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Title: Zoological Illustrations, or Original Figures and Descriptions. Volume II, Second Series
Author: Swainson, William
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Zoological Illustrations, or Original Figures and Descriptions. Volume II, Second Series" ***

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

       *       *       *       *       *



Zoological Illustrations,

OR

ORIGINAL FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS

OF

NEW, RARE, OR INTERESTING

ANIMALS,

SELECTED CHIEFLY FROM THE CLASSES OF

Ornithology, Entomology, and Conchology,

AND ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THEIR APPARENT AFFINITIES.

BY

WM. SWAINSON, ESQ., F.R.S., F.L.S.

ASSISTANT COMMISSARY GENERAL TO H. M. FORCES. CORRESPONDING MEMBER
OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF PARIS; HONORARY MEMBER
OF THE HISTORIC SOCIETY OF NEW YORK; MEMBER OF
THE WERNERIAN SOCIETY, &c. &c. &c.

VOL. II.

SECOND SERIES.

London:

PRINTED BY W. J. SPARROW, BERNERS MEWS, BERNERS STREET.

PUBLISHED BY BALDWIN & CRADOCK, PATERNOSTER ROW,

AND R. HAVELL, 77, OXFORD STREET.

1831-2.

*       *       *       *       *       *



TO HIS MOST CHRISTIAN MAJESTY,

Louis Philippe,

KING OF THE FRENCH,

Whom as a PRIVATE GENTLEMAN, exiled by despotism from his native country,
enjoyed that respect which the dignity of virtue can alone ensure; whom, as
a PRINCE, descended from a race of Kings, gained the affections of a whole
people;--as the KING of a great and intellectual nation, enjoys the love
and veneration of the wise and the good; and as a true PATRON OF SCIENCE,
munificently encourages, both privately and publicly, all who are engaged
in its pursuit,

THIS VOLUME

OF

ZOOLOGICAL ILLUSTRATIONS,

Is dedicated,

WITH SENTIMENTS OF THE HIGHEST ADMIRATION

AND OF THE GREATEST RESPECT,

BY THE AUTHOR.

*       *       *       *       *       *



PREFACE.

----

The present state of science in Britain, the usual subject of our preface,
has recently been discussed by powerful writers;[1] and has drawn from
others,[2] equally eminent, bitter reflections. As regards Zoology, there
is a great show of patronage. Zoological gardens, and new societies have
sprang up: cheap publications, on _popular_ natural history, appear daily;
and professors have been installed at the two London Universities. Yet what
has resulted? We have lecturers expounding systems they do not
comprehend,[3] and we have professors maintaining that a walk into the
fields will make "a very good naturalist."[4] Meantime nearly every
periodical work on pure science has languished or died away. The
_Zoological Journal_ has been discontinued, although nominally patronized
by a society enjoying an enormous annual receipt. The fact, indeed, is but
too apparent, that the science of the country, _speaking generally_, has
become superficial, while "neither literature nor art has been encouraged
in our opulent Island, half as much as they have been by some of the petty
kingdoms of the Continent."[5]

But the political horizon is happily brightening, and the change will
ultimately affect all. The stream of national patronage has long been
prevented from branching off and fertilizing spots, now impoverished and
neglected. Natural History, more than any other science, requires such aid;
because it is inapplicable to the purposes of life; and while its study is
attended with enormous expence, its acquirement leads to nothing tangible.
It is a melancholy fact, that while our present laws crush individual
exertion, by extorting a large number of free copies of the most costly
works, undertaken by their authors without the slightest hope of
remuneration,--the Government of France assigns _for subscriptions_ to such
publications, an annual sum of £10,000.[6] But on questions regarding the
patronage of science, Great Britain, unfortunately, is poorer than any
nation in Europe.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: FLUVICOLA _cursoria_.

_Courier Waterchat._]


FLUVICOLA cursoria.

_Courier Waterchat._

----

Family Todidæ. Sub-Family Fluvicolinæ.

  FLUVICOLINÆ. _Bill_, in general, strong; depressed, the tip abruptly bent
  and notched: _gape_ with stiff bristles. _Tarsi_ long; _toes_ nearly
  free, _claws_ slender and acute. _Scapular covers_ long. _Quill_ and
  _tail_ feathers very broad; but the latter of various shapes. Frequent
  marshy situations in the New World. _Nobis._

GENERIC CHARACTER.--Zool. Journ. No. 10, p. 172.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _White, back brown; wings, stripe on each side the head, and broad
  rounded tail, black; the latter tipt with white._

----

There is to be found, in Tropical America, a singular race of flycatching
birds, whose plumage is black and white. Their haunts are only in the
vicinity of water: they pursue their prey upon the ground, running with
great celerity, and are constantly in motion. They have, in short, all the
manners and habits of the Stone Chats, and when we published the definition
of this genus, we were led to believe it belonged to the Saxicolinæ. The
present species we met with in abundance at Pernambuco, frequenting the
sides of the rivers and lagoons.

It is not surprising that ornithologists, who are so frequently compelled
to form their ideas of natural divisions from mere skins, should be
entirely unacquainted with the group, of which this genus is probably the
type. But it is strange that the full and accurate information concerning
it, which has long ago been furnished by Azara, should have been so utterly
neglected. In the views which we have taken of the affinities of these
birds, we consider they present a point of junction with the Saxicolæ;
passing on one side into the genuine Flycatchers of America, (_Tyrannula_
Sw.) and on the other into the typical Todies. The contents however of this
group, we are but partially acquainted with. It will comprise _Nengetus_,
Sw. _Alecturus_, Vieil, and several other forms now widely scattered in the
newest systems, together with one or two others not yet defined, which we
have only seen in the Paris Museum.

  Since the above was printed, we find the name of _Xolmus_ has just been
  proposed for this genus by M. Boié, he not being of course aware that
  this, and some of his other groups, were published by us three years ago.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MACROPTERYX _longipennis_.

_Long winged crested Swift._]


MACROPTERYX longipennis.

_Javanese crested Swallow._

----

Family Hirundinidæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Bill_ (_fig. 1.2._) small, entire, base depressed and straight, the
  outer half of the culmen suddenly curved; lower mandible straight,
  nostrils large, oblong: _Tarsi_ short, without scales; anterior toes of
  nearly equal length; (_fig. 3.4._) claws strong; hinder toe long, not
  versatile, the claw very short and thick. _Nob._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Above obscure glossy green; throat, breast, and lower part of the back
  light grey; belly, spot on the scapulars, and line over the eye, white;
  ears rufous; front with an incumbent crest._

  Hirundo Klecho, Horsfield, Linn. Trans, xiii. p. 143, female?

  Cypselus longipennis. Pl. Col. Pl. 83, f. 1?

----

To Dr. Horsfield, one of the most successful and scientific investigators
of Oriental Zoology, we are indebted for the first discovery, in Java, of
this charming bird. Of its economy nothing is as yet known; but the
uncommon length of its wings, indicate its possessing the utmost rapidity
of flight. Another, and a much larger species, is among the Ornithological
treasures discovered in the Eastern Archipelago by my estimable friend M.
Lesson, and which he has already communicated to the public. A third is the
_Cypselus Comatus_, of M. M. Temminck and Laugier.

The peculiar structure of these birds oblige us to consider them as forming
a natural group, intermediate between the typical Swifts, and the Swallows.
To the first they are allied by their strong scansorial feet; to the latter
by the length and fixed position of the hind toe, and the depression of the
bill.

We suppose that the figure of the Hirondille longipennes, in the _Planches
Coloriées_, (pl. 83), is intended to represent this species; if so, it is
incorrect, both in drawing, proportion, colouring, and detail.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: EUDAMUS Pl.1.

_1. Agesilaus. 2. Doryssus._]


EUDAMUS Agesilaus.

----

Family Hesperidæ.--_Nob._ (_Anopluriform Stirps. Horsf._)

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Antennæ with the club unequally fusiform, the outer half abruptly bent,
  forming a lengthened, attenuated hook, alike in both sexes; anterior
  wings papilioniform: posterior wings with the caudal appendages very long
  and obtuse.

Type.--_Hesperia Proteus._ Fab.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Posterior wings dark brown, with a broad, entire, cream coloured margin;
  beneath marked with two darker bands, and a basal dot: appendages very
  long, whiteish._

----

The insects composing this group, have only been discovered in the hot
latitudes of America. In the _Systema Naturæ_ one species alone is
recorded; Fabricius was acquainted with three; our own cabinet possesses
eighteen, all collected in a comparatively insignificant portion of Brazil.
Others have been figured by Drury and Cramer, so that the number of species
already known, may probably amount to near thirty.

The flight of these Swallow-tailed _Hesperidæ_, is usually performed in the
morning and evening, and is so rapid, as frequently to elude the eye of the
observer. They rest with _all the four wings perpendicular_, similar to the
Swallow-tailed Butterflies, (_P. Machaon_, &c.) The present is a very rare
species; we captured only two specimens near Bahia.

----

EUDAMUS Doryssus.

  _Posterior wings, with short snowy tails, and a half border of white on
  both sides; beneath brown, with a few paler dots near the base._

----

The sexes of this species materially differ. Our figure represents the
female: in the male, the wings are browner, and highly glossed at their
base with green; the snowy border on the posterior wings is very narrow
above, but much broader beneath. It appears very locally distributed; we
found it common in the vicinity of Bahia.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MITRANÆ Pl. 4.

_Mitra episcopalis._]


MITRA Episcopalis.

----

Family Volutidæ.--Sub-Family Mitrianæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Animal_----

  _Shell_ never turrited or plaited, ovate-fusiform, the _base_ wide,
  obtuse, and truncated: _pillar_ with 4 plaits: the plaits simple. _Outer
  lip_ crenulated, or toothed: _Aperture_ at the base effuse, smooth
  within, and destitute of an internal groove. _Nobis._

  Types of Form.

  1, _M. episcopalis_. 2, _papalis_. 3, _scabriuscula_. 4, _Zebra_. 5,
  _ferruginea_.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell with the spire thickened, and marked by transverse punctured dots:
  white with crimson spots; inferior spots small and quadrate, the superior
  large and irregular; pillar 4 plaited._

  Voluta vel Mitra episcopalis, _Auct._ (Lam. Syst. 7. 299.)

----

We view this elegant, though common shell, as the type of the Lamarkean
Mitres, a group we shall hereafter consider as a sub-family. It is common
in various parts of the Asiatic Ocean, and sometimes occurs of gigantic
size: in its natural state it is covered with a thin olive epidermis.

We regret that the nature of this work will not permit us to do more than
furnish the clue, to the natural arrangement of the two typical groups of
this family, _Voluta_ and _Mitra_. The first of these we have, indeed,
pledged ourselves to enter upon more fully in _Exotic Conchology_. But the
arrangement of the Volutes is so intimately connected with that of the
Mitres, that we scarcely know how to illustrate one, without perpetually
adverting to the other.

The two typical groups of the Lamarkian _Mitræ_ we now characterise from
their shells; they correspond to those of the typical Volutes; while their
internal relations may be learned from the respective types of form here
designated. The genera _Mitra_ and _Tiara_, each present a circular series
of affinities, and are united by the fourth type in each group. Even a
partial study of this disposition will reveal to the Conchologist a harmony
of design, amid the greatest diversity of structure, which he could
scarcely have suspected in the mere covering of an animal.

The shells which appear associated with _M. episcopalis_, in this type of
form, are never coronated: the only external sculpture which they in
general possess, are delicate rows of minute punctured dots, in the typical
examples, as _Pertusa_, _millipora_, _versicolor_, the outer lip is acutely
toothed; while in the aberrant species, _Melaniana_, _tessellata_,
_scutulata_, _&c_. this part is smooth.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MITRANÆ Pl. 5.

_1. Tiara isabella. 2. sulcata._]


TIARA isabella.

_Fawn coloured Mitre._

----

Order Zoophaga. Family Volutidæ.

Sub-Family Mitrianæ. (G. Mitra. Auct.)

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Animal_----

  Shell turrited, fusiform, the _base_ contracted and slightly recurved;
  _pillar_ with 4-5 plaits, the upper plait sulcated: _outer lip_ smooth,
  or entire. _Aperture_ narrow, striated within, and presenting an internal
  groove at its upper extremity. _Nobis._

  Types of Form.

  1, _M. Corrugata_. 2, _Regina_. 3, _Sanguisuga_. 4, _Microzonias_. 5,
  _Isabella_.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Ti. (Ty. 5) Shell slender, fawn coloured, unspotted, marked by slender
  crowded, transverse, convex ribs, the interstices deeply cancellated;
  inner lip wanting, outer lip crenately undulate; pillar 5 plaited._

----

It is highly probable that the Mitres, like some other carnivorous marine
animals, seek their prey, and habitually reside, in the deep recesses of
the ocean. Instances are recorded of individuals having been brought up
from great depths; and notwithstanding the number of species, of which we
already know near 150, very few are common.

This genus, in short, is now become too overloaded, even for the purposes
of artificial arrangement: but we refrained from characterizing any other
group than _Conohelix_, until we analized the remainder. _Tiara_ appears to
be the second, or sub-typical group. The subordinate section, or type of
form, represented by T. _isabella_, includes several little known shells,
all marked by delicate transverse ribs and longitudinal striæ: the outer
lip is not strictly toothed or crenated, but is merely undulated by the
external sculpture: this subordinate group in _Tiara_, is aberrant: all the
species whose habitat we know, have come from the Pacific Ocean.

_Tiara isabella_ is a shell of the greatest rarity. Our drawing was made
from a specimen (presumed unique) sold at the Bligh Sale for 3_l._ 3_s._ It
was stated to come from New Holland, and is now in the Manchester Museum.

----

TIARA sulcata.

_Sulcated Mitre._

----

  _Tiara. (Ty. 5.) Shell marked by distinct, carinated, remote transverse
  ribs, the interstices concave: pillar three plaited, epidermis brown._

For this new and very distinct species, we are indebted to Mr. Bulwar. It
was collected on the Pacific side of the American Isthmus. The central line
indicates the true size of our specimen.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: SYLVIA _Regulus_.

_Gold-crested Warbler._]


SYLVIA Regulus.

_Gold-crest. Golden-crested Warbler._

----

Family, Sylviadæ. Sub-family, Sylvianæ. _Nob._
(_See North. Zool. Vol. 2._)

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Bill_ very weak, considerably compressed, nearly straight; the tip bent
  and notched: _rictus_ bristled. _Wings_ moderate. _Tail_ rather short.

SUB-GENERA. Acanthiza. _Horsf. & Vig._ Phyllopneuste. _Meyer. pars._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Sides of the head without any indication of white bands, crest of the
  male yellow-orange, bill very weak._ Temminck.

  Sylvia Regulus. _Tem. Man. 1. 229. Roitelet ordinaire._

  Motacilla Regulus. _Linn. 1. 338._

  Golden-crested Wren. _Montague, Ornith. Dict. 2. p._--_See particularly
  the Introduction to Vol. 1. p. 34._

----

With the exception of the Humming Birds, the Gold crests are the smallest
birds in creation. The natural size of the only species found in this
country is here represented; while the weight seldom exceeds eighty grains.
Notwithstanding its delicate structure, this beautiful little bird braves
the severest winters of Northern Europe: it is found in Denmark (_Müll.
Zool. Dan._), and extends to the borders of the Arctic Circle, (_Temm._) It
is more frequent with us than is generally supposed, but its diminitive
size screens it from observation. It is perpetually in motion: hopping
among the branches, examining every leaf and spray, and will frequently
catch minute insects that endeavour to escape, by darting at them like a
Flycatcher: we have repeatedly watched a pair of these birds which
frequented our garden at Warwick, in the middle of winter, for three years:
their favourite resort was an old fir-tree, which they regularly and
carefully explored, much in the manner of the Titmice (_Parii_.)

If the name of _Sylvia_ is to be retained in Ornithological systems, it
should obviously be applied to this, which has been correctly thought the
typical group of the whole family. _Acanthiza_, for reasons elsewhere
explained, appears a subordinate type, and _Phyllopneuste_ cannot be
adopted, without a glaring violation of natural affinities.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PHÆNICORNIS _flammeus_.

_Orange Redbird._]


PHÆNICORNIS flammeus.

_Orange Redbird._

----

Family Laniadæ. Sub-family Ceblepyrinæ. _Nob._

GENERIC(?) CHARACTER.

  _Bill_ with the sides compressed, the under mandible rather thick, the
  gonyx ascending: _rictus_ bristled. _Feathers_ on the back and _rump_
  slightly spinous. _Wings_ short. _Tail_ rather lengthened, graduated, the
  tip forked: the feathers narrow.

PHÆNICORNIS. _Nob. Boié (pars.)_

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Glossy black and golden orange: head, throat, wings, upper part of the
  back and middle of the tail glossy black; wings with two stripes of
  orange._

  Muscicapa flammea. _Auct. Tem. Pl. Col. pl. 263._

Mus. Paris. Nost.

----

The Birds now arranged under this group, exclusively belong to Southern
India and its luxuriant Islands. About five species have been discovered,
most of which are ornamented with a plumage of the brightest scarlet,
crimson, or orange, relieved by glossy black. Their economy is not known,
but their structure leads us to believe they live upon caterpillars and
soft insects; as another group, representing these birds in Africa, are
known to prefer such food. Both have the back feathers thick and rigid;
although these characters are least apparent in _Phænicornis_. Our figure
is nearly of the natural size. The female is stated to be yellow, where the
male is orange. It appears to be not uncommon in Java.

The genera _Parus_, _Turdus_, _Muscicapa_ and _Sylvia_ have alternately
been made the receptacles for these birds; to neither of which do we
consider they have any immediate affinity. Their whole structure evidently
accords with that of the Ceblepyrii, or Caterpillar catchers, of M. Cuvier;
a group first pointed out by Le Vaillant: but as these have never been put
in order, we can say nothing on the rank of _Phænicornis_, or on its
various relations.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: VOLUTILITHES. Pl. 1.

_1. Muricina. 2. pertusa._]


VOLUTILITHES muricina.

----

Family, Volutidæ. Sub-Family, Volutinæ. _Nob._

(_Genus Voluta, Lam._)

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Spiral whorls regularly and gradually diminishing towards the apex, which
  is always acute. Plaits of the pillar numerous, always indistinct,
  generally evanescent, and sometimes wanting. _Nobis._

Type, Voluta musicalis? _Lam._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell nearly fusiform, the base narrow and smooth; the upper part with
  longitudinal, subcostated, spinous plaits: inner lip thickened, the last
  plait on the pillar very thick, and separated from the others, which are
  slender, and nearly obsolete, by a deep groove._

  Voluta Muricina. _Lam. Syst. 7, 1, 350. Ency. Meth. pl. 383. f. 1._

----

The fourth principal division of the Lamarkian Volutes has hitherto been
found only in a fossil state; unless, indeed, the _Voluta Braziliana_
really belongs to this type. The species are very numerous, both in the
London clay, and the _Calcaire grossier_ of Grignon. They offer some
beautiful types of form, representing the conterminous groups in this
family, some of which we may hereafter notice more particularly. The
pre-eminent type may probably be the _V. musicalis_ of Lamarck; as yet, we
only know this fossil from descriptions and figures, but it has obviously
been confounded with several others.

Lamarck has given a character so exquisitely finished of _V. muricina_,
that we have done little more than translate his words. Our specimen
appears to be from Grignon, and was furnished to us with the following, by
Messrs. Stuchbury, 33, Theobald's Road, Bedford Row.

----

VOLUTILITHES pertusa.

  _Shell subfusiform, and the base striated; the upper part with thick,
  remote, and somewhat nodulous ribs; traversed near the suture with lines
  of punctured striæ; inner lip thickened, plaits on the pillar distinct,
  the last very strong, the two next smaller, and the upper very slender._

----

This species is certainly undescribed by Lamarck, nor do we find it in Dr.
Fleming's useful compendium of the "Mineral Conchology." Our specimen has
the grey tinge of the London clay fossils. Neither of these species are
typical; as they represent the recent costated Volutes, in the adjoining
group.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MITRANÆ. Pl. 6.

_1. Mitrella fusca. 2. ocellata. 3. olivæformis._]


MITRELLA fusca.

----

Family Volutidæ. Sub-family Mitriana. _Nob._

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Shell smooth, polished, sub-fusiform, the base obtuse and effuse; the
  plaits of the pillar oblique, and extending far beyond the aperture;
  outer lip internally smooth, the margin entire. _Nobis._

Types of form.

1. _M. fissuella._ 2. _casta. bicolor._ 3. _Olivæformis._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell entirely brown, marked by bands of punctured dots; spire and
  aperture nearly equal._

----

The natural situation of this group, in its own circle of affinity, has
already been shewn; it connects, in the most satisfactory manner, the genus
_Mitra_, as now restricted, with that of _Conohelix_, and opens at the same
time a passage to the Olives. The species yet discovered are few, and hence
we yet can only trace three types of form; the first evidently representing
_Mitra_, and the third, probably, typifying _Conohelix_. _M. Olivaria_
Lam., which truly belongs to this genus, may, perhaps, be only a
modification of the 2nd type, to which our present species strictly
belongs. The representation of this group among the Volutes, will be found
in _Voluta Zebra_ and its allies.

_Mitrella fusca_ is small, and of great rarity; our own specimen,
beautifully perfect, is the only one we have yet seen.

----

MITRELLA ocellata.

  _Shell whiteish, the lower half of the principal whorl brown, with a band
  of alternate rufous and white spots, and marked with reticulated white
  lines, and remote sulcated striæ, internally punctured; spire, and upper
  part of the body whorl, delicately plaited, the plates crossed by
  transverse lines of excavated dots._

----

This species has probably been overlooked as a variety of _M. Fissurella_;
its markings, indeed, are partially the same, but its sculpture, and even
its form, proves it to be distinct. The alternate white and rufous spots
bear a fanciful resemblance to eyes. The description of _M. Olivæformis_
has already been given at Pl. 48, in the first volume of our former Series.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MARGARITADÆ Pl. 1

_Margarita crocata._]


MARGARITA crocata.

_Orange Pearl-Oyster._

----

Order Acephala. Family Margaritadæ. _Nob._

  MARGARITADÆ. _Animal_ byssiferous, attached to marine bodies by a
  fascicle of tendinous filaments. _Shell_ foliaceous, the centre
  internally pearly and iridescent: the form irregular; the margins fragile
  and transparent. _Nob._

GENERA. MARGARITA. MALLEUS. PERNA. PINNA. (VULSELLA?) _Lam._

Sub-genera? Avicula. Crenatula. Inoceramus. _Auct._

----

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Margarita. See Leach. Zool. Miss. 1. p.107. (1814.)

(_Meleagrina. Lam. Syst. 1819._)

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell subquadrate, squamose, fulvous or yellow, the ear of the right
  valve dilated and scarcely sinuated, that of the left valve very small:
  inside silvery blue, hinge smooth._

----

It is the animal of this genus of Shells, which in sickness and disease,
produces the true oriental Pearl: the costly ornament of sovereigns, and
the chaste foil of beauty. An interesting account of the Pearl fishery of
Ceylon, will be found in Mr. Wood's entertaining _Zoography_, extracted
from Percival's History of that island.

The present is a small species, seldom exceeding the size of the figure: in
young shells there is a cardinal tubercle in our valve, which disappears
with age. The Pearl-oysters are nearly all inhabitants of warm seas; the
species require much elucidation.

The genera, above enumerated, appear to present such a series of
affinities, as to justify our suspicions that they form a natural group:
the more so, as their analogies may be traced among the perlacious
fluviatile shells, forming our family _Unionidæ_. If further investigation
should confirm the correctness of this idea, the sub-genera will, of
course, become types of form; bearing the same relation to the genera, as
_Dipsus_ does to _Anodon_, or _Castalia_ to _Hyria_.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: NYCTINOMUS _amictus_.

_Duvaucel's Nightfeeder._]


NYCTIORNIS amictus.

_Duvaucel's Nightfeeder._

----

Sub-order, Fissirostres. Family ----?

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Bill_ subfalcated, compressed, margins of the upper mandible folding
  over those of the lower: _rictus_ excessively wide. _Wings_ rounded,
  moderate. Plumage lax, long. _Tarsi_ much shorter than the hallux. _Toes_
  and claws as in _Merops_ and _Prionites_. _Nobis._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Green, crown (in the adult) lilach, front of the throat and breast
  bright red._

  Merops amictus. _Pl. Col. pl. 310. fig. pessima._

Mus. Paris.

----

This is perhaps the rarest, and certainly the most extraordinary bird,
which the recent Zoological researches in India has brought to light. Its
discovery is due to a young and accomplished Naturalist of France--M.
Duvaucel, now alas! no more: but who lived to perpetuate his name by his
brilliant discoveries, and to enrich the French Museum with the most
splendid specimens of oriential Zoology now in Europe.

The form, habit, and wings of this charming bird, are almost precisely
those of _Prionites_; while the bill resembles that of _Merops_. Nothing
can exceed the beauty of its lilach crown, or the bright vermillion of its
throat. The bill is strong, and marked above on each sides with a sulcated
line: the gape is so wide, as to reach underneath the eye. The whole
structure of the bird, its round wings, and long lax plumage, indicates a
totally different economy from that of _Merops_; and this has been
confirmed by Sir W. Jardine and Mr. Selby, who inform us that another
beautiful species, they have described, _feeds during the night_.

Our drawing, scrupulously exact, was made at the _Jardin des Plants_. As we
find _Nyctinomus_ is a name already appropriated, we have substituted
_Nyctiornis_: and we place this group at the extremity of the
_Fissirostres_, adjoining to _Prionites_ among the _Scansores_.

Total length ab. 13, wings 5¼, tail (beyond,) 3, tarsi hardly ½ in.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: CULICIVORA _atricapilla_.

_Black-crowned Gnatcatcher._]


CULICIVORA atricapilla.

_Black crowned Warbler._

----

Family, Sylviadæ. Sub-family, Sylvianæ. _Nob._
(_See North Zool. Vol. 2._)

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  CULICIVORA. _Swains. in Zool. Journ. No. 11. Lesson Man. 2. p. 430._

  _Bill_ very slender, the base depressed, the sides compressed, the culmen
  arched from the base. _Nostrils_ long; aperture linear and naked; rictus
  bearded. _Wings_ remarkably short. _Tail_ slender, graduated, and
  generally lengthened.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Above cinereous, beneath white; upper part of the head, middle tail
  feathers, and base of the three outer feathers deep black. Quills
  blackish, with white and grey margins._

  Figuier à tête noir de Cayenne? _Pl. Enl. pl. 704. f. 1.?_

----

The birds composing this natural but intricate group, have hitherto been
found only in America. Scarcely superior in size to the Gold-crested Wrens,
they exhibit much of the same activity and restlessness in searching after
insects. Yet their manners, in other respects, are more in unison with
those of the flycatching birds.

In size and in structure, our bird perfectly accords with the _Sylvia
cærulea_ of Vieil, and represents that northern species in tropical
America, but we are fearful of identifying it with that figured in the _Pl.
Enl._ Our drawings are of the natural size; in both these species the bill
perfectly resembles that of _Prinia_. Horsf. except in being somewhat
shorter: the feet, however, are those of _Setophaga_, Swains. The
Flycatchers and Warblers, are so blended together, by all writers, that we
have not yet been able to discover the typical example of this group. Its
true affinities, however, appear to be as follows:--

_Culicivora_ is represented in Africa by _Drymoica, Sw._, in India by
_Prinia, Horsf._, and in Australia by _Malurus, Vieil._ These genera, in
conjunction with that of _Sylvia_, seem to indicate the first typical
circle of this family. Culicivora exhibits many singular characters; in
some approaching to _Prinia_, the tail is very short: others, shewing an
affinity to _Sylvia_, have yellow crests: while a few species, leading to
_Setophaga_, present us with the depressed bill of a Flycatcher.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: OLIVA. Pl. 2.

_Olivella purpurata. 2. eburnea._]


OLIVA purpurata.

_Purple-mouthed Olive._

----

Family Volutidæ.--Genus Oliva. _Auct._

SUB-GENUS, OLIVELLA.

CHARACTERS.

  _Spire_ of the shell lengthened, conic, the tip acute: inner lip not
  thickened, outer lip straight: base of the pillar curved inwards, and
  marked by 2 strong plaits; upper plaits evanescent, or entirely wanting.
  _Aperture_ effuse, and closed by an operculum? _Nobis._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell whiteish, with a very acute spire, nearly as long as the aperture;
  middle of the body whorl marked by angulated brown lines: suture with
  spots and fascicles of longitudinal stripes: basal belt very broad:
  aperture purple._

  Oliva biplicata? _Sow. Tank. Cat. No. 2332. p. 33._

----

This shell maybe considered as typical of a small group of Olives, which we
suspect are peculiar to the American seas; they offer many points of
difference from those of the Indian Ocean. We recollect to have seen
another species, in some cabinet, with a small operculum. We have been
fearful of pronouncing this to be the _O. biplicata_, as the judicious
Conchologist will perceive the two descriptions do not exactly agree; and
we have another to which the characters given of _biplicata_ will equally
well apply. The perpendicular line indicates the natural size.

----

OLIVA eburnea.

_Ivory Olive._

  _Shell entirely white, or marked by two bands of angulated purplish
  spots; pillar about 8-9 plaited: basal belt and spire always white; the
  former single._

  Oliva eburnea. _Lam. Syst. 7. 1. p. 438._

----

This is the very common little Olive, sent in such abundance in the West
India boxes of shells; we figure it, because it is seldom rightly named in
collections, being confounded with _conoidalis_, _oryza_, and several
others of an equally diminutive size: the plaits are sharp, short, well
defined, and nearly all of equal size; although the base of the pillar
forms an internal elevation.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MARIUS _Thetys_.]


MARIUS Thetys.

----

Order Lepidoptera. Sub-order Papilionides.

(Thrysanuriform Stirps.--Horsf.)

GENERIC CHARACTER. See Pl. 45.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings horizontally lengthened, above bright rufous, transversely banded,
  with blackish stripes; beneath marbled with brown: lower part of the
  head, body, abdominal margin of the inferior icings, and feet, cream
  colour._

  Papilio Petreus, _Cramer, Pl. 87, D. E._

  ---- Thetys. _Fabricius._ Mant. Ins. 2, p.47. Eus. Syst. 3, 1, 77.

----

We frequently captured this Butterfly on the skirts of the Brazilian
forests: its flight is bold and powerful, but it loves to bask on those
leafy spots, where the sun, darting through a small opening of the dense
foliage, illuminates a little space with sparkling brightness.

The poor and somewhat inaccurate figure of this insect in Cramer's work, is
the only representation yet published. We have not had leisure to
investigate its scientific relations, further than to ascertain its close
affinity with _Marius_; of which group it appears on aberrant species.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: EURYMUS _Philodice_.]


EURYMUS Philodice.

----

Family Papilionidæ. (Juliform Stirps. Horsf.)

Sub Family, Colianæ.

Sub-genus(?) Eurymus. _Nob. Horsf._

CHARACTERS.

  _Palpi_ rather lengthened, cloathed and fringed with unequal, disunited
  hairs, the two last joints obliquely porrect, and scarcely touching the
  head. _Antennæ_ slender, terminating abruptly in a thick cylindrical
  club. _Wings_ simple, rounded, entire; destitute of concealed appendages.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings yellow above; with a common border of black. Anterior above with a
  small, linear-oval, black, discoid spot._

  Col. Alis integerrimis, rotundatis, flavis, limbo communi suprà nigro:
  subtùs anticis puncto ocellari, posticis sesquialtero argenteo; his
  sub-rufescentibus; anticarum limbo suprà (fem.) flavo maculato. _Ency.
  Meth. p. 100._

----

The Butterflies constituting this group, are nearly restricted in their
geographic range to the temperate regions of the old and the new world.
Their principal metropolis appears to be in Europe; about twelve species
having been described as natives of that continent. Of these, five are
found in Britain; one of which, _E. Edusa_, has a very wide range; we have
seen specimens from the mountains of Nepaul, and we possess others,
collected by our friend Mr. Burchell, in Southern Africa. _C. Philodice_
hitherto unfigured, is the only species of a strictly typical character
discovered in North America: we have several specimens from New York, where
it appears not uncommon: the middle figure represents the female.

In illustrating this group, we feel called up to notice in a particular
manner, the courtesy of Dr. Horsfield in adopting our manuscript name,
after it had remained so many years unpublished, that the circumstance, on
our part, had been totally forgotton. To us the mere credit of having
pointed out a group, flattering as it might once have been, is now
trifling: but the high principles which prompted the unequivocal thanks of
Dr. Horsfield, must ever demand our respect. The passage, indeed, so
honourable to its writer, singularly contrasts with the ambiguous
acknowledgements, tendered to us from other quarter.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: GRYLLIVORA _saularis_.

_Male._]


GRYLLIVORA Saularis.

_Dial Bird._

----

Family Sylviadæ. Sub Family Saxicolinæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Bill_ strong, compressed, the culmen gradually curved from the base, the
  tip strongly notched: the margins inflexed, the rictus bearded. _Tarsi_
  elevated, robust. _Wings_ rounded, the 3, 4, 5 and 6th quills nearly
  equal, lesser quills nearly all of equal length. _Tail_ graduated; the
  feathers broad. _Nob._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Glossy blue-black, body beneath, and a broad longitudinal band in the
  middle of the wing, pure white: tail graduated, the three middle feathers
  black and nearly equal, the three outer suddenly diminishing, and pure
  white._

  Gracula Saularis. _Auctorum._

----

Naturalists, until of late, were accustomed to pay so little regard to the
habits and manners of birds, that of some of the most common species, we
know as little now, as we did a century ago. We are in this predicament
with the species before us, called the Dial Bird by Albin, whose vague and
very questionable account of its manners, has been copied by every
succeeding writer. We believe that under the name of Gracula Saularis, two,
if not three species are confounded. We doubt Le Vaillants _Cadran_ (Ois.
d'Af. pl. 109) being the same as our bird: he distinctly describes and
figures the female as _rufous_. Ours, (so labelled), is grey. To us, its
natural affinity with the Saxicolæ appears almost unquestionable, but on
this point we shall dwell more at length in another place. The curious
analogy between this bird and _Petroica bicolor_, has already been
mentioned: the plumage of both are precisely alike. It is thus that Nature,
ever unfolding some new link of her interminable chain of relations,
impresses on the mind the sublimity of that plan, which OMNIPOTENCE alone
can fully comprehend.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PTILIOGONYS _cinereus_.

_female._]


PTILIOGONYS cinereus. _female._

----

Family Laniadæ. Sub-family Ceblepyrinæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER. See Zool. Journ. No. 10, p. 164.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Head sub-crested; body above cinerous, tinged with grey brown, beneath
  ferruginous; belly white; under tail covers bright yellow; lateral tail
  feathers with an internal white band._ Female.

  Ptiliogonys cinereus. _Cat. of Mex. Mus. App. p. 4. (1824.)_

  Ptiliogonys (_not Ptiliogonatus_,) cinereus. _Zool. Journ. No. 10, p.
  164. Phil. Mag. and Annals. June 1827, p. 367._

  Piroll velauté. _Pl. Col. p. 422._

Mus. Nost.

----

Although not particularly striking in its plumage, this is one of the most
interesting birds, to the ornithologist, which has yet been gleaned from
the little known regions of Mexico. Closely allied, by its short and broad
bill to the Flycatchers, it is principally distinguished from them by the
absence of those bristles round the mouth, which almost invariably belong
to purely insectivorous birds. Its very short, robust, and feathered tarsi,
the profile of the bill, construction of the wing, and even the colouring
of the plumage, all remind us of the _Ceblepyrinæ_ or
Catterpillar-catchers, and point to that group as containing its true
affinities: a group, however, which is in such confusion, that we venture
not to hazard any speculations on the precise station of this curious
genus.

If the authors of the _Planches Coloriées_, will consult the Philosophical
Magazine for July 1827, (one of the oldest and best of our scientific
Journals), they will find that this, and most of the birds from Mexico,
which they are now describing as _new_, were long ago named and
characterized by us. Our list, indeed, of all those brought over by Mr.
Bullock, was printed with the catalogue, in 1824, when one of the Authors
was himself in England, and viewed the collection.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: CYNTILIA _Swainsonia_.]


AMYNTHIA Swainsonia.

----

Family Papilionidæ. Sub-family Colianæ.

CHARACTERS.

  _Antennæ_ graduating from the base to a lengthened, cylindrical truncated
  club; the terminal joint of which is naked and concave. _Head_ smooth,
  destitute of a fascicle of hairs between the antennæ. _Palpi_ as in
  _Colias_, the last joint inclining upwards. _Wings_ angulated, with
  concealed appendages. _Feet_ as in _Colias_. _Nob._

Type. _Col. Merula._ Auct.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings above greenish white, anterior with a yellow disk, and a
  quadrangular black dot, encircled with orange: wings beneath obscurely
  lineated with green._

  Colias Swainsonia. _Leach. M. S. S._

----

We had the satisfaction of discovering this lovely Butterfly in the
interior of Pernambuco, during our Brazilian researches in 1813. Although
assiduously sought after, we never captured more than three specimens, and
these were met with far distant from the coast: it must be either
excessively rare, or very locally distributed. The colouring is peculiarly
chaste and elegant; the ground is a pearly white, tinged with green, and
relieved by clear yellow: in the female this latter colour is more diluted,
and spreads nearly to the base of the anterior wings. This group appears to
be the tropical representative of _Gonepteryx_; from which it is much more
distinguished than _Eurymus_ is from _Colias_. The two European types are
called by British collectors, Brimstones, and Clouded-yellows. Dr.
Horsfield has judiciously removed _P. Glaucippe_ from _Pieris_ to _Colias_,
to which (although an aberrant species,) it manifestly belongs. We should
not be surprised if that insect leads to _Amynthia_ by means of _Amy.
Leachiana_ (Pl. 6. of our first series), which will be seen, from the
description, to exhibit many deviations from its conjenors: this however is
a mere supposition, for we have not yet analized these groups. Independant
of the characters here sketched, _Gonepteryx_ is distinctly separated from
_Amynthia_, by the peculiar construction of the feet. The mistake of the
printer, seen upon the plate, was discovered too late for correction.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: AMPULLARIA. Pl. 3.

_A. fasciata._]


AMPULLARIA fasciata. var.

_Fasciated Apple Snail._

----

Order, Phytophaga. Family, Ampullaridæ. _Guilding._

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Guilding in Zool. Journ. No. 12, p. 538

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell thin, smooth, banded, ventricose; spire pointed, the whorls very
  convex; umbilicus open, rather large._

  Am. fasciata. _Lam. Sys. 6, 177._

  Am. fasciata. _Zool. Illust. 1 Series. 2. pl. 103._

  Am. fasciata, var. canaliculata. _Sw. in Bligh Cat._

  Am. canaliculata. _Lam. Syst. 6, 178._

----

In our former series we represented this species as it is usually seen; our
present figures were drawn from a very uncommon variety, received by Mrs.
Mawe from Brazil, in which not the slightest appearance of the external
transverse bands are apparent. The specimen now forms a part of the
valuable and extensive Museum of the Natural History Society of Manchester;
a collection which we believe is superior to that of any provincial town in
the kingdom. It is gratifying to us to inform the scientific student, that
its contents will be thrown open to his enquiries with a promptitude and
liberality, which he will in vain look for at some of the Zoological
Institutions of the metropolis.

Our friend Henry Parker, Esq. of Liverpool, who while prosecuting his
botanical researches in Demerara, was not unmindful of conchology, favoured
us with an interesting series of specimens from that river, clearly shewing
that the A. _fasciata_ and _canaliculata_ of Lamarck are varieties of one
species; or rather, that there are specimens of _fasciata_ which perfectly
agree with his description of _canaliculata_. We further learn from Mr.
Parker, that the inhabitant of this, and of other species, are a favourite
food with the crafty Herons, who use their bill as a spear to take them
from the bottom; in some places, the banks of the river are strewed with
empty shells, all perforated by these birds.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: CONUS. Pl. 2.

_Conus lithoglyphus._]


CONUS lithoglyphus.

_Ermine Cone._

----

Zoophaga. Family Strombidæ. _Nob._

  Operculum of the Animal smaller than the aperture of its shell; outer lip
  of the latter detached above.

  TYPICAL GENERA. 1, TEREBELLUM. 2, STROMBUS. 3, CONUS. 4, ----? 5,
  PLEUROTOMA. _Auct._

GENERIC CHARACTER. See Lam. Syst. 7, 440.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell turbinated, redish orange, with two undulated white boards; base
  granulated, spire obtuse._

  Conus lithoglyphus. _Mus. Gevers. p. 350. Brug. Ency. Meth. p. 692. Lam.
  Syst. 7, 490. C. Ermineus, Dillwyn, 395._

  Icones. _Seba 3, pl. 42, f. 40, 41. Chem. pl. 140, f. 1298. Ency. Meth.
  pl. 338, f. 8.? Martini, 2, pl. 57, f. 630.--1.?_

----

The Cone Shells belong to a predatious race of Molluscæ, who feed upon the
innumerable "creeping things," which swarm in the prolific seas of the
Oriental hemisphere: destitute both of jaws and lips, their mouth is formed
into a long trunk or proboscis; with this they contrive to bore into solid
shells, and suck the vital juices of their victims. Nearly all the species
are natives of the Indian Ocean.

The circular system of Nature has been so fully demonstrated, that it must
now be received as the first great truth in Natural History. As, therefore,
there can be but _one_ natural system, it necessarily follows that all
combinations of groups, whether large or small, which do not pretend to
exhibit such a disposition, must be more or less artificial
classifications. We allude to this our opinion, as explanatory of those
principles which have influenced the views indicated here of M. Cuviers
_Pectinibranchi_; the more so, as we shall be obliged to characterize many
new divisions, and to reform others, without the immediate opportunity of
explaining our reasons. In another work we hope to enter on such details;
and to shew we have been guided, in this matter, by more weighty
considerations than mere individual opinion.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: TODUS _viridis_.

_Green Tody._]


TODUS viridis.

_Green Tody._

----

Family Todidæ. See Pl. 41.

  PUBLISHED GENERA. Fluvicola. Nengetus. Alecturus. Muscicapa, (_pars_).
  Conopophaga. Platyrhynchus. Todus. Eurylamus. Querula? Psaris.
  Pachyrhynchus.

GENERIC CHARACTER. See Lesson, Man. 1, p. 178.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Bright green, beneath whiteish; throat scarlet; sides of the body rosey;
  under tail covers yellow._

  Todus viridis. _Auct._

Mus. Paris. Nost.

----

This singular little bird has long excited the particular attention of
those naturalists who study the affinities of groups, more than the details
of species. It is a native of the West Indian Islands, and although stated
to be not uncommon, the accounts given of its manners are perfectly
contradictory. One author asserts that it is almost always seen upon the
ground, from whence it receives the name of _Perroquet de Terre_: another,
that it only frequents the "lonely part of moist places" (woods?), where it
sits in a couched manner, with its head thrown considerably back, and is so
stupid, as almost to be taken by the hand. M. Vieillot confirms part of the
latter particulars, although he repeats, without denying, the former. In
our opinion the last is entitled to the most credance, although it is
contradictory to the idea of this being a terrestial bird.

We cannot but feel surprise and regret, that the "very interesting account"
of this bird, long ago announced (_Zool. Journ. Dec. 1827. p. 439_), as
having been sent from Cuba, by Mr. Macleay, to the Linnean Society, should
still be unknown to the scientific world. There is, indeed, a valuable
paper by this gentleman on certain birds of Cuba, in the first part of the
sixteenth Vol. of the Society's Transactions, where its author alludes to
the "description and anatomy of two birds" (_p. 12_) both of which are
nevertheless omitted: The _Todus viridis_, we apprehend is truly "one of
those solitary species," which, as Mr. Macleay observes, "from having been
neglected, may serve to unfold an exception, _sufficient to destroy the
most plausible system_." For ourselves, we shall feel much surprised if
this bird is entitled, in the slightest degree, to a station among the
_Fissirostres_, in which order it has been placed by M. Vigors, in his
paper "On the Natural affinities of Birds."

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MURICINÆ Pl. 1.

_Murex imperialis._]


MUREX Imperialis.

_Imperial Murex._

----

Family, Buccinidæ. Sub-family Muricinæ. _Nob._

GENERIC CHARACTER. See Lam. Syst.

  Types of form. 1. M. Regius. 2. palmarosæ. 3. tripterus. 4.
  tenuispinosus. 5. radix? _Lam._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  Type 1. _Shell ponderous, with from four to five varices between the two
  lips; the varices simple, nodulous, and obtuse: intermediate, or false
  varices, none; aperture yellow, orange, or red; inner lip striated only
  at the base._

----

The inhabitants of the Murices, or Rock Shells, are rapacious; and feed,
for the most part, upon animal matter, either living or dead. By the latter
instinct they are led to frequent harbours and sea-ports, for the sake of
offal, and other animal refuse, thrown from vessels, which they greedily
devour. Lamarck, with his usual precision, has characterized many species;
but for the very beautiful one now, we believe, for the first time
described, we have to thank Messrs. Stuchbury, who favoured us with the
inspection of a fine series of specimens, received from the Island of
Margarita, Lat. 11. 20. N. Lon. 63. 20. W.

The genera _Buccinum_ and _Murex_ of Linné, appear typical of the
carnivorous order _Zoophaga_, whose shells are either notched or channelled
at their base. These arrange themselves under two great divisions. In one
the animal has an operculum or lid, which closes the entrance of his shell;
in the other, the shell itself is more or less enveloped by two large
lobes, called the mantle, with which the animal covers his habitation.
Nevertheless, these two divisions, as M. Cuvier has fully shown, become
insensibly united, and form one natural group. The two principal divisions
of the operculated race are represented by _Cassis_ and _Murex_; the genera
of the first have been pretty correctly made out; but those of the
_Muricinæ_ require much reformation; so far as regards the definition of
their typical forms, and their apparent series of affinities.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: CONUS. Pl. 1.

_1. fumigatus. 2. franciscanus._]


CONUS fumigatus.

----

Family Strombidæ. Sub-family Conianæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER. See Lamarck.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell smooth, spire very short, channeled, or with the whorls· concave:
  colour chesnut, belted with white, and articulated rows of chesnut dots._

  Conus fumigatus _Brug. Diet. 94. Lam. Syst. 7. 496._

  Icones. _Mart. 2 pl. 56. f. 618. Ency. Meth. pl. 336. f. 7._

----

A species not conspicuous for its beauty, but by no means of common
occurrence: its close resemblance to the next has induced us to illustrate
both by figures. _C. fumigatus_ seldom exceeds the size here represented;
it may at once be known from _franciscanus_ (which is a much smaller
shell,) by the spiral whorls being _concave_, instead of _convex_: this
species occurs in the Indian Ocean.

If the student compares either _Strombus Luhuanus_, _Mauritianus_, or
_Persicus_, with any of the wide mouthed Cones, he will immediately
perceive the affinity between the two groups. In both, the operculum of the
animal is small, but in _Conus_ it seems reduced to a mere vestage; while
the shell, nearly rolled upon its own axis, indicates the near approach
which Nature has now made towards the Cowries; a family, however,
essentially distinguished by the great developement of the mantle, and the
total absence of an operculum.

----

CONUS franciscanus.

  _Shell smooth, chesnut, with two white bands, the upper one near the
  suture: spire short, the whorls convex._

  C. franciscanus. _Lam. Syst. 7. 493. Ency. Meth. 337. f. 5._

----

Lamarck mentions Africa and the shores of the Mediterranean, as the native
locality of this shell. It escaped our researches on the coasts of Italy,
Sicily, and Greece, and we suspect it to be an Oriental species.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PIERIS _Nigrina_.]


PIERIS Nigrina.

----

PIERIS (_pars._) Latr: Stev. PONTIA (_pars._) Fab. Horsf.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Antennæ_ with a spatulate, considerably compressed, obovate club.
  _Palpi_ hairy: the first joint with basal articulations, (Horsf. pl. 4.
  f. 10) beyond which it is hardly longer than the second, or the third,
  which are each of equal length. _Anterior Wings_ with the exterior margin
  manifestly shorter than the posterior.

Type. Pieris Belisama. _Lat._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings above white in one sex, grey in the other; anterior tipt with
  black; beneath black, with a terminal band of yellow: posterior wings
  beneath black, varied with grey, and marked with an undulated, nearly
  central, border of crimson._

  Pieris Nigrina. _Fab. Sys. Ent. 475. Ent. Sys. 3. 1. 20. Ency. Meth. p.
  149. Don. Ins. of New Holl. 19. f. 1._

----

Although this elegantly marked insect has long been known to Entomologists,
we believe it has only once been figured. It is not uncommon in Australia,
and being a typical species, we select it to illustrate this group.

The Butterflies called _Whites_, in the common language of Collectors,
(_Pieris_, _Lat._) are distinguished by their great simplicity of
colouring, and a predominence of white upon their wings. It is a singular
fact, that the various species of this family, among which are included the
different white Butterflies of Europe; feed chiefly on such plants as are
nourishing and salutary to the human body, such as the various sorts of
cabbages, coleworts, turnips, &c., and in every foreign country where these
white Butterflies have been found, plants of the same nutricious qualities,
are sure to be discovered in the vicinity of their haunts.

The group to which we here restrict the name of _Pieris_, is confined, we
believe, exclusively to the old world, and principally to intertropical
latitudes. We have been much embarassed, however, in applying this name
correctly. Dr. Horsfield has placed many of our Indian _Pieres_ under the
genus _Pontia_, which group is restricted by Mr. Stephens to European
insects. As this latter disposition is more in unison with our own views,
we have adapted it; considering _P. Cratægi_ to be the only aberrant
representative of _Pieris_ in Europe.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: EURYMUS _Europome_.]


EURYMUS Europome.

_The Clouded Sulphur._

----

GENERIC CHARACTER. See Pl. 60.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _See Stevens. Ill. of Brit. Ent. 1. p. 10. and Haw. Lep. Brit. 13._

  Papilio Europome. _Haworth Lep. Brit. p. 13. No. 12._

  Colias Europome. _Stev. pl. 1.* fig. 1. male. 2. 3. female._ Syst. Cat.
  5797.

In Mus. Nost.

----

Much interest has recently been excited among British entomologists
regarding this butterfly. Some are of opinion that it is not a native of
Britain, while others, with a strong shew of reason, contend that it is
truly indiginous. The specimens in the British collection formed by our
lamented parent, and now in our possession, having been alluded to by both
parties, we have been induced to represent them, and to throw some light
upon their history.

So anxiously did our honored father preserve his cabinet, free from exotic
specimens, that knowingly, he never admitted _one_, even as a temporary
substitute for a native example. Yet living, in his early days, in constant
intercourse with the famous Dutchess of Portland, Dr. Lightfoot, and Mr.
Lewin, he received, from these sources, some few insects, which were placed
in his cabinet, _under the assurance_ that they were British. Among these
are _Pap. Podalirius_, _Daplidice_, and the two specimens of the alleged
_Europome_ here figured: the latter being mistaken, _and intermixed_, with
three examples of the true _Hyale_. On the other hand, it is incumbent upon
us to say, that both these have been mended, before coming into our
father's possession, by the heads and antennae of _Gonepteryx Rhamni_! We
must also state, that upon closely comparing them with a series of _E.
Philodice_, we have failed to discover what appears to us a true specific
distinction. The same unsuccess has attended our efforts to detach
_Chrysotheme_ from _Edusa_, of which latter we possess specimens from
Germany, Genoa, Sicily, Greece, Africa, and several others unlabelled, all
varying more or less from each other, and from British examples.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MALACONOTUS _Barbarus_.

_Barbary Shrike._]


MALACONOTUS Barbarus.

_Barbary, or yellow-crowned Shrike._

----

Family Laniadæ. Sub-family Thamnophilinæ. _Nob._

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Swains. in Zool. Journ. 3. p. 163.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Above glossy black, beneath crimson; crown fulvous yellow: vent and
  flanks buff._

  Lanius barbarus. _Linn._ Icon. _Pl. Enl. 56._

  Laniarius barbarus. _Ency. Meth. Orn. p. 755._

  Le Gonolek. _Le Vaill. Ois. d'Af. pl. 69._

----

The true Shrikes, of which two, if not three species inhabit England, are
bold and cruel birds: they attack others, scarcely smaller than themselves,
and seize them like a Falcon, by their talons during flight. The Bush
Shrikes on the other hand, are a more ignoble race; they only prowl after
young or sickly birds, and seek their principal nourishment from those
insects which shelter in foliage. These birds form two distinct groups,
confined to the tropical latitudes of the Old and the New World. The first,
_Thamnophilus_, is restricted to America, and the species are known by
their dark coloured plumage. _Malaconotus_, is, we believe, purely an
African group, while most of the typical species, like the present, are
cloathed in bright and beautiful colours.

This elegant bird seems to be abundant in Western Africa, but is rare
towards the Cape of Good Hope. Hence Le Vaillant had no opportunity of
learning its peculiar manners. Its size is that of a Thrush; the feathers
on the back are very long, and the first joint of the outer toe is _free_.
Nature, ever prone to typify her relations, and to preserve harmony between
groups, essentially distinct, has given to the bill of this bird, a form
closely resembling that of _Pitta_; the genus by which _Malaconotus_ is
represented among the Thrushes.

A partial consideration of this group induced us, some years ago, to adopt
the generic name of _Laniarius_; but in a more recent investigation of the
species so denominated, we have failed to discover sufficient reason for
separating them, generically, from _Malaconotus_.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: DONACOBIUS _vociferans_.

_Babbling Thrush._]


DONACOBIUS vociferans.

_Babbling Thrush._

----

Family Merulidæ. Sub-family Macropodianæ. _Nob._

CHARACTERS.

  Bill arched from the base, moderate, and generally entire; wings very
  short: tail broad, rounded. Feet and toes of great strength and size;
  plumage lax, and soft. _Nobis._

  GRACULA (_pars._) _Cuv._ POMATORHINUS. _Horsf. Tem._ (_pars._) PITTA.
  (_p._) OPETIORHYNCHUS. IXOS. (_p._) MALURUS (_p._) _Tem._ TIMALIA.
  MEGALURUS. _Horsf._ DASYORNIS. PHOSPHODES. _Vig._

----

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Bill slender, moderate, the upper mandible notched; nostrils naked,
  membranaceous, the aperture terminal.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Above blackish brown, beneath fulvous yellow; sides of the body lineated
  with black lines, base of the quills and tips of the laternal tail
  feathers pure white, sides of the neck, with a naked space._

  Gracula longirostris? _Auct._

----

It is seldom that the notes of the feathered race are absolutely
disagreeable, but we never remember to have heard a bird with a voice of
such astounding discord, as that now before us. Its particular note, if
note it could be called, we do not now recollect; but it was so shrill,
grating, and monotonous, that we have frequently rushed out of the house,
to drive away the babbling disturbers. This happened at the hospitable
residence of our friend Mr. Pinches, of Pernambucco, whose house was close
to a small swamp, overgrown with reeds, among which these birds delight to
dwell; and which in fact, they never quit. Clinging to the smooth stems by
their strong feet and acute claws, they were incessantly uttering discord
with the most provoking perseverance: all the time moving their body from
one side to the other, spreading out their tail, and straining their
throats, in the most grotesque way imaginable. On each side of the neck, is
a long space of bare skin of a deep yellow colour: they live in pairs, and
build a pensile nest among the reeds: their flight is very slow and feeble.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MURICINÆ. Pl. 2.

_Murex erythrostomus._]


MUREX erythrostomus.

_Pink-mouthed Murex._

----

Family Buccinidæ. Sub-family Muricinæ. _Nob._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  (Type 1.) _Shell spinous: varices between the two lips four; armed with
  conic, generally pointed spines, the upper and lower of which are
  vaulted; colour reddish white, articulated with brown: false varices
  intermediate; aperture rosey: inner lip smooth._

----

Messrs. Stuchbury obligingly forwarded us fine specimens of this lovely
species, for comparison with _M. Regius_ and _Imperialis_. In general habit
it has a close affinity to the first, but is distinguished by intermediate
false varices, which in that species are wanting; while the upper and lower
spines are alone vaulted: from _Imperialis_ our shell is further removed,
by the varices being spinous, instead of nodulous; this latter character
being seen only in the intermediate protuberances, and in the false
varices.

We have already intimated our belief that _Murex_ and _Cassis_ represent
two equivalent groups; and these, as containing several established genera,
we shall consider as sub-families: giving them the usual termination of
_inæ_. Those higher naturalists, who have long since abandoned the belief
in absolute divisions and isolated genera, are fully aware that no groups
are more likely to exhibit the arrangement of nature, than such as contain
numerous species, under a great diversity of forms. The _Murices_ are of
this description, and appear to exhibit, among themselves, a circular
series. _Triton_ and _Murex_ also seem typical genera, and of equal value.
_Ranella_ obviously belongs to the first; yet, as it is merely a
subordinate type of form, we cannot, under this belief, retain it as a
_genus_, without a manifest inconsistency; unless, indeed, it is thought
expedient to consider the types of form in _Murex_, as so many genera, and
elevate three others in _Triton_ to the same rank; a refinement in
nomenclature, which we cannot think is in the least degree necessary.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: EUTERPE _Terea_.]


EUTERPE Terea.

----

PAPILIO. (_pars._) _Latrielle._ SUB-FAMILY PIERESINÆ. _Nob._

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Antennæ_ lengthened, terminating in a broad, very compressed, spatulate
  club. _Palpi_ hairy; the first joint very long, exceeding the united
  length of the two next: second joint half as long as the first; third
  very small, manifestly shorter than the second. _Anterior wings_ long,
  papilioniform; the exterior margin longer than the posterior. _Nob._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings above black: anterior both above and below, with a trifid white or
  yellowish central spot: posterior with a four-parted rosey spot; and
  varigated beneath, at the base, with yellow and rosy stripes._

  Papilio Terias. _Latrielle & Godart. En. Meth. 1. p. 38. No. 39._

----

Nature has so completely disguised this Butterfly in the form and colours
of a genuine Papilio, as to have deceived the first entomologist now in
Europe, and his most skilful and accurate coadjutator. In the _Ency.
Methodique_ we find this species recorded as a _Papilio_; whereas it
perfectly agrees, in all the details of its structure, with the characters
proposed in that valuable work for the genus _Pieris_. Whether nature has
employed this beautiful device to indicate the group which next succeeds in
her series, or whether she has intended it to point out a strong analogy,
are questions which, in our present imperfect knowledge of Lepidopterous
groups, cannot be answered.

Of this group we possess several new and highly interesting species. It is
worthy of remark, that they were all collected in one particular locality,
and at the same season. This was during a short residence at Mandioca, the
plantation of Dr. Langsdorff, among the woods at the base of the Organ
mountains, near Rio de Janeiro.

We believe this group is restricted to tropical America, where it probably
represents the genuine _Pieres_, (as defined at pl. 69,) of the Old World.
The present species is subject to much variation in the size, proportion,
and colour of its spots: the white is sometimes pale yellow, and the rosy
becomes of a deeper and brighter hue.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PELEUS.

_1. Gentius. 2. Æacus_]


PELEUS Æacus.

----

Family Hesperidæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Antennæ_ not hooked, the club formed into a long, slender, fusiform
  arch. _Wings_ with both surfaces alike, horizontally divaricated when at
  rest; posterior rounded, entire; broader from the base to the anal angle,
  than to the exterior margin.

Type. Hesp. Peleus. _Fab._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings deep brownish black; anterior with a redish transverse band,
  united to a spot of the same, and tipt with a sub-hyaline band of redish
  orange._

  Hesp. Peleus. _Fab. Cramer, pl. 284, f. F._

----

Entomologists, from being acquainted only with the habits of the European
species of this family, represent the _Hesperidæ_ as resting with only the
hinder wings elevated: This is altogether a mistake. Some groups, indeed,
assume this position when basking in the sun, or taking food; but even
these, when fairly at rest, erect their wings in the ordinary manner: a
fact we have repeatedly witnessed. Not so, however, with the group we now
illustrate: and which is peculiar to South America. These insects rest
_with all the four wings expanded_; and hide themselves during the meridian
heat, on the under side of broad leaves, in the deep forests. From never
appearing exposed, this species long escaped our search, but having once
discovered this singular part of its economy, we captured it in abundance.
It probably feeds, like many of the _Sphingides_, or Hawk Moths, in the
morning and evening, but its haunts were too far from our habitation, to
allow of ascertaining this point.

----

PELEUS Gentius.

  _Anterior wings black, with three yellow bars, posterior yellow, with a
  simple black border._

  Hesp. Gentius. _Fab. Cramer, pl. 179, f. C._

----

Our specimens of this very rare insect were captured by Dr. Langsdorff, in
the interior of Southern Brazil, the colours of the under surface of the
wings are the same as those of the upper.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MALACONOTUS _atro-coccineus_.

_Black & crimson Shrike._]


MALACONOTUS atro-coccineus.

_Burchell's Shrike._

----

GENERIC CHARACTER, &c. See Pl. 71.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Black, beneath crimson: lesser wing covers banded with white, greater
  covers and lesser quills with a broad, white, longitudinal stripe._

  Malaconotus atro-coccineus. _Burchell, Zool. Journ. 1. p. 461. Pl. 18._

Mus. D. Burchell.

----

Among the few Ornithological subjects which that accomplished traveller,
Mr. Burchell, has yet published from his vast collections of African
Zoology, is the charming bird here figured. It was discovered near
Litakoon, the principal town of the Bachapins, a nation never before known
to Europeans. Its principal range is between lat. 27. 20. and 29. 10. S. on
the meridian of 24. E. "To a traveller," continues our friend, "wandering
through the airy groves of the _Transgaripine_, the sight of these _Lanii_,
flying from branch to branch above his head, and displaying their fine
colour in all its brilliancy, suddenly arrests his steps, and claims his
admiration. Viewed in such a position, little of their black colour is
seen, and they then appear to be entirely scarlet."

A most beautiful analogy may be traced between the two principal groups of
the Bush Shrikes, and those of the Ant-thrushes. The genus _Malaconotus_
corresponds to the _Pittæ_, in being restricted to the old world, in the
vivid colours of their plumage, and the connexion, in the typical species,
of the two outer toes. In _Thamnophilus_ and _Myothera_, both American
groups, the colours are uniformly dark; and their resemblance in structure
is so close, that no author has yet pointed out their distinctions.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: HARPULA VEXILLUM.

_Orange Flag Volute._]


HARPULA vexillum.

_Orange-flag Volute._

----

Family Volutidæ. Sub-family Volutinæ. _Nob._

GENERIC CHARACTERS.

  Shell generally tuberculated or longitudinally ribbed: apex of the spire
  papillary, smooth, and in general distorted: Pillar with numerous
  distinct plaits; the upper small and slender, the lower thickest and
  shortest.

Type. _Voluta Hebræa._ Lam.

  TYPES OF FORM. I. Vol. Hebræa, musica, pusio, polyzonalis, &c. II. Vol.
  bullata? III. Vol. multicostata, mitræformis, costata, lyriformis,
  nucleus, &c. IV. Vol. rupestris, dubia? V. Vol. lapponica, vexillum.
  _Auct._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell either smooth, or slightly and acutely tuberculated; white with
  numerous bands of orange; pillar thickened in the middle, and marked with
  from six to eight plates._

  Voluta vexillum. _Auct. Lam. Syst. 7. 346. Ency. Meth. pl. 381 f. 1. a.
  b. optimè._

----

Few Volutes can exceed this in elegance or beauty. The peculiarity of its
markings, resembling the national colours of Holland, has procured it the
name of the Orange-flag Volute. Although long known to Conchologists, it
still continues a rare shell to our cabinets, and is much sought for on the
continent, particular among the collectors in Holland; they view it with
something of a national fondness, and value it at a high price. It is
brought from Amboyna, and some other islands of the Indian Ocean. The
many-plaited Volutes, form one of the most natural groups in the whole
department of Conchology; and one which the most unpractised student will
have no difficulty in understanding. The more experienced Conchologist, in
studying its contents, will detect some very extraordinary and beautiful
analogies. It contains, in fact, representations of all the principal
divisions of the old genus Voluta, and also of the corresponding groups
among the Mitras; to which sub-family it forms the true passage. We feel
some hesitation, however, in regard to the second type; or that which must
lead immediately to _Volutilithes_; as we rather suspect that the true
type, or more properly the annectant form, by which this union is effected,
has not yet been discovered. We share also in Mr. Broderips doubts,
regarding the situation of his _V. dubia_.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: OLIVÆ PL. 3.

_Hiatula Lamarci 2. pallida. 3. maculata._]


OLIVÆ. Pl. 3.

_The Wide-mouthed Olives._

----

Family Volutidæ. Genus Oliva. _Nob._

SUB-GENUS HIATULA. _Nob._

  Suture channelled. Pillar above smooth, not thickened, beneath tumid, and
  marked with a few oblique plaits: base of the aperture very wide.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTERS.

  Hiatula Lamarci. _Fulvous brown: pillar white, with about four lengthened
  plaits, and intermediate shortened ones between them, inner margin of the
  lip brown._ Fig. 1.

  H. pallida. _Aperture and base of the pillar livid brown: plaits 4-5,
  simple, equal; inner margin of the lip pale._ Fig. 2.

  H. maculosa. _Aperture orange, marked above with a black spot: base of
  the pillar white, the plaits small, crowded, and of unequal length._ Fig.
  3.

Mus. Nost.

----

As the connection of the Olives with the Mitres has been illustrated in a
former number, we now characterize the sub-genus by which the former are
united to the _Ancillariæ_. The thickened and oblique plaits on the pillar,
its smoothness on the upper part, and the great width of the aperture, are
all characters which render this affinity unquestionable, and detach the
group from the more common and typical Olives before alluded to.

Since we published the figure of _Oliva striata_, (Oliva, Pl. 1. f. 2.) we
have procured the true _Ancillaria canalifera_ of Lamark, and find it as we
suspected, a very different shell. As _Hiatula_ leads to the _Ancillariæ_,
so does the sub-genus _Olivella_, (comprising the small operculated Olives)
conduct us to the Mitres, by means of _Olivella volutella_, already figured
in this work. We believe the _third_ aberrant form is represented by our
_Oliva striata_, but we shall not proceed to characterize it as a
sub-genus, until a better acquaintance with the group is obtained; its
analogy to _Conohelix_, by its external sculpture, seems to us a strong
ground of distinction.

We procured all these wide-mouthed Olives from the Messrs. Stuchbury, to
whom we are often indebted for the loan of interesting specimens.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PIERIS LIMNOBIA.

_S. G. Melete._]


PIERIS (_Melete_) Limnobia.

_Yellow-underwing White._

----

Genus Pieris, Lat.

CHARACTERS.

  _Antennæ_ as in _Euterpe_. _Palpi_ lengthened, the terminal joint linear,
  pointed, nearly naked, and longer than either of the two next. _Anterior
  wings_ trigonal, the exterior and the posterior margins of equal length:
  _posterior wings_ dilated. _Male_ with the terminal abdominal valves
  large, abruptly attenuated, and hooked.

Type. Pieris Limnobia. Lat. & Godart.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Anterior wings above yellowish white, with a black triangular exterior
  border, and a costal band in the female. Posterior above yellow, with an
  orange border, divided in the female, into round spots upon a black
  ground: under surface with a deep brown border, unspotted._

  Pieris Limnobia. _Ency. Meth. 1 p. 144. No. 93._

  ---- Lycimnia? _Cramer pl. 105. f. E. F. Ency. Meth. No. 92?_

----

We found this pretty Butterfly in profusion near the woods of Mandioca, at
the foot of the Organ Mountains of Rio de Janeiro; when in company with our
learned friend Professor Raddi, now prosecuting his researches in Egypt: it
appears late in the season, and frequents the flowery openings of thick
woods. The female is without the black costal band, and the margins of the
lower wings are simply orange. The accurate description of _Limnoria_ in
the _Ency. Meth._ perfectly accords with our specimens; but we suspect the
_Lycimnia_ of Cramer is also the same species.

In illustrating the Lepidopterous insects, we shall first define all those
variations in form, which appear to us sufficiently important; directing
our chief attention to the external anatomy of the perfect insect. These
groups or forms, we shall provisionally name: we shall next endeavour to
detect their true affinities, and their relative value; abolishing such as
may be found unnecessary, and confirming others which assume a higher
station. We intend, in short, to proceed only by analysis, and we therefore
wish that any incidental remarks, made by us in the interim, may be looked
on with suspicion: or at least, with that doubt which must attend all
opinions resulting only from synthesis.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: CRATEROPUS REINWARDII.

_Black masked Thrush._]


CRATEROPUS Reinwardii.

_Black-masked, or Reinwardts Thrush._

----

Family Merulidæ. Sub-family Macropodianæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Bill hard, compressed, either slightly notched or entire: wings and tail
  rounded, the former short, the latter broad. Feet remarkably large and
  strong; the two outer fore toes equal, the middle lengthened; hind toe
  and claw very large; claws compressed, strong, and but slightly curved.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Above grey; throat spotted; wings and tail brown; head and ears black;
  chin white._

In Mus. Paris. Nost.

----

Of the habits of this plain, but singularly formed bird, we know nothing.
It is, we believe, one of the numerous discoveries made by that able
Zoologist, Professor Reinwardt, in the Indian Islands; and should it not be
already described, (a point we cannot fully ascertain,) we trust it may be
allowed to bear the name of one, whose important labours merit the thanks
and respect of all the scientific world.

The length of our specimen, as indicated by the scale on the plate, is ten
inches and three quarters. The feet, in all their details, are uncommonly
strong, while the wings are feeble and much rounded. The fifth and sixth
quills are longest; the scapular quills and the tail feathers, when held to
the light, exhibit transverse dark shades.

We have elsewhere pointed out[7] the characters by which the strong legged
Thrushes form one of the sub-families of the _Merulidæ_; the two other
aberrant divisions, being represented by the true Orioles (_Oriolinæ_,) and
the short legged Thrushes (_Brachypinæ_.) That these form a circle of their
own, independant of the Ant Thrushes (_Myotherinæ_,) and the true Thrushes
(_Merulinæ_) has unintentionally been proved by M. M. Temminck and Vigors;
the first in proposing, and the latter in adopting, the genus _Ixos_; an
artificial group, compounded of birds totally dissimilar to each other, but
which, in the progression of certain species, demonstrate the circular
arrangement of the three subfamilies above named.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PRIONITES _Martii_.

_Martius's Motmot._]


PRIONITES Mexicanus.

_Mexican Motmot._

----

Family Trogonidæ. Sub-family Prionitinæ. _Nob._
(_See Northern Zoology, 2. p. 326._)

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Small, above green, beneath paler; head and neck above cinnamon, ears
  black, varied and tipped with bright blue stripes; belly white._

  Momotus Martii. _Jardine & Selby. Ill. of Orn. 2 pl. 25._

  Prionites Mexicanus. _Swains. Phil. Mag. June 1827. p. 442._

----

The Motmots, so named from their monotonous note, live only in the tropical
forests of the New World, preferring those deep recesses of perpetual
shade, where a high canopy of matted foliage, nearly excludes the rays of a
vertical sun. They appear even more solitary in their disposition than the
Trogons; their note may be heard, morning and evening, from the depths of
the forests, but the bird is never seen, unless the hunter comes
unexpectedly upon its retreat. This we have generally found to be a low,
withered branch, completely shaded, and just at the edge of such paths as
are made by the Cavies, or the Indians. The Jacamas and the Trogons both
love these shady nooks, where they sit nearly motionless, watching for
passing insects, upon which they dart. Such is, no doubt, the manner in
which the Motmot feeds; but his strong confirmation enables him to capture
larger game. Travellers assert that he also devours the eggs and young of
other birds, like the Toucans: this we believe, as both have the same long
and feather-like tongue. Thus has nature allied these two groups, each
standing at the confines of their own tribe: incontestably proving the
union of the Scansores, Teniurostres, and Fissirostres, into one great
circle.

The present species has only been found in Mexico, although the London
Ornithologists have confounded it with the Prionites Martii of Brazil.
Hence the error of Sir W. Jardine and Mr. Selby, and adopted upon our
plate. Distrusting our first opinion, we believed the London co-adjutors of
these gentlemen, having access to the original work of Dr. Spix, could not
have made such a blunder, but a personal inspection of the original figure
decided the question. No two species can well be more different.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: TROGON MEXICANUS.

_Mexican Trogon_]


TROGON Mexicanus.

_Mexican Trogon. Male._

----

Tribe Fissirostres. Family Trogonidæ.

Sub-family Trogoninæ. (G. Trogon. _Auct._)

GENERIC CHARACTER. See Lesson Man. 2 p. 139.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Above golden green, beneath crimson; tail black; the three outer
  feathers banded with white on their outer web only; inner webs with an
  oblique white stripe along their shafts; the inner edge spotted with
  white._ Male.

  Trogon Mexicanus, female. _See Swains. in Phil. Mag. June 1827._

Mus. Dom. Taylor.

----

The Trogons are found only in the dark primeval forests of the Tropics;
shunning the haunts of man, and living in solitude and silence. It is not,
therefore, to be wondered at, that their peculiar economy should be
shrouded in mystery, or that the naturalists of Europe should be much
perplexed in finding them a place in their artificial or their natural
systems. Our researches in Tropical America, will enable us to communicate,
in the forthcoming volume of Northern Zoology, some very singular
information on these birds, which we shall not now anticipate.

The species are much more numerous then is imagined, but they are, perhaps,
less understood than those of any one group of Ornithology. Males of
different species are classed as the same, while their females are
considered as distinct. The number enumerated in the last edition of the
Synopsis of Birds as inhabiting all South America, is six; but we possess
eight species from Brazil alone; besides several others, which it is
impossible to identify from books.

The Mexican Trogon was first described by us, from a bird, which we felt
assured was a female; and this belief was soon after confirmed, by the
arrival of a fine specimen of the male, to Mr. Taylor, from Real del Monte;
in whose possession it now is. We shall defer a detailed account of its
plumage, until we illustrate the other sex.

Total length 11 in. bill nine-tenths, wings 5¾, tail 7¾, the outermost
feather 3½ in. shorter.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: CYMBIOLA _vespertilio_.

_Bat Volute._]


CYMBIOLA vespertilio.

_Bat Volute._

----

Family Volutidæ. Sub-family Volutinæ. _Nob._

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Shell armed with spinous tubercles, sometimes smooth but never ribbed;
  spiral whorls gradually diminishing in size, but not distorted; the apix
  thick and obtuse; pillar with four plaits.

  TYPES OF FORM.--1. Marmorata. Broderpia. _Sw._ (Cymbiola. _Sow._) 2.
  Vespertilio. Nivosa. Rutila. Aulica. Pulchra. Pacifica. 3. Elongata (?)
  Gracilis. Magnifica. Tuberculata. 4. ----? 5. Lugubris.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell armed with spinous tubercles, pale fulvous with remote angular
  waved lines of brown; spiral whorls plaited; pillar with four plaits._

  Voluta vespertilio. _Lam. Sys. 7. 1. p. 336._

----

The second or sub-typical genus of the Volutes, appears to be represented
by this common though elegant species; here figured from one of the largest
specimens we have ever seen. The group is chiefly distinguished by the very
obtuse but regular termination of its spire, the whorls of which are never
distorted or disproportionately inflated: the plaits are always four, and
the pillar is never thickened in the middle: the shells of all the typical
species are furnished with pointed tubercles; and from their general
aspect, do not appear to be covered, like the typical Volutes, by the
dilated mantle of the animal, yet the two groups blend into each other by
means of the first type of form above indicated.

As we have deemed it advisable to employ the name of _Cymbiola_, (hitherto
used in a _specific_ sense), as a generic appellation for the whole group,
we trust that those who may adopt our views, will hereafter distinguish the
_Voluta cymbiola_ of Sowerby, now in the cabinet of Mr. Broderip, by the
name of _Cymbiola Broderpia_, in just commemoration of a gentleman whose
knowledge of conchology, and whose general labours in the cause of science
we have so often had occasion to honour.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: VOLUTA _cymbium_.

_Marbled Melon._]


VOLUTA cymbium.

_Clouded Melon Volute._

----

Sub-family Volutinæ _Nob._ (Gen. Melo. Cymba. Voluta. _Brod._)

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Shell enveloped by the mantle of the animal: oval, ventricose; spire very
  obtuse, papillary, remarkably short, the whorls (when defined) abruptly
  lessening. Pillar with from 3 to 4 carinated plaits.

  TYPES OF FORM.--1. V. fulgetrum. 2. V. cymbium. olla. Neptuni, porcina,
  proboscidalis, rubiginosa. 3. melo, tessellata, Ethiopica, diadema,
  armata, nautica. 4. Imperialis, Scapha (?) 5. angulata. _Auct._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  Type 2. _Shell ovate, marbled with rufous and white, suture channelled,
  the margin carinated: spire rude, irregular, plaits on the pillar
  variable._

  Voluta cymbium. _Auct. Lam. Sys. 7. 9. 332, Ency. Meth. pl. 386, f.
  3._--L'Yet, _Adans. Seneg. pl. 3. f. 1. p. 44._

  Cymba cymbium. _Brod. in Sow. Genera._

----

That the system of nature is essentially a system of types and symbols, is
a truth which has not only been perceived by philosophers, but is apparent
to every attentive observer of nature. It has been our endeavour, in the
second volume of _Northern Zoology_, to investigate this system, and to
ascertain those laws by which it is regulated. One of the results of this
enquiry has been, that every genus, pre-eminently typical, contains a
greater number of forms than any other; the necessary consequence of
comprising within itself, representations of every division in the whole
family. By this test must our present definition of the typical genus
_Voluta_ be tried. We consider this particular species as the type of the
whole group: according to Adanson, it is abundant on the western coast of
Africa, where it is stated to vary considerably, both in its colour and in
its plaits. To the same traveller we are indebted for the best account of
the animal, which he describes under the name of L'Yet. It has been
thought, indeed, that this is the _Voluta neptuni_, but as the interior of
Adanson's L'Yet is "blanche" and that of _Neptuni_ is yellowish orange, we
rather think that the French writer intended to designate the _Voluta
cymbium_ of systematic authors.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: ENDYMION _regalis_.

_Maroon banded Hair streak._]


ENDYMION regalis.

_Maroon-banded Hair-streak._

----

Tribe Papiliones. Family, Polyommatidæ. Sub-family, Theclanæ. _Nob._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Palpi in one sex (male) scarcely projecting beyond the head, the last
  joint very minute; in the other (female) lengthened, porrect, curved
  downwards, the last joint as long as that which precedes it; in both
  obtuse and covered with close-set scales; posterior wings four tailed.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings above shining blue: beneath golden emerald green, with a common
  black stripe, and a broad red band on the posterior wings; ocelli none._

  Papilio regalis. _Cramer. Ins. Pl. 72. f. E. F._

  Hesperia Endymion. _Fab. Ent. Sys. 3. 1. 268._

----

This superb butterfly, both in size and brilliancy of colour, may vie with
the Emerald Hair-streak, and both are among the most beautiful of their
family yet discovered. The general colour of the under surface is of the
richest golden green; the under wings being crossed by a broad bar of deep
maroon, softened into pearly white. The female is known by being the
largest, and by having the black margin of the upper wings much broader.
Our specimens were captured in Brazil. Lat 8. 12. S.

The palpi, which in the sub-genus _Arcas_ are equally long and perfect in
both sexes, are very different in the male and female of the present
sub-genus. In other respects there seems to be a close affinity between
them. We have not had time, however, to enter upon their minute dissection.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: GARRULUS SORDIDUS.

_Dusky bodied Jay._]


GARRULUS sordidus.

_Dusky-bodied Jay._

----

Family Corvidæ. Sub-family Garulinæ. _Nob._
_See Northern Zoology, 2. p. 288._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Above dusky blue, brighter upon the crown, wings, and tail; beneath
  grey; chin and belly whiteish; ears blackish; tail distinctly rounded._

  Garrulus sordidus. _Swains. Synopsis, No. 66._ (_Phil. Mag. June 1827._)

----

The Jays, although allied to the Crows, have many peculiar characteristics.
While the latter roam about and seek their food in all situations, the Jays
confine themselves to thick woods, feeding upon fruits, insects, and eggs,
and seldom perch upon the ground. In unison with that symbolical system
which pervades all nature, we find a perfect representation of this group
in the Bush-Shrikes of the new world.

America seems to possess three Jays, closely resembling each other, but
each (if they have been described correctly) having some peculiar
distinction. As these have not been clearly stated, and as some confusion
has consequently crept into the subject, we shall shortly state their
distinctions. The Florida Jay of Prince C. Bonaparte, (G. Floridamus) which
has been thought the same as ours, is a much smaller bird, being only 11½
in. long, and the back is "yellowish brown," not dusky blue, (See _Bon. Am.
Orn. 2. p. 61._) The _Garrulus ultramarinus_ of the same noble and learned
writer, appears to us from the following account, to be distinct from
either. "Its principal characters may be found in its larger dimensions,
but especially in the shape of its tail, which is _perfectly even, and not
in the least cuneiform_, as it generally is in all the Jays," (_Am. Orn. 2.
62._) Now the tail of our species is _decidedly rounded_, the outer feather
being full one inch shorter than the middle.

The _Garrulus sordidus_ inhabits the table land of Mexico, from whence our
specimen was received. Total length, 11 in.: bill, 1½: wings, 7: tarsi,
1-7/10: tail, 6½ in.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: SCAPHELLA _maculata. Sw._

_Olive Volute._]


SCAPHELLA maculata.

_Olive Volute._

----

Family Volutidæ. Sub-family Volutinæ. _Nob._

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Shell fusiform, invariably smooth and polished: spiral whorls gradually
  diminishing in size, the apex obtuse but rarely thickened or distorted:
  pillar generally gibbous in the middle, with from four to six thick and
  unequal plaits: margin of the outer lip thickened.

  TYPICAL SPECIES.--Scaph. undulata. Junonia, maculata, zebra.

  ABERRANT SPECIES.--Scaph. papillaris, elongata (?)

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell small, oval, fulvous, with longitudinal purplish-brown spots,
  disposed in three transverse bands: spire conical: pillar four plaited,
  not gibbous._

  Voluta maculata. _Swains. Bligh. Cat. app. p. 11._

----

Of this distinct and very remarkable genus of Volutes, few species have
hitherto been discovered: the subordinate divisions cannot therefore be
traced; nor do we feel satisfied that all the typical characters have been
detected: we consider it nevertheless, as a perfectly natural genus,
absolutely essential to mark the connection between the Volutes and the
_Marginillæ_. Lamark, indeed, as if aware of this affinity, actually
describes one species as a _Marginilla_. The union of the three aberrant
genera of _Scaphella_, _Volutilithes_, and _Harpula_, into one circle, is
effected by the _Scap. papillaris_ and the _Harpula Lapponica_: the former
species conducting us at the same time to the typical Volutes, by means of
_Voluta fulgetrum_ of Sowerby.

_Scaphella maculata_ is a native of the Australian seas, and is of great
rarity. Our drawings were made from one of the beautiful specimens in Mr.
Broderip's possession, It is probable that the animals of this genus
envelope their shells in an ample mantle, since they are almost always
enamelled.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: ARCAS _Imperialis_.]


ARCAS imperialis.

_Emerald Hair-streak._

----

Tribe, Papiliones. Family, Polyommatidæ. Sub-family, Theclanæ, _Nob._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Palpi, in both sexes, very long, thick, porrect, twice as long as the
  head, curved downwards, all the joints entirely covered with close-set
  scales, posterior wings six-tailed.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Above shining blue: beneath emerald-green, marked with minute black
  waved lines._

  Papilio imperialis. _Cramer, Pl. 75. f. E. F._

  Hesperia Venus. _Fab. Ent. Sys. 3. 1. 268._

----

It is impossible to depicture with correctness, the resplendant blue which
ornaments the upper surface, or the vivid emerald green on the under wings,
of this rare and splendid insect. It is possessed by few collectors; nor
did we capture more than three specimens, during two years devoted to the
entomology and ornithology of Brazil. The male is distinguished by a black
central spot on the anterior wings. The very remarkable prolongation of the
palpi, which are alike in both sexes, induces us to consider this insect as
a type of form, or in other words, a sub-genus: but we are at present
unprepared to state any thing satisfactory on its true affinities.

We have thought it right in this and other instances, to retain the
original specific name of Cramer; and we shall do the same in all instances
where it will not produce a discordant union of generic and specific names.
On this head, as the principle of Linnæus, from the great number of new
genera since defined, can no longer be acted upon, we think that specific
appellations, derived from some character of the insect, are much better,
in every respect, than attempting to render the nomenclature of the
Lepidoptera a correct index to the mythology of the Ancients.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: CHLORISSES _Sarpedon_.]


CHLORISSES Sarpedon,

_Sarpedon Butterfly._

----

NATURAL GROUPS.

Tribe, Papiliones. _Family_, Papilionidæ. _Sub-fam._ Papilionæ.

_Genus_ ----. _Sub-Genus_, Chlorisses, _Nobis_.

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings_, black, banded or variegated with green: the posterior narrowed,
  with obsolete acute tails; _Head_, thick, sessile, the front very hairy;
  _Antennæ_, long, the club spatulate, and concave beneath; _Posterior
  feet_, with the first joint of the tarsus as long as the tibiæ.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings black, with a common green band: posterior obsoletely tailed:
  beneath, marked with a red and black lunated spot at the base._

  Papilio Sarpedon. _Linn. Fab. Entom. Syst. 3. p. 1. p. 14. No. 41.
  Cramer. Pl. 122. f. D. E._

  Papilio Sarpedon. _Ency. Meth. 9. p. 46. No. 62._

----

Entomologists of the last century classed all day-flying Butterflies in the
Genus _Papilio_. But this denomination has been restricted, of late years,
to such as possess six long perfect legs; very short palpi, and the
anterior shanks spined near the middle. Now this group is so peculiarly
distinct, and comprises within itself such numerous variations of form,
that we have always viewed it as pre-eminently calculated to put to the
most severe test any arrangement, the principles of which are conceived to
be those of Nature. The _Papilionæ_ have consequently, for many years,
engaged much of our attention. Baffled in numerous attempts to understand
their arrangement, it was only upon applying those principles of the
natural system, which we have detailed in _Northern Zoology, vol. 2_, that
their true affinities became apparent. At present we shall only apprise the
Entomologist that the divisions above named are _circular groups_, and the
result of strict analysis. The sub-genus _Chlorisses_, in reference to
Ornithology, is a scansorial type.

The present Insect, figured from the male sex, is one of the most beautiful
butterflies of India. General Hardwicke presented us with specimens from
Nepaul; and we have since received others from Java. The typical species is
_Papilio Agamemnon_, where the green colour is broken into round spots. The
most extraordinary circumstance, however, which belongs to the group, is
this; that although a sub-genus, it yet contains within itself
_subordinate_ types of form, representing all the higher divisions. The
only ornithological group we have yet ascertained as possessing this
property, is the sub-genus _Parus_ (proper).

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: JASIA _Athama_.]


JASIA Athama,

_Athama Butterfly._

----

Tribe, Papiliones. Family, Nymphalidæ. _Nobis._

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Lower wings_, acutely bi-caudate; _Antennæ_, short, gradually thickening
  into a lengthened, cylindrical club, the tip nearly truncate; _Palpi_,
  projecting, and longer above, than is the head; their tips acute; their
  joints concealed by compact scales.

_Type_, Papilio Jasius. _Auct._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings above blackish, with a broad, common band, and an anterior spot of
  straw colour; beneath, having the band greenish, and margined with
  chesnut._

  Papilio Athamas. _Cramer_, Pl. 89. f. C. D.

----

We can communicate but little on this elegant Butterfly, of which our
figures represent the female: the other sex is known by having the straw
coloured band much narrower; on the under surface this colour is prismatic;
changing, in some lights, to a delicate pea green. The great size and
thickness of the thorax, intimate a powerful and rapid flight. The group is
Oriental; but one species, the beautiful and rare _Pap. Jasius._ Lin. we
have captured in the Island of Sicily, the most southern part of Europe.

As we have not yet completed the analysis of this family of Butterflies, we
know not the rank or true affinities of the present group. It is evidently
either one of the lowest types of form, or a sub-genus. We have received
both sexes of these insects from Java, where the species appears to be
common. The resemblance of this group, to _Rhetus_ and _Marius_, would seem
to indicate points of strong natural analogy.

We adopt the original specific name of Cramer: for we cannot, at this
moment, trace the species in the voluminous works of Fabricius.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: GEOTROCHUS _pileus_.

_Cap Land-Trochus._]


GEOTROCHUS pileus.

_Cap-shaped Land-trochus._

----

Order Phytophages. _Swains._ Tribe ----

SUB-GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Shell pyramidical, each volution, reckoning from the base, gradually
  diminishing and forming a conic spire, basal volution depressed, margin
  of the outer lip reflected and entire.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell trochiform, smooth, generally banded with reddish and yellowish
  bands: volutious convex._

  Trochus Pileus. _Chemnetz. Pl. 122. f. 1046-7-8._

  Helix pileus. _Dillwyn. p. 933. No. 106._

  _Lister. Tab. 14. f. 11._

In Mus. Nost.

----

Although this shell, in artificial arrangements, may be very well placed
among the sub-divisions of _Helix_ or _Bulimus_, we feel persuaded that it
is, _naturally_, the type of a Sub-genus: we have no hesitation, therefore,
in recording it as such. Another species, sharply carinated,
semi-transparent, and of a milky whiteness, we discovered in Brazil: and we
are thus led to conclude that the habitat of _Geotrochus pileus_, which no
author has yet mentioned, may probably be Tropical America.

The figures of this species, given by Chemnitz and Born, represent it as
marked by several narrow bands of a rufous brown colour: but the variety
here delineated, has only one, of a deep purple; it is almost the only
specimen answering to this description, which we have yet seen: both
varieties are very rare, and much prized by collectors.

*       *       *       *       *       *



GENERAL INDEX
_OF THE PLATES TO_
VOL. II.
IN THE ORDER OF PUBLICATION.

----

  _N.B. The number here affixed to the Plates, for convenience of
  reference, had better be marked in pencil upon the Plates themselves._

              No. 11.                  pl.
  Fluvicola cursoria                    46
  Macropteryx longipennis               47
  Eudamus Agesilaus (F. 1.)             48
  ---- Doryssus (F. 2.)                 48
  Mitra episcopalis                     49
  Tiara Isabella                        50
  ---- sulcata                          50

              No. 12.
  Sylvia Regulus                        51
  Phoenicornis flammeus                 52
  Volutilithes muricina                 53
  ---- pertusa (F. 2.)                  53
  Mitrella fusca (F. l.)                54
  ---- ocellata (F. 2.)                 54
  ---- olivæformis (F. 3.)              54
  Margarita crocata                     55

              No. 13.
  Nyctiornis amictus                    56
  Culicivora atricapilla                57
  Olivella purpurata (F. 1.)            58
  ---- eburnea (F. 2.)                  58
  Marius Thetys                         59
  Eurymus Philodice                     60

              No. 14.
  Gryllivora Saularis                   61
  Ptiliogonys cinereus                  62
  Amynthia Swainsonia                   63
  Ampullaria fasciata                   64
  Conus lithoglyphus                    65

              No. 15.
  Todus viridis                         66
  Murex Imperialis                      67
  Conus fumigatus                       68
  ---- franciscanus (F. 2.)             68
  Pieris Nigrina                        69
  Eurymus Europome                      70

              No. 16.
  Malaconotus Barbarus                  71
  Donacobius vociferans                 72
  Murex erythrostomus                   73
  Euterpe Teria                         74
  Peleus Æacus (F. 1.)                  75
  ---- Gentius (F. 2.)                  75

              No. 17.
  Malaconotus atrococcineus             76
  Harpula vexillum                      77
  Hiatula Lamarci (F. 1.)               78
  ---- pallida (F. 2.)                  78
  ---- maculosa (F. 3.)                 78
  Pieris (_Melete_) Limnobia            79
  Crateropus Reinwardii                 80

              No. 18.
  Prionites Mexicanus                   81
  Trogon Mexicanus                      82
  Cymbiola Vespertilio                  83
  Voluta Cymbium                        84
  Endymion regalis                      85

              No. 19.
  Garrulus sordidus                     86
  Scaphella maculata                    87
  Arcas Imperialis                      88
  Chlorisses Sarpedon                   89
  Jasia Athama                          90

              No. 20.
  Geotrochus pileus                     91

*       *       *       *       *       *



GENERAL ALPHABETIC INDEX
OF
LATIN AND ENGLISH NAMES, &c.,
TO
VOL. II.

----

  Ampullaria fasciata,                  64
  Amynthia Swainsonia,                  63
  _Apple Snail, fasciated_,             64
  Arcas, S. G. Characters of,           88
  ---- Imperialis,                      88
  _Butterfly, Sarpedon_,                89
  ---- _Athama_,                        90
  Chlorisses, S. G. Characters of,      89
  ---- Sarpedon,                        89
  Conus fumigatus,                      68
  ---- franciscanus,                    68
  ---- lithoglyphus,                    65
  Crateropus, G. Characters of,         80
  ---- Reiwardii,                       80
  Culicivora, G. Characters of,         57
  ---- atricapilla,                     57
  Cymbiola, G. Characters of,           83
  ---- Types of form,                   83
  ---- vespertilio,                     83
  _Dial Bird_,                          62
  Donacobius, S. G. Characters of,      72
  ---- vociferans,                      72
  Eudamus, G. Characters of,            48
  ---- Agesilaus,                       48
  ---- Doryssus,                        48
  Eudymion, S. G. Characters of,        85
  ---- regalis,                         85
  Eurymus, S. G. Characters of,         60
  ---- Philodice,                       60
  ---- Europome,                        70
  Euterpe, G. Characters of,            74
  ---- Teria,                           74
  Fluvicola cursoria,                   46
  Garrulus sordidus,                    86
  Geotrochus, S. G. Characters of,      91
  ---- pileus,                          81
  _Golden crested Warbler_,             51
  Gryllivora, S. G. Characters of,      61
  ---- Saularis,                        61
  Harpula, G. Characters of,            77
  ---- Types of form,                   77
  ---- vexillum,                        77
  Hiatula, S. G. Characters of,         78
  ---- Lamarci,                         78
  ---- pallida,                         78
  ---- maculosa,                        78
  Jasia Athama,                         90
  _Jay, Dusky_,                         86
  _Land-trochus, cap-shaped_,           91
  Macropterx, S. G. Characters of,      47
  ---- longipennis,,                    47
  Malaconotus atrococcineus,            76
  ---- barbarus,                        71
  Marius Thetys,                        59
  Melete, S. G. Characters of,          79
  ---- Limnobia,                        79
  Mitranæ (Pl. 4.),                     49
  ---- (Pl. 5.),                        50
  ---- (Pl. 6.),                        54
  Mitra episcopalis,                    49
  Mitrella, G. Characters of,           54
  ---- fusca,                           54
  ---- ocellata,                        54
  ---- olivæformis,                     54
  Muricinæ (Pl. 1.),                    67
  ---- (Pl. 2.),                        73
  Murex crythrostomus,                  73
  ---- Imperialis,                      67
  _Motmot, Mexican_,                    81
  Nyctiornis, G. Characters of,         56
  ---- amictus,                         56
  _Nightfeeder, Duvaucels_,             56
  Olivæ (Pl. 2.),                       78
  ---- (Pl. 3.),                        78
  Olivella, S. G. Characters of,        58
  ---- eburnea,                         58
  ---- purpurata,                       58
  _Olive, purple mouthed_,              58
  ---- _ivory_,                         58
  _Olives, the wide mouthed_,           78
  _Pearl Oyster, orange_,               55
  Peleus, G. Characters of,             75
  ---- Æacus,                           75
  ---- Gentius,                         75
  Phoenicornis, G. Characters of,       52
  ---- flammeus,                        52
  Pieris, G. Characters of,             66
  ---- Nigrina,                         69
  Ptiliogonys cinereus, fem.,           62
  Prionites Mexicanus,                  81
  _Redbird, orange_,                    52
  Scaphella, G. Characters of,          87
  ---- maculata,                        87
  _Shrike, Barbary_,                    71
  ---- _Burchells_,                     76
  Strombidæ, Ch. of the family,         65
  Sylvia G. Characters of,              51
  ---- Regulus,                         51
  Thiara, G. Characters of,             50
  ---- Isabella,                        50
  ---- sulcata,                         50
  _Thrush, babbling_,                   72
  Todinæ, Characters of,                66
  Todus, viridis,                       66
  _Tody, Green_,                        66
  Trogon Mexicanus,                     82
  _Trogon Mexican_,                     82
  ---- habits of,                       82
  Voluta, G. Characters of,             84
  ---- Types of form,                   84
  ---- vespertileo,                     84
  _Volute, clouded melon_,              83
  ---- _Bat_,                           84
  ---- _Orange flag_,                   77
  Volutilithes, G. Characters of,       53
  ---- muricina,                        53
  ---- pertusa,                         53

*       *       *       *       *       *



Notes.

[1] Babbage (_On the Decline of Science_), Quarterly Review.

[2] Herschel. Sir Humphrey Davy. Sir Nicholas Harris. Millengen. (_Ancient
    Coins_). See also Lowdon's Natural His. Mag. Nov. 1831. p. 481.

[3] Northern Zool. 2. p. xliv.

[4] Montague's _Orn. Dict._ new edition, _preface_.

[5] Athæneum Journal, Jan. 1832. p. 32.

[6] _Ibid._, p. 37.

[7] Northern Zoology, Vol. ii.

       *       *       *       *       *



Corrections made to printed text

Plate 53: 'fusiform' corrected from 'fuciform'. So also 'subfusiform' (same
plate), and 'fusiform' on Pls. 75 & 87. Fusiform means 'spindle-shaped': if
fuciform meant anything it would be 'seaweed-shaped'.

Plate 56: 'beautiful' corrected from 'beautful'

Ibid.: 'Jardin' corrected from 'Jarden'

Plate 58: (characters given of) 'biplicata' corrected from 'bliplicata'

Plate 59: 'Lepidoptera' corrected from 'Lepidaptera'

Plate 60: 'appendages' corrected from 'appendges'

Plate 62, main title: 'PTILIOGONYS' corrected from 'PLILIOGONYS'

Plate 62: 'characterized' corrected from 'charactized'

Plate 65: (Generic) 'Character' corrected from 'Charicter'

Plate 72: 'monotonous' corrected from 'monotinous'

Plate 79: 'Lepidopterous' corrected from 'Lepedopterous'

Plate 89: 'Antennæ' corrected from 'Anteunæ'





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