Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Zoological Illustrations, or Original Figures and Descriptions. Volume III, Second Series
Author: Swainson, William
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Zoological Illustrations, or Original Figures and Descriptions. Volume III, Second Series" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

       *       *       *       *       *



Zoological Illustrations,

OR

ORIGINAL FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS

OF

NEW, RARE, OR INTERESTING

ANIMALS,

SELECTED CHIEFLY FROM THE CLASSES OF

Ornithology, Entomology, and Conchology,

AND ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THEIR NATURAL AFFINITIES.

BY

WM. SWAINSON, ESQ., F.R.S., F.L.S.

ASSISTANT COMMISSARY GENERAL TO H. M. FORCES. CORRESPONDING MEMBER
OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF PARIS; HONORARY MEMBER
OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHIC SOCIETY, &c.

VOL. III.

SECOND SERIES.

London:

PRINTED BY W. J. SPARROW, 3, EDWARD STREET, HAMPSTEAD ROAD.

PUBLISHED BY BALDWIN & CRADOCK, PATERNOSTER ROW,

AND R. HAVELL, 77, OXFORD STREET.

1832.-1833.

*       *       *       *       *       *



TO

WILLIAM JOHN BURCHELL, ESQ.,

THE AFRICAN TRAVELLER,

Whose discoveries have benefited every branch of natural science; whose
knowledge is equal to their full elucidation; and whose
talents,--unfostered by, and unknown to, his own Government,--are held in
respect and estimation throughout the civilized world.

THIS THIRD VOLUME OF

Zoological Illustrations,

IS DEDICATED;

BY HIS ATTACHED AND AFFECTIONATE FRIEND,

THE AUTHOR.

*       *       *       *       *       *



PREFACE.

----

In closing our second series of ZOOLOGICAL ILLUSTRATIONS, we cannot but
express gratification at the terms in which they have been alluded to at
home and abroad. It is hardly necessary to state that the scientific
interest of the subjects described, and the attention bestowed upon the
plates, have progressively increased, as the work has approached its
termination. The contents of this series may now be divided into three
equal portions, so that the BIRDS, the INSECTS, and the SHELLS, will form
distinct and uniform volumes, unconnected, except in the general title,
with each other.

As complete sets of the first series have now become very scarce, new
editions of the deficient parts are in rapid progress; and the whole will
then be divided, as above, into three portions.

It is but justice to Mr. G. Bayfield,[1] that the author should here
express his satisfaction at the skill and care with which he has executed
the colouring of the plates, both of this work, and of every other in which
his services have been engaged.

In answer to several correspondents who have requested to know what book we
can recommend, as giving a general and popular introduction to the
_natural_ arrangement of animals, we are obliged to confess that amid
countless volumes of anecdotes, compilations, and methods, no such work has
ever been undertaken. With the intention of supplying this deficiency, we
have devoted the greatest portion of the last five years to an Encyclopedia
of Zoology; wherein the science will be placed under a new and striking
light; no less instructive to the general reader, than interesting to the
learned. In another year, we trust this work will be before the public. To
_that_ volume we must consequently refer the readers of _this_, whenever
they wish to understand the full scope and influence of those novelties in
natural arrangment, which are but slightly glanced at in the following
descriptions.

As more than usual care is necessary in the binding of these volumes, it
may be as well to mention that we have particularly instructed Mr. Betts,
of Compton Street, Brunswick Square, on this subject.

  _Tittenhanger Green,
  4th March, 1833._

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: TRICHOGLOSSUS _Swainsonii_.

_Swainson's Green-lory._]


TRICHOGLOSSUS Swainsoni.

_Swainson's, or Blue-bellied Lory._

----

Family Psittacidæ. Sub-family Psittacinæ. Genus Lorius. _Swains_.

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Bill_ obsoletely notched; _Tail_ lengthened, cuneated, narrowed from the
  base, the two middle tail feathers conspicuously longest, _Nob._

_Type_ Lorius. (Trichoglossus.) Swainsoni. J. and S.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Green: head, middle of the body and bands on the sides, azure-blue;
  throat, breast, and flanks, orange-crimson._

  Trichoglossus Swainsoni. _Jardine and Selby. Ill. of Orn. pl. iii._

  Blue bellied Parrakeet. _Brown's Ill. pl. 7, White's Voyage, pl. 4. p.
  140._

  Le Perruche à tête bleue, male. _Le Vaill. Perr. 1. pl. 24. fig.
  pulcherima._

  Perruche des Moluques. _Buffon, Pl. Enl. No. 743?_

  _Trichoglossus hæmatodus. Lin. Tr. 15. p. 289. omitting Syn._

----

Large flocks of these resplendent Lorys enliven the woods of New Holland,
clinging to the Eucalypti trees, and sucking the honey from the blossoms by
their brush-shaped tongue. Mr. Caley, whose notes we now follow, says it a
bird remarkable for docility and attachment to some people, although a
perfect scold to others. When young they are caught by the natives, but
from the loss of their favourite food seldom survive in confinement. An
individual, kept by Mr. Caley, on being shewn the coloured drawing of a
native plant, tried to suck the flowers, and it even made the same attempt
with a piece of cotton furniture. Its scientific history we have already
given elsewhere.

We have received more than usual pleasure at seeing our name affixed to
this charming bird, and in clearing up its history. (_Ill. of Orn. vol. 3.
p. iii._) As a child we well remember our unwearied delight at seeing its
figure in _White's Voyage_. As a collector we have preserved a series of
nearly twenty specimens, and as a naturalist our name is no longer excluded
from the Ornithological Nomenclature of New Holland. It is indeed somewhat
curious, that while we were giving information to one of the writers in the
_Lin. Trans_. upon the subjects of his paper, he should have studiously
witheld from us the only public acknowledgement, for such assistance, it
was in his power to make.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PROTESILAUS _Leilus_.]


PROTESILAUS Leilus,

_Protesilaus Butterfly_.

----

Genus Amphrisius, _Sw._ Sub-genus Protesilaus, _Sw._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTERS.

  Wings trigonal, acute, yellow with black transverse bands; the inferior
  lengthened, narrowed, with two long acute tails; antennæ short, the club
  thick, slightly compressed, but solid, and convex all round; front very
  hairy; _Larva_ covered with sharp spines. _Pupa_ braced, but suspended
  downwards.

Type, Pap. Protesilaus. AUCT.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings straw-colour; the superior with four, short, black, costal bands
  towards the base, and two towards the exterior margin; the latter uniting
  at the posterior angle._

  Pap. Protesilaus. _Lin. Fab. Ent. Sys. 3. pl. p. 23. Ency. Meth. p. 50.
  Merian Sur. pl. 43. Cramer, pl. 202. f. a. b._

----

From the resemblance which this insect bears to the rare British species,
named by collectors the scarce Swallow-tail, (_Papilio Podalirius_,) it is
generally called the Brazilian Swallow-tail. We advert to this
circumstance, trivial as it may sound to scientific ears, first because it
is one of the many proofs in which the nomenclature of the vulgar conveys
greater information than that of the professor: and secondly, because these
very names, in numberless instances, imply a perception of natural
analogies, which, without the labour of philosophic research, suggest
themselves to unscientific observers. In the present instance, these facts
may be verified in the most unquestionable manner. According to our views,
_Protesilaus_ not only represents one of the primary groups of the
Lepidoptera, but also typifies the Fissirostral birds, of which the
swallows are the most pre-eminent.

Madam Merian's valuable work on the Insects of Surinam, has furnished us
with a figure of the larva; which, unlike that of the European
Swallow-tails, is covered with spines: the chrysalis also departs from the
usual type of the family, in having the head directed downwards. These
facts we have verified by an inspection of the original drawings, of M.
Merian, now deposited in the British Museum. These are all important
variations in structure, which can only be explained by the natural system.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: CRESSIDA _Heliconides_]


CRESSIDA Heliconides

_Cressida Butterfly_.

----

Sub-Fam. Papilionæ. Genus Papilio. Sub-Genus Cressida. _Nobis_.

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Wings diaphanous; posterior perpendicularly elongated, obtusely dentated
  or scolloped. Antenna stout, the club very thick.

Types, Cressida Heliconides and Harmonides. _Sw._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Anterior wings diaphanous, with the base, and two opaque, costal
  transverse spots, black; posterior black, with a central white space, and
  a marginal row of crimson spots, brightest beneath._

  Papilio Cressida, _Fab. Ent. Sys. 3. 1. p. 20. Don. Ill. of Ent. 3. pl.
  12. f. 2. Ency. Meth. p. 76. No. 145._

----

For a long time, the only museum in Europe which could boast of this
butterfly, was that of Sir Joseph Banks; who found it in Van Deimans Land,
during his celebrated scientific voyage with Captain Cook. Fabricius, the
most eminent entomologist of that day, described the species from this
specimen: which, with the whole of the Banksian Cabinet, was presented by
its learned and munificent possessor to the Linnæan Society of London,
where it still exists. The only published figure is that of Donovans, which
is much too small, and is otherwise faulty. The species is still very rare
in collections; our own, a fine pair, were received from Van Diemans Land.

Although unacquainted with the larva, and pupa state of this species,
nature has stamped the perfect insect with the image of that group she
intends it to represent. Its long, narrow, anterior wings, almost
transparent, immediately reminds even the unpractised entomologist of the
Heliconian butterflys; while the analysis of the genus _Papilio_, confirms
this idea, by shewing that _Cressida_ is the Heliconian type. We scarcely
need remind the student of the natural system that if our theory be
correct, this representation, under one form or other, will be found to
pervade every group of _Lepidoptera_. In all such as we have yet
investigated, this opinion has been fully verified.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PAPILIO _Memnon_.]


PAPILIO Memnon,

_Memnon Butterfly_.

----

Fam. Papilionidæ. Sub-Fam. Papilionæ. Genus Papilio.--_Sw._

(Typical form or Sub-genus.)

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTERS.

  Wings without tails; the anterior horizontally lengthened, entire; the
  posterior margin concave; posterior wings perpendicularly lengthened, the
  margin rounded and scolloped; antennæ long. _Larva_ smooth; _Pupa_ braced
  in an erect position.

  SUB-TYPES OF FORM. 1. _Typical_, Memnon. 2. _Sub-typical_, Erectheus. 3.
  _Aberrant_, Pammon, Drusius? Codrus.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings black, rayed with blue-grey; inferior wings beneath with two rows
  of marginal black spots on a pale ground, and four red spots at the
  base._

  Papilio Memnon, _Linn. Auct. Ency. Meth. 1. p. 29. No. 10. Cramer, pl.
  91. f. c._

----

Although of sombre colours, this butterfly is imposing in its size, and
highly interesting. It is, in fact, that form which is _pre-eminently
typical_ of the whole of the Latriellian _Papilionidæ_. It seems to be
common throughout India and particularly so in Java, from whence we possess
several specimens. Dr. Horsfield's elaborate work has furnished us with
figures of the caterpillar and chrysalis.

In now first defining some of the natural groups of the modern Genus
_Papilio_, it may be as well to state that we give the results of minute
analysis, the details of which we hope to lay before the public on a future
occasion. In regard to the nomenclature, we have adopted the following
principles, suggested to us by a scientific friend of no ordinary
authority, as tending to facilitate recollection, without altering well
known specific names. Each genus or sub-genus will be named after that
species which is its peculiar type; and the new specific name of this
species will imply one of its supposed natural analogies. Thus the
sub-genus _Protesilaus_, derives its name from the typical species, while
the specific name, now proposed of _Leilus_, points out the analogy of the
group to _Urania_ Fab. The sub-genus we now define, as being in our
estimation, pre-eminently typical, retains the name of the genus. It seems
also a geographic group, since all the species yet discovered belong to the
old world.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: CARACOLLA _acutissima._

_Two-toothed Disk-Snail._]


CARACOLLA acutissima,

_Two-Toothed Disk Snail_.

----

Class Mollusca. Order Phytophages. _Swains._

GENERIC (?) CHARACTER.

  _Animal_ with four tentaculæ, the lower pair very short; _Shell_ discoid,
  greatly depressed; the spire but slightly raised above the body whorl;
  aperture large, oblique, angulated; the lower portion generally dentated;
  the margin thickened and reflected.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell imperforate, with the spiral whorls flattened obliquely, the body
  whorl acutely carinated, and convex beneath: outer lip reflected; with
  from 1 to 2 tuberculated teeth near the extremity_.

  Caracolla acutissima. _Lam. Syst. 6. p. 2. p. 95. Knorr. vol. 4 pl. 5. f.
  2. 3._

  _Encycl. Meth. pl. 462. f. 1. a. b.?_

  Helicodonta. _A. de Fèrrusac. pl. 58. f. 2._

  Helix caracolla. _Guerin. Iconog. du Règ. Anim. Mol. pl. 6. f. 1._

----

It is seldom we can deliniate more than the covering of testacious animals,
particularly where the species are natives of tropical countries. In the
present instance we owe this power to the singular fact of this snail
having survived a voyage from Jamaica, and peered out upon an English sun.
It is now near forty years ago since an intelligent correspondent of our
honoured father sent him from Jamaica, a box of land shells: they were
carefully packed in moist decayed wood, and enclosed the living animals.
The season was summer and the voyage short; the box was immediately opened,
and by placing the shells in luke-warm water, the animals of every one
slowly emerged from their shells. Of their ultimate fate we know not: but
that celebrated artist and entomologist, the late Mr. Lewin, then a guest
in the house, executed highly finished drawings upon vellum of each
species; and from one of these our present figures are faithfully copied.
At the request of our friend Dr. Leach, a copy was also made by some one
and transmitted to Baron de Fèrussac, for his great work upon Land shell,
where it will be found engraved at pl. 58. fig. 2. M. Guerin has re-copied
this latter figure, but as both are inaccurate, without any fault of these
gentlemen, (who never saw the original drawing of Lewin) we have now
represented it correctly.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PRINIA _familiaris_

_Indian Wren warbler._]


PRINIA familiaris,

_Indian Wren-warbler_.

----

Family, Sylviadæ. Sub-Family, Sylvianæ. _Sw._ Genus, Prinia. _Horsf._

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Bill rather lengthened, much compressed, entire; rictus smooth; wings
  rounded; tail broad and cuneate; feet large, strong.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Above olive brown, beneath yellowish; ears, throat, and tips of the
  greater and lesser wing-covers white; tail feathers tipt with dusky
  white, and margined beneath by a black bar._

  Prinia familiaris. _Horsfield. Zool. Researches. Linn. Trans. 8. 165._

The sultry groves of India are not without birds which recall to the
European the songsters of his own distant land. And although nature, in her
boundless profusion, has so distributed her productions that even the
little "Kitty Wren" may in vain be looked for beyond the confines of
Europe, its representative in the East is no less neat, active, and
familiar to the habitations of man. The _Prinia familiaris_, observes Dr.
Horsfield (whose politeness enables us to figure the bird), is abundant in
many parts of Java, near villages and gardens, in the confines of which,
among trees and shrubs, it builds its nest. Sprightly and active in all its
motions, it sports among the branches in short and rapid flights, and has
received its native name from its enlivening and pleasant notes. Our figure
is the size of life, and to avoid a tedious description, all the details
have been accurately measured.

We must refer the scientific Ornithologist, for our exposition of the
natural affinities of this group, to _Northern Zoology, vol. 2, p. 200_. It
is unquestionably the Rasorial and Scansorial genus of the Sub-family
_Sylvianæ_, as there pointed out, and of which _Orthotomus_ is a sub-genus,
or type of form.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: AMPHRISIUS _Nymphalides._]


AMPHRISIUS Nympalides,

_Amphrisius Butterfly_.

----

Family Papilionidæ. Sub-Fam. Papilionæ. Genus. Amphrisius. _Sw._ (Typical
Sub-Genus).

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTERS.

  Wings without tails, the anterior externally dentated, the posterior
  short and rounded, the margin scolloped; Antennæ long. Larva covered with
  spine-like tubercles; _Pupa_ braced in an inverted position.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Anterior wings black, with longitudinal paler rays; posterior wings
  yellow, with a black serrated border, and an internal row of black
  spots._


  Papilio Amphrisius. _Godart. Ency. Meth. 1. p. 27, No. 7._

  Papilio Heliacon. _Fab. Ent. Sys. 3. 1. p. 19. Don. Ind. Ins. pl. 19. f.
  1._

  Papilio Amphrisius.--_Horsf. Descrip. Cat. Part 1. pl. 4. f. 13._

----

The Butterflies of which we consider the species now figured as the typical
example, constitute one of the great natural divisions of the modern genus
_Papilio_; and they are peculiarly distinguished in all their three stages
of existence, namely in the caterpillar, the pupa, and in the winged state.
Dr. Horsfield has enabled us to illustrate the two former, and we add a
figure of the perfect butterfly from specimens in our own cabinet,
collected in Java. It seems subject to much variation in point of colour,
but we have strong suspicions that some of the varieties are distinct
species. The richness of the black resembles Genoa velvet, while that of
the yellow may be compared to glossy satin. All the larger species of the
group are Oriental, but we suspect America is not without typical examples,
although they are of a much smaller size. The species however, even with
these additions, are so few, that the sub-types of the group cannot be
accurately made out.

As this seems to be the pre-eminent type of the genus, we preserve to it
the generic name.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: ACHATINELLA. Pl. 1.

_1, Pica. 2, Perversa. 3, Acuta_]


ACHATINELLA Pica,

_The Bead Snails_.

----

Class Mollusca. Order Phytophages. _Lam. Sw._ Genus ----?

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Shell oblong-conic, spiral, Columella with the base thickened and
  truncate, inner lip none; outer lip internally thickened; aperture
  without teeth. _Nob._

Type _Monodonta seminigra_ Lam.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell trochiform, black; apex and base of the pillar white._

  Monodonta semi-nigra _Lam._

  Achatina pica. _Swains. Monog. in Brands Journal, April, 1828, p. 84._

----

Achatinella is a very peculiar group of land shells, found only in the
Pacific Islands. They are all small, and so remarkably beautiful, that the
natives use them for ornaments. It was under this form that seven different
species came into our possession on the return of Captain, now Lord Byron,
from his voyage to the South Seas. As the systematic conchologist will find
them fully described in the Journal above quoted, we now only illustrate
them by figures.

----


ACHATINELLA perversa, _fig. 2._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell reversed, sub-trochiform, fulvous brown with darker transverse
  bands and longitudinal lines; apex and suture white._

  Achatinella perversa. _Swains. Monog. No. 2, p. 84._

Our figures of this elegant species are somewhat larger than nature.

----


ACHATINELLA Acuta, Fig. 3.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell ovate-oblong, chesnut, with a marginal fulvous band; spire
  somewhat lengthened, acute, the tip black._

  Achatinella acuta _Sw. Monog. No. 3, p. 84._

Shell somewhat pyriform, the spire being pointed, and considerably longer
than the aperture: In these respects it differs considerably from the two
preceding, but the great peculiarity of the twisted and truncated columella
or pillar, sufficiently points it out as belonging to this group.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MURICINÆ. Pl. 3.

_Murex eurystomus_]


MUREX (_Centronotus_) eurystomus,

_Wide mouthed Murex_.

----

Family Cassidæ, Sub-family Muricinæ, _Nob._ Genus. Murex _Auct._

SYNOPSIS OF THE SUB-GENERA.

  1. _Typical._

  Canal very long: Shell armed with tooth-like
  spines mostly arranged in three varices               MUREX _Auct._

  2. _Sub-Typical_ (?).

  Canal very long: Shell without spines, varices
  tuberculated.                                         HAUSTELLARIA. _Sw._

  3. _Aberrant._

  Canal moderate: Shell with foliated or compressed
  varices.
    1. Varices foliated, mostly three.                  PHYLLONOTUS. _Sw._
    2. Varices numerous, mostly acute.                  CENTRONOTUS. _Sw._
    3. Varices compressed, fin shaped.                  PTERYNOTUS. _Sw._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell with from 7 to 8 simple foliated varices; body whorl with three
  brown bands; aperture effuse, tinged with rosey; umbelicus very large._

  Murex Saxatilis. _Auct. Lamark. 7. p. 167. Martini. pl. 108. f. 1013._

----

We feel some surprize that Lamark should have viewed this large and
imposing _Murex_ as one of the varieties of _Saxatilis,_ from which it is
unquestionably distinct. It is by no means common, nor do we know its
precise locality.

In directing the attention of the philosophic Zoologist to the above
synopsis, we feel called upon to express our opinion on the unfortunate
Denis De Montford, whose labours, however honoured in his own country, have
neither been understood nor appreciated in this. We can say of him, what
can be said of very few, that he had an intuitive perception of natural
groups. And if we cannot place him on a par with his great rival Lamark, in
the extent of his researches, or the polished accuracy of his names, we can
safely affirm that in other respects, he is fully equal, either to him, or
to any of his successors.

There are some extraordinary analogies between the natural types of this
genus, and the series of vertebrated animals, which we cannot at present
develope. Nor can our doubts on the Sub-typical form, which we rather think
has not been discovered, effect any alteration of the series here pointed
out.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: POLYDORUS Thoas.]


POLYDORUS Thoas,

_Polydorus Butterfly_.

----

Sub-family Papilionæ. Genus Amphrisius. Sub-genus Polydorus. _Sw._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

Anterior wings horizontally narrow and obtuse, posterior perpendicularly
lengthened, and furnished with prominent spatulate tails; _Larva_ covered
with fleshy tubercles; _Pupa_ braced and suspended, but with the head
downwards.

Types, Pap. Polydorus. Polystes. Romulus. &c. _Auct._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Anterior wings brownish black, with darker stripes between the nerves;
  posterior, black with a central five-parted spot of white; lunules round
  the margin, obscure above, bright crimson beneath._

  Papilio Polydorus _Linn. Cramer. Pl. 128. f. a. b. Fab. Ent. Syst. 3. 1.
  p. 9. Ency. Meth. p. 72. No. 130. Horsf. Cat. pl. 3. f. 17. 17. a._
  (_larva and pupa_).

----

Among the most remarkable of those laws which belong to the natural system,
is that which assigns to every great division of our globe its peculiar
races of animals: and these in numerous instances, are so marked, that a
naturalist would no more expect to find such genera inhabiting a different
continent, than a Physiologist would hope to discover a race of Hottentots
among the Highlands of Scotland. It is under the tropical latitudes of the
old world (and chiefly those of Asia), that nature has placed the group of
butterflys which we now, for the first time, characterize. Distinguished,
in the most beautiful manner, by their larva and pupa, they shew, even in
the external appearance of the perfect insect, an unerring distinction, in
the dark stripes between the nerves of the anterior wings. We have indeed,
in the tropics of America, a race of black and crimson butterflys
representing these of India; but they belong to a very different group; and
are known at the first glance by their broader wings, totally destitute of
the stripes just mentioned.

M. M. Latrielle and Godart, are evidently mistaken regarding the insect
figured by Clerk, which they consider to be the female of _Polydorus_; this
error we have ascertained from fine specimens of both sexes, sent from Java
and now in our possession. We have figured the male, and Dr. Horsfield has
enabled us to add the Caterpillar and Chrysalis.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PTILIOGONYS _cinereus_.

_Male_.]


PTILIOGONYS cinereus,_ male_.

_Yellow-vented Short-foot_.

----

Family Laniadæ. Sub-fam. Tyranninæ. Genus Ptiliogonys. _Nob._

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Zool. Journ. no. 10. p. 164.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Light cinereous; flanks olive; under tail covers bright yellow; quills
  and tail glossy blue-black, the latter ornamented with a central snowy
  band; chin and vent white._

  For Synonyms--see pl. 62.

----

On the sixty-second plate of these Illustrations, we figured the female of
this elegant and highly interesting bird, from a specimen sent to us from
Mexico, by the late Mr. W. Bullock. We are now enabled to add the male from
a fine example, obligingly presented to us by John Taylor Esq. F. R. S. It
was killed near Real del Monte; and these, we believe, are at present the
only specimens that have reached England.

By viewing this as the type of the Scansorial group of the
Tyrant-flycatchers, (_Tyranninæ_) every circumstance, even the most minute,
regarding its structure and its colours will be explained. As representing
_Brachypus_, (North. Zool. 2. 485.) and its analogies, it has the under
tail covers richly coloured. As representing _Leiothryx_ (Il. 490.) it has
the same coloured cinereous and silky plumage: as a scansorial type, it has
a conspicuous although an _incumbent_ crest, and a long ornamented tail. It
is a Titmouse among the Tyrants, and is nearly as much of a _Ceblepyris_ as
of a _Tyrannus_. Indeed, when we described the female, we thought it
actually entered the circle of the former, but the laws of representation
has set us right on this point. _Phoenicornis_ is the first of the
_Ceblepyrinæ_, as _Philiogonys_ is the last of the _Tyranninæ_. The
_females_ of _Phoenicornis_ are clothed in the same slate coloured plumage,
but, as being of a _fissirostral_ type, their mouths are conspicuously
bristled, while those of _Ptiliogonys_ are quite smooth. Finally, the wings
are those of a _Ceblepyris_, but the tail that of a _Tyrannula!_

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PLECOCHEILUS _undulatus_.]


PLECOCHEILUS undulatus.

_Waved Pupa-snail._

----

Family Pupadæ. _Guilding._ Genus Carychium. _Muller._

Sub-Gen. Plecocheilus. _Guild._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Animal_ hermaphrodite, snail-like; the head bilobed, and bearing four
  tentaculæ, two of which are long and terminated by the eyes; mandibles
  greatly lunated, with a small transverse mouth and a triangular cutaneous
  plate; mantle perforated. _Eggs_ large, externally calcarious. _Shell_
  oval, ventricose, the two last spiral whorls very short, but elevated;
  aperture entire, elongated; outer lip thickened and reflected; inner lip
  thin, nearly obsolete; pillar with a strong compressed inflexed plate.
  _Guilding._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell irregularly and minutely corrugated, and longitudinally striated;
  marked beneath the olive epidermis with oblique, undulated, dark
  stripes._

  Carychium undulatum (1814). _Leach. Zool. Mis. 1. pl. 35._

  Auricula caprella (1822). _Lam. Sys. 6. 2. p. 140. Chemnitz pl. 176, f.
  1701.-2._

  Plecocheilus undulatus. _Guilding in Zool. Journ. 3. p. 532._

----

The pleasure which our scientific brethren will receive from possessing
this copy of Mr. Guilding's beautiful drawing, will be changed into regret
on knowing that the gifted hand which originally traced it is now cold. A
liver complaint, doubtless brought on by too much exposure to a tropical
sun, terminated the mortal career, a few months ago, of this accomplished
Zoologist and excellent man. The name of Guilding now belongs to posterity.
His loss, and that too in the prime of life, leaves a blank in the ranks of
science, which there is no one so qualified to fill; where can we look for
profound and indefatigable research, matured knowledge, a ready pen and an
exquisite pencil, all employed unceasingly to illustrate _from life_ the
animals of tropical regions. The search, unfortunately, will be fruitless.
May his spirit now be with that God whose minister he was, and whose works
upon earth it was his purest delight to study.

This noble species was discovered by Mr. Guilding, in great numbers, upon
the trunks and branches of trees in the forests of St Vincent: its eggs are
hard like those of a bird, and the young shell resembles that of a
_Succinea_. In _Carychium_ the eyes are at the _base_, but here they are at
the _tips_ of the tentaculæ.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PROTESILAUS _Swainsonius_.]


PROTESILAUS Swainsonius,

_Swainsonian Swallow-tail._

----

Sub-family Papilionæ. Genus Amphrisius. Sub-genus Protesilaus. _Nob._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTERS.

See pl. 93.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings pale straw-colour; anterior with a forked band near the black
  exterior margin, and another much shorter towards the middle, both
  black._

  Papilio Swainsonius. _Langsdorff_, MS.S.

Mus. Nost.

----

We have searched in vain for some account of this very distinct and
handsome species, collected by our venerable and enthusiastic friend Dr
Langsdorff, in the interior of Brazil; and transmitted to us some years
ago, in remembrance of the many happy days we passed together in the
enchanting scenery of that delightful region. We have not seen the species
in any of the London collections, and we believe it altogether undescribed.

The Larva and pupa are of course unknown to us, but the whole structure of
the perfect insect agrees so truly with that of _Protesilaus Lelius_, that
we have no doubt whatever of its belonging to the same sub-genus, and thus
becoming an interesting addition to a group, capable of the most complete
and diversified demonstration.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PODALIRIUS _Pompilius_.]


PODALIRIUS Pompilius,

_Pompilius, or Javanese Swallow-tail._

----

Sub-family Papilionæ. Genus Papilio. Sub-genus Podalirius. _Nob._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings_ trigonal, acute, yellow, with black transverse bands, the
  inferior with two long narrow acute tails; _Antennæ_ short, the club
  thick and solid at the base, but greatly compressed at the tip, where it
  is concave beneath; _head_ small, front hairy; _Larva_ smooth; _Pupa_
  braced in an erect position.

_Type_ Podalirius Europæus. _Nobis._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings above pale yellow, the anterior with five short, black, stripes
  across the areola; and two others, much longer and broader, close to the
  exterior margin: posterior wings without lunulate spots._

  Papilio Pompilius. _Fab. Mantissa 2. p. 8. Ent. Syst. 3. 1. p. 25. Ency.
  Meth. 1. p. 49. Horsf. Cat. pl. 3. fig. 5. 5. a._ (_larva and pupa._)

----

We may term this the Javanese Swallow-tail, for in that and the other
Indian islands it appears to be not uncommon. We are indebted to the
elegant _Catalogue_ above quoted, for our figures of the _larva_ and
_pupa_; and to the rich collection of Mrs. Children for the examination of
the perfect insect.

Entomologists will doubtless feel surprize that this and the _Protesilaus_
on our last plate, should be placed as distinct types in two different
genera. We have not done this without long deliberation; but we cannot, in
a work of this nature, enter into those details which would demonstrate
these divisions to be truly natural, in the most rigid acceptation of the
word. We desire not, however, that Entomologists should adapt our
views,--at least for the present. We hope, indeed, that they will not,
because experience has shewn, that until a theory has been fully explained,
more injury than good results to science, from injudiciously adopting, and
hastily applying, a system not understood. We only desire, in short, to
record our views, that they may be comprehended hereafter. We consider this
as the Thrysanuriform type of the sub-genus, and our English _Papilio
Machaon_ of authors, as the Heliconian.--_Tempus ducamus._

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: LEPTOCIRCUS _Curius_.]


LEPTOCIRCUS Curius,

_Clear-winged Butterfly._

----

Sub. Family Papilionæ. Genus Urania. Sub-genus Leptocircus, _Nob._
(_Erycinian type_).

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTERS.

  _Size and aspect of an_ Erycina; _Anterior wings_ sub-hyaline;
  _posterior_ greatly lengthened, and terminating in two long tails;
  _Head_, _thorax_, and _body_ very thick; _Anterior feet_, _palpi_, and
  _Antennæ_ papilioniform.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Black; the exterior half of the superior wings hyaline, bordered with
  black, inner half with a green band, continued on the inferior wings,
  which are plicated, and edged externally with white._

  Papilio Curius _Fab. Ent. Syst. 3. 1. 28. Don. Ind. Ins. pl. 47. f. 1.
  bad._

----

There are only two collections we believe in this country, which possess
this rare and extraordinary butterfly, and it may be even doubted whether
these specimens do not belong to distinct species. One is in the Banksian
cabinet, now possessed by the Linnæan Society, the other in that of the
lady of our friend J. G. Children Esq. Zoologist to the British Museum. We
are told the species has been "made into a genus" by some continental
methodist, but who, according to the disreputable and slovenly mode fast
creeping _among us_, gives no definition. We have elsewhere expressed our
reasons for rejecting all such names (_North. Zool. 2. pref. lx._), and we
are thus pledged to do so upon every occasion.

Nature has so admirably disguised this insect in the external form of that
tribe of butterflys which she intends it to represent, that it was only
upon looking to its anatomical construction, that we discovered it was a
type of the true _Papilionæ_, and not of the _Erycinæ_. The construction of
the anterior feet, of the head and palpi, and of the antennæ, all which are
here represented, magnified, places this fact beyond doubt, and leaves us
nothing to desire but a knowledge of its caterpillar and chrysalis, and of
the direction of the wings when the species is at rest. We suspect that
like those of _Urania_, they are then _deflexed_.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: TROGON _Mexicanus. f._

_Mexican Trogon. fem._]


TROGON Mexicanus,

_Mexican Trogon. female._

----

Tribe Fissirostris. Family Trogonidæ. _See North Zool. 2, p. 326._

GENERIC CHARACTERS.

_Body_ thick. _Bill_ very short, strong, thick, nearly triangular, but the
sides compressed, surrounded by long, stiff, bristly feathers, the culmen
arched from the base. _Wings_ very convex, the quills graduated; tail very
broad, feet short, weak, gressorial.

SUB-GENERA.

  1. Bill with several unequal serratures on the
     margin of the upper mandible: head not
     crested, tail even, tarsi feathered to the
     base of the toes; anterior toes united to
     half their length. America.                          TROGON. _Auct._

  2. Bill serrated; head with an erect compressed
     crest; tail very long, cuneated. America.            CALURUS. _Sw._

  3. Bill entire. Inhabits tropical Asia.                 HARPACTES. _Sw._

  4. Bill with obscure serratures: tarsi naked,
     covered with scales; the two anterior toes
     divided nearly to their base. (_Type_,
     Trogon Narina). Africa.                              APALODERMA. _Sw._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Female. Breast and upper plumage olive brown; body and under tail covers
  crimson; front, chin, and ears grey; wing covers lineated with undulate
  dusky lines; two middle tail feathers ferruginous brown, with black
  tips._

----

We have already given the general reader some account of the manners of
these very singular birds, and we have said more upon them in _North. Zool.
Vol. 2_. Having figured the male on our 82nd plate, we now exhibit, in the
female, that remarkable difference between the sexes, which pervades all
the species. Our figure and specific character renders a detailed
description of the plumage unnecessary; it should be observed, however,
that the lateral tail feathers, in the female, are without those two black
transverse bands on the inner web, towards the tip, which are so
conspicuous in the male. There is another species from Mexico, which
country seems to be the most northern range of these birds. We feel
gratified at being able to characterize four typical forms of the genus;
all of which, at the same time, are marked by geographic peculiarities.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: ACHATINELLA. Pl. 2.

_1, bulimoïdes._ _2, livida._]


ACHATINELLA bulimoïdes,

_Thick-spired Achatinella--middle figures_.

----

GENERIC CHARACTER.

See pl. 99.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell ovate-oblong, subventricose, whiteish, with chesnut bands; spire
  thickened, the tip pale brown._

  Achatinella bulimoïdes. _Sw. in Brands Journ. Ap. 1828. p. 85._

----

We continue our Illustrations of these pretty little land-shells, of which
all the species, as we before remarked, are natives of the South Sea
Islands, and very little known to collectors. The present is distinguished
by the thickness of its spire, the apex being more suddenly pointed. We
have represented two varieties in point of colour, but in both the suture
is scarcely, if at all, margined by an indented grove.

----


ACHATINELLA livida,

_Livid Achatinella_.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell reversed, ovate, obtuse, livid brown or greyish; spire thickened;
  suture with a deep fulvous line._

  Achatinella livida. _Brands Journ. Ap. 1828. p. 85._

----

A small reversed species, unbanded, and scarcely exceeding half an inch in
length. In form it perfectly resembles the green variety of _Bulimus
citrinus_. The three specimens in our museum vary in colour from a light
olive brown, to a livid purple which lies in longitudinal shades, and
gradually changes, on the spiral whorls, to white; suture marked by a line
of deep orange brown; aperture white, tinged with purple.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MURICINÆ. Pl. 3.

MUREX (PHYLLONOTUS) _Imperialis._ _var. a._]


MUREX (_Phyllonotus_) Imperialis,

_Imperial Murex. var. a._

----

Genus Murex. Sub-genus Phyllonotus. _Nob._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTERS.

See pl. 100.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

See pl. 67.

----

In a popular work like this, we wish to consult the taste of the amateur,
no less than of the philosophic naturalist; and with this object we have
delineated a beautiful variety, having the aperture rose colour, of the
_Murex imperialis_ already figured at pl. 67 of our second volume. It was
then in the possession of Messrs. Stuchbury, and was nearly the only one,
among very many of the usual orange-mouthed specimens, which came to their
hands.

We have already intimated that the series of types in this genus, (see pl.
100) besides possessing innumerable analogies in the class _Mollusca_,
exhibits a most singular one with the series of vertebrated animals; four
of which can be traced by comparing them with four of the classes of the
vertebrated circle. Commencing with _Phyllonotus_, we may call them, from
the hideous and repulsive aspect of many of the species, the _Reptile_
type, as the name given to one (_Murex scorpio_), sufficiently intimates.
In the tooth-like spines of _Murex tenuispinosus_ we see some resemblance
to the teeth of quadrupeds: the _Murex haustellum_ has been well compared
to the head of a snipe, while in the fin shaped varices of _Murex
pinnatus_, we have a representation of the _fish_. If the analogy between
_Centronotus_ and the _Amphibia_ cannot be traced, it is because the latter
has so few forms; but the Hedgehogs, which represent the _Amphibia_ in the
circle of Quadrupeds, are again represented under the form of a shell, in
the sub-genus _Centronotus_. These analogies, however remote are
unquestionably natural, _because they follow each other in a uniform
series_.

  Thus, Murex        represents Mammalia.
        Haustellaria            Aves.
        Pterynotus              Pisces.
        Centronotus             Amphibia--Hystrix.
        Phyllonotus             Reptilia.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MARIUS (PETREUS) _Thetys_.

_Larva & Pupa_.]


MARIUS (_Petreus_) Thetys,

_Thetys Butterfly_.

----

Family Nymphalidæ. Sub-family Paphianæ. Genus Marius. Sub-genus Petreus.
(Heliconian Type.)

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Superior wings long, horizontally lengthened; Larva naked, with 3, 4
  fleshy filaments on the body.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

See pl. 59.

----

The perfect insect, or butterfly, of this elegant species we have already
figured at pl. 59 of our second volume: and that our illustration of a form
so interesting may be complete, we have now delineated the caterpillar and
the chrysalis, as given by Stoll; together with a sprig of the _Cashew_
tree upon which it feeds. Every entomologist, upon looking to the perfect
insect, will immediately be struck with its resemblance to the long-winged
Heliconian Butterflys, and to the genus _Euploea_, which is the Erycinian
type of that family. Now this resemblance, which hardly requires pointing
out, is a perfectly natural analogy; and is confirmed in the most
remarkable manner by the caterpillar, which puts on that peculiar form
which distinguishes _Euploea_. The species in short, in every stage,
exemplifies the truth of that fundamental law of nature which we have
elsewhere so fully illustrated, viz. "that every _natural_ group, contains
representations of ALL others in the same class," following each other
precisely in the same series: thus establishing a truth which has long been
suspected, but not before demonstrated, that the laws of variation are
precisely the same in every group throughout the animal kingdom. The genus
itself represents the Swallow-tailed types already figured (_Podalirius_,
_Protesilaus_, and _Leptocircus_), but of the three remaining sub-genera of
_Marius_, we are as yet ignorant. It is, however, by this genus that the
two sub-families of _Paphianæ_ and _Heliconinæ_ are united; as it blends
into the latter by means of the genus _Fabius_, which we shall shortly
illustrate.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: ZEONIA _Heliconides_.]


ZEONIA Heliconides,

_Zeonia Butterfly_.

----

Family Erycinidæ. Sub-family Erycinæ. Genus ----; Sub-genus Zeonia. _Nob._


SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Wings trigonal, hyaline, the posterior ending in long tails; Palpi very
  short, not projecting beyond the head; Antennæ hairy, with the club very
  small, but gradually thickening from the base.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings hyaline; the margins, and a common central band black and opaque;
  inferior wings two-tailed, with a red stripe at the anal angle._

----

No method is more calculated to demonstrate the existence of that
symbolical representation which reigns throughout nature, than that of
bringing before the eye of the student a series of forms belonging to
different families, but which are _disguised_, under an outward appearance
of general similitude; How few, even among professed entomologists, would
suspect that the present butterfly, and _Leptocircus Curius_, pl. 106, were
of totally different families: looking to their general aspect, as size,
form, and colour, we should even be tempted to place them in the same
genus; On closer examination, however, we find that one is a genuine
_Papilio_, and the other an _Erycina_; That this fact may be placed beyond
all doubt, we have given magnified details of both insects, which, from
their great rarity, will be highly acceptable to the Entomologist.

The specimen here figured is the only one we met with in Brazil, nor have
we seen the species in any other collection; Excepting the black bands and
the crimson spots, all the wings are transparent; the under surface being
similar to the upper. We possess the mutilated remains of a second species;
but we know not to what natural genus they belong.

Fig. 1. _Zeonia_, wing. 2. _Leptocircus_, wing. 3. _Zeonia_; anterior foot,
with the claw more enlarged; 4. head and palpi in profile; 5. Antennæ.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: LEPTOLOPHUS _auricomis_.

_Golden-eared Parrakeet._]


LEPTOLOPHUS auricomis,

_Golden-eared Parrakeet._

----

Sub-family Psittacinæ. Genus Platycercus. Sub-genus Leptolophus. (The
Rasorial type.)

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Bill distinctly toothed, culmen slightly carinated; nostrils thick,
  tumid, naked; head crested; wings very long, outer web of the quills not
  sinuated; tail very broad, cuneated, the two middle tail feathers
  conspicuously longest and pointed.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Cinereous, wings with a longitudinal white stripe; ears orange; lateral
  tail feathers banded with yellow and black._

  Palæornis Novæ-Hollandiæ. New Holland Parrakeet. _Lears Parrots, No 8._

----

The discovery of this remarkable and highly interesting Australian species
is due to Allen Cunningham, Esq. who, on an inland expedition ordered by
our government, in 1827, discovered it in small flocks on the arid sandy
plains between Lat. 29 and 28, 50. Long. 150¾ E. We must again express our
public thanks to this intelligent and liberal naturalist for the
ornithological specimens then collected. Among these were two skins of the
bird in question; but as the mere addition of a new species to our already
overwhelming list would be of little importance to the philosophy of the
science, we have hitherto refrained from publishing it. In truth, the
natural affinities of this extraordinary Cockatoo-Parrakeet called for a
much deeper investigation of the whole family than it had yet received, nor
are we ashamed to confess that nearly five years elapsed before we could
partially accomplish this, with any thing like satisfactory results. But we
regret not the delay, since it is obvious that the illustration of such an
apparently anomalous form as this, is infinitely more useful to science
than the specification, _in a few lines_, of a hundred new species, or even
of as many new genera, unaccompanied by analytical or comparative results.
The time, in fact, is now gone by, when such crude additions to
ornithological nomenclature, possess any claim to permanent interest, or
carry with them any authority: they encumber rather than advance science,
by keeping up the already overwhelming stock of undigested materials. Mr.
Lear has recently given beautiful figures of this species, but under the
peculiarly inappropriate name of _Palæornis Novæ-hollandiæ_. The genus is
_Platycercus_, _all_ the species of which are from New Holland, excepting
those of the Fissirostral type. The exactness of our figure renders a
detailed account of its plumage unessential.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MUREX (_Centronotus_) _radix_.]


MUREX (_Centronotus_) radix,

_Porcupine Murex._

----


Genus Murex. Sub-genus Centronotus. _Nob._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

See pl. 100.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell ovate globuse, transversely grooved; with numerous varices, armed
  with compressed, spine-like foliations: colour white; the spines, base,
  and inner lip black._

  Murex radix. _Gm. 3527. Lam. Syst. 7. 168._

----

Centronotus _radix_ was formerly a shell of excessive rarity, but many
specimens have latterly been brought from Panama; one of these, obligingly
lent to us by Mr. Cummin, we have here figured of the natural size.

We cannot too often place before the student those objects in nature which
seem more especially to illustrate that wonderful system on which the whole
has been created. In the infinite diversity which pervades the works of
"Him who made us," two things have obviously been intended: one, the
manifestation of His power in the creation of the individual: the other, an
illustration of some important truth connected with the spiritual welfare
of mankind. The first is manifest, and speaks to our senses: the second is
emblematical, and calls for an exertion of those reasoning faculties with
which the Creator, for such purposes, aided by those helps he has promised,
has given to us. In accordance with this latter assumption, both divines
and Naturalists concur in considering Nature as a book of Emblems, "where
one thing represents another." That this theory, resting heretofore on
general belief, is capable of mathematic definition, we have elsewhere
largely demonstrated, (North. Zool.). And if, as regards one division of
animated nature the theory is correct, it follows that it will be equally
manifested in _all_ other portions of the animal world, when they are
sufficiently investigated. Hence it is that remote resemblances between
objects, widely different in themselves, can be explained: hence the
analogy which the _Glires_ bears to the Hedgehogs, and to the
_Ceblepyrinæ_; and hence the resemblance between this shell and the
Porcupines; an analogy the more singular, as it extends even to the black
and white colour of the spines.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: JASIA _Australis_.]


JASIA Australis,

_Australian Jasia-Butterfly._

----

Family Nymphalidæ. Sub-family Paphianæ. Genus, ----

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

See pl. 90.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings above yellowish white, the outer half of the anterior black with a
  series of spots disposed in the shape of the letter Y; inferior wings
  with a black border, margined by cinereous, and an orange spot at the
  anal angle._

----

We believe the specimen from which our figures of this new and strikingly
distinct butterfly were taken, is the only one which has yet been sent to
Europe. It was captured by Mr. Cunningham, who accompanied Captain King, in
his voyage to the North West coast of Australia, on the skirts of Careening
Bay, Port Nelson, where the Ship Mermaid was hove down; and the officers
had more leasure to attend to zoological pursuits. Mr. Cunningham remarked
that it flew with great swiftness, in which respect it perfectly resembles
the rest of the genus _Jasia_, of which it is a typical example. The
geographic range of this group is thus proved to extend from the South of
Europe to Australia, but it is entirely unknown in the new world.

The family of _Nymphalidæ_ is the sub-typical group of the diurnal
Lepidoptera, forming our tribe _Papiliones_. In its own circle it therefore
represents the _Feræ_ among quadrupeds, the _Raptores_ among birds, the
_Aptera_ among annulose animals, and the _Scolopendridæ_ in the order
_Myriapoda_. The analogical representations resulting from this view of the
subject are innumerable.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: TERACOLUS _Sub-fasciatus_.]


TERACOLUS sub-fasciatus,

_Burchells Yellow._

----

Family Papilionidæ. Sub-family Colianæ. Genus (?). Teracolus _Nob._

GENERIC CHARACTERS.

  Antennæ with the club abrupt, and more or less compressed anterior wings
  trigonal, posterior rounded; Palpi as in _Colias_, but the scales
  intermixed with hairs.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Anterior wings pale yellow, with a terminal orange spot, margined
  externally with brown, and internally by a short black bar; areola with a
  black dot; posterior wings yellowish white, both beneath immaculate._

----

Mr. Burchell was the first who discovered this unpublished species in the
interior of Southern Africa, and by his kindness we are enabled to
illustrate it. His specimens, unfortunately, are not in the best condition,
for he was obliged to preserve many of his insects in books; and these,
having been among the number, may probably have had the antennæ more
compressed than they were in nature. The form of this butterfly,
nevertheless, is perfectly distinct from _Colias_, as may be seen by
comparing the nerves of the anterior wings, here given in outline.

Not having completed our analysis of the _Colianæ_, we cannot speak with
any confidence on the rank or the station of this type; we are inclined to
believe it is a _genus_ between those of Colias and Terias, connecting this
sub-family with the _Licininæ_. It may, however, be one of the sub-genera
of _Colias_, in which case the genus, which it would then represent, is
unknown. Fig. 1. represents the anterior wing of _Teracolus_, 2, of
_Terias_, and 3, of _Colias_.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: HELEONA _Fenestrata_.]


HELEONA fenestrata,

_Australian Burnet_.

----

Tribe Sphingides. Family Anthoceridæ. Sw. (Zyganidæ Auct.) Genus ----?

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTERS.

  Anterior Wings papilioniform, i. e. the exterior margin as long, or
  longer, than that of the posterior; inferior wings lengthened
  perpendicularly, but short and rounded; Antennæ pectinate in both sexes.

Type _Phalæna militaris_. Lin. Don. _Ins. of China_. pl. 43.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings hyaline, clouded with irregular waved bars of blue; body, thorax,
  and macular band round the margin of the inferior wings, orange._

----

The diurnal or Heliconean Hawk-mouths, form one of the most natural and
remarkable groups among Lepidopterous insects. They fly during the heat of
the day; and, (as representing in their own family the tribe of
_Phalænides_) they have much of the general appearances of moths. In their
slow flight, long transparent wings, and proneness to imitate death on
being handled, they afford a most beautiful analogy to the Heliconian
Butterflys. Both have their chief metropolis in equinoctial America, and
both find their prototypes in the lovely family of _Erycinidæ_. It is
really surprizing that searchers after the _natural_ system, should have
overlooked such a group.

Among the comparatively few genera of this division, found in India and the
adjacent islands, is that now first defined: and we illustrate it by a new
and very rare species, even in its own country. It was twice seen by Mr.
Cunningham, on the North West Coast of Australia; once in shady woods
descending to the shores of York Island, and again in nutmeg woods
adjoining Brunswick Bay.

The form of the wings, which strongly resemble those of the sub-family
_Papilionæ_ will immediately distinguish this from all the American genera.
The plant, _Pattersonia glauca_, is of a sub-genus also peculiar to New
Holland.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: LEPTONYX _macropus_.

_Great footed Babbler._]


LEPTONYX macropus

_Great-footed Babbler._

----

Family Merulidæ. Sub-family Crateropodinæ. Genus Malacocircus, Sw.
Sub-genus Leptonix. (_The Rasorial type._) _Nob._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Feet of extraordinary size and thickness, all the anterior toes of nearly
  equal length; the claws long, slender, and but slightly curved. Tail
  slightly rounded, of fourteen feathers. Wings very short.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Above brown beneath whiteish, with transverse undulated lines; breast
  and rump, rufous brown; chin, stripe above and beneath the eye,
  whiteish._

----

For the use of this new and singularly formed bird, we are indebted to
Professor Hooker, who, with his usual liberality, has recently sent for our
inspection, a valuable box of Chilian birds, most of which are undescribed.
They form the foundation of his son's, Mr William Hooker's collection, who
has already commenced with much zeal the study of this interesting science.

All the rasorial characters are strikingly displayed in this extraordinary
type; which exhibits the greatest developement of the foot of any
insessorial bird yet discovered. It no doubt lives entirely upon the
ground; for the feet are formed precisely on the same model as those of
_Menura_ and _Orthonyx_, both of which are the rasorial types of their
respective circles, and are consequently representatives of _Leptonyx_: the
same analogy explains its resemblance to a partridge, and more distantly to
the sub-genus _Erythaca_ Sw. by its rufous breast.

The Indian bird erroneously called _Pitta thoracica_ by M. Temminck,
follows this in close affinity, and is either the Grallatorial type, or the
immediate point of connection between _Malacocircus_ Sw. and _Timalia_
Horsf.

Total length 9 inches; bill from the gape 1-1/10; wings 4; tail 3; tarsus
1¾; hind toe and claw 1½.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: BYSSOARCA _Zebra_.]


BYSSOARCA Zebra.

_Zebra Ark-shell._

----

Genus. Arca. _Lin. Lam._ Sub-genus. Byssoarca. _Nob._

----

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Animal_ fixed by byssiform filaments to other bodies. _Shell_
  transverse; umbones remote; valves gaping in the middle of the ventral
  margin.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Margins angulated; valves marked with simple uniform and regular
  grooves, radiating from the umbones: shell transversely and obliquely
  striped with brown._

----

It is somewhat surprising that the sedentary type of the genus _Arca_
should have been so long uncharacterized in our Conchological Systems;
seeing that the other four types, viz. _Arca_, _Pectunculus_, _Cuculloea_,
and _Nucula_, were defined many years ago by the celebrated Lamarck. We
have consequently supplied this omission; and at the same time have
selected a species hitherto, we believe, confounded with the _B. Noæ_; from
which it differs in sculpture, colour, and in the umbones being less remote
from each other.

The Animals of these shells affix themselves to other bodies by a
particular muscle, which is protruded through the gaping part of the
valves; they also adhere, when young, by the byssiform epidermes which
covers the exterior: a specimen now before us, which we procured in the Bay
of Naples, perfectly exemplifies this singular property. The present
species is not uncommon in the West Indies, and has been sent to us from
Jamaica. Like all others of this particular type it is almost constantly
covered by coralline substances.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: APALIS _thoracica_.

_Gorget Warbler._]


APALIS thoracica,

_Gorget Warbler_.

----

Family Sylviadæ. Sub-fam: Sylvianæ. Genus (?) Apalis.

GENERIC (?) CHARACTER.

  General structure of _Prinea_, but the bill shorter, the plumage more
  compact, and the outer toe not connected to the middle as far as the
  first joint.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Olive green, beneath yellowish white; breast with a black collar; three
  lateral tail-feathers partly white: front black._

  Le Plastron Noir. _Le Vaill. Ois. d'Af. 3 pl. 123. f. 1. male. 2. fem._
  Motacilla thoracica. _Nat. Miss. 22. pl. 969._

----

This is one of the pretty warblers of Southern Africa, discovered by Le
Vaillant: it is very common and widely distributed in the interior, but
rare near the Cape. Le Vaillant mentions having found a young bird of the
Criard Cuckoo, in the pigmy nest of this little species, which had already
grown to the size of a thrush: it not only filled the nest, but actually
enlarged and destroyed its original shape. Yet still did the foster
parents, by a most extraordinary instinct, go on feeding this overgrown
parasite, although it was even then more than double the size of
themselves. Our figure is of the natural size of the male; the female is
without the black collar. Specimens are in Mr. Burchell's Museum and in our
own.

That this bird is of a tenuirostral type, is almost certain; seeing that it
is an obvious representation of _Motacilla_, _Pachycephala_, _Tamatia_,
_Trichas_, _Charadrius_, and many other collared groups: but whether it
forms part of the genus _Prinea_, or represents the tenuirostral genus
between that and _Culicivora_, is very uncertain. We suspect that this
latter station is filled by the Taylor-Warblers of India, not one of which
is to be found in our public Museums.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: CLYTIA _dissimilis_.]


CLYTIA dissimilis,

_Idea-likeness Butterfly._

----

Family Papilionidæ. Sub-fam. Papilionæ. Genus Clytia.

----

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Wings rounded, spotted. Anterior broad, ample, the posterior and the
  external margins of equal length: posterior slightly undulated at the
  margin, but destitute of tails. Pupa braced, with the head upwards.

TYPES. Pap. Clytia, dissimilis. _L._ Pap. Macarius. _Godart._ P. Panope
_Cr._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings black, the interstices of the nerves pale fulvous white, broken
  into numerous stripes and spots, inferior wings with a marginal row of
  orange spots, surmounted by pale lunules, on a black border._

  Papilio dissimilis Linn. _Fab. Ent. Syst. 3. 1. p. 38. Ency. Meth. 1. p.
  76. Cramer. Pl. 82. C. D. Roemer. Gen. Ins. pl. 18. f. 6._

----

We have never seen specimens of this Butterfly from any other country than
China, although it appears that General Hardwicke has met with it in
British India, and has communicated a valuable drawing of the larva and
pupa to Dr. Horsfield, in whose interesting work it is engraved. To that
plate we must refer the entomologist who wishes to understand the previous
states of this insect; while its general aspect at once intimates its
resemblance or analogy to the Sub-genus _Idea_ F, and consequently points
it out as the generic type of that form in the circle of the _Papilionæ_.
According to these views, _Clytia_ is united to _Amphrysius_, by the
sub-genus _Epius_; (Pap. Epius. Auct.) and at the same time forms the
generic passage to the _Pieridæ_, Sw. For want of a better term, we must
call this the _Rasorial_ type, as it corresponds to that Ornithological
group.

The aberrant group of the Sub-family _Papilionæ_ appear to be the genera
_Leilus_, Sw. (_Uranea_ Lat.) _Antimachus_, Sw. and _Clytia_ Sw. the two
typical genera being _Papilio_ and _Amphrisius_, Sw.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: THOAS _Lysithous_.]


THOAS Lysithous,

_Lysithous Butterfly._

----

Sub-fam. Papilionæ. Genus, Papilio. _Sw._ Sub-genus Thoas. _Nob._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Posterior wings terminating in spatulate or obtuse tails; the margins
  deeply scoloped; _Larva_ smooth; _Pupa_ braced, with the head directed
  _upwards_.

TYPICAL SECTIONS.

  1. Wings with macular yellow bands.                   PAP. THOAS. _Auct._

  2. Wings with entire white bands, the posterior
     spotted with crimson.                              AGAVIUS.

  3. Wings black, varied with emerald green
     bands or dots; tails short, obtuse.                PARIS.

  4. Tails obsolete.                                    EVANDER.

  5. Tails short, acute.                                ANDROGEUS.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings uniform black; anterior with a white band; posterior dentated and
  tailed, margined by red lunules; the disk white, bordered behind by 4-5
  red spots._

  Papilio Lisithous. _Ency. Meth. 1. p. 73, no. 136._

----

We discovered this imposing species in the interior of Brazil, in 1814,
long before it was made known in France by the specific name we have
adopted. It is confined to the southern provinces; for we never met with it
north of the Rio St. Francesco. Although greatly resembling _Thoas Agavus_
and _Harrisianus_, (Z. Ill. 1 Series, pl. 109) it is at once distinguished
by the longer and more acute dentations of the inferior wings. The under
side shews no material difference from the upper. To the second type of
this subgenus belongs also _Ascarius_ L. _Polybius_ Sw. (Z. I. 1 Series,
pl. 137), and _Tros._ Fab. while _Dardanus_ F. probably connects this
American group with the third or _Paris_ type, whose geographic range is
confined to Asia.

In the fourth form (_Evander_), representing the Heliconian type, the tails
are obsolete, but they begin to appear again in the fifth, and thus
complete the circle of the sub-genus _Thoas_. By studying this natural
series, the Entomologist will discover a most beautiful set of analogies
between the genera _Papilio_ and _Amphrisius_.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MUREX (_Pteronotus_) _pinnatus_.]


MUREX (_Pteronotus_) pinnatus.

_Finned Murex._

----

Family Buccinidæ. Sub-fam. Muricinæ. _Sw._ Genus Murex. _Lam._ Sub-genus
Pteronotus. Sw.

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

See Pl. 100.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell snowy white, with three twisted varices, which are surmounted by a
  thin, dilated fringe, having the margins undulated; channel curved; outer
  lip crenate._

  Murex pinnatus. _Swains. Bligh. Cat. App. p. 17._

  _Martini. Conch. 3 pl. III. fig. 1036-1037._ (_bad._)

----

This highly elegant and delicate species was first described by us in the
_Catalogue of the Bligh Collection_, at the sale of which a specimen
produced five pounds. Latterly, however, the species has become more
frequent: the figures are taken from a fine individual in our Museum,
procured from China. The pure white of the surface is relieved by a slight
iredescent or pearly gloss, similar to that on the scales of many fish: but
which is probably concealed, in a state of nature, by a thick and soft
epidermis, similar to that of _Triton corrugatum_, Lam.

The structure of this sub-genus is further remarkable for the prolongation
of the basal end of the principal varex on the body whorl, which, in nearly
all the species, is so prominent, as to give the shell an appearance of
having two channels. It is remarkable that this horn-like process occurs in
that part of the shell which is immediately above the head of the animal:
so that even in this genus of Mollusca we see a manifestation of that
principle of the natural system, by which one of the aberrant types of
nearly all animals have crests, horns, or similar protuberances on or near
the head.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: ACHATINELLA. Pl. 3.

_1. rosea. 2. pulcherrima._]


ACHATINELLA rosea,

_Rosey, reversed Achatinella_.

----

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

See pl. 99 and 108.

----

SPECIFIC (?) CHARACTER.

  _Shell reversed, ovate-oblong, sub-ventricose, pale rose colour, with
  obsolete white bands._

  Ach. bulimoïdes (var. rosea) _Swains. in Brand's Journal Cap. 1828, p.
  85._

----

The figures on this plate complete the illustration of our monograph of
this pretty and interesting group of shells. At present, we feel undecided
whether this is a species, or a variety of _A. bulimoïdes_, from which it
differs in being reversed, in having the marginal groove very distinct,
instead of scarcely perceptible, and in colour. We possess only two
specimens which came, with all the others, from the Pacific Islands.

----


ACHATINELLA pulcherrima.

_Fig. 2._

  _Shell ovate-oblong, sub-cylindrical, white or yellow, with broad bands
  of chesnut; margin of the lip, brown._

  Ach. pulcherrima. _Sw. ut. sup. p. 86._

----

This species is the most lengthened in form, and the most beautiful in
colour of all those we have yet seen: some individuals, however, are more
ventricose than others and the colours are no less variable. The ground
colour is usually of a rich and deep chesnut, with from one to three bands
of orange yellow, fulvous, or white; we have figured a further variety of a
rich golden yellow with a chesnut line only at its suture: but in all these
the marginal groove is very close and distinct.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: ANTHOMYZA

_Tiresina_. 2 _heliconides_.]


ANTHOMYZA Tiresia.

_Three banded Burnet._

----

Tribe, Sphingides. Family, Anthoceridæ. _Sw._ Genus ----? Sub-genus.

----

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Anterior wings with the outer or exterior margin much shorter than the
  posterior; inferior wings lengthened horizontally, but short and rounded.
  Antennæ slightly pectinated in one sex only: palpi pointing vertically.
  Inhabits Tropical America only. _Nob._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Large: anterior wings black, with one basal, and two transverse, opaque,
  deep yellow bands; posterior yellow, with a broad black border; margins
  of both wings dotted with white._

  P. Tiresia. _Cramer. Pl. 85. f. B._

----

We now, for the first time, detach from the moth-like, or diurnal Sphinxes,
all those large and imposing species which are found in Tropical America;
and by comparing their characters with those of the Oriental group
_Helonia_, it will be seen how strikingly they differ. During our
researches in Brazil, the chief metropolis of this group, great attention
was paid to these insects, of which we have a most extensive series. They
fly slowly and heavily during the middle of the day, and on the least touch
counterfeit death. Most of the species, when handled, discharge from their
body a brown liquor, like their prototypes the _Heliconidæ_.

----


ANTHOMYZA heliconides,

_Heliconian Burnet_.

----

  _Anterior wings black, with one basal and two transverse hyaline
  yellowish white bands: posterior yellowish white, with a broad black
  border, margins of both wings dotted with white._

----

If we were not in possession of both sexes of the foregoing species, we
should have suspected that _this_ was a mere sexual difference; but the
spots are transparent. The remarkable resemblance between this and some of
the Heliconian butterflies, particularly _Linus_ and _Psidii_, (Cr. pl.
257.) is truly astonishing. Nature could not have stamped their analogy
stronger.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: LEILUS _Surinamensis_. _Sw._]


LEILUS Surinamensis.

_Surinam Emerald Butterfly._

----

Family, Papilionidæ. Sub-fam Papilionæ. Genus, Leilus. Sw. (_Fissirostral
or Hesperian type_) Sub-genus. Leilus _proper_. Sw.

SYNOPSIS OF THE SUB-GENERA.

  I.   TYPICAL. Antennæ filiform, thickened in the
       middle; posterior wings with long pointed tails.        LEILUS.

  II.  SUB-TYPICAL. Antennæ as in the last, but
       arcuated near the tip. Tails of the posterior
       wings short and obtuse.                                 ORONTES.

  III. ABERRANT. Antennæ clavate; front very
       hairy; tails none.                                      RIPHEUS.

       Antennæ clavate; wings hyaline; tails very long.        LEPTOCIRCUS.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings black, varied with lines and bands of emerald-blue green:
  posterior tailed; the green spots round the margin running into each
  other; tails nearly white._

  Papilio Leilus. _Linn. Sys. Nat. 2. 750. Fab. Ent. Sys. 3. p. 21. Merian.
  Surin. pl. 29._

  Urania Leilus. _Fab. Syst. Gloss._

----

The Butterflys composing this remarkable genus are perhaps the most
splendid insects in creation. No art can effectually represent the
changeable and resplendent green which relieves the velvet black of the
wings, and which varies with every change of light. The typical species are
found in Tropical America, where they fly with amazing rapidity, and
perform, like their prototypes the Swallows, annual migrations. When at
rest, the anterior wings are flat or horizontal, but only slightly spread.
The present species appears confined to Surinam.

Modern systematists have been peculiarly unfortunate in the location and
construction of this group; while the name of _Urania_, bestowed upon it by
Fabricius, has long been appropriated to a genus of plants. Linnæus, more
correctly, placed it with the genuine _Papiliones_; a station which is
confirmed by the details of its structure: the anterior feet, like those of
_Leptocircus_, figured at pl. 106, being provided with that short spiney
process, which is a peculiar distinction of this sub-family. The analogies
which result from this location of _Leilus_ are beautiful, and almost
interminable. It is the representation of the _Noctuidæ_ and of the
_Hesperidæ_ in its own circle; and of the fissirostral tribe of birds; all
these being modifications of the natatorial type of the VERTEBRATA.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: LEILUS _Brasiliensis_. _Sw._]


LEILUS Braziliensis.

_Brazilian Emerald Butterfly._

----

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings_ when at rest, horizontal, slightly expanded; posterior furnished
  with acute tails. Palpi short, porrect; the last joint nearly naked,
  projecting beyond the head, but shorter than the second joint. _Tibiæ_ of
  the anterior feet, spined in the middle: claws very small. _Antennæ_
  filiform, thickened in the middle; the tips bending outwards, but not
  uncinate. _Sw._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings black, varied with lines and bands of golden green: posterior
  wings tailed, the green spots round the margin divided and insulated; the
  tails black, with a narrow white edge._

In Mus. Britt. Nost.

----

This species, hitherto confounded with that peculiar to Surinam, is found
only in Brazil; but its precise geographic range, in that vast empire, has
not been correctly ascertained. We had the pleasure of capturing several
specimens in Lat. 8, 24, S. in the vicinity of Pernambuco, where great
numbers appear during the early weeks of May, and again in June.

On refering to our journals, we find the following note. "_Papilio
Leilus._--Great numbers of this insect were flying during the whole of the
morning, past _Aqua Fria_ (Pernambuco), in a direction from north to south:
not one deviated from this course, notwithstanding the flowers which were
growing around: they flew against the wind, which blew rather strong, and
near the ground, but mounted over every tree or other high object which lay
in their course; yet their flight was so rapid, that I could not capture a
single specimen. They went singly, and near fifty or sixty must have passed
the spot opposite the window, before mid-day: they continued to pass for
three or four days in this manner. 12th June, 1817." Now it is clear that
these insects could not have come from so far north as Surinam, where only
the other species is found; and they certainly do not migrate to the more
southern latitude of Rio de Janeiro. As we have never seen this species in
the London Cabinets, we have deposited a specimen in the British Museum,
that our entomologists may become acquainted with the structure of the
feet.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MALACOCIRCUS _Striatus._

_Striped Babbler._]


MALACOCIRCUS striatus.

_Striated Babbler._

----

Family Merulidæ. Sub-fam. Crateropodinæ. Sw. _North. Zool. 2, p 156._ Genus
Malacocircus.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Bill rasorial, i. e. short, high at the base, conspicuously arched from
  the front, where the feathers are divided; tip obsoletely notched. Tarsi
  thick, moderate; the scales entire. Wings and tail rounded.

SUB-GENERA. Megalurus. Pomatorhinus. _Horsf._ Malacocircus. Leptonyx. _Sw._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Entirely light brown: wings and tail darker, the quills marked by
  transverse dark lines: bill and feet yellow: margin of the quills
  changeable greyish white._

  Gracula striata. _Mus. Paris._

----

The Babblers, or long legged Thrushes, (forming the sub-family
_Crateropodinæ_, Sw.) are almost exclusively confined to the warmer
latitudes of the old world; extending to the north as far as Egypt, and to
the south over the greatest part of Australia. Like all birds which belong
to the natatorial type, the majority of the species live in the vicinity of
water. Their voice, like that of _Donacobius_, Sw. is particularly
discordant, and many of them appear to be gregarious. The present species
we received from Ceylon, but without any notice of its habits: another
specimen is in the Paris Museum, under the manuscript name of _Gracula
striata_, from the circumstance of the scapular quills, and also the tail
feathers, being marked with transverse lines of a darker brown, varying in
intensity according to the rays of light.

We have not yet sufficiently worked out this intricate and little known
group: the very existence of which was first announced in North. Zool. 2,
p. 156. According to our present views, the genera yet characterized appear
to be _Crateropus_, _Malacocircus_, _Pellornium_, and _Timalia_. To
_Crateropus_, we at present refer the sub-genera _Grallina_, Vieil,
_Cinclosoma_, H. & V. and _Aipunemia_, Sw.; while those of _Malacocircus_
are probably _Megalurus_, H. _Pomatorhinus_, H. and _Leptonyx_, Sw. Under
the genus _Timalia_, we place _Psophodes_ and _Dasyornis_, H. & V.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MITREOLA.

_1. monodonta.  2. terebellum. 3. Mitra acuminata._]


MITREOLA monodonta,

_The Volute Mitres._

----

Family Volutidæ. Sub-family Mitranæ. Genus Mitreola. _Sw._

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Shell fusiform, smooth; the middle plaits of the pillar largest apex of the
spire generally papillary.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell ovate, acute, smooth; spire slightly striated, the tip papillary;
  outer lip within, gibbous._

  Mitra monodonta. _Lam. Syst. 7, p. 324._

----

We feel much obliged to Mr. G. B. Sowerby for calling our attention to the
remarkable construction of this Volute Mitre, of which we had not then seen
a specimen. We view it as supplying that link of connection between the
_Volutinæ_ and the _Mitranæ_, the Volute and the Mitre shells, which we had
long been in search of. Of the genus, however, we know as yet but of two
species, represented on the plate somewhat larger than their natural size.
We have also added a figure of our _Mitra acuminata_, to shew how
beautifully _Mitreola_ is represented by the fourth type of the genus
_Mitra_, as now restricted, to which type (represented by _M. Zebra_),
_acuminata_ also belongs: both, as prototypes of the _Strombidæ_, have the
outer lip gibbous near the top; but the plaits of the pillar are totally
different, while the spire of one is acute, and of the other papillary. _M.
monodonta_ is a Grignon fossil: some specimens are so well preserved, that
the colours may be traced in the appearance of zebra-like stripes: thus
strongly corroborating our views on its true analogies.

----


MITRA terebellum.

  _Shell fusiform, turrited, smooth, base striated; channel sub-entire._
  Mitra terebellum. _Lam. Sys. 7, 325. Ency. Meth. pl. 392, a, b, c, d?_

----

Of this Grignon fossil, we have but one specimen: it agrees with Lamarck's
description, but not with the figure he quotes; and it may possibly be a
distinct species between his _M. plicatella_ and _terebellum_. The plaits
are like those of _M. monodonta_; but the tip of the spire is acute, and
slightly plaited.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: LEILUS _Occidentalis_. _Sw._]


LEILUS Occidentalis,

_West India Emerald-Butterfly._

----


SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Posterior wings with a flame-coloured, irregularly indented, marginal
  band; tails black, with emerald green spots._

  Papilio Sloaneus. Cramer. _pl. 85. e. f. vol. 1. p. 134._

  Papilio Leilus. var. _Fab. Ent. Syst. 3. 1. 22._

----

Specimens of this rare and splendid species, sent to our museum from the
island of Jamaica, enable us to complete the illustration of the only three
American species of this type hitherto discovered. It is in all probability
the same as that figured by Cramer; particularly as his specimens came from
the same locality. Even a superficial comparison of this figure with those
on our two last plates, will shew the error of Fabricius and others, in
classing them all under the same name. We have represented the species in
that attitude which is assumed by _L. Braziliensis_, when at rest; the
wings of which species are sometimes _less_ but never _more_ expanded: the
fruit, upon which the insect is reposing, is the common West India
_Banana_, shewing its natural size.

In drawing the attention of Entomologists to the anatomical details of this
typical example of the genus _Leilus_, it will be readily perceived that
the obscurity which has involved its natural affinities, has entirely
arisen from ignorance of its structure. At a time when minute and obscure
Coleoptera are submitted to the most delicate dissection, under powerful
magnifiers, the LEPIDOPTERA, not only the most striking and splendid of all
insects, _but the pre-eminent type of the_ ANNULOSA, have been
comparatively neglected. We cannot otherwise account for this, but by
remembering that the influence of fashion is universal, and that she is
always followed by the majority. This exclusive devotion however, to one
order, is highly detrimental to the study of the natural system; or with so
many profound Entomologists who have gone before us, it would not have been
left for us to make known the fact, that the sub-family _Papilionæ_,
represents the sub-family _Harpalinæ_, (Harpalidæ, _Auct._) And that this
analogy is not only demonstrable by the peculiar construction of their
_tibiæ_, but by the parallel relations and by the circular affinities of
the COLEOPTERA and the LEPIDOPTERA.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: LEILUS _Orientalis_. _Sw._]


LEILUS Orientalis.

_Oriental Emerald Butterfly._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Posterior wings six tailed; anal angle with a large flame-coloured
  space, varied with black spots; tails unequal, whiteish._

  Papilio Rhipheus. _Cramer, Vol. 2, page 193, pl. 385, fig. A. B._

----

That the natural affinities of this superb and highly interesting group of
insects should be no longer a matter of doubt, we are induced to deviate,
for the first time, from our usual practice. On this and the next plate we
have copied two figures of insects which we have never seen, for the
purpose of bringing them immediately before the eye of the entomologist,
and of clearing up some remarkable facts concerning them.

The first of these is taken from Cramer, who calls it _Pap. Rhipheus_, from
an unaccountable idea that it was the same species as one figured by Drury,
under that name. He imagines that this latter figure was made from a
mutilated specimen, in which the tails had been broken off, and that _his_,
consequently, represented the insect in its perfect state. Every succeeding
writer, so far as we can discover, has taken up this idea, without the
precaution of investigating its correctness. Now it follows that if the two
species were the same, the posterior wings of _Cramer's_, would be spotted
like those of _Drury's_, yet they are essentially different: a piece of
paper, put over to hide the tails in our present figure, which may then be
compared with the next, will at once explain our meaning: but setting this
aside, Cramer expressly asserts that his insect has the Antennæ "_sans
boutons_", and "_comme filiformes_", and very justly compares it with our
_Leilus Surinamensis_, "_mas plus encore_," with _Pap. Orontes_, L.
(_Orontes Noctuïdes_, Sw.) the immediate type to which it leads.

How totally inapplicable this account is to Drury's insect, will be
presently shewn. Cramer has most correctly given the immediate affinities
of this insect. We have no space to state our reasons for considering it,
at present, as a true _Leilus_; although with six tails, instead of _two_.
It may _possibly_, however, be the fifth, or natatorial type, which in our
synopsis of the genus at Pl. 125, we have not ventured to indicate. We have
never seen, or even heard of a specimen in modern cabinets; that figured by
Cramer, was found at Chandernagor, in Bengal, and was in the rich
collection of M. Gigot d'Orcy.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: RHIPHEUS _Dasycephalus. Sw._]


RHIPHEUS dasycephalus.

_Round-winged Emerald Butterfly_

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  Wings black, varied with numerous irregular lines of emerald green;
  posterior with the internal and anal angle, deep blood-red, shining with
  gold and spotted with black.

  Papilio Rhipheus. Drury. Ins. 2, p. 40, pl. 23, 1. 2.

----

If the imagination was taxed to invent, or to concentrate into one figure
all that was splendid, lovely, or rare in the insect world, Nature would
far exceed the poor invention of man by the production of this incomparably
splendid creature; its rarity also is so great, that but one specimen has
ever been seen: this was brought from China, and in 1773, belonged to a
Captain May, of Hammersmith: with whom it was seen by Drury, and drawn by
Harris. It is not however, on this account only that we have been induced
to copy this figure, but because its illustration will clear up one of the
most intricate and perplexing questions, that has hitherto impeded the
natural arrangement of the Linnæn _Papiliones_, and even of the whole order
of Lepidoptera.

The error of Cramer, regarding _Rhipheus_ has already been rectified. It
will now be demonstrated that not only are the two insects distinct as
_species_, but that they actually belong to different _genera_. Cramer's
being a _Urania_ of Fabricius and Latrielle, while Drury's is a _Papilio_
of the same authors. This is proved by the figures; and confirmed by the
following words of Drury, "_The antennæ are black, and knobbed at their
extremities_," in other words, clavate; while the palpi, as expressed in
the figure, are so small as not to project beyond the head, where they lie
hid in the frontal hairs: this also being a typical distinction of the
Latrellian _Papiliones_. The figures in Drury's work were all drawn and
engraved by Moses Harris, well known as one of the most accurate artists
that ever lived: as a remarkable proof of this, we find that he has not
failed to delineate that peculiar nuration of the anterior wings, which
belongs only to the types of _Leilus_. A closer affinity therefore between
_Papilio_ and _Leilus_ cannot possibly be imagined: while its remarkably
hairy front, points out its analogy, as an aberrant type in its own genus,
to _Chlorisses_, among insects, and _Dasycephala_ among birds. So true it
is that the natural system "illuminates with a flood of light" every
supposed anomaly, and reconciles facts apparently the most inexplicable.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: LYCÆNA _Dispar_.]


LYCÆNA dispar.

_The Large British Copper._

----

Family Erycinidæ. Sub-family Theclinæ. Sw. Genus Polyommatus.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Wings (typically) obtuse, rounded; anterior having the external margin
  shorter than the posterior: posterior wings entire or nearly so:
  destitute both of filiform caudal appendages, and of metallic anal spots.
  _Nob._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Posterior wings obsoletely dentated, particularly at the anal angle:
  club of the antennæ short, spatulate; palpi hairy, the last joint
  lengthened, acute, naked, obliquely vertical._ _Type._ L. Phlæas.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings coppery: the male with two discoid black dots on the anterior, and
  one on the posterior wings: club of the antennæ elongated and fusiform._
  (_Aberrant._)

  Papilio Hippothoë. Lewen's Pap. pl. 40.

  Pap. dispar. Haworth. Lep. Brit. p. 40. Stevens. Brit. Ent. 1. p. 82. Pl.
  3

----

As considerable misconception appears to exist regarding the type of the
tenuirostral or vermiform family of the Diurnal Lepidoptera, we shall
endeavour to illustrate this subject. Our concluding number is accordingly
devoted to the genus _Polyommatus_ of Latrielle, and its subordinate types
or sub-genera. These compose, what we have elsewhere defined, a natural and
perfect group; (_North. Zool. 2, 288_) inasmuch as it has been tested by
the analogies, and conformed by the representations, which it bears to
innumerable others, both in the Annulose and vertebrated circles. According
to this analysis, both _Lycæna_ and _Polyommatus_, strictly so termed,
instead of being types either of families or sub-families, are of one and
the same genus: which genus, moreover, is but the portion of the aberrant
group of the _Theclinæ_. The typical forms of the genus _Erycina_,
exclusively confined to Tropical America, constitute, in fact, the
pre-eminent perfection of the family in question.

As _Lycæna_ represents the _Nymphalidæ_, or sub-typical family of the
Diurnal Butterflys, so is it the sub-typical form of the genus
_Polyommatus_. Its geographic range is wide, being extended to the
temperate latitudes of both hemispheres. The largest British species is
that now figured, from the identical specimens mentioned by Lewin.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: POLYOMMATUS _Cassius_.]


POLYOMMATUS Cassius.

_Brazilian Blue._

----

Family Erycinidæ. Sub-family Theclinæ. Genus Polyommatus (The typical
sub-genus.)

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Wings entire, obtuse; the posterior rounded, particularly at the anal
  angle. Palpi covered and fringed with long hair; the last joint distinct
  and nearly naked. Antennæ with a lengthened, fusiform, spatulate club.
  Colour blue, beneath ocellated.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Male: wings sub-diaphanous, blue, immaculate; whitish near the anal
  angle. Female: the disk of all white, with black spots and borders. In
  both sexes, beneath white, with blackish dots: those on the anterior
  wings transverse and confluent._

  Pap. Cassius. (the female) _Cramer, pl. 23, fig. C. D._

----

We have elsewhere pointed out, as one of the peculiar distinctions of forms
and groups pre-eminently typical, that their geographic distribution is
invariably wide, and generally universal; and that this is one of the
reasons why certain forms are found both in Europe, America, India, and
Australia. This was said of Birds, and the remark is even more applicable
when we look to insects. We accordingly find, that the typical species of
the genus now under consideration, not only spread themselves over all
Europe and Africa, but extend to the Indian islands on one side, and over
the whole of America on the other, without offering more than a sectional
variation of character. It is uncertain, however, whether any species occur
in Australia; for the European type seems to be represented there by the
sub-genus _Erina_. The genus, _collectively_, is a rasorial type,
representing the family _Satyridæ_ among the _Papiliones_,--_Parnassius_
among the _Papilionidæ_,--and the _Paconidæ_ among Birds.

Pol. Cassius is one of the most common species of Brazil, where we found it
frequenting similar situations, and possessing the same habits, as the
ordinary Blues of England. The analysis bestowed upon this group, convinces
us that _Pithecops, H._ is but a section of this sub-genus. The upper
figure represents the male, the lower the female: both are enlarged. The
connecting species between _Polyommatus_ and _Lycæna_ are _Helle_, Hub.
_Lametia_, and _Boeticus_.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: ERINA _pulchella_.]


ERINA pulchella.

_Buff-spotted Blue._

----

Family, Ericinidæ. Sub-fam., Theclinæ. _Sw._ Genus, Polyommatus. _Lat._
Sub-genus, Erina. _Sw._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Wings obtuse, very entire: palpi covered only with compact scales, the
  last joint lengthened, slender, and very naked. Club of the antennæ
  short, broad, and spatulate. Colour, dark blue, spotted beneath.

  _Typical._ Hesp. Erinus. _Fab._ _Aberrant._ Lycæna ignita. _Leach._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings above brown, glossed with blue; anterior with a discoid fulvous
  spot; beneath white: posterior pair with three black dots in the middle._

Mus. Brit. Nost.

----

The passage from _Polyommatus_ to the type now before us, is distinctly
marked by the section (for under that rank we may still retain it), named
_Pithecops_; the palpi of these latter being both hairy, like the typical
_Polyommatus_, and squamose, as in _Erina_: the posterior wings of both are
also much of the same shape. By these blended characters Nature gently
glides into the form now under consideration, which is the satyrian or
_rasorial_ type of the genus; representing the _Satyridæ_, the
_Hipparchianæ_, &c. and which supplies the place of _Polyommatus_, strictly
so termed, on the Australian continent. We have already before us six
species from that country; five of which are typical, but the sixth, the
_L. ignita_ of our friend Dr. Leach (_Zool. Miss. I. pl. 60_), demands
particular attention. We have elsewhere shewn that all aberrant forms unite
into a circle of their own. Now as _Erina_, _Lucia_, and _Naïs_, are the
aberrant forms of the genus _Polyommatus_, so there should be species
either in the first or the last,--that is, in _Erina_ or _Naïs_, which
would exemplify this theory in the present instance. We accordingly find it
demonstrated by _Erina ignita_; for that insect, although essentially
belonging to this type, in the characters of the _palpi_ and _antennæ_,
nevertheless assumes one of the great distinctions of _Naïs_.---_The wings
of the two sexes being different_: the posterior pair in the female are
dentated, while those of the male are completely entire; so that the first
might pass for a _Naïs_, and the second for an _Erina_; both sexes further
shew the union of these two types, by having the under surface of their
wings ornamented, as in _Naïs_, with silvery spots. Our figures, by the
scale, are somewhat enlarged. We have sent a specimen of _E. pulchella_ to
the British Museum for general reference.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: LUCIA _limbaria_.]


LUCIA limbaria.

_Brown-winged Blue._

----

Sub-fam. Theclinæ. Genus Polyommatus. _Lat._ Sub-genus Lucia. _Sw._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Wings horizontally lengthened, entire: palpi very slender, ciliate with
  long hairs, the last joint very minute, scarcely distinguishable. Antennæ
  with a lengthened club, either cylindrical or compressed. Colours
  obscure, moth-like.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings above brown, disk of the anterior fulvous, with two brown spots
  above, and three beneath, encircled with white: posterior beneath varied
  with grey and white, with a central band of square brown spots._

  Hesp. Lucanus? _Fab. Ent. Syst. 3, 1, p. 322. Donovan's Ind. Ins. pl. 43,
  f. 4?_

Mus. Nost.

----

This, which appears the most aberrant type of the genus, immediately
reminds the student of a dark coloured _Erycina_ or a _Phalæna_, both of
which families, as being the Heliconian or Erycinian type of _Polyommatus_,
it truly represents. It is at once known from _Erina_, by its very peculiar
palpi, and by its more lengthened wings. The antennæ of three species now
before us, present a remarkable difference. In two of these, the club is
compressed and spatulate, like that of _Erina_; but in the third, here
figured, it has the cylindrical form belonging to _Naïs_. Which of these
forms is typical, must at present, be undecided; but there cannot be a
stranger link of connection between _Lucia_ and _Naïs_, than the fact of
this species borrowing, as it were, the cylindrical club of the latter.
Without such a link, in short, the series would be imperfect.

As we cannot satisfactorily determine whether the types here figured of
_Lucia_ and _Erina_ are described in books, we have been compelled to
regard them as unnamed. This, and the two other species we possess, are all
from Australia. On bringing the genus _Polyommatus_ to analogical tests,
the only demonstration of a natural group, we find the sub-genera
representing the families of the Diurnal Lepidoptera, in the following
manner:--1. TYPICAL, Polyommatus, _Papilionidæ_.--2. SUB-TYPICAL, Lycæna,
_Nymphalidæ_.--3. ABERRANT, Naïs-_Hesperidæ_, Lucia-_Erycidinæ_, and
Erina-_Satyridæ_.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: NAÏS _splendens_.]


NAÏS splendens.

_Blue-shouldered Copper_.

----

Sub-fam. Theclinæ. Genus Polyommatus. Sub-genus Naïs. _Sw._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Wings sub-angulated; posterior dentated, particularly at the anal angle.
  Copper coloured above, with silvery spots beneath. Antennæ cylindrical,
  thickening from the base: the tip truncate.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings above coppery, with black dots, their basal half-shining blue;
  beneath fulvous; the posterior varied with ferruginous, and marked by
  silvery spots._

  Pap. Naïs. _Cramer, pl. 57, fig. D. E._

----

In every natural group of the diurnal Lepidoptera which we have analysed,
(and the number is somewhat considerable,) there is always one in which the
posterior wings are more than usually tailed; and this seems to be such a
prevalent form throughout the Vertebrata and the Annulosa, that we believe
it is universal: in other words, that it is one of the PRIMARY TYPES of
Nature. We have consequently termed it the _natatorial_, since it
represents that order of birds, as the Swallow-tailed _Papiliones_ typify
the Swallows. That we should find this form in a group where the chief
character is the roundness and the integrity of the wings, is certainly
astonishing; but it shews that the laws of Nature are as simple, as they
are universal. The absolute union of this sub-genus with _Lycæna_, with
which we commenced the circle, is palpable to the meanest capacity. All the
species we possess, are from Africa and India. As they represent the
_Argynninæ_, we accordingly find them ornamented with silver spots. The
species now figured, are probably male and female, and were received from
Africa.

We have now given the natural types of an Entomological genus; the only one
that has been attempted, since the demonstration of _Phanæus_ and
_Scarabæus_. These are but three genera, out of many thousands, which at
present have any other foundation, strictly speaking, than mere opinion.
But the great principles of variation are now discovered, and we must hope
that those naturalists of a higher order, who join acknowledged talent to
matured experience, will follow up the subject.

*       *       *       *       *       *



GENERAL INDEX
_OF THE PLATES TO_
VOL. III.
IN THE ORDER OF PUBLICATION.

----


              No. 21.                       pl.
  Trichoglossus Swainsoni                    92
  Protesilaus Leilus                         93
  Cressida Heliconides                       94
  Papilio Memnon                             95
  Caracolla acutissima                       96
              No. 22.
  Prinia familiaris                          97
  Amphrisius Nymphalides                     98
  Achatinella pica                           99
  ---- perversa                              99
  ---- acuta                                 99
  Murex eurystomus                          100
  Polydorus Thoas                           101

              No. 23.
  Ptiliogonys cinereus                      102
  Plecocheilus undulatus                    103
  Protesilaus Swainsonius                   104
  Podalirius Pompilius                      105
  Leptocircus Curius                        106

              No. 24.
  Trogon Mexicanus                          107
  Achatinella bulimoides                    108
  ---- livida                               108
  Phyllonotus Imperialis. var.              109
  Petreus Thetys                            110
  Zeonia Heliconides                        111

              No. 25.
  Leptolophus auricomis                     112
  Centronotus radix                         113
  Jasia Australis                           114
  Teracolus subfasciatus                    115
  Heleona fenestrata                        116

              No. 26.
  Leptonyx macropus                         117
  Byssoarca Zebra                           118
  Apalis thoracica                          119
  Clytia dissimilis                         120
  Thoas Lysithous                           121

              No. 27.
  Pteronotus pinnatus                       122
  Achatinella rosea                         123
  ---- pulcherrima                          123
  Anthomyza Teresia                         124
  ---- Heliconides                          124
  Leilus Surinamensis                       125
  ---- Braziliensis                         126

              No. 28.
  Malacocircus striatus                     127
  Mitreola monodonta                        128
  ---- terebellum                           128
  Mitra acuminata                           128
  Leilus Occidentalis                       129
  ---- Orientalis                           130
  Rhipheus dasycephalus                     131

              No. 29.
  Lycæna dispar                             132
  Polyommatus Cassius                       133
  Erina pulchella                           134
  Lucia limbaria                            135
  Naïs splendens                            136

*       *       *       *       *       *



GENERAL ALPHABETIC INDEX
TO
VOL. III.

----

  Achatinella, Generic character             99
  ---- acuta                                 99
  ---- bulimoides                           108
  ---- livida                               108
  ---- perversa                              98
  ---- pulcherrima                          123
  ---- pica                                  99
  ---- _Plates of_                 99, 108, 123
  Amphrisius, Nymphalides                    98
  Anthomyza Tiresia                         124
  ---- heliconides                          124
  Apalis thoracica                          119
  Apaloderma, _sub-generic character_       107
  _Ark-shell, Zebra_                        118
  Arca, _The sub-genera of_                 118
  _Babbler, Great-footed_                   117
  ---- _Striated_                           127
  _Blues, The small_                 132 to 136
  _Burnet, Australian_                      116
  ---- _Three-banded_                       124
  ---- _Heliconian_                         124
  Calurus, _sub-generic character_          107
  Caracolla acutissima                       96
  Centronotus radix, (_Murex_)              113
  Clytia dissimilis                         120
  Cressida heliconides                       94
  Crateropodinæ, _The genera of_            127
  _Copper, Large British_                   132
  ---- _blue shouldered_                    136
  _Emerald Butterfly, Brazilian_            126
  ---- _Surinam_                            125
  ---- _West Indian_                        129
  ---- _Oriental_                           130
  ---- _Round-winged_                       131
  Erina pulchella                           134
  Hapactes, _sub-generic character_         107
  Heleona fenestrata                        110
  Jasia australis                           114
  Leptolophus auricomis                     112
  Leptonyx macropus                         117
  Leptocircus curius                        106
  Leilus, The sub-genera of                 125
  ---- Braziliensis                         126
  ---- Occidentalis                         129
  ---- Orientalis                           132
  _Lory-parrakeet, Blue bellied_             92
  ---- _Swainsonian_                         92
  Lucia limbaria                            135
  Marius (Petreus) Thetys                   110
  Malacocircus striatus                     127
  Mitra acuminata                           128
  Mitreola _generic character_              128
  ---- monodonta                            128
  ---- terebellum                           128
  Murex, Analogies of the sub-genera        109
  ---- (Centronotus) Radix                  113
  ---- (Pteronotus) pinnatus                112
  ---- (Phyllonotus) eurystomus             100
  ---- imperialis                           109
  Nais splendens                            126
  Orontes, _sub-generic character_          125
  Papilio Memnon                             95
  Patersonia glauca                         116
  _Parrakeet, blue bellied_                  92
  ---- _golden eared_                       112
  Phyllonotus imperialis                    109
  Pteronotus pinnatus                       112
  Ptiliogonys cinereus                      102
  Plecocheilus undulatus                    103
  Podalirius Pompilius                      105
  Polyommatus, _The sub-genera of_      132-136
  ---- Cassius                              133
  Polydorus Thoas                           101
  Prinia familiaris                          97
  Protesilaus Swainsonius                   104
  ---- Leilus                                93
  Rhipheus dasycephalus                     131
  _Short foot, Yellow vented_               102
  _Snail, Waved Pupa_                       103
  ---- _Caracolla_                           96
  _Swallow-tail, Brazilian_                  93
  ---- _Swainsonian_                        104
  ---- _Javanese_                           107
  Trogon, _The sub-genera of_               107
  ---- Mexicanus, female                    107
  Teracolus sub-fasciatus                   115
  Thoas Lysithous                           121
  ---- _The Sectional Types_                121
  Trichoglossus Swainsoni                    92
  _Volute mitres, The_                      128
  _Warbler, Gorget_                         119
  Zeonia heliconides                        111

*       *       *       *       *       *



INDEX

TO THE INSECTS.

(SECOND SERIES.)

----

_In the order of Publication._

                                            pl.
  Protesilaus Niamus                         32
  Rhetus Crameri                             33
  Marius Cinna                               45
  Eudamus Agesilaus                          48
  ---- Doryssus                              48
  Petreus Thetys                             59
  Eurymus Philodice                          60
  Amynthia Swainsonia                        63
  Pieris Nigrina                             69
  Eurymus Europome                           70
  Euterpe Teria                              74
  Peleus Æacus                               75
  ---- Gentius                               75
  Melete Limnobia                            79
  Endymion Regalis                           85
  Arcas Imperialis                           88
  Chlorisses Sarpedon                        89
  Jasia Athama                               90
  Protesilaus Leilus                         93
  Cressida heliconides                       94
  Papilio Mémnon                             95
  Amphrisius Nymphalides                     98
  Polydorus Thoas                           101
  Protesilaus Swainsonius                   104
  Podalirius Pompilius                      105
  Leptocircus Curius                        106
  Petreus Thetys (larva)                    110
  Zeonia heliconides                        111
  Jasia Australis                           114
  Teracolus subfasciatus                    115
  Heleona fenestrata                        116
  Clytia dissimilis                         120
  Thoas Lysithous                           121
  Anthomyza Teresia                         124
  ---- heliconides                          124
  Leilus Surinamensis                       125
  ---- Braziliensis                         126
  ---- Occidentalis                         129
  ---- Orientalis                           130
  Rhipheus dasycephalus                     131
  Lycæna dispar                             132
  Polyommatus Casseus                       133
  Erina pulchella                           134
  Lucia limbaria                            135
  Naïs splendens                            136

*       *       *       *       *       *



_Systematic Arrangement._

  PAPILIONIDÆ. _Sw._
                                            pl.
  Pieris Nigrina                             69
  Euterpe Teria                              74
  Melete Limnobia                            79
  Clytia dissimilis                         120
  Amphrisius Nymphalides                     98
  Polydorus Thoas                           101
  Protesilaus Leilus                         93
  ---- Swainsonius                          104
  ---- Niamus                                32
  Podalirius Pompilius                      105
  Cressida heliconides                       94
  Thoas Lysithous                           121
  Papilio Memnon                             95
  Chlorisses Sarpedon                        89
  Rhipheus dasycephalus                     131
  Leilus Surinamensis                       125
  ---- Braziliensis                         126
  ---- Occidentalis                         129
  ---- Orientalis                           130
  Leptocircus Curius                        106
  Eurymus Philodice                          60
  ---- Europome                              70
  Amynthia Swainsonia                        63
  Teracolus subfasciatus                    115

  Fam. NYMPHALIDÆ. _Sw._
  Marius Cinna                               45
  Petrius Thetys                             59
  ---- larva and pupa                       110
  Jasia Athama                               90
  ---- Australis                            114

  Fam. ERYCINIDÆ. _Sw._
  Rhetus Crameri                             33
  Zeonia heliconides                        111
  Endymion regalis                           85
  Arcas Imperialis                           88
  Lycæna dispar                             132
  Polyommatus Cassius                       133
  Erina pulchella                           134
  Lucia limbaria                            135
  Naïs splendens                            135

  Fam. HESPERIDÆ. _Sw._
  Eudamus Agesilaus                          48
  ---- Doryssus                              48
  Peleus Æacus                               75
  ---- Gentius                               75

  Tribe. SPHINGIDES. _Sw._
  Heleona fenestrata                        116
  Anthomyza Teresia                         124
  ---- heliconides                          124

*       *       *       *       *       *



INDEX

TO THE SHELLS.

(SECOND SERIES.)

----

_In the order of Publication._

                                            pl.
  Ancilliaria rubiginosa                      4
  Mitra melaniana                             5
  ---- tessellata                             5
  Ampullaria carinata                         9
  Unio truncatus                             10
  Marmarostoma undulata                      14
  Voluta bullata                             15
  Anodon areolatus                           18
  Mitra bicolor                              19
  ---- carinata                              19
  ---- strigata                              19
  Tellina latirostra                         20
  Lingula anatina                            24
  ---- hians                                 25
  Melania amarula                            29
  ---- setosa                                29
  Mitra fulva                                30
  ---- ambigua                               30
  ---- punctata                              30
  Rostellaria curvirostris                   34
  Ampullaria Nilotica                        38
  ---- subcarinata                           38
  Strombus Peruvianus                        39
  Oliva volutella                            40
  ---- striata                               40
  Marginella oblonga                         44
  ---- guttata                               44
  Mitra episcopalis                          49
  Tiara Isabella                             50
  ---- sulcata                               50
  Volutilithes muricata                      53
  ---- pertusa                               53
  Mitrella fusca, occellata                  54
  ---- olivæformis                           54
  Margarita crocata                          55
  Olivella purpurata                         58
  ---- eburnea                               58
  Ampullaria fasciata                        64
  Conus lithoglyphus                         65
  Murex imperialis                           67
  Conus fumigatus                            68
  ---- franciscanus                          68
  Murex erythrostomus                        73
  Harpula vexillum                           77
  Hiatula Lamarcii                           78
  ---- pallida                               78
  ---- maculosa                              78
  Cymbiola vespertilio                       83
  Voluta cymbium                             84
  Scapbella maculata                         87
  Geotrochus pileus                          91
  Caracolla acutissima                       96
  Achatinella pica, perversa                 99
  ---- acuta                                 99
  ---- bulimoides                           108
  ---- livida                               108
  ---- rosea                                123
  ---- pulcherrima                          123
  Murex eurystomus                          100
  Plecocheilus undulatus                    103
  Phyllonotus Imperialis                    109
  Centronotus radix                         113
  Byssoarca Zebra                           118
  Pteronotus pinnatus                       122
  Mitreola monodonta                        128
  ---- terebellum                           128
  Mitra acuminata                           128

*       *       *       *       *       *



_In Systematic Order._

  VOLUTIDÆ.
                                            pl.
  Voluta cymbium                             84
  ---- bullata                               15
  Cymbiola vespertilio                       83
  Harpula vexillum                           77
  Volutilithes muricata                      53
  ---- pertusa                               53
  Schaphella maculata                        87
  Mitra episcopalis                          49
  ---- melaniana                              5
  ---- tessellata                             5
  ---- bicolor                               19
  ---- carinata                              19
  ---- strigata                              19
  ---- fulva                                 30
  ---- ambigua                               30
  ---- punctata                              30
  ---- acuminata                            128
  Tiara Isabella                             50
  ---- sulcata                               50
  Mitrella fusca. ocellata                   54
  ---- olivæformis                           54
  Mitreola monodonta                        128
  ---- terebellum                           128
  Oliva volutella                            40
  ---- striata                               40
  Olivella purpurata                         58
  ---- eburnea                               58
  Hiatula Lamarcii                           78
  ---- pallida                               78
  ---- maculosa                              78
  Ancillaria rubiginosa                       4
  Marginella oblonga                         44
  ---- guttata                               44

  MURICIDÆ.
  Murex (Phyllonotus) Imperialis        67, 109
  ---- eurystomus                           100
  ---- erythrostomus                         73
  Centronotus radix                         113
  Pteronotus pinnatus                       122

  STROMBIDÆ.
  Strombus Peruvianus                        39
  Rostellaria curvirostris                   34
  Conus lithoglyphus                         65
  ---- fumigatus                             68
  ---- franciscanus                          68

  HELICIDÆ.
  Ampullaria carinata                         9
  ---- Nilotica                              38
  ---- subcarinata                           38
  ---- fasciata                              64
  Melania amarula and setosa                 29
  Achatinella, six species,        99, 108, 123
  Geotrochus pileus                          91
  Caracolla acutissima                       96
  Plecocheilus undulatus                    103

  TURBIDÆ.
  Marmarostoma undulata                      14

  BIVALVES.
  Unio truncatus                             10
  Anodon areolatus                           18
  Tellina latirostra                         20
  Margarita crocata                          55
  Lingula aratina                            24
  ---- hians                                 25
  Byssoarca zebra                           113

*       *       *       *       *       *



INDEX

TO THE BIRDS.

(SECOND SERIES.)

----

_In the order of Publication._

  Psittacus vernalis                          1
  Polyborus Braziliensis                      2
  Setophaga picta                             3
  Parra Africana                              6
  Cuculus nigricans                           7
  Lorius Isidorii                             8
  Thriothorus Mexicanus                      11
  Lorius Garrulus                            12
  Coccyzus Levaillantii                      13
  Paleornis Pondicerianus                    16
  Hirundo fasciata                           17
  Nanodes venustus                           21
  Icterus Cayanensis                         22
  Drymophyla longipes                        23
  Platycercus scapularis                     26
  Drymophila fasciata                        27
  Aglaïa gyrola                              28
  ---- flava                                 31
  Psaris Jardinii                            35
  Petroïca multicolor                        36
  Ploceus Textor                             37
  Psaris cristatus                           41
  Chætura macroptera                         42
  Petroïca bicolor                           43
  Fluvicola cursoria                         46
  Macropteryx longipennis                    47
  Sylvia Regulus                             51
  Phoenicornis flammeus                      52
  Nyctiornis amictus                         56
  Culicivora atricapilla                     57
  Gryllivora Saularis                        61
  Ptiliogonys cinereus                       62
  Todus viridis                              66
  Malaconotus Barbarus                       71
  Donacobius vociferans                      72
  Malaconotus atro-coccineus                 76
  Crateropus Reinwardii                      80
  Prionites Mexicanus                        81
  Trogon Mexicanus                           82
  Garrulus sordidus                          86
  Trichoglossus Swainsoni                    92
  Prinia familiaris                          97
  Ptiliogonys cinereus                      102
  Trogon Mexicanus. mas                     107
  Leptolophus auricomis                     112
  Leptonyx macropus                         117
  Apalis thoracica                          119
  Malacocircus striatus                     127

*       *       *       *       *       *



_In Systematic Order._

  FALCONIDÆ.
  Polyborus Braziliensis                      1

  LANIADÆ.
  Malaconotus Barbarus                       71
  ---- atro-coccineus                        76
  Phænicornis flammeus                       52
  Ptiliogonys cinereus    male, 62. female, 120

  MERULIDÆ.
  Drymophila longipes                        23
  ---- fasciata                              27
  Donacobius vociferans                      72
  Crateropus Reinwardii                      80
  Leptonyx macropus                         117
  Malacocircus striatus                     127

  SYLVIADÆ.
  Sylvia Regulus                             51
  Petroica multicolor                        36
  ---- bicolor                               43
  Setophaga picta                             3
  Culicivora atricapilla                     57
  Apalis thoracica                          119
  Prinia familiaris                          97
  Gryllivora saularis                        61

  MUSCICAPIDÆ.
  Psaris Jardinii                            35
  ---- cristatus                             41
  Fluvicola cursoria                         46
  Todus viridis                              66

  FRINGILLIDÆ.
  Aglaia gyrola                              28
  ---- flava                                 31
  Ploceus textor                             37

  STURNIDÆ, CORVIDÆ.
  Icterus Cayanensis                         22
  Garrulus sordidus                          86

  PSITTACIDÆ.
  Psittacus vernalis                          1
  Lorius Isidorii                             8
  ---- Garrulus                              12
  Trichoglossus Swainsoni                    92
  Paleornis Pondicerianus                    16
  Nanodes venustus                           21
  Platycircus scapularis                     26
  Leptolophus auricomis                     112

  CUCULIDÆ, CERTHIADÆ.
  Cuculus nigricans                           7
  Coccyzus Levaillantii                      13
  Thryothorus Mexicanus                      11

  FISSIROSTRES.
  Hirundo fasciata                           17
  Chætura macroptera                         42
  Macropteryx longipennis                    47
  Nyctiornis amictus                         56
  Prionites Mexicanus                        81
  Trogon Mexicanus        female, 82. male, 107
  ----
  Parra Africana                              6

*       *       *       *       *       *



LIST OF ORIGINAL SUBSCRIBERS,

WHO HAVE SENT THEIR NAMES.

----

  AUDUBON, J. J. Esq., America
  BAYFIELD, Mr. G., Walworth
  BONAPARTE, CHARLES LUCIAN, PRINCE of Musignano, Rome
  BOLTON, Mrs. Liverpool
  BOX----Esq., Night Rider Street
  BREE, The Rev. W. T. Allesley, Rectory, Warwickshire
  CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY
  CASE, Mrs. J. DEAN, Liverpool
  CORRIE, Mrs. Woodville, Birmin.
  DOBSON, BENJAMIN, Esq., Bolton
  CHILDREN, J. GEO. Esq., British Museum
  GOODALL, The Very Rev. Dr. _Provost of Eton_
  GRAY, J. E. Esq. British Museum
  GRAY, JOHN, Esq. Whitefield House, near Bolton
  GALTON, Miss, Birmingham
  GRIFFITHS, E. Esq. Gray's Inn
  HOOKER, Professor, Glasgow
  HARDWICKE, GENERAL, Lambeth
  HORSFIELD, Dr, East India House
  HICK, B. Esq. Bolton
  HILL, LADY, Hawkestone Citadel
  JARDINE, SIR WM. BART., Jardine Hall, Dumfrieshire
  KENNEDY, Mrs. Manchester
  LESSON, M. J. P., Paris
  LEDSAM, JOHN, Esq. Birmingham
  LITTLEDALE, Mrs. GEO., Liverpool
  LINCOLN, AB. Esq. Highbury Place
  LYNES, Mrs. Stourbridge
  MAUD, THE REV. P. BATH
  MAUD, CHARLES, Esq. Bath
  MILLS, Mrs. Warwickshire
  MOILLIET, J. L. Esq. Birmingham
  MOSELEY, Mrs. Leaton Hall, Stourbridge
  NEWCOME, The Rev. T. Shenley
  NORTHUMBERLAND, HER GRACE THE DUTCHESS OF
  PERCY, The HON. Mrs. C. Bertie Guy's Cliff, Warwick
  PHILLIPS, Mrs. Stirchley Rectory
  PHIPSON, WM. Esq. Birmingham
  RAFFLES, The Rev. Dr. Liverpool
  RUSSELL, WM. Esq. Birmingham
  ROGET, Dr. London
  SELBY, P. JOHN, Twizel House
  SCORESBY, The Rev. H., Leeds
  SHERBOURNE., ROBT. Esq. Liverpool
  STOREY, J. SAMUEL, Esq. St. Albans
  SMITH, Mrs. NEWMAN, Croydon
  THOYTS, Mrs. Oakfield, Reading
  TIMPERON, Mrs. New Barnes, near St. Albans
  WEBSTER, MISS, Birmingham
  WILLIAMS, Professor. For the Radcliffe Library
  WILSON, JAMES, Esq. Edinburgh
  WOOD, CHARLES, Esq. Secretary of the Treasury
  WOOD, J. S. Esq. Glasgow

          SECEDERS.

  BOSTOCK, Dr. London
  MARTINEAUX, Mrs. Norwich
  YATES, The Rev. J. London
  ---- MISS E. Liverpool

----

*** _As the short notice given to the public has prevented many from
sending their names, the possession of this list, will serve to distinguish
such copies of the work, the plates of which, have passed the inspection of
the author._

*       *       *       *       *       *



Notes.

[1] 9, Trafalgar Street, Walworth.

       *       *       *       *       *



Corrections made to printed text

Plate 92: 'elsewhere' corrected from 'elsewere'

Plate 94: 'transverse' (spots) corrected from 'transvere'

Plate 97, plate caption and Genus: 'PRINIA' corrected from 'PRINEA'

Plate 100, plate caption: 'eurystomus' corrected from 'euristomus'

Plate 102, headings: 'PTILIOGONYS' corrected from 'PLILIOGONYS' (twice)

Plate 103: 'hermaphrodite' corrected from 'hermaphrotide'

Plate 109: 'Mollusca' corrected from 'Mollusa'

Ib., in table: 'Amphibia' corrected from 'Amphibea'

Plate 111: (Leptocircus) 'Curius' corrected from 'heliconides'. Cf.  plate
106 and all the indexes

Plate 113: 'transversely' corrected from 'trasversely'

Plate 116: 'Lepidopterous' corrected from 'Lepedopterous'

Plate 118, in headings: 'Arca' corrected from 'Area'

Plate 119: (in heading and again under Specific Character) 'thoracica'
corrected from 'thoracia'

Ib.: 'structure' corrected from 'structue'

Plate 120, main title: 'dissimilis' corrected from 'dissimiles'; again
under 'Types'

Plate 122: 'aberrant' corrected from 'abberant'

Plate 133, heading: 'POLYOMMATUS' corrected from 'PLOYOMMATUS'

Plate 133: (The upper figure represents the) 'male' corrected from 'female'

Alphabetic index: (Heleona) 'fenestrata' corrected from 'fenetrata'

Alphabetic index to the Insects: Heleona fenestrata '116' corrected from
'110' and re-ordered

Systematic index to the Insects: (Cressida) 'heliconides' corrected from
'helinonides'

Alphabetic index to the Shells: (Marmarostoma) 'undulata' corrected from
'uudulata'

Systematic index to the Shells: (Ampullaria) 'subcarinata' corrected from
'snbcarinata'

Indexes to the Birds (both): Trogon Mexicanus, '82' corrected from '81'

Systematic index to the Birds: 'Trogon' corrected from 'Togon'





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Zoological Illustrations, or Original Figures and Descriptions. Volume III, Second Series" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home