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Title: Hesperothen; Notes from the West, Vol. II (of 2) - A Record of a Ramble in the United States and Canada in - the Spring and Summer of 1881
Author: Russell, William Howard, Sir, 1820-1907
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's Note:

  Inconsistent hyphenation and spelling in the original document have
  been preserved. Obvious typographical errors have been corrected.

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  =equals signs=.

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     HESPEROTHEN;
     NOTES FROM THE WEST:
     A RECORD OF A
     RAMBLE IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA
     IN THE SPRING AND SUMMER OF 1881.

     BY
     W. H. RUSSELL, LL.D.
     BARRISTER-AT-LAW.

     IN TWO VOLUMES.

     VOL. II.

     LONDON:
     SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, & RIVINGTON,
     CROWN BUILDINGS, 188 FLEET STREET.
     1882.

     [All rights reserved.]



     LONDON:
     PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
     STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.



CONTENTS OF VOL. II.


     CHAPTER I.

     ARIZONA.

     Deming--The Mirage--Ruined Cities--American
     Explorers--Self-Tormentors--Animals and
     Plants--Yuma--California--Los Angeles--Santa Monica--The
     Pacific                                                    Page 1


     CHAPTER II.

     THE YOSEMITE VALLEY.

     A new Land of Goshen--A Jehu indeed--The Drive to Clarke's--A
     Mountain Hostelry--Grizzlies--Fascination Point--The
     Merced--Yosemite Fall--A Salute--Mountain Airs--The Mirror
     Lake--"See that Rattle?"--A Philosophic Barber                 19


     CHAPTER III.

     SAN FRANCISCO.

     The Palace Hotel--General McDowell--Palo-Alto--The
     "Hoodlums"--The real Sir Roger--Exiles in the Far West--The
     Chinese Population--For and Against them--The Sand Lot--Fast
     Trotters--The Sea-Lions--The Diamond Palace--The Coloured
     Population--"Eastward Ho!"                                     44


     CHAPTER IV.

     CALIFORNIA TO COLORADO.

     Los Angeles--Mud-geysers--"Billy the Kid"--General
     Fremont--Manitou, the Garden of the Gods--Desperadoes--Bob
     Ingersoll--Denver City--Leadville--Grand Cañon                 73


     CHAPTER V.

     KANSAS TO ST. LOUIS.

     Liquor Law--Kansas Academy of Science--An Incident of
     Travel--A Parting Symposium--Life in the Cars--St. Louis to
     New York                                                      107


     CHAPTER VI.

     NEW YORK--NEWPORT--DEPARTURE.

     Coney Island--Newport--Bass-fishing--Habit of
     Spitting--Brighton Beach--Newport Coaching--Extra
     Ecclesiam--Victories of American Horses--Newport
     Avenues--Return to New York--Our Last Day in America          122


     CHAPTER VII.

     RETURN TO EUROPE.

     The "_City of Berlin_"--The Inman Line--The Service at Roche's
     Point--Queenstown Discomforts--A sorry Welcome Home           140


     CHAPTER VIII.

     SOME GENERAL REFLECTIONS.

     Education--Free Schools--Influence of Money in
     Politics--Corruption in Public Life--Crime on the Western
     Borders--The Great Rebellion--Anniversaries--Great Courtesy to
     Strangers--Manners and Customs                                151


     CHAPTER IX.

     THE RED MAN AND HIS DESTINY.

     Captain Pratt--Carlisle Barracks--An Indian Bowman--The Indian
     Question--The Pupils' Gossip--The "School News"--Indian
     Visitors--The White Mother--The India Office--White and
     Red--Quo Quousque?--Indian Title Deeds--The Reservations--The
     Indian Agencies--Missionary Efforts--The Red Man and the Maori
                                                                   186



HESPEROTHEN.



CHAPTER I.

ARIZONA.

    Deming--The Mirage--Ruined Cities--American
     Explorers--Self-Tormentors--Animals and
     Plants--Yuma--California--Los Angeles--Santa Monica--The
     Pacific.


_May 30th._--At an hour as to which controversy might arise, owing to
the changes of time to which we have been subjected, the train, which
had pulled up but seldom during the night, stopped at Deming Junction,
where the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fé Railroad "connects" with
the Southern Pacific, on which our cars were to be "hauled" to San
Francisco. Jefferson time and San Francisco time differ two hours, so
at one end of the station we scored 6 A.M., and at the other 8 A.M.
The sooner one gets away from Deming in any direction the better. A
year ago--as is usually the case hereabouts--there was not a trace of
a town on the dry ugly plain covered with prickly acacias and "Spanish
bayonets"; now Deming flourishes in gaming and drinking saloons,
express offices, and all the horrors of "enterprise" in the West. The
look-out revealed a few tents, wooden shanties, a station, at which
workmen were running up a frame-house, ground littered with preserved
provision tins, broken crockery, adobes and refuse of all sorts. At
the door of one hut, swarming with flies, swung half a carcase of beef;
two women were washing, pale-faced, but not uncheerful creatures, who
had not a good opinion of Deming and its population. "They carry out a
dead man a day, or used to," said one informant. The lady washerwomen
did not quite corroborate the figure; but, remarked the chattier
of the two, "there was a considerable shewtin' about last night!"
To the observation of one of the party that he was "going to have a
look about," the other lady made reply, "I guess if you dew it will
be 'hands up' for ten cents with you." On the platform was a United
States marshal, with a revolver stuck in his belt, but his duties were
considered to be punitive rather than preventive. Here Mr. Chase and
Mr. Hawley left us to return to Topeka. At the abschiednehmen Sir H.
Green was affected by a proof of interest in his welfare of a touching
character and very full of local colour; one of our friends beckoned
to him, took him aside, and pulling out a revolver ("It is hands up!"
thought Sir Henry), fully loaded, pressed it on his acceptance in the
kindest manner as a useful _compagnon de voyage_. As we were not to
stay at Deming, the self-sacrifice was not consummated.

The regular train having come up, our special was tacked on to it, and
in an hour the locomotive puffed out of the depot, and sped westerly
on its way at the rate of twenty miles an hour, across a plain some
fifteen miles broad, bordered by jagged, irregular mountain ranges
north and south, as dry as a bone--so dry that water for the engine
has to be brought to the stations in tanks. A scanty growth of what
looked like camel grass, interspersed euphorbias and cactuses of great
height, was all that met the eye. We are approaching the great basin of
Arizona, and are warned that much dust and great heat must be expected,
and that the "scenery" does not improve in point of variety or verdure,
both of which are nearly at zero. A vigorous, well-directed campaign
against the flies in the saloon gave us comparative repose; then the
blinds being pulled down, and the thermometer reduced to 83 deg.,
society settled itself to study, with results indicated presently by
a gentle _susurrus_ on the sofas. A sudden alarm, "Look at the deer!"
There sure enough was a herd of antelopes flying over the scrub towards
the horizon, which flickered about in the heat in a mirage of islands
and uplifted mountain ends--so vanished.

After passing Lordsburgh, a desolate spot in the desert, there appeared
a beautiful mirage. The sand became a sheet of water, waveless and
mirror-like, and in it we saw reflected in trenchant outline the
mountain range beyond. "It must be water! it is water!" exclaimed an
unbelieving director. And, lo! as he spoke the "dust devils" rose and
danced along the face of the sea; in another minute the vision was
gone; the dazzling sand, white, blank and dull, mocked our senses.
This was near Stein's Pass, up which the train of nine carriages
was climbing--"the heaviest train that has gone over yet," said the
triumphant conductor. "But we thought we'd try it." Each waggon weighed
30 tons. The Pass is three miles long, and we were working at a grade
of 74 feet with a 19-inch cylinder engine.

Between Pyramid Station and San Simon (_stant nomina umbrarum_--the
names of mere shadows of stations) the western border of New Mexico
is crossed, and we enter the great Territory of Arizona, which lies
between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada.

It is bounded by New Mexico on the east, by Mexico on the south, by
Utah and Nevada on the north and north-west, and by California in
continuation of the western boundary. It is as large as New York,
Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jersey, and Delaware together. Whom it
belonged to first, so far as occupation constitutes possession, I
know not; but the Spaniards owned and neglected it for more than
three centuries before the Americans possessed it. In 1848 and 1853
the regions now forming Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and
Nevada were ceded by the descendants of the Spanish conquerors to
the conquering Anglo-American. It would need weeks of assiduous
travel to explore the portion of Arizona where the most interesting
ruins in America, the cities of the Zoltecs or the Aztecs--for the
experts differ respecting their origin--are to be found. The weight
of authority and of recent investigation leads one to believe that the
Aztecs were not the builders of these ruined cities. Humboldt, indeed,
believed that they were; but, as Mr. Hinton remarks, in his capital
little handbook, which I recommend to prospectors, emigrants, tourists,
and travellers, "to suppose such an utter abandonment of settled
habitations, it will be necessary to suppose some strange impelling
reasons, either in climate or other causes, that must have amounted
to a catastrophe. An hypothesis which would leave a whole race able
to conquer an empire, and to preserve power enough to abandon without
destruction their old homes, implies conditions and forces without
a known historical parallel." The conclusion that many native cities
were flourishing when the Spaniards arrived in America may, perhaps, be
questioned. There is a distinctive character about them, differing from
that of the Mississippi mounds, the Central American pyramids, or the
ruined cities of Yucatan.

The site of one of these cities was pointed out to us from the
train, and that was all we saw of them. But I heard so much about
the mysterious remains that I was induced to procure Mr. Bancroft's
remarkable essay on the native races of the Pacific Coast. Mr. Bancroft
believes that the Pueblos and other Indians, in a state of civilisation
which they subsequently lost, were the earliest inhabitants of these
countries and the builders of the cities; that the Apaches came down
upon them, and their work being then aided by the Spaniards, this
original agricultural people were swept off the face of the earth.
But where the Apaches came from the American ethnologists have not,
I believe, determined. For hundreds of miles these ruins cover the
country--stone houses, ancient watch-towers, and adobe buildings,
around which are quantities of stone implements, masses of crockery and
pottery. In some places there are structures of wood and stone, without
iron, the masonry consisting of thin plates of sandstone dressed on the
edges, and laid in coarse mortar nearly as hard as the stone itself.

The explorers who have discovered the most interesting cities in
Arizona and elsewhere were officers of the United States army. They
have been the true pioneers of American civilisation in the West, and
it is most creditable to them that they have been able to furnish so
much scientific and antiquarian observation in the execution of their
arduous and often painful duty in Indian warfare. There is no cold
shade cast upon the labours of officers who desire to make a little
reputation for themselves by contributions to scientific publications,
and by papers on natural history and the like in periodical
publications or in the daily press.

There is, as might be expected from its position, a very high
temperature in Arizona. This lasts from the middle of June to the first
of October. During the best part of summer exertion of any kind is
impossible. Metal objects cannot be handled without producing blisters;
rain scarcely ever falls; and, to keep up the drain of constant
evaporation, a man must drink a gallon or two gallons of water a day.
Mr. Ross Brown, speaking of the summer, declares that "everything
dries. Waggons dry; men dry; chickens dry. There is no juice left in
anything, living or dead, by the close of summer. Officers and soldiers
creak as they walk; chickens hatched at the season come out of the
shell ready cooked. Bacon is eaten with a spoon, and butter must stand
in the sun an hour before the flies become dry enough for use. The
Indians sit in the river with fresh mud on their heads, and, by dint of
constant dipping and sprinkling, manage to keep from roasting, though
they usually come out parboiled." But, although it is recorded that a
party encamped on a narrow cañon where the temperature was 120 degrees,
there was no sunstroke. And in that respect the climate differs from
that on the eastern coast, where, especially this very summer, a great
number of deaths were caused by _coup de soleil_. People, with the
thermometer marking 94 degrees, talk of its being agreeably cold. An
exceedingly interesting fact, if it be one, connected with residence in
this part of the world is the wholesome effect of complete abstinence.
Death from want of water was by no means infrequent in the old days
before so many wells were dug; but it only occurs when there is a good
deal of humidity in the air. Although alcoholic drinks and tobacco have
an injurious effect, there is a large consumption of both at all the
stations and at the mines.

As in the Orange River Free State, where probably the conditions of
temperature are not very dissimilar, pulmonary complaints are cured, so
a residence in Arizona, it is said, stops consumption; and there are
authentic statements that people who arrived in a rapid decline have
experienced almost immediate relief of the principal symptoms, and have
been finally cured. Governor Safford, in an official letter, states
that his lungs were a good deal diseased, and that he was suffering
with a severe cough when he reached Arizona, and that in six months his
cough left him. He is satisfied the warm, dry atmosphere acted like a
healing balm to diseased lungs, and that, the pores being kept open,
the impurities which attack weak organs escape through the skin. Dr.
Loryea, of San Francisco, and Dr. Sawyer aver that Arizona is nature's
Turkish bath, and that Yuma, that evil-looking place, contains the
fountains of health.

Of such vast regions a small acquaintance acquired by passing rapidly
twice over a line of railway does not entitle one to speak; but, if
what we read and heard of Arizona be true, there is within its limits
enormous mineral and agricultural wealth. There are carboniferous
basins of great extent and richness. The mountains teem with ore.
Silver and gold, copper pyrites, zinc, and lead are to be found over
a great range, the extent of which is as yet imperfectly known. There
are sulphates of nearly all the metals; metallic oxides, chlorides,
carbonates, nitrates; agates, amethysts, garnets, and other precious
stones. People there are who believe that the diamond, the emerald, and
the ruby will turn up in due time. In fact, if one were to be guided
by the accounts in the papers or the guide-books, he would think that
a sure way of making an immediate fortune would be to settle down on
any hillside in this favourite land. Nevertheless, what I saw out of my
window gave me reason to suppose that there was poverty in Arizona as
well as in the old country. Nor did the buildings which I saw by the
way at the sparse stations and infrequent towns give an idea that the
in-dwellers were well-to-do in the world. The adobe, or burnt brick,
which is a common material in lieu of better, has always a ruinous
appearance. The houses built of it yesterday seem tumbling to pieces
from the influences of old age.

We take no note of time save by its relation to constant motion, and
to the "programme"--a Procrustean bed on which we have voluntarily
placed our tortured limbs. Sometimes in the hours of the night, which
could not be called still because of the incessant pealing, rattling,
and thundering of the train, I thought of the wonderful ways of man
with himself in such affairs as we were now engaged in. There is a play
of Terence which was a trouble to me in my youth, so long ago that I
remember very little more of it than the dismal and elongated name;
but Mr. "Heautontimorumenos" never needlessly bound himself up in a
programme and delivered his life over to a time-table! It is likely
enough, seeing what sort of man he was, that he would have adopted
that course had he lived in these days. I admit that programmes are
necessary when your movements regulate, or have to be regulated by,
those of other people; and that was the case in some measure with
us, but the solicitude it occasioned the worthy and valued friends,
whose brows I perceived becoming more puckered, and whose faces and
spirits were heavy with cares connected with the programme, to come up
to time, was beyond belief, and I vowed if ever I had my own way with
the ordering of a party I would have no programme at all. And plot and
calculate as you will, a gale of wind, or a heated axle, or a broken
bridge, or a flood, upsets everything, and your schemes gang aglee
utterly! It was admirable to see how we were working out the destiny
we had made manifest for ourselves in advance so long ago, but the task
was not easy. What curious sounds, by the way, our train made at night!
One could now and then compose words to the tune of the wheels, and
the regular rhythm forced one at times to hum the words of a song, of
which the train seemed to hammer out the music. It seemed so strange to
be turning into bed night after night, and waking up to pass the same
life day after day, like a log of wood carried on by an interminable,
irresistible torrent.

Provided with books and newspapers, and friends to converse with, as
well as with sights to see, we had, however, no reason to complain
that time hung heavy on our hands as the train sped on. The books
were very utilitarian, it is true--Reports of Chambers of Commerce,
statistics and papers connected with railway and commercial enterprise
and the like. But our directors took to that literature with avidity,
and aided by maps and tables, copiously furnished to them, seemed
bent on passing with honours in a competitive examination anent the
American railway system. There were always, close at hand in the cars,
competent authorities to answer questions, or able champions to engage
in controversy, and as I heard all the subtle contentions, which I did
not understand, concerning signalling and baggage checking, gauges and
engines, curves and gradients, freights and fares, I was set to think
what the field had been in which all the ingenuity and talent displayed
in dealing with such topics were exercised in pre-railway days. These
discussions were mostly connected with the consideration of profits
and percentages, and that was a neutral ground on which the combatants
manoeuvred their facts and figures as in a natural "_schauplatz_".
There were times when such investigations ran down like a clock,
and no one wound them up again for a few hours, and then my friends
digested the remains they found on the field of battle and strengthened
themselves for friendly jousting.

Not very long ago there would have been exceedingly good sporting in
many parts of Arizona. Grizzly bears, common and black bears; pumas,
mountain sheep, jaguars, ocelots, opossums, panthers, wolves, and
lynxes are largely distributed over the hill ranges. There are also
hares and rabbits and many smaller animals. Wild turkeys have much
diminished of late years; but there is a variety of birds, some of
them excellent for the spit. The chase, however, is attended with some
danger, unless one is very well booted and looks out where he treads,
as rattle-snakes abound, and are of exceeding virulence, the black
species being especially deadly. There are horned toads, but these are
harmless.

For the botanist Arizona is an almost inexhaustible field of
delight. Any one who likes to read of vegetable wonders, or of an
extraordinarily varied flora, cannot do better than get Dr. Loryea's
work, or read 'New Mexico,' by Elias Brevoort. The growth which struck
us most was that of the extraordinary cactus called the candelabra
or Sahuaro. It is worth while going so far as the railway will take
one to see these plants sticking up on the sides of a rock without a
trace of verdure or moisture, rising to the height of 40 or 50 feet,
and throwing out enormous arms at the most grotesque angles, each
varying from the other in shape, the number of its arms, and in the
manner in which they are disposed. This giant cactus is covered with
prickles, and is of a light green colour. It is said that in the old
days the Apache Indians not unfrequently made use of them as handy
means of torture, and nailed their victims to a cactus previous to
setting fire to it. The body of the plant is resinous, and it can
be easily converted into a bonfire. Here and there we saw some with
traces of pale yellow flowers. When these are gone there is a fruit,
which makes an excellent preserve, or can be boiled into sugar. Then
there are prickly pears in great quantities; and there is a "negro-head
cactus," with a round top covered with sharp spines, which furnished
the Mexicans with fish-hooks. "There is a soul of beauty in things
evil." If a thirsty traveller coming upon one of these plants kindles
a fire around it, the juices of its body are gradually concentrated
into a central cavity, where they only wait incision to be liberated
in the form of a pleasant drink, half a gallon or more in quantity.
The appliances for getting a drink out of most of these roots are
described at length in various books of travel; but however useful they
may have been at the time, the activity of the Atchison, Topeka and
Santa Fé Railway will in all probability exempt travellers in future
from any necessity to avail themselves of these ingenious devices.
Trees flourish in spite of the heat and want of water. As various as
the trees are the human inhabitants, and one of the greatest marvels
connected with them, perhaps, is the extraordinary variety of dialects
amongst people of the same race, who lived in the same country long
before the white man came to trouble them. They are decreasing, of
course, in numbers; but in some of the reservations they seem to
have arrested downward progress, and to have taken to some form of
agricultural labour. At present Arizona is the happy hunting-ground
of the unfortunate red man. There is, I am assured, no disposition on
the part of the whites to intrude upon the reservations of the various
tribes. I did not hear of any one who had come in from the East to
settle with the view of making his fortune by farming; but miners have
flooded the cañons, and climbed the mountain-tops; and now they have
settled down into a steady way of life without any big "booms," as the
Americans say, but with prospects of pretty certain returns for their
labour.

All night we travelled on, and when the morning came, we were still
traversing the desert, still passing through one of the most sterile
wastes on the face of the earth, where, however, by strange contrasts
of nature--or is it strange?--there were in the mountains and in the
ravines rich ores to tempt the cupidity and enterprize of man. We are
continually reminded of similar wastes in India and in Africa; but no
one, as far as I know, has yet discovered any mineral wealth in the
north-western deserts of our Indian Empire. And although Captain Burton
and others have fancied they have come across an El Dorado in Southern
Egypt, and Ibrahim Pasha had such faith in the existence of gold in
those regions that he led forth an expedition to perish there, there
is no such fortune in store for the adventurous miner as awaits him in
Arizona, Colorado, and California.

_June 1st._--Everyone who has entered Arizona, or left it--and let us
hope he went back all the better for his visit--will recollect Yuma for
ever.

Yuma is on the Colorado, which divides California from Arizona.
The muddy waters of the river rush with immense velocity past the
buttresses of the fine bridge, with a draw for steamers, that spans
it. The town consists apparently of adobe houses, and these not very
regularly built. I could not visit the main street for lack of time,
but the offshoots within eyeshot of us were not tempting. All we
could see from the railway windows were flat-roofed adobe houses, some
squalid Indians nearly naked, the buildings, with the Stars and Stripes
over them, of the United States post on the left bank, and a few wooden
sheds. It is said to be one of the hottest places in the world, and
certainly looked dry and dusty. They say that a soldier who died there
and went to an unmentionable place, returned in the spirit to beg for
a blanket, as he felt so cold!

More happily constituted travellers than most of us have seen something
pleasing in the aspect of the country roundabout, and have been moved
to much admiration by the various tints of the hills in the distance,
and by the rocks which constitute the near limits of the valley through
which the river passes. In the old days, when the stage-coaches offered
the only means of travelling through the district, there might have
been a good deal to see along the road; but the rail generally avoids
sights, and where nature is at its best, the engineer strikes deep down
and burrows if he can. The colours of the hills are bright and varied;
the lava rocks are of many shades, and the sun, piercing through strata
of pure air, illuminates them with great vividness and force; but after
a time the eye tires of the uniform hues of the landscape. For a few
miles the rail runs close to the river, then plunges into the most
remorseless, cruel waste of sand and rock, spread out up to the foot of
the rugged hills of the Barnardino Range, I ever beheld--an abomination
of desolation compared with which the Libyan Desert or the plains of
Scinde were the Garden of the Hesperides. I cannot describe, nor could
I at any time hope to succeed in giving an adequate conception of this
dreadful wilderness. For 107 miles west there is not a drop of water to
be found; the stations are dependent on the railway for their supplies.
But Nature, as if to take away the reproach of permitting such a vast
blotch on her fair face, kindly threw in Fata Morgana. We saw with
delight widespread lakes with fairy islands in the midst; placid seas
washing the base of the distant hills. This baked and dreary expanse
extends nearly to San Gorgonio. We were spared the sandstorms which are
so dreadful, nor did we experience inconvenience from the dust. The
traveller, who has begun to despair of ever seeing anything greener
than giant cacti and the adamantine vegetation which dispenses with
water, is agreeably surprised as he approaches Los Angeles. If he
be as fortunate as we were in having such friends as Colonel Baker
and his wife to take charge of him, he will be amply repaid for far
greater discomforts than any he experienced in the Colorado desert.
From Los Angeles there is a railway to Santa Monica, seventeen miles
distant, which belongs to Colonel Baker; and I would advise every one
who can, either to spare or make the time for a diversion to that
most delightful spot. Judge of the pleasure we felt when, after a
picturesque run through orange groves, vineyards, and fields of corn
and barley, we gazed on the waters of the Pacific--"θαλαττα! θαλαττα!"
What a glorious scene! the broad bay lighted by the rays of the
declining sun; the blue waves rolling on in solemn march, and
breaking in long lines of foam on the dazzling sand, and nearer
still the gardens and trees of the Pacific Biarritz which was about
to welcome us! Our palace-car and its attendant carriages shot into a
siding close to the beach. In a few minutes "every man Jack" was off to
the bathing establishment to conform to the regulations ere we plunged
into the sea. It is an orthodox bathing-place of the highest order. The
Baths are extensive, and provided with every convenience and comfort
for ladies and invalids; hot and cold, salt water and fresh, for those
who do not like to trust themselves to the sea. A rope extended seaward
to hold on by was needful, for the surf was heavy and the undertow
strong. The water was delicious. Generally there is less sea on, and it
is never too hot or too cold for bathing. Next morning we had another
bath in a still rougher Pacific. The Duke and some of the party were
driven about the country by Colonel and Mrs. Baker, and at 3 P.M., to
our sorrow, we left the most lovable little spot of all we have seen
on this continent. Good fortune be in store for Santa Monica! At Los
Angeles, where carriages were waiting, we drove through the streets and
suburbs, which enabled us to appreciate the reasons which induced the
Spanish founders to give the city its name. In the evening we continued
our journey, passing in the dark over the feat of engineering called
the Loop.



CHAPTER II.

THE YOSEMITE VALLEY.

    A new Land of Goshen--A Jehu indeed--The Drive to Clarke's--A
     Mountain Hostelry--Grizzlies--Fascination Point--The
     Merced--Yosemite Fall--A Salute--Mountain Airs--The Mirror
     Lake--"See that Rattle?"--A Philosophic Barber.


_June 2nd._--It is astonishing how soon one gets accustomed to the
rattle and rumble of the rail, and sleeps all the night through after
a time, waking up only when a train stops at a station, just as a
miller is roused by the cessation of the clock of the mill-wheel. We
keep good hours, and so at 4.30 this morning I was looking out of the
window at a sea of blue mountain ridges upon the west, which looked
like the waves of the ocean, so varied in the serrated edges was the
line of stony waves which seemed as if they were about to sweep down
over the great stretch of prairie. We were passing through a new land
of Goshen, at least that was the name which I detected on the station
board, indicating a junction with another line, and early as was the
hour the door of the hospitable restaurant was open, and gentlemen
in front were to be seen drawing their hands across their lips as if
they had been taking a refresher in the early morning. Close at hand
the country was perfectly flat, covered with glorious crops nearly
ripe for the sickle, and indeed cut and stacked in some places. Water
appeared abundant; a river flowing west was visible at intervals, its
course marked by a line of trees. Large black cranes stalked about in
the meadow-like fields, and hares sat up on end to take a look at the
train. The paucity of human beings, except at the rare stations, was
remarkable; only when I say "rare," perhaps I am scarcely justified,
as there were little wooden huts at intervals perhaps of ten or twelve
miles, where a saloon announced itself, and a possible ticket-office.

On the east of the plain through which the line runs, the peaks of
the Sierra Nevada were visible, but the journey was rather monotonous
all the same, and we were glad when our train halted at Madera, about
ninety miles from Goshen, where we were to get out and start on our
expedition to the Yosemite Valley. Especial arrangements had been
made for our conveyance, but I almost doubt now whether it would not
have been better for us to have taken the ordinary carriage which
leaves Madera every day, except Monday, for the Yosemite Valley, at
7.45, arriving at Clarke's or Bruce's in somewhat less than twelve
hours, so as to bring daylight with it to the halting-place; a very
desirable thing, as we soon found out. It was 8 o'clock before our
party started from Madera, in two Kendal carriages with four horses
each. In one was the Duke, Lady Green, Mr. Stephen, and myself, with
Crockett on the box; in another were Sir Henry Green, Mr. Wright, Major
Anderson, and Mr. Jerome. Our driver was a man with the impossible
name of MacLenathan, a resolute, dry, taciturn man, with a good face,
seamed with the exposure to sun and rain of many years on the box.
But he told us he had deserted it lately, and had taken to the work
of livery stable keeper, only coming out on this occasion as driver to
do honour to the Duke. As it turned out, it was well his right and his
left hand had not lost their cunning. The driver of the other carriage
was a noted character, rejoicing in the name of "Buffalo Bill," and
later on we had reason to feel very thankful to him also for the
possession of great pluck and nerve. For some ten or twelve miles the
route, which consists of mere wheel tracks over the prairie, runs over
moderately undulating land. On the right there is a shoot or _flume_
for carrying down timber from the upper part of the mountain ridge
fifty miles away. The dust was troublesome, and the rapid motion of
the four horses scarcely saved us from the roasting sun. The scenery
was not interesting; indeed, the great object of attraction was the
little Californian quail with his pretty crest, running across through
the grass or jumping up upon a stump to have a look at the travellers.
Stage stables were far apart, but the speed was fair, and it was
astonishing to see the excellent condition in which the horses were
at the end of their long canter, and what capital steeds were taken
out of the stalls, in which they were feeding on barley-straw, to
be put into the traces. I think the average length of the stages was
about twelve miles. We lost about an hour at a little mining village
where we halted for dinner, a place called Coarse Gold, as well as
I recollect, consisting of the usual buildings, a few shanties, the
store, the hotel, far better than might have been expected, and a sort
of wigwam or one-storeyed house, in front of which were assembled a
number of "Digger Indians," degraded specimens of a degraded tribe.
They sat looking at the new arrivals in the most apathetic manner,
just as they might regard so many flies. The men were dressed in a
compromise of old Indian attire, leather leggings and deerskin jackets,
with European clothing, caps, bad hats and trousers, and old boots,
the women swathed ungracefully in what seemed to be pieces of blanket,
their legs encased in folds of dirty cotton. One of these Diggers was
very slightly dressed, and as it is intensely cold in the winter, we
asked him whether he did not feel the effect of the frost and snow.
He knew a little English, and made the most of it. "When your body is
covered you do not feel the cold," he said; "But your face is always
uncovered, and yet you do not feel the cold there. An Indian's body is
all face." And that was all the explanation he would vouchsafe to us.
Somehow or another, what with delays at the stations, possibly caused
by our being out of the regular running, and being an interpolation on
the ordinary course of travel, and possibly owing to our reduced speed,
for the carriages with four horses did not, it seems, go as fast as
the public conveyance with six, it was getting dark as we approached
the line of wooded hills, in a valley in which, many miles away, lay
our halting-place for the night. The result of our delay in starting,
concerning which the driver had been severe from time to time, was
startlingly manifest as the coaches mounted the steep ascents of one of
the most tortuous roads in the world. The spurs of the hills come down
very sharply to the valley, and the road is carried round by a series
of very severe gradients following the contour of the mountain-chain,
so that at one time there is a deep gorge on your left, and then, as
the road leaves that spur with the valley on that side and crosses to
another spur, there is a great descent on the right, so that you are
continually passing along by a series of precipices, to which, in our
case, the fast gathering gloom imparted additional horror. Through the
sighing of the wind in the trees aloft came the roar of the torrents
down below. The drivers went along at a good steady canter, and from
time to time, as we came round a sharp curve, I dare say the thought
was in every one's mind, what would happen if one of the leaders
fell, or if the driver slipped his hand in gathering up the reins to
go round the corner. The scenery became more wild and formidable, so
to speak, at every fresh turn. The colossal trees, which challenged
admiration in the daytime, closed up in greater volume, darkening the
narrow road completely, so that in an hour after entering upon the
mountain-range it became as black as pitch. The lamps of Buffalo Bill
in the leading carriage were some guide to our driver. He had none,
and it was with anxiety, renewed every ten minutes or so, that we saw
the lights in front describe a graceful curve, which showed that they
were passing by one of the dips or cuts of the road. It needed skill
and judgment for MacLenathan to conduct the carriage, because if he
drove too close to that in front of us, the clouds of dust obscured
the view, and if he dropped too far behind he lost the benefit of the
lights. By enormous trunks of trees, by piles of timber, through deep
cuttings in the rock, plashing over watercourses, descending swiftly
into river-beds, and splashing through the fords over boulders, then
climbing up steep hillsides, on and on, it seemed as though the night
would never come to an end, and we inwardly, and audibly too, expressed
our regret that we had not started a little earlier; but still there
was an almost pleasurable excitement in holding on as we swept round
one of these terrible gorges, and tried to look down into the gulf
beneath. That last stage seemed interminable, but towards 9 o'clock at
night the driver of the coach in front announced that we were getting
"near at last"; and lucky it was, for his lights were giving out. "It
is just as well that they did not," said our driver, "because it would
be bad for you." "Why?" "Well," he said, "you would just have to get
out and walk! I would not undertake to drive any one in the dark along
such a road as this." Presently we heard the noise of rushing water,
and gained the bank of a stream flowing with swiftness over a shingle
bed. This we crossed, and in half an hour more, through the dark belt
of trees in front, lights were discerned, and, crossing another stream
and a bridge, our wearied horses were pulled up in front of the hotel,
a large wooden building, on the steps of which were the landlord and
his staff, and most of the inmates turned out to greet and inspect
the travellers who had been long expected. "It is a bad country to go
driving about in the dark," said Mr. Bruce, the landlord, a sentiment
in which we thoroughly agreed. There was a supper in the common
room, to which, albeit the fare was primitive enough, we did ample
justice. Travellers have complained of the charges along the road, but,
considering the distance which all articles have to be carried to the
Valley, the heavy duties, and the shortness of the season, I do not
think that any one with experience of Swiss inns would complain much;
and if the traveller desires to drink claret, he must not be astonished
if he pays eight or nine shillings a bottle for it. The ordinary fare,
at hotel prices, is quite good enough for hungry people, and eggs,
milk, and bread are abundant, and not dear. The bedrooms, sufficiently
simple in all their appointments, are good enough to be welcome to
tired people, for there is a fair bed to lie upon, and the sheets, as
far as our experience went, were clean and fresh. Nor were the insect
horrors, of which we may have some knowledge in parts of Europe, to be
dreaded, not even mosquitoes at this time of year.

Soon after dawn a thunderstorm broke over the valley, hail and torrents
of rain, and the landlord congratulated us upon the cooling effect
it would have on the air, and on the absence of dust, which is rather
troublesome at times. It was necessary to make an early start in the
morning, for it is a long journey to the Yosemite. For some years past
the Valley has become a kind of American Chamouni, and if Americans
swarm over Europe in search of the sublime and beautiful, they cannot
be accused of neglecting altogether their own country. The first thing
I saw, on walking out on the verandah of the hotel, was the stage-coach
and six horses, with eight ladies and nine gentlemen, loading up for
the Valley. They had arrived late the night before, a little in advance
of us, and yet the ladies, bravely attired for the road, were all in
their place in the _char à bancs_ long before 7. Travellers frequently
stay at Bruce's, and our host promises good sport to any one who will
make it his headquarters; but I cannot speak with any confidence on
that point myself; still I should think it a very pleasant quarter for
a man who had nothing else to do, and who had an aptitude for climbing,
to go about looking out big game. We heard talk of pheasants, but
saw none: the bird which is called by that name not being entitled
to it, according to ornithologists. In front of the hotel was laid
out the skin of a cinnamon bear, which had been shot by an Austrian
gentleman--"Count Fritz Thumb," the landlord called him--a few days
previously, and which was to be sent after him as a trophy of his
skill. "But," says Boniface, "it was not he shot him at all; it was 'is
old Injun hunter." Grizzlies, he said, were rare, but they were to be
found if you went up high enough, and as he spoke he pointed up to the
mountains towering away in the distance in grand Alpine proportions.
Deer were common enough, and there were some tame specimens of the
ordinary black deer running about in the enclosure. We had an early
start, but not quite so early as the Americans; and it was wonderful
how well our four hardy horses did the first stage, six and twenty
miles, including some very sharp ascents from the Hotel.

From time to time we got out and walked up the sharp bits, diverging
to the right or left to gather the lovely flowers which grew on
the roadside, or halting to admire the giant trees which clothed
the mountain ridges. Pitiable ignorance! not to know the names of
the plants or shrubs or wonderful bunches of blossoms, among which
fluttered the most magnificently coloured butterflies. Woodpeckers
of many different species uttered their quaint notes in jerky flight
from tree to tree, or peered at the travellers from the shelter of
the branches. Firs, pines, and spruces of enormous size, and trees
to me unknown, formed a dense forest on each side of the road; but
now and then we caught glimpses of the stupendous ranges of the alps
beyond. It was lamentable to see the waste and wreck wrought in this
wondrous wealth of timber--reckless, wicked waste. Charred trunks
stood with leafless arms withered and black, or lay prone among the
ferns in myriads. This was, we were told, the work of shepherds, who
think nothing of setting fire to one of the finest trees in the world
to warm themselves for an hour, and are delighted with a conflagration
which may lay a hillside in ashes. And the Indians too are held to
have their share in the destruction. There was enough of timber wasted
and destroyed mile after mile to build a city. The nemesis must come;
already the alarm has been sounded, and the State authorities here and
elsewhere are trying to prevent the mischief. I have often had occasion
to regret my ignorance of botany _inter alia_; but never did I feel it
more than when I was walking up the road, on each side of which was a
carpet of flowers, a maze of shrubs and plants--dense brushwood--to not
one of which could I give a name. We arrived at the Halfway House at
12.35 as much pleased as the horses which brought us there so well at
the respite, for it was an awful "pull up," and the coachman did his
work at high pressure. In the course of our pilgrimage we had found a
very pleasant _divertissement_. The Major, Mr. White, and Mr. Jerome
had excellent voices, and from time to time they burst into song,
giving with great effect the quaint negro melodies, which are now made
familiar to us in London, from a very large _répertoire_; and so the
afternoon passed in quiet enjoyment as we climbed the hills on foot or
in the carriages--snatches of talk, exclamations of wonder and delight,
and outbursts of the 'Golden Slipper,' 'O! that 'Possum,' 'The Ark,'
'John Brown,' 'Tramp, Tramp,' and other choruses.

It was near 4 o'clock when the driver, who had been silent for some
time, looking round at us occasionally as one who would say, "Wait a
little till I surprise you," suddenly pulling up, said, "Now, here you
are. This is Fascination Point! Won't you get down a bit?" And, lo!
there indeed lay before us a scene of indescribable grandeur. I know
nothing like the effect produced by Yosemite Valley when seen for the
first time from this point. It has a characteristic which no other
similar view I am acquainted with possesses. You take in at one glance
stupendous mountain-ranges, all but perpendicular, beyond which you see
the snowy crests of the great Sierra, the profound valley between them,
a long vista of extraordinary magnificence, of cascades and precipitous
waterfalls, and far down below a silvery river rushing through a
forest composed of the noblest trees in the world, with patches of
emerald-green sward and bright meadows.

I see that by a slip of the pen I have miscalled the place from which
we got our first view of the wondrous scene. But I have a right to
change the name for my own use. What the driver said was "Inspiration
Point." I prefer my mistake, for the view inspires you with no feeling
save that of wonder and delight. These sublime scenes appear to be
beyond the reach of poetry. Niagara and the Yosemite have not yet
found a laureate. The peculiar and unique feature of the valley seems
to me to be the height and boldness of the cliffs which spring out
from the mountain-sides like sentinels to watch and ward over the
secrets of the gorge; next to that is the number and height of the
waterfalls; but it is only by degrees and by comparison that the mind
takes in the fact that the cliffs are not hundreds, but thousands
of feet high--that these bright, flashing, fleecy cataracts fall for
thousands of feet--that the rent which has been torn in the heart of
the mountains, till it is closed by the awful granite portals beyond
which no mortal may pass, extends for miles. I thought as I gazed
that it were pity to descend, lest a nearer view might destroy the
effect of that _coup d'oeil_; but the driver had regulated the period
for rapture. He whipped us up to our places by word of mouth, and
the carriages renewed their course, now striking by bold zigzags down
into the valley for our destination, which was still six miles away. I
shall not attempt to describe my own feelings, far less can I pretend
to tell what others, probably far more susceptible of the beauty and
grandeur of what we beheld than I am, may have felt at the succession
of the awe-inspiring revelations of the tremendous grandeur of the
Valley which came upon us. What is the use of rolling off a catalogue
of names and figures?--even the brush of the painter, charged with
the truest colours and guided by the finest hand and eye, could never
do justice--that is, could never give a just idea of these cliffs and
waterfalls. "El Capitan! Oh, that's the name, is it? Three thousand
three hundred feet high!" And then you try to take in what that means.
"And it's 3500 feet down to the Valley? Dear me!" "And that is the
Cathedral Rock? And those two peaks are the Spires? I don't exactly see
the resemblance; do you?"

There was a sort of wail of delight from us all as we came on the
"Bridal Veil Fall"; and I do not think any one cared to know that it
was just 60 short of 1000 feet high! Surely one of the most graceful,
lovely _chutes d'eau_ on earth, lost though it be from view behind the
rocks at the close of its feathery flight! But there was no stopping to
look at anything; relentless Fate drove us down and on, till the wheels
rolled more evenly, and at last we came to the bed of the valley--some
1800 yards broad, opening out here and there yet wider--and we
rejoiced in the sight of the bright clear water of the Merced, child
of innumerable icy mothers, flashing, sparkling, dashing and brawling,
like a myriad Lodores, between her banks decked with flowers and
covered with forest trees.

Suddenly there dashed out of a glade two cavaliers, and made full tilt
at the leading carriage. "To arms!" Not a bit of it! Nor banditti
or Injuns--of whom we had met one or two riding sullenly along to
the hunting-grounds--no, only two hotel touts armed with cards of
self-commendation, and not apparently in much rivalry, for when told
that we had engaged our hotel, they galloped off to waylay other
travellers, of whose coming they were apprized by our driver. Our
hotel, I may say by the way, gave us full contentment. The site was
admirable, commanding a full and near view of _the_ Fall of Falls--the
Yosemite--which had so fascinated our eyes that we could scarce divert
them to any other object--not "Widow's Tears," or "Virgin's Tears,"
nor the "Three Brothers," not anything but the Yosemite! And so, when
our rooms were pointed out, we made off to the spot where the fine
cloudlike vapour rising above the tree-tops indicated the basin into
which the waters sought rest after their troubled leap.

Our way lay through the usual gathering of stores, hotels, livery
stables for the horses and ponies needed for the excursions, and
curiosity dealers' shops, to the village street, as it may be termed,
shadowed by fine trees, under which reposed some Indians--one of whom,
an Amazon in yellow toga, went riding full gallop past us, her hair
falling in a black mat on her shoulders, sitting low, in Melton style,
regardless of poultry, children, and boulders, and vanishing in a cloud
of dust under the trees. Then we turned to the left and crossed the
river by a rustic bridge; and as I looked down into the dancing waters
certain shadow-like objects flew up against the current. "Trout?"
asked I. "Yes, they're trout. They take 'em--when they dew--five
pounds weight. The Injuns catch 'em. We don't understand it as well."
A short walk, with eyes ever up-turned, and we come out to a moraine,
and, clambering up over a mass of trunks of trees and decaying timber,
_the_ Falls were before us--I cannot write more--no adjective will do.
"Two thousand six hundred and thirty-four feet, mind!" says the voice.
"I don't care," thought we, "it's the most beautiful and wonderful
water-jump ever seen by human eye." "It only remains," as they say, to
state that there is first, falling over a sheet of granite straight as
a wall, a considerable river, which in the plunge comes down at once
1600 feet. There, in a basin of rock, it collects its scattered forces,
under cover of eternal spray and cloud, and then takes another header
of 434 feet to a barrier of granite, against which it rages for a mad
moment, till it swells over and escapes from control by another spring
of 600 feet sheer down--and now it is free, and rushes past at our
feet, a joyous flashing stream.

We returned through the meadows from the Falls, and as I was walking
in advance of the party a snake wriggled across the path, which I
struck at instinctively with my stick, and was lucky enough to kill
at the first blow. I exhibited the carcass, or whatever a snake's
dead body may be, in triumph to my companions. Further on our way we
fell in with an old Frenchman who was carrying a basket of fruit from
his little garden to the inn. With all the courtesy of his country,
he offered to Lady Green the choicest in his little _corbeille_. He
came from Lorraine very long ago to prospect in the States, almost the
earliest of the pioneers, but he was still strong and active, and he
pointed with great satisfaction up to a white flag planted on a dizzy
height above, which he said he had placed with his own hands. The chief
livery stable keeper is a German named Stegman. The first ascent of the
Dome was made by a young Scotchman named Anderson, from Montrose; so
with Indians, Americans, Mexicans, Europeans, there is a very liberal
representation of the nations of the world, in the season, in the
valley. Mr. Hutchinson, the Conservator of the Valley--one with all
the enthusiasm of the American character in everything pertaining to
the country, aggravated in this instance by an intense admiration for
the valley over which he is appointed to watch--joined us at dinner in
the little inn. Full of information, bubbling over with anecdote and
illustration, and replete with all kinds of knowledge concentrated upon
the one object--the Valley--the Valley--and nothing but the Valley.
He knows its history since the time it was first discovered, and its
natural history and geological formation, and all about the Indians who
lived there and their traditions. It so happened that the Commissioners
of the State of California, who are bound to visit the public
domains, were also at the hotel, and so we had quite an unofficial and
ceremonious meeting; and presently, as we stood in front of the hotel
gazing up on the peaks, lighted up by the stars, and listening to the
thunder of the waterfall, a startling report burst out on the night,
and in another instant the echoes repeated from rock to rock were
crashing through the Valley with the roar of heaven's artillery. It
was the first gun of a salute ordered by the Commissioners to be fired
in honour of the Duke's arrival. The effect was very fine, but I doubt
whether I did not feel full of resentment at the outburst, very much as
the owls and night-hawks might have been expected to feel, if one could
judge from their cries. However, even a salute and echoes must come to
an end, and as we were to get up early to start for the Mirror Lake, we
turned in to bed at an early hour; not, however, to sleep, because the
indefatigable and numerous company in the public room, off which were
our bedrooms, were in high spirits, and the song and the dance, to the
accompaniment of an invalid piano, for some time asserted their sway.

Mr. Hutchinson had the Duke out early, because it is one of the
obligations to see the sun rise, reflected in the Mirror Lake--if
you can. There is no fear of cloud or rain. In the Mirror Lake is
reflected--or was as we saw it--the precipice at the other side of the
Valley, the bulk of Mount Watkins (so called from a photographer who
has been daring and successful in his renderings of the Yosemite), and
all the surrounding scenery. Once a friend and I saw a cow on its back
in the air, by the shore of a Highland lake. The surface was smooth as
that of the Mirror before us now. It was flapping its tail from side to
side, and its forelegs were up in the sky. We could not make it out at
first. There was, in fact, a cow standing near the water of the loch;
and what we saw was a reflection of the animal, actually stronger and
better defined than the object itself. So it was with the reflections
in the Mirror Lake; but when the sun rose over the cliff and we looked
at the water, the glare was too dazzling. "It was," as Mr. Wright
remarked, "like the electric light." There were curious optical effects
produced, some being troubled with purple, others with green or yellow
in their eyes, after a vain attempt to look at the reflection, but that
did not last long.

We returned to breakfast to make an early start for Union and Glacier
Points on ponies. Among the company at the hotel, introduced by Mr.
Hutchinson, there was a young lady who was well acquainted with the
Valley, and who proved to be a very agreeable companion in our mountain
ride; but it was not long ere she was candid enough to let it be known
that she did not visit the Yosemite out of love of the picturesque and
beautiful, but that she was interested in the sale of photographs of
the Valley, and was, in fact, a very persuasive and efficient agent of
a firm in San Francisco, who had thus established an outlying picket of
great activity and vigilance; and I am sure we all hope she may always
be as successful with the visitors as she was with us. Of what we saw
from the Glacier Point I must leave others to write or speak. It is
reached by a zigzag on the mountain-side--a peculium of the maker, and
all the "trails," as they are called, in the valley are the property
of individuals or firms who are paid by tariff, and we heard "Eleven
gone up before--Duke Sutherland, Lady Green, Sir Green, Mr. Wright, Mr.
Russell, Mr. Jerome coming! Sixteen coming up behind!" On the plateau
behind the cliffs, from which you look down on the Valley and at the
snowfields on the mountain ranges opposite, there is a log house and
shanty, and there we had a mountain meal ere we began the descent.

Nothing in the way of riding is more disagreeable than going down
a very sharp mountain-side on a pony not, for all you know, very
sure-footed, and so instead of riding, I resolved to walk, now and
then taking a short cut, to the great discomfiture of feet and boots,
although it is three thousand feet to the bottom, and make the best
of my way and the most of the road, which is very fair, down the zig
zags. I reached the plain thoroughly hot and tired, and bathed in
perspiration, in fifty-seven minutes. The horsekeeper, who came down
with the rest of the party, seemed to have been affected by the rarity
of the atmosphere or something else up at the mountain hostelry, for
he insisted on it that I had ridden down, and demanded his horse.
"What the thunder, Russell, have you done with my horse?" he asked
again and again. Satisfied for the time by my assurances that I had
not ridden at all, he went off, and then, thinking over the matter,
came back again to repeat his question, till I told him I would not
answer it any more. He was an amusing fellow in his way, and affable.
He called the Duke "Sutherland," now and then putting Mr. before it.
As he was watering his horses, he said: "Here, Mister Sutherland, lay
hold of the bucket, will you, whilst I take a turn at this one." And
the Duke did so with alacrity. It was a day of incessant activity. No
sooner had the mountain party come down than they were off again to
drive through the Valley. The rest of our party had already executed
masterly investigations at the foot of all the waterfalls; admired
the Bridal Veil and the Widow's Tear, as one cascade is satirically
termed, "because," says the guide, "it dries up in six months;" had
driven and ridden everywhere and seen everything, and we had to do the
same; but it would need a week of conscientious work to exploit the
Valley thoroughly. At half-past 7, the dinner hour, the little inn was
swarming with people; the stage had arrived with fresh contingents.
Every place was full, and what with the clatter of knives and forks,
the clamour of waiters, the tumult of voices laughing and talking,
it was scarcely possible to conceive that a few short years ago this
valley was in the exclusive possession of the Indian and the wild
beast. There is now, however, a great conflict of interests, and Mammon
is holding his revels in the Valley. The State has voted a certain
sum of money, twenty-five thousand dollars, I think, to buy up the
interests of the trail-makers; that is, those who struck out and made
paths to the various objects of attraction; but no success has yet been
attained in the negotiations, and, indeed, I should think it a very
bad investment for most of them to accept their share of such a sum.
Macaulay, for example, who made the path up to the point from which
we descended to-day, must make many hundreds of dollars in the height
of the season, as he charges so much a visitor, and, besides, has a
restaurant where they take their meals at the top.

Next day (June 5th) we left the Yosemite with the satisfactory
assurance that we had made the most of our time, though we could not
believe we had done it justice. There were some small "nuages" on the
face of our "Mirror Lake," caused by changes in the mode of conveyance;
but we found six horses and one of the coaches of the country were
better than four horses and two carriages of less capacity. Yosemite,
I may tell my readers, means "Grizzly Bear" (it may be "Great Grizzly
Bear"); but we only heard of one having been thereabouts for a long
time, and I believe it was thoroughly tamed. After a glorious day in
the woods, clambering up the steep from the Valley, and then on by the
road--the only one--to Clarke's, halted there for the night, when we
returned from a ceremonious visit to the "Big Trees." We had a most
delightful ride from Bruce's, and a hard canter back through the woods
on capital ponies, full of life and action, and very sure-footed, but
rather inclined to have their own way, which was not always that of
the rider. We turned into bed at Bruce's, quite delighted with our
expedition, and rather anxious to see the road we had traversed in the
dark by the garish light of day. Every traveller's tale, and every
guide-book of recent date relating to this part of the world, has a
full account of the dimensions, number, appearance, and condition of
these wonders of the world. They are either prostrate, mutilated, or
decaying; not one has survived the stormy life he must have led for
some 3000 years--a few hundreds more or less do not signify. Those
which remain upright are scarred by fire and lightning, and drop their
monster arms, hung with ragged foliage and sheets of bright moss,
mournfully over the ground where their trunks will repose in time to
come. I cannot conceive any object of the kind so magnificent as one
of those Washingtonias in the full vigour of mature treehood; but we
could only fancy what it must have been like by measuring the stems,
for there was not anywhere in the forest a tree to be seen which had
not suffered. The best way to visit the scene--for it may well be
called so--is to strike out from the road on the way to the Yosemite
before the halt at Bruce's; but the hotel-keepers and stage-drivers
will persuade the stranger, if they can, to defer the excursion till
his return from the Valley, so as to make a half-day more out of him.

_June 6th._--All up at 5 o'clock, and off soon after 6 A.M. The first
stage, eleven miles, we did in two hours and ten minutes--a very
pretty road; the second stage, eight miles, in forty-four minutes. The
ravages made by fires are most deplorable. We had passed through this
great forest track in the dark, but now seen in the morning light, the
trunks of magnificent trees rotting on the ground, or standing upright
with lifeless arms, consumed at the base, were visible everywhere.
It is difficult to find out the exact truth about the cause of these
fires. Some few people said "it was the Indians," but the weight of
testimony attributes them to the shepherds, who for the most trifling
purposes kindle a great fire. In some of the large trees they have
hollowed out regular chambers, and of course the tree dies. Such waste
of timber! For mile after mile we passed scenes of desolation which
ere long those who allowed them will have cause to regret. From time
to time we encountered on the road trains of waggons drawn by teams of
handsome mules with bells, and had occasion to admire the economy of
labour exhibited in the management, by which the driver is enabled to
work a powerful break with one hand whilst he drives with the other.
The next stage, of fourteen miles, was over an exceedingly bad road;
but the horses were good, and we rattled along at a capital speed down
towards the plain. Once the quick-eyed driver, pulling up suddenly,
said, "See that rattle?" leaped down and made towards the bush; and
as we followed him, sure enough we heard distinctly the noise of the
snake, which he had intercepted on its way to a rabbit hole. It took
refuge in a clump of bushes with gnarled roots, and coiled itself round
one of the branches; but by a course of judicious and rather nervous
poking it was driven from its vantage ground, and trying to escape was
killed by the driver with a blow of his whip, followed by a good many
unnecessary strokes from the rest of the party. It was over three feet
long, and had just been making an evening meal upon a rabbit, which it
had left where we had startled it; and it was evident from its swollen
appearance that it had been for some time engaged in the warren close
at hand.

At 10.20 we reached Fresno, which is what the Americans call "quite
a place," containing not only an hotel, a restaurant, and a store,
but a shop where photographs were exhibited. The _chef-d'oeuvre_, a
portrait of a Spanish lady 140 years of age, living at Los Angeles, did
not, however, commend itself to our taste. We halted at Coarse Gold at
11.40, and left at 12.35. Mr. Jerry Loghlan--who excused himself for
not working on the ground that "there was no use in it, as there was
nothing to be had," the mines being worked "out"--whose acquaintance we
had made on the way up, a huge, broad-shouldered _vaurien_, was still
hanging about with his specimens of quartz, gold, and rattlesnakes'
tails, and a black eye recently acquired in battle.

After a long, hot, and dusty drive, it was with no small gratification
we made out on the flat the houses of Madera, and after a time the
carriages of the special train. The air is so bright and pure that the
distances are very deceptive, and it was nearly 5 o'clock P.M. before
we reached the station, which had been visible for more than an hour
previously. It was pleasant news to hear that the little German barber
at the way-side had got baths all ready. In the rear of his shop there
was a row of apartments, each provided with a clean zinc bath, hot and
cold water to turn on at discretion, and an abundance of towels. This
in the centre of a waste seemed very creditable to the civilisation
of the people. I should like to know in what part of Europe you would
get similar comfort under similar circumstances. I am afraid there are
many parts of the British Islands where a traveller would demand such
a luxury in vain. And the barber was there to shave those who needed
it, and to give you all the news of the day if you wanted it. He was
a Prussian, and he grinned from ear to ear as, in reply to my question
whether he had served, he said: "Serve, indeed! Not I. I came away and
escaped from all that nonsense. There is not a king or an emperor or a
prince that I would fight for. Why should I?" "But," said I, "you would
have to fight for the Republic here if it were in danger; and that
would not be fighting for your fatherland." "Yes," said he, "it would,
for this is my fatherland now. But I do not want to fight for it either
if I can help it. Fighting is nonsense."

Our excellent stewards received us, if not with open arms, with smiling
faces. The carriages were trim and clean and fresh, the tables spread
out, and all kinds of dainties provided for the evening meal. We rested
quietly for the night in the siding at Madera, and got under weigh at
5 o'clock on the morning of June 7th, the train being timed so as to
reach San Francisco at 12.30.



CHAPTER III.

SAN FRANCISCO.

    The Palace Hotel--General McDowell--Palo-Alto--The
     "Hoodlums"--The Real Sir Roger--Exiles in the Far West--The
     Chinese Population--For and Against them--The Sand Lot--Fast
     Trotters--The Sea Lions--The Diamond Palace--The Coloured
     Population--"Eastward Ho!"


The British Consul, Mr. Booker, who has been watching over the
interests of the Queen's subjects for some thirty years here, and who
is an institution by himself, met the train at a place called, I think,
Porta Costa, and welcomed the Duke and his friends. There had been
for some days an infusion of the Chinaman in the general element of
life along the line, but here it became concentrated, and then ceased
to attract much attention. As the train approached the wide expanse
of muddy water from the Sacramento, which charges down with impetuous
volume, and colours the bay with its turbid stream, we could form an
idea of some of the advantages in the expanse of navigable river, that
had, however, lain long without appreciation but for the bright red
gold possessed by San Francisco. The bay is animated; white canvassed
craft stud its waters, and the smoke of steamers pollutes the clear,
bracing air. Italian fishermen are busy with line and net, and flights
of ducks and squadrons of gulls and cormorants show that the waters
are well stocked. It was too late in the year to see the country in
the full affluence of its wealth of fruit and crops, of hay and corn,
and the hillsides and fields are now disappointingly brown. Presently
we arrived at Oakland, where the train was run out on a pier 3500
yards long, to the steam ferry-boat which was to convey us across
to San Francisco. The ferry-boat was crowded, for Oakland is a city
of some 50,000 people; and of course it had once on a time, not very
remote, only a few sheds and insignificant houses. From this side of
the bay the city of the Golden Gate, some miles away, was now visible
in all its pride of place--pride but not beauty, now at least--for the
city presents no great attraction to the eye. The streets, running in
parallel lines at right angles to the quay right up the sandy hillside,
look like the ribs of some stranded monster, "lank and lean and
brown." The most prominent object is the hotel to which we are going,
which towers far over the general level of house-top, steeple, and
factory-chimney.

There is a little pamphlet, crammed with statistics and with an array
of figures and superlatives enough to daze one, given to the guests
of the Palace Hotel; but those who are in that happy category scarcely
need the information, and those who are not could not derive any idea
of the building from the repetition of the ciphers which are to be
found in the guide-book. The drawing on the outside affords the best
notion of the size, but only actual purview can enable one to judge
of the excellent arrangements, the service, the table. For once the
American idol "Immensity" is not overlaid. "'Tis blinding bright--'tis
blazing white! O Vulcan! what a glow!" Electric lights flooding the
court with brightness beyond description. And what a court! Sweetness
and light indeed! In the great quadrangle, 144 feet by 84, there are
fountains playing, groups of statuary, and exotic plants, and, tier
after tier, rise the pillared terraces outside the seven storeys of
which the main building consists, painted a lustrous white, shining
like purest Parian. There are 755 rooms, abounding in conveniences,
and comfortably luxurious. Each is provided with high-pressure hot and
cold water, and there is an elaborate system of ventilation, alarms,
conductors, pneumatic tubes, telephones, and "annunciators" for fire,
letters, servants, &c. The beds are excellent; the furniture admirable;
and this vast structure, 120 feet high, 275 feet broad, and 350 feet
deep, is not only fire, but--listen--"earthquake proof"; so says the
bill of fare, and so says ex-Senator W. Sharon, the proprietor. I have
not the least desire to test the truth of the averment, but if I must
be in a hotel when an earthquake visits the city in which I am, let me
be in the Palace, San Francisco. A man may live here in the enjoyment
of a pretty continuous series of meals and one of the best bedrooms
for four dollars a day, and there is a lower tariff of bed and board at
three dollars a day.

_June 8th._--Our first day was rendered exceedingly pleasant by the
kindness of General McDowell. The weather did its very best to prevent
our enjoying it, and was signally defeated. San Francisco is perhaps
the windiest city in the world, and at this time of year there is
almost always a storm in the harbour, and a steady, powerful, and
somewhat chilly blast, setting in a little before noon, and lasting
throughout the day until nearly sundown, up the streets. The General's
aide-de-camps came over early to the hotel, in full uniform, in honour
of Major-General Green, but General McDowell appeared in mufti, which
eased us down a little. A powerful steamer, the "_General Macpherson_,"
was prepared for the party, which was swollen by a considerable number
of gentlemen invited by our host to meet the Duke, and the gentlemen
from Topeka, who were included in the invitation. The excursion
afforded a favourable opportunity of inspecting the city defences.
From Alcatraz Fort, Point and Presidio Island batteries, which would
not be considered very formidable as far as armament is concerned,
although their position affords great advantages for torpedo defence,
salutes were fired in honour of Sir Henry Green. But in the case of
some of us the sight was marred by the rising sea, which increased to
an inconvenient height as the steamer reached the Seal Rocks, close to
the entrance to the bay. Of the seals I shall give an account farther
on. They did not seem to mind the steamer very much until she blew her
whistle, when many of them splashed into the sea. At the termination of
the trip, which lasted some four hours, General McDowell entertained
the party at his official quarters, which are beautifully situated on
a bluff overhanging the water of the bay.

_June 9th._--We spent, in some respects, an abortive and deceitful
day; not, indeed, that there was anything disappointing about our
entertainment at Belmont, under the auspices of ex-Senator Sharon;
but that we started full of enterprise, and intent upon inspecting the
great works of the Spring Valley Reservoir, and of making an excursion
through what was described as a very beautiful county whence is
brought the water supply of the great city in which we were sojourning.
However, though we were baulked in the object of our expedition, the
day passed, and not in the least degree unpleasantly, and instead of
going to the Lakes we drove about the neighbourhood of Belmont, and
visited several country seats.

No one who visits San Francisco should omit taking an early opportunity
of going to Palo-Alto to inspect the stock of General Stanford's
thorough-breds, and the breeding establishment, which as a sample of
perfect order and management cannot be surpassed. I cannot answer for
the figures, but I was informed that the owner spends 25,000_l._ a year
upon the maintenance of his stud and stables, and that he has not as
yet sold a colt or filly, or parted with a single animal; sires, mares,
and young brood now amounting to about 700 head. They are beautifully
housed in detached stables fitted up with every convenience that a
horse of the highest pedigree and most luxurious taste can desire.
I was particularly struck with the perfect silence which prevailed
throughout the stables. No shouts to "stand over there," and none of
that "----" (groom's expletive) which is so common in our country.
And partly owing perhaps to that mode of treatment, and to gentleness
in handling, all the horses without exception seemed tractable and
sweet-tempered. High-bred stallions stood out in the open for our
inspection, and allowed themselves to be rubbed and felt without even
laying down their ears or raising a hind-leg from the ground. In reply
to a question respecting a remarkably beautiful animal, which seemed to
have a little more fire in him, the head groom said "You may walk under
his belly if you like," and then and there he told one of the grooms
to do so, which the man did, without attracting any unusual degree of
attention from the animal. Outside one of the large blocks of stables
there is a kind of testing arena, in which we were told it was the
pleasure of General Stanford, when he was at home, to sit watching the
performance of his young horses. It is an ellipse, like a large circus,
bordered with a hoarding, and in the centre there is a raised stage for
the visitors, on which are revolving chairs. The riding-master, with an
attendant, performing the functions of the late Mr. Widdicombe, sets
the animal in motion, checking him when he breaks into a gallop. The
speed at which the animal trots the ellipse is known by the time marked
on a chronometer, and the fact is recorded for the information of the
inspectors, who can turn round their chairs and follow the action of
the horse as it trots round the ring.

The district of the State in which Palo-Alto is situated boasts of
several residences of the Californian millionaires. One house which
we visited, I think belonging to Mr. Flood, furnished the most ornate
and beautiful examples of woodwork that were ever seen by any of the
party. The house, which was as large as a good-sized English country
mansion, is constructed of timber of the finest quality, beautifully
worked, painted and varnished; and with moderate care a mansion of this
kind will last, in this climate, a couple of hundred years, which to
the American mind is an eternity. There were artists from New York,
and the staff of an upholsterer and decorator of great renown from the
Empire City were still busily engaged in the place as we went through
the rooms. The magnificent halls, reception-rooms, billiard-rooms,
library, bedrooms, all fitted up with extraordinary luxuriousness,
but in a somewhat florid taste, were of wood, the doors of many of
the apartments arresting attention by their extraordinary beauty and
finish. The ceilings decorated in fresco by Italian artists, and bright
windows filled with stained glass gave an appearance of light and
grace to the whole residence. The kitchen arrangements were marvels
of ingenuity, and one envied the butler who would have such a pantry
as that which was displayed for our inspection. Some of the pictures
which were ready to be placed on the walls were remarkable, however,
only for the richness of their frames; and, indeed, we heard that
the excellent proprietor was not a man of very cultivated taste; a
child of fortune, in the prime of life and of money-making, spending
a portion of his enormous wealth with an easy hand, but destitute of
what is called book-learning, and leaving to some future generation the
cultivation of the graces and the acquirement of accomplishments which
the circumstances of his early life had denied him to effect.

It had been arranged that we should return to San Francisco to dinner,
but Senator Sharon had in his secret heart resolved that we should do
nothing of the kind, or at least, that if we did so, it should only be
after we had partaken of such a feast at Belmont as would very much
indispose us to test the capabilities of the _chef_ of the Palace
Hotel. From Palo-Alto accordingly we were driven to the charming
country house, some miles away, of the ex-senator of Oregon, and we
were regaled there, after some delay, at a very elaborate _déjeûner_,
sent out from San Francisco. It was nigh 8 o'clock ere we got back
to the city; and the night ended by what might well be called "an
excursion" to the Baldwin Theatre, which was at the time the most
attractive of the places of entertainment of that sort open in the
city. As some of us were walking back, after the play was over, with
an American friend, talking of the "hoodlums," famous rowdies, who, we
were assured, had been of late days utterly broken up by the vigilance
of the police, our attention was attracted to a number of lads smoking
at the corner of the street. Our friend said "Hoodlums broken up! There
they are--don't you believe it. That's a lot of them, and if you were
alone you might find out very unpleasantly that there are plenty of
them."

The San Francisco journalists possess astonishing powers of
imagination. I rubbed my eyes when I read that I had described "with
eloquence the similarity between a marsh at San Bruno and a patch
of jungle in the north-west of Scinde, where I had the felicity
of spending three weeks with General Green while the natives were
arranging a plan to capture the party and cut our throats." I never
was in the north-west of Scinde in my life, and, although I had the
pleasure of passing a longer time in his company in the United States,
and of being on the same plateau before Sebastopol when he was there,
for a still longer period, many years before, I never spent three
weeks there with General Green. The Duke was described as "professing,
but showing, little enthusiasm." However, these matters are of very
slight interest or importance; only one wonders how many of the readers
of this sort of literary work believe in it. One of our party has,
according to a local paper, become a clergyman, and now rejoices in the
style and title of "the Bishop," by which he is universally addressed
by the party.

While in the train, on our way to Belmont, I had the pleasure of
being introduced to a gentleman who, although a lawyer in very large
practice, is General of the State Volunteers; and in the course of
conversation, I heard that he had papers containing the statement of
a gentleman who had visited, and which convinced him that the real
Roger Tichborne was living not very far from San Francisco. General
Barnes, whose name and character stand high in the city of the Golden
Gate, and whom I found to be a gentleman of great intelligence, seemed
perfectly satisfied by the story told by this new "claimant"; but what
he mentioned to me did not at all tend to create in my mind any notion
that he was not an impostor, and especially were my doubts confirmed by
the quotations which General Barnes made from some of the narrative, in
which there was a ridiculous jumble of French and English, in order to
justify, apparently, the stress placed by the "claimant" in his story
on that part of his life which was passed in France. He spoke of his
uncle as "mon oncle," and of Thursday as "Jeudi," and so on. However,
General Barnes appeared to be so impressed by the truthfulness of the
man's bearing, and by the full details he gave him at an audience
in which he supplied the facts for the consecutive narrative which
I was promised, that I expressed a desire to read it. General Barnes
subsequently sent me a long written paper containing the heads of the
claimant's story, a perusal of which strengthened the conviction I
had previously entertained. I only mention this circumstance because
there was a report spread throughout the Press, by the agency of one
of the great telegraphic associations which furnish the American
public with intelligence, that the Duke of Sutherland and myself
had interviewed the real Roger Tichborne at San Francisco, and had
satisfied ourselves that he was the man; and innumerable "headings"
were invented for this supposed interview, of which I was soon made
aware on my return westward in every newspaper that I read. I promptly
denied the statement that the Duke or myself had seen the new claimant,
and although the denial appeared in print I was exasperated day after
day by being asked questions afterwards with regard to this supposed
conversation with Tichborne at San Francisco, and by inquiries as to
my real impression; so it would appear that no one had seen or paid
any attention to the refutation of the story which had brought down
on my devoted head communications from friends of other Tichbornes,
of whom there are several living, some in poverty and others in
comparative affluence, in various cities and districts of the United
States. I had further the mortification of seeing it stated in print
that I had used disparaging words in alluding to the credulity of
General Barnes, which was an entirely baseless fabrication. With all
the extraordinary keenness of the American mind generally, there is
associated with it a considerable amount of the Anglo-Saxon quality
which is termed "gullibility," and the land swarms with impostors who
make a living out of the easy faith of the population. I do not speak
merely of spiritualists, quacks, and professors of peculiar religions
or medical dogmas, nor of the preachers of eccentric forms of faith or
unbelief, but of the mass of persons who contrive to get an existence
by representing that they are "someone else." Although their tricks
are well known, the trade still flourishes. They are always the "sons
of peers," who have got into disgrace with their families, but who
will eventually be owners of castles of historic fame and of enormous
estates; "distinguished soldiers"; "Maids of Honour to the Queen,"
who for some unknown reasons are living in small out-of-the-way
villages in the West; or political conspirators who have played a great
part on some distinguished stage and have saved themselves from the
consequences of defeated enterprize by taking refuge in the States.
And then there are hordes of persons who are known by the title of
"confidence men," who travel about on the trains or in the steamers,
looking out for victims, or lounging about the bars and saloons,
waiting for their prey in the shape of some facile and easy-eared
stranger, who in consideration of their merits and distress shall give
them temporary assistance. Sometimes, doubtless, there are cases of
very real suffering, sorrow, and poverty, to which exile in the United
States affords a melancholy refuge. I was obliged to hear in one great
city of a gallant soldier who, reduced to poverty by no fault of his
own, had quitted England and given up the society of his friends,
and lived in a small suburb of a town on the coast of the Pacific,
his secret known only to one or two officials, shunning all contact
with his countrymen and evading as far as possible all inquiries of
his friends. In San Francisco, where there is a poor-house open to
strangers and to native-born Americans alike, there are, I am told, to
be met with extraordinary exemplifications of the "downs" of fortune.
Adventurous and daring spirits, and pioneers of civilisation, at one
time probably possessed of wealth which was wasted in dissipation,
or lost in unfortunate speculations, are there, talking of the days
that are gone, in all languages of the world, and awaiting their end;
while others who started with them in the same race are building their
palaces or revelling in the enjoyment of wealth, compared to which our
greatest fortunes are, if figures can be trusted, a mere bagatelle. How
rapidly some of these fortunes can be made was illustrated by numerous
stories connected with some of the richest men in California. I was
told by an eminent tradesman of San Francisco that one day a miner came
into his establishment to buy a watch, which he said must be cheap
and good, for he wanted something he could trust to in the matter of
time, as he was going off with a party on an exploring expedition
after gold. This was in the early time of the great "booms" in the
West. He selected a watch, for which he paid $40, and departed. The
following day he appeared in the shop and asked to see the proprietor,
and then, producing the watch, he said he would like to have $30 for
it, as he had lost all his money in a "spree" the night before and
must have something to start with. The jeweller said, "Well, I will
return you what you gave me for the watch, as it has suffered no harm,
and you shall have your $40 back again." The man went away exceedingly
rejoiced, and the incident was forgotten. Some eighteen months
afterwards a man came to the establishment, and looking at rings, gold
chains, and jewellery of the most costly character, and asking for the
best of everything that they had got, gave orders which occasioned the
attendant to have some doubts as to his sanity, or certainly as to the
means he had of paying the amount, which was rapidly running up to tens
of thousands of dollars. So he sought out his principal. The strange
customer said, "I suppose you don't know me?" which was admitted to
be the case. He went on buying all the same, making the remark, "You
need not be uneasy about the money, for So-and-so (the bankers) will
tell you I am all right, and when you send the things home you shall
be paid. I am Joe Smith, from whom some time ago you took a watch he
bought from you when he came to your store, and gave him the full value
for it when he was in want of money," and so departed, having shown his
gratitude by buying 6000_l._ worth of jewellery. This worthy miner is
now one of the wealthy pillars of the State.

The Chinese quarter of San Francisco has been described, I will not say
_ad nauseam_, but as often as any book has been written which contains
an account of a visit to the city of the Golden Gate. Of course we
went there, and saw all that was to be seen under the best possible
auspices, for Mr. Bee, whom I have already mentioned, was our guide
and companion, assisted by an exceedingly intelligent officer of the
police force; and on the occasion of our second visit, when we went to
the theatre, we had the advantage of being under the protection of the
gentleman who represents law and order, on behalf of the municipality,
in connection with the Chinese population and the arrangements for
theatrical performances.

The inspection of the dreadful den in which the opium-smokers were to
be seen suggested to my mind a train of thought in connection with the
traffic which I would not willingly have communicated to my American
friends. It will seem incredible some day to the awakened conscience
of the nation that we should have ever sanctioned such a frightful
crime as the opium traffic. "It only poisons about two millions of
people," is the excuse, "and brings in one-sixth of the whole revenue
of India." If ever it were justifiable to utter the exclamation "Perish
India!" it would be, I believe, in regard to that disgraceful source of
revenue, and the necessity that is imposed upon us, as it is alleged,
to raise it, in order to maintain the government of our Indian empire.
Here in San Francisco the State has nothing to do with the sale of the
poison, and it is very questionable whether the police regulations
should not be applied to it, just as they are to persons who have
tried to commit suicide, or to the inebriates in public-houses, or to
places where intemperance is carried on to an extent injurious to the
public peace. Death is the inevitable result of continued indulgence
in opium-smoking, although it is true that in some cases the victim
lingers on a few years, utterly indifferent to all the business of life
except the one--the means of supplying himself with his only source
of enjoyment. I was in one of the shops where they sell the drug, and
was much struck by the cadaverous, sunken faces of the unfortunate
customers, with bright dreamy eyes, trembling limbs, and wasted bodies,
who came in to buy it. It is cheap enough, in all conscience, as a very
small quantity suffices to produce what is called "the desired effect";
but for its bulk it is exceedingly dear, and indulgence in it must
consume a considerable amount of the earnings of the best-paid artisans
when they are no longer able to earn sufficient to keep them with a
full supply. "Then," as our informant says, "they will commit any crime
to get it."

The general impression made upon me by the appearance of the Chinese
population was most favourable. I do not now speak of what one might
see in going through the haunts where the police regulations assign
exclusive possession to certain classes of the population, which, sooth
to say, seemed numerous enough; I refer to the business quarters, and
to the crowds of cleanly, intelligent, well-behaved people of both
sexes in the streets. General McDowell, and many other persons, for
whose opinion the greatest respect must be entertained, look with
apprehension on the effect of the Chinese immigration, and have,
indeed, declared that it will destroy the Union if it be not checked;
and these apprehensions are based upon the possibility that in time
millions on millions of the swarming population of China will inundate
the United States, gradually overrun town after town, usurping all
the fields of labour, and beating down the white man to the greatest
misery by competition in every branch of trade, industry, and labour.
This party has successfully, I believe, impressed its views upon a
considerable number of senators and representatives in the Eastern
States, who can exercise pressure on the Supreme Government; and
the treaty recently signed between the Republic and China contains
provisions which enable the authorities at the western seaports to
exercise considerable control over the current of emigration. But, on
the other hand, it is alleged that the fears which are expressed of
a rapidly increasing exodus of Chinese from China, and an anabasis
into the United States, are purely imaginary--in fact, unreal and
pretentious. The pro-Chinese party allege that the emigration comes
from only one port in one province, and that you may go all over the
West, and ask any Chinaman or Chinawoman where he or she comes from,
and you are met with the invariable answer, from the one port. The
friends of the Chinese--arguing, moreover, that the State at large
is benefited enormously by the accession to its resources from the
Celestial Empire, and that the labour was attacked, not because it
was cheap, but because it was good; that it is now indispensable, for
without Chinamen and Chinawomen it would be almost impossible to carry
on the ordinary life of these cities--allege that the agitation which
has been so violent in San Francisco is mainly encouraged by those
who want to secure the Irish vote. Colonel Bee represents these views
very strongly. He argues that Canton, not larger than the State of
New Hampshire, is the sole source of emigration. He insists on it that
there are no more than 100,000 Chinese in the whole of the Union, and
that for the last ten years the emigrants have not sufficed to fill
the places of those who had gone home with money, never intending to
return, or who had died. He maintains, indeed, that the Chinese are
decreasing rather than otherwise; and with all the power of figures,
which he has at his fingers' ends as Consul, demonstrates that a very
large proportion of the Chinese who are entered as arriving at San
Francisco and other parts are the same men and women as those who came
some years previously and went back to their native country, returning
to gain more dollars.

The principal enemies of the Chinese are the Irish, who, having
monopolised the whole of the work of bricklayers, plasterers, carters,
porters, and general labourers until their arrival, have been forced
to reduce their rates of labour steadily by the competition of the
Chinaman.

The part of the population of San Francisco denominated the Sand lot,
and especially those connected with the political associations of the
city, do not by any means share Colonel Bee's views; but the agitation
is dying out, and the meetings, which were of weekly occurrence, to
excite the people against the Mongolians have decreased in number,
importance, and interest. The directors of public companies, and
the contractors for public works, are all in favour of the Chinese
workman, who is sober, industrious, and orderly; and although the trade
combinations among them are exceedingly subtle, and their powers of
association for trade purposes remarkable, being moreover the most
ancient in the world, the Chinese in the Western States have not as
yet taken to indulge in the luxury of strikes. As domestic servants,
nurses, and attendants on children, they appear to be affectionate
and careful; and nothing could be better than the service of the hotel
in which we were lodged, the great portion of which was carried on by
Chinamen and women.

_June 10th._--In the spacious courtyard of the Palace Hotel, at
7 o'clock this morning, there might have been observed three
well-appointed waggons (as Americans call the vehicle more
appropriately termed "spider" at the Cape), each with two horses
of race, fast trotters, panting for a spin through the city and the
Park out to the shores of the Pacific. The Duke and Sir H. Green and
Mr. Stephen were driven by Mr. Howard. Mr. Wright was "personally
conducted" by Mr. ----, and I was put behind a pair of as handsome
chestnuts as could well be seen anywhere, of which the owner and
driver (General Barnes) was very reasonably proud. The streets of
San Francisco, like those of most of the American cities we have
visited, are atrociously paved; the torture of driving over boulders
is aggravated by the sharp ribs of the tram ways, so that it is not
pleasant, if, indeed, it be possible, to drive rapidly till the limit
of municipal incompetence or fraud be passed. But once out on the
suburbs the chestnuts were invited to step it, and were bowling along
at a good fourteen miles an hour on our way to the Park, over as good
a road as horse or man ever felt under hoof or foot. The Park not long
ago was a waste of sand, it is now swarded and planted with shrubs, and
luxuriant with flowers. Notices that it was unlawful to do more than
ten miles an hour were posted up, but the General did not pay strict
attention to them till he came near shady places, where experience
warned him that policemen might be lying privily in ambush. The pace
was quickened till the waggon seemed to fly through the air rather
than move over the ground. It was the perfection of travelling on
wheels--almost as buoyant as a headlong gallop. The waggon weighed but
180 lb., the powerful animals "scarcely felt it more than their tails."
I had a turn at the reins by "kind permission" of the General. The art
of driving trotters needs practice. You must keep a strong, steady
pull on the head, or they "break." Very soon I had the satisfaction
of making the chestnuts break the law with a vengeance, and of hearing
the General say, "We are just within the three minutes! not ten seconds
inside it!"--that is, of trotting at the rate of just twenty miles an
hour. Up hill and down hill, and along the flat out of the Park and
over the smooth road, and in half an hour the Pacific was in sight, and
the murmurs of the surf rose above the rhythm of the regular beat of
the eight hoofs in front of us! Cliff House was in view. Seal Rocks,
in their setting of foam, lay before us, and in forty minutes from the
time we left the hotel, despite policemen, miles of bad pavements, and
tramways, we drew up at the steps of Cliff House, nine miles from San
Francisco, and the trotters had not turned a hair. From the verandah
at the sea front of the hotel, we enjoyed for half an hour a spectacle
which is, as far as I know, unique. At the distance of 500 or 600 yards
from the beach at our feet there is a group of four very rugged rocks,
with serrated edges and tops, the sides broken here and there into
ledges and small platforms. They are too small to be called islands,
the largest being, as it seemed, not 100 yards wide. The slopes are
not, I think, so steep as they looked on the land side. On the two
largest of these rocks there were herds of sea-lions, so close that we
could see, through very poor opera-glasses, with the greatest ease,
their eyes, teeth, and whiskers, as they reposed or played with each
other. Some had clambered to the highest ledges, escalading the sides
by a series of painful-looking struggles with their flappers; others
were fast asleep in cosy nooks; some were tossing their heads about and
making believe to bite each other in sport; the younger ones were bent
on teasing their fathers and mothers by uncouth gambols. As they played
or moved they uttered cries between a bark and a roar; now and then the
noise was like that of a pack of hounds in full cry, and the effect of
the strange sound mingling with the tumult of the surf and the beat of
the waves was most singular and "eldrich." Those fresh from the sea
were shining black, but became lighter as they dried. The older ones
were not darker than cinnamon bears or unwashed sheep. As many of those
on the rocks had not long left the water the general effect of the
herd put one in mind of a gathering of enormous slugs on cabbages--not
a poetic simile, but a just one, I think. Occasionally a sea-lion,
hungry or bored by his companions, threw himself with a splash into the
wave, and it was interesting to watch the rapidity and actual grace of
his movements in the sea compared with his laborious efforts on the
land. One could see them quite clearly through the body of the heavy
billows; occasionally a bold one would glide close on shore and fish
in the edge of the surf, raising his head and shoulders clear above
the surface, and then diving out of sight. They were cruising about
in every direction. You remember the sea-lion at the Zoo, of which the
French attendant was so fond? Well, the creatures below and before us
were most of them double the size of that fellow, and several exceeded
the largest ox in size. The monsters are quite well known; one is named
Ben Butler, "because he is such a great beast." They were formerly
protected by law, but some one thought they killed too many fish, and
the law was repealed. They are safe all the same, for there is a law
against the discharge of firearms within 300 yards of an inhabited
dwelling; Cliff House throws its ægis over the sea-lions in that wise;
but the quantity of fish which must be devoured by these mountainous
phocæ (an they be so) daily would maintain a decently-sized city. The
hide furnishes the "sealskin" used to cover trunks, and the body yields
oil fat, and the tusks are close, white, and hard. These sea-lions
breed far away up north, and come with their young regularly every
year to the same resorts; but incessant war is waged upon them by the
sealers and whalers, so that the chances are against the beast where he
is not protected by law, and their numbers do not increase. Altogether,
the spectacle was one never to be forgotten. A hotel, with oysters
awaiting us for a forebreakfast refection in the background, waggons
from Michigan, horses from Kentucky, all the apparatus of civilised
life close at hand, the Pacific and its strange wild denizens at our
feet! "Let us turn in and have an oyster." "What! oysters in June?"
"Yes, and good ones too." In this favoured land oysters are in season
all the year round. There are no oysters found on the coast, I am told,
and they will not breed. They are brought all the way from the Atlantic
coast when they are mere oysterlets, and they are laid down in the
Pacific, where they grow fat and large, but are not "crossed in love,"
and therefore are fit to be eaten from January to January. They are
about the size of a spring chicken, and need some courage on the part
of an assailant who desires to dispose of them as he would a native.

This was our last day in the city of the Golden Gate, and the
photographers were masters of the situation; and there was much
_débris_ of sight-seeing to sweep up--visits to be made, shops to be
inspected, among which I must mention specially the Diamond Palace
of Colonel Andrews, one of the handsomest jeweller's "stores" in
the world, though it is not as large as the establishments of the
principal firms in London, Paris, Vienna, or as Tiffany's in New
York. The distinctive feature of the interior is the decoration of the
paintings of fair women, on the ceiling and the walls above the cases,
by necklaces, diadems, zones, and other feminine ornaments of real
diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and pearls. The pictures are the work of
an Italian artist of merit, and the general effect is very striking;
but I doubt whether it is a good way of inducing people to buy the
articles which bedeck the ideal beauties. At Bradley and Rulofson's
we saw photographs of many of our friends, and had one more proof of
the smallness of the world. Every one we knew seemed to have visited
San Francisco. There we all submitted to inevitable fate, and left our
negatives behind us, but the Duke was captured by a rival photographic
institution, and had a sitting all to himself.

The aspect of a crowd in a large American city differs from that of
the passers-by in the street of an English town, most of all in the
appearance of such a large proportion of coloured people. Here it may
be said, however, that they are colourless, as the prevailing hue of
the foreign population is that of the Chinaman. In Canada the number
of negroes, or of persons of negro descent, of varying gradations of
colour, is remarkable, considering the circumstances, but they probably
may be accounted for by the emigration in the olden times of those
who were escaping from slavery, or who went with their masters and
employers into the Dominion. In the cities on the Lakes I was very
much struck by the persons of undoubted African descent who are to
be met with in the streets in great numbers; and in Chicago there is
a quarter nearly exclusively occupied by them--honest, industrious,
hard-working people seemingly, given to stand about at the street
corners, however, a good deal on Sundays, and cultivating a bright
attire, especially on the part of the ladies, whose bonnets and
shawls were things to wonder at. There are loafers amongst them, as
there are amongst their betters; but, taking them all in all, in the
Northern, Western, and Atlantic States, they are a decidedly useful
element in the population, easing the burden of labour to the white
man, and following many occupations, such as those of waiters, barbers,
bricklayers, and labourers in the less skilled sort of work, for which
it would be difficult to find American substitutes. One peculiarity,
which may be accounted for by some wiser person than myself, seems to
be their recklessness as to what they put on their heads. Whether it
is merely a compliance with the custom of the white man, which impels
them to cover the highly effective protection against sun and cold
which Nature has given them, or not; or whether it is that the canons
of taste in such matters have not yet settled down to those accepted
by people in civilised life in the Western world, the male negro has
the most extraordinary indifference as to the quality and shape of the
thing which he calls a hat or cap, and it would not be easy to find out
of the gutters of some Irish country town anything more dilapidated,
battered, and utterly incoherent than some of the hats which one may
see on the heads of people of colour, especially down South. Whatever
other virtues they may have, neatness is not amongst them; for, with
all their affectation of finery, their clothes are generally ill-kept,
their houses are unkempt, and, where they are cultivators of the soil,
the operations are performed in a slovenly manner. The traditions of
the old plantation have descended upon them, and influence them.

On my way from Messrs. Donahue and Kelly, the bankers in Montgomery
Street--I believe the former of these gentlemen has had the
privilege of giving his name to steamers and cities, leastways
railway stations--I saw a party of sailors belonging to the United
States steamer "_Rodgers_," now about to proceed in search of the
"_Jeannette_," and I was much struck by their resemblance to our own
bluejackets in general "cut of the jib," dress, face, and figure.
They were in charge of a smart-looking officer, and had been paying a
farewell visit to the fruit and vegetable markets--one of the sights of
the city. They were in high good-humour, laughing and chatting loudly,
more than is the wont of Americans, and I could not but contrast
their fine physique with that of the soldiers we had seen at Sir Henry
Green's parade when General McDowell took us round the harbour. The
detachment at the Fort, consisting of infantry and artillerymen, and
squads of different regiments, had some weedy veterans in the ranks,
who had lost their setting up and did not look fit for much work; but
the sailors, probably a picked lot, were good all round.

_À propos_ of Messrs. Donahue and Kelly, the number of wealthy
men in San Francisco of Irish origin or nationality is remarkable.
Millionaires with names of Milesian prefixes and terminations are
phenomenal. We had intended to return to the East Coast by way of Utah,
and to stay a day or two at Salt Lake City, but the railroad company
did not consider it expedient to give the party the facilities which
had been accorded in every other instance by the American authorities
to the Duke and his friends. To have gone round Salt Lake City would
have cost a couple of hundred pounds more for haulage, and we were
much more interested in seeing Leadville and Denver than the City of
the Mormons; the game was not thought to be worth the candle, and
it was resolved that we would go back as we came, in charge of the
representatives of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fé Railroad Company.
It was only one item more in the long list of things we ought to have
seen if we could, and I can safely say that we had a large share of the
common experience of travellers in regard to the relations between the
possible and the impossible in the course of a journey in a strange
land, where there are for ever cropping up representations that "you
really ought not to leave without seeing" so and so. The evening of our
last day was passed in the society of General McDowell, Mr. Morgan,
the English Consul, Colonel Bee, and others, who had done so much to
make the visit to San Francisco all that could be desired, and whose
courtesy and kindness will ever be remembered by every one of us most
gratefully. Like Sir Charles Coldstream, we "had seen everything,
done everything," but, unlike him, had found there was plenty in it.
The street railway--most ingenious and successful, invaluable in a
hilly city like Lisbon--the Chinese Theatre, the Joss houses--shops,
eating-houses, opium dens of the Chinese quarter, the clubs, the
principal buildings, the streets, the shops, the markets, the harbour,
the suburbs, and country round about--all had been inspected, and
yet each day we were told that we were doing positive injustice to
ourselves and to the objects which were perforce neglected. In the
morning there was a levée in the hotel to bid the Duke good-bye and
see the party start on their return journey. At the very last moment a
gentleman came forward with a proposal to take us to the North Pole by
balloon, but there was not time to consider it in all its bearings and
the offer was declined with thanks. We started at 10 A.M., and the Duke
was attended to the boat and to the station across the water by a large
body of San Franciscans, who took leave ere the train started. The
gentlemen who were with us on the journey westwards attended the Duke
on his way towards the Eastern States. All day we travelled through
California--"the hot furnace"--which at first, however, proved to be
only very warm, and the coloured servants had constant supplies of iced
compounds to be drunk for the solace of the homeward bound, and had
laid in a stock of San Franciscan luxuries to soothe the way.



CHAPTER IV.

CALIFORNIA TO COLORADO.

    Los Angeles--Mud-geysers--"Billy the Kid"--General
     Fremont--Manitou, the Garden of the Gods--Desperadoes--Bob
     Ingersoll--Denver City--Leadville--Grand Cañon.


_June 12th._--The train stopped at Los Angeles at six in the morning,
and, drawing up my window-blind, the first person I saw on the platform
was our good friend Colonel Baker, who had come to meet us, intent
on the good offices which he could render during our stay. These were
exhibited in the form of a beautiful bouquet for Lady Green, baskets
of limes and oranges, and great bunches of grapes. In this happy valley
there are cares as in the rest of the world. The Colonel told us he was
in the midst of a great litigation affecting his claim to a large tract
of land in which there are said to exist the richest tin-mines in the
American Continent. Yet why should he care about his tin-mine? There
were rolling acres rich with corn and fruit, and there were flocks and
herds and vineyards, and a charming home of his own. Nevertheless, if
the want of that tin-mine made him at all unhappy, I am sure those who
were indebted to him, as we were, for so many kindnesses, will wish his
claim to be triumphantly asserted, and long possession of all that is
to follow.

I dreaded the passage of the Desert to Yuma; and indeed the heat was
intense. No wonder that with the thermometer ranging from 100° to 104°,
all the blinds in the car were pulled down, and we sprawled listlessly
on the cushions. Our excellent attendants put forth all the resources
of art in the shape of ice and preparations of limes and cocktails;
but the temperature would not be baffled. We could just read, and were
aware that we were living, and some of us had strength enough now and
then to execute forays against flies with napkins to drive them out
of the carriages. How could people live out in the open, and work in
the mines, or pursue any out-of-door employment in such torrid heat?
Nevertheless, there was a marked distinction between it and the heat to
be endured with the mercury at an equal height in India.

The speed of the train was very respectable--somewhat over twenty miles
an hour--and at that rate we ran from San Gorgonio and Banning on to
Cabazon, through a flat plain, dry and burnt up, very like the desert
around Suez, and fringed, like it, with rocky and rugged hills, save
that there was a great growth of Spanish bayonets and cactuses of all
kinds among the stones and sand, and that snow was to be seen on all
the hill-tops in the distance. For 107 miles there was no water to
be met with going along this plain; but the mirage, of which I have
spoken in the account of our journey to San Francisco, was frequent
and beautiful; and again I was fascinated by the sight of lovely lakes
embowered in trees, with stately cities on their shores, changing and
shifting and melting away, only again to assume apparent substance to
cheat the senses.

Once the train stopped to allow the passengers to visit the
mud-geysers, which were not more than 150 yards on the left of the
line, and with commendable curiosity most of us got out and walked
over the baked earth to the spot. There was no mark whatever of smoke
or vapour to indicate the place; and it was almost startling to come
suddenly upon a kind of pond of semi-liquid mud, fifty or sixty feet
in diameter, on which huge bubbles, varying in size from an orange to
a hogshead, were continually forming and bursting. There was a faint
sulphurous smell, and the ground around the liquefied portion of the
surface, where the bubbles were breaking, was hot and cracked. The
conductor said that all attempts to reach the bottom of the holes
through which the bubbles arose had failed. Two of these geysers
were in active operation, and the plain away to the left of the rail
was said to contain a great number of them. After all it was very
unsatisfactory to see this ebullition going on without being able to
account for it; and, generally, I think we thought less of each other
and of our information after visiting them, and finding out that not
one of us had any theory on the subject which would bear either fire or
water.

I do not think I ever saw a sunset more beautiful than that which
marked the close of this day--certainly not in India or South Africa,
nor on the prairie, for which they make claims of surpassing beauty in
the matter of sunsets. As it died out, I felt that "thing of beauty"
could not "be a joy for ever," for it was a combination of colour and
of form, including sky and mountain, that it would be impossible to see
again.

The kindness of which we have had so many proofs, has followed,
accompanied, and preceded us all unremittingly and unweariedly. A
rough with some Bourbon on board mounted to-day the steps of the
car at a station, and insisted on seeing "this Duke." When he was
told that the object of his attention was engaged, he said, "This
is a land of liberty (as in his case it was), and he doesn't want a
bodyguard with him!" But the conductor sent him away about his business
without trouble. On the platform at Benson a few miners asked "the
Duke to come out and show himself." The people at the stations were
generally satisfied with a quiet peep; now and then an enthusiastic
Scotchman claimed a shake hands, which was always accorded to him. A
sleeper placed across the rails (accounted for by the officers on the
hypothesis that some loafer without a ticket had been turned off by the
conductor, and had put the sleeper in the way of the train to wreak
his vengeance--a thing which has occurred nearer home) was the only
substantial danger to which we were here exposed.

The heat (June 13th) was intense. The thermometer rose to 105 at one
o'clock in the day, and it was little comfort to us to be told that at
Deming it had been up to 110 the day before.

For some days we have been supping full of horrors, indeed
breakfasting and dining on them, for the papers contain accounts of
the extraordinary homicides all about this region. Tucson, Benson,
Wilcox--all these places were resounding with the exploits of "Billy
the Kid." Now at Tucson there is, I believe, a man whose name was once
amongst the very foremost in the United States. Who some twenty years
and more ago had not heard of General Fremont, "the Pathfinder," the
adventurous traveller, the energetic politician, the dashing soldier?
He had gone at the outbreak of the war to take up the chief command
in the west with all the pomp and circumstance of glorious war. I was
somewhat astonished to find that he was at Tucson, the governor of the
Territory, on a humble salary, apparently the world-forgetting and
the world-forgot, while "Billy-the-Kid" was perpetrating numberless
atrocities under his nose, and Mr. Pat Garrett was dressing up his
loins with his revolver-belt, and about to go forth with a chosen band
of citizens and seek the redoubtable William.[A]

A person who has only seen settled States in Europe, or the Eastern
States of the North American Continent, cannot form any notion of a
territory which has become a centre of attraction to all the wild
adventurers and daring spirits which society, in the process of
formation, throws out as a sort of advanced guard. In Arizona, in
1870, according to the American Almanac, out of a total population
of 9658, 2729 could not write and 2690 could not read. Of the total
population, 2491 were foreign born, and 2753 were natives, the rest
being coloured or under ten years of age. In New Mexico, out of 91,000
people, 48,000 over ten years of age could not read, and 51,000 whites
over ten years of age could not write. It may be inferred from such
figures what is the general condition of the labouring classes in these
States and Territories. The inhabitants of these States have doubled
in the last ten years. They are filling up at a rate inconceivably
great--so great, indeed, that American newspapers are fairly bewildered
and American statesmen appalled by the rush across the Rocky Mountains
and down the rivers, although as yet but a small proportion of the
immense stream of immigrants has flooded the outlying territories. "At
this rate," exclaims a Western editor, "the old monarchies of Europe
will soon be depopulated." When Mr. Lincoln, in 1861, addressed his
inaugural to the expectant States he expressed his confident belief
that there were children then born who would live to see the flag of
the Union floating over no less than 100,000,000 of human beings. The
recent census of the United States gives a return of 51,000,000 of
people, but the most eminent statisticians have arrived at the belief
that the progress and increase of the States will not be at the same
rapid rate as that which marked the history of the Republic since the
cessation of the great civil war. It may be fairly inferred, however,
that at the end of this century the population of the United States
will greatly exceed that of Russia, or that of any empire except
China and Great Britain, including Hindostan. The population, on
each period of ten years, has increased at an average of more than
30 per cent.; in fact, nearer 33 per cent., and the centre of it has
travelled westward at the rate of more than fifty miles every ten
years, till the centre of population is now eight miles west by south
from Cincinnati. In 1800 the Union extended over only 239,935 square
miles. Its flag now floats over 1,272,239 square miles of States and
over 1,800,000 square miles of Territory governed by the central power
at Washington. "We cannot think," exclaims a Republican writer, "that
the war of rebellion settled all our troubles and made us secure in
our Republic. This enormous growth of the practically unknown West
reveals to us the grave dangers that threaten our nation. We meet
there the tremendous influences of alien races and alien religions."
The Americans of New England and of the Eastern States do not feel
anxious on that score, because their institutions are thoroughly
founded, their character formed, and they trust to the great power of
accomplished facts to assimilate the alien elements and sustain the
fabric of the Republic. The bugbear of a great Chinese immigration
has ceased to practically influence Californian politics, and it may
be safely assumed that the bulk of the future immigrants from the
Celestial Empire will only come from the same sources as those which
have hitherto supplied the stream. No wonder, however, that thoughtful
Americans--and there are many who think of the future of their country
as something quite apart from dollars--are filled with grave anxieties
when they see such floods of purely foreign material, which will in
all probability exercise a preponderating influence over the politics
of the Great Republic, surging into the States. Particularly have the
home missionary clergy, as they are styled, been struck by the enormous
influence which this foreign immigration has exercised. According
to one authority, the Rev. Mr. Stimson, of Worcester, "it is not a
question of spreading any particular form of Christianity or of Church
government, but a momentous struggle of American institutions with
alien civilisations and religions for the control of the great Western
country. The problem is not a matter of cleaning door-yards, but of
saving a continent for freedom." The Chinese Question and the Indian
Question are, they think, as nothing compared with the Irish Question
and the German Question. "The Republic," we are told, "stands on a
foundation as broad as humanity itself," whatever that may mean, "but
its condition of existence is a universal regard for the interests of
all." Often during the course of the Duke of Sutherland's excursion
it was our good fortune to fall in with men of great political and
social knowledge. The future of the Republic is, in the mind of these
men, clouded with uncertainty and doubt. They are apprehensive of
some unknown danger. It may be corruption of political life leading
to want of faith in free institutions; it may be the rival energies
and the opposing interests which Washington foresaw as likely to array
the East against the West--the Atlantic States against the inland
States, and it is calculated by some sanguine people that before this
century is over there will be eighteen, or possibly twenty, States
admitted into the Union formed out of the Territories which are now
under the central Government at Washington. Upon such influences as
these alien immigration may be expected to act with prodigious power.
At a recent meeting in Springfield a clergyman gave as an illustration
of the absolute indifference of the foreign immigrants to Republican
institutions a conversation he had with a Norwegian minister in
Minneapolis. "There is nothing," said this gentleman, "in America which
we Norwegians regard as of value except your land and your money. We
do not want to learn English: we do not want to know the Americans
around us; we have certainly no notion of becoming Americans, but we
intend to remain as we are--Norwegians." The Mormons control Utah. They
boast that they will soon govern five of the most important territorial
regions beyond the Rockies. But if Utah becomes a State, as she hopes
to do, she will found a Mormon code of laws and institutions beyond the
power of the United States to control. New Mexico may be considered as
a Roman Catholic State under the control of an excellent archbishop. Of
course all prophecies may be falsified by events, but judging by the
eighty years which have elapsed of the present century, and from the
ratio of increase in that time in the United States, the most liberal
construction may be placed even upon the bounding estimates of American
politicians and statists. When we look to the Far West and see, for
instance, how Winnipeg has become the centre of a great network of
river navigation, 300 miles in one direction, 600 miles in another,
and that the Mackenzie River passes for 1200 miles through what is
declared to be the future wheat region of the world, we may easily
comprehend the anxiety with which the patriotic American is filled lest
the future of such a State should fall into hands antagonistic to the
principles in which his _beau idéal_ of government has been founded and
has prospered.

_June 14._--At Lamy, a station named after the good archbishop of Santa
Fé, where we halted for a short time whilst the passengers of another
train were breakfasting, a citizen came up to me on the platform and
exclaimed, as if he were very much impressed by the news he was going
to give, "If you look in there, sir, you will see Bob Ingersoll at
breakfast!" I asked whether there was anything very remarkable about
the fact. "Well, sir," he said, "he is Colonel Ingersoll, of whom you
have heard. He is the most remarkable in-fidel in the United States,
and I really think he believes what he preaches. A good man to look at,
too, and, they say, first-rate in his family." I had a glance at the
believer in unbelief, and saw a very presentable-looking person, of
fine appearance and good features, busily engaged in making the most
of his time at one of the tables in the refreshment-room. He was the
observed of all observers, and appeared to like it; and I understood
from one of the crowd that he had just returned from inspecting some
mining ventures in which he was concerned; for, if he does not believe
in the world to come, he is credited with very strong faith in the
excellencies of the possession of wealth in the world that is. His
lectures are attended by crowded audiences, but, as an astute American
observed, "they won't come to much, for, after all, people who do
not believe anything can never get up a great enthusiasm. It is in
believing something that the populace has faith."

Once more our eyes were rejoiced with the sight of the lovely plains
of Las Vegas, wide-spreading fields decked with flowers and dotted with
flocks, bordered with ranges of softly contoured mountains, the courses
of the water streams indicated by bright vegetation and by growth of
trees of many kinds. From Lamy (170 miles) there is a gradual rise to
Raton, which we reached at 6.30 in the evening. The appearance of the
region we traverse as the train approaches the Raton Pass presents
a strong contrast to the desolate country through which we have been
passing. From Raton the train was drawn by two engines in front and
shoved by one behind, and even then the pace was not very rapid, for
the ascent is very sharp. All the more could we enjoy a very glorious
sunset, as we slowly ascended the mountain. Then darkness came on
rapidly, and we slid down towards La Junta into the night, and were all
fast asleep long before we arrived there. In the very early morning,
on June 15th, some two hours after midnight, we halted for a time at
Pueblo. At 9 o'clock we had to leave our beloved Pullman and change the
cars, for we were to take a fresh point of departure, starting from
the Union Depôt upon the Denver and Rio Grande narrow-gauge railway
for Denver, 119 miles distant, and making an excursion on the way to
Manitou, to which we diverged from Colorado Springs: for to go within
reach of that famous resort and not to see it would have been a great
outrage on all the rules and regulations established for the observance
of travellers. Certes narrow-gauge railways need an apology. Their
_raison d'être_ is, at the best, that they are better than nothing.
"If you won't have us, you can have nothing else." And in such a
mountainous region as we were about to visit, the difficulties and
expense connected with a broad-gauge line would have been enormous,
if indeed it could be constructed at all. The narrow-gauge carriages,
with seats to match, with which we were made acquainted for the first
time, were of course much less commodious and comfortable than those
we had quitted, but far superior to those on the Indian lines of the
same gauge, and Indian engineers had been over to take a lesson from
the Americans for the use of their carriage-builders. Atchison, Topeka,
and Santa Fé Company and Denver and Rio Grande Company have been at
daggers drawn and pistols cocked--ay, and fired--and at battles waged,
in times gone by; and now our friends on the former line were, like
ourselves, the guests of the latter, which was represented by several
official gentlemen anxious to do the honours to the Duke. The scenery
becomes grander and wilder every mile as the special hurries on as
well as it can over the sinuous line, which is piercing a mountain
region savage and sterile, and climbing by the sides of ravines and
creeping upwards in rocky valleys with pine-clad hill-tops and frowning
cliffs above. The engineer who designed the line is a Scotchman named
McMurtrie--or at least of recent Scotch origin--and he seems to have a
special gift for such aspiring work, and a gradient-compelling genius
not to be baffled by altitudes. We were mounting towards the snows.
Range upon range of whitened summits and hoary ridges came in view,
all paying homage to the rugged crown of Pike's Peak, which can be
seen from points more than 140 miles away. The fleecy cloudland which
seemed to lie before us, as we looked away from Pueblo, was resolving
itself into savage alps. And in these passes, which the eye caught for
a moment, there might be El Dorados still undiscovered, for around us
were cities springing out of the desert. Here the enchanter's wand is
the explorer's pick, and no one could say where the precious ore might
not be awaiting its touch. We were coming to the Land of Promises. The
conversation of our new friends, among whom were some gentlemen of the
press, related mostly to mines, and one of them had, as we discovered,
a very certain investment at the disposal of the Duke, in the form of a
mining-claim, which was worth, at the lowest computation, twice as much
as he was willing to take for it. There was no reason to doubt his good
faith, but it was felt that it was a kind of fortune which ought not to
pass into the hands of strangers, and should be reserved for the people
of the country; and I am sure all of the party who had the pleasure of
the owner's acquaintance hope that he has "made his pile" out of it,
and has more than realised his expectations.

Colorado Springs, forty-five miles from Pueblo, is nearly 6000 feet
above the level of the sea. The character of the line to it is best
described in the fact that the average grade per mile is 44·14, the
maximum curvature 6°. There are "no Springs" here, but the little town,
charmingly situated, is a halting-place much frequented in tourist-time
by travellers, and reputed to be healthful. There are some pleasant
houses visible from the station, at which we descended to take our
places in the carriages provided to take us to Manitou Springs, five
miles away. Mr. Palmer--if General, I beg his pardon--the President of
the Railroad, had important business to attend to, but he was so well
represented by Mr. Bell, the Vice-President, that no one regretted his
absence, and it cannot be said in his case _les absents ont toujours
tort_. He is reported to have made a very large fortune with much
ingenuity, and to have business talents which even in this country
excite admiration. Mr. Bell is an Irish gentleman, a member of the
medical profession, who has a delightful villa embowered in a garden
in the environs of Manitou, where the Duke and his friends found a
charming interior and an Irish-American welcome, and discovered that
strawberries and cream were almost as good in Colorado as in Covent
Garden. A quaint, odd place, Manitou--an American Martigny, with
Pike's Peak rising (14,300 feet above the sea) over it in the clear
sky, inspiring regret that we could not make the excursion to the
summit, which is rewarded, we were told, and I can believe, by one of
the grandest views in the world--the usual service of guides, horses,
and mules, and _calèches_--a naturalist's store with skins, minerals,
feathers, and stuffed "objects"--detached wooden houses and villas
in small plots of garden--a straggling street, and large hotels for
invalids. But there was the unusual feature of encampments here and
there by the roadside, and notices forbidding the pitching of tents
within certain limits which were explained by the fact that the high
reputation of the waters and air induces people to come from great
distances for the treatment of consumption, and diseases of throat and
lungs. Many of them find it cheaper to travel in horse waggons and
pitch their canvas dwellings when they wish to make a halt, than to
take up their quarters at hotels. Poor people! what pale, hectic cheeks
and wasted forms we saw; little groups picnicking by the sides of the
rivulets along the roads--each with a gnawing care--anxiety about some
dear one's health in the midst of them. Our driver, an intelligent,
chatty lad, was full of information, and we had to drive the prescribed
road by the wells out to the Ute Pass, a mountain-gorge wild enough--a
small _Tête Noire_--to points to which magniloquent names have been
given.

It is not for want of what is called puffing that Americans neglect
the resorts of health of their own country, and in the States far and
wide the beauties and advantages of Manitou are blazoned forth on the
walls of hotels and in guide-books to all who can read. I may confess
now that, notwithstanding the magnificent altitude of Pike's Peak, and
the eccentric forms of the rocks in the "Garden of the Gods," I was
disappointed with Manitou. But then the visit was short, and the day
was hot, and the way was long and dusty, and haply it might be that
under different circumstances Manitou would deserve much warmer praise.
It possesses indeed an abundance of curious springs, said to be full
of health-giving properties; and in the course of our drive we halted
several times to partake of drinks from various springs, out of one of
which bubbled up very good soda-water, precisely like Schweppe's best
in taste and appearance. At the large hotel, which put one in mind of
the great establishments of the same sort in Switzerland, the water
served at table to the guests--a sort of pleasant Apollinaris-tasting
beverage--came from a natural fountain.

The "cataract" nearly made us angry, and there was no regret felt when
the carriages returned to the hotel, where there was unwonted activity
and bustle, as the "Denver Zouaves" had just descended in a friendly
razzia on it, and were desolating the hearts and fireside resources of
Manitou. The consequences might have been serious, as it turned out,
to unoffending strangers. Those who needed it turned into the barber's
shop of the hotel to be shaved, and after some delay a coloured man
appeared, who began to try his hand on me. Fortunately it was not
'prentice, for it was very unsteady, and I became a little alarmed
for my cuticle. "It will be all right, mister," quoth the barber. "I
never cut any one. But I'm demoralised, dat's a fact, having to wait
on dem Denver Zouaves. Lor a messy on any enemy dey has! My nerve's
all gone to pieces wid their wantin' everting at once at the dinner!"
The hotel seemed far more clean and comfortable than the caravanserais
in the land of William Tell; but our stay was short, for we were put
under orders for a sight which has the most inappropriate name that
could be invented--a valley in which the most extraordinary-looking
columns carved out in a plateau by the agency of water, have been
left standing, detached and in groups, to which the visitor enters
through a cleft in a barrier of rock passing round the base of a pillar
of sandstone as high as a house. The "Garden of the Gods" contains
500 acres, and is surrounded by mountains and cliffs. The sandstone
pillars generally taper from the base upwards to a short distance from
the tops, which are flattened out or surmounted by slabs or blocks of
sandstone of fantastic outline, and they are called by names derived
from fancied likenesses to animals, birds, and men. The juxtaposition
of the most brilliantly hued, dazzling-red blocks and strata, with
masses of the same material of milky whiteness, gives the impression
that the scene is the work of human hands; it seems too quaint and
artificial for the hand of Nature, to which alone it is due; and the
vegetation and the trees are in keeping with the character of the
place. A trysting-place for geologists, and their happy hunting-ground,
no doubt. But why "the Garden of the Gods," I pray?

From the valley or cup, emerging by another road, the driver took us to
a ravine-like recess, almost girt in by high wooded mountains, in which
Mr. (General?) Palmer is erecting a mansion of palatial importance--a
picturesque site surely--cliffs, forests, and mountain all around, and
in view one most singular sandstone pillar, named the Major Domo, 120
feet high and only 30 feet round--a mountain stream brawling through
tangled brushwood glades--a garden. But the heat! That must prove a
terror by day to the inmates of Glen Eyrie Lodge or Castle--which, by
the by, was named, as one of us insisted, from a collection of rubbish
on a ledge in the face of one of the cliffs, which was, he maintained,
the nest of an eagle. It was now time to return to our train, and we
were not sorry to get back to Colorado Springs.

From Colorado Springs to our destination at Denver there were still 75
miles of rail, and the line continued to ascend till we reached Divide
(7186 feet), whence there was a gentle descent. There were sixteen
stations named on the time-table. We stopped at very few of them,
and travelled somewhat too fast to permit our placid enjoyment of the
scenery, austere and vast, which indeed deserved more attention than
could be given to it by passengers in a very lively train--endless
alps on alps, not sheeted with perpetual white, but rather flecked
with snowfields, which contrasted finely with the sombre pine-forests,
and the rich hues of the rocks, touched by the rays of the setting
sun, that, ere it slid behind the mountains, cast a rose-coloured
mantle on their summit. The evidences of a bustling city were not
wanting in the approaches to the capital of Colorado. There were tall
chimneys vomiting out smoke in the distance, and near at hand trains
of waggons were toiling over the dusty plain--still 5000 feet above
the sea-level--fast trotters and people on horseback, beer-gardens,
factories of all kinds, brick-kilns, and then a fringe of log houses
and wooden shanties, before the train stopped at the imposing and
substantial depot.

It was a quarter-past eight, nearly dark, when we reached Denver,
and glad were we to get into the hall of the Windsor Hotel, which was
crowded with a mixed multitude--miners, and speculators, and traders,
and some travellers like ourselves--a very busy scene indeed. In the
hotel were all human comforts nearly; hot and cold baths, and good
rooms, and more appliances of civilised existence, for those who could
pay for them, than could be found in many hostelries of approved
reputation in venerable towns at home; moreover, exuberant offers
of help and information. One goes to bed laden with obligations and
heavy with the sense of favours which can never be repaid. There was
now a _soupçon_ of frost in the air, and notwithstanding the heat
which we had endured the greater part of the day, fires were not
ungrateful; and as we peered out of our windows over the roofs of the
wide-spread houses of the town, we could see the snow on the lofty
ranges of hills, watered by the South Platte River and Cherry Creek,
which surround the cup in which Denver has been built in obedience
to the impulses of the increasing population, which now numbers, I
believe, 38,000 souls. There was a bright glare from the gas-lighted
streets, sounds of music, and a tumult of life in the town which
would have been creditable to an ancient metropolis. In the morning
from the hotel windows appeared a beautiful and widespread panorama
of the hills we had seen the evening before, peak above peak, none
very densely covered perhaps, or presenting continuous snowfields, but
extending in billowy sweeps far away to the horizon, all capped with
snow, now bathed in a flood of fervent sunshine, the snow lighted up
by the peculiar crimson tints common in Alpine regions. There were
duties in the way of sight-seeing and exploration of no ordinary
nature to be done. First there were interviews and receptions, and the
inevitable drive through the place as soon as the ordeal of breakfast
was over; and ordeal in some sort it was for the strangers to file
in to the public room and take their places at their table, aware
that the morning papers had subjected them to exhaustive criticism,
which was being verified by those around us. The morning papers too
had given some topics for reflection, indications that in the newly
created capital of Colorado desperate men, overtaken by the march of
law and order, had refused to accept service, and were vindicating
their rights as wild western outcasts to take or part with life as
of yore, in reckless encounters and deliberate assassinations. There
were, perhaps, at that moment some hundreds, if not thousands, out of
the population of 37,000 or 38,000 of the city, who belonged to the
adventurous classes--sporting-men, betting-men, ring-men, bar-keepers,
hell-proprietors, and their satellites, and the scum of the saloons
attracted from the great cities of the States for hundreds of miles,
by the prey which miners with belts full of gold, half mad with drink,
and always fond of excitement, frequently are; and if to these be added
the dissolute loafers and broken-down mining speculators, the strength
of the army arrayed against the law may be estimated; and the wonder is
that among a population armed to the teeth there are not more cases of
such violent deeds as we were reading of at breakfast. To the stranger
there was no evidence of the existence of these disturbing elements,
unless the bearded and booted men with speculation in their eyes,
in the hotel passages and halls, belonged to the dangerous, as they
certainly did to the mining, classes. As to the resources of the city,
although for rapidity of growth its wonders may be eclipsed by those of
Leadville, Denver claims a very high place in the catalogue of these
marvellous fungi of civilisation, of which the Western States present
almost unique examples. There is everything that any one can want to be
had for money in the place, and much more than most people need. Paris
fashions and millinery are in vogue. There are fine shops, handsome
churches, a theatre, breweries, factories, banks, insurance offices.

The principal street exhibits pretty young people, who would have
no occasion to fear comparison with the _beau monde_ in Eastern
or European capitals. The thoroughfares are crowded with vehicles,
and spruce carriages and well turned-out horses may be seen in the
favourite drive, that has been made over an indifferent road to the
base of the Rocky Mountains, which appear to be close at hand, though
they are thirteen miles away. But here and there in the well-dressed
crowd may be seen a Bohemian _pur sang_, or a miner in his every day
clothes, bent on a rig out and a good time of it. The streets, unpaved,
dusty, and rugged, are very wide, and bordered with trees, and the
houses generally are built of good red brick instead of wood; and
there are runnels of water like those one sees in Pretoria and other
Dutch towns in South Africa. The roads about the city leave much to be
desired; but Rome was not built in a day.

There are many ready-made clothing establishments in the main streets,
and there is a heavy trade in tinned provisions. Through the Western
States, as in South Africa, the débris of provision-tins constitutes
a certain and considerable addition to the objects to be seen in the
vicinity of every house, and to the mounds of rubbish in the street of
every village. How indeed could the first-comers in such regions keep
body and soul together without the supplies in such a portable form
of the first necessaries of life? Having once run up a town in these
remote wastes, the inhabitants are still compelled to make a liberal
use of the same sort of food, and mines of tinned iron gradually
accumulate around them.

Our first excursion was to the Argo Works, under very pleasant
auspices, for we had the wife of the Senator, who is one of the
principal partners, and Mrs. Pearce, whose husband is largely
interested in the works, taking charge of us. The works are at some
distance outside the town, but the lofty chimneys vomit out quite
sufficient vaporous fumes and smoke to blight the vegetation and to
give the people near at hand a taste of their quality. I am not going
to give a minute description, for more reasons than one, of what we saw
at the works; but it was a very interesting exhibition of the processes
by which the precious metals are extracted from the ores and delivered
to commerce. The Argo Works simply assay and reduce ores on commission,
but the business is on a very large scale. Immense piles, in fact small
mountains, of brown, cinnamon and earth coloured dust and rock were
heaped up in the sheds, to be brought to the furnaces and turned, when
divested of the lead, iron, copper, and gold, out in ingots of silver.
All the methods for the extraction of silver were shown to us, but
I committed a gross indiscretion when I asked, in my ignorance, "How
do you extract the gold?" "That," said the urbane gentleman who was
conducting us over the works, "we never permit strangers to see." So
there is more there than meets the eye.

The business of assaying here must be profitable, and if the reputation
of any firm be once established there is a secure fortune for its
members. The miners flock to them, and they can dictate terms. The
extent of mining work in the country around may be inferred from the
numerous offices in connection with it in the city. As a specimen
of what Messrs. Bush and Tabor of our hotel give their guests for
dinner, let me offer you this _menu_ of the 5.30 ordinary to-day
(June 16). Soup, beef à l'Anglaise; fish, boiled trout, anchovy sauce;
corned beef, leg of mutton, sirloin beef, chickens with giblet sauce,
fricassee à la Toulouse, veal, kidneys sautés aux croûtons, rice,
croquettes, baked pork and beans, saddle of antelope, currant jelly,
lamb, tongue, chicken salad, spiced salmon; innumerable "relishes" and
vegetables, baked rice pudding, strawberry pie, apricot pie, jelly,
blancmange, vanilla ice cream, macaroons, pound cake, fruit, Swiss
cheese, nuts, coffee, &c. The wines were not cheap: champagne 16_s._ a
bottle, St. Julien 6_s._, Leoville 14_s._, sherry 8_s._, brandy 14_s._
per bottle. Orders for "drinks" at the bar after dinner were much more
general than orders for wine at dinner.

Denver, in spite of its mineral wealth, is very poor, however, in
that of which the want would make life, even in America, intolerable.
The supply of drinking-water is scanty and bad, and last year there
was nearly a water famine. The _cartes_ in the hotel announced "Water
used in this room is boiled and filtered." But great efforts have been
made to furnish the inhabitants with a store, constant and adequate,
of the precious fluid, and we saw very considerable works, the
property of an Irish gentleman, erected before the town attained its
present dimensions, which were to be supplemented by a new enterprise
respecting which we heard much. Perhaps no town of equal size in an
equal length of time has ever had so much money and money's worth
flowing in and through it as Denver since the Colorado mines were
worked. It is asserted that the trade of the town for 1881 will exceed
8,000,000_l._ Colorado in 1879 yielded ores to the value of more than
3,750,000_l._ The output in the present year will exceed that of 1880.
In that year $35,417,517 worth of gold and $20,183,889 of silver (more
than 11,000,000_l._) was deposited in the United States Mint and Assay
Office. There is, besides, vast wealth in flocks and herds, and Denver
is the place where the people resort from Colorado for purposes of
trade and pleasure; altogether an astounding place, with a future quite
dazzling to think of, unless the mines give in, and even then Colorado
cannot again be poor; its climate and scenery will always attract
travellers, and its capacity for feeding sheep and cattle will secure
its population. "And as to the beetle?" Why, no one would have anything
to say to it. Nothing was known of it. There might be such things in
other States. "And the name?" Probably it was a red-coloured bug, and
got the name Colorado just as the river, or tobacco, was called, from
the hue of it. At all events the bug did not belong to the State.

The interest which the progress of Colorado and the condition of
society in the State excite was exemplified by the appearance in
Denver of a party of Hungarian noblemen, whose names gave occasion
for stumbling to the journalists who copied them out of the Hotel
Register--Count Andrassy and others, who were travelling under the
guidance of Dr. Rudolf Meyer, of Vienna. Although the air of Denver
is so much bepraised, it happens that most of our party felt rather
overcome at the end of our excursion through the town and the visit
to the smelting works, and one of the Hungarians was confined to his
room. However, they sallied out before dinner, and a gloomy prophet
of evil remarked, "If these strangers should have a difficulty, I
consider they'll hev only theirselves to blame. Some citizens don't
like strangers comin' in and starin' at them, and they're apt to be
awkward in their tempers in the afternoon." Knowing no danger, and
fearing none, they went off, and were a long time absent. Meantime we
were preparing for the road, as we were bound for Leadville, the city
of the "biggest boom" of mining times--"the Silver El Dorado," as the
guide-book, with a magnificent "bull," describes it. Our Hungarian
friends returned to the hotel ere we left. They were filled with
enthusiasm, and with a good deal also of curiosity in regard to the
shootings of which they had heard so much, and were following in our
track next day, and so we parted _sans adieux_. How the love of gold
has filled these lone valleys with desperate men! "They are a rough
lot, sure enough," said the landlord, "but lynching keeps them down;
and it is much better than hanging according to law, to my mind. It
certainly is cheaper." "How is it cheaper?" "Why," said he, "when a man
is prosecuted, or when he is tried before the judges, the law expenses
are heavy, and they fall on the county. When a man is lynched there is
only the expense of the rope, and a little loss of time for the boys
who do the job." From Denver to Pueblo and from Pueblo to Leadville
the line is on the narrow-gauge principle, and our train, which left
at seven o'clock in the evening, seemed to be driven on no principle at
all; for, anxious to astonish a Duke perhaps, or Britishers generally,
the driver did what certainly could not be called his level best to
send us along up and down a very rough line, and round the sharpest
curves, at the rate of forty miles an hour, so that when we turned
in, our rest, if rest at all it were, was exceedingly broken, and
we trundled about in our berths as if we were in a ship in a pretty
heavy sea. Still this narrow-gauge was the only line which could be
made through such a country as we were traversing. Peeps out of the
window ever and anon revealed, high up amongst the stars, rugged
mountain-tops, and for ever there came the sound of rushing water,
near or remote, as the train "bounded" on its course. I do not know
what stations we passed on our way, but the night was very long, and
I greeted with pleasure the first gleam of light above the hill-tops.
The Arkansas River was on our left, and at dawn we had glimpses of
its turbid stream running madly in deep gorges far below us. At the
South Arkansas station the train halted soon after daybreak, and then
we diverged from the main line, and a light train took us over the
Arkansas River by a fine bridge on its way up the Gunnison Extension
to visit the highest mountain-pass traversed by a railway in the
world. South Arkansas station is 217 miles from Denver, and is 6944
feet--and Marshall Pass (25 miles away), to which we were bound, is
10,760 feet--above sea-level. There were grades of 211 and curves of
24° on the way, and the railroad twisted in and out among the ravines
like an iron Alexandrine, for ever ascending till we had passed the
limits of forest life. There were stations at short intervals--Poncha
Springs, Mears, Silver Creek--from each other. From the stations there
is a good deal of cross-country traffic, and at one place we saw three
stages laden with men and women--or rather, to be polite and accurate,
let me say with women and ladies--starting, one with six horses, and
the other two with four each. These were bound for Gunnison, and as
we were halting for a little, the Duke and some others got out of the
train, and sauntered up towards the wooden shanties which formed "the
town," consisting of the usual array of saloons and drinking places.
However, our course was cut short by the information vouchsafed by one
of the officials, that it might be as well not to go up, as there had
been a big shooting match that morning, and that one man was killed
and four had been wounded, "and some of them were on the drink yet."
From 4.30 A.M. to 6.45 A.M. we struggled up towards the pass till
the line came to an end near the summit, and we were rewarded by some
very fine views, exceedingly like those of the Mont Cenis Railway or
the Sömmering. The hills on both sides of the line were stippled and
flaked with snow, but there was no extensive field, so far as the eye
could see, nor was there any appearance whatever of a glacier, the tops
generally being clear of snow, which only lodged in the ravines and
hollows. Strange it was in these alpine heights to hear the clang of
Italian tongues; but most of the navvies were from Italy, and if not
quite so strong as English or Americans, they were in more favour with
contractors, because they did more work, owing to their steadiness and
sobriety. The line was being pushed on at an astonishing rate, and one
man was pointed out to us who had laid four and a half miles of railway
in one day, "the biggest thing of the kind ever done." Our enjoyment
of the scenery was very much diminished by our animal appetites,
stimulated by the sharp mountain air, which craved incessantly for
food. But not even a cup of coffee was to be had until we got back to
the South Arkansas station, late in the morning, where an excellent
breakfast awaited us. Here we were detained some time by a derailment
of an engine in front.

From South Arkansas station to Leadville (61 miles) the railroad is
still more aspiring. The higher we ascend the less striking are the
scenic effects, but the grades are not very severe till we come to
Malta, where it reaches 130; from Hilliers to Leadville the maximum is
176, the curves being often 15°. The general character of the country
may be conceived from these figures, but no words can convey any idea
of the wholesale destruction of timber which has marked the progress
of the explorers and prospectors. Where the axe was weary the blaze
and the fire were called in, and hundreds of miles of forest are laid
in blackened ruin. At last we are on a level with the hill-tops.
There, on the hill-tops and in the valleys of a sterile region in
front of you, amidst those tall chimneys vomiting out smoke and steam,
is a wilderness of wooden huts, "the Great Carbonate Camp"--where we
leave the train--spread out over an undulating plateau, broken into
mound-like hills and sharp hillocks--bustling streets filled with the
most remarkable swarm of all nations that ever settled on any one spot
in the world. The story of Leadville reads like a chapter out of some
book of Oriental fable. It is a huge barrack of wooden houses, with
some solid and important buildings, with masses of tree-stumps cropping
up in the centre of the main thoroughfares, pitched over an undulating,
rugged, dusty ledge. In the midst of blocks of houses sprout up the
chimneys of furnaces and mining works, the clang of machinery fills
the air, which is thick with clouds of dust. It was a few years ago an
utterly wild, lifeless waste amidst the mountains covered with forests,
when three brothers, named Gallagher, exploring from California, were
led by some genius, good or bad, to test the material of the rocks in
the ravine. They struck gold ore, and silver too, and they set up a
claim; and presently they sold their shares in the land which they had
appropriated, for 40,000_l._, which they divided. Two used their wealth
wisely, and made more of it, and, taking to themselves the members of
the family, throve exceedingly; one, not so wise, if he were quite as
good, did not prosper as well as his brothers. But the scene of their
operations was soon swarming with enterprising miners. There was a
mighty "boom." Now there is a city! Leadville is, I think, the most
astonishing city on earth, but I am not by any means inclined to say
that it is a place I should like to be astonished about for more than
a few hours.

The party drove to the Morning Star, said to be the best mine in
Leadville; and the Duke, Lady Green, Sir Henry Green, and others, went
down the mine in miners' clothes or cloaks. Two others, whose names I
shall not give, remained above, and had, I fancy, the best of the time.
Afterwards we visited Grant's Smelting Works, and then back to the
Clarence Hotel and dined, strolling out afterwards through the town and
visiting the billiard saloons, the Grand Central Theatre, and finally,
where we were told Leadville life was to be seen in all its glory, the
faro and the kino tables, which, however, were doing but very little
business, as it was not until after midnight that play in the town
generally commenced. Instead of sleeping at the hotel, we resolved
to take refuge in the train, which was drawn up at the siding; and we
had to drive in order to reach it, as it was considered unsafe to walk
through the streets in the dark.

We started at four o'clock next morning, June 18th, and on arriving
at Arkansas Station learned that an engine was off the line in front
of us. Breakdown gangs were sent for, and all the locomotive talent
amongst our passengers repaired quickly to the scene. As it was not
easy to lift the engine, the engineers adopted the expedient of laying
a temporary rail to turn its flank so as to enable us to pass round
it, which we did after a delay of about an hour. The Duke got out and
sat on the cow-catcher by way of a change. But the interest we took in
the scenery was somewhat diminished by the intelligence that the delay
caused by the engine would prevent our enjoying the "soda bath" we had
been promised at Cañon City, and the sight of the State Prison, where
murderers were to be paraded by the dozen. About twenty miles north
of the Grand Cañon, the gorges through which the river runs became
wider and deeper. All that has been written about the Grand Cañon
utterly fails to convey an adequate idea of its exceeding grandeur
and wildness. The rocks--closing in so that the spectator in the car,
looking forward, thinks the progress of the train must be arrested,
and that it is not possible for it to get out of the _cul de sac_ which
appears in front, rising aloft for upwards of two thousand five hundred
feet on each side--are coloured with the brightest hues, and present an
infinite variety of form. The impetuous current of the Arkansas River,
contracted at times to the breadth of some twenty or thirty yards,
and penned into a space in which the waters boil and toss as if about
to leap on and submerge the passing cars, roars wildly down below on
our right at a depth varying as the line rises and falls. But it is
at the Bridge--a triumph of engineering skill--that the horrors of
the pass culminate. The sides of the ravine approach so near that the
daring engineer was enabled to execute the idea of lowering from above
a [**triangle]-shaped frame or trestle of iron; and, the ends catching
on each side of the gorge, permitted him to work on it for the
construction of the iron platform over which the train is carried at a
height of some hundreds of feet right over the maddened river. You can
look down through the interstices of the girders and glance shudderingly
at the hell of waters below--a sight and sensation never to be
forgotten. The ravine gradually expands and the cliffs recede as the
line strikes eastwards; and though the scenery retains a wild and
savage character for many miles farther, the impressions of the Grand
Cañon caused us to regard it with comparative indifference. We heard
many tales of the great railway war which was waged for the possession
of the pass, of which traces still remained in the ruins of posts of
vantage and observation, and the works of the defeated railroad
visible on the other side of the ravine. At night we reached Pueblo
and took up our quarters in our own cars, and continued our journey,
after some delay, towards Kansas City.



CHAPTER V.

KANSAS TO ST. LOUIS.

    Liquor Law--Kansas Academy of Science--An Incident of Travel--A
     Parting Symposium--Life in the Cars--St. Louis to New York.


_June 19th._--Still on the rolling prairies; in the country of
compulsory abstinence--the paradise of Sir Wilfred Lawson. At 9.30
A.M. the train stopped at Newton, 431 miles from Pueblo, and 281 from
Kansas.

Here a phenomenon--there was a man by the road side who walked with
unsteady step, whose legs tottered, and who lurched violently as he
came down the road at that early hour. "He is a sick man," observed
one of my friends in the train; "that gentleman has been taking
_medicine_." In the Kansas Act there is a clause enabling physicians,
in case of need, to order stimulants for the patients without penalty;
but I am told the doctors have generally refused to act upon that
permission, so I suppose our friend had been consulting an unlicensed
practitioner.

It would be ill done, when I am anxious to acknowledge the pleasure
and profit which I derived from my passage through the State, if I
did not record the satisfaction with which I perused a volume of the
"Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science," which by accident I
picked up at one of the stations. The very name speaks trumpet-tongued
for the progress which has been made in this wild region. The year
before last, the twelfth annual meeting of the Academy was held in
Topeka, and I find amongst the list of papers read such subjects
as these:--The Kansas Lepidoptera; Kansas Minerals; the Mounds of
Southern Kansas; Recent additions to Kansas Plants; Kansas Botany;
Kansas Meteorites; Phonetic representations of Indian Language;
Sinkholes; Elementary Sounds of Language; Mound-builders; On Recent
Indian Discoveries. And among the lecturers there was Professor B.
F. Mudge, who died last year, whose name probably is known to a very
limited number of scientific men outside the University of Kansas.
Generally the papers contributed by the gentlemen of the State attest
industry and attainments which make their praise of the Professor
particularly valuable. It is curious enough to pick up in a railway
carriage, traversing such a scene of comparative wildness and vast
uninhabited plains in Western Kansas, an exceedingly interesting
examination of the Helmholtz theories of sight. The object of the
lecturer would scarcely be suspected by the reader. We had already
been struck by the extraordinary absence of signalmen, or of any
of the complex apparatus of men and machinery which may be seen in
Europe, and notably in England, to report the progress of trains
on the lines. Collisions, however, occur in America where these
precautions are not taken, and the lecturer attributed a good deal of
these accidents to colour-blindness, which appears to have attracted
considerable attention in the United States. Surgeons, pilots, &c.,
are tested for colour, and in the army colour-blindness disqualifies
the recruit for employment in the signal corps. Altogether the papers
give an impression that in this new State there are diligent students
of natural history and physics, and profound inquirers into all the
phenomena of life. There was a reverse to the medal.

At a station where the train halted beyond Pueblo, a card was handed
to me by one of the stewards. "The gentleman is, as he seemed very
pressing, outside; but I told him you were engaged." I started
as I read the name and address on the card, as well I might. They
indicated that an old friend whom I had left in a condition of great
bodily weakness and infirmity in London, was close at hand in this
remote region--a wonderful if welcome fly in amber. I ran out of the
drawing-room into the next car, and there saw a man, agitated and
travel-worn, whom I had never, to the best of my belief, seen in my
life before. His story was told, if not soon, at least in time to
let me partly understand the situation ere the train moved off. The
stranger had been in the service of the gentleman whose card he sent in
to me, but had left it to better himself in America, and had gone out
as valet to an American of good position at Colorado Springs. He found,
however, according to his own account, that he was expected to do
things not required of a valet in his own country, such as lumbering,
wood-cutting, and the like, and so he had thrown up his situation
and was going back to England. He had had quite enough of Colorado
Springs. "I was not there above a month, and I was shot at twice," he
said. "Once because I made some remark in a bar-room, where a chap was
abusing Englishmen; and another time while I was speaking in the street
to a man a fellow had a grudge against. He fired at him across the
road, and the ball whistled within a hair's-breadth of my head." He had
arrived at Pueblo some time before our special, and as the morning was
warm, he walked into a bar near the platform, while the engine of his
train was watering, to get a glass of lemonade. As he was drinking it,
a man walked in and called for a glass of whisky, putting down, at the
same time, what seemed to be a bank note, on the counter. The boniface
said, "I haven't got change for this twenty-dollar bill--perhaps this
gentleman can oblige you." The unsuspecting Briton, who had put the
money for his passage to Liverpool in a purse, drew it out to change
the note, and the strange customer at once seized it from his hand,
and rushed off towards the street with his booty. The Britisher ran
after him, but checked his wild career when he saw, within an inch of
his head, the muzzle of a revolver which the robber had drawn, and the
fellow vanished. "Won't you help me to stop the thief; you see what has
happened?" exclaimed the victim turning to the barman. "I guess there
was no money in that purse, sir. And if there was, perhaps you had no
more right to it than he had." Then the Briton dashed off after Don
Guzman, shouting "police," and was at once accosted by an officer of
the Pueblo force. He hurriedly stated the facts. The policeman smiled.
"I think you won't see that pile agin," he remarked; "and if you
don't look sharp ye'll miss yer train, that's a fact!" The man had his
railway ticket all right, a few dollars in his pocket, and I told him
I would see him and get him a passage, if I found on inquiry his story
was true. My companions thought the tale suspicious--but I believe it
was true, and I subsequently franked the man to England.

Now here we had an exemplification of the manners and customs of
the district. Such an act of violence and robbery might occur in
London--anywhere. But what of the apathy, or perhaps complicity, of the
bar man? And if it or they be considered not altogether abnormal, is
the conduct of the policeman to be accepted as quite consistent with
the discharge of a policeman's duty? Well, whilst I was pondering on
these things, there came to me the best possible adviser--a judge in
this Israel--our excellent Palinurus, Mr. White. He threw a new, if not
a side light on the subject. "Depend on it he is a confidence man. The
trains are full of them! Our conductors have express orders about the
rascals." And he explained that a confidence man is a swindler--very
often an Englishman, who makes it his business to look out for unwary
strangers, on whom he imposes with some tale of distress, or some
recital of imaginary misfortune and adventure. As the man I had seen
was coming on in the train in our wake, Mr. White promised to talk with
the conductor, and find out, if he could, the truth about the Pueblo
robbery. Before dusk a telegram was forwarded by him to me from the
station where he left us, to say that the conductor had no doubt the
man was robbed, but that it was partly his own fault, and to warn me to
be cautious in my dealings with him.

We have now been travelling straight on end for 1160 miles, with only
two engineers and two firemen and one engine, a feat of endurance
which has greatly exercised the Duke of Sutherland, who, as a practical
director of the London and North-Western Railway, has knowledge of such
matters, and who contrasts the performance with the experience he has
on the home lines, where engines, engineers, and firemen would have
been relieved or laid up over and over again. The head engineer of the
line, who joined us, Mr. Hackney, formerly of Congleton, had become
accustomed to these journeyings and endurances, which were brought to
the front in our conversation by the engine-driver appearing at the
door of the carriage to claim a dollar which he had won from the Duke
in a bet that he could not do the distance without laying up the engine
for repairs.

All the long Sabbath-day we travelled on through the prairie, catching
glimpses now and then of wooden villages, around which trees were
beginning to sprout up, and of the little churches with knots of carts,
waggons, horses, and buggies outside, and people waiting for the end
of the sermon. Now and then, perhaps at intervals of fifteen miles or
so, are places of larger importance, such as Emporia, a rising city on
the plains, where many steeples pointed aloft indicated considerable
diversity of creed. An authority, not always to be relied upon, stated
that there are fourteen churches belonging to the town.

There was a parting symposium in the second Pullman ere we reached
Topeka. Mr. White, Major Anderson, General Brown, Mr. Jerome, and
my much wandering compatriot, a veritable Irish Ulysses, raised the
tuneful melodies of the "Golden Slipper," the "Little Brown Jug," and
the other tender psalmodies which had whiled away so many hours, for
the last time in our society, and the little gages which were but the
outward and visible signs of the regard we felt for our friends were
exchanged with honest effusion. There may be--nay, there are--many
jealousies and causes of estrangement between the people of the Old
Country and of the New, but between the individuals of both there is a
_camaraderie_ which cannot, I believe, be found between Englishmen and
the natives of any country except America.

"Good bye! God bless you! Be sure if ever you come to England you shall
have a hearty welcome from me." "And from me!" "And me!" "And me!" The
engine bell tolled, and we moved slowly on.

And we were left all alone! The pleasant companions of so many weeks
had gone! I wonder if they missed us as much as we missed them?

While travelling across the Rockies and the desert to San Francisco
and back, our course of life was pretty uniform, and one day followed
another with almost perfect resemblance in the mode of existence and
in all things except the scenery and the country through which we
were passing. First, in the early morning came one of the attendants
to our bedside with a cup of coffee, and then the curtains of the
little cubicle were thrown aside and you looked out on either plain,
or mountain, or river, or col; and on the faces of early risers at
doors or windows as the train passed through some rising town. At one
end of the saloon there was a bath-room, and from the tank there was
always to be obtained sufficient water for the purpose of an early
dip, which was enjoyed as occasion offered in turn by the party. Then
a cigarette. Then we dropped in as people do at a country house, into
the sitting-room, and exchanged ideas as to the progress made during
the night, and the stoppages, wondered where we were, and had a little
conversation with the conductor or Arthur as to the place where we
could stop or get the papers--and so got over the morning till 9
o'clock, when breakfast was announced, consisting of fish, poultry,
meat, fruit (I had nearly said flowers, for there was always a bouquet
on the table), tea, coffee, and cold dishes, with abundance of milk
and butter. Where the fish came from and how they were kept fresh was
matter of wonder, for the instances were very rare in which there was
any indication that it had not quite recently come out of the sea or
the river. The supply of ice was liberal and unfailing, and whenever
we stopped at any considerable station the whole disposable strength
of the attendants in the train was employed in grappling with large
blocks of it and stowing it away in the ice reservoir, in which were
the larder and the cellar for such wines as needed cooling, and for
the vegetables and meat, of which there were great stores constantly
laid in. Then after breakfast there was reading or sight-seeing,
investigating the line, examining the maps, receiving visits and
returning them in other parts of the train, till in the very hot days
it was necessary, after expelling the flies, which were troublesome on
occasion, to draw the dust-blinds and the curtains of the carriages,
to mitigate the fierceness of the sun. It was objected occasionally
that by this process we deprived ourselves of the opportunity of
what was called "seeing the country," but after all a glance now
and then is quite sufficient to reveal the general character of the
districts through which the train is running; and the most diligent and
painstaking observer cannot keep his eyes fixed steadily for a day on
the external aspects of the region through which he is travelling. I
should be sorry to declare that every one was wide awake all the time
of the forenoon and up to the period of lunch, which too often exceeded
on the side of many dishes, being, in fact, a mid-day dinner; but then
no one was obliged to eat more than he liked, or drink either. Then
came the longest stretch of the day, and at its close another banquet;
and as the sun declined and the temperature decreased, we could take
more pleasure in looking out at the fantastic forms of the vegetation
which clothed the arid rocks in the desert, or on the bright green
prairie, or on the towering mountains, waiting till the sun had set,
generally in a blaze of glory. There were, of course, interruptions and
variations as we halted at the more important places; disappointments
about letters which had been telegraphed for and which were expected
day after day, constituted also a matter of conversation and discourse.
There was an harmonium in the sitting-room of the palace car, but
no one had the art of playing it, although we had plenty of music of
another sort; for after dinner the gentlemen of the railroad party who
had not dined with us came in, and we were never tired of listening to
the songs, so original and amusing, which they gave with great spirit
and admirable time and tune, for it happened they all possessed good
voices, and the melodies with which the troops of coloured minstrels
have now rendered the world familiar were then new to us.

During the whole of our tour the weather has been most favourable.
With the exception of the rainy days in Canada, and the cold and
rawness which characterised the time of our short visit to Richmond,
there was nothing worse to complain of than continual sunshine. Now
and then the temperature was a little too good to be pleasant when we
were traversing the beds of the dry seas in the desert in Colorado and
California, but that was something to look back upon with satisfaction,
because there was no time lost in keeping within doors owing to the
rain and storm or cold. "Within doors," however, is a phrase scarcely
applicable to our mode of life, as it would imply that we were in
stable habitations, whereas, as will have been seen by those who
have accompanied us so far, we "lived and moved, and had our being"
in railway carriages; a mode of life rendered so comfortable by all
appliances, that it was sometimes no relief to be told that we would
have to pass the night at an hotel.

For nine days and nine nights in succession, on one occasion, we never
slept out of the carriages or got out of the train except to take a
stroll about the station, or a peep into the street of a small town
whilst we were waiting, and one got quite accustomed to that nomad and
yet civilised mode of existence, where at every halting-place we were
supplied with the latest intelligence by the local papers, and made
the recipients of some attention or courtesy, visits and compliments
(the remarks of the other sort not being many), bouquets of flowers,
presents of fruit, and plenty of conversation. But that my critics
might say I dilate too much upon the material enjoyment of life, I
would describe at length the means which were supplied in the course
of these long journeys for animal enjoyment. Never could there be found
more attentive and obliging domestics than the coloured men who waited
upon us--Arthur and his fellows. There lived in the kitchen compartment
of the train, at the end of one of the saloons, a coloured cook,
very intelligent and gossipy, full of quaint conceits and dishes and
conversation, who commenced life as a slave on a Southern plantation,
probably adopted for indoor purposes on account of his smartness. He
liberated himself in the course of the war, and marched off with a
regiment of Federals in the capacity of cook and body-servant to one
of the officers, wherein he saw a great amount of very hard fighting
at very close quarters. This adventurous modern Othello was wont to
discourse with much animation when he came out for a breath of fresh
air on the platform and could find anybody to talk to him, although
he could move no more tender heart than that of Sir Henry Green. The
gentlemen of the Atchison, &c., Railway, when travelling with us, had
a _cordon bleu_ in the saloon--an Italian or Frenchman, I think, or
at all events a French-speaking man, who had served also, and would
have done credit to an establishment where faults in a _chef_ would
not lightly be condoned. In the interchange of courtesies, Mr. White
and his friends invited our party now and then to dine in the saloon,
which was not "across the way," but up a little, on the line, being the
saloon in front of us.

But here we are at Kansas City once again! At 5.30 P.M. the train
arrived at the platform, which was gay with a Sunday crowd, of
whom many were negresses--black, brown, brindled, and yellow
_citoyennes_--in much variety of colour and garmenting. Unlike Samson,
their weakness is in their hair, and like Achilles, they are vulnerable
about the heels (to the arrows of an æsthetical criticism, which
accepts the Greek idea of beauty in form); but they seemed to enjoy
life amazingly, and not to be in need of beaux; perhaps the happiest
people in the world now that their chattel days are over. It was late
when we turned into our berths, for it was a lovely night and the
fire-flies exercised a great attraction over us, but at last the charm
was worn out and we slept till morning without a break.

_June 20th._--Still the same boundless plain. In vain does one look for
the grass fields with close, even, carpet-like surface to be seen in
Europe. We are still passing through exceedingly rich land--the fields
covered with flocks of sheep and herds of good-looking cattle. There
are more trees by the stream-side, and shrubs growing in the hollows.
Habitations are more frequent, and so are fencing and planting. As the
sun was setting we approached St. Louis. There were some park-like
glades, and vistas opening up to pleasant mansions, amid grounds
showing marks of culture. There had been a severe thunderstorm the
night before, and the St. Louis Station had still traces of its effects
in pools of mud. But the rain had cooled the air, and the people were
rejoicing exceedingly in the great improvement that had taken place
in the weather, for, they told us, men and women had been dropping
down with the heat a few days ago as though they had been struck by
musketry.

The appearance of the St. Louis Terminus gave one a high idea of the
importance of this city. Eight trains were waiting on their respective
lines to start with passengers to all parts of the Union; and by
the simple device of placing at the end of each train a large board
announcing its destination and the time of its departure, much anxiety
was saved to intending passengers, not to speak of the irritation of
officials avoided by this simple expedient. The journey was continued
by the Indianopolis and Vandalia, and by what is called the "Pa'handle"
line to the Pennsylvania Railroad on to Philadelphia. The train was
timed on Tuesday so that we were able to see the famous passage over
the Alleghany Mountains from Conemaugh to Altoona. For nearly eleven
miles we were carried without steam, and with the brakes on, through
very fine scenery, down the mountain-side, but the summit was crossed
in the darkness of a tunnel 1200 yards long. There are some striking
engineering feats in the way of curves and gradients, and the trace
of the line is very bold all the way down to Altoona, where the
Pennsylvania Railroad engine and machinery shops are established--the
centre of a population of some 17,000 souls, where twenty years ago
"there were," as a friend said, "only bears, deer, woodpeckers, and
skallywags." The Duke, Mr. Stephen, and our railway experts got out
and visited the workshops, and came back very much pleased at the
discovery of several London and North-Western men in good positions
in the Pennsylvania Railroad Company's service, who welcomed their
old directors with effusion, and that there was nothing visible there
for Crewe to copy, unless perhaps cast-iron wheels. The speed at
which we travelled was a sensible proof that we were once more on the
line of our old friends of Pennsylvania. From Altoona to Harrisburg,
132 miles, we rattled along in two hours and forty-three minutes. On
another stretch of the line we travelled eighty-three miles in one
hour and forty-two seconds, including stoppages; and the rapid motion
was very agreeable, as there was a perceptible increase of temperature
after we reached the plains and approached the beautiful valley of the
Susquehannah--a scene of industry, prosperity, and peace. Fortunately
there was a good light on the river, and we had a fine view of the
country all the way to Harrisburg under the rays of the setting sun.
A little farther on we were gratified by the appearance of General
Roberts at a station on the way, where he was awaiting the Duke to
congratulate him on his safe return from the Western expedition, and we
bade him farewell at his own house, with many sincere and well-deserved
acknowledgments of great and constant kindness. Then over the river by
the noble bridge, and on to Philadelphia. We did not visit Pittsburg,
which was vomiting out masses of smoke, nor did we halt this time at
the capital of the Quaker State.



CHAPTER VI.

NEW YORK--NEWPORT--DEPARTURE.

    Coney Island--Newport--Bass-fishing--Habit of
     Spitting--Brighton Beach--Newport--Coaching--Extra
     Ecclesiam--Victories of American Horses--Newport
     Avenues--Return to New York--Our last day in America.


The special train was detained by the immense amount of traffic on the
line, as we approached New York, and we did not reach Brooklyn till a
little before 11 P.M. on June 21, so that it was past midnight when we
ascended the steps of the Windsor Hotel, which we had selected by way
of a change, and found to be every way commendable, with the exception
of its distance from the busy parts of the city. The following day
was devoted to letter reading and writing, receiving visitors, and
various attempts "to go out," which were not generally successful, for
New York was palpitating with the intense heat. The "heated term" was
in full vigour, but it was now quite temperate in comparison to the
excesses which had marked its advent some time before our arrival. In
the evening we got up strength and courage enough to go to Wallack's
Theatre, a very pretty, well-constructed house, and saw "The World"
excellently acted and admirably put on the stage. Next day, June
23rd, in virtue of a solemn league and covenant with Uncle Sam and
Mr. Hurlbut, the Duke and I devoted ourselves to fresh fields and
pastures new, and ordered ourselves accordingly for Coney Island. A
long bank of sand by the sea-shore has, by an accident, become one of
the most crowded resorts in the world, and to-day there were races in
the new ground. It was not, as we found, so easy to get there. Having
the advantage of two experienced guides, our party of four managed to
break up into two and to miss each other; one taking the boat at one
iron pier, and the other embarking by a different mode of conveyance.
But as we were bound to see Coney Island, the Race course being a
secondary object, our temporary separation did not prove a source of
great annoyance.

The early settlers would indeed have been astonished if they could
look round and see what they have brought the quiet place to in these
later days. They were Quakers persecuted by the good Christians of New
England, who were driven out of Boston as ruthlessly as though they
had been malignants and papists of the worst sort. They settled the
township of Gravesend about 250 years ago, and amongst the conspicuous
settlers occurs the title and name of Lady Deborah Moody, of whom this
deponent knows nothing, but wonders how, with such a title, she managed
to have influence amongst a Society of Friends.

A ship was built, so the Americans say, of 70 tons in 1699, by the
descendants of the Quaker settlers, and less than 100 years later
the bold republicans, abandoning the doctrines of peace, engaged
and captured an English corvette off the island. It was all along of
General How, who landed his troops here and set the people to work on
the fortifications he threw up, whether they would or no. A corvette,
bound to Halifax, anchored off the island, and an old whaler, who,
says the chronicler, must have been smarting under the wrongs he had
suffered at the hands of the red-coats, or who possibly regarded the
work as he would the capture of a finner or a bottle-nose, imparted
to a few trusty friends the idea of "cutting her out." So embarking at
night in a couple of boats, they stole down with muffled oars and ran
up under the stern of the ship. There was no watch, and through the
cabin windows the officers could be seen playing cards. The crews of
the boats boarded the corvette simultaneously, seized, overpowered, and
bound the officers and men, lowered them into their boats, and, having
set the man-of-war on fire, pulled over to the Jersey shore with their
prisoners. It is to be hoped that the demeanour and language of the
captain have been misrepresented by local tradition; but he is said
to have cried bitterly, and to have exclaimed, "To be surprised and
captured by two blooming egg-shells is too blasted bad!"

There was a long period of neglect before Fashion and the populace
found out the attractions of Coney Island. Fishermen, oyster-catchers,
and sportsmen visited the sandy beach from time to time; then after
a while a few houses were run up of a very inferior class, and these
were frequented by the very worst of the scum of New York, so that it
was almost dangerous, and certainly disgusting, to go among them, while
the scenes on the beach, to which the present proceedings afford such
a contrast, were described as being of the most disgraceful character.

The official directions for spending a day at Coney Island certainly
indicate a belief in the possession of enormous physical energy and
indefatigable curiosity on the part of the visitors in those who
compose the code. Having given you sailing instructions by the iron
steam boat to Bay Ridge for the Sea Beach Railway (ticket 35 cents),
you are to visit the Sea View Palace Hotel, the Piazza, the two iron
piers, the _Camera obscura_ (10 cents), the Great Milking Cow, the
top of the observatory (15 cents); then to eat a Rhode Island clam
bake (50 cents), visit the aquarium (10 cents), take a park waggon and
ride over the Concourse to Brighton; see the hotel grounds and bathing
pavilion there; then take the Marine Railway (5 cents) to Manhattan
Beach; visit the Oriental Hotel and take the Marine Railway to Point
Breeze (10 cents) and return back to Brighton Beach Pavilion and take
a bath; then see the Museum of Living Wonders (10 cents), dine at the
Hotel Brighton, hear a concert in the evening, and return to New York
by 11 o'clock. "This trip," observes the compiler, "may fatigue one,
but the excitement soon overcomes the trouble." Coney Island is indeed
an institution.

Along the sea front of the bank for some three or four miles there
has been constructed an esplanade lined with seats, and defended from
the sea by a stone wall. Outside there is a belt of shingle on which
the surf breaks, but not violently, unless in bad weather. Large
bathing establishments, with every appliance, are placed at convenient
intervals along the shore. Here in the season tens of thousands of
people may be seen, all properly and decently attired, disporting in
the waves. At the time of our visit, the hour and the season of the
year seemed not to be favourable to the indulgence. We were too late
in the day. It is an early place, and from 7 till 9 A.M. from the
month of June to the end of September are described as the orthodox
periods. Nevertheless the spectacle was quite unique, and if you can
imagine Brighton with half-a-dozen Pavilions blown out to twice their
size, and the largest hotels multiplied by ten in length, breadth, and
depth, you may fancy what the Coney Island front is, provided always
that you can also conjure up (literally) myriads of well-dressed men,
women, and children perambulating the esplanade or sitting in the
grounds around the various establishments which occupy a large space
inland--pavilions, hotels, exhibitions, restaurants, and club-houses.
There were fireworks going on in broad day; but these were principally
for the purpose of exhibiting very ingenious Japanese figures, which
were discharged from bombs, and which gradually descending were objects
of eager competition amongst the younger members of the enormous
multitude. And with all so much good-humour, so much propriety of
demeanour; none of the brutal rushes of "roughs" which disgust one
with English popular assemblages--none of the brutal horse-play, and
screams, and unmeaning cries of the 'Arrys and the Bills of our popular
resorts.

Looking at Mr. Marshall's excellent book on the United States, which
we found to be copious and accurate, I was struck by what he says
respecting a habit of the people which, according to my experience,
has very much decreased since I was last in the States, but which
he finds in as full force, and repulsive as ever. I am bound to say
I think the habit of spitting has very much diminished, but from
numerous evidences, from the presence of spittoons in every room and
in the passages of the hotels, and from public admonitions, such as
one we saw at some of the theatres, that the audience would not spit
upon the stage, I must believe that it still exists. What the cause
of this habit may be it is not easy to determine. It cannot be in the
race, because it is scarcely an "English" habit. I would be inclined
to attribute it to the drinking of iced water, but ladies in America
use the national beverage quite as freely as the men, and spitting is a
masculine failing. Can it be a result of climate? Scarcely. For in the
States, British-born people do not seem to be affected by the influence
of the habit in those around them after many years' residence. Smokers
and non-smokers alike indulge in the practice, so that tobacco cannot
be charged with the disagreeable custom. I assume that it is as common
as Mr. Marshall asserts it is, but I am bound to say, according to
my own observation and experience on my last visit, that there was no
evidence to show that it was common or national. Chewing tobacco also
appears to me to have fewer votaries than formerly. A remark to that
effect at Richmond brought upon me something like a rebuke from the
gentleman to whom I spoke, a Judge of the land. "No, sir," he said,
"not at all! I rather think we chew more than ever!" And, to illustrate
his faith, he produced a silver box, shaped a plug of no doubt very
excellent weed, and thrust it into his mouth. I do not recollect,
however, meeting a gentleman in the course of our journey who used
tobacco in that way, with that exception.

In the grounds in front of the pavilion, where an excellent orchestra
of some one hundred performers were playing, sat a very large and
appreciative audience, who applauded with discrimination, and were
content with the good performance of each piece.

Our common rendezvous was the Surf Club, one of the numerous convivial
associations for which Coney Island seems to be specially adapted;
and I presume the name had nothing at all to do with any supposed
amusements of the members in connection with the surf on the beach
outside. There was some difficulty in finding our way through a
labyrinth of rooms all filled with guests: with corridors swarming
with people; with vast halls, where at hundreds of tables there were
seated people engaged in the consumption of the _menu_ of a Coney
Island restaurant, abounding in strange dishes and attended by armies
of waiters. At a rough guess, I should say there may have been about
4000 people in the building--and this was but one of several--I think
the Brighton Beach Hotel, but of this I am not quite sure.

When the Prospect Park and Coney Island Railroad was opened none
believed in its success, but the foresight of the projector was
justified; and when it was found that respectable people would go
there, if the vagabonds of both sexes and their associates were driven
away, the police asserted themselves, and swept off the gamblers and
the others of a still more dangerous class, who were to be found there
in increasing numbers every year; and then hotels were erected and
landing-places made for the steamers; and now the electric light blazes
in a hundred halls, and music and rejoicing sound late into the night,
contending with the noise of the surf upon the beach. Bowling-alleys,
shooting-grounds, archery, croquet, sailing and rowing, all invite some
of the visitors, according to their tastes. An amusing exemplification
of the ingenuity of American advertisers is afforded by the sailing
vessels, which display in enormous characters on their main-sails
the names of quack medicines, from which no corner of this continent
appears to be safe.

On June 24th the party, which had been somewhat dislocated, reunited
their scattered forces, and at 2 P.M. started by train after a little
repose, for Newport, R.I. It was a kind of holiday after our travels,
but somewhat out of place, for we were told the Ocean House was
scarcely ready; but we should not have found it out, had we not been
informed of the fact. The newspapers had been on the alert, and soon
after the Duke's arrival visitors began to call and invitations to pour
in--some well-nigh irresistible, for they included opportunities for
experiences of bass-fishing.

_June 25th._--Newport has not yet put on its festive attire. It is
not the season, and we ought not to be here. Nevertheless it is still
so pleasant, and so respectably dull, that one enjoys it amazingly.
After breakfast we walked down to the seashore and sat gazing on
vacancy, and on three yellow ladies collecting clams. Returning thence
in a very hot sun, ran to earth in the hotel where, presently, there
were many visitors; and how kind and anxious to please they were! Mr.
Fearing drove up later on the top of a drag, and whirled us away to
a charming fishing-box on the shore, in order to judge for ourselves
what bass-fishing was like. It was a very pretty drive, and Mr. Fearing
handled his "four" as if he were bent on joining the Coaching Club--not
indiscreetly, as the horses were not accustomed to going together, but
with satisfactory decision--and we all were landed without mishap by
the side of the road, close to one of the best-organised sporting-boxes
I have ever seen, built entirely for the comfort and delectation of
Mr. Fearing and two or three friends who own the bass-fishing stands,
at the end of one of which a gentleman was then busily engaged in his
pastime, for the sea comes rolling up upon the rocks within some forty
or fifty yards of the sward of the green meadows on which the house
is placed. From it projects into the breakers a platform supported
on iron pillars, at the end of which there is an enlargement of the
structure to enable the fisherman and his attendants to stand at their
ease--the one in hurling the bait and the other in preparing it. And
first, as a proof that the labour is not futile, there was exhibited a
terrible-headed monster with great scales, which had been caught that
morning by Mr. Whipple--a bass of 57 lbs. weight, of which I think the
skull and jaws and gills must have weighed a third. The fishing is not,
as I found, to be done at once, but needs a little practice. The art of
casting consists in the double operation of jerking the bait from the
top of a stiff rod, and checking the run of the line without permitting
it to overrun, which it is very apt to do in an inexperienced hand, by
a pressure of the thumb on the reel, just sufficient to let the weight
of the bait carry out the hook to the farthest stretch of the jerk.
The rod, not more than eight or nine feet long, a work of great art,
and costly, is furnished with a reel, also very expensive, containing a
couple of hundred yards of prepared line. At the end is a large single
hook, sometimes secured to a piece of piano-wire, as the "blue fish"
will cut through the strongest cord or gut. To this is fixed a junk of
fat oily fish, of which supplies are kept in a basket close at hand,
to be cut up for ever and ever by the attendant, and ever and anon
pieces are chucked into the sea, and being of a very unctuous nature,
the oil rising to the top, floats away on the surface of the water, and
attracts the bass within measurable distance of the platform. Captain
Fearing threw, Mr. Whipple threw, and the gentlemen at the end of
another pier emulated them, and pounds, perhaps stones, of bait were
thrown into the sea, but the bass, which are capricious, like most
fish, were not to be caught; and so after a time we returned to the
cottage.

I was, unfortunately, unable to accept an invitation from one of the
many hospitable gentlemen in Newport, to go out and spend the evening
on a desolate island, where they are said generally to have exceedingly
good sport, in order to get up before sunrise the following morning
and essay my skill, or want of it, in bass-fishing. Mr. Wright, an
enthusiastic sportsman, availed himself of a like invitation with
great pleasure and with many anticipations of delight, but on Monday
morning he returned weather-beaten back, and boot-less and bass-less
home, although he assured me he enjoyed himself very much, and had very
agreeable company out at sea on the rock.

The following day (June 26th) was cloudy and cool, and all that was
of rank and fashion in Newport went to All Souls Church. There are
many churches in Newport, and in the height of the season, each is,
I am told, well filled on Sundays. And wonderful it is that there is
neither dissension nor controversy among the congregations. They mingle
together coming and going, affording to me, who have been accustomed at
times to observe the manners and customs of my country men and women
on like occasions in Ireland and elsewhere, ground for wonder, not
unintermingled with an ardent desire that we, nearer home, could learn
the secret of this moderation.

Mr. Bridgman, our fellow-passenger in the "_Gallia_," is enjoying his
_villeggiatura_ with his wife and family in a pretty little cottage.
We were very much pleased indeed to renew our acquaintance with him,
although there was no scope for the display of his fine talents as a
salad-maker. It was not foggy enough for the ladies, who delight in a
thick and moist _brume_ from the Banks, and who sit at the open windows
when it comes on for the sake of their complexions, as it is esteemed
a sovereign cosmetic beyond Maydew or Kalydor. Whether it be rightly
credited with these virtues or not, I can answer for the presence of
many fair ladies in church, and on their way to and fro in the streets.
We dined with Mr. and Mrs. Keene, who reside in one of the best villas
of the many charming dwellings in Newport.

The victories of the American horses in France and England created
an enthusiasm in the States almost as intense as though they had been
won by the national fleets or armies. From one end of the Union to the
other the news was flashed the same day, and we saw the names of the
conquerors in large letters in every newspaper. Unfortunately there
came at the same time reports of foul play to American competitors at
the hands of some English roughs, and there was a good deal of heat
caused by the objections taken to the entry of the "Cornell Crew" at
Henley. These international contests should be very carefully conducted
and judiciously worked, or they will do more harm than good, if indeed
they do any good at all. The injurious insinuations respecting the age
of Foxhall could but excite indignation in the minds of honourable men
against whom they were directed.

There is a State House in the town, and there is also a mansion
occupied by Commodore Perry, but the most useful inhabitant of the
place appears to have been one Abraham Touro, a Jew, who gave his name
to the park, a cemetery, a synagogue, and a street. Altogether there
is rather an old-world air and look in the town; but one must go along
the Avenues to have an idea of the charms which lead so many of the
principal families of the Eastern States to make the place a resort
when they are not enjoying the delights of travel in Europe, or that
blissful existence which endears Paris to our Transatlantic relatives.
Bellevue Avenue is bordered by a number of very sprightly dwellings,
of every order and disorder of architecture, and rejoicing in all the
extraordinary richness and elaboration of American workmanship in wood,
each standing in a little park of its own, generally rich with trees,
shrubs, and an ornamental garden. Several of these interiors, as we
had reason to know, were furnished in the very best taste, and filled
with objects of art, excellent examples of good masters, principally
foreign, and articles imported from all the corners of the globe. Of
an afternoon the ladies might be seen driving, in very well turned-out
carriages, to some rendezvous where lawn-tennis or a picnic awaited
them; and altogether, even at this time of year, Newport presented a
picture of great refinement and comfort, which enable the visitor to
understand how attractive it must be in the height of the season, and
why it is Americans are so fond of life in Rhode Island.

I am not in a position to throw the smallest doubt upon the statement
that the mass of stones in the form of a tower, ivy and moss covered,
and evidently the work of human hands, was not built by the hardy
Norsemen hundreds of years before the arrival of Columbus. There are,
moreover, people who declare that the erection is due to a British
governor of the colony, when it was more prosperous as a commercial
resort, though not so fashionable as it is at present. But American
antiquaries take a great pleasure in propping up the proofs which have
been adduced of Scandinavian enterprise and discovery on the continent,
many centuries before Vespuccius, Columbus, and the English navigators
lived.

We dined on the evening of the 27th at the house of Mr. Shattock,
a gentleman of New York, who had assembled a party of very pleasant
people to meet the Duke, and kindly hastened his dinner-hour to suit
our convenience, as we were obliged to go on board the Fall River boat,
which called at 9.30 P.M. to take up passengers for the Empire City.
There was some difficulty about getting cabins or state rooms as they
are called, but "Uncle Sam," who came from New York to consort with us
quietly, applied himself diligently to telegraph wires, telephones,
and the like, and when the great steamer came alongside the wharf
our dormitories were ready. The night was calm and fine. There was an
excellent band, quite worthy of being called an orchestra, on board,
which played to the delight of a large audience till it was bed-time.
As a "sight" for a foreigner, nothing could be more striking than
the vast saloon, brilliantly illuminated, with hundreds of people on
sofas, chairs, and benches, reading or conversing in the intervals
of the music, and presenting infinite varieties of type and class,
yet all so orderly and well-behaved; and if you moved quietly through
the crowd, your ear caught many strange languages interpolating the
American speech--German, French, Polish, Russian, Italian, and, perhaps
the natives would say, British. There is some care observed in the
locking up of cabins, and I believe there are detectives and police on
board the boats; but it is said they do not look after the morals of
the passengers, and concern themselves only with vested interests in
portable property. There was no sea on, and the only motion was caused
by the beating of the paddles and the throbbing of the engine, and
early in the morning of the next day we were at our quarters in our
comfortable hotel in the Fifth Avenue.

_June 29th._--And yet more excursions. Bound by a long-standing
engagement, a small detachment of our party set out this evening to
visit Mr. Barlow at his country place, Long Island, which travellers,
perhaps, have not much occasion to see. The Mayor of New York (Mr.
Grace) and Mr. O'Gorman were on the steamer which took the Duke, Mr. S.
Ward, Mr. Hurlbut, and our host down the Sound, and were introduced to
us by Mr. Barlow. The first-named gentleman I mentioned in one of the
early pages of this diary in connection with the vigorous efforts to
purify the civic atmosphere made by him on his accession to office. I
learn that he has since obtained a large measure of success, and let me
hope corresponding thanks from his fellow-citizens. Attacks on corrupt
influences are apt to receive lukewarm support from the politicians.
The power of the respectable classes, which hold aloof from politics,
is not large. Mr. Grace had more opposition than help from his own
countrymen, who have been long nearly omnipotent in New York, and who
monopolise a large proportion of the civic offices and employment.
Mr. O'Gorman, one of the traversers with O'Connell in the famous State
trials, is one of the leading lawyers of New York, and is held in much
respect by his fellow-citizens. The "old Country" is still dear to him,
but I seemed to gather from his remarks that he shared in the distrust
which American lawyers generally expressed respecting the principle of
the Land Bill then under discussion as far as interference with the law
of contract--"the very foundation of social life"--was involved. Glen
Cove is a beautiful place, standing high above the level of the sea,
and commanding charming views of the sound and of the opposite shore.
It is surrounded by trees, ornamented by woodland and fine natural
groves, broken up by ravines, through which trickle streams of water.
The mansion is furnished with every comfort and luxury, and we had a
garden to saunter about in the morning, and a genial hostess to talk
to, and her fair daughter to sing for us, so that it would have pleased
us well to have made a longer sojourn at Glen Cove. Here we passed two
very peaceful days, part of Wednesday and Thursday, and in a pleasant
drive with our host in the early morning had some slight outlook on
umbrageous Long Island. "_O! si angulus iste!_" It is 115 miles long
and 14 miles broad, and quite big enough for me! And there be deer
in the woods and trout in the rivers, and fish in all the creeks,
and game in the wooded lagoons, and forest, lake, and civilised life,
and many things to please the eye; and then the comet was so good as
to display his glories and his tail before Glen Cove. But our time
of departure from the States was drawing near, and there were still
things to be done in New York, and many engagements to be kept, ere we
started on our homeward journey on July 2nd; and at 12.35 on the 30th
June the Duke and I took the "cars" at a rural station, and reached
New York at 2.35, in time for a run through Tiffany's and some little
shopping and visiting. There was a dinner arranged by "Uncle Sam" at
"Sutherland's" in honour of the famous city restaurant. The house is
one of a type which has, I believe, disappeared in the "City," where
once flourished famous establishments such as Williams' Beef Shop
in the Old Bailey, Dolly's in Paternoster Row, the Billingsgate Fish
Ordinary, Jacquet's, &c., like it in character. Great New Yorkers do
not disdain to cross the threshold, within which they find admirable
fare and excellent wines--the national delights of clam chowder, clam
soup, soft-shell crabs, and many other Transatlantic delicacies--at
the far end of Broadway, still holding its own against the fashionable
restaurants. Of the party who dined there with Chancellor Robertson
and others in 1861, only "Uncle Sam," Mr. S. Barlow, and I survive; but
the host, a granitic sort of man, with a kindly Scottish heart warming
the case inside, seems capable of presiding over his feasts for another
generation.

_July 1st._--It was difficult to realise the idea that this was our
last day in America, but the truth was forced on us by the practical
duties of getting the baggage ready and settling up generally, ending
with a dinner at the Turf Club, where we met Mr. Keene, of Foxhall
fame, who had also entertained us at Newport, Mr. Jerome, Mr. Stuart,
Mr. Travers, and other fathers of the New York sporting world, which
seems very like our own, and had to drink madeira of all but fabulous
antiquity and excellence.



CHAPTER VII.

RETURN TO EUROPE.

    The "_City of Berlin_"--The Inman Line--The Service at Roche's
     Point--Queenstown Discomforts--A sorry Welcome Home.


_July 2nd._[B]--Up at 5.30. The Duke, Lady Green, Sir Henry, Mr.
Wright, Edward, all engaged in the transport department, with Mr.
Trowbridge in observation; incessant activity. The Queen Anne coach
was in readiness at 7.30, and in half an hour more we were discharged
at the Inman wharf. There was a great flotilla--five large steamers
leaving at the same period for Liverpool, and there was the usual
throng at the landing-places of friends to bid "good-bye" to those who
were about to cross the Atlantic. The steamer we had selected belonged
to the Inman line, and whatever there may have been wanting to the eye
on board, compared to the trimness and paint of the Cunard steamers,
there was nothing to regret in our accommodation or service. There were
so many passengers that the dining-saloon, illuminated by the electric
light--which was also used for the purpose of lighting the engine-room
and the lamps in the corridors--would not contain them all at the same
time, and so there were two messes for dinner. Epergnes filled with the
most beautiful flowers were ranged in order, and a rampant war-steed
composed of white roses was displayed on the table. I am not about to
give a log-book, or to trespass on the patience of my readers by an
account of such an ordinary event as a passage home. The second day
after we left New York was the anniversary of Independence, July 4th,
and the day was duly celebrated by the citizens of the United States,
who constituted the large majority of our fellow-passengers. The "stars
and stripes" were hoisted at the main, and the cabin was draped with
British and American flags. But there was no speechifying, and the
spread-eagle was content with moderate flights; a recitation and a song
or two, and the fire of champagne corks, being the only indications of
an extraordinary festivity.

About this time of the year the Atlantic, in the latitudes which
we traverse, is rather vexed of fogs; and if one be disposed to low
spirits, I know nothing which weighs upon him more than the sound of
the fog-horn. But what must it be for the captain, who is perforce
obliged to go at full speed, or as near to it as he can, with the
expectation every moment of some startled cry from the bow "Sail right
ahead!" Nor is it quite out of the running that an iceberg may be
taking a sail across his course. Fortunately we had no experiences of
the kind; and as night was falling on the 10th July land was in sight.

The lights of the Fastnet were seen through drifting haze, and about 10
o'clock at night the "_City of Berlin_" steamed through a rising sea,
with a strong beam wind, into the roadstead of Roche's Point, burned
her rockets, and laid-to for the steamer to take the mails, and those
passengers who had decided to land, on shore.

It was blowing freshly, and rain fell heavily; and as we looked down
from the lighted decks on the murky water, and made out the tug as
she paddled up to us, rising and falling on the waves, we were seized
with reasonable misgivings as to the propriety of leaving our ship and
taking to such a craft. I am bound to say that our experience more than
amply justified them.

I am writing these lines with a very faint hope that any amendment
will be introduced, in consequence of what I say, into the abominable
service between the American vessels off Roche's Point and Queenstown.
In fine weather and in daylight it is not of much consequence, perhaps,
what discomfort one may be exposed to in a short passage to the
shore; but to affront women and children with the misery which must be
experienced at night time and in bad weather, in the steamers employed
in the service, is little short of barbarous, if it be not indeed
altogether so.

After I had got down upon the deck of the little steamer and surveyed
the scene around me, I thought that it would have been much wiser to
have gone on with my friends to Liverpool; but I had some engagements
in Ireland, and so had the experience I was glad not to share with
my fellow-passengers, on whom I should have liked the old country
to have made a favourable impression. There was the great steamer,
with hundreds of waving hands, and the sound of friendly voices
bidding us "God speed," a blaze of lights, and almost as steady as
the solid earth, as the horrible little tug puffed away, and, getting
from under her lee at once, encountered the swell. If she could have
ridden over the water below, she certainly could not escape that which
came down from above; so that we were all pretty wet and cross and
miserable in the half-hour which elapsed before we reached the shore.
Fortunately, there were not many passengers who availed themselves
of the opportunity; but the deck of the steamer was crowded by poor
people returning to their native country. Accommodation for the
cabin passengers, except seats on the wet and sloppy decks, there was
none. There was a little cabin, stuffy and comfortless, and moreover
occupied by a couple of women who had come out to see friends by way
of a pleasure excursion, and who were suffering the last extremities
of sea-sickness. The spray broke over the luggage and passengers;
it was in such circumstances that the custom-house officers began
their search. One of them, opening my bag, which was unlocked, found
a small revolver. It was unloaded, and there was no ammunition for
it; but, nevertheless, it was seized, for I was "importing arms into
a proclaimed district without licence." A similar mishap occurred to
a Spanish officer, who was not quite so easily appeased as I was by
the assurance that the arm would be given up on proper application
to the police. His revolver, he insisted, was part of his uniform, a
necessity of his existence, and the authorities might as well seize
his epaulettes or spurs. However, my deadly weapon was restored to me
some days afterwards, after a correspondence with the custom-house,
and I dare say the Hidalgo was equally fortunate. These were incidents
to denote that we were in the midst of trouble. There was but a sorry
welcome for us when we landed at Queenstown. Not a car to be found,
that I could see; but there were a few porters, and the agent of the
hotel at the pier; and, commending my luggage to his care, I walked to
the establishment. It surely cannot be quite an unaccustomed event for
a steamer to arrive at Queenstown at that time of night! The last train
for Cork had gone; and it might have been expected that lighted rooms
and some sort of preparation would have awaited the travellers; for
every vessel that touches at Queenstown, coming from America, surely
lands a few people needing rest and refreshment? A demoralised waiter,
who appeared to think that such a thing had never happened in the
whole course of his experience, as the inroad of ten or twelve people
asking for supper and bedrooms, informed us that nothing could be done
until the gentleman who represented the hotel at the landing-place had
arrived; and so we sat on the stairs for half an hour, and were then
shown into a gaunt room, dimly lighted by gas. There was nothing ready.
The hungry people, by dint of patience and perseverance, eventually
succeeded about midnight in obtaining some poor substitute for supper
and scrambled to their beds.

I mention the circumstances in which my fellow-passengers and I were
landed at Queenstown, that those who are interested in promoting
the welfare of the port, and in making the route through Ireland
less thoroughly objectionable, may take steps to obviate the great
inconvenience to which travellers at present are certainly exposed.

Next morning I reached Mallow. I was but a few hours in the
"distressful country," but I found that things had gone from bad to
worse while we were in the States. I heard from my fellow-travellers
in the train that "Boycotting" had attained such a pitch in the South,
that all the relations and conditions of social life were exposed
to peril, if not destruction. And still, with the usual cheerfulness
of Irish landlords, accustomed, as it were, to these excesses of the
popular will, my informants talked of hunting, fishing, and shooting;
and I heard full accounts of the state of the rivers, and of the take
of fish which had made some of them happy. The County Cork, indeed,
had nearly a parallel in the "wild West." But what a contrast between
the state of public feeling, in respect to the outrages which were
perpetrated in each, in the country we had left, and that to which
I had returned! In the United States there was no attempt to justify
the men who were guilty of such deeds. In Ireland it was impossible to
obtain evidence or to convict the offenders. I am not going to close
this narrative of our little excursion with a political disquisition,
indeed I have not the materials for forming any opinion respecting the
breadth and depth of what may be called the Irish national movement in
the United States; but there seems to be a general vague impression
in America that as the British Government was not very wise and
equitable in its dealings with the people of the thirteen colonies
in the reign of King George, it is, somehow or other, at the present
moment, treating with harshness and injustice the whole of the Irish
race in Ireland. It is impossible not to recognise the fact that the
head, perhaps the heart, and certainly the purse of this development of
Irish discontent are in the United States. The arms, the body, and the
legs are in Ireland. During the whole time of our visit, although we
visited towns where eminent orators were lecturing upon Irish subjects,
and where representatives of the League were in session, there was not
a trace brought home to us of the strong sympathy which undoubtedly
exists in many American cities with the movement in Ireland. There
were accounts of the meetings in the newspapers, and now and then a few
leading articles on the subject; but we might have concluded, from what
we saw and heard generally, that the Irish question was of far less
importance to the American people than the religious views of Colonel
Ingersoll, or the discussions between the railway companies respecting
their fares. The recital of wrongs, most of which have been long ago
redressed, still reaches the ear and touches the heart of the American
public, and if the Irish population had not in many ways provoked or
excited the antagonism of the native Americans in the towns, and of
the Teutonic element which exercises such a powerful influence in
the country, there would be far greater sympathy for the supposed
oppression of the Sister Island by England. The fact that emigrants
come from Europe is accepted as a proof that the countries which they
leave are ill-governed; and Americans, in dealing with the emigration
question, are apt to forget the existence and nature of the forces
which induced their own ancestors to seek homes in the New World.

The _New York Times_ declared in an article last June, that there is no
essential difference between the two divisions of the Irish in America
and of the Irish in Ireland. The voyage across the Atlantic works no
transformation in Pat, and he is still as much an Irishman after his
plunge into an alien civilisation and taking out his papers as when
he stood on the old sod in Meath or Tipperary. "He cares no more for
the American eagle than for an owl; but a sprig of shamrock stirs him
to ecstasy. The name of Washington has no meaning for his ear; but
that of St. Patrick is a living and potent reality." That statement,
however, must be taken with qualification. There are to-day 90,000
acres of land in Minnesota as thoroughly Irish as if they were planted
in the centre of Connaught. There are Pats and Pats. Many of the most
wealthy and prosperous merchants, bankers, and landowners whom we met
in the West were not merely of Irish extraction, but born Irishmen,
and the extraordinary spectacle of Irish millionaires who knew how to
keep their money, and to add to it, too, may be seen in San Francisco
and elsewhere in the West. Many, less fortunate, have high positions
either in the army, or as politicians, or in the estimation of all
that is great and good in America--such as Mr. O'Conor--men who have
held aloof from politics, and who could not be tempted, even by the
Presidentship, to enter the arena of party strife. One convicted rebel
of 1840 now occupies a leading place at the American bar. I heard him
denounce the Land Bill in terms he might have used in denouncing the
atrocities of the Saxon in his hot days when O'Connell was king. The
influence which has been acquired in many parts of the Union by the
Irish immigration and by the descendants of immigrants has naturally
excited at various times the opposition and indignation of the American
born, and it has always been more or less opposed by the Teutons of
different nationalities who occupy such a powerful position in all
the great States of the West. But "the Native Party" is now either
dead or sleeping. A very distinguished officer and politician said
to me that he had at one time been a most eager and ardent adherent
of the policy of the Native American Party, but that when he saw how
earnestly and devotedly the Irish had come forward in defence of the
Union, how brilliantly they had fought, and how recklessly they had
sacrificed their lives, in 1861, he felt constrained to abandon his
principles, and to admit their free right to all the privileges of
American citizenship. I could not, however, but recollect that General
Richard Taylor, in his most amusing, able, and graphic work on that
same war, from the Confederate side of the question, bore the strongest
testimony to the services of the Irish in the army which fought under
the banner of the Slave States. In New York and in San Francisco
the Irish element has exercised almost supreme control in municipal
matters, and it may be said, without offence I hope, that, whether
it be owing to the opposition they have encountered or to a radical
deficiency which may be Irish rather than Celtic, their management has
not conduced to the comfort of the cities or to the pecuniary purity
of the Executive. In San Francisco there is a strong anti-Irish press
and much anti-Irish feeling. The 'Argonaut' repudiates the thraldom of
the Irish associations and factions in the Far West as strenuously as
the 'Times' and 'Tribune' do in the East. But notwithstanding all that
may be written and done, it is impossible to resist the influence of
numbers under a system of suffrage so large as that which exists in
the greater number of the American States. It was curious to read in
a Californian paper an appeal to England to suppress Irish agitation.
"We confidently believe," says the _Argonaut_, "that the wisdom of
its public men, the healthful condition of its public opinion, and
the strength of its military power will be sufficient to crush out the
Land League movement, which is but incipient rebellion. That England
will deal justly, firmly, and successfully with this effort of united
ecclesiasticism and Communism is the earnest wish of every intelligent
and independent mind that believes in free government, the guarantees
of property, the rights, and the personal liberty of man." However,
there are American parties, if not statesmen, whose wishes are by no
means directed to such a consummation, and we must take note of the
fact.



CHAPTER VIII.

SOME GENERAL REFLECTIONS.

    Education--Free Schools--Influence of Money in
     Politics--Corruption in Public Life--Crime on the Western
     Borders--The Great Rebellion--Anniversaries--Great courtesy to
     strangers--Manners and Customs.

     "Westward the course of Empire takes its way;
       The four first acts already past,
     A fifth shall close the drama with the day,
       Time's noblest offspring is the last."


The "tar-water Bishop of Cloyne" would have been exceedingly astonished
could he have seen the first line of his prophecy or averment made to
do duty as a motto to Mr. Bancroft's History of the United States; but
surely if the prophecy be not realised, it will be the fault of the
agencies engaged in working it out--never in the history of mankind,
as we know it, have such advantages been enjoyed by any nation as have
been, and are, the appanage of the Americans of European origin in
the New World. They have leaped into the possession of their heritage
full armed, like Minerva from the brain of Jove. For them have all
the champions of human rights died or conquered, and the protagonists
of human struggles for liberty and light fought. For them Science has
trimmed her lamp--for them martyrs have died--for them Europe and Asia
have been in toil and travail for countless generations, and they have
been guided across the sea to a grand continent where it would seem as
if Nature had been engaged for myriads of ages to provide for their
happiness and grandeur--all climes and all products are theirs--the
bounteous plain, the ore-filled mountain, the treasures of the deep,
the heaven-made ways by lake and river, and it would be a despair for
all mankind if they misuse their glorious inheritance, and if all the
nations of the world see that the pillar of fire in the west was but
an _ignis fatuus_ dancing before their aching eyes in a Serbonian bog
of creeds and 'isms, of factions and faiths, all struggling towards
the gate of the Temple of Mammon. "Philosophers," in all the doubts and
fears which the condition of the Republic inspires at times, cling with
confidence to the palladium which is, they think, to be found in the
system of education based on the free schools of the States. If there
were not a distinction between knowledge and morality, they would be
justified; but the Evil One tempted us to eat of the fruit of the tree
which brought sin into the world, and if Americans are to be trusted
as authorities, the result of the largest and most liberal system of
education ever devised is not as happy in practice as it ought to be
according to theory.

As the central Government extended its sway over the Territories there
was a uniform system, when assigning land for public objects to railway
companies, of retaining for the School Fund a portion of the land
in each Territory, as it was settled and admitted as such, under the
control of the central Government. In the States Constitutions creating
Sovereign States, there are provisions inserted, varying very little in
language and not at all in spirit, which render it compulsory on the
Legislature of each State to maintain public schools free to all the
children of the people residing within its borders. Another principle,
of universal application, provided that all schools under public
control should be free from sectarian or denominational teaching, in
the schools or in the books used for educational purposes. With such
safeguards for the extension of education, it is depressing to find
that, in certain districts at all events, crime and immorality prevail
in the United States as extensively as in the benighted kingdoms of the
Continent of Europe. But the most serious consideration in connection
with the system of common schools in America, is the fact that serious
doubts are intruding themselves respecting the success of it. In a
recent official report it was stated that whereas the children who
ought to go to school numbered about fourteen and a half millions, the
average attendance was not more than five millions. But, assuming that
all the children went to school, there are people who declare that the
education given under the National system is by no means satisfactory.
Mr. R. G. White affirms that the system is a failure; and high
authorities assert that "any comparison between the results obtained
in the public schools of New York, Cincinnati, and Boston, with those
of such public grammar schools of England, as Bedford, Manchester, and
the City of London, is simply ridiculous." The teachers are continually
shifting, and when the teachers, as they do in this land of liberty,
go away, the schools are deserted, the constant services of a staff
cannot be retained unless there is very considerable increase in the
rate of payment now made to the male and female teachers. None of these
in any State have, I think, more than about 9_l._ per month. Mr. White
says that "the mass of the pupils of the public schools are unable to
read intelligently, to spell correctly, to write legibly, to describe
the geography of their own country, or do anything that reasonably well
educated children do with ease; and they cannot write a simple letter,
they cannot do readily a simple sum in practical arithmetic, they
cannot tell the meaning of any but the commonest of words they read and
spell so ill. They can give rules glibly, they can recite from memory,
they have some dry knowledge of the various ologies and osophies,
they can, some of them, read a little French or German with very bad
accent; but, as to all real education, they are as helpless and as
barren as if they had never crossed the threshold of a schoolhouse."
It is from American writers that these accusations against the common
school system are to be gleaned. Some statisticians say that crime and
pauperism are increasing far more rapidly than population. The charge
on the State for punishing criminals and keeping paupers last year was
$20,000,000, or £4,000,000; but it is too much to attribute crime and
pauperism to the defects of the schools. It might with more reason be
argued that the teaching of the people in the schools tends to develop
the looseness and eccentricity of thought, where there is no religious
teaching, which are exemplified in the uprising of extraordinary sects
and strange philosophies; for America is the land of spiritualists,
mesmerism, soothsaying, and mystical congregations. Mr. Hepworth Dixon
may not be a perfectly unimpeachable authority on the subject of the
number of spiritualists in America; but there can be no question they
are to be counted by millions. It is averred that believers in spirits
generally believe in "special affinities which imply a spiritual
relation of the sexes higher and holier than that of marriage." It is
not wonderful then that there should be also a very large number of
divorces, especially in the New England States. Mr. Nutting says that
"in the history of nations there has never but thrice occurred such
a breaking up of the family tie as is now taking place, especially in
Rhode Island and Connecticut, among the people of New England blood."
Mormonism, although of American origin and early growth, has been
mainly successful by the constant importation of ignorant peasants from
Europe.

There is a want of reverence on the part of children towards their
parents which is very striking. Americans who have admitted and
deplored this have sought to account for it by the school system,
wherein the State usurps the place of the parent, and teaches the young
idea to mock at any authority but that of the schoolmaster. It would be
lamentable to have to admit that free education is associated with the
weakening of parental influence. Theoretically, there is nothing in the
American system to prevent the teaching of religious and moral duties
by parents at home; but it would seem as if very little of that kind
of instruction was given by the busy fathers and anxious mothers of the
Republic, and that when the day's work is done at school, and some time
given to the preparation of the studies for the day to follow, there is
no further teaching.

I do not think the rule "By their fruits shall ye know them" can be
applied to the public schools, in connection with the prevalence of
crime, immorality, unbelief, or eccentric religion. But it is certain
the system has not by any means secured that high level of general
education, or what education is supposed to bring with it, which its
friends claim for it in the States. There is reason to believe that
the standard of morality has not been uniformly high in the political
world, and that in the public intelligence the judiciary does not
aspire to an absolute immunity from suspicion. Even in the old settled
States, legislators from time to time may be found, who, seated among
the good and wise, excite admiration akin to that which is aroused by
the spectacle of a fly in amber. It has been observed by travellers
that whatever affection may exist in families, it does not attain that
keen sensibility and lasting power which is found in French domestic
life.

When American newspapers of the greatest influence and circulation
write invectives against the corruption which prevails in places
high and low, when writers of great intelligence and known character
contribute similar articles to periodicals which possess the highest
position in the literary world of America, a stranger may be permitted
perhaps to say a few words respecting the impression produced upon
his mind by what he heard and read on the subject when he was in
the country, without it being alleged that he attempts to assail
the principles of free government, or to make invidious charges or
wholesale accusations against a nation. I know too well the force with
which Americans could retort if they were so minded, and how they could
point to the reports of election judges which set forth the prevalence
of extensive bribery, led to the suspension of writs, and will perhaps
end in the disfranchisement of some ancient and populous boroughs and
constituencies in England, and to the speeches of Sir Henry James in
Parliament, to cast any stone out of my glass house on that score;
but I do not think it can be established that persons in a position
at all analogous to that of the members of a State Legislature have
been purchased wholesale in England, Ireland or Scotland, or that even
a complete Borough Corporation had been bought up. Now, nothing was
more common in the Far West than to hear it stated openly that Senator
So-and-so had bought his place, and that Mr. So-and-so had purchased
a State Legislative body in order to "get through" some railway or
other scheme. That was accepted in fact as a matter of course, and
not contradicted or questioned by any one. We heard from time to time
of the sums which So-and-so would expend to buy his senatorship, and
of the money actually paid to secure the passage of a line from the
legislature of O---- and the like, whilst stories relating to the
purchase of judges were common in the conversation of the hotels and
cars.

I do not aver that these stories were true. I only know that they
passed current and were not challenged by those who were around us.
"Thoughtful persons," who exist in the United States as well as in
the vicinity of Pall Mall clubs, lament, deplore and hate the evils
of growing corruption with all the fervour of honest and powerless
natures. The mechanism is scarcely concealed. It stands before the
world with less attempt at disguise than the gallows in the gaol. Mr.
Parton, in the 'North American Review' of this July, writing on the
power of public plunder, says: "At present, in the ninety-fifth year
of the Constitution, we are face to face with a state of politics of
extreme simplicity, of which money is the motive, the means and the
end. What was the last Presidential election but a contest of purses?
The longest purse carried the day, and it carried the day because it
was the longest. Some innocent readers perhaps have wondered why the
famous orators who swayed vast multitudes day after day and night after
night, have not been recognised in the distribution of office. They
were paid in cash from ten dollars a night to a thousand dollars a
week." And then he goes on to describe the business in detail, and to
show what this power is. He says: "There is a boss in the city of New
York who will take a contract for putting a gentleman into Congress.
Pay him so much and you may go to sleep, wake up and find yourself
member elect. A boss is a man who can get to the polls on election
days masses of voters who care little or nothing for the issues of the
campaign and know of them still less. They operate upon the strangers
in the land who are unable to use its language and are unacquainted
with its politics." Mr. Parton describes with humour one of these
"bosses," an improvement on the pugilists and cormorant thieves of a
remote period. "The Emerald Isle gave him birth; the streets of New
York, education. To see the brawny, good-tempered Irishman walking
abroad in his district when politics are active is to get an idea
of how the chief of a clan strode his native heath when a marauding
expedition was on foot. He lives in a handsome house, and has more
property than any man has ever been able to get by legitimate service
to the United States. He treats his dependants and retainers nobly, but
as the agent and organiser of spoliation he is a prey to every minor
scoundrel, for at certain seasons he dare not say no to any living
creature. And yet it requires tact, self-possession and resource to
move about among needy people with a pocket full of money, an embodied
"yes," and have some of it left after the election. The strikers, as
they are called, go for solid cash now instead of target companies and
clambakes for which the candidates paid the bills." "Money, money,"
exclaims Mr. Parton, "everywhere in politics, in prodigal abundance,
money, except where it could secure and reward good service for the
public, hecatombs for the wolves, precarious bones for the watchdogs."
The details in the article are precise, and if they are to be trusted
it may be doubted whether the claims of the United States to possess
a cheap government can be maintained, for it is not cheap to pay
responsible executive officers a precarious pittance per annum if
now and then it costs a million dollars to change them. Mr. Secretary
Blaine has thrice declared that the election in October 1880 in the
State of Maine, a model New England State, was carried by money. His
opponents declared that he and his party were as bad, and that they
too flooded the towns with money. What renders the situation more
dangerous is the fact that the men who provide the money for running
these enormously expensive political combinations are either seekers
after, or holders of, office, and the inference is that they seek to
control Government, or, as Mr. Parton puts it, that "the Government
is coming to be rather an appendage to a circle of wealthy operators
than a restraint upon them." That is indeed a serious proposition, and
the result of observation goes to support the idea that it is valid.
The small man is in office, but the big man, his master, is outside.
The mischief is brought prominently forward in connection with the
sale of public lands in the North-West, which have been claimed as the
heritage of the people, and indeed of all the nations of the world. The
government land attracted the hardy labour of all countries, covering
the western west with thriving towns and populous counties. But now
the prairies are skinned by rich men, by "land-grabbers," people who
buy up tracts of twenty thousand or thirty thousand acres wherever
they can lay their hands upon them, evading the law and filling the
western world with roving labourers who work on these prodigious farms
in summer and starve in winter. This is, we are told, the result of
"government by lobby."

Occasionally there is an exceeding great and bitter cry over all this
from the depths of the body politic. Some great paper in a moment of
deep mental agony publishes an article like that, to which I have
called attention, by Mr. Parton; occasionally some preacher, nobly
daring, thinks it necessary to direct attention, from his pulpit, to
the progress of corruption. Dr. Talmage delivered a very remarkable
discourse whilst I was in America on the text from Job. xv. 34: "Fire
shall consume the tabernacles of bribery." Although I do not profess
exactly to understand to what particular sect he belongs, he is one of
the leaders of religious thought, dividing with Beecher and others the
popular favour in the Empire City. The State buildings at Albany ought
to be heavily insured if the reverend gentleman's vaticinations are
right. It was an American discourse. I cannot give the whole oration.
The people of the Brooklyn Tabernacle were presented with a muster-roll
of the people who had distinguished themselves amongst the great ones
of the world. Cobden, Brougham, O'Connell and Rowland Hill were placed
in juxtaposition as leaders on our side of the water. Of course it was
impossible to resist the allusion to Francis Bacon and to Macclesfield;
but it was scarcely correct to say that the Lord Chancellor
Whiteberry--I presume a misprint for Westbury--"perished," nor do I
quite understand what the preacher meant by the awful tragedy of the
_Credit Mobilier_. Washington, Ben Butler, and John McClean were linked
together for the benefit of Americans. They were, Dr. Talmage declared,
great politicians, but "out of politics there has come one monstrous
sin, potent and pestiferous, its two hands rotten with leprosy,
its right hand deep in its breeches pocket. This is bribery." Dr.
Talmage called upon the American people to judge the crime. "Under the
temptation of this sin," he exclaimed, "Benedict Arnold sold the fort
in the Highlands for thirty-one thousand three hundred and seventy-five
dollars; Gorgy betrayed Hungary, Ahitophel forsook David, Judas killed
Christ. I think," he says, "when I see the strong men who have gone
down, of the Red Dragon in Revelation, having seven heads and ten
horns, and seven crowns upon its head, drawing the third part of the
stars of heaven after it." And therefore he proceeds to preach against
bribery. He thought it was the right time, "because the Legislature
in New York is busy in investigating charges of bribery. The whole
country woke up in holy horror at the charge that two thousand dollars
had been offered to influence a vote in the Legislature, as if this
was something new; as though in one State nine hundred and seventy-five
thousand dollars had not been paid a legislator of the State Government
by a railway company to get its charter and secure a dedication of
public lands; as though three-quarters of the legislators of the United
States had not, through bribery, gone into putrefaction whose stench
reached heaven. After a few weeks' hunting the squirrel has stolen the
hickory nut. Gentlemen in New York hunt out wrong by day and play poker
and old sledge at night at Delavan House. It was like the country which
had spent six millions of dollars in lawsuits about William Tweed going
suddenly into hysterics when it found out that he had stolen a box of
steel pens. California is submerged in the grip of a great monopoly; in
Kansas United States senators had been involved in charges of bribery;
in Connecticut an election to Congress was bought as men might buy
a box of strawberries. Last year they were convicted of attempting
bribery in Pennsylvania, but the Court of Pardons liberated them with
the exception of two judges, who were told that they would be cut off
from political preferment for their obstinacy. A Pennsylvania United
States senator used to put a price on legislators just as a Kentuckian
puts a price on his horse." But it was not legislators alone that Dr.
Talmage attacked. He declared that the railways, the common carriers
of the country, were tainted by a favouritism which was, in fact,
the result of bribery. One company made rebates in its fares to some
favoured corporation, as in the case of a petroleum company, which
was enabled to control the price of that light all over the world in
consequence of a virtual monopoly that was given to it by arrangement
with the railway. In the same way merchandise in grain, provisions,
and cattle are placed in the hands of a few firms. "How much," asks
Dr. Talmage, "did it cost the Elevated Railroad to keep the fare from
dropping to five cents from ten cents? I have been told," said he,
"three hundred thousand dollars," which is 60,000_l._ "Very seldom
does a bill pass through any of our Legislatures if there be no money
in it. Sometimes the bribery is in bank bills, sometimes in railroad
passes, sometimes in political preferment, sometimes by the monopolies
given to the legislators, what are called points, a corner, a flier, a
cover, washing the street, salting down, ten up! If you want to know
what these are, ask the bribed members at Albany and Harrisburg."
Then he goes on, with some truth, to declare that the bribery begins
far away behind all this; that it is really with the money subscribed
for election expenses that the evil begins its course. "From the big
reservoirs of subscribed election expenses the little rills roll down
in ten thousand directions, and by the time the great gubernatorial,
congressional, and presidential elections are over, the land is drunk
with bribery." Perhaps it is quite as well that it is from an American
orator and from an American writer such statements and such indictments
proceed, rather than from a stranger like myself; but it is very clear
that the evil which De Tocqueville indicated long ago has spread rather
than diminished, and there is reason to think that it will do so until
the public conscience of a great people is aroused to a sense of the
enormity of the mischief. But it lies far down towards the base of
the national institutions, and any attempt to extirpate it will fail
until the doctrines of the "Spoils to the Victors" be rejected from the
political catechism, and the interests of party made the means and not
the end of political life.

The letters which appeared in the _Morning Post_, written under
the influence of the surprise and anger I felt at the extent and
impunity of crimes of violence and the state of feeling, or want of
it, respecting them in the West, were badly received in America, and
were severely handled by a few papers, as I was informed; I expected
that the mention of the subject would not prove agreeable, though
I guarded myself most sedulously from a single offensive word--nay,
went out of my way to palliate the offences against life and living,
and to excuse the people who allowed them, whilst I most carefully
drew the line--a broad one--between these border ruffians and the
law-abiding, virtuous people of the settled States. I was not, however,
prepared for misrepresentation. One would have thought that I accused
the kind hosts who had received us--our generous entertainers in
so many cities--the courteous, polished gentlemen who accompanied
us--of murder and robbery, and ascribed to them the brutal murders
committed by Canty or the Kid. As I quoted chapter and verse, and as
the papers which vilified me could not deny the statements, they wrote
that I had been imposed upon by the vivid fancy--in other phrase,
the deliberate lying--of their brother editors in the West. One organ
had the effrontery to declare that the Duke of Sutherland expressed
his delight at the kind and courteous treatment of the ruffians I
denounced; adding, "somebody lied--it was not the Duke." No. It was not
indeed! A friend sent me one of these, and below an article in which it
was said that I might take my place "beside Basil Hall, Mrs. Trollope,
and Dickens for libelling the people of the United States," and that
my stories were all inventions, there was a pregnant commentary as
follows:--"Sunday, July 17th: Daring Train Robbery; Bandits Boarding
Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific Cars; The Conductor and a Passenger
Shot Dead, and the Safe in the Express Car Robbed; the Passengers Saved
by a Brakeman."

I hope it will not be imagined that I have any desire to cast obloquy
on the grand efforts, supremely successful as they have been, to
turn the prairie and the desert to the uses of civilised man and
of the world, and to open up the Western Continent to humanity and
civilisation. I am too sensible of the courtesy, ready service, and
hospitality everywhere accorded to the party of English travellers
of which I was one, to write one word which I thought calculated to
give pain or offence to any of our many friends or to any right-minded
American. _Maculæ solis!_ 'Tis a pity they are there! In a few years,
perhaps, the memory that such things were will have passed away like
the recollection of some evil dream. But public sentiment must make
itself felt, and above all there must be some abatement of the maudlin
sympathy, which is virtually on the side of crime, if it be active in
averting punishment.

Crime in America, especially in the Eastern States, is very much
the same as it is in other countries, but in the far West there is
more recklessness in dealing with human life, which, in spite of the
Howard Society and of humanitarians, I believe to be connected with
the indulgence extended under State laws by American judges and juries
to criminals who appear to be deserving of nothing but the strict
and unmitigated application of the rope. "Property" is safe, for the
citizens hunt down with extraordinary energy marauders whose object is
simply plunder. Ordinary robbers and gangs of burglars are speedily
and summarily suppressed. It is otherwise with those who assail life
and limb. The desperadoes who infest the "saloons," as they are called,
with which every western settlement is sure to be provided as soon as
the shingle roofs are placed on the earliest upheaval of deal planks
which can be called a dwelling, have far greater immunity and freedom
than burglars or robbers. Wherever the train stopped for water on
our journey in New Mexico, Western Colorado, or Eastern California, a
rectangular wooden box, with a verandah, open doors, windows screened
by a muslin curtain, perhaps a flagstaff with the Stars and Stripes
flying, a large signboard, and some high-sounding name--the "Grand
Alliance," "Union League," "El Dorado," "Harmonium," "Arcadia," or
the like--was visible, with the usual group of booted and bearded
miners, and their horses hitched up at the door-posts in front; inside
you would be certain to find men of the same class at a bar, behind
which, known for miles around, the affable Charlie, Bill, or Bob was
dispensing drinks and mixing cocktails, slings, and the other drinks,
in which the badness of the spirit is artfully disguised by a stimulant
of a more active character and more pronounced flavour, known as
"bitters," and kept in subjugation by the liberal use of ice. For even
in these burning regions ice is stored up as the one thing needful. The
rudest miner is accustomed to it; iced drinks are consumed by classes
in America far below the social level of those who never taste them in
this country.

As the train was halting at Colorado Springs the stewards engaged
in an animated discussion respecting a certain erection of poles and
rafters just visible in an adjacent field. "I tell you dat's it." "I
say tidn't." They were discussing the probability of the scaffolding
being the gallows whereon "Canty, the Buena Vista murderer," was to be
hanged the day after. On April 29th, last year, Mr. Canty was standing
on the platform in front of Lake-house with "Johnny the Ham," "Curly
Frank," and "Off Wheeler," when Thomas Perkins appeared in an alley
opposite, endeavouring "to induce 'Dutch Bill' to go with him to the
office of Justice Casey, who had deputised him for the purpose." Canty
and his companions at once ran across and demanded his release. Before
Perkins could answer, Canty fired and missed him. The second shot
wounded Perkins in the arm; the latter drew his pistol, but before he
could use it Canty fired; the ball shattered the constable's hand. "For
God's sake," he exclaimed, "is there no policeman to help me?" He fell,
and Canty, walking close to his side, coolly sent a bullet through
his body. He was arrested, tried, and convicted. His counsel applied
to the Supreme Court for a _supersedeas_, but the court, after solemn
argument, refused the application. Then they applied to the Governor
of the State, but Mr. Pitkin, though "a weak-kneed man," would neither
grant a reprieve nor a commutation to imprisonment for life. There
was, he said, no ground "to set aside a verdict of a competent jury
and the district judge reviewed and approved of by the Supreme Court."
In the very last hour a woman came forward, and the Denver paper gave
_verbatim et literatim_ the text of the document in which ... "with dew
regard," she offered Sheriff Spangler $50,000 (10,000_l._) to save the
life of W. H. Canty, her cousin, whose real name was, she said, N. H.
Salisbury. "I entreat you to have him spared till you have an interview
with me." She added that "Jennings and his brother in Leadville would
pay a still larger sum. You may have ample means for life," &c. A
gentleman of the press, who came into our train at South Arkansas,
was present at the execution. Just before the drop fell, Canty, who
had expressed complete confidence in his ultimate liberation till the
day before his execution, spoke for fifteen minutes, protesting his
innocence. Then he exclaimed, "Good-bye, nothing can save me. I have
faith in the Saviour and a hereafter." The trap was sprung, but to the
horror of every one, the rope broke at the beam. The murderer's neck,
however, was dislocated, and "a happy relief was experienced" when
it was found he had died a painless death. As he was the nephew of an
eminent statesman it was expected his friends would take action as to
the disposal of his remains, which were put "in a neat casket at the
sheriff's expense." In the journal there was a woodcut of the murderer.
"Before his likeness could be taken holes were bored in the door and
Canty was lashed to it, and then, when the door was set upright, the
photographer watched a favourable opportunity when the head and eyes
were quiet and secured the impression" from which the engraving was
made. He was not so fortunate as Frank Gilbert, who was sentenced to
be hanged the following day for a brutal murder, but respited, "in
order that the proceedings may be reviewed by the highest judicial
tribunal," by Governor Pitkin at the last moment, "till July 29," the
day on which Rosencrantz is now sentenced to be hanged. The sheriff,
Judge Ward, the clerk of the court, and the prosecuting attorney
joined with others in petitions to the governor on the ground that
the Supreme Court judges had refused a _supersedeas_ in consequence of
the defects and informalities of the record of the proceedings in the
court below. Rosencrantz was respited, and the public, who had been
expecting a double execution on the 18th of June, were disappointed,
although they were allowed to slake their curiosity by the sight of the
condemned men and by testing the ropes in the prison enclosure where
the scaffold was ready. In the paper which gave the text of Governor
Pitkin's reprieve there was a heading "Done Brown. Al. Huggins,
marshal of Recene, turns out a bad man. He shoots and fatally wounds
officer Brown of Kokomo." Phil. Foote, constable of Kokomo, formerly
marshal of Robinson, and Al. Huggins, marshal of Recene, it seems had
spent the night in visiting the saloons of Kokomo, and in the early
morning began to fire their pistols and guns off in the street, and
continued to do so until Andy Sutton, marshal of Kokomo, attempted to
arrest them, but failed, "as he was quickly covered by two rifles."
Mr. Brown, a police officer, asked Huggins to put up his pistol, and,
to encourage him, proceeded to pocket his own revolver, when Huggins
took deliberate aim with a 38-calibre Colt and shot Brown in the left
breast, just above the heart. Huggins and Foote started for Recene.
The marshal of Kokomo followed quickly in pursuit, with a large body
of men. Huggins refused to surrender, whereupon the marshal shot him
in the face. As there was a movement to lynch him, Al. Huggins was
sent under strong guard to Leadville, but Foote escaped. "Brown was
not dead by last accounts, but was not expected to live long." Then
came a long account of another "Denver tragedy. Charles Stickney
murders Mr. T. Campan and Mrs. H. O. Devereux in a boarding-house."
Stickney was nephew of ex-Governor Clifford, of Rhode Island, served as
lieutenant, 20th Regiment, in the war of 1861-4, graduated at Harvard,
became principal of a school, married a lady whom he sent to London
to study music, and tried mining whilst his wife was giving music
lessons in Denver. There she met Mr. Campan, one of the best families
in Detroit; Stickney shot him and killed a woman who was in the room
at the same time. "Public opinion is in favour of Stickney, and he will
probably be reprimanded." The evening of the day we reached Leadville,
"Alderman Johnnie M'Combe, a leading candidate for lieutenant-governor
and mayor, and last spring before the people for city treasurer,"
shot and wounded, probably fatally, a well-known actor named James
M'Donald, because the latter had taken some children in M'Combe's
buggy for a drive. It is not easy to determine how far Johnnie's chance
of office may be affected by this ebullition, but the newspapers did
not write of it with harshness; one gave it a comic character by the
heading, "Ex-Alderman M'Combe attempts to perforate Jemmy M'Donald's
cranium." In my morning paper of the same date I find that "James Hogan
was foully murdered by James M'Cue in the open streets of Erie this
afternoon in a quarrel about a handkerchief;" that Dr. Flemings, a
prominent citizen of Portland, Ashley County, Arkansas, had appeased
a quarrel between a pedlar named Gillmore and a coloured man very
effectually, for, "incensed by a remark made by the pedlar, the doctor
drew a pistol and shot him dead;" that "a prominent business man of
M'Leansboro' had made a sensation on the streets to-day by hunting
up, pistol in hand, one of the gay Lotharios of Hamilton County;"
that "Daniel Keller, deputy county clerk, was stabbed and killed in
the street of Virginia City by Dennis Hennessy, a kerbstone broker;"
that "a searching party under Captain Leper had overhauled Hamilton,
Myers and Brown, the outlaws who shot Sheriff Davis and Collector
Hatter at Poplar Bluff, Mo.; killed Hamilton, mortally wounded Myers,
and made Brown a prisoner;" that "James Hurd shot Jeff Anderson at
Alamosa, Col., and that it was feared the latter would not survive."
An account of the death of "Curly Bill," a notorious desperado, leader
of cowboys and murderer of Marshal White, who was killed at Caleyville,
Arizona, by his comrade, Jem Wallace, followed. They had a quarrel (of
course, in a saloon). After a few drinks "Curly Bill" said, "I guess
I will kill you on general principles." Wallace stepped out of the
saloon and immediately opened fire, inflicting a mortal wound on his
foe. After a brief hearing Wallace was discharged, and left for parts
unknown. Then it was related how "Thomas Clarey ('Tommy the Kid'), a
Durango outlaw, was killed by a comrade named Eskridge at Annego while
drunk." A fratricide and three trials for murder were duly recorded.
Another paper gave an account of South-West Colorado from the lips
of a recent visitor to San Juan County. "Are you going back to San
Juan? No, I think not; but it is a glorious country. The men there
are a little rough, and kill each other on slight provocation; but a
peaceable man who does not swagger and blow is not molested. There is
no law, and courts and constables are unknown." He narrates how Aleck
----, acting as a barkeeper, "a noble-hearted, jovial fellow, full of
fun, who looked you square in the eye, owns mines, said to be worth
a million," settled a difficulty; I am inclined to think Mr. Charles
Klunk rather drew on the interviewing reporter of the _Globe Democrat_.
He was, he said, going to see a stockman who lived about fifty miles
from the house where he was visiting. A farmer said to him "Come and
take a drink with me, and I'll show you the barkeeper who killed the
man you are going to see an hour ago." The stockman had come into
the saloon whilst Aleck was in the back room, and began to abuse him.
Aleck heard him, opened on the man with a revolver, and "shot him full
of holes. Next day I asked him what he was going to do about it, and
he said he had been tried and acquitted, which meant that some of the
leading men had told him that he had done right. There was no trial
about it. When a man kills another out there in a fight they don't
inquire very strictly into the circumstances, but make up their minds
that they can't bring the dead man to life by hanging the killer, so
nothing is done about it. But when a man murders another to rob him,
the vigilants turn out and have no mercy on him. They just fill his
skin with lead and tumble him into a hole like a wolf. After all,
though the bears are plentiful in the spring, you can kill a deer 100
yards from the house where you like, the streams are alive with trout,
the vegetables and crops splendid." Mr. Charles Klunk's resolution not
to go back to this Happy Valley seems founded on sound constitutional
principles. What I wish to point out is the condition in which the
Central Government and State Governments have permitted many districts
of New Mexico, Colorado, and California to remain. It is plain that
the peculiar conditions under which the sway of the United States has
been extended over the regions of the Far West have rendered it very
difficult to establish the machinery for protecting life and property
and punishing crime; but I do not see that the statesmen at Washington
or the legislators at the State capitals are very much concerned at
the reign of terror which prevails on the borders, or that they seek
to impress on their people any regard for the sacredness of life. In
fact, human life is almost a drug in the market. And I write fully
sensible of the failures of our own and of all European Governments to
repress crime, to prevent violence, and to ensure security to life and
property. I am aware that Ireland and Poland are to the fore, and that
wife-beating and "running kicks" illustrate the brutality of Lancashire
and other districts--that London has its Alsatias, that every European
capital has foul recesses in which the only laws are those of crime.
All the world is busy preparing shoals of emigrants for the United
States. It is only, however, when some savage outbreak affrighting the
propriety of a great city arouses indignation and fear that there is
a clamour for measures of repression. I do not think there is in any
other part of the world, or that there ever has been in any civilised
country, such shootings as have filled the land to which I allude with
bloodshed. It may be said with truth that there never have been and
that there are not any similar conditions in the world. But the absence
of any great abiding movement for the correction and suppression of
violence and lawlessness cannot be so readily accounted for or excused.
There appears to be a sort of admiration for these border ruffians
among portions of the American Press and public. Even a staid paper
like the _Republican_, in an article headed "South-East Missouri: the
Reign of Lawlessness about Ended," on the destruction of the New Madrid
gang, writes of one who was sent to the penitentiary for thirty years
"as a living monument of a bold and brave lot of desperate men who had
started out to make money by robbing their fellow-men. This swift and
stern justice speaks well for this portion of the States, which has had
for a long time more than its full quota of these lawless characters.
Myers and Brown will be hung on the 15th July, and their execution will
be witnessed by thousands of South-East Missourians." The spectacle
of the hanging will not do much good, if it be like the execution at
Colorado Springs, which was advertised as a sort of picnic or pleasure
excursion. One advertisement ran, "After the hanging to-morrow drink
La Salle beer; it will cool your nerves." "Highway robbery here has
about run its course, and the people are determined that lawlessness
in those regions shall no longer go unwhipped of justice." Very good.
But, why not sooner and long ago? "Rhodes was hung by Judge Lynch
when captured at the killing of young Laforge in New Madrid;" but the
gang killed the sheriff and wounded the deputy-sheriff and collector
before the people arose in their majesty to squelch them. A criminal
is invested with a notoriety which, next to popular estimation, is
valued by some men, and it is noted with interest that "Gilbert" (one
pitiless murderer) is a Catholic, and that "Rosengrants" (another
homicide) "inclines towards the Episcopalians." A Leadville doctor
visits one of them to ask for his body. "No, sirree, you can't have
my body; I'll be hanged first!" And the public laugh at the lively
sally, and admire the _sangfroid_ of the wit! In fact, there is a
_tendresse_ for crime in this grim humour. A Texan who would "fill the
skin" of a stranger "with lead" for aspersing Texas would no doubt
heartily enjoy the description of the early population of the Lone
Star State, which I quote from the Texas Press. "In the early days
of the Republic, and even after annexation, many of the white men who
came here had strong sanitary reasons for a change of climate, having
been threatened with throat disease so sudden and dangerous that the
slightest delay in moving to a new and milder climate would have been
fatal, the subjects dying of dislocation of the spinal vertebræ at the
end of a few minutes--and a rope. A great many left Arkansas, Indiana,
and other States in such a hurry that they were obliged to borrow the
horses on which they rode to Texas. They mostly recovered on reaching
Austin, and many invalids began to feel better and consider themselves
out of danger as soon as they crossed the Brancos River. Some who would
not have lived twenty-four hours longer had they not left their homes
reached a green old age in Western Texas, and were never again in risk
of the bronchial affection already referred to by carefully avoiding
the causes which led to their trouble. Some at Austin recovered so
far as to be able to run for office, within a year, though defeated
by a respectable majority, owing to the atmosphere and the popularity
of the other candidate." The most extraordinary fact connected with
the indulgence which is extended to Western excesses is the severity
with which Northern and Eastern writers and publicists deal with
the recklessness of Southerners with regard to life, as if it were a
political question in some way connected with slavery. In an article on
"Colonisation," in the July number of 'The International Review,' there
is an attempt to prove that the prevalence of homicide in the South as
compared with the North has impeded the flow of immigrants, although
slavery has disappeared, and the writer, quoting Mr. Redfield's book
on 'Homicide North and South,' says the terrible "scourge of open
murder, wholly irrespective of political causes more deadly than
disease or yellow fever, because each death is the result of a heinous
crime, seems to be calmly accepted by public opinion as a part of
the unchangeable conditions of social life in the South. In Kentucky
more men are killed in six days than in eight years in Vermont. In a
village of Connecticut a death from homicide has never occurred from
its foundation, while in one graveyard in Owen County, Kentucky, the
majority are murdered men, and in another county forty-two persons
were killed and forty-three wounded in two years." But in the very same
number of the 'International' there is an account of the doings of the
"Vigilance Committee" of San Francisco (where there were no slaves and
where there is immense wealth), which might cause the author of the
paper on "Colonisation" to reflect a little on his theories. Surely in
Arizona, California, &c., where the foreign population is 50 per cent.
of the natives, immigration has not been checked by the prevalence of
homicide? It must not be supposed that there is no "law" in the towns
where these crimes have been committed; in all the cases referred to
the coroner did his office and verdicts were returned, and it will have
been seen that "wretches hang" in due course. We had intended to visit
the State prison at Cañon City on our way to Pueblo from Leadville,
where we were promised an opportunity of seeing "thirty murderers all
in a row," but the delay of the train on the road deprived us of the
means of verifying the statement, and I give it as it was made. It
would seem as if the criminal supply were super-abundant, or that death
on the gallows had no deterrent influence. The chances of escape are,
if not numerous, at least considerable. At Deming, Denver, Leadville,
Tucson, Tombstone, and other cities, the vast mass of the inhabitants
are law-abiding, peaceable, honest, and honourable men, who feel as
much horror at the violence and bloodshed around them as the most
refined lady in any saloon of Boston, Paris, or London, but they appear
to endure these things in the hope that the law will be enforced at
last; now and then they break into vigilance committees and execute
their own decrees, though the judges do not fail to lay it down that
they have been accessories to murder. The great civiliser and police
agent is the railroad. It is affirmed that as the iron way is pushed on
the outlaws and the _personnel_ of outlawry congregate at the terminal
town, but I suspect that there is a fringe of the material left on the
border as it runs. As our party were at dinner in the palace-car one
evening the train pulled up at a station. There was a group of rough
men on the platform, who stared in with all their eyes at the white
tablecloth, set with bright glass and silver, and at the cheerful faces
under the lamps. "How merry they are. I wonder if they know that this
is Dodge City?" exclaimed one of the crowd. I was told by an official
that when they were making a railway in these parts the surveyors, &c.,
were much troubled by gangs of gamblers and robbers, who impeded the
work and debauched the men, so after due warning they made a razzia
on the gamblers, shot a lot of them, and the rest "vamosed." There was
not very long ago an actual war in the Grand Cañon Valley between the
Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fé Railway and the Denver and Rio Grande
Railway, in which there was an array of armed forces and fighting on
both sides, and we saw with our own eyes the remains of the breastworks
cast up in the Grand Cañon by the belligerents. The law came in at
last. "One side got at the judge first and gave him $50,000. The
other was quite ready to go beyond that, but the first was too quick,
and the suit went against the company." I was talking to a lawyer
about the length of time which is allowed by the judges to criminals
sentenced to death as a detail of the execution of the law not in
accordance with the general practice of civilised nations, when one
of the company remarked, "They must do it, sir, to please the people.
If we had Judas Iscariot in gaol to-morrow there would be thousands
of petitions to commute his sentence, and thousands of dollars ready
for an appeal to the Supreme Court. Our people don't like prompt
sentence." Nevertheless, sentence and execution are pretty swift when
the desperadoes take the law into their own hands, as we have seen.
The revolver and the "saloon" are the agents and the scene in most of
these murders, and whisky is too often the motive power. In Kansas it
is a criminal offence to sell any intoxicating spirit, or to use it
except on medical certificate. It is said that the law cannot last, but
it surely was a very strong conviction of the evils which were endured
by the community that brought a State Legislature, elected by the
people, to enact that beer, wine, and spirits should be absolutely and
entirely banished from its borders. Lately there was a prosecution by
the State attorney of a man for selling spirits. The case was clearly
proved. The judge charged the jury in the strongest manner against the
defendant. The jury without retiring at once found a verdict of "not
guilty." "Boys," exclaimed the judge, putting his hand on the foreman's
shoulder, "Boys, I'm quite with you." The Kansas case will be, I think,
watched with great interest by the rival parties in England, and it is
certainly worth investigation and attention, for, if all I hear be true
here, a Parliament elected by the people either in advance or in the
rear of their constituents have passed a law which judges condemn, and
juries evade, and public opinion derides.

From a British, which may be an unintelligent, point of view, there
is a want of logical method in the treatment of the Great Rebellion
question by Americans. There is a general disposition to speak of the
war between the Federal Government and the people of the Confederate
States as an historical fact which has ceased to present burning
controversies and terrible issues to the Republic. But, at the same
time, these controversies are kept alive, and, for the defeated, are
stirred up incessantly by anniversaries and celebrations, natural but,
if it be the object of Americans, as many of them assure us it is,
to let the memory of the past die out like that of a horrid dream,
impolitic. The spirit which animated the Southern States is neither
dead nor sleeping. But there are no end of G. A. P. and G. A. R.
Associations flourishing their banners and waving their sheathed swords
in and out of the newspapers, and it is almost more than Southern
flesh and blood can bear at times to be reminded of the defeats they
sustained, even if they be content to admit that the doctrine of the
sovereignty of States was a delusion, and that the indivisibility of
the Republic was a fundamental principle of the Constitution before it
was conclusively established by force of arms.

North and South, our good cousins are fond of anniversaries and
speechmakings. I wonder where they get their taste for them from?
Some few veterans dine together on anniversaries of old French war
days, and there is a Balaclava Dinner in the Old Country; but, though
we have a reasonably long list of fighting successes to commemorate,
their anniversaries are mostly left to the almanacks. The other day
the Americans had a celebration of the Battle of Cowpens, wherein the
heroic Morgan gave the diabolical Tarleton the deuce of a whipping. I
wonder if it was worth remembering? But it is better to remember such
things perhaps than Sherman's Raid or Wilderness--or Chickahominy.
There are bitternesses enough remaining--the rivalries and jealousies
of generals are still active and these memories might be left to die
out.

The great war which so deeply moved the population of the United States
has left many traces in Soldiers' Homes, and men deprived of legs or
arms, or bearing marks of indelible wounds, are to be met with wherever
there is any considerable gathering of people all over the Union. The
clerk at the bar of the hotel, to whom we were talking a moment ago,
was a captain in a regiment of militia, and served with distinction,
having risen to the grade he occupies by conduct and courage during the
war; and if he is known among his friends by the title of "Colonel,"
he deserves, probably, the brevet conferred upon him by the authority
of the general public around him. The conductor of the train on the
Pennsylvania Railroad, to whose attention we were so much indebted, was
an ex-officer of volunteers, was engaged at the first battle of Bull
Run, where he was wounded, and in several other actions. And our good
friend the Major, who enabled us to pass many an hour listening to his
admirable rendering of negro minstrelsy, bore in his body a proof of
the dangers he had passed, in the shape of a Confederate bullet, or
it might have been (for I am not quite sure now) a projectile of the
Federal persuasion. And so on. Scarcely a day passed that we did not
meet someone who had been fighting on one side or the other.

One great change has come over Americans since I was last here, and,
whether it was the ridicule to which they were exposed or to a sense
of their greatness as a nation that it be due, it is to be commended.
Except by a professional interviewer, not one of the party was asked,
"What do you think, sir, of our country?"!

The welcome which an Englishman who is entitled to admission into
good society receives all over the States, in the best houses, and
from the best men, is as gracious and warm as ever. It seems as if a
reaction against the suspicion, jealousy, and harshness which marred
the political relations of the Republic and Great Britain in times gone
by, moved those who behave with so much courtesy to Englishmen, and
that they seem to say, _sotto voce_, "Come and see how I forget the
wrongs done to the United States by the Ministers of George III. and
his successors! Admit that I can be as magnanimous as I am rich and
cultivated! I am of your house, but I have transplanted all the good
qualities of your race to American soil, and grafted them on the tree
of liberty which towers aloft in all the splendour of Transatlantic
luxuriance above us."



CHAPTER IX.

THE RED MAN AND HIS DESTINY.

    Captain Pratt--Carlisle Barracks--An Indian Bowman--The Indian
     Question--The Pupils' Gossip--The "School News"--Indian
     Visitors--The White Mother--The India Office--White and
     Red--Quo Quousque?--Indian Title Deeds--The Reservations--The
     Indian Agencies--Missionary Efforts--The Red Man and the
     Maori.


On the 5th of May the party visited Carlisle Fort or Barracks, one of
the ancient military establishments of the Republic, where in the old
times, speaking in an American sense, a considerable force was usually
concentrated to keep watch and ward over the western frontiers, now
extended thousands of miles away to the Pacific. The Barrack, which
is a large quadrangle capable of containing a couple of regiments, is
appropriated by the Government to this great experiment, the systematic
education of the Indians of both sexes, whose families send them to
school for the purpose of learning English and useful arts, mechanical
and other, which may be of advantage to their people. It was, perhaps,
one of the most interesting of the many little excursions which the
Duke of Sutherland and his friends made in the States, and as it was
the only one of the schools which we had an opportunity of seeing I
shall proceed to give a little account of what we witnessed. In the
first place let me express the sense which every one of us entertained
of the real sterling qualities of Captain Pratt who is in charge of
the school, and of the devotion and solicitude for their charges of
those ladies employed in the training establishment. It may be asked
how casual visitors could judge of these things? The discipline,
order, progress, and perfect method visible in every room, and the
intelligence and good understanding between the teachers and the pupils
which could be perceived throughout the establishment, were adequate
proofs, I think, that the praise is well deserved. At the time of our
visit there were something under three hundred pupils, of whom perhaps
two hundred were boys, and these were engaged in their class-rooms,
each section of Indians being arranged according to nationality, if
such a term can be used. But, indeed, the tribes of Indians differed
from each other in personal appearance far more than do the races
which inhabit the European continent. It is true they nearly all have
straight wire-like black hair and eyes set deeply and rather obliquely
in faces which are frequently of the Mongol type. But there is great
diversity in the shape of the head, the angle of the jaw, the formation
of the mouth and nose, the colour (when not tainted or "improved" by
an admixture of European blood, whether Mexican or American or other)
being pretty uniform, a rich bronze, with something of a copper hue,
predominating in the young people. The boys were dressed in a plain
neat uniform of greyish-blue, military tunics and trousers, well shod
and comfortably equipped in all respects. The girls, amongst whom,
perhaps, taste for eccentric finery was not unobservable, wore dresses
less uniform in appearance, generally neat and always clean; but
their foot gear was rather eccentric. The rooms, spacious barrack-like
apartments, well ventilated, were appropriated to the classes according
to age and progress, the boys being separated from the girls. The walls
were hung with maps and furnished with educational coloured prints, and
boards for arithmetical exercises were in each apartment. The desks and
stools were such as would be seen in an ordinary school, and if one had
not looked at the faces of the pupils and been struck by some of the
strange characters on the walls he would have thought himself in the
middle of some ordinary school; save, perhaps, that his ear would have
missed the curious humming noise which marks the industry of idleness
or of legitimate work in similar establishments in Europe. But here
were all these young savages, poring over their books or boring with
their pens, looking up at the visitors scarcely with curiosity and
applying themselves again to their work, or answering questions put
to them with the composure which must be a portion of the Red Man's
nature.

I cannot recollect how many tribes there were represented at the
Carlisle school; but I was struck by the race-distinctions which could
be observed when Captain Pratt, standing on a raised platform, called
out the names of each tribe. The little batches, in some instances
only one or two, stood up briskly and looked somewhat proudly about,
as much as to say, "We are Sioux (or Apaches, or Ponchas, or Creeks),
not like these other fellows." And the young ladies were, if one might
judge from their expression, quite as proud of their own people as the
boys. But the names these poor children receive are ludicrous. Not
content with calling them by English names, or American, singularly
misapplied, very often, as a name may be, their own Indian nomenclature
is translated into English, so that we heard reading and reciting
beside "Luke Phillips" and "Almarine McKillip" (a Scotch Creek)
"Maggie Stands-looking" and "Reuben Quick-bear." There was something
of sarcasm, I think, in the address of a Creek boy to the visitors. He
said: "The Indian boys had come here to learn something about the use
of the bow and hunting. Their people believed that if boys grew up to
manhood without learning they would be of no use; therefore they had
sent the boys here to get education." Then, after some moral if trite
reflections, the lad said: "You must understand that nearly everything
that was made was made both for the present and the future. This
barracks was not built for Indians, as I do not think the men who built
it ever thought that it would be an Indian school; but things were made
to do good both in the present and in the future." And then quoth he,
looking at his white friends straight in the face: "The education which
we are getting here is not like our own land, but it is something that
cannot be stolen nor bought from us." And the white man did not turn
red at the words! I do not pretend to judge of the actual progress made
in learning, but the very intelligent self-possessed teachers reported
uniformly that they were satisfied. The most useful education, perhaps,
which these Indians receive is in practical mechanics, and a visit to
the workshops attached to the barracks was amply repaid by the sight
of these industrious young fellows hammering and leathering away in
the various departments. They have actually completed waggons of a most
satisfactory construction, complete in all their parts, so much so that
orders have been received for as many as can be supplied for the use
of Agencies. They make and repair their own shoes. They have sent out
a hundred and twenty double sets of harness. They make coffee-boilers,
cups, pans, pails, and all the articles known to the tin-smith; and the
girls are taught to hem and sew and knit in the English fashion; but it
must have been not many a long year before the white man landed, when
the ancestors of these Indian maidens exercised the same mystery with
fine sinew and skin in the wonderful work of which specimens are handed
down to us to-day. On one point alone, perhaps, there was something to
regret; the health of the children was not all that could be desired.
Well clad, regularly fed, I presume on wholesome food, cleanly lodged
in well-ventilated rooms, these wild children of the plains scarcely
came up to the expectations one would form of them in the matter of
chest-measurement; and although many were remarkable for fine physical
development, Captain Pratt confessed that their sanitary condition was
not everything that could be desired, and that losses from consumption
and other causes were rather serious. But they have plenty of out-door
exercise. They have games in which they rejoice. They drill and
march to the sound of their own band, a very good brass band of eight
performers, each of a different tribe, who played "Hail Columbia!"
and the "Star-Spangled Banner," and the like, with energy and zest;
nay, with harmonious concurrence. When we went out into the large open
square, there appeared before us a wonderful being in feathers, waving
plumes, wampum and all the leathern panoply and peltry adornments of
an Indian, painted, and armed with bow and arrow, probably such an one
as Captain John Smith may have seen as he went exploring the woods
of Virginia on his way to the sacrifice from which he was saved by
Pocahontas. A target was erected at a distance of a hundred yards or
so, and had I been in the centre of it, I should have been perfectly
safe from the arrows which the Indian warrior discharged at it. But
we were told that with a good bow a strong-armed Indian will drive an
arrow right through a buffalo, and in that case I would suppose that
the buffalo was very near to him indeed.

Of course it is but natural to find very varying degrees of
intelligence amongst the pupils, and the rate of progress was by no
means uniform, but a committee of examination which recently visited
the school declared that the manifestations of advancement in the
rudiments of English education were to them simply surprising. It was
with admiration bordering on amazement they observed the facility and
accuracy with which the children passed through the various exercises,
in reading, geography, arithmetic, and writing, of the schoolroom;
the accurate training and the amount of knowledge displayed were, they
reported, the fullest proof not only of skilful teaching, but of great
aptitude and diligence on the part of the children. Considering the
brief period during which the school had been in operation, and the
fact that the children entered it in a wholly untutored condition,
the evidence was conclusive of the capability of culture. They go on
to say: "We are fully persuaded that improvement equal to that which
we have witnessed in the case of these children of the plains, if
made in equal time by American children, would be regarded as quite
unusual. And when the difficulty of communication consequent upon the
diversities of language is taken into account we can but feel that the
results of which we have been the witnesses to-day justify our judgment
of them as amazing."

One of the most interesting features connected with the attempts
to educate the Indians at Carlisle is the 'School News,' a little
publication which, as I understand, is conducted by Indian pupils
taught in the establishment, edited by Samuel Townsend, a Pawnee Indian
boy. It is published once a month, and costs 25 cents or 1_s._ per
year. It takes as its motto the lines:

     "A pebble cast into the sea is felt from shore to shore,
     A thought from the mind set free will echo on for ever more."

Perhaps neither the metre nor the actual statement commend themselves
to acceptance, but the matter of the little journal is full of
interest. In the first place the names of the contributors afford
full matter for meditation. Perhaps it is one of the steps which
must be taken to civilise these poor Indians that their names should
undergo a strange and, to me, unmeaning metamorphose. There seems no
reason whatever why the Indian names should not be retained, or if
there is any reason for changing them, at least there might be some
discrimination and good taste exercised in the adoption of English
Christian names.

The first number of the 'School News,' which I have before me, contains
as an article: "What Michael Burns, an Apache boy, thinks on the Indian
Question." He says, "I cannot help myself, having much feeling for my
people, what has been said about them, and the efforts making to give
us the same privileges as the people of the United States. And it is
said how we have been treated by the bad white man, for the last ten
or fifteen years, decreasing our number. But that kind for treatment
for my nation will soon stop." The poor boy goes on to say: "There is
no doubt that we are in fault. We had the opinion that we could not
get beaten by any other nation. Now we know for ourselves that we will
have to change.... But how does the white man know which way is the
best to do. Was he born that way? No! Education gives him the light
of knowledge." Then a boy named Marcus Poko writes to his father: "I
want you to try hard and leave the Comanche way, and to find the white
man's way." In the leading article, written, I presume, by Samuel
Townsend, it is said: "Indian ways will never be good any more, it
is all passed, gone away, and the other way is coming up to take the
place. We shall all be glad when we all get into the civilised way of
living, then the Indians will not make so much trouble for the American
people. Some people say 'let the Indians get out of the way. There
is no use in trying to advance them, kill them all they are like the
wild animals deaf and dumb, they never will learn anything. We have
already paid so much money for them they have never become civilised
yet.' But all good people say, 'Oh, yes, give them an education and
plenty of opportunities, and send more teachers among them so they may
come up beside us and live as brothers and live in peace.'" There is a
little paragraph as to language. "There are a great many words in the
English," says the writer, "that the Indians have no word for, so the
white people who make the Indian books have to make new Indian words.
So the Indians have to learn the new Indian words. Now we don't know
much about it, but we believe the Indians can all learn to speak the
same as the whites." Then there is a column about the school news:
"Lizzie McRae, a Creek girl, made a very good corn bread the other
day. We had some of it. It was right good I tell you." "Robert American
Horse is a steady boy. He works in the blacksmith shop very well, and
Mr. Harris never has to tell him but once how to do something." "One
of the teachers had artificial violets on her belt. A Gros Ventre boy
saw them, but did not know what they were, so he got up from his desk
and went close to the teacher. He looked at it and then smelt it. When
he smelt it he said, 'Pooh! rags!'" "Boys, some time ago Captain Pratt
gave us advice about throwing stones at birds. Some of the boys who
understand most English did not listen. We want the birds to come and
stay with us and sing for us, too. Let us remember about this, and
not let Captain Pratt have to say it again." "Last Sunday some of the
large girls had a prayer-meeting in the yard at the back of the girls'
quarters. Nobody told them to do it, but they thought it would be a
good thing." There is a long letter from Lizzie Walton, a Pawnee girl
of thirteen years old, describing a trip to Philadelphia, and I believe
there are very few girls of thirteen years of age in any school who
could write more amusingly or better. The account of a magic lantern by
Ada Bent, a Cheyenne girl, closes the number.

Letters from the children who are sent out to the farmers are published
in this little periodical, and give a very pleasing picture of the
lives and aptitudes of these Indians. Virginia, of Kiowar, writes from
a farm, asking one of the teachers to pardon her for not having done so
before; but "I have not much time," she says, "I am very busy set the
table and wash dishes make my bed and make pies and cakes and try to
make bread too, and the other things beside.... Sometime I make fire
and bring in wood. Mrs. Borton is very kind lady she has two children
one girl and boy. I love these little children very much." "My dear
Miss H----, I am not bad a girl. I help now a great deal. I pray for
you almost every night, also when I wake up in the morning. I like to
pray very much because I make myself good." And so on in a pleasant
little gossiping way, frequently in very difficult language. There is
an article in the 'School News' of July upon the shooting of President
Garfield: "The man who shot him," says the writer, "we suppose, thought
he would please some of the people in the United States. He thought he
was very smart. If President were to die how would every white man,
black man and the Indian feel? It was not in war when the President
was shot, for our country don't have war any more, but in peace....
We all feel sorry because the President is suffering. We hope he
will soon recover." It is stated that about a hundred boys and girls
have gone out to work on the farms, and there are some trite remarks
about the advantages of hard work as opposed to the disadvantages of
laziness. "The farmers up country say the Indian boys can bind wheat
first-rate." "Nelly Cook, Sioux, made 36 sheets in one day last week.
Nellie Cary, Apache, made 32, and Ella Moore, Creek, made 30. Boys, do
you think those girls are lazy?" The 'School News' has a reporter, it
would appear, for the paper says that "Our reporter took a walk round
in the shops to see what the boys were doing. In all the shops every
boy was busy. In the carpenter shop there were Jock (Arapahoe), Ralph
(Sioux), Elwood (Iowa), and Joe Gun (Ponca) sawing out window and door
frames. Oscar (Cheyenne) and Michael Burns (Apache) were busy carving
balcony posts; and Lester (Arapahoe) was outside chiselling a beam.
These things are all for our new hospital.... Jesse (Arapahoe) and
Little Elk (Cheyenne) were busy in the gymnasium. The waggons which
Robert American Horse has finished painting are to be sent to Oregon
and Washington Territories." It is sometimes difficult to make out
the meaning of the little prattle which these small people commit to
the uncertain medium of the English tongue; but, on the whole, it is
a most interesting and curious study. In one respect these children
of the forest possess that which civilisation seems rather to dwarf
amongst men of the highest culture and imagination--a certain stately
eloquence and nobility of expression, in which natural images abound,
and allegory and metaphor consort together in excellent and tasteful
union. In a paper called 'Eadle Keatah Toh,' which seems to have been
the precursor of the 'School News,' there is an interesting report
from the Committee on Indian Affairs to the House of Representatives,
submitted by Mr. Pound. The motto of the paper is "God helps those
who help themselves"; but surely it might be better put that God will
help those who seek to do good to the unfortunate Indians, who in
contact with civilisation are rendered utterly helpless, and who in
their attempts to help themselves according to the manner of the race
must meet with nothing but extinction. From time to time there are
notices of deaths. One would like to know who wrote the account of the
"death of John Renville, son of Gabriel Renville, Chief of the Sisseton
Sioux." After noticing the circumstances under which he contracted his
fatal illness--fever, produced by drinking water at a spring on a hot
day on a march to the camp in Perry County, the writer says:--"'Death
loves a shining mark,' the poet sang long ago; and in the passing away
of John Renville from our school we sadly say, how truthfully the poet
sang.... Through all the days of his sickness his large sorrowful eyes
had a far-away wondering look, no pain marred the beauty of his brow,
and his voice as he addressed his sister, who tenderly watched over
him, was like the trumpet warbling of some mournful bird. Our hearts
follow the father in deep sympathy as he bears back the body of his
beautiful boy to the land of the Dakotas for burial."

The Indian chiefs have a right, which they often exercise, of visiting
these schools as a Board; and there is an account in the Carlisle paper
of the visit of Spotted Tail, Iron Wing, White Thunder, Black Crow,
and Louis Robideau from the Rosebud Agency; Red Cloud, American Horse,
Red Dog, Red Shirt, Little Wound, and Two Strike from the Pine Ridge
Agency; Like the Bear and Medicine Bull from the Lower Brule Agency;
Son of the Star, Poor Wolf, Peter Beauchamp, and John Smith from Fort
Berthold; Two Bears, John Big Head, Grass, Thunder Hawk, and Louis
Primeau from Standing Rock; Charger and Bull Eagle from Cheyenne River;
Brother to All and James Broadhead from Crow Creek; Strike the Ree
and Jumping Thunder from Yankton; Robert Hakewashte and Eli Abraham
from Santee Agency; Mr. Tackett and his wife and daughter; a daughter
of Spotted Tail, and others. The meeting of the children with their
parents is described as being most touching; and sometimes the pupils
were not recognised, so greatly had they altered. As the chiefs seemed
unwilling to speak when called upon to do so, there was silence for a
time till a little girl, who had been about a year and a half at the
school, expressed her desire to speak in so earnest a way that General
Marshall permitted her to do so; and so, speaking in her own dialect,
her words were translated into English and into Sioux. She declared
that she liked the white man's ways and the white man's language.
Indian words, she said, were down on the ground, but the white man's
language was in his head. The chiefs, who listened attentively, seemed
to understand this curious figure of speech, and nodded their approval.
And then she enlarged upon the advantage of what she learned, and
implored the chiefs to send their children to the school, where she
says she is going to try to be God's daughter. Her words seemed to
kindle the fire within the chieftains' breasts, for Like the Bear, a
Sioux, and father of one of the boys at Hampton School, came forward
and addressed the meeting. "There is no greater power in the world,"
said he, "than the Great Spirit, and we must listen to Him and do
what He wants us to do. When the men who were sent out by the Great
Father the President asked for my children I gave them up. I see you
are making brains for my children, and you are making eyes for them so
that they can see. That is what I thank the Great Spirit for, and it is
that which will make me strong." Then Robert Hakewashte, a chief from
the Santee Agency, spoke, and said that he wanted schools like that
which he saw here on his own reservation, and Spotted Tail wished for
the same thing. "Since I have learned the words of God," he says, "it
makes no difference to me what is the colour of a man's skin; if he
walks like a man it is the same. I do not believe God likes the white
colour only. God likes red and white, for He made them all." And then
the flood of eloquence was loosened, and an old chief of the Sioux,
nearly blind, verging on ninety years of age, who had come to see his
grandson, said: "I grew up a red man, and the things I see here I never
had a chance to see before. I have heard about the white man's church
and his religion, and I have heard about the holy house. I have looked
into them, and I am very much pleased. But there is only one Great
Spirit we all can worship, and the red men all over the country are
hearing about it. You are teaching the children to worship the Great
Spirit. That is a great thing, and I like it. But you have here two
sons of one father. One is sick. I want you to keep the other." And so
he carried him away.

The condition of the Red Man who is allowed to exist under the banner
of the Republic is a subject which has attracted the attention of the
best and wisest men in the United States. The treatment of the Indians
is a question of future policy. It is one which must exercise a very
deep and abiding influence on the whole history of an ancient and
interesting people. But it is exceedingly difficult to put in a short
compass its most salient points before those who are unacquainted with
the nature of the problems to be solved. Comparisons are odious, above
all places, in America, when they are not to the advantage of the Great
Republic, and I shall not draw any between the state of the Indian
tribes in Canada and in the States. But it may be fairly admitted that
the Indian Question in Canada is divested of many of the difficulties
which surround it south of the lakes. The people of Canada have far
more land than they know what to do with. They are a sparse population.
They are not impelled to fierce adventures by mining "booms," and they
are altogether less progressive than their American brethren. Shall we
say that they are more charitable, more humane, less greedy of other
men's goods? I do not say so. But at all events it is perfectly true
that the Red Man, although he is dying out under the influence of
whiskey and other influences which need not be particularised, in his
native land, lives in comparative peace and comfort under the British
flag in Canada. He is content with the White Mother. He pursues the
occupations dear to his race as a hunter and as a fisherman. He is a
dealer in peltries, and in such small barter as his needs require. He
is the companion of sportsmen, and he delights, free as mountain air,
to hunt on the hillside and in the prairie in winter over the vast
ranges of snowy fields which in the few short months of spring and
summer teem with flowers, and the frosty lakes which yield fish to his
spear and net. There are few or no railways through his reservations
to vex his repose, no great trains of miners with pick and rifle to
drive away the moose and the buffalo, and hand the native hunter over
to starvation. The Indian gives to the white man all he needs, and aids
him in obtaining from the wide stretch of land over which he roams all
the wealth that it can afford. Practically one part of the Dominion
is handed over to the Red Man and to the half-breeds, for there is an
Indian frontier which as yet has not been much encroached upon by any
large migration of whites. As far as I know, conflicts north of the
Saint Lawrence between Indians and whites are unknown, or have not
been heard of for very many years. South of the great lakes, in the
wonderful land over which is displayed the banner of the stars and
stripes, the fate of the Indian is very different. In the words of Mr.
Carl Schurz, himself an expert in the question, "the history of the
relations of the United States with the Red Man presents in great part
a record of broken treaties, of unjust wars and of cruel spoliation."
That is a sweeping statement, which it would be just as well for
an Englishman not to make, but coming from the mouth of an American
citizen and of a United States Minister with plenty of evidence to back
it, there can be no harm in recording my conviction of its truth. It is
but another indictment against a defect in the form of government which
Americans exalt as the most perfect of human institutions, that the
central government made treaties in good faith with the Indian tribes,
but was unable to enforce their obligations or to maintain their
integrity. There is, as all well-informed people know--well informed,
at least, in reference to American affairs--a commissioner who makes an
annual report to the Secretary of the Interior respecting the Indian
tribes in the various locations over the Union and the Territories.
The last of these reports which I have seen is that of the Acting
Commissioner Mr. Marble, addressed to the Department of the Interior
from the office of Indian Affairs at Washington in the November of
last year. The volume contains the reports of the agents in the Indian
Territory; of the schools for Indian children established in pursuance
of a wise and humane policy, and detailed statistics in relation to the
Indian settlements and reservations, the latter indeed forming by far
the largest portion of the volume of 400 pages. Before I call attention
to the condition of the Indians, and the efforts made to save them from
extinction or from a degradation worse than annihilation, I should like
to direct the attention of those who are interested in the subject
to the view which is beginning to find favour, I believe, among the
most experienced men in the States, that the system of "Reservations"
is founded on a mistake the magnitude of which is demonstrated every
day, and that the only means of saving the Indians from extinction is
their gradual absorption as educated communities in the agricultural
life of the nation, keeping them far as may be from the white man,
but making no other distinction between them and the other citizens
of the United States than such as must be found in the nature of the
Indian race and their degree of culture and civilisation--treating
them, in fact, as communities of Mennonites, Mormons, or Norwegians,
or other nationalities would be treated in the United States. When
the Reservations were first established it was considered impossible
that the migration of the whites would extend to the remote regions of
the west to which the unfortunate survivors of the people with whose
virtues and vices Cooper and other novelists have made us familiar were
gradually and often remorselessly driven. It is a plea which will be
urged in bar of judgment that the doctrine of States Rights prevented
the interference of the United States Government on behalf of the
Indian tribes who were often ruthlessly destroyed. But it will scarcely
be a plea, I think, which humanity in full court would recognise as
valid. _Homo homini lupus._ But to the Red Man as to the Black in many
cases the White Man is worse than any wolf; far more bloodthirsty and
rapacious than any tiger--a Cain of Cains. It was our own kith and kin
who, landing on the shores of the North American continent, encroaching
by degrees upon the tribes and at last encountering their hostility,
spread their sway literally by fire and sword, and rooted out the
Red Man wherever they found him established on land or by sea which
they coveted. We, whose countrymen have worked out the same policy on
the Australian continent and Van Diemen's Land, and who can only be
restrained from its pursuit in New Zealand by the strong arm of the
Home Government, can scarcely afford to take up stones to fling at our
American brethren; and it is not with any purpose of indictment or
accusation that I proceed to make a few remarks on the relations of
the United States Government with the Red Man, and the efforts which
they have been making to compensate the Indians in some measure for the
injustice and persecution dealt out for many a generation.

As I looked at the men gathered at some of the railroad stations in
the western desert and thought of the Red Men whose fate it is to
meet such representatives of civilisation and Christianity, I could
not but be filled with pity for the unfortunates and with wonder at
"the dispensation" under which they live. The faces are fine and bold
enough, bearded to the cheek or shaved in the American fashion, with
bold staring eyes, which "look square" in your own, with a general
expression "Do you want a fight?" in them--the heads to which they
belong are generally set on muscular bodies. If a gang of these men
think fit to go on to an Indian reservation--the very name is too often
a bitter mockery--who is to stop them? If the Indians try to do so and
one of the white intruders is killed the country-side rings with cries
of "vengeance for the massacre of our brethren," and all the papers are
filled with accounts of "Another Indian Outbreak."

"The average frontier-man in the States looks," as Mr. Schurz says,
"upon the Indian merely as a nuisance in his way. There are many
whom it would be difficult to convince that it is a crime to kill an
Indian." I will go further and say that there are many, I believe, who
would take great pleasure in killing an Indian whenever they could;
or as one gentleman observed to me, and I believe in his relations
with white men no more just or honourable man or more humane could be
found, "I would sooner kill an Indian than I would a skunk." When I
was in the West, there was a cry raised that the Utes were about to
wage war, and appeals appeared in the local papers for a military force
to march against them. Their leaders were accused of arrogance and of
insolence, and of murderous designs, and the general remark one heard
was, "The Utes must go." I inquired a little into the matter when I got
back, and I found that the Utes were strictly and absolutely, in their
own right, standing upon the titles, which they had derived from the
United States Government, to the lands from which they were required
to move. These lands were wanted. Other lands were pointed out to them,
to which they objected, and then they were informed that they would be
moved by force, and preparations were made to levy war against these
unfortunates, if they resisted deportation from the territory which
had been assigned to them by the Great Father. Had they been Irish
landlords, they could not have been treated worse; but in the West not
one word was raised in favour of their claims.

The first point which has to be considered is, that the Indian is
obnoxious to the very class of men with whom he is by the necessity
of things most closely brought in contact. The railway has been the
great persecutor of Red Men. It has driven away the game, it has
carried in proximity to their reservations all the enterprise charged
with whiskey, revolver, rifle, and greed, which can be furnished by
the offscourings of the world. In the Far West the miners in advance
throng into the valleys, and break the silence of the mountain-ranges
by the sound of their picks, the cattle-raisers spread out over the
plains, the ploughman settles down on the fertile land. "What," asks
the American philanthropist, and his question is echoed all over the
world by humane and good men, "what is to become of the Indian?" The
hunting-grounds are gradually being pushed farther west and north
until they are bounded by the sea, and by the eternal snow. And if by
any chance it should be found that there is gold or lead, silver or
iron, or copper, or coal in any abundance, even under these unpromising
conditions it will be sought. The buffalo is disappearing fast, faster
than the Indian himself. Deer are becoming scarcer every year. What
is to be left for the Red Man? Pastoral life and agriculture, say
the philanthropists. The substitution, however, is not so easy. The
weakness of the United States Government is the main cause why the
policy of reservations has failed. Let us take the account of it by a
United States Minister. "The Government," says Mr. Schurz, "has tried
to protect the Indians in good faith against encroachments, and has
failed. It has yielded to the pressure exercised upon it by people in
immediate contact with the Indians. When a collision between Indians
and whites once occurred, no matter who was responsible for it, our
military forces were always found on the side of the white against the
savage. How was Government to proclaim that white men should for ever
be excluded from the millions of acres covered by Indian reservations,
and that the national power would be exerted to do so?" Such an
idea the American Minister thinks would be utterly preposterous. The
rough and ready frontier-man would pick quarrels with the Indians;
the speculators would urge him on. Government could not prevent
collisions; the conflict once brought on, Government, in spite of its
good intentions and sense of justice, would find itself employing its
forces to hunt down the Indian. The old story would be repeated, as it
will be wherever, says Mr. Schurz, there is a large and valuable Indian
Reservation surrounded by white settlements, "and unjust, disgraceful
as it is, that is an inevitable result." Such being the case then,
the United States Government being powerless to see that right shall
be done, and it being at once a human and a Christian duty to avert,
if possible, the extinction of the original possessors of this grand
continent, let us see what can be done to carry out the object. Fit the
Indians, it is said, for the habits and occupations of civilised life;
give them individual possession of land as property, a fee-simple title
to the fields they cultivate, guarded by an absolute prohibition of
sale--because it has been found that whenever the Indians are exposed
to the temptation of artful traders, they will be cajoled out of the
titles they have to their land--and you will save the remnants from
utter destruction. I hope it will be so. I could not but feel a glow
of enthusiasm when I heard the Attorney-General, Mr. MacVeagh, at
Washington, speaking incidentally one day about some railway matter,
declare that he would not sanction the making of a line of railway
through Indian Territory until he was satisfied that the Indians
actually understood the conditions which had been offered to them by
the company. "I will," said Mr. MacVeagh, "send down government agents
there to ascertain that the Indians thoroughly understand what they
are doing, and that it is of their own free will and consent that the
railway passes through their territory in exchange for the money and
goods they receive for the concession." Excellent and just minister!
But, alas! I believe that ere I left the United States the whole thing
was done; the railway company had declared that they would, whether
or no, make their line, and if an Indian touched a hair of the head of
any white man, the United States Government would not be able to avert
the Divine wrath of every white man on the border from the whole of
the tribe. Well may Mr. Schurz say that the thought of exterminating a
race once the only occupants of the soil, where so many millions of our
own people have flourished, must be revolting to every American who is
not devoid of all sentiments of justice and humanity. Extermination or
civilisation is the alternative offered to the Indian. Now let us see
how it is proposed to civilise them. According to the returns in the
Report for 1880, the number of Indians in the United States, exclusive
of those in Alaska, is 256,127. Of these, 138,642 are described as
wearing citizen's dress. It will be observed that there is no estimate
given of the Indians who do not wear citizen's dress under this head.
Citizens must be sometimes very badly dressed indeed if the Indians I
saw at various stations along the line to San Francisco in shocking
bad hats and tattered clothes were to be included amongst those who
figured under this description in the report of the Commissioner. About
17,000 houses are reported as occupied. There are 224 schools, attended
by 6000 scholars for a month or more during the year, scattered over
the continent. About 34,550 Indians could read. There were 154 church
buildings and 74 missionaries. The number of children of school age was
34,541; but this was an under estimate. Of these there was only school
accommodation for 9972. The total amount expended for education during
the year by the United States Government was $249,299; by the State of
New York, $15,863; by the State of Pennsylvania, $325; by other States,
nothing; by religious societies, $46,933; by tribal funds, $7481.
22,048 Indian families were engaged in cultivating farms or small
patches of ground; 33,125 male Indians were labouring in civilised
pursuits; and 358 Indian apprentices had been pursuing trades during
the year. This census and these statistics are stated to be imperfect,
and it would require a close examination of the returns to enable an
inquirer to form any idea as to the progress made in the direction
which we are told is the alternative of destruction.

The Reservations of the various Indian tribes are scattered irregularly
over the United States; from Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota on
the north and north-west, away to the Territories on the other side
of the Rocky Mountains, down to New Mexico and Arizona, there being
none in the southern states bordering the Atlantic. But there are
Red Men of different tribes located, as the Americans would say, in
the States to the east, such as New York. The Reservations are of
irregular size and extent. Isabella, in the State of Maine, reserved
for 848 Indians, lies to the east of 86° longitude, and south of 44°
latitude. There is a considerable group of Reservations on the western
shore of Lake Michigan in Wisconsin, and in Minnesota. But the proper
Indian territory lies west of Arkansas, with the Red River on the
south, New Mexico on the west, and Kansas on the north; and in it are
concentrated the Cherokees, Choctaws, Chicasaws, Comanches, Cheyennes,
and several other tribes. The Navajo Reservation in New Mexico and
Arizona ranks perhaps next in size, extending northwards into Colorado,
where the Utes have got a large tract of land assigned to them upon
what appears now to be very doubtful or vanishing tenure. These, and
numerous reservations, which it would be tedious to enumerate, are
under the charge of agents appointed by the Government at Washington,
as to whose functions and personal character and attainments one
hears very surprising and contradictory reports. But I confess, from
a perusal of the documents which they have furnished to the head of
the Department, and which are published in the Annual Report, there
seems to me no just ground for imputing to these gentlemen want of
zeal, knowledge, interest, or intelligence. Those who detest the whole
work of saving the Red Man are very apt to impute to the Indian agents
not only corrupt practices in relation to the sale of government
stores and supplies destined for the use of those under their charge,
but illicit traffic in spirits, which is ruinous to the Red Man, and
even some participation in the acts of violence which have frequently
led to Indian troubles. It all depends upon the manner in which your
informant in the States regards the Indian Question whether the agents
are described as scoundrels whom no man could trust, or as gentlemen of
high propriety and general excellence.

The necessities which have been imposed by advancing civilisation
of providing Indians with food entail a heavy outlay upon the United
States Government, which is much begrudged by large sections of members
of Congress, although they do not see their way clearly to withhold
supplies of food from the unfortunate people whose hunting-grounds have
been occupied, and who have not yet learned the arts of agriculture,
so as to be able to supply themselves with food. The transportation of
stores, the cost of beef, corn, coffee, bread, tobacco, tea; in fact,
all kinds of food, woollen goods, clothing, boots, hats, groceries,
waggons, tools, hardware, and medical supplies,--all these duly figure
in the estimates of the Indian Commissioner to a very considerable
amount, and the returns as yet do not present any large reduction on
the annual charge; although nearly all the agents speak in terms of
great hopefulness of the extraordinary advance which has been made in
their agencies in the cultivation of the soil.

One remarkable division of the agencies has reference to their
appropriation to religious denominations. An Indian might well
be puzzled as to his form of belief if he were passed through the
various agencies, attending at each a religious service or two, and
listening to the teaching of the various divines attached to them. The
Society of Friends have control of the belief and religious teaching
of the Sante and Nemaja Indians in Nebraska, and of the Pawnees in
the Indian Territory; to the Methodists are assigned three tribes in
California, three tribes in Washington Territory, two in Oregon, three
in Montana, two in Idaho, and one in Michigan. The Nevada Cherokees,
Creeks, Choctaws, Chicasaws, and Seminoles are handed over to the
Baptists. The Presbyterians have charge of the Nezpercès in Idaho,
Umtas in Utah; the Apaches, Pueblos, and two other tribes in New
Mexico. The Congregational Church exercises its religious offices
among the tribes in Wisconsin, among two tribes in Dacotah, and one
in Washington Territory. The Reformed Church has its work cut out for
it in Arizona amongst four tribes. The Protestant Episcopal Church
exercises its jurisdiction over one tribe in Minnesota, six tribes in
Dacotah, one in Indian Territory, and one in Wyoming. The Unitarians
have apparently only one tribe in teaching, the Los Pinos in Colorado.
The United Presbyterians have one tribe in Oregon; the Christian Union
has another in Oregon; the Evangelical Lutheran has charge of the
Southern Utes in Colorado; and lastly, the Roman Catholic Church has
two tribes in Washington Territory, two in Oregon, one in Montana,
and two in Dacotah. As a general rule, the reports of the missionaries
themselves are more sanguine, as they are wont to be, than are those
of disinterested, perhaps unprejudiced, observers of their work. But,
as is natural, the actual progress made depends very much, not only
upon the nature of the tribe among whom the work is carried on, but
on the character of the missionary, and on his ability and energy. In
some instances, I see the condition of a tribe is reported as being
lamentable, from a religious point of view, whilst in a neighbouring
reservation, it is stated that great progress has been made in the
establishment of religious teaching and ideas. The Rosebud Agency is
said to prosper in the hands of one reverend gentlemen; the fathers of
St. Ignatius are described as doing good work amongst the Flatheads;
the Pawnees are left without any missionaries at all, and, says
the government report, "are probably better off without them." And
depreciatory remarks are slightingly introduced concerning the work at
other agencies. On the Devil's Lake Agency, the majority of the adults
shun the missionaries as they would the gentleman who may be supposed
to own the lake by the sides of which they are encamped. The Jesuit
fathers and the Catholic sisters are described as working generally
with zeal and success, whilst one agency assigned to the Methodists
is said to have no religious agency at all. It is to the success of
the attempts made to educate the Indians at the public establishments
that the philanthropist and humanitarian must look with the most
hopefulness.

All the reports of the teachers and visitors of these schools coincide
in one point, that the young Indian is most teachable, and that in
respect of acquiring knowledge he is, if anything, the superior of the
white, who seems to enjoy no hereditary excellence in his capacity for
acquiring knowledge. The Bill to which the Report was an introduction
may be considered indeed as the Magna Charta of the Indian tribes
if it be followed up by judicious treatment, and careful management
of and consideration for the rights conferred upon these tribes as
preliminary to their absorption as citizens in the mass of the nation,
when they are fit for such an amalgamation with the white races. The
advance of the United States westwards has left vacant many military
posts and barracks, stranded, as it were, high and dry in the midst of
the torrent of civilisation. Fort Bridger, Wyoming; Carlisle Barracks,
Pennsylvania; Fort Craig, New Mexico; Fort Cummings, in the same
territory, and a number of others, have been named as suitable for
the purpose of educating the Indian children; and it was in pursuance
of the measure recommended to Congress that the various agencies
throughout the Indian Territories were directed to forward children
whom their parents might wish to entrust to the officers of the United
States for education. "Received in the rudest state of savagism," says
the Report, "their progress is already most remarkable." I have already
remarked that the health of the boys is not generally satisfactory.
Their sanitary condition is bad; and it would appear that sometimes in
these long and tedious journeyings from the remote Indian agencies the
poor children suffer much.

Even at the present moment the Anglo-Saxon appears to be dealing with
the Maori in New Zealand very much as he has dealt with the native in
Tasmania and in Australia. The history of our relations with the New
Zealand chiefs and people is not in a nature to enable us to throw
stones at the Americans with impunity, for the glass house in which
we live can very easily be reached. Some sixteen or seventeen years
ago a rebellion, arising out of the aggressions of the white settlers
on the lands of the Maori, was averted by a Proclamation and by Acts
confiscating a large tract of Tallinassey, which became theoretically
the property of the Crown. Of course the natives had as little to say
to that as the lady who is mentioned in 'Tristram Shandy' had with the
declaration that "she was not related to her own child." But they did
not recognise the occupancy, and whenever a white man settled upon
a portion of the ground they pulled down his fences and removed his
landmarks. The contest is still going on, but no one who is acquainted
with the history of the colony will doubt what the end will be; and
it is coming soon, or it is to come, the moment the colonists are bent
upon taking the land, and when it is desired to do so.

"It but feebly expresses the judgment formed from what we have observed
to say that we regard the experiment made in this school to educate and
improve Indian children as in every way a very remarkable success." _Si
sic omnes!_ Why does not the United States Government, or if not the
Government, the people, abounding in wealth, full of pious impulses,
humane, charitable, who justly say that the worst use you can make
of an Indian is to hang him; why do not the political economists who
declare that it costs a million of dollars to get rid of an Indian with
gunpowder and lead; why do not the enterprising and wealthy capitalists
who desire to appropriate Indian Reservations all combine to extend the
work of these schools so as to absorb all that remains of the Red Man
in the rising generation amongst the citizens of the great Republic? A
blessed work, worthy of an imperial State, truly great and truly good!


THE END.



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_Cradle-Land of Arts and Creeds; or, Nothing New under the Sun._
CHARLES J. STONE, Barrister-at-law, and late Advocate, High Courts,
Bombay. 8vo, pp. 420, cloth, 14_s._

_Cripps the Carrier._ 3rd Edition, 6_s._ See BLACKMORE.

_Cruise of H.M.S. "Challenger" (The)._ W. J. J. SPRY, R.N. With Route
Map and many Illustrations. 6th Edition, demy 8vo, cloth, 18_s._ Cheap
Edition, crown 8vo, some of the Illustrations, 7_s._ 6_d._

_Curious Adventures of a Field Cricket._ Dr. ERNEST CANDÈZE. Translated
by N. D'ANVÉRS. With numerous fine Illustrations. Crown 8vo, gilt,
7_s._ 6_d._; plain binding and edges, 5_s._


_Dana (R. H.) Two Years before the Mast and Twenty-Four years After._
Revised. Edition, with Notes, 12mo, 6_s._

_Daughter (A) of Heth._ W. BLACK. Crown 8vo, 6_s._

_Day of My Life (A); or, Every Day Experiences at Eton._ By an ETON
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Thousand.

_Diane._ Mrs. MACQUOID. Crown 8vo, 6_s._

_Dick Cheveley: his Fortunes and Misfortunes._ W. H. G. KINGSTON. 350
pp., square 16mo, and 22 full-page Illustrations. Cloth, gilt edges,
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_Dick Sands, the Boy Captain._ JULES VERNE. With nearly 100
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edges, 5_s._

_Dictionary (General) of Archæology and Antiquities._ From the French
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_Dodge (Mrs. M.) Hans Brinker; or, the Silver Skates._ An entirely New
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_Dogs of Assize._ A Legal Sketch-Book in Black and White. Containing 6
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_Eight Cousins_. _See_ ALCOTT.

_Eighteenth Century Studies._ Essays by F. HITCHMAN. Demy 8vo, 18_s._

_Elementary Education in Saxony._ J. L. BASHFORD, M.A., Trin. Coll.,
Camb. For Masters and Mistresses of Elementary Schools. Sewn, 1_s._

_Elinor Dryden._ Mrs. MACQUOID. Crown 8vo, 6_s._

_Embroidery (Handbook of)._ L. HIGGIN. Edited by LADY MARIAN ALFORD,
and published by authority of the Royal School of Art Needlework. With
16 page Illustrations, Designs for Borders, &c. Crown 8vo, 5_s._

_English Philosophers._ Edited by IWAN MULLER, M.A., New College,
Oxon. A Series of Volumes containing short biographies of the most
celebrated English Philosophers, to each of whom is assigned a separate
volume, giving as comprehensive and detailed a statement of his views
and contributions to Philosophy as possible, explanatory rather than
critical, opening with a brief biographical sketch, and concluding
with a short general summary, and a bibliographical appendix. The
Volumes will be issued at brief intervals, in square 16mo, 3_s._ 6_d._,
containing about 200 pp. each.

The following are in the press:---

=Bacon.= Professor FOWLER, Professor of Logic in Oxford.

=Berkeley.= Professor T. H. GREEN, Professor of Moral Philosophy,
Oxford.

=Hamilton.= Professor MONK, Professor of Moral Philosophy, Dublin.
[Ready.

=J. S. Mill.= HELEN TAYLOR, Editor of "The Works of Buckle," &c.

=Mansel.= Rev. J. H. HUCKIN, D.D., Head Master of Repton.

=Adam Smith.= J. A. FARRER, M.A., Author of "Primitive Manners and
Customs." [Ready.

=Hobbes.= A. H. GOSSET, B.A., Fellow of New College, Oxford.

=Bentham.= G. E. BUCKLE, M.A., Fellow of All Souls', Oxford.

=Austin.= HARRY JOHNSON, B.A., late Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford.

=Hartley.= E. S. BOWEN, B.A., late Scholar of New College, Oxford.

=James Mill.= E. S. BOWEN [Ready.

=Shaftesbury.= Professor FOWLER.

=Hutcheson.= Professor FOWLER.

Arrangements are in progress for volumes on LOCKE, HUME, PALEY, REID,
&c.

_Episodes of French History._ Edited, with Notes, Genealogical,
Historical, and other Tables, by GUSTAVE MASSON, B.A.

     =1. Charlemagne and the Carlovingians.=
     =2. Louis XI. and the Crusades.=
     =3. Francis I. and Charles V.=
     =4. Francis I. and the Renaissance.=

The above Series is based upon M. Guizot's "History of France." Each
volume is choicely Illustrated, with Maps, 2_s._ 6_d._

_Erema; or, My Father's Sin._ _See_ BLACKMORE.

_Etcher (The)._ Containing 36 Examples of the Original Etched work of
Celebrated Artists, amongst others: BIRKET FOSTER, J. E. HODGSON, R.A.,
COLIN HUNTER, J. P. HESELTINE, ROBERT W. MACBETH, R. S. CHATTOCK, H. R.
ROBERTSON, &c., &c. Imperial 4to, cloth extra, gilt edges, 2_l._ 12_s._
6_d._

_Eton._ _See_ "Day of my Life," "Out of School," "About Some Fellows."

_Evans (C.) Over the Hills and Far Away._ C. EVANS. One Volume, crown
8vo, cloth extra, 10_s._ 6_d._

---- _A Strange Friendship._ Crown 8vo, cloth, 5_s._

_Eve of Saint Agnes (The)._ JOHN KEATS. Illustrated with Nineteen
Etchings by CHARLES O. MURRAY. Folio, cloth extra, 21_s._ An Edition
de Luxe on large paper, containing proof impressions, has been printed,
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_Farm Ballads._ WILL CARLETON. Boards, 1_s._; cloth, gilt edges, 1_s._
6_d._

_Fern Paradise (The): A Plea for the Culture of Ferns._ F. G. HEATH.
New Edition, entirely Rewritten, Illustrated with Eighteen full-page,
numerous other Woodcuts, including 8 Plates of Ferns and Four
Photographs, large post 8vo, cloth, gilt edges, 12_s._ 6_d._ Sixth
Edition. In 12 Parts, sewn, 1_s._ each.

_Fern World (The)._ F. G. HEATH. Illustrated by Twelve Coloured Plates,
giving complete Figures (Sixty-four in all) of every Species of British
Fern, printed from Nature; by several full-page Engravings. Cloth,
gilt, 6th Edition, 12_s._ 6_d._

"Mr. HEATH has really given us good, well-written descriptions of
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under which they grow naturally, and under which they may be
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_Few (A) Hints on Proving Wills._ Enlarged Edition, 1_s._

_First Steps in Conversational French Grammar._ F. JULIEN. Being an
Introduction to "Petites Leçons de Conversation et de Grammaire," by
the same Author. Fcap. 8vo, 128 pp., 1_s._

_Flooding of the Sahara (The)._ _See_ MACKENZIE.

_Food for the People; or, Lentils and other Vegetable Cookery._ By E.
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_Fool's Errand (A)._ ONE OF THE FOOLS. Author of "Bricks without Straw."
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_Footsteps of the Master._ _See_ STOWE (Mrs. BEECHER).

_Forbidden Land (A): Voyages to the Corea._ G. OPPERT. Numerous
Illustrations and Maps. Demy 8vo, cloth extra, 21_s._

_Four Lectures on Electric Induction._ Delivered at the Royal
Institution, 1878-9. By J. E. H. GORDON, B.A. Cantab. With numerous
Illustrations. Cloth limp, square 16mo, 3_s._

_Foreign Countries and the British Colonies._ Edited by F. S. PULLING,
M.A., Lecturer at Queen's College, Oxford, and formerly Professor at
the Yorkshire College, Leeds. A Series of small Volumes descriptive
of the principal Countries of the World by well-known Authors, each
Country being treated of by a Writer who from Personal Knowledge is
qualified to speak with authority on the Subject. The Volumes average
180 crown 8vo pages each, contain 2 Maps and Illustrations, crown 8vo,
3_s._ 6_d._

The following is a List of the Volumes:--

=Denmark and Iceland.= By E. C. OTTE, Author of "Scandinavian History,"
&c.

=Greece.= By L. SERGEANT, B.A., Knight of the Hellenic Order of the
Saviour, Author of "New Greece."

=Switzerland.= By W. A. P. COOLIDGE, M.A., Fellow of Magdalen College,
Editor of _The Alpine Journal_.

=Austria.= By D. KAY, F.R.G.S.

=Russia.= By W. R. MORFILL, M.A., Oriel College, Oxford, Lecturer on
the Ilchester Foundation, &c.

=Persia.= By Major-Gen. Sir F. J. GOLDSMID, K.C.S.I., Author of
"Telegraph and Travel," &c.

=Japan.= By S. MOSSMAN, Author of "New Japan," &c.

=Peru.= By CLEMENTS H. MARKHAM, M.A., C.B.

=Canada.= By W. FRASER RAE, Author of "Westward by Rail," &c.

=Sweden and Norway.= By the Rev. F. H. WOODS, M.A., Fellow of St.
John's College, Oxford.

=The West Indies.= By C. H. EDEN, F.R.G.S., Author of "Frozen Asia," &c.

=New Zealand.=

=France.= By Miss M. ROBERTS, Author of "The Atelier du Lys," "Mdlle.
Mori," &c.

=Egypt.= By S. LANE POOLE, B.A., Author of "The Life of Edward Lane,"
&c.

=Spain.= By the Rev. WENTWORTH WEBSTER, M.A., Chaplain at St. Jean de
Luz.

=Turkey-in-Asia.= By J. C. MCCOAN, M.P.

=Australia.= By J. F. VESEY FITZGERALD, late Premier of New South Wales.

=Holland.= By R. L. POOLE.

_Franc (Maude Jeane)._ The following form one Series, small post 8vo,
in uniform cloth bindings, with gilt edges:--

     ---- _Emily's Choice._ 5_s._
     ---- _Hall's Vineyard._ 4_s._
     ---- _John's Wife: a Story of Life in South Australia._ 4_s._
     ---- _Marian; or, the Light of Some One's Home._ 5_s._
     ---- _Silken Cords and Iron Fetters._ 4_s._
     ---- _Vermont Vale._ 5_s._
     ---- _Minnie's Mission._ 4_s._
     ---- _Little Mercy._ 5_s._
     ---- _Beatrice Melton's Discipline._ 4_s._

_Froissart (The Boy's)._ Selected from the Chronicles of England,
France, Spain, &c. By SIDNEY LANIER. The Volume is fully Illustrated,
and uniform with "The Boy's King Arthur." Crown 8vo, cloth, 7_s._ 6_d._


_Games of patience._ _See_ CADOGAN.

_Gentle Life_ (Queen Edition). 2 vols, in 1, small 4to, 10_s._ 6_d._

THE GENTLE LIFE SERIES.

Price 6_s._ each; or in calf extra, price 10_s._ 6_d._; Smaller
Edition, cloth extra, 2_s._ 6_d._

A Reprint (with the exception of "Familiar Words" and "Other People's
Windows") has been issued in very neat limp cloth bindings at 2_s._
6_d._ each.

_The Gentle Life._ Essays in aid of the Formation of Character of
Gentlemen and Gentlewomen. 21st Edition.

"Deserves to be printed in letters of gold, and circulated in every
house."--_Chambers' Journal._

_About in the World._ Essays by Author of "The Gentle Life."

"It is not easy to open it at any page without finding some handy
idea."--_Morning Post._

_Like unto Christ._ A New Translation of Thomas à Kempis' "De
Imitatione Christi." 2nd Edition.

"Could not be presented in a more exquisite form, for a more sightly
volume was never seen."--_Illustrated London News._

_Familiar Words._ An Index Verborum, or Quotation Handbook. Affording
an immediate Reference to Phrases and Sentences that have become
embedded in the English language. 4th and enlarged Edition. 6_s._

"The most extensive dictionary of quotation we have met with."--_Notes
and Queries._

_Essays by Montaigne._ Edited and Annotated by the Author of "The
Gentle Life." With Portrait. 2nd Edition.

"We should be glad if any words of ours could help to bespeak a large
circulation for this handsome attractive book."--_Illustrated Times._

_The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia._ Written by Sir PHILIP SIDNEY.
Edited with Notes by Author of "The Gentle Life." 7_s._ 6_d._

"All the best things are retained intact in Mr. Friswell's
edition."--_Examiner._

_The Gentle Life._ 2nd Series, 8th Edition.

"There is not a single thought in the volume that does not contribute
in some measure to the formation of a true gentleman."--_Daily News._

_The Silent Hour: Essays, Original and Selected._ the Author of "The
Gentle Life." 3rd Edition.

"All who possess 'The Gentle Life' should own this volume."--_Standard._

_Half-Length Portraits._ Short Studies of Notable Persons. By J. HAIN
FRISWELL.

_Essays on English Writers_, for the Self-improvement of Students in
English Literature.

"To all who have neglected to read and study their native literature
we would certainly suggest the volume before us as a fitting
introduction."--_Examiner._

_Other People's Windows._ J. HAIN FRISWELL. 3rd Edition.

"The chapters are so lively in themselves, so mingled with shrewd views
of human nature, so full of illustrative anecdotes, that the reader
cannot fail to be amused."--_Morning Post._

_A Man's Thoughts._ J. HAIN FRISWELL.

_German Primer._ Being an Introduction to First Steps in German. By M.
T. PREU. 2_s._ 6_d._

_Getting On in the World; or, Hints on Success in Life._ W. MATHEWS,
LL.D. Small post 8vo, cloth, 2_s._ 6_d._; gilt edges, 3_s._ 6_d._

_Gilpin's Forest Scenery._ Edited by F. G. HEATH. Large post 8vo, with
numerous Illustrations. Uniform with "The Fern World," 12_s._ 6_d._ In
6 monthly parts, 2_s._ each.

_Gordon (J. E. H.)._ _See_ "Four Lectures on Electric Induction,"
"Physical Treatise on Electricity," &c.

_Gouffé. The Royal Cookery Book._ JULES GOUFFÉ; translated and adapted
for English use by ALPHONSE GOUFFÉ, Head Pastrycook to her Majesty the
Queen. Illustrated with large plates printed in colours. 161 Woodcuts,
8vo, cloth extra, gilt edges, 2_l._ 2_s._

---- Domestic Edition, half-bound, 10_s._ 6_d._

"By far the ablest and most complete work on cookery that has ever been
submitted to the gastronomical world."--_Pall Mall Gazette._

_Great Artists._ _See_ "Biographies."

_Great Historic Galleries of England (The)._ Edited by LORD RONALD
GOWER, F.S.A., Trustee of the National Portrait Gallery. Illustrated
by 24 large and carefully-executed _permanent_ Photographs of some of
the most celebrated Pictures by the Great Masters. Imperial 4to, cloth
extra, gilt edges, 36_s._

_Great Musicians (The)._ A Series of Biographies of the Great
Musicians. Edited by F. HUEFFER.

     =1. Wagner.= By the EDITOR.
     =2. Weber.= By Sir JULIUS BENEDICT.
     =3. Mendelssohn.= By JOSEPH BENNETT.
     =4. Schubert.= By H. F. FROST.
     =5. Rossini=, and the Modern Italian School. By H. SUTHERLAND
     EDWARDS.
     =6. Marcello.= By ARRIGO BOITO.
     =7. Purcell.= By H. W. CUMMINGS.

Dr. Hiller and other distinguished writers, both English and Foreign,
have promised contributions. Each Volume is complete in itself. Small
post 8vo, cloth extra, 3_s._

_Guizot's History of France._ Translated by ROBERT BLACK. Super-royal
8vo, very numerous Full-page and other Illustrations. In 8 vols., cloth
extra, gilt, each 24_s._

"It supplies a want which has long been felt, and ought to be in the
hands of all students of history."--_Times._

---- ---- _Masson's School Edition._ The History of France from the
Earliest Times to the Outbreak of the Revolution; abridged from
the Translation by Robert Black, M.A., with Chronological Index,
Historical and Genealogical Tables, &c. By Professor GUSTAVE MASSON,
B.A., Assistant Master at Harrow School. With 24 full-page Portraits,
and many other Illustrations. 1 vol., demy 8vo, 600 pp., cloth extra,
10_s._ 6_d._

_Guizot's History of England._ In 3 vols. of about 500 pp. each,
containing 60 to 70 Full-page and other Illustrations, cloth extra,
gilt, 24_s._ each.

"For luxury of typography, plainness of print, and beauty of
illustration, these volumes, of which but one has as yet appeared
in English, will hold their own against any production of an age so
luxurious as our own in everything, typography not excepted."--_Times._

_Guyon (Mde.) Life._ UPHAM. 6th Edition, crown 8vo, 6_s._


_Handbook to the Charities of London._ _See_ Low's.

---- _of Embroidery_; _which see_.

---- _to the Principal Schools of England._ _See_ Practical.

_Half-Hours of Blind Man's Holiday; or, Summer and Winter Sketches in
Black and White._ W. W. FENN, Author of "After Sundown," &c. 2 vols.,
cr. 8vo, 24_s._

_Hall (W. W.) How to Live Long; or, 1408 Health Maxims, Physical,
Mental, and Moral._ W. W. HALL, A.M., M.D. Small post 8vo, cloth, 2_s._
Second Edition.

_Hans Brinker; or, the Silver Skates._ _See_ DODGE.

_Harper's Monthly Magazine._ Published Monthly. 160 pages, fully
Illustrated. 1_s._ With two Serial Novels by celebrated Authors.

"'Harper's Magazine' is so thickly sown with excellent illustrations
that to count them would be a work of time; not that it is a picture
magazine, for the engravings illustrate the text after the manner seen
in some of our choicest _editions de luxe_."--_St. James's Gazette._

"It is so pretty, so big, and so cheap.... An extraordinary
shillingsworth--160 large octavo pages, with over a score of articles,
and more than three times as many illustrations."--_Edinburgh Daily
Review._

"An amazing shillingsworth ... combining choice literature of both
nations."--_Nonconformist._

_Heart of Africa._ Three Years' Travels and Adventures in the
Unexplored Regions of Central Africa, from 1868 to 1871. By Dr. GEORG
SCHWEINFURTH. Numerous Illustrations, and large Map. 2 vols., crown
8vo, cloth, 15_s._

_Heath (Francis George)._ _See_ "Fern World," "Fern Paradise," "Our
Woodland Trees," "Trees and Ferns," "Gilpin's Forest Scenery," "Burnham
Beeches," "Sylvan Spring," &c.

_Heber's (Bishop) Illustrated Edition of Hymns._ With upwards of 100
beautiful Engravings. Small 4to, handsomely bound, 7_s._ 6_d._ Morocco,
18_s._ 6_d._ and 21_s._ An entirely New Edition.

_Heir of Kilfinnan (The)._ New Story by W. H. G. KINGSTON, Author of
"Snow Shoes and Canoes," &c. With Illustrations. Cloth, gilt edges,
7_s._ 6_d._; plainer binding, plain edges, 5_s._

_History and Handbook of Photography._ Translated from the French of
GASTON TISSANDIER. Edited by J. THOMSON. Imperial 16mo, over 300 pages,
70 Woodcuts, and Specimens of Prints by the best Permanent Processes.
Second Edition, with an Appendix by the late Mr. HENRY FOX TALBOT.
Cloth extra, 6_s._

_History of a Crime (The); Deposition of an Eye-witness._ VICTOR HUGO.
4 vols., crown 8vo, 42_s._ Cheap Edition, 1 vol., 6_s._

---- _Ancient Art._ Translated from the German of JOHN WINCKELMANN, by
JOHN LODGE, M.D. With very numerous Plates and Illustrations. 2 vols.,
8vo, 36_s._

---- _England._ _See_ GUIZOT.

---- _France._ _See_ GUIZOT.

---- _Russia._ _See_ RAMBAUD.

---- _Merchant Shipping._ _See_ LINDSAY.

---- _United States._ _See_ BRYANT.

_History and Principles of Weaving by Hand and by Power._ With several
hundred Illustrations. By ALFRED BARLOW. Royal 8vo, cloth extra, 1_l._
5_s._ Second Edition.

_How I Crossed Africa: from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, Through
Unknown Countries; Discovery of the Great Zambesi Affluents, &c._--Vol.
I., The King's Rifle. Vol. II., The Coillard Family. By Major SERPA
PINTO. With 24 full-page and 118 half-page and smaller Illustrations,
13 small Maps, and 1 large one. 2 vols., demy 8vo, cloth extra, 42_s._

_How to Live Long._ _See_ HALL.

_How to get Strong and how to Stay so._ WILLIAM BLAIKIE. A Manual of
Rational, Physical, Gymnastic, and other Exercises. With Illustrations,
small post 8vo, 5_s._

_Hugo (Victor). "Ninety-Three."_ Illustrated. Crown 8vo, 6_s._

---- _Toilers of the Sea._ Crown 8vo. Illustrated, 6_s._; fancy
boards, 2_s._; cloth, 2_s._ 6_d._; On large paper with all the original
Illustrations, 10_s._ 6_d._

---- _See_ "History of a Crime."

_Hundred Greatest Men (The)._ 8 portfolios, 21_s._ each, or 4 vols.,
half morocco, gilt edges, 12 guineas, containing 15 to 20 Portraits
each. See below.

"Messrs. SAMPSON LOW & CO. are about to issue an important
'International' work, entitled, 'THE HUNDRED GREATEST MEN;' being
the Lives and Portraits of the 100 Greatest Men of History, divided
into Eight Classes, each Class to form a Monthly Quarto Volume.
The Introductions to the volumes are to be written by recognized
authorities on the different subjects, the English contributors being
DEAN STANLEY, Mr. MATTHEW ARNOLD, Mr. FROUDE, and Professor MAX MÜLLER;
in Germany, Professor HELMHOLTZ; in France, MM. TAINE and RENAN; and in
America, Mr. EMERSON. The Portraits are to be Reproductions from fine
and rare Steel Engravings."--_Academy._

_Hygiene and Public Health (A Treatise on)._ Edited by A. H. BUCK, M.D.
Illustrated by numerous Wood Engravings. In 2 royal 8vo vols., cloth,
one guinea each.

_Hymnal Companion to Book of Common Prayer._ _See_ BICKERSTETH.


_Illustrated Text-Books of Art-Education._ Edited by EDWARD J. POYNTER,
R.A. Each Volume contains numerous Illustrations, and is strongly bound
for the use of Students, price 5_s._ The Volumes now ready are:--

PAINTING.

     =Classic and Italian.= By PERCY R. HEAD. With 50
     Illustrations, 5_s._
     =German, Flemish, and Dutch.=
     =French and Spanish.=
     =English and American.=

ARCHITECTURE.

     =Classic and Early Christian.=
     =Gothic and Renaissance.= By T. ROGER SMITH. With 50
     Illustrations, 5_s._

SCULPTURE.

     =Antique: Egyptian and Greek.=
     =Renaissance and Modern.=

ORNAMENT.

     =Decoration in Colour.=
     =Architectural Ornament.=

_Illustrations of China and its People._ J. THOMPSON, F.R.G.S. Four
Volumes, imperial 4to, each 3_l._ 3_s._

_In my Indian Garden._ PHIL ROBINSON, Author of "Under the Punkah."
With a Preface by EDWIN ARNOLD, M.A., C.S.I., &c. Crown 8vo, limp
cloth, 3_s._ 6_d._

_Involuntary Voyage (An)._ Showing how a Frenchman who abhorred the
Sea was most unwillingly and by a series of accidents driven round the
World. Numerous Illustrations. Square crown 8vo, cloth extra, 7_s._
6_d._; plainer binding, plain edges, 5_s._

_Irish Bar._ Comprising Anecdotes, Bon-Mots, and Biographical
Sketches of the Bench and Bar of Ireland. By J. RODERICK O'FLANAGAN,
Barrister-at-Law. Crown 8vo, 12_s._ Second Edition.

_Irish Land Question, and English Public Opinion (The)._ With a
Supplement on Griffith's Valuation. By R. BARRY O'BRIEN, Author of "The
Parliamentary History of the Irish Land Question." Fcap. 8vo, cloth,
2_s._

_Irving (Washington)._ Complete Library Edition of his Works in 27
Vols., Copyright, Unabridged, and with the Author's Latest Revisions,
called the "Geoffrey Crayon" Edition, handsomely printed in large
square 8vo, on superfine laid paper, and each volume, of about 500
pages, will be fully Illustrated. 12_s._ 6_d._ per vol. _See also_
"Little Britain."


_Jack and Jill._ Miss ALCOTT. Small post 8vo, cloth, gilt edges, 5_s._
With numerous Illustrations.

_John Holdsworth, Chief Mate._ W. CLARKE RUSSELL, Author of "Wreck of
the Grosvenor." Crown 8vo, 6_s._


_Kingston (W. H. G.)._ _See_ "Snow-Shoes," "Child of the Cavern,"
"Two Supercargoes," "With Axe and Rifle," "Begum's Fortune," "Heir
of Kilfinnan," "Dick Cheveley." Each vol., with very numerous
Illustrations, square crown 16mo, gilt edges, 7_s._ 6_d._; plainer
binding, plain edges, 5_s._


_Lady Silverdale's Sweetheart._ 6_s._ _See_ BLACK.

_Lenten Meditations._ In Two Series, each complete in itself. By the
Rev. CLAUDE BOSANQUET, Author of "Blossoms from the King's Garden."
16mo, cloth, First Series, 1_s._ 6_d._; Second Series, 2_s._

_Library of Religious Poetry._ A Collection of the Best Poems of all
Ages and Tongues. With Biographical and Literary Notes. Edited by
PHILIP SCHAFF, D.D., LL.D., and ARTHUR GILMAN, M.A. Royal 8vo, pp.
1036, cloth extra, gilt edges, 21_s._

_Life and Letters of the Honourable Charles Sumner (The)._ 2 vols.,
royal 8vo, cloth. Second Edition, 36_s._

_Lindsay (W. S.) History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce._
Over 150 Illustrations, Maps, and Charts. In 4 vols., demy 8vo, cloth
extra. Vols. 1 and 2, 21_s._; vols. 3 and 4, 24_s._ each.

_Little Britain_; together with _The Spectre Bridegroom_, and _A Legend
of Sleepy Hollow_. By WASHINGTON IRVING. An entirely New _Edition de
luxe_, specially suitable for Presentation. Illustrated by 120 very
fine Engravings on Wood, by Mr. J. D. COOPER. Designed by Mr. CHARLES
O. MURRAY. Square crown 8vo, cloth extra, gilt edges, 10_s._ 6_d._

_Little King; or, the Taming of a Young Russian Count._ S. BLANDY. 64
Illustrations. Crown 8vo, gilt edges, 7_s._ 6_d._; plainer binding,
5_s._

_Little Mercy; or, For Better for Worse._ MAUDE JEANNE FRANC, Author of
"Marian," "Vermont Vale," &c., &c. Small post 8vo, cloth extra, 4_s._
Second Edition.

_Lost Sir Massingberd._ New Edition, crown 8vo, boards, coloured
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FOOTNOTES


    [A] How Mr. Garrett executed his mission and killed the Kid is
        narrated in the account of the desperados of the West, which
        forms a separate chapter.

    [B] The day of our departure from the United States, after the
        visit of which I have been giving the details, was the date
        of a great crime, of which we were then ignorant. About the
        very time that we were on our way to the wharf to embark on
        board the "_City of Berlin_," the murderer of the President
        was accomplishing his purpose. But with all the means and
        appliances which exist for the despatch of news, I believe
        that the commission of the crime was not known till the
        steamer had passed out to sea from the Sand Heads.

    [C] _See also_ Rose Library.



London:

SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, & RIVINGTON,

CROWN BUILDINGS, 188, FLEET STREET, E.C.





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