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Title: An Outline of English Speech-craft
Author: Barnes, William, 1801-1886
Language: English
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AN OUTLINE OF ENGLISH SPEECH-CRAFT

BY WILLIAM BARNES, B.D.

    ‘_Præsens Angli sermonis forma magis magisque recedit a stirpe
    antiquâ_’--Lexicon Frisicum, by JUSTUS HALBERTSMA, under ‘Dunsi’

[Illustration]

  LONDON
  C. KEGAN PAUL & CO., 1 PATERNOSTER SQUARE
  1878



  (_The rights of translation and of reproduction are reserved_)



FORE-SAY.


This little book was not written to win prize or praise; but it is put
forth as one small trial, weak though it may be, towards the upholding
of our own strong old Anglo-Saxon speech, and the ready teaching of it
to purely English minds by their own tongue.

Speech was shapen of the breath-sounds of speakers, for the ears of
hearers, and not from speech-tokens (letters) in books, for men’s eyes,
though it is a great happiness that the words of man can be long holden
and given over to the sight; and therefore I have shapen my teaching as
that of a speech of breath-sounded words, and not of lettered ones; and
though I have, of course, given my thoughts in a book, for those whom
my voice cannot reach, I believe that the teaching matter of it may
all be put forth to a learner’s mind, and readily understood by him,
without book or letters. So, for consonants and vowels, as letters, I
put breath-pennings and free-breathings, and these names would be good
for any speech, of the lettering of which a learner might know nothing.
On the grounds here given, I have not begun with _orthography_, the
writing or spelling of our speech, or of any other, while as yet the
teaching or learning of the speech itself is unbegun.

I have tried to teach English by English, and so have given English
words for most of the lore-words (scientific terms), as I believe
they would be more readily and more clearly understood, and, since we
can better keep in mind what we do than what we do not understand,
they would be better remembered. There is, in the learning of that
charmingly simple and yet clear speech, pure Persian, now much mingled
with Arabic, a saddening check; for no sooner does a learner come to
the time-words than he is told that he should learn, what is then put
before him, an outline of Arabic Grammar. And there are tokens that,
ere long, the English youth will want an outline of the Greek and Latin
tongues ere he can well understand his own speech.

The word _grammar_ itself seems a misused word, for _grapho_ is to
write, and _graphma_, worn into _gramma_, means a writing, and the word
_grammatikē_ meant, with the Greeks, booklore or literature in the
main, and not speech-teaching alone.

Whether my lore-words are well-chosen is a question for the reader’s
mind. I have, for better or worse, treated the time-words, and
nearly all the parts of speech, in a new way. I have clustered up
the time-words as weak or strong on their endings, rather than on
their headings, which had nothing to do with their forshapening or
conjugation. Case I have taken as in the thing, and not in the name of
it, as case is the case into which a thing falls with a time-taking,
and case-words (prepositions) and case-endings are the tokens of
their cases. The word _preposition_ means a foreputting, or word put
before; but then _from_ and _to_, in _herefrom_, and _therefrom_, and
_hitherto_, and _thereto_, are postpositions.

I have tried, as I have given some so-thought truths of English speech,
to give the causes of them, and hope that the little book may afford a
few glimpses of new insight into our fine old Anglo-Saxon tongue.

To any friend who has ever asked me whether I do not know some other
tongues beside English, my answer has been ‘No; I do not know English
itself.’ How many men do? And how should I know all of the older
English, and the mighty wealth of English words which the English
Dialect Society have begun to bring forth; words that are not all of
them other shapes of our words of book-English, or words of their very
meanings, but words of meanings which dictionaries of book-English
should, but cannot give, and words which should be taken in hundreds
(by careful choice) into our Queen’s English? If a man would walk with
me through our village, I could show him many things of which we want
to speak every day, and for which we have words of which Johnson knew
nothing.

Some have spoken of cultivated languages as differing from uncultivated
ones, and of the reducing of a speech to a grammatical form.

What is the meaning of ‘cultivate’ as a time word about a speech?
The Latin dictionary does not help us to its meaning, and it might
be that of the French _cultiver_, from which we should have, by the
wonted changes, to _cultive_. The Romans said _colere deum_ and _colere
agrum_, but not _agrum cultivare_; and we may believe that _colo_, with
_deus_ or _ager_, bore the same meaning, ‘to keep or hold (with good
care),’ and a speech is cultivated by the speaking as well as by the
writing of it, and a speech which is sounding over a whole folkland
every moment of the day cannot be uncultivated. ‘Not with good care,’
it may be said. Yes; most people speak as well as they can, as they
write as well as they can, from the utterer of a fine rede-speech
(oration), and the clergyman who gives unwritten sermons, down to the
lowly maiden who dresses as finely as she can; and to try to dress
herself well is a token that she will try to express herself well.

King Finow, of the Tonga Islands, gave a fine speech, as Mr. Mariner
tells us, at his coming to the throne; and it may be well said that he
made it, as he had made it in thought, ere he came to the meeting.

What is meant by the reducing of a speech to a grammatical form, or to
grammar, is not very clear. If a man would write a grammar of a speech,
of which there is yet none, what could he do but show it forth as it is
in the shape which its best speakers over the land hold to be its best?
To hold that a tongue had no shape, or a bad one, ere a grammar of it
was written, seems much like saying that a man had no face, or a bad
one, till his likeness was taken.



HEADS OF MATTER.


                                                       PAGE

  Free Breathings                                         1

  Breath-pennings                                         2

  Word-strain and Speech-strain                           3

  Thing-names                                             4

  Thing-sundrinesses                                      4

  Thing Mark-words:
    Sex                                                   5
    Kindred                                               5
    Size                                                  5
    Tale                                                6-9

  Outshowing Mark-words                              10, 12

  Persons                                                11

  Suchness                                               12

  Pitches of Suchness                                    13

  Time-taking and Time-words                             14

  Intransitive                                           14

  Transitive                                             15

  Cause Time-takings                                     15

  Time-giving                                            15

  Words in _-ing_                                        17

  Strong and Weak Time-words                          18-26

  Sundriness of Time-taking                              26

  Helping Time-words, _can_, _may_, _shall_, _must_      27

  Person, Tale, Mood, Time                           27, 30

  Historic Time-wording                                  30

  Case                                                   31

  Way-marks and Stead-marks                              33

  Thought-wording, Speech-wording                        35

  Twin Time-takings                                      35

  Speech-trimming                                        36

  Miswording                                          36-42

  Word-sameness                                          38

  Odd Wordshapes                                     42, 43

  Wordiness                                              44

  Hard Breathing                                         44

  Mark Time-words (Participles)                          45

  Words of Speech-craft, and others                      47

  Power of the Word-endings                              83

  Goodness of a Speech                                   86



SPEECH-CRAFT.


SPEECH-CRAFT (Grammar), called by our Saxon fore-fathers _Staef-craeft_
or _Letter-craft_, is the knowledge or skill of a speech.

The science of speech in the main, as offmarked from any one speech
(Philology), may be called _Speech-lore_.

Speech is the speaking or bewording of thoughts, and is of sundry kinds
of words.

Speech is of breath-sounds with sundry breathings, hard or mild, and
breath-pennings, which become words.

(1) A freely open breathing through the throat, unpent by tongue or
lips, as in the sounds =A=, =E=, =O=, =OO=, which are pure voicing. The
main ones in English are--

  1. =ee=, in _meet_.
  2. =e=, in Dorset speech.
  3. =a=, in _mate_.
  4. =ea=, in _earth_.
  5. =a=, in _father_.
  6. =aw=, in _awe_.
  7. =o=, in _bone_.
  8. =oo=, in _fool_.

Besides this open speech-breathing there are two kinds of
breath-penning.

(2) The dead breath-penning, as in the sounds =AK=, =AP=, =AT=, =AG=,
=AB=, =AD=, which end with a dead penning of the sounding breath.

In =AK= and =AG= it is pent in the throat.

In =AP= and =AB= with the lips.

In =AT= and =AD= on the roof.

=K=, =P=, =T= are hard pennings; =G=, =B=, =D= are mild pennings, the
breathing being harder in the former and softer in the latter.

Then there are half-pennings of the sounding breath, which is more or
less but not wholly pent, but allowed to flow on as through the nose in

  =AMH=,
  =ANH=,
  =AM=,
  =AN=,
  =ANG=;

as in the half-pent sounds--

  =AKH=,
  =AF=,             =AV=,
  =ATH=,            =ATHE=,
  =ALL= (Welsh),    =AL=,
  =ARH=,            =AR=,
  =AS=,             =AZ=,
  =ASH=,            =AJ= (French),

half-pent by the tongue and mouth-roof.

For a hard breathing the mark is =H=, as _and_, _hand_; _art_, _hart_.

 +---------------------+----------------+---------------+--------------+
 |         1           |      2         |       3       |      4       |
 |   Dead Pennings,    | Half-Pennings, | Dead-Pennings,|Half-Pennings,|
 |        Hard         |     Hard       |     Mild      |    Mild      |
 +---------------------+----------------+---------------+--------------+
 |(1) =C=, =K= (Throat)|(5) =KH= German |(14) =G=       |(18) =GH=     |
 |(2) =NK= in _ink_    |     and        |(15) =NGH= like|(19) =NG=     |
 |(3) =P= (Lip)        |     Welsh      |     =NG= in   |(20) =V=, =BH=|
 |                     |                |     _finger_, |     Irish    |
 |(4) =T=              |(6) =F=         |     not       |(21) =M=      |
 |                     |(7) =MH=        |     _singer_  |(22) =TH= in  |
 |                     |(8) =TH= in     |(16) =B=       |     _thee_   |
 |                     |    _thin_      |(17) =D=       |(23) =L= Welsh|
 |                     |(9) =LL= Welsh  |               |(24) =R= Welsh|
 |                     |(10) =RH= Welsh |               |(25) =Z=      |
 |                     |(11) =S=        |               |(26) =J=      |
 |                     |(12) =SH=       |               |     French   |
 |                     |(13) =NH=       |               |(27) =N=      |
 +---------------------+----------------+---------------+--------------+

Words are of breath-sounds, and some words are one-sounded, as _man_;
and others are tway-sounded, as _manly_; and others many-sounded, as
_unmanliness_.

There is word-strain and speech-strain.

The high word-strain (accent) is the rising or strengthening of the
voice on one sound of a word, as _man´ly_.

The high speech-strain (emphasis) is the rising or strengthening of the
voice on a word of a thought-wording.

The voice may both rise and fall on the same sounds, as _nō_.

In English and its Teutonic sister speeches the strain keeps on
the root or stem-word, as _man_, _man´ly_, _man´liness_; though in
clustered words, with their first breath-sounds the same, the strain
may shift for the sake of clearness, as ‘Give me the _tea_´pot’--the
tea_kettle_ is given, and thereupon the bidder may say ‘the teaPOT´,’
not the teaKETTLE.

In Greek the accent shifts in word-building, and likes mainly to settle
at about two times or short breath-sounds from the end of the word;
and in Welsh it settles mostly on the last breath-sound but one, as
_eis´tedd_, a sitting; _eistedd´fod_, a sitting-stead; _eisteddfod´an_,
sitting-steads, or bardic sessions.

Besides the word-strain (accent) and the speech-strain (emphasis),
there is a speech-tuning (modulation) of the voice (voice-winding),
which winds up or down with sundry feelings of the mind, and with
question and answers and changes of the matter of speech.

Things may be _matterly_ (concrete) or bodies of matter, as a _man_, a
_tree_, a _stone_; or

Things may be _unmatterly_ (abstract), not bodies of matter, as
_faith_, _hope_, _love_, _shape_, _speed_, _emptiness_.

It is not altogether good that a matterly and unmatterly thing should
be named by the very same word, as _youth_, a young man, and _youth_,
youngness.


THINGS AND THING-NAMES.

Things are of many kinds, as a _man_, a _bird_, a _fish_; an _oyster_,
a _sponge_, a _pebble_; _water_, _air_, _earth_; _honey_, _gold_,
_salt_.

The names of things may be called THING-NAMES.

But there are one-head thing-names (proper names), the names each of
some one thing of its kind; as _John_, the miller; _Toby_, the dog;
_Moti_, the lady’s Persian cat.

With Christian names may be ranked the so-called _patronymics_, or
_sire-names_, taken from a father’s name, as William _Johnson_, Thomas
_Richardson_; or in Welsh, Enid Verch _Edeyrn_; or in Hebrew Jeroboam
_Ben-nebat_.


Thing Sundriness and Thing Mark-words.

☛ _Mark_ is here to be taken in its old Saxon meaning, _mearc_--what
bounds, defines, describes, distinguishes.

The Welsh call the adjective the _weak name_ or noun, _enw gwan_.


Sundriness of Sex, Kindred, Youngness, and Smallness.

Marked by sundry names or mark-words, or mark endings.


SEX.

The stronger or _carl_ sex, as a _man_; the weaker or _quean_ sex, as a
_girl_; the _unsexly_ things, as a _stone_.

  Husband,  wife.
  Father,   mother.
  Brother,  sister.

In Saxon the sexes in mankind were called _halves_ or _sides_, the
spear-half and the spindle-half.

  Man,        woman.
  Boy,        girl.
  Buck,       doe.
  Stag,       hind.
  Ram,        ewe.
  Cock,       hen.
  _He_-goat,  _she_-goat.
  King,       queen.
  Duke,       duchess.


KINDRED, YOUNGNESS, OR SMALLNESS.

  Father,   son.
  Mother,   daughter.
  Mare,     foal.
  Hind,     fawn.
  Cat,      kitten.
  Duck,     duckling.
  Goose,    gosling.
  Ethel,    etheling.


SMALL THINGS.

By forlessening mark-endings:

  -_y_, -_ie._

    Lass,     lassie.
    Dog,      doggie.

  -_kin._

    Man,      mannikin.

  -_el_, -_l._

    Butt,     bottle (of hay).
    Pot,      pottle.
    Nose,     nozzle.

By mark-words:

A _wee_ house, a _little_ boy.

For bigness the English tongue wants name-shapes.

We have _bul_, _horse_, and _tom_, which are mark-words of bigness or
coarseness.

    Bulfinch.
    Bullfrog.
    Bulhead (the Miller’s Thumb. Pen-bwll, _Welsh_).
    Bulrush.
    Bulstang (the Dragonfly).
    Bullspink.
    Bulltrout.

  _Horse._

    Horse-bramble.
    Horse-chesnut.
    Horse-laugh.
    Horse-leech.
    Horse-mushroom.
    Horse-mussel.
    Horse-tinger.
    Horse-radish.

  _Tom._

    Tomboy.
    Tomcat.
    Tomfool.
    Tomnoddy.
    Tomtit.

The words _bul_ and _horse_ are not taken from the animals.


Sundriness in Tale.

By tale mark-words, as _one_, _five_, _ten_, and others onward.


Sundriness in Rank.

By rank-word, as _first_, _fifth_, _tenth_, _last_.

_An_, _a_, the so-called indefinite article, is simply the tale
mark-word _an_, one.

  _Saxon_,          an man.
  _Ger._,           ein mann.
  _West Friesic_,   in.
  _East Friesic_,   en.
  _Holstein_,       en.
  _New Friesic_,    ien.

We use _a_ before a consonant, and _an_ before a vowel, as _a_ man,
_an_ awl. But it is not that we have put on the _n_ to _a_ against the
yawning, but it is that the _n_ has been worn off from _an_.

The Frieses and Holsteiners now say _ien man_ and _en mann_.

The mark-word _an_, _a_ is of use to offmark a common one-head name, as
‘I have been to _a white church_’ (common); or, without the mark-word,
‘I have been to _Whitechurch_’ (one-head), the name of a village
so called. ‘He lives by _a pool_’; ‘he lives by _Pool_’ (a town in
Dorset). ‘He works in _a broad mead_’; ‘he works in _Broadmead_’ (in
Bristol).

As the Welsh has no such mark-word, it might be thought that it cannot
give these two sundry meanings; and the way in which it can offmark
them shows how idle it is to try one tongue only by another, or to talk
of the unmeaningness or uselessness of the Welsh word moulding.

_Llan-Tydno_ would mean _a church of Tydno_, but the parish called ‘The
Church of Tydno’ is in Welsh _Llandydno_, which, as a welding of two
words, hints to the Welsh mind that _Llandydno_ is a proper name, and
so that of a parish.

_Hoel da_ would mean _a good Hoel_; but to Hoel, the good king, the
Welsh gives as a welded proper name _Hoel dda_; and to _Julius Cæsar_
the Welsh gives, as one welded proper name, _Iolo-voel_, Julius-bald,
whereas _Iolo-moel_ would mean some bald Julius.

One sundriness of tale, the marking of things under speech--as _onely_
(singular) or _somely_ (plural)--is by an onputting to the thing-name
for _someliness_ a mark-ending, or by a moulding of the name into
another shape or sound.

By mark-endings, _-es_, _-s_, _-en_, _-n_.

  Lash,  lashes.
  Cat,   cats.
  House, housen.
  Shoe,  shoon.

By for-moulding, as _foot_, _feet_--_tooth_, _teeth_; or by both
word-moulding or sound-moulding and an ending, as _brother_, _brethren_.

When the singular shape ends in _-sh_, _-ss_, or _-x_, _-ks_, it takes
on _-es_ for the somely, as _lash_, _lashes_; _kiss_, _kisses_; _box_,
_boxes_.

And surely, when the singular shape ends in _-st_, our Universities or
some high school of speech ought to give us leave to make it somely
by the old ending -_en_ or _-es_ instead of _-s_--_fist_, _fisten_,
_fistes_; _nest_, _nesten_, _nestes_.

What in the world of speech can be harsher than _fists_, _lists_,
_nests_?

It is unhappy that the old ending in _-en_, which is yet the main one
in West Friesic, should have given way to the hissing _s_.

Where common names with the definite mark-word become names of places
they are wont to lose the article, as _The Bath_, in Somerset, is now
_Bath_; _The Wells_, in Somerset, _Wells_; _Sevenoaks_, not _The Seven
Oaks_, in Kent.

In our version of Acts xxvii. 8, we have a place which is called _The
Fair Havens_, instead of _Fairhavens_ without the mark-word, as the
Greek gives the name.

Other thing mark-words offmark all of the things of a name or set from
others of another name or set.

_All_ birds, or _all_ the birds in the wood; or all taken singly, as
_each_ or _every_ bird; or somely, as _set_ or _share_; _some few_ or
_a few_; _many_ or _a many_ birds.

_Another_ or _others_ beyond one or some under speech.

_Any one_ or _more_ of a some, either apple or any apples.

_Both_, for the two without others; or

_Much_ or _little_ grass.

Many mark-words were at first thing-names.

_Many_ was a _menge_, a main or upmingled set; and a great many men
would mean a great set or gathering of men.

_Few_ was _feo_, which seems to have meant at first a cluster or herd;
and a few men was a few (cluster) of men.

_Some_ was a _sam_ or _som_, a set or upmingled mass; and _some_ men
was a _sam_ or _som_ of men.

Now if the speech is about the set, it may be onely, as ‘There _is_ a
great many,’ ‘there _is_ a small few,’ or ‘a few’; but if the speech is
about the bemarked things, the mark-word may well be somely--‘many men
_are_’; ‘few men _are_’; ‘some men _are_.’

In the queer wording, ‘many a man,’ ‘many a flow’r is born to blush
unseen,’ it is not at all likely that _a_ is the article. It is
rather a worn shape, like _a_ in _a-mong_ (an-menge), or _a-hunting_
(an-huntunge), of the Saxon case-word _an_ or _on_, meaning _in_; and
it is not unlikely that _man_ has, by the mistaking of _a_ for an
article, taken the stead of _men_--‘an maeng an men,’ a many or mass in
men; as we say ‘a herd in sheep,’ ‘a horde in gold.’ So far as this is
true the mark-word may be somely--‘many a man or men,’ ‘a main in men
_are_.’

_None_ (Saxon _na-an_, no one) should have a singular verb--‘None _is_
(not _are_) always happy.’

Some mark-words are for a clear outmarking (as single or somely) of
things outshown from among others.


Outshowing Mark-words.

             (Near things.)
       Single.            Somely.
     _This_ man.   |    _These_ men.

             (Farther off.)
        _That._    |    _Those._

  (Still farther off, or out of sight.)
                _Yon._

The so-called definite article _the_ is a mark-word of the same kind as
_this_, _that_, _these_, and _those_.

The word _the_ in ‘the more the merrier’ is not the article _the_--to
a name-word. It is an old Saxon outshowing mark-word meaning with that
(_mid þy_). ‘The more the merrier’; _þy_ (with that measure), they are
more; _þy_ (with that measure), they are merrier.

In the wording ‘the man _who_’ or ‘the bird _which_ was in the garden,’
_who_ and _which_ are not the names, but are tokens or mark-words of
the things--_who_ of the _man_, and _which_ of the _bird_.

A thing may be marked by many mark-words, as ‘the (never to be
forgotten) day,’ ‘the (having to me shown so many kindnesses) man is
yet alive.’

A long string of mark-words may, however, be found awkward, and so we
may take a name-token _who_ for the _man_, and, instead of the words
‘having to me shown so many kindnesses,’ say, ‘who showed me so many
kindnesses.’

_Who_ or _that_ is the name-token for menkind, and _which_ or _that_
for beings of lower life or of no life, as ‘the man _who_’ or ‘the bird
or flower _which_ was in the garden.’

_Who_ and _which_ are used in the asking of questions--‘_Who_ is he?’
‘_What_ is that?’

The name-token should follow close on the forename for the sake of
clearness. ‘Alfred sold, for a shilling, the _bat which_ William gave
him,’ not ‘Alfred sold the bat for a _shilling which_ William gave
him,’ if it was the _bat_ that was given to him by William.

These mark-words take the stead of thing-names, and are _Name-stead
words_, and clear the speech of repetitions of the names. The baby may
say ‘Baby wants the doll,’ but at length learns to say ‘_I_ want the
doll’; or ‘_Papa_, take _baby_,’ and afterwards ‘_You_ take _me_’; or
‘Give _baby_ the _whip_--the _whip_ is _baby’s_,’ for ‘_It_ is _mine_.’

A man may be beholden to the speech in three ways:--

    (1) He may be the speaker, called the First Person;

    (2) He may be spoken to, the Second Person (the to-spoken thing);

    (3) He may be spoken of, the Third Person (the of-spoken thing);

and some mark-words are for the marking of things without their names,
both in tale and their sundry beholdenness to the speech:--

  Single.             Somely.
          1st Person.
              |
   _I._                _We_.
          2nd Person.
              |
  _Thou._           _Ye_, _you_.
          3rd Person.
    _He_,    _she_,    _it_.

Here the sex is marked.

_It_ is sometimes put for an unforeset thing-name of an unbodily cause
or might, as ‘_it_ rains’; ‘_it_ freezes.’

For a child or an animal of unknown sex we may take the neuter (or
sexless) mark-word _it_. ‘_It_ (the child) cries.’


SUCHNESS OR QUALITIES,

and mark-words or mark-wording of suchness, as _good_, _bad_, _long_,
_heavy_.

Suchness may be marked by one word, as ‘a _white_ lily,’ or by a some
or many of words, as ‘a _very white_ lily,’ or ‘a _most dazzlingly
white_ lily,’ or ‘a lily as _white as snow_.’

Things are marked as having much of something, as _hilly_, _stony_,
_watery_; or made of something, as _golden_, _wooden_, _woollen_; or
having some things, as _two-legged_, _three-cornered_, _long-eared_,
or _loved_ or _hated_; of the same set or likeness of something, as
_lovely_, _quarrelsome_, _manly_, _childish_; wanting of something, as
_beardless_, _friendless_.


Pitches of Suchness.

The Suchnesses of Things are of sundry pitches, which are marked by
sundry shapes or endings or bye-words of the mark-words, as ‘My ash is
_tall_, the elm is _taller_, and the Lombardy poplar is the _tallest_
of the three trees’; or ‘Snow is _whiter_ than chalk,’ or ‘Chalk is
_less white_ than snow,’ or ‘John is the _tallest_ or _least tall_ of
the three brothers.’

These Pitch-marks offmark sundry things by their sundry suchnesses,
as ‘The _taller_ or _less tall_ man of the two is my friend,’ or ‘The
_tallest_ man is _less tall_ than the tree,’ or ‘The _least tall_ man
is _taller_ than the girl.’

The three Pitches may be called the _Common Pitch_, the _Higher Pitch_,
and the _Highest Pitch_.

The Welsh has a fourth Pitch-word, called the _Even Pitch_, as _pell_,
far; _pellach_, farther; _pellaf_, farthest; _pelled_, as far (as
something else).

_Younger_ may mean _younger_ reckoned from young, or _younger_ reckoned
from _old_; as ‘Alfred at 80 is younger than Edward at 85.’ In this
case we may well say _less old_.

_Worse_ (wyrse) is shapen from _wo_, _wa_, _we_, a stub-root which
means _wrong_, _atwist_, _bad_ in any way, and is our _woe_.

The _r_ in _weor_ is most likely of a forstrengthening and not a
comparative meaning--_weor_, _wyr_, very bad; _weorer_, _wyrer_, still
more strongly bad. But, not to double the _r_, men might have put a
strengthening _s_, and so had _weors_.


TIME-TAKING.

You cannot behold a thing in your mind otherwise than in or under some
doing or in some form of being.

Every case of being or doing is a taking of time, as ‘the lily _is_
white,’ ‘the man _strikes_,’ ‘the bird _flies_ or _was hit_.’ For
though the _being_ white, or the _striking_ or _flying_ or _hitting_
was only for the twinkling of an eye, it took time; for the eyelid
takes time, however short it may be, to flit down and up over the
eyeball. Thence the word commonly called the _verb_ may be called the
_Time-taking word_ or _Time-word_, as it is called by the Germans _Das
Zeitwort_; or, as it is the main word of the thought and speech, it is
the _Thought-word_ or _Speech-word_; or, as it is called in Latin and
other tongues, the _Word_.

Welsh speech-lore has called the verb the _soul_[1] of the
thought-wording.

[1] ‘Enaid yr ymadrod yw’r ferf.’

Among the thousands of sundriness of time-taking there are some wide
differences which should be borne in mind.


Unoutreaching or Intransitive.

Time-takings, which must or may end with the time-taking thing, as

_To be._ John cannot _be_ another man.

_To sleep_; _to walk_. John cannot _sleep_ or _walk_ another man.


Outreaching (Transitive).

Time-takings that may begin with the time-taking thing, and reach out
to another, as

_To strike_; _to see_. John may _strike_ or _see_ another man.


Time-giving.

If a man, A, takes time against another, B, as _to see_ B, we should
more truly say of B that he _gives_, not _takes_, the time which A
takes.

The time-words for unoutreaching time-takings may be called
_Unoutreaching_; of the outreaching ones, _Outreaching_; of the
time-givings, _Time-giving_.

In some cases there is between the time-taking thing and the
time-giving thing a middle one--the thing, tool, or matter with which
the time is taken, as ‘John hit William _with_ a stone’ or ‘a cane.’
But then, again, this wording is shortened by the putting of the name
of the mid-thing as a time-word, as ‘John _stoned_ or _caned_ William.’
And this brings in a call for the marking of two sundry kinds of
time-words--the strong or moulded, and weak or unmoulded time-words.

A time-word, when it tells a taking of time by one thing against
another, is in the outreaching (active) _voice_--‘John strikes the
iron.’ When it tells of the giving of time, it is in the time-giving
(passive) _voice_. When it tells of an unoutreaching time-taking it is
in the middle _voice_.

For the causing of another thing to take time some tongues have set
shapes of the time-word, as, in Hindustani, _durna_, to run; _durāna_,
to make another run.

We have hardly any of such words, though such are--

  Lie, lay.
  Sit, set.
  Rise, raise.

Time-takings for becoming or making another thing become otherwise are
marked by the ending _-en_ on the mark-word, as

  To blacken.
  To whiten.

_Misdoing_ by the fore-eking _mis-_:--

  Mistake.
  Misread.

_Longer-lasting time-takings_ marked by the ending _-er_, as

  Chat, chatter (to chatter much or long).
  Fret, fritter.
  Sway, swagger.

_Short_ or _small time-takings_ by endings such as

  _-ock_, _-ick_.
  Whine, whinnock.
         whinnick (to whine smally).

  _-el_, _-l_.
  Prate, prattle.
  Jog, joggle.
  Crack, crackle.

A time-taking, taken as a deed or being without any time-taking thing,
is taken as a _thing_, and its name is a _Thing-name_, as _to write_.

As in Greek the Infinitive mood, _tò gráphein_, the ‘to write’; and
in Italian, _il scrivere_, the ‘to write’ (the deed of writing or a
writing), so the Infinitive mood-shape of the Saxon time-word was
taken as a thing-name after the preposition _to_, to or for, as _to
huntianne_ (to or for the deed to hunt or hunting), as ‘Why does Alfred
keep those dogs?’ ‘To huntianne.’

Thence we have our wording--

  ‘Any chairs _to mend_?’ (any chairs to or for the deed mending),
  ‘A house _to let_,’
  ‘Letters _to write_,’
  ‘A tale _to tell_,’

which is all good English.

It is an evil to our speech that the thing-shape now ending in _-ing_
should be mistaken for the mark-word ending in _-ing_.

Unhappily two sundry endings of the old English have worn into one
shape. They were _-ung_ or _-ing_ and _-end_.

_Singung_ is the deed of singing, a thing. _Singend_ is a mark-word, as
in the wording ‘I have a _singing_ bird.’

_Sailing_ and _hunting_, in the foregiven thought-wordings, are
thing-names, and not mark-words. _Sailing_ is _segling_, as ‘ne mid
_seglinge_ ne mid rownesse’ (neither with sailing nor rowing).--Bede 5,
1.

‘_Wunigende_ ofer hyne’ (_woning_ [mark-word] over him).--Matt iii. 16.

‘Sy _wunung_ heora on west’ (be their _woning_ [thing-name]
waste).--Ps. lxviii 30.

‘Ða genealaehton hym to Farisaer hyne _costigende_’ (then came near to
him the Pharisees _tempting_ [mark-word] him).--Matt xix. 3.

‘Ne gelaede þu us on _costnunge_’ (lead us not into _tempting_
[thing-name]).--Lord’s Prayer.

So ‘haelende,’ Matt v. 23; ‘haeling’; ‘bodigende,’ Matt. x. 35;
‘bodung,’ Luke xi. 32.

‘Waere þu to-daeg, on huntunge?’ (not _huntende_) (wert thou to-day on
or in hunting?)--Aelfric’s Dialogue.

‘Hwaet dest þu be þinre huntunge?’ (not _huntende_) (what dost thou by
thy hunting?)--Aelfric.

‘_The_ CALLING _of_ assemblies I cannot away with.’--Isa. i. 13. Not
‘calling assemblies,’ which, if _calling_ were a mark-word, would mean
assemblies that call.

The right speech-trimming with the thing-names in _-ing_ is to trim
them in the old English way as thing-names in their cases; as,

‘We are the _offscouring_ of all things unto this day.’--1 Cor. iv. 13.
Not ‘We are the offscouring all things.’

‘For that righteous man, IN _seeing_ and _hearing_, vexed his righteous
soul.’

‘By _the_ WASHING _of_ regeneration and (_the_) RENEWING _of_ the Holy
Ghost.’--Titus iii. 5. Not ‘He saved us by the washing regeneration and
renewing the Holy Ghost.’

The ending _-er_ of the time-taker (_deeder_, name-word) is, not
unclearly, the Celtic, Welsh _gwr_, or in word-welding _-wr_, the Latin
_-or_; as,

  Welsh, _barn_, doom; _barnwr_, a doom-man.
  Latin, _canto_, to sing; _cantor_, a sing-man.

Thence _-er_ seems a far less fitting ending for a tool-name than
the old Saxon _-el_; and a tool for the whetting of knives would be
more fitly called a _whettel_ than a whetter. _Choppel_, chopper;
_clippels_, clippers.

All new time-words now taken or shapen from other tongues must be
unmoulded.

We say _shoot_, shot (not _shooted_); but _loot_, looted (not _lot_),
_loot_ being the Hindustani _lootna_, to rob or plunder.

So time-words, which are known English words, of another kind, names
or mark-words, are mostly unmoulded.

The shapening of the time-words hangs rather more on their endings than
on their headings.

The oddest are those which end in the throat-pennings--=NG=, =NK=, =K=,
=G=; and those ending in roof-pennings--=T=, =D=.

Because the _-d_ of the roof-penning _-ed_ is so unlike a
throat-penning, which cannot easily stand with it: and because the =T=
and =D= are like _d_ as roof-pennings, and (_see_ Table) they may run
into them.


=-ING= ROOT-WORDS (strong).

The wording of a time-taking (predicate) with its speech-thing
(subject) is a _Thought-wording_ (proposition).

_Strong_ or _moulded time-words_ are such as, for a time-taking of
foretime, are moulded (without any out-eking) into another shape or
sound, as

  I sing,   I sang.
  It flies, it flew.

The _weak_ or _unmoulded time-words_ take on, unmoulded, an ending such
as _-ed_, as

  He stones, he _stoned_.
  He canes,  he _caned_.

All time-words that are known names of things are unmoulded, as

  To  Plaster,  plastered.
      Bud,      budded.
      Comb,     combed.
      Cap,      capped.
      Dust,     dusted.
      Fish,     fished.
      Gate,     gated.
      Water,    watered.
      Heap,     heaped.
      Mind,     minded.
      Name,     named.
      Pen,      penned.
      Stone,    stoned.

Very many of our time-words are unmoulded from the same cause--that
they are names of things; although such names of things, having become
worn more or less out of shape, or having fallen out of use, may not
show themselves to our minds what they are.

_To hunt_ makes _hunted_; why? From _hound_, to hunt, meaning at first
to seek with a hound.

It may, however, be said, ‘Is to hunt from _hound_, or hound from _to
hunt_?’

Such a point is, in very many cases, cleared out by the Anglo-Saxon,
in which ‘to hunt’ is _hunt-i-an_, not _hunt-an_; and the _i_, a worn
shape of _ig_, shows that _huntian_ is from _hund_, hound, and so hound
is not from hunt.

The time-word from the thing _hunt-ig-an_, _hunt-i-an_, is to _houndy_,
to take time with a hound.

We say

  Cling, clung.
  Fling, flung.
  Sling, slung.

But we should say ‘he _ringed_ (not rung) his pig’; ‘he _stringed_ his
harp’; _ring_ and _string_ being _things_.

The _strong_ or _moulded time-words_ are nearly or quite all words
ending in one single breath-penning, and of a close sound (1, 2, 3, or
4 of the Table), as

  =-ING=, Cling, clung.
  =-INK=, Sink, sank.
    =-K=, Speak, spoke.
    =-L=, Steal, stole.
    =-T=, Smite, smote.
    =-R=, Tear, tore.
    =-V=, Weave, wove.

Other time-words, name-words, or stem-words, and broad-sounded ones (5,
6, 7, 8 of the Table), are nearly all weak or unmoulded.


WEAK.

The ending =-NG= in broad-sounded words--

  Clang, clanged.
  Bung, bunged.
  Long, longed.


=-NK,= BROAD.

  Bank, banked.
  Clank, clanked.
  Flank, flanked.

    And in

  Blink, blinked.
  Link, linked.
  Clink, clinked.


=-K,= BROAD, LONG STEM-WORDS (weak).

  Bake, baked.
  Croak, croaked.
  Hawk, hawked.
  Rake, raked.

_Make_ was heretofore _maked_:

‘For aevric rice man his castles _makede_.’--Sax. Chron. MCXXXVI.

=K= wore out, whence

  Maked,      ma-ed,      maed,      made.


=-K,= SHORT.

  Back, backed.
  Clack, clacked.


=-G,= SHORT.

  Beg, begged.
  Clog, clogged.

All but _dig_, dug. What a pity to put it out of keeping with all of
the others! It is _digged_ in the Bible.


=-T,= LONG STEM-WORDS.

  Bait, baited.
  Bate, bated.
  Bleat, bleated.
  Bloat, bloated.
  Clout, clouted.
  Float, floated.


=-T,= SHORT STEM-WORDS.

  Bat, batted.
  Bet, betted.
  Clot, clotted.


=-TH.=

Breathe, breathed.


=-T=, SHORT (weak shortened).

  Cut, cut.
  Hit, hit.
  Let, let.
  Set, set.
  &c.

The wear of these words was thislike:

  Let-_ede_.
  Let-_de_.

The mild penning, _d_, after a hard one, _t_, became hard, _t_. Whence
_lette_, let, with the two _tt run into one_. A pity!

So were shapen _feed_, _fedde_, _fed_; _lead_, _ledde_, _led_; _read_,
_redde_.


WEAK =-D= (long).

  Crowd, crowded.
  Fade,  faded.


WEAK =-D= (short).

  Bed, bedded.
  Bud, budded.


=-L=, BROAD SOUND (long).

  Brawl, brawled.
  Call,  called.

A few of them are shortened, as _feel_, _feeld_, _felt_.


=-N=, LONG.

  Clean, cleaned.
  Frown, frowned.


=-N=, SHORT STEM-WORDS.

  Din, dinned.
  Pin, pinned.
  Sin, sinned.


=-R=, BROAD SOUNDS.

  Blare, blared.
  Care,  cared.

_Dare_ now makes _durst_; but in Friesic it is unmoulded--‘and ne
_thuradon_ nâ wither forskina’ (and _dared_ not to show themselves
again).


=-R=, SHORT.

  Bar,  barred.
  Purr, purred
  Stir, stirred.


=-S= and =-Z=, LONG.

  Pose,   posed.
  Praise, praised.
  Blaze,  blazed.
  Close,  closed.
  Daze,   dazed.
  Raze,   razed.


=-SS.=

  Bless, blessed.
  Guess, guessed.


=-SH.=

  Blush, blushed.
  Clash, clashed.


=-P=, LONG.

  Heap,  heaped.
  Peep,  peeped.
  Reap,  reaped.
  Gape,  gaped.
  Cope,  coped.
  Hope,  hoped.
  Mope,  moped.
  Stoop, stooped.

  Weak.  Shortened.
  Creep,   crep’d.
  Keep,    kep’d.
  Leap,    lep’d.
  Sleep,   slep’d.
  Weep,    wep’d.
  Sweep,   swep’d.


=-P=, SHORT.

  Cap,  capped.
  Hap,  happed.
  Hop,  hopped.
  Stop, stopped.


WEAK =-B= (short).

Blab, blabbed.


=-V=, LONG.

  Crave, craved.
  Grave, graved.
  Rave, raved.


=-F=, SHORT.

  Huff, huffed.
  Cough, coughed.


=-M=, LONG.

  Blame, blamed.
  All but _come_, came.


Stub-roots.

Time-words ending in an open breathing. Most of them are weak:--

  Bay, bayed.
  Bow, bowed.
  Brew, brewed.
  Claw, clawed.
  Say, said.
  Stew, stewed.

A few of them are moulded:--

  Blow, blew.
  Crow, crew.
  Grow, grew.
  Slay, slew.

All those that end in two or three sundry breath-pennings are weak:--

  =-NCH=, Pinch,     pinched.
  =-ND=,  Land,      landed.
  =-NGE=, Lounge,    lounged.
  =-NT=,  Grant,     granted.
  =-PL=,  Cripple,   crippled.
  =-PT=,  Intercept, intercepted.
  =-RB=,  Barb,      barbed.
  =-RC=,  Cork,      corked.
  =-RD=,  Hord,      horded.
  =-RG=,  Charge,    charged.
  =-RL=,  Hurl,      hurled.
  =-BL=,  Bubble,    bubbled.
  =-CL=,  Cackle,    cackled.
  =-DL=,  Huddle,    huddled.
  =-FL=,  Ruffle,    ruffled.
  =-FT=,  Heft,      hefted.
  =-GL=,  Naggle,    naggled.
  =-LP=,  Gulp,      gulped.
  =-LK=,  Chalk,     chalked.
  =-LD=,  Mould,     moulded.
  =-LP=,  Help,      helped.
  =-LV=,  Calve,     calved.
  =-MB=,  Climb,     climbed.
  =-MP=,  Pump,      pumped.
  =-MT=,  Tempt,     tempted.
  =-RM=,  Harm,      harmed.
  =-RN=,  Burn,      burned.
  =-RP=,  Carp,      carped.
  =-RT=,  Flirt,     flirted.
  =-RTH=, Earth,     earthed.
  =-SS=,  Miss,      missed.
  =-SP=,  Clasp,     clasped.
  =-ST=,  Consist,   consisted.
  (All but _cast_, formerly _casted_.)
  =-TCH=, Hatch,     hatched.
  =-TL=,  Bottle,    bottled.
  =-RST=, Burst,     bursted.

A few time-words ending with a throat-penning mark the heretofore time
by some oddness of shape; as,

  Bring,   brought.
  Think,   thought.

They were opened in sound, and also took the ending _ode_, _od_ (our
_ed_), and then came into our shapes by sundry wonted changes:--

  _-ing_ (as of _bring_) became _-ong_.
  _-ing-ed_ became (1) _-ong-ed_.
  _-ong-ed_   „    (2) _-ong’d_.
  _-ong’d_    „    (3) _-onk’d_.

Then the _d_, a mild penning after a hard penning (_k_), became hard,
_t_:--

  _-onk’d_ became (4) _-onk’t_.
  _-onk’t_   „    (5) _-ok’t_.
  _-ok’t_    „    (6) _-o’t_,

as _k_ and _t_ are harsh together. Whence--

  Bring                     bro’t (brought).
  Buy (_bycg_, A.S.)        bo’t.
  Seek (_sec_, A.S.)        so’t.
  Teach (_taec_, A.S.)      to’t.

Our _gh_ as in _taught_ is the now unuttered (though still written)
throat-penning.

Time-takings or time-givings may be taken as thing-marks, as ‘the
_hunting_ dog’; ‘the _hunted_ hare.’

The sundry moods of time-takings are marked by sundry shapes of the
time-word, or by bye-words or mark-words--_shall_, _will_, _can_,
_may_, _must_.

The timings of time-takings are marked by sundry shapes of the
time-word, and by bye-words or mark-words to it, as ‘the bird flies’ or
does fly, or flew or did fly, or will fly.


Under-Sundrinesses of Time-takings.

Time-takings are of sundry kinds, under sundry names, as _to be_, _to
walk_, _to strike_.

Under-time-markings may be by single words, as ‘to write _well_ or
_ill_, _slowly_ or _quickly_’; or by two or three words, as ‘he runneth
_very swiftly_’; or by clusters of words, as ‘he runs _with most
amazing speed_’; or ‘he works _in a very skilful way_.’


Fitting of the Time-word to all the cases of Person, Time, and Mood.

In this fitting the time-word is helped by sundry bye-words or
under-mark-words.

_Can_, from the Saxon _cun-n-an_, to ken, know, to know how. ‘I _can_
write,’ I know how to write.

The heretofore time-shape of _Ic can_ was _Ic cuðe_, for which we have
now _I could_, with an _l_ which was never in the root of the word, and
for which there is not any ground.

_May._--_Mag-an_, the stem of maht, _might_, means _to strongen_, to be
or become strong (Lat. _valere_), as is shown by cases of its use in
Saxon and other Teutonic tongues.

In an old Friesic good wish at the drinking to the health of a bride
and bridegroom we find ‘Dat se lang lave en wel mage,’ that they long
live and well _may_ (_strongen_, _bene valeant_); and in Saxon, ‘Hu
maeg he?’ how mays he? (_strongens_ or _valet_).

_Shall._--_Sceal-an_, meant, as a stem, to offmark, distinguish, or to
_skill_ in the meaning of 1 Kings v. 6--‘Ic sceal dón,’ I offmark or
skill to do; as what I am bent to do.

‘Thou shalt love the Lord thy God.’ Thou markest or clearly seest to
love the Lord thy God.

‘Thou shalt not steal.’ Thou markest this. Not to steal.

_Must._--_Mot-an_, _most-an_, is most likely a stem of the word
_mag-an_, to strongen (_valere_).

The _-st_ would strengthen the meaning of _mag_ (may) as it does in
_-est_ of _longest_. So ‘I must go’ (Ic moste gán) would mean ‘I am
overmighted by another’s might to go.’

Time-words are fitted

         To _Person_, as

    I am.  |  Thou art.  |  He is.

            To _Tale_, as

  I am.    |  Thou art.  |  He is.
  We are.  |  Ye are.    |  They are.

           To _Time_, as

   I am (now).   |   I was (heretofore).
        I shall be (hereafter).

          To _Mood_, as

  I write, or shall write.
  I may or can write, or might or could or should write.
  If I write, or if I had written.


Things and Time-takings.

Timing of time-takings is the marking of their times, as _now_,
_heretofore_, or _hereafter_.

            TIME.

  _Now_ or _hereat_.
  I am, or I love, or am loved.

  _Heretofore done._
  I was, or I loved, or was loved.

  _Heretofore ongoing._
  I was, or I was a-loving or I did love.

  _Now ended._
  I have been, or I have loved, or have been loved.

  _Heretofore ended._
  I had been, or I had loved, or had been loved.

  _Heretofore ongoing, ended._
  I had been a-loving.

  _Hereafter doing._
  I shall be, or I shall love, or shall be loved.

  _Hereafter ongoing._
  I shall be a-loving.

  _Hereafter ended._
  I shall have been, or shall have loved, or shall have been loved.

  _Hereafter ended, ongoing._
  I shall have been a-loving.

Single and stringly time-takings of the same name, as ‘Mary _sold_
me some apples yesterday.’ There was a single selling; but under the
wording ‘Mary formerly _sold_ apples in the market,’ it is clear that
under the same word _sold_ is meant a string of sellings.

So under the wording ‘_Write_ your name’ is understood a single
writing; but under the wording ‘If you would write readily, write every
day,’ the same word _write_ implies a string of writings.

Some tongues (as the Greek and Russian) have two shapes of the
time-words for these two cases of time-taking; as, Greek--

‘Take thy bill and write fifty’ (γράψον, _aorist_).--Luke xvi. 6.

‘Jesus, stooping down, wrote on the ground’ (ἔγραφεν, _imperfect_,
ondoing shape, _wrote on_).

But Acts xxv. 26, ‘About whom I have nothing certain to write’
(γράψαι, _aorist_, to write off once for all).

See the Greek text of the 3rd Epistle of John v. 13--‘I had many
(things or many times?) to _write_ (γράφειν, ondoing shape), but I will
not with pen and ink _write_ (γράψαι) to thee’ (_aorist_, offdoing
form).

An understanding of the difference between the _aorist_ and ondoing
shapes is of weight in the reading of the Gospel. ‘To _make
intercession_, to _intercede_ for them.’--Heb. vii. 25. To intercede
once for all, at the doom-day? No. To intercede on always; for the word
is not in the _aorist_ shape, but in the present ondoing form, _to be
interceding_.


Historic Time-wording.

A time-shape of a time-word used in an unwonted way for the telling of
a string of deeds, as, in English, the present time-shape is so used
for deeds of foretime, as ‘He _opens_ the door, _walks_ in, coolly
_takes_ a chair, _sits_ down, and _tells_ the maid he wishes to see me.’

So ‘Philip _findeth_ Nathanael, and _saith_ unto him,’ &c.--John i. 45.


The Moods of Time-takings.

MOOD.

The wording of the time-taking may be; as,

(1) Now or heretofore true, or hereafter sure, as ‘He _is_, or _was_,
or _will be_’; ‘He _sings_, or _sang_, or _will sing_.’ _The Truth
Mood._

(2) That it may or can, or could or might be so taken, as ‘He may or
can go.’ _The Mayly Mood._

(3) Or that it is to be wished that it may or might be taken, as ‘I
wish,’ or ‘Oh that I could go.’ _The Wish Mood._

Or that it is a hinge time-taking on which another hangs, as ‘If you
ask (hinge), you will receive (on-hang).’

Or as bidden to be taken, as ‘Go thy way.’


Stead-marks and Way-marks of Time-takings.


CASE.

Things named in speech, so as to mark the stead of the beginning or
end, or of the way of the time-taking at any point of its length or
outreach in time or room, are Case-things.

There are, however, two cases which are speech-cases and not
stead-marks or way-marks:--

(1) That of the of-spoken thing (nominative), the thing of which the
speech speaks, as ‘The bird flies’; and

(2) The to-spoken thing (vocative), as ‘O sing, sweet bird.’

Cases are marked by shapes of thing-names or by case-words, or by the
setting of the case-word either after or before the time-word, as
‘The dog drove out the cat,’ where the dog is the beginning of the
time-taking; or ‘The cat drove out the dog,’ where the dog is the end
of it, and is shown to be so by the setting of its name after the
time-word.


_Source._

‘The bird flew from, or off, or out of the _tree_.’

‘He died of or from _intemperance_.’

The _tree_ and _intemperance_ are source-marks of _flew_ and _died_.


_End or Aim._

‘John loved _George_.’

‘He went to or towards _London_.’

‘Edwin worked for _wages_, or strolled along by the _stream_.’


_The Stead Case._

‘John was in the _field_ or at the _church_.’


_The Tool._

‘Alfred wrote with a _pen_.’

‘The bird flew before, behind, over, under, above, below, by, around,
or through the _gate-turret_,’ which is the way-mark of _flew_.

There is a Source-mark which is a source of the time-taking, not as
being only that thing, but as being a thing then in some shape or kind
of time-taking.

‘(_a_) The wind being against us, (_b_) we made but little way.’ _a_ is
the source of _b_, ‘we made but little way,’ not from the wind simply
as wind, but as also being against us.

‘You being my leader, I shall overcome.’

This is commonly called the absolute case (allfree case); though the
wind is not free of a time-taking (being against us). It may be called
the ‘thing-so-being’ case.

Some tongues mark many of the cases by sundry endings of the
thing-name, but we have in common names only one ending for case, the
possessive, as ‘the horse’s mane,’ ‘John’s house.’

In name-tokens we have three case-forms, as _thou_, _thy_,
_thee_--_thy_ for the possessive, and _thee_ for all the other cases.

‘The bird flew _from_ the apple-tree _in_ the corner _of_ the garden,
_through_ the archway, and _under_ the elm _by_ the barn, _round_ the
hayrick, and on _over_ the stream just _below_ the willow, and _above_
the bridge, and then _to_ the stall, and on _towards_ the wood, and
_into_ an ivy-bush.’

Here the sundry named things are way-marks which mark the place of the
_flying_ in its beginning and end, and at sundry points of its length.

Such stead-marks or way-marks may be taken as in either of one or two
or three cases, as they may be either stead-marks or way-marks, and as
their beholdingness to the time-taking may be reckoned to it or from it
to themselves.

‘The bird flew _over_ or _under_ or _by_ the tree.’ The flying at first
reached on nearer towards the tree, and then reached off again farther
from it, so that the tree was at first in the case of a toness, and
then in the case of a fromness, with the flying.

But under the wording ‘the roof is _over_ the floor,’ or ‘the floor is
_under_ the roof,’ the time-taking _is_ is a staid and not an ongoing
one, and either the roof or the floor may be in the fromness or toness
case, as the height may be reckoned from it to the other, or to it from
the other.

A housemother may say ‘We live near (_to_) Fairton’ (toness case);
yet an hour afterwards she may say ‘We live too far _from_ Fairton
(fromness case) to step in readily for errands.’

Her abode may be four miles from Fairton, so that the time-taking
_live_ is as far from Fairton in one case as the other; and yet it puts
it in two sundry cases.

‘If Alfred gave to Edred a field,’ the time-taking _gave_ ended in the
mid-thing, the field (the endingness case), but it put the field to
Edred, as his, in the toness case.

The place of a time-taking may be shown by one place-mark, or by two or
three, of which a latter may mark the place of a former, as ‘The rooks
build _in_ the elms, _above_ the house,’ where the elms mark the place
of the _building_, and the house marks that of the place-mark (the
_elms_).

But some case-words are made up of a smaller case-word and a
thing-name, as ‘Alfred sat _beside_ the wall.’ _Beside_ being ‘by the
_side_,’ and the side of the wall (whereof case).

The figure for _case-shifting_, or the changing of the case-tokens, is
called in Gr. _enallage_ as

‘I have ten sovereigns _in my purse_’; ‘_My purse_ contains ten
sovereigns.’

‘_The pump has_ a new handle’; ‘There is a new handle _to the pump_.’

‘The carpet _in_ the hall’; ‘The carpet _of_ the hall.’

‘The brother _of_ or _to_ that lady.’

‘John _likes_ cricket or is _fond of_ cricket.’

‘Greedy _of_ gain or _for_ gain.’

‘Think _of_ me or _on_ me.’

‘He was killed by a blow _of a club_ or _with a club_.’

‘He spoke _in_ the balcony or _from_ the balcony.’


THOUGHT-WORDING, SPEECH-WORDING,

is the setting of words or a bewording of thought or speech (syntax).

A thought-wording (proposition) is a bewording of the case of a thing
with its time-taking. ‘The boy is good’ or ‘the boy plays.’

A thought-wording may have more thing-names and time-words, as ‘The
boys and girls read and play.’

Thought-wordings (propositions) may be linked together in sundry ways,
though mostly by Link-words (conjunctions). ‘Men walk _and_ birds fly’;
‘I sought him, _but_ I found him not’; ‘I waited at the door _while_
Alfred went into the house.’


Twin Time-takings.

The _Hinge_ Time-taking, on which the other hangs, and the _Hank_
Time-taking which hangs on the Hinge one, as ‘If ye ask (_hinge_), ye
shall receive (_hank_).’

There are sundry kinds of hinge time-takings, as one or the other or
both of the time-takings may or may not be trowed or true or sure.

(1) _Hinge_ and _hank_, trowed--‘As ye ask (as I trow you do), so ye
receive (I trow).’

(2) _Hinge_, untrowed; _hank_, trowed--‘If ye ask (I trow not whether
ye will or no), then ye will receive (I trow).’

The hinge-word put down as trowedly untrue, and the hank one trowed, as
‘If ye asked (as I trow you do not), ye would receive (I trow)’; or ‘If
ye had asked (ye have not), ye would have received (I trow).’

The hinge time-taking trowed, and the other untrowed, as ‘Ye ask (I
trow), that ye may receive (I trow not that ye will).’


Speech-trimming.

The putting of speech into trim; _trim_ being a truly good form or
state. To _trim_ a shrub, a bonnet, or a boat, is to put it into trim.

1. The first care in speech-trimming is that we should use words which
give most clearly the meanings and thoughts of our mind, though it
is not likely that unclear thought will find a clear outwording; and
either of the two, as clear or unclear, helps to clearen or bemuddle
the other.

With most English minds, and with all who have not learned the building
of Latin and Greek words, English ones may be used with fewer mistakes
of meaning than would words from those tongues; though Englishmen
should get a clearer insight into English word-building ere they could
hope to keep English words to their true sundriness of meaning.

The so-seeming miswordings (solœcisms) of writers in the Latinised and
Greekish speech-trimming are not uncommon or unmarkworthy.

One man writes of something which _necessitates_ another, though
Latin itself has no _necessito_ to back ‘necessitate’; another gives
_eliminate_ as meaning _elicit_, or outdraw; a third calls a _failure_
of a rule an _exception_ from it. There is no EXCEPTION to a rule but
that which is _excepted_ from it at and in the downlaying of it. If a
man gives a simple rule ‘that if it rains on St. Swithin’s day it rains
forty days after it,’ and it did not so rain last year, the case is a
_breach_ or _failure_ of the rule, and not an _exception_ to it. He
gave no exception.

Some say ‘Mrs. A. has had _twins_’ or ‘Alfred was one of _twins_.’ A
twin is a _twain_, a _two_, or a couple of things of the same name or
kind; and twins of children must be at least four. I should say ‘Alfred
was one of _a_ twin.’ In the latter case it would be correct to say
‘There IS _one_ or a _twain_ of fat men,’ &c., in which _is_ would
match both.

One has written ‘ideas are _manufactured_.’ By whose hands? Another
talks of ‘a _dilapidated_ dress’; and a third has ‘found the stomach
of a big fish _dilapidated_.’ What are _lapides_? and what means
_delapido_?

A man has written of an old Tartar that he was ‘a _tameless_
gorilla’--a gorilla without a _tame_! as if _tame_ were a thing-name.

Another says ‘It imposed _absolute limits_ upon the choice of
positions.’ What are _absolute limits_ if absolute (from _absolvo_, to
offloosen) means offloosened from all check and all limits?

A man writes of ‘a photograph reproduced by a new permanent process.’
Is it the process or the sunprint that is permanent?

_Preposterous_, foreaft, as when what should be _præ_, foremost,
is put _post_ or behind; whereas a writer gives a structure as
‘preposterously overgrown,’ as if ‘preposterous’ meant only very much,
vastly.

One takes _irretrievable_ as nohow amended. If ‘retrieve’ is the French
_retrouver_ (to find again), ‘irretrievable’ would mean not to be found
again; and ‘the irretrievable defeat of the whole nation’ would be one
which they could not _find_ again, as most likely they would not wish
to find it.


Twy-meanings.

From want of words in English, or of care, our wording may seem to bear
two meanings, as ‘John played with Edwin, and broke his bat.’ The bat
of which boy?

‘One Robert Bone of Antony shot at a little bird sitting upon his cow’s
back, and killed it--the bird (I mean), not the cowe.’--_Carew._


Word-sameness (Synonyms).

Words of the same meaning are less often so than they are so called;
and we sometimes give lists of synonyms showing the differences of
their meanings.

A twin of words of one very same meaning is rather evil than good; and
if they are not of one very same meaning they should not be given as
such.

It may be that from a misunderstanding of the word _tautology_, as the
name of a bad kind of speech-trimming, men have often shunned the good
use of words.

The bad tautology from which speakers have been so frayed seems to be
the giving twice or many times, within one scope of thought-wording,
the same matter of speech in the same words.

It is true that it would not be good wording to say ‘John has sold
_John’s_ horse’ for ‘_his_ horse’ since the name-tokens are shapen to
stand for foregiven names.

But where the same foreused word would give a very clear--if not the
clearest--meaning, there seems to be little ground against the use of
it.

‘I bought a horse on Monday and a donkey on Tuesday, and sold the
_horse_ again at a gain on Thursday.’ Why should not the word _horse_
take the latter place as well as the word _steed_, or equine animal, or
‘more worthy beast’--or why should I not as well say, ‘An ass I want,
and an ass I will buy,’ as ‘An ass I want, and a donkey, or _it_ or
_him_, I will buy’?

It seems that much wrong is done to the Greek of the Gospel by the
putting, for the same Greek word, sundry English ones at sundry
passages; and by what right do we try an Evangelist’s or an Apostle’s
wisdom in the use of the same word, by which he must have meant to give
the same meaning? or why should we make him to mean by κρίσις, at one
time, a trying of a soul, and at another time a fordooming of him?

It is not any tautology to use near to each other a thing-name and a
mark-word which are only fellow stem-words, as ‘As _free_, and not
using your _freedom_ for a cloke of wickedness.’

2. Another care in speech-trimming is the choice of words for
their sound-sweetness (Gr. _euphony_) or well-soundingness, or for
speech-readiness.

_Past_, with the hissing _s_ with _t_, is less sound-good than
_after_; and _aqueduct_, with _ct_, is less well-sounding than
_waterlode_; nor is _cataract_ softer than _waterfall_.

The hereunder given wordings were lately heard in a law court:--

‘I can give you _one or two instances_ of remarkable intelligence in
the cases of fat men’; and

A Juror--‘There _are one or two fat men_ on the jury (laughter).’

Dr. K.--‘I don’t think there are.’

How should these cases be treated? In the first case, ‘one instances’
is a breach of word-matching, as would be ‘two instance’; and in the
latter, the word _one_ calls for _man_, and _two_ for _men_. May we not
better say, ‘I can give you at least one instance,’ or ‘I believe more
instances than one’?

‘A man who has already, and will still, render such services will be,’
&c. _Rendered_ is understood after _has_; but how may the thought be
worded without the two puttings of the word _render_? Thus: ‘a man who
will still be, as he has already been, found to render,’ &c.

_Penetrate_ means insink, inpierce. M. Gambetta writes, ‘After the
heroic examples given by open towns, and by villages only guarded by
their firemen, it is absolutely necessary that each town, each commune,
shall pay its debt to the national defence, and that all alike be
_penetrated_ by the task which is imposed upon France.’ It seems a
queer speech-wording to take a _task_ as a thing that _penetrates_,
though it might be undertaken.

A bad wording is often found with mark-words of the higher pitch, as
‘Alfred was more clever, but not so good, _as_ John.’ ‘Not so good’
is an inwedged word-cluster, but the word-setting is bad, as ‘more
clever’ calls for the word _than_, not _as_; and ‘so good’ wants _as_,
not _than_. It would be better to say ‘Alfred was more clever, but less
good, than John.’ To try the word-setting take out the wedge-words
(‘but not so good’), and you will have ‘Alfred was more clever _as_
John.’

_Dislike_ seems a bad word-shape. _Mislike_ is the old and true English
one. _Like_ is from _lic_, a shape, as _lich_, the body of a dead man.
‘It _liketh_ (licað) me well’ is ‘it _shapes_ itself (looketh) to me
well.’ ‘It _misliketh_ me’ is ‘it _misshapes_ itself to me’ (looks bad).

To _seem_ is from the thing-name--_sam_, _seam_, _seem_, body or
mass--and ‘it _seems_ to me’ is ‘it _bodies_ itself to me.’ ‘That ship
_seems_ to be a French one,’ or ‘that man _seems_ to be ill,’ _bodies_
itself or himself to be a French one or ill.

‘The house and the goods _were_ burnt’; but ‘the house with the goods
_was_ (not _were_) burnt,’ since it is only the house that is in the
speech-case, as the goods are in the mate-case. ‘The house _was_ burnt
with the goods.’

‘_One_ of the children _are_ come.’ No--_is_ come. The one only is come.

In our taking of time-words from the Latin in the shape of the past
participle, we get at last a queer shape of word. Take the Latin _reg-_
of _rego_, to reach or straighten, as a line, and our word _reck_. From
_reg_ comes _regtus_, _rectus_. Here the _t_ answers to our _d_ (German
_t_ of _ed_ and _et_). Then _rec-t_ answers to _reck’d_. Now put on
_ed_ to each, and _rec-t_ becomes _rec-t-ed_, as in _direc-t-ed_;
and _reck’d_ becomes _reck-d-ed_, showing that _directed_ is truly
_direg-ed-ed_, and too like _reck-ed-ed_, as ‘He _reck-ed-ed_ nought.’

We may often hear a man who is careful to speak good English say
‘This rose smells very sweetly,’ for sweet. The rose smells (gives
out smell) as being itself very sweet, not as smelling (taking in
smell) in a sweet way. To find which to use, the thing-markword or the
under-markword, put ‘_as being_’ after the time-word, as ‘This rose
smells (as being itself) _sweet_,’ not sweetly.

‘Can you smell now? you had, the other day, lost your smelling?’ ‘Yes,
I smell very _nicely_.’ Not I smell as being myself very _nice_. A rose
cannot smell any other thing, and so cannot smell it _nicely_.

‘Mary sings very _charmingly_,’ but ‘Mary looks very _charming_.’

‘John looks _pale_,’ but ‘John looks very _narrowly_ into that
gold-work.’

‘I can taste _well_,’ ‘That peach tastes _good_.’

To have seen a man at a bygone time would mean that the seeing was
before that bygone time; but we sometimes hear a man say, ‘I should
(yesterday) have been very glad to have seen you (if you had called
yesterday).’ That is, by wording, ‘I should have been very glad
(yesterday) to have seen you (at a time before yesterday),’ not to see
you yesterday; and yet that is what the speaker means. ‘I should have
been very glad (yesterday) to see you (yesterday),’ or ‘I should be
very glad to-day to have seen you yesterday.’

3. Odd word-shapes are not in the main choice-worthy.

Our time-word _go_ is of unwontsome conjugation, as its foretime shape
_went_ is not shapen from _go_, but is a shape of another word, _wend_.

So the forlessening name, _leveret_ for a _hareling_, and _cygnet_ for
a _swanling_, are unwontsome, as being words of another speech.

4. There is a greater or less freedom of _word-shifting_ (Gr.
_anastrophe_, up-shifting or back-shifting), as _up_ in ‘Fasten it _up_
well,’ ‘fasten it well _up_’; or _back_ in ‘He brought _back_ the saw,’
or ‘he brought the saw _back_’; ‘There is none to dispute _my right_,’
or ‘_my right_ there is none to dispute.’

Why should not English, like other tongues, more freely form words with
headings of case-words, as _downfalls_, _incomings_, _offcuttings_,
_outgoings_, _upflarings_, instead of the awkward falls-down,
comings-in, cuttings-off, goings-out, flare-ups; or _offcast_ (for
cast-off) clothes; or a _downbroken_ (for a broken-down) schoolmaster;
_outlock_ or _outlocking_ (for a lock-out); the _uptaking_ beam (for
the taking-up beam) of an engine?


Oddly-shapen or Oddly-taken Words.

Mongrel (hybrid) words, or words partly from one tongue and partly from
another.

Twy-speechwords are a sore blemish to our English, as they seem to show
a scantiness of words which would be a shame to our minds; as,

  _Sub-warder_ for under-warder.
  _Pseudo-sailor_ for sham-sailor.
  _Ex-king_ for rodless or crownless king.
  _Prepaid_ for forepaid.
  _Bi-monthly_ for fortnightly or every fortnight.


Wordiness (Verbosity).

As ‘The train ran _with extraordinary velocity_,’ for ‘the train ran
_very fast_.’

‘Alfred did the business _with perfect fidelity_;’ for ‘Alfred did the
business _faithfully_.’

Thence much of the wordiness of our written, if not spoken, composition.

The ‘New York Times’ thus explains how it was that the flames got to
the roof in the burning of the Fifth Avenue Hotel:--‘Fire always is
aspirant, the sole exception being where incandescent masses fall down,
and so act as a medium of ignition.’

The hard breathing (aspirate) is often wrongly dropped or misput by
less good speakers; but, while the upper ranks laugh at them for their
mistakes, they themselves, like our brethren of Friesland and Holstein,
often drop it from words to which it of right belongs, and mainly from
the hard-breathed =W= or the Saxon =HW= (our =WH=).

  What,   _wat_ (Hols.)
  When,   _wanne_ (Fri.)
  Where,  _wâr_ (Fri.)
  Wheel,  _weel_ (Fri.)
  Whelp,  _welp_ (Fri.)
  While,  _wile_ (Fri.)
  White,  _wit_ (Fri.)
      (It is bad.)

Shall we soon hear ‘Wet the ’ook with a wetstone’ for ‘Whet the hook
with a whetstone’?

Some Englishmen would say, ‘The ’ammer is on the hanvil’; and some have
been known to say, ‘’enry ’it ’orace with the ’ollow of ’is ’and,’ for
‘Henry hit Horace with the hollow of his hand.’

English mark-timewords (participles) are of two kinds--one of an
ongoing time-taking, as ‘the _rising_ sun’; and another of the ended
time-taking, as ‘the _risen_ sun’; and they are of a few sundry shapes,
some ending with _-en_, _-n_, as _broken_, and others ending with
_-ed_, _-d_; and some without an ending, as _cut_.

1. In _-en_, those which are of one breath-sound, and moulded so that
the bygone time-shape takes the sound (7) _o_[2]:--

[2] See Table of Sounds, p. 1.

  Bore,    borne.
  Broke,   broken.
  Chose,   chosen.
  Clove,   cloven.
  Drove,   driven.
  Froze,   frozen.
  Rode,    ridden.
  Rose,    risen.
  Shore,   shorn.
  Smote,   smitten.
  Spoke,   spoken.
  Stole,   stolen.
  Strode,  stridden.
  Strove,  striven.
  Swore,   sworn.
  Tore,    torn.
  Throve,  thriven.
  Trode,   trodden.
  Wore,    worn.

2. Some one-sounded and moulded time-words, of the sound (8) in the
shape for bygone time, take _-en_, _-n_; as,

  Draw,  drew,  drawn.
  Grow,  grew,  grown.
  Know,  knew,  known.
  Throw, threw, thrown.
  Flow,  flew,  flown.
  Slay,  slew,  slain.

Unmoulded time-words take _-ed_, but a few of them take _-ed_ or _-en_;
as,

  Grave, graved, {graved,
                 {graven.

These following, as is shown by the Saxon, ought to take _-ed_ rather
than _-en_:--

  Hew.
  Rive.
  Show.

_Shape_, _shave_, and _swell_ were in Saxon moulded, and thence took
_-en_.

There is a set of time-words which were weak, but are now endingless in
their mark-word shape. They ended with a roof-penning _-t_ or _-d_, and
the roof-penning of the ending _-ed_ ran at last into the roof-penning
of the stems in the way shown on p. 22, and their mark-word shapes are
the same as those for bygone time.

  Cast.
  Cost.
  Cut.
  Hit.
  Let.
  Put.
  Rid.
  Set.
  Shoot.
  Shut.
  Split.
  Spread.
  Shed.


SHORTENED SHAPES (p. 23).

  Bred.
  Crept.
  Dealt.
  Fed.
  Fled.
  Left.
  Lost.
  Slept.
  Sped.
  Spilt.
  Swept.
  Wept.

One-sounded root time-words are mostly endingless in their mark-word
shape:--

  Sing, sang, _sung_.



WORDS OF SPEECH-CRAFT, AND OTHERS, ENGLISHED.

WITH SOME NOTES.


=Ablative= (fromness case). The case of the source of the time-taking.

=Abnormal.= Unshapely, queer of shape, odd.

=Abrade.= To forfray, forfret. For _for-_ see For- hereafter.

=Absist.= Forbear.

=Absorb.= Forsoak.

=Absolute.= _Checkless_, freed or loosened from checks.

=Absolve.= To forfree-en, forloosen.

=Abstract= (in speech-craft). Unmatterly, not of matterly form.

=Accelerate.= To onquicken, quicken.

=Accent.= Word-strain, a strain of the voice, higher or lower, on a
breath-sound.

=Accessary.= A bykeeper, deedmate.

=Accidence.= The forshapenings of words for case, tale, time, mood, or
person.

=Accusative= (case). End-case, the case of a thing which is the end or
aim of a time-taking.

=Acephalous.= Headless.

=Acoustics.= Sound-lore, hearing-lore.

=Active.= Sprack (Wessex), doingsome, doughty.

=Active= (time-taking). One that can reach from the time-taker to
another thing; as, ‘to strike.’ John can strike another thing.

=Acute.= Sharp or high in sound.

=Adjective.= Thing-markword, mark-word.

=Adulation.= Flaundering, glavering.

=Adverb.= An under-markword.

=Adversative.= Thwartsome.

=Aerology.= Air-lore.

=Aeronaut.= Airfarer.

=Affirmation.= Foraying, or a _foryeaing_, not a _fornaying_; as, ‘Yes,
he is.’

=Agglutinate.= To upcleam, to cleam up.

=Aggregate.= The main, whole.

=Allative= (case). A name given by some writers to that of a thing at
which the time-taking is aimed (the aim case).

=Alienate.= To unfrienden.

=Allegory.= A forlikening.

=Alliteration.= Mate-pennings (_i.e._ Breath-pennings).

=Alone.= _All-án_, all-one:--‘Nen manniska buta God _al ena_.‘--W.
Friesic. ‘No man, but God all-one (alone.)’

=Altercation.= A brangle, brangling, brawling.

=Ambiguous.= Twy-sided, twy-meaning:--‘Alfred was struck as he was
walking with a stout stick.’ _Struck_ or _walking_ with a stick?
(twy-sided.) ‘Those shoes were made before the man that made them.’
_Before_ in time, or _before_ not behind?

=Amicable.= Friendly:--‘We have lived in amicable relations’ (friendly,
in friendliness).

=Amphibious.= Twy-breath’d, twy-aired: by lungs and gills.

=Amphibology.= A twy-casting, a wording of two meanings.

=Amphimacrum.= Long sidelings, long end-sounds. A foot (in verse) of
one short sound between two long ones, or of a low sound between two
high ones; as, Tó and fró.

=Amputate.= Forcarve.

=Anachronism.= A mistiming.

  =Anagram.= A letter-shuffling; as, out of ‘name’ to
                                             1234
  make ‘mane,’ or of ‘march’ to make ‘charm.’
        3214

=Analysis.= A forloosening or unmaking of a word or wording, or any
thing, into its sundry clear pieces.

=Anastrophe.= A word-shifting; as, ‘Fasten it _up well_,’ ‘Fasten it
_well up_.’ ‘He brought _back_ the horse,’ or ‘He brought the horse
_back_.’ ‘There is none to dispute _my right_,’ or ‘_My right_ there is
none to dispute.’

    Anastrophe affords a case
    Of the shifting of words from place to place.

=Ancestor.= Fore-elder, kin-elder.

=Animate.= To quicken.

=Annals.= Year-bookings.

=Annihilate.= To fornaughten.

=Anniversary.= Year-day.

=Annuity.= Year-dole.

=Antanaclasis.= Twy-hitting on a word:--‘If _shape_ that was which had
no _shape_.’ ‘It is the best _art_ that conceals _art_.’

    By antanaclasis is heard
    Aloud once more a former word.

=Anodyne.= Pain-dunting, pain-dilling. (_Dill_, _-n_, to dunt, to
soothe.)

=Anomalous.= Odd-shaped, oddly shapen.

=Antepenultimate= (breath-sound). Last but two.

=Anticipate.= To foreween, foretake.

=Antique.= Ancient, _fore_old, _ere_old. _Old_ for things in being,
_fore_old or _ere_old for things forgone.

=Antithesis.= An atsetting.

=Antonomasia.= Name-shunning, the marking of a man by other words than
his name; as, ‘The honourable member for A.,’ instead of ‘Mr. B.’

=Aphæresis.= Foredocking of a word; as, _pothecary_ for _apothecary_,
_nob_ for _knob_.

=Aphorisms.= Thought-cullings.

=Apocope.= End-lopping; as _mortal_ for _mortalis_, _send_ for
_send-an_.

=Apodosis.= The hank time-taking to a hinge one (_protasis_):--‘If ye
ask (hinge), ye shall receive (hank).’

=Aposiopésis.= A tongue-checking; as, ‘Do you think----but I reck not
what you think.’

=Apostrophe.= An offturning.

=Appellative= (name). A call-name.

=Appendix.= Hank, hank-matter.

=Apposition.= A twy-naming, a putting of two names for one thing; as,
‘The dog Toby.’

=Aptote.= Casemarkless.

=Aqueduct.= Waterlode.

=Arbitrator.= Daysman (Job ix. 33).

=Armistice.= A weapon-staying, weapon-stay, war-pause.

=Articulation.= Breath-penning.

=Aspirate.= A breathing, hard breathing.

=Assimilate.= To make of the same _sam_ (form of matter) or _lic_
(bodily form of a thing). To assimilate food, to forselfen it, to make
it into a man’s self.

=Asylum= has with us widely shifted its first meaning. An _asylon_ was
a sanctuary where a man was _asylos_, not to be pulled away (from _a_,
_sylao_) by a foe. Now it often means a place whence a man cannot get
away.

=Asyndeton.= Linklessness. The putting of words without link-words; as,
‘Faith, hope, charity,’ for ‘Faith _and_ hope _and_ charity.’

    Asyndeton puts side by side
    Strong words, by ne’er a linkword tied.

=Atmosphere.= Welkin-air.

=Attraction.= A _fordrawing_, a drawing of a word out of its true case
or tale by another word to which it is nearer than to the one which it
should match; as, ‘Neither of the men _are_ (for _is_) come.’ Where the
time-word would most likely have been drawn into the somely shape by
its nearness to men.

Attraction may be _misdrawing_.

=Augment.= An eking, eking on or out.

=Auxiliary.= Outeking or helping.

=Be-= (a fore-eking, meaning _by_, _to_, _about_). _Bebutton_ a coat,
to put buttons to it; _becloke_ school-children, give them clokes;
_becloud_, obnubilate; _beflood_, inundate; _behem_, bebound or
circumscribe; _bereek_, fumigate.

=Belligerent.= War-waging.

=Bibulous.= Soaksome.

=Bicornous.= Twy-horned.

=Bidental.= Two-teeth, two-teethed.

=Bilateral.= Two-sided:--‘These articles would be considered a public
_bilateral_ contract, and would form the subject of an agreement
with the Powers having Catholic subjects.’ _Bilateral_ contract is
put for _bipartite_, a contract by or between two sides, or of men
of two sides; but it would seem that the Romans did not call the two
sides in a contract or cause _latera_, but _partes_--‘Parte utrâque
auditâ.’--_Plin. Jun._

_Latera_ are the sides of a body or space.

=Binocular.= Two-sighted.

=Bipennated= (as an axe). Twy-bladed.

=Botany.= Wortlore.

=Cardinal= (numbers). Tale-numbers; as, one, two, three.

=Catachresis.= A misuse (of a word); as, an _iron milestone_; a
_parricide_ for one who has killed his mother; _dilapidated_ for a
ragged coat.

=Chemistry.= Matter-lore, the science of matter.

=Chronology.= Time-lore.

=Cinereous.= Ash-grey.

=Circular= (a trade-circular). A touting-sheet or -bill.

=Circumference.= Rim, rimreach.

=Circumflex.= A roundwinding, a winding of the voice up and down again.

=Clause.= A word-cluster in a thought-wording.

=Cognate.= Kin, akin. _Cognate_ breath-pennings; as, =T=, =D=, both on
the roof.

=Collective= (name). That of a cluster or a many or a body of single
things; as, a club, a herd.

=Colon.= Gr. _kōlon_, a limb or member. A mark for a limb, or marked
share of a thought-bewording.

=Colophon.= Book-end.

=Comma.= Gr. _komma_, a cut or share. A mark for the offcutting of
small shares of a discourse.

=Complement.= An _upfilling_ or _outfilling_ in words.

=Compound.= Clustered or a cluster, a clustered word, as _horseman_, or
a thought-wording of two or more smaller ones.

=Concord.= A matching.

=Concrete.= Matterly.

=Conditional= (mood). Hinge-mood (p. 34).

=Conjugation= (of a time-word). The forfitting of it, the fortrimming
of it.

=Conjunction.= A link-word.

=Conjunctive.= Linked, byholding.

=Consonant.= A letter for any breath-penning.

=Construction.= A word-setting, speech-trimming (see p. 36).

=Contraction.= An updrawing:--_I’ll_ for I will, _sinn’d_ for sinnèd.

=Co-ordinate.= Rank-mate, row-mate.

=Copula.= A link or bond.

=Correlative= (words). Mate-words.

=Crasis.= Sound-blending, sound-welding.

=Dactyl.= Gr. _daktylos_. A foot (in verse) of one long and two short
sounds, or of one high and two low sounds, as _cheerily_.

=Dative.= Giving.

=Deciduous= (plant). Fallsome. (Does it mean that only the leaves
fall, or that the whole stem falls?) An elm is summer-green or leaved,
and winter-sear. Holly is ever-green or winter-leaved. Parsley or the
nettle is summer-stemm’d and winter-fallsome.

=Decimate.= To tithe:--‘Breech-loading rifles would so decimate
columns.’ _Decimate_ (_decimo_, from _decem_, ten, in Latin) was to
take for death every tenth man of a body that had behaved very badly.
The word _decimate_ is now used very loosely, as meaning to cut up.

=Defective.= Wanting of something of its kind.

=Defective= (verb). Wanting of some time-shapes, as _quoth_, _must_,
_go_. The foretime shape of _go_ (_gang_) would be, as that of an
unmoulded time-word, _goed_; and _goed_, a worn shape of the older
‘_gaode_,’ is found in northern folk-speech, with _yowed_ (Saxon
_eode_.) _Gang_ makes _ganged_.

=Deficiency.= Underodds. Excess, overodds.

=Define.= L. _de_, off; _finio_, to mark. To offmark.

=Demagogue.= Folk-leader, folk’s-ringleader, folk’s-reder.

=Democracy.= Folkdom.

=Dental.= L. _dentes_, teeth. A dental breath-penning is one more or
less on the teeth; as, _eth_, _ef_.

=Dependency.= Beholdingness:--‘As if one member would continue his
wellbeing without _beholdingness_ to the rest.’--_Carew._

=Depilatory.= Hairbane.

=Depletion.= Unfullening.

=Depopulate.= Unfolk, forwaste.

=Deport.= Behave.

=Deposit= (of money). Earnest, pledge, bewaring.

=Deprave.= Forshrew, forwarp.

=Depraved.= Wicked.

=Desecrate.= Unhallow.

=Desolate.= Forloned.

=Deter.= Forfray.

=Deteriorate.= Worsen.

=Develop.= Unfold, unroll.

=Diacritical.= Offmarking, offskilling, sunder-clearing.

=Diæresis.= An outsundering or outopening, or foropening or
forsundering, of a sound into two; as, L. _sylva_, _syl-wa_, into
_syl-u-a_.

    Diæresis splits sounds in two,
    As if for _true_ you said _tri-u_.

=Diagram.= A draught, offdrawing.

=Dialect.= A sunder-speech, a folk-speech, a fortongueing.

=Diaphanous.= Thoroughshining, thoroughshowing.

=Dictionary.= A word-book.

=Didactic.= Teaching, teachsome.

=Disease.= The Saxon-English had about fifty pure Teutonic names of
diseases, to the main of which we now give Latin names. They were
ranked under some few head-words.

_Cwealm_ (_qualm_) meant mostly a deadly or many-killing epidemic,
as the plague or cholera, which they would call a _mancwealm_
(_manqualm_). Of this word we have left only _qualm_ with _qualmish_.

_Adl_ (our _addle_) was another main word for disease, as an
unsoundness. From this word we have _addle-headed_ and an _addled_ egg.

_Coða_, _coðe_, was another main word for a disease. Hence (Dorset) a
_cothed_ sheep.

_Weorc_, _werc_ (our _wark_), was a disease of pain or achingness, as
the gout or colic.

_Seoc_, _syc_, meant any _sickness_ in which a man sinks down on his
bed or is off his legs.

_Braec_ or _breach_ was also given for some ailings.

To these words were set others of the parts of the body which they
took, or of some other marks.

  _Stic-adl_, stitch.
  _Sid-adl_ (side-addle), pleurisy.
  _Lengten-adl_, _lent-adl_, typhus.
  _Hip-werc_ (hip-wark), sciatica.
  _Hrop-werc_ (bowel-wark, belly-wark (York)), colic.
  _Fylle seoc_, falling sickness.
  _Lifer seoc_, liver sickness.
  _Lifer-adl_ (Aelfric), liver-addle.
  _Milte-seoc_ (Aelfric), milt-sickness.
  _Lenden-wyrc_ (Aelfric), loin-wark.
  _Mete-afluing_ (Aelfric), atrophy.
  _Wylde-fyr_ (wildfire) (Aelfric), erysipelas.

=Dissipate.= Forscatter.

=Distribution= (of prizes). Outdealing, fordealing,
outgiving:--‘Uetdieling fen da pryzen.’--_Frs._ (outdealing of the
prizes.)

=-dom= (an ending). It is our word _doom_, from _deem_, and means a
state or outreach of free judgment or power; as, _kingdom_, _freedom_.

=-dom.= ‘The scoundreldom and the rascality of a great city.’
_Scoundrelhood._ _Dom_ (from _deman_, to judge or rule) would be good
for kingdom, popedom, sheriffdom, or mayordom. Scoundreldom would mean
the might of scoundrels as ruling or judging.

=Domicile.= Abode, wonestead.

=Ecthlipsis.= An outcasting or outstriking, as of a sound; as, ‘Sing
_th’ Almighty’s_ praise’ for ‘_the Almighty’s_,’ or ‘_I’ll go_’ for ‘_I
will_ go.’

    Ecthlipsis happens where one leaves
    Out sounds, or for _the eaves_ says _th’ eaves_.

=Elative= (case). The fromward case; as, ‘He came from the house.’

=Electricity.= Matter-quickness; not speed, but liveliness. The word
electricity means, as a word, only amberishness.

=Ellipsis.= An outleaving, as of a word understood; as, ‘I went to St.
Paul’s’ (church).

    Ellipsis is of any word
    Well understood, but yet not heard.

=-el= (an ending). It means smallness or slightness:--_Dazzle_, to
daze; _fraze_, frizzle; _nose_, nozzle (p. 18).

=Embrasure.= Gun-gap, cannon-gap.

=Emphasis.= Speech-loudening, speech-strain.

=Emporium=. Warestore.

=Enallage.= Case-shifting, an onchanging, as of a word or case into or
for another; as, ‘He was father to (or of) the fatherless.’ ‘The child
took the toy in (or with) her hand.’

    Enallagē takes word or case,
    To put it in another’s place.

=-en-ing= (an ending). It means a becoming such; as, _blacken_, to make
or become black; _blackening_, the becoming black.

The ending _-en-ing_ differs from _-ness_, _-en-es_, as in _blackness_,
which means the having become such.

=Enthesis.= An insetting.

=Epenthesis.= An inputting or inthrusting or infoisting of a sound or
clipping into a word.

    Epenthesis, for little good,
    Infoisteth aught, as _l_ in _could_.[3]

[3] From _cuðe_.

=Epithet.= A mark-word put to a thing; as, ‘The _far-shooting_ Apollo,’
‘the _white-blossom’d_ sloe.’

=Equilibrium.= Weight evenness.

=Equivalent.= Worth evenness.

=-er-r= (an ending). It means outeked in size or time:--_Chatter_, to
chat much; _clamber_, to climb much; _wander_, to wind about (pp. 18,
59).

=Esculent= (plant). Meatwort.

=Etymology.= Word-building, word-making, word-shapening.

=Euphemismus.= A fair wording, or the putting of bad or unworthy things
in a fairer light by words of less evil meanings; as, ‘I did time’ for
‘I was in prison.’ ‘A government man’ for ‘a convict.’

    By euphemismus men are glad
    To make a bad case seem less bad.

=Euphony.= Sound softness, sound sweetness.

=Exalt.= Forheighten:--‘Sa hwa him selma _forheaget_’ (whoever himself
forheightens).--_Friesic_ (Matt xxiii. 12).

=Excrescence.= Outgrowth.

=Exegetical.= Outclearening.

=Exordium.= Outsetting, outset.

=Expansion=. Outbroadening of wild or overwrought fullness readily
becomes a bad kind of wordiness:--‘Farmer Stubbs drank beer,’ ‘The
votary of Demeter, who rejoiced in the name of Stubbs, indulged in
potations of the cereal liquor’; or ‘He received me with the most
lively indications of amity’ for ‘He received me very kindly’; or for
‘He owes ten thousand pounds,’ ‘He is in a state of indebtedness to the
extent of ten thousand pounds’; ‘He warned the hunters off his land,’
‘He conveyed to the votaries of Diana a strong admonition that they
would not be permitted to prosecute their sport within his domain.’

=Faculty.= Makingness.

=Filiaceous.= Threaden.

=Flexible.= Bendsome.

=Fluctuate.= Waver.

=Foliate.= Leafen.

=For-.= The fore-eking of forgive, forbear, is a most useful one. It
is the Anglo-Saxon _for_, the German _ver_, and the Latin _per_, and
means off or away.

_For-go_, _per-eo_, to go off or away.

_Per-suadeo_ (L. _suadeo_, from _suavis_), to soften or sweeten off.

_Foreshorten_ and _forego_ should be _forshorten_ and _forgo_.

=Forceps.= Tonglings, nipperlings.

=Fore-= (a fore-eking). _Foredoom_, predestinate; _fore-token_,
portent, omen (p. 61).

=Fossil.= A forstonening.

=Frangible.= Breaksome.

=Garrulity.=[4] Wordiness, talksomeness.

[4] The Welsh shows the source of this word in _gair_, a word;
_gair-ol_, wordy.

=Genealogy.= Kin-lore, kinhood-lore.

=Genitive= (case). The offspring case (p. 30).

=Genuflexion.= Knee-bowing. Much has been said (in the law trials about
posture in the administration of the Holy Communion) of genuflexion. A
genuflexion is any _knee-bowing_, but all knee-bowing is not kneeling,
which is _knee-grounding_.

=Glossarist.= A word-culler.

=Glossary.= Gr. _glossa_, tongue, speech. A word-list or
word-list:--‘Mei en _lyst_ vin oade spreckworden’ (with a list of old
saws).--_Friesic._

=Grandiloquent.= High-talking.

=Gratuitous.= Out of kindness. _Gratia_ is good will, free kindness;
and _gratuitus_ is freely bestowed of _gratia_, without hire or reward.
But a writer says that an attack of slander on a woman’s purity ‘was
gratuitous,’ or of _gratia_ or good will, without hire or reward, as if
_gratuitous_ meant without grounds of malice.

=Hendiadys.= One-in-twice. A wording of one thing at twice, or as two
things; as, ‘I heard shouting and men’ for ‘shouting of men.’ ‘An arm
and strength’ for ‘a strong arm.’ A fortwaining.

    Hendiadys will give you two
    Clear words where one alone would do.

=Hexameter.= Gr. _hex_, six; _metron_, measure, metre. A metre in Greek
and Latin verse, lines of six feet.

=-hood= (an ending). It means a state of being, rank, or standing among
other things:--_Childhood_, _manhood_.

=Horizon.= Sky-sill, sky-line.

=Hybrid= (word). L. _hybrida_, a mongrel.

=Hydrophobia.= Water-awe.

=Hyperbaton.= Gr. _hyper_, over; _baino_, to fare, go. An overfaring,
an overshifting of words out of their more wonted or better ranking;
as, ‘What for,’ for ‘For what.’ A ‘speaking out’ for an ‘outspeaking.’

=Hypallage.= Word-shifting, case-shifting; as, ‘We gave wind to our
sails’ for ‘our sails to the wind.’ ‘The men were put to the sword,’
though also ‘the sword was put to the men.’

=Hyperbolē.= An overcasting or overshooting of the truth; as, ‘The
train went as swift as lightning.’

    Hyperbolē, less right than wrong,
    O’ershoots the truth with words too strong.

=Hyphen.= A tie-stroke.

=Hysterologia.= A foreafter wording, forebehind or hinderforemost
wording; as, ‘He earned a florin, and worked all the day,’ whereas he
worked first, and so earned the florin.

    Hysterologia’s careless mind
    Puts last for first, and fore for hind.

=Iambus.= Gr. A foot (in verse) of one short or low and one long or
high sound; as, _ago_, a low-high twin.

=Idiom.= Gr. _idioma_, from _idios_, one’s own. A folk’s-wording, a set
form of words of any one speech or set of men; as, ‘How do you do?’
_Fr._: ‘Comment vous portez-vous?’ (How do you bear yourself?) ‘I have
just dined.’ _Fr._: ‘Je viens de dîner’ (I come from to dine).

=Imperative= (mood). The bidding mood.

=Impersonal= (verb). A time-word without a thing-name; as, ‘It
lightens,’ ‘it thunders,’ ‘it freezes,’ ‘it thaws.’ A _thingnameless_
or a deederless time-word.

=Impertinence= may be meddlesomeness in what _non pertinet_, does
not belong to one, or meddlesomeness in a deed or speech which
_non pertinet_, does not _hold_ by the matter under thought,
_unbyholdingness_.

=Impertinent.= Meddlesome, unbyholding.

=Inarticulate.= Unbreathpenned.

=Incandescent.= White-hot, heat-whitened.

=Inceptive= (verbs). Belonging to ontaking or beginning. _Becomesome_
time-words; as, L. _albesco_, to become white; English _whiten_, to
become or make white. In Greek the ending of the becomesome words is
_-iz_ or _-z_. _Orphanízo_, to make or become elderless, or an orphan.

=Indefinite.= L. _in_, un; _finio_, to offmark, outmark. _Unoffmarked_,
_unbounded_.

=Indicative= (mood). The surehood mood.

=Infinitive= (mood). L. _in_, un; _finitus_, bounded, marked. The
unboundsome thing-free mood of a time-word free of anything; as, to
love, to see.

=Initial.= Word-head.

=Injury.= _Injuria_ is a moral wrong (summum jus summa injuria). Do
we not wrest its meaning in such wording as ‘The wind has done much
_injury_ to my house-roof’ or ‘_injured_ my flowers’? How can the
behaviour of the wind be made out to be a moral wrong, even if it be a
hurt?

=Instrumentive=, =instrumental= (case). The _tool-case_ or
_means-case_, that of the tool or means of a deed; as, ‘He cut the wood
with a knife.’

=Interest= (of money). Money-rent, loan-meed, loan-pay.

=Interest.= Care:--‘I do not take any _interest_ in him or it.’
‘I do not becare him or it.’ ‘Wha kara unsis?’ (what care to us)
(Mœso-goth).--Matt. xxvii. 4.

What a word to be taken as a thing-name is _interest_, ‘it is of odds’!
The folk-speech, ‘It is of no odds to me,’ gives the meaning of ‘meâ
non interest.’

=Intransitive.= Not overgoing, as time-takings that do not reach forth
to another thing; as, to _sleep_.

=Inversion.= L. _inverto_, to turn up. An end-shifting:--‘Thee at morn,
and Thee I praise at night,’ for ‘I praise Thee at morn, and Thee at
night.’ A shifting of the ends of a wording.

=Irony.= Gr. _eirōneia_, from _eiron_, a shammer. A good wording for
a bad meaning, _mock-praise_; as, ‘That was a _good_ shot,’ meaning
a very _bad_ one. ‘He is a _nice_ man,’ meaning the reverse of
_nice_. ‘How _glorious_ was the king of Israel to-day!’ meaning how
_inglorious_.

=-ism.= The stump _-ism_ of the Greek _-ismos_ seems to be used very
loosely. _-ismos_ is from the ending _-izō_ of ontaking or inceptive
time-words, and where there is no time-word ending in _-izō_ there
is not, I should think, any thing-name in _-ismos_; as, _chloros_,
green; _chlorizō_, to become green; _chlorismos_, a becoming green.
So, if liberalism is a becoming _liberal_, conservatism is a becoming
_conservat_, which might seem to mean _conservatus_, one conserved,
rather than a conserver. Is chartism a becoming a _chart_? and what is
Londonism, a becoming _London_ or a _Londoning_? and, if so, what is a
Londoning?

We have for _-ismos_ some English endings, as _-ening_, in
_blackening_; besides _-hood_, _-ship_, and _-ness_, and many others of
sundry kinds.

For _-ism_, taken in names bestowed with very slight praise, we
may take _-ishness_; as, _Hebraism_, Hebrewishness; _Grecism_,
Greekishness; _Latinism_, Latinishness; _Londonism_, Londonishness;
_solœcism_, folkswording. (On ‘Solœcism,’ see Aul. Gell. v. 20.)

=Iterative=. Going over again and again. Iterative time-words, that
mean to take many shorter times in time-takings of the same kind; as,
to _chatter_, chat much; _clamber, wander_.

=Labial= (letter). L. _labium_, lip. A lip breath-penning.

=Laxative=. Loosensome.

=Lecture=. A lore-speech.

=Lenis=. L. _soft_. The soft breathing is an _unaspirate_ one, such as
_a_ in _and_, not _ha_ in _hand_.

=Letter=. L. _litera_; Sax. _bóc-staf_, a book-staff. It is bad that
the same word _letter_ should be used for a _letter_ of the alphabet
and an _epistle_, the old English word for which is a _brief_, as it is
in German and West Friesic. It was also the name of the king’s letter
for gathering of help-money in the church; though now it is the name
only of a barrister’s letter of instruction.

=Lingual=. L. _lingua_, the tongue. Belonging to the tongue.

=Literature=. Book-lore.

=Lithography=. Stone-printing.

=Locative= (case). L. _locus_, stead, place. The stead or stow-case;
as, ‘In London,’ ‘At church.’

=Logic=. Redelore.

=-m, -om, -um.= A word-ending, a form of the Greek one _-ma_, as in
_prag-ma_, from _prasso_; and of the Latin _-men_, as in _flu-men_,
from _fluo_. Words so ended meant mostly the outcome of the time-word,
and were at first thing-names; and so as time-words they were, as most
of them yet are, weak ones. From roots ending, I believe, in _-ing_
came[5]

[5] The words of the latter row are not shapen, at once, from those of
the first one. Such of the first as are not roots in _-ing_ are fellow
stems to the others. As, _stem_ from the root _sting_, to be more or
less stiff or steadfast: sting, a stang, a stake, a stick. Steg-me (Gr.
stigma), stegm (stem). _Stem_ is not from _stick_, but from the root.

  Blow                        Bloom.

  Cling (_root_)              Clome (clay or clayen pottery), clam, climb.

  Cring (_root_) (to bend)          Crome (a dung-pick with bent prongs).

  Dunt, ding(_root_)          Dam, dim, dumb, damp (fire).

  Go (with quick         }
    stirrings),          }    Game.
    --ging (_root_)      }

  Glow                        Gleam, gloom.

  Grow                        Groom (a growing or now full-grown youth?).

  Hollow                      Haulm, helm, helmet.

  Harry                       Harm.

  Lose, lithe, (ling _r._)    Limp, limb, lime, loam.

  Shriek                      Scream.

  Sew                         Seam.

  Slack,--sling (_root_)      Slam (a slackness or looseness in
                                matter or going; slam of a gate; a
                                slack swing, as unguided by a
                                hand).

  Slack                       Slime, slim.

  Stiff or stout              Stem.

  Stray or Stretch on         Stream.[6]

  Tang, ting (reach on)       Team, time, and timer, timber (a very
                              ontanging stick).

  Thick                       Thumb (the thick finger).

[6] In Welsh _avon_, a river, is from a time-word meaning to go on.

            ‘Mi _av_ i’r _avon_ vawr rhag llosgi.’
    (I will go into the great river ere I be burned.)

        _Welsh Song._

=Machine.= An old English word for a machine is _ginny_ or _jinny_
which seems to be a fellow-stem to _gin_, and to mean _to go_, not as
in onfaring (locomotion), but as in the way of a machine.

=Magnificent.= High-deedy, high-doing.

=Magniloquent.= High-talking.

=Mechanics.= Matter-might.

=Metalepsis.= Gr. _metalambano_, to take over. A _use-shifting_ of a
word, a taking of a word over from its common to another meaning; as,
‘Seven harvests ago’ for ‘seven summers or years.’

=Metaphor.= Gr. _metaphora_, from _metaphero_ to carry over. A figure
of speech, the overcarrying of a name from a thing to which it belongs
to another to which it does not belong; as, ‘The _Shepherd_ of Israel’
for ‘the Lord.’ ‘The _father_ of the people’ for ‘a good king.’ ‘_Eos_
Cymru’ (the Welsh _nightingale_) for ‘a fine Welsh songstress.’ ‘A man
_burning_ with anger.’

=Metathesis.= Gr. _meta_, with or against; _thesis_, a putting. A
penning-shift, as that of putting each of two pennings in the stead of
the other; as, wa_ps_, wa_sp_; ha_ps_; ha_sp_; though the first of the
two shapes is the older in English.

    Metathesis is where a word
    Shifts pennings, as in _crud_ for _curd_.

=Meteor.= Welkin-fire.

=Metonymy.= Gr. _meta_, off; _onoma_, a name. An _offnaming_,
_name-shifting_, a wording that puts for a thing-name the name of some
belonging--whether cause or effect or aught else--of the thing; as,
‘He reads _Horace_’ for ‘_his works_.’ ‘He lives by _the sweat of his
brow_’ for ‘_work_.’ ‘Land holden by the _Crown_’ (_Queen_). ‘The power
of the _pen_’ for ‘_writers_.’

=Miosis.= Gr. _meiōsis_, a forlessening. A wording by which a thing is
lessened off; as, ‘Will you give me a _crumb_ of bread and a _drop_ of
drink?’

    Miōsis, a lessening,
    Makes of a great a smaller thing.

=Monitor.= A warner. Ware-en-er, who makes ware.

=Monosyllable.= A breath-sound.

=Multiloquous.= Wordy, talksome.

=Negative= (word). L. _nego_, to deny. Fornaysome.

=Nomenclature.= Benaming, name-shapening.

=Nominative.= L. _nomen_, a, name. The name-case, speech-case.

=Noun.= L. _nomen_, a name; Fr. _nom_. A thing-name, thing-word,
name-word.

=Objective.= Objective case. A name commonly given to the time-giving
thing when it is not the speech-case.

=Onomatopœia.= A mocking name. The making of words from sounds; as, to
_hiss_, a _peewit_ or _cuckoo_ from the sound it makes.

=Optative= (mood). The wish mood; as, ‘Oh! that I had wings.’ ‘May you
be happy.’

=Out-= (a fore-eking). _Outban_, exile; _outfaring_, peregrination,
exodus; _outhue_, _outliken_, depict or draw.

=Over-= (a fore-eking). _Overbold_, audacious; _overhang_, impend;
_overweigh_, preponderate.

=-p=, =-b=, =-f= (endings). They mean small in kind or short in
time:--Poke, _pop_, poke quickly; _dip_, a small dive; _slip_, a small
slide; _rip_, to rive quickly.

=Palindrome.= Gr. _palin_, back; _dromos_, a running. A set of words
which read the same backwards as forwards; as, ‘Lewd did I live, evil I
did dwel,’ or ‘Roma tibi subito motibus ibit amor.’

    A palindrome’s the same as read
    From head to tail, or tail to head.

=Palpitate.= Throb.

=Panacea.= Allheal.

=Paradigm.= Gr. _paradeigma_, an offshowing, outshowing, a plan. A
table of word-shapes.

=Paragogē.= An outbringing or outlengthening of a word.

    A paragogē will be found
    Where words are lengthened by a sound.

    ‘Such a sweet pett as this
    Is neither far nor _neary_.
    Here we go up, up, up;
    Here we go down, down, _downy_.
    Here we go backwards and forwards,
    And here we go round, round, _roundy_.’

        OLD SONG.

    ‘In playhouses, full _six-o_,
    One knows not where to _fix-o_.’

        OLD SONG.

=Paragraph.= An offwriting, a wording-share; such a share of a piece of
writing as, if it were offwritten, would not want anything of a full
meaning.

=Paraphrase.= New bewording; a turning of a piece of writing into
other words, often more if not clearer than those of the writer. A
paraphrase, while it is meant to clearen, may falsen the paraphrased
matter. The following paraphrase from an old written sermon of (as I
believe) an old Dorset divine, may be a good sample of new bewording:--

‘God, I thank Thee, that I am not as other men are, extortioners,
unjust, adulterers, or even as this Publican: I fast twice in the week,
I give tithes of all that I possess.’

Expanded or paraphrased:--

‘With great gratitude, O God (said the Pharisee), I contemplate my
own superior attainments. How free is my mind from a variety of black
offences which invade the consciences of others! Extortion, injustice,
and adultery are crimes (said he, striking his breast) which have no
harbour here. Who can lay to my charge the neglect of any religious
duty? Are not my tithes paid with cheerfulness, and my fasts observed
with sanctity?’

‘And the Publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his
eyes unto heaven, but smote upon his breast, saying, God be merciful to
me a sinner.’

‘The Publican, on the other hand, with every mark of the deepest
contrition, stood abashed in a corner of the temple. Conscious of
his own demerits, he was afraid to raise his eyes to that Being who
sees the least degree of impurity with offence. After many ineffectual
struggles to form the sighing of a contrite heart into the language of
prayer, his efforts ended in this one exclamation, God be merciful to
me a sinner.’

=Parenthesis.= An inwedging of a sentence within another:--‘Thou
sayest--but they are but vain words--I have strength for the war.’

=Parody.= A song-mocking.

=Paronomasia.= A kind of play on words of more or less like sound,
though of sundry meaning; as, ‘Though _last_ not _least_.’ ‘Non amissi
sed præmissi’ (said of friends deceased), ‘Not forgone but foregone.’

    Paronomasia is found
    In pairs of words of some like sound.

=Participle.= A thing-marking shape of the time-word.

=Particle.= A wordling, a small shapefast word.

=Patronymic.= Gr. _pater_, father, and _onoma_, name. A surname or
sirename of a man taken from the forename of his father; as, John
Richardson, Dafydd Ap-hoel, Patrick Mac-Duff, Jeroboam Ben-Nebat.

=Pedigree.= Kin-stem, forekin-stem.

=Penultimate.= Last but one.

=Perambulator= (the child’s carriage). Push-wainling.

=Perfect.= Fordone, forended, full-ended.

=Period=, in rhetoric (redecraft) and speechcraft, is so called, as a
speech-ring or speech-round, a full round of thought-wording, in which
the speech-meaning is kept uphanging and more or less unclear, till
the last word or word-cluster by which it is clearly fulfilled; as,
‘(1) That among the sundry changes of the world (2), (3) our hearts may
surely there be fixed (4): (5) where true joys are to be found (6).’
The whole thought-wording is a period or speech-round. From (1) to (4)
is a limb (called in Greek a _kōlon_) and has a meaning, though not a
full one beyond which the mind awaits nothing more. The word-cluster
from (1) to (2) yields no full meaning, and is called in Greek a
_komma_ (_kopma_), a cutting or shareling. Thence we see the source of
the names and uses of the stops--the _period_ (.), _colon_ (:), _comma_
(,). The _period_ marked the end of the period; the _colon_ that of the
kolon; and the _comma_ that of a comma, or cutting of a colon.

The word seems to be often misused. A _period_ (Gr. _periodos_) of
time or wording is rightly a running of it round again to its like
beginning; as, a week--from Sunday round to Sunday; or a year--from
January to January.

A straight stretch of time or words is not truly a period; as, a man’s
life from birth to manhood is not a ring-gate, beginning anew at
childhood.

=Periphrasis.= Gr. _peri_, round; _phrasis_, a speaking. A
roundabout speaking of a thing instead of an outright naming of it,
a _name-hinting_; as, ‘The gentleman at the head of Her Majesty’s
Government’ for Lord B.

=Personal= (time-word); not an impersonal one; as, ‘It rains.’ ‘It
snows;’ but one with a named time-taker, as ‘John rides.’

=Perverse.= Wayward, froward.

=Pervious.= Throughletting.

=Petrify.= To stonen, forstonen.

=Philology.= Speechlore.

=Phonetic.= Soundly.

=Phonography=, =phonotypy=. Sound-spelling. Surely a photograph should
be a phototype. _Graphō_ is to graze or grave along a body, but a
photograph is given by a plumb downstriking of rays of light--a _typē_
and not a _graphē_. With _graphē_ and _typē_ we may set a _glyphē_
(from _glyphō_), an outsmoothing of a shape, as that of a figure from
a block of stone. _Glyphō_ is a fellow stem-word to _glykys_, smooth,
soft, or sweet.

=Phrase.= Gr. _phrazo_, to speak, say. A word-cluster, a word-set, a
cluster or set of byhanging words.

=Pirate.= Sea-robber, weeking, wyking, wicing (Gloss. 11 cent.). The
_wicings_ or _weekings_ or _vicings_ were so called as lurking about in
the bays, _wicas_, _weeks_, _wykes_, or _wiches_.

=Plagiary.= A thought-pilferer.

=Pleonasm.= Gr. _pleonazo_, to fullen or overfullen. An overwording;
as, ‘A great [thing of a] boar’ for ‘a great boar.’ ‘What [ever in the
world] are you doing?’ ‘Never [in all my whole life] have I seen the
like.’

    A pleonasm oft is heard
    To strengthen speech by word on word.

=Plocē.= Gr. _plokē_, a twining or folding. A twining or folding of
a foregiven name, of one meaning the same name, in another; as, ‘Then
Edwin was Edwin (or himself) again.’ Worthy of himself. ‘Coal is now
coal,’ _i.e._ scarce and costly.

    By plocē you inweave a name
    Once more with meaning not the same.

=Plural= (number). The somely (number).

=Polyptoton.= Gr. _poly_, many; _ptotos_, case. The inbringing of
fellow stem-words or root-words in sundry cases or ways:--‘He,
friendless once, befriended friends.’

=Posterity.= Afterkin.

=Postposition.= A hinder case-word, a case-word put after the
thing-name; as, in Hindustani, _panee-main_, water in; _panee-sae_,
water from; _panee-ko_, water to. Showing the source of case-endings.

=Potential= (mood). L. _potentia_, might, power. Mayly.

=Predicate.= The wording of the time-taking; as, ‘John _walked twenty
miles_.’

=Prefix.= A fore-eking, a forewordling; as, _be-set_, _for-give_,
_out-run_.

=Preposition.= A case-word.

=Preterite.= Bygone, past.

=Programme.= A foredraught.

=Pronoun= (personal). A name-token, a stead-word. Pronoun Adjective,
mark-word.

=Proper name.= A one-head name.

=Prosopopœia.= Gr. _prosopon_, face, person; _poieo_, to make. The
putting of an unmatterly or impersonal thing as a person.

    Prosopopœia shows your mind
    Unlive things doing as mankind.

=Protasis.= The hinge time-taking.

=Prototype.= Foreshape, forepattern.

=Punctuation.= L. _punctuatio_, from _puncta_, points or stops. The
skill of the putting of stops, or of the marking of voice-stoppings in
speech. Bestopping. (See ‘Period.’)

=Radicle.= Rootling.

=Reciprocal= (verb). L. _re_, back, fro; _ci_, to this way. To and fro
verbs; as, ‘They helped each other.’

=Rectify.= Righten.

=Reflective.= Back-turning, as a time-taking which comes back to the
source of it; as, ‘John cut or hit himself.’

=Regimen.= Government, overwielding of a thing by another.

=Religion.= Faith-law.

=Religious.= On the true meaning of _religiosus_ see Aul. Gell. _Noct.
Att._ iv. 9. He makes it mean withholden, backbound from some uses.
_Religiosa delubra_, a shrine hallowed from common use; _religiosus
dies_, a day withholden, as unlucky, from great undertakings. A
religious man is one who is withholden by his faith and conscience from
bad deeds.

=Restrain.= Inhold, forhold.

=Result.= Outcome, outworking, backspring. _Result_ (from _resilio_,
to spring back) is neither in sound nor meaning a better word than
_outcome_ or _outworking_ or _froming_, _fromming_.

=Rhetoric.= Rede-speech.

=Rhythm.= Gr. _rhythmos_, number, as number of clippings or sounds in a
line of verse. _Metre_, which meant at first tale of sounds rather than
sound matching, which we call rime. _Rime_ is not come to us from the
Greek, but is the Saxon _rim_ or _hrim_, tale or number.

‘Manâ and misdædâ ungerím ealrâ’ (a tale, beyond telling, of all
wickednesses and misdeeds).--_Sermo Lupi ad Anglos._

‘Deer naet in da rime was’ (who was not in the number).--_Old Friesic
Law._

=Salubrious.= Healthy, halesome.

=Satellite.= Henchman.

=Scintillate.= Sparkle.

=Semi-detached houses.= Twin-houses, a house-twin.

=Sentence.= L. _sentio_, to think, deem, feel. In speech-craft, an
uttering of a thought, one thought-wording.

=Septuple.= Sevenfold.

=-sh= (an ending). It means quickness and smartness; as, _clang_,
clash; _crack_, crash; _fly_, flash; _go_, gush; _hack_, hash. In
markwords it means somewhat such;--_blackish_, _boyish_.

=-ship= (an ending). It means a shape or form of being:--_Friendship_,
_mateship_.

=Solœcisms.= Gr. _soloikismos_, from the bad Greek of the _Soloikoi_ in
_Cilicia_. A miswording, barbarism, or, as an old Saxon gives it, ‘a
miscweðen word,’ or a misquothing, a misqueathing.

    We in a solœcismus find
    Miswording of a loreless mind.

=Solstice.= Sunsted. A.S. Sunanstede.

=-some.= The ending _-some_ in such words as _aimsome_, _matchsome_,
_yieldsome_ seems, as we look to its true first meaning, to be a
fitting one. A _sam_ or _som_ (some) meant at first a body of mingled
matter or things. In its stronger meaning lumps of suet melted up into
a soft body would be a _sam_ or _som_; and potatoes boiled and mashed
up would be a _sam_; and dough, if not flour itself, is a _sam_ or
_som_.

In the wider meaning of the word an upgathering of things, and even
men, into a body or set is a _sam_ or _som_. Thence we have our word
_same_ as well as the ending _-some_ and the markword _some_:--‘_Some_
in rags, and _some_ in jags, and _some_ in silken gowns’ (a _set_ or
body in rags, a _set_ or body in jags, &c.).

_Aimsome_, _yieldsome_ would mean of the _aim_ or _yield_ or _aiming_
or _yielding_ set or body.

_Sam_ or _som_ gives our words _same_ and _so_. ‘The _same_ man’ means
the very man in _sam_ or body or being. ‘Are they Hebrews? _so_ (same)
am I.’ Of that _sam_ (am I). The Latin _se_ is most likely a word of
the same root:--‘Lucius _se_ amat’ (Lucius loves _same_ or his _sam_);
and this is the meaning of our word _self_.

The Latin _similis_ would mean of the _sam_ or _same_ kind; and ‘to
_summon_ (_samen_) men’ is to call them up into a _sam_, ‘Suma êlanda
thêr im likte’ (some islands that pleased him).--_Oera Linda Book._

=Sophist.= Wordwise.

=Sophistry.= Rede-guile, rede-cunning.

=Spell.= Sax. _spellian_, to tell, utter forth a word or a set of words.

=Spell.= A message or bewording, as in _Godspel_ (Gospel), ‘the good
message.’

=-st= (an ending). It strengthens the meaning, as it does in
_blackest_; blow, _blast_; brow, _breast_.

=Stereography.= Bulk-drawing.

=Stereometry.= Bulk-meting.

=Stereotype.= Block-type.

=Subject.= The speech-thing or thing under speech.

=Subjunctive= (mood). The hinge-mood; as, ‘If ye ask, ye shall receive.’

=Suffix.= A wordling put on at the end of a word; as, man_-hood_,
good_-ness_, kind_-ly_. End-eking, an on-eking, a word-ending.

=Superlative.= The highest pitch.

=Supposititious.= Underfoisted, undersmuggled.

=Syllepsis.= Gr. _syn_, up, together; _lēpsis_, a taking. An uptaking,
upmating, comprehension, as of a second or third person with a first;
as, ‘I (1) and my brother (3) (we) learn Latin.’.

    Syllepsis takes I, you, and he
    As first persons, and all called we.

=Synalœpha.= Gr. _syn_, up; _aleipho_, to smear. Sound-welding. The
welding up of two sounds into one, or the end of one word into the
head of the following. In Latin verse--‘Conticuere omnes,’ ‘conticue͞r
omnes,’ ‘conticuere‿omnes’--uttering the _e_ and _om_ in the time of
one syllable. So in Italian--‘In prat_o‿i_n foresta,’ ‘Sia l’alb_a‿o_
la sera,’ ‘Se dorm_e‿i_l pastor’--the _o i_, and _a o_, and _e i_ are
uttered as one syllable. In English--‘Before th_e‿A_lmighty’s throne.’

    By synalœpha breath-sounds run
    A couple to the time of one.

=Syncope.= The cutting of a penning from within a word; as, ‘He ha-s’
for ‘he haves,’ ‘Gospel’ for ‘Godspel.’ The outcutting is truly an
_outwearing_ of the clipping.

    A clipping’s lost by syncope,
    As _subtle’s_ sounded minus _b_.

=Synecdoche.= Gr. _syn_, up; _ek_, out; _dochē_, a taking. An outtaking
or outculling, as of a share of a thing for the whole, or the matter
for the thing; as, ‘a hundred heads’ for ‘a hundred men’; ‘twenty
hands’ for ‘twenty workmen’; ‘a cricketer’s willow’ for his ‘bat.’

=Synonym.= Gr. _syn_, together; _onyma_ a name. Synonyms are words
or names of the same meaning, twin-words; as, _rabbit_ and _coney_,
_volume_ and _tome_, _yearly_ and _annual_, _letter_ and _epistle_.
Twains of words are, however, less often synonyms than they are so
called.

=Syntax.= Speech-trimming. A _trim_ is a fully right or good state of
a thing, the state in which it ought to be; and ‘to trim’ a thing is
to put it in trim, or fully as it ought to be. ‘To _trim_ a boat,’ to
set it as it ought to be--upright, not heeling. ‘To _trim_ a bonnet or
dress,’ to put it fully as it ought to be. And so ‘to _trim_ a hedge’:
a man may think that, because much of the trimming of a hedge is done
by cutting, a trimming is therefore a cutting. ‘I am out of _trim_’;
‘to _trim_,’ as a man in politics, albeit it may not be to set himself
morally as he ought to be, is to set himself as he thinks that he ought
to be for the nonce.

=Tautology.= Word-sameness, a saying over again of the same thing or
words.

=Technical.= Craftly.

=Telegram.= Wire-spell. (See Spell.)

=Telegraph= (the electric). Spell-wire.

=Telescope.= Spyglass.

=Tense.= Time.

=Termination.= A word-ending.

=Tmesis.= A word-cutting or splitting or outsundering; as, ‘The child
has _overthrown_ the flower-pot.’ By word-cutting or outsundering--‘The
child has _thrown_ the flower-pot _over_.’

    By tmesis you may oft outshare
    A word’s two word-stems here and there.

=Transitive= is overfaresome; _intransitive_, unoverfaresome.

=Triphthong.= Gr. _tri_, three; _phthongos_, sound. A threefold sound.

=Uncial.= L. _literæ unciales_, text letters. Capital letters.

=Under.= _Undersea_, submarine; _underspan_, subtend; _underslinking_,
subterfuge.

=Up-.= _Upclashing_, collision; _upthrong_, congregate.

=Upmating.= The upmating of the persons, called in Greek _syllepsis_,
touches the use of the personal pronouns. A second or third person
upmated with the first is reckoned as first, and a third upmated with
the second is reckoned as second; as,

‘That boat belongs to my brother (3) and me (1). _We_ (1) bought it.’

‘That is known only to you (2) and me (1). _We_ know it.’

‘I saw you (2) and your brother (3). _You_ (2) were there.’

But persons are upmated as well from kindliness or civility as from the
calls of speech-craft. Thus a speaker will often upmate himself with
a hearer or another, as a mother may upmate herself with her child by
_we_, instead of _thou_ or _you_; as,

    Here _we_ go up, up, up;
    Here _we_ go down, down, downy;
    Here _we_ go backward and forward;
    And here _we_ go round, round, roundy--

though the going is only that of the child.

A young man may say to a girl friend, ‘How proud _we_ are,’ meaning
‘_you_ are’; or a man may say of others who might not be very brisk
at work, ‘_We_ are not very strong to-day’; or a footman may upmate
himself with the heads of the house with such wording as ‘_We_ do not
treat our guests so unhandsomely.’

=Vocabulary.= L. _vocabulum_, a word. A word-list, word-book,
word-store.

=Vocative= (case). L. _voco_, to call. The call-case.

=-y=, =-ig= (an ending). It means eked with something:--_Snowy_, with
snow; _dirty_, with dirt.

=Zeugma.= Gr., a yoking. A yoking of two things as to one time-word
which would fit only one of them, another being outleft; as, ‘The
house which my own money, and not which my father bequeathed,’ supply
_bought_ after ‘money.’

       *       *       *       *       *


The Power of the Word-endings.

Some of the small word-endings end themselves with a dead
breath-penning, and others with a half-penning. The dead pennings seem
to betoken, mostly, an ending, or shortening, or lessening, in time or
shape; while the half-pennings do not seem to bound, or shorten, or
lessen, the meaning of their body-words.


_Dead Pennings._

=-ock.= Hill-ock.

=-ed.= I walk-ed (the time-taking ended).

=-ig=, now =-y=. Wind-ig, wind-y (an eking of wind).

=-op=, =-p=; =-ob=, =-b=. Flap, flip, a quick flying; heap, hop, hip,
small highenings, or humps; pop out, to poke out quickly; clap the
hands, to close them quickly; stub, a small stump; wallop, to wallow
or well (roll) lightly, and so as water from a spring, or in boiling.
We may think that we have two very fine words in _envelope_ and
_develope_, whereas they seem to be nothing better than the Teutonic
_inwallop_ and _unwallop_, to roll in and unroll. With _wallow_ set the
Latin _volvo_ (walwo), to roll.

=-t=, =-et=. Forlessens.

  Poke,    pocket.
  Ball,    bullet.
  Sock,    socket.


_Half-Pennings._

do not so strongly, if at all, betoken endingness, or shortness, or
smallness.

=-m.= A _stem_ is of any length, but _stump_ is short.

=-en=, =-n=. _Golden_, eked wholly in gold; _blacken_, to eke on freely
in blackness.

=-ing=, as in _walking_, does not betoken any ending or shortening of a
time-taking.

=-er=, =-r=, betokens eking out much in shape or time, as:--

  Chat,    chatter.
  Pat,     patter.
  Clate,   clatter.

It so happens that while we have a dead penning, _-ed_, for the ended
time-taking, as, ‘he walked,’ we have a half-penning for the ongoing
time-taking, as, ‘he walketh.’ It is true that _-en_, a half-penning,
is put for _-ed_, as an ending of some mark-time words, as _brok-en_,
and that _-el_, _-l_, a half-penning, may seem to mean either much or
small, as _prate_, _prattle_ (prat-el). Time-words with these endings
in full length are weak.

  Bloss-om-ed,
  Black-en-ed,
  Wall-op-ed,
  Chat-er-ed,
  Flitt-er-ed,
  Pock-et-ed,
  Prat-el-ed
  (prattled).

=s= strengthens the meaning of some root-heads, as:--

  Melt,       smelt.
  Nip,        snip.
  Plunge,     splunge.
  Queeze,     squeeze.

So, as an ending of the somely thing-name, it stretches its meaning
from that of one to some ones, as _a hand_, _hands_--hands being more
than a hand.

In the word-ending =-st= of _black-est_, the half-penning _s_ freely
forstrengthens _black_, and the dead-penning _t_ seems to check its
force, so that _blackest_ means _black_ strengthened, though not
unboundedly so, but blackest of all the things taken with it.

_-st_ has, I suppose, this meaning also as an ending of thing-names
or time-words, as ‘to _boast_,’ the meaning of which is betokened by
some other tongues to be to _bow_ out much the breast or fore-body, the
token of pride and boasting, as it is so often shown to our sight.

_Bogan_, to bow (Anglo-Saxon and Friesic), means ‘to boast.’

Friesic--‘Thi mâgy _bogade_ uppa sinra snôdhed.’ (The mâgy boasted
(bowed) on his cunning.)--_Oera Linda Book._

‘Hia _bogath_ ìmmer over geda êwa.’ (They boast (bow) ever over good
laws.)--_Oera Linda Book._

The old British bard, Llywarch Hên, had in mind the same token of
pride:--

        --gnawd dyn
    Bronrain balch

(It is common for a proud (or boasting) man to be bow- or
bulge-breasted); and in the Holderness (Yorkshire) folkspeech they say
‘as _bug_ (proud) as a dog wi’ two tails,’ and yet, to show that _bug_
means a bow or bowedness, they say ‘as _bug_ as a cheese.’


The Goodness of a Speech.

The goodness of a speech should be sought in its clearness to the
hearing and mind, clearness of its breath-sounds, and clearness of
meaning in its words; in its fulness of words for all the things and
time-takings which come, with all their sundrinesses, under the minds
of men of the speech, in their common life; in sound-sweetness to the
ear, and glibness to the tongue. As to fulness, the speech of men who
know thoroughly the making of its words may be fullened from its own
roots and stems, quite as far as has been fullened Greek or German,
so that they would seldom feel a stronger want of a foreign word than
was felt by those men who, having the words _rail_ and _way_, made the
word _railway_ instead of calling it _chemin de fer_, or, going to the
Latin, _via ferrea_, or than Englishmen felt with _steam_ and _boat_,
to go to the Greeks for the name of the _steamboat_, for which Greek
had no name at all. The fulness of English has not risen at the rate of
the inbringing of words from other tongues, since many new words have
only put out as many old ones, as:--

  immediately,   anon,

(no saving of time here),

  ignite,        kindle,
  annual,        yearly,
  machine,       jinny.

I have before me more than one hundred and fifty so taken English
law-words which were brought into the English courts with the Norman
French tongue; but English speech did not therefore become richer by
so many words, because most of them thrust aside English ones. _Judge_
took the stead of _dema_; _cause_ of _sác_; _bail_ of _borh_; and the
lawyers said _arson_ for _forburning_; _burglary_, for _housebreach_;
and _carrucate_, for _ploughland_; and King Alfred gave to English
minds the matter of Gregory’s Pastoral with a greater share (nearly
all) of pure English words, than most English scholars could now find
for it.

On clearness, it is to be feared that, notwithstanding the English
may be clear in breath-sounds to the ear, there is often a want of
clearness to the mind from the many pairs of words which have worn into
the same sound, such as:--

  Bow,  bow,
  Doe,  dough,
  Lea,  lee,
  Pale, pail,
  Sow,  sew,

and others; and from the use of Latin and Greek and other foreign
words, which are used in other than their true first meanings, or the
meanings of which the common folk do not understand.

_Teleology_ is a word which I have just seen in a Dorset paper, as
for the matter of a lately given lore-speech, ‘the examination or the
discussion of the purposes for which things are created.’ Now, in
English the word _end_ means both a _forending_, or termination, and a
purpose; but I do not think that _telos_ (end) or _teleosis_, in Greek,
means a purpose. _Prothesis_ would most likely have been put for it by
a Greek.

The Latinish and Greekish wording is a hindrance to the teaching of the
homely poor, or at least the landfolk. It is not clear to them, and
some of them say of a clergyman that his Latinised preaching is too
high for them, and seldom seek the church.

_Swan_ is a clue to the meaning of _swanling_ but none of _cygnet_; and
if a man knew that _kyknos_ was the Greek for swan he might still be at
a loss for the meaning of _-et_, which is not a Greek ending.

For sound-sweetness or glibness, we should shun, as far as we can, the
meeting of hard dead breath-pennings of unlike kinds. We have in our
true English too many of them, and some of them from the dropping of
the _e_ from the word-ending _-ed_, as in _slep’t_ and _pack’d_ (lip
and roof, and throat and roof pennings, and in both cases hard dead
pennings); and then, as if we had not enough of them, we have brought
in a host more of such ones from the Latin, as in _act_, _tract_,
_inept_, _rapt_.

Now, _forbend_ is a softer-sounded word than _deflect_, since _ct_ (kt)
are hard throat and root pennings, very unhandy together, and the _n_
of _-nd_ is a mild half-penning, and _d_ is a mild dead penning. So
_dapper_ is better sounded than _adept_, since _p_ is a single hard
penning between two free breathings, and _pt_ are a hard lip and a hard
roof breathing, unfollowed by any softer breathing.

It was against such harshness of hard unlike breath-pennings that
Celtic speech took its markworthy word-moulding.

As a token of the readiness of two kindred breath-pennings to run into
one, we may give the words of the Liturgy, ‘Make clean our hearts
within us,’ for which a clergyman will hardly, without a pause and a
strong pushing of the breath, help saying ‘Make lean our hearts within
us.’

There came out in print some time ago a statement wonderful to me, that
it had been found that the poor landfolk of one of our shires had only
about two hundred words in their vocabulary, with a hint that Dorset
rustics were not likely to be more fully worded. There can be shown to
any writer two hundred thing-names, known to every man and woman of our
own village, for things of the body and dress of a labourer, without
any mark-words, or time-words, or others, and without leaving the man
for his house, or garden, or the field, or his work.



CLUE TO MATTERS HANDLED.


  Absolute case, 32, 47

  Accent, 3

  Adjective, 10, 12

  Adverbs, 26, 48

  Aorist (time), 28

  Article, 6, 10

  Attraction, 52


  _Be-_, 52

  Big things, 6

  Breathings, 1, 44
  -- free, 1
  -- hard, 2, 44

  Breath-pennings, 1, 2


  Can, 27

  Case, 30
  -- absolute, 32
  -- words, 31

  Colon, 73

  Comma, 73

  Conjugation, 26

  Conjunction, 35


  Defective (time-words), 55

  _-dom_, 57, 58


  _-ed_, 19, 83

  _-el_, _-l_, 18

  _-en_, 16, 45, 59, 84

  _-ening_, 59

  _-er_, 59, 84

  _-et_, 84

  Expansion, 60


  _For-_, 60

  _Fore-_, 61


  Goodness of a speech, 86


  Hinge and hank time-takings, 35

  _-hood_, 62


  Imperative mood, 31, 63

  Impersonal time-words, 63

  Inceptive time-words, 64

  Indicative mood, 30

  Infinitive mood, 16, 64

  _-ing_, 17, 84

  _-ism_, 65

  Iterative time-words, 29, 66


  Kindred, 5


  Link words, 35

  _-m_, _-om_, _-um_, 66, 67, 84

  Mark-words (thing), 4

  Mark time-words, 45

  May, 27

  _Mis-_, 16

  Miswording, 10

  Mood, 30

  Must, 27


  Nominative case, 31


  _-ock_, 16, 83

  _-om_, _-um_, _-m_, 66, 67, 84

  _-op_, _-p_, 70, 83

  Optative mood, 31, 70


  Paraphrase, 71

  Participles (Latin), 40

  Period, 72

  Person, 11, 26, 27

  Personal time-word, 73

  Pitches, 73

  Potential, 31

  Preposition (case-word), 31

  Proposition, 35


  Qualities, 12


  _-r_, _-er_, 16, 59


  Seem, 41, 78

  Sex, 5

  _-sh_, 77

  Shall, 77

  _-ship_, 77

  Small things, 5

  _-some_, 78

  Sound-softness, 38, 88

  Speech, goodness of, 86
  -- strain, 3
  -- trimming, 36, 80
  -- wording, 35, 40-44

  Stops, 72

  Suchness, 12
  -- pitches of, 13

  Syntax, 35, 80


  Tale, 6, 10, 28

  Thing mark-words, 4
  -- names, 4
  -- sundrinesses, 4

  Thought-wording, 35

  Time, 28

  Time-giving, 15

  Time-taking, 14, 25
  -- historic, 18, 30
  -- long, 27
  -- short, single, and stringly, 29
  -- transitive, 15

  Time-words, 19
  -- strong, 20
  -- weak, 19, 20, 26

  Twin, 39


  Under sundrinesses of time-takings, 25


  Word-endings, powers of, 83

  Wordiness, 44

  Word-sameness, 38

  Word-strain, 3


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       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's Note


The Heads of Matter does not correspond directly to the headings in
the text.


The following apparent errors have been corrected:

p. vii "Transitive" changed to "Transitive 15"

p. 4 "and Smallness" changed to "and Smallness."

p. 5 "bottle (of hay)" changed to "bottle (of hay)."

p. 5 "wants name-shapes" changed to "wants name-shapes."

p. 6 "in Tale" changed to "in Tale."

p. 6 "ien" changed to "ien."

p. 12 "cries)" changed to "cries"

p. 25 "consist" changed to "Consist"

p. 84 "Half-Pennings" changed to "Half-Pennings."

Catalogue p. 1 "Dutch Republic." changed to "Dutch Republic.”"

Catalogue p. 29 "Ice and and Glaciers." changed to "Ice and Glaciers."


Many punctuation errors in the catalogue have been left unchanged. In
addition, the following possible errors have been left as printed:

p. 61 omen (p. 61).

p. 61 A word-list or word-list

p. 75 Pronoun Adjective, mark-word.

Catalogue p. 15 "Crown 8vo. Cloth, price" was printed with no price.


The following are used inconsistently in the text:

Ben-nebat and Ben-Nebat

folkspeech and folk-speech

linkword and link-word

markword and mark-word

speechcraft and speech-craft

Speechlore and Speech-lore





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