papio, i. 265
  Cynodontomys, i. 116; ii. 226, 238
    latidens, i. 116; ii. 252
  cynomologus, Cercocebus, ii. 31
    Macacus, ii. 31, 249, 250
    Simia, ii. 31
  Cynopothecini, ii. 203
  Cynopithecus, i. 252, 280; ii. 228, 240
    niger, i. 281, 283; ii. 3, 250
    nigrescens, i. 281
  cynosurus, Cercopithecus, ii. 55, 56, 60, 245
    Chlorocebus, ii. 55
    Simia, ii. 55

  Daubentonia madagascariensis, i. 14
  daubrei, Plesiadapis, i. 118; ii. 242
  De Brazza's Guenon, ii. 81
  deckeni, Propithecus, i. 101
  demidoffi, Galago, i. 44; ii. 244, 245
    Hemigalago, i. 45
    Otolicnus, i. 45
  Demidoff's Galago, i. 44
  Deville's Tamarin, i. 143
  devillii, Hapale, i. 143
    Midas, i. 143
  Diadem Guenon, ii. 75
  diadema, Propithecus, i. 104
  diadematus, Cercopithecus, ii. 76
  diana, Cercopithecus, ii. 79, 80, 81, 245
    Simia, ii. 79
  Diane, Le, ii. 76
  discolor, Callithrix, i. 160, 162
    Mycetes, i. 197
  Doguera Baboon, i. 262
  doguera, Cynocephalus, i. 262
    Papio, i. 262; ii. 245
  Dolicopithecus, ii. 214, 228, 240
    ruscinensis, ii. 214, 242
  donacophilus, Callithrix, i. 161
  Dormouse Dwarf-Lemur, i. 56
  dorsalis, Lepilemur, i. 86
  Douc Langur, ii. 134
  Douroucoli, i. 166
    Azara's, i. 170
    Feline, i. 170
    Lemurine, i. 168
    Red-footed, i. 169
    Three-banded, i. 168
  Drill, i. 260, 271
  Dryopithecus, ii. 213, 216, 218, 229, 240
    fontani, ii. 217, 242
  Dusky Gelada, i. 278
  Dusky-handed Tarsier, i. 21
  Dusky Langur, ii. 123
  dussumieri, Semnopithecus, ii. 110
  Dwarf-Lemur, Coquerel's, i. 60
    Dormouse, i. 56
    Fork-marked, i. 59
    Small, i. 55
    Smith's, i. 57

  East African Baboon, i. 269
  ecaudatus, Inuus, ii. 4
  Ecphantodon, ii. 211
    ceboides, ii. 211
  edwardsi, Lepidolemur, i. 87
    Microchærus, i. 115; ii. 241
    Propithecus, i. 99, 100
  elegans, Cebus, i. 209
    Microsyops, i. 122; ii. 252
    Galago, i. 43
  elegantula, Midas, i. 142
  Elephas primigenius, ii. 219
  Endrina, i. 105
  engythithea, Chlorocebus, ii. 56
  Entelle, L', ii. 104
  entelloides, Hylobates, ii. 160
  entellus, ii. 8
    Cercopithecus, ii. 104
    Presbytis, ii. 105, 107
    Simia, ii. 104
  entellus, Semnopithecus, ii. 103, 104, 107, 108, 109, 111, 215, 248
  entomophaga, Chrysothrix, i. 155; ii. 156
    Saimiris, i. 158
  erinaceus, Microchærus, i. 115; ii. 241
  Eriodes, i. 128, 224
    arachnoides, i. 226, 227
    frontatus, i. 233
    hemidactylus, i. 226, 227
    tuberifer, i. 226, 227
  erythrarchus, Cercopithecus, ii. 67, 68
  erythræa, Simia, ii. 22
  erythræus, Macacus, ii. 20, 25, 27, 28, 29, 32
  erythrogaster, Cercopithecus, ii. 46, 245
  erythrotis, Cercopithecus, ii. 52, 245
  erxlebenii, Cercopithecus, ii. 77
  Erxleben's Guenon, ii. 77
  Eudiastus, ii. 212, 239
    lingulatus, ii. 212
  everetti, Semnopithecus, ii. 116, 120, 249
  Everett's Langur, ii. 120

  falconeri, Papio, ii. 212, 248
  fallax, Cebus, i. 220
  fascigularis, Semnopithecus, ii. 138
  Fat-tailed Lemur, Samat's, i. 62
    Thomas', i. 63
  fatuellus, Cebus, i. 211, 220; ii. 210, 255, 256
    Simia, i. 211
  Feline Douroucoli, i. 170
  felinus, Nyctipithecus, i. 169, 170; ii. 255
  femoralis, Semnopithecus, ii. 126, 127, 128, 129, 130
    Simia, ii. 127
  ferox, Simia, ii. 18
  ferruginea, Colobus, ii. 91, 245
    Simia, ii. 91
  ferrugineus, Cercopithecus, ii. 94
    Colobus, ii. 91
    Piliocolobus, ii. 91
    Semnopithecus, ii. 136
  ferruginosus, Colobus, ii. 91
  fischeri, Tarsius, i. 21
  flava, Simia, i. 209
  flavescens, Cebus, i. 217; ii. 256
  flavicauda, Mycetes, i. 198
    Stentor, i. 198
  flavidus, Cercopithecus, ii. 65, 66
  flavifrons, Midas, i. 143, 144, 146
  flavimana, Presbytes, ii. 136
  flavimanus, Semnopithecus, ii. 136
  flaviventer, Lemur, i. 76
  flavus, Cebus, i. 208, 209; ii. 256
  florentinus, Aulaxinus, ii. 213
    Macacus, ii. 213, 243
  fontani, Dryopithecus, ii. 217, 242
  Formosan Rock-Macaque, ii. 28, 29
  Fork-marked Dwarf-Lemur, i. 56
  frontalis, Ateles, i. 239, 244
  frontatus, Cebus, i. 208, 213, 217, 218, 219
    Eriodes, i. 233
    Semnopithecus, ii. 133
  frugivorus, Pelycodus, i. 122
  fuliginosa, Simia, ii. 38
  fuliginosus, Ateles, i. 244
    Cercocebus, ii. 37, 245
    Cercopithecus, ii. 38
    Colobus, ii. 91
  Full-bottom Monkey, ii. 93
  fulvo-griseus, Semnopithecus, ii. 113, 138
  funereus, Hylobates, ii. 155
  fur, Macacus, ii. 31
  furcifer, Cheirogaleus, i. 59
  furcifer, Lemur, i. 59
    Lepilemur, i. 59
    Microcebus, i. 59
    Phaner, i. 59
  fuscatus, Macacus, ii. 12, 13, 242
  fusciceps, Ateles, i. 242; ii. 255
  fuscicollis, Hapale, i. 144
    Midas, i. 144
  fusco-ater, Macacus, ii. 12
  fuscomanus, Tarsius, i. 21
  fuscus, Hylobates, ii. 155
    Mycetes, i. 198
    Stentor, i. 198
    Tarsius, i. 21; ii. 249, 250

  gabonensis, Galago, i. 43
  Galago, i. 38; ii. 226, 237
    alleni, i. 43; ii. 245
    crassicaudata, i. 47; ii. 246, 247
    demidoffi, i. 44; ii. 245, 246
    elegantulus, i. 43
    gabonensis, i. 43
    garnetti, i. 40; ii. 246
    lasiotis, i. 47
    minor, i. 55
    moholi, i. 41, 42
    monteiri, i. 46; ii. 245
    murinus, i. 45
    senaariensis, i. 42
    senegalensis, i. 41; ii. 244, 246, 247
  Galago, Allen's, i. 43
    Demidoff's, i. 44
    du Sénégal, i. 41
    Great, i. 47
    Senegal, i. 41
    Otolicnus, i. 42
  galeritus, Cercocebus, ii. 41, 246
  garnetti, Galago, i. 40; ii. 246
    Otogale, i. 40
    Otolemur, i. 40
  Garnett's Galago, i. 40
  Gastrimargus infumatus, i. 223
    olivaceus, i. 222
  Gelada, i. 278
    Baboon, i. 252, 276
    Dusky, i. 278
  Gelada rüppelli, i. 276
  gelada, Macacus, i. 276
    Theropithecus, i. 245, 263, 276, 277, 279
  Gentle-Lemur, Broad-nosed, i. 82
  Grey, i. 81
  geoffroyi, Ateles, i. 233, 234, 237, 244; ii. 254, 255
    Hapale, i. 140
    Lagothrix, i. 222, 224
    Midas, i. 140, 141; ii. 254
    Oedipus, i. 140
    Perodicticus, i. 28
    Sapajou, i. 231, 233
  Geoffroy's Spider-Monkey, i. 233, 234, 245
    Tamarin, i. 139
  germaini, Semnopithecus, ii. 124, 249
  Germain's Langur, ii. 124
  gervaisi, Plesiadapis, i. 118; ii. 241
  gesilla, Pithecus, ii. 181
  Gibbons, ii. 143, 145, 148, 149, 150, 166
  Gibbon, Agile, ii. 151
    Hainan, ii. 164
    Wau-wau, ii. 154
    White-cheeked, ii. 158
    White-handed, ii. 159, 160
  gigantica, Simia, ii. 171
  gigo, Callithrix, i. 165
  gigot, Callithrix, i. 165; ii. 256
  gina, Gorilla, ii. 180
  gliroides, Chirogaleus, i. 55
  globiceps, Lepidolemur, i. 88
  Golden-handed Capuchin, i. 218
  Golden Marmoset, i. 135
  Gorilla, ii. 148, 180, 229, 240
    gina, ii. 180
    gorilla, ii. 180, 245
    mayema, ii. 181
    savagei, ii. 180
  gorilla, Gorilla, ii. 180, 245
    Pithecus, ii. 181
    Simia, ii. 181
    Troglodytes, ii. 180
  gracilis, Cebus, i. 209, 217
    Loris, i. 31; ii. 248
    Nycticebus, i. 31
    Stenops, i. 31
  grandævus, Colobus, ii. 215, 242
  grandidieri, Lepidolemur, i. 89
  Grandidier's Sportive-Lemur, i. 89
  grandis, Hapale, ii. 210
  Grasshoppers, ii. 30
  grayi, Cercopithecus, ii. 77, 78, 245
  Great Galago, i. 47
  Green Guenon, ii. 44, 58, 60
  Green Monkeys, ii. 59
  Grey-cheeked Mangabey, ii. 40
  Grey Gentle-Lemur, i. 81
  Grey-headed Lemur, i. 72
  Grey Titi, i. 165
  griseo-viridis, Cercopithecus, ii. 56
  grisescens, Ateles, i. 242
  griseus, Cercopithecus, ii. 56
    Cheirogaleus, i. 81
    Hapalemur, i. 81
    Hapalolemur, i. 81
    Lemur, i. 81
  Grivet, ii. 60, 61
    Guenon, ii. 56
  Grizzled Capuchin, i. 213
    Spider-Monkey, i. 242
  Guenon, Bearded, ii. 44, 78
    Black-cheeked, ii. 49
    Black-footed, ii. 78
    Black-limbed, ii. 44
    Boutourlini's, ii. 69
    Büttikofer's, ii. 47
    Campbell's, ii. 70
    De Brazza's, ii. 81
    Diadem, ii. 75
    Diana, ii. 79
    Erxleben's, ii. 77
    Green, ii. 44, 58, 60
    Grivet, ii. 56
    Hocheur, ii. 51
    Jentink's, ii. 45
    Lesser White-nosed, ii. 44
    Ludio, ii. 48
    Malbrouck, ii. 55
    Martin's, ii. 47, 48
    Moloney's, ii. 74
    Mona, ii. 66
    Moustached, ii. 53
    Nisnas, ii. 64
    Palatine, ii. 81
    Patas, ii. 63
    Red-bellied, ii. 46
    Reddish-green, ii. 65
    Red-eared, ii. 52
    Rufous-backed, ii. 44
    Rump-spotted, ii. 72
    Samango, ii. 71
    Schlegel's, ii. 75
    Schmidt's, ii. 50
    Stairs', ii. 73
    Stampfli's, ii. 50
    Sykes', ii. 67
    Tantalus, ii. 62
    Three-cusped, ii. 44
    Tufted-eared, ii. 44
    Vervet, ii. 60
    Werner's, ii. 58
    White-lipped, ii. 72
    Wolf's, ii. 79
  Guatemalan Howler, i. 199
  Guereza, i. 248, 252; ii. 42, 83, 84, 85, 86
    Angolan, ii. 96
    Bay, ii. 91
    Black, ii. 93
    Kirk's, ii. 88
    Red-crested, ii. 88
    Rüppell's, ii. 97
    Ursine, ii. 93
    Van Beneden's, ii. 87
    White-tailed, ii. 98, 99
    White-thighed, ii. 94
  Guereza angolensis, ii. 96
    caudatus, ii. 98
    guereza, ii. 97
    kirkii, ii. 89
    occidentalis, ii. 97
    palliatus, ii. 96
    rueppelli, ii. 97
    satanas, ii. 93
    ursinus, ii. 94
    vellerosus, ii. 95
  guereza, Colobus, ii. 97, 99, 245

  Hainan Gibbon, ii. 164, 249
    Rock-Monkey, ii. 24
  hainanus, Hylobates, ii. 164, 249
  Hairy Saki, i. 182
  Hairy-eared Macaque, ii. 25
  Hairy-eared Mouse-Lemur, i. 52
  halonifer, Semnopithecus, ii. 123
  Hamadryas ægyptiaca, i. 272
  hamadryas, Cynocephalus, i. 268, 270, 271, 272
    Papio, i. 268, 272; ii. 244, 245
    Simia, i. 272
  Hanuman Langur, ii. 104, 105, 110
  Hapale, i. 128, 131; ii. 210, 227, 239
    albicollis, i. 132
    argentata, i. 137
    aurita, i. 134; ii. 256
    bicolor, i. 147, 182
    chrysoleuca, i. 135; ii. 255
    chrysomelas, i. 144
    chrysopygia, i. 144
    devillei, i. 143, 144, 146
    geoffroyi, i. 140
    grandis, ii. 210, 256
    humeralifer, i. 133; ii. 255
    illigeri, i. 145
    jacchus, i. 132; ii. 210; ii. 255, 256
    labiata, i. 141, 142
    leucocephala, i. 132
    leucopus, i. 134; ii. 254
    melanura, i. 136; ii. 255, 256
    midas, i. 148
    nigrifrons, i. 143
    oedipus, i. 140
    penicillata, i. 132
    pygmæa, i. 135; ii. 255
    rosalia, i. 138
    ursula, i. 148
    weddelli, i. 143
  Hapalemur, i. 65, 79, 114; ii. 226, 237, 248
    olivaceus, i. 82
    simus, i. 82
  harlani, Hylobates, ii. 155
  Hattock, i. 78
  helveticus, Pelycodus, i. 122; ii. 242
  hemidactylus, Brachyteles, i. 227
    Eriodes, i. 226, 227
  Hemigalago demidoffi, i. 45
  Heterohyas, i. 115
  Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, ii. 115
  Himalayan Macaque, ii. 20
    Langur, ii. 107
  Hipposyus, i. 123; ii. 227, 238, 252
  hirsuta, Pithecia, i. 183
  Hocheur Guenon, ii. 51
  holomelas, Propithecus, i. 100
  holotephreus, Semnopithecus, ii. 124
  Hominidæ, i. 252; ii. 218
  Homocentrus, ii. 211, 239
    argentinus, ii. 211
  Homo, ii. 218
    lar, ii. 159
    sapiens, ii. 203
    sylvestris, ii. 194
  Homunculus, ii. 211, 228, 239
    patagonicus, ii. 211
  homunculus, Anaptomorphus, i. 118; ii. 252
  Hooded Spider-Monkey, i. 243
  Hoolock, ii. 161, 162
  hoolock, Hylobates, ii. 160, 161, 163, 164, 249
    Simia, ii. 161
  Hose's Langur, ii. 117
  hosii, Semnopithecus, ii. 116, 117, 119, 120, 249
  Howler, i. 247, 248
    Black, i. 195
    Brown, i. 198
    Guatemalan, i. 199
    Mantled, i. 202, 203
    Red, i. 192
    South American, ii. 191
    Yellow-handed, i. 197
  hulok, Hylobates, ii. 162
  humboldti, Lagothrix, i. 129, 222
  Humboldt's Woolly Monkey, i. 222
  humeralifer, Hapale, i. 133
  hybridus, Ateles, i. 233
  Hylobates, i. 174, 190; ii. 148, 156, 157, 215, 216, 229, 240
    agilis, ii. 149, 151, 249
    albimanus, ii. 160
    concolor, ii. 155
    coromandus, ii. 161
    entelloides, ii. 160
    funereus, ii. 155
    fuscus, ii. 155
    hainanus, ii. 164, 249
    harlani, ii. 155
    hoolock, ii. 160, 161, 163, 164, 166
    hulok, ii. 162, 249
    lar, ii. 152, 159, 161, 249
    leuciscus, ii. 154, 155, 158, 160, 249
    leucogenys, ii. 158, 249
    mülleri, ii. 155, 158
    niger, ii. 162
    pileatus, ii. 152, 153, 164
    rafflesii, ii. 152, 153
    syndactylus, ii. 120, 146, 151, 152, 153, 166, 249
    variegatus, ii. 152, 160
  Hyopsodus, i. 123; ii. 227, 238
    acolytus, i. 123; ii. 252
    jurensis, i. 123; ii. 242
    minusculus, i. 123; ii. 252
    paulus, i. 123; ii. 252
    powellianus, i. 123; ii. 252
    vicarius, i. 123; ii. 252
  hypoleuca, Simia, i. 206
  hypoleucos, Presbytis, ii. 110
    Semnopithecus, ii. 110
  hypoleucus, Cebus, i. 206, 236; ii. 254, 255
    Semnopithecus, ii. 110, 248
  hypoxanthus, Ateles, i. 226

  ibeanus, Papio, i. 269; ii. 246
    Papio thoth, i. 269
  ignita, Cercopithecus, ii. 80
  illigeri, Hapale, i. 145
    Midas, i. 145, 146; ii. 255
  Illiger's Tamarin, i. 145
  Indri, i. 108
  Indris, i. 105; ii. 226, 238
    brevicaudatus, i. 105; ii. 248
    variegatus, i. 107
  Indrisinæ, i. 90
  Indrodon, i. 123; ii. 227, 238, 252
  infumatus, Gastrimargus, i. 223
    Lagothrix, i. 223, 224; ii. 255
  inornatus, Macacus, ii. 12
  inusta, Pithecia, i. 183
  Inuus, ii. 8
    ecaudatus, ii. 4
    leoninus, ii. 14
    nemestrinus, ii. 16
    palpebrosus, ii. 31
    sancti-johannis, ii. 28
    speciosus, ii. 13
  inuus, Macacus, ii. 2, 4, 7, 213, 214, 243
    Pithecus, ii. 4
    Simia, ii. 4
  irrorata, Pithecia, i. 183
  israelita, Brachyurus, i. 188

  Jacchus argentatus, i. 136
    auritus, i. 134
    labiatus, i. 141
    melanura, i. 136
    penicillatus, i. 132
    pygmæus, i. 135
    vulgaris, i. 132
  jacchus, Hapale, i. 132; ii. 21, 255
    Simia, i. 132
  Japanese Macaque, ii. 13, 14
  jarrovii, Pelycodus, i. 122; ii. 252
  Javan Slow-Loris, i. 33
  javanicus, Nycticebus, i. 33, 36
    Stenops, i. 33
  Jentink's Guenon, ii. 45
  johnii, Presbytis, ii. 110, 111
    Simia, ii. 111
    Semnopithecus, ii. 110, 111, 114, 250
  jubatus, Presbytes, ii. 111
    Semnopithecus, ii. 111
  jurensis, Hyopsodus, i. 123; ii. 242

  kelaartii, Semnopithecus, ii. 114
  kephalopterus, Cercopithecus, ii. 113
  kirki, Piliocolobus, ii. 89
    Otogale, i. 47
  kirkii, Colobus, ii. 89, 90
    Guereza, ii. 89
  Kirk's Guereza, ii. 88
  kooloo-kamba, Troglodytes, ii. 199
  labiata, Hapale, i. 141, 142
  labiatus, Cercopithecus, ii. 72
    Jacchus, i. 141
    Midas, i. 141; ii. 255
  Lacépède's Tamarin, i. 148
  lacepedii, Simia, i. 148
  lagaros, Satyrus, ii. 194
  lagothrica, Simia, i. 222
  Lagothrix, i. 128, 204, 220, 221, 225, 228, 248; ii. 228, 239
    Brown, i. 223, 224
  Lagothrix cana, i. 222
    canus, i. 222
    castlenaui, i. 224
    geoffroyi, i. 222, 224
    humboldtii, i. 129, 222
    infumatus, i. 223, 224; ii. 255
    lagothrix, i. 222; ii. 255
    lagotricha, i. 222
    olivaceus, i. 222
    poeppigii, i. 224
    tschudii, i. 222
  lagothrica, Simia, i. 222
  lagotricha, Lagothrix, i. 222
  lagothrix, Lagothrix, i. 222; ii. 255
  lalandii, Cercopithecus, ii. 60, 61
  langheldi, Cynocephalus, i. 275
    Papio, i. 275; ii. 246
  Langheld's Baboon, i. 275
  Langur, Anderson's, ii. 124
    Banded, ii. 126
    Barbe's, ii. 102
    Black-crested, ii. 136
    Black-footed, ii. 135
    Bonneted, ii. 103
    Cross-Bearing, ii. 121
    Douc, ii. 134
    Dusky, ii. 123
    Everett's, ii. 120
    Germain's, ii. 124
    Hanuman, ii. 104
    Himalayan, ii. 107
    Hose's, ii. 117
    Madras, ii. 108
    Malabar, ii. 110
    Maroon, ii. 128
    Mitred, ii. 137
    Moupin, ii. 139
    Natuna, ii. 129
    Negro, ii. 125
    Nilgiri, ii. 111
    Paitan, ii. 116
    Phayre's, ii. 131
    Purple-faced, ii. 112
    Rutledge's, ii. 133
    Thomas's, ii. 119
    Ursine, ii. 122
    White-fronted, ii. 133
  Langurs, i. 248, 252; ii. 3, 42, 83, 85, 86, 100, 101
  laniger, Avahis, i. 94, 248
    Lemur, i. 94
    Microrhynchus, i. 94
    Mycetes, i. 193
  Laopithecus, i. 121; ii. 227, 238
    lemurinus, i. 121; ii. 252
    robustus, i. 121; ii. 252
  lar, Homo, ii. 159
    Hylobates, ii. 152, 159, 161, 249
    Pithecus, ii. 151, 159
    Simia, ii. 152, 159, 161
  larvatus, Cercopithecus, ii. 140
    Nasalis, i. 126; ii. 140, 141, 143
    Semnopithecus, ii. 141, 249
  Lasiopyga nemæus, ii. 134
  lasiotis, Galago, i. 47
    Macacus, ii. 25, 27, 28, 250
  latidens, Cynodontomys, i. 116; ii. 253
  Lemur, i. 65; ii. 226, 237, 248
    albifrons, i. 73
    albimanus, i. 74
    anjuanensis, i. 71
    Avahi, i. 94
    Black, i. 69
    Black-faced, i. 73
    catta, i. 76
    chrysampyx, i. 75
    cinereiceps, i. 72
    Collared, i. 72
    collaris, i. 72
    coronatus, i. 75
    Crowned, i. 75
    flaviventer, i. 76
    furcifer, i. 59
    Grey-headed, i. 72
    laniger, i. 94
    leucomystax, i. 69
    macaco, i. 68, 69, 73
    menagensis, i. 33
    Mongoose, i. 71
    Mongoz, i. 71
    niger, i. 69
    nigerrimus, i. 73
    nigrifrons, i. 73
    podje, i. 21
    Red-bellied, i. 76
    Red-footed, i. 72
    Red-fronted, i. 72
    Red-ruffed, i. 69
    Ring-tailed, i. 76
    ruber, i. 69
    rubriventer, i. 76
    Ruffed, i. 68
    rufifrons, i. 72
    rufipes, i. 72
    Rufous, i. 73
    rufus, i. 73
    Sclater's, i. 73
    tardigradus, i. 33
    varius, i. 68
    White-faced, i. 73
    White-handed, i. 74
  Lemuravus, i. 121
  Lemuridæ, i. 22
  Lemurinæ, i. 64
  lemurinum, Menotherium, i. 121
  lemurinus, Laopithecus, i. 121; ii. 252
    Nyctipithecus, i. 168; ii. 255
  Lemuroidea, i. 8
  lemuroides, Adapis, i. 120; ii. 242
  Lemurine Douroucoli, i. 168
  Leonine Macaque, ii. 14
  leoninus, Macacus, ii. 14, 249
    Inuus, ii. 14
  Leontopithecus rosalia, i. 138
  Lepidolemur, i. 65, 83, 113; ii. 248
    edwardsii, i. 87
    globiceps, i. 88
    grandidieri, i. 89
    leucopus, i. 89
    microdon, i. 88
    mustelinus, i. 86
    ruficaudatus, i. 86
  Lepilemur, i. 82; ii. 226, 237
    dorsalis, i. 86
    furcifer, i. 59
    mustelinus, i. 86, 87, 89
    pallidicauda, i. 87
  Lesser White-nosed Guenon, ii. 44
  leucampyx, Cercopithecus, ii. 75, 76, 245
    Simia, ii. 75
  leucisca, Simia, ii. 154
  leuciscus, Hylobates, ii. 154, 155, 158, 160, 249
    Pithecus, ii. 154
  leucocephala, Hapale, i. 132
    Pithecia, i. 185
    Simia, i. 185
  leucocephalus, Cebus, i. 206, 213
    Jacchus, i. 132
  leucogenys, Cebus, i. 208
    Hylobates, ii. 158, 249
    Midas, i. 143
  leucomeros, Colobus, ii. 95
  leucomystax, Lemur, i. 69
    Semnopithecus, ii. 123
  leucophæa, Papio, i. 260
    Simia, i. 260
  leucophæus, Chæropithecus, i. 260, 271
    Papio, i. 260; ii. 245
  leucoprymna, Pithecus, ii. 194
  leucoprymnus, Cercopithecus, ii. 113
    Pseudanthropos, ii. 194
    Semnopithecus, ii. 113
    Troglodytes, ii. 194
  leucopus, Hapale, i. 134
    Lepidolemur, i. 89
  libidinosus, Cebus, i. 209
  Limnotherium, i. 120, 122
  Lion-tailed Macaque, ii. 18, 19
  longimana, Simia, ii. 159
  Long-haired Spider-Monkey, i. 244
  Loris, i. 31, 115; ii. 226, 237
    gracilis, i. 31; ii. 248
    Slender, i. 31
  Lorisinæ, i. 24
  Ludio Guenon, ii. 48
  ludio, Cercopithecus, ii. 48, 245
  lugens, Callithrix, i. 159
    Simia, i. 159
  lunatus, Cebus, i. 208; ii. 256
  lunulata, Chrysothrix, i. 156
  lunulatus, Cercopithecus, ii. 39

  Macaco barrigudo, i. 223
    prego, i. 212
  macaco, Lemur, i. 68, 69, 73
  Macacus, i. 252, 277, 281; ii. 1, 4, 213, 228, 240
    andamanensis, ii. 14
    arctoides, ii. 8, 10, 11, 12, 250
    assamensis, ii. 20, 29, 31, 250
    aureus, ii. 31, 32
    ausonianus, ii. 213
    brunneus, ii. 8
    carbonarius, ii. 31, 32
    cristatus, ii. 31, 32
    cyclops, ii. 25, 27, 28, 29, 249
    cynomologus, ii. 31, 249, 250
    erythræus, ii. 20, 22, 25, 27, 28, 29
    florentinus, ii. 213, 243
    fur, ii. 31
    fuscatus, ii. 12, 13, 242
    fusco-ater, ii. 12
    gelada, i. 276
    inornatus, ii. 12
    inuus, ii. 2, 4, 7, 31, 212, 214, 243
    lasiotis, ii. 25, 27, 28, 250
    leoninus, ii. 14, 249
    maurus, ii. 11, 12, 250
    melanotus, ii. 8
    nemestrinus, ii. 16, 17, 249
    niger, i. 281
    ocreatus, ii. 12
    palpebrosus, ii. 31
    pelops, ii. 20
    philippensis, ii. 31, 32
    pileatus, ii. 33, 34, 35, 248
    pliocenus, ii. 242
    priscus, ii. 213, 242
    problematicus, ii. 20
    rheso-similis, ii. 20
    rhesus, ii. 20, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 36, 248, 249
    rufescens, ii. 11, 249
    sancti-johannis, ii. 28, 29, 249
    siamensis, ii. 129
    silenus, ii. 3, 18, 113, 250
    sinicus, ii. 33, 34, 35, 248
    sinus, ii. 19
    sivalensis, ii. 213, 248
    speciosus, ii. 8, 12
    suevicus, ii. 213, 242
    sylvanus, ii. 4
    tcheliensis, ii. 26, 27, 242
    thibetanus, ii. 8
    trarensis, ii. 213, 243
  Macaque, i. 252
    Barbary, ii. 4, 6
    Bengal, ii. 22, 23, 26
    Bonnet, ii. 34, 35, 36
    Bonneted, ii. 114
    Brown, ii. 8
    Crab-eating, ii. 31, 33
    Hairy-eared, ii. 25
    Himalayan, ii. 20
    Japanese, ii. 13, 14
    Leonine, ii. 14
    Lion-tailed, ii. 18, 19
    Moor, ii. 11
    Pig-tailed, ii. 16, 18
    Rufous Stump-tailed, ii. 11
    St. John's, ii. 28
    Tcheli, ii. 26
    Toque, ii. 33, 34
  Macaques, ii. 1, 2, 10, 19, 21, 26, 27, 31, 32, 37, 42, 100
  macrocephalus, Cebus, i. 211
  macrognathus, Cebus, ii. 210, 236
  macrotarsus, Brachyteles, i. 226
  madagascariensis, Chiromys, i. 14; ii. 248
    Daubentonia, i. 14
    Megaladapis, i. 113; ii. 248
    Sciurus, i. 14
  Madras Langur, ii. 108
  magna, Adapis, i. 120; ii. 242
  Magot, Le, ii. 4, 45
  Maimon, ii. 16
  maimon, Mormon, i. 258
    Papio, i. 258; ii. 244, 245
    Simia, i. 258
  majori, Propithecus, i. 285
  Maki aux pieds blancs, i. 74
  Malabar Langur, ii. 110
  Malayan Baboons, i. 280
  Malbrouck, Le, ii. 55, 57, 61
    Guenon, ii. 55
  Man, ii. 204, 205, 206
    (Caucasian Race) ii. 208
    (Ethiopian Race) ii. 207
    (Mongolian Race) ii. 208
  Mandrill, i. 258, 271
  Man-like Apes, ii. 145
  Mangabey à collier blanc, ii. 38
    Black, ii. 40
    Crested, ii. 41
    Grey-cheeked, ii. 40
    Sooty, ii. 37
    White-collared, ii. 38
    White-crowned, ii. 39
  Mangabeys, i. 252; ii. 1, 36, 37
  Mantled Howler, i. 202, 203
  marginatus, Ateles, i. 231, 239; ii. 255
  Marimonda, Le, i. 244
  Marmoset, i. 129, 131; ii. 146
    Black-tailed, i. 136
    Common, i. 132
    Golden, i. 135
    Pigmy, i. 135
    White-eared, i. 134
    White-fronted, i. 134
    White-shouldered, i. 133
  Maroon Langur, ii. 128
  martini, Cercopithecus, ii. 47, 245
  Martin's Guenon, ii. 47, 48
  Masked Titi, i. 163
  maura, Simia, ii. 125, 126
  maurus, Macacus, ii. 11, 12
    Semnopithecus, ii. 125, 249
  mayema, Gorilla, ii. 181
  Mbega, ii. 100
  Megaladapidæ, i. 112; ii. 226, 237
  Megaladapis, i. 112, 113
    madagascariensis, i. 113; ii. 248
  melalophus, Semnopithecus, ii. 136
    Simia, ii. 136
  melanocephala, Ouakaria, i. 175
    Pithecia, i. 175
    Prosimia, i. 71
    Simia, i. 175
  melanocephalus, Brachyurus, i. 175; ii. 255
  melanochir, Ateles, i. 231, 233
    Callithrix, i. 160; ii. 256
  Melanochroi, ii. 208, 223
  melanogenys, Cercopithecus, ii. 49, 50, 51, 245
  melanolophus, Presbytes, ii. 136, 138
    Semnopithecus, ii. 136, 249
  melanops, Pithecia, i. 163
  melanotis, Chirogale, i. 51, 52
  melanotus, Macacus, ii. 8
    Papio, ii. 8
  melanura, Hapale, i. 136; ii. 255
    Jacchus, i. 136
  melanurus, Mico, i. 137
  menagensis, Lemur, i. 33
  Menotherium, i. 121
    lemurinum, i. 121
    robustum, i. 121
  Mesacodon, i. 123; ii. 227, 239, 252
  Mesopithecus, ii. 214, 228, 240
    pentelici, ii. 214, 240
  Mico sericeus, i. 135
    melanurus, i. 137
  Microcebus, i. 54, 113; ii. 226, 237, 248
    furcifer, i. 59
    minor, i. 55
    murinus, i. 55
    myoxinus, i. 56
    pusillus, i. 57
    smithii, i. 57, 58
  Microchærus, i. 111, 115; ii. 226, 238
    antiquus, i. 115; ii. 241
    armatus, i. 116; ii. 241
    edwardsi, i. 115; ii. 241
    erinaceus, i. 115; ii. 241
    parvulus, i. 115; ii. 241
    siderolithicus, i. 116; ii. 241
    zitteli, i. 116; ii. 241
  microdon, Lepidolemur, i. 88
  Microrhynchus laniger, i. 94
  Microsyops, i. 122; ii. 227, 238
    elegans, i. 122; ii. 252
    scottianus, i. 122; ii. 252
    spierianus, i. 122; ii. 252
  Midas, i. 128, 131, 138; ii. 227, 239
    argentatus, i. 136
    bicolor, i. 147; ii. 255
    chrysopygus, i. 144; ii. 256
    devillii, i. 143, 144, 146
    elegantulus, i. 142
    flavifrons, i. 143, 144, 146
    fuscicollis, i. 144; ii. 256
    geoffroyi, i. 140, 141; ii. 254
    Hapale, i. 148
    illigeri, i. 145, 146; ii. 255
    labiatus, i. 141; ii. 255
    leucogenys, i. 143
    midas, i. 148; ii. 255
    mystax, i. 142; ii. 255
    nigricollis, i. 145; ii. 255
    nigrifrons, i. 143
    oedipus, i. 139, 140; ii. 254
    pileatus, i. 143; ii. 255
    rosalia, i. 138; ii. 254, 256
    rufiventer, i. 142; ii. 255
    rufimanus, i. 148
    rufoniger, i. 145
    tamarin, i. 148
    ursulus, i. 140, 147, 148, 149; ii. 255
    weddelli, i. 143, 144; ii. 255
  midas, Hapale, i. 148
    Midas, i. 148; ii. 255
    Simia, i. 148
  milii, Cheirogaleus, i. 50
    Chirogale, i. 50
    Opolemur, i. 62
  Milne-Edwards' Sifaka, i. 99
    Sportive-Lemur, i. 87
  Milius' Mouse-Lemur, i. 50
  Mimetes troglodytes, ii. 194, 199
  minor, Adapis, i. 120; ii. 242
    Galago, i. 55
    Microcebus, i. 55
  minusculus, Hyopsodus, i. 123; ii. 252
  Miocella chrysoleucos, i. 135
    sericeus, i. 135
  Miopithecus, ii. 82
    capillatus, ii. 83
    talapoin, ii. 82
  miriquouina, Pithecia, i. 170
  mitrata, Presbytis, ii. 137
  mitratus, Semnopithecus, ii. 137, 138, 249
  Mitred Langur, ii. 137
  Mixocebus, i. 65, 78; ii. 226, 237
    caniceps, i. 78; ii. 248
  Mixodectes, i. 116; ii. 226, 238
    crassiusculus, i. 116; ii. 252
    pungens, i. 116; ii. 252
  moholi, Galago, i. 141, 142
  moloch, Cebus, i. 162
    Callithrix, i. 162; ii. 256
  moloneyi, Cercopithecus, ii. 74
  Moloney's Guenon, ii. 74
  Mona Guenon, ii. 66
  mona, Cercopithecus, ii. 66, 245
    Simia, ii. 66
  monoides, Cercopithecus, ii. 67
  monachus, Cebus, i. 209; ii. 255, 256
    Pithecia, i. 182, 183
    Simia, i. 182
  Mongoose Lemur, i. 71
  mongoz, Lemur, i. 71
  Monkey, Bengal, ii. 23
    Black-faced Spider-, i. 241
    Brown-headed Spider-, i. 242
    Full-bottom, ii. 93
    Geoffroy's Spider-, i. 233, 245
    Grizzled Spider-, i. 242
    Hooded Spider-, i. 243
    Howling, i. 201
    Humboldt's Woolly, i. 222
    Long-haired Spider-, i. 244
    Moustached, ii. 54
    Pinche, i. 140
    Prego, i. 214
    Proboscis, ii. 140, 142, 148
    Red-bellied Spider-, i. 236, 237
    Red-faced Spider-, i. 237
    Variegated Spider-, i. 231
    White-Whiskered Spider-, i. 239
  Monkeys, American, i. 204
    Green, ii. 59
    Howling, i. 230
    Night, i. 247
    Nosed, i. 252; ii. 86, 140
    Spider-, i. 204, 207, 227, 247, 248
    Squirrel-, i. 247
    White, ii. 115, 116
    Woolly, i. 204, 220, 221, 248
    Woolly Spider-, i. 204, 225, 248
  monspessulanus, Semnopithecus, ii. 215, 243
  monteiri, Callotus, i. 46
    Galago, i. 46; ii. 246
  Monteiro's Galago, i. 46
  Moor Macaque, ii. 11
  morio, Pithecus, ii. 171
    Simia, ii. 171, 180
  Mormon maimon, i. 258
  mormon, Cynocephalus, i. 258, 271
    Papio, i. 258
    Simia, i. 258
  Moupin Langur, ii. 139
  Mouse-Lemur, Black-eared, i. 51
    Crossley's, i. 53
    Hairy-eared, i. 52
    Milius', i. 52
  Moustac, ii. 53
  Moustached Guenon, ii. 53
    Monkey, ii. 54
    Tamarin, i. 142
  mülleri, Hylobates, ii. 155, 158
  murinus, Galago, i. 45
    Microcebus, i. 55
  mustelinus, Lepidolemur, i. 86
    Lepilemur, i. 86, 87, 89
  Mycetes, i. 113, 174, 190, 192, 200, 201, 221, 230, 243; ii. 191
    auratus, i. 193
    barbatus, i. 195
    beelzebul, i. 197
    bicolor, i. 198
    caraya, i. 195
    chrysurus, i. 193
    discolor, i. 197
    flavicauda, i. 198
    fuscus, i. 198
    laniger, i. 193
    niger, i. 196
    palliatus, i. 202
    rufimanus, i. 197
    seniculus, i. 193
    stramineus, i. 193
    ursinus, i. 198
    villosus, i. 128, 199
  Mycetinæ, i. 189
  myoxinus, Microcebus, i. 56
  mystax, Midas, i. 142; ii. 255

  Nasalis, i. 252; ii. 85, 140, 228, 240
    larvatus, i. 126; ii. 140, 141, 143, 249
    recurvus, ii. 141, 142
    roxellanæ, ii. 139
  nasica, Simia, ii. 140
  nasicus, Cercopithecus, ii. 141
    Semnopithecus, ii. 141
  Natuna Langur, ii. 129
  natunæ, Semnopithecus, ii. 129, 130, 249
  Necrolemur, i. 115, 116
  neglectus, Cercopithecus, ii. 75, 82, 244
    Semnopithecus, ii. 128
  Negro Langur, ii. 125
    Tamarin, i. 148
  nemæus, Cercopithecus, ii. 134
    Lasiopyga, ii. 134
    Pygothrix, ii. 134
    Semnopithecus, ii. 134, 135, 249
    Simia, ii. 134
  nemestrina, Simia, ii. 16
  nemestrinus, Inuus, ii. 16
    Macacus, ii. 16, 17, 249
  nepaulensis, Semnopithecus, ii. 107, 113
  nictitans, Cercopithecus, ii. 47, 49, 50, 51, 245
    Simia, ii. 51
  niger, Alouatta, i. 196
    Anthropopithecus, ii. 145, 195, 245
    Cebus, i. 212
  niger, Cynocephalus, i. 281; ii. 11
    Cynopithecus, i. 281, 283; ii. 3, 250
    Hylobates, ii. 162
    Lemur, i. 69
    Macacus, i. 281
    Mycetes, i. 196
    Papio, i. 281
  niger, Stentor, i. 195
    Troglodytes, ii. 194
  nigerrimus, Lemur, i. 73
  Night-Monkeys, i. 247
  nigra, Alouatta, i. 195, 196, 197, 200; ii. 256
    Varecia, i. 69
  nigrescens, Cynopithecus, i. 281
    Papio, i. 281
  nigricollis, Hapale, i. 145
    Midas, i. 145
  nigrifrons, Callithrix, i. 164; ii. 255
    Hapale, i. 143
    Lemur, i. 73
    Midas, i. 143; ii. 255
  nigrimanus, Semnopithecus, ii. 138
  nigripes, Cercopithecus, ii. 78, 245
    Semnopithecus, ii. 135, 249
  nigrivittata, Chrysothrix, i. 156
  nigrovittatus, Cebus, i. 215
  Nilgiri Langur, ii. 111
  Nisnas, Le, ii. 65
    Guenon, ii. 64
  nobilis, Semnopithecus, ii. 136
  nocturna, Pithecia, i. 185
  Nose-spotted Guenons, ii. 44
  Nosed Monkeys, i. 252; ii. 86, 140
  Notharctus, i. 119
  Nycticebus, i. 33; ii. 226, 237
    bengalensis, i. 33, 35
    calabarensis, i. 27
    cinereus, i. 33, 35, 37
    gracilis, i. 31
    javanicus, i. 33, 36
    tardigradus, i. 33, 285; ii. 249
  Nyctipithecinæ, i. 152
  Nyctipithecus, i. 128, 166, 190, 247; ii. 228, 239
    azaræ, i. 170; ii. 256
    commersonii, i. 170
    felinus, i. 169, 170; ii. 255
    lemurinus, i. 168; ii. 255
    oseryi, i. 170
    rufipes, i. 169; ii. 254
    trivirgatus, i. 168; ii. 255
    vociferans, i. 129, 169, 170

  obscura, Presbytis, ii. 123
  obscurus, Semnopithecus, ii. 102, 123, 131, 255, 249
    Theropithecus, i. 278
  occidentalis, Colobus, ii. 98
    Guereza, ii. 97
  ochraceus, Cercopithecus, ii. 65
  ocreatus, Macacus, ii. 12
  ochrocephala, Pithecia, i. 185
  Oedipus geoffroyi, i. 140
    titi, i. 140
  oedipus, Hapale, i. 140
    Midas, i. 139, 140; ii. 254
    Simia, i. 140
  oerstedi, Chrysothrix, i. 158; ii. 254, 256
    Saimiris, i. 158
  olivaceus, Cebus, i. 210, 215
    Colobus, ii. 87
    Cynocephalus, i. 267
    Gastrimargus, i. 222
    Hapalemur, i. 81
    Lagothrix, i. 222
    Semnopithecus, ii. 87
  Omomys, i. 117; ii. 226, 238
    carteri, i. 117; ii. 252
  opisthostictus, Cercopithecus, ii. 72
  Opisthotomus, i. 123; ii. 227, 238, 252
  Opolemur, i. 61; ii. 226, 237, 248
    samati, i. 62
    thomasi, i. 63
  Orabassu Titi, i. 162
  Orang-utan, ii. 170, 174
  Orangs, ii. 143, 146, 148, 149, 167, 171, 183
  ornata, Callithrix, i. 162; ii. 254
  Ornate Titi, i. 162
  ornatus, Ateles, i. 233, 234
  Oreopithecus, ii. 212, 228, 240
    bambolii, ii. 212
  oseryi, Nyctipithecus, i. 170
  Otogale crassicaudata, i. 47
    kirki, i. 47
    pallida, i. 43
  Otolemur agisymbianus, i. 40
    garnetti, i. 40
  Otolicnus allenii, i. 43
    apicalis, i. 43
    crassicaudatus, i. 47
    demidoffi, i. 45
    galago, i. 42
    garnetti, i. 40
    peli, i. 44
    senegalensis, i. 42
  ouakary, Brachyurus, i. 175
  Ouakaria, i. 174
    calva, i. 178
    melanocephala, i. 175
    rubicunda, i. 176
    spixii, i. 175
  owenii, Pithecus, ii. 171

  Paitan Langur, ii. 116
  palæindicus, Semnopithecus, ii. 215, 248
  Palæolemur, i. 119
    betillei, i. 120
  Palæopithecus, ii. 217
  Palatine Guenon, ii. 81
  palatinus, Cercopithecus, ii. 81, 254
  Pale Capuchin, i. 217
  palliata, Alouatta, i. 202; ii. 254
    Aluatta, i. 202
  palliatus, Colobus, ii. 96
    Guereza, ii. 96
    Mycetes, i. 202
  pallida, Otogale, i. 43
  pallidicauda, Lepilemur, i. 87
  pallidus, Cebus, i. 209
  pallipes, Semnopithecus, ii. 108
  palpebrosus, Inuus, ii. 31
    Macacus, ii. 31
  pan, Ateles, i. 244
  paniscus, Ateles, i. 237, 239, 241, 242; ii. 255
    Sapajou, i. 237
    Simia, i. 237
  Papio, i. 253; ii. 212, 228, 240
    anubis, i. 266, 267; ii. 245
    atlanticus, ii. 212
    babuin, i. 265; ii. 244, 245, 246
    comatus, i. 263
    cynocephalus, i. 265
    doguera, i. 262; ii. 245
    falconeri, ii. 212, 248
    hamadryas, i. 268, 272; ii. 244, 245
    ibeanus, i. 269; ii. 246
    langheldi, i. 275; ii. 246
    leucophæus, i. 260; ii. 245
    maimon, i. 258; ii. 244, 245
    melanotus, ii. 8
    mormon, i. 258
    niger, i. 281
    nigrescens, i. 281
    porcarius, i. 263; ii. 246
    rubescens, i. 270
    silenus, ii. 18
    sphinx, i. 253, 269; ii. 244, 245, 246
    sub-himalayanus, ii. 212, 248
    thoth, i. 268; ii. 245
    thoth ibeanus, i. 269
    wurmbii, ii. 170
  papio, Cynocephalus, i. 270
  Papion, Le, i. 269
  parisiensis, Adapis, i. 120; ii. 242
  parvulus, Microchærus, i. 115; 241
  patagonicus, Homunculus, ii. 211
  Patas, Le, ii. 63, 64
    à bandeau noir, ii. 63
  Patas Guenon, ii. 63
  patas, Cercopithecus, ii. 63, 65, 244
    Simia, ii. 63
  paulus, Hyopsodus, i. 123; ii. 252
  peli, Otolicnus, i. 44
  pelops, Macacus, ii. 20
  Pelycodus, i. 121; ii. 227, 238
    angulatus, i. 122
    frugivorous, i. 122
    helveticus, i. 122; ii. 242
    jarrovii, i. 122; ii. 252
    tutus, i. 122; ii. 252
  penicillata, Hapale, i. 132
  penicillatus, Jacchus, i. 132
  pennantii, Colobus, ii. 91
  pentadactylus, Ateles, i. 237
  pentelici, Mesopithecus, ii. 214, 243
  perfectus, Anthropops, ii. 211
  Perodicticus, i. 26; ii. 226, 237
    calabarensis, i. 27; ii. 245
    geoffroyi, i. 28
    potto, i. 28; ii. 245
  personata, Callithrix, i. 163; ii. 255
  personatus, Colobus, ii. 94
  petaurista, Cercopithecus, ii. 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 52, 245
    Simia, ii. 44
  Petit Papion, i. 265
  Phaner furcifer, i. 59
  phayrei, Presbytis, ii. 131
  Phayre's Langur, ii. 131
  phayrii, Semnopithecus, ii. 131, 132, 249
  philippensis, Macacus, ii. 31, 32
  picturatus, Cercopithecus, ii. 49
  Pied Tamarin, i. 147
  Pigmy Marmoset, i. 135
  Pig-tailed Macaque, ii. 16, 18
  pileata, Simia, ii. 33
  pileatus, Cercocebus, ii. 34
    Cercopithecus, ii. 82
    Hylobates, ii. 152, 153, 164
    Midas, i. 143; ii. 255
    Macacus, ii. 33, 34, 35, 248
    Presbytis, ii. 103
    Semnopithecus, ii. 103, 249
  Piliocolobus bouvieri, ii. 92
    ferrugineus, ii. 91
    kirki, ii. 89
    tholloni, ii. 92
  Pinche Monkey, i. 140
  Pithecia, i. 128, 174, 182, 248; ii. 228, 239
    alba, i. 178
    albicans, i. 183
    albinasa, i. 183; ii. 255
    calva, i. 178
    capillamentosa, i. 185
    chiropotes, i. 187, 188; ii. 255
    chrysocephala, i. 185
    hirsuta, i. 183
    inusta, i. 183
    irrorata, i. 183
    leucocephala, i. 185
    melanocephala, i. 175
    melanops, i. 163
    miriquouina, i. 170
    monachus, i. 182, 183; ii. 255
    nocturna, i. 185
    ochrocephala, i. 185
    pithecia, i. 185; ii. 255
    pogonias, i. 185
    rufibarbata, i. 185
    rubicunda, i. 176
    rufiventer, i. 185
    satanas, i. 186; ii. 255
  pithecia, Simia, i. 185
    Pithecia, i. 185; ii. 255
  Pitheciinæ, i. 173
  Pithecus, ii. 6, 170
    agilis, ii. 151
    bicolor, ii. 171
    curtus, ii. 171
    gesilla, ii. 180
    gorilla, ii. 181
    lar, ii. 151, 159
    leuciscus, ii. 154
    leucopryma, ii. 194
    morio, ii. 171
    owenii, ii. 171
    satyrus, ii. 171
    syndactylus, ii. 166
    variegatus, ii. 159
    varius, ii. 159
    wurmbii, ii. 171
  pithecus, Inuus, ii. 4
  Platyrrhini, i. 127
  Plesiadapis, i. 118; ii. 226, 238, 241
    daubrei, i. 118; ii. 242
    gervaisi, i. 118; ii. 241
    remensis, i. 118; ii. 241
    tournesarti, i. 118; ii. 242
  pliocenus, Macacus, ii. 242
  Pliopithecus, ii. 215, 218, 229, 240
    antiquus, ii. 215, 242
    chantrei, ii. 216, 242
  pluto, Cercopithecus, ii. 76
  podje, Lemur, i. 21
  poeppigii, Lagothrix, i. 224
  pogonias, Cercopithecus, ii. 77, 78, 245
    Pithecia, i. 185
  Polume, ii. 100
  polycomus, Colobus, ii. 93, 94
  Pongo, ii. 170
    abelii, ii. 171
    wurmbii, ii. 170
  porcaria, Simia, i. 263
  porcarius, Cynocephalus, i. 262, 263
    Papio, i. 263
  potenziani, Semnopithecus, ii. 103
  Potto, i. 28
    Bosman's, i. 28
    Calabar, i. 27
  potto, Nycticebus, i. 28
    Perodicticus, i. 28; ii. 245
    Stenops, i. 28
  powellianus, Hyopsodus, i. 123; ii. 252
  prego, Macaco, i. 212
  Prego Monkey, i. 214
  Presbytis, ii. 100
    albigena, ii. 40
    albinus, ii. 113
    argentatus, ii. 138
    barbei, ii. 102
    cephalopterus, ii. 113, 115
    chrysogaster, ii. 103
    cristatus, ii. 131, 138
    cucullatus, ii. 111
    entellus, ii. 105, 107
    flavimana, ii. 136
    hypoleucos, ii. 110
    johnii, ii. 110, 111
    jubatus, ii. 111
    melanophus, ii. 136, 138
    mitrata, ii. 137
    nemæus, ii. 134
    obscura, ii. 123
    phayrei, ii. 131
    pileatus, ii. 103
    priamus, ii. 108
    schistaceus, ii. 107
    thersites, ii. 109, 113
    ursinus, ii. 122, 123
  priamus, Presbytis, ii. 108
    Semnopithecus, ii. 108, 248
  primæva, Callithrix, ii. 210, 256
  primigenius, Elephas, ii. 219
  priscus, Macacus, ii. 213, 242
  problematicus, Macacus, ii. 20
  Proboscis Monkeys, ii. 140, 142, 143
  Procolobus verus, ii. 88
  Prolemur simus, i. 82
  Propithecus, i. 23, 96, 113, 286; ii. 215, 226, 238, 248
    coquereli, i. 102
    coronatus, i. 102, 103
    deckeni, i. 101
    diadema, i. 104
    edwardsi, i. 99, 100
    holomelas, i. 100
    majori, i. 285
    sericeus, i. 99, 100
    verreauxi, i. 100, 102, 286
  Prosimia, i. 65
    melanocephala, i. 71
    rufipes, i. 73
    xanthomystax, i. 71
  Protoadapis, i. 118; ii. 226, 238
    crassicuspidens, ii. 118, 242
    recticuspidens, i. 118, 242
  Protopithecus, ii. 210, 227, 239
    brasiliensis, ii. 210, 256
  pruinosus, Semnopithecus, ii. 225
  Pseudanthropos leucoprymnus, ii. 194
  Pterycolobus vellerosus, ii. 95
  pungens, Mixodectes, i. 116; ii. 252
  Purple-faced Langur, ii. 112
  pusillus, Cercopithecus, ii. 60
    Chirogaleus, i. 55, 57
    Microcebus, i. 57
  pygerythra, Cercopithecus, ii. 60
  pygerythrus, Cercopithecus, ii. 60, 61, 62
    Chlorocebus, ii. 60
  pygmæa, Cibuella, i. 136
    Hapale, i. 135; ii. 255
  pygmæus, Jacchus, i. 135
  Pygothrix nemæus, ii. 134
  pyrrhonotus, Cercopithecus, ii. 64, 65, 244
  pyrrhus, Semnopithecus, ii. 125

  radiatus, Cercocebus, ii. 35
  rafflesii, Hylobates, ii. 152, 153
  recticuspidens, Protoadapis, i. 118; ii. 242
  recurvus, Nasalis, ii. 141, 142
  Red-backed Saki, i. 187
  Red-backed Titi, i. 158
  Red-bellied Guenon, ii. 46
  Red-bellied Lemur, i. 76
  Red-bellied Spider-Monkey, i. 236, 237
  Red-bellied Tamarin, i. 141
  Red-bellied Titi, i. 164
  Red-crested Guereza, ii. 88
  Reddish-green Guenon, ii. 65
  Red-eared Guenon, ii. 52
  Red-faced Spider-Monkey, i. 237
  Red-footed Douroucoli, i. 169
  Red-footed Lemur, i. 72
  Red-fronted Lemur, i. 72
  Red Howler, i. 192
  Red-ruffed Lemur, i. 69
  Red-tailed Sportive-Lemur, i. 86
  Red Titi, i. 160
  Red Uakarí, i. 176
  Reed Titi, i. 161
  remensis, Plesiadapis, i. 118; ii. 241
  rheso-similis, Macacus, ii. 20
  rhesus, Macacus, ii. 20, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 248, 249
    Simia, ii. 22
  Rhinoceros tichorhinus, ii. 218
  Rhinopithecus, ii. 140
  Rhinopithecus roxellanæ, ii. 139
  Ring-tailed Lemur, i. 76
  robustum, Menotherium, i. 121
  robustus, Cebus, i. 129, 212; ii. 256
    Laopithecus, i. 121; ii. 252
  Rock Ape, ii. 7
  Rock-Macaque, Formosan, ii. 28, 29
  Rock-Monkey, Hainan, ii. 24
  roloway, Cercopithecus, ii. 81
  Roloway, ii. 81
  rostratum, Tomitherium, i. 121; ii. 252
  Round-headed Sportive-Lemur, i. 89
  rosalia, Hapale, i. 138
    Leontopithecus, i. 138
    Midas, i. 138; ii. 254
    Simia, i. 138
  roxellanæ, Nasalis, ii. 139
    Rhinopithecus, ii. 132
    Semnopithecus, ii. 101, 139
  ruber, Cercopithecus, ii. 63, 65
    Chlorocebus, ii. 63, 65
    Lemur, i. 69
  rubescens, Papio, i. 270
  rubicunda, Ouakaria, i. 176
    Pithecia, i. 176
  rubicundus, Brachyurus, i. 176; ii. 255
    Semnopithecus, ii. 128, 131, 249
  rubra, Simia, ii. 63
  rubriventer, Lemur, i. 76
  rueppelli, Guereza, ii. 97
  rueppellii, Gelada, i. 276
  rufescens, Macacus, ii. 11, 249
  Ruffed Lemur, i. 68
  rufibarbata, Pithecia, i. 185
  ruficaudatus, Lepidolemur, i. 86
    Lepilemur, i. 86
  rufifrons, Lemur, i. 72
  rufimanus, Midas, i. 148
    Mycetes, i. 197
  rufipes, Lemur, i. 72; ii. 254
    Midas, i. 142
    Nyctipithecus, i. 169; ii. 254
    Prosimia, i. 73
  rufiventer, Midas, i. 142; ii. 255
    Pithecia, i. 185
  rufiventris, Ateles, i. 234, 236; ii. 254, 255
  rufo-fuliginosus, Colobus, ii. 91
  rufo-mitratus, Colobus, ii. 88
    Tropicolobus, ii. 88
  rufo-niger, Colobus, ii. 91
    Midas, i. 145
  rufo-viridis, Cercopithecus, ii. 60, 65, 246
    Chlorocebus, ii. 65
  Rufous-backed Guenons, ii. 44
  Rufous Lemur, i. 73
  Rufous Stump-tailed Macaque, ii. 11
  rufus, Lemur, i. 73
  Rump-spotted Guenon, ii. 72
  Rüppell's Guereza, ii. 97
  ruscinensis, Dolichopithecus, ii. 214, 242
  Rutledge's Langur, ii. 138
  rutledgii, Semnopithecus, ii. 133

  sabæa, Cercopithecus, ii. 58
    Simia, ii. 56, 58
  sabæus, Cercopithecus, ii. 56, 58, 60, 244, 245
    Chlorocebus, ii. 58
  sabanus, Semnopithecus, ii. 116, 249
  Saguinus vidua, i. 159
  sagulata, Chiropotes, i. 188
    Simia, i. 188
  Saï à grosse tête, i. 209
  Saï à gorge blanche, i. 206
  Saimiri sciureus, i. 154, 156
  Saimiris entomophaga, i. 158
    entomophagus, i. 155
    sciurea, i. 158
    usta, i. 154
  Sajou negre, i. 212
  Saki, Black, i. 186
    Red-backed, i. 187
    White-headed, i. 185
    White-nosed, i. 188
  Saki noir, i. 186
  Sakis, i. 248
  Sally, i. 200, 201
  samango, Cercopithecus, ii. 71, 72, 74
    Guenon, ii. 71
  samati, Chirogaleus, i. 62
    Opolemur, i. 62
  Samat's Fat-tailed Lemur, i. 62
  sancti-johannis, Inuus, ii. 28
    Macacus, ii. 28, 29, 249
  Sapajou ater, i. 241
    geoffroyi, i. 231, 233
    paniscus, i. 237
  sapiens, Homo, ii. 203
  Sarcolemur, i. 123; ii. 227, 238, 252
  satanas, Brachyurus, i. 188
    Chiropotes, i. 186
    Colobus, ii. 93, 245
    Guereza, ii. 93
    Pithecia, i. 186; ii. 255
    Simia, i. 186
    Stachycolobus, ii. 93
  Satyrus adrotes, ii. 181
    lagaros, ii. 194
  satyrus, Pithecus, ii. 171
    Simia, ii. 170, 249
    Troglodytes, ii. 180
  savagei, Gorilla, ii. 180
  schistaceus, Presbytis. ii. 107
    Semnopithecus, ii. 105, 107. 109, 250
  Schlegel's Capuchin, i. 220
    Guenon, ii. 75
  schmidti, Cercopithecus, ii. 50, 246
  Schmidt's Guenon, ii. 50
  schweinfurthi, Troglodytes, ii. 194
  sciurea, Chrysothrix, i. 155, 156, 158; ii. 254, 255
  sciurea, Saimiris, i. 158
    Simia, i. 156
  sciureus, Saimiri, i. 154, 156
  Sciurus madagascariensis, i. 14
  Sclater's Lemur, i. 73
  scottianus, Microsyops, i. 122; ii. 252
  Semnocebus albigena, ii. 40
  Semnopithecinæ, i. 252; ii. 84, 85
  Semnopithecus, ii. 85, 86, 100, 130 137, 142, 214, 228, 240, 252
    albocinereus, ii. 123, 138
    albogularis, ii. 67, 105
    anchises, ii. 104, 105
    anthracinus, ii. 93
    argentatus, ii. 131
    auratus, ii. 136
    barbii, ii. 102, 249
    bicolor, ii. 95
    cephalopterus, ii. 111, 112, 114, 122, 248
    chrysogaster, ii. 103
    chrysomelas, ii. 120, 127, 128
    cinereus, ii. 138
    comatus, ii. 138
    cristatus, ii. 126, 132
    cruciger, ii. 121, 249
    cucullatus, ii. 111
    dussumieri, ii. 110
    entellus, ii. 103, 104, 107, 108, 109, 111, 215, 248
    everetti, ii. 116, 120, 249
    fascigularis, ii. 138
    femoralis, ii. 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 249
    ferrugineus, ii. 136
    flavimanus, ii. 136
    frontatus, ii. 133, 249
    fulvo-griseus, ii. 113, 138
    germaini, ii. 124, 249
    halonifer, ii. 123
    holotephreus, ii. 124
    hosii, ii. 116, 117, 119, 120, 249
    hypoleucus, ii. 110, 248
    johnii, ii. 110, 111, 114, 250
    jubatus, ii. 111
    kelaartii, ii. 114
    larvatus, ii. 141
    leucomystax, ii. 123
    leucoprymnus, ii. 113
    maurus, ii. 125, 249
    melalophus, ii. 136
    melanolophus, ii. 136, 249
    mitratus, ii. 137, 138, 249
    monspessulanus, ii. 215, 243
    nasicus, ii. 141
    natunæ, ii. 129, 130, 249
    neglectus, ii. 128
    nemæus, ii. 134, 135, 249
    nepalensis, ii. 107
    nestor, ii. 113
    nigrimanus, ii. 138
    nigripes, ii. 135, 249
    nobilis, ii. 136
    obscurus, ii. 102, 112, 123, 131, 249
    olivaceus, ii. 87
    palæindicus, ii. 215, 248
    pallipes, ii. 108
    phayrii, ii. 131, 132, 249
    pileatus, ii. 103, 249
    potenziani, ii. 103
    priamus, ii. 108, 248
    pruinosus, ii. 125
    pyrrhus, ii. 125
    roxellana, ii. 101
    roxellanæ, ii. 139, 250
    rubicundus, ii. 128, 131, 249
    rutledgii, ii. 133
    sabanus, ii. 116, 249
    schistaceus, ii. 105, 107, 109, 250
    senex, ii. 114
    siamensis, ii. 130, 138, 249
    sumatranus, ii. 127, 139
    thomasi, ii. 116, 117, 119, 249
    ursinus, ii. 114, 122, 250
    vellerosus, ii. 94
  senaariensis, Galago, i. 42
  Senegal Galago, i. 41
  senegalensis, Galago, i. 41; ii. 244, 246, 247
    Galagoides, i. 41
    Otolicnus, i. 42
  senex, Cercopithecus, ii. 113
    Semnopithecus, ii. 114
    Theropithecus, i. 276, 278
  senicula, Alouatta, i. 203 ; ii. 255
    Aluatta, i. 193
  seniculus, Alouatta, i. 192, 193
    Mycetes, i. 193
    Simia, i. 192
    Stentor, i. 193
  Seniocebus bicolor, i. 147
  sericeus, Mico, i. 135
    Miocella, i. 135
    Propithecus, i. 99, 100
  Short-tailed Squirrel-Monkey, i. 154
  Siamang, ii. 120, 166, 167, 169
  Siamanga syndactyla, ii. 166
  siamensis, Macacus, ii. 129
    Semnopithecus, ii. 130, 138, 249
  siderolithicus, Microchærus, i. 116
  Sifaka, Black, i. 100
    Coquerel's, i. 102
    Crowned, i. 102
    Milne-Edwards', i. 99
    Silky, i. 99
    Verreaux's, i. 100
    Von der Decken's, i. 101
  signatus, Cercopithecus, ii. 45, 245
  Silenus veter, ii. 19
  silenus, Macacus, ii. 3, 18, 113, 250
    Papio, ii. 18
    Simia, ii. 18
  Silky Sifaka, i. 99
    Tamarin, i. 138
  Simia, ii. 170, 217, 229, 240
    abelii, ii. 171
    adusta, i. 185
    æthiops, ii. 38, 39
    agrias, ii. 170
    albifrons, i. 213
    albimana, ii. 160
    amicta, i. 161
    apella, i. 211
    argentata, i. 230
    azaræ, i. 170
    beelzebul, i. 197
    capucina, i. 215
    cephus, ii. 53
    ceylonicus, ii. 125
    chiropotes, i. 187
    concolor, ii. 155
    cristatus, ii. 125
    cynocephala, i. 265
    cynomologus, ii. 31
    cynosurus, ii. 55
    diana, ii. 79
    entellus, ii. 104
    erythræa, ii. 22
    fatuellus, i. 211
    femoralis, ii. 127
    ferox, ii. 18
    ferruginea, ii. 91
    flava, i. 209
    fuliginosa, ii. 38
    gigantica, ii. 171
    gorilla, ii. 181
    hamadryas, i. 272
    hoolock, ii. 161
    hypoleuca, i. 206
    inuus, ii. 4
    jacchus, i. 132
    johnii, ii. 111
    lacepedii, i. 148
    lagothrica, i. 222
    lar, ii. 152, 159, 161
    leucampyx, ii. 75
    leucisca, ii. 154
    leucocephala, i. 185
    leucophæa, i. 260
    longimana, ii. 159
    lugens, i. 159
    maimon, i. 258
    maura, ii. 125, 126
    melanocephala, i. 175
    melalophus, ii. 136
    melarhinus, ii. 83
    midas, i. 148
    mona, ii. 66
    monachus, i. 182
    morio, ii. 171, 180
    mormon, i. 258
    nasica, ii. 140
    nemæus, ii. 134
    nemestrina, ii. 16
    nictitans, ii. 51
    oedipus, i. 140
    paniscus, i. 237
    patas, ii. 63
    petaurista, ii. 44
    pileata, ii. 33
    pithecia, i. 185
    porcaria, i. 263
    rhesus, ii. 22
    rosalia, i. 138
    rubra, ii. 63
    sabæa, ii. 56, 58
    sagulata, i. 188
    satanas, i. 186
    satyrus, ii. 170, 249
    sciurea, i. 156
    seniculus, i. 192
    silenus, ii. 18
    sinica, ii. 35
    syndactylus, ii. 166
    sylvanus, ii. 4
    talapoin, ii. 82
    trepida, i. 211
    troglodytes, ii. 194
    variegatus, ii. 160
    veter, ii. 113
    wurmbii, ii. 171
  Simiidæ, i. 252; ii. 143, 144, 145, 148, 181, 190, 203
  simus, Hapalemur, i. 182
    Prolemur, i. 182
  sinica, Simia, ii. 35
  sinicus, Cercocebus, ii. 33, 35
    Macacus, ii. 19, 33, 34, 35, 248
  sivalensis, Anthropopithecus, ii. 217
    Palæopithecus, ii. 217
    Macacus, ii. 213, 248
  Slender Capuchin, i. 208
    Loris, i. 31
  Slow-Loris, Javan, i. 23
  Small Dwarf-Lemur, i. 55
  Small-toothed Sportive-Lemur, i. 88
  smithii, Chirogaleus, i. 57
    Microcebus, i. 57, 58
  Smith's Dwarf-Lemur, i. 57
  Smooth-headed Capuchin, i. 209
  Soko, ii. 197
  Sooty Mangabey, ii. 37
  South American Howlers, ii. 191
  speciosus, Inuus, ii. 13
    Macacus, ii. 8, 13
  Spectral Tarsier, i. 20
  spectrum, Lemur, i. 20
    Tarsius, i. 20, 285
  sphinx, Papio, i. 253, 269; ii. 244, 245, 246
    Cynocephalus, i. 268, 270, 271
  Spider-Monkey, Brown Woolly, i. 226
    Black-faced, i. 241
    Brown-headed, i. 242
    Geoffroy's, i. 234
    Grizzled, i. 242
    Hooded, i. 243
    Long-haired, i. 244
    Red-bellied, i. 236
    Red-faced, i. 237
    Variegated, i. 231
    White-whiskered, i. 239
    Woolly, i. 224
  Spider-Monkeys, i. 204, 207, 227, 247, 248
  spierianus, Microsyops, i. 122; ii. 252
  spixii, Ouakaria, i. 175
  Sportive-Lemur, Grandidier's, i. 89
    Milne-Edwards', i. 87
    Red-tailed, i. 86
    Round-headed, i. 89
    Small-toothed, i. 88
    Weasel-like, i. 86
    White-footed, i. 89
  Squirrel-Monkey, i. 247, 152
    Black-headed, i. 155
    Common, i. 156
  St. John's Macaque, ii. 28
  Stachycolobus satanas, ii. 93
  Stairs' Guenon, ii. 73
  stairsi, Cercopithecus, ii. 73
  stampflii, Cercopithecus, ii. 49, 50, 245
  Stampfli's Guenon, ii. 50
  Stenacodon, i. 123; ii. 227, 239, 252
  Stenops, i. 31, 33
    gracilis, i. 31
    javanicus, i. 33
    potto, i. 28
    tardigradus, i. 31, 33
  Stentor, i. 192
    caraya, i. 195
    flavicauda, i. 198
    fuscus, i. 198
    niger, i. 195
    seniculus, i. 193
    ursinus, i. 193, 198
  stramineus, Mycetes, i. 193
  subcristatus, Cebus, i. 218; ii. 256
  subhimalayanus, Papio, ii. 212, 248
  suevicus, Macacus, ii. 213, 242
  sumatranus, Semnopithecus, ii. 127, 136
  Sykes' Guenon, ii. 67
  sylvanus, Macacus, ii. 4
    Simia, ii. 4
  sylvestris, Homo, ii. 194
  syndactyla, Siamanga, ii. 166
  syndactylus, Pithecus, ii. 166
    Hylobates, ii. 120, 146, 151, 152, 153, 166, 249
    Simia, ii. 166

  Talapoin, ii. 82
  talapoin, Cercopithecus, ii. 82, 245
    Miopithecus, ii. 82
    Simia, ii. 82
  Tamarin, Black and Red, i. 145
    Black-fronted, i. 143
    Bonneted, i. 143
    Brown-headed, i. 144
    Deville's, i. 143
    Geoffroy's, i. 139
    Illiger's, i. 145
    Lacépéde's, i. 148
    Midas, i. 148
    Moustached, i. 142
    Negro, i. 148
    Pied, i. 147
    Red-bellied, i. 141
    Silky, i. 138
    White-lipped, i. 141
    Yellow-tailed, i. 144
  tantalus, Cercopithecus, ii. 62
    Guenon, ii. 62
  tarandus, Cervus, ii. 218
  tardigradus, Lemur, i. 33
    Nycticebus, i. 33, 285; ii. 249
    Stenops, i. 31
  Tarsier, Dusky-handed, i. 21
    Spectral, i. 20
  Tarsiidæ, i. 18
  Tarsius, i. 18; ii. 225, 237
    fischeri, i. 21
    fuscomanus, i. 21
    fuscus, i. 21; ii. 249, 250
    spectrum, i. 20, 285
  tarsius, Lemur, i. 20
  Tarsius tarsius, i. 20, 21, 118, 285; ii. 249
  Tartarin, Le, i. 272, 274
  tchego, Troglodytes, ii. 195
  Tcheli Macaque, ii. 26
  tcheliensis, Macacus, ii. 26, 27, 242
  Telmalestes, i. 119
  temminckii, Colobus, ii. 91
  tenebrosus, Adapis, i. 120; ii. 242, 252
  tephrops, Cercopithecus, ii. 55
  Theropithecus, i. 252, 276; ii. 228, 240
    gelada, i. 245, 263, 276, 277, 279
    obscurus, i. 278
    senex, i. 276, 278
  thersites, Presbytis, ii. 103, 109
  Thick-furred Capuchin, i. 217
  thibetanus, Macacus, ii. 8
  Thinolestes, i. 119
  thomasi, Opolemur, i. 63
    Semnopithecus, ii. 116, 117, 119, 249
  Thomas' Fat-tailed Lemur, i. 63
  Thomas's Langur, ii. 119
  tholloni, Piliocolobus, ii. 92
  Thoth Baboon, i. 268
  thoth, Cynocephalus, i. 268
    Papio, i. 268; ii. 245
  Three-banded Douroucoli, i. 168
  Three-cusped Guenons, ii. 44
  tichorhinus, Rhinoceros, ii. 218
  Titi, Black-fronted, i. 164
    Black-handed, i. 165
    Grey, i. 165
    Masked, i. 163
    Orabassu, i. 162
    Ornate, i. 162
    Red, i. 160
    Red-backed, i. 158
    Red-bellied, i. 164
    Reed, i. 161
    White-chested, i. 161
    White-collared, i. 159
  titi, Oedipus, i. 140
  Titis, i. 248
  Toque, ii. 34, 35
    Macaque, ii. 33, 34
  Tomitherium, i. 120, 121; ii. 227, 238
    rostratum, i. 121; ii. 252
  torquata, Callithrix, i. 159, 161; ii. 255
  torquatus, Cebus, i. 159
    Callithrix, i. 159, 161
  tournesarti, Plesiadapis, i. 118; ii. 242
  trarensis, Macacus, ii. 213, 243
  Tree-walkers, ii. 148
  trepida, Simia, i. 211
  trichotis, Chirogale, i. 9, 52
    Chirogaleus, i. 52
  trivirgatus, Aotus, i. 168
    Nyctipithecus, i. 168; ii. 255
  Troglodytes, ii. 180, 187, 188
    aubryi, ii. 194
    calvus, ii. 199
    gorilla, ii. 180
    kooloo-kamba, ii. 199
    leucoprymnus, ii. 194
    mimetes, ii. 194
    niger, ii. 194
    savagei, ii. 180
    schweinfurthi, ii. 194
    tchego, ii. 195
    vellerosus, ii. 194
  troglodytes, Anthropopithecus, ii. 194, 195, 196, 199, 200, 201, 202
    Mimetes, ii. 199
    Simia, ii. 194
  Tropicolobus rufomitratus, ii. 88
  tschudii, Lagothrix, i. 222
  tuberifer, Eriodes, i. 226, 227
  Tufted Capuchin, i. 212
  Tufted-eared Guenons, ii. 44
  tutus, Pelycodus, i. 122; ii. 252
  typicus, Cheirogaleus, i. 50, 51

  Uakarí, Bald, i. 177
    Black-headed, i. 175
  Uakarí Monkeys, i. 174, 248
    Red, i. 176
  unicolor, Cebus, i. 209, 217
  ursina, Alouatta, i. 198; ii. 210, 255, 256
    Stentor, i. 193, 198
  Ursine Guereza, ii. 93
  Ursine Langur, ii. 122
  ursinus, Colobus, ii. 93, 94, 95, 245
    Cynocephalus, i. 263
    Guereza, ii. 94
    Mycetes, i. 198
    Presbytis, ii. 122, 123
    Semnopithecus, ii. 114, 122, 250
    Stentor, i. 198
  ursula, Hapale, i. 148
  ursulus, Midas, i. 140, 147, 148, 149; ii. 255
  usta, Chrysothrix, i. 154; ii. 255, 256
    Saimiris, i. 154

  Van Beneden's Guereza, ii. 87
  Varecia, i. 65
    nigra, i. 69
  Variegated Capuchin, i. 211
    Spider-Monkey, i. 221, 231
  variegatus, Ateles, i. 231, 233; ii. 255
    Cebus, i. 210, 211, 213; ii. 256
    Hylobates, ii. 152, 160
    Indris, i. 107
    Pithecus, ii. 159
    Simia, ii. 160
  varius, Lemur, i. 68
    Pithecus, ii. 159
  vellerosus, Ateles, i. 128, 129, 236, 244; ii. 254
    Cebus, i. 208, 217; ii. 256
    Colobus, ii. 94, 95, 245
    Guereza, ii. 95
    Pterycolobus, ii. 95
    Semnopithecus, ii. 94
    Troglodytes, ii. 194
  verreauxi, Propithecus, i. 100, 102, 286
  Verreaux's Sifaka, i. 100
  versicolor, Cebus, i. 213, 215
  verus, Colobus, ii. 87, 245
    Procolobus, ii. 88
  Vervet Guenon, ii. 60
  veter, Cercopithecus, ii. 18
    Silenus, ii. 19
    Simia, ii. 113
  vetulus, Cercopithecus, ii. 112
  vicarius, Hyopsodus, i. 123; ii. 252
  vidua, Saguinus, i. 159
  villosa, Alouatta, i. 199
  villosus, Mycetes, i. 128, 199; ii. 254
  vociferans, Nyctipithecus, i. 129, 169, 170
  Von der Decken's Sifaka, i. 101
  vulgaris, Jacchus, i. 132

  Wau-wau Gibbon, ii. 154, 156
  Weasel-like Sportive-Lemur, i. 80
  weddelli, Hapale, i. 143
    Midas, i. 143, 144; ii. 255
  Weeping Çai, i. 216
  Weeper Capuchin, i. 215
  werneri, Cercopithecus, ii. 58
  Werner's Guenon, ii. 58
  White-cheeked Capuchin, i. 208
  White-cheeked Gibbon, ii. 158
  White-chested Titi, i. 161
  White-collared Mangabey, ii. 38
    Titi, i. 159
  White-crowned Mangabey, ii. 39
  White-eared Marmoset, i. 134
  White-faced Lemur, i. 73
  White-fronted Capuchin, i. 213, 215
  White-fronted Marmoset, i. 134
  White-footed Sportive-Lemur, i. 89
  White-handed Gibbon, ii. 159, 160
  White-handed Lemur, i. 74
  White-headed Saki, i. 185
  White-lipped Guenon, ii. 72
  White-lipped Tamarin, i. 141
  White-nosed Saki, i. 188
  White-shouldered Marmoset, i. 133
  White-tailed Guereza, ii. 98, 99
  White-thighed Guereza, ii. 94
  White-throated Capuchin, i. 206, 207
  White-whiskered Coaita, i. 239
  White-whiskered Spider-Monkey, i. 239
  White Monkeys, ii. 115, 116
  wolfi, Cercopithecus, ii. 79, 245
  Wolf's Guenon, ii. 79
  Woolly Avahi, i. 94
  Woolly Monkeys, i. 204, 220, 221, 248
  Woolly Spider-Monkeys, i. 204, 224, 225, 248
  wurmbii, Papio, ii. 170
    Pithecus, ii. 171
    Pongo, ii. 170
    Simia, ii. 171

  xanthocephalus, Cebus, i. 209
  Xanthochroi, ii. 208, 223
  xanthomystax, Prosimia, i. 71

  Yellow Baboon, i. 265
  Yellow-handed Howler, i. 197
  Yellow-tailed Tamarin, i. 144

  zitteli, Microchærus, i. 116; ii. 241


[1] Specimens of _Anthropopithecus niger_ and _Gorilla gorilla_, in the
    Derby Museum, Liverpool, in which the permanent teeth have not yet
    developed, have the premaxillary suture quite obliterated.

[2] The deformity known in the human skull as acrocephaly, which occurs in
    all races of men, and is due to the too early ossification of certain
    of its sutures, has been found in the Chimpanzee.

[3] Huxley's "Natural History of the Man-like Apes," p. 5.

[4] Living and fossil.

[5] A form of _S. mitratus_.

[6] _Midas rufiventer_, said to be from Mexico by Dr. Gray, is now believed
    to be Amazonian. Mr. Bates' statement that _Hapale pygmæa_ is found in
    Mexico (vol. i., p. 136) is erroneous, and no species of Marmoset is
    known from the Mexican Province.

[7] _Chrysothrix entomophaga_ is stated by me (vol. i., p. 156) to inhabit
    Central America. The Squirrel-Monkey of Panama, however, is _C.
    oerstedi_, and _C. entomophaga_ must be restricted to the Brazilian
    Sub-region (cf. Alston, Biol. Centr. Amer. Mamm., p. 16).

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed text

P. 29 'supra-orbital' corrected from 'supra-orbitral'.

P. 31 (Macacus) 'assamensis' corrected from 'assameusis'.

P. 29 'depredations' corrected from 'depradations'.

P. 60 'Cercopithecus pygerithraeus' corrected from '... pygerithroeus'

P. 84 'Cercopithecinæ' corrected from 'Cercopethecinæ'.

P. 29 'Pays-Bas' corrected from 'Pays-Bays'.

P. 29 'Rhynchopithecus' corrected from 'Rhynochopithecus'.

P. 158 'with synonymy' corrected from 'with synonomy'.

P. 210, page reference '129' corrected from '103', '131' from '104', '132'
from '105' and '150' from '114'. These conflicted with the Index in this
volume as well as the actual contents of Volume I.

P. 254 'Chrysothrix' (oerstedi) corrected from 'Chrynosthrix'.

Index entry 'acolytus, Hyopsodus': this is the first of many wrong index
entries, with species on the Regional lists in vol. ii. being listed as
vol. i. The full list is tabulated here:

  acolytus, Hyopsodus, ii. 252           Laopithecus, robustus, ii. 252
  Adapis, tenebrosus, ii. 252            Loris, gracilis, ii. 248
  Alouatta, palliata, ii. 254            Microsyops, elegans, ii. 252
  brevicaudatus, Indris, ii. 248         Mixocebus, caniceps, ii. 248
  caniceps, Mixocebus, ii. 248           Mixodectes, crassiusculus, ii. 252
  Cebus, chrysopus, ii. 255              Mixodectes, pungens, ii. 252
  Cebus, hypoleucus, ii. 254, 255        palliata, Alouatta, ii. 254
  Chirogale, ii. 248                     Papio, hamadryas, ii. 244, 245
  Chiromys madagascariensis, ii. 248     Papio, ibeanus, ii. 246
  crassicaudata, Galago, ii. 246, 247    Papio, langheldi, ii. 246
  fusciceps, Ateles, ii. 255             Papio, porcarius, ii. 246
  garnetti, Galago, ii. 246              pungens, Mixodectes, ii. 252
  geoffroyi, Ateles, ii. 254, 255        rosalia, Midas, ii. 254
  geoffroyi, Midas, ii. 254              rostratum, Tomitherium, ii. 252
  gracilis, Loris, ii. 248               Tarsius, fuscus, ii. 249, 250
  Hyopsodus, acolytus, ii. 252           Tarsius tarsius, ii. 249
  ibeanus, Papio, ii. 246                Tomitherium, rostratum, ii. 252
  jarrovii, Pelycodus, ii. 252           tutus, Pelycodus, ii. 252
  langheldi, Papio, ii. 246              vellerosus, Ateles, ii. 254
  laniger, Avahis, ii. 248               villosus, Mycetes, ii. 254
  Laopithecus, lemurinus, ii. 252

Index entry 'Alouatta, nigra': 'ii. 256' corrected from 'ii. 259'

Index entry 'burnetti, Cercopithecus' corrected from 'Cercopethicus'.

Index entry 'chrysoleucos, Miocella': 'i. 135' corrected from 'i. 35'

Index entry 'crassicaudata, Otolicnus': 'i. 47' corrected from '147'

Index entry 'elegantula' corrected from 'edegantula'.

Index entry 'erythræa' corrected from 'erythæa'.

Index entry 'gesilla, Pithecus': 'ii. 181' corrected from 'i. 181'

Index entry 'larvatus, Nasalis': 'ii. 140 (etc.)' corrected from 'i. 140

Index entry 'Papio': 'ii. 228' corrected from 'ii. 288'

Index entry 'Sportive-Lemur, Red-tailed': 'i. 86' corrected from '186'

Index entry 'tardigradus, Nycticebus': 'i. 285' corrected from 'iI. 285'

Index entry 'Troglodytes': 'ii. 180 (etc.)' corrected from 'i. 180 (etc.)'

Index entry 'Variegated' corrected from 'Varigated'.

Note [7] 'C. oerstedi' corrected from 'ærstedi'.

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