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Title: School Credit for Home Work
Author: Alderman, Lewis Raymond
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: FEEDING HER BIRD

Mabel C----, aged 12, Algona, Washington]



  SCHOOL CREDIT

  FOR HOME WORK

  BY L. R. ALDERMAN

  CITY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS
  PORTLAND, OREGON
  FORMERLY SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC
  INSTRUCTION, STATE OF OREGON


  HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
  BOSTON      NEW YORK      CHICAGO
  The Riverside Press Cambridge


  COPYRIGHT, 1915, BY L. R. ALDERMAN

  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


  The Riverside Press
  CAMBRIDGE. MASSACHUSETTS
  U.S.A



TO THE MEMORY

OF

MY FATHER AND MOTHER

Who made their boys happy partners in the work of the home and farm



PREFACE


It has been a surprise and a delight to me, as this book has been
in progress, to learn of the many different ways that people have
worked out these home credit plans. It has been as if I could see
into many happy schoolrooms. Letters from mothers and fathers
boasting of the accomplishments of their children, have brought
to me a little glow from the hearthsides of many homes. A father
brought his boy--or rather the boy brought his father--up to see me
and talk over what the boy was doing at home. The father boasted
of the boy's fine garden, his big pumpkins, his watermelons that
would attract the neighbors. Johnny almost burst the top button off
his vest with pride as his father praised him and patted him on the
head. After this happy meeting, the father and the son got on the
high wagon seat and rode home; and as I saw them going down the
street, I could imagine what they talked about. Such glimpses help
to make a school man's life worth while; and I have had many of
them as I have been writing this book.

For the fact that this book exists at all, I am indebted to my wife,
who has helped me with every part of it, and to Mr. and Mrs. C. C.
Thomason, of Olympia, Washington, who believed in the book from
the first. Mrs. Thomason has also done much work on the book; she
has gathered all the illustrative material, visiting many schools
and writing many letters. She and my wife have done most of the
organizing of material, and have gone over the manuscript together.
To Miss Fanny Louise Barber, of the Washington High School,
Portland, I am grateful for her careful reading and revision of
several chapters. I owe thanks to Mrs. Sarah J. Hoagland, of Belt,
Montana, for the true and vivid stories she has sent me; and I am
thankful to all the home credit teachers, with whom we have been
corresponding, for their painstaking answers to our letters, as well
as for the valuable plans that they have originated.

                                             L. R. ALDERMAN.

  PORTLAND, OREGON,
  _November 16, 1914_.



CONTENTS


PART ONE

     I. INTRODUCTION                                           1

    II. MARY                                                   7

   III. THE SPRING VALLEY SCHOOL                              11

    IV. WHAT WILL BECOME OF THE ALGEBRA?                      24

     V. HONORING LABOR                                        34

    VI. HABIT-BUILDING                                        39

   VII. THAT OTHER TEACHER AND THAT TEACHER'S LABORATORY      46

  VIII. STELLA AND SADIE                                      53

    IX. A STORY AND LETTERS FROM TEACHERS                     60


PART TWO

   I. ILLUSTRATIVE HOME CREDIT PLANS                        71

  II. HOME CREDIT IN HIGH SCHOOLS                          156

      APPENDIX                                             167

      INDEX                                                177



ILLUSTRATIONS


  FEEDING HER BIRD                          _Frontispiece_

  SPRING VALLEY SCHOOL                                  12

  PICNIC LUNCHEON, SPRING VALLEY                        20

  JOE IN THE GARAGE                                     28

  WORK CREDITED AT SCHOOL                               36

  EARNING HOME CREDITS                                  42

  O. H. BENSON POTATO CLUB                              88

  HIGH SCHOOL BOYS IN RAILROAD SHOPS                   156



SCHOOL CREDIT FOR HOME WORK



PART ONE



I

INTRODUCTION

     The child is a born worker; activity is the law of his nature.

                                          FRANCIS W. PARKER.


This book is simply the narrative of the working-out of an idea.
The idea first came to me from memories of my own home, where tasks
were assigned to us children and were made to seem important. With
my father, the work was always carried on in the spirit of a game,
and the game could be made as interesting as any other game; in
the meantime something was being done that was worth while. Among
many other memories there comes one of our laying a rail fence by
moonlight, after a freshet had taken the other fence away; when
the game was to get the line completed before the moon went down.
I can still see father laying rail on rail, and enjoy his glowing
enthusiasm at our accomplishment. The fence still stands. Besides
seeking to make the work interesting in itself, father had a device
to put a value on time for his boys by giving us free time after the
tasks were completed to do as we saw fit.

The desire, after I became a teacher, to put myself in the enviable
position of my father as an inspiring influence with children,
was the motive that took my thoughts out of the schoolroom into
the homes of my pupils. Should not the school be simply a group
of people come together for improvement, with the teacher as
their best friend, ready to discuss and promote everything that
seems worth while? We found it easy to talk at school about the
things the children were concerned with out of school. One spring
my pupils carried home, from our little boxes at school, cabbage
plants and tomato plants to become members of their families for the
summer. Later we had a county school fair for the exhibition of the
children's clear jelly and fine bread and vegetables and sewing and
carpentry. The schools were trying to recognize "the whole child."

This book is written in the hope that parents, teachers, and
children may be helped to work together more joyously and
harmoniously on the real problems of life.

When I was teaching in the University of Oregon in the spring of
1910, I wrote and had published in the Oregon papers the following
article:--

     We all believe that civilization is founded upon the home. The
     school should be a real helper to the home. How can the school
     help the home? How can it help the home establish habits in
     the children of systematic performance of home duties so that
     they will be efficient and joyful home helpers? One way is for
     the school to take into account home industrial work and honor
     it. It is my conviction, based upon careful and continuous
     observation, that the school can greatly increase the interest
     the child will take in home industrial work by making it a
     subject of consideration at school. A teacher talked of sewing,
     and the girls sewed. She talked of ironing, and they wanted to
     learn to iron neatly. She talked of working with tools, and
     both girls and boys made bird houses, kites, and other things
     of interest. Recently a school garden was planned in a city and
     one of the boys was employed to plow the land. Seventy-five
     children were watching for him to come with the team. At last
     he came driving around the corner. _He_ could manage a _team_.
     He drove into the lot, and a hundred and fifty eyes looked
     with admiration at the boy who could unhitch from the sled and
     hitch to the plow; and then as he, "man-fashion,"--lines over
     one shoulder and under one arm,--drove the big team around the
     field, all could feel the children's admiration for the boy who
     could do something worth while. And I have seen a girl who could
     make good bread or set a table nicely get the real admiration of
     her schoolmates.

     The school can help make better home-builders. It can help by
     industrial work done in the school, but as that is already
     receiving consideration by the press and in a few schools, I
     shall not in this short article treat of it.

     The plan I have in mind will cost no money, will take but little
     school time, and can be put into operation in every part of the
     State at once. It will create a demand for expert instruction
     later on. It is to give school credit for industrial work done
     at home. The mother and father are to be recognized as teachers,
     and the school teacher put into the position of one who cares
     about the habits and tastes of the whole child. Then the teacher
     and the parents will have much in common. Every home has the
     equipment for industrial work and has some one who uses it with
     more or less skill.

     The school has made so many demands on the home that the parents
     have in some cases felt that all the time of the child must be
     given to the school. But an important thing that the child needs
     along with school work is established habits of home-making.
     What people do depends as much upon habit as upon knowledge.
     The criticism that is most often made upon industrial work
     at school is that it is so different from the work done in
     the home that it does not put the child into that sympathetic
     relation with the home, which after all is for him and the home
     the most important thing in the world. Juvenile institutions
     find that they must be careful not to institutionalize the child
     to such an extent that he may not be contented in a real home.
     In my opinion it will be a great thing for the child to want
     to help his parents do the task that needs to be done and to
     want to do it in the best possible way. The reason why so many
     country boys are now leading men of affairs is because early in
     life they had home responsibilities thrust upon them. I am sure
     that the motto "Everybody Helps" is a good one.

     But one says: "How can it be brought about? How can the school
     give credit for industrial work done at home?" It may be done by
     sending home printed slips asking the parents to take account of
     the work that the child does at home under their instruction,
     and explaining that credit will be given for this work on the
     school record. These slips must be used according to the age of
     the child, so that he will not be asked to do too much, for it
     must be clearly recognized that children must have time for real
     play. The required tasks must not be too arduous, yet they must
     be real tasks. They must not be tasks that will put extra work
     on parents except in the matter of instruction and observation.
     They may well call for the care of animals, and should include
     garden work for both boys and girls. Credit in school for home
     industrial work (with the parents' consent) should count as much
     as any one study in school.

     To add interest to the work, exhibitions should be given at
     stated times so that all may learn from each other and the best
     be the model for all. The school fairs in Yamhill, Polk, Benton,
     Lane, Wasco, and Crook Counties, together with the school and
     home industrial work done at Eugene, have convinced me most
     thoroughly that these plans are practicable, and that school
     work and home work, school play and home play, and love for
     parents and respect for teachers and fellow pupils can best be
     fostered by a more complete coöperation between school and home,
     so that the whole child is taken into account at all times.

After the home-credit schools of Mr. O'Reilly and Mr. Conklin were
well under way, I received many inquiries about the home credit
idea. As I was then State Superintendent, I had a pamphlet printed
by the State Office, describing the workings of the plan, and had it
distributed to Oregon teachers. Fifteen thousand copies were also
printed for Mr. Claxton, Commissioner of Education, in the summer
of 1912, and distributed by the National Bureau to superintendents
and teachers throughout the United States. Since this pamphlet has
been out of print there have been many inquiries sent me about home
credit, and I hope that this book may answer some of them.



II

MARY

     The brain and the hand, too long divorced, and each mean and
     weak without the other; use and beauty, each alone vulgar;
     letters and labor, each soulless without the other, are
     henceforth to be one and inseparable; and this union will lift
     man to a higher level.--G. STANLEY HALL.


The idea of giving school credit for home work first occurred to me
when I was a high-school principal in McMinnville, Oregon, in 1901.
Often, in the few years that I had been teaching, I had felt keenly
a lack of understanding between school and home. As I was thinking
over this problem, and wondering what could be done, I chanced
to meet on the street the mother of one of my rosiest-cheeked,
strongest-looking high-school girls. I saw that the little mother
looked forlorn and tired. There was a nervous twitch of the hand
that adjusted the robes about the crippled child she was wheeling
in a baby buggy. I had frequently noticed that Mary, the daughter,
who was one of the very poorest students in her class, was on
the streets the greater part of the time after school hours. I
thought, "What value can there be in my teaching that girl quadratic
equations and the nebular hypothesis, when what she most needs to
learn is the art of helping her mother?"

In the algebra recitation next day I asked, "How many helped with
the work before coming to school?" Hands were raised, but not
Mary's. "How many got breakfast?" Hands again, not Mary's. "I made
some bread a few days ago, bread that kept, and kept, and kept on
keeping. How many of you know how to make bread?" Some hands, not
Mary's. I then announced that the lesson for the following day would
consist as usual of ten problems in advance, but that five would
be in the book, and five out of the book. The five out of the book
for the girls would consist of helping with supper, helping with
the kitchen work after supper, preparing breakfast, helping with
the dishes and kitchen work after breakfast, and putting a bedroom
in order. Surprise and merriment gave place to enthusiasm when the
boys and girls saw that I was in downright earnest. When I asked for
a report on the algebra lesson next day all hands went up for all
the problems both in algebra and in home-helping. As I looked my
approval, all hands fell again, that is, all hands but Mary's. "What
is it, Mary?" I asked. "I worked five in advance," she replied with
sparkling eyes: "I worked all you gave us, and five ahead in the
book!"

Since that day I have been a firm believer in giving children credit
at school for work done at home. We did not work home problems every
day that year, but at various times the children were assigned
lessons like the one mentioned, and scarcely a day passed that we
did not talk over home tasks, and listen to the boys and girls as
they told what each had achieved. The idea that washing dishes and
caring for chickens was of equal importance with algebra and general
history, and that credit and honor would frequently be given for
home work, proved a stimulus to all the children, and especially to
Mary. Her interest in all her school duties was doubled, and it is
needless to say that her mother's interest in the school was many
times increased as her heavy household cares were in part assumed by
her healthy daughter.

A few weeks after the first home credit lesson Mary brought her
luncheon to school. At the noon hour she came to my desk, opened
her basket, and displaying a nicely made sandwich said, "I made
this bread." The bread looked good, and must have been all right,
for she ate the sandwich, and it did not seem to hurt her. She came
again wearing a pretty new shirt-waist, and told me she had made it
herself, and that it had cost just eighty-five cents.

After Mary graduated from high school she went out into the country
to teach, and boarded with her uncle's family. Her uncle's wife was
ill for a while, and Mary showed that she knew how to cook a fine
meal, and how to set a table so that the food looked good to eat.
She made herself generally useful. Her uncle came to my office one
day and told me that Mary was the finest girl he ever saw, and that
every girl like that should go to college, and that he was going to
see that she went to college if he had to sell the farm to send her.
She went to college, but it didn't take the farm to send her.



III

THE SPRING VALLEY SCHOOL

     An excellent result of the absence of centralization in the
     United States.... The widest possible scope being allowed to
     individual and local preferences, ... one part of our vast
     country can profit by the experience of the other parts.

                                                 JOHN FISKE.

     Kindly convey my blessing to that genius of a teacher in Spring
     Valley, the same to stand good till judgment day.

WM. HAWLEY SMITH.


Mr. A. I. O'Reilly, in the school at Spring Valley, Oregon, was
the first to give systematic, certified credit for home work. He
originated the idea of having a prize contest for credits, and
put care for health and cleanliness on the list of home duties.
Dr. Winship classifies new educational suggestions as dreams,
nightmares, and visions. The remarkable success of Mr. O'Reilly in
his home credit school should place his ideas in the "vision" list.

Spring Valley is a rich farming district in Polk County, Oregon,
about nine miles from Salem. Mr. O'Reilly took the school in the
fall of 1909. He rented a farmhouse about half a mile away, brought
his wife and little boys out from Dakota, where he had served as
county superintendent, and went to work building up his school.
He gained great influence with the boys and girls, and was much
respected and thoroughly liked by everybody.

He noticed that on each big, well-developed farm in the neighborhood
there was a great deal of work for the boys and girls to do, but
that they did not as a rule do it with cheerfulness and interest.
He wanted, if possible, to change their attitude of mind. So, with
the hearty approval of his board of directors, he arranged to give
school credit for home work. This was in the fall of 1911. Various
tasks that the children ought to do he put into a list, and allowed
a certain number of minutes credit for each one.[1] The three
children having earned the greatest number of credits at the close
of the nine school months were to receive three dollars each, and
the three next highest, two dollars. The money was to be allowed by
the school board, and put into the savings bank to the credit of the
prize-winners.

  [1] The details of Mr. O'Reilly's plan are given in Part Two, pages
  73-77.

Every one of the thirty-three pupils in the school was enrolled
in this new kind of contest. The registering of the credits each
morning meant extra work for the teacher, but it brought extra
results. The prospect of a bank account for the winners incited
the children to learn for the first time something about banks and
banking. There was a "we-are-doing-something" atmosphere throughout
the school.

[Illustration: SPRING VALLEY SCHOOL, OREGON, WHERE HOME CREDITS WERE
GIVEN, 1911-1912]

In answer to the query of some visitors if this giving of credit for
home work did not interfere with school work, Mr. O'Reilly pointed
to the record in the county spelling contest, in which his school
had earned 100 per cent that month.

The county superintendent, Mr. Seymour, had announced that a banner
would be given to his rural schools showing that they were standard
schools as soon as they should meet certain requirements. These
requirements were well-drained school grounds; school building
properly lighted, heated, and ventilated; schoolhouse and grounds
neat and attractive; sanitary outbuildings; walk made to building
and outbuildings; individual drinking-cups; the purchase each year
of one standard picture; thorough work on the part of teacher and
pupils; the enrollment of every pupil in the spelling contest; and
an average of 95 per cent in attendance. Spring Valley was the first
school in the county to receive the banner and become a standard
school.

The county superintendents of Oregon were assembled at Salem in
January, 1912, for the purpose of grading teachers' examination
papers. They were much interested in what they heard of Mr.
O'Reilly's work at Spring Valley and accepted with great pleasure
the invitation of Mr. Seymour to visit the school. As that day in
Mr. O'Reilly's school is significant, I wish to quote an article
about it written by T. J. Gary, superintendent of Clackamas County.
Mr. Gary's article was printed in one of the Oregon City papers in
January, 1912.

     Last Saturday seventeen county school superintendents and the
     superintendent of public instruction drove through the wind and
     rain to Spring Valley, Polk County, to attend a parent-teachers'
     meeting. Why? Because we had heard much of a new plan that was
     being tried out by the teacher, pupils, and parents of the
     school in that beautiful valley. Did we go because it was a
     new plan? No. If we should try to investigate every new plan
     we would be going all the time. We went because we thought we
     saw a suggestion, at least, of a solution of two very important
     problems: "How to bring the school and the home into closer
     relation," and "How to make the boys and the girls in the
     country love their home."

     We arrived at the Spring Valley School at 10.30 A.M. and
     observed first a board walk from the road to the schoolhouse
     door and a well-drained school-yard free from all rubbish, such
     as sticks, pieces of paper, and so forth.

     Upon entering the room we observed that the directors had made
     provision for the proper heating, lighting, and ventilation
     of the schoolroom. On the walls were three nicely framed
     pictures, the "Sistine Madonna," "The Christ," and "The Lions,"
     all beautiful reproductions of celebrated works of art. The
     building was a modest one, much like many school buildings we
     find through the country, but there was about it that which said
     plainer than words can say it, "This is a well-ordered school."

     Looking to the right, we saw on a partition wall, on the floor,
     and on the side wall, a variety of articles: aprons, dresses,
     doilies, handbags, handkerchiefs, kites, traps, bird houses, and
     various other things made by the boys and girls of the school.
     At the left in the other corner of the room were loaves of
     bread, pies, cakes, tarts, doughnuts, and other tempting things
     prepared by the girls and boys. The writer sampled various
     edibles, among them a cake baked by Master Z----, son of our
     ex-superintendent, J. C. Z----. I can cheerfully say that it was
     the kind of cake that makes a man want more.

     These things were all of interest to us, but the one thing we
     were most curious to know about was the system the teacher had
     of giving credits for home work; not school work done at home,
     but all kinds of honest work a country girl or boy can find
     to do. Pupils were given five minutes credit for milking a
     cow, five minutes for sleeping in fresh air, five minutes for
     taking a bath, and so on through the long list of common duties
     incident to home life in the country. The rule of the school is
     that any pupil who has earned six hundred minutes may have a
     holiday, at the discretion of the teacher. If the pupil asks for
     a holiday to use for some worthy cause the teacher grants it,
     providing it does not interfere too much with the pupil's school
     work.

     Space will not permit my giving a more detailed account of the
     plan. I trust that enough has been given to show the principle
     involved. The teacher was subjected to volley after volley of
     questions from the superintendents, but was able to answer all
     of them with alacrity. The chairman called upon the parents to
     give their testimony as to the success of the movement. I cannot
     write here all that was said, but will give two statements as
     fair samples of all.

     One good motherly-looking country woman said: "Before this plan
     was started I got up in the morning and prepared breakfast for
     the family, and after breakfast saw to the preparation of the
     children for school. Now, when morning comes the girls insist
     upon my lying in bed so that they may get breakfast. After
     breakfast they wash the dishes, sweep the kitchen, and do many
     other things as well as make their own preparation for school. I
     think the plan is a success. My only fear is that it will make
     me lazy."

     One father said: "I have two boys--one in the high school and
     Jack, here. It was as hard work to get the older boy out in the
     morning as it was to do the chores, and as Jack was too young
     to be compelled to do the work, I let them both sleep while I
     did it. Now, when the alarm sounds, I hear Jack tumbling out of
     bed, and when I get up I find the fires burning and the stock at
     the barn cared for; so all I have to do is to look happy, eat my
     breakfast, and go about my business. Yes, it is a great success
     in our home."

     At this point Superintendent Alderman said: "Jack, stand, we
     want to see you," and Jack, a bright, manly-appearing country
     boy of fourteen years stood blushing, while we looked our
     appreciation.

     One man told of the many things that his daughter had done,
     whereupon it was suggested that she might do so much that her
     health would be in danger. A pleasant smile flitted across
     the face of the father as he said, "Daughter, stand and let
     these men see if they think you are injuring your health." A
     bright, buxom, rosy-cheeked girl--the very picture of health and
     happiness--arose while we laughed and cheered.

     To the question, "Does this work interfere with the work of the
     school?" the teacher pointed to the record of the school in a
     spelling contest that is being conducted in this county, and
     read "100 per cent for this month; 98.12 per cent for last," and
     said, "No, I find that the children have taken more interest in
     their work and are making more progress than before."

     When alone, after time for reflection, I thought, "One swallow
     does not make a summer" and one school does not prove that this
     is a good plan. In Spring Valley the conditions are ideal,--a
     board of directors who do their duty, a citizenship that is
     far above the average, girls and boys from well-ordered homes
     of a prosperous people, a teacher who would succeed anywhere
     with half a chance, a wide-awake, sympathetic county school
     superintendent,--and yet I thought if this is good for the
     Spring Valley School, might it not be a good thing for all our
     schools? I have not reached a conclusion, but have had much food
     for thought, and am more than pleased with my experience and
     observation.

     What do you think about it, gentle reader? Is it a passing
     fancy? A fad, if you please? Or is it a means for training boys
     and girls to habits of industry and to a wholesome respect for
     honest toil? Will it bring the home and the school into closer
     relation? And will it cause the country boys and girls to love
     their homes, to love the country with its singing birds, its
     babbling brooks, its broad fields and friendly hills?

There was not a school in the State that responded better to any
movement initiated by the State or county than the one in Spring
Valley. Every pupil was greatly interested in the boys' and girls'
industrial and agricultural contest which Oregon carried on that
year for the first time. The children raised cabbage plants at
school, protected from the cold by a tent that Mr. O'Reilly
provided. They planned to sell them to the neighbors in order to
get money for seeds, but were sadly disappointed, when they came
to school one morning, to find that a cow had broken in during the
night and destroyed almost every plant. The owner of the cow paid
them the value of the plants, but they were never quite so happy
over the fund as they would have been if the plants had been allowed
to grow.

Six weeks before the end of the school year Mr. O'Reilly began
making Saturday trips to Salem to arrange for the fair with which
he intended to close the school. The merchants subscribed liberally
for prizes both for the children's work and for the athletic events
which Mr. O'Reilly had planned for the afternoon. A local piano
house sent out a piano for the occasion, and an amusement company
put up a merry-go-round, and stands for lemonade, ice-cream,
and all the rest that goes with a first-class picnic. The picnic
was held in the grove a short distance from the schoolhouse. Mr.
O'Reilly and the neighbors had made a platform for which the
children's work formed the background,--dresses, bird houses, fancy
work, cakes, bread, and other articles,--and had made seats of rough
lumber for the crowd. And a crowd it was, for the whole county was
interested in the Spring Valley School. This was one of the first
local fairs in connection with the county school fairs which were
held throughout the State, and the awards were also to be made to
the children who had earned the most credits in the home credit
contest.

[Illustration: PICNIC LUNCHEON COOKED AND SERVED BY SPRING VALLEY
CHILDREN]

We drove out from Salem in automobiles. On reaching the grove we
found it filled with teams tied everywhere, and many automobiles
standing about. Promptly at ten o'clock the school children marched
down from the schoolhouse in an industrial parade, carrying things
that they had made or raised in the garden. A pretty sight they
were, as they took their places on the reserved benches in front,
all in their best clothes, most of the girls in white dresses of
their own making.

The Governor of Oregon was there, and made the first address. At
the close of his talk, the Spring Valley children sang in voices
as clear as the birds, "There is no Land Like Oregon," and were
most heartily cheered. After the remainder of the addresses and
songs came the most breathless part of the day, the awarding of the
school-credit prizes for the year's work. A member of the school
board read the list of winners, and took occasion to express the
appreciation that the district felt for Mr. O'Reilly's work. He
assured the audience that the people of the district considered the
plan one of the very finest that they had ever known, for it put
the children in the right attitude toward their work, and gave the
parents the feeling that they were assisting in the work of the
school. Never in the history of the community had there been such a
year.

The judging of the industrial work was then carried on, while
the Spring Valley home-credit girls set the long tables for the
luncheon, which they had prepared without assistance from their
mothers. We all envied the three women up on the platform tasting
the cakes, and were glad when the ribbons were pinned on, for
we knew then that the dinner would begin. The blue ribbon for
cake-making by children under thirteen was awarded to a boy, Arthur
Z----. The governor and I placed this lad between us at the head of
the table, and he gave us very generous portions of the prize cake.

This was Mr. O'Reilly's last day with the Spring Valley School. The
next year he was chosen one of the rural school supervisors in Lane
County, and he is still there making an excellent record. A recent
letter from him briefly takes up the later history of his Spring
Valley winners in the home credit contest. He says:--

     Evangeline J---- was one of the winners. She is doing finely
     in high school, and still winning prizes at fairs. She leads
     her class in domestic science in the Eugene High School. She
     has eighty dollars in the bank, sixty-one dollars and fifty
     cents earned from prizes. You know the home credit started her
     bank account with three dollars. Golda B---- is another. She
     is attending the high school at Sheridan. Her standings are
     fine. She very seldom has to take examinations. She has about
     seventy-five dollars in the bank. Jack S---- has finished the
     eighth grade, and is going to attend high school in Eugene this
     year. His bank account is thirty-seven dollars and fifty cents.
     Mabel S---- has finished the grades and will go to high school
     in Hopewell this year. Her bank account is thirty-eight dollars.
     She has a piano her father got her, and is doing well in music.
     Verda R---- attends high school in Eugene this year. The other
     winners are still little ones, and are attending school in
     Spring Valley.



IV

WHAT WILL BECOME OF THE ALGEBRA?

       Present interest is the grand motive power.--ROUSSEAU.

     An objection to the introduction of new subjects is that
     children are already overworked in school. There is, however,
     a precaution against overwork; it is making school work
     interesting to the children. To introduce new and higher
     subjects into the school program is not necessarily to
     increase the strain upon the child. If this measure increases
     the interest and attractiveness of the work and the sense of
     achievement, it will diminish weariness and the risk of hurtful
     strain.

                                           CHARLES W. ELIOT.


When I was county superintendent in Yamhill County I used to talk
much of the home credit plan in local institutes. One day when I
was explaining how the plan worked, and how I had given credit in
algebra for home activities, a teacher arose in the audience and
said he was willing to go almost any length with me, but he thought
it was going too far to give credit in algebra for what was not
algebra. "Is it not dishonest?" he asked, "and will it not teach
dishonesty? Besides, if you give credit in this way for things not
algebra, _what will become of the algebra_?" This is an unsettled
problem: what _will_ become of the algebra? True, Mary got more
algebra! I put this unsettled question alongside of another. I was
arguing for the consolidation of schools in a little district near
a larger district, and had tried to show that consolidation would
be much cheaper, and would bring greater advantages, when a man
stood up and said that he agreed in general with the plan but that
it would not work in this district, "for," said he, "this district
has a cemetery deeded to it, and if the district should lose its
identity, _what would become of the cemetery_?" As these questions
are similar, I put the algebra into the cemetery.

I believe in algebra, but in order to teach algebra I believe it is
first necessary to see to it that the child is in a constructive
frame of mind. He should be in harmony with his surroundings. When
Mary became interested in her home, she was in a mood to work
problems in advance. When her home was neglected, her algebra
problems were all in arrears.

Even though we omitted the consideration of the health, the
morals, and the working ability of the pupils, the home credit
system would be justified as a part of the school work because
of its revitalizing effect on the regular school work. The
teacher who succeeds in touching the hidden springs of youthful
interest is doing more for humanity than the man who discovers the
much-sought-for method of bringing static electricity out of space.
A child, or a man either for that matter, is a dynamo of energy
when interested. Many people think that children in school are
overworked; in my opinion they are more often underinterested. One
little lad of about five, taking a Sunday walk with grown people,
told his father that he was very tired, that his legs fairly ached,
and that he would have to be carried or else camp right there. A
member of the party (I wish I could remember his name, for he was
a good child psychologist) said to the boy, "Why, sure, you don't
have to walk. I'll get you a horse." He cut a stick horse and a
switch. The boy mounted at a bound, whipped his steed up and down
the road, beating up the dust in circles around the crowd. By the
time he reached home he had ridden the stick horse twice as far as
the others had walked, and had not remembered that he was tired.

My first trial of home credits convinced me that children would
do better school work because of the plan. I have letters from
many teachers through the Northwest bearing me out in my opinion.
I quote: "It stimulates to better work in school." "The teachers
notice an improvement in school work along all lines." "It has
helped to make our school, in some respects at least, as good as any
in the county, according to the county superintendent's own word. A
member of the board says the children have never made such progress
since the school was built, and all say these children have never
made so much progress before." Tardiness is reported to be much less
in home credit schools.

A prominent Western dairyman remarked that arithmetic had always
been a hopeless subject for him. He declared that arithmetically
he was "born short." A listener inquired if he had any trouble in
keeping accounts, in figuring out the profits on each dairy cow,
or in doing other problems connected with his farm. He replied
very quickly, "No, not at all. I don't have any trouble with
anything except arithmetic." Home credits take into account the
out-of-school mathematical activities. So the boy who has measured a
cord of wood, laid out a garden plot, figured out the costs, income,
and profits of feeding a pig for a year, or solved any problem that
comes up on the farm, will be considered to have done something in
arithmetic.

From Auburn, Washington, comes a story of the effect of giving
school credits for garage and shop work. Joe, a boy of seventeen,
who had attended high school for a year and a half, had earned only
three academic credits, and his other work was below passing. The
superintendent, Mr. Todd, called a conference with Joe's parents
and, to use his own expression, went after Joe "with hammer and
tongs." After much discussion, the superintendent finally asked the
father and mother what the boy seemed most interested in outside of
school. Exchanging a troubled glance with his wife, the father said
that as soon as Joe got out of school he rushed straight to Meade's
garage. So the superintendent went to the garage, and found that Joe
could be taken into Mr. Meade's employment for the afternoons. Again
he called Joe to his office, and said to him, "Now, see here.
You are going on with your regular subjects here in school, and in
addition you are going to do some work down in Meade's garage. Mr.
Meade is going to grade your work and send in his report to me. If
you make good there it will help out your record here. You will get
pay for your work, too. You have got it in you to make good, and I
know you will. What do you think about it?" "I think it's bully!"
exclaimed Joe.

[Illustration: JOE IN THE GARAGE, AUBURN, WASHINGTON]

Joe had failed in his geometry, but as soon as he took the position
at the garage his work in geometry improved. It was about Christmas
that he began working, and at the time of the report several months
later he was doing well in his mathematics. The credit he received
from the garage counted toward his marks for high-school graduation.
Mr. Meade, incidentally, was very much pleased with his part in the
transaction, and sent in his reports with religious regularity.

Not only Joe, but some half dozen other boys in Mr. Todd's school
at Auburn are now "farmed out" in this manner, and work downtown
under regular contract. They are mostly boys who had lost interest
in school, and were at the dropping-out stage. Mr. Todd's plan is
similar to the one in use at Fitchburg, Massachusetts.

Herbert M----, of Minnehaha, Washington, is such a busy boy at home
that he does not have time to look at a book after he leaves school.
This year, 1914, Mr. W. E. Dudley, the principal of the Minnehaha
school, began to give credit for home work and allowed the credits
obtained to be applied where most needed. The first month of school
this year Herbert's arithmetic grade was below 65 per cent; his last
month's grade in the same subject, without adding any credits, was
above 95 per cent. At first Herbert needed his extra credits applied
to his mathematics to obtain a passing grade. But for some cause his
work in arithmetic has improved wonderfully.

If you care to get up at five o'clock and go through the day with
Herbert it may open your eyes as to what an industrious boy of
fifteen does at home. He is always up early, for before the day's
work begins he milks two cows, feeds three "skim-milk" calves and
eight head of cattle, pumps water for them, and feeds nine pigs.
He is then ready for a hearty breakfast. One morning in March,
Herbert and his father agreed that harrowing was more important
than going to school. So he worked five hours, harrowing four and a
half acres. Herbert did not lose credit at school, for his teacher
approved of his morning's work, as he knew how important it was.
He was at school before the one o'clock bell rang, had a game of
ball with the boys, and was ready for his lessons of the afternoon.
At four o'clock he hurried home, and this is what he did before he
went to bed. First, he herded six cows for over an hour, milked two
cows, fed his skim-milk calves, got in the wood, fed the chickens,
gathered the eggs, cleaned two barns, fed the eight head of cattle,
pumped water for them, fed the pigs, and turned the separator ten
minutes.

While Herbert has had some trouble with his arithmetic he does fine
work in composition. At the children's fair at Spokane in October,
1913, he won fifteen dollars in cash for the best essay on caring
for a skim-milk calf, and a pair of scales as second prize for
an essay on how to handle a farm separator. Here are Herbert's
prizes for three years: In 1911 at the county fair at Vancouver,
Washington, he got the second award, a diploma, on his farm exhibit;
in 1912 as first prize on farm exhibit he won a trip to the fair at
Puyallup; in 1913 at the Clarke County fair he received ten dollars'
worth of garden seeds as second prize on farm exhibit, fifteen
dollars in cash for judging dairy cattle, while together with his
parents he won seventy-five dollars for the best adult farm exhibit;
and at the children's state contest, 1913, he received the first
prize, fifteen dollars, for the skim-milk calf essay.

A boy in one of the Portland, Oregon, schools had trouble with his
spelling, getting a mark of only 4-1/2 on a scale of 10. Soon after
home credits were put into use by his teacher he came to her and
anxiously inquired if he could help out his spelling grade with a
good home record. The teacher graciously assured him that he could.
The boy brought in each week one of the very best home record slips,
and in some mysterious manner his spelling improved as his hours of
work increased. He does not need his home record to help out his
spelling grade now, for last month he received more than a passing
mark, 7-1/2 in his weak subject. The knowledge that there was help
at hand relieved his nervousness, and gave him confidence.



V

HONORING LABOR

     She ... worketh willingly with her hands ... and eateth not the
     bread of idleness. Give her of the fruit of her hands; and let
     her own works praise her in the gates.

                                  PROVERBS XXXI, 13, 27, 31.


We are still paying a heavy price for slave labor; for instance, the
idea that it is undignified to cook has come down through the ages
of slaveholding, and has got into some people's blood. The school by
taking into account home tasks can make them seem worth while and
thus dignify their doing. Many persons do not work because their
ideals are made at school, and their heroes are those who did not
win honor at labor, or, at least, the labor of these heroes is not
emphasized.

In the case of Mary, the work she did at home transformed her from a
heedless girl into a sympathetic helper. She had the idea that too
many young people have, that it is more honorable to study algebra
than to wash dishes or to cook a meal. The minute that she saw
that they were considered equal she no longer held back from the
home work, and when in a constructive frame of mind she not only
did the home work but did her algebra too. There is not a normal
American boy who shrinks from a piece of work because he thinks it
is hard. On the contrary, he likes the man's job, and seeks out the
hard things and tackles them. He avoids the things he thinks are not
worth while. So it becomes a matter of the child's point of view
whether he likes his work or not. Too often it is the case that the
child never hears it suggested that there is any merit in home work
within itself. He has the idea that he goes to school to get an
education, and works at home because he has to. Many parents frankly
tell their children that they should study well at school so they
can make a living "without working."

When we give home work its proper recognition, and the child comes
to understand that there are different degrees of efficiency and
skill in doing it, the work will take on a new color. Many are the
reports that have come in from parents in home credit districts
saying, "There is nothing left for us to do in the way of chores.
The children used to seem indifferent about the work, and did as
little as they could. Now the boys get up before we do instead of
waiting to be called, rush downstairs to make the fires, and go at
the chores, while the girls go into the kitchen and start breakfast."

While youth is the time for play, yet children like to work too.
Since we have had the school gardens in Portland we often find
the playgrounds vacant, and the gardens near by well filled with
children at work. We often hear that children should not have
responsibilities; yet we find that the successful men of to-day are
the ones that bore burdens early. A number of successful business
men in Portland were recently talking together of their boyhood
days, and each one said that he had had to assume a great deal of
responsibility before he was twelve years old.

The importance of "percentages," "credits," "grades," or "standings"
in the minds of school children, especially in the upper grammar
classrooms, is surprising to a stranger. Even the drawing teacher is
begged to give marks. "But there are the drawings, arranged in
the order of their merit, on the screen. They can see which are the
best!" No, they want a mark. "To raise our standings," they say.

[Illustration: WORK CREDITED AT SCHOOL, WESTON, OREGON]

Of course, we all feel that "marks" in school have but a temporary
purpose; that they are to furnish a motive to serve until a better
motive can be substituted. Home work may be encouraged at first by
the wish for "higher standings," or a prize, or a holiday; but many
other influences are likely to come in to keep it up.

This is not the place to discuss the teaching without marks that
is practiced in a few modern schools. In most schools the system
of giving percentages is firmly established. The honoring of
achievement in the schools, by marks or otherwise, has always been a
great power in helping the school studies move along. But only part
of the available energy has been used. There are vast reservoirs of
power which may be put at the service of education and which as yet
have scarcely been tapped.

I hope the giving of marks will never be the main consideration
with those who follow the home credit idea, but rather the giving of
honor. Too long have pupils' out-of-school industries been ignored
at school as though they were something to be ashamed of. Whether
we give formal credit or not, let us give honor at school for home
work.



VI

HABIT-BUILDING

     Habit second nature? Habit is ten times nature.

                                     THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON.


Habits plus ideals make character. The establishing of right habits
in youth can best be done by coöperation of parents and teachers. So
far as we take habit-building as our aim, education becomes definite
and concrete.

At the close of his famous chapter on "Habit," William James says:--

     Could the young but realize how soon they will become mere
     walking bundles of habit, they would give more heed to their
     conduct while in the plastic state. We are spinning our own
     fates, good or evil, and never to be undone. Every smallest
     stroke of virtue or of vice leaves its never so little scar....
     Let no youth have any anxiety about the upshot of his education,
     whatever the line of it may be. If he keep faithfully busy each
     hour of the working day, he may safely leave the final result
     to itself. He can with perfect certainty count on waking up
     some fine morning to find himself one of the competent ones
     of his generation, in whatever pursuit he may have singled
     out.... Young people should know this truth in advance. The
     ignorance of it has probably engendered more discouragement and
     faint-heartedness in youths embarking on arduous careers than
     all other causes put together.

One habit that works for success is industry. How easy it is for a
bright boy or girl to get through school without acquiring anything
like a habit of being industrious, even in learning book lessons!
If he is quick-minded, as he has only to keep up with the average
child, he needs little or no work to give him a good standing in
his class. The alert child often gains all required information by
merely listening to the other pupils. Thus we often find failures
among those bright pupils whom we expected to find successful,
because they did not learn to dig and could do only what came
easily. Most occupations demand more than an acquiring attitude of
mind. They demand vigorous exertion, and the seeing to it that the
thing is done. But how is there to be any assurance that the child
is forming habits of industry if there is not coöperation? The child
tells the parent that he has to prepare his lessons and so he gets
out of work at home; he makes the plea that he is tired out by home
tasks so that he may not be given hard work at school. So he misses
the work habit entirely.

Politeness--a show of consideration for the rights and feelings of
others--is partly a habit. Careful watching by parent and teacher
is needed to establish this consideration as a permanent attitude
of mind. It is with much pleasure that I note that many of the
home credit cards bear the items, "Cheerfulness," "Kindness,"
"Politeness," "Keeping temper," "Doing before told," "Care of
language," "Courtesy to parents," and the like. And it is with very
great pleasure that I receive letters from parents and teachers
saying that the attitude of the children in these things is becoming
a habit.

[Illustration: ALGONA, WASHINGTON, GIRL, AGED 12, EARNING HOME
CREDITS

Elizabeth G---- and her mother have a small blackboard in the
kitchen and here they keep a record of all the work Elizabeth does]

Neatness and personal care are habits that mean much to any one.
Some grown people cannot help being neat. Others apparently cannot
be neat no matter how much they try. Something is always wrong. It
is a habit formed when young, perhaps before the age of twenty. In
Mr. O'Reilly's list he included sleeping with window boards in,
bathing, caring for the nails, brushing the hair, cleaning the
teeth, and going to bed by nine o'clock. Personal care has been
given a place on the Portland home credit record[2] which is now
used in some of the schools. Algona, a home credit school about
twenty miles from Seattle, uses the Portland personal care section,
including bathing, brushing teeth, sleeping with open windows, going
to bed before nine o'clock, and attending church or Sunday school.
In looking over the first home credit slips that came in, the Algona
principal found that Nettie, a girl of thirteen, had earned just 7
per cent out of the 100 per cent given for a perfect record in the
personal division. She had earned more than the required two hundred
and ten minutes for the week in the regular work department at a
hard round of preparing meals, washing dishes, sweeping, feeding
the poultry, scrubbing, and so forth. But Nettie had slept with her
window closed, had not brushed her teeth, had not taken a bath,
nor had she been in bed at the required hour. Nettie was obviously
unhappy over the grade her card received in comparison with the
grades of her schoolmates. Before the next report day she had in
some way secured a toothbrush, that effective means of promoting
civilization, and had made sufficient improvement in her personal
care to secure 65 per cent. Her grade for the third week was 72 per
cent, and for the fourth, 93 per cent. Her fourth week's report
showed a hot bath, toothbrushing twice a day, window open every
night, and that she was in bed before nine every night but two.
What her reform will mean to the entire family it is interesting to
conjecture.

  [2] For the Portland Home Credit Record card, see p. 120 _ff._

"Be careful about that voice, Ella," directed a teacher. Ella arose
at her place, a thin, stooping girl of about thirteen. She read her
passage of the lesson in a voice scarcely audible to the visitor
across the room. A few minutes later the visitor was looking over
some home credit report slips. "Here is a girl who did not sleep
with her windows open," she said. The teacher took the blank,
studied it a minute, then replied, "This is the first time that
child has brought in a home credit slip. Do you recall my reminding
a little girl about her voice? That is the girl, and this card may
explain her voice quality."

All the pupils except two in a little Washington town learned to
sleep with their windows open. Upon inquiry it was found that one
girl could not open her window, as it was made for admitting light
only, being built solidly into the wall. In the case of the other
child, the parents absolutely refused to endanger their daughter's
health by letting her breathe night air, no matter how many faddists
insisted that it was necessary!

Some members of a church were discussing the problem of the spirit
of incipient immorality that they felt was prevalent among children
in the neighborhood. A home credit teacher showed the speakers a
number of the first report cards she had received, which disclosed
the fact that very few of the pupils under her care were ever in bed
before nine o'clock. A few months later she took occasion to display
again her pupils' home credit cards and with pride pointed out that
almost every child was going to bed early, before nine o'clock. "It
had grown to be a habit with the children to be up late," she said.
"The immorality talked of was not yet in actual existence among
the children, but through their outside evening associates was
gradually working itself in. The children had only to be reminded in
a substantial way that it was not only desirable for them physically
to retire early, but that they were to receive recognition in their
school standing for so doing, and they at once happily complied."



VII

THAT OTHER TEACHER AND THAT TEACHER'S LABORATORY

     We are just beginning to discover that the rural school has
     a fine laboratory for practical educational purposes, in the
     neighborhood environment of the school. With the development of
     scientific agriculture and domestic arts in many of our modern
     country homes this laboratory is constantly improving.

         _Kansas State Agricultural College Bulletin, 1914._


There is a general idea among teachers that parents will not
coöperate with them. This, I believe, is founded upon the assumption
that because they cannot, as a usual thing, coöperate in textbook
work they will not coöperate in other things. But both parents
and teachers want the same results accomplished. If these are to
be attained it means partnership work, the parent and that other
parent, the teacher, working together; or one might say, the
teacher, and that other teacher, the parent, working together.

I have been surprised to find to what extent parents will coöperate
with teachers if given a chance. Mrs. Brown goes to the schoolhouse
on a bleak afternoon. She is greeted warmly by the teacher, Miss
Smith, and given an arithmetic text to follow while the class
recites. The lesson is on decimal fractions. Now, Mrs. Brown didn't
have decimal fractions during her school days, so the recitation is
quite meaningless to her. She is glad when the class is over, and
does not find time to visit school again that term. But if she is
asked to prepare a luncheon for the picnic at the close of the year,
or asked to assist in any social function at the schoolhouse, she
spends her time for the school, and is glad to do it.

In Eugene, Oregon, several years ago I found that the women of the
city were enthusiastic in aiding the schools. Thirty-two women gave
up Monday afternoon to teaching the girls sewing, while the boys had
military drill. At a social center meeting at Hover, Washington,
the suggestion was made that it would be well if one of the mothers
would come to the school building occasionally to help the girls
with their sewing, as the eighth-grade pupils would have to take an
examination in the subject in May. So many mothers volunteered to
undertake the task that a schedule was made out whereby a sewing
period could be had every afternoon, and no mother be on duty
oftener than every two weeks.

At Myrtle Creek, Oregon, domestic art work is carried on in this
way: the teacher gives instructions in the work that is to be done;
in cooking, for instance, recipes are given, talked over, and
written down. The girls then go home, and actually do the work, and
make a report to the teacher. They must have the signatures of their
mothers for all the work they do. This is managed with a home credit
report card.

Mrs. E. H. Belknap, a progressive rural teacher near Jefferson,
Oregon, said in a recent letter: "We learn how a cow can be fed and
cared for, so as to produce the greatest amount of butter fat. That
is well, but we regard it of far more value for the boy to go home,
apply the knowledge learned, and produce the butter fat. He is now
worth something to the world, and able to turn his education into
dollars and cents at any time. The girl takes the book, and reads
how to make butter. She goes home, tends the milk, churns, and makes
the butter, learns how really to do the work. She has called the
attention of the entire family to the amount and quality of her
butter obtained from proper feeding and handling of the cow by the
boy."

And yet it is said that nothing can be done in the small school in
domestic science because there is no equipment. In every home there
is ideal equipment if we mean the equipment the children are to use.
If we are preparing for life, why not use the equipment we must
use in life? Best of all, in using the home laboratory there is an
immediate purpose. None of us can get much out of an exercise when
it is done just for an exercise. There is the dinner to be cooked,
the bed to be made, the ironing to be done; somebody must do it.
And the dinner, the bed, and the ironing are to be put to the test
by some one who sees real values. There is no doubt that one of the
things schools most lack is purpose.

It might be said that to stimulate a child to want to do things
is only half the problem. "If children do things without expert
instruction they may do them wrong, and thus get a faulty habit."
But I think more than half of the problem is solved when we create
the desire to do a thing. The greatest fault of present-day
education is that we constantly try to teach a child how to do a
thing without his desiring to do it, or even knowing the reason
for doing it. On the other hand, I once knew a country girl who
had never seen a domestic science equipment, and who lived in a
community where there was no one housekeeper especially noted;
yet with her strong desire to be a fine housekeeper she learned
something good from each neighbor, and for excellent results, and
for economy of time and material, her daily practice would put the
average domestic science teacher to disadvantage. However I am not
arguing that domestic science should not be taught at school; I
certainly believe it should. But I do claim that it is worth while,
and is absolutely necessary, first to create the desire to _do_ the
things that are to be _taught_. To do things without a purpose is
like trying to eat without an appetite.

A pamphlet published by the Kansas State Agricultural College on
"School Credit for Home Work: The Laboratory of the Rural School,"
makes these practical points:--

     Could there possibly be a more favorable condition for teaching
     Domestic Arts than in the rural school from which the girl
     goes every evening to a busy home where she is needed to take
     part in the actual work of housekeeping? It is here that the
     girl has a chance to put into actual practice the things she
     has learned at school. Here the home has the chance to realize
     immediately upon the investment it is making in the education of
     the girl. If sanitation, ventilation, sweeping and dusting, care
     of the sick, preparation of foods, care of milk, water supply
     and uses, bathing, care of health, sewing, proper clothing,
     etc., are taught in our schools, and if the laboratories are
     in the immediate neighborhood, and the girls and boys must go
     into them to stay overnight, they should be used. Likewise, the
     vegetable gardens at the homes should be made the experimental
     plots for the school, after the best seeds have been selected,
     best methods of preparing, fertilizing, and planting the soil,
     best-known methods of cultivation and maturing the crops, have
     been taught. The actual experimental work should be carried out
     in the home gardens by the boys and girls. Proper records can be
     kept, and the boys and girls will be anxious to get back into
     school, after the out-of-doors summer experiments, to compare
     reports, and renew another phase of their educational work.

     In agriculture the fields, stock, buildings, etc., about the
     schoolhouse should be studied and used. These are the real
     agricultural laboratory. The real problems of actual farming are
     present, and the methods of work and the ways of handling the
     fields and the stock are the available resources of the school
     as a part of its actual laboratory. In this connection study
     the dairy cows, the feeding of cattle, hogs, and horses, types
     and breeds of farm horses, cattle, hogs, and sheep. In every
     community there are many opportunities for type studies--such as
     fields of alfalfa or wheat or corn; a dairy herd; valuable and
     well-bred horses; beef cattle; hogs or sheep; a silo, or types
     of farm machinery, and farm buildings.

It is natural for a child to want to assume home responsibilities,
but there are many things that interfere unless a special effort
is made. The school itself has been a great offender in weaning
children from their homes and from natural living. This, of course,
is not strange when we consider that the school started out to make
lawyers and ministers, and not home-makers. Yet one of the great
needs of the time is to make people home-loving, and to have those
wholesome habits that come from sharing home responsibilities.
Anything is worth while that will make the child once taste the joy
of doing a useful thing well.



VIII

STELLA AND SADIE

     Through ignorance ye did it.--Acts III, 17.


"Let the school go on just as it has. What business is it of the
school to meddle with the home work? Of course most children do
certain chores at home, but why confuse the work of the home with
the work of the school?"

Have you heard this speech? I have heard it several times. Does
justice demand that we know what pupils do outside of school? Must
the teacher know home conditions in order to teach efficiently? I
have in mind a true story that answers these questions and shows
the injustice of teaching children when one knows little or nothing
of their home life. I am sure most teachers have had similar
experiences.

In a certain schoolroom in a certain town I noticed one day two
girls in the same class sitting near each other. The contrast
between them was so great that I became interested in them, and
found out something of their history and circumstances. Stella, the
younger one, eleven years old, was a perfect picture of rosy health.
Her brown hair was beautiful and most becomingly arranged. Many
women would have been delighted to wear such furs as she put on at
the noon recess. Well dressed and well nourished, she had the look
of one much loved at school and at home, one to whom life was all
happiness.

Stella is the only child of wealthy and doting parents. If we
should follow her home we should find a well-kept modern house,
and we should see that the mother who greets her at the door is
just such a mother as we should expect for such a girl. While the
evening meal is being prepared, her mother sits beside her at the
piano, and helps with her practice, and when the father comes in,
the three sing together until dinner is announced. After dinner
her mother helps her with her Least Common Multiple and Greatest
Common Divisor. They all discuss her composition and then her mother
asks her to read aloud, and reads to her. Promptly at nine o'clock
she goes to bed in just the kind of room a little girl loves. The
windows are opened to the proper width, the heat is turned off, she
is kissed good-night, and is told, "Mother loves you, and Father
will come in and kiss you when he comes home."

In the morning at seven o'clock she is called by a very gentle
voice, and told it is time for Mother's angel to leave her dreams.
Her mother helps her dress, and brushes and braids her hair. "What
will Father's sweetheart have for breakfast this morning?" She will
have grape-fruit and a poached egg on toast. After some fitting
by the seamstress for a new dress to be added to her already full
wardrobe, she is thoroughly inspected and is ready for school. She
is given some flowers for the teacher, and is accompanied part way
by her mother. She is early at school, her teacher kisses her, pats
her cheeks, and Stella is ready for the lessons, the lessons her
mother helped her with the evening before. There she is, happy,
radiant!

Now let us go home with the other girl. Sadie is thirteen, but she
looks much older notwithstanding her frail little figure. Did I say
home? Be the judge. A few years ago her father and her aunt ran away
together, leaving the mother with Sadie and two younger children.
The broken-spirited mother died after the desertion, and the father
and aunt returned, were married, and took possession of the house
and the three children. They now have a baby a year old. The family
live in a tumbledown house at the edge of the city. On entering the
house Sadie receives no greeting from her stepmother-aunt, who is
sitting by a dirty window reading. The child knows what work there
is to do, and goes at it sullenly. After the meal, at which she
scarcely has time to sit down, she has to do up the work, and then
is sent on an errand. When she returns it is nine o'clock and she is
hardly able to keep her eyes open. The Least Common Multiple and the
Greatest Common Divisor are like Greek to her. After she has tried
to study a few minutes, her stepmother disturbs her by throwing
her brother's stockings into her lap to be mended. When this task
is completed, and the potatoes are peeled for breakfast, she goes
upstairs. She tenderly draws the covers about her sleeping brother
and creeps into bed beside her little sister. Though she is very
weary, her starved soul is comforted as she cuddles and kisses her
sister before she drops to sleep.

In the night she awakens, and thinking Harry is again uncovered she
slips over to his bed, like a little mother, and again adjusts the
bedclothes. The baby awakens at five o'clock, and Sadie is called
and told to make a fire and warm the milk. She then gets breakfast,
does the kitchen work, spreads up the beds, sews a button on her
brother's coat, braids her sister's hair, and is late at school.

She came in a few minutes late the morning I visited her room.
The class was trying to make a record for punctuality, and had
tied another room for first place until this morning when Sadie's
lateness set them behind. The teacher was provoked and reproved
Sadie. The pupils showed their scorn in many ways and said she
was the cause of all but three of the tardy marks of the term.
The teacher knew that the principal would ask her why she did not
improve her tardy record. The pupils knew that their chances for a
half-holiday were spoiled as long as "that Sadie Johnson" was in the
room.

This morning especially the teacher wished to make a good showing
because she wanted a place in a larger city and hoped that I would
recommend her. Arithmetic was the first thing on the program. The
principal had boasted of the work of his school in arithmetic. The
work went beautifully, for Stella led off with a perfect recitation.
The pride of the whole class was evident, the teacher was hopeful.
But wanting to see the work of all the pupils, I asked several
questions, and at last called upon Sadie. She didn't know, she stood
abashed, and showed absolute lack of understanding of the subject.
The principal was provoked. The teacher was plainly humiliated,
and said in a tone that was low, but loud enough for Sadie and
several of the children to hear, "The girl is not only lazy, but
feeble-minded."

So it was the whole term. Sadie was tortured each school day,
condemned by the most powerful court in the world, her companions,
led by her teacher. And the reason was that the teacher was teaching
only the six-hour-a-day girl. One does not have to go to Turkey
to see examples of injustice and cruelty. But let us not be too
critical of the teacher. She is tender-hearted and sympathetic. She
weeps over the heroines in books, and has latent longings to be of
service in the world. In this case she did not know the conditions
that made Sadie stupid. If she had been interested in the children's
out-of-school work, and had had them tell her about it, she would
have known that the frail little unkempt girl was compelled to do
a woman's work at home besides trying to get her lessons. Then she
would have seen the tragedy in the child's appealing glance and
have understood her. Some people go through life without finding
an opportunity to do justice, such as was this teacher's. In
ministering to the soul-hunger of this little girl she might have
given the service that she had dreamed of giving. It would have been
the kind of service that is its own reward.



IX

A STORY AND LETTERS FROM TEACHERS

A STORY FROM NEBRASKA, BY MRS. SARAH J. HOAGLAND


One spring found me in Nebraska teaching a school of German and
Bohemian children, only two of whom spoke English. I boarded with a
German family who lived about a mile from the school. In our walks
to and from school I taught the children English. They and their
father were born in Nebraska, but at first none of them could speak
English so that I could understand it, although I understood some of
their German.

The oldest boy--ten years old--lanky, with awkward gait, and fair,
straight-standing hair, had a dogged, sullen look. It was a "home"
look, especially when the father was around, but it left when he was
trying to tell about birds or other interesting things. His telling
me that he intended to work in town as soon as possible gave me a
peep into his heart as regarded home. It was not a happy home. The
father often drank, and at such times he was harsh and cruel. The
mother was meek and subdued. She never had known how to do good
housekeeping. She told me that when a girl in Germany, being large
and strong, she had had to work in the fields instead of learning
housework.

The farm was run down; the house was bare and unhomelike. The
father's voice was often raised in upbraiding in "Low Dutch." He
often had the children rounded up for punishment for starting fires
or other mischief. The seven-year-old boy was more efficient, either
in the home or out, than the ten-year-old boy. I noticed that he had
a better head and intelligence. His efficiency was due to this, not
to any better training.

The mother often cried over the brutality of the father to the
oldest boy. I determined to study the situation, and I found a
remedy. I learned that the father could do practically nothing in
arithmetic. He had attended school for his confirmation--a little
reading in German being the only apparent result. So I taught the
boy arithmetic, and after I had worked with him two hours every
night for several months, he could do addition better than his
father. It was wonderful to see the pride and dawning respect on
the father's face as the boy figured correctly the weight of many
wagon-loads of grain lately taken to the elevator. I knew then that
the unreasonable whipping would tend to stop. I seldom see a father
unreasonable with a boy he can be proud of at school. So the sky was
clear for a time.

But when the press of spring work came on and the father found
he could not afford to employ help, he grew moody and was even
savage again. He drank, and at times I was afraid of him myself.
But I liked the mother. I knew she needed the board money for the
children, and I wanted to see the case of the boy to a finish. So
I stayed on. The lovely outdoor surroundings, too, made me want to
stay. The orchard was beautiful--the finest in the neighborhood.
The birds sang in a large maple at my window. This was a treat to a
flat-dweller. Since then I have ever loved the country.

I often asked the mother what the father was saying to the oldest
boy. I knew as far as the boy was concerned I could help the matter
by influencing him. She said that the father was complaining that
the boy was worthless as a worker. For one thing, he had milked and
left the milk in the barnyard in order to play. The complaints kept
pouring in on the patient mother. The father was working early and
late to get abreast of the season's work. He forgot what sleep was,
and grew thin and haggard and more and more savage.

I felt that only some distinct advance would have effect on either
father or boy. I asked if the boy could drive a horse. He couldn't.
He could not work a single piece of the machinery on the farm. That
is most unusual in Nebraska, for the light soil can be worked by
machinery which a boy can learn to run if he can also guide horses.
The father would not teach the boy--had no patience with him. So
the mother and I made our plans. She approached the father with the
question of getting a team and machine for the boy. It happened
to be a cornstalk cutter that was needed. The father consented,
provided the mother would teach the boy! She had done such work,
though she was not strong enough to do it this year.

But I saw her that Saturday toiling in the hot sun, walking up and
down the rows, touching up the horses. The boy proved most apt.
I soon saw him going up and down alone, still under his mother's
eye, however. The boy seemed to grow two years in importance,
self-reliance, and ambition in that day's work! This training was
kept up out of school hours for some time, and the boy learned to
work other machinery, the last thing a corn-planter.

As soon as the father realized what the boy was doing, he was a
transformed man. The knowledge that he had a helper seemed to clear
the atmosphere. Before this the boy had always kept out of the
father's way. Now he forsook the mother! It was "Papa and me" from
that time in his talk. This new attitude made it all the easier
for the wife, for it was a relief from what had been her greatest
trouble--having to stand between the two.

The father's pride and confidence in his son kept on growing. In
many ways he was just a good-natured big giant, but he turned like
a bear on anything that annoyed him.

I remember the first day the boy stayed out of school to work, how
it seemed to me a deciding day in his life. I rarely like to see
a child stay out of school, but that day I thought the industrial
training much more important than anything I could teach the boy in
those hours of school. He came regularly after the rush of work was
over.


A SCHOOL IN MONTANA: MRS. HOAGLAND'S FIRST LETTER TO THE AUTHOR

     Last September I heard your lecture on credit being given in
     school for home work. I have tried it lately after working the
     children up to grade. I started by getting acquainted with the
     homes, finding out what the children did and what they could do
     further. I made inquiries as to whether the children, in their
     play, left things around for the mother to pick up and so on.
     The spirit the work is done in counts, too, in credit given. The
     work must be done pleasantly and cheerfully; the mother must be
     asked for work; she is not to be hunting the child up to get him
     to do the work.

     One little girl of eleven made bread from beginning to end,
     never having tried it entirely before. She has an overworked
     mother. In another home I found the two older children took
     charge of a teething baby while the mother, an ex-teacher and
     rather delicate, did the housework. The little girl, six years
     old, could do dishes and otherwise help the mother. In another
     home the boy has grown to be the pride of his father's heart by
     forcing the father back into the chair, when he was weary, and
     doing the chores himself.

     One boy, his father told me two weeks ago, was growing as
     dependable as his brother five years older, and helped bring the
     cows, herd cattle from one field to another before and after
     school and on non-school days. There was much other work, light
     in itself, but wonderfully helpful to his father, that was taken
     charge of cheerfully.

     One child's father had a hired man. The boy did but little.
     He is eight years old and large. While visiting there, I saw
     his father bringing in coal. I told the boy he would find it
     necessary to look up work if he cared for credit. His mother
     visited school shortly after this; I was telling her of the idea
     and she said she now understood why Bennie had started to clear
     the table several times, and so on. We had a very happy laugh
     over it. The boy hunts the eggs, gets in the wood and coal,
     makes the mash for the chickens, and helps wash the dishes.

     Another child, aged thirteen, has to do much outside work, so
     she feels good over getting credit for it. It is a kind of pay
     that makes her days pleasanter. I believe each child richly
     deserves the credit I have given. The results have been to make
     the tie between the parents and myself stronger, and I am asked
     to come back next year. I have seen a gladder, prouder light
     in the parents' eyes concerning their children. It has helped
     to make our school in some respects without a superior in the
     county, according to the county superintendent's own word. A
     member of the board says the children never have made such
     progress since the school was built, and all say these children
     never have made as much progress before. They are learning, as
     far as I can teach them, the honor of labor and the beauty of
     being useful, willing, and dependable. I have had a hard battle
     to wage here for good, thorough work and application, but the
     right has won.

     I enclose a report that shows the kinds of work the children are
     in the habit of doing.

     I am the teacher who spoke to you about the new oats being
     brought into the dryland country. It is now being introduced
     into another part of Montana where my homestead is. You will
     perhaps remember me.

                                        Very sincerely,
                                        MRS. S. J. HOAGLAND.

  BENNIE McCOY                     ADDISON SHIRLEY

  _Aged 8_                         _Aged 9_

  Dries dishes                     Takes out ashes
  Makes fire                       Gets eggs
  Pulled up sunflower stalks       Gets coal and kindling
  Milks (some)                     Feeds horses oats (15 head)
  Gets in coal and kindling        Cleans out barn
  Gathers eggs                     Milks cows sometimes
  Brings in wood                   Drives cattle
  Carries ashes out                Harnesses up
  Smashes big coal for stove       Hunts eggs
  Turns churn                      Waters horses
  Feeds cats                       Dries dishes
  Gets chicken feed                Cooks (eggs, pancakes, coffee)
  Feeds sitting hen                Sets table
  Helps catch calves               Fries apples and bakes them
  Gets clean hay for chicken nests Peels potatoes
  Clears table                     Fries potatoes
  Turns windmill[3]                Feeds chickens
  Slops hogs                       Carries slop to hogs
  Kills flies                      Drives to town
  Fixed his hand cart

  [3] Probably means turns the power on or off.

  JOHNNIE MAHONEY                   LOVILO MURRAY
  _Aged 6_                          _Aged 5_

  Feeds pig                         Opens gate for calves
  Hunts eggs                        Gets kindling
  Waters horse                      Gets coal
  Told where sow and her new pigs   Takes care of baby
  were when no one else could       Closes chicken-house door
  find them                         Carries wood
  Minds baby                        Dries dishes
  Hunts firewood                    Leads horses to plow

  MAY MAHONEY                       ALEEN MURRAY
  _Aged 11_                         _Aged 7_

  Bakes bread                       Washes and dries dishes
  Washes dishes                     Sweeps floor
  Minds baby                        Does simple ironing
  Gets coal and water               Gets wood, water, and coal
  Gathers eggs                      Closes chicken-house door
  Makes cake                        Dresses baby
  Gets cows                         Tends baby
  Waters horses
  Pumps water                       SUSIE MARCKINO
  Sewed a doll petticoat            _Aged 13_
  Sewed sleeves in waist for little
  brother                           Cooks meals
  Scrubs                            Washes dishes
  Irons                             Scrubs
  Cooks meals                       Irons
  Peels potatoes                    Sews--made a waist and a baby
  Takes out ashes                   dress
  Dusts                             Gets coal
  Sweeps                            Feeds chickens
  Makes beds                        Goes for horse
  Airs bedding                      Brings water
  Milks cows                        Gets hay and feeds horses
  Feeds calf                        Builds fires
  Hays horses                       Turns churn
  Builds fires                      Polishes stoves
  Turns churn                       Cares for young chickens
  Feeds chickens                    Dusts
  Feeds sitting hens                Salts horses
  Sets and clears table
  Washes range                      ROSIE MARCKINO
  Polishes cutlery                  _Aged 6_
  Does light washing
  Prepares vegetables               Gets water
                                    Did dishes with four-year-old sister
                                      when all else were gone
                                    A general little helper


A LETTER FROM MRS. E. H. BELKNAP, MARION COUNTY, OREGON

I believe intensely in an education that teaches the boy or girl
not only how the book says to do a thing, but how, by actual
experience and practice, that thing is best worked out and brought
to perfection....

In this district we have used home credits for two years. First,
in order to make this a success, the teacher must believe in it,
and must be a worker. We have given credits for everything from
plowing to washing the baby for breakfast. As a result we have the
little girls dressing their own hair for school, the older ones
cooking breakfast, washing, ironing, etc. The boys plow, milk, clean
stables, cut wood, feed horses, do all kinds of work for credits;
_doing it, they have become interested in it, and before they knew
it a habit has been formed of doing things at the right time in the
right way_. It is truly wonderful what these children do. Some of
them walk three or four miles, and still earn hundreds of credits in
a week. Some of my girls milk as many as eight cows twice a day, and
the boys plow and harrow acres of ground. They do the work gladly,
too.

Monday mornings we give out blanks to be filled out, signed by
parents, and returned the following Monday morning. We always go
over the cards carefully. _I call the names aloud, and the pupils
report quickly. If extra work has been accomplished I always try to
praise the effort. It is a happy hour when the reports are rendered._

At first we agreed that when any pupil earned six hundred or more
credits he should be entitled to a holiday. Thousands of credits
have been earned, but no one has asked for the holiday! Frequently,
when the pupil has been ill, or forced to miss a day, he has asked
that the credits be applied to blot out the absent marks, and this
has always been granted.



PART TWO

I

ILLUSTRATIVE HOME CREDIT PLANS


Upon the demonstration of the success of the home credit plan in
the Spring Valley School I began to hear of other Oregon schools
that had taken it up and were carrying it on successfully. During
the school year 1913-14, three hundred and twenty-five teachers in
Oregon and in Washington were giving school credit for home work,
while the scheme had been adopted by some schools in other States.

For the aid of those who may contemplate its use, the outlines of
several plans that have been instituted are printed here, together
with excerpts of letters we have received, and cards made out by
pupils. These reports come from teachers who have used the scheme
successfully in various forms. The daily report plans are given
first, and the letters are arranged according to the frequency of
the report from the home to the school.

It will be noted that some teachers use a card that is supposed to
last for a whole year, being returned to the teacher monthly as
school cards are often returned to the parent monthly; others have
cards that are marked daily, and last for only a week. Some teachers
use a contest plan of awards like Mr. O'Reilly's; others add credits
to the average obtained in school subjects; and others do both. The
first user of the parent-signed report, Mr. O'Reilly, used no cards,
but had the children write little notes with lists of their labors
every day for their parents to sign. A bulletin from the Kansas
Agricultural College suggests that pupils should furnish the reports
themselves over their own signatures.[4] The only record of failure
we have was in a school where monthly report cards were used, and
no definite scheme of duties was laid down,--merely so many minutes
of unspecified labor. I find that children are more interested when
their performance of particular duties is recorded.

  [4] See Appendix.

I should never advise the wholesale adoption of any one plan, but I
would suggest that superintendents and teachers adapt plans to the
needs of their districts. Several schools have been reported where
an enthusiastic principal has put the plan into operation throughout
his school, regardless of the ideas of his teachers. I find that
teachers never feel inspiration in a work that they do not want
to undertake. Therefore, it would be my suggestion that under no
circumstances should a teacher be asked to use home credits unless
she herself desires it.


DAILY REPORTS

The following is the method which Mr. A. I. O'Reilly originated at
the Spring Valley School, in 1911-12:--


_Rules of the Contest_

     1. No pupil is obliged to enter the contest.

     2. Any pupil entering is free to quit at any time, but if any
     one quits without good cause, all credits he or she may have
     earned will be forfeited.

     3. Parent or guardian must send an itemized list (with signature
     affixed) to the teacher each morning. This list must contain a
     record of the work each child has done daily.

     4. Each day the teacher will issue a credit voucher to the
     pupil. This voucher will state the total number of minutes due
     the pupil each day for home work.

     5. At the close of the contest pupils will return vouchers to
     the teacher, the six pupils who have earned the greatest amount
     of time, per the vouchers, receiving awards.

     6. Contest closes when term of school closes.

     7. Once each month the names of the six pupils who are in the
     lead will be published in the county papers.

     8. Ten per cent credit will be added to final examination
     results of all pupils (except eighth graders) who enter and
     continue in the contest.

     9. When a pupil has credits to the amount of one day earned,
     by surrender of the credits, and by proper application to the
     teacher, he or she may be granted a holiday, provided that not
     more than one holiday may be granted to a pupil each month.

     10. Forfeitures--dropping out of contest without cause, all
     credits due; unexcused absence, all credits due; unexcused
     tardiness, 25 per cent of all credits due; less than 90 per cent
     in deportment for one month, 10 per cent of all credits due.

     11. Awards--the three having the highest credits, $3 each; the
     three having second highest, $2 each. Awards to be placed in a
     savings bank to the credit of the pupils winning them. Funds for
     awards furnished by the school district board out of the general
     fund.

_List of duties with minutes credit allowed for each_


  1. Building fire in the morning            5 minutes
  2. Milking a cow                              5  "
  3. Cleaning a cow                             5  "
  4. Cleaning out the barn                     10  "
  5. Splitting and carrying in wood (12
     hours' supply)                            10  "
  6. Turning cream separator                   10  "
  7. Cleaning a horse                          10  "
  8. Gathering eggs                            10  "
  9. Feeding chickens                           5  "
  10. Feeding pigs                              5  "
  11. Feeding horse                             5  "
  12. Feeding cow                               5  "
  13. Churning butter                          10  "
  14. Making butter                            10  "
  15. Blacking stove                            5  "
  16. Making and baking bread                  60  "
  17. Making biscuits                          10  "
  18. Preparing breakfast for family           30  "
  19. Preparing supper for family              30  "
  20. Washing and wiping dishes (one meal)     15  "
  21. Sweeping floor                            5  "
  22. Dusting furniture (rugs, etc., one
      room)                                     5  "
  23. Scrubbing floor                          20  "
  24. Making beds (must be made after
      school), each bed                         5  "
  25. Washing, ironing, and starching own
      clothes that are worn at school
      (each week)                             120  "
  26. Bathing each week                        30  "
  27. Arriving at school with clean hands,
      face, teeth, and nails, and with hair
      combed                                   10  "
  28. Practicing music lesson
      (for 30 minutes)                         10  "
  29. Retiring on or before 9 o'clock           5  "
  30. Bathing and dressing baby                10  "
  31. Sleeping with window boards in bedroom
  (each night)                                  5  "
  32. Other work not listed, reasonable
  credit

While it is sometimes more convenient to have printed record slips,
it is not necessary. Mr. O'Reilly carried on the grading by having
each child write out his home credit work on ordinary tablet paper.
The great majority of home credit schools have used the plan in 1914
without any printing whatever. It affords the children practice in
written expression.

I give here two sample slips brought in by Mr. O'Reilly's pupils in
the first home credit contest in the United States.

                        _Tora Mortensen_

  Jan. 31, 1912.

  Prepared supper                               30
  Washed and wiped supper dishes                15
  Made 3 beds                                   15
  Swept 1 floor                                  5
  Washed teeth                                  10
  Was in bed at 9 o'clock                        5
                                          ------------
      Total                               1 hr. 20 min.

                                (Signed) _Mrs. Emma Savage._

                       _La Vern Holdredge_

  April 16, 1912.

  Fed chickens                                   5 minutes
  Gathered eggs                                 15 "
  Split kindling                                10 "
  Carried in wood                               15 "
  Swept four floors                             20 "
  Fed one horse                                  5 "
  Dried dishes                                  15 "
  In bed before nine                             5 "

  April 17, 1912.

  Washed teeth.                                 10 minutes
  Swept three floors                            15 "
  Put up lunch                                  10 "
                                                ------------
  Total                                         125 minutes

                                    (Signed) MRS. HOLDREDGE.

Superintendent A. R. Mack, of Holton, Kansas, has issued the
following plan for daily reports and the issue of credit vouchers
monthly, in bulletin form. Notice that the pupil who is paid in
money, or in any other way, for home work receives no credit. This
card gives a very desirable emphasis to manners and personal care:--

_Rules_

1. No pupil is obliged to enter contest.

2. Any pupil entering is free to quit at any time, but if any one
quits without good cause, all credits he or she may have earned
will be forfeited.

3. Parent or guardian must send daily to the teacher an itemized
list with signature attached; this list must contain the record of
the work each child has done daily.

4. At the end of each week the teacher may read the number of
credits due the pupil for that week. At the end of each month the
teacher shall issue a credit voucher to the pupil giving the total
number of credits due to the pupil up to date, for home work.

5. The pupil in each grade making the highest number of credits each
month will receive an added credit of 10 per cent of all credits due.

6. The school shall be divided into two divisions. The boy and the
girl in each division in each building receiving the highest number
of credits at the end of each half-year shall be awarded a suitable
medal.

7. The boy and the girl in each division in each building receiving
the second highest number of credits shall at their own option be
awarded a medal or an additional 10 per cent of credits already due.

8. Ten per cent credit will be added to final examination results of
all pupils who enter this contest before November 1, and continue in
it until the end of the year. Those entering school after November 1
must enter contest before January 1, in order to receive examination
credit.

9. Pupils entering the contest before November 1 or January 1 will
be given credit not only on final examination grades, but on
monthly examination grades.

10. In case a pupil enters the contest after November 1 or January
1, credits for home work will apply on monthly examination grades
only.

The following schedule has been adopted:

Grades of 95 to 100, additional credit of half the amount between
the grade and 100.

Grades of 90 to 95, a credit of 3 is given.

Grades of 85 to 90, a credit of 2 is given.

Grades of 80 to 85, a credit of 1 is given.

Below 80, no credit.

11. Any pupil in the first three grades earning 600 credits during a
given month may have a quarter holiday. Pupils in the fourth grade
must make 700 credits; pupils in the fifth grade must make 800
credits; pupils in the sixth grade must make 900 credits; pupils in
the seventh and eighth grades must make 1000 credits for a quarter
holiday.

All holidays are at the discretion of the teacher; _provided_, that
the pupil may not have more than one quarter holiday in any 20 days,
and _provided_, that the teacher thinks that it will not interfere
with school work.

In case deportment is below 90 per cent, the holiday will be refused.

12. Forfeitures--

(_a_) Dropping out of contest without cause forfeits all credits due.

(_b_) Unexcused absence forfeits all credits due.

(_c_) Tardiness forfeits 25 per cent of all credits due.

(_d_) Less than 90 per cent in deportment in one month forfeits 10
per cent of all credits due.

(_e_) Loss of temper forfeits 5 credits.

(_f_) Bad table manners forfeit 5 credits.

(_g_) Impoliteness to elders forfeits 5 credits.

(_h_) Bad language at home forfeits 5 credits.

(_i_) Discourtesy to parents forfeits 10 credits.

(_j_) Unnecessarily soiling clothes forfeits 5 credits.

(_k_) Unnecessarily tearing clothes forfeits 5 credits.

(_l_) Report cards kept home 3 days forfeits 5 per cent credits and
an additional 5 credits for each succeeding day.

(_m_) Forgetting books forfeits 5 credits per book.

13. Once each month the names of the six pupils who are in the lead
will be published in the Holton papers.

14. A pupil who receives compensation for work done, whether he is
paid in money or in any other way, shall receive no school credit
for such work.

  _Credit Slip for Primary to Third Grades, inclusive_

                                                 Credits.

  1. Carrying in cobs or kindling                       5

  2. Carrying in night wood for kitchen stove          10

  3. Feeding and watering chickens                      5

  4. Dusting one room                                   5

  5. Making one bed                                     5

  6. Wiping dishes                                      5

  7. Washing dishes                                    10

  8. Setting table                                      5

  9. Cleaning teeth                                     5

  10. Combing hair                                      5

  11. Properly preparing for school (washing face,
      ears, neck, hands; cleaning teeth and finger
      nails)                                           20

  12. Dressing without help, buttoning shoes, etc       5

  13. Going to bed at or before 9 P.M.                  5

  14. Sleeping with window open each night              5

  15. Dressing younger child and washing its face       5

  16. Caring for younger children half-hour            15

  17. Proper use of handkerchief one day                5

  18. Cleaning mud or snow from feet                    5

  19. Practicing music lesson 30 minutes               15

  20. Cleaning snow from porch                          5

  21. Cleaning snow from walks inside yard, each
      walk                                              5

  22. Scrubbing porch                                   5

  23. Mending stockings, per pair                       5

  24. Filling the water bucket                          5

  25. Returning report card on first day               10

  26. Returning report card on second day               5

  27. Polishing the shoes                              10

  28. Getting home before 4.30 and remaining home
      30 minutes                                       15

      Other work not listed, reasonable credit.

_Credit Slip for Fourth to Eighth Grades, inclusive_

                                                 Credits.

   1. Building a fire in morning                        5

   2. Milking a cow                                     5

   3. Cleaning out a barn                              10

   4. Splitting and carrying in wood, 12 hours' supply 15

   5. Bringing in kindling                              5

   6. Bringing in coal, per bucket                      5

   7. Filling water bucket                              5

   8. Cleaning a horse                                 10

  9. Feeding and watering chickens                      5

  10. Feeding pigs                                      5

  11. Feeding horse                                     5

  12. Feeding cow                                       5

  13. Blacking stove                                    5

  14. Making and baking bread                          60

  15. Making biscuits                                  10

  16. Preparing breakfast for family                   30

  17. Preparing supper for family                      30

  18. Washing and wiping dishes, one meal              15

  19. Sweeping one room                                 5

  20. Dusting one room                                  5

  21. Making one bed                                    5

  22. Scrubbing one floor                              20

  23. Making a cake                                    20

  24. Practicing music lesson half-hour                15

  25. Tending flowers in window                        10

  26. Working in garden half-hour                      15

  27. Cleaning snow from sidewalk                      25

  28. Mending stockings, per pair                       5

  29. Washing, starching and ironing own school
  clothes each week                                    60

  30. Bathing (each bath)                              30

  31. Cleaning teeth                                    5

  32. Combing hair                                      5

  33. Properly preparing for school (washing face,
  ears, neck, hands; cleaning teeth and finger
  nails)                                               20

  34. Retiring at or before 9 P.M                       5

  35. Getting up at or before 7 A.M                     5

  36. Bathing and dressing baby                        10

  37. Sleeping with window open each night              5

  38. Dressing younger child, washing its face, etc.    5

  39. Caring for younger child, each half-hour         15

  40. Home study, each half-hour                       10

  41. Making pies, 10 credits for the first and 5
  credits for each additional pie.

  42. Ironing one hour                                 30

  43. Running washing machine one hour                 30

  44. Bringing cow from pasture, 2 or 3 blocks          5

  45. Bringing cow from pasture, 8 or 9 blocks         15

  46. Errands down town                                10

  47. Carrying clothes                                 10

  48. Helping prepare the meal                         10

  49. Pumping a tank of water                          60

  50. Harrowing 2 hours                                60

  51. Carrying dinner                                  10

  52. Churning                                         20

  53. Dressing a chicken                               25

  54. Returning report cards on first day              10

  55. Returning report cards on second day              5

  56. Polishing the shoes                              10

  57. Getting home before 4.30 and remaining home
      30 minutes                                       15

      Other work not listed, reasonable credit.


_General Rule_

     For unlisted work credit will be given. One credit will be given
     for every two minutes' work.

Mr. N. V. Rowe, the teacher at St. John, Whitman County, Washington,
describes a novel plan:--

     At first I used a credit card arranged after the order of a
     meal ticket. The plan was to have the card hold credits enough
     for one school day of 360 minutes, arranged by 5's, 10's, 15's,
     20's, 25's, and 30's. The idea is all right were it amplified
     so as to include a school week. The teacher has a punch, and
     punches or cancels credits as presented. I found this took
     too many cards for each pupil. Some brought in as high as
     360 minutes in credits each day, and even more than that in
     some cases. At present I am using a plan similar to a grocer's
     manifolding or duplicating book where totals are forwarded each
     day. This saves time and in some ways is better than the ticket
     plan.

     The results have certainly justified the effort here. (1) It
     lessens tardiness; (2) it enlists the attention of parents
     quicker than anything else; (3) it stimulates to better work
     in school; (4) it creates a wholesome rivalry. I have heard
     the following objections to it: It requires too much time of
     a teacher already very busy; and pupils get a holiday when
     they ought to be at their studies. These objections are weak.
     The plan certainly has a sound pedagogic principle for its
     foundation.

     The children get but one holiday a month. In case a pupil is ill
     or necessarily absent for a day, it is very convenient to allow
     that as a holiday. This helps the attendance record wonderfully,
     and is perfectly legitimate, so far as I can see. We have been
     doing that way all the present year. Bear in mind, we allow such
     as a holiday only when one has not been allowed already for
     that particular month. In the register I mark the initial "H"
     wherever a holiday is granted, and in this way I keep tab.

At Burnt Ridge, near Alpha, Washington, in Mrs. Venona E. Toman's
school, a postal-card photograph is given as a little reward of
merit for each 1000 credits earned. Five credits are taken off
for coming to school with neck and ears not clean. One hundred and
twenty credits are given to the child who washes, starches, and
irons her school clothes for the week. Practicing music and studying
lessons get ten credits for half an hour; but hard work, like sawing
wood and making a garden, gets one credit for each two minutes.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following is an excerpt from a letter from the Burnt Ridge
teacher:--

     I have the children keep their own records, telling them that I
     want them to learn to do their own business. Then their mothers
     look over and sign their reports. Without one exception the
     parents are pleased with the plan. The mothers tell me that the
     children hurry to get all done they possibly can before school
     time, as they want their credits to increase. One mother said
     there was more trouble now between her two girls because neither
     one _wanted help_ than there was before _when they wanted help_.
     I require that the work be done cheerfully. One mother said she
     believed her daughters sang about their work many times when
     they did not feel a bit like it. I notice myself, and others
     tell me that it is making a difference in the homes. I think
     this one of the best features that has been added to the school
     work. It teaches independence, thoughtfulness, and thrift.


MORNING AND EVENING RECORD, WEEKLY REPORT

Marion County, Oregon, uses a card issued by Superintendent W. M.
Smith, which provides for a record of daily morning and evening home
tasks, and a weekly report.

This county forms an object lesson in the correct presentation of
a subject of this kind. Superintendent Smith first picked out a
teacher that he knew had initiative and was able to carry her people
with her. He explained the matter to her in detail and kept in close
touch with her work. Her success was so pronounced that he thought
that it was not necessary to make much effort to extend the plan
into the surrounding districts; he knew it would spread of itself.
And it did; like a prairie fire, he found it leaping over districts
and catching in others, until now it is widely used in the county.
The card is the result of much experience and a few conferences with
some of Mr. Smith's best people.

Notice that honesty of record is emphasized; also observe the
details of dairy work and the care of horses:--

[Illustration:

                        _Home Credit Blank

  School............Dis't No................Teacher..............

  Name                                      Age      Grade

  Object: To secure the cooperation of the Home and the School_


  ...Day of|Credits| Monday  | Tuesday |Wednesday|Thursday | Friday  |Total
  ... 191..|for    |         |         |         |         |         |
           |each.  |a.m. p.m.|a.m. p.m.|a.m. p.m.|a.m. p.m.|a.m. p.m.|
           +-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  1. Bath  |   5   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  2. Teeth |   1   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  cleaned  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  3. No.   |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  loaves   |  15   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  of bread |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  baked    |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  4. No. of|       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  cakes    |  10   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  baked    |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  5. No. of|       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  meals    |  15   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  prepared |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  (alone)  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  6. Wiped |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  dishes   |   5   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  (all for |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  one meal)|       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  7. Washed|       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  dishes   |   5   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  (all for |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  one meal)|       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  8. Set   |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  the table|   2   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  9.       |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  Gathered |   2   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  up dishes|       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  10.      |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  Churning |  10   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  butter   |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  11.      |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  Making   |  10   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  butter   |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  12. No.  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  of rooms |   2   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  swept    |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  13. No.  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  of rooms |   2   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  dusted   |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  14. No.  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  of beds  |   2   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  made     |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  15.      |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  Blacking |   5   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  stove    |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  16.      |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  Gathering|   2   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  the eggs |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  17.      |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  Carried  |   2   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  in the   |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  wood     |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  18. No.  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  of fires |   2   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  built    |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  19. Split|   3   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  the wood |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  20. Fed  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  the      |   2   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  chickens |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  21. Fed  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  the pigs |   2   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  22. No.  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  of horses|   1   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  fed grain|       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  23. No.  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  horses   |   1   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  hayed    |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  24. No.  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  horses   |   1   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  watered  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  25. No.  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  horses   |   1   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  bedded   |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  26. No.  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  cows     |   5   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  milked   |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  27. No.  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  cows     |   1   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  bedded   |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  28. No.  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  cow      |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  stalls   |   1   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  cleaned  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           |-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
  29. No.  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  of horse |   1   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  stalls   |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
  cleaned  |       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
           +-------+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+-----
                                                       TOTAL

  Reasonable credit may be given for other work. When the answer is
        Yes or No as in 8 and 9, etc., write 1 for yes and leave
        blank for no.

  PARENT:--As one who insists upon absolute honesty being taught, my signature
  below certifies that to the best of my knowledge this report is correct.

                                         .................PARENT.
]

       *       *       *       *       *

Oscar. L. Dunlap, principal of the school at Salem Heights, Marion
County, gives the following explanation of the way home credits were
recognized in his school the first year:--

     The first month we gave cash prizes; then this was abandoned and
     we allowed 20 per cent to be added to each of any two subjects,
     and 10 per cent to any one subject in the monthly tests. We give
     twelve questions (answer any ten) and those having 20 per cent
     allowance need answer only eight questions, and so on. In my
     room the pupils work harder to earn the 20 per cent allowance
     than they did to earn the cash prizes; for in this way every
     one receives a prize. Some think this is a wrong way to give
     rewards. I was myself in doubt at first; but my pupils have
     actually worked harder during the past two months than during
     the six months before we adopted this plan.


DAILY RECORDS, WEEKLY REPORTS

In Spokane County, Washington, one hundred and thirteen teachers
have used home credits during the school year of 1913-14.
Superintendent E. G. McFarland became interested in the work that
one of his rural teachers started on home credits at the opening
of the schools in the fall of 1913. Mr. McFarland obtained what
information he could on the subject, and then worked out a plan.
This made provision for a daily record for five days, and a weekly
report. At his institute he presented the project to his teachers,
and in January some eighty-one began the work. Others soon followed.

[Illustration: O. H. BENSON POTATO CLUB, MORAN, SPOKANE COUNTY,
WASHINGTON

The members are receiving school credits for club work carried out
regularly. The president is "talking potatoes" to the members of the
club]

The Spokane Chamber of Commerce sent out a story of Spokane County's
home credits to eight hundred and fifty of its correspondents in the
United States and Canada. For a while the superintendent's office
was flooded with letters of inquiry relative to the plan. This shows
the great interest taken everywhere in any movement calculated to
better the child's school and home relationship.

At a parent-teachers' meeting in Spokane a committee was appointed
to assist the principal of one of the schools in keeping the
children off the streets. At that time it was arranged that credit
at school should be given to all children off the streets after six
o'clock, and to those who did not go to evening parties.

Below is the Spokane County plan.

_Bulletin for Teachers: Home Credits_

The following are the rules and reward offered for home work. This
work is to be done during the school week. No one is compelled to
enter this contest and the pupil may drop out at any time.

All work must be voluntary on the part of the pupil. Parents
are requested not to sign papers for pupils if the work is not
voluntarily and cheerfully done.

The rewards for this work are:--

One half-holiday each month to the child who has earned one hundred
or more home credits, and has not been absent or tardy for the
month; also

5 per cent will be added to his final examination. The pupil who
earns one hundred or more credits each month but fails in perfect
attendance will have the 5 per cent added to his final examination.

In addition, the board of directors may offer a prize to the pupil
in each grade who shall have the greatest amount of home credits,
and shall be neither absent nor tardy during the term, or from the
adoption of these rules.


_List of Home Credits_

  Personal cleanliness          2      Retiring before 9 o'clock     1
  Cleaning teeth                1      Feeding and watering chickens 1
  Cleaning finger nails         1      Feeding and watering horses   1
  Practicing music lesson       2      Feeding and watering cows     1
  Dressing baby                 1      Feeding and watering hogs     1
  Washing dishes                1      Gathering eggs                1
  Sweeping floor                1      Cleaning chicken house        1
  Making bed                    1      Going for mail                1
  Preparing meal                2      Picking apples                2
  Making a cake                 1      Picking potatoes              2
  Making biscuits               1      Bringing in wood for to-day   1
  Churning                      2      Splitting wood for to-day     1
  Scrubbing floor               2      Bringing in water for to-day  1
  Dusting                       1      Grooming horse                1
  Blacking stove                1      Milking cow                   1
  Darning stockings             1      Working in field              2
  Delivering papers             2      Going for milk                1

                                  E. G. MCFARLAND,
                       _County Superintendent of Schools._

The following statement is made by Superintendent McFarland as to
the effect home credits had on attendance in 1913-14:--

     We attribute the increase in our attendance this year in the
     schools of Spokane County, outside the city of Spokane, largely
     to the Home Credit System and our certificates for perfect
     attendance. While the enrollment was 108 less than last year,
     yet our attendance was 16,712 days more. At the present rate of
     16 cents per day, the pupils earned for the county, from the
     State appropriation, nearly $2700 more than last year. With the
     same enrollment as last year the increase of apportionment would
     have reached approximately $6000.

The credit slip for the school week provides for a daily record of
"chores or work done" from Monday to Friday inclusive. It does not
contain a stated list of duties; the blanks are to be filled in by
the child. The list of home credits is furnished each district,
but the teacher uses her judgment in allowing credit for any
chore peculiar to her locality. On page 92 is given one of these
blanks with the work itemized. Note the evidence of cooperation
between Jessie and her mother. On the mornings when Jessie gets the
breakfast her mother dresses the baby, and _vice versa_.

[Illustration:

                          _Home Credit Work_

  _Dist. No......._

  _Name, Jessie Jones._       _Age 12. Grade 6th._

  Chores or work done    | Mon. | Tues. | Wed. | Thur. | Fri.
  -----------------------+------+-------+------+-------+------
  Washing dishes         |  1   |   1   |  1   | ...   | ...
  Sweeping floor         | ...  |  ...  |  1   |  1    |  1
  Making cake            |  1   |  ...  | ...  | ...   | ...
  Making bed             |  1   |   1   |  1   |  1    |  1
  Cleaning teeth         |  1   |   1   |  1   |  1    |  1
  Dressing baby          | ...  |   1   | ...  |  1    |  1
  Getting breakfast      |  1   |  ...  |  1   | ...   | ...
  Music lessons          | ...  |  ...  |  2   | ...   | ...
  Making biscuit         | ...  |  ...  | ...  | ...   |  1
                         |      |       |      |       |
   Total for week        |   5  |   4   |  7   |  4    |  5
  -----------------------+------+-------+------+-------+------


                               (Signed)  MRS. MARY A. JONES,

                                  _Parent's Signature_.
]

       *       *       *       *       *

Here is a letter from a little girl who earns home credits in a
grown-up way:--

                                         CHENEY, WASHINGTON.
                                            April 27, 1914.

DEAR MRS. THOMASON:

I am nine years old, and in the fourth grade. I think I will pass
into the fifth grade. I like to go to school. My teacher is Miss
Grier. I like her. We get Home Credits in our school.

I haven't any pets, but I have a little sister and a little brother.
They are twins, and were born on my birthday, June 11. Their names
are Ruth and Millard. They are awfully sweet and good, and I like
them a good deal better than pets. I get credit at school for taking
care of them.

                        Your little friend,
                           CLARA LOUISE PETERSON.

  Report of Clara Louise for week ending
  May 1, 1914:--

[Illustration:

_Home Credit Work_

_Dist. No. 18_.

_Name, Clara Louise Peterson. Age 9. Grade 4th_.

  --------------------------------------------------------------------
  Chores or work done              | Mon. | Tues.| Wed. | Thur.| Fri.
  ---------------------------------+------+------+------+------+------
  Personal cleanliness             |  2   |  2   |   2  |  2   |   2
                                   |      |      |      |      |
  Cleaning teeth                   |  1   |  2   |   2  |  2   |   2
                                   |      |      |      |      |
  Wiping dishes                    |  1   |  1   |   1  |  1   |   2
                                   |      |      |      |      |
  Caring for baby                  |  1   |  1   |   2  |  1   |   2
                                   |      |      |      |      |
  Carrying Water                   | .... |  1   |   1  |  1   |   1
                                   |      |      |      |      |
  Sweeping floor                   | .... |  2   |   3  |  1   | ....
                                   |      |      |      |      |
  Gathering eggs                   |  1   |  1   |   1  |  1   |   1
                                   |      |      |      |      |
  Going for mail                   |  1   | .... | .... | .... | ....
                                   |      |      |      |      |
  Making beds                      | .... |  2   |   3  |  4   |   3
                                   |      |      |      |      |
  Churning                         | .... |  1   | .... |  1   | ....
                                   |      |      |      |      |
  Setting table                    | .... |  1   |   1  |  1   |   1
                                   |      |      |      |      |
  Retiring before nine o'clock     |  1   |  1   |   1  |  1   |   1
                                   +------+------+------+------+------
                Total for week     |  8   | 15   |  17  | 16   |  15
                                   |      |      |      |      |
  ---------------------------------+------+------+------+------+------

  (Signed)                               MRS. J. C. PETERSON,
                                             _Parent's Signature_.
]

       *       *       *       *       *

Superintendent McFarland has received many letters of appreciation
from teachers and parents in his county. One teacher writes:--

     The system helps, in bringing the school and home closer
     together by letting the parents see that we count the practical
     duties of the house and of the farm of actual value in the
     training of the child.

     One father is encouraging his three boys to earn more than the
     required home credits by paying them a small sum of money for
     each additional five credits.

Another writes:--

     The teachers have noted many cases of much improved personal
     cleanliness, which in itself has been a welcome reward. Then,
     you know, improved morals go hand in hand with clean bodies. We
     are taking into account the fact that cleanliness on the part of
     one child usually forces another to clean up on account of the
     inevitable contrast.

A parent writes:--

     The home credit system is to my mind one of the most practical
     features that has been introduced into the public-school
     curriculum for some time. It teaches the children self-reliance,
     and encourages them to take the initiative when heretofore they
     have been indifferent or careless. Its practical help to the
     parents is inestimable, as children in pursuit of "credits"
     take innumerable burdens from the parents' shoulders.

This from another parent:--

     Regarding the home credit system of the public school, my
     sentiment as the parent of two boys attending school is that
     it is working fine. It makes my boys ambitious to earn as many
     credits as possible, and this system as laid out leads them to
     take interest in the practical duties of their home, thereby
     saving parents many a step, and training the boys for useful
     work. The home credit system also stimulates punctuality in
     attending school as well as personal neatness, and regular
     habits in going to bed at the right time. _It seems to me that
     this credit system to a great extent completes the purpose of
     the public school._

One teacher in Spokane County has solved the problem of the rural
janitor with home credits. Like thousands of other girls teaching
in country schools, she had difficulty in keeping the schoolhouse
clean. Beginning in January she offered school credit for outside
work, and she included in her list the care of the schoolhouse. She
reports that the room is kept perfectly now. The floors are swept,
the woodwork dusted, the blackboards and erasers cleaned, water and
wood supplied. This same teacher, Miss Lizzie K. Merritt, says:--

     It is not pleasant to work without appreciation. We all know
     that we make a short job of the unappreciated piece of work. We
     cannot expect a child to stay with a thing as long as an older
     person unless he sees a definite reward. I have found that home
     credits teach observation, accuracy, and punctuality.

The following is an excerpt from a circular sent out by Mr. Harry F.
Heath, principal of the school at Eveline, Lewis County, Washington,
at the beginning of a home credit contest, stating his plan. This
makes provision for a daily record for six days, a weekly report,
and a voucher:--

                        _Eveline Public School_

                            EVELINE, WASH., January 5, 1914.

     DEAR PATRON:--

     Sometimes, in the rush of classes, we of the school forget
     about the home life of the scholar. And many times you of the
     home know but little of what is going on at school. In order to
     connect more closely for the pupil the influences of both home
     and school, I am planning this contest in home work for the next
     four months.

     In order that the contest may be successful, we ask the sympathy
     and aid of each parent. The parent is the judge of the amount of
     work done by the pupil, and upon the parent we depend for the
     accuracy of the reports. Have the pupil prepare his or her own
     list of duties performed, ready for your signature, and make
     it your duty to see that the lists are accurate at all times,
     neither more nor less than the actual amount performed. All
     lists should be dated, and none will be accepted unless signed
     by you.

     The prizes will not be expensive, and will be given only as
     tokens of award. The real awards will be realized during the
     course of the contest as set forth by the rules.

Then follows the list of credits and the rules.

A letter from Mr. Heath dated April 21, 1914, tells the way in which
he carried on the work this year. Mr. Heath says:--

     In answer to your request for information about our home credits
     contest, I am sending some of the circulars which I used at the
     beginning, and also some vouchers made by the pupils which I
     use to give out weekly credits. I am also sending some sample
     slips of credits brought in by some of the pupils. These slips
     show credits for an entire week, which has proved to be the
     most satisfactory way to have the slips kept. A notebook kept
     by me of the weekly and monthly totals, as well as the holidays
     granted and forfeitures assessed, is all of the record that our
     system has required.

     Two progressive business men of Chehalis are furnishing
     inexpensive prizes in the form of books to go to the seven
     leaders in the contest at its close. Four of the prizes will
     probably go to boys, but by the rules at least three are to go
     to girls. I find in this community that the boys have much more
     opportunity to earn credits than the girls. Hence the rule.

     The contest has run for four months and is closing this week.
     It has been very well received in the community, a number of
     suggestions having come in from parents in the way of additional
     credits. One was a request that credits be given for daily
     reading of the Bible, and the change was made. In my room, which
     is the highest in our two-room school, practically all of the
     scholars started, and of the thirty-four at that time in the
     contest about twenty-five are still enrolled, and the percentage
     would be larger if some of the beginners had not moved away.

     The contest was tried for a while in the lower grades but was
     not successful there. We limited the points that might be added
     to the general average to six in any one month, and most of the
     live contestants got their six every month.

     I got my ideas of the contest directly from Mr. Alderman's
     article, which I found in some paper. It has been on the whole
     very successful, and worth while. When I try this sort of work
     again, it will be on the plan of regular credits, not in contest
     form. I believe the Spokane County plan as used this spring is
     one that would prove very satisfactory.

The Eveline "voucher" plan gives the pupil something to watch for.
The first paragraph of Mr. Heath's letter explains the use of these
vouchers. Below are sample vouchers, and copies of slips made out
by the pupils. The pupils rule the columns, and write out their
own records, according to a published list which shows the value
in minutes of each task. This work is good practice for the pupil
in ruling lines and making neat cards, and it saves the cost of
printing cards.

The vouchers, which are taken home, enable each pupil to have at
home, as well as at school, a record of the total amount of his work.

[Illustration: two hand-drawn vouchers]

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration:

  _Home Credits_

  _Alberta Lemon_                        _March 30-April 4_.

  --------------------------------------------------------------------------
                             | Mon.  | Tues. | Wed.  | Thur. | Fri.  | Sat.
  ---------------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+------
  Slept with window open     |   5   |   5   |   5   |   5   |   5   |   5
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Cleaned teeth              |  10   |  10   |  10   |  10   |  10   |  10
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Swept floors               |  15   |  ...  |  10   |   5   |   5   |  25
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Wiped dishes               |   5   |   5   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Washed separator           |  ...  |  15   |  15   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Made beds                  |  10   |   5   |  10   |  10   |   5   |   5
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Dusted rooms               |  10   |  ...  |  10   |   5   |  ...  |  25
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Got supper                 |  30   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Wiped milk pails           |   5   |   5   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Peeled apples              |  30   |  ...  |  ...  |  30   |  ...  |  ...
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Made lunches               |  ...  |  ...  |  20   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Washed milk pails          |  ...  |  ...  |  10   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Washed dishes              |  ...  |  ...  |   5   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Retired at 9               |  ...  |   5   |   5   |   5   |   5   |  ...
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Mended garments            |  ...  |  20   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Studied                    |  10   |  30   |  ...  |  10   |  ...  |  20
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Ironed garments            |  ...  |  ...  |  50   |  ...  | 215   |  75
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Helped with meal           |  ...  |  10   |  10   |  10   |  ...  |  ...
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Went errands               |   5   |  ...  |   5   |  10   |  ...  |   5
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Scrubbed                   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  40
                             |       |       |       |       |       |
  Took bath                  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  80
                             | ----- | ----- | ----- | ----- | ----- | -----
                             | 135   | 110   | 165   |  100  | 245   | 290
                             | 110   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  | ...
                             | 165   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  | ...
                             | 100   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  | ...
                             | 245   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  | ...
                             | 290   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  | ...
                             | ---   |       |       |       |       |
                             |1045   |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  |  ...  | ...
  ---------------------------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+------

                                          MRS. A. C. LEMON.
]

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: _Home Credits_

  _Rosa C._

  ---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
                             |   6 |   7 |   8 |   9 |  10 |  11
  ---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
  Made fires                 | ... | ... |   5 |   5 |  10 | ...
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Preparing meals            |  60 |  30 |  30 |  30 |  60 |  60
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Set table                  |  10 |   5 |   5 |  10 |  10 |  10
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Washed dishes              |   5 |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Wiped dishes               |   5 |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Washed milk pails          |  20 |  20 |  20 |  20 |  20 |  20
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Carried in water           |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10 |  20 |  20
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Turning separator          |  10 |  20 |  20 |  20 |  20 |  20
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Washing separator          |  15 |  15 |  15 |  15 |  15 |  30
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Fed pets                   |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Ironing clothes            | ... |  35 | ... | 100 | ... | 400
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Making beds                |  15 |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Cleaned my teeth           |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Slept with window open     |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Retired before nine        |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Washed baby                |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5 | ... |   5
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Dressed baby               |   5 | ... |   5 | ... |   5 |   5
                             |     |     |     |     |     |
  Sweeping floors            | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... |  30
                             +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
                Total        | 185 | 195 | 165 | 270 | 215 | 655
  ---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
             Total ... 1685
                                      CHAS. F. CONRADI.
]

The Cowlitz County, Washington, plan is a daily record for seven
days and a weekly report. The rules governing the work are printed
on the back of the credit card:--

[Illustration:

                            _Work of Home Record_

  _Lavita Fowler_ [_age 12_].

                           _For week ending March 13, 1914._

  ----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------
                        | Sun.| Mon |Tues.| Wed.|Thur.| Fri.| Sat.|
                        +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
                        | Min.| Min.| Min | Min.| Min.| Min.| Min.| Total
  ----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------
  1. Work in garden     | ... | ... | ... |  30 | ... |  60 | ... |  90
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  2. Splitting and      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     carrying in        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     wood               | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  3. Milking            | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  4. Care of horses     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     or cows            | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  5. Cleaning barn      | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  6. Care of poultry    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     or pigs            | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  7. Turning separator  | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  8. Churning           | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  9. Sweeping or        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     or dusting         |  25 | ... |  20 |  30 |  10 | ... |  20 | 105
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  10. Washing or        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
      ironing           | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  11. Preparing meals   | ... |  30 |  60 | ... | ... | ... |  40 | 130
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  12. Washing dishes    |  60 |  55 |  45 |  20 |  30 |  45 |  90 | 345
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  13. Bedroom work      | ... | ... |  30 |  20 | ... | ... | ... |  50
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  14. Sewing            | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  15. Caring for little |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
      children          |  30 |  90 |  60 | ... | ... | ... |  60 | 240

  16. Building fires    | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  17. Bathing           | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... |  10 |  10
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  18. Brushing teeth    |   5 | ... | ... |   5 | ... | ... |   6 |  16
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  19. Sleeping with     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
      open window       |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10 | 10  |  10 |  10 |  70
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  20. To bed by 9       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
      o'clock           |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10 | 10  |  10 |  10 |  70
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  21. Attending Church  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
      or Sunday School  |  10 | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... |  10
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  Getting sister ready  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  for school            | ... |  15 |  10 |  15 |  15 |  20 | ... |  75
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  Washing floors        | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... |  40 |  40
                        |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
                        | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | 160
                        +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
         Total          |  35 |  35 |  30 |  40 |  35 |  40 |  76 | 451
  ----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----


  I certify that the above is a correct record.

                                     MRS. FOWLER,
                          _Signature of Parent or Guardian._
]

       *       *       *       *       *

_Rules governing Credit for Home Work_

To PARENTS OR GUARDIANS:--

     The scheme of giving credit at school for work done at home by
     the pupils can be made successful only through your coöperation,
     and faithful report of the work done.

     Every Friday afternoon a Home Work Record Slip will be given
     each pupil. Beginning with Sunday all time spent by the pupils
     in home work should be entered in the proper place.

     Each Monday morning a slip filled in during the previous week
     should be returned to the teacher. This slip must be signed by
     the parent or guardian.

     Extra work may be listed in the blank spaces.

     To secure credit at school for his work, the pupil should
     average eight hours a week, thirty-two hours a month, at real,
     honest, helpful labor that relieves the fathers and mothers of
     that amount of work. If this is done, the teacher will add three
     credits to the average gained by the pupil at the school during
     the month in his studies. Additional credits will be given for
     more than thirty-two hours a month at the rate of one credit for
     every ten hours' work.

     Please coöperate with your teacher in this plan for making work
     more worth while to the boy and girl.

                                      LUCIA JENKINS,
                           _County Superintendent of Schools_.

In the District 61 School, near Bellingham, Washington, taught by
Mrs. Lou Albee Maynard, there is used a system of having the home
credit accounts kept by pupils; the children call it the Ruth and
Grace System.

Here is a plan that solves the problem, if it is a problem, of
putting extra work on the teacher through home credits. Not only is
the teacher entirely relieved of the bookkeeping which the system
requires, but the pupils are engaged in practical bookkeeping while
they keep the records. Checks are made out in regular bank-check
form, and receipts are given.

The Ruth and Grace System is thus described in a neat account
written by Emma Ames, a pupil in the sixth grade:--

     Ruth and Grace were girls who wanted to learn bookkeeping. In
     order to give them a chance we took up the credit system.

     At the end of each week the girls give us a slip of paper ruled
     and ready to be made out. The mothers sign it. Each thing which
     we do counts so much. At the end of the week these slips are
     handed back to the girls, and we receive another. We also get a
     check telling how many credits we received the week before.

     When we make five thousand credits we then receive a composition
     book. Smaller things are also given for fewer credits.

     The girls keep in their ledgers each person's work. So if any
     mistake is made they will have something to refer to.

     We call the system the Ruth and Grace System.

     The prize list is as follows:--

  Washing dishes...................... 10 credits.
  Wiping dishes.......................  5    "
  Sweeping............................  5    "
  Making beds.........................  5    "
  Baking bread........................ 15    "
  Dusting.............................  5    "
  Scrubbing........................... 25    "
  Practicing music.................... 10    "
  Brushing teeth......................  5    "
  Clean finger nails..................  5    "
  Splitting kindling.................. 10    "
  Splitting wood...................... 10    "
  Carrying water...................... 10    "
  Milking cow......................... 15    "
  Feeding pigs........................  5    "
  Feeding chickens....................  5    "
  Feeding and bedding cows............ 25    "
  Slashing one hour................... 25    "
  Getting a meal...................... 15    "
  Taking charge of house.............. 50    "
  Charge for father one day........... 50    "
  Building fires...................... 10    "
  Sewing.............................. 15    "
  Making an apron..................... 15    "
  Carrying wood....................... 10    "
  Washing............................. 25    "
  Ironing............................. 25    "

The following letter from Mrs. Maynard explains the system further:--

     I have been requested to report on our plan for giving credit
     for home work as we have tried it. One of my pupils has written
     a report of our system which explains our methods nicely. This
     has been only a trial, but I am so pleased with results that I
     intend to use it whenever there are older pupils who can do the
     bookkeeping, for it represents a great deal of work, and unless
     the school is a very small one the system would add too much to
     the already busy teacher's work.

     The girls who are represented by our firm carried on the work on
     a strictly business basis. They bought the work of the pupils as
     represented by the weekly reports. This work was then sold to
     me at a gain of 20 per cent. The girls have worked out a simple
     system of double entry in six weeks. We, as a school, have
     spent an interesting and profitable time, keeping track of our
     work, and of their mistakes, and the various ups and downs of a
     business.

     We are planning a better schedule of wages, a bank in which
     to deposit our checks, and a store where the credits may be
     exchanged for little articles which represent the rewards; but
     this is all in the making, and may have to wait for another
     year, as our school term closes soon.

     This is a school whose average attendance is about sixteen.
     The people are progressive, and see that we have all modern
     appliances: gymnasium, school garden, bubbling fountain,
     sanitary toilets, and a good heating system are some of the good
     things our country school enjoys.

Some original features are included in a plan in operation in
Algona, King County, Washington. The Algona plan of grading is this:
The actual number of minutes employed in doing the daily chores
is registered. Thirty minutes is allowed for church attendance.
Twenty-five per cent is given weekly for each of the personal care
items, bathing, brushing teeth, sleeping with open windows, and
going to bed before nine o'clock. Half an hour's work must be done
each day, else the pupil forfeits the work done that day. If at the
end of a month the pupil has made an average of 85 per cent on
personal care, and has 85 per cent on home work, his grade average
for the month is raised 10 per cent. For instance, if a boy should
have the required 85 per cent in the home credit department, and
should have an average of 80 per cent in his school subjects, his
final grade for the month would be 88 per cent.

Algona uses a book system of keeping the pupils' weekly home credit
grades. The principal records the final grades for each week, after
collecting the cards from his three assistants. He expects to
substitute the card system for the book another year, using the same
plan of record. Below is given the plan for keeping the records,
together with the work of one boy for a month:--

                   _Leon Noel's Record in Book_

  -------------+---------------+---------------+---------------
  Week ending  |    Minutes    | Personal care |   Leon Noel
  -------------+---------------+---------------+---------------
  February 2   |      210      |      100      |
               |               |               |
           9   |      210      |      100      |
               |               |               |
          16   |      210      |       97      |
               |               |               |
          23   |      210      |       97      |
  -------------+---------------+---------------+---------------

                           _Home Work Record of_

  _Leon Noel._

                        _For week ending February 21, 1914._

  ------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
                          |Sun. |Mon. |Tues.|Wed. |Thur.|Fri. |Sat. |Total
  ------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+Min.
                          |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |
  ------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
   1. Working in garden.. | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
   2. Splitting kindlings |  15 | ... |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10 |  10 |  65
   3. Bringing in fuel... |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5 |  35
   4. Milking cow........ | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
   5. Care of horse...... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
   6. Preparing meals.... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
   7. Washing dishes..... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
   8. Sweeping........... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
   9. Dusting............ | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
  10. Bedroom work....... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
  11. Washing............ | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
  12. Ironing............ | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
  13. Care of baby....... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
  14. Care of             |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
      chickens........... |  15 | ... |  20 |  15 |  15 |  15 |  15 |  95
  15. Running             |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
      errands............ | ... |  60 | ... | ... | ... | ... | 120 | 180
                          |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
                          |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  A.  Bathing............ | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... |  x  | ...
  B.  Brushing teeth..... |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  | ...
  C.  Sleeping with       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
      open windows....... |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  | ...
  D.  Going to bed before |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
      9 o'clock.......... |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  | ... |  x  |  x  | ...
  E.  Attending           |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
      Church or           |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
      Sunday              |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
      School............. |  30 | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... |  30
                          +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
         Total........... |  65 |  65 |  35 |  30 |  30 |  30 | 150 | 405
  ------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----

  I certify that the above is a correct record.

             (Signed)               MRS. C. D. FRENCH,
                          _Signature of Parent or Guardian._

A comparison of Leon Noel's home credit record on his slip with the
record in the principal's book shows that while he has 405 credits
on the former he is credited with only the required 210 on the
record. C. C. Calavan, the principal, expects to allow a holiday,
or grant additional credit on school work another year, for credits
above the half-hour a day. The children of the school at first
insisted on making an hour's work the minimum for a day's credit,
but Mr. Calavan decided to start conservatively. It will be noticed
that Leon Noel lost three points in each of the last two weeks of
February. This was because he was not in bed before nine every
evening. Mr. Calavan says he is going to change his plan along this
line next year, granting three or four evenings a month when a child
may be in bed a little later than nine without forfeiting credits.
He believes that a happy, wholesome evening, spent in play with
companions, has a very valuable place in the child's development.

Sunday-school and church attendance has become popular in Algona
since school credit has been given for it. The little daughter in a
non-church-going family had never attended any church services until
it was brought out that the other children at school were getting
credit for such attendance. The parents dressed the little girl for
Sunday school, and sent her off, determined that their child should
not be left out in the home credit game.

A boy's record was perfect, except that he did not have a church
attendance recorded. On inquiry the principal found that Albert's
family was of the Seventh Day Adventist faith, and that the boy
was at church as regularly as Saturday came. He was at once given
credit. The children of the Catholic faith are given credit for
attending the catechism class that meets in the schoolhouse Tuesday
afternoons.

"The people took hold," said Mr. Calavan. "The Parent-Teachers'
Association is enthusiastic over the plan, and is doing all possible
to help. Two decided results that home credits have brought about
are that we have a much neater, better-kept class of pupils, and our
boys are off the streets. Several persons have remarked to me that
the school was doing something with the boys, surely, for they all
seemed to be busy after school."

       *       *       *       *       *

The system introduced in Portland, Oregon, schools, is the daily
record and weekly report plan. The following suggestions were sent
out early in 1914 by the Portland office:--

     _Suggestions for using the "Home Record Slip"_

     The regular monthly report card should contain two extra
     columns, one entitled "Home Work" and one "Personal Care," and
     in these columns the pupil should be marked on the scale of 100.

     One hundred per cent in the "Home Work" column would be secured
     by a daily record of not less than one half-hour of approved
     work for seven days each week.

     One hundred per cent in the "Personal Care" column would be
     secured by daily practice of numbers A, B, C, and D for seven
     days of the week, and for attendance upon some religious
     service. Twenty per cent could be allowed for each number and
     twenty per cent for attendance at church or Sunday school.

     The matter of bathing should not be interpreted to refer
     strictly to tub baths, since in large families daily tub baths
     are sometimes impracticable, and inability to make a good
     showing on the card would have a tendency to discourage.

     Different plans of reward for a given number of minutes devoted
     to work during a week are outlined in the pamphlet, "School
     Industrial Credit for Home Industrial Work." These, however,
     may be modified or enlarged to suit. All time, including the
     half-hour a day and the amount allowed for all other operations,
     should be counted toward a specified total necessary to earn the
     reward.

These rules are printed on the back of each home credit record
card:--

     _Rules governing Credit for Home Work_

     Every Friday afternoon a home work record slip will be given to
     each pupil. Beginning with Sunday, all time spent by the pupil
     in home work should be entered in the proper space.

     Each Monday morning a slip filled during the previous week
     should be returned to the teacher. The slip must be signed by
     the parent or guardian as an assurance that a correct record has
     been kept.

     Any work not listed but of value to the parents may be counted,
     and the nature of the work specified in the blank spaces.

     At the close of the school month, when the report of school
     work is made out, in the column "Home Work," the pupil will be
     marked on the scale of 100 for actual work of not less than one
     half-hour each day, and in the column "Personal Care" on the
     scale of 100 for numbers A, B, C, and D, and for attendance at
     church or Sunday school.

     In addition to credit on the report card, reward may be given at
     the option of the principal for a specified amount of time spent
     in useful work at home.

     For purpose of reward credit of five minutes a day will be
     allowed for each operation listed as A, B, C, and D, and twenty
     minutes for attendance at church or Sunday school.

The Portland home work record slips are printed by the city office,
and furnished to teachers who wish to use them. On pages 115, 117,
and 119 are given home credit records of Portland children, showing
the class of home work they are doing. A swift review of a child's
record gives the teacher a pretty accurate estimate of his home
environment.

Elsie G., whose card is shown, has kept weekly records of her work
for more than a year. She and some of the other girls make it a
practice to help Miss Wright, their teacher, enroll the records for
the class. The method of crediting is extremely simple, but it seems
to work. The pupils return the filled-out slips the first of every
week; at the end of each month the girls count the slips, and for
every pupil who has brought in four slips they register one credit
in the book. Miss Wright looks over the cards as they come in, and
often makes comment on the work, to the individual, or to the class
as a whole.

[Illustration:

                                 _Home Work Record of_

_Elsie G----._

_For week ending December 19, 1913._

-------------------------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
                         | Sun. | Mon.|Tues.|Wed. |Thur.|Fri. | Sat.|
                         +------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+Total
                         | Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |
-------------------------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
 1. Work in garden       | ...  | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
 2. Splitting kindlings  | ...  | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
 3. Bringing in fuel     | ...  | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
 4. Milking cow          | ...  | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
 5. Care of horse        | ...  | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
 6. Preparing meals      | ...  |  25 |  15 |  25 |  25 |  25 |  20 | 135
                         |   1  |   1+|   3 |   3 |   2 |   2 |     |
 7. Washing dishes       |  20  |  25 |  15 |  15 |  15 |  20 | ... | 200
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
 8. Sweeping             | ...  | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
 9. Dusting              |  15  | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... |  15 |  30
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
10. Bedroom work         | ...  | ... |  10 |  10 |  15 |  10 |  20 |  65
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
11. Washing              | ...  | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
12. Ironing              | ...  | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
13. Care of baby         |  30  |  60 |  45 |  60 |  60 |  45 |  60 | 350
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
A. Bathing               |  x   |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  | ...
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
B. Brushing teeth        |  x   |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  | ...
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
C. Sleeping with         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   open windows          |  x   |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  | ...
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
D. Going to bed before   |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   9 o'clock             | ...  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  | ...
                         |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
E. Attending             |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   Church or             |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   Sunday                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   School                | ...  | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         +------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
        Total            |      |     |     |     |     |     |     | 790
-------------------------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----

  I certify that the above is a correct record.

                                   MRS. G. H. G----,
                          _Signature of Parent or Guardian._
]

       *       *       *       *       *

Miss Wright began this home credit work by taking sixteen of the
printed slips and laying them on her desk. The boys left the room to
go to manual training, and the girls then gathered around her desk
and discovered the slips. "What are these?" they inquired, and they
each wanted one to take home. There were just enough for the girls,
but when the boys found out about it they clamored for slips, too.

Miss Wright now leaves a pile of the blanks on her desk every
Friday, and most of the pupils take them. They used to ask to have
the credit applied to raise their standings on their lowest studies
(they are allowed, for instance, to increase a mark of seven in
grammar to a mark of eight for one month), but now they seldom ask
for the increase. They do their home work and record it with no
other incentive than the satisfaction of having a record and the
honor and approval of their parents, teacher, and schoolmates.

The ten-year-old boy whose card is shown here goes on week-ends to
the country, and brings in his record afterward with great pride to
show the other fellows that he has cared for horses.

[Illustration:

  _Home Work Record of_

  _Henry F. P----._

                                 _For week ending         , 19..._

  -----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
                         |Sun. |Mon. |Tues.|Wed. |Thur.|Fri. |Sat. |
                         +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
                         |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Total
  -----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
   1. Work in garden     | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... |  10 |  10
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   2. Splitting kindlings|  10 |  15 |  10 |  10 |  20 |  10 |  10 |  85
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   3. Bringing in fuel   |   5 |   5 |   5 |   5 |  10 |  15 |  15 |  60
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   4. Milking cow        | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   5. Care of horses     |  20 | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... |  10 |  30
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   6. Preparing meals    | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   7. Washing dishes     | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   8. Sweeping           | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   9. Dusting            | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  10. Bedroom work       | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  11. Washing            | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  12. Ironing            | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  13. Care of baby       | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  Feeding chickens       |  10 |   5 |  10 |  10 |  15 |  10 |  10 |  70
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  Feeding rabbits        |  10 |   5 |  15 |  20 |  15 |  10 |  10 |  85
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  A. Bathing             |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  B. Brushing teeth      |  2  |  2  |  2  |  2  |  2  |  2  |  2  | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  C. Sleeping with       |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     open windows        |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  D. Going to bed before |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     9 o'clock           | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  E. Attending           |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     Church or           |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     Sunday              |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     School              | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
       Total             | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | 340
  -----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----

  I certify that the above is a correct record.

                                     FLORA H. P----
                          _Signature of Parent or Guardian._
]

       *       *       *       *       *

We find many instances, like the following, where boys who at first
had nothing to do, seemingly, but to get in the fuel, have begun to
assist their mothers with the dishwashing, dusting, and cooking.
Not only does this work run up their list of credits at school,
but it causes them to appreciate what mother has to do, gets them
acquainted with their homes, and keeps them off the streets.

And it has other uses for a boy. Henry Turner Bailey says:--

     Away from home, as a lonely art student and young teacher in
     strange and home-sickening boarding houses, maybe I wasn't
     thankful to be able to sweep and dust, to wash and iron and
     cook, upon occasion, to sew on buttons, to darn, and to mend.
     But perhaps my keenest satisfaction came from my ability to make
     a bed. The boarding-house madonnas are not, as a rule, highly
     skilled in that gentle art.

     In view of my personal experiences I have often wondered
     why the advocates of Domestic Science are not more strongly
     co-educational. What is sauce for the goose seems to me worthy
     to be sauce for the gander,--certainly during the gosling stage.
     Every boy should know how to sew, just as every girl should
     know how to whittle. Every boy should know how to cook, just
     as every girl should know how to swim. Skill in the elemental
     arts is a form of what Henderson calls human wealth. All should
     participate.[5]

  [5] _School Arts Magazine_, May, 1914.

[Illustration:

                         _Home Work Record of_

  _Harold R_----.

                        _For week ending December 20, 1913._

  -----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
                         |Sun. |Mon. |Tues.|Wed. |Thur.|Fri. |Sat. |
                         |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Min. |Total
  ---- ------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
   1. Work in garden     | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   2. Splitting kindlings| ... |  5  |  10 |  15 |  10 |  5  |  15 |  60
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   3. Bringing in fuel   |  5  | 10  |  25 |  15 |  10 |  5  |  25 |  95
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   4. Milking cow        | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   5. Care of horse      | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   6. Preparing meals    | ... | ... | ... |  15 | ... | ... |  15 |  30
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   7. Washing dishes     |  10 |  10 |  5  |  10 |  15 |  10 |  60 | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   8. Sweeping           | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... |  10 |  10
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
   9. Dusting            | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... |  10 |  10
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  10. Bedroom work       | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... |  10 |  10
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  11. Washing            | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  12. Ironing            | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  13. Care of baby       | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  A. Bathing             | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  B. Brushing teeth      |  x  | ... |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  30
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  C. Sleeping with open  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     windows             |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |   7
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  D. Going to bed before |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     9 o'clock           |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  |  x  | --- |   6
                         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  E. Attending Church or |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
     Sunday School       |  x  | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... | ... |   1
                         +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
            Total        |  23 |  17 |  52 |  57 |  37 |  82 | 101 | 810
  -----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----

  I certify that the above is a correct record.

                                   MRS. F. M. R.----,
                          _Signature of Parent or Guardian_.
]

       *       *       *       *       *

A Portland woman, who is much interested in the schools, says:--

     In looking over some of the cards I find that the child soon
     learns to do his "chores" in less time each week, that he may
     have more time for other work or play, and yet fill out his
     record card. This is a great help to the parents.

     I know one boy who cannot be induced to go out to an evening
     affair because he wants to get to bed before nine o'clock so
     that his record card will be perfect. How soon could we dismiss
     the Juvenile Court if we could get all children to feel like
     that! It is worth while to try.

In Polk County, Oregon, the system has been introduced into rural
schools with marked success. The plan here comprises a daily record,
and monthly reports. Below are excerpts from an article written for
the _Oregon Teachers' Monthly_, by Mr. R. G. Dykstra, who used home
credits in his rural school at Suver, Polk County, in 1912-13. I
should like to direct especial attention to his testimony on the
tardiness record of the district; also to his plan of allowing
credit for a long walk to school.

     With the following exceptions I carried out the work as started
     in the Spring Valley School last year: I required the pupils to
     get eight hundred minutes' credit before taking the holiday
     instead of six hundred; the number of minutes' credit for
     milking cows was increased from five to fifteen for each cow and
     a reasonable amount of credit was allowed for all work not named
     in the list of chores; children living over a mile and a half
     from school were allowed credit for the distance they had to
     walk in proportion to the others, and 5 per cent instead of 10
     was added to the end of the year on their final school averages
     for the carrying on of the work. Only two prizes were offered
     by the District, three dollars and two dollars respectively.
     Children seldom took advantage of the holiday given for eight
     hundred minutes' credit unless it was used for sickness or
     unavoidable absence, as they were encouraged in the knowledge
     that a day lost was a day's work lost as well. Tardiness on the
     part of any pupil doing the work meant a loss of so many credits
     already accumulated.

     It would be impossible to enumerate the many things this work
     has done for this community, but the following facts may prove
     interesting to the reader. During the year of 1911-12, without
     home credit work, this school had a record of 95 per cent in
     attendance and 59 tardies. For the year 1912-13 just closed,
     the record is 98 per cent in attendance and 8 tardies. Part
     of the home credits given have been for proper care of body,
     sleeping with windows open, care of teeth, hair, etc., and the
     result of these requirements has been the showing of a healthier
     appearance on the part of nearly all the pupils. The parents
     of the district claim that the children are doing more work at
     home than they ever did before, and the people feel that their
     children are getting an education that will be of value to them
     and that the money is being well spent in this kind of work.

The card issued by County Superintendent Seymour is here reproduced
filled out by a pupil. It shows daily records for two weeks on each
side of the card. The five school days only are counted.

[Illustration:

                    _Home Credit Card_

           _North Dallas School, Polk County, Oregon._

  _Blanks to be filled in each day. Parents sign before returning
  it to teacher. Blanks to be returned each month and a
  new one secured._

    _Edwin B----._     _February, 1, 1914._
    _Pupil's name._    _Month._

                              M.  T.  W.  T.  F.  Total  M.  T.  W.  T. F. Total
  Building fire            5
  Milking each cow
    daily                  5
  Cleaning barn, each
    animal                 5  25  25  25  25  25  125    25  45  45  45  45  205
  Carrying wood           10  20  20  20  20  20  100    20  20  20  20  20  100
  Splitting wood          10
  Turning separator       10
  Cleaning separator       5
  Churning butter         50  30      30           60
  Working butter          10
  Cleaning horse          15
  Feeding chickens         5  10  10  10  10  10   50    10  10  10  10  10   50
  Feeding pigs            10  20  20  20  20  20  100    20  20  20  20  20  100
  Feeding horse            5  15      15  15       45    15  15  20  15  15   80
  Feeding cows             5  25  25  25           75    25  25  15  15  15   95
  Blacking stove          15
  Making bread            10
  Getting breakfast       50
  Getting supper          45
  Washing dishes          20
  Sweeping floor, each
    room                   5  15
  Cleaning house, each
    room                  20
  Scrubbing floor, each
    room                  50
  Making beds, each        5
  Washing clothes         60
  Ironing clothes         60
  Bathing                 30
  Arrive at school clean   5   5   5   5   5   5  25     5   5   5   5   5  25
  Music lesson
  Bed at 9 p.m.               10  10  10  10  10  50    10  10  10  10  10  50
  Gathering eggs           5   5   5   5   5   5  25     5   5   5   5   5  25
  Cleaning teeth           5   5   5   5   5   5  25     5   5   5   5   5  25
  Cleaning finger nails    5   5   5   5   5   5  25     5   5   5   5   5  25
  Sleeping with window
    open                   5   5   5   5   5   5  25     5   5   5   5   5  25
  Making pies             10
  Cleaning and filling
    lamps                  5
  Errands                  5          10          10             5           5
  Reading book home        5
  Distance school, over
    half-mile              5   5   5   5   5   5  25     5   5   5   5   5  25

     Total                   198 138 198 128 113 755   153 173 173 163 163 825


  Teacher and pupils to go over list and agree on time for each thing.
  Distance from school more than one-half mile to be given credit for.
  Any work not listed that is creditable teacher will give credit for.

                                   Mr. and Mrs. W. H. B----,
                                    Signature of Parents.
]

       *       *       *       *       *

The card given on pages 122 and 123 came from Miss Veva Burns, the
teacher at North Dallas, with the following letter, dated April 26,
1914:--

     I am pleased to explain the home credit system as we use it. I
     am sending some of the cards filled out by the pupils. We secure
     these cards from Mr. Seymour, the county school superintendent,
     and are allowed to use them as we think best....

     We have a two-room school, and have divided it into two
     divisions, the smaller pupils having five thousand credits as
     their aim, while the larger ones work for ten thousand. Of
     course the number to be obtained would vary with the opportunity
     the children would have to earn credits. On the average, it
     takes our pupils about three months to earn the required number.
     When they have secured the number, some prize, such as a book,
     is given, and they are allowed to start again. Then, at the end
     of school, the one who has earned the most is given a special
     prize. Also, Mr. Seymour allows us to give ten points on each
     child's lowest grade, at the close of school, if he has kept up
     his home credit work during the school year. Some teachers give
     a holiday as a reward instead of a prize.

     The cards are taken home by the pupils and filled out each
     evening. If the pupils are too small to attend to the cards,
     some member of the family looks after them. We see to it that
     the system is thoroughly understood by each family. As each card
     is filled out, it is returned to us.

     We have a school of over sixty pupils, and all but four are
     working on the credit system. We did not urge any one to take it
     up, but allowed them to decide for themselves.

This letter is from Miss Miriam H. Rarey, who has taught near
Dallas, in 1914:--

     Work done on Saturdays and Sundays does not count with the
     exception of bathing. Pupils, as a rule, when they bathe at
     all, bathe on Saturday. So I told them they could take thirty
     minutes' credit for that, and put it down in Friday's space,
     in the hope that it would induce them to bathe at least once a
     week. It worked pretty well with some of the pupils, but others
     would rather do without the credits than do anything so unusual.
     When a pupil gets five thousand credits (every minute counts
     one credit) he gets his grade on his poorest study raised 5 per
     cent, or if he does not need that, he gets a holiday without
     being marked absent. The pupils have all worked pretty hard for
     credits, and only a few have asked for holidays. The people in
     the district have all been pleased with the results of home
     credit and I think it is a good thing. I have seventeen pupils,
     and they are all using home credits.

The Idaho plan as sent out by the State Superintendent, Miss Grace
M. Shepherd, in a bulletin to teachers is as follows: Miss Shepherd
issued two mimeographed sheets, one of rules, and one a list of
credits. The blank has a place for a daily record and a report for
several weeks.

     _Rules governing Home Work_

     1. No pupil is obliged to enter the contest.

     2. Parent must sign statement of work done by pupil.

     3. Contest closes when school term closes.

     4. Unexcused absence forfeits all credits. Unexcused tardiness
     forfeits 25 per cent of credits per month. Less than 90 per cent
     deportment, 20 per cent of all credits forfeited.

     5. Suggested awards:

     Names of the six highest at the close of school will be
     published in a county paper.

     Three highest at the close of school to be offered prize by the
     School Board or some citizen.

     Five per cent credit to be added to final examination results of
     all pupils who enter and continue in the contest.

     _Urge the hearty coöperation of the parents_.

[Illustration:

                   _Record of Home Credit Work_

  _Month beginning_ ........................ _Ending_................
  ..................... _School_    ...................... _County_

  Pupils or parents will fill in the following blanks each day and return
  to the teacher each month signed by the parent_.

  ------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--
                          |M.|T.|W.|T.|F.|M.|T.|W.|T.|F.|M.|T.|W.|T.|F.
  ------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--
  Rising morning without  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   being called      10m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Building fire in        |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   morning           10m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Milking            10m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Cleaning barn      10m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Cleaning each horse 5m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Feeding pigs        5m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Feeding horses      5m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Feeding chickens    5m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Feeding cows        5m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Bringing fuel for       |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   the day           10m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Getting breakfast  30m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Washing and wiping      |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   dishes            15m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Sweeping floor      5m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Scrubbing floor    15m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Making beds         5m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Making and baking       |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   bread             45m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Dusting a room     10m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Caring for younger      |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   children     full time |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Washing and ironing     |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   school clothes    60m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Bathing            20m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Cleaning teeth and      |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   finger nails      10m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Bed at 9:00 p.m.    5m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  Sleeping with           |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
   window open       10m. |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
                          |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
      Total               |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |  |
  ------------------------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+-----+--+--

  .............................................

  _Signature of parent._
]

       *       *       *       *       *

In Charleston, Washington, Superintendent H. W. Elliott, of the city
schools, put into successful operation, in 1913-14, a plan with
several special features, to which I am glad to call attention. The
plan comprises daily markings by the tally system, monthly reports,
cash prizes to those showing the largest number of home credits, and
some reward to every pupil with credits above a certain specified
number. For the purpose of raising a fund to meet the cash prizes,
his school gave a play; and an autumn fair, in October, was arranged
for the distribution of the prizes for both school and home work.
The credit card is different from any other; it seems to be the most
simple of all the monthly systems.

[Illustration:

_How to Keep the Credits in the Home_

_For every duty the child has done put down | after the name of the
duty the child has performed. Example:_

  _Cutting wood_ ||||| ||||| ||||| |
  _Taking bath ||||| ||||| || This is to indicate the number of times._

     ALL THAT ARE 5 CREDITS              ALL THAT ARE 10 CREDITS

  Canning jar of fruit...........    Music practice (30 min.)..........
  Making and baking cake.........    Milking cow.......................
  Making and baking pie..........    Crocheting (hour).................
  Sweeping room..................    Cleaning basement.................
  Making bed.....................    Making apron......................
  Setting table..................    Keeping front yard clean..........
  Dusting furniture..............    Keeping back yard clean...........
  Making handkerchief............    Keeping sidewalk clean............
  Making any other thing.........    Keeping alley clean...............
  Keeping room ventilated........    Keeping steps and porch clean.....
  Splitting kindling.............    Politeness to seniors.............
  Cutting wood...................    Table etiquette...................
  Bringing in fuel...............
  Blacking stove.................        ALL THAT ARE 15 CREDITS
  Scrubbing room.................
  Running errands................    Up first and building fire........
  Taking care of birds...........    Sprinkling lawn (1 h.)............
  Washing teeth..................    Clerking in store (1 h.)..........
  Taking bath....................    Driving team (1 h.)...............
  In bed by nine.................    Helping with freight (1 h.).......
  Up by seven....................    Making and baking bread...........
  Helping others dress...........    Attending Sunday school...........
  Brushing clothes (self)........    Attending Church service..........
  Polishing shoes (self).........
  Feeding cow or other animal....        ALL THAT ARE 30 CREDITS
  Gathering eggs.................
    At school with clean             Washing clothes (2 h.)............
      Hands......................    Ironing clothes (2 h.)............
      Face.......................    Taking care of baby (2 h.)........
      Teeth......................    Preparing meal (family)...........
      Nails......................    Cleaning barn.....................
      Hair combed................    Cleaning henhouse.................
                                     Carrying papers...................

                                         ALL THAT ARE 40 CREDITS

                                     Making dress (self)...............
                                     Cutting half rick of wood.........
                                     Spading up 400 sq. ft. garden.....
                     Total........................

  Send in report on or before the 10th of each month.
]

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. Elliott sent out a mimeographed sheet explaining the rules to be
observed in the contest, giving a list of the credits, and also a
list of the articles to be exhibited at the fair. The rules, and the
list of articles are given here.


_Rules_

All boys and girls now in one of the eight grades of the Charleston
public schools, District No. 34, may enter in one of the four
classes; D, first grade; C, 2d and 3d; B, 4th and 5th; A, 6th,
7th, and 8th. Home credits for each month must be reported to the
school for record on or before the 10th of each month. Records to be
confidential. We hope that every home will enter into this, and that
the _parent will be very careful and conscientious in the marking_.
Credits to be kept by parents.

_A List of Articles to be exhibited_

For School Fair Exhibit--To be determined by Judges

_Household Economics_--

1. Domestic Science: Best loaf of bread, cake, pie, dozen cookies,
dozen doughnuts.

2. Domestic Art: Best made plain dress, plain apron, shirt-waist,
sofa pillow, handkerchief, patchwork pillow, darning or repairing
specimen.

3. Canning: Peas, peaches, apples, pears, cherries, string beans.

_Agriculture_--

Best 5 ears of corn, 5 potatoes, 5 selected apples, 5 carrots, 5
onions, 5 turnips, squash, pumpkin, raised by pupil.

_Horticulture_--

Nasturtiums, pansies, sweet peas, each 10 sprays; asters, dahlias,
chrysanthemums, each 5 sprays--raised by pupil. Best 5 roses cared
for by pupil.

_Poultry_--

Best cockerel, or pullet, or cockerel and pullet reared from a
setting of 15 eggs.

_Manual Training_--

Best mechanical drawing, joined work, tabouret, small piece of
furniture, large piece of furniture, basket, bookbinding, etc.

_School Work_--

What teachers see fit to make it--drawing, etc.

_Music_--

Best played selection on piano, violin, cornet, or other instrument:
or orchestra or band: solo singing or chorus. In band or orchestra
work pupils may be judged collectively or singly. Same judgment for
all chorus work.

Something more may be added later.

                  Yours for a good fair,

                                           THE TEACHERS.
                                           H. W. ELLIOTT,
                                        City Superintendent.

Mr. Elliott writes: "I believe there is nothing that will link the
home and school more closely than the system of credits. There is
one danger, however, of cultivating dishonesty on the part of the
over-anxious one. This we watch, but this tendency is sometimes
noticeable. Occasionally we find a youngster attending Sunday school
or church fifteen or twenty times a month."

Examples of the scheme of a weekly record with monthly report are
plans in operation in Jackson County, and in Weston, Umatilla
County, Oregon. The rules and schedule following were published by
Mr. J. Percy Wells, county superintendent of Jackson County.

     _Rules governing Home Credit Work_

     1. No pupil shall be required to enter the home credit contest,
     and any pupil shall be free to quit the contest at any time, but
     if any one quits without good cause, all credits earned shall be
     forfeited.

     2. Once each month the parent or guardian shall send to
     the teacher, with signature affixed, an itemized statement
     containing a record of the work each child has done during the
     preceding month. The child may make out the list, but the parent
     or guardian must sign the same.

     3. At the end of each school month the teacher shall enter
     on the pupil's report card the total number of credits for
     home work during the month, as certified to by the parent or
     guardian.

     4. Any pupil who has earned at least two hundred credits for
     home work during any school month shall be entitled to have 10
     per cent added to his grade in any subject, or distributed among
     several subjects, and 1 per cent additional for each twenty
     additional credits up to four hundred credits.

     5. All pupils who shall have earned four hundred credits or more
     during any month shall be entitled to a half-holiday, and shall
     have their names entered on a roll of honor.

     6. Forfeitures--Dropping out of contest without cause, all
     credits earned; unexcused absence, all credits due; unexcused
     tardiness, 25 per cent off all credits due; less than 90 per
     cent in deportment for any month, 10 per cent off all credits
     due.

     These rules may be modified by teachers to suit local
     conditions. If the half-holiday system of awards is not
     satisfactory, some other system may be substituted.

     _To parents and guardians_:

     In this plan for giving school credit for home work it is not
     the intention of the school to intrude upon the domain of the
     home, but to coöperate with the home in the interest of the boys
     and girls. Here is a splendid chance for the school and the home
     to come closer together, and we believe both will be improved
     thereby.

[Illustration:

_Home Credit Schedule, School District No. 2 Jackson County, Oregon_

  _Name of Pupil, Goldie Trefren. Age, 11.  Grade, 4th.
  Month ending March 23, 1914_

  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
                                          |Credits| 1st| 2d | 3d | 4th| Total
                                          |       |week|week|week|week|
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Building fire                           | [6]1  |  7 |  6 |  7 |  7 |  27
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Milking cow                             |    1  | 15 | 15 | 15 |  8 |  53
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Splitting and carrying                  |       |    |    |    |    |
    in wood (12 hours' supply)            |    2  |    |    |    |    |
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Turning cream separator                 |    2  |    |    |    |    |
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Grooming horse                          |    2  |    |    |    |    |
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Gathering eggs                          |    1  |  6 |  7 |  5 |  4 |  22
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Feeding chickens, pigs, horse, or cow   |    1  | 12 | 12 | 11 | 12 |  47
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Churning or making butter               |    3  |    |    |    |    |
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Blacking stove                          |    3  |    |    |    |    |
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Making and baking bread                 |   10  |    |    |    |    |
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Making biscuits                         |    2  |    |    |    |    |
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Preparing meal for family               |    6  |  2 |  2 |  2 |  2 |   8
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Washing and wiping dishes               |    4  |    |    |    |    |
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Sweeping floor, each room               |    1  | 12 | 12 | 12 | 14 |  50
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Dusting furniture, each room            |    1  |  4 |    |  5 |  2 |  11
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Scrubbing floor, each room              |    4  |  2 |  2 |  2 |  2 |   8
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Making bed (after school)               |    1  |  2 |  2 |  1 |  1 |   6
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Washing, starching, and ironing own     |       |    |    |    |    |
    clothes, worn to school each week     |   30  |    |    |    |    |
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Bathing, each bath                      |    4  |  4 |  4 |  4 |  4 |  16
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Arriving at school with clean hands,    |       |    |    |    |    |
    face, teeth, nails, and hair combed   |    2  |  5 |  5 |  5 |  5 |  20
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Practicing music at least 30 minutes    |    2  |    |    |    |    |
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Retiring on or before 9 o'clock         |    1  |  7 |  7 |  7 |  7|   28
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Bathing and dressing baby               |    2  |    |    |    |    |
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Sleeping with windows open or with      |       |    |    |    |    |
    window-boards                         |    2  |  7 |  7 |  7 |  7 |  28
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
  Work not listed, per hour               |    6  |  8 |  6 |  5 |  4 |  23
  ----------------------------------------+-------+----+----+----+----+-------
    Total                                                               364

                                             L. S. TREFREN,
                                        _Parent or Guardian_

  [6] A task counting 1 done each day, gives seven credits for the
  week. ]

       *       *       *       *       *

The following letter, dated April 20, 1914, is from Mrs. Bertha
McKinney, of a district near Ashland, Jackson County.

     Pupils of the first, second, and third grades, who have earned
     two hundred credits in a month have a half-holiday. Those of the
     fourth, fifth, and sixth grades must have earned three hundred
     credits to entitle them to the half-holiday, and of the seventh,
     eighth, and ninth grades, four hundred credits. When all have
     the required number of credits, all have the half-holiday. I
     have twenty pupils, and all are doing the home credit work. I
     keep the record of the credits earned in a notebook, and place
     the number earned by each pupil on the monthly report card. I
     think the plan a good one, though in a few cases the parents are
     not careful enough with their part; that is, they sign the blank
     form, then the child can put down any number he pleases. I have
     had only one such case.

Superintendent Joel O. Davis, of Weston, tells of the manner in
which his school began to use home credits:--

     The opportunity came in October of last year, when an unexpected
     influx of pupils made it necessary for us to engage an extra
     teacher and adopt a departmental plan for the fifth to eighth
     grades inclusive. This made it necessary for those grades to
     prepare two lessons at home, thus making the required home
     reading a burden. I at once offered these students the choice of
     reading the required books, and writing the reviews, or making
     the points by home work, under the conditions as shown by the
     accompanying card. Nearly every child accepted the home work
     plan, and went to work enthusiastically.

On the opposite page is one of the Weston credit cards, filled out
by a pupil, Crete Allen:--

     _Home Work Record, Weston Public School_

     Credits will be given for the performance of the following named
     duties when this card is returned, at the end of the month,
     properly signed by the parent or guardian.

     These credits will be accepted in place of the home reading
     heretofore required, at the rate of 100 points for each book.

     The parent must check the work each day as performed.

     Any evasion or falsification of the record will forfeit all
     claim to credit.

     To obtain credit each duty must be performed by the child
     unaided by others, and must be well and satisfactorily done.

     No credit will be given for work that is paid for by the parent
     or others.

     Parents are requested to see that the above conditions are
     complied with and to encourage thoroughness and truthfulness by
     using care in recording so as to give no unearned credits.

     Make one mark, and only one, for each duty each day.[7]

  [7] All the marking is done by tallies, thus: ||||| ||||| ||||| ||||
  The reproduction on page 137 permits only the use of
  figures, to indicate the total tally marks.

[Illustration:

  -------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
                           | 1st | 2d  | 3d  | 4th |Total
                           | week| week| week| week|
  -------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
   1. Carrying wood        |   1 | ... | ... |   1 |   2
                           |     |     |     |     |
   2. Feeding horse        | ... | ... | ... | ... | ...
                           |     |     |     |     |
   3. Feeding cow          |  14 |  14 |  14 |  14 |  56
                           |     |     |     |     |
   4. Feeding pigs         |   5 |   3 |  14 |  14 |  36
                           |     |     |     |     |
   5. Feeding chickens     | ... | ... |   1 |   3 |   4
                           |     |     |     |     |
   6. Milking cow          |  42 |  56 |  43 |  50 | 160
                           |     |     |     |     |
   7. Cleaning stable      |   7 |   3 |   6 |   6 |  22
                           |     |     |     |     |
   8. Washing dishes       |   1 | ... | ... | ... |   1
                           |     |     |     |     |
   9. Drying dishes        |   2 |   1 | ... | ... |   3
                           |     |     |     |     |
  10. Making bed           | ... |   2 | ... |   2 |   4
                           |     |     |     |     |
  11. Sweeping room        |   3 | ... | ... |   5 |   8
                           |     |     |     |     |
  12. Setting table        |   8 |   5 |   4 |   2 |  19
                           |     |     |     |     |
  13. Clearing table       |   1 |   1 | ... |   1 |   3
                           |     |     |     |     |
  14. Tidiness             |   7 |   7 |   5 |   6 |  25
                           |     |     |     |     |
  15. Brushing teeth       |   5 |   2 |   2 |   4 |  13
                           |     |     |     |     |
  16. Cleaning nails       |   6 |   2 |   2 |   4 |  14
                           +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
           Total           | ... | ... | ... | ... | 370
  -------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----

  No. 14 includes general tidiness, hanging hat and coat, putting
  away clothes, shoes, stockings, etc., and will be given
  more credit than any other one duty. Parents should use care
  in marking this number, as the aim is to inculcate habits of
  neatness and thoughtful consideration of others. This end
  can easily be defeated by careless or unfair marking.

  I hereby certify that the above record is true and correct.

                MRS. J. E. ALLEN (_Parent or Guardian._)]

       *       *       *       *       *

At the close of a later letter Mr. Davis wrote:--

     From my experience with this experiment I feel that the plan
     is worth all it costs and more, that it should be extended to
     include all the grades, that modifications to meet the needs of
     different communities can easily be made, and that the pupils
     and patrons of any district will appreciate and support some
     such plan if it is carried out faithfully. I kept a ledger
     account with every child, and at the end of the month posted a
     bulletin exhibiting the condition of each pupil's account. The
     interest was shown by the manner in which they gathered about
     the board and compared their credits. Some of the comments upon
     some lazy boy's or girl's lack of effort were rather caustic,
     but served as effective spurs to the delinquent.

In Pend Oreille County, Washington, six weeks is the unit of
time for credit records. Miss Hester C. Soules, the County
Superintendent, has issued the following circular:--

THE HOME WE WORK TOGETHER THE SCHOOL SCHOOL CREDIT FOR HOME WORK

In order that the school and home may unite forces, that the school
may help in establishing habits of home-making, and that our boys
and girls may be taught that their parents are their best friends
and need their help, the following system of credits has been
devised for use in the schools of Pend Oreille County.

_Certificate of Promotion with Distinction_

Any pupil who has completed the work of his grade in a satisfactory
manner is entitled to PROMOTION WITH CREDIT to the next higher
grade, provided he obtains 300 points for Home Work. He is entitled
to PROMOTION WITH HONOR if he earns 500 points.

Six weeks' faithful and regular performance of the home duties
listed below will entitle the pupil to credit as indicated.

                                                             Points

   1. Sawing, splitting, and carrying in wood and
      kindling                                                   25
   2. Building fires or tending furnace                          20
   3. Caring for horse or cow and doing other barn
      chores                                                     15
   4. Caring for poultry and gathering eggs                      10
   5. Working in the school or home garden, or on the
      farm                                                       20
   6. Delivering milk or carrying water                          20
   7. Running errands cheerfully                                 10
   8. Doing without being told                                   20
   9. Mowing the lawn                                            20
  10. Feeding pigs                                               10
  11. Making a bird-house and feeding the birds                  20
  12. Making useful piece of woodwork for the home               25
  13. Cleaning barn                                              20
  14. Churning                                                   15
  15. Turning Cream Separator                                    10
  16. Retiring at nine o'clock or before                         10
  17. Bathing at least twice each week                           15
  18. Sleeping in fresh air                                      15
  19. Getting up in the morning without being called             10
  20. Preparing one meal alone daily for the family              25
  21. Blacking stove                                             10
  22. Helping with the breakfast, and with the dishes
      after breakfast                                            15
  23. Preparing smaller children for school                      10
  24. Not being tardy                                            10
  25. Cleaning teeth daily                                       20
  26. Making own graduating dress--Eighth Grade                  30
  27. Writing weekly letter to some absent relative--Grandmother
      preferred                                                  20
  28. Reading and reporting on one approved
      library book                                               20
  29. Reading aloud fifteen minutes or longer each
      night to some member or members of the family
      circle                                                     20
  30. Practicing music lesson thirty minutes daily               25
  31. Building fence, 10 rods                                    20
     Fence may be built at intervals during any one period of six weeks.
  32. Clearing 1/4 Acre of land                                  30
     Land may be cleared any time during the school year and at
     different times provided the 1/4 A. is completed before school closes.
  33. Care of younger children                                   20
  34. Raising one fourth acre of vegetables                      20
  35. Taking sole care of plants and flowers                     15
  36. Sweeping floor and dusting furniture                       10
  37. Making beds                                                10
  38. Mopping and caring for kitchen                             10
  39. Scouring and cleaning bath tub and lavatory                15
  40. Helping with the washing                                   20
  41. Sprinkling and ironing clothes                             25
  42. Making and baking bread, biscuits or cake. Exhibit         25
  43. Setting table and serving                                  15
  44. Helping cook supper and helping do the dishes after
      supper                                                     20
  45. Doing own mending                                          20
  46. Learning to knit or crochet                                15
  47. Raising six varieties of flowers                           15
  48. Making piece of hand-work for the home                     25
                                                               ----
         Total                                                  840

  _Certificate of Promotion with Distinction_

  ---- having completed the work of
  the ---- Grade in the Pend Oreille County Schools, in
  a satisfactory manner, and having earned ---- points
  in our Home and Outside Industrial Work Plan, is
  hereby promoted to the ---- Grade with ----
  ---- and is commended for Industry, Fidelity to
  Home and Cheerful Helpfulness.

  Given at Newport, Washington, this ---- day of
  ----, 191 .

  ---------------------   -----------------
  _Superintendent_.            _Teacher_.

The city of Los Angeles, California, uses a plan of marking home
work on the report card and giving no other incentive. Notice that
a certain number of minutes daily for ten weeks is the unit, and
that the number of minutes varies according to the age of the child.
Observe the emphasis on care of yards and streets, also on care of
little brothers and sisters.


_Report of Committee on Home Credits, Los Angeles Schools_

The Committee on Home Credits makes these recommendations:--

     1. That the "Home Credits" be not used as a substitute for other
     work, and also that they be not applied to increase the grade of
     other subjects except as any work well done necessarily improves
     all work of the child.

     2. That the words "Home Credit" be written on the new cards
     just published, and that in the future these words be printed as
     a regular part of the card, with space for inserting the number
     of credits.

     3. That in the several grades the following constitute one
     credit:--

     (_a_) First and second grades, 10 minutes of daily work for 10
     weeks.

     (_b_) Third and fourth grades, 15 minutes of daily work for 10
     weeks.

     (_c_) Fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth grades, 20 minutes of
     daily work for 10 weeks, and that multiples of such work in
     10, 15, 20 minutes be allowed so that a child may earn several
     credits each ten weeks.

4. That the following subjects be selected for the initial trial of
the plan:--

   1. Taking care of the baby.
   2. Bathing baby.
   3. Washing or wiping dishes.
   4. Washing or ironing clothes.
   5. Washing windows.
   6. Scrubbing floor.
   7. Sweeping floor.
   8. Setting table.
   9. Dusting and putting room in order.
  10. Sweeping or cleaning yard.
  11. Sweeping sidewalk.
  12. Cleaning street in front of home.
  13. Care of garbage can.
  14. Getting meals.
  15. Making beds.
  16. Mending clothes.
  17. Making new or making over old clothes for family.
  18. Working in shop or store.
  19. Working in and caring for garden.
  20. Running errands, going to market, store, etc.
  21. Driving delivery wagon.
  22. Selling papers.
  23. Taking little brothers and sisters to school,
      clean and on time.
  24. Clean hands, faces, clothes.
  25. Clean heads.
  26. Raising poultry or rabbits.
  27. Any other outside work peculiar to particular
      district if approved by Supervising Superintendent.

WEEKLY RECORDS, THREE OR MORE MONTHS' REPORTS

Mr. F. W. Simmonds, superintendent of city schools, Lewiston, Idaho,
has instituted a plan for daily and weekly records with a report for
three months, which he writes is "working out most successfully."
The statement of his particular scheme which he gives in his home
credit record folder is accompanied by an excellent presentation of
the nature and scope of the home credit plan in general:--

     _A Plan for School and Home Coöperation_

     One of the vital problems of school administration to-day is
     that of securing closer coöperation between school and home
     life. When the child learns that _education is living and
     working the best way_ he has made considerable progress on the
     educational road. Our school curriculum should encourage this
     wholesome attitude toward the everyday tasks.

     Children must have time for real play and plenty of it, but
     let us not forget that real work is also a part of the child's
     rightful heritage, and that when rightly directed, children
     like to work--they are eager to take part in some of the
     real activities of life. However, they must not be permitted
     to attempt too much--a reasonable amount of _work well done
     regularly_ and suited to the child's age and ability is what is
     desired.

     _Filling out this card is optional with the parent_, no grade
     on the quality of the work done by the child is asked for,
     merely the approximate time regularly devoted to that task.
     Note the time; one half-hour, one hour, two hours, etc., in the
     proper column on this card. Your filling out and signing this
     card will assure us that the work was well done, regularly and
     satisfactorily.

     The work may include any one or more of the multitude of home
     tasks, or any work done regularly, as sewing, ironing, washing
     dishes, preparing meals, baking, cutting kindling, gardening,
     milking, caring for poultry, feeding stock, making beds, music
     lessons, tending furnace, etc.

     Some tasks occur daily (others weekly, as regular Saturday
     chores, music lessons and the like). Nothing less than a
     _half-hour_ is to be recognized, though two or more tasks may be
     grouped to make a half-hour daily or weekly. The average child
     will be anxious to figure his home service in the large; but
     a reasonably conservative "statement of account" will have a
     greater disciplinary value, and will make for efficiency.

     The _unit_ of home credit will be _one half-hour's daily work
     throughout the month_. Time spent on regular weekly tasks
     will be adjusted by the teacher to this basis. If the work in
     quantity, quality and regularity is deemed worthy, the teacher
     will credit the pupil with the number of home credits earned,
     which will be added to the pupil's standing at the end of the
     semester in determining promotion. Each _unit_ of credit in home
     work will have the effect of raising a monthly grade in some
     subject one step as from _poor_ to _fair_, or _fair_ to _good_,
     etc. By means of home credits, a pupil has an opportunity to
     raise his promotion standing to "Promoted with Honor," or
     "Promoted with Highest Honors" as the case may be, if he should
     lack a point or two, and have earned enough home credits to
     offset this.

In the Borough of the Bronx in New York City, Mr. Frederick J.
Reilly began to give school credit for home work in the fall of
1914. He issues two cards of different colors, one for the girls and
one for the boys. The cards are alike except for the words "he" and
"she." Notice that the cards are well planned for use in city homes.
At present they are used by the children of seventh and eighth
grades. Mr. Reilly says, "The important thing is not the amount
of credit the child receives in school, but rather the amount of
influence this may have upon the training of the child at home."

[Illustration:

  PUBLIC SCHOOL 33, THE BRONX    FREDERICK J. REILLY, Principal

  _Home Record of_..........   _Class_........   _Term, 19_........
  ===========================================================================
  This record card is part of an effort to bring the home and the school
  closer together; pupils will receive credit in school for the things they
  do at home.

  Parents are invited to answer any or all of these questions as they see
  fit, leaving blank any that they prefer not to answer. There is nothing
  compulsory about this: children will not lose in class standing if the
  parents do not choose to fill out this card.  _Please return the card
  in the envelop, sealed_.
  ===========================================================================
          Answer I to V, Yes or No             |1st Mo.|2d Mo.|3d Mo.|4th Mo.
  ---------------------------------------------+-------+------+------+-------
  I.   Does he get ready for school on time,   |       |      |      |
       without constant urging?                |       |      |      |
  ---------------------------------------------+-------+------+------+-------
  II.  Is he careful about having his hair,    |       |      |      |
       neck, hands, shoes, etc., _clean_? |       |      |      |
  ---------------------------------------------+-------+------+------+-------
  III. Does he keep his books, clothes, etc.,  |       |      |      |
       in the places assigned for them?        |       |      |      |
  ---------------------------------------------+-------+------+------+-------
  IV.  Does he prepare his school work at a    |       |      |      |
       regular time and without constant       |       |      |      |
       urging?                                 |       |      |      |
  ---------------------------------------------+-------+------+------+-------
  V.   Does he go to bed regularly at a        |       |      |      |
       reasonable hour?                        |       |      |      |
  ===========================================================================
            Answer VI to X more fully
  ------------------------------------+--------------------------------------
  VI. Is he willing and helpful in    |1st Mo.
      little household duties? What   +--------------------------------------
      does he do regularly for which  |2d  "
      he deserves credit?             +--------------------------------------
                                      |3d  "
                                      +--------------------------------------
                                      |4th "
  ------------------------------------+--------------------------------------
  VII.  Does he attend faithfully to  |1st Mo.
  any extra lessons, as music,        +--------------------------------------
  dancing, gymnasium, religious       |2d   "
  instruction, etc.? If so, what?     +--------------------------------------
                                      |3d   "
                                      +--------------------------------------
                                      |4th Mo
  ------------------------------------+--------------------------------------
  VIII. Has he any hobby at which he  |1st Mo.
  spends a considerable part of his   +--------------------------------------
  time, as music, drawing,            |2d   "
  photography, electricity, gardening,+--------------------------------------
  collecting, etc.?                   |3d   "
                                      +--------------------------------------
                                      |4th   "
  ------------------------------------+--------------------------------------
  IX.   Does he read much?            |1st Mo.
        What does he read?            +--------------------------------------
                                      |2d   "
                                      +--------------------------------------
                                      |3d   "
                                      +--------------------------------------
                                      |4th  "
  ------------------------------------+--------------------------------------
  X.   Does he do anything else, not  |1st Mo.
  already mentioned, for which he     +--------------------------------------
  deserves credits?                   |2d   "
                                      +--------------------------------------
                                      |3d   "
                                      +--------------------------------------
                                      |4th  "
  ------------------------------------+--------------------------------------
  SIGNATURE OF PARENT:

  1st Mo.........................       3d Mo.........................

  2d  Mo.........................      4th Mo.........................
]

       *       *       *       *       *

Superintendent E. B. Conklin, of Ontario, Malheur County, in 1912,
was the next in Oregon after Mr. O'Reilly to send a letter to
parents, and to arrange for giving credits on home work. On page
149 are the inside pages of the folder that Mr. Conklin devised;
it was the first of the printed home credit report cards. Notice
the entries of manners, of "doing before told," and of "kindness to
animals."

       *       *       *       *       *

Mr. E. G. Bailey, superintendent of Ontario, 1913-14, writes that
they have been using home credits continuously there, and that the
system has proved to be a wonderful help. "It gets parents and
teachers together as nothing else can, and gives the superintendent
a show. The home work is to the teacher what the school work is to
the parent. The teacher is enabled to get an insight into the home
life of the pupil, which in turn enables her the better to deal
with whatever situation may arise. In the main the parents make an
effort to let the teacher know what the pupils are doing at home.
We have very few failures from parents not doing their duty in
this matter; where they fail, we refuse to send any report home.
Since adopting the system our attendance has been better, and the
punctuality has been better; in fact, things have been greatly
improved in every respect."

[Illustration:

  -------------------------------------------------------------------
                          E--Excellent. G--Good.
  -------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
  Sewing and mending.................. |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Bread-making........................ |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  General cooking..................... |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Setting and serving table........... |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Washing and wiping dishes........... |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Washing and ironing................. |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Sweeping and making beds............ |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Mopping and care of kitchen......... |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Care of younger children............ |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Making fires........................ |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Getting water, coal, kindling, etc.. |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Feeding stock or poultry............ |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Milking cows........................ |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Barn or yard work................... |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Garden or field work................ |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Errands............................. |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
                               F--Fair. P--Poor.
  -------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----

  Cheerfulness, kindness.............. |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Order and care of clothes........... |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Cleanliness, bathing, etc........... |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Table manners....................... |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Politeness.......................... |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Keeping temper...................... |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Doing before told................... |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Care of language.................... |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  At home--off streets................ |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Courteous to parents................ |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Kindness to animals................. |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Care of playthings.................. |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Home study.......................... |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
                                       |     |     |     |     |
  Ambition to succeed................. |.....|.....|.....|.....|.....
  -------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
]

       *       *       *       *       *

Early in December, 1913, a large meeting in the interest of social
center work was held in Roslyn, Washington. At this meeting the
city superintendent, Linden McCullough, explained the school credit
for home work idea. He advised that a vote be taken as to whether
the schools of that town should adopt the plan. The vote showed
that parents, teachers, and pupils were enthusiastic over the idea
and eager to try it. The Woman's Club of the city volunteered to
assist in every possible way. The following from letters from Mr.
McCullough gives the result of the trial:--

     Seventy-five per cent of our seven hundred and fifty pupils are
     taking advantage of the scheme. Our truant officer says that
     every parent he has talked with has praised the plan, for the
     reason that all the children do their chores with more spirit.
     Our police officers have noticed a falling-off in the number of
     children on the streets; so much so that juvenile court cases
     are much fewer in number. The teachers notice an improvement in
     school work along all lines.

     One boy in the fourth grade who was disagreeably indifferent
     about his personal care now takes baths regularly, and always
     brushes his hair, and keeps his clothing clean and neat. Roslyn
     has a large number of foreign people. Teachers in the first
     three grades say that parents of foreign children do not grasp
     the idea very well, but that older brothers and sisters explain
     its workings, and attend to keeping tab on the reports of the
     little children.

On the next two pages is a copy of the Roslyn folder. Notice the
entries of mending, cleaning yard, putting away playthings, work
done for wages, work "in father's place of business," home study
(school work), and reading good books.

[Illustration:

  _Home Credit Report Card, Roslyn Public Schools_

  _Name of Pupil_ ...... _Teacher_ ....... _Grade_ ...

  ----------------------------------+-----+------+-----+------+-----
                                    |First|Second|Third|Fourth|Fifth
                                    |month|month |month|month |month
  ----------------------------------+-----+------+-----+------+-----
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Caring for cows.................. |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Caring for chickens.............. |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Caring for horses................ |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Caring for hogs.................. |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Cleaning barn or yard............ |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Washing dishes................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Sweeping......................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Washing and ironing.............. |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Running errands.................. |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Caring for baby.................. |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Washing face and hands........... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Combing hair..................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Cleaning teeth................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Going to bed at.................. |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Arising at....................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Sewing........................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Making beds...................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Peddling milk or papers.......... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Scrubbing........................ |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Knitting......................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Mending.......................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Cleaning house................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Cleaning yard.................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Putting away playthings.......... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Baking........................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Carrying kindling................ |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Carrying coal.................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Making fires..................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Splitting wood................... |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Washing windows.................. |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Work done for wages.............. |.....|......|.....|......|.....
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Work, father's place of business. |.....|......|.....|......|......
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Caring for flowers............... |.....|......|.....|......|......
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Shoveling snow................... |.....|......|.....|......|......
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Home study, school work.......... |.....|......|.....|......|......
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Reading good books............... |.....|......|.....|......|......
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Cooking.......................... |.....|......|.....|......|......
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Gardening........................ |.....|......|.....|......|......
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Practicing music lesson.......... |.....|......|.....|......|......
                                    |     |      |     |      |
  Odd jobs......................... |.....|......|.....|......|......
  ----------------------------------+-----+------+-----+------+------
]

       *       *       *       *       *

In Wilbur, Washington, a scheme providing for a credit report for
the semester is in successful operation. Here Superintendent E. O.
McCormick carries on the plan by means of two report cards, the one
sent from the school to the home, the other from the home to the
school, every six weeks. The home card is reproduced below.

[Illustration:

  _Report Card from the Home to the School_

  _For_............................
                                _Name._

                .........................................
                                   _Parent or Guardian._

                         _First Semester_
  -----------------------+-----------------+----------------+----------------
           Period        |        1        |       2        |       3
  -----------------------+--------+--------+-------+--------+-------+--------
          Subjects       |Average |Quality |Average|Quality |Average|Quality
                         |Time    |of work,|Time   |of work,|Time   |of work,
      Answer yes or no   |Spent   |Good,   |Spent  |Good,   |Spent  |Good,
                         |Daily   |Fair,   |Daily  |Fair,   |Daily  |Fair,
                         |        |Poor.   |       |Poor.   |       |Poor.
  -----------------------+--------+--------+-------+--------+-------+--------
  Sleeping with open     |        |        |       |        |       |
  window                 |  ....  |  ....  |  .... |  ....  |  .... |  ....
                         |        |        |       |        |       |
  Keeping temper         |  ....  |  ....  |  .... |  ....  |  .... |  ....
                         |        |        |       |        |       |
  Washing teeth          |  ....  |  ....  |  .... |  ....  |  .... |  ....
                         |        |        |       |        |       |
  Time in recreation     |  ....  |  ....  |  .... |  ....  |  .... |  ....
                         |        |        |       |        |       |
  Off streets            |  ....  |  ....  |  .... |  ....  |  .... |  ....
  -----------------------+--------+--------+-------+--------+-------+--------


  This report sent to the teacher when the report card is returned to the
  school will help raise the standing of your child in its school work.

                                            E. O. MCCORMICK, _Supt_.

  The following subjects are of a suggestive nature; you may use as many
  as may be applicable to your child. Others not listed may be used. Write
  in the blank spaces on the front of this card those subjects under your
  observation.

  Sawing wood.
  Washing dishes.
  Care of house.
  Care of cows.
  Making beds.
  Sweeping.
  Ironing.

  In bed by nine (yes or no).
  Building fire in mornings.
  Care of chickens.
  Churning.
  Making bread, biscuits, etc.
  Preparing meals for family.
  Blacking the stove.

  Any work or interest in home as shown by the child should be noted on
  the front of the card, under the list of subjects.

       *       *       *       *       *

Mrs. Elizabeth Sterling, of Clarke County, Washington, was one of
the first county superintendents to get out a card suitable for
use throughout her schools. She strongly urged the teachers of her
county to try the plan, and in 1914 eighty-five teachers were
operating it. This card provides a record for the whole school year,
with a general average for the nine months. To secure credit the
pupil is required to average eight hours per week, or thirty-two
hours per month, at "real honest, helpful labor that relieves the
father and mother of that amount of work." This done, the teacher
is to add three credits to the average gained by the pupil at the
school during the month of his or her studies. Additional credits
are to be given for more than thirty-two hours per month at the rate
of one credit for every ten hours' work. The parent or guardian is
cautioned to keep track of the number of hours that the boy or girl
actually spends per week at any of the kinds of work named on the
credit report card, or any other real work that is not there listed.
The printed list comprises:--

  Milking.
  Churning.
  Turning separator.
  Caring for horses.
  Caring for cows.
  Caring for pigs.
  Caring for poultry.
  Cleaning barn.
  Splitting wood.
  Carrying in wood.
  Gardening.
  Cooking.

  Baking.
  Washing.
  Ironing.
  Sweeping.
  Dusting.
  Sewing.
  Running errands.
  Making beds.
  Washing dishes.
  Building fires.
  Caring for little children.



II

HOME CREDIT IN HIGH SCHOOLS


Several high schools have sent us reports of their plans for giving
credit for work outside of school. Some of these schools use plans
that differ considerably from those of the elementary schools where
the movement began; they lay emphasis on improvement in work,
and to this end they require that all the work be supervised by
the teachers of home economics, agriculture, commerce, or manual
training. Other high schools try to encourage the habit of industry,
no matter what the kind of work, and offer credit for such tasks as
running errands, delivering groceries, or carrying a paper route. In
my opinion both ideas are good; there is no end to the possibilities
of developing skill in home work under the instruction of one who
really knows how to do it, and there is also great value in the
encouragement of faithful industry in routine tasks.

[Illustration: AUBURN, WASHINGTON, HIGH SCHOOL BOYS IN RAILROAD SHOPS

This is good school equipment. It cost $200,000]

Descriptions of parts of the work of a few high schools are given
here.

In the High School of Santa Monica, California, two credits for
home work are allowed out of the total of sixteen required for
graduation, and pupils with a certain average standing who earn
eighteen credits, two of them for home work, may graduate _cum
laude_.

Below is given a list of tasks for which school credit will be
allowed:--

     _One-half credit per year_:--

  Regular music lessons, instrumental or vocal, under
    a competent instructor.

  Making own clothes for school.

  Doing family darning and mending.

  Preparing one meal a day for a year.

  Carrying paper route.

     _One-half credit for half-time for a year, or for full time for
     summer vacation_:--

  Clerking in store, bank, or office.

  Cement work, or work in any local trades or industries.

  Regular work on a farm.

     _One-half credit_:--

  Raising one-fourth acre of potatoes, melons, onions,
    strawberries, or similar products.

  Employment in a dressmaking or millinery establishment
    for summer vacation.

     _One-fourth credit per year each_:--

  Sleeping for one year in the open air.

  Retiring at 10 P.M. five days per week for one year.

  Taking a cold bath every morning five times per
  week on an average for one year.

  Walking three miles per day for a year.

Credit will be given for the following according to the amount of
work:--

     Public speaking or reciting. Reading aloud to family or to
     invalids.

     Horticulture. Gardening. Poultry-raising. Bee-culture.

     Taking care of cows or other animals. General dairy work.

     Sewing for the family. Doing the family laundry. House-cleaning,
     bed-making, dish-washing, or any other useful work about the
     house.

     Getting younger children ready for school every day. Caring for
     a baby.

     Nursing the sick.

     Making a canoe or boat. Taking full care of an automobile.
     Perfecting any mechanical contrivance for saving labor about the
     home.

     Recognizing and describing twenty different native birds, trees
     or flowers.

     Summer vacation travel with written description.

     Playing golf or tennis. Sea-bathing and swimming.

     Keeping a systematic savings bank account, with regular weekly
     or monthly deposits.

     Keeping a set of books for father or some merchant. Doing
     correspondence for father or other business man.

     Running errands. Delivering groceries.

     Singing in church choir. Teaching in Sunday school.

     Carpentry work. Cabinet-making, furniture construction.

     Working as forest ranger.

[Illustration:

  SANTA MONICA HIGH SCHOOL

                                        Date ........................ 191....

  I hereby declare my intention of earning ...... credits for home or outside
  work by doing .............................................................
  ...........................................................................

                     Signature of Pupil .....................................

  I approve of the above and agree to observe and certify to the quantity and
  quality of work performed.

                     Signature of Parent ....................................

  I hereby certify that ........................ has faithfully performed the
  above work, spending on the average ...... minutes per day for ....... days
  and is in my judgment entitled to ...... credits.

           Signature of Parent or Employer ..................................

  Credits granted ............... Prin.......................................
]

       *       *       *       *       *

In the High School at St. Cloud, Minnesota, great attention is paid
to vacation work as well as to work done during the school year. At
the beginning of the fall term the following questionnaire is sent
to high school pupils, and to elementary pupils above the fourth
grade:

_Vacation Report--Grades Five to Twelve_

                                         School.

  NOTE--Teachers are requested to have pupils fill out this blank
  carefully. It is very important. Explain each question. Caution children
  not to over- or under-estimate.

   1. Name ............. Age .............  Grade or Class ................

   2. Did you help at home during the summer vacation? ....................

   3. Did you take music lessons? ..... Travel? ..... Attend Summer School?

   4. Did you do any work along the line of agriculture, horticulture,
      gardening, bee-culture or poultry-raising? If so, what? .............
      ........ Estimate carefully the net profit ................... $.....

   5. Did you have a flower garden? ..............  Name six or more of the
      leading flowers that you raised. ....................................
      .....................................................................
      .....................................................................

   6. Name wild flowers, birds, or trees you have observed this summer.
      Flowers .............................................................
      Birds ...............................................................
      Trees ...............................................................

   7. What pieces of hand-work, if any, did you do during vacation?
      Wearing apparel .....................................................
      Household art .......................................................
      Wood ......................... Iron..................................
      Cement .............. Give estimated value of such hand-work $.......

   8. What electrical contrivance or other home accessory did you
      make to save your mother work? ......................................

   9. Which of the following home tasks did you do this summer?
      Prepare one meal alone daily? ...... Bake the bread? ................
      Bake a cake? ....................... Make the beds? .................
      Do the washing? .................... Do the ironing? ................

  10. Are you sleeping in the open air or with open window? ...............

  11. Can you swim 300 feet or more? ..... Did you learn this summer? .....

  12. Were you employed elsewhere than at home? ...........................

  13. State kind of work done ............ Employer .......................

  14. Number of weeks employed ........... Amount earned per week. $.......

  15. Total amount of cash earned during vacation.                 $.......

  16. Fair estimate of the value of your home work.                $.......

  17. Total cash value of your summer work (items 15 and 16).      $.......

  18. Have you a savings bank account? ... Amount of your deposit. $.......
      Principals ascertain amount of deposit for lower grades.     $.......

The financial results of this vacation work are summarized as
follows:--

                                              _Total_     _Deposit_
                     _Cash_     _Home Work_  _Earnings_  _in Bank_

  High School        $6,393.01   $1744.45    $8137.44   $2793.36
  Total for city     16,422.00    3666.15     9559.25    3144.92

    Highest individual earnings -- High School      $260.00
       "        "         "     -- Grades            200.00
    Average     "         "     -- High School        76.00
    Highest     "      deposit  --   "    "          300.00
       "        "         "     -- Grades            500.00

Pupils may graduate with honor from the St. Cloud High School by
attaining certain standings and by offering two credits for home or
continuation work. One of the sixteen credits required for regular
graduation may be a credit for home or continuation work.

The list of credits is divided into two parts, outside work and home
work. Among the many outside activities mentioned in the St. Cloud
list, we find:--

     Literary society work, or rhetoricals, debate, public speaking,
     or expressive reading, one-fourth unit per year.

     Granite or paving-block cutting, or work in any of the local
     trades, shops, factories, or industries, one-fourth unit for
     each summer vacation.

     Steady work on a farm, followed by a satisfactory essay on some
     agricultural subject, one-fourth unit for three months.

     Raising one-fourth of an acre of onions, tomatoes, strawberries,
     or celery, one acre of potatoes, two acres of pop corn, five
     acres of corn or alfalfa, one-fourth unit.

     Running a split road drag or doing other forms of road-building
     for three months, one-fourth unit.

     Judging, with a degree of accuracy, the different types of
     horses, cattle, and hogs, one-fourth unit.

     "See Minnesota First" trip under approved instructor, with
     essay, one-fourth unit.

Among the home tasks are mentioned:--

     Shingling or painting the house or barn.

     Making a canoe or boat.

     Swimming 300 feet at one continuous performance.

     Cooking meat and eggs three ways and making three kinds of cake.
     Exhibit.

     Doing the laundry work weekly for three months.

     Recognizing and describing twenty different native birds, trees,
     and flowers.

The Ames, Iowa, High School course outlines out-of-school work in
three departments: agriculture, manual training, and home economics.
I quote from the home economics prospectus:--

     Unless the work is ... made to connect with the work in the home
     it loses much of its vitality. Our aim is to relate the home and
     the school and permit each to contribute its share in making the
     work vital, really worth while. The girl ... may carry into the
     home some new ways of working, and there will be an exchange of
     ideas between mother and daughter as to hows and whys ... that
     will result beneficially to both. As the girl carries these
     ideas and discoveries back into the school we shall be able to
     know better the needs of home and social life, and hence so plan
     our work that it may "carry over" into her out-of-school life.

A total of two credits to apply on graduation may be earned in home
economics at the Ames High School. Three hundred points equal one
credit.

Two hundred points each are offered for cookery, general housework
and sewing.

     Cooking is to be done for the family at home, and whenever
     possible a sample brought to the school for examination,
     together with the recipes giving itemized cost, and a signed
     statement that the entire work was done by the girl herself. A
     list of things to be cooked is given: ten dishes are required,
     the other five are to be chosen from the list. The list for the
     first year follows; dishes required are marked with a star and
     receive seven points credit, the others receive six points.

  Some fresh vegetable cooked and served in a white
  sauce.

  Potatoes in some form.

  Tapioca.

  Rice.

  Macaroni.

  Muffins.

  *Baking powder biscuit.

  *Plain cake, with or without frosting.

  *Drop cookies.

  *Rolled cookies.

  *Pastry.

  *Gelatin with soft custard.

  Cottage cheese.

  Scalloped dish.

  Custard, or some kind of custard pudding (bread, rice,
  tapioca).

  Steamed brown bread.

  *Prune whip. }

  Marguerites. } One of these required; either may be chosen.

  Fondant candies.

  Salad with cooked or French dressing.

  *Sandwiches--three kinds of filling.

  *Bread.

  *Baked beans.

     General housework includes making girl's own bed each day; daily
     and weekly care of bedroom, helping with general housework
     one-half hour each day and one hour on Saturdays (sweeping,
     dusting, ironing, washing dishes, washing windows, etc.). The
     total credit for this is 12-1/2 points for one month.

     In the course in sewing, the home work is brought to school
     for examination and grading. The list for second year sewing
     follows:--

     One-third credit--100 points, open to girls who are taking, or
     who have completed second year sewing.

  Princess slip        50 points.
  House dress          75
  Shirt waist          50
  Woolen skirt         75
  Made-over dress      75
  Nice dress          100

The High School at North Yakima, Washington, gives credit for work
in music under approved teachers; for practice-teaching (coaching)
by normal students in the grades; and for work in agriculture.

The summer work in agriculture is planned before the close of the
school in the spring.

Each pupil informs the instructor in agriculture as to the kind of
work he intends to do. The instructor visits each pupil several
times during the summer, discussing methods of work, results, etc.,
with him and his employer, and designating pamphlets, bulletins,
and magazine articles for him to read. In 1914, fifty-four pupils
applied for credit for work in agriculture.

     _Rules for Summer Agricultural Work in North Yakima, Washington_

     1. Students may earn one credit in agriculture toward graduation
     by work completed outside of school during the vacation period.

     2. At least 250 hours of work must be completed before any
     credit will be given.

     3. Complete records and systematic reports kept by the
     applicant, giving all information required, and signed by the
     parent or employer, shall be filed with the instructor in
     agriculture every two weeks.

     4. Applicants shall secure such information as a result of
     reading, study, and questioning experienced workers, as may be
     necessary to convince the instructor in charge that the work has
     been of sufficient educational value to justify the granting of
     a credit.

     5. Pupils wishing to receive credit for this work shall make
     application for the privilege before beginning the work. Lists
     of reference books, kinds and character of notebooks, shall be
     designated by the instructor in agriculture.

     6. An examination covering the work may be given by the school
     authorities.

     7. Work may be done along the following lines:

     _a._ Vegetable gardening work; keeping results of work done in
     complete form.

     _b._ Feeding of stock, poultry, etc.; keeping records of foods
     used, amounts and results obtained.

     _c._ Thinning, picking, packing, marketing, cultivation and
     irrigation of fruits, etc.

     _d._ Eradication of blight, other orchard diseases and pests;
     complete records of attempts to reduce damage done by these
     causes.

     _e._ Growing of cereal, grass, or forage crops.

     _f._ Keeping records of dairy animals; milk testing records for
     monthly periods.

     _g._ Care of bees, handling of honey, etc.; complete records.



APPENDIX

KANSAS AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE BULLETIN


Mr. John C. Werner, of the college extension division of the Kansas
State Agricultural College, wrote in 1914 a very valuable bulletin
entitled "School Credit for Home Work," the essential features of
which are given.[8] Notice that he recommends that pupils furnish
the reports themselves over their own signatures, as putting them on
their honor is considered valuable, and in justice due them.

  [8] For other quotations from this bulletin, see pages 46, 50, and
  51.

In a letter Mr. Werner says: "My idea of giving credit is to use the
old laboratory method of requiring the student to do a reasonable
amount of work in a reasonable length of time. This allows for many
of the variable factors that enter into the problem; I think it is
better than to give so many points of credit for each piece of work
done."

     In the first six grades of the elementary school, where so much
     depends upon using the child's knowledge which he has gained
     from actual experiences about home, and the environment with
     which he comes in contact which is really a part of himself,
     we have the best basis for his further education. In these
     grades it will be raising and not lowering our standards when
     we give credit for home work and add it to the school credits
     for passing grades. All of the subjects of these grades should
     be so closely affiliated with the home life of the child as to
     warrant our doing this. It is so important that the child be
     engaged in the actual doing of things that the perfect grade of
     100 per cent should be divided into two divisions: (1) A maximum
     of 90 per cent for school work. (2) A maximum of 10 per cent for
     home work when proper records and reports are kept.

     In the seventh and eighth grades and in the high school, work
     corresponding to the age and ability of the pupils should
     be introduced and made part of the laboratory work, giving
     two fifths of a unit of credit. Here written reports of the
     operations performed should be worked out by the pupils and
     presented as class work. Classes should visit the dairy barns,
     feeding pens, gardens, corn or grass fields, orchards, etc.
     Pupils should carry on considerable individual home work, which
     should continue throughout the summer as well as winter season.
     This credit should be counted in agriculture, domestic arts and
     manual-training courses.

     The various contests among the boys and girls, that are
     conducted in all parts of the state, certainly should be
     counted worthy of school credit. These contests are directly or
     indirectly under the auspices of the Agricultural College, and
     numerous bulletins are sent to the contestants. Many children
     actually receive in these contests almost the equal of a year's
     course in school.


_Suggestive List of Subjects for Credit for Home Work_

  1. _Agriculture_

  Milking cows.
  Feeding horses.
  Cleaning cow barns.
  Cleaning horse barns.
  Feeding cows.
  Feeding sheep.
  Feeding beef cattle.
  Feeding hogs.
  Feeding poultry.
  Watering stock.
  Churning.
  Turning separator.
  Tending fires.
  Running errands.
  Digging potatoes.
  Hitching and unhitching horses.
  Beating rugs.
  Hauling feed.
  Pumping water.
  Cutting wood.
  Carrying in fuel.
  Getting the cows.
  Gathering eggs.
  Tending to the poultry house.
  Tending pig pen.
  Bedding of stock.
  Preparing kindling.
  Miscellaneous.

  2. _Domestic Arts_

  Preparing meals.
  Making biscuits.
  Baking bread.
  Baking cake.
  Baking pie.
  Washing clothes.
  Ironing clothes.
  Caring for baby.
  Overseeing home while mother is away.
  Scrubbing floor.
  Washing dishes.
  Wiping dishes.
  Making beds.
  Sweeping the house.
  Dusting rugs.
  Airing bedclothes.
  Ventilating bedroom.
  Dressing the baby.
  Canning fruit.
  Caring for milk.
  Sewing.
  Dusting furniture.
  Care of self.
  Making dress.
  Making apron.
  Care of teeth.
  Setting the table.
  Care of sick.
  Miscellaneous.

  3. _Manual Training_

  Making farm gate.
  Making peck crate.
  Making chair.
  Making clothes rack.
  Making pencil sharpener.
  Making T-square.
  Making towel roller.
  Making ruler.
  Making picture frame, halved
  together joints, end and center.
  Making mortise and tenon joint.
  Making bookrack.
  Miscellaneous.
  Making ax handle.
  Making hayrack.
  Making ironing board.
  Making cutting board.
  Making tool rack.
  Making staffboard liner.
  Making vine rack.
  Making sandpaper blocks.
  Making mail box.
  Open mortise and tenon joint (end).
  Making halving joint, or angle
  splice joint.
  Making feed hopper.
  Making whippletree.
  Making wood rack.
  Making bench hook.
  Making coat hanger.
  Making nail box.
  Making table.
  Making flower-pot stand.
  Making key board.
  Making pen tray.
  Making mortise and tenon joint
  (center).
  Making dovetail joint.
  Making panel door.
  Making work bench.

  4. _Home Contests_

  Corn acre contest.
  Poultry and pig contest.
  Sewing contest.
  Potato plot contest.
  Tomato contest.
  Canning contest.
  Garden contest.
  Bread-baking contest.
  Miscellaneous.

_Plan for Allowing Credit_

It is absolutely essential in taking up this work that the teacher
make a careful survey in her neighborhood of the kinds of home work
that the pupils have opportunity to do. The pupils should be put
on their honor in reporting their work, and the teacher must work
out the amount of credit time the various items are to receive, and
from the pupils' reports grade the work. A large number of items
should be included and given their relative weight. Quality as well
as quantity must be judged by the teacher. This supplies a working
basis for coöperation between home and school.

Besides the credits earned in the particular subjects of
agriculture, domestic arts and manual training, where 216 hours will
add two fifths of a unit, other work may be given some additional
credit up to say 10 per cent, as physiology and geography. It is
also possible that subjects such as English and arithmetic may be
so correlated as to be at least partially considered in connection
with the agriculture, domestic arts, and manual training by the
composition required and the problems furnished.

It is not expected that any boy or girl will enter all of the
contests. Contests which require 216 hours' work should be given two
fifths of a unit credit in the subject to which it belongs. If the
child in the contest is below the seventh grade, the work should add
to his entire school grade up to 10 per cent. The fairness of this
plan will appeal to the boys and girls, for the girl or boy who has
third, fourth or fifth place in the contest deserves credit as well
as the one who wins first place.

It is the object in the credit for home work both to recognize
and give credit because of the educational value to the child of
such work which he does with his hands, and it is also hoped to
develop the child into a better worker, so that the work performed
will be constantly of a higher order as the child grows older. In
other words, we have a constantly changing variable as the child
grows older as to the time necessary to do certain work, and the
proficiency with which the work is done. Speed in doing things is
not the only consideration, and yet all work should be done with
reasonable dispatch.

In inaugurating this work it seems that the ordinary laboratory
method for giving credit is quite as well adapted to home laboratory
work as it is to school laboratory work. If the perfect grade, 100
per cent in the elementary school in grades 1 to 6, inclusive, be
divided into two parts, i.e., a maximum of 90 per cent for school
work and a maximum of 10 per cent for home work for all pupils who
desire to do the home work, then one tenth of the number of hours
in the school year may be taken as the basis for credit. Counting
the double period, as should be done, 216 hours or 6 hours per week
would be the required time for the nine-months' term of school to
receive full credit. The pupil would, therefore, need to work at
home six hours per week. This work should be scattered throughout
the week as evenly as possible, with the opportunity of doing not
to exceed three hours' work in any one day, as, for example, on
Saturday. As in the laboratory system, the pupils, regardless of
the overtime put in, could only receive full credit for any year.
Pupils who do not have the chance for home work will not be affected
in their work, as the usual method of grading will apply to them.
Conditions must determine the time necessary for any given piece of
work. For example, if one boy feeds a team of horses in ten minutes,
another in fifteen minutes, another in five minutes, and another in
thirty minutes, under similar conditions, perhaps one boy is working
too rapidly and another too slowly. From such reports it seems that
twelve to fifteen minutes should be allowed for feeding a team of
horses.

The best and most profitable division of time for the home work
would be about thirty minutes, both morning and evening, each day.
During these work periods different things should be done, and
during the year it is to be hoped that a large variety of different
kinds of work may be included. If the home is in sympathy with the
child's work it can help very materially in setting tasks for the
child that are of the most profitable nature.


_Reports to Teachers_

The pupils should furnish the reports themselves over their own
signatures for the home work. Putting them on their own honor is
valuable and in justice is due them. Since results must be produced
in most kinds of work, the teacher can judge quite accurately as to
the value of work.

[Illustration:

_Illustrative Report Card_

  _Weekly report home work._                 _Date_....................
  _Elementary school_.

                                              _Pupil_...................

  ----------------+---------------+--------------------------------------------
                  |               |       Time spent each day.
                  |               +------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-----
  Work.           |Remarks.       |      |       |       |       |       |
                  |               |  M.  |  T.   |  W.   |  T.   |  F.   |  S.
  ----------------+---------------+------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-----
  Feeding horses. |1 team, twice  |      |       |       |       |       |
                  |each day       |  20  |  22   |  20   |  18   |  20   |  20
  ----------------+---------------+------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-----
  Cut wood        |1/2 cord, stove|      |       |       |       |       |
                  |length         |      |       |       |       |       | 150
  ................|...............|......|.......|.......|.......|.......|.....
                  |               |      |       |       |       |       |
  ................|...............|......|.......|.......|.......|.......|.....
                  |               |      |       |       |       |       |
  ................|...............|......|.......|.......|.......|.......|.....
  ----------------+---------------+------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-----
]

       *       *       *       *       *

Credit for seventh and eighth grades and high school grades should
be allowed for efficient home work when properly reported as
laboratory requirement in agriculture, domestic arts and manual
training. In these grades all careful, systematic work during the
summer season, as well as the regular school year, such as corn
acre, garden, potato plot, tomato, poultry, pig, canning, sewing,
cooking, and butter-making contests, should be used for laboratory
credit. Of course accurate records of the work must be made at
the time the work is performed. Schools that have an agricultural
teacher during the entire year will directly supervise this work. In
other schools the reports will be used as part of the next year's
regular class work. Suitable report blanks should be used by the
pupils and kept in laboratory notebook form.

The pupils of seventh, eighth and high-school grades who do 216
hours of acceptable home work should be given two fifths of a unit
of credit in the subjects of agriculture, domestic arts, or manual
training. Here again the pupil should do some different kinds of
work and make the experience somewhat varied. In the home laboratory
the teacher will determine a standard amount of work of any kind to
be performed in a given time.



CALIFORNIA REPORT ON OUTSIDE ACTIVITIES


At the January, 1914, meeting of the California Teachers'
Association the following report on credit for work done outside of
the school was submitted by Mr. Hugh J. Baldwin:--


     _Credit for Work Done Outside of School_

     Fulfilling the wishes of this organization, your committee
     sent communications to the heads of departments of large
     manufacturing and commercial interests, to managers of railroads
     and educational institutions, requesting information on lines
     of work upon which you wished a report. Not only were the
     circulars answered promptly, but, in many cases, the answers
     were remarkable. Some of them suggested in definite language how
     outside activities might be made harmoniously supplemental to
     our regular school work, better articulated therewith than had
     been planned.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Many strong reasons were given; one of the most potent was that
     the innovation would change the present attitude of the average
     person towards labor--in other words, to dignify the labor
     of the land, to honor and respect the woman who can prepare
     nourishing food in the kitchen or the man who can contribute to
     the world's wealth from his garden.

     Another strong thought from this compilation of opinions
     resulted in the contrast between the systems of American and
     German polytechnic or manual training education. The German
     schools secure the coöperation of the factories and shops and
     stores where there is particular industrial training given, all
     without cost to state or municipality for the tuition. On the
     other hand, in the United States, the only manual training that
     has been attempted by the school authorities has been at greater
     expense to the people.

     In communities where there is no special educational industrial
     training the subject of this committee work is very important.
     "Outside Activities," or credit on school reports for work
     done by school children at home, has now a place in the course
     of study of San Diego County. The plan has passed from the
     experimental stage, having been given a thorough tryout in all
     the schools. From all parts of the county reports have come
     full of enthusiasm telling of the excellent working of the
     plan. To be sure there are a few adverse reports. We find that
     communities largely Mexican in complexion evince little interest
     in the plan.



INDEX


  Agriculture, 19, 131, 156, 162, 164, 165, 168.

  Alderman, Superintendent, 17.

  Algebra, 8, 9, 24, 25, 34, 35.

  Algona, Wash., 42, 107, 110.

  Ames, Iowa, 162-64.

  Arithmetic, 27, 30, 31, 47, 58, 61.

  Ashland, Ore., 135.

  Auburn, Wash., 28, 29.


  Bailey, E. G., 148.

  Baldwin, Hugh J., 174.

  Banks and banking, 13.

  Banner, school, 13, 14.

  Bathing, 41, 42, 51, 107, 125.

  Belknap, Mrs. E. H., letters, 48, 49, 69, 70.

  Bellingham, Wash., 104.

  Benton County, Ore., 6.

  Blanks, home credit. _See_ Cards.

  Bread-making, 8, 10, 65.

  Bulletin for teachers, Spokane County, Ore., 89, 90.

  Burns, Miss Veva, 124.

  Burnt Ridge, Wash., 84, 85.


  Cake-making, 22, 92.

  Calavan, C. C., 110, 111.

  California Report on Outside Activities, 174, 175.

  Canning, 130.

  Cards, home record, 71-172.

  Care of language, 41.

  Certificate of Promotion with Distinction, 138-41.

  Charleston, Wash., 128, 130.

  Cheerfulness, 41.

  Cheney, Wash., 92.

  Chores, 17, 36, 120, 121, 151.

  Church attendance, 110, 111, 132.

  Clackamas County, Ore., 14, 32, 154.

  Claxton, Mr., Commissioner of Education, 6.

  Cleaning yard, 151.

  Cleanliness, 11.

  Commerce, 156.

  Conklin, Superintendent E. B., 6, 148.

  Consolidation of schools, 25.

  Contests, rules of, 73-80, 83, 103, 104, 113, 114, 126, 130-33;
    for summer agricultural work, 165, 166. _See_ Prizes.

  Cooking, 8, 10, 34, 48, 118, 163.

  Coöperation, of parents and teachers, 39, 46-48;
    plan for school and home, 143-45.

  Courtesy to parents, 41.

  Cowlitz County, Wash., 102.

  Credit for home work, system of, author's article on, 3-6;
    the case of Mary, 7-10;
    in O'Reilly's school, 11-23;
    revitalizing effect of, 25-33;
    honors labor, 34-38;
    illustrative cards of, 71-155;
    in high schools, 156-66.

  Credits, prizes for, 11-13, 19-22, 32, 37, 88, 90, 97, 124, 128.

  Credit-vouchers. _See_ Vouchers.

  Crook County, Ore., 6.


  Daily reports, 73-172.

  Dallas, Ore., 125.

  Davis, Superintendent Joel O., 135, 136.

  Dish-washing, 9, 34, 118.

  "Doing before told," 41, 148.

  Domestic arts, 48, 51, 130, 169.

  Domestic science, 22, 49, 50, 130.

  Drawing, 36, 37.

  Dudley, W. E., 30.

  Dunlap, Oscar L., 88.

  Dykstra, R. G., 120.


  Elliott, Superintendent H. W., 128, 130, 131.

  Eugene, Ore., High School, 47.

  Eveline, Wash., 96.


  Fairs, school, 19-22, 128, 130.

  Farm labors, 28, 30-32, 52.

  Feeding the poultry, 42.

  Fitchburg, Mass., 30.

  Forfeitures, 79, 80.


  Garage work, 28, 29.

  Gary, T. J., article by, on O'Reilly's school, 14-18.

  General housework, 163, 164.

  Geometry, 29.

  Grades, 36.


  Habit-building, 39-45.

  Harrowing, 31.

  Health, care for, home duty, 11.

  Heath, Harry F., 96-98.

  High schools, home credit in, 156-66.

  History, 9.

  Hoagland, Mrs. Sarah J., story by, 60-65;
    letter from, 65-68.

  Holidays, 16, 37, 70, 84, 90, 121, 124, 125, 135.

  Holton, Kansas, 77.

  Home contests, 169. _See_ Contests.

  Home credit plans, illustrative, 71-175. _See_ Plans, Rules.

  Home economics, 130, 156, 162, 163.

  Home study, 151.

  Home work, newspaper article on, by author, 3-6;
    inception of idea, 7;
    Spring Valley School, 11-23. _See_ Plans.

  Hopewell High School, 23.

  Horticulture, 131.

  Housekeeping, 51.

  Hover, Wash., 47.


  Idaho plan, 125.

  Illustrative home credit plans, 71-175.

  Immorality among children, 44.

  Industrial work, 4, 5, 21.

  Industry, 40.

  Interest in work, 26.


  Jackson County, Ore., 132, 134, 135.

  James, William, quoted on habit, 39.

  Jefferson, Ore., 48.

  Jenkins, Lucia, 104.


  Kansas State Agricultural College, 50;
    Bulletin, 72, 167-73.

  Keeping temper, 41.

  Kindness, 41;
    to animals, 148.

  King County, Wash., 107.


  Labor, honoring, 34-38.

  "Laboratory of the Rural School, The," 51, 52.

  Lane County, Ore., 6, 22.

  Letters, from teachers and school officials: Mrs. Hoagland, 65-67,
        69, 70;
    N. V. Rowe, 83, 84;
    Mrs. Toman, 85;
    O. L. Dunlap, 88;
    McFarland, 91;
    Miss Merritt, 96;
    H. F. Heath, 96-98;
    Miss Jenkins, 103, 104;
    Mrs. Maynard, 106, 107;
    Miss Burns, 124, 125;
    Miss Rarey, 125;
    Mrs. McKinney, 135;
    J. O. Davis, 135-38;
    Linden McCullough, 150, 151;
    J. C. Werner, 167;
    other teachers, 94;
    from parents, 94, 95;
    from pupils, 92, 93, 105;
    from a Portland woman, 120.

  Lewis County, Wash., 96.

  Lewiston, Idaho, 143.

  Los Angeles, Cal., 141-43.


  Mack, A. R., 77.

  Making garden, 85.

  Malheur County, Ontario, 148.

  Manners, 148.

  Manual training, 131, 156, 162, 169.

  Marion County, Ore., a letter from, 69, 70;
    card system of, 86, 88.

  Marks, 37.

  Mary, the story of, 7-10.

  Mathematics, 29. _See_ Algebra, Arithmetic, Geometry.

  Maynard, Mrs. Lou Albee, 104, 106.

  McCormick, Superintendent E. O., 153.

  McCullough, Linden, 150.

  McFarland, E. G., 88, 91, 94.

  McKinney, Mrs. Bertha, 135.

  McMinnville, Ore., 7.

  Mending, 151.

  Merritt, Miss Lizzie K., 95.

  Military drill, 47.

  Milking, 30.

  Minnehaha, Wash., 30.

  Montana, a school in, 65-68.

  Music, 131, 164.

  Myrtle Creek, Ore., 48.


  Neatness, 41.

  Nebraska, a story from, 60-65.

  New York City, 145.

  North Dallas School, Polk County, Ore., 122, 124.

  North Yakima, Wash., 164-66.


  Ontario, 148.

  Oregon, University of, 3;
    teachers in, 6;
    Mr. O'Reilly's school at Spring Valley, 6, 11-23;
    home credit schools in, 71.

  Oregon City, 14.

  _Oregon Teachers' Monthly_, 120.

  O'Reilly, A. J., home credit school of, 6, 11-23, 41;
    his method of daily reports, 72-77.


  Parents, and teachers, coöperation between, 39, 46-48, 120;
    letters from, 94, 95.

  Pend Oreille County, Wash., 138.

  Percentages, 36.

  Personal care, 41, 42, 108, 112, 113.

  Plan for school and home coöperation, 143-145.

  Plans, illustrative home credit: Spring Valley School, 73-77;
    Holton, Kan., 77-83;
    St. John, Wash., 83, 84;
    Burnt Ridge, Wash., 84, 85;
    Salem Heights, Wash., 88;
    Spokane Co., 89, 90;
    Eveline, Wash., 96-101;
    Cowlitz Co., Wash., 102-04;
    District 61 School, Wash., 104-07;
    Algona, Wash., 107-12;
    Portland, Ore., 112-20;
    Polk Co., Ore., 120;
    Suver, Ore., 120-23;
    North Dallas, Ore., 124, 125;
    near Dallas, Ore., 125;
    Idaho, 125-27;
    Charleston, Wash., 128-32;
    Jackson Co., Ore., 132-35;
    Weston, Ore., 132, 135-38;
    Pend Oreille Co., Wash., 138-41;
    Los Angeles, Cal., 141-43;
    Lewiston, Idaho, 143-45;
    the Bronx, New York City, 145-47;
    Mr. Conklin's, 148;
    Ontario, 148-50;
    Roslyn, Wash., 150-53;
    Wilbur, Wash., 153, 154;
    Clarke Co., Wash., 154, 155;
    Santa Monica, Cal., 157-59;
    St. Cloud, Minnesota, 160-62;
    Ames, Iowa, 162-64;
    North Yakima, Wash., 164-66;
    Mr. Werner's, 167-73.

  Politeness, 41.

  Polk County, Ore., 6, 11, 120, 122.

  Portland, Ore., 32, 36, 112-14.

  Portland home credit record, 42.

  Practice-teaching, 164.

  Practicing music, 85.

  Prizes, for credits in home work, 11-13, 19-22, 32, 37, 88, 90,
        97, 124, 128.

  Purpose, lacking in schools, 49.

  Putting away playthings, 151.


  Rarey, Miss Miriam H., 125.

  Reading good books, 151.

  Record cards, 71-172.

  Reilly, Frederick J., 145.

  Report of committee on home credits, Los Angeles, 141-43.

  Reports, daily, 73-172.

  Responsibilities, 36, 52.

  Roslyn, Wash., 150.

  Rowe, N. V., 83.

  Rules of contests, 73-80, 83, 103, 104, 113, 114, 126, 130-33;
    for summer agricultural work, 165, 166.

  Running errands, 156.


  Sadie and Stella, 53-59.

  St. Cloud, Minnesota, 160-62.

  St. John, Wash., 83.

  Salem, Ore., 11, 14, 19, 20.

  Salem Heights, Ore., 88.

  Santa Monica, Cal., 157-59.

  Sawing wood, 85.

  School and home coöperation, 143-45.

  "School Credit for Home Work," 167.

  Schoolhouse janitor, 95.

  Schools, consolidation of, 25.

  Scrubbing, 42.

  Sewing, 3, 47, 51, 163.

  Seymour, Superintendent, 13, 14, 122, 124.

  Shepherd, Miss Grace M., 125.

  Sheridan High School, 22.

  Shopwork, 28.

  Simmonds, F. W., 143.

  Sleeping with window open, 44.

  Slips, home credit. _See_ Cards.

  Smith, W. M., 86.

  Soules, Miss Hester C., 138.

  Spelling, 32, 33;
    contest, 13, 14, 18.

  Spokane, Wash., 32, 89, 91.

  Spokane Chamber of Commerce, 89.

  Spokane County, Wash., 88, 89, 91, 95.

  Spring Valley, Ore., Mr. O'Reilly's school at, 6, 11-23, 72-77.

  Standings, 36.

  Stella and Sadie, 53-59.

  Sterling, Mrs. Elizabeth, 154.

  Suggestions for using "Home Record Slip," 112, 113.

  Sunday school attendance, 110, 132.

  Suver, Polk County, Ore., school at, 120.

  Sweeping, 42.


  Tardiness, 27, 57, 84, 121.

  Teachers, and parents, coöperation between, 39, 46-48;
    a story from, 60-65;
    letters from, _see_ Letters.

  Tidiness, 137.

  Todd, Mr., 28-30.

  Toman, Mrs. Verona E., 84, 85.

  Toothbrushing, 41-43, 107.


  Umatilla County, Ore., 132.


  Vacation report, 160, 161.

  Vancouver, Wash., 32.

  Voice, care of, 43.

  Vouchers, 77, 96-99.


  Walking, credit for, 120, 121.

  Wasco County, Ore., 6.

  Washing dishes, 9, 42.

  Washington, home credit schools in, 71.

  Weekly reports, 86, 88.

  Wells, J. Percy, 132.

  Werner, John C., 167.

  Weston, Ore., 132, 135, 136.

  Weston Public School, 136.

  Whitman County, Wash., 83.

  Wilbur, Wash., 153.

  Winship, Dr., 11.

  Work, done for wages, 151;
    in father's place of business, 151. _See_ Labor.


  Yamhill County, Ore., 6, 24.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's note:

Minor typographical errors have been corrected without note.
Irregularities and inconsistencies in the text have been retained as
printed.

The illustrations have been moved so that they do not break up
paragraphs.

Mismatched quotes are not fixed if it's not sufficiently clear where
the missing quote should be placed.

The cover for the eBook version of this book was created by the
transcriber and is placed in the public domain.

Rather than |||||, tally marks in the book are four upright bars with
the fifth bar crossing the other four diagonally. See footnote 7, and
pages 130 and 181.

In addition to obvious errors, the following changes have been made:

     1. Page 118: the word "a" was added in the phrase: "a lonely art
     student"

     2. Page 133: transposed words "be will" were corrected to "will
     be" in the phrase: "will be improved"





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