By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Florida: Past and present - together with notes from Sunland, on the Manatee River, - Gulf Coast of South Florida
Author: Upham, Samuel Curtis, 1819-1885
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Florida: Past and present - together with notes from Sunland, on the Manatee River, - Gulf Coast of South Florida" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive)























The Land of the Orange and Guava,
The Pine-Apple, Date, and Cassava.




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1883,
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.






Two or three letters written by myself to friends at the North having
found their way into print, I have been literally flooded with letters
during the past six months, from all sections of the Union and British
Provinces, asking for information in relation to the Manatee region of
Florida. Hundreds have been replied to, and many remain unanswered for
want of time. This little book has been written with the belief that it
will answer the requirements of my numerous correspondents, and also
prove a welcome guest to others who desire reliable information
concerning this portion of the Gulf coast of South Florida. With these
brief remarks I cast my little waif upon the tide of public opinion,
with the hope that favorable breezes will waft it into the hands of
those who will be benefited by its perusal.

_Braidentown, Florida, April 1, 1881_.



When I published the little _brochure_--"Notes from Sunland"--two years
ago, the Gulf Coast of South Florida was, comparatively speaking, a
_terra incognita_. The favor with which that work has been
received--having passed through three editions--and at the request of
numerous correspondents in the United States, Canada, and Continental
Europe, I have concluded to enlarge the work and make it more general in
its scope--the former work being confined exclusively to the Manatee
region. In reply to the question from different sections of the Union:
"Are you as well pleased with the Manatee region as when you wrote
'Notes from Sunland'?" I reply, emphatically, "Yes!" The longer I live
here the more thoroughly I am convinced that it is the Sanitarium of the
world. In addition to twenty-five pages of letter-press, I have added
an additional illustration and a map of the Gulf coast of South Florida.
I have placed the publication of the book in the hands of those
well-known and reliable publishers, the Ashmead Brothers, of
Jacksonville, Fla., who will supply the book to the trade and also
furnish it to the public. With many thanks for the patronage bestowed
upon my former book, I trust the present will be found equally


_Braidentown, Fla., August, 1883._



Thirty years ago the word Florida was synonymous with mosquitoes,
alligators, snakes, and Indians. As a part of this Union, it was at that
time considered financially a worthless sand-spit, which had cost our
Government fifty million dollars and many lives in the almost fruitless
effort to rescue it from the hands of the wily Creeks and Seminoles, who
occupied the middle and southern portions of the State. From the date of
Dade's massacre by Osceola's band near Brooksville, in December, 1835,
which sent a thrill of horror throughout the length and breadth of our
land, to the surrender of Billy Bowlegs in 1858, a period of nearly
twenty-five years, war was waged by our Government under the leadership
of Generals Worth, Scott, Harney, Taylor, and their subordinates, with
the result above stated.

In order to fully understand and appreciate the present condition of
Florida, some little knowledge of her history is indispensable; for
without such knowledge, the sparseness of the present population of the
State is inexplicable, when taken in connection with its genial climate,
its natural fertility, and the immense scope of its possible
agricultural production. "If Florida possesses so great a variety and
power of vegetable growth, and such a desirable climate, why is it not
more densely populated?" is a question answered only by a glance at her
past history.

The honor due to the first discovery of the land which now constitutes
the southern extremity of the United States is generally awarded to that
famous and eccentric old Spanish adventurer, Juan Ponce de Leon.
Nevertheless, the validity of his claim to that honor is liable to some
dispute. Several authorities of very good credit maintain that Sebastian
Cabot, in the year 1497, traced the whole line of the American coast as
far southward as 36° 9´ north latitude; and Peter Martyr avers that he
sailed to the west of the meridian of Cuba. From this account it does
not appear that Cabot proceeded further southward than the mouth of the
Chesapeake Bay, the latitude of which corresponds nearly with that of
the Straits of Gibraltar, and the longitude with that of the eastern
extremity of Cuba. It can scarcely be doubted that Ponce de Leon was the
first European who landed on any part of that ground which is now
occupied by the Southern States of our Republic. The purpose for which
he visited this country has exposed his memory to no little ridicule;
but his childish delusion is entitled to more indulgence and respect
than the sordid and hypocritical motives which induced so many of his
countrymen to become explorers and crusaders in America. Juan Ponce, for
the purpose of discovering the location of the "Fountain of Youth," set
sail from Porto Rico, on the 3d day of March, 1512. After a short voyage
he came to a country covered with flowers and verdure, and as the day of
his discovery happened to be Palm Sunday, called by the Spaniards
_Pasqua Florida_, he bestowed the name of Florida on the country in
commemoration of this circumstance. Thus the first European discovery of
Florida took place on the second day of April, 1512.

The next visit to Florida by Europeans was made in the year 1520, by
Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, who kidnapped one hundred and thirty Indians
and sailed for San Domingo, where he sold them as slaves. In the year
1524, Giovanni da Verazzano, a Florentine sea-captain in the service of
the French Government, coasted from Florida as high as Cape Breton.

On the 17th day of June, 1527, Pamphilo de Narvaez left Spain with five
ships and six hundred men, being authorized by the Spanish Government
to explore and take possession of "all the lands between Rio de las
Palmas and Cape Florida." The fleet was much damaged by a hurricane, and
was obliged to remain at Cuba for more than six months to be refitted.
In February, 1528, Pamphilo again embarked; and after a short and
prosperous voyage, landed his army at the bay of Santa Cruz, Florida.
Having formally taken possession of the country, and proved that he was
in earnest by pillaging some of the villages, Pamphilo began to
interrogate the natives respecting the precise locality of that immense
deposit of gold which he expected to find in Florida. In their answers
to these inquiries, the Indians, wishing to hasten the departure of
their unwelcome guests, directed the gold-hunters to a distant region
called Apalacha, assuring them that the shining metal could there be
obtained in the greatest abundance. After a wearisome march, the
Spaniards reached the designated place on the 26th day of June. The
ungrateful behavior of the Spaniards soon provoked the hostility of the
natives, and before they had an opportunity to make any mineralogical
researches Pamphilo was compelled to retreat. While endeavoring to make
his escape to the seashore, he was closely pursued by the natives, who
killed two hundred of his men--about one-third of the whole number.

The whole country being aroused, Pamphilo found it impossible to return
to his ships, which were probably destroyed by the Indians. The
Spaniards, therefore, took the shortest route to the coast, and came to
the bay now known as St. Marks. The Apalachian Indians being satisfied
with driving the intruders from their territory, abandoned the pursuit
when that object was gained. They arrived at St. Marks in a starving
condition, their only food being horse-flesh. All their ingenuity was
now employed to effect some means of escape from the country. They
erected a forge on the beach, and, with great toil and difficulty,
converted their swords, lance-heads, stirrups, and bridle-bits into
nails, saws, and hatchets. Having thus provided themselves with the
proper instruments, they felled trees, shaped the timber, and finally
constructed several very inelegant specimens of marine architecture. In
the meanwhile all their horses were consumed for food; and when they
embarked in their rude batteaux, their thin, ghastly, Tanner-like
appearance might have reminded a spectator of that shadowy boat-load of
"magnanimous heroes" so graphically described by Virgil in the Sixth
Book of his celebrated Epic. All the boats were subsequently wrecked
near the mouth of the Mississippi, and all on board perished, except
Cabeca de Vaca, the treasurer of the expedition, and four common
soldiers. The survivors, after enduring many toils and sufferings,
finally reached Spain in August, 1537.

In the latter part of May, 1539, Hernando de Soto landed his troops on
the eastern shore of Hillsborough Bay, above the mouth of the Little
Manatee River, and commenced his toilsome overland march, which ended in
his death and burial in the Mississippi River, on the 5th day of June,
1542, three years and one month afterward. In 1562 it is probable that a
temporary settlement was formed near the mouth of the St. Johns River by
Ribault, a Frenchman.

In 1564, under the protection of Admiral Coligny, a settlement of
Huguenots was formed under the leadership of Lardonierre, on the south
bank of the St. Johns, about six leagues from its mouth. This settlement
was called Caroline, and was completely destroyed by the Spaniards under
Menendez in 1565, who massacred all that escaped death in the fight,
"not as Frenchmen, but as heretics." This murderous act was fully
avenged by a Frenchman--De Gourges--who, in 1659, led an expedition
especially against Fort Caroline, and massacred the Spanish garrison,
"not as Spaniards, but as cut-throats and murderers." In 1565 the same
Menendez founded a Spanish colony at St. Augustine, _thus establishing
the first European town on the continent of America_.

In 1584, as the result of various expeditions, the area of Spanish
occupation and conquest had become so extended that the authority of
Spain was acknowledged by the natives, not only throughout Florida, but
as far west as the Mississippi and as far north as the mountains of

In 1586, St. Augustine was attacked and plundered by a party of English
adventurers under Sir Francis Drake. In 1611, it was pillaged by the
Indians, and in 1665 was sacked by another party of English pirates, led
by the freebooter, Davis.

In 1689, Pensacola was settled by the Spanish.

In 1702, St. Augustine was unsuccessfully attacked by Governor Moore, of
the English colony of South Carolina. In 1725, Colonel Palmer, of
Georgia, also failed in an effort to capture the city, and in 1740,
General Oglethorpe, of Georgia, was signally repulsed in a similar

In 1763, the whole territory of Florida was ceded by Spain to Great
Britain in exchange for Cuba; but the entire population of the territory
at that time did not exceed six hundred.

In 1767, Dr. Trumbull, an English colonist, located at New Smyrna,
"imported fifteen hundred Corsicans and Minorcans, having deluded them
by unstinted promises of land and employment at high wages, and then
subjected them to a system of oppression, similar and scarce less
severe than slavery, till after a lapse of some ten years they escaped
in a body from his servitude and betook themselves to St. Augustine,
where they settled down, and ultimately became a prominent and valuable
element of the population of that section."

In 1781, the Spanish captured Pensacola, and the English again lost
possession of Florida. In 1784, the territory was once more formally
ceded to Spain. In 1812, Fernandina capitulated to the troops of the
United States, but was, during the following year, re-delivered to the
Spanish Government.

In 1814, the English forces, under the command of Colonel Nichols,
entered and manned the forts of Pensacola, although the whole territory
was nominally under the control of Spain; and in 1818, General Jackson
attacked and captured Pensacola in behalf of the United States.

In 1819, Florida was purchased by the United States, and was formally
ceded by Spain. In 1822, a territorial government was established; in
1845, Florida was admitted into the Union, and in January, 1861, she

In the language of the talented and lamented J. S. Adams: "What a
picture does this brief abstract of the leading features in the history
of Florida present! Discovered by Ponce de Leon in 1512; permanently
settled in 1565; ceded to Great Britain in 1763, with a population of
only six hundred, after a colonial existence of two hundred years;
re-ceded to Spain in 1784; sold and ceded to the United States in 1819;
receiving a territorial government in 1822; admitted to the Union in
1845; seceding in 1861; and reconstructed in 1868; sacked and pillaged
repeatedly by Europeans; shifting its nationality from time to time, and
losing almost its entire population by each change; harassed and
plundered by repeated Indian wars from 1816 to 1858, and just as
prosperity began to dawn, plunged unnecessarily into the useless
slaughter of a hopeless rebellion, she has suffered every evil,
political and social, that does not involve absolute extinction. Is it,
then, a matter of surprise that Florida is so sparsely populated?"



Florida lies between the degrees of twenty-five and thirty-one north
latitude, and eighty to eighty-eight west longitude from Greenwich. The
northern boundary being nearly three hundred and fifty miles from east
to west, and its length from north to south, nearly four hundred miles.
It is in the same latitude as Central Arabia, Northern Hindostan, the
Desert of Sahara, the northern portion of Burmah, the southern part of
China and Northern Mexico. The average width of the peninsula is about
eighty miles, and every part is fanned by either the Trade or Gulf
winds, rendering the air delightfully pleasant in midsummer. The most
marked geographical feature of the State is the enormous extent of
coastline--the Atlantic and Gulf exceeding eleven hundred miles, with
numerous large bays, offering great facilities for commercial
intercourse. The northern part of the State is hilly and rolling.
Midway of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, an elevated ridge extends
through Middle and South Florida to Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades,
gradually sloping to the Atlantic Ocean on the east and to the waters of
the Gulf of Mexico on the west. The elevated lands are mostly pine,
interspersed with black-jack, post, and water-oak. At the base and along
the water courses, are rich hammock lands bordered with flat and rolling
prairie, with the everlasting scrub palmetto everywhere. The southern
portion of the State is at this time a vast cattle range, embracing
thousands of acres on which a surveyor's chain has never fallen.

In 1860, the population of Florida was 140,000; in 1880, it was 267,000,
and at this time, it is probably in round numbers 300,000. When the vast
area of the State, sixty thousand square miles, comprising nearly
thirty-eight million acres of land, is taken into consideration, it will
be seen that we are not badly crowded. The sale by Governor Bloxham of
four million acres of "swamp land" to the Disston and Anglo-German
syndicates is a mere bagatelle.

The county in which I reside--Manatee--is nearly as large as the
combined States of Connecticut and Rhode Island. It is truly a county of
"magnificent distances," the county seat, Pine Level, being forty miles
south of the villages of Braidentown and Manatee, on its northern
border. "No pent-up Utica contracts our powers." We do things on a large
scale. We raise the most luscious oranges, the largest watermelons, and
the most appetizing pineapples and bananas on the face of the earth; and
I do not think I elongate the truth when I say, that in point of size
our alligators, mosquitoes, and grasshoppers will compare favorably with
those of any other country. Our frogs are also as sprightly as Mark
Twain's "jumping frog of the Calaveras." Our cucumbers, tomatoes,
snap-beans, squashes, and cabbages reach the cities of the North and
West three months in advance of any other State of the Union.

If there is one thing above all others of which we feel justly proud, it
is our superb climate. The "glorious climate of California," and the
sunny clime and golden skies of Italy bear no comparison with it. It is
indescribable, and must be seen and felt in order to be fully
appreciated. A Baptist clergyman--Hard-shell--who visited Braidentown
last winter, was so fascinated and infatuated with the climate and
surroundings that he said he verily believed that he was then nearer
Paradise than he ever expected to be again while in the flesh.

A timid person occasionally asks, "Are there Indians still in Florida?"
A remnant of the once warlike Creeks and Seminoles--scarcely two hundred
souls, including males, squaws, and papooses--still have an abiding
place on the Caloosahatchee, the Kissimmee, and in the Big Cypress
Swamp, south of Lake Okeechobee. They are peaceably disposed, and only
mingle with the whites when they visit the country stores to dispose of
their peltry and game and replenish their ammunition. Chipco and the
elder Tigertail, two of their former chiefs, have been called to the
"happy hunting-grounds" during the past two years. The former was a
centenarian, having attained the green old age of one hundred and ten
years. He participated in the Dade massacre, near Brooksville, in 1835.
The latter died by the visitation of God, having been killed by
lightning while crossing the Kissimmee in his canoe. The Indians have
several negro slaves in their secluded camps, who have never been
informed that the Emancipation Proclamation of the martyred Lincoln
loosened their shackles and made them free men.

The questions are frequently asked: "What crops can you raise in
Florida? What can be grown on your soil?" The agricultural,
horticultural, and pomological products of Florida are more varied than
those of any other State of the Union. The northern, northeastern, and
northwestern parts of the State, as well as Middle Florida, are
admirably adapted to the cultivation of oats, barley, corn, Irish
potatoes, cotton, and tobacco. At the Atlanta Exposition, two years ago,
Florida was awarded the first premium for sea island cotton, rice, and
sugar. The peach, plum, Le Conte pear, several varieties of the apple
and grape, and all the small fruits are indigenous to the soil and
climate of those portions of the State. South Florida, composed of the
counties of Hernando, Sumter, Orange, Volusia, Brevard, Polk,
Hillsborough, Manatee, Monroe, and Dade, is the land of the orange and
all semi-tropical fruits. The guava, pineapple, banana, cocoanut, date,
sugar-apple, sapodilla, mango, alligator-pear, and other tropical fruits
thrive admirably in the lower counties, south of the twenty-eighth
degree of latitude. South Florida is also the natural home of the
sugar-cane. There it ratoons from six to eight years and tassels. The
cultivation of early vegetables for the northern and western markets is
also a large and remunerative industry, which has been recently
inaugurated on the hammocks bordering the Manatee Bay, on the Indian
River, and on the numerous keys or islands along the Gulf coast, between
Sarasota and Cape Sable. The cassava has also proved to be a
remunerative crop in South Florida when properly cultivated. The
introduction of jute and Sisal hemp, in the near future, will also add
materially to the wealth of the southern counties of the State. The
flat prairie and swamp lands, now considered almost worthless for
agricultural purposes, will then blossom as the rose.

Dwelling in an almost perpetual summer, one would naturally suppose that
the climate would prove enervating to the human system. Such is not the
fact. In midsummer the weather is of a very pleasant temperature, the
nights being uniformly cool, and sultry days, so common in the North, of
very rare occurrence. So agreeable are the summers, there is little
choice between them and the winters, and many of the oldest settlers
prefer the former. Florida, in common with other States of the Union, is
sometimes afflicted with drouths, and there is sometimes a
superabundance of rain; but, as a general rule, the seasons are regular
and well adapted to all the valuable staples of the country. Frequent
showers occur during the spring and early summer, and about the first of
July the rainy season fairly sets in and continues until the first of
October. Although rain falls on nearly every day during this season, it
seldom ever rains all day. These rains fall in heavy showers, generally
accompanied by thunder and lightning, but are seldom of more than two
hours' duration. They generally occur early in the afternoon, leaving
for the balance of the day a cloudless sky and a delightfully cool
atmosphere. Paradoxical as it may seem, our winters are warmer and our
summers cooler than those of the Northern and Western States. The
mercury in the thermometer rarely reaches 96° Fahrenheit in midsummer,
and at Braidentown, Manatee County, only on two occasions during the
past four years has it fallen as low as 38°.

The general healthfulness of Florida is proverbial. That its climate is
more salubrious than that of any other State of the Union is clearly
established by the medical statistics of the army, as well as by the
last census returns. The report of the Surgeon General of the United
States Army, demonstrates the fact that diseases which result from
malaria are of a much milder type in Florida than in any other part of
the United States. Among the troops serving in Florida, the number of
deaths to the number of cases of remittent fever has been much less than
in any other portion of the Union. In the Middle Division of the United
States, the proportion is one death to thirty-six cases of remittent
fever; in the Northern Division, one to fifty-two; in the Southern
Division, one to fifty-four; in Texas, one in seventy-eight; in
California, one in one hundred and twenty-two; in New Mexico, one in one
hundred and forty-eight; while in Florida, it is but _one in two hundred
and eighty-seven_. As a health resort for invalids suffering from
pulmonary complaints, Florida stands pre-eminent. Her invigorating,
balsamic breezes, with healing on their wings, soon banish the hectic
flush from the cheek of the invalid, and health and strength return once
more to cheer and gladden the hearts of despairing friends.

A description of Florida lands published by Dr. Byrne in 1860 applies
with equal truthfulness at the present time. In every State and
Territory in the Union there is a large proportion of barren and poor
lands, but the ratio of these lands differ greatly in the different
States. Florida has a due proportion of poor lands, but compared with
other States, the ratio of her _barren_ and _worthless_ lands is very
small. With the exception of the Everglades and her irreclaimable swamp
lands, there is scarcely an acre in the whole State of Florida that is
entirely worthless, or which cannot be made, under her tropical climate,
tributary to some agricultural production. Lands which in a more
northern climate would be utterly worthless, will in Florida, owing to
her tropical character, yield valuable productions. For example, the
poorest pine lands of Florida will produce without fertilizing a
luxuriant crop of Sisal hemp, which yields more profit to the acre than
the richest land when cultivated in sugar, cotton, and tobacco. So it is
with jute and numerous other valuable tropical products that are adapted
to the lands that in more northern climates would yield nothing to
agriculture. Besides this, there are in Florida no mountain wastes, and
most of the land not under cultivation is covered with valuable timber.

The classification of lands in common use being based on their elevation
and the character of their vegetable growth, does not indicate very
fully the character of the soil. There are the hammock, pine, and swamp
lands. Then there is the high or light hammock, and the low or heavy
hammock. Of pine lands, there are the first, second, and third rate. The
characteristic of hammock land as distinguished from pine is in the fact
of its being covered with a growth of underbrush and vines, while the
pine lands are open. Whenever, then, the land is not so low as to be
called swamp, and produces an undergrowth of shrubbery, it is called

The school lands of Florida--five hundred and seventy thousand
acres--are subject to entry at from one dollar and twenty-five cents to
seven dollars per acre, according to quality and location. The swamp
lands--eight and a half million acres--belonging to the State on the 1st
of May, 1882, are graded in price according to the number of acres,
varying from one dollar per acre for a tract of forty acres down to
seventy-five to seventy cents per acre for tracts of six hundred and
forty acres and over. The Disston Syndicate paid twenty-five cents
per acre for four million acres of swamp land, in bodies of ten thousand
acres each. The commutation price of United States lands is one dollar
and twenty-five cents per acre. Unimproved lands in the hands of private
parties are selling at from five to fifteen dollars per acre; improved
land at from twenty to fifty dollars per acre, the value depending on
location, latitude, improvements, etc. There are also large tracts of
land in Florida known as "Spanish grants," which are chiefly owned by
non-residents, and which can be purchased at reasonable prices.

[Illustration: SCENE IN A SOUTH FLORIDA HAMMOCK--_Page 28._]

Governor Bloxham recently stated that the present financial condition of
Florida is a fit subject for congratulation. There is at all times money
in the Treasury to pay accrued liabilities, while the amount of the
bonded debt is only one and a quarter millions, and the assessed value
of the property of the State is thirty-seven millions. The condition of
our public schools is decidedly progressive. There are at this time over
twelve hundred schools in the State, and last year a fund of $139,000
was raised to support them.

Places of worship may be found in all our settlements; not gorgeous
edifices, with steeples and spires pointing heavenward, but
unpretentious and comfortable structures, in which all denominations of
Christians assemble to worship God according to the dictates of their
own consciences. The Methodists are the most numerous. Next in point of
numbers, the Baptists of different grades of shell, from hard to soft,
may be enumerated. Then come the Presbyterians, Episcopalians,
Campbellites, and Catholics, with a slight sprinkling of other
denominations by way of variety. The religious status of the population
of Florida, like the climate, is rather above the average of other
sections of the Union. There is an indescribable element in the climate
of Florida which is conducive of religious fervor. Several immigrants
from the North and West, whose piety never cropped out until their
arrival in Florida, have been suddenly seized with a call to preach. In
some parts of South Florida, local preachers are nearly as numerous as
laymen, and it is often highly amusing to hear them expound the
Scriptures, and see them wrestle with theology.

The Fountain of Youth, sought for in vain by Ponce de Leon three hundred
and seventy years ago, is in Florida. Time has not dried up the source
of its health-giving, its life-giving, waters. They flow as of yore, and
every one who thirsteth can partake of them freely. Invalids and
pleasure-seekers find it in our glorious climate, in our invigorating
breezes, which blow as soft and balmy as those from Ceylon's isle; in
our beautiful flowers and almost perpetual verdure, and in the total
absence of the chilling winds and frosts of the North and West, which
render life almost unendurable. De Soto and his followers sought our
shores in quest of _El Dorado_. That also is in Florida. You see it in
our productive soil, in our vast orange groves, in our bananas,
pineapples, guavas, and pomegranates, which no other State of the Union
can produce. Who then shall say that both the "Fountain of Youth" and
"_El Dorado_" are not within the boundaries of Florida? Our climate is a
perpetual summer; the husbandman tickles the soil with the plow and hoe,
and it laughs with an abundant harvest; the stately magnolias and
graceful palms lock hands in our hammocks and wave their evergreen
foliage as a token of welcome to immigrants, and wild flowers gladden
the eye and perfume the air with their fragrance.



The Manatee River, or, more properly speaking, bay, is one of the most
picturesque sheets of water in Florida. It is fourteen miles in length,
with an average width of one and a half miles. One of its
tributaries--the Manatee River proper--extends still further eastward,
some twenty miles; and another northward, half that distance. Its course
is nearly due west to Egmont Key, where it mingles its waters with those
of Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. It lies between the twenty-seventh
and twenty-eighth parallels of north latitude, and in longitude 5-1/2°
west from Washington. A person passing up the bay on the mail steamer
for the first time, will be charmed with the tropical and semi-tropical
scenery that meets his view on either side of the bay, from its mouth to
Braidentown, the present terminus of steamboat navigation. Egmont Key,
with its forest of cabbage palmettos nodding their evergreen plumes in
the morning sun; the stately date-palms and olive trees on Snead's
Island, on the north side of the bay, and the pretty villas surrounded
by young orange and banana groves on the south side, between Palmasola
city and Manatee, form a landscape of rare tropical beauty, unexceled in
the land of flowers, and unrivaled by the fairest scenes in Italia's
famed land.

Until quite recently, this part of Florida, the great sanitarium of the
world, has, comparatively speaking, been a sealed book to the invalids
and pleasure-seekers of the North and West, who spend their winters in
Jacksonville, St. Augustine and the towns on the St. Johns, Halifax and
Indian Rivers, and console themselves with the idea that they have seen
all parts of Florida worth visiting. The principal drawback which the
Gulf coast has had to contend with, and which partially exists at this
time, is lack of speedy transportation and comfortable hotel
accommodations. These are being remedied, and, when the Manatee region
shall have become as thickly populated as the St. Johns, our facilities
for transportation, etc., will equal those of the Atlantic coast.

The railroad now being built by Eastern capitalists, between Palatka on
the St. Johns and Tampa at the head of the bay of that name on the Gulf
coast, will be completed within two years. Then the iron horse, with
bowels of fire, muscles of steel and breath of steam, with a shriek and
a snort, will rush over the metallic track and annihilate time and space
so rapidly, that the Atlantic and Gulf coasts will be within a few hours
of each other. A narrow-gauge railroad from Tampa to the Manatee, and
thence to Sarasota Bay, will soon follow, giving us direct and rapid
communication with the principal cities of the North and West. The
round-about route over King David's Transit Railroad to Cedar Key, and
thence by steamboat to the Manatee, will then be abandoned, and
henceforth remembered only as a necessity of by-gone days. The recent
completion of the Louisville, Nashville and Great Southern Railroad,
with a terminus at Pensacola, will soon give us direct and speedy
communication with the cities of Louisville, Nashville, Cincinnati,
Indianapolis, Chicago and St. Louis, and open up the best and most
available markets for the fruits and vegetables of the Gulf coast.
General Alexander, Vice-President of this company, recently expressed
his willingness to assist in the establishment of a line of steamers
between Pensacola and Manatee, touching at other points along the coast.

Our climate is far superior to that of any other part of Florida; and, I
do not think I hazard much in saying, to that of any part of the
habitable globe. Having, during a somewhat eventful life of sixty-two
years, visited Europe, Asia, Africa, South and Central America, Mexico
and California, I say, and "I say it boldly," that in my varied travels,
nowhere have I found so healthful and desirable a climate as "Sunland,"
on the Manatee Bay. We are exempt from ice and the chilling blasts that
sweep along the St. Johns and Halifax, and also from tornadoes and
hurricanes, so destructive on the Atlantic coast.

Insects are neither numerous nor troublesome. I have been worse annoyed
by mosquitoes in the City of Philadelphia than in this part of Florida.
The ubiquitous flea is, I admit, rather prevalent here, but one soon
becomes reconciled to his habits, and honors his drafts whenever he
presents his bill. Snakes are not as numerous here as in Pennsylvania.
There are, however, rattlesnakes and moccasins in Florida. The former I
have never seen, and the latter but seldom. Those that came under my
observation, appeared to be worse frightened than I was, and made a
hasty exit. Alligators are not numerous in this section, and are
comparatively harmless. Like a once noted statesman, they desire to be
let alone. If closely cornered, they will fight; but they prefer to run,
if a chance is offered for escape.

Braidentown, the embryo town of the Manatee, is situated on the south
side of the bay, about eight miles above its entrance into Tampa Bay.
Located on a bluff some fifteen feet above tidewater, it commands a fine
view of the surrounding country and of the entire bay. Being constantly
fanned by the breezes from the gulf "with healing on their wings," it is
in point of healthfulness all that the most fastidious pleasure-seeker
or invalid could wish for. From Jack's Creek, its eastern boundary, to
its western terminus, Ware's Creek, it contains a frontage on the bay of
three-fourths of a mile, dotted with picturesque villas, surrounded by
tropical fruits and flowers. Although yet in a chrysalis state, being
scarcely two years old, it contains two boarding-houses, two stores, a
meat-shop, post-office and a warehouse, with a wharf connecting it with
the shore--the only one on the bay east of Palmasola city. Passengers
for Manatee and other places on the bay are conveyed on shore in sail or
row-boats. Major W. I. Turner, the projector of Braidentown, a Virginian
by birth, has been a resident of Florida for forty-five years. Although
on the shady side of life, he is still hale and hearty. May he live to
see his bantling, now in her leading-strings, the county-seat of Manatee
County. Stranger events have happened. This is an age of progress; the
world moves, and Florida, after her Rip Van Winkle sleep of three
hundred years, is moving with it.

Sportsmen visiting this place can be accommodated with sail-boats for
fishing, or mule and ox teams for a hunting trip to the Miakka, the
sportsman's paradise. Captain Charles Miller and Billy Stowell, _alias_
"Buffalo Bill," both "old salts" and reliable men, can be engaged with
their respective crafts, the _Sancho Panza_ and _Onkeehi_, at reasonable
rates. Ox and mule teams can be had of John N. Harris and Dr. S. J.

The reader will pardon a slight digression, and allow me to state, that
if any person who knows how to run a hotel, will start one in
Braidentown, he will most assuredly put money in his purse, and at the
same time satisfy a great public want. A hotel containing one hundred
rooms, properly conducted, would be filled with guests six months of the
year. We have fish, oysters, clams and game in abundance, on which
boarders could fare sumptuously every day. Shall we have a hotel?

One and a half miles east of Braidentown, on the low, sandy beach of the
bay, is the irregularly constructed village of Manatee. A stranger
visiting Manatee will invariably ask himself why a town was ever built
here? The following will solve the problem. Adjacent to the village, in
a southerly direction, are rich hammock lands, which, in consequence of
their malarial surroundings, could not be domiciled by their owners. The
pine land on the bay shore offering a more healthful location for
building, the early settlers availed themselves of it and erected their
log and palmetto cabins first, and afterward more pretentious and
architectural structures. The Indian war breaking out soon after the
first settlers had located at Manatee, their cabins formed the nucleus
of a settlement as a protection against the savages. Thus Manatee became
a village, and for many years was the only settlement on the Manatee
Bay. The hospitality of her citizens is proverbial. The stranger within
their gates who asks for bread is never requested to masticate a stone.
Unfortunately, the citizens of Manatee are not as progressive as
hospitable. A plank wharf or foot-way, connecting the steamboat
warehouse with the shore, is badly needed, and should be constructed at
once. There is a great deal of vitality lying dormant in the old town,
which, if thoroughly aroused and properly applied, would place an
entirely different aspect on the face of affairs. The village contains a
Methodist church, five stores, three boarding-houses, a drug store, an
academy, a meat-shop and a post-office. Dr. George Casper, an
enterprising Manateean, wishing to extend his usefulness, and being
impressed with the belief that it would be a good thing to mix
literature with physic, has issued the prospectus of a weekly newspaper,
to be called the _Manatee County News_. It will be the pioneer paper of
the county, and its editor will have plenty of elbow-room--Manatee
County being as large as the States of Connecticut and Rhode Island.

One mile east of Manatee, on a point of land formed by the junction of
Braiden Creek with the bay, stands a historic structure, known as
Braiden Castle. It is composed of a concrete of lime and oyster-shells,
two stories high, surmounted by a cupola or observatory, constructed of
wood, from which a charming view of the surrounding country can be had.
South-east, Braiden Creek, winding like a silver thread among
innumerable evergreen islands, presents a view worthy of a poet's dream.
Westward, as far as the eye can scan, can be traced the blue waters of
the bay glinting in the sun or dancing in the moonbeams on their way to
the gulf. Northward, across the bay, the eye meets hammock, pine land
and prairie stretching far away toward Tampa Bay. This old relic,
scarred by Indian bullets, stands a sad memento of better days. Who
shall write its history?

At Fair Oaks, about one and a half miles south of the castle, on a
portion of the old Braiden plantation, is the largest and most thrifty
young orange grove on the gulf coast of South Florida. It comprises
nearly four thousand trees; belongs to the Hon. Charles H. Foster,
ex-State Treasurer, and is a living, growing, bearing monument to Yankee
pluck, enterprise and industry. Mr. Foster is now erecting at Fair Oaks
the handsomest private residence in South Florida. The most direct
route to Fair Oaks is by the way of Manatee, and the scenery _en route_
is unsurpassed in the land of the myrtle and ivy. Leaving Rocky Ford,
you pass Glen Falls, whose pellucid waters sparkle and dance over rock
and through chasm, on their course to the Manatee. Graceful palms, with
their evergreen foliage; stately live oaks, draped with pendant moss,
swaying to and fro in the breeze; girdled oaks, gayly festooned from
base to apex with ivy, yellow jessamine and Virginia creeper, gladden
the eye on either side of the road, and orange-blossoms perfume the air
with their delightful fragrance, rendering the scene enchanting as fairy

In the village of Manatee and adjacent hammock may be seen the orange
groves of Mrs. Gates, Revs. Edmund Lee, A. A. Robinson and E. Glazier,
Messrs. Pelote, Curry, Harllee, Mitchell, Vanderipe, Lloyd, Clark,
Warner, McNeill, Casper, Gates, Wyatt, Adams, Broberg, Reed and Wilson.
Mrs. Gates, Parson Lee and Major Adams also have banana groves in
bearing. The latter gentleman is engaged in erecting a large concrete
mansion, with carriage-house and servants' quarters of the same
material. Situated in an eligible position on the bank of the bay,
surrounded by tropical fruits, flowers and vines, whose evergreen
foliage constantly waving in the breeze, renders the location highly

Some four or five miles south of Manatee, _en route_ to Sarasota Bay,
are thrifty young orange groves, belonging to the Messrs. Helm, father
and sons, Dryman, Marshall, Younglove, Dunham, Saunders, Azlin, Howell,
Thompson, Williams and Whitted; and on Black-Jack Ridge, near
Braidentown, may be seen the thrifty grove of Judge E. M. Graham. The
groves of the Messrs. Helm are pronounced by every one who have seen
them to be the most promising of their age in the State. They are only
four years old, but will put to the blush many groves twice their age.
They are monuments of clean and persistent culture.

On the west side of Ware's Creek, skirting the bay, is Willemsenburg,
consisting of three houses and the frame of a mammoth hotel. This grim
skeleton, gray with age, has a history. Erected originally by Dr.
Hunter, at one time a noted physician of New York, and Charles W.
Skinner, a Boston capitalist, on Sanibel, or "Sanitarium" Island, near
Punta Rassa, it was soon blown or washed down. A portion of the wreck,
with additional lumber from Cedar Key, was soon afterward erected at
Sarasota Bay, where another partner, Dr. Dunham, of St. Louis, joined in
the enterprise. A misunderstanding between the trio resulted in the
withdrawal of the two medical men before the structure was completed.
Mr. Skinner subsequently razed the building to the ground, rafted it
through Palmasola Bay into the Manatee, and erected it on its present
site, where it has stood in an unfinished condition during the past five
years. The decease of Mr. Skinner soon after its erection, caused its
progress to stop as suddenly as did "my grandfather's clock" at the
death of its owner.

Westward, separated by an imaginary line, is Fogartyville, a community
composed principally of boat-builders and seafaring men, with their
families. It contains a store, boat-builder's shed, half a dozen
dwelling-houses, a floating dry-dock with two sections in working order,
and two additional sections nearly completed. The Messrs. Fogarty and
Captain Bhart are the owners of the dry-dock.

In this cozy little settlement, close down by the waters of the bay,
lives Madam Julia Atzeroth, and in the garden attached to her house was
cultivated with her own hands _the first coffee grown in the United
States_. Madam Atzeroth, or Madam "Joe," as she is called by her
friends, is a character, and deserves an extended notice.



Madam Julia Atzeroth, whose maiden name was Hunt, was born in the City
of Bradford, near the River Rhine, in Bavaria, on the 25th day of
December, 1807. Of a family of four children--two males and two
females--she is the only survivor. The death of her mother occurring
when she was eleven years of age, she was adopted by an uncle on the
maternal side, with whom she resided until she attained her majority. At
the age of twenty-four years she married Joseph Atzeroth, also a native
of Bavaria. The young couple soon after the birth of their first child,
a daughter, left the Fatherland and immigrated to America. They arrived
in New York in the month of August, 1841, where they remained only a few
months. In consequence of the failing health of Madam Atzeroth, they
visited Philadelphia and Easton, Pa.; but deriving no benefit from
change of location at the North, her physician advised her to go South.
They accordingly went to New Orleans, where they remained about one
year. Madam Atzeroth's health not improving, her attending physician, a
German, proposed a trip to Florida. Laying in a supply of provisions and
medicines, and accompanied by the physician, they engaged passage on
board the schooner _Essex_, a tender for the United States troops
stationed at Fort Brooke, Tampa, where they arrived in the spring of

Soon after landing at Tampa, Mr. Atzeroth commenced prospecting for a
desirable place to locate. After looking about for two or three weeks,
he concluded to homestead one hundred and sixty acres of land on
Terraceia Island, and on the 12th day of April, 1843, accompanied by his
wife, little daughter, the German physician and his dog Bonaparte,
landed on the east side of the island about midway of Terraceia Bay. The
hammock was so dense that the men were compelled to use their axes to
clear a space on which to pitch their tent. The underbrush and vines
were so thick, and the progress made by the men so slow, that Madam Joe
seized an axe and assisted them. This was her first attempt at chopping
and grubbing in Florida. Since that time she has become an expert at the
business. When the tent was erected and dinner prepared, it was eaten
with a keen relish. From that time forward Madam Joe felt new life and
strength. Her torpid liver began to perform its normal functions, and
she forthwith discharged the physician and destroyed his medicines. The
doctor went to Key West, where he died soon afterward.

Having become weary of tent-life, Madam Joe proposed to her husband the
erection of a palmetto hut. Mr. Joe, as the madam always called her
husband, drove the stakes for the frame and gathered the palmetto fans
or branches. The madam mounted the roof and thatched it; but her work
was performed so badly that the first shower of rain deluged the
interior, and its inmates sought refuge under the table. The hut was
subsequently re-thatched, and three of its corners made fast to trees,
which prevented the wind from blowing it down. Soon after the completion
of the hut, their provisions ran short, and Mr. Joe started in a canoe
for Tampa to replenish them. On his return, adverse winds blew his frail
craft around Shaw's Point into Palmasola Bay, and becoming bewildered,
he landed at Sarasota instead of Terraceia. After being buffeted about
by the wind and waves for more than a week, he finally reached home.
During his absence, Madam Joe and her child had no companion save the
dog Bonaparte. The panthers, wild hogs and owls made the nights hideous
with their screams, growls and hootings. One night a raid was made by an
owl on the chickens roosting on the trees overhanging the hut. Madam Joe
seized an old musket of the Methodist persuasion, which usually went off
at half-cock, with the intention of frightening away the "wild
varmints," but it was unloaded. Never having loaded a musket, she was in
a quandary whether to put in first the powder or the shot. Luckily, she
put in the powder before the shot, and stepping to the door of the hut,
discharged the musket into the tops of the trees. She put in too much
powder, and like another gun we read about, it

    "Bore wide the mark and kicked its owner over."

The owl escaped that time in consequence of being at the wrong end of
the musket. It was subsequently killed by Mr. Joe, and peace reigned
once more among the chickens. Madam Joe subsequently became an expert
with both the shot-gun and rifle, and if reports are reliable, her
unerring aim has caused more than one red-skin to make a hasty exit to
the "happy hunting-grounds." She can also ride a horse astride or
otherwise--seldom otherwise--like a Camanche.

Becoming disgusted with their frail palmetto hut, Madam and Mr. Joe
felled the trees and commenced the erection of a log-pen house,
consisting of two rooms, with a wide passage running between them. As
there were no saw-mills in the country, boards could not be had at any
price. The roof of the house was covered with split cedar planks, and
the interstices between the logs filled with moss and clay. A chimney
was improvised of sticks plastered with mud. Subsequently, glazed sash
for the windows were imported from New Orleans. Meanwhile the axe had
not been idle. The stately live oaks and graceful palms around the house
had been felled and burned, the land grubbed, and a good-sized vegetable
garden was in successful cultivation. Fort Brooke, some thirty miles
distant, offering a good market for their surplus produce, they hired a
man with a boat to transport and sell their vegetables. Although
bountiful crops rewarded their labor, they were not entirely happy.
Madam Joe was anxious that her only sister, residing in New York, should
emigrate with her family to Florida. But how was the matter to be
accomplished without money? Where there is a will, there is always a way
to accomplish things which at first sight seem to be impossibilities.
The matter was laid before Col. W. G. Belknap, the commander of Fort
Brooke, who cheerfully advanced the required funds, and Mr. Joe left
immediately in a schooner for New York, _via_ Key West. The voyage was
long and tedious, but it was accomplished, and in due course of time,
Mr. Joe returned safely with his brother-in-law, wife and child.

Another trouble now presented itself. The Armed Occupation Act having
expired previous to locating their land on Terraceia, they were
compelled to go to the United States Land Office, at Newnansville, one
hundred and sixty miles distant, to file the requisite papers. The
country being wild and sparsely settled, Mr. Joe and Mr. Nichols, his
brother-in-law, were compelled to pack their provisions on their backs,
which rendered their journey wearisome and slow. On the third day they
reached a cabin, where they remained over night. While at breakfast on
the following morning, most of their provisions were stolen by some
thieving negroes. The theft not being discovered until they stopped at
mid-day to lunch, they were in a sad plight. They pushed on as fast as
possible, and late in the evening came to a cabin inhabited by very poor
people. A scanty supper was set before them, which they ate and retired
for the night. The breakfast-table on the following morning was
bountifully supplied with hog, hominy and corn-dodgers. Mr. Nichols
having never before seen a corn-dodger, took a large mouthful of one,
and then walking deliberately to the door, spat it out. On resuming his
seat at the table, he requested Mr. Joe, in German, not to eat those
_saw-dust_ cakes. Mr. Joe, knowing the difference between saw-dust and
corn-meal, continued to put away the dodgers, to the great disgust of
his brother-in-law, who finished his breakfast on hog and hominy. They
finally reached Newnansville, transacted their business and returned
safely home, after an absence of about two weeks.

Soon after the return of her husband from Newnansville, Mrs. Nichols
gave birth to a child. It lived only two hours, and in less than one
week from its birth its mother followed the little angel to

    "The undiscovered country, from whose bourne
     No traveler returns."

The surviving child, a little girl two years old, was adopted by Madam
Joe, who reared and educated her. She is at this time the wife of Mr.
William O'Neil, who resides at Palmetto, on the north side of the
Manatee Bay.

The money borrowed from Colonel Belknap still remained unpaid, which was
a source of great trouble to Madam Joe. She had the inclination, but not
the means to cancel the debt. The colonel proposed to send for his
family at the North, and install Madam Joe as housekeeper. The
proposition was cheerfully acquiesced in; and early in the year 1845,
Madam Joe, accompanied by her husband, daughter and niece, went to Tampa
and resided in the house of Colonel Belknap, at Fort Brooke. The
Terraceia homestead was left in charge of Mr. Nichols and a hired man.
The colonel's family at that time consisted of his wife, two daughters
and a son. That son, General W. W. Belknap, at present a resident of
Keokuk, Iowa, made an honorable and enviable record during the war of
the Rebellion, and was afterward Secretary of War during a part of
President Grant's administration.

During the eight months Madam Joe resided with the family of Colonel
Belknap, she frequently saw the wily chief, Billy Bowlegs, and other
noted Seminoles, for whom, to use her own words, she "cooked many a
meal." Close confinement caused a recurrence of her old disease--liver
complaint--and she reluctantly left the hospitable house of Colonel
Belknap for her homestead on Terraceia, where by constant out-door
exercise, she soon regained her usual health. Even at the present day,
Madam Joe's universal panacea is "the grubbing-hoe and elbow-grease."
She practices what she preaches, and unlike the medical profession,
takes her own medicine. Soon after the return of Madam Joe and family to
Terraceia, Mr. Nichols concluded to go to New Orleans. During that
year--1846--the yellow fever nearly depopulated the city, and Mr.
Nichols was probably one of its victims, as he has never been heard from
by his friends since he left Terraceia.

In the fall of 1846, one of the severest gales that ever visited this
section of the country passed over Tampa, Terraceia, Palmetto and
Manatee. Madam Joe's house was blown down and all her furniture
destroyed. The hen-house was the only structure that survived the storm.
The fowls were dispossessed of their domicile, and the family occupied
it until another house was built.

In 1848, a government official visited this part of Florida to examine
proofs of claimants to land under the Armed Occupation and Homestead
Acts. On examining Madam Joe's papers, it was discovered that two
permits had been issued for the same number. This error could only be
rectified at the General Land Office in Washington. It was deemed
advisable by Madam Joe and her husband to return to Tampa and remain
there until the mistake in relation to their homestead could be
rectified. Mr. Joe hired a man to assist him in building a house at
Tampa, and they went up the Hillsborough River to cut logs and make
shingles for the structure. In the month of September the logs for the
house were formed into a raft and the shingles placed on it. Everything
being in readiness for a start, a furious gale set in, which destroyed
the raft and scattered the logs and shingles for miles along the banks
of the river. Having gathered the logs and shingles together and rafted
them down to Tampa, Mr. Joe visited his family at Terraceia, where he
learned that during the late storm his wife, child and niece had taken
refuge in the house of a friend on another part of the island. He
returned to Tampa, and his family followed soon after. When Madam Joe
arrived, she did not admire the location her husband had selected for
the house. The frame was taken down and erected on a lot on the
town-side of the river, and was soon occupied by the family. The
property is still owned by Madam Joe.

Misfortunes, it is said, never come single-handed. In the early part of
1849, Mr. Joe injured one of his feet, and soon after was attacked with
chills and fever, which, despite medical treatment, continued nine
months. At this time Madam Joe's finances were at a fearfully low ebb;
but being equal to the emergency, she cast about for something to do
whereby she could earn an honest penny. She accordingly started a
home-made beer and cake shop, which being liberally patronized by the
soldiers, soon placed her in easy financial circumstances. Her husband
at the same time kept a sutler's store at Fort Chiconicla.

About this time a partly-finished house, built by a friend--Mr.
Reece--in Palmetto, was sold by the sheriff, and Madam Joe became the
purchaser, with the hope that Mr. Reece would be able to redeem the
property. Failing to do so, Madam Joe and family left Tampa and located
in Palmetto in the year 1851. Here they opened a small store, in which
they did a thriving business. They also cultivated their farm on
Terraceia Island, and by degrees, as their means permitted, stocked it
with cattle, horses and hogs. Additions were also made to their stock of
goods, and finally they purchased a colored man, who was an excellent
farm hand, and proved of great service to his owners.

In 1855 another Indian war broke out. Volunteer companies, home-guards
and boat companies were organized for protection against Indian
incursions. Many plantations were abandoned and homes broken up. Mr. Joe
belonged to one of the boat companies, and a ten days' scout being
prolonged to twenty days, it was reported that the entire party had been
massacred by the Indians. During the scout they visited the Indian camps
in the Everglades, from whence Mr. Joe brought away as trophies a silver
cup and a spoon belonging to Billy Bowlegs. The cup was subsequently
sold to Colonel Jewett, U. S. A. The country was in a state of commotion
and fever of excitement until the close of the war, in 1858. During
these eventful years, Madam Joe stood guard with her musket or rifle
whenever her services were required. She never showed the white feather.

Peace had scarcely been restored, when the civil war of 1861 broke out,
and Florida was again in a state of anarchy. Mr. Joe enlisted in the
Confederate service, and served in Tennessee and Kentucky. At the close
of the war, Madam Joe sold her place at Palmetto, with the intention of
returning to Europe, but her physician informed her that she could not
survive a change of climate, which induced her to abandon the idea of
visiting the Fatherland. The family again took up their residence on
Terraceia, where Mr. Joe died on the 29th of October, 1871. Madam Joe
sold part of her Terraceia plantation and moved to Fogartyville, her
present location, in the year 1873. Her garden at this place comprises
only four acres, but nowhere else in Florida can be found so many
different varieties of trees, plants, vegetables, vines, shrubs and
flowers. Mrs. William Fogarty, the daughter of Madam Joe, with her
husband and son, reside with the madam. Here, in the year 1876, was
planted a few grains of Mexican coffee, received from a neighbor, Mrs.
E. S. Warner. On the 20th of February, 1880, Madam Joe sent to the
Commissioner of Agriculture, at Washington, the _first pound of coffee
grown in the United States_, for which she received ten dollars. This
spring she has sent to the Agricultural Department, at Washington, four
pounds of coffee, the product of two trees. Next year she will have
eight coffee trees in bearing, and at least one hundred young trees in
her nursery. As quite a diversity of opinion exists in relation to the
origin of the seed from which the first coffee was grown in the United
States, I append the following communications from Mrs. E. S. Warner, of
Manatee, Fla., and Dr. A. A. Russell, of Cordova, Mexico, published in
the Tampa _Tribune_, of September 26th, 1880:

"MANATEE, FLA., _August 30th, 1880_.

     "DR. WALL: Dear Sir--I inclose a letter from Dr. A. A. Russell, of
     Cordova, Mexico, the gentleman from whose plantation the
     coffee-seed was procured that has been successfully reproduced by
     Madam Atzeroth here. As the subject of coffee-raising in this State
     is causing considerable inquiry, and as this letter contains much
     valuable information on the subject, I submit it to you for
     publication, asking the favor of having a copy forwarded to the
     doctor from your office as soon as issued. Very respectfully,


"CORDOVA, MEXICO, _May 19th, 1880_.

     "MRS. E. S. WARNER: Madam--It was quite a pleasure to receive your
     very kind letter of April 1st. I congratulate you most heartily,
     and am proud to learn that from the _seed I sent was produced the
     first coffee in the States_. I think I wrote you that the plant
     requires shade. In this climate we prefer to plant in fresh,
     timbered land; cutting out at first only the undergrowth, and
     taking out a few trees every year after for two or three years,
     thus graduating the shade and ventilating as appears to be
     required. The palatine (or plantain, or banana, as you probably
     call it) makes a good shade, and may be cut out, or under leaves
     trimmed off as may seem to be necessary. Coffee requires a rich,
     vegetable soil, or manure. The berry is fully ripe when dark red,
     but the grain is matured if the berry is picked when it has become
     yellow or only turning red; however, the coffee is of better
     quality if the berry is fully ripe, that is, of a deep or dark red.
     When gathered, it should be spread out at once to dry in the sun.
     It may be dried on mats, scaffolds or platforms of planks or
     boards. In good or favorable weather it requires about three weeks
     to dry. Here it is often dried on the ground. It may be spread from
     two to four inches thick, and should be stirred twice or three
     times a day; and if it should get wet a few times on the dryer,
     before half dry, no harm will be done and the coffee not injured in
     the least, if frequently stirred to prevent fermentation. When half
     dry it should be protected from rain and dew. If it has been wet a
     few times it will be more easily cleaned, but if frequently wet it
     will be of a darker color; also much darker, and even black and
     spoiled, if allowed to heat and ferment. It may be pulped by some
     of the pulping machines now in use, the day it is gathered, then
     washed and dried. The pulped coffee will dry in a few days,
     occupies less space in drying, and is of a lighter color, which,
     with you, I presume, are considerations of little importance at

     "You will know the coffee is sufficiently dry when the hull crushes
     readily under the foot. The most simple, and, by the way, not a
     very bad process for cleaning the coffee, is the primitive mode of
     cleaning rice; that is, to beat it out in a deep mortar with a
     heavy pestle, and as the chaff accumulates dip out the coffee with
     a cup in the left hand, pouring back into the mortar from the
     same height, at the same time blowing off the chaff with a fan in
     the right hand, repeating the process until clean.

     "There are a variety of machines for hulling and cleaning coffee,
     which will be a matter of consideration when the production
     requires it. Now that you have succeeded in producing the grain,
     you will have less difficulty in propagating from the acclimated
     seed, which should be thoroughly ripe, squeezed out of the pulp and
     dried in the shade. Hope you will continue successfully, and
     establish plantations of importance.

Your obedient servant,



The lady who raised the first coffee grown in the United States.

From a photograph by F. PINARD, Manatee and Tampa.]

The portrait of Madam Joe is a truthful likeness. Above the medium
height of her sex, with features bronzed by a tropical sun and the
exposure and hardships of a pioneer life, she is nevertheless a
well-preserved matron of seventy-four years, with as noble and generous
a heart as ever pulsated within the breast of a human being. She is
passionately fond of music and waltzing, and can

    "Trip the light fastastic toe"

as gracefully as a miss of sixteen. May her days in the land be
prolonged beyond fourscore years and ten.


     OF DE SOTO IN 1539.

Westward of Fogartyville, on the south side of the bay, among the most
prominent residences, are those of the Warners, mother and sons. Thence
westward, across a bayou, on a sand-spit projecting into the bay, stands
the steam saw and planing-mill of Messrs. W. S. Warner & Co., just
completed. This mill, wharf and warehouse are the _nuclei_ of Palmasola
City, which is soon to skirt the adjacent sand hills, and cause the
surrounding "wilderness to blossom as the rose." Mr. Warner is a Bay
State Yankee of indomitable pluck, and his partner, Mr. J. S. Beach, who
resides at Terre Haute, Ind., controls the money bags of a national
bank. If capital and pluck wean build a city, the success of Palmasola
may be set down as assured. Along the bay, west of the Warners, are the
ranches of Messrs. Sweetzer, Burgess, Sykes and Bishop. A few miles
further west is Shaw's Point, at the mouth of the bay. Here, on an
immense shell-mound, surrounded by hammock and pine land, Mr. Sam
Nichols, a native of Alabama, has entered a homestead of 160 acres of
land. Although severely wounded during our late "unpleasantness," Mr.
Nichols has beaten his musket into a plowshare, his sword into a
pruning-hook, and, like a good citizen, is earning his bread by the
sweat of his brow.

Along the Gulf coast, southward, skirting Palmasola and Sarasota Bays,
may be found the hospitable homes of Messrs. Farrar, Adams, Moore,
Buckner, Harp, Stephonse, Tyler, Spang, Crowley, Dorch, Callan, Riggin,
Dunham, Smith, Helveston, Whitaker, Willard, Bidwell, Edmondson, C. E.
and M. R. Abbe, Liddell, Greer, Yonge, Boardman, Young, Lancaster,
Cunliff, Woodworth, Jones, Anderson, Crocker, Hansen, Bronson Bros.,
Clower, Lowe, Webb, Griffith, Bacon, Knight, Guptrel and Roberts.

On the north side of Manatee Bay, at its entrance into Tampa Bay, is
Snead's Island, separated from the mainland by a narrow and shallow
"cut-off" leading into Terraceia Bay, and also by a wider and deeper
channel opening into Tampa Bay, and separating it from Terraceia
Island. Midway of the island, fronting on Manatee Bay, is a curiosity
in the shape of a shell-mound or earth-work, crescent-shaped, and some
forty feet in height. The distance between the points of the crescent on
the bank of the bay, is five hundred feet. On the highest point of the
mound, and nearly in the centre, stands a frame dwelling, somewhat
dilapidated, erected by a former owner of the place. On the eastern
angle are two date-palm and two olive trees. The former are fifteen
inches in diameter and forty feet in height. The latter are eighteen
inches in diameter two feet above the ground, and fifty feet in height.
Both the olive and date-palms bear fruit; the former in large
quantities. On the mound in the centre of the crescent, and near the
house, are two olibanum trees, eighteen inches in diameter and fifty
feet in height. Was this mound an Indian burial place, or was it thrown
up by the early Spanish invaders as a defense against the Natchez, a
warlike and semi-civilized tribe of Indians, who, at the time of the
Spanish conquest, inhabited this part of Florida? _Quien sabe?_

The only human occupants of the island at this time are uncle Joe
Franklin and his wife, an aged couple. Uncle Joe lives in a palmetto hut
with a shell floor, and with the old 'oman and two glasseyed dogs as

    "His hours in cheerful labor fly."

Uncle Joe is a character, and all visitors to the Manatee should call on
him, examine his mammoth wild fig tree and hedge of century plants.
_Mem._ Ask him to chain his dogs before you go ashore, otherwise the
seat of your inexpressibles will require repairs. I have been there.

Eastward, above the Terraceia cut-off, is Sapp's Point. Further along,
and directly opposite Braidentown, is Palmetto, a young town containing
two stores and a post-office. The reader will perceive that Uncle Sam
distributes post-offices in Florida with a lavish hand. We have three of
these convenient institutions within a radius of one and a half
miles--Braidentown, Manatee, Palmetto--and Palmasola City, only three
miles distant, will have one as soon as Postmaster Warner shall build an
office to protect the mail matter of that growing city.

Immediately in the rear of Palmetto is a prairie of several miles in
extent. North-east of the town, about one mile distant in the hammock,
Mr. Hendricks, of Palmetto, has a promising six-years-old orange grove,
grown from seeds planted with his own hands. Mr. Hendricks cultivates
vegetables between the rows of his orange trees, and last year he
realized several hundred dollars by shipping his early tomatoes,
cucumbers and snap-beans to New York and other Northern markets. To Mr.
Hendricks belongs the credit of starting the early vegetable boom in
the Manatee region.

Mr. David Zehner, from Louisiana, has recently purchased a strip of
scrub hammock, east of the town, where he intends to make the
cultivation of grapes and strawberries a specialty. He has already
received several thousand cuttings and plants of the choicest varieties.
A few miles further eastward, you reach the plantation of Major W. I.
Turner, the god-father of Braidentown, who has forty acres in tomatoes,
cucumbers, squashes and beans. He has already commenced shipping his
vegetables to the Northern markets.

Half a mile east of Major Turner's is the extensive plantation of Major
George Patten. General Hiram W. Leffingwell, ex-United States Marshal
for the Eastern District of Missouri, has recently purchased 200 acres
of this land, and is negotiating for more. Two of the general's sons,
with their families and an unmarried nephew, are now encamped on the
land, and are busily engaged in erecting dwelling-houses and the
necessary out-buildings. The general and his wife will arrive later in
the season. In addition to the cultivation of the various fruits of the
citrus family, the general will devote his attention to general farm
crops and the growing of early vegetables for the Northern and Western
markets. Another St. Louis gentleman, Mr. C. G. B. Drummond, Assistant
U. S. District Attorney, has purchased 120 acres of land on the Rogers'
hammock near Oak Hill, on which he will set out an orange grove this

Mr. H. O. Cannon, a California Argonaut, and late resident of New
Albany, Ind., after having spent several winters prospecting Florida,
has, like a sensible man, concluded to pitch his tent on the Patten
plantation. With this view, he has purchased twenty acres of land, which
he has commenced grubbing and fencing, preparatory to planting an orange
and lemon grove. Mr. C. H. Walworth, of Milwaukee, has purchased twenty
acres of land adjoining Mr. Cannon, which he will have cleared, grubbed
and planted in orange and lemon trees this year.

In _ante bellum_ times, the present Patten plantation was known first as
the Gamble, and afterward as the Cofield and Davis plantation, and was
the largest and most thoroughly equipped sugar plantation in the State
of Florida. The owners worked 200 hands, and had 1,400 acres of
sugar-cane in one field. Their sugar-mill and refinery contained all the
modern appliances, and, at the commencement of the war, was worth half a
million dollars. Soon after the breaking out of hostilities, most of the
slaves were sent to Louisiana, and work on the plantation was abandoned.
During the last year of the war, a Federal gunboat entered the Manatee
Bay, and a boat's crew, commanded by an officer, blew up the sugar-house
and set fire to the refinery. The destruction was complete; and to-day
may be seen the ponderous fly-wheel of the engine, broken shafts and
crumbling walls--sad mementos of the event. The family mansion, a large
two-story brick structure, with galleries around three sides of both
stories, escaped the hand of the destroyer. Although bearing the
finger-marks of time, it is at this day, a substantial structure, and,
with slight repairs, would weather the storms of another century.
Connected with this old mansion is a history, now for the first time

Within these walls during the last days of the Southern Confederacy,
when that fabric (on paper) was fast crumbling to pieces, Judah P.
Benjamin, a fugitive from justice, and flying for his life under the
assumed name of Charles Howard, was the guest for nearly two months of
Captain Archibald McNeill, its then occupant. When on that memorable
Sunday, in the spring of 1865, Jeff. Davis and his cabinet hastily fled
from Richmond, Benjamin and Breckinridge struck out for the wilds of
Florida, which seemed to offer a secure retreat. Arrived at Gainsville,
Breckinridge sought refuge on the Atlantic coast, and Benjamin, under
the guidance of Captain L. G. Leslie, started for the Gulf coast, _via_
Tampa, and arrived safely at the mansion of Captain McNeill. After
remaining nearly two months at Captain McNeill's, Benjamin was conveyed
in a boat to Manatee, and from thence to Sarasoto Bay in a horse-cart,
by Rev. E. Glazier, of Manatee; from thence to Cape Florida in a small
sail-boat, commanded by Captain Fred. Tresca, also a resident of
Manatee. At Cape Florida a larger boat was procured, and after several
hair-breadth escapes from Federal gunboats and the perils of the sea,
Captain Tresca landed his charge safely on one of the islands of the
Bahama group, and returned to Manatee $1,500 richer than when he left
home. Benjamin reached England safely, where he has acquired fame and
fortune. Should this page by chance meet his eye, he will no doubt be
pleased to learn that Captain McNeill, past threescore and ten, has
retired from active life and settled in Manatee, surrounded by a large
family. Captain Tresca, or Captain "Fred.," as he is called by his
friends, lives with his wife and two children on a small plantation near
Braidentown. Although he counts his years away up among the nineties, he
is still a well-preserved "old salt." Rev. E. Glazier is still a
resident of Manatee, and looks as though he had renewed his lease of
life for another half century. Judas betrayed his Master for the paltry
sum of thirty pieces of silver. Twenty-five thousand dollars was the
price offered by the United States Government for the _corpus_ of the
fugitive. The example of Judas was not followed by those who assisted
Benjamin to escape.

There are more than a thousand acres of the rich hammock land belonging
to this plantation for sale at from $15 to $25 per acre, according to
location. When the fact that it cost originally $75 per acre to clear
this land, is taken into consideration, it will be seen that the price
at which it is now offered is very low, and places it within the reach
of persons of small means. The land will be sold in lots to suit

Adjoining the grounds of the Patten mansion is the residence of Hamet J.
Craig, who has a young orange grove of three hundred trees and ten acres
of hammock land under cultivation. Five miles further on, in a
north-easterly direction, is Oak Hill, the former residence of Major W.
I. Turner. At this place the major has a bearing orange grove of several
hundred trees, and also one of the most promising six-years-old groves
of six hundred trees to be found in the Manatee region. Adjoining Major
Turner is the grove of Walter Tresca, just coming into bearing, and near
by is the young grove of Mr. William Gillett.

Terraceia Island, separated from Snead's Island by a narrow channel, is
bounded on the west by Tampa Bay, on the north by Frog Creek, and on the
east by Terraceia Bay. This island contains several tracts of excellent
hammock land, most of which is under improvement. On this island are
located the bearing orange groves of Messrs. Hallock, Lennard and
Williams; Messrs. Kennedy, Howard, Gifford, Watkins, Hobart, Patten and
Wyatt are also located on this island. Judge Cessna, of Gainesville, has
recently purchased a plantation on the island, and will soon locate
there. Other persons on the line of the Transit Railroad having become
disgusted with frost and ice, are seeking homes in the Manatee region.
On the mainland, on the east side, and about midway of Terraceia Bay, is
the plantation of Mr. John Craig. Mr. Craig raises the finest cane and
has the reputation of making the best sugar in Manatee County.

A short distance north of Terraceia Island, on the mainland, Hernando De
Soto, fresh from the conquest of Peru, where he was associated with
Francisco Pizarro, landed his troops in the latter part of May, 1539. He
sailed from Havana on Sunday, May 18th, 1539, with his troops embarked
in five large ships, two caravels and two brigantines. The disastrous
fate of his predecessors in Florida cast no gloom on the mind of De
Soto, and his assurances of success imparted confidence to those who
accompanied him. He had never been defeated in battle, and was believed
by his soldiers to be invincible. His officers were men of valor and
ripe experience, and his troops were well disciplined, a majority of
them having served in many campaigns, and all were well acquainted with
Indian warfare.

His wife, Dona Isabella, did not share his enthusiasm, and desired to
accompany him and share the dangers she believed he was about to
encounter; but De Soto strenuously opposed her wishes, and encouraged
her to believe that the time of reunion was not far distant. The
conquest of Florida appeared to De Soto to be an easy task, from which
he could soon return with large accessions of wealth and glory.

Contrary and baffling winds kept the squadron tossing about in the Gulf
of Mexico for several days. De Soto and his troops obtained their first
view of the Land of Flowers on the morning of the 25th day of May, and
in the afternoon of the same day they came to anchor about two leagues
from the shore. The shoals which extended along the coast prevented the
ships from coming nearer. They had, in the meantime, been discovered by
the natives, who had kindled beacon-fires along the beach, now known as
Pinellas, as signals to collect their forces and be in readiness to
repel their enemies. De Soto's vessels were anchored off the mouth of
Tampa Bay, called by the Spaniards the Bay of Espiritu Santo.

The Natchez, who inhabited the neighboring country, were governed by a
chief named Ucita, whose hatred of the Spaniards is easily explained.
When Pamphilo de Narvaez visited this region in 1528, he was kindly
received and hospitably entertained by the Chief Ucita, and a treaty of
peace between them was formed; yet, on a very slight pretense, the wily
and bloodthirsty Pamphilo caused the chief's nose to be cut off, and his
aged mother to be torn to pieces by dogs! Hence, the reason why Ucita
displayed implacable resentment in his behavior to De Soto and his
companions in arms.

Thus, it will be seen that from the earliest history of our country, the
aborigines have been treated with the most impolitic and
unchristian-like barbarity; and it is highly probable that much of that
ferocity which characterizes the Indians of the far West at this time,
may be ascribed to the harsh and merciless treatment which their
ancestors received from the early Spanish explorers, who acted on the
principle that the Indians had no rights that a white man was bound to

Wishing to avoid a collision with the Indians at that time, De Soto
weighed anchor, and proceeded with his fleet two leagues further up the
bay, where he disembarked his troops in boats. The place where he landed
was on the eastern shore of Hillsborough Bay, above the mouth of the
Little Manatee River, and near the line which separates Hillsborough and
Manatee Counties.

The Indians being anxious to get rid of De Soto and his followers,
informed them that _El Dorado_, for which they were seeking, was further
northward. De Soto sent his ships back to Havana, and commenced his
toilsome march overland, which ended with his death and burial in the
Mississippi River, on the 5th day of June, 1542, three years and one
month after the date of his arrival in Tampa Bay.


The Residence of SAMUEL C. UPHAM, Braidentown, Florida.]



Having given the reader a hasty outline of the Manatee region, I will
add a brief _resume_ of my personal experience at "Sunnyside" during the
past eighteen months. On my arrival in Braidentown, in the fall of 1879,
my land was a "howling wilderness." At this time I have a young orange
grove of six hundred trees, sixty lemon, fifteen lime, ten guava, half a
dozen olive, two soft-shell almond, twenty coffee, four each Japan plum
and persimmon, two pomegranate, two cocoa-nut and four Le Conte pear
trees, all of which are growing luxuriantly. I also have one acre in
bananas and sixty pine-apple plants, both of which will bear fruit next
year. Around the fence inclosing my house lot, I have sixty California
grape-vines of the choicest varieties, viz.: Flaming Tokay, White Muscat
of Alexandria, Mission and Rose of Peru. The vines are looking well, and
will bear fruit next year.

The land on which I am located is spruce-pine, interspersed with
water-oak and scrub palmetto, which would be pronounced by the average
Floridian worthless. I had at the commencement, and still have, abiding
faith in the white sand of Florida with a mulatto sub-soil. No matter
how white the surface, if underlaid by a mulatto or yellow sub-soil, the
citrus family will thrive. The foliage of my young trees is dark green,
and their vigorous growth astonishes the "crackers," who predicted a
failure. Owing to the mildness of the climate--my location being exempt
from frost--my trees grew all last winter. My orange trees are set in
parallel rows, thirty feet apart each way; the lemon and lime trees
twenty-five feet apart; the bananas twelve feet, and the pineapples two
feet apart. I hoe my grove every two months, and plow it four times a
year. Thus, by keeping the soil constantly tickled with the hoe, my
trees laugh with a bountiful foliage. What I have done, can be performed
by others. There is no secret about the matter. We welcome immigrants
from the frigid North, from the prairies of the West, and from the lands
beyond the sea. To all we say, come and tarry with us.

Florida, the first State belonging to the Union, discovered and settled
by Europeans, has, during the past 350 years, been hustled about from
pillar to post like a shuttle-cock. The repeated Indian wars from 1816
to 1858, rendered life so insecure, that the early settlers literally
carried their lives in their hands. Is it then a matter of surprise that
Florida is so sparsely populated? Mr. J. S. Adams, former Commissioner
of Immigration, truthfully remarks: "The wonder truly is, not that she
has not attained a more flourishing condition, but that she exists at
all, and that her boundless forests, her lovely rivers and her beautiful
lakes are not fast locked in the silent embrace of a moveless
desolation." Since slavery, which rested like an incubus of original sin
on the soil of Florida, has been removed, immigration has been pouring
in from the North and the West, and from the isles of the ocean.
Germany, Italy, France and England have each furnished their quota, and
the forests along the line of the railroads, as well as those accessible
by steamboats, are beginning to show the effects of an advanced
civilization. The gigantic undertaking of draining Lake Okeechobee and
the Everglades, together with the construction of a ship canal,
connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Gulf of Mexico, by Mr. Hamilton
Disston, of Philadelphia, and his coadjutors, is proof positive that a
new era is beginning to dawn on the Land of Flowers, and, ere many
years, the southern portion of the State will be one vast orange grove,
interspersed with the guava, lemon, lime, pine-apple and banana. I hear
the skeptic say: "You will overstock the market, and your fruit will not
pay the cost of transportation." The orange _par excellence_ can be
grown _only_ in the soil of Florida, therefore competition with foreign
countries need not be feared. Florida will soon be able to supply the
cities of the Mediterranean with a superior fruit to that grown on their
own shores, and more cheaply. Increased production and transportation
will cause a corresponding reduction in freight, and also insure greater
and better facilities in the modes of transportation. There will also be
a large reduction in price to the consumer, which will enable the man of
limited means--in other words, the poor man--to indulge with the
millionaire in the daily luxury of the golden apple of the
Hesperides--the Florida orange. The above may be deemed by some persons
chimerical, but time, the great arbiter of events, will solve the

By every mail I am in receipt of letters asking all manner of questions
in relation to the climate, soil, productions, etc., of this part of
Florida. At first I cheerfully complied with the requests of my numerous
correspondents, but the novelty has worn off, and the task has become
slightly monotonous. Recently, I received a four-page capsheet letter
from a gentleman in Utah Territory, to which was appended seventeen
interrogatories in relation to the Gulf Coast of South Florida. That
straw broke the camel's back, and, in reply to the following question:
"I see by the last census that Manatee County has a population of over
4,000, and not a death recorded for 1880. Do people ever die there?" I
wrote immediately, "Hardly ever. When we want to start a graveyard, we
kill a man." I am firmly impressed with the belief that my Mormon
correspondent, with a "family of ten persons," will not immigrate to the
Land of Flowers. Below will be found twenty-five questions in relation
to Florida, from correspondents the "wide world over," with answers

1st. "At any time of the year do you have severe storms of thunder and

During the rainy season, thunder showers, accompanied by lightning,
frequently occur, but they are not more severe than in the Northern and
Western States.

2d. "Are venomous reptiles numerous?"

During my residence and travels in Florida, I have never seen a
rattlesnake; I have seen a few moccasin, garter, coachwhip and
blacksnakes. The two latter are harmless, and are seldom killed by the
natives. Alligators are not numerous in this vicinity, and are
comparatively harmless. Scorpions and centipedes are seldom met with.
Their sting is no more severe than that of a bee.

3d. "Is the land about Braidentown sandy or clayey?"

The land on the margin of the bay is sandy; further back in the hammock,
the soil is dark gray and chocolate color, underlaid with clay and

4th. "Are the people mostly Northern?"

Like an Englishman's favorite beverage, they are 'alf-and-'alf.

5th. "What is the name of your nearest town of any importance?"

Have no towns of "importance" in this section of the country; they are
in the womb of time--not hatched yet.

6th. "What is the character of your society?"


7th. "Do you consider Florida as healthy as California?"

I consider this Manatee region the sanitarium of the world. A more
healthful spot cannot be found on God's footstool.

8th. "Do malarial fevers prevail in your section any time during the

In the rich, low hammock lands, where vegetation is rank, malarial
fevers exist in the fall of the year. Chills and fever here yield more
readily to proper medical treatment than in the West. Pine land is
exempt from malaria.

9th. "Does the summer heat prove enervating?"

That depends on a man's constitution. If born tired, yes.

10th. "Is it true that the summer weather with you is more
pleasant--less oppressive--than at the North?"

Yes; the thermometer rarely registers more than 96°. It reached that
point only twice last summer.

11th. "Are the nights in summer always cool?"

Generally; sometimes cooler than in the winter.

12th. "Can you work out of doors during the day in summer time?"

Yes, when it does not rain. I have not seen a day too hot to work out of
doors since my arrival in Florida.

13th. "Do the crops of vegetables and grass burn under the summer sun?"

We don't raise vegetables in the summer. Our vegetables are grown in the
winter and spring, when the land at the North is locked fast in the
embrace of frost and ice. The grass here is very nutritious, and large
herds of cattle fatten on it. This section of country supplies Cuba with

14th. "Are insects--fleas and mosquitoes--more troublesome than at the

Fleas sometimes make it lively with us; but there are fewer mosquitoes
in this locality than in a majority of the Northern States.

15th. "Do you consider Manatee County one of the best to settle in?"

It suits me better than any other part of Florida. You might go further
and fare worse.

16th. "Do you think the Gulf Coast equal to the Atlantic Coast for
climate, health, etc.?"

Yes; far superior.

17th. "What is the price of land in your section?"

That depends upon quality and location. Here, in the settlement of
Braidentown, land is selling at from $25 to $100 per acre. A short
distance back of the town, pine land can be purchased at from $1.50 to
$5 per acre; and hammock land at $10 per acre. Across the bay, nearly
opposite Manatee, on the Patten plantation, good hammock land, once
under cultivation, can be purchased at from $15 to $25 per acre,
according to location. This land is being rapidly metamorphosed into
vegetable gardens, whose products--tomatoes, cucumbers, beans, peas,
etc.--reach the Northern markets during the month of March.

18th. "What are the business prospects for a new-comer?"

That will depend a great deal on the "new-comer." Come, investigate and
judge for yourself.

19. "Can sugar-cane be grown to advantage in your neighborhood? and what
amount of sugar can be made to the acre?"

The Manatee region is the natural home of the sugar-cane. Here it
tassels, and consequently fully matures. Florida is the only State of
the Union in which the cane tassels. When the Cofield and Davis, now
Patten plantation, was in full operation, the average product was two
hogsheads of sugar to the acre. The cane here ratoons from six to eight

20th. "What is the cost of clearing land?"

That depends on the quality of the land. The average pine land can be
cleared and grubbed at from $10 to $20 per acre. Hammock land will cost
double that price.

21st. "Can lumber be had on the Manatee, and if so, at what price?"

Heart-pine lumber, suitable for fencing or building purposes, can be had
here at $15 per M. Light wood posts can be purchased at $10 per hundred.

22d. "What is the price of labor in your vicinity?"

Colored laborers can be hired at from $15 to $20 per month, with board
or rations. The price is $1 per day when the laborer boards himself.

23d. "Are fish, oysters and game plentiful?"

Our rivers and bayous are literally alive with mullet--the mackerel of
the South. Sea-trout (black bass), jack-fish, sheepshead, red-fish,
angel-fish, drum and pompino can also be had in abundance in the water
around Palm Key, at the mouth of the bay. Oysters and clams of a
superior quality can be had in Terraceia and Sarasoto Bays. Deer,
squirrels, quail and wild turkeys abound in the adjoining hammocks.

24th. "Can you refer me to any person in your vicinity whose health has
been benefited by the climate?"

Yes; several. Rev. Edmund Lee, of Manatee, arrived here forty-five years
ago, a confirmed invalid; in fact, nearly gone with pulmonary
consumption. On his first arrival he was so weak that it required
considerable effort to pull a mullet off a grid-iron. The healthfulness
of the climate, together with out-door exercise and a clear conscience,
have enabled him to fight the flesh and the devil successfully to the
present time. He is at this time a well-preserved patriarch of
seventy-two years; has outlived two wives, and bids fair to remain many
years longer on this side of Jordan.

Mr. John M. Helm, residing some three miles south-east of Braidentown,
arrived from Windsor, Ind., about four years since. He also was nearly
gone with consumption. One lung was hepatized, and on the other a
tubercle formed, and discharged after his arrival here. Physicians at
the West pronounced his case hopeless--beyond the reach of medicine--and
recommended the climate of Florida as a last resort. He is now a well
man, and can hoe more orange trees in a day, and hoe them better, than
any man I know in Florida.

Two years ago I arrived here, clad in porous-plasters, suffering with
chronic rheumatism. Two months later I was as frisky as a lamb in spring
time. I am convinced that my old complaint has left me never to return,
so long as I remain here. I could record other cases, but the above must
suffice for the present.

25th. "State the most direct route to Braidentown."

By rail to Cedar Key, the terminus of railroad communication, thence by
the boats of the Tampa Steamship Company to this place. A boat leaves
Cedar Key on Monday and Friday afternoon of each week, and arrives at
Braidentown early on the following morning. Fare, $8. The above is the
advertised programme, but it is sometimes changed to suit wind and
weather. Captains Jackson and Doane are thorough seamen, and do
everything in their power to render passengers comfortable. Whatever may
be the opinion of travelers in regard to the speed and accommodations of
the boats, they will unanimously agree that the fare--$8 for a distance
of less than 100 miles--is _first-class_. A line of light draught,
modern-built and comfortably fitted-up steamboats, between Cedar Key and
Braidentown, would be liberally patronized. Shall we have the boats?
Echo repeats the question.



As the following letters and communications have a direct bearing on the
Manatee region, the reader will pardon their republication. Among the
chaff perchance may be found a few grains of information that will pay
for the perusal. The first letter was written to a personal friend in
the city of New York, who forwarded it to the San Francisco _Examiner_.
It was first published in that paper with the following editorial

     "Old Californians are not unfamiliar with the name of Mr. Samuel C.
     Upham, an editor upon this coast in the early days, and, of late,
     the author of a work entitled _Voyage to California via Cape Horn,
     and Scenes in El Dorado in 1849 and 1850_. We are permitted to copy
     a letter from that gentleman, written in his humorous style, and
     addressed to an old Californian friend, which may prove of interest
     to others."

PHILADELPHIA, _June 16th, 1879_.

     FRIEND C---- : I owe you a letter, and the following is what I have
     to say: You are aware that I went South last winter for the benefit
     of my health, and that I returned in the spring as frisky as a
     lamb. The late hot weather has pulled me down considerably, and I
     sigh for the Land of Flowers, where Ponce de Leon searched for the
     fountain of youth, and Upham found it. I was so charmed with the
     climate of the Gulf Coast of South Florida, that, while there last
     winter, I purchased 225 acres of land on the Manatee River, fifty
     miles south of Tampa, and Mrs. U. and myself are going down to that
     land of promise the coming fall, to plant an orange grove, and sit
     under our own vine, orange and eucalyptus trees. It is a delightful
     country, away down below "frost line," where the pine-apple,
     banana, guava, sapadillo, pomegranate, date, cocoa-nut, orange,
     lime and lemon grow almost spontaneously. The rivers are
     overflowing with fish, and the forests are overrun with game.
     Roasted wild turkeys run about with carving-knives and forks
     sticking in their backs, and ask to be eaten. The country now is a
     trifle wild, but will soon become tamed and civilized. The people
     are hospitable, and welcome all classes of strangers, with the
     exception of "carpet-baggers." They have been tried and found

     I shall locate in the village--if two stores and four houses can be
     dignified by that name--of Braidentown, Manatee County, Florida.
     The place is scarcely twelve months old, but is bound to be heard
     from--after I locate there. The climate is delightful--sort of an
     earthly Paradise. The thermometer during the winter months ranges
     from 70° to 75°, and in summer rarely exceeds 90°, with a
     sea-breeze blowing constantly either from the Atlantic or the Gulf.
     The nights in summer are invariably cool, and one can lie
     comfortably under blankets during "dog days."

     I do not expect to make money in Florida, but I do expect to enjoy
     better health than in this city; hence the reason of my exodus. I
     shall, first off, plant an orange grove of 500 trees, which, in
     eight years, barring accidents, ought to yield me a handsome
     revenue. Should I "shuffle off this mortal coil" before these
     orange trees commence bearing, I shall feel disappointed--that's
     all. I think the change will give me a renewed lease of life; and,
     as I intend to plant three-years-old trees, I think the chances are
     rather in my favor. The Good Book says: "What does it profit a man
     if he gain the whole world and lose his own life?" I am not
     prepared to "hand in my checks" just yet; hence my change of base.
     I have been watching and praying the past four or five years for
     the "good time coming" to put in an appearance, but it has not
     arrived, and will not, I fear, during my sojourn in this vale of
     tears. I have a mortal dread of the poor-house. In Florida that
     institution is unknown. My eldest son will take charge of my store
     and laboratory in this city, so the business will go on without
     interruption. As I have spun out this letter to a great length, I
     will say domino.

Truly yours,


The following letter was published originally in Taggart's _Philadelphia
Sunday Times_, under the following caption: "Life in Florida.
Interesting letter from Samuel C. Upham, formerly of Philadelphia, but
now located in Florida, addressed to our lady editress. Hints to those
who may wish to visit the Flowery Land."


BRAIDENTOWN, FLA., _June 8th, 1880_.

     MY DEAR MRS. BLADEN: In the _Sunday Times_ of the 30th ult., you

     "Mr. Samuel C. Upham, whose popular songs and wonderful California
     experiences render him a Philadelphia celebrity, has a large
     plantation near Jacksonville."

     It is pleasing to know, when one is far away, that he is not
     entirely forgotten by his friends; but you are slightly mistaken
     when you say I own a large orange plantation near Jacksonville. I
     am located on the Manatee River, some eight miles above its
     entrance into Tampa Bay, on the Gulf coast of South Florida, in
     latitude 27-1/2°, and below "frost line." I visited Jacksonville
     and all the towns and landings on the St. Johns, Halifax and
     Matanzas Rivers, and also "did" the Suwanee pretty thoroughly
     before locating in Braidentown. I prefer this part of Florida to
     the Atlantic coast for the following reasons: Healthfulness of
     climate, purity of water and immunity from frost and insects. My
     health has improved wonderfully since my arrival in the Land of
     Flowers, and I am pretty thoroughly convinced that I have obtained
     a new lease of life. The sea breezes that fan my brow at morning,
     noon and night, act as a tonic on my enfeebled constitution, and I
     am daily gaining strength and muscle. I have to-day worked six
     hours in my banana grove, with the thermometer at 90° in the shade,
     without experiencing any inconvenience from the heat. The heat is
     so modified by the constant sea breeze that one can work in the sun
     at all hours of the day and at all seasons of the year. Sunstroke
     and hydrophobia are unknown here. This statement can be taken
     _without_ salt. In midsummer the nights are invariably cool.
     Blankets at night are the rule, not the exception. This much about
     location and climate; now, a few words about _that_ orange grove.

     My _ranch_ is new, and consequently rather crude. When I located
     here in November last, a large portion of it was a "howling
     wilderness." Since that time, I have felled the trees, piled the
     logs, burned the brush, grubbed and fenced fifteen acres, on ten
     acres of which I am now setting out 500 two-years-old sweet
     seedling orange trees, which I hope to live long enough to see bear
     fruit. Some two months since, I set out 200 banana plants, and they
     are doing remarkably well; many of the stalks are six feet in
     height. They will bear fruit in about eighteen months. I also have
     a patch of sixty pine-apple plants which will bear fruit next year.
     I have a few coffee and tea plants, Japan plum and persimmon,
     pomegranate, almond and olive trees that are growing luxuriantly. I
     brought with me from Philadelphia, half a dozen cocoa-nuts, which I
     planted on the 1st of November last, and had given up all hope of
     ever seeing them sprout, when, to my great surprise, some two weeks
     since, two of them threw up sprouts. They are now one foot high,
     and are growing vigorously. The guava thrives admirably here. I
     have several trees, and expect soon to luxuriate on guava jelly of
     my own manufacture. I will send you a few sample boxes.

     Have you ever eaten a Florida orange, fresh plucked, that ripened
     on the tree? If not, visit Florida, and enjoy the greatest luxury
     of your life. It is the fruit _par excellence_--fit food for the
     gods. I have, in the course of my somewhat eventful life, eaten
     oranges in the groves of the Mediterranean, South America, Mexico
     and the West Indies, but none can compare with the orange grown in
     this State. Our soil is peculiarly adapted to the growth and
     maturity of the _perfect_ orange. No other soil can produce it.
     The West India and Louisiana seedling orange tree is wonderfully
     improved by being transplanted in Florida soil. South Florida will,
     ere long, be one vast orange grove, and will supply the world with
     her incomparable fruit. She will supply the Mediterranean ports
     with better oranges than can possibly be raised in that country.
     Won't that be "carrying coals to Newcastle?" I may not live to see
     the above prediction verified, but there are persons living at this
     time who will.

     If any of your numerous friends think it would be a good thing to
     have an orange grove, advise them to visit the Gulf coast of South
     Florida before locating elsewhere. Also tell them to drop in at
     Braidentown. They may go further and fare worse. The most direct
     route to this place is by rail to Cedar Key, the present terminus
     of railroad communication, thence by steamer down the coast. The
     mail steamers leave Cedar Key twice a week for this place and
     Tampa. Leave Cedar Key at 4 o'clock P. M. on Monday and Friday of
     each week, and arrive at Braidentown at 7 o'clock the following
     morning. _Au revoir._


The following communication was published in the _Florida Agriculturist_
in January last, under the caption of the "_Climate of the Gulf Coast of
South Florida_."

     Having kept a record of the state of the thermometer at 6 o'clock
     A. M., 12 o'clock M. and 6 o'clock P. M. at Braidentown, Manatee
     County, Florida, from the 1st day of January to the 31st day of
     December, 1880, inclusive, I herewith inclose you a synopsis of the
     same for publication in the _Agriculturist_, with the hope that it
     may interest your numerous readers, especially those in the
     Northern and Western States who are seeking homes in

    The land of the orange and guava,
    The pine-apple, date and cassava.

     I also send a statement of the rainfall for the year 1880.


  Average temperature at 6 o'clock A. M.,      71-1/3°

  Average temperature at 12 o'clock M.,        83-2/3°

  Average temperature at 6 o'clock P. M.,      78-7/8°

  Highest temperature at 12 o'clock M.,        96°
    July 1st and August 26th,

  Lowest temperature at 6 o'clock A. M.,       38°
    Dec. 31st,


              |Rainy Days.
              |   |Clear Days.
              |   |   |Cloudy and Partly
              |   |   |  Cloudy Days.
   January,   |  5| 19| 12
   February,  |  3| 24|  5
   March,     |  3| 24|  7
   April,     |  1| 29|  1
   May,       | 12|  4| 27
   June,      | 18|  8| 22
   July,      | 12|  6| 25
   August,    | 18|  8| 23
   September, | 13| 15| 15
   October,   | 10| 19| 12
   November,  |  3| 15| 15
   December,  |  6| 17| 14
   Total,     |104|188|177

     Rainfall during year, 69-1/2 inches.

            *       *       *       *       *

     At least one-half the days classed as "cloudy and partly cloudy"
     were clear one-half of the day, and a majority of the "rainy days"
     were clear three-fourths of the day. During the gale on the 29th
     and 30th of last August, which was so destructive on the Atlantic
     coast of the State, rain fell here almost uninterruptedly for
     nearly forty-eight hours, but the wind did little or no damage. The
     rainfall during the two days was six and one-half inches, the
     heaviest of the season. I have resided here during the past
     fourteen months, and, up to this time (January 7th, 1881), there
     has been _no frost_, and my tropical fruits and plants have grown
     luxuriantly every month of the year. The year just closed, in its
     dying throes, kicked the mercury in the thermometer down to 38°,
     and a slight frost occurred on the opposite side of the Manatee
     River, and also in the hammock four or five miles south-east of
     Braidentown. The water protection--being surrounded on three sides
     by the aqueous fluid--has rendered Braidentown _exempt from frost_.

     Although the rainfall of 1880 has been some nine inches in excess
     of the average rainfall in this State, I have passed one of the
     most agreeable summers of my life. While the denizens of the St.
     Johns and Atlantic coast are shivering in the chilling blasts of
     winter, we on the Gulf coast of South Florida are basking in the
     sun, with a temperature of 65° at 6 o'clock A. M., 75° at 12
     o'clock M. and 70° at 6 o'clock P. M. If any locality north of
     latitude 27-1/2° can present a more favorable record, Braidentown
     will yield the palm.

     _Nous verrons._


BRAIDENTOWN, FLA., Jan. 7th, 1881.


_Editor of the Florida Agriculturist_:

Several of your Northern and Western subscribers who read the
communication I published in the AGRICULTURIST in January last, giving a
synopsis of the climate of the Manatee region during the year 1880, and
which was reproduced in my recently published book, "Notes from
Sunland," have requested me to publish in your journal a statement of
the thermometer, rainfall etc., in Braidentown for the year 1881. I have
furnished the desired information as briefly as possible:


  Average temperature at 6 o'clock A. M.,                71-1/8°
  Average temperature at 12 o'clock M.,                  83°
  Average temperature at 6 o'clock P. M.,                78-3/4°
  Highest temperature at 12 o'clock M., July 7th
    and August 4th,                                      96°
  Lowest temperature at 6 o'clock, A. M., January 26th
    and November 25th,                                   44°

            |         |Days on|Cloudy and|
            |         | which |Partially |
            |         | Rain  | Cloudy   |Clear
            |Rainfall.| Fell. |  Days    |Days.
  January,  |5-1/8 in.|  12   |   17     | 14
  February, |2-1/2 in.|   4   |    6     | 22
  March,    |2-1/2 in.|   5   |    8     | 23
  April,    |2-1/4 in.|   3   |    5     | 25
  May,      |2-3/4 in.|   5   |    9     | 22
  June,     |6-1/4 in.|   8   |   12     | 18
  July,     |4-1/2 in.|  17   |   22     |  9
  August,   |5-1/2 in.|  11   |   22     |  9
  September,|4-3/4 in.|  12   |   19     | 12
  October,  |1-1/2 in.|   5   |    7     | 24
  November, |2-1/4 in.|   5   |   11     | 19
  December, |2-1/4 in.|   8   |   18     | 12
    Total,  | 42-1/8  |  95   |  156     |209

When the difference of rainfall for the years 1880 and '81 is taken into
consideration, the equability of the temperature for the two years is a
surprising and strange coincidence, there being less than one degree
Fahrenheit in the average temperature of the two years. The rainfall for
the year 1881 was 18 inches below the average on the Gulf coast, which
is 60 inches, the difference between the years 1880 and '81 being 27-1/2
inches; that of 1880 being 9-1/2 inches in excess of the average
rainfall. Although we had, comparatively speaking, no "rainy season"
last year, vegetation and crops have not suffered from drouth. The
vegetable gardeners hereabout were never more sanguine of large crops.
Cucumbers, squashes, and turnips have already been shipped by them to
New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and tomatoes in abundance will
follow next month. Several truckmen from Fairbanks and other places on
the Transit Railroad are this year engaged in raising early vegetables
in the hammocks bordering the Manatee.

The mercury in the thermometer reached 96 degrees only twice the past
year; and the lowest point indicated was 44 degrees on the morning of
the 26th of January and 25th of November--12 degrees above the freezing
point. We had no frost during the year. My alligator pears, cherimoyas,
custard apples, sapodillas, sour sops, pine-apples, cocoanut trees, and
other tropical fruits are growing luxuriantly; and my wife's camelia
japonicas, hibiscus, and rose bushes in the open air, are in full bloom.
In conclusion, allow me to reiterate what I said last year: "If any
locality north of latitude 27-1/2 degrees can present a more favorable
record, Braidentown will yield the palm."


_January 2d, 1882._


During a three years' residence in Braidentown, I have kept a
thermometrical record of the weather, also a register of the rainfall. A
synopsis of my observations for the years 1880 and '81 was published in
the _Florida Agriculturist_, in the months of January, 1881 and '82. In
my "Notes from Sunland," published in the fall of 1881, I gave
meteorological tables of the temperature and rainfall at Braidentown,
commencing with the month of January, 1880, and ending with March,
1881--fifteen months. In those tables I gave the record of the
thermometer at 6 o'clock A. M., 12 o'clock M., and 6 o'clock P. M. For
the information of my readers, and also of numerous correspondents at
the North and West, I publish the following summary of the temperature
and rainfall for the year 1882:


  Average temperature at 6 o'clock A. M.,                  71°
  Average temperature at 12 o'clock M.,                    83°
  Average temperature at 6 o'clock P. M.,                  78°
  Highest temperature at 12 o'clock M., July 19th,         96°
  Lowest temperature at 6 o'clock A. M., December 17th,    38°

            |         |Days on|Cloudy and|
            |         | which |Partially |
            |         | Rain  | Cloudy   |Clear
            |Rainfall.| Fell. |  Days.   |Days.
  January,  |2-1/2 in.|   5   |     9    |  22
  February, |1-1/2 in.|   3   |     6    |  22
  March,    |  5/8 in.|   4   |    10    |  21
  April,    |3-7/8 in.|   7   |    20    |  10
  May,      |1-5/8 in.|   6   |    19    |  12
  June,     |7     in.|  10   |    23    |   7
  July,     |7-1/4 in.|  20   |    22    |   9
  August,   |7-1/2 in.|  15   |    15    |  16
  September,|2-1/8 in.|   9   |    13    |  17
  October,  |3-5/8 in.|   9   |    11    |  20
  November, |1-1/2 in.|   5   |    11    |  19
  December, |4-1/4 in.|   8   |    12    |  19
  Total,    | 43-1/2  | 101   |   171    | 194

Although the difference in the rainfall between the year 1880 and the
years 1881 and '82, was 27-1/2 inches in the former and 26-1/2 inches in
the latter year, there was not a change of one degree Fahrenheit in the
mean temperature of the three years, which indicates a remarkable
equability of temperature. From the above it would seem that the
temperature is not governed by the rainfall. In 1880, rain fell on 104
days; in 1881, on 95 days, and on 101 days in 1882.

In 1880 there were 177 cloudy and partially cloudy days; 156 in 1881,
and 171 in 1882. In 1880 there were 188 clear days; 209 in '81, and 194
in '82. The days on which rain fell were seldom rainy days, in the
common acceptation of the term. Showers from one-half to one hour's
duration were the rule, and an occasional rainy day the exception.

The highest temperature recorded during the three years was 96° at 12
o'clock M., on the 1st of July and 26th of August, 1880; July 7th and
August 4th, 1881, and on July 19th, 1882. The lowest temperature during
the three years, was 38° at 6 o'clock A. M., on December 31st, 1880; 44°
on January 26th and November 25th, 1881, and 38° on December 17th, 1882.
Braidentown being surrounded on three sides by water, has, during the
past three years, escaped damage by frost, although we do not claim to
be below the mythical "frost line." The hammocks on the opposite side of
the Manatee River, and on Orange and Bee Ridges, south of Braidentown,
have been visited by frost, and vegetation and tropical fruits have been

From the ravages of hurricanes, tornadoes, and cyclones which
occasionally visit the Atlantic coast, and sweep across the northern and
extreme southern portions of our State, we are comparatively free. That
portion of the Gulf coast of South Florida, lying between Clear Water
and Charlotte Harbor, has, for some unexplained reason--probably the
piety of its inhabitants--been exempt from hurricanes and tornadoes
during the past forty years. I do not believe that the Manatee region is
fully entitled to the appellation of Paradise; but I do believe that our
citizens are as near that beatific place as they ever will be while in
the flesh. If any one knows of a more desirable location on earth, or in
the waters under the earth, I shall be pleased to record the fact.


_January 3d, 1883._

BRAIDENTOWN, FLA., _Feb. 5th, 1881_.

Sec. "_Florida Fruit Growers' Association_,"

DEAR SIR: In the Report of the Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting
of the "Florida Fruit Growers' Association," held in Jacksonville on the
27 ult., and published in the _Daily Union_ of that city on the
following morning, the annexed resolution was published, with the name
of your humble servant appended as one of the committee:

"_Resolved_, That a committee he appointed to investigate the effects of
the late freeze on the orange and other fruits and vegetables; said
committee to report to the secretary at Jacksonville at the earliest
practicable moment."

Having received no official notice of my appointment to serve on the
aforesaid committee, I have resolved myself into a committee of one, and
have the honor to respectfully report as follows:

The old and trite aphorism--"If the mountain will not come to Mahomet,
Mahomet must go to the mountain"--seems peculiarly applicable to the
above resolution. Ergo, if the orange and other fruits of the citrus
family will not thrive 'mid frost and ice, cultivate them in a more
genial climate. With the experience of last fall and the present winter
before me, together with a careful investigation of the climatology of
Florida during the past fifty years, I have come to the conclusion that
the fruits comprising the citrus family cannot be _successfully_
cultivated in this State north of the 28th parallel of latitude, and the
sooner and more widely this fact is promulgated, the better it will be
for all persons interested or about to become interested in this
laudable and growing industry. The fact that the late freeze killed the
scale insects on the orange trees in middle and north Florida, is _cold_
comfort for those engaged in orange culture. There are fruits better
adapted to the climate of Florida north of latitude 28° than the orange,
lemon, lime, guava, banana and pine-apple. Why, then, persist in
endeavoring to cultivate those fruits with so dim a prospect of success?
It is kicking against the pricks, hoping against hope. In conclusion,
plant your orange, lemon, lime and banana groves below the 28th parallel
of latitude, tickle the soil constantly with the hoe, and success will
crown your efforts. So mote it be.



     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of January, 1880, with Remarks in relation to Wind
     and Weather._

       |   6   |  12   |   6   |Wind |         |
       |o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |         |
  Date.| A. M. |  M.   | P. M. | M.  |Rainfall.|          Remarks.
    1  |  65   |  80   |  76   | E.  | 1/8 in. |Cloudy A. M., clear P. M.
    2  |  64   |  78   |  76   | E.  |  ----   |Clear.
    3  |  68   |  82   |  74   | E.  |  ----   |A. M. clear, P. M. cloudy.
    4  |  64   |  80   |  77   | E.  |  ----   |Clear with strong E. wind.
    5  |  66   |  80   |  74   |S. E.|  ----   |Clear A. M., cloudy P. M.
    6  |  64   |  80   |  74   | E.  |  ----   |Clear.
    7  |  62   |  80   |  72   |N. W.|  ----   |  "
    8  |  62   |  78   |  70   | W.  |  ----   |Cloudy.
    9  |  62   |  82   |  72   | W.  |  ----   |Clear.
   10  |  61   |  84   |  75   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   11  |  62   |  82   |  72   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   12  |  62   |  82   |  74   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   13  |  64   |  74   |  70   |N. E.|  ----   |  "
   14  |  58   |  78   |  73   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   15  |  58   |  78   |  72   | S.  |  ----   |  "
   16  |  55   |  86   |  68   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   17  |  58   |  78   |  72   | W.  |  ----   |  "
   18  |  55   |  76   |  66   |N. W.|  ----   |  "
   19  |  52   |  74   |  70   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   20  |  53   |  78   |  68   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   21  |  56   |  78   |  70   | S.  |  ----   |Cloudy.
   22  |  64   |  76   |  72   | S.  |   2 in. |Rain A. M., clear P. M.
   23  |  65   |  82   |  56   | W.  | 1/8 in. |  "   "       "    "
   24  |  54   |  58   |  58   |N. W.| 3/4 in. |Clear A. M., rain P. M.
   25  |  58   |  73   |  70   | E.  |  ----   |Cloudy.
   26  |  71   |  78   |  70   |S. W.| 1/2 in. |Rain A. M., clear P. M.
   27  |  64   |  68   |  62   | W.  |  ----   |Cloudy.
   28  |  58   |  66   |  63   |N. W.|  ----   |  "
   29  |  58   |  80   |  72   | E.  |  ----   |Clear.
   30  |  63   |  86   |  70   |S. E.|  ----   |  "
   31  |  62   |  80   |  70   | W.  |  ----   |  "
  Sums,| 1,788 | 2,315 | 2,168 | --  |3-1/2 in.|
  Av'ge| 57-1/3| 74-3/4|  70   | --  |   --    |

  Lowest temperature at 6 o'clock A. M., 19th inst                  52°
  Highest    "         12   "      M., 16th and 30th insts          86°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of February, 1880, with Remarks in relation to Wind
     and Weather._

       |   6   |  12   |   6   |Wind |         |
       |o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |         |
  Date.| A. M. |  M.   | P. M. | M.  |Rainfall.|        Remarks.
    1  |  64   |  76   |  63   |N. W.|  ----   |Cloudy.
    2  |  62   |  80   |  73   | S.  | 1/8 in. |Rain at night. Strong wind
       |       |       |       |     |         |  all day.
    3  |  66   |  70   |  62   |N. W.|  ----   |Wind has blown a gale
       |       |       |       |     |         |  all day.
    4  |  46   |  72   |  58   |S. E.|  ----   |Clear A. M., cloudy P. M.
    5  |  56   |  80   |  74   | E.  | 1/8 in. |Rain during night, clear
       |       |       |       |     |         |  all day.
    6  |  52   |  68   |  62   | E.  |  ----   |Cloudy.
    7  |  55   |  74   |  64   | E.  |  ----   |Clear.
    8  |  62   |  80   |  70   | W.  |  ----   |  "
    9  |  60   |  74   |  68   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   10  |  58   |  86   |  72   | W.  |  ----   |  "
   11  |  57   |  83   |  76   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   12  |  62   |  82   |  74   | W.  |  ----   |  "
   13  |  66   |  79   |  74   | S.  |  ----   |Clear. Wind blowing a gale.
   14  |  72   |  80   |  75   | S.  |   1 in. |Rain during night, cloudy
       |       |       |       |     |         |  all day.
   15  |  63   |  74   |  63   |N. E.|  ----   |Clear.
   16  |  49   |  78   |  68   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   17  |  58   |  82   |  76   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   18  |  64   |  86   |  74   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   19  |  63   |  84   |  70   |N. W.|  ----   |  "
   20  |  63   |  85   |  72   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   21  |  62   |  77   |  70   | W.  |  ----   |  "
   22  |  67   |  76   |  66   | W.  |  ----   |  "
   23  |  53   |  79   |  69   | W.  |  ----   |  "
   24  |  56   |  81   |  70   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   25  |  60   |  80   |  72   |S. E.|  ----   |  "
   26  |  62   |  80   |  74   | S.  |  ----   |  "
   27  |  58   |  88   |  74   |N. E.|  ----   |  "
   28  |  60   |  82   |  72   | W.  |  ----   |  "
   29  |  68   |  87   |  74   |S. E.|  ----   |  "
  Sums,| 1,744 | 2,303 | 2,034 | --  |1-1/4 in.|
  Av'ge| 60-1/8| 79-1/2|70-1/8 | --  |  ----   |

  Lowest temperature at 6 o'clock A. M., 4th inst   46°
  Highest    "         12   "      M., 27th  inst   88°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of March, 1880, with Remarks in relation to Wind and

       |   6   |  12   |   6   |Wind |         |
       |o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |         |
  Date.| A. M. |  M.   | P. M. | M.  |Rainfall.|          Remarks.
    1  |  60   |  79   |  74   | S.  |  ----   |Clear.
    2  |  64   |  82   |  79   |N. W.|  ----   |  "
    3  |  68   |  80   |  76   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
    4  |  67   |  82   |  78   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
    5  |  64   |  83   |  75   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
    6  |  64   |  83   |  76   | W.  |  ----   |  "
    7  |  73   |  83   |  76   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
    8  |  68   |  81   |  76   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
    9  |  76   |  82   |  78   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   10  |  74   |  84   |  78   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   11  |  68   |  84   |  78   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   12  |  71   |  86   |  78   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   13  |  67   |  86   |  78   | S.  |  ----   |  "
   14  |  72   |  86   |  78   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   15  |  69   |  85   |  78   | S.  |  ----   |  "
   16  |  70   |  84   |  78   | S.  |  ----   |Cloudy.
   17  |  70   |  84   |  76   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   18  |  73   |  84   |  78   |S. W.|  ----   |Clear.
   19  |  76   |  84   |  78   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   20  |  76   |  83   |  74   | E.  | 1/8 in. |Rain during night, cloudy
       |       |       |       |     |         |  all day.
   21  |  67   |  80   |  74   | E.  |  ----   |Cloudy.
   22  |  65   |  81   |  72   | E.  | 1/16 in.|Rain during night, cloudy
       |       |       |       |     |         |  all day.
   23  |  64   |  75   |  74   | E.  |  ----   |Cloudy.
   24  |  63   |  80   |  75   |N. W.|  ----   |Clear.
   25  |  63   |  83   |  78   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   26  |  65   |  82   |  78   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   27  |  68   |  82   |  77   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   28  |  75   |  72   |  72   | W.  | 1/16 in.|Rain A. M., cloudy P. M.
   29  |  69   |  78   |  69   | W.  |  ----   |Clear.
   30  |  62   |  76   |  74   |S. E.|  ----   |  "
   31  |  52   |  76   |  74   | E.  |  ----   |  "
  Sums,| 2,093 | 2,530 | 2,359 | --  | 1/4 in. |
  Av'ge| 67-1/2|81-3/4 |76-1/8 | --  |   --    |

  Lowest temperature at 6 o'clock A. M., 31st inst                     52°
  Highest    "         12    "     M., 12th, 13th and 14th insts       86°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of April, 1880, with Remarks in relation to Wind and

       |   6   |  12   |   6   |Wind |         |
       |o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |         |
  Date.| A. M. |  M.   | P. M. |  M. |Rainfall.| Remarks.
    1  |  60   |  81   |  72   | W.  |  ----   |Clear.
    2  |  60   |  79   |  75   | W.  |  ----   |  "
    3  |  67   |  82   |  76   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
    4  |  70   |  80   |  75   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
    5  |  69   |  81   |  76   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
    6  |  65   |  83   |  76   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
    7  |  68   |  82   |  79   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
    8  |  68   |  82   |  78   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
    9  |  70   |  77   |  69   |S. W.| 1/4 in. |Cloudy, with rain
       |       |       |       |     |         | in the evening.
   10  |  59   |  76   |  68   |N. W.|  ----   |Clear.
   11  |  65   |  79   |  75   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   12  |  65   |  78   |  76   |S. E.|  ----   |  "
   13  |  58   |  77   |  75   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   14  |  62   |  88   |  80   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   15  |  65   |  83   |  78   |N. W.|  ----   |  "
   16  |  68   |  83   |  78   |N. W.|  ----   |  "
   17  |  70   |  84   |  78   | W.  |  ----   |  "
   18  |  75   |  85   |  79   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   19  |  74   |  85   |  81   | W.  |  ----   |  "
   20  |  76   |  86   |  85   | W.  |  ----   |  "
   21  |  73   |  86   |  82   | W.  |  ----   |  "
   22  |  69   |  86   |  81   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   23  |  72   |  85   |  79   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   24  |  73   |  87   |  80   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   25  |  73   |  86   |  79   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   26  |  72   |  87   |  84   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   27  |  73   |  86   |  84   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   28  |  76   |  88   |  85   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   29  |  74   |  87   |  82   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   30  |  76   |  88   |  86   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
  Sums,| 2,065 | 2,497 | 2,351 | --  | 1/4 in. |
  Av'ge| 68-5/6|83-1/4 | 78-1/3| --  |   --    |

  Lowest temperature at 6 o'clock A. M., 13th inst                     58°
  Highest    "         12    "      M., 14th, 28th and 30th insts      88°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of May, 1880, with Remarks in relation to Wind and

       |   6   |  12   |   6   |Wind |         |
       |o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |         |
  Date.| A. M. |  M.   | P. M. |  M. |Rainfall.|         Remarks.
    1  |  73   |   89  |  86   | E.  |  ----   |Clear.
    2  |  72   |   89  |  79   |S. E.| 1/2 in. |Cloudy, with rain P. M.
    3  |  72   |   80  |  79   |S. E.|  ----   |  "  with Scotch mist.
    4  |  78   |   84  |  84   |S. W.|  ----   |Clear.
    5  |  75   |   79  |  81   |S. E.|  ----   |Cloudy, with Scotch mist.
    6  |  74   |   83  |  83   | E.  |  ----   |Cloudy.
    7  |  74   |   90  |  74   | E.  | 1 in.   |Rain during P.M. and night.
    8  |  75   |   80  |  76   | E.  |2-1/4 in.|  "     "    "        "
    9  |  76   |   85  |  78   | E.  |  ----   |Cloudy, with Scotch mist.
   10  |  74   |   87  |  86   |S. W.|  ----   |Partly cloudy.
   11  |  73   |   87  |  79   |S. W.| 1 in.   |Rain in the afternoon.
   12  |  75   |   78  |  78   |S. W.|1-1/2 in.|  "     "       "
   13  |  72   |   83  |  83   |S. W.|  ----   |Cloudy.
   14  |  75   |   84  |  83   |S. W.|  ----   |  "
   15  |  75   |   83  |  81   | E.  |  ----   |Cloudy; wind blowing a gale.
   16  |  72   |   85  |  79   | E.  |  ----   |  "         "         "
   17  |  70   |   86  |  80   | E.  |  ----   |Cloudy.
   18  |  73   |   87  |  83   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   19  |  73   |   90  |  84   | E.  |  ----   |  "
   20  |  75   |   90  |  82   |S. E.| 1/2 in. |Rain during P.M. and night.
   21  |  75   |   90  |  80   |S. E.| 1 in.   |  "    "     "      "
   22  |  75   |   79  |  78   |S. E.| 2 in.   |  "    "    the day.
   23  |  78   |   86  |  78   |S. E.| 1 in.   |  "    "       "
   24  |  78   |   86  |  78   |S. E.| 1/4 in. |  "    "       "
   25  |  76   |   75  |  78   |S. E.| 1/2 in. |  "    "       "
   26  |  76   |   88  |  78   |S. E.|  ----   |Cloudy, with Scotch mist.
   27  |  75   |   89  |  86   |S. E.|  ----   |Partly cloudy.
   28  |  76   |   89  |  89   |S. E.|  ----   |  "      "
   29  |  76   |   90  |  87   |S. E.| 1/4 in. |Rain during night, day clear.
   30  |  78   |   95  |  87   |S. E.|  ----   |Clear.
   31  |  80   |   91  |  86   |S. E.|  ----   |  "
  Sums,| 2,319 | 2,657 | 2,523 | --  |11-3/4 in.|
  Av'ge|74-3/4 |85-3/4 |81-1/3 | --  |  ----   |

  Lowest temperature at 6 o'clock A. M., 2d, 3d, 13th and 16th insts    72°
  Highest     "        12   "      M., 30th inst                        95°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of June, 1880, with Remarks in relation to Wind and

       |   6   |  12   |   6   |Wind |         |
  Date.|o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |Rainfall.|          Remarks.
       | A. M. |   M.  | P. M. |  M. |         |
     1 |   80  |   88  |   84  |S. E.|  1/2 in.| Cloudy.
     2 |   82  |   82  |   81  |S. E.|  1/2 in.|   "
     3 |   80  |   87  |   85  |  W. |  1/2 in.| Rain in the afternoon.
     4 |   78  |   91  |   85  |S. E.|         | Cloudy, with Scotch mist.
     5 |   80  |   89  |   82  |S. E.|1-1/2 in.| Rain in the afternoon.
     6 |   81  |   87  |   80  |S. E.|  1/2 in.|   "    "      "
     7 |   79  |   90  |   85  |S. W.|         | Clear.
     8 |   80  |   89  |   87  |S. W.|         |   "
     9 |   82  |   91  |   90  |S. W.|    1 in.| Rain in evening.
    10 |   78  |   92  |   78  |S. W.|    1 in.|   "  "  afternoon.
    11 |   80  |   90  |   78  |S. W.|  1/4 in.|   "  "     "
    12 |   79  |   92  |   88  |S. W.|         | Clear.
    13 |   82  |   90  |   88  |S. W.|         |   "
    14 |   84  |   91  |   87  |  W. |         |   "
    15 |   86  |   92  |   88  |  W. |         |   "
    16 |   85  |   91  |   87  |  W. |         |   "
    17 |   79  |   89  |   88  |S. W.|    1 in.| Rain A. M., clear P. M.
    18 |   80  |   88  |   88  |S. W.|         | Clear.
    19 |   77  |   79  |   83  |S. W.|  1/4 in.| Rain A. M., clear P. M.
    20 |   80  |   86  |   76  |  E. |         | Cloudy.
    21 |   76  |   80  |   78  |S. W.|  1/8 in.|   "
    22 |   74  |   88  |   80  |S. E.|  1/4 in.| Rain P. M. and at night.
    23 |   78  |   87  |   84  |  S. |    1 in.| Rain during night.
    24 |   78  |   90  |   84  |S. E.|         | Cloudy.
    25 |   78  |   87  |   86  |  S. | 1/16 in.| Rain during afternoon.
    26 |   80  |   92  |   86  |S. E.|         |} Shower during afternoon.
    27 |   86  |   91  |   84  |S. W.|         |} Light shower in afternoon.
    28 |   82  |   88  |   89  |S. W.|  1/4 in.|}   "     "    "     "
    29 |   81  |   86  |   86  |S. W.|         |}   "     "    "     "
    30 |   83  |   94  |   86  |S. W.|         |}   "     "    "     "
  Sums,| 2,408 | 2,657 | 2,531 |     |8-7/8 in.|
  Av'ge| 80-1/4| 88-1/2| 84-1/3|     |         |

  Lowest temperature  at 6 o'clock A. M., 22d inst.                      74°
  Highest    "          12    "     M., 30th inst.                       94°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of July, 1880, with Remarks in relation to Wind and

       |   6   |  12   |   6   |Wind |         |
  Date.|o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |Rainfall.|          Remarks.
       | A. M. |   M.  | P. M. |  M. |         |
     1 |   82  |   96  |   82  |S. W.|1-3/4 in.|Rain during the afternoon.
     2 |   82  |   92  |   87  |S. W.|  1/4 in.|  "    "           "
     3 |   84  |   91  |   90  |S. W.|         |Clear.
     4 |   84  |   91  |   84  |S. W.|         |Cloudy.
     5 |   82  |   93  |   91  |S. W.|         |Clear.
     6 |   84  |   92  |   88  |S. W.|         |Scotch mist in the afternoon.
     7 |   84  |   79  |   84  |S. E.| 1/16 in.|Rain during P. M.
     8 |   84  |   93  |   89  |S. E.|  1/2 in.|  "     "     "
     9 |   81  |   85  |   81  |S. E.|  3/4 in.|  "     "     "
    10 |   82  |   92  |   88  |S. W.|         |Clear.
    11 |   86  |   89  |   82  |S. W.|         |Cloudy, with Scotch mist.
    12 |   82  |   84  |   86  |S. W.|         |  "          "        "
    13 |   83  |   93  |   87  |S. W.|         |Cloudy.
    14 |   86  |   90  |   83  |S. W.|  1/2 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    15 |   82  |   92  |   88  |S. W.|         |Cloudy.
    16 |   88  |   90  |   88  |S. W.|         |  "
    17 |   86  |   89  |   88  |S. E.|         |  "
    18 |   84  |   93  |   90  |S. W.|         |  "
    19 |   86  |   90  |   88  |S. W.|         |  "
    20 |   88  |   91  |   89  |S. W.|         |Clear.
    21 |   88  |   93  |   90  |S. W.|         |  "
    22 |   88  |   90  |   87  |S. W.|  1/4 in.|Cloudy: rain in the evening.
    23 |   84  |   92  |   84  |S. W.|         |Cloudy.
    24 |   84  |   93  |   88  |S. W.|1-1/2 in.|Cloudy: rain in the evening.
    25 |   84  |   94  |   82  |S. E.|         |Scotch mist in the afternoon.
    26 |   80  |   80  |   83  |S. E.|  1/2 in.|Rain in the evening.
    27 |   80  |   80  |   83  |S. E.|    1 in.|  "     "    afternoon.
    28 |   80  |   87  |   83  |S. E.|  1/8 in.|  "     "       "
    29 |   83  |   90  |   87  |S. W.|         |Cloudy and misty.
    30 |   82  |   90  |   85  |S. W.|         |Clear.
    31 |   80  |   84  |   83  |S. W.| 1/16 in.|Rain at noon.
  Sums,| 2,593 | 2,778 | 2,683 |     |7-1/4 in.|
  Av'ge| 83-3/4| 89-1/2| 86-3/4|     |         |

  Lowest temperature at 6 o'clock A.M., 26th, 27th, 28th and 31st insts. 80°
  Highest    "         12    "     M., 1st inst.                         96°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of August, 1880, with Remarks in relation to Wind and

       |   6   |   12  |   6   |Wind |         |
  Date.|o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |Rainfall.|          Remarks.
       | A. M. |   M.  | P. M. |  M. |         |
     1 |   82  |   91  |   86  |S. W.|         |Clear.
     2 |   82  |   91  |   83  |S. E.|         |  "
     3 |   82  |   90  |   80  |S. W.|    1 in.|Rain during night.
     4 |   78  |   82  |   79  |S. E.|1-1/4 in.|  "    "    day and night.
     5 |   78  |   80  |   82  |S. E.|1-1/2 in.|  "    "    forenoon.
     6 |   78  |   83  |   82  |S. W.| 1/16 in.|  "    "    afternoon.
     7 |   79  |   93  |   80  |S. W.|  1/4 in.|  "    "        "
     8 |   82  |   92  |   84  |S. E.|    1 in.|  "    "        "
     9 |   82  |   92  |   83  |S. E.|  1/2 in.|  "    "        "
    10 |   81  |   91  |   88  |S. E.|         |Cloudy.
    11 |   82  |   94  |   80  |S. E.|  1/2 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    12 |   84  |   94  |   84  |S. E.|  1/2 in.|  "    "        "
    13 |   82  |   90  |   87  |S. E.|         |Cloudy.
    14 |   81  |   91  |   92  |S. W.|         |  "
    15 |   82  |   93  |   79  |S. E.|  1/2 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    16 |   80  |   93  |   84  |S. E.|         |Cloudy.
    17 |   82  |   95  |   80  |S. E.|    2 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    18 |   80  |   91  |   86  |S. E.|         |Cloudy.
    19 |   78  |   93  |   90  |S. E.|         |Clear.
    20 |   82  |   89  |   86  |S. E.| 1/16 in.|Cloudy, rain in the P.M.
    21 |   80  |   89  |   89  |S. W.|         |Clear.
    22 |   84  |   92  |   89  |S. W.|         |  "
    23 |   86  |   96  |   90  |S. W.|         |  "
    24 |   84  |   93  |   88  |S. E.| 1/16 in.|Cloudy, with rain in the P.M.
    25 |   82  |   95  |   85  |S. W.|  1/4 in.|  "      "    "     "     "
    26 |   81  |   96  |   88  |S. E.|    1 in.|  "      "    "     "     "
    27 |   82  |   94  |   91  |S. E.|         |Clear.
    28 |   82  |   95  |   88  |S. E.|         |  "
    29 |   84  |   84  |   83  |S. W.|3-1/2 in.|Rain, wind blowing gale day
       |       |       |       |     |         |                  and night.
    30 |   78  |   82  |   82  |  S. |    3 in.|  "     "     "     "     "
    31 |   80  |   90  |   84  |S. E.|  1/8 in.|Rain during the forenoon.
  Sums,| 2,520 | 2,814 | 2,642 |     |   17 in.|
  Av'ge|    84 | 93-3/4|    88 |     |         |

  Lowest temperature at 6 o'clock A.M., 4th, 5th, 6th, 19th and 30th insts.
  Highest    "        12     "     M., 23d and 26th insts.               96°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of September, 1880, with Remarks in relation to Wind
     and Weather._

       |   6   |   12  |   6   |Wind |         |
  Date.|o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |Rainfall.|          Remarks.
       | A. M. |   M.  | P. M. |  M. |         |
     1 |   81  |   86  |     82|S. E.|  1/4 in.|Cloudy, with rain in P. M.
     2 |   73  |   88  |     78|S. W.|    1 in.|   "         "       "
     3 |   78  |   92  |     81|  S. |    1 in.|   "         "       "
     4 |   80  |   92  |     88|S. E.|         |Clear.
     5 |   82  |   92  |     87|S. E.|         |Clear A. M., cloudy P. M.
     6 |   81  |   90  |     87|S. E.|         |Clear.
     7 |   81  |   88  |     85|S. W.|         |  "
     8 |   81  |   90  |     84|S. W.|         |  "
     9 |   82  |   92  |     86|S. W.|  1/2 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    10 |   80  |   94  |     87|S. E.|  1/8 in.|  "      "     "
    11 |   82  |   92  |     88|S. E.|         |Cloudy.
    12 |   82  |   94  |     87|S. W.|    1 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    13 |   80  |   92  |     90|  S. |  1/2 in.|Clear day, rain during night.
    14 |   82  |   90  |     88|S. E.|         |Clear.
    15 |   80  |   91  |     83|S. E.|  3/4 in.|Clear day, rain during night.
    16 |   78  |   77  |     78|S. E.|         |Cloudy, with Scotch mist.
    17 |   75  |   87  |     88|S. E.|         |Clear.
    18 |   78  |   85  |     81|S. E.|         |Cloudy, with strong wind.
    19 |   75  |   90  |     81|S. E.| 1/16 in.|Clear A. M., rain P. M.
    20 |   78  |   90  |     84|S. E.|  1/2 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    21 |   78  |   93  |     88|S. E.|  1/4 in.|  "      "     "
    22 |   78  |   92  |     87|S. E.|         |Clear.
    23 |   78  |   94  |     89|S. E.|         |  "
    24 |   77  |   94  |     90|S. E.|         |  "
    25 |   80  |   90  |     85|  S. |         |  "
    26 |   78  |   92  |     87|S. W.|  1/4 in.|Rain during early part of
       |       |       |       |     |         |                      night.
    27 |   80  |   87  |     86|S. W.|    1 in.|Rain in the morning.
    28 |   85  |   90  |     86|N. W.|         |Clear.
    29 |   79  |   88  |     84|S. E.|         |  "
    30 |   70  |   90  |     87|S. E.|         |  "
  Sums,| 2,377 | 2,702 | 2,562 |     |7-1/8 in.|
  Av'ge| 79-1/4|    90 |    85 |     |         |

  Lowest temperature at 6 o'clock A.M., 30th inst.                       70°
  Highest    "         12    "     M., 10th, 12th, 23d and 24th insts.   94°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of October, 1880, with Remarks in relation to Wind
     and Weather._

       |   6   |   12  |   6   |Wind |         |
  Date.|o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |Rainfall.|          Remarks.
       | A. M. |   M.  | P. M. |  M. |         |
     1 |   73  |   92  |   87  |S. E.|         |Clear.
     2 |   70  |   90  |   85  |S. E.|         |  "
     3 |   76  |   92  |   87  |S. E.|         |  "
     4 |   76  |   92  |   85  |S. E.|         |  "
     5 |   77  |   86  |   81  |S. E.|  1/8 in.|Cloudy, with rain.
     6 |   76  |   80  |   80  |S. E.|  1/8 in.|  "      "    "
     7 |   78  |   80  |   78  |S. E.|    3 in.|Cloudy, with heavy rain.
     8 |   82  |   86  |   85  |S. W.|    2 in.|Clear A. M., rain P. M.
     9 |   80  |   82  |   79  |S. E.|         |Cloudy.
    10 |   76  |   90  |   87  |  S. |         |Clear.
    11 |   78  |   90  |   86  |  E. |         |  "
    12 |   78  |   88  |   82  |  E. |         |  "
    13 |   70  |   88  |   88  |  E. |         |  "
    14 |   76  |   93  |   82  |  E. |         |  "
    15 |   70  |   87  |   82  |  E. |         |  "
    16 |   68  |   87  |   80  |  E. |         |  "
    17 |   72  |   85  |   77  |  S. |  1/2 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    18 |   66  |   79  |   75  |  E. |         |Clear.
    19 |   69  |   84  |   81  |N. E.|         |  "
    20 |   75  |   86  |   80  |S. E.|  1/8 in.|Rain in the morning.
    21 |   70  |   87  |   82  |S. E.|    1 in.|  "  during the night.
    22 |   78  |   82  |   76  |N. W.|  1/2 in.|  "  in the morning.
    23 |   68  |   78  |   73  |  W. |         |Clear.
    24 |   62  |   80  |   76  |S. E.|         |  "
    25 |   60  |   79  |   80  |  E. |         |  "
    26 |   62  |   82  |   80  |S. E.|         |  "
    27 |   68  |   86  |   81  |S. E.|         |  "
    28 |   74  |   72  |   74  |S. E.|1-3/4 in.|Cloudy, with heavy rain.
    29 |   70  |   80  |   79  |N. W.|  1/4 in.|  "       "  rain.
    30 |   75  |   80  |   76  |N. W.|         |Cloudy.
    31 |   72  |   82  |   78  |S. W.|         |Clear.
  Sums,| 2,245 | 2,625 | 2,502 |     |9-3/8 in.|
  Av'ge| 72-1/2| 84-3/4| 80-3/4|     |         |

  Lowest temperature  at  6 o'clock A. M., 25th inst.                    60°
  Highest    "           12    "      M., 14th inst.                     93°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of November, 1880, with Remarks, in relation to Wind
     and Weather._

       |   6   |   12  |   6   |Wind |         |
  Date.|o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |Rainfall.|          Remarks.
       | A. M. |   M.  | P. M. |  M. |         |
     1 |   68  |   86  |   79  |S. E.|         |Cloudy A. M., Clear P. M.
     2 |   68  |   82  |   78  |N. W.|         |Clear A. M., Cloudy P. M.
     3 |   68  |   83  |   78  |S. W.|         |Clear.
     4 |   70  |   80  |   80  |N. E.|  1/2 in.|Rain during the night.
     5 |   78  |   86  |   82  |  S. |         |Clear.
     6 |   77  |   86  |   81  |  S. |         |  "
     7 |   74  |   75  |   76  |  N. |         |Cloudy.
     8 |   70  |   80  |   77  |S. E.|         |  "
     9 |   72  |   90  |   85  |  E. |         |Clear.
    10 |   77  |   85  |   78  |  S. |         |Cloudy.
    11 |   70  |   84  |   78  |S. E.|         |Clear.
    12 |   70  |   82  |   82  |  E. |         |  "
    13 |   70  |   87  |   86  |S. E.|         |  "
    14 |   74  |   83  |   80  |  S. |  1/4 in.|Clear day, rain at night.
    15 |   70  |   70  |   66  |N. E.|         |Cloudy.
    16 |   50  |   72  |   71  |S. E.|         |Clear.
    17 |   60  |   75  |   73  |  W. |         |  "
    18 |   64  |   80  |   76  |  W. |         |Cloudy.
    19 |   70  |   78  |   79  |  E. |         |  "
    20 |   77  |   75  |   72  |N. E.|  1/2 in.|Rain in the forenoon.
    21 |   62  |   76  |   77  |  E. |         |Clear A. M., Cloudy P. M.
    22 |   68  |   84  |   76  |  E. |         |  "     "       "     "
    23 |   63  |   76  |   67  |N. E.|         |Cloudy.
    24 |   65  |   79  |   79  |S. E.|         |  "
    25 |   71  |   80  |   74  |N. W.|         |  "     and foggy.
    26 |   71  |   75  |   75  |S. E.|         |
    27 |   72  |   80  |   76  |S. E.|         |Clear.
    28 |   71  |   84  |   78  |  S. |         |  "
    29 |   71  |   84  |   84  |S. E.|         |  "
    30 |   70  |   86  |   78  |S. E.|         |  "
  Sums,| 2,081 | 2,412 | 2,321 |     |1-1/4 in.|
  Av'ge| 69-1/3| 80-1/3| 77-1/3|     |         |

  Lowest temperature  at  6 o'clock A.M., 16th inst.                     50°
  Highest    "           12    "     M., 9th inst.                       90°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of December, 1880, with Remarks in relation to Wind
     and Weather._

       |   6   |   12  |   6   |Wind |         |
  Date.|o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |Rainfall.|          Remarks.
       | A. M. |   M.  | P. M. |  M. |         |
     1 |   71  |   80  |   80  |  S. |         |Cloudy.
     2 |   76  |   84  |   84  |  W. |         |  "
     3 |   72  |   82  |   82  |S. W.|         |Clear.
     4 |   69  |   82  |   80  |  S. |         |  "
     5 |   70  |   82  |   78  |  S. |         |  "
     6 |   76  |   77  |   73  |S. W.|  1/4 in.|Cloudy, with rain.
     7 |   56  |   68  |   65  |N. E.|         |Clear.
     8 |   45  |   72  |   64  |  E. |         |  "
     9 |   52  |   73  |   72  |N. E.|         |  "
    10 |   52  |   69  |   68  |N. E.|         |  "
    11 |   45  |   72  |   69  |N. E.|         |  "
    12 |   50  |   75  |   72  |N. E.|         |  "
    13 |   50  |   79  |   75  |N. W.|         |  "
    14 |   58  |   78  |   70  |S. E.|         |  "
    15 |   60  |   78  |   73  |  S. |         |  "
    16 |   65  |   81  |   75  |  S. |         |  "
    17 |   66  |   82  |   75  |  S. |         |  "
    18 |   70  |   82  |   74  |S. W.|  3/4 in.|Rain morning and afternoon.
    19 |   70  |   77  |   70  |  S. |  1/2 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    20 |   70  |   81  |   65  |N. W.|         |Cloudy.
    21 |   58  |   60  |   55  |N. W.|         |  "
    22 |   42  |   56  |   54  |N. E.|         |  "
    23 |   46  |   71  |   68  |S. E.|         |Clear.
    24 |   58  |   71  |   67  |S. W.|         |  "
    25 |   62  |   69  |   68  |  S. |  1/8 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    26 |   52  |   66  |   58  |N. E.|         |Cloudy.
    27 |   52  |   63  |   60  |N. W.|         |  "
    28 |   43  |   65  |   65  |S. E.|         |Clear.
    29 |   54  |   71  |   60  |S. E.|  1/8 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    30 |   40  |   51  |   45  |N. W.|         |Cloudy.
    31 |   38  |   50  |   53  |N. E.|    1 in.|Drizzling rain. Coldest day
       |       |       |       |     |         |                of the year.
  Sums,| 1,788 | 2,237 | 2,117 |     |2-3/4 in.|
  Av'ge| 57-3/4| 74-1/3| 68-1/4|     |         |

  Lowest temperature at 6 o'clock A. M., 31st inst.                      38°
  Highest    "         12    "      M.,  2d inst.                        84°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of January, 1881, with Remarks in relation to Wind
     and Weather._

       |   6   |   12  |   6   |Wind |         |
  Date.|o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |Rainfall.|          Remarks.
       | A. M. |   M.  | P. M. |  M. |         |
     1 |   54  |   78  |   59  |  S. |1-1/2 in.|Rain during the afternoon.
     2 |   50  |   67  |   63  |  E. |         |Clear.
     3 |   46  |   74  |   70  |  E. |         |  "
     4 |   69  |   80  |   77  |  S. |         |  "
     5 |   74  |   79  |   71  |  S. |    1 in.|Rain nearly all day.
     6 |   66  |   68  |   66  |  E. |  1/8 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
     7 |   63  |   67  |   67  |  E. |    1 in.|Rain morning and afternoon.
     8 |   65  |   68  |   69  |S. E.|  1/2 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
     9 |   66  |   75  |   72  |S. E.|         |Cloudy.
    10 |   73  |   80  |   75  |  S. |  1/4 in.|Rain during the night.
    11 |   68  |   76  |   65  |N. W.|  1/8 in.|       "        afternoon.
    12 |   54  |   62  |   62  |  E. |         |Cloudy.
    13 |   48  |   78  |   75  |  E. |         |Clear.
    14 |   64  |   75  |   70  |  S. |         |Cloudy.
    15 |   68  |   77  |   70  |  W. |  1/8 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    16 |   66  |   82  |   76  |S. W.|         |Clear.
    17 |   64  |   83  |   80  |S. E.|         |  "
    18 |   66  |   87  |   79  |  E. |         |  "
    19 |   66  |   83  |   78  |S. E.|         |  "
    20 |   66  |   77  |   72  |  S. |         |Cloudy, with Scotch mist.
    21 |   66  |   75  |   70  |S. W.|         |Clear A. M., cloudy P. M.
    22 |   60  |   76  |   66  |S. E.|         |Clear.
    23 |   57  |   60  |   58  |N. E.|  1/4 in.|Rain P. M. and night.
    24 |   53  |   60  |   56  |N. W.|  1/4 in.|     "        "
    25 |   52  |   55  |   52  |N. E.|         |Cloudy.
    26 |   44  |   76  |   64  |N. E.|         |Clear.
    27 |   48  |   72  |   62  |N. E.|         |  "
    28 |   54  |   67  |   64  |N. E.|         |Cloudy.
    29 |   56  |   80  |   74  |  E. |         |Clear.
    30 |   60  |   78  |   76  |N. W.|         |  "
    31 |   55  |   78  |   74  |N. W.|         |  "
  Sums,| 1,861 | 2,293 | 2,132 |     |5-1/8 in.|
  Av'ge|    60 |    74 | 68-3/4|     |         |

  Lowest  temperature at 6 o'clock A. M., 26th inst.                     44°
  Highest       "       12     "     M., 17th and 19th insts.            83°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of February, 1881, with Remarks in relation to Wind
     and Weather._

       |   6   |   12  |   6   |Wind |         |
  Date.|o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |Rainfall.|          Remarks.
       | A. M. |   M.  | P. M. |  M. |         |
     1 |   56  |   76  |   72  |S. E.|         |Clear.
     2 |   65  |   71  |   70  |S. W.|  1/4 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
     3 |   54  |   70  |   67  |S. W.|         |Clear.
     4 |   50  |   65  |   62  |S. E.|         |Cloudy.
     5 |   52  |   75  |   69  |N. E.|         |Clear.
     6 |   62  |   75  |   69  |N. E.|         |Clear, wind blowing a gale.
     7 |   66  |   78  |   72  |N. E.|         |  "      "    "        "
     8 |   64  |   79  |   73  |  E. |         |  "      "    "        "
     9 |   68  |   72  |   70  |S. E.|  1/8 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    10 |   65  |   84  |   78  |S. E.|         |Clear.
    11 |   70  |   81  |   75  |  S. |         |  "
    12 |   64  |   72  |   64  |S. W.|  1/8 in.|Rain in the afternoon.
    13 |   66  |   69  |   59  |  W. |         |Clear.
    14 |   48  |   66  |   62  |N. W.|         |  "
    15 |   52  |   75  |   66  |N. W.|         |  "
    16 |   58  |   80  |   74  |N. E.|         |  "
    17 |   59  |   84  |   76  |S. E.|         |  "
    18 |   62  |   85  |   76  |S. E.|         |  "
    19 |   67  |   82  |   74  |S. E.|         |  "
    20 |   69  |   81  |   74  |S. W.|         |  "
    21 |   65  |   76  |   69  |N. W.|         |  "
    22 |   60  |   80  |   66  |S. W.|         |  "
    23 |   58  |   80  |   73  |S. E.|         |  "
    24 |   58  |   80  |   74  |N. E.|         |  "
    25 |   60  |   79  |   74  |  E. |         |Cloudy.
    26 |   60  |   84  |   77  |S. E.|         |Clear.
    27 |   65  |   79  |   69  |  S. |    2 in.|Rain, with wind blowing a
       |       |       |       |     |         |                       gale.
    28 |   69  |   76  |   66  |  W. |         |Clear,  "   "      "
  Sums,| 1,712 | 2,054 | 1,970 |     |2-1/2 in.|
  Av'ge| 61-7/8| 73-1/2| 70-1/2|     |         |

  Lowest temperature at  6 o'clock A. M., 14th inst.                 48°
  Highest     "         12    "      M., 18th inst.                  85°


     _Record of the Thermometer and Rainfall at Braidentown, Florida,
     for the month of March, 1881, with Remarks in relation to Wind and

       |   6   |   12  |   6   |Wind |         |
  Date.|o'clock|o'clock|o'clock| at  |Rainfall.|          Remarks.
       | A. M. |   M.  | P. M. |  M. |         |
     1 |   59  |   74  |   61  |N. W.|         |Clear.
     2 |   59  |   75  |   69  |N. W.|         |  "
     3 |   60  |   75  |   71  |S. W.|         |  "
     4 |   59  |   71  |   63  |N. W.|         |  "
     5 |   66  |   74  |   63  |N. W.|         |  "
     6 |   59  |   68  |   68  |N. W.|         |  "
     7 |   53  |   72  |   73  |  E. |         |  "
     8 |   60  |   78  |   69  |  S. |1-1/4 in.|Rain P. M. and night.
     9 |   62  |   78  |   67  |N. W.|         |Clear.
    10 |   57  |   72  |   70  |S. E.|         |  "
    11 |   52  |   79  |   73  |S. E.|         |  "
    12 |   73  |   81  |   75  |S. W.|         |Cloudy, with Scotch mist.
    13 |   73  |   75  |   72  |N. W.|         |  "
    14 |   65  |   80  |   77  |N. E.|         |Cloudy.
    15 |   67  |   88  |   80  |N. E.|         |Clear.
    16 |   67  |   83  |   75  |  S. |         |  "
    17 |   66  |   80  |   76  |S. W.|         |  "
    18 |   72  |   82  |   78  |S. W.|         |  "
    19 |   72  |   79  |   76  |S. W.|    1 in.|Cloudy, rain P.M. and night.
    20 |   63  |   70  |   64  |N. W.|         |Cloudy.
    21 |   63  |   74  |   67  |S. W.|  1/4 in.|Cloudy, with rain at night.
    22 |   62  |   65  |   61  |N. E.|         |Clear, wind blowing a gale.
    23 |   52  |   66  |   58  |N. W.|         |Clear.
    24 |   59  |   74  |   71  |N. W.|         |  "
    25 |   56  |   74  |   66  |S. W.|         |  "
    26 |   65  |   70  |   69  |S. W.|         |Cloudy.
    27 |   60  |   72  |   63  |S. W.|         |Clear.
    28 |   52  |   78  |   71  |S. E.|         |  "
    29 |   57  |   75  |   70  |S. W.|         |  "
    30 |   59  |   65  |   64  |N. W.|         |Clear, wind blowing a gale.
    31 |   60  |   68  |   63  |N. W.|         |  "         "          "
  Sums,| 1,914 | 2,315 | 2,143 |     |2-1/2 in.|
  Av'ge|    62 | 74-3/4| 69-1/2|     |         |

  Lowest temperature at  6 o'clock, A. M., 11th, 23d and 28th insts.     52°
  Highest      "        12    "       M., 15th  inst.                    88°

       *       *       *       *       *

Typographical errors corrected by the etext transcriber:

was know first=> was known first {pg 65}

Heathfulness of climate=> Healthfulness of climate {pg 89}

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Florida: Past and present - together with notes from Sunland, on the Manatee River, - Gulf Coast of South Florida" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.