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Title: Zoological Illustrations, or Original Figures and Descriptions.  Volume I, Second Series
Author: Swainson, William
Language: English
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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

       *       *       *       *       *



Zoological Illustrations,

OR

ORIGINAL FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS

OF

NEW, RARE, OR INTERESTING

ANIMALS,

SELECTED CHIEFLY FROM THE CLASSES OF

Ornithology, Entomology, and Conchology,

AND ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THEIR APPARENT AFFINITIES.

BY

WM. SWAINSON, ESQ., F.R.S., F.L.S.

ASSISTANT COMMISSARY GENERAL TO H. M. FORCES. CORRESPONDING MEMBER
OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF PARIS; HONORARY MEMBER
OF THE HISTORIC SOCIETY OF NEW YORK; MEMBER OF
THE WERNERIAN SOCIETY, &c. &c. &c.

VOL. I.

SECOND SERIES.

London:

PRINTED BY R. HAVELL, JUN. NEWMAN STREET.

PUBLISHED BY BALDWIN AND CRADOCK,

PATERNOSTER ROW.

1829.

*       *       *       *       *       *



TO
MRS. CORRIE,
OF
WOODVILLE, NEAR BIRMINGHAM.

----

MY DEAR MADAM,

Allow me, in dedicating this volume of Illustrations to you, to evince my
respect and friendship for one whose talents shun publicity. It may have a
beneficial influence on the rising generation, to know, that a highly
cultivated understanding, and varied accomplishments, are not inconsistent
with a perfect discharge of all the social duties. And that a mind stored
with knowledge, and imbued with Religion, is an effectual antidote to the
cheerless influence of debilitated health.

That these, my Zoological _Recreations_, may in your opinion, contribute to
the great end which the naturalist should ever keep in view, the
developement of the harmonies of Creation, and the discovery of the natural
system, is the hope of,

  MY DEAR MADAM,
          Your obliged and sincere Friend,
                  WILLIAM SWAINSON.

*       *       *       *       *       *



PREFACE.

----

The execution of the Zoological drawings now published, have been to us an
agreeable relaxation from severer studies; and the concise descriptions by
which they are accompanied, are intended to convey, in a condensed and
popular form, the partial result of more extended investigations. Species
are the objects of which the whole fabric of animated nature is composed,
and their respective properties must be investigated, before their natural
combinations can be understood. Their delineation is therefore highly
important. Figures bring before us objects which cannot always be
understood by words; while if faithfully executed, they possess the same
value as every period of time; for nature is unchangeable.

It is to be regretted that of late much discussion should have arisen among
our own naturalists, as to the relative merits of the different modes by
which they study nature. The searchers after the natural system throwing
obloquy on those who investigate species,[1] while the latter contend that
mankind is more interested in knowing the properties of species, than those
of groups.[2] To us it appears that such discussions are unnecessary, and
but ill calculated to promote that good feeling which should prevail in a
division of labour. The power of embracing comprehensive views, and of
detecting diversified relations, must be confined to a few, because such
objects require the greatest exertion of a superior mind, yet they must
ever be mainly dependant on the labours of another class of naturalists:
those who analyze the properties of species, and separate with critical
judgment, and nice discrimination, resemblances from affinities. But for
these valuable coadjutors our acquaintance with nature would be altogether
speculative: they supply, in short, by analysis, that basis upon which all
true knowledge of nature must repose. Natural combinations can never be
fully detected, without an acquaintance with their component parts.

The investigator of general laws, and the discriminator of species, are
thus advancing the knowledge of their favourite science by different modes
of study. The paths they have chosen, although essentially distinct, lead
but to one common point; and as both must be trodden, it seems unnecessary
to discuss which road is the most honourable.

In the classification of the subjects here comprised, we have followed no
particular system: the chief object aimed at, being to point out apparent
relations and affinities. To those Ornithological groups which Linneus
named Genera, and which subsequent systematists have considered Families or
sub-families, we have applied the designations long used by Leach, Stevens,
Fleming, Vigors, &c., but in all cases where such divisions are
unaccompanied by a definition, (in the following pages,) we wish it to be
understood, that the name is merely applied _provisionally_; indicating the
_probable_ station of the individual; and that in very few instances do our
own opinions on the nature of such groups, coincide with those of the
different writers who have gone before us.

The splendid discovery of the circular system of Nature, has given a
totally new aspect to this science; but has nevertheless been attended with
an evil, no where more apparent than in Ornithology; where synthesis has
completely set aside analysis, and where the rugged and laborious path of
patient investigation, has been deserted for the flowery walks of
Speculation and Hypothesis. The combinations thus produced, may well excite
the smile of our continental neighbours, nor need we feel surprise that
they look, with something like contempt, on such arrangements "called
natural" of affinities and relations.

On the other hand the Ornithological writings of Sonnini, Le Vaillant,
Wilson, and Azara, are never failing sources of information to the searcher
after truth. The observations of such men, who recorded Nature as she
really is, and who cared very little for the fashionable systems of the
day, may be for a time neglected: but they must finally assume that
importance which is ever attached to unbiassed and disinterested testimony.
To this honourable list our own country can furnish other names. The habits
and economy of our native birds have been accurately and patiently
investigated by those lyncean naturalists, White, Montague, and Selby,
while their internal structure is now engaging the attention of Mr.
Yarrell, a Gentleman eminently qualified by long study, and matured
reflection, for such a task.

In Conchology we have been more desirous to illustrate groups, than
species; the latter will be done, on a very extensive scale, in the
forthcoming work of Mess. Sowerby.

From the patient labours, and cautious deductions, of Dr. Horsfield, we
expect a more perfect elucidation of the Lepidopterous Insects than has
yet, perhaps, been attempted. As this will be the result of careful
analysis, we shall place a high degree of confidence in the views it may
develope.

In conclusion, it may be as well to add, that our views on several of the
higher groups, here but slightly noticed, will be more fully explained in
another work, now preparing for Publication.



  _Tittenhanger Green, St. Albans,_
          _24th July, 1829._

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Sapphire crowned Parrot_

_fem._]


PSITTACULUS vernalis.

_Vernal Parrakeet._

----

Family Psittacidæ.--Vigors.
Genus Psittaculus.--(Lesson. Man. 2. p. 148.)

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Green, with the head more splendid; bill red; rump and upper tail covers
  scarlet; spot on the throat orange._

  Psittacus vernalis. _Sparman Mus. Carl. Pl. 29._

  Psittacula vernalis. _Gen. Zool. 14. p. 144._

----

The Vernal Parrakeet has hitherto remained unfigured, except in the scarce
and little known work of Sparman: nor was its native country ascertained,
until recent travellers discovered it in the islands of Java and Teinor.

This is one of the smallest of parrots, scarcely exceeding five inches in
length; the feathers of the head have a silky texture, and their colour, in
some lights, is particularly vivid: the tail and the wings are green above,
but of a rich deep blue beneath; a character said to be equally conspicuous
in P. _galgulus_ L. The spot on the throat, in our specimen, is orange.

In respect to the situation of this bird among its congeners, we retain it,
provisionally, in the genus _Psittacula_ of Brisson & Kuhl, adopting the
termination used by M. Spix, to avoid the alteration of specific names. We
have not yet had leisure to study the new divisions made in this family,
with that attention they deserve; but it strikes us, as a defect in the
genus _Psittaculus_, that it unites birds of the Old and the New World in
one group. Except in their size, no two parrots can be more dissimilar in
construction than the Indian P. _vernalis_, and the American P.
_passerinus_. In the first, the under mandible is smallest, narrow, and
rather pointed; the first quill longest; and the tail feathers rounded. In
P. _passerinus_, the under mandible is largest, high, very thick, and quite
obtuse; the second quill longest, and the tail feathers acutely pointed.
These may be usefully employed as sectional characters, until the contents
of the two groups are better understood.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Brazilian Crested Eagle_,

Polyborus Braziliensis.]


POLYBORUS Braziliensis

_The Caracara; or Brazilian-crested Eagle._

----

Family Falconidæ.
GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Vieil. Orn. 3. p. 1180.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Body above and beneath, crest of the head, and end of the tail, blackish
  brown: the rest of the plumage cream colour, varied with spots and
  bands._

  Falco Braziliensis. _Lin. Gm. 64._

  Buzard du Brézil. _Buffon._

  La Caracara. _Azara Voy. 3. p. 32._ _Vieil. Orn. 3. p. 1180._

  Polyborus Vulgaris. _Vieil. Gall. Pl. 7._

In Mus. Paris. D. Taylor.

----

The whole extent of Tropical America, from Mexico to the banks of the Rio
Plata, is inhabited by this majestic bird. It has been slightly noticed by
the earlier writers, but nothing was known of its history, until the
publication of the invaluable Memoirs of Azara.

Its length is about twenty-one inches. In its habits there is a mixture of
cowardice and daring. It will attack all other rapacious birds, excepting
eagles, for the purpose of robbing them of their prey, and will often seize
the game of the hunter, before he has time to secure it. Yet the Caracara
is frequently driven from its haunts by the courage of small birds; and
will only attack young chickens when not defended by their mother.

The birds which form the modern genera of _Daptrius_, _Ibycter_,
_Polyborus_, and _Milvago_, present so many characters in common, that we
cannot consider them of sufficient rank to be called genera. They appear to
us, taken collectively, to form one group, in which every species exhibits
a peculiar modification of structure, assimilating either to the Vultures
or the Falcons. Allied both in structure and manners to both these
families, each bird may be considered as a strongly marked link of
connexion. They present, in short, that interchange of characters,
generally confined to individual species, which Nature invariably exhibits
at the union of her more comprehensive groups.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Painted Flycatcher_

Setophaga picta.]


SETOPHAGA picta.

_Painted Flycatcher._

----

Family Muscicapidæ
GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Lesson Man. 2 p. 430.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Black; breast and middle of the body crimson; greater wing covers, and
  three external tail feathers, snowy._

In Mus. D. Taylor.

----

A specimen of this richly-coloured bird was sent to John Taylor, Esq., F.
G. S., &c., from Real del Monte, in Mexico. It is not only new to
Ornithologists, but forms a beautiful addition to a geographic group,
originally founded upon one species.

The figure is the size of life. The bristles at the bill are compact,
rigid, and all directed forwards: under tail covers and thighs whitish: the
white band on the wings occupies the greater covers, and the tips of the
lesser: the quill covers are also margined with white: the extreme base of
the three outer tail feathers are more or less black.

The characters upon which we formed this group, confine it strictly to
birds of the New World. For although the habits of the typical species
evince a marked affinity to the Fantailed Flycatchers of Australia, the
construction of their wings is totally different. The disposition of the
black and crimson colours on our bird, will remind the Ornithologist of the
Red-bellied Flycatcher of Latham, of which, in fact, it is nearly an exact
prototype. But this resemblance, however strong, appears to us to be one of
analogy, rather than of affinity. We consequently consider the _Muscicapa
Multicolor_, _Lathami_, and _Goodenovia_, of MM. Horsfield and Vigors, as
more truly belonging to the family of _Sylviadæ_.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Ancillaria rubiginosa_]


ANCILLARIA rubiginosa.

----

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Shell oblong, smooth, entirely polished: suture not channelled. Base of
  the pillar oblique, thickened, and striated. S.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell imperforate, oblong, chestnut; spire elongated; body whorl above
  banded; base with two belts and a concave groove._ Sw. in Phil. Mag. 62.
  p. 403.

  A. rubiginosa. _Sw. in Brand's Journ., No. 36, p. 283._

----

The Ancillariæ are marine shells, few in number, and peculiar to warm
latitudes. They are naturally polished, and very much shaped, like the
Olives; but the suture, which in those shells is marked by a deep grove, is
in these covered by a thick enamel. The animal, we believe, remains
unknown. In a monograph of this genus, published in the Journal above
quoted, we described fourteen recent, and four fossil species, being all
which, at that period, we had seen. Of these, the present is one of the
largest, and certainly the most beautiful. Our figure was made from a
matchless specimen, received by Mrs. Mawe from China, and now in the
collection of Mr. Broderip.

We hear, with pleasure, that Mr. George Sowerby has selected this
interesting group for an early illustration in his promised _Species
Conchyliorum_. The professional opportunities which this zealous
Conchologist enjoys will, no doubt, enable him to make considerable and
valuable additions to this and every other department of his subject; and
he has our cordial good wishes for success in this most laborious
undertaking.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Mitra melaniana_]


MITRA melaniana.

----

GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Zool. Illustr. 1 Series, Pl. 23.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell smooth, blackish brown, with very minute punctured transverse
  striæ; spire attenuated, longer than the aperture; pillar 4-plaited._

  Mitra melaniana. _Lam. Syst. 7. p. 314._

  M. nigra? _Chem. Conch. 10 Pl. 151. f. 1430, 1431._

  M. carbonaria. _Sw. in Bligh. Cat. App. p. 10._

----

We are acquainted with two shells, perfectly distinct as species, yet
sufficiently alike to render Lamarck's description of his M. _melaniana_
applicable to both. In this uncertainty, we at first intended to
distinguish _this_ by the name of _carbonaria_, and to consider the other
as Lamarck's _melaniana_, but further consideration induces us to alter
this arrangement; the second species we propose to illustrate in an early
number. Our figure was taken from a full-sized specimen, received from
Australia, and now in the Manchester Museum.

----


MITRA tessellata.

----

  _Shell ovate, smooth, with remote transverse punctured striæ; whitish,
  cancellated by transverse and longitudinal fulvous lines; inner lip brown
  at the base; outer lip smooth._

  Mitra tessellata. _Swains. in Brand's Journal, No. 33. p. 34. (Ap.
  1824.)_

----

We have already given a full account of this very rare shell; a repetition
of which is rendered unnecessary by the publication of the figures. The
specimen from which these were taken, was then in the possession of Mrs.
Mawe, whose kindness and liberality, in forwarding our scientific pursuits,
has been, for very many years, constant and invariable. We know not its
country, nor have we ever seen a second example.

Mr. Grey has recently given an additional interest to this group, by
publishing an account of the structure of the animal.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _African Jacana_

Parra Africana.]


PARRA Africana.

_African Jacana._

----

Family Rallidæ.
GENERIC CHARACTER.--_See Lesson Man. 2. p. 285._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Above deep cinnamon; crown of the head naked; throat white; breast
  fulvous; neck and quills black; spur on the wing obsolete._

  Parra Africana. _Lath. Ind. Orn. 2. 764._

  African Jacana. _Lath. Gen. Syn. 5. p. 246. Gen. Hist. 9. p. 393._

In Mus. Par. Nostro.

----

The Jacanas are wading birds, somewhat analagous, both in structure and
habits, to the European water-hen; but in their native haunts, from not
being disturbed, they are less shy. The number of these birds on the lakes
of Brazil, the elegance of their movements, and their fearlessness of man,
excite an interest in the traveller who journeys through regions,
ornamented alone by Nature.

Most of the Jacanas inhabit South America--a few occur in India; and this,
as its name implies, is found in Africa. The typical species have the wings
armed with a strong and very acute bony spur; but in P. _Africana_, this is
so small, as not to be perceived when the wing is closed.--Bruce mentions
this bird by the name of Meylie, as inhabiting Abyssinia; and Mr. Salt
found it at Mozambique. Our specimen was received from Western Africa, by
Mr. Ward, Animal Preserver, Broad Street, Golden Square.

The peculiar structure of the feet of these birds is highly singular, but
their particular use has not, we believe, been explained. The Jacanas are
very light birds; and their long toes, spreading over a wide surface,
enable them to walk on the floating leaves of aquatic plants, with as much
facility as if they were on land. In such situations their appearance is
really delusive; for their pressure being sufficient to sink the supporting
leaf just below the surface, the birds actually appear to walk upon the
water.

Total length, ab. 10½; bill, 1-2/10; wings, 5-2/10; tarsi, 2-2/10; hind toe
and claw, 5-1/10.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: AFRICAN BLACK CUCKOW.

_Cuculus nigricans._]


CUCULUS nigricans.

_African Black Cuckow._

----

Family Cuculidæ.
GENERIC CHARACTER.--See Lesson. Man. 2. 119.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Black glossed with blue; quills internally white, with blackish bands;
  tips of the lateral tail feathers whitish; bill and legs black._

----

The genus _Cuculus_, even as now restricted, contains a number of species,
dispersed over the continents and islands of the Old World. In America they
are not known: but the genus _Coccyzus_, which there represents the group,
is one of those few which are common to both hemispheres.

The specific distinctions of birds having a uniform black plumage, is at
all times difficult; and more so, when we attempt to identify them with the
descriptions of authors. Of the black Cuckows of Africa, our bird comes
nearest to the _Coucou criard_ of Levaillant, (Ois. d'Af. pl. 204-5,) but
differs in having the bill and feet black instead of yellow: it cannot be
the _Cuculus Indicus niger_ of Brisson, as _that_ has the quills,
internally, "tout à fait noir:" neither is it the black Indian Cuckow of
Edwards, pl. 58, (_Cuculus niger_ Lin.,) whose bill and feet are red. We
were inclined to think that the second species of Buffon's _Coukeels_ might
be our bird, notwithstanding the difference of their locality; but
Commerson's original description decides the question; his words are
"_Cuculus cristatus mindanensis coeruleo nigricans totus_," (Buff. ed. Son.
54. p. 54.) Our bird has no crest. We have here consulted only original
writers; for subsequent transcribers have so blended these birds under one
name, that it is scarcely possible to disentangle their synonyms. M.
Vieillot has increased the confusion, by transposing the specific names of
Linnæus: the true _C. niger_, L. being his _Orientalis_ (En. Meth. Orn.
1331).

Our bird was sent to us for examination by Mr. Ward. It is a genuine
Cuckow: the nostrils being round, the third quill longest, and the second
shorter than the fourth. It came from Western Africa.

Total length, 12½; bill, 1-1/10; wings, 6¾; tail, 6½.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Blue necked Lory_]


LORIUS Isidorii.

_Blue-necked Lory._

----

Family Psittacidæ.
GENERIC CHARACTER.--Lesson. Man. 2. 148.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Crimson; crown, nape, neck, throat, and middle of the belly violet blue;
  quill covers tipt with black; tail moderate, graduated, reddish brown._

----

A splendid specimen of this lovely bird (the only one we believe in this
kingdom), came into our possession some years ago through Mr. Warwick, a
travelling naturalist of great merit. It was purchased by him, alive, in
the Isle of France, where it had been brought in a trading vessel from New
Guinea: but it unfortunately died on its passage to England.

We feel happy, that in recording this new and beautiful bird, an early
opportunity is given us of commemorating our deep sense of the kindness we
received from a young naturalist of France, whose writings have already
acquired celebrity, and who promises to inherit the great and commanding
talents of his illustrious father. In prosecuting our studies at the
_Garden of Plants_, we met with such unexampled liberality from its most
distinguished Professors, that we feel embarrassed where first to return
our thanks. But the facilities and attentions we received from M. Isidore
Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, partly involved a sacrifice of personal
convenience; uncalled for, either by the nature of his appointment, or by
the common rules of courtesy. So much for the reception which British
naturalists receive in France. We should do well, when striving to imitate
the Zoological Institutions of that nation, if we imbibed somewhat more of
their liberality. We hope the time is not far distant, when the system of
regulations and restrictions, which now fence the Museum of a popular
Society, from all who cannot pay for admittance, as members, may be
exchanged for a policy more creditable to the age, and more honourable to
the nation.

We shall offer a few remarks, illustrating this particular genus, in our
next number.

Total length, 9 in.; wings 5; tail (beyond) 1½, from the base, 3½.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: AMPULLARIA Pl. 1.

_A. carinata._]


AMPULLARIA carinata.

_Carinated Apple-snail._

----

Family Ampullaridæ.--Guild.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  PACHYSTOMA. Shell ventricose; margin of the lip thick, generally grooved;
  operculum testaceous. Zool. Journ. 12. p. 536.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell olive, ventricose, without bands; whorls carinated near the
  suture._

----

In the first Series of our Illustrations, we endeavoured to lessen the
confusion which, at that time, prevailed among the species of Ampullaria,
figuring and naming such as appeared to us truly distinct. During the
course of our labours, the sixth part of the "_Animaux sans Vetebres_" of
the celebrated Lamarck was published in Paris; in which is described
several species, figured in our volumes under other names. A want of mutual
communication between authors writing at the same time, and on the same
subject, has naturally caused confusion in nomenclature; which, at an early
period, we intend to elucidate.

Our friend the Rev. L. Guilding, whose accuracy of observation can only be
equalled by his indefatigable zeal, has established the distinction between
the horny and shelly operculated _Ampullariæ_, on anatomical principles.
The present species (which was engraved before his valuable memoir was
published) must consequently be placed in his genus _Pachystoma_; while the
_carinata_ of Lamarck, from having a horny operculum, remains with the true
Ampullariæ.

We know not the precise locality of our species; but conjecture it may be
from some of the rivers of India.--Specimens, in different stages of
growth, are in the Manchester Museum, and in our own.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: UNIO Pl. 1.

_U. truncatus_]


UNIO truncatus.

_Truncated River Mussel._

----

Acephala Dimyaria.
Sub-family Les Nayades.--_Lam._

SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA.

  UNIO. Shells with lateral and cardinal teeth, the latter short and deeply
  divided.

  HYRIA. Lateral and cardinal teeth distinct; but the latter lengthened,
  and united to the former by irregular dentations.

  IRIDINA. Teeth consisting of a single crenated line, parallel with the
  ligament.

  ANODON. All the teeth either obsolete, or entirely wanting.

  ALASMODON. Lateral teeth none; cardinal teeth simple, or slightly
  divided.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell thick, oblong, sub-cylindrical, within pearly, umbones close to
  the anterior margin, which is truncate; posterior extremity narrowed._

----

In our former Series, we have frequently mentioned the Fluviatile Bivalve
Shells, of which the genus _Unio_ appears to be the type. In a group which
present so few certain characters, either for discriminating the species or
characterizing the genera, we have, with other writers, held different
opinions at different times. And the reader has only to peruse an
interesting paper on these shells, in the Zoological Journal (Vol. I. p.
53), to be convinced of the intricacy of the subject.

Nevertheless it is observed, by those who study natural affinities, that
when the links between two distinct forms of animals are so complete, that
their dissimilarities are lost in intermediate and undefinable gradations,
it is then that the natural arrangement is most likely to be discovered.
For it has been demonstrated in such groups, that the most perfect order
and harmony will come out, of what appeared an inextricable entanglement of
relations. Such, however, will never result from the belief in a simple
scale of Nature, or by attempting to circumscribe groups by absolute
characters. We therefore now offer the foregoing sketch of the natural
divisions of the _Nayades_, as the result of all we have seen or read upon
this difficult subject.

We are unacquainted with any described species to which the shell here
figured can be referred. Its substance is very thick, and its form nearly
cylindrical. We have seen but one specimen, and that was with Mrs. Mawe.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: WHITE BREASTED WREN.

_Thryothorus Mexicanus._]


THRIOTHORUS Mexicanus.

_Mexican, or White-throated Wren._

----

Family Certhiadæ.
GENERIC CHARACTER.--Vieil. Orn. 2. 627.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Brown, varied with dusky lines and white dots; throat and breast snowy;
  tail ferruginous, with black bars._

Mus. D. Taylor.

----

In the collection of Birds before alluded to, formed by the late Mr. John
Morgan at Real del Monte, was a single skin of this new and elegant
species. The snowy whiteness of its throat, renders it not liable to be
mistaken in a group of birds, presenting in general a great similarity of
plumage. The upper parts are greyish brown, varied with obscure, dusky,
broken lines of blackish; each feather being tipt with a small round white
spot: wing covers and tertials the same: upper and under tail covers
ferruginous; each feather with a white spot before the white one which is
at the tip, lower breast and all the under plumage rufous brown, crossed by
black lines; the white dots nearly obsolete, tail ferruginous, with about
six black bars: legs brown, hind claw as long as the tarsus. Fourth and
fifth quill longest.

This genus has been judiciously separated by M. Vieillot from _Troglodytes_
(to which belongs our Brown European Wren), on account of its lengthened
and generally notched bill: the greater prolongation of the hind toe is a
further distinction; indicating an affinity with the more perfect
scansorial Creepers.

To this group belongs the _Myothera obsoleta_ of Prince Charles Bonaparte.
No example of that genus, or of _Thamnophilus_ (in their most extended
sense), has yet been found north of Cuba: their straight, cylindrical, and
abruptly-hooked bills, offer a striking contrast to the lengthened,
compressed, curved, and consequently feeble structure of this part in
_Thriothorus_ and _Troglodytes_.

Total length, 5½; bill, 1-1/10; wings, and tail, 2-6/10 tarsi, 7/10.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Ceram Lory_]


LORIUS garrulus.

_Ceram Lory._

----

Family Psittacidæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Bill moderate, compressed, end of the upper mandible, within, entirely
  smooth; under mandible lengthened, conic; the tip entire. Legs stout;
  Tail moderate, rounded or graduated; the feathers broad, their tips
  obtuse. _Nob._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Scarlet: wings green, shoulders yellow, half of the tail bluish black._

  Psittacus garrulus. _Lin. 144. Kuhl. Cons. Psit. p. 41. No. 56._

  Le Lori-Noira. _Buffon. Sonn. 27. p. 126. Pl. Enl. 216._

  Le Perroquet Lori Nouara. _Levail. 2. pl. 96._

  Scarlet Lory. _Edw. pl. 172._

  Le Lory de Ceram. _Briss. Orn. 4. 215._

----

The popular name of Lories has long been given to those Parrots, peculiar
to the continent and islands of India, whose brilliant red plumage forms a
strong contrast to the green colour which generally pervades this family.
The southern limits of their distribution do not extend to Australia, but
much of their general structure is transferred to the Lory-Parrakeets,
forming the modern genus _Trichoglossus_; this latter group being diffused
over the remaining islands of the great Pacific Ocean.

The Ceram Lory, from being well known, and exhibiting the prominent
characters of its tribe, is a correct type of the genus. Its length is
about eleven inches. The general colour is rich scarlet, with the wings and
thighs green: the bend of the shoulder, (and sometimes a spot on the back,)
is yellow. Tail graduated, the lower half of the feathers deep blackish
green, glossed with blue. Inhabits the Molucca Islands.

Notwithstanding the attention recently bestowed in characterizing the
groups of this family, the most important external peculiarity of _Lorius_
and _Trichoglossus_ has been overlooked. In these birds, that part of the
roof of the under mandible which projects beyond the lower, is generally
thin, and always perfectly smooth: a weakness of structure which renders it
impossible for these parrots to feed upon hard substances; and betrays
their frugivorous and suctorial nature, by indications perceptible to every
one.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: LEVAILLANTS CUCKOW.

_Coccyzus Levaillanti_]


COCCYZUS Levaillantii.

_Black and White-throated Cuckow._

----

Family Cuculidæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER.--Lesson. Man. 2. 120.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Head crested, the feathers pointed; plumage above black glossed with
  green; band at the base of the quills, end of the tail, and under parts
  of the body, white; throat striped with black._

  Variete du Coucou Edolio, _Le Vail. Ois. d'Af. 4. pl. 209._

----

Unlike the true Cuckows, the birds of this genus rear and provide for their
young in the ordinary manner. The species are numerous in the tropical
latitudes of both hemispheres. Two are found in North America, which, in
their external characters, approach so near to the genuine Cuckows, that
they barely come within the definition of the present group.

It frequently happens that species, originally well described, become
involved in obscurity by compilers. Le Vaillant, who first described this
bird, supposed it a variety of his _Coucou Edolio_: but in this he was
mistaken; the one being a _Cuculus_; the other a _Coccyzus_. We should have
thought our species might be the _Cuculus Afer._ of Drs. Leach and Latham,
had not the former stated his bird to be a _variety_ of Le Vaillant's, and
figured it as an example of the genus _Cuculus_. Dr. Latham (Gen. Hist. 3,
290) copies this description of _C. Afer_. (Zool. Mis. 1. p. 31), adds some
further characters not seen in our bird, and, under the same name,
describes what is evidently another species. Lastly, M. Vieillot, in his
account of the genus _Coccyzus_ (Orn. Ency. Meth. p. 1342), relying on the
usual accuracy of Le Vaillant--and never, perhaps, having seen the
bird--omits it altogether. To prevent this confusion extending further, and
to detach the species from those dubious descriptions with which it has
been mixed, we have thought it best to record it by the name of its first
describer.

Our figure will render a detailed description unnecessary: the wings,
although long, are rounded; the fifth quill being the longest. The total
length is fifteen inches. Inhabits Senegal, and the Western Coast of
Africa.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MARMAROSTOMA. Pl. 1.

_M. undulata._]


MARMAROSTOMA undulata.

_Waved Pearl Snail._

----

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Shell turbinated, ponderous, the whorls generally angulated, the
  substance pearly: aperture circular, closed by a testaceous operculum:
  umbilicus none.

_Type_, Turbo chrysostomus. L.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell angulated, variegated with green and brown undulated stripes,
  summit of each whorl coronated._

----

From the genera _Turbo_ and _Trochus_ of modern Conchologists, we have
detached all those species whose shells are closed by a calcarious
operculum; and this group we propose to distinguish by the name of
_Marmarostoma_. The species, like the _Trochi_, properly so called, are all
of a pearly structure; but their substance is much thicker; the base of the
shell is slightly produced; the exterior surface is marked either with
tubercles, grooves, or elevated ridges; and the aperture (from the
convexity of the last whorl) forms a circle. If the student compares these
characters with Trochus Zizyphinus, a common British shell, he will
immediately perceive the leading differences between the two groups.

But it is the calcarious nature of the operculum (as indicating an
important difference in the organization of the animal) which constitutes
the primary character of _Marmarostoma_: the particular structure of this
appendage varies considerably in the different species: in some its outer
surface is smooth and convex; and in others variously granulated. In the
present shell it is marked by three or four deep semicircular grooves; that
nearest the middle is the deepest, and terminates in an umbilicus. In some
specimens, the spines on the principal ridge of the body whorl are nearly
obsolete; but those which crown the summit appear constant.

We are indebted to the Rev. Mr. Bulwer, a scientific and arduous
Conchologist, for our specimens of this new species, purchased by him in a
collection sent from Panama.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: VOLUTA. Pl. I.

_V. Bullata_]


VOLUTA bullata.

_Bulla-shaped Volute._

----

GENERIC CHARACTER.--Zool. Ill. 1 Series, pl. 161.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell oval, smooth, fulvous, marked by zigzac darker lines; spire short,
  papillary; outer lip ascending towards the spire; base of the pillar with
  two strong plaits._

Mus. D. Broderip.

----

Among the shells which formed part of the African Museum, exhibited and
finally sold in London some few years back, was a single specimen of this
new and curious Volute. Worn and battered by the friction of the waves, it
still retained its colour and markings sufficiently distinct to admit of a
tolerably accurate delineation. The only part we have ventured to restore
is the contour of the outer lip, which we have adapted to the lines of
growth. The middle figure represents the shell in its broken state; and
this clearly shews the ascending of the lip towards the spire, in the same
manner as in V. _lapponica_.

The affinities which are suggested by the peculiar structure of this shell,
are curious. In its general shape, and in the number of its plaits, it is
obviously allied to _Voluta Nucleus, harpa_; _lyræformis_, &c., where the
two last plaits of the pillar are very thick, and those above either small
or evanescent; but from such, our shell differs materially by being quite
smooth, and in having a short obtuse spire. We do not believe that this
part has received much injury. The suture is perfect to the very end:
further evidence may be drawn from the extreme narrowness of the third
spiral whorl; a formation which only belongs to papillary spired shells.
This character, joined with the smoothness and size of the body whorl,
shews a closer approximation to the Melon shells, than to any other
division of the group. Three or four intermediate forms are alone wanting
to complete the double series.

Mr. Broderip, who is in possession of this shell, has recently arranged the
Lamarkian _Volutæ_ into very natural groups; two of which are considered as
holding the rank of genera.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Mustachoe Parrakeet._]


PALEORNIS Pondicerianus.

_Pondichery, or Mustachoe Parrakeet._

----

Family Psittacidæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER.--Zool. Journ. 2, p. 46.--Less. Man. 2, p. 145.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Green; head pale bluish; frontal line and stripe on the lower jaw black;
  wings with a central spot of yellowish; breast pale red._

  Le Perruche a moustaches. _Buffon. Sonn. 27, p. 185, Pl. Enl. 517._

  ---- a poitrine rose. _Levail. Pl. 31._

  P. Pondicerianus. _Kuhl, Nova Acta, &c. No. 48*._

  Paleornis Pondicerianus. _Vigors. Zool. Journ. 2, p. 54._

----

The Ring-necked Parrakeets of India, and the Asiatic Islands, are now
considered as forming a particular genus. The geographic distribution of
the group, and the characters of the species, have been detailed with much
skill and classic erudition, in the Zoological Journal.

Among the numerous ornithological facts, which the distinguished liberality
of MM. Cuvier and Geoffroy St. Hilaire enabled us to ascertain, during a
course of study at the Royal Museum of Paris, is one that relates to this
species. Specimens in that noble collection, both from Pondichery and Java,
enable us to affirm, that the _Psittacus Osbeckii_ and _Pondicerianus_ of
authors, are one and the same species.

Notwithstanding the frequency of this bird in Java, and other parts of
India, we are completely ignorant of its natural history, of those
diversified habits, and modes of living,--in short, of that knowledge,
which gives such an animating charm to natural history, which manifests the
provision of the Almighty for all His creatures, which can be known and
understood by all, and which prompts the heart to contemplation and praise.
Is there no one, in all our vast Oriental territory, to record something of
the feathered inhabitants of the Eastern World? Is there not, throughout
India, even _one_ of our countrymen, imbued with the spirit of a Wilson, a
Levaillant, or an Audubon?

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: WHITE BANDED SWALLOW.

_Hirundo fasciata._]


HIRUNDO fasciata.

_White-banded Swallow._

----

Family Hirundinidæ.--Sub-Fam. Hirundina.

Feet slender, perching, the outer and middle toe connected at the base:
bill entirely depressed. _Nob._

GENERIC CHARACTER.

G. HIRUNDO.--Lesson. Man. 1, 419.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Glossy blue black: thighs and band on the abdomen snowy._

  Hirundo fasciata. _Lath. Ind. Orn. 2, 575._

  L'Hirondelle a ceinture blanche. _Buffon. Pl. Enl. 724, f. 2._

  White-bellied Swallow. _Lath. Gen. Syn. 4. 567._

----

This elegant bird, although mentioned by several writers, is of great
rarity. So seldom, indeed, is it seen in collections, that we never beheld
a specimen prior to our visit to the Royal Museum of Paris, where our
drawing was made. Buffon's description seems to have been transcribed by
all succeeding writers; and the only figure hitherto published is that at
Plate 724 of the Planches Enluminèes.

The habits of the Swallow tribe are known to every one. Like the
Flycatchers, they feed upon insects captured on the wing; but these insects
are of so small a size, that they are swallowed during the flight of the
bird. This at once accounts for Swallows not being provided with those
stiff bristles, for confining the struggles of their prey, which are so
essential to the Flycatchers. These latter birds frequently feed upon
insects much too large to be swallowed at the moment of capture; they
therefore hold their prey until they again perch, and swallow it when at
rest.

The figure is the size of life. Excepting the band on the body, and the
spot on the thighs--both of which are snowy white--the whole plumage is of
a deep black, richly glossed with dark blue. The first quill is longest,
and the tail is deeply forked.

According to Buffon, this bird is sometimes seen perched on floating trees
in the rivers of Guiana and Cayenne.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: Anodon, _Pl. 1_

_A. areolatus_.]


ANODON areolatus.

_Areolated Horse Mussel._

----

GENERIC CHARACTER.

See Unio, Pl. 1.
(Anodon. Iridina. Dipsus. _Auct._)

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell transversely oval, not winged, umbones small, ventricose, not
  touching; with a short undulated projection of the hinge margin in one
  valve, and a corresponding concavity in the other; both placed beneath
  the umbones._

----

The principal character of _Anodon_, rests on the absence of teeth; the _A.
anatinus_, common to our rivers and ponds, being taken as the type of the
group. But, as Nature steps progressively, in her departure from one form,
and in her advance to another, so among the Anodons we find several shells,
which do not strictly exhibit the typical character; and these we shall
briefly notice.

In the sketch already given of this group, we have placed the genus
_Anodon_ between _Iridina_ and _Alasmodon_. The _Iridina nilotica_ Sow,
"has scarcely any appearance of crenations along the hinge line," but for
this, it consequently would present a simple lamellar ridge, extending
nearly the length of the shell; such, in short, as is seen in _Dipsus
plicatus_ (Leach), whose tooth may be so described. By this shell we are
led to _A. rubens_ Lam. where a lamellar plate, though much shorter, is
placed beneath the umbones. _Iridina Cailliandi_ perfectly resembles _A.
rubens_, except in being without any vestige of this plate. We have now
entered among the typical species, where every form occurs between a round
and an ensiform shape. Leaving these, Nature proceeds to fashion an
indistinct developement of _Alasmodon_ in the species before us, where that
part of the hinge plate, immediately beneath the umbones, is somewhat
raised, and undulated. In _A. rugosus_ these compressed undulations assume
more the form of tubercles; and finally, in the _Alasmodon marginatus_ of
Say, the teeth are sufficiently developed to place that shell in a distinct
group.

Our esteemed and accomplished friend, Mrs. Corrie of Birmingham, favoured
us with two examples of what appears to be a variety of that which we have
figured. The substance of both is opake; the inside white, tinged with
buff, and with scarcely any pearly lustre. Inhabits North America, but we
know not any precise locality.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MITRA. Pl. 2.

_1. strigata. 2. bicolor. 3. carinata._]


MITRA strigata.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell very smooth, chestnut with paler longitudinal stripes, which are
  white at their commencement; aperture white, shorter than the spire;
  pillar 4-plaited_.

  Mitra strigata. _Sw. in Brand's Journ., No. 33, p. 37, Ap. 1824._

----

The Conchologist will find a full description of the three Mitras here
figured in the Journal above mentioned. They are all of singular rarity,
more particularly _strigata_ and _carinata_, as of these we have never seen
second specimens. _M. strigata_ belongs to that group which contains M.
_melaniana_, _scutulata,_ &c. Its country is unknown.

----

MITRA bicolor.

----

  _Shell smooth, polished, fusiform, white, with a brown central band;
  upper part of the body whorl and spire with cancellated punctured striæ:
  base with simple striæ_.

----

This pretty shell seldom exceeds three-quarters of an inch in length; our
figure is consequently enlarged: the pillar has four plaits. This, in
conjunction with M. _casta_, _olivaria_, _dactylus_ (Lam.), and
_olivæformis_ (Sw.), constitute a particular group, allied to _Conoehelix_,
having the plaits extending far beyond the aperture.

Inhabits the South Seas. In the Manchester Museum, and in our own.

----

MITRA carinata.

  _Shell slender, fusiform, brown; whorls with a single carinated ridge,
  and striated transversely near the suture; pillar 4-plaited._

----

The habit of this Mitra will place it with the fusiform species; from all
of which, however, it differs in not having exterior plaits, nodules, or
impressed sculpture. The aperture is smooth within, and white. We have only
seen one specimen, received by Mrs. Mawe, from Sierra Leone, and this was
covered with a brown epidermis.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: TELLINA. P.I.

_T. latirostra._]


TELLINA latirostra.

_Wide-beaked Tellen._

----

Order Acephala.--Tribe Dimiaria (_Nob._).

GENERIC CHARACTER.--Lam. Sys. 5, 519.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell oblong; anterior side narrowed and angulated; both valves glossy,
  smooth, equally convex, and marked by very delicate radiating striæ._

  _T. testâ oblongâ, purpurascente, subradiatâ, anteriùs sinuato-angulatâ,
  rostri margine infimo ascendente._ Lam. Syst. 5, p. 523.

----

There are few groups in Conchology, more particularly among the bivalve
shells, possessing so great a union of delicacy and beauty as the Tellinæ;
and perhaps there is none in which the species, from their general
similarity of shape, and variability of colouring, are so little
understood. For these reasons, we intend to illustrate this elegant genus
very fully.

The _Tellinæ_ appear to hold a station with the most typical groups of the
Bivalve Mollusca; or those in which the animal can freely remove, from
place to place, by the foot. In all such the shells are solid, regular, and
not attached to other substances.

We select the _Tellina latirostra_ of Lamarck for our first subject. As a
species it has not been figured; while the original description, which we
have transcribed, is so slight, that some uncertainty exists as to the
precise species intended by the writer. That to which we here apply the
name, is certainly very like, as Lamarck observes, to _T. rostrata_;
although his description, in other respects, is applicable to other species
now before us. Our _Tellina latirostra_ is not common, although we once
received a considerable number from Amboyna. Its surface is very smooth,
but the delicate striæ, which can scarcely be seen by the naked eye, become
perfectly clear under a common lens. The Manchester Nat. Hist. Society is
in possession of a lovely series, exhibiting the following variations of
colour: 1, pure white; 2, rose-coloured round the umbones, paler beyond; 3,
entirely rose colour; 4, blush white, with a rosy shade on each side the
umbones; 5, pale orange; 6, buff yellow, resembling _T. depressa_. In all
these the points of the umbones are invariably white.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Blue-winged Parrakeet._]


NANODES venustus.

_Blue-fronted Parrakeet._

----

Family Psittacidæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Bill entire; the lower mandible short, deep, thick, and rounded; nostrils
  very large, fleshy, naked; wings pointed; tarsi, toes, and claws very
  slender--the former manifestly longer than the hind toe; tail cuneated;
  the feathers narrow and lanceolate. _Nob._

Type.--_Psittacus pulchellus._--Zool. Ill. 2, Pl. 73.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Sides of the head yellowish; front with a blue band; wing-covers and
  tail blue, the latter tipt with yellow; throat and breast deep green;
  belly yellow._

  Psittacus venustus. _Linn. Trans. (Temm.) xiii. p. 121._

  ---- chrysostomas. _Kuhl. Nov. Act. p. 51, Pl. 1._

  Nanodes venustus. _Linn. Trans. (Vig. and Hors.) xv. 274._

----

The Ground Parrakeets of Australia, of which this is one of the most
beautiful, form a small but richly coloured group of birds, remarkable for
the peculiar structure of their feet, which leads them to frequent the
ground more than any of their family. In the form of their bill, wings, and
tail, they exhibit a close resemblance, in miniature, to the Maccaws of the
New World, and may justly be supposed to represent those birds in the
Southern hemisphere.

We received two specimens of the Blue-fronted Parrakeet, some years ago,
from Van Dieman's Land; yet even there it is considered scarce; nor did we
observe it in any of the collections in Paris.

Assenting, in a great measure, to those general principles of arrangement
which several eminent Ornithologists have proposed regarding this family,
we nevertheless consider that the succession of affinities, and even the
nature of the leading groups, are not yet correctly understood. In the
present case, we would rather have seen _Nanodes_ placed as a sub-genus to
_Pezoporus_; from which it merely differs in the comparative shortness of
the feet. The connexion between the two forms, moreover, is so close as
not, in our judgment, to admit the intervention of _Platycercus_, or any
other group yet discovered.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Yellow shouldered Oriole._

I. Cayanensis.]


ICTERUS Cayanensis.

_Cayenne Hangnest._

----

Fam. Sturnidæ.--Sub-Fam. Icterina (_Nobis_).

  Bill lengthened, conic, acute, entire, the commissure not sinuated. Tarsi
  short, adapted for perching; claws strong, fully curved.

----

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Bill black; both mandibles slightly bent; nostrils furnished with a
  membrane; tail lengthened, graduated; wings slightly rounded._ Nob.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Black, not glossy; lesser wing-covers above yellow, beneath black
  margined by yellow; legs bluish._

  Oriolus Cayanensis. _Lin. 1. p. 163._

  Xanthornus Cayanensis. _Brisson. Orn. 2. p. 123. pl. 9. f. 2._

  Carouge de St. Thomas. _Pl. Enl. 535. f. 2._

  Yellow-winged Pye. _Edwards, pl. 322?_

In Mus. Nost.

----

The Starlings of the old continent, are represented in America by a tribe
of birds formerly denominated Orioles, but which we shall distinguish by
the name of Hangnests. They are gregarious and noisy; living both upon
insects, fruits, and grain. Their nests are purse-shaped, woven with great
dexterity, and generally suspended from the extreme branches of lofty
trees.

Much has been done to illustrate the affinities of these birds, and to
define the species; but both are imperfectly known. Regarding their natural
arrangement, our own views are quite at variance with the ingenious theory
of Mr. Vigors; and as to the species, the bird before us is a curious
example of error.

The true _O. cayanensis_, in the best modern systems, has been lost sight
of; and, under the new name of _chrysopterus_ (Vieil. Wagler.), has been
confounded with _three_ others, one of which is a _Xanthornus_, one an
_Icterus_, and one an _Agelaius_! The only authentic synonyms, which can
therefore be consulted for our bird, are those we have quoted.

_Cassicus_, _Cassiculus_, _Xanthornus_, and _Icterus_ are the only
published genera which will come within our definition of the _Icterinæ_.

Total length, 9 in.; bill, 1; wings, 4; tail, 4-1/10; tarsi, 8/10.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Long leg'd Ant Thrush_

(_M. grallatoria._)]


DRYMOPHILA longipes.

_Long-legged Ant Thrush._

----

Family Meruladæ.

Sub-family Myotherina.

  Legs long, adapted for walking; wings and tail short, the latter weak,
  rounded or even, but never forked or divaricated; claws but slightly
  curved. _Nob._

----

GENUS DRYMOPHILA.--Lesson. Man. 1. p. 196.

  D. longipes. _Above rufous; sides of the head cinereous; throat and
  breast black; body beneath white; tarsi long, pale_.

  _Sw. in Zool. Journ. 2. p. 152. Gen. Zool. 13. 2. 179. Lesson. Man. 1. p.
  196._

In Mus. Nost.

----

The Ant Thrushes, as originally defined by us, constitute a natural group
of Birds peculiar to, and very abundant in, the tropical regions of the New
World. They are found only in the deep shades of forests, seeking their
nourishment on the ground, from ants and other terrestrial insects. Beyond
such retreats they never venture, and thus their natural love for seclusion
has prevented us from knowing more of their economy.

The species are numerous: our own cabinet contains fifteen: but nearly
double that number are among the rich and surpassing treasures of the Royal
Museum at Paris. Of that here figured, we have never seen a second
specimen.

In the form of the bill, and the elongated lax plumage of the back,
_Drymophila_ bears a close resemblance to the smaller species of Bush
Shrikes (_Thamnophilus_), but the construction of the feet--adapted in one
for perching, and in the other for walking--will sufficiently distinguish
these groups.

The specific name of _grallaria_, engraved on the plate, was inadvertently
changed for that of _longipes_ in the published account. The figure
represents the natural size.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Lingula anatina._]

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Lingula hians._]


LINGULA anatina.

----

Class Mollusca.--Order Brachiopoda (_Macleay_).

GENERIC CHARACTER.--Lam. Sys. 61, 257.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Valves of equal breadth, much depressed, and longitudinally sulcated;
  the basal extremities approximating._

  Lingula anatina. _Cuv. Bulletin, No. 52*. Ann. du Mus. v. 1, p. 69*. Lam.
  Syst. 61, 258._

  Lingula anatina. _Sw. in Phil. Mag. 62, p. 403, Dec. 1823._

  Icones. _Ency. Meth. Pl. 250, f. 1, a, b, c. Chemn. Pl. 172, 1675, 1677.
  Seba. 3 tab. 16, f. 4*._

----

The nature of the animal inhabiting the shell of _Lingula_ remained
unknown, until the illustrious Cuvier detected its affinity with
_Terebratula_, _Crania_, and those singular bivalve shells forming the
order _Brachiopoda_ of Mr. Macleay. The valves have neither teeth or
ligament, but are united by muscles, and supported on a fleshy peduncle,
three or four inches in length, by which the animal is attached to marine
bodies.

We believe that under the common name of _Anatina_, two species have been
included. Their respective peculiarities were published, some time ago, in
the Journal above alluded to; and are now more fully illustrated by
figures, and by such specific distinctions as are exhibited by the shells.
Both species appear to inhabit the Indian Ocean.

----

LINGULA hians.

  _Valves narrowed towards their base, convex, and generally smooth; both
  extremities widely gaping._

----

We do not recollect to have seen this species so frequent in collections as
the preceding; it is always smaller, more convex in the middle, and
generally smooth. Mrs. Mawe favoured us with fine specimens of both, for
delineation.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Pennantian Parrakeet._]


PLATYCERCUS scapularis.

_Tabuan, or King Parrakeet._

----

Family Psittacidæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER.--Lesson. Man. 2, 146.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Green; head, neck, and body beneath scarlet; lower part of the back
  blue; scapular covers with a pea green stripe; tail black._

  Tabuan Parrot. _White's Voyage, pl. in p. 168 (male)._

  Grande Perruche à collier et croupion bleus. _Le Vail. Par. pl. 55._

  Platycercus scapularis. _Vig. and Hors. Linn. Trans. 15, 1, 284._

----

Greatly allied to the Ground Parrakeets of Australia, but differing from
them in many particulars, are the Broad-tailed Parrakeets of the same
region, forming the modern group _Platycercus_. The former appear to
represent the Maccaws; while the latter exhibit many strong points of
analogy to the Lories; but we question if their resemblance extends
further.

We have had one of these beautiful Parrakeets in our possession, alive, for
many years. Its manners are gentle and timid. Like many of its congeners,
it delights to wash itself in a basin of water. In the day, and during
winter, it is generally silent; but on a mild evening it will go on, for
two or three hours, with a somewhat whistling note; sometimes shrill, but
generally soft and pleasing. Its ordinary diet is moistened bread, with a
little hemp and canary seed; but during summer and autumn the small garden
fruits appear to be highly welcome to our elegant little favourite.

Our figure represents a variety of the male bird, wherein the light green
on the scapular feathers is wanting. The total length is about sixteen
inches.

We consider the primary divisions of the _Psittacidæ_, are those which have
long been recognized under the familiar names of Maccaws, Cockatoos,
Parrots, Lories, and Parrakeets. Such a series is the result of a
synthetical investigation we have given to the subject; but this mode of
inquiry is so deceptive, and has led to so many erroneous conclusions, that
until each of these groups are submitted to a patient analysis, which has
never yet been done, no correct opinion on the subject can be formed. The
name on the Plate (engraved five years ago) is a mistake. The first
description and figure of this bird is in "White's Voyage to New South
Wales," where it is described as not uncommon.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _White shoulder'd Ant Thrush_

(_M. Bicincta._)]


DRYMOPHILA trifasciata.

_White-shouldered Ant Thrush._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _General plumage black; with the shoulder covers, interscapulars, and two
  bands on the wing covers, snowy._

  D. trifasciata. _Swains. in Zool. Journ. 2, p. 152. Gen. Zool. 13, 2,
  179. Lesson. Manuel. 1, p. 196._

In Mus. Paris. Nostro.

----

We found this remarkable bird not uncommon in the thick Forests of Pitanga,
near Bahia, during our travels in Brazil in the years 1815-7. Yet although
the male birds were frequent, we were never fortunate enough to procure a
female. It has likewise been found in the southern provinces of that
empire, by Dr. Langsdorff.

Its total length is about seven inches; the whole plumage, with the
exception of the snowy bands on the wings, is intensely black: the white
spot on the back is only seen when the feathers are raised: the irides, in
the live bird, are of a beautiful crimson.

My friend M. Lesson, conjectures truly in thinking, that the birds placed
by M. Temminck in our genus _Drymophila_, have no connexion or analogy with
those species we have described, or with the characters on which we
originally founded the group: they belong, in short, to a different family.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Red headed Tanager._

T. Gyrola.]


AGLAÏA Gyrola.

_Red-headed Tanager._

----

Family Fringillidæ?--G. Tanagra. _Auct._

Aglaïa. _Lesson. Man. 2, 423._

  Bill small, short, compressed; nostrils concealed by velvet-like
  feathers. Wings rather lengthened, pointed; 2, 3 and 4 quills equal and
  longest. Tail even.

Type.--_Tanagra Tatao._--Lin.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Vivid green, sometimes varied on the breast with blue: the whole head
  bright rufous, bordered round the neck with a narrow golden ring._

  Tanagra Gyrola. _Lin. 1, 315. Lath. In. Orn. 1, 427._

  ---- _Desmarest Tan. pl. 15. Vieil. Orn. 2, p. 778._

  Le Rouverdin. _Buff. Son. 12, p. 341. Pl. Enl. 133, f. 2. Edw. pl. 23._

  Red-headed Tanager. _Lath. Syn. 3, 233. Gen. Hist. 6, 16._

----

The splendid little birds arranged under this group belong exclusively to
Tropical America. They are generally seen in pairs, frequenting open woody
tracts; feed principally upon fruits, and seldom if ever perch upon the
ground: In the variety, and richness of their colours, they are only
surpassed by the Humming Birds.

The Red-headed Tanager has never, we believe, been found in Brazil;
although it occurs in Cayenne, Surinam, and some of the West India Islands.
Buffon was its first describer; he informs us that in French Guyana it
appears in small flocks, two or three times in a year; arriving when the
fruit of a particular tree is ripe, and departing when it begins to fail.
Some specimens are more brilliant than others, originating probably from
age or locality: those from Cayenne are known by a delicate blue tinge on
the breast. A further variety has been described (_Ency. Meth._), in which
the upper part of the neck is also red, and the back marked by a large spot
of dull rufous (_brun-marron_). We suspect this will prove a distinct
species. The rank of this group, whether as generic or subgeneric, can only
be determined by analyzing the whole family.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MELANIA Pl. 1.

_1, setosa. 2, amarula._]


MELANIA amarula.

----

Order Phytophaga. (_Gasteropoda, Cuv. Pars._)

  Molluscæ destitute of a syphon, but furnished with jaws, and generally
  enclosed in a univale shell, with an entire aperture.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

See Lam. Sys. 6, 2, p. 163.--Dubois Trans. 193.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell ovate-conical, blackish, upper part of the whorls armed with solid
  porrect spines; aperture bluish white._

  M. amarula. _Lam. Sys. 6, 2, p. 166. Chemn. pl. 134, f. 1218-9. Ency. pl.
  468, f. 6._

----

This is a genus of fresh water shells, particularly abundant in Africa,
Asia, and America; we have also heard it has lately been detected in
Europe.

We should not have figured this common and well known shell, but for the
purpose of comparing it with the next. When in a young state, the spines
are very acute: more advanced they become less so; and in old individuals
they are often very obtuse.

----

MELANIA setosa.

  _Shell ovate-conical, brownish olive; whorls armed with porrect tubular
  spines, enclosing setaceous bristles._

  Melania setosa. _Sw. in Brand's Journal, No. 33, p. 13._

This is a most singular species. From the tubular spines emerge two or
three hornlike, elastic bristles, which appear embedded in the substance of
the shell. A very ample account of the first specimen we ever met with,
will be found in Brand's Journal for April, 1824. It was discovered in the
Isle of France, by Mr. Warwick, where it appears to be very rare. Other
specimens have since been brought to this country.

We were unwillingly drawn into a controversy respecting this shell some
years ago. Our sentiments, in every thing that regards the shell itself,
are unchanged. Not so with respect to the individual. The civilities and
attentions we have since received from Mr. Gray, leave us to regret, very
sincerely, that such a discussion should have ever taken place.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MITRA. Pl. 3.

_1, adusta. 2, ambigua. 3, punctata._]


MITRA fulva.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell ovate-acute, smooth, fulvous, unspotted, marked with transverse
  sulcated striæ, containing punctured dots: body whorl contracted; suture
  crenated: base obtuse: outer lip thickly and strongly crenated; the
  crenations, and the plaits on the pillar, white._

----

The different nomenclature of Lamark and Dillwyn, induced us to suspect
that our present species might still be retained under the name of
_adusta_; but as a greater degree of confusion may perhaps arise in so
doing, than that which we wished to avoid, we have now given it a distinct
name, and defined its true characters. It is sometimes partially dotted
with pure white. The _M. adusta_ of Lamark is, in short, the same as the
_ruffina_ of Linnæus: or at least that species which Dr. Solander and Mr.
Dillwyn conceive to be such. Our shell is from the Isle of France, and is
not common: the crenated teeth on the lip are very strong; the base obtuse,
and effuse: the spire and aperture of equal length.

----

MITRA ambigua.

  _Shell ovate-fuciform, rufous, with a white band near the suture,
  transversely striated and punctured, suture and outer lip crenated, base
  contracted; spire shorter than the aperture._

Less distinctly striated and punctured than the last; but differs
considerably in being almost a fuciform shell: the base of the aperture is
consequently contracted. We possess but one specimen, and know not its
locality.

----

MITRA punctata.

  _Shell ovate, brown, striated and punctured: spire very small, somewhat
  conic: outer lip crenated: pillar six-plaited._

A beautifully perfect shell of this new and very rare species, we procured
from our friend Mrs. Mawe; we have never seen another: the inside of the
lip is margined with deep brown.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: _Golden back'd Tanager, male._

T. Flava.]


AGLAÏA flava.

_Yellow Tanager._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Above glossy fulvous yellow; sides of the head, and middle of the
  throat, breast, and body, deep black; wings and tail green._

  Tanagra flava. _Lath. In. Orn. 1, 431._

  Tanagra Braziliensis flava. _Briss. Orn. 3, 39, 22._

  Le guira-perea. _Buff. Son. 12, p. 362._

  Yellow Tanager. _Lath. Syn. 3, 244. Gen. Hist. 4, 22._

  Tanagra chloroptera. _Vieil. Orn. 2._

----

The buff-coloured yellow which spreads over the upper plumage of this bird,
in some lights becomes much richer, and delicately gilded. The wings appear
to be sea-green, but this colour only margins the borders of the feathers,
the inner parts of which are blackish: the tail is coloured in the same
way, the feathers divaricating from the middle, which is slightly forked.
The black in front terminates at the vent; which, with the sides of the
body, are waxen yellow.

In the Ornithology of M. Vieillot, we find no mention of this well known
bird by its long established name: but the _T. chloroptera_ of this writer,
described as a new species, is evidently no other than the _flava_ of
anterior authors.

Our figure is of the natural size. The female is dark bluish green above,
and buff beneath, much paler on the throat and breast: the chin and sides
of the head blackish; and the crown buff-coloured yellow.

We found this species not uncommon in several parts of Brazil, particularly
round Pernambucco; frequenting the gardens, and feeding on the
smaller-sized fruits.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PAPILIO _Niamus_]


PAPILIO Niamus.

----

Order Lepidoptera. G. Papilio. (_Auct._)

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Wings pale, with longitudinal bands: posterior lengthened, caudated; the
  tails long and acute.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings yellowish white with black bands; posterior wings acutely tailed,
  with a black line and whitish lunule at the anal angle, and marked
  beneath with a macular red band margined with black._

  Pap. Niamus. _Alis flavo-albidis, fasciis nigris; posticis caudatis,
  apice nigro lunulis albidis: his subtùs strigâ maculari rubrâ._ Latrielle
  et Godart. Ency. Meth. 9, p. 51.

----

To describe in detail those colours and markings of an insect, which the
eye can embrace at a single glance on a well executed representation, is
surely unnecessary. We shall therefore merely observe that this species has
hitherto remained unfigured: that it is a native of Southern Brazil, and of
such rarity, that in two years, we never met with more than one specimen.

In some observations upon what appear to us the leading groups of the
_Diurnal Lepidoptera_, published some time ago, we considered those groups
wherein the anterior feet are perfectly developed, and the chrysalis braced
by a transverse thread, as the most perfect and typical. Subsequent
observations confirm us in this general view; but it still remains to be
investigated, to which group the generic name of _Papilio_ should be
retained. The wide dispersion of that form represented in the two European
species _Podalirius_ and _Machaon_, and which form occurs in all the
temperate and tropical regions of the globe, leads us to suspect it as the
most typical group: to this, _Papilio Niamus_, from its very close affinity
to _Podalirius_, unquestionably belongs.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: RHETUS _Cramerii_]


RHETUS Cramerii.

----

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Larva_ and _Pupa_ unknown.

  _Wings_ triangular; the posterior lengthened and rather acutely tailed.
  _Antennæ_ with the club linear-fuciform. _Palpi_ cylindrical, elongate,
  porrect, incurved, remote, naked; the second joint remarkably long.
  _Anterior feet_ in the male short and very hairy; in the female longer,
  naked, and furnished with minute claws. _Wings_, when at rest,
  horizontal.

_Types._--Pap. Rhetus. Periander.--(_Cramer._)

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings black, with two white subhyaline bands, both sides alike;
  posterior wings elongated, vivid blue, acutely tailed, with a transverse
  sub-lunular band at the anal angle._

  Papilio Rhetus. _Cramer. pl. 63, f. c._

----

This is one of the rarest and most splendid lepidopterous insects of
Brazil. We were once fortunate in capturing six specimens, fluttering over
a shrub in the early morning sun, during our encampment in the Forest of
Urupeè, in the Province of Bahia: but we never again met with this charming
creature.

The perfect insect has been figured in the costly, but truly valuable, work
of Cramer; yet as neither the larva or pupa are known, we cannot determine
on its natural group. Its relations, as suggested by the perfect insect,
appear to be these. We consider the analogy between the groups respectively
containing _P. Podalirius_, and _Marius_ (Cr.), to be immediate and direct:
the form of the last type, and much of its general structure, is seen in
our insect; but the details will not admit of a further similitude. Among
the _Ericinæ_ we again detect this form in _P. Corineus_ and _Dorylus_
(Cr.), and continuing the comparison, we see the _antennæ_, _palpi_, and
feet (in one sex) of _Rhetus_, accurately represented in those of _P.
imperialis_ (Cr.), among the _Thecladæ_. We therefore suspect, that the
real affinities of our insect lie between the two last groups: It seems
moreover to have a strong analogy with _Leilus_. The upper figure is of the
male, the under of the female.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: ROSTELLARIA. P. 1

_R. curvirostris._]


ROSTELLARIA curvirostris.

_Short-beaked Spindle._

----

Class Mollusca. Order Zoophaga.--(_Gasteropoda, Cuv. Pars._)

  Carnivorous Mollusca without jaws; the mouth formed into a retractile
  trunk: conveying nutriment by suction. Respiration aquatic: the water
  being conducted to the branchiæ by a projecting siphon.

Family,? Strombidæ. (_Les Ailées. Lam._)

----

SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERA.

  Div. 1. _Outer lip with a sinus; distinct from the basal canal._

  STROMBUS. _L._ Outer lip dilated, entire, basal canal short.

  _Stromb. gigas, auris-Diana, tridentatus, urceus, &c._

  PTEROCERAS. _Lam._ Outer lip digitated; canal lengthened, arcuated.

  Div. 2. _Sinus simple; formed by the prolongation of the canal._

  APORRHAIS. _Dacosta._ Outer lip dilated and digitated.

  _Strombus pes-pelecani. Auct._

  ROSTELLARIA. _Lam._ Outer lip dentated, but not dilated. Basal canal
  long.

  HIPPOCHRENES. _Montf._ Outer lip generally dilated, and always entire.
  Basal canal moderate or short. Spiral canal nearly equal to the spire.

  _Rost: macroptera, columbata, fissurella, Lam._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Basal canal short: spiral canal thickened, and perpendicularly ascending
  on the spire._

  Strombus fusus. _Linn. Gm. 3506. Lister, 854, 12. Seba, 3, 56, 1._

  Rostellaria curvirostris. _Lam. Sys. 7, 1, 192. Ency. Meth. pl. 411, f.
  1._

----

This elegantly formed shell is a native of the Red and Indian Seas. It is
the most common of the few species retained in the genus _Rostellaria_; all
these are recent; while _Hippochrenes_ has occured only in a fossil state.

The preceding table of affinities, connecting the leading forms among the
_Strombii_, will be adverted to hereafter. At present we shall offer a few
observations on the nature of that more comprehensive division of the class
_Mollusca_, to which this particular group appears to belong.

The learned Author of the Horæ Entomologicæ, in that part of his valuable
essay relating to the _Molluscæ_, considers our knowledge of these animals
too imperfect to enable him to state the nature of the typical groups: the
situations of which, in his diagram of the animal kingdom, are therefore
merely indicated by stars. M. Macleay further remarks, that the
_Gasteropoda_ of M. Cuvier, with certain restrictions, evidently form a
circular group. Yet, from the above omission, it appears he still
entertained some doubts on the propriety of this arrangement. Labouring
under similar disadvantages to those which impeded the researches of so
profound an observer, we feel some hesitation in expressing a different
sentiment on the subject, particularly in reference to his own disposition
of affinities.

It is evident that these typical groups, whatever may be their nature, must
present some very strong points of analogy to those in the circle of
_Vertebrata_: and that such analogies should extend to the corresponding
groups of the _Annulosa_. This we should expect, not only as the necessary
result of a truly natural arrangement, but as a primary test, by which the
correctness of any series of affinities must be tried. Now admitting that
Quadrupeds and Birds shew the same typical perfection among the
_Vertebrata_, as the Mandibulate and Suctorial Insects unquestionably do in
the _Annulosa_, we have two beautiful analogies between these otherwise
dissimilar groups, taken from one of the most important functions of
nature. Quadrupeds and mandibulate insects are provided with jaws for
tearing and masticating their prey, while in birds and suctorial insects,
the mouth is lengthened into a proboscis, by which nourishment is imbibed
by suction. These analogies are equally conspicuous among the _Molluscæ_.
The _Phytiphages_ of Lamarck (of which the garden snail is a good example),
are furnished with jaws and masticate their food: the _Zoophages_ of the
same accurate observer, have their mouth elongated into a retractile trunk
or proboscis, by which they pierce through other shells, and suck the
juices of the inhabitant. To insist on the importance of these
distinctions, employed as they have been to characterize primary divisions,
is surely unnecessary. That they will be subject to considerable
modification, in the subordinate groups, may naturally be expected: but we
refrain at present from offering an opinion on the nature of such groups,
dependant, as they must be, on greater anatomical knowledge than we yet
possess. Nevertheless, until more direct analogies are discovered, than
those here stated, we feel some confidence in employing them as _typical_
distinctions of the two great divisions of _Gastropod Mollusca_.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PSARIS _Jardinii_

_Jardine's Saris._]


PSARIS Jardinii.

_Jardine's Saris._

----

Family Todidæ.--_Nob_. Sub-family Psariana.--_Nob_.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Bill_ thick, strong, more or less depressed, culmen not elevated, both
  mandibles notched, the upper convex: _nostrils_ round, nearly naked:
  _rictus_ smooth; _mouth_ very wide. _Wings_ long, pointed, the second and
  third quill longest. _Tail_ short, even.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Cinereous white; head, tail, and outer half of the wings, black: first
  and fifth quill equal: spurious quill none; orbits plumed._

In Mus. Nost.

----

In a small collection of birds, from the interior of the vast Empire of
Brazil, we met with this new and highly interesting species. Its
resemblance to the well known _Psaris Cayanus_ is so close, that even
Ornithologists would not at first suspect the difference; and this may
possibly account for its having been overlooked. The size and colour of the
two birds, in fact, are perfectly alike: but in this, the bill is much more
depressed; the orbits, instead of being naked, are covered with feathers:
and the spurious intermediate quill is entirely wanting. Our bird thus
presents not only the characters of a species, but a modification of form,
leading to the genus _Pachyrhynchus_ of Spix.

Our friend Sir William Jardine, Bart., who has long felt, with us, a
peculiar interest in this group, will accept our dedication of this species
to him, as a proof of the estimation in which we hold his studies.

The publication of _Psaris Cuvierii_ in the early series of our work, was
the first addition made to this group after its publication in the _Regnè
Animal_. The generic name of _Psaris_ soon after became familiar to British
Ornithologists, by being universally adopted. Recently, however, the Editor
of the Zoological Journal has expressed his opinion that this name, on the
score of priority, should give place to another. The question would be of
little moment did it merely concern this group; but involving, as it does,
the entire nomenclature of two systems, it becomes a matter of some
importance to ascertain their respective claims. The period of typographic
publication, as connected with the only process by which knowledge can be
universally communicated, is the only criterion, in our opinion, by which
such claims should be decided. Dates, if _truly affixed_, speak for
themselves. But to attain this advantage, no surreptitious or disreputable
practices can be allowed. A plausible claim may indeed be made by any
author, who hastily puts together an essay or pamphlet, for the sole
purpose of anticipating the patient labours of another: but such artifices,
when discovered, are sure to be discountenanced by honourable minds. To
illustrate our meaning better, we will state a case.

Let us suppose, then, a learned Naturalist, in charge of a public museum,
is engaged in a general classification of the animal kingdom: that to the
type of each group, as progressively defined, he affixes a label, with the
proposed name, and returns it again to the public rooms. Let us further
suppose that an Ornithologist, wishing to make a new system, but without
any materials for so doing, goes to this museum, selects, as they are
successively named, these identical types for his examination, well knowing
by whom, and for what purpose they are so named. He then goes home, and
publishes, with all expedition, an ill-digested pamphlet, _wherein every
group appears under a name, totally different from that by which he became
acquainted with it_.

It is not for us to make the application. But that such practices have been
resorted to, is well known among the highest scientific authorities in
Paris. It is not so much in justice to a distinguished individual, as our
respect for the broad principles of truth and honour, that we have said
thus much. These are grave charges, but they are not lightly brought
forward. Resting, as they do, on testimony the most unquestionable, we
should deem it almost insulting to our countrymen could we suppose they
will henceforward, by adopting these names, countenance a claim built on
such a fraudulent basis.

Our views of the natural situation of this group, must be reserved for the
next number.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PETROICA _multicolor_.

_Scarlet breasted Robin_]


PETROICA multicolor.

_Scarlet-breasted Robin._

----

Family Sylviadæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Bill_ slender, the sides compressed, the tip gradually bent, and beset
  with bristles at the base. _Wings_ long; the first quill spurious; the
  second intermediate in length between the sixth and seventh. _Tarsi_
  elevated, the inner toe manifestly shorter than the external toe. _Tail_
  broad, even.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Head, throat, and upper plumage black; front snowy; wings with one
  longitudinal and two oblique white bands; breast and part of the body
  scarlet; belly dull white._

  Red-breasted Warbler. _Lewin. Birds of New Moll. pl. 17._

  Muscicapa multicolor. _Gen. Horsf. & Vig. Linn. Tr. v. 16, p. 243._

  Red-bellied Flycatcher. _Lath. Gen. Hist. 6, p. 209, pl. 100?_

Mus. Nost. &c.

----

The analagous resemblances between the species and groups of one region,
and those by which they are represented in another, are among the most
curious and remarkable facts in Natural History: whether we look to them as
proofs of a Divine plan, vast in its extent, and wonderful in its details,
or as exemplifying that system of symbolical relationship by which every
part of the animated world is mutually connected. Both appear intended for
one great purpose, the partial initiation of man into earthly mysteries,
that he may have greater faith in those which regard his eternal welfare.

The Robin, spread over the whole of Europe, is represented in temperate
America by the Blue Bird of Wilson (_Sialia Wilsonii_, Sw.). Neither of
these are found in New Holland, but the bird before us may be considered
their representative. Lewin, who wrote upon the spot, observes that
although in some respects solitary, it frequents the abodes of man _in
winter_, like the Robin; which it further resembles in its note. Our
European bird is intimately connected with the Stonechats
(_Saxicolæ_).--The remark of another eye witness, proves the Australian
species to have the same relation. Mr. Caley mentions that he saw "this
bird in November" (_our European summer_), "when far distant in the
mountains, in the roughest part of the country I had then or since
visited." _Linn. Tr. 15. p. 245_. Mr. Caley, moreover, as if perfectly
aware of its natural affinities, names it the Australian Redstart. So
closely, in short, does this bird resemble our European Stonechat, that but
for the recent acquisition of more typical species, we should have had
doubts whether to characterize it as a distinct type.

Linnæan writers, as might be supposed, have always regarded this as a
Flycatcher, but as Mess. Horsfield and Vigors have recently dwelt, at some
length, on the propriety of such an arrangement, it may be as well to state
the leading differences between the two families. In _Muscicapa
atricapilla_, (with which these gentlemen have compared our bird,) the bill
(fig. 1, 2), like that of every genuine Flycatcher, is depressed from the
base to the tip, while that of _Petroica_ (fig. 5, 6), of the Stonechat
(fig. 3, 4), and of all _Saxicolæ_, although depressed at the base, is
invariably _compressed_ on the sides. By these characters the former
preserve their affinity to the Todies, and the latter to the Thrushes. In
the garnature of the rictus there is also an essential difference. The
bristles of the _Muscicapæ_ (f. 1, 2), are always rigid and directed
forwards: while those of the _Saxicolæ_, although sometimes remarkably
long, are generally weak, and diverge in different directions. Thus much
may be stated on the chief peculiarities of the groups in question: they
may for the present be termed analogies, but there are considerations which
induce us to suspect they are more intimately connected by affinity than is
generally supposed. To facilitate comparison, our figure is of the natural
size, and particular care has been taken in the correct delineation of all
the proportions and details.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PLOCEUS _Textor_

_Rufous necked Weaver_]


PLOCEUS textor.

_Rufous-necked Weaver._

----

Family Fringillidæ?

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Bill_ lengthened-conic, slightly curved, entire, the base advancing high
  on the forehead, and dividing the frontal feathers, the culmen curved,
  the commissure sinuated. _Nostrils_ oval, naked: without a membrane.
  _Wings_ moderate, rounded, the first quill spurious, the five next nearly
  of equal length. _Feet_ short, strong, the middle toe longer than the
  tarsus, the hind toe nearly equal with the tarsus. _Tail_ very short,
  rounded.

DIVISIONS OR SUB-GENERA.

  MALIMBUS. _Vieil._ Bill more straight, slender, and lengthened.

  PLOCEUS. _Cuv._ As above.

  EUPLECTES. _Nob._ Bill of Ploceus. Toes and claws very slender. The
  greater quills scarcely longer than the lesser; spurious quill very
  minute. _Type_, Loxia Orix. L.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Orange yellow, varied above with black: head, chin, and front of the
  throat black: nape with a chestnut band._

  Oriolus textor. _Auct._

  Ploceus textor. _Cuvier. Reg. Anim._

  Le cap-more. _Buff. Son. 19, p. 165. Pl. Enl. 375_ (_very bad_).

----

The Weaving Birds, confined to the hotter regions of the old world, are
chiefly found in Africa, where they represent the Hangnests (_Icterinæ_) of
America: an analogy long since remarked by Buffon. Both these tribes
astonish us by the consummate skill with which they fabricate their nests:
but the intelligence displayed by the African Weavers is still more
wonderful. The curious reader will see a most interesting account of these
birds in Paterson's African Travels, or in Wood's Zoography.

Of the present species, although very common in Senegal, nothing appears
known beyond the simple fact of its weaving, in confinement, between the
wires of its cage. Its total length is about six inches, the minor
proportions may be correctly ascertained by the scale on the plate.

If the genus _Ploceus_ of Baron Cuvier be restricted to the old world, it
becomes one of the most natural groups in Ornithology. Yet, like all others
of an extensive nature, it exhibits several modifications of structure,
which the present state of science renders it necessary to define. Whether
such definitions are to be termed generic, subgeneric, or sectional, must,
in the first instance, depend on mere opinion. It is enough if these lesser
groups are defined. To ascertain their relative value is the next step:
this is the second, and by far the most difficult process, in the study of
real affinities; for not only that particular group which claims our
attention, but every other related to it in a higher division, must be
patiently analyzed. Hence it frequently results that groups assume a very
different _apparent_ station to what they did in the first instance. Are we
therefore to refrain from characterizing or naming them, because their
relative value cannot, in the first instance, be ascertained? We think not.
That _genera_ have been unnecessarily multiplied, no one can doubt, who has
looked beyond such circumscribed limits. And if forms of transision,
(generally comprising one or two species alone,) are to be so ranked, we
must immediately treble or quadruple the present number of ornithological
genera. The truth is, that many groups, which in our first process of
combination, we are obliged to distinguish, or perhaps name, will, in the
second, be united to others. So that it appears highly probable that the
number of genera, in ornithology, ultimately retained, will be fewer
perhaps than at present. We are, in short, but in the infancy of this
knowledge, and our genera, for the most part, must be looked upon as
temporary landmarks, to denote the ground gone over, and to be fixed or
removed as our views become more extended, by a wider analysis of qualities
and relations.

Total length 6½ inches, bill 7/10, wings 3-6/10, tarsi 9/10, middle claw 1,
tail 2½, beyond the wings 1¼.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: AMPULLARIA Pl. II

_1. Subcarinata 2. Nilotica_]


AMPULLARIA subcarinata.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell reverse, thickish; whorls depressed near the suture, and marked by
  a parallel line; spire short, obtuse; umbilicus large, open, slightly
  carinated, and marked with an internal groove._

  Ampullaria subcarinata. _Sow. Genera of Shells, f. 4._

----

The politeness of Mr. G. Sowerby has given us the opportunity of examining
this rare and little known species, first described and accurately figured
by himself. It was discovered, we believe, by Mr. Cranch, the ill-fated
naturalist who accompanied the unfortunate expedition to the Congo, in that
river. No specimens, we are informed, have subsequently reached this
country. The surface is rough, occasioned by irregular corrugated wrinkles:
the epidermis olive.

----

AMPULLARIA Nilotica.

  _Shell reverse, thin, smooth, whitish, with an Olive epidermis finely
  striated longitudinally; lower half of the basal whorl much contracted:
  spire prominent, obtuse; operculum horny; umbilicus large, open, the
  margin obtusely carinated._

----

The shell from which our figure was taken we received from Mr. G. Sowerby,
under the name of _Nilotica_, some years ago. Whether it is the same, or
specifically distinct from Lamarck's _Guinaica_, we have no means of
judging, otherwise than from the figures he cites of Chemnitz. If these are
accurate, there are many points of difference; but no doubt the Editor of
the _Bulletin des Sciences_, will have great pleasure in setting us right
upon this subject.

On attentively comparing the descriptions, given by Lamarck, of eleven
species of _Ampullaria_, with those we have characterized in different
works, we can only discover two instances wherein the same species have
been mentioned by both parties, under different names. Our _A. conica_, is
probably Lamarck's _virens_, and belongs to the genus _Pachystoma_, Guild.
The other instance is curious; in the Appendix to the Bligh Collection, we
described a remarkable variety of _A. fasciata_, under the sub-specific
name of _Canaliculata_. In the following month appeared the second part of
Lamarck's _Système_, wherein this variety appeared as a _species_, under
the very same name. It would almost appear as if the two accounts had been
written at the same moment. We have since had good reason to be confirmed
in our suspicion as to this shell being a mere variety of _fasciata_, from
a fine series of specimens sent us from Demerara. We take this opportunity,
however, of expressing a belief that our _A. leucostoma_, is the young
shell of _rugosa_.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: STOMBUS. Pl. 1.

_S. Peruvianus_]


STROMBUS Peruvianus.

----

Order Zoophaga.   Family? Strombidæ.
Genus Strombus.--_Lam. Sys. 7. 199._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell ponderous, nodulous, spire very small, depressed; outer lip above
  produced and attenuated, margin reflected; aperture striated._

  Strombus Peruvianus. _Sw. in Phil. Mag. 62, p. 377._

----

We first recorded this singular-shaped Strombus from a specimen sent from
the Coasts of Peru. Others, from the opposite side of the American Isthmus,
collected near Panama, have more recently come into the possession of our
friend, the Rev. J. Bulwer, F.L.S. Its general form is not unlike _S.
gallus_, but the spire is unusually depressed, and the aperture deeply
striated: the upper surface is marked by parallel grooves, and one of the
nodules is particularly large.

In our last number we defined what appear to be the leading forms among the
_Strombii_, from such characters as are exhibited by their shells. This
mode of classification, we admit, is always attended with hazard; and
should not be ventured upon without due precaution. To attempt a _natural_
arrangement of the higher groups, on such considerations alone, would be
manifestly absurd. On the other hand, we think both principles may be
carried too far: and that a system founded exclusively upon the animal
would, in our present state of knowledge, be little less artificial than
another taken merely from the shell. We see, on every side, throughout
Nature, the most beautiful and perfect adaptation of structure to use. The
typical _Mollusca_, whether among the _Acephala_ or _Gasteropoda_, appear
to be testaceous; and to exhibit a corresponding perfection in the
structure of their coverings: one form passes into another by as gradual
modifications of the shell, as could possibly be looked for in the nature
of the animal. We have attempted to exemplify this among the _Unionidæ_ and
the _Olivæ_. We shall now examine the _Strombii_ with reference to the same
object.

"_Les Aileés_," observes Lamarck, "_constituent une famille très-naturelle,
qui avoisine celle des Canaliferès par ses rapports, mais qui en est
éminemment distincte_." This able classifier (whose perception of
affinities is truly admirable), then proceeds to divide these shells into
three groups, founded upon such excellent distinctions, that we need not
here dilate on their importance. Two of these genera are characterized by a
deep and well defined sinus or notch, towards the base of the outer lip;
quite distinct from the basal canal, and intended either for the passage of
the animal's proboscis, or its respiratory siphon. In _Strombus_ the outer
lip is dilated, but entire; in _Pteroceras_, it is equally enlarged, but
divided into long processes. Such are the typical distinctions, and their
immediate union appears effected by the _Strombus laciniatus_ of Chemnitz.
The third genus of Lamarck's is _Rostellaria_, in which he places all those
species wherein the sinus above mentioned is united to the basal canal. Now
if the _Strombus pespelecani_ of authors had this canal more closed, and
the sinus distinct, it would be a _Pteroceras_. Da Costa long ago placed
this shell as the type of a genus, and the observations of Mr. Dillwyn, in
his short but highly valuable paper on fossil shells (Phil. Trans. for
1823, p. 1, p. 393), have shewed the importance which we should attach to
its structure: it is, in fact, a _Pteroceras_, but with the above mentioned
sinus removed to the base of the digitated lip, and confounded, as it were,
with the basal canal. Excepting to a _Pteroceras_, it cannot be compared
with any known shell, unless it be to the _Strombus fissus_ of Linn. The
hiatus between them certainly appears great, yet the affinity is not
interrupted by any thing known: this latter shell resembles the true
_Rostellariæ_, but with the digitated processes of _Pteroceras_ reduced to
teeth; which teeth, in _R. curvirostris_, become confined to the basal part
of the unexpanded lip. We are here met by certain fossil shells, preserving
the form of _Rostellaria_, but with the outer lip entire, and sometimes
considerably expanded: in these the spiral canal sometimes extends to the
summit of the shell: finally the distinct sinus again appears in such
species as _S. cancellatus_, _canalus_, &c., all which have been classed by
conchologists with _Strombus_. This series is sufficient to shew the
_tendency_ of a circular disposition of relations, but very many of the
intermediate forms are wanting, nor is it at all clear in what way the
immediate passage is effected between _Hippochrenes_ and the genuine
_Strombii_.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: OLIVA. Pl. 1.

_1. volutella 2. striata_]


OLIVA volutella.

----

Class Mollusca. Order Zoophaga. _Lam._

Genus Oliva. _Lam. Sys. 7, p. 416._

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell ovate-conic, mitriform; chestnut, the body whorl bluish; spire
  lengthened, acute; pillar with 6-7, slender, regular plaits._

  Oliva volutella. _O. testâ ovato-conicâ, subcæruleâ, ad spiram basimque
  luteo fuscatâ; spirâ valdè productâ, acutâ._ Lam. Sys. 7, 1, p. 432.

----

We are indebted to the Rev. Mr. Bulwar for our specimens of this elegant
and highly interesting species, received by him from the American Isthmus.
It varies much in the intensity of its colour, as may be seen from the
above description, given by Lamarck, of examples procured by Baron Humbolt
on the shores of Mexico.

There are reasons for believing the genus _Voluta_, as defined by Lamarck,
to be typical of a natural group, comprising the genera _Mitra_, _Oliva_,
_Ancillaria_ and _Marginella_. The obvious affinity between _Voluta_ and
_Mitra_ need not be dwelt upon. The connexion of _Mitra_ with _Oliva_, we
noticed in describing _Mitra olivæformis_, at pl. 48 of our first series.
This affinity appears further strengthened by a shell in the late
Tankerville Collection, especially recorded by Mr. G. Sowerby, as
"remarkable for its resemblance to an Olive." We regret not having seen
this shell, but such an authority is fully sufficient. The group of Mitres,
by which this transision appears effected, is that mentioned under the head
of _M. bicolor_ (Mitra, Pl. 1.) of this series. This little group has three
relations: one to the smooth Mitres (as _M. pertusa_), another to
_Conohelix_, and a third to the _Olives_: the species are all remarkable
for the polished smoothness of their surface, for the total absence of the
inner lip, and for the lower plaits of the pillar extending much beyond the
aperture: these plaits, moreover, are generally five or six, and all very
slender. The conchologist will perceive that nearly the only character
wanting, to render this description applicable to an Olive, is the
channelled groove round the suture. This character is added to the shell
before us, which thus presents the first type of form in the present genus.
Proceeding to the more perfect Olives, we observe the spire becoming
gradually shorter; the vitrious deposition on the inner lip increased in
thickness; the upper plaits on the pillar numerous, and those at the base
thicker and more external (_M. fulmineus_, Lam. _elegans_, En. Meth. 362,
3.), the ventricose shape of some (_O. undata_, _inflata_, Lam.), the spire
often concealed by a vitrious covering, and even the colours of others (_M.
tessellata_, _guttata_) remind us of the typical Volutes. It is very
remarkable, that in most of the cylindrical Olives, the apex is more or
less, papillary: the last complete terminal volution of the spire being
thick, inflated, and distorted: (see particularly _O. reticularis_, En.
Meth. 36, f. 1; _fusiformis_, Ib. 367, 1; _guttata_, Ib. 368, f. 2.) Others
are seen of a more slender form, as _O. subulata_, L. _acuminata_, E. M.
368, 3, where the pillar is similarly plaited. But in several small species
allied to _O. conoidalis_, another modification of form has evidently
commenced: the spire is regularly acute; the upper plaits disappear; and
those which remain, are only at the thickened base of the pillar: the
aperture, no longer narrow, becomes wide at the base, where the pillar
takes an oblique direction inward: we are thus led to the form of _O.
hiatula_, E. M. pl. 368, f. 5, where the characters of _Ancillaria_ become
apparent in the effuseness of the mouth, the double belt at the base, and
the imperfect groove on the outer side of the pillar. Whether we look to
this shell, or to the descriptions given by Lamarck of the fossil species
_plicaria_, _canalifera_, and _laumontiana_, or finally, to the _Ancillaria
glandiformis_, Sow. no doubt can remain of the genus _Oliva_ being here
blended with the _Ancillariæ_. There is, however, another form among the
_Olivæ_, which deserves mention, as it cannot well be associated with
either of the preceding: this we have described below. Another genus that
may be thought connected with _Oliva_, is _Terebellum_: a group very ably
illustrated by Mr. G. Sowerby, in his "Genera of Shells." To that work we
must refer the reader for those reasons which shew its more immediate
relation to _Ovula_. It is, in short, one of those forms too hazardous to
class without a complete knowledge of the animal.

----

OLIVA striata.

  _Shell small, cylindrical, sub-effuse, distinctly marked by regular
  longitudinal striæ; upper part of the body whorl with one, lower part
  with four, belts; spire short, channelled, sub-papillary, naked; base of
  the pillar striated and externally detached by a groove._

  Ancillaria canalifera?? _Lam. Syst. 7, 415_.

----

We do not find this fossil clearly described. Our specimens appear to be
from the London clay. Its form seems analogous to _Conohelix_ among the
Mitres. The line adjoining the figures denotes the natural length of the
shells.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PSARIS _cristatus_.

_Crested or white backed Saris._]


PSARIS cristatus.

_Crested, or White-backed Saris._

----

Family Todidæ.--_Nobis._

  _Bill_ lengthened, depressed, boat-shaped. _Tarsi_ moderate, weak, the
  three anterior toes more or less united. _Wings_ and _tail_ short.

Sub-family Psariana.--_Nobis._

  _Head_ very large, depressed. _Mouth_ very wide. _Bill_ thick, depressed,
  convex above. _Feet_ weak, tarsi rather short, toes united at their base,
  the outer manifestly longer than the inner; claws broad, compressed;
  anterior scales transverse; lateral scales small, numerous. The male
  generally with a spurious quill between the first and second.

GENERA.

  PSARIS. _Cuv._ Rictus smooth, wings lengthened, the first quill much
  longer than the fourth, tail short, even.

Type, _Psaris Cayanus_.--Cuv.

  PACHYRHYNCHUS. _Spix._ Rictus bearded, bill shorter, wings more rounded,
  tail lengthened, graduated.

Type, _Psaris niger_.--Nob.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Blackish brown, beneath pale fulvous, base of the wings with a concealed
  snowy spot, spurious quill broad, crown black, slightly crested._

  Psaris cristatus. _Sw. in Zool. Journ. 2, p. 354._

Mus. Paris. Nost.

----

Of this very rare species we know but of two specimens, both of which
appear to have come from the mining provinces of Brazil. The economy of
these interesting birds has not yet been detected, even by naturalists who
have lived in their native regions. The indefatigable Azara professes his
ignorance on this point, but states some valuable information on a species
(nearly allied to the _Cayenne Saris_) named by him _Le Distingué a tête
Noir_, which, in Paraguay, is a bird of passage: its flight is elevated,
rapid, and prolonged. "_Ils ne sont ni farouches, ni remuans, et ils se
tiennent long temps à la même place. Ils ne sortent point des grands bois,
et ils se perchent toujours au plus haut des arbres les plus èlevés, où ils
ne cherchent pas à se cacher._" Azara Voy. 3, p. 407.

The size and strength of the bill induced us, some years ago, to adopt the
popular classification of this genus with the family of Shrikes; but a more
particular analysis of that and the neighbouring families, lead us to
suspect that its natural situation is far different: our reasons for this
belief will be stated at large in another work. For the present it may be
remarked, that the smoothness of the rictus, as indicating a frugivorous
habit, forbids us to place it with the Flycatchers; while the feet,
perfectly different from those of the true Shrikes (_Laniana_, Sw.), can
only be compared with those of the _Piauhau_ (Buff.). The affinity which
this group bears to _Gubernetes_, is merely superficial: but its analogies
to _Ceblepyris_, among the _Laniadæ_, and to _Pachycephala_, among the
_Ampelidæ_, are probably direct.

The merit of having first directed the attention of Ornithologists to the
singular spurious quill, which generally distinguishes the males of this
group, we transfer from ourselves to Azara. His invaluable work we did not
then possess, and knew not that the circumstance had already been mentioned
by him.

We are only acquainted with the genus _Pachyrhynchus_ of Spix, by seeing
this name affixed to our _Psaris Cuvierii_ in the Paris Museum. The
distinction is judicious; particularly as the two groups point to different
relations. Of _Psaris_, as now restricted, we know of six species, and of
_Pachyrhynchus_, ten.

Our present bird is osculent between these forms: we place it with _Psaris_
on account of its wings and tail; but it accords with _Pachyrynchus_ in the
rictus being slightly bristled. The spurious quill is half the length of
the first, which latter is as long as the fourth. The tail is in a slight
degree rounded. It is, perhaps, needless to remark, that all these birds
are confined to Equinoctial America.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: CHÆTURA _macroptera_

_Longwinged Swift_]


CHÆTURA macroptera.

_Long-winged Swift._

----

Family Hirundinidæ.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  _Bill_ entire, the sides much compressed, the culmen arched. The lower
  mandible recurved at the tip. _Wings_ very long. _Tail_ scansorial, the
  extremity of the shafts naked, and acute. _Tarsi_ naked, the three
  anterior toes and claws nearly equal; hind toe not versatile. _Nob._

Type. _Chætura pelasgia._ Stevens.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Brown: wings and tail glossed with greenish blue; back grey-white: chin
  and under tail covers snowy; tail even._

  Ob. Tail 3½ in. longer than the wings, the two first quills longest and
  equal.

----

For an inspection of this new and imposing species, we have to thank Mr.
Ward, an Animal preserver of considerable talent. We do not find it
mentioned in any Ornithological work we possess, and our library is not
small: but with so many publications continually issuing from the
continental press, we shall feel no surprise at discovering it has already
been published.

This and the _Hirundo albicollis_, (first named by M. Vieillot) are two of
the largest species yet discovered, of a very singular group of Swifts;
wherein the tail feathers are spined, and even more rigid than those of the
Woodpeckers: by this structure the birds can remain for a considerable time
in the most perpendicular situations. The expanded tail thus acts as a
powerful support, which is further increased by the size and strength of
the claws, much larger than those of ordinary Swallows. There are several
species, most of which are natives of America.

The direct analogy which this group bears to the typical scansorial Birds,
joined to the general superiority of flight which the Swift possesses over
the Swallow, leads us to suspect this may prove to be the typical group of
the _Fissirostres_; an order in which Nature, in her wish to develope the
greatest powers of flight, appears to neglect all those laws which she
afterwards so rigidly adheres to: We intend in another work, to enter on
this interesting subject more fully.

Our figure is in strict conformity with the scale on the plate, which is
that of an inch.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: PETROICA _bicolor_.

_Black & white Robin._]


PETROICA bicolor.

_Black and White Robin._

----

Family Sylviadæ. Sub-family Saxicolinæ.
(_See Northern Zoology, Vol. 2._)

GENERIC CHARACTER. See No. 8, pl. 36.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Black and white. Head, throat, back, and tips of the tail glossy raven
  black: breast, scapular covers, stripe on the wings, and plumage beneath,
  white: tail slightly forked._

----

In giving publicity to this new and interesting bird, we feel particular
pleasure in expressing our thanks to Allen Cunningham, Esq., His Majesty's
Botanist, in New South Wales, by whom it was there discovered. Although
devoted to a science already so much benefited by his researches, this
enthusiastic Traveller found some leasure for Ornithology, and has lately
favoured us with a large collection of skins, prepared during one of his
inland journeys; with a request that they may be made public: among other
highly curious forms, the present bird is conspicuous. It was found in the
open forest country, North of Liverpool Plains.

When once we are so fortunate as to discover the natural station of any
being, we may be convinced that every circumstance regarding its structure,
habits, or even colour, are employed by Nature to typify its relations to
other beings; and that until most of these can be explained, there is good
reason to suspect the accuracy of our views on its true affinities.
Possessing all the essential characteristics of _Petroica_, our bird
exhibits in the bill, feet, and tail, an immediate affinity to _Sialia
arctica_: while it is clothed in the pure white, and glossy black plumage,
which nature afterwards employs to designate the typical group of
GRYLLIVORA, (North. Zool.) at the opposite point of the circle of
_Saxicolinæ_. This remarkable analogy is extended to the bill, the point of
which is longer and more incurved, than in any of the immediate affinities
of our bird: its close relation to the old world _Saxicolæ_, is too obvious
to need explanation.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MARGINELLA Pl. 1

_1. oblonga. 2. guttata._]


MARGINELLA oblonga.

----

Family Volutidæ. Genus Marginella. Lam. Sys. 7. p. 354.

SUB-GENUS VOLUTELLA. _Nob._

  Shell oval-ventricose: Spire concealed: outer lip generally smooth; base
  of the pillar with four to five oblique plaits: aperture smooth within.

Type, _Marginella bullata_. Lam.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Shell oblong, rather gibbous round the middle, fawn coloured, with two
  obsolete bands: spire concealed: outer lip and summit marked by orange
  spots: pillar 4 plaited._

----

A species not hitherto described; its shape is unusually oblong, and the
spire is quite concealed: We are unacquainted with its locality. The
perpendicular line expresses the natural size.

In _Voluta_ and _Mitra_, the two typical groups of this family, the
variations of form are so striking, and the species so numerous, that we
readily assent to the plan, proposed by others, of further dividing them
into genera: but in the aberrant group, containing _Oliva_, _Ancillaria_,
and _Marginella_, the forms are less diversified, and the species fewer;
the minor divisions may therefore, for the present, be termed sub-genera.
The approximation of _Marginella_ to _Voluta_ has frequently been stated.
In M. _bullata_ we have a miniature melon Volute, while M. _faba_ is a no
less obvious representation of V. _magnifica_. Hence these forms appear
typical. Yet M. _persicula_ and _lineata_ cannot well be placed with
either, as their characters seem to indicate a direct analogy to
_Conohelix_ among the Mitres. As to _Volvaria_, we concur with other
writers, in thinking that the French Conchologists have erroniously blended
that genus with _Marginella_.

----

MARGINELLA guttata.

  _Oval, spire concealed, covered with transverse oval spots margined with
  white, somewhat ocellate, and disposed longitudinally; pillar 4 plaited._

----

We could give no correct idea of this very pretty shell, without enlarging
the figures; the natural size is indicated by the horizontal line. Our
specimen is the only one we have yet seen, nor do we know its habitat.

*       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: MARIUS _Cinna_]


MARIUS Cinna.

----

Family Nymphalidæ. (Stirps. 3? Horsf.)

GENERIC CHARACTER.

  Larva and pupa _unknown_.

  Perfect insect. _Wings_ Papilioniform, caudal appendages long, acute.
  _Palpi_ porrect, approximating, and meeting at their tips so as to form
  an acute cone: the whole covered with compact scales. Anterior feet
  small, slender, imperfect, the tarsal joints? concealed by long hairs:
  club of the antennæ terminal, sub-fuciform and cylindric. Body short,
  thick, robust.

Type, _Papilio Marius_. Auct.

----

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

  _Wings above brown, with two unequal white bands; beneath white, with
  narrow fulvous bands; basal angle of the posterior wings with an orange
  spot, ocellated with black._

  Papilio Cinna. _Cramer Vol. I. pl. 100. f. 8._

----

Cramer describes this elegant Butterfly as a native of Surinam, and our own
specimens were received from the same country. All the species of this
group that have yet fallen under our inspection, are natives of South
America. Their flight is high, powerful and rapid: the predominating colour
on the upper surface of their wings is brown, and on the under white.

It is the misfortune of not understanding the typical structure, and the
principles which regulate its variation, in higher groups, that in defining
the characters of a lesser, we can form no just idea of its relative value:
whether, in short, we should consider it a genus or a sub genus, or whether
it is typical, aberrant, or osculent. This, however, is but a temporary
evil; and will only continue until an insight is gained into higher
combinations, by first placing together kindred species under one common
name. If this be done heedfully, such a group _must_ be natural, whatever
opinions may be entertained in the _first_ instance, as to its proper
denomination.

*       *       *       *       *       *



GENERAL INDEX
_OF THE PLATES TO_
VOL. 1.
IN THE ORDER OF PUBLICATION.

----

  _N.B. The number here affixed to the Plates, for convenience of
  reference, had better be marked in pencil upon the Plates themselves._

              No. 1.
  Psittaculus vernalis,                  1
  Polyborus Braziliensis,                2
  Setophaga picta,                       3
  Ancillaria (Pl. 1.) rubiginosa,        4
  Mitra (Pl. 1.) melaniana,              5
  ---- tessellata

              No. 2.
  Parra Africana,                        6
  Cuculus nigricans,                     7
  Lorius Isidorii,                       8
  Ampullaria Pl. 1.
  ---- carinata,                         9
  Unio (Pl. 1.) truncatus,              10

              No. 3.
  Thriothorus mexicanus,                11
  Lorius garrulus,                      12
  Coccyzus Levaillantii,                13
  Marmarostoma (Pl. 1.)
  ---- undulata,                        14
  Voluta (Pl. 1)
  ---- bullata,                         15

              No. 4.
  Paleornis Pondicerianus,              16
  Hirundo fasciata,                     17
  Anodon (Pl. 1.)
  ---- areolatus,                       18
  Mitra (Pl. 2.) bicolor,               19
  ---- carinata
  ---- strigata
  Tellina (Pl. 1.),                     20
  ---- latirostra

              No. 5.
  Nanodes venustus,                     21
  Icterus Cayanensis,                   22
  Drymophyla longipes,                  23
  Lingula anatina,                      24
  ---- hians,                           25

              No. 6.
  Platycercus scapularis,               26
  Drymophila fasciata,                  27
  Aglaïa gyrola,                        28
  Melania (Pl. 1.) amarula,             29
  ---- setosa
  Mitra (Pl. 3.) fulva,                 30
  ---- ambigua
  ---- punctata

              No. 7.
  Aglaïa flava,                         31
  Papilio Niamus,                       32
  Rhetus Cramerii,                      33
  Rostellaria (Pl. 1.) curvirostris,    34
  Psaris Jardinii,                      35

              No. 8.
  Petroica multicolor,                  36
  Ploceus textor,                       37
  Ampullaria (Pl. 2.) Nilotica,         38
  ---- subcarinata
  Strombus (Pl. 1.) Peruvianus,         39
  Oliva (Pl. 1.) volutella,             40
  ---- striata

              No. 9.
  Psaris cristatus,                     41
  Chætura macroptera,                   42
  Petroica bicolor,                     43
  Marginella (Pl. 1.) oblonga,          44
  ---- guttata
  Marius Cinna,                         45

*       *       *       *       *       *



GENERAL ALPHABETIC INDEX
OF
LATIN AND ENGLISH NAMES, &c.,
TO
VOL. 1.

----

  Aglaïa, Generic Character,            27
  ---- flava,                           31
  ---- gyrola,                          28
  Alasmodon, Generic Character,         10
  Ampullaria carinata,                   9
  ---- canaliculata,                    38
  ---- nilotica,                        38
  ---- subcarinata,                     38
  ---- virens,                          38
  Ancillaria rubiginosa,                 4
  _Ant-thrush, long legged_,            24
  ---- _White shouldered_,              26
  Anodon, Generic Character,            10
  ---- areolatus,                       17
  _Apple Snail, carinated_,              9
  _Caraca Eagle_,                        1
  Chætura, Characters of,               42
  ---- macroptera,                      42
  Coccyzus Vaillantii,                  13
  Cuculus nigricans,                     7
  _Cuckow, African black_,               7
  _Cuckow, black and white_,            13
  Drymophila fasciata,                  27
  ---- longipes,                        23
  _Eagle, Brazilian crested_,            1
  Euplectes, characters of,             37
  _Flycatcher, painted_,                 3
  _Hangnest, Cayenne_,                  22
  Hirundo fasciata,                     17
  Hyria, Generic Character,             10
  Icterina, characters of,              22
  Icterus, Generic Character,           22
  Icterus, Cayanensis,                  22
  Iridina, Gen. Characte,               10
  _Jacama, African_,                     6
  ---- _Habits of the_,                  6
  Lingula anatina,                      24
  ---- hians,                           25
  Lorius garrulus,                      12
  Lorius Isidorii,                       8
  _Lory, Blue necked_,                   8
  _Lory, Ceram_,                        12
  Malimbus, characters of,              37
  Marmarostoma, Gen. Character,         14
  ---- undulata,                        14
  Marginella oblonga,                   44
  ---- guttata,                         44
  Marius, characters of,                45
  ---- cinna,                           45
  Melania amarula,                      29
  ---- setosa,                          29
  Mitra ambiguua,                       30
  ---- bicolor,                         19
  ---- carinata,                        19
  ---- fulva,                           30
  ---- melaniana,                       15
  ---- punctata,                        30
  ---- strigata,                        19
  ---- tessellata,                       5
  _Mussel-horse, areolated_,            18
  Myotherinæ, characters of,            23
  Nanodes, characters of,               21
  ---- venustus,                        21
  Oliva, affinities of,                 40
  ---- volutella,                       40
  ---- striata,                         40
  Pachyrhynchus, Gen. Ch.,              41
  Pachystoma, Gen. Character,            9
  Paleornis Pondicerianus,              16
  Papilio Niamus,                       32
  Parra africana,                        6
  _Parrakeet, blue-fronted_,            21
  ---- _mustachoe_,                     16
  ---- _Tabuan, or King_,               28
  ---- _vernal_,                         2
  Petroica, Generic Character,          36
  ---- bicolor,                         43
  ---- multicolor,                      36
  _Phytophagous Molluscæ_,              30
  Platycercus scapularis,               26
  Ploceus, Generic Character,           37
  ---- the sub-genera,                  37
  Ploceus textor,                       37
  Polyborus Braziliensis,                1
  Psariana, characters of,              41
  Psaris cristatus,                     41
  ---- Jardinii,                        35
  Psittacidæ, Divisions of,             28
  Psittaculus vernalis,                  2
  Rhetus Cramerii,                      33
  _Robin, black and white_,             43
  ---- _scarlet breasted_,              36
  Rostellaria curvirostris,             34
  _Saris, crested_,                     41
  ---- _Jardines_,                      35
  Saxicolinæ, Bill of,                  36
  Setophaga picta,                       3
  Strombus Peruvianus,                  39
  Strombii, Genera of,                  35
  _Snail, Waved, Pearl_,                14
  _Swallow, white-banded_,              17
  _Swift, long-winged_,                 42
  _Tanager, red-headed_,                27
  ---- _yellow_,                        31
  _Tellen, wide-beaked_,                20
  Tellina latirostra,                   20
  Thriothorus mexicanus,                11
  Voluta bullata,                       15
  Volutella, sub-genus of,              44
  Volute, Bulla-shaped,                 15
  Unionidæ, Family of,                  10
  Unio, Generic Character,              10
  ---- truncatus,                       10
  _Weaver, rufous necked_,              37
  Wren, mexican,                        11
  Zoophagous Molluscæ,                  35

*       *       *       *       *       *



Notes.

[1] Zool. Journal, Vol. 4. p. 405.

[2] Ill. of Brit. Ent. 1. p. 70.

       *       *       *       *       *



Corrections made to printed text

Preface: 'separate' (with critical judgment) corrected from 'seperate'

Preface: (Speculation and) 'Hypothesis' corrected from 'Hypothosis'

Plate 2, main title: 'POLYBORUS Braziliensis' corrected from '...
Brazilienses'

Plate 9: 'Animaux' (sans Vetebres) corrected from 'Animanx'

Plate 16: 'Geoffroy St. Hilaire' corrected from '... Hiliare'

Plate 22: 'The true O. cayanensis' corrected from '...caynensis'

Plate 30: Heading (MITRA) 'ambigua' corrected from 'ambigna'

Plate 32: under Generic Character, 'caudated' corrected from 'candated'

Plate 36: 'Stonechat'  (fig. 3, 4) corrected from 'Sonechat'

Plate 38: 'accurately' (figured by himself) corrected from 'acurately'

Plate 39: 'respiratory' (siphon) corrected from 'respitory'

Both indexes, Plate 30: (Mitra) 'ambigua' corrected from 'ambiguua'





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