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Title: Chantilly in History and Art
Author: Richter, Louise M.
Language: English
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                               CHANTILLY

[Illustration: _Mary Stuart at the age of nine years from the drawing in
the Musée Condé at Chantilly._]



                               CHANTILLY

                           IN HISTORY AND ART

                          BY LOUISE M. RICHTER

                          (MRS. J. P. RICHTER)

                    WITH PORTRAITS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

                                 LONDON

                   JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W.

                                  1913


                          ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


                           TO MY DEAR FRIEND
                            MRS. LUDWIG MOND
                         THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED



PREFACE


My first visit to Chantilly was in April 1904, when the Exhibition of
the French Primitives at the Pavillon Marsan, following close on that at
Bruges, raised interest and comment far outside the boundaries of
France. I visited the Musée Condé with the intention of studying some
more examples of the French fifteenth-and sixteenth-century art which
had so much attracted me in Paris.

The high expectations I had conceived were not disappointed, and the
result was that my studies in that marvellous collection were prolonged.
Weeks grew into months. The Limbourgs, Jean Fouquet, and the Clouets
held me in their spell; the Château of Chantilly, with the history of
its famous owners, aroused my interest more and more.

Through the great courtesy of the late M. Anatol Gruyer and of M.
Gustave Macon, Directors of the Musée Condé, I was given access to all
the art-treasures within its walls and I was allowed to while away my
time with the famous miniatures and drawings and with the pictures in
which I was so much interested. Tranquil and undisturbed, often quite
alone, meeting now and then only the furtive glance of one or other of
the Museum attendants, who were always ready at hand to be of service,
I was enabled to pursue my studies without interruption, owing to the
great kindness of my friend M. Macon. The excellent Library, too, was at
my disposal, as well as the manuscripts in the Cabinet des Livres.

Nor was that all. When at the end of the day the Museum doors were
closed I could walk in the vast park of the Château along its shady
avenues and watch the swans gliding on the silent waters, whilst the
autumn leaves were the sport of the varying breezes. In that unbroken
solitude Time, now long past, brought before me once more kings and
queens, courtiers and warriors, ladies of beauty and fame: and amid my
reveries I seemed to recognise the well-known faces whose
representations I had just left in the galleries within. For was it not
here, in these woods and on these lakes, that they had lived and feasted
in the manner recorded in the chronicles of their time?

Thus, irresistibly attracted by degrees, I conceived the idea of writing
about the history and the art at Chantilly: and I undertook a task which
grew gradually in my hands to dimensions that at first I had not
anticipated.

My chief study, as mentioned above, was intended to be on the French
fifteenth-and sixteenth-century artists which the Duc d'Aumale so
successfully collected. To the Italian and the Northern Schools and the
later French periods at the Musée Condé I have purposely given but a
passing mention, since they are equally well or better represented in
other galleries.

The Bibliography which I have appended shows that much has been written
on early French Art in France, especially during the last fifteen years;
and I feel greatly indebted to authors such as Comte Leopold Delisle,
Comte Paul Durrieu, MM. George Lafenestre, Anatol Gruyer, Louis Dimier,
Gustave Macon, Moreau Nelaton, Sir Claude Phillips, Mr. Roger Fry and
others, by whose works I have greatly profited, as also by my husband's
expert knowledge. But no book exactly covering this ground has as yet
been written in the English language.

More than special acknowledgment and thanks are due to Mr. Robert H.
Hobart Cust for his help and valuable suggestions. In the arduous task
of revising the proofs of this book he was assisted by my son Mr. F. J.
P. Richter. I have also great pleasure in expressing my deep gratitude
to my dear friend Mrs. Ludwig Mond, whose constant encouragement was of
inestimable value to me.

I am indebted to Mr. Murray for the personal interest he has so kindly
shown in the many details which this work entails.

LOUISE M. RICHTER.

_London, October 1913._



CONTENTS


PAGE

PREFACE.....vii

AUTHORITIES CONSULTED.....xxv


FIRST PART

_CHANTILLY AND ITS HISTORY_

CHAPTER I

CHANTILLY AND ITS OWNERS: THE MONTMORENCYS

The Origin of Chantilly; the Gallo-Roman Cantillius; the Seigneurs of
Senlis; the Orgemonts; the Montmorencys; the Great Constable of France;
he builds the Petit-Château; the architects Jean Bullant and Pierre
des Iles; the fair Charlotte de Montmorency; Henri IV madly in love
with her; the last Montmorency condemned to the scaffold by Richelieu;
Chantilly becomes the property of the French Crown.....3

CHAPTER II

CHANTILLY AND THE CONDÉS

The origin of the Condés; their adherence to the Protestant Faith;
Eléonore de Roy, Princesse de Condé, a staunch Huguenot; the two
brothers, Antoine de Navarre and Louis I de Bourbon Condé; Catherine
de Medicis sides with Condé in order to counterbalance the ascendancy
of the Guises; she succeeds in estranging him from his wife; severe
censure of Calvin; premature death of the Prince de Condé; his son
Henri de Bourbon succeeds to the title; he sends all his family
jewels to Queen Elizabeth to help the Huguenot cause; Charlotte de la
Trémoille his second wife; his death; his son Henri II is heir to the
Crown until the birth of Louis XIII; he is imprisoned for political
reasons by Richelieu; his release; Louis XIII on his deathbed gives
back Chantilly to its rightful owners.....16

CHAPTER III

THE GRAND CONDÉ

The Duc d'Enghien; his _mariage de convenance_ with Claire-Clemence;
his attachment to Marthe de Vigeau; Richelieu appoints him General
of the French army; the Hero of Rocroy; after his father's death he
assumes his title but is styled the Grand Condé; his victories at
Fribourg, Nördlingen, and Lens; he puts down the Fronde and brings the
boy-king Louis XIV back to Paris.....33

CHAPTER IV

CLAIRE-CLEMENCE, PRINCESSE DE CONDÉ

The enmity between Mazarin and Condé; the latter and his brother
Conti are arrested; the courageous efforts made by Claire-Clemence
to liberate her husband; her flight from Chantilly; Turenne escorts
her to Bordeaux where she is received with great enthusiasm; Paris
clamours for the release of Condé; the Queen is obliged to send Mazarin
with an unconditional order for this purpose; his entry into Paris;
he expresses his gratitude to the Princess his wife; new difficulties
arise; Condé's alliance with Spain; he leaves France and goes over to
the enemy.....47

CHAPTER V

CONDÉ'S ALLIANCE WITH SPAIN

Condé is defeated by Turenne at Dunkirk; the Peace of the Pyrenees is
signed; Condé is reinstated in all his rights; he returns to Chantilly
and lives there in retirement; Le Nôtre lays out the gardens and park;
Condé invents a hydraulic machine to receive the waters of the Nonette;
Mansart arrives at Chantilly and begins his alterations to the old
feudal castle.....59

CHAPTER VI

FESTIVITIES AT CHANTILLY

The marriage of the Duc d'Enghien with Anne of Bavaria; Claire-Clemence
is neglected by her husband; her health breaks down; a mysterious
affair; she proclaims her innocence; she is banished to the fortress of
Châteauroux; great festivities at Chantilly; Louis XIV and his Queen
Maria Theresa visit Chantilly.....69

CHAPTER VII

THE GRAND CONDÉ A WARRIOR ONCE MORE

Louis XIV after the death of Philip IV of Spain asserts the Flemish
rights of his wife; he suddenly declares war, and summons the Grand
Condé and Turenne to lead the French army; Condé conquers Franche-Comté
and the King makes Lille a French town; William of Orange inundates
the whole of Holland to save it from invasion by the French; the
Grand Condé is wounded; he returns to Chantilly; not yet recovered,
he is summoned back by the King; Turenne is confronted by Montecucoli
and meets his death near Salzburg; Condé by his brilliant operations
preserves Turenne's army and shuts out Montecucoli from Alsace, thus
terminating this great campaign; Madame de Sevigné, Bossuet, Corneille,
Racine, and Molière at Chantilly; death of the Grand Condé.....78

CHAPTER VIII

THE LAST CONDÉS

Succession of Henri Jules de Bourbon; he carries out his father's
wishes with regard to Chantilly; he is succeeded by his son Louis III,
who outlives him but a short time; Louis Henri de Bourbon inherits the
title when only eighteen; he builds the great stables; Louis XV visits
Chantilly and is magnificently entertained; the Prince de Condé is made
Prime Minister of France in 1723; influence of the Marquise de Prie
over the Prince; after her death he marries a princess of Rhinfeld; the
young châtelaine of Chantilly is greatly admired by Louis XV; he pays
frequent visits to the Château; his death; the succession of the infant
Louis Joseph de Bourbon in 1740; he marries Charlotte de Rohan-Soubise;
their only son Louis Henri Joseph marries at the age of sixteen a
Princess d'Orléans; Marie Antoinette visits Chantilly as Dauphine;
the Comte and Comtesse du Nord at Chantilly; a famous hunting party;
Princesse Louise de Condé and the Marquis de Gervaisais; an able speech
in Parliament by the Duc d'Enghien when only sixteen years of age; the
Revolution breaks out; the Condés leave France.....89

CHAPTER IX

CHANTILLY DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

Chantilly deserted; the Château devastated and used as a prison for
political offenders; the so-called Black Band razes the Grand Château
to the ground; Chantilly becomes State property under Napoleon; the
Prince de Condé head of the French emigrés; he and his regiment
subsequently find refuge in Russia; his arrival in England; his simple
home at Wanstead; the tragic death of the Duc d'Enghien; the collapse
of the French Empire; the Prince de Condé returns to Chantilly; he
restores his ancestral mansion, and dies; the last of the Condés
selects his nephew, Prince Henri d'Orléans, as his heir.....106

CHAPTER X

THE DUC D'AUMALE AND LORD OF CHANTILLY

The Duc d'Aumale owner of Chantilly; Chantilly the French Epsom; the
heir of the Condés at Algiers; his victory at La Smalah; his marriage
with Princess Caroline de Bourbon, daughter of the Prince of Salerno;
Chantilly the home of the newly married pair; their son and heir named
Prince de Condé; Louis-Philippe pays a visit to Chantilly; the Duke
takes the command of the French Army in Algeria; the Duc d'Aumale in
exile; his home at Twickenham; death of his eldest son; death of the
Duchess; the Duke returns to Chantilly after the fall of the Second
Empire; sudden death of the Duc de Guise, his only surviving son; the
architect Daumet undertakes to rebuild the Grand Château; visit of the
Prince and Princess of Wales to Chantilly; the Republic pronounces
sentence of banishment on all claimants to the throne of France; the
Duc d'Aumale included in this decree; he returns to England; his home
at Wood Norton; he publicly announces his intention to leave Chantilly
with all its forests, parks and art-treasures to the French nation;
President Carnot signs a decree that France will welcome him back; he
returns to Chantilly amid great rejoicings of the people; the sculptor
Dubois is commissioned to erect his statue at Chantilly.....116


SECOND PART

_THE MUSÉE CONDÉ_

CHAPTER XI

THE ART TREASURES OF THE MUSÉE CONDÉ

The Duc d'Aumale joins the ranks of the great European collectors; his
pronounced taste as a bibliophile; he purchases the Standish Library
in 1851; the _Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry_ are acquired in
1855; the Reiset Collection of 380 drawings is bought in 1861; an
exhibition is organised at Orleans House; Disraeli's speech; the first
French drawings acquired from the Utterson sale; the Pourtales Vase
and the Minerva; the Madonna of the _Maison d'Orléans_; the Sutherland
collection of French drawings is purchased; the portrait of _Antoine de
Bourgogne_; the Carmontelle Collection is added; the Reiset Collection
of paintings acquired; Victor Hugo addresses a letter to the Duc
d'Aumale on his election as member of the Institut de France; Raphael's
_Three Graces_ purchased from the Earl of Dudley; over 300 French
drawings are acquired from Lord Carlisle; the Duc d'Aumale makes his
last important acquisition--the forty miniatures by Fouquet from the
_Book of Hours_ of Etienne Chevalier.....129

CHAPTER XII

FRENCH ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS AT CHANTILLY

A note in the _Inventory_ of the Duc de Berry mentions Pol de Limbourg
and his brothers as the authors of the _Très Riches Heures_; Fouquet
mentioned by François Robertet, Secretary to Pierre de Beaujeu Duc de
Bourgogne; the Cabinet des Livres of the Duc d'Aumale; the _Psalter_ of
Queen Ingeburge; the _Breviary_ of Jeanne d'Evreux; the _Très Riches
Heures du Duc de Berry_ discovered at a villa near Genoa.....154

CHAPTER XIII

THE _TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY_

This work marks an important epoch in the history of French Art; the
_Calendar Months_ by Pol de Limbourg (the eldest brother); the scenes
from the _Life of Christ_ joint work of the three brothers; _the
Zodiac_; _the Plan of Rome_; the Duc de Berry a collector of medals;
his sudden death interrupts the completion of his _Livre d'Heures_;
Jean Colombe, half a century later, undertakes the painting of the
remaining miniatures; his mediocre workmanship.....165

CHAPTER XIV

JEAN FOUQUET OF TOURS

Court-Painter to Charles VII and Louis XI; inspired by the work of the
Limbourgs; a similar inclination for landscapes in his backgrounds;
Etienne Chevalier, Treasurer of France, his patron; the forty
miniatures by Fouquet at Chantilly; Fouquet well known in Italy as
a painter; commissioned to make a portrait of _Pope Eugenius IV_;
mentioned by Vasari; his impressions in Italy shown in the miniatures
at Chantilly and in the MS. of the _Antiquitates Judæorum_; his strong
individuality; his sense of humour and other characteristics.....179

CHAPTER XV

JEAN PERRÉAL AND BOURDICHON

Bourdichon's name found upon cartridge-cases made out of old accounts
and contracts; the _Prayer-Book_ of Anne de Bretagne and its
ornamentation of flowers; Perréal painter to the Duc Pierre de Bourbon;
studies Fouquet's work at Moulins; the miniatures of the MS. of _St.
Michel_ in the Bibliothèque Nationale attributed to Perréal by Durrieu;
affinity between the angels in the MS. and those in the triptych
at Moulins; why the original drawings of the _Preux de Marignan_
are likely to be by Jean Perréal rather than by Jean Clouet; the
handwriting of Perréal identified on the back of a drawing attributed
to him; the Tournois tapestries; Perréal mentioned in the Royal
Accounts as Architect and Sculptor; his medals representing _Louis XII_
and _Anne de Bretagne_ in the Metropolitan Museum, New York, and in the
Wallace Collection.....196

CHAPTER XVI

JEAN CLOUET

Migrates to France; settles at Tours; marries Jeanne Boucault;
his portrait of _Oronce Finé_ exists only in an engraving; his
craftsmanship of a more elaborate nature than that of Perréal; the
_Duc de Guise_ and the unknown man at Hampton Court; his portrait
of _Francis I_ in the Louvre; _Queen Claude_ and her sister
_Renée_; numerous drawings to be attributed to Jean Clouet; his
characteristics.....211

CHAPTER XVII

FRANÇOIS CLOUET AND HIS FOLLOWERS

Favoured by Francis I; he adheres at first to parental teaching;
_Mary Stuart_ in her girlhood by Germain le Mannier; _Mary Stuart_ as
Dauphine and as Queen of France; _Francis II_; _Charles IX_ by François
Clouet; his exquisite drawing of _Margot de France_ at Chantilly;
portrait of _Pierre Quthe_ at the Louvre; the portrait of _Odet de
Coligny_ at Chantilly; _Catherine de Medicis_ as a collector; her
handwriting identified on the margins of drawings at Chantilly, and
elsewhere; Corneille de Lyon and the _Dauphin François_; Jean de Court
court-painter to Henri III; Carron and the brothers Lagneau; Daniel
Dumoustier; his portrait of _Henri, Duc de Guise_; the Quesnels,
court-painters to the first Bourbon Kings; the painting of Gabrielle
d'Estrées and her two sons at Chantilly.....227

CHAPTER XVIII

FROM NICOLAS POUSSIN TO COROT

_Dr. Fagon_ by Mathias le Nain; Nicolas Poussin; his drawing of
_Daphne_; Gaspar Poussin; Claude Lorraine; Mignard and his portrait
of _Molière_; the portrait of _Louis XIV_ by Rigaud; Largillière and
his portrait of a _friend of the Condés_; he painted _Liselotte as a
Naiad_; the _Princesse de Condé_, wife of Louis Joseph, by Nattier;
Desportes and Oudry; a copy by Boucher of a portrait of _Watteau_ by
himself; the relations between Crozat and Watteau; Lancret adopts
Watteau's style; _Madame Adelaide de France_ by Latour; the portrait
of _Georgette_ by Greuze; the small portraits of the Royal Bourbons
and of the _Bourbon Condés_ by Fragonard; Ingres; Delaroche and
Eugène Delacroix; Descamps represented by no less than ten paintings;
Fromentin's _Arab Chiefs hawking in the Sahara_; Meissonier and his
great pupil Detaille; Corot and the Barbizon School; the tomb of the
Duc d'Aumale by Dubois.....248

INDEX.....279



LIST OF PLATES


  PLATE

  I. MARY STUART IN HER GIRLHOOD                        _Frontispiece_
  _Germain le Mannier, Musée Condé._

  FACING PAGE

  II. GUILLAUME DE MONTMORENCY                                      4
  _Attributed to Perréal, Musée Condé._

  III. THE CHÂTEAU DE CHANTILLY                                     6

  IV. ANNE DE MONTMORENCY                                           8
  _François Clouet, Musée Condé._

  V. HENRI II DE BOURBON, PRINCE DE CONDÉ                          12
  _School of François Clouet, Musée Condé._

  " GENEVIÈVE DE BOURBON                                           12
  _Beaubrun, Musée Condé._

  VI. ANTOINE DE BOURBON                                           16

  " CHARLOTTE DE LA TRÉMOILLE                                      16
  _School of Francois Clouet, Musée Condé._

  VII. LOUIS I DE BOURBON, PRINCE DE CONDÉ                         18

  " HENRI I DE BOURBON, PRINCE DE CONDÉ                            18
  _School of François Clouet, Musée Condé._

  VIII. FRANCIS II                                                 20
  _François Clouet, Bibliothèque Nationale._

  IX. JEANNE D'ALBRET, QUEEN OF NAVARRE                            22
  _François Clouet, Musée Condé._

  X. CATHERINE DE MEDICIS                                          26
  _Attributed to Corneille de Lyon, Musée Condé._

  " HENRI II                                                       26
  _François Clouet, Biblothèque Nationale._

  XI. THE GRAND CONDÉ                                              36
  _David Teniers, Musée Condé._

  XII. THE VIRGIN AS PROTECTOR OF THE HUMAN RACE                   42
  _E. Charonton and Vilatte, Musée Condé._

  " THE TOMB OF THE DUC AND DUCHESSE DE BRETAGNE IN
  THE CATHEDRAL AT NANTES                                          42
  _Executed after Designs by Perréal._

  XIII. CHANTILLY BEFORE 1687                                      50

  XIII. CHANTILLY IN THE TIME OF THE GRAND CONDÉ                   50

  XIV. ANTOINE DE BOURGOGNE, CALLED LE GRAND BÂTARD                62
  _Memling, Musée Condé._

  XV. MOLIÈRE                                                      84
  _Mignard, Musée Condé._

  XVI. CHARLOTTE DE ROHAN SOUBISE, PRINCESSE DE CONDÉ              96
  _Nattier, Musée Condé._

  XVII. LOUIS JOSEPH DE BOURBON, PRINCE DE CONDÉ                  104
  _Madame de Tott, Musée Condé._

  XVIII. LOUIS HENRI JOSEPH DE BOURBON, LAST PRINCE DE CONDÉ      114
  _Danloux, Musée Condé._

  XIX. HENRI D'ORLÉANS, DUC D'AUMALE                              124
  _Léon Bonnat, Musée Condé._

  XX. THE "MINERVA" OF CHANTILLY                                  136
  _Greek Bronze, Musée Condé._

  XXI. THE "MADONNA" OF THE HOUSE OF ORLÉANS                      140
  _Raphael, Musée Condé._

  XXII. A GAME OF CHESS                                           144
  _Carmontelle, Musée Condé._

  XXIII. THE MYSTIC MARRIAGE OF ST. FRANCIS                       146
  _Sassetta, Musée Condé._

  " PORTRAIT OF SIMONETTA VESPUCCI                                146
  _Piero di Cosimo, Musée Condé._

  XXIV. THE THREE GRACES                                          148
  _Raphael, Musée Condé._

  XXV. THE STORY OF ESTHER                                        150
  _School of Sandro Botticelli, Musée Condé._

  XXVI. THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  PLAN OF ROME                                                    152
  _Pol de Limbourg and his Brothers, Musée Condé._

  XXVII. THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  JANUARY                                                         154
  _Pol de Limbourg, Musée Condé._

  XXVIII. THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  FEBRUARY                                                        156
  _Pol de Limbourg, Musée Condé._

  XXIX.   THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  APRIL                                                           158
  _Pol de Limbourg, Musée Condé._

  XXX. THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  MAY                                                             160
  _Pol de Limbourg, Musée Condé._

  XXXI. THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  JUNE                                                            162
  _Pol de Limbourg, Musée Condé._

  XXXII. THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  JULY                                                            164
  _Pol de Limbourg, Musée Condé._

  XXXIII. THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  AUGUST                                                          166
  _Pol de Limbourg, Musée Condé._

  XXXIV. THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  OCTOBER                                                         168
  _Pol de Limbourg, Musée Condé._

  XXXV. THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  DECEMBER                                                        170
  _Pol de Limbourg, Musée Condé._

  XXXVI. THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  THE ZODIAC                                                      172
  _Pol de Limbourg and his Brothers, Musée Condé._

  XXXVII. THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  THE PROCESSION OF THE MAGI                                      174
  _Pol de Limbourg and his Brothers, Musée Condé._

  XXXVIII. THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  THE FALL OF THE REBEL ANGELS                                    176
  _Pol de Limbourg and his Brothers, Musée Condé._

  XXXIX. THE "TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY":
  THE CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN                                    178
  _Pol de Limbourg and his Brothers, Musée Condé._

  XL. ETIENNE CHEVALIER AND HIS PATRON SAINT                      180
  _Jean Fouquet, Musée Condé._

  XLI. THE VIRGIN WITH THE INFANT CHRIST                          181
  _Jean Fouquet, Musée Condé._

  XLII. THE MARRIAGE OF THE VIRGIN                                182
  _Jean Fouquet, Musée Condé._

  XLIII. THE ANNUNCIATION                                         184
  _Jean Fouquet, Musée Condé._

  XLIV. THE VISITATION                                            186
  _Jean Fouquet, Musée Condé._

  XLV. THE BIRTH OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST                          188
  _Jean Fouquet, Musée Condé._

  XLVI. THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI                                 190
  _Jean Fouquet, Musée Condé._

  XLVII. THE ASCENSION                                            192
  _Jean Fouquet, Musée Condé._

  XLVIII. ALL SAINTS' DAY                                         194
  _Jean Fouquet, Musée Condé._

  XLIX. SEIGNEUR DE LA PALISSE                                    202

  " COMTE DE LIGNY                                                202
  _Attributed to Perréal, Musée Condé._

  L. ERASMUS                                                      204

  " JUST DE TOURNON                                               204
  _Attributed to Perréal, Musée Condé._

  LI. FRANCIS I                                                   206
  _Perréal, Musée Condé._

  " MINIATURES OF FRANCIS I AND CÆSAR                             206
  _After Perréal, British Museum._

  LII. LOUIS XII                                                  208

  " ODET DE FOIX                                                  208
  _Attributed to Perréal, Musée Condé._

  LIII. MEDALS OF LOUIS XII AND ANNE OF BRITTANY                  210
  _After Designs by Perréal, Victoria and Albert Museum._

  " MEDAL OF JEAN CLOUET                                          210
  _Victoria and Albert Museum._

  LIV. THE DAUPHIN FRANÇOIS                                       212
  _Jean Clouet, Antwerp._

  LV. MONSIEUR DE NEVERS                                          214
  _Jean Clouet, Musée Condé._

  " DUC DE GUISE                                                  214
  _Jean Clouet, Musée Condé._

  LVI. FRANCIS I                                                  216
  _Jean Clouet, Louvre._

  LVII. QUEEN CLAUDE OF FRANCE                                    218
  _Attributed to Perréal, Musée Condé._

  " RÉNÉE DE FRANCE, DUCHESS OF FERRARA                           218
  _Attributed to J. Clouet, Musée Condé._

  LVIII. THE DAUPHIN FRANÇOIS                                     220

  " HENRI D'ORLÉANS                                               220
  _Jean Clouet, Musée Condé._

  LIX. MADAME VENDÔME D'ALENÇON                                   222

  " JEANNE BOUCAULT                                               222
  _Jean Clouet, Musée Condé._

  LX. MADAME L'ESTRANGE                                           224
  _Jean Clouet, Musée Condé._

  LXI. JEANNE D'ALBRET IN HER GIRLHOOD                            226
  _Jean Clouet, Musée Condé._

  " MADAME MARGUERITE, SISTER OF HENRI II                         226
  _Attributed to François Clouet, Musée Condé._

  LXII. FRANCIS I                                                 228
  _Jean Clouet, Louvre._

  " MARGUERITE, QUEEN OF NAVARRE, SISTER OF FRANCIS I             228
  _Attributed to François Clouet, Musée Condé._

  LXIII. CHARLES IX                                               230
  _François Clouet, Vienna._

  LXIV. MARY STUART AS QUEEN OF FRANCE                            232
  _François Clouet, Bibliothèque Nationale._

  LXV. ELISABETH OF AUSTRIA, QUEEN OF FRANCE                      234
  _François Clouet, Bibliothèque Nationale._

  " JOSSINE PISSELEU                                              234
  _François Clouet, Musée Condé._

  LXVI. PIERRE QUTHE                                              236
  _François Clouet, Louvre._

  LXVII. MARGOT OF FRANCE                                         238
  _François Clouet, Musée Condé._

  LXVIII. DIANE DE POITIERS                                       240
  _François Clouet, Musée Condé._

  LXIX. MARY TUDOR                                                242
  _Copy after Perréal, Musée Condé._

  " MADAME DE BOUILLON                                            242
  _Attributed to J. Clouet, Musée Condé._

  LXX. THE DAUPHIN FRANÇOIS AT THE AGE OF TWENTY                  244
  _Corneille de Lyon, Musée Condé._

  LXXI. HENRI DE GUISE                                            246
  _Dumoustier, Musée Condé._

  " MARÉCHAL DE VIELVILLE                                         246
  _François Clouet, British Museum._

  LXXII. DAPHNE METAMORPHOSED INTO A LAUREL TREE                  250
  _Nicolas Poussin, Musée Condé._

  LXXIII. LOUISE-HENRIETTE DE BOURBON CONTI                       254
  _J. M. Nattier, Musée Condé._

  " A FRIEND OF THE CONDÉS                                        254
  _Largillière, Musée Condé._

  LXXIV. JOSEPH AND POTIPHAR'S WIFE                               258
  _Prud'hon, Musée Condé._

  " THE GUITAR PLAYER                                             258
  _Watteau, Musée Condé._

  LXXV. YOUNG GIRL                                                262
  _Greuze, Musée Condé._

  LXXVI. ARAB CHIEFS HAWKING IN THE DESERT                        272
  _Eugène Fromentin, Musée Condé._

  LXXVII. THE GRENADIERS AT EYLAU                                 274
  _Détaille, Musée Condé._

  LXXVIII. CONCERT CHAMPÊTRE                                      276
  _Corot, Musée Condé._

  LXXIX. TOMB OF THE DUC D'AUMALE                                 278
  _P. Dubois, in the Cathedral at Dreux; cast at Chantilly._



AUTHORITIES CONSULTED


DUC D'AUMALE:

     Histoire des Princes de Condé pendant le XVI et le XVII siècle. 7
     vols. Paris: Calman Levy, éditeur; _Recueil Anglais Philobiblon
     Miscellanies_.

BERENSON, BERNHARD:

     A Sienese Painter of the Franciscan Legend, Stefano di Giovanni,
     called Sassetta, _Burlington Magazine_, 1903.

     Amico di Sandro, _Gazette des Beaux Arts_, 1899.

     The Study and Criticism of Italian Art. London: George Bell & Sons,
     1901-1902.

BOUCHOT, HENRI:

     Les Primitifs Français, Librairie de l'Art Ancien et Moderne.

     Les Clouets et Corneille de Lyon, Séries "Artistes Célèbres."

COLVIN, SIR SIDNEY:

     Catalogue of Drawings at the British Museum.

     Selected Drawings by Old Masters in the University Galleries and in
     the Library at Christ-Church, Oxford.

CUST, LIONEL:

     Some Portraits at the National Portrait Gallery, _Studio_, 1897.

     Notes on the Authentic Portraits of Mary Queen of Scots. John
     Murray, 1903.

     The Royal Collection at Buckingham Palace and Windsor, with an
     Introduction and Descriptive Text. 1906.

CUST, ROBERT H. HOBART:

     The Life of Benvenuto Cellini. A New Version. George Bell & Sons,
     1910.

DELISLE, COUNT LEOPOLD:

     Les Livres d'Heures du Duc de Berry, _Gazette des Beaux Arts_,
     1884.

     Le Cabinet des Livres au Château de Chantilly, _Revue de l'Art
     Ancien et Moderne_, 1900.

     Les Heures du Connétable de Montmorency, etc.

DILKE, LADY:

     French Painters of the Eighteenth Century.

     French Engravers and Draughtsmen. George Bell & Sons.

DIMIER, LOUIS:

     French Paintings in the Sixteenth Century. London: Duckworth & Co.

DURRIEU, COUNT PAUL:

     Heures de Turin avec 45 feuillets à Peintures des "Très Belles
     Heures." Paris: 1902.

     Les Débuts de Van Eyck, _Gazette des Beaux Arts_, 1903.

     Les Aventures de deux Splendides Livres d'Heures ayant appartenu au
     duc Jean de Berry, _Revue de l'Art Ancien et Moderne_, 1911.

FRIEDLÄNDER, MAX:

     Die Votivtafel des Etienne Chevalier von Fouquet, _Jahrbuch der
     Königl_. _Preussischen Kunstsammlungen_, 1896.

     Die Brugger Leihaustellung, _Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft_.

FRY, ROGER:

     The Exhibition of French Primitives, _Burlington Magazine_, 1904.

     French Painting in the Middle Ages, _Quarterly Review_, 1904.

     English Illuminated MSS. at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1908.

GRUYER, ANATOLE:

     La Peinture au Château de Chantilly.

     Les Quarante Fouquet.

LABORDE, MARQUIS LÉON:

     Renaissance des Arts à la Cour de France.

     Les ducs de Bourgogne.

     Études sur les Lettres, les Arts et l'Industrie pendant le XV
     Siècle.

LAFENESTRE, GEORGE:

     Les Primitifs à Bruges et à Paris, 1900, 1902, 1904, _Librairie de
     l'Art Ancien et Moderne_.

     Jehan Fouquet, "Les Artistes de tous les temps." Séries B.

MACON, GUSTAVE:

     Château de Chantilly et le Parc, _Revue de l'Art Ancien et
     Moderne_.

     Chantilly et le Musée Condé, _Librairie Renouard_.

MANTZ, PAUL:

     La Peinture Française du IX Siècle à la fin du XVI; Alcide Picard
     and Kaan, éditeur.

MAULDE, DE LA CLAVIÈRE:

     Jean Perréal; Ernest Leroux, éditeurs.

MOREAU-NELATON, ETIENNE:

     Les Le Mannier, Peintres officiels à la cour des Valois, _Gazette
     des Beaux Arts_, 1901.

     Les Clouet, Peintres officiels des Rois de France.

     Le Portrait à la cour des Valois et les Crayons français du 16ième
     siècle conservés au Musée Condé à Chantilly, _Librairie des Beaux
     Arts_, rue Lafayette.

NOLHAC, PIERRE DE, et ANDRÉ PÉRATÉ:

     Le Musée National de Versailles; Braun, Clément & Co.

PHILLIPS, SIR CLAUDE:

     Impressions of the Bruges Exhibition, _Fortnightly Review_.

     Masterpieces of French Art in the Eighteenth Century in Possession
     of the Emperor of Germany.

TURNER, P. M., and C. H. COLLINS-BAKER:

     Stories of the French Artists from Clouet to Delacroix. London:
     Chatto & Windus, 1909.

WILLIAMS, H. NOEL:

     The Love-affairs of the Condés. Methuen & Co.



FIRST PART

_CHANTILLY AND ITS HISTORY_



CHAPTER I

CHANTILLY AND ITS OWNERS

THE MONTMORENCYS


The Château of Chantilly, now known as the Musée Condé, the magnificent
gift so generously bequeathed to the French nation by the late Duc
d'Aumale, has experienced great changes and passed through many
vicissitudes.

At a very early date a Gallo-Roman, by name Cantillius, fixed his abode
upon an isolated rock, in the midst of wild forest and marshland; hence
the name of Chantilly.

In the ninth century we find established here the Seigneurs of Senlis,
who bore the name of _Bouteillers_, from their hereditary task of
wine-controllers to the Kings of France--an honorary post which they
held for some centuries. But the last scion of that sturdy race, having
seen his castle pillaged during the Jacquerie of 1358, died without
issue.

After changing hands through three decades, Chantilly in 1386 became the
property of Pierre d'Orgemont, Chancellor to Charles V of France, who
laid the foundations of an imposing feudal fortress, flanked by seven
stately towers.

Several centuries later a change again occurred in the ownership of
Chantilly. By default of male issue it passed into the possession of
Jean II, Baron de Montmorency, who married Marguerite, sole heiress of
the Orgemonts; and with this illustrious family Chantilly emerged from
comparative obscurity into historical fame. Henceforth it became a
favourite centre for the leading men of France, and within its
hospitable walls kings and princes found sumptuous entertainment.

Matrimonial alliance in the beginning of the seventeenth century brought
the property into the family of the Condés, a younger branch of the
Bourbons; and later still, by the marriage of the last Prince de Condé
with Princesse Bathilde d'Orléans, and the tragic death of their only
son, the Duc d'Enghien, Chantilly passed into the possession of its last
private owner, Prince Henri d'Orléans, Duc d'Aumale.

The family of the Montmorencys was well known and famous in France
during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, but became extinct under
Richelieu, who, for reasons of state, sent the last scion of that race,
Henri de Montmorency, to the scaffold.

[Illustration: Plate II.

Photo. Giraudon.

GUILLAUME DE MONTMORENCY.

Attributed to J. Perréal.

Musée Condé.]

Guillaume, son of Jean de Montmorency, who married the heiress of
Chantilly, joined in an expedition to Italy under Charles VIII of
France. There are portraits of him in the Louvre, and at Lyons, whilst a
fine crayon drawing representing him in his younger days is to be found
in the portfolios of the Musée Condé. He it was who, in 1515,
constructed the Chapel of the Château, obtaining from Pope Leo X a bull
for its foundation. He married Anne de Pot, and their eldest son was the
famous Anne de Montmorency, known as the _Grand Connétable_. Queen Anne
of Brittany held him at the baptismal font, conferring upon him her own
name, and he was educated with the Duc d'Angoulême, afterwards King
Francis I.

Anne de Montmorency in early youth distinguished himself by artistic
taste, probably acquired at the Court of Louise of Savoy, mother of
Francis I. No sooner had he succeeded his father as Lord of Chantilly
than he endeavoured to create a mansion more in accordance with the
refined taste of his time. Without demolishing the fortifications and
the stately towers of the Orgemonts, he succeeded in introducing more
light into the mediæval chambers by piercing their walls with large
windows. He hung the interior of the castle with tapestries, and
furnished it richly with the artistic spoils of his expeditions into
Italy. He also commenced the formation of the famous Library,
subsequently continued by the Condés until it reached the fame which it
enjoyed under its latest owner, the Duc d'Aumale.

Under the Grand Connétable's directions were executed the forty-four
painted glass windows still at Chantilly. They illustrate the legend of
_Cupid and Psyche_ after cartoons by the school of Raphael, and were
produced in France about 1546 by Jean Mangin and Leonard Gautier.

Montmorency's artistic tastes, however, did not prevent him from being
the greatest warrior of his time. Together with his maternal uncles,
Gouffier de Boissy and Gouffier de Bonnivet, he was numbered among the
so-called _Preux_ who fought victoriously by the side of King Francis I,
at the Battle of Marignan. He followed the King to Pavia, where he was
made a prisoner with his Royal master, and in 1530 he was at Bayonne, to
negotiate the release of the young Princes of Valois, who had been kept
as hostages by the Emperor Charles V. After the Peace of Madrid he again
fought against the Imperial troops in Picardy, and it was upon this
occasion that he received the title of "Great Constable" of France.

In spite, however, of his great prowess he fell into disgrace with the
King through the intrigues of Madame d'Estampes. As in the case of the
Connétable de Bourbon, Francis I, ever fickle in his friendships, became
so jealous of Montmorency's fame that the latter was obliged at last to
retire to Chantilly; where he employed his time in improving this
favourite abode. He constructed on an island close to the older feudal
castle, the fine Renaissance palace known as the Petit-Château, which by
some miracle has remained almost intact to this day. It is probable that
Jean Bullant, the architect of Ecouen, was consulted with regard to this
Petit-Château at Chantilly, for the style of its architecture marks
the transition between the mediæval Gothic and the period of the
French Renaissance, and ranks it with buildings such as the châteaux of
Chambord, Chenonceaux, d'Azay le Rideau, and Langeais.[1]

[Illustration: PLATE III.

THE CHÂTEAU DE CHANTILLY.]

This style, according to Viollet-le-Duc, grew up like the beech-trees
and the willows near the Loire, and--as in the case of Chantilly--is
often found side by side with feudal castles of a much older period; the
owners of which, apparently unwilling to demolish their ancestral homes,
preferred at the same time to occupy more modern and commodious
residences.

The chief distinction between the French and Italian Renaissance is that
the former is less conventional and offers less regularity of style in
its building. It is a style that reached its climax in the châteaux of
Blois and Chambord, each of which preserves some characteristics of the
nobles who erected them, although the names of the actual architects, in
spite of their undoubted creative skill, remain for the most part
unknown. Such is the case with the Petit-Château of Chantilly.

Anne de Montmorency was an intimate friend of Diane de Poitiers, the
friend and mistress of Henri II. This lady was owner of the Château of
Clemonceaux, which no doubt served as a model to Montmorency when
erecting his own new palace. The complete absence of documents with
regard to this structure is greatly to be regretted, but the
supposition that Jean Bullant, who was in constant relation with Pierre
des Iles, known as "Maçon" of Chantilly, had a hand in its erection, as
stated above, is by no means unreasonable. It is an architectural gem,
and provoked the admiration of Leonardo da Vinci and Benvenuto Cellini,
who both enjoyed hospitality within its walls.

Anne de Montmorency was created Duke by Henri II, and after the sudden
death of that King he succeeded in securing the goodwill of Francis II
and Charles IX. Queen Catherine de Medicis cordially disliked him, but
nevertheless endeavoured to use him as a tool against the Huguenot Louis
I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé.

In 1562 he won the battle of Dreux against Condé and Coligny, and he
routed them again in 1567 at Saint-Denis, though at the sacrifice of his
own life; for he was severely wounded, and died shortly afterwards in
Paris.

Anne de Montmorency at various stages of his life is presented in a
series of French drawings, dating from 1514, as a _Preux de Marignan_,
down to his old age. There also exists a drawing of his wife Madeleine
de Savoie. By a fortunate coincidence these drawings--of which we shall
speak later on--have found their way back to Chantilly. In the
stained-glass windows of the chapel, painted in 1544, may be seen
portraits of his numerous children executed by Bardon after
still-existing cartoons by Lechevallier Chevignard. In order to complete
the family the Duc d'Aumale commissioned the artist Guifard to add on
the walls of the same chapel portraits of the great Constable and his
wife.

[Illustration: Photo. Giraudon.

ANNE DE MONTMORENCY.

François Clouet.

Musée Condé.]

After the death of Anne de Montmorency, his eldest son François became
Lord of Chantilly. He married Diane de France, whose portrait is also
amongst the drawings in this collection. She was a natural daughter of
Henri II, and widow, at the early age of eighteen, of Orazio Farnese,
Duca di Castro. Brantôme says of her that it was not possible to see a
lady mount on horseback like her, nor with better grace. The woods of
Chantilly offered great opportunities to her passion for the chase, and
it was probably for this reason that, in the company of her
mother-in-law, Madeleine of Savoy, she made it her principal residence.
Diane, so called after her godmother Diane de Poitiers, was a great
favourite with her royal brothers, and after the death of her husband
became known by the title of "Duchesse d'Angoulême." Since she was
childless, François de Montmorency was succeeded by his brother Henri,
who distinguished himself as one of the strongest opponents of the
_Ligue_. He, too, was created Constable, and subsequently assisted Henri
IV in the reconquest of his kingdom. His second wife, Louise de Budos,
died at the early age of twenty-three, soon after giving birth to a son
and heir, called Henri after his father. Their elder child, a daughter,
Charlotte, was renowned for her beauty; and Lord Herbert of
Cherbury--who in his _Memoirs_ describes Chantilly at that
period--expressed a wish for her portrait in order that he might show
it to the Queen of England. Invited by Henri de Montmorency to make a
lengthened stay at Chantilly, he was so enchanted that he calls it "an
incomparably fine residence, admired by the greatest princes of Europe."
He relates that the Emperor Charles V was received by the first Duc de
Montmorency, Anne, the _Grand Connétable_, whilst on his way across
France from Spain to the Netherlands; and that after that monarch had
examined the castle with its moats, bridges, and extensive forests, he
was so overcome with admiration that he said he would gladly give one of
his provinces in the Netherlands for this unsurpassable residence.

Lord Herbert further discourses upon the hangings of silk adorned with
gold, and of the pictures, statues, and works of art in the sumptuous
chambers of the Château. He also mentions the huge carp and trout in the
ponds, and the merry hunting parties attended along the avenues by packs
of hounds.

Another great admirer of Chantilly was Henri IV, who was on terms of
intimate friendship with Henri de Montmorency. This King was even
accustomed to visit Chantilly during the absence of its owner, and had
his own apartments there and his own garden, the so-called _Jardin du
Roy_, of which he enjoyed superintending the arrangements.

There was, however, another reason for his numerous surprise visits: no
less an object than Charlotte, Duke Henry's beautiful daughter. Bereft
of her mother, as we have seen, at an early age, she was presented at
the French Court by her aunt, the Duchesse d'Angoulême, and her beauty,
as described by Bentivoglio, seems to have been of so irresistible a
charm that it made a deep impression on the fancy of the gallant King.
So great indeed was the admiration which he displayed for the young
Charlotte de Montmorency that it became a matter of public notoriety,
and throws a curious light upon the famous personages of that period and
their morals.

Although Charlotte had not yet attained her fifteenth year, a marriage
had been arranged for her with the brilliant Bassompière, at that time a
great favourite with the King. His Majesty had given his consent to the
marriage; but he nevertheless one day made the following proposals to
Bassompière: "Listen! I wish to speak to you as a friend. I am in love
with Mademoiselle de Montmorency, and that even madly. If you marry her
and she loves you, I should hate you; if she loved me, she would hate
you. Now, for the sake of our mutual friendship, it would be better that
this marriage should not take place, for I love you with real affection
and inclination. I have therefore resolved to arrange a marriage between
Mademoiselle de Montmorency and my nephew the Prince de Condé in order
to keep her near me. She will thus be the consolation of my old age. To
my nephew, who prefers the chase to the ladies, I shall give 100,000
francs a year and claim nothing for it in return but the affection of
the newly-married couple!" After this confession, poor Bassompière
understood that he had better comply with the King's wishes, and the
fair Charlotte was therefore married to Henri II de Bourbon, third
Prince de Condé. The wedding was celebrated at Chantilly with much pomp,
and the King lavished splendid jewels and rich dresses upon his new
niece, making no secret of the admiration he cherished for her. He spoke
of it as only a fatherly affection; but in spite of his good intentions
his fancy took the character of so violent a passion that he could not
control it. Condé, not insensible to what was going on, purposely
retired to his remotest country-seats so as to protect his wife from the
gallantries of the King; but, unable to endure her absence, Henri
appeared disguised as a falconer at one of the hunting parties,
whereupon Charlotte, who was present, fainted on recognising him. His
distress at being separated from his "_bel ange_" was so great that even
the Queen, Marie de Medicis, took pity on him, and entreated Condé to
return with his charming wife to Court, and Malesherbes sang the amours
of the King in glowing love-poems. Condé, considering the honour of his
young wife at stake, carried her off instead to the Netherlands, on a
visit to his sister the Princess of Orange. When the King heard of this
he was furious, and asserted that the charming Princess had been
compelled to leave her country by force. He sent a captain of his own
Guard to explain the matter to the Archduchess Isabella, at that time
Governess of the Netherlands, whilst Chaussé, a police official, was
ordered to follow up the fugitives and prevent their reaching Belgium.
Chaussé actually overtook the Princess, who, having been obliged to
leave her carriage near the River Somme, had broken down after a fifteen
hours' ride on horseback.

[Illustration: PLATE V.

HENRI II DE BOURBON, PRINCE DE CONDÉ.

GENEVIÈVE DE BOURBON.

_Musée Condé._]

But we cannot digress here to pursue this love-affair of Henri IV and
Charlotte de Montmorency. Suffice it to say that, transferred to foreign
territory, it immediately became a _cause célèbre_, and even threatened
for a time to create serious political disturbances between France and
Spain. The fact that the Regent of the Netherlands, in order to please
both parties, allowed the Princesse de Condé to prolong her visit to the
Princess of Orange but at the same time ordered her husband to leave the
Netherlands within three days, was severely commented upon by the
Marchese Ambrogio di Spinola, at that time representative at Brussels of
the Spanish Court.

This valiant captain, originally a Genoese merchant, had equipped 9,000
men at his own cost, and with them had succeeded--where so many had
failed--in confronting Prince Maurice of Nassau and terminating the
siege of Ostend. Reduced after this exploit to comparative inactivity,
he hailed an opportunity likely to bring about a conflict between
personages of such importance as Henri IV of France and the King of
Spain.

There was, moreover, another motive for Spinola's pertinacity in
retaining the Princesse de Condé in the Netherlands in spite of the
most urgent entreaties of the gallant King. He himself was also
suspected of having become enamoured of that dangerous beauty, and he
alleged that it was quite against Spanish etiquette that Henri II de
Bourbon, Prince de Condé, a Prince of the Blood Royal of France, should
not have received the honours due to his rank while passing through the
Netherlands. Condé, who, leaving his young wife with the Princess of
Orange, had already departed to Cologne, was therefore recalled. He saw
his wife, and received a gracious welcome from the Archduchess and the
Prince and Princess of Orange; and then, accompanied by his secretary,
in a violent snowstorm and under Spanish escort, he left for Milan,
secretly determined to seek the assistance of Philip II, King of Spain,
against the grievous wrong done to him by Henri IV.

The gallant King enjoyed the _rôle_ of Lancelot, and the fair Charlotte
was rather proud of his attentions, so that their amours became a
subject of discussion and comment throughout the whole of Europe. It was
even alleged that Henri IV was preparing for war against the Netherlands
to obtain by force the return of the Princesse de Condé, held in bondage
by the Archduchess Isabella in Flanders. This, however, was in truth but
a pretext on the part of the King; for in spite of the libertinism in
which His Majesty indulged on this occasion, and which seemed for the
moment to overcloud his sense of right and wrong, we must remember that
Henri IV always proved himself a patriot, and one whose constant
endeavour it was to advance the welfare of France. We may, therefore,
surmise with the late Duc d'Aumale that it was chiefly his desire to
liberate Europe from the Austrian yoke, and thus give to France the
position he wished her to hold--not merely the _beaux yeux_ of the
Princesse de Condé--which actually induced him to prepare for war.
Nevertheless he so successfully frightened the Archduchess Isabella that
she agreed to let the Princess depart at last.

In the midst, however, of all these unsolved problems Henri IV was
suddenly struck down by the hand of Ravaillac, and as soon as the news
reached Condé, who was already on his way to Spain, he immediately
returned to France and made a temporary truce with the Regent, Marie de
Medicis. But to his wife he seemed unforgiving, requesting her father,
Henri de Montmorency, to keep her at Chantilly.



CHAPTER II

CHANTILLY AND THE CONDÉS


The family of Condé derived their origin from the French town Henegau,
in Flanders, where a certain Godefroy de Condé owned part of the barony
of Condé as early as 1200. In 1335 his great-granddaughter married Jacob
de Bourbon, who in due course became the ancestor of the Royal branch of
the Bourbons. His second son received for his inheritance the barony of
Condé, and it was one of his descendants, Louis de Bourbon, who
eventually took the title of "Prince de Condé." This Louis was one of
the many sons of the Duc de Vendôme, only surviving brother of the
famous Constable, Charles de Bourbon, who met a premature death at the
Sack of Rome in 1527: a turbulent spirit who caused Henry VIII to say to
Francis I, "_Mon frère de France a là un sujet dont je ne voudrais pas
être le maître_."

[Illustration: Plate VI.

Photo. Giraudon.

ANTOINE DE BOURBON.

School of François Clouet.

Photo. Giraudon.

CHARLOTTE DE LA TREMOILLE.

School of François Clouet.

Musée Condé

_To face page 26._]

The eldest brother Antoine de Bourbon, by his marriage with Jeanne
d'Albret (daughter of Marguerite, sister of Francis I), became King of
Navarre; and their son, Henri IV, succeeded to the throne of France on
the death of Henri III de Valois. Louis de Bourbon, first Prince de
Condé,[2] married Eleonore de Roye, granddaughter of Louise de
Montmorency, a sister of the famous Constable Anne and mother of the
Huguenot chief, Gaspard de Coligny. It was no doubt owing to the
influence of his wife Eleonore--so named after the second wife of
Francis I--that the Prince de Condé embraced the Protestant cause, and
was thenceforward regarded by the Huguenots as one of their leaders.
Eleonore was on terms of great intimacy with her sister-in-law, Jeanne
d'Albret, Queen of Navarre, who had herself become a Protestant; and one
may fairly assert that if Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre, and his
brother Louis de Condé, had in any way equalled their noble wives in
pious sentiment and religious fervour, the Protestant Faith in France
would never have been nipped in the bud, but would have become as firmly
established there as it did in England and Germany.

As it was, the Guises of Lorraine who embraced the Catholic cause gained
considerable ground after the death of Henri II, through their cousin
Mary Stuart, Queen of France; and with the ostensible object of
furthering this cause, they also tried to supplant the Bourbon Princes,
Antoine de Navarre and Louis de Bourbon Condé, who were by right nearer
the throne. The latter during the reign of Francis II was thrown into
prison for high treason, under a false accusation brought against him
by the Guises, and condemned to death. In her despair, his unhappy wife,
Eleonore, threw herself upon her knees before the King, imploring
permission for a last interview. The young King was about to relent; but
the Cardinal of Lorraine, fearing that she might attain her object,
drove her roughly from the Royal presence. The unscrupulous Guises had
even conceived a plan of making away with this Princess before her
husband; for (as a contemporary writer tells us) they feared her
intellect and courage in proclaiming her husband's innocence. They hoped
to get rid, not only of her, but also of the King of Navarre and the
Châtillons. But at this juncture a change occurred in political affairs.

[Illustration: Plate VII.

Photo. Giraudon.

LOUIS I. DE BOURBON, PRINCE DE CONDÉ.

School of François Clouet.

Photo. Giraudon.

HENRI I. DE BOURBON, PRINCE DE CONDÉ.

School of François Clouet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page_]

Francis II, whose health had always been delicate, suddenly showed
alarming symptoms of decline. Catherine, the _Royne Mère_, cast about to
get the Regency into her own hands; and in order to check the steadily
growing power of the Guises, she resolved to recall the Bourbons,
promising to save Condé from death if they would accept her as Regent.
The King of Navarre, Antoine de Bourbon, consented to her proposition in
order to save his brother. The terrified Guises entreated Catherine to
keep Condé still in prison; since he would, if set at liberty, get the
better of them all. It is characteristic to note that when the state of
the King's health became desperate, the Guises were wholly without
sympathy; though we read that Mary Stuart nursed her dying husband
with tenderest solicitude. As soon as the King had breathed his last,
Gaspard de Coligny addressed these memorable words to those who stood
by: "_Messieurs, le roi est mort, çela nous apprend à vivre_."

The death of Francis II opened Condé's prison doors; whereupon he
insisted on proving his innocence, and claiming punishment for those who
had caused his incarceration. The Guises began to tremble, and their
friends trembled with them. Meantime, Catherine de Medicis, always
intent on her own interests, tried to placate the Protestant nobility,
and even showed toleration for the Protestant cult in various parts of
France. She endeavoured to entice Condé to her Court through the charms
of one of her Court ladies--the beautiful Isabelle de Limeuil--in order
to make him an instrument for her own purposes. Brantôme, with reference
to this, speaks of Louis de Bourbon as a man of corrupt morals. Nor
could he resist the passion shown for him by Marguerite de Lustrac,
widow of the Maréchal de Saint-André, from whom he accepted the
magnificent château of Valery, with its vast appanage, originally
intended as a dowry for Mademoiselle de Saint-André, the affianced bride
of his own son Henri I de Bourbon, who had died young, poisoned, it is
said, by her mother. Condé's irregular habits called for the severe
rebuke of Calvin, and his noble wife Eleonore was broken-hearted over
them.

Antoine, King of Navarre, the eldest of the brothers, also became a
puppet in the hands of the Queen-Mother and the Guises, who deliberately
provoked the sanguinary conflicts at Vassy between the Huguenots and the
Catholics.

Jeanne d'Albret, who sided with the Protestants, left the Court in
consequence, and to the great regret of Eleonore, retired to her kingdom
of Navarre. Had the husbands of these two great ladies been equally
desirous of keeping the peace the Massacre of St. Bartholomew would
never have taken place. Indeed, when Eleonore de Roye died at the early
age of twenty-eight the Protestants of France lost faith in Condé as
their leader, believing that it was through her influence alone that he
served their cause.

When Eleonore felt her end approaching she sent a messenger for her
husband and upon his hurrying to her bedside most generously forgave him
for all his infidelities. Her eldest son, Henri I de Bourbon, who had
shared all her anxieties and who had been her constant companion,
listened with deep emotion to her exhortations to his father that he
should remain true to the Protestant Faith; and the memory of this noble
woman prevailed with Condé after her death.

[Illustration: Plate VIII.

Photo Giraudon.

FRANÇOIS II. KING OF FRANCE.

Francois Clouet.

Bibl. Nar. Paris.

_To face page 20._]

The intriguing Catherine, after much wavering, then declared herself
upon the Catholic side, and compelled Michel de l'Hôpital, who had tried
to reconcile the two parties, to resign. The consequence of this
decision was the bloody battle of Jarnac, where Condé died the death of
a hero. No one could deny that he loved and honoured France, and that
he was a great warrior. Even the Guises, his implacable enemies,
endeavoured to conciliate him, and tried to arrange, after his wife's
death, a marriage between him and Mary Stuart. How different, if this
alliance had been accomplished, would have been the destinies of that
ill-fated Queen![3]

Henri I de Bourbon[4] succeeded his father as Prince de Condé, and
secured the friendship of Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre; so that
when the Huguenots, after the disaster of Jarnac, shut themselves up in
La Rochelle, the widow of Antoine de Bourbon appeared in their midst and
presented to them her son Henri de Béarn, together with his cousin the
young Prince de Condé. Under the guidance of Gaspard de Coligny these
two young Princes were received amongst the leaders of the Protestant
army, at that time in a critical position and in great pecuniary
straits. The young Prince de Condé disposed of most of his jewels,
whilst Coligny and Jeanne d'Albret made similar sacrifices. These jewels
were sent to Queen Elizabeth of England as security for a sum of money
forwarded by her to the Protestant forces.

Coligny seems to have thought highly of the abilities of the young Condé
Prince, to whom he deputed the command in his absence.

It is indeed remarkable that so fervent a Calvinist as Jeanne d'Albret
should have consented to the engagement of her son to Margot de France,
youngest daughter of Catherine de Medicis. It is true that the horrors
of St. Bartholomew had not then taken place, nor had the close ties of
relationship between the houses of Valois and Navarre at that date been
loosened. At the same time a marriage was arranged by Jeanne d'Albret
between Henri de Condé and Marie de Clève, daughter of the Duc de Nevers
and Marguerite de Bourbon. This lady was rich, accomplished, and of rare
beauty; and it was an open secret at the time that the Duc d'Anjou
(afterwards King Henri III) was madly in love with her.

[Illustration: Plate IX.

Photo. Giraudon.

JEANNE D'ALBRET, QUEEN OF NAVARRE.

François Clouet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 21._]

The marriage of the Prince de Condé was an occasion for great rejoicing
amongst the Protestant party, when all at once news arrived of the
sudden death of Queen Jeanne d'Albret under suspicious circumstances. It
was rumoured that Catherine de Medicis wished to remove her before the
nuptials of her son Henri of Navarre and Margot de France. The _douce
enfant_ (as Francis I called her, when Dauphine of France) had schooled
herself well to the difficult position in which as a young wife she
found herself with Diane de Poitiers; but as Queen-mother and Regent she
developed into a false and ambitious woman, who actually planned the
carnage of St. Bartholomew on the eve of her own daughter's marriage
to the chief of the Huguenot party.

It does not enter into our present work to describe the horrors for
which she was responsible on that occasion, but it is sufficient to say
that Gaspard de Coligny found his death, whilst the lives of Condé and
of the King of Navarre were only spared on the condition that they
abjured the Protestant Faith. Condé, however, at first persisted in a
refusal, although his young wife obeyed. For this reason he was summoned
before the boy King, Charles IX, who, advancing towards him, called out,
"The Mass, Death, or the Bastille, Choose!" "God will not allow," said
Condé quietly, "that I choose the first, my King! The two other
alternatives are at your pleasure." In a fury, the King rushed upon him
and would have slain him then and there, had not the Queen, Elizabeth of
Austria--the only redeeming feature of this contemptible Court--thrown
herself at the feet of her husband to prevent him. Finally, however, the
two Bourbon Princes did attend Mass, and the Cardinal de Bourbon gave
Condé and his bride the nuptial benediction in the church of St. Germain
des Prés.

But this was not enough; for both Navarre and Condé were forced to fight
against those very Huguenots whose leaders they had been; and they were
compelled to march under the command of the Duc d'Anjou against that
same La Rochelle where Condé had passed so many years with his noble
friend Gaspard de Coligny, engaged in furthering the Protestant cause.

In 1574, however, upon the death of Charles IX, Condé and Henri of
Navarre again joined the Protestant forces. Not so Marie de Clève, who
was even trying to make this a plea for a separation when she died
suddenly in giving birth to a daughter.[5] Twelve years later Condé
contracted another marriage, with Charlotte Catherine de la Trémoille.

We propose in this brief sketch of the Condé family, who eventually
became Lords of Chantilly, to say something also regarding the lives of
the Princesses de Condé, since some of them rank amongst the most noble
and interesting women of their time. Charlotte de la Trémoille[6] was
the daughter of the Duc de Thouars and Jeanne de Montmorency. She lived
with her mother in the fortified castle of Taillebourg, and was of a
romantic turn of mind and very handsome. Condé, presented by her
brother, the young Duc de Thouars, whilst he chanced to be in the
neighbourhood, paid a visit to the young lady; and although of the
opposite party--for the Trémoilles were Catholics--he came unattended.
He showed her more attention than was his usual custom, so that she fell
in love with him. She was but seventeen years of age, whilst Condé was
by that time thirty-three, but without an heir to his name. He had a
fine head and well-cut features; his expression was pensive, and
betrayed a delicate and nervous constitution. The fact of his being a
Prince of the Blood Royal and of illustrious lineage stimulated, no
doubt, Mademoiselle de la Trémoille's poetic imagination.

When, after the disaster of Angers, Condé was compelled to go into
hiding in Guernsey whilst vainly soliciting the help of Queen Elizabeth,
he saw one morning two well-equipped ships approaching the harbour. The
captain of the party presently sent one of his officers to the Prince,
bearing a letter from Charlotte de la Trémoille begging him to make use
of these, her ships. Condé, who had remained so long a helpless prisoner
on the island, embarked at once, and upon his arrival at La Rochelle
found the Princess awaiting him at that port.

A few days later the wedding was celebrated quietly at the Château de
Taillebourg: both the Princess and her brother having become adherents
of the Reformed Faith before that event took place.

In 1587 a daughter was born to Condé, named Eleonore after her noble
grandmother, who subsequently married the Prince of Orange.

       *       *       *       *       *

In that same year (1587) the eighth and last religious war broke out in
France, known as the War of the Four Henris--Henri III, Henri de Guise,
Henri of Navarre, and Henri de Bourbon Condé. The first battle was
fought at Coutras, between the Duc de Joyeuse, who commanded 7,000 men
for Henri III, and the joint forces of Henri of Navarre and Henri de
Condé, who had between them but 5,000 men. The fight was a prolonged one
and ended in a victory for the two Bourbons, who both greatly
distinguished themselves, "_Messieurs_," cried Navarre, before the fight
began, "_souvenez vous que vous êtes de la maison de Bourbon. Vive Dieu!
Je vous ferai voir que je suis votre ainé!" "Et nous, vous montrerons
des bons cadets_," replied Condé.

But Duc Henri de Guise presently restored the fortunes of the Catholics
by the victories of Vimory and Auneau, wherein no less than twenty
thousand Protestants perished.

Henri III, true Valois that he was, was not, however, grateful to the
victor. Jealous of his success and growing popularity, he caused him to
be foully murdered at the Château of Blois, whither he had summoned him
from Paris. The Cardinal de Lorraine, his brother, shared his fate.

Even Catherine de Medicis, then on her deathbed, was horrified at her
son's treachery towards the Guises, who had fought so ably for the
Catholic cause. "_Vous avez fait mourir le duc de Guise!_" she
exclaimed; "_Dieu veuille que vous vous trouviez bien de l'action que
vous venez de faire. Mais vous ne pouvez, je crois, vous en felicitez.
Ce n'est pas tout de tailler, il faut savoir coudre._"

[Illustration: Plate X.

CATHERINE DE MEDICIS.

Attributed to Corneille de Lyon.

Musée Condé.

HENRI II.

François Clouet.

Bibl. Nat. Paris.

_To face page 26._]

When the news of the murder of the two Guises became known in Paris,
greatest public indignation was aroused; and the Sorbonne declared that
France ought to strive earnestly against such a King. In order to save
himself, the wretched King made overtures to Henri of Navarre,
addressing him as "brother." A reconciliation took place between them,
and together they laid siege to Paris with an army of 40,000 men.
Before, however, the assault took place, Henri III was murdered by a
fanatic monk, designating with his last breath Henri of Navarre as his
successor to the throne of France, but imploring him at the same time to
embrace the Catholic Faith.

The crown thus devolved upon Henri de Bourbon, King of Navarre, as
lineal descendant of Robert de Clermont, sixth son of Saint Louis;
whilst Henri de Bourbon Condé, his cousin, became heir-presumptive. The
health of the latter, however, began to fail, owing partly to an injury
incurred by a fall from his horse, and partly to severe attacks of
fever. Trusting to a partial recovery, he ventured too soon into the
saddle, being, according to a contemporary writer, over-fond of riding,
and in consequence suffered a relapse which ended fatally. Tifburn, the
faithful custodian of the Château de Saint-Jean d'Angely, thus describes
his unexpected death: "I was the person selected to report this sad
mischance to the Princess, and I found her coming down the stairs of the
large apartment to visit her husband. He had been ill, and had become
worse since the day before, but none would have supposed the end was so
near. When she saw me so downcast she pressed me to tell her what had
occurred. When she heard the sad news she fainted, and had to be
transported to her bed, where she sobbed and cried and would not be
consoled."

Henri IV, on hearing of this disaster, hastened to Saint-Jean d'Angely;
but on the way information reached him that two of the Princesse de
Condé's servants--her page, Belcastle, and a valet--had suddenly
disappeared, and that they had fled on two horses, kept in readiness for
them by one Brillant, known to be a procurer employed at the castle. On
hearing this, he turned the bridle of his horse, unwilling to interview
the widowed Princess.

In a letter to la belle Corisande, Duchesse de Grammont, he writes
regarding this incident as follows: "_Jeudy, le Prince de Condé ayant
couru la bague, il soupa se portant bien. A minuit lui prit un
vomissement très violent, qui luy dura jusqu'au matin. Tout le Vendredy
il demeura au lit. Le soir il soupa, et ayant bien dormi, il se leva le
Samedi matin, dina debout, et puis joua aux eschecs. Il se leva, se mit
a promener par sa chambre, devisant avec l'un et avec l'autre. Tant d'un
coup il dit: 'Baillez moi ma chaise, je sens une grande faiblesse.' Il
n'y fut assis qu'il perdit sa parole, et soudain après il rendit l'âme,
et les marques du poison sortirent soudainement._"

When Brillant was interrogated, he denied everything, but under torture
he made admissions which greatly compromised the widow of the dead
Condé. Subsequent versions of the story stated first that the Catholic
party had administered the poison; and later that the Prince had died a
death in full accordance with the malady from which he was suffering.
Nevertheless the poor Princess had to bear the burden of this terrible
charge. She was allowed to remain in her own apartments only until she
gave birth to a son, who was pronounced by all who saw him to greatly
resemble the late Prince de Condé; and the fact that Henri ultimately
consented to become godfather to the child destroyed all false
accusations. For many years, however, she was kept under close guard at
Saint-Jean d'Angely; and in the archives at Thouars there still exist
some touching letters from her to her mother and to the Constable de
Montmorency, asserting her innocence and imploring help. She also
describes her straitened circumstances, her allowance being quite
insufficient to supply the needs of her children, Eleonore and Henri.
Throughout all her trials she behaved with singular fortitude, until at
length, when her son Henri de Bourbon was recognised as the legitimate
son of his father, and thenceforth held the position of
heir-presumptive, she was allowed to return to Court. De Thou even
obtained an order directing the French Parlement to come immediately to
Saint-Germain to salute the Prince as heir to the throne until it
should please God to give children to the King himself. Henri IV
displayed considerable anxiety that his heir should receive the best
possible education, and that he should embrace the Catholic Faith, as he
himself had done. Thus the tradition of the Princes de Condé as Huguenot
Princes was abruptly broken; and Charlotte Catherine de la Trémoille
also abjured the Protestant Faith with great ceremony at Rouen. She then
endeavoured to conciliate the Catholic party, but they never forgave her
for the great services which she had rendered Condé at Guernsey.

In the preceding chapter we have related the matrimonial adventures of
this Prince, and how when Henri IV fell passionately in love with his
young wife, the beautiful Charlotte de Montmorency, he fled with her to
the Netherlands to seek the protection of Eleonore, Princess of Orange,
until the death of the King.[7]

On his return he became the principal factor in opposing the government
of Richelieu, for he was highly dissatisfied that the Regency during the
minority of Louis XIII had not passed to him, as premier Prince of the
Blood, but had been seized upon by the Queen-Mother before he could
reach France. The government of Berry was given to him with one and a
half million of francs as a sort of compensation--which, however, did
not satisfy him. Subsequently he was accused of having designs on the
throne, and although this was not proved, Richelieu, in the name of the
Regent, had him arrested. He was imprisoned in the Bastille and treated
most rigorously as a State criminal. It is greatly to the credit of his
wife that she volunteered to share his captivity. It was most touching
how she arrived at the Bastille accompanied by her little dwarf, who
refused to be separated from her. A journal[8] of that time states that
the meeting of the Princess with her unfortunate husband was most
affectionate, and that he repentantly asked her forgiveness for past
wrongs.

Owing to his precarious state of health he was soon after removed to the
Château of Vincennes, where he was allowed more liberty, and there he
could take exercise on the top of a thick wall built in the form of a
gallery. The poor Princess, once so radiant in beauty, suffered cruelly;
and at the birth of a still-born son her life was despaired of.

At last, after nearly three years of imprisonment when her little
daughter Geneviève de Bourbon was born, their prison-walls opened and
they were free at last.

But presently Henri de Montmorency, the Princess's brother, who had but
recently succeeded his father as Lord of Chantilly, was thrown into a
dungeon, whence he only emerged to be guillotined later at Toulouse.
Unfortunately he had sided with Gaston, the King's brother, in a
conspiracy against the mighty Cardinal. In vain his wife, Marie Felice
Orsini, pleaded for her husband. She herself was imprisoned for two
years for doing so; and when finally released, retired for the rest of
her life to a convent at Moulins, where she was known and much beloved
as "Sister Marie."

The whole property of the last Montmorency, the last scion of so
illustrious a race, was confiscated after his execution, and Chantilly
fell to the Crown. A house called _La Cabotière_, bearing to this day
the Royal coat-of-arms, marks this transition period; and not far from
it is the so-called _Maison de Sylvie_, which recalls Marie Felice
Orsini. It was there that she and her husband hid the poet Théophile de
Viau, who had been condemned to death; and from this retreat he sang in
charming verses the beauty and the noble qualities of the Princess under
the name of "Sylvie."

These cruelties against the Montmorencys and the Condés, Louis XIII in
after-years never ceased to regret, and when on his deathbed he wished
to atone for them he summoned Henri II, Prince de Condé, and told him
that Chantilly should be restored to his wife, the Princess, as sister
of the last Montmorency. Thus Chantilly came back to its rightful
owners.



CHAPTER III

THE GRAND CONDÉ


With Charlotte, wife of Prince Henri II de Condé, Chantilly passed into
the possession of the Princes of Bourbon Condé, and its history from
that date becomes part of the history of France. The son of Charlotte,
Louis II de Bourbon, when barely twenty-two years of age, was already
called the "Hero," in consequence of his victory at Rocroy (1643) over
the German and Spanish armies. This famous descendant of Huguenot
Princes was, at the age of four years, baptized a Roman Catholic, with
great pomp, in the Cathedral at Bourges. Both Marie de Medicis, the
Queen-Regent, and Charlotte de la Trémoille, the Dowager Princess de
Condé, were present; and the infant Prince, though so young, recited his
_Credo_ without a hitch. His education was subsequently placed in the
hands of the Jesuit Fathers at Bourges, who commended his clear
intellect and excellent memory. He received the title of "Duc
d'Enghien," a title which became thereafter hereditary in the Condé
family.

His father, Prince Henri II de Condé, thought it wise, after the
execution of his brother-in-law Henri de Montmorency and his own
imprisonment, to contract a matrimonial alliance with the all-powerful
Cardinal; especially as Richelieu was obsessed by the desire that one of
his nieces should become a Royal Princess. A marriage was therefore
arranged between the twelve-year-old Duc d'Enghien and the little
Claire-Clemence, then barely five. This _mariage de convenance_ brought
no happiness to the parties concerned, and ended in completely crushing
the unloved wife. In a book recently published, "_Sur la femme du Grand
Condé_,"[9] the excellent qualities of Claire-Clemence--so little
appreciated during her lifetime--have been set out for us. At a court
where women were chiefly given over to pleasure and amusement, it is but
natural that soberer qualities such as hers should have passed
unnoticed, or even have aroused opposition. Between her brilliant
mother-in-law, Charlotte de Montmorency, and her beautiful but vain
sister-in-law, Geneviève de Bourbon[10] (subsequently Madame de
Longueville), to the courtiers of her time Claire-Clemence appeared to
be lacking both in beauty and _savoir-faire_. A fall on the very day of
her marriage, caused by her high heels when dancing a minuet which Anne
of Austria had opened with the Duc d'Enghien, was recorded with great
glee by the Grande Mademoiselle, daughter of Gaston d'Orléans. The
prospects of this new establishment were not exactly promising, since
Claire-Clemence received no support from her parents, whom she hardly
knew. When her uncle, the Cardinal, decided to make an instrument of her
to serve his purposes, he took her away from her egoistical and immoral
father, the Maréchal de Brézé, and her sickly mother, who suffered from
transitory attacks of madness. Claire-Clemence had been educated,
therefore, in accordance with the high station for which she was
intended. After her marriage Richelieu watched over her welfare and
superintended arrangements by which she and her princely husband should
have a suitable establishment in Paris; where, it was said, the young
couple led _un train de Prince_.

Presently, however, the sharp-eyed Cardinal became aware that the Duc
d'Enghien was neglecting his young wife, and was constantly in the
company of the charming Marthe de Vigeau, of whom he had become wildly
infatuated and whom he constantly met at the house of his sister. His
Eminence, therefore, decided to send the young Duke to Burgundy, of
which province he was supposed to be the Governor; and for
Claire-Clemence he arranged a temporary retirement in the convent of
Saint-Denis, there to escape the intrigues which would, as he said,
naturally arise round a young wife so completely neglected by her
husband. She was accompanied to the convent by a small Court, consisting
of Madame la Princesse Douarière de Condé, Madame d'Aiguillon, Madame de
Longueville, and Mademoiselle de la Croix. This last was her constant
companion, and wrote to Richelieu that Her Serene Highness did
everything in the convent which His Eminence desired her to do. In very
truth she soon became a great favourite at Saint-Denis, where she did a
great deal of good among the sick and poor.

[Illustration: PLATE XI.

THE GRAND CONDÉ.

_Musée Condé._

David Teniets.]

Meanwhile the Duc d'Enghien, to annoy the Cardinal, led a very gay life
in Burgundy, in obstinate defiance of the remonstrances of his father.
Finally, he was compelled by Richelieu's orders to leave Burgundy and
join the Minister at Narbonne. There is no doubt that the Duc d'Enghien,
inordinately proud by nature, was suffering keenly under the tyranny of
the haughty Cardinal, who, although wishing his nephew-in-law well,
derived a certain amount of satisfaction from the spectacle of this
proud-spirited young Duke submissive to his yoke. The following incident
is an illustration of this. It was a long-accepted fact that Cardinal
Richelieu, as Prime Minister to his Majesty the King, should claim
precedence over the Princes of the Blood Royal. But that Mazarin, just
created Cardinal, should on his return from Italy also have this
privilege was--the young Duc d'Enghien thought--most improper.
Richelieu, on hearing of this, took up the cause of Mazarin, and even
asked d'Enghien to visit his brother, the Cardinal of Lyons. D'Enghien,
fearing that this Cardinal would also claim precedence over him at
Lyons, merely sent one of his attendants to salute him. Richelieu was
furious at this, would accept no excuse, and desired the Duke to
purge his fault at Lyons, on his way back. D'Enghien, compelled by his
father, the Prince de Condé, to submit to Richelieu's demand, was
greatly chagrined. Moreover, a message reached him immediately
afterwards to join his wife at Paris, since she was ill. He was also
informed that the details of his private life--in which he was the lover
of many women but not the husband of the one woman who was his
wife--were well known. So severe a reproof seemed at last to produce
some effect upon him, and he returned to his wife, who quickly recovered
her health and spirits when she found that her husband was kindly
disposed towards her.

Richelieu, who had watched d'Enghien since his childhood, remembered the
distinctions he had acquired as student at Bourges, and was shrewd
enough to see that the young man would more than fulfil the high
expectations placed in him. He therefore knew what he was doing when he
allied the young Condé to his own family, and selected him and Henri de
la Tour d'Auvergne (known in history as Turenne) as Commanders-in-chief
of the French Army.

After the death of Richelieu, the King, Louis XIII, showed the high
regard he cherished for his great minister by confirming and adhering to
all the dispositions made by him before he passed away. Amongst these
were the appointments of Condé and Turenne as Generals of the French
troops sent to check the advancing forces of the Spaniards. It was a
choice which showed the rare capacity of this remarkable minister in
finding the right man for the right place. Turenne was thirty-one years
of age, whilst Condé was but twenty-one. Marie de Medicis and her party
thought Condé too young for so important a post, but Louis XIII was not
to be dissuaded; and to Condé he gave the command of the army in
Picardy.

This war had been going on between France and Spain for more than ten
years. It revolved around those frontier regions to the north, near the
Somme and the Oise, which divide the original possessions of the Kings
of France from those of the former Dukes of Burgundy; and in 1643 it was
carried on with great ardour by the Spaniards under their General, Don
Francisco Melo, and his lieutenants, Fountain and Beck. With them the
Duc d'Enghien was confronted near Rocroy. On the night before the battle
the future hero was asleep amongst his soldiers on the bare ground when
all at once a French horseman who had taken service amongst the
Spaniards presented himself and asked permission to speak to the
General. In a subdued voice he told him that the Spaniards had prepared
an attack for seven o'clock that very morning. On hearing this Condé at
once called for his horse, his arms, and the traditional hat with the
white plume, which, since the time of Henri IV, had become the special
badge of a Commander-in-chief of the French Army. The Duc d'Aumale, in
his "_Histoire des Princes de Condé_," relates with much spirit the
issue of this battle. He tells us how Condé was at first repulsed by
Isembourg, and then how, by a sudden change of tactics in attacking the
rear, he reaped a complete victory.

The King, tossing upon a sick-bed, was full of anxiety regarding the
issue of this war. He had had a dream, or rather a vision, which he
narrated to the Prince de Condé (father of the Duc d'Enghien) who sat
near his bedside. "I have," he said in a faint voice, "seen your son
advancing towards the enemy. The fight was sharp, and the victory was
for a long time undecided; but at last it was ours." These are said to
have been the last words of Louis XIII.

A few days later, whilst the Requiem Mass for His Majesty was being sung
at Saint-Denis, it became known that Louis de Bourbon, the Duc
d'Enghien, had gained the battle of Rocroy, and from that time he bore
the name of the "Grand Condé." The flag taken on this occasion from the
Spaniards may still be seen at Chantilly in the gallery where paintings
by Sauveur Lecomte record his famous deeds. It is now reckoned amongst
the most precious trophies of France, since most of those preserved at
the Invalides were destroyed in 1814. All Paris desired to see the
Spanish flag taken at Rocroy, and it was therefore exhibited publicly at
the Louvre, at Notre Dame, and on the Quai. Congratulations poured in
upon the Condés, and the Duc d'Enghien was pointed out as the hero who
had won the first battle for the new four-year-old King. His father,
full of pride, wished him to return to Paris to receive the ovations of
the people; but, like a true strategist, the Duke was anxious before all
else to reap the advantages of his victory. In a characteristic letter
to his father, who was urging him to come home, he explained that the
enemy had invaded France, and that he felt that he must remain at the
head of his regiment in order to serve his country, at least as long as
their foes were on French soil.

His next act was to attack Thionville on the Moselle, upon which
occasion he succeeded in separating the troops commanded by Beck from
the main army in the Netherlands, thus displaying a great example of
military skill. It was, however, no longer from Louis XIII that he
received his orders, but from Mazarin and the amiable but weak and
irresolute Anne of Austria. Condé, in spite of his youth, had therefore
to act on his own responsibility. In the spring of 1645 he won with
Turenne the great battle of Nördlingen,[11] where he completely defeated
the Austro-Spanish general Mercy.

The Duc d'Aumale, a military man of great distinction himself, speaks of
the three victorious battles of Rocroy, Thionville, and Nördlingen as
most important in their results, unblemished by any sort of reverse. He
attributes to the Grand Condé all the qualities necessary for a great
general: foresight in his preparations and a supreme ability to vary his
tactics according to circumstances; great boldness and sudden
inspiration during action; prompt decision and a far-reaching political
outlook to confirm the victory and reap its fruits. It is rare indeed to
discover all these qualities united in one man, and to find Condé's
equals we must look to men like Frederick the Great, Napoleon, and
Wellington.

After the battle of Nördlingen, Condé fell ill of a fever, which
compelled him at length to return to Chantilly. His mother, the
Princesse Charlotte de Condé, his sister Geneviève, and his wife
Claire-Clemence, with her little son the Duc d'Albret, whom he had not
yet seen, welcomed him home. The historical "_petite chambre_" which he
had always occupied was made ready for him, and "_eau de Forges_" to
fortify his impaired strength. There he was invited to repose after the
excessive fatigues of camp-life.

The attraction Condé had felt for Marthe de Vigeau when forced to marry
the Cardinal's niece had by this time passed away; and his plans for
divorce in order to marry the woman he had so passionately adored had
been definitely abandoned since the birth of his son Henri Jules. But he
could not bring himself to show any affection to Claire-Clemence, who,
during the long absence of her husband, had retired into the Convent of
the Carmelites. It was a marriage into which he had been forced--a fact
that he could not get over. Meanwhile Marthe de Vigeau had burnt his
letters; had even gone so far as to burn his portrait; and, to make the
sacrifice complete, had taken the veil and was henceforth known as
"Soeur Marthe" in the same Carmelite Convent. But the Court was
teeming with intriguing women who all wished to approach the young hero,
around whose forehead laurels were now so thickly wreathed. Strong as
Condé was in the field, he proved weak in the hands of an intriguing
woman. In this he resembled his ancestor Louis I de Bourbon, whose name
he bore. It was his beautiful cousin, Isabelle de Montmorency, who
exercised the most pernicious influence over him. She had become the
wife of Dandelot de Coligny, who for her sake had abjured the Protestant
Faith. Ambitious to the extreme, she strove, after the death of her
husband, to attract Louis XIV whilst still a youth, and after vainly
trying to marry Charles II of England, she ended by marrying the Duke of
Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

[Illustration: PLATE XII.

THE VIRGIN AS PROTECTOR OF THE HUMAN RACE.

Photo Giraudon.

_Musée Condé._

Charonton and Vilatte.]

[Illustration: THE TOMB OF THE DUC AND DUCHESSE DE BRETAGNE AT NANTES.

Photo Giraudon.

After Designs by Perréal.]

Two other well-known women also contrived to attract the Grand Condé,
and with them he contracted a lifelong friendship. These were Louise
Marie de Gonzague of Cleves, afterwards Queen of Poland, and her sister
Anne, known as the Princess Palatine on account of her marriage with the
son of the Elector Frederic V. Their portraits, by Dumoustier, can be
seen at Chantilly. These Princesses de Gonzague, before their marriages,
lived at Paris. Princesse Louise Marie held her Court at the Hôtel
Nevers, a majestic building between the Tours de Nesle and the Pont
Neuf, which afterwards became the Hôtel Conti, and is now the Palais de
Monnaie. The two sisters were in their time leaders of Parisian society
and played an important part amongst the women of the Fronde.

A letter, one of the last that Prince Henri II de Condé wrote to his
son, refers to the neglect with which he treated his wife, and blames
him severely for not writing to her upon the occasion of the sudden
death of her only brother. It runs thus: "_Mon fils, Dieu vous bénisse.
Guérissez vous, ou il vaut mieux vous poignarder vous même, que de faire
la vie que vous faites; je rien sais ni cause ni raison, et je prie Dieu
de me consoler; je vous écris au désespoir, et suis Monsieur votre bon
père et ami._" Soon afterwards the old Prince de Condé died and his last
words and wishes were for the Duc and Duchesse d'Enghien. He, who had
always held so high the honour of his own wife, had been a great support
to Claire-Clemence in her trials. The title of Prince de Condé devolved
at his father's death upon the Grand Condé, whilst the little Duc
d'Albret bore henceforth the title of Duc d'Enghien, rendered so
celebrated by the victor of Rocroy.

But the Grand Condé did not stop here. In that same year (1648) he again
won the great battle of Lens against the Austrians. In that battle it
was said that he charged twelve times in one hour, took eight flags and
thirty-eight cannon, and made 5,000 prisoners. The Emperor Ferdinand
III, after this, felt his powers of resistance at an end and decided at
last to agree to the Peace of Westphalia, which was signed at Münster,
and brought to an end the famous Thirty Years' War. By it France
acquired the whole of Alsace except Strasbourg and Philipsbourg. Liberty
of conscience, inaugurated by Henri IV, was also recognised throughout
the rest of the world, and perfect equality of rights was enjoined
between Roman Catholic and Protestant.

Anne of Austria received the hero of Rocroy and Lens with open arms,
calling him her third son, and Louis XIV, the boy King, caressed him
constantly. He felt that he was in peril, and he trusted to Condé to
help him out of his difficulties. In order to improve finances exhausted
by the lavish expenditure of the Court, Mazarin had committed the great
mistake of forcing taxation upon all merchandise entering Paris.
Parlement had refused to conform to this kind of taxation; but the
Cardinal thought that this was the moment to again bring forward this
claim. Upon the very day when the _Te Deum_ was sung at Notre Dame for
the victory of Lens, he chose to assail the leaders of the Parlement,
amongst whom was the venerable Councillor Broussel. This was the signal
for the breaking out of the _Fronde_, and a general rising of the
people. Paul Gondi (subsequently known as Cardinal de Retz), at that
time Archbishop of Paris, came in full state to entreat the
Queen-Regent to appease the people. But Anne of Austria maintained that
this was a revolt and that the King must enforce order, upon which the
Archbishop himself joined the insurgents and even became one of their
leaders. At last the Queen-Regent, frightened by the triumphs of
Cromwell in England, gave in, and Broussel was released. To her intense
chagrin, persons of the highest aristocracy had joined the Fronde;
amongst them the Duchesse de Longueville, the Grand Condé's own sister,
the Duchesse de Bouillon, and others--all more or less vain women
seeking notoriety. They endeavoured to gain Condé over to their side,
but he resisted proudly, answering, when asked to join the Frondeurs: "I
belong to a race that cannot identify itself with the enemies of the
Crown." Anne of Austria thought it wiser to leave Paris, and in great
haste departed to Saint-Germain-en-Lay--an exodus which the Grande
Mademoiselle has described in all its picturesqueness. On account of the
suddenness of the departure no time had been given for the necessary
preparations, and the young King and the Princesses de Condé, Charlotte
de Montmorency, and Claire-Clemence, had to sleep on straw--an incident
which Louis XIV never forgot.

Condé, however, blockaded Paris, overthrew the Fronde, and on the
evening of August 18, 1649 the young King with the Queen-Regent, Condé,
and Mazarin entered Paris and reached the Palais-Royal in safety. When
Condé prepared to take his leave, the Queen turned to him and said,
"Sir, the service you have rendered the State is so great that the King
and I would be most ungrateful should ever we forget it!"



CHAPTER IV

CLAIRE-CLEMENCE, PRINCESSE DE CONDÉ


Mazarin with difficulty restrained his impatience at numerous Royal
favours bestowed on Condé. Indeed, whilst the latter was engaged in
keeping the Army loyal, he agitated against him and did his utmost to
undermine the confidence placed in him by the Queen-Regent. In this way
the warrior and the priest soon became open adversaries. If it was hard
for Condé to submit to the tyranny of Richelieu, still less could he put
up with the haughty insolence of the Italian, who stood between him and
his own Royal relations. It was natural, therefore, that he should
become bitter and think himself insufficiently recompensed for the great
services he had rendered to the King. All those members of the
aristocracy who were likewise irritated against Mazarin gradually
crowded round Condé, and he who had defeated the so-called _Old Fronde_
now became the leader of the second, known as the _Young Fronde_.
Mazarin, therefore, found an excuse for undermining the position of
Condé and succeeded in making the Queen believe that the second Fronde,
led on by Condé, was opposed to the Government. In order to counteract
these false reports, the Prince came to the Palais-Royal to pay a
formal visit to her Majesty, who was, however, ill in bed. His own
mother (now the Dowager Princess), who had always been on terms of great
intimacy with Anne of Austria, was then at her bedside. It was the last
interview between Condé and his mother. Her Majesty seemed tired, and
after a few words dismissed the Prince, who then proceeded to the Salle
de Conseil, where Mazarin awaited him. There he found also his younger
brother, Conti, and his brother-in-law, Monsieur de Longueville.
Presently Mazarin under some pretext left the room, and no sooner had he
gone than the captain of the Queen's body-guard, Captain Quitaut,
entered, and making his way towards Condé and the others, said, not
however without embarrassment, "Gentlemen, I have the Queen's orders to
arrest you." Condé for a moment seemed thunderstruck. Was this her
Majesty's gratitude for the victories he had gained against the enemies
of France? Then, seeing that this arrest was intended in all
seriousness, he addressed the group of councillors around him, saying,
"Can you believe that I, who have always served the King so well, am now
a prisoner?" For a space they all stood speechless. Presently someone
offered to speak to the Queen, and all left the apartment. Then, since
they did not return, Quitaut was compelled to carry out his orders. A
door then was opened into a dark passage, and there appeared some of the
King's men-at-arms. Condé, his brother Conti, and M. de Longueville
were overcome with amazement. It was indeed true! Mazarin had
triumphed. They were transported then and there to the donjon of
Vincennes, that self-same prison wherein Henri II de Condé, with his
wife the beautiful Charlotte, had been secluded for three years.

The hour was past midnight when they reached the prison, and Condé found
himself shut up in a cell whence little could be seen but a tiny patch
of sky. He did not, however, lose his courage, and his spirit never
seemed to forsake him, even though he was behind prison walls. One day
he learned from the doctors who came to visit his sick brother Conti,
that his wife Claire-Clemence was employing every effort she could to
get him free. To while away his weary hours he took a fancy to
cultivating flowers. "Is it not strange," he said to the doctor, "that I
should be watering carnations, whilst my wife is fighting!"

After her husband's unforeseen imprisonment, Claire-Clemence was
permitted to join the Dowager Princesse de Condé at Chantilly, since
Mazarin looked upon her as harmless. It was rather Condé's sister,
Madame de Longueville, whom he feared, and whom he had intended to
arrest with her husband. She, however, escaped in time, braving by night
a terrible storm at sea, and joined Turenne, who helped her in her
attempts to liberate the prisoners.

Nor did Claire-Clemence remain inactive. She consulted with Lenet, a
great friend of the Condé family, who had come to Chantilly, on what
course to adopt to set her husband at liberty. Rumours reached her that
she would be separated from her son, at which she was greatly alarmed.
Taking Lenet aside, she declared to him emphatically that she would
never be separated from her only child; but that she intended, on the
contrary, to conduct him at the head of an army to deliver his father.
This indomitable courage on the part of Condé's spouse was to be the
first step in a course of action which later on contributed much to his
eventual deliverance.

Meanwhile spring had come, and, in spite of the great misfortune which
had befallen the Grand Condé, Chantilly became the resort of a crowd of
visitors, who flocked round its brilliant _châtelaine_, Charlotte de
Montmorency, Dowager Princesse de Condé. The young Duc d'Enghien took
his morning rides on his pony, anglers with rod and line repaired to the
ponds, gay parties of pleasure-seekers roamed over the lawns and along
the avenues, and the woods resounded with the winding of the huntsman's
horn. In the evening the guests assembled in the splendid apartments of
the castle to hear music, or listen to the many interesting tales
related by the Dowager Princess, who loved above all else to dilate upon
the attentions shown to her by Henri IV.

[Illustration: PLATE XIII.

CHANTILLY BEFORE 1687.]

[Illustration: CHANTILLY IN THE TIME OF THE GRAND CONDE.]

Soon, however, the visits to the Château of Lenet and of Madame de
Châtillon, both of whom had played a prominent part in the Fronde, were
reported at Court; and one day the Princesses were suddenly surprised
by the sight of Swiss guards stationed around their dwelling, and
Monsieur de Vauldy simultaneously arrived at the Château with special
orders from the King himself. He first asked for the Dowager Princess
and endeavoured to persuade her to leave Chantilly for Berry; which,
however, she flatly declined to do. In despair, the envoy, who had
orders from the King not to show force, then asked to see the Princesse
Claire-Clemence. On being conducted into a bedchamber, a lady lying in
bed was pointed out to him as the Princesse de Condé; and he was told
that she was suffering from so severe a cold that she could not possibly
leave Chantilly at once. Furthermore a child, also suffering in the same
way, was shown to him as the young Duc d'Enghien. These persons were,
however, in reality an English governess and the gardener's son, for the
Princess herself, with her son in her arms, had made good her escape by
a pathway that had by chance been left unguarded. Some of her ladies and
gentlemen followed her at a distance until she safely reached a spot in
the woods where she found a carriage, which had been kept always ready
for emergencies. In this conveyance, after a fatiguing journey, she
reached Montroux, an old country-seat of the Condés, where the hero of
Rocroy had passed his early youth. Thence she wrote to the Queen,
stating that she had undertaken this journey to show obedience to the
Royal commands, since she had been desired to leave Chantilly. Anne of
Austria took this communication good-humouredly enough, and admired the
pluck of the young mother, whilst everybody was amused at Vauldy's
discomfiture. At Montroux the Princess soon found herself surrounded by
friends and partisans; and she succeeded in arousing enthusiasm by her
easy and natural method of expression in speaking, which, upon occasions
of importance, could rise to flights of real eloquence.

In order to be of service to the State and to the Prince, she decided to
push on in the company of Lenet and Coligny to Bordeaux, whence the Duc
de Bouillon came out to meet her. The Princess, mounted on a splendid
charger named "_Le Brézé_," which had come from her father's stables,
was received with Royal honours by Turenne, who defrayed all her
expenses and those of her escort as far as Bordeaux.

Claire-Clemence and her supporters now decided to attack Mazarin openly
for having imprisoned the Princes, but the Cardinal, getting wind of it,
ordered the gates of Bordeaux to be shut in her face. The people of the
city, however, revolted against such an injustice and opened the gates
by force, crying, "_Vive le Roi, et point de Mazarin_." It may be
remarked here that the citizens of Bordeaux had every reason to be
grateful to Condé for his kindness to them when, upon a previous
occasion, they had revolted against their hated Governor, the Duc
d'Epéron. The Princesse de Condé decided to approach the city by water,
and as soon as her ship came in sight, it was saluted by a cannonade
from eighty vessels, whilst more than twenty thousand people welcomed
her at the landing-stage. The streets were adorned with flowers, and
public enthusiasm was so great that she was compelled to show herself on
the balcony of her palace until midnight to receive the ovations of the
populace.

In order to secure the support of the Bordeaulese, Claire-Clemence
resolved to present her petition before their Parlement in person. With
great spirit, therefore, she made her way to the Chamber of the
Councillors, accompanied by her son. "I come to demand justice of the
King against the violence of Mazarin," she said imploringly, "and I
place my person and that of my son in your hands." At the same time the
little Duke, dropping on one knee, cried out: "Gentlemen, I implore you
to assume the place of a father to me; since the Cardinal has deprived
me of my own." The whole assembly was deeply touched, and after some
deliberation, the members of the Parlement agreed to extend to her their
protection to the suppliants.

It would be superfluous to pursue here in full detail all the efforts
made by Claire-Clemence at Bordeaux on behalf of her husband. The chief
difficulty now was, however, that Mazarin, having treated Condé with
such injustice and violence, was afraid to set him free; and he
therefore even went so far as to entertain ideas of destroying him
altogether. The Court, meanwhile, in spite of the events which were
taking place at Bordeaux, had removed the Princes from the fortress of
Vincennes to a prison at Havre; and at the same time ordered the
Princess to leave Bordeaux and retire to Montroux. After distributing
handsome gifts to all those who had befriended her, she departed with a
numerous cortège, amid a shower of flowers; and on hearing that the
Queen was at Bourg-sur-Mer, sought an interview with her. With her
little son beside her, she fell upon her knees before Anne and begged
for her husband's freedom. Her Majesty's answer was: "I am very glad, my
cousin, that you at length recognise that you adopted a wrong course by
which to get what you so intensely desire. But now that you seem to take
another more fitting and more humble attitude I will see whether I can
satisfy your request."

To the united efforts of Claire-Clemence and of Condé's devoted friend
Lenet, there was also now added the powerful help of Anne de Gonzague,
Princess Palatine, whose influence extended from Paris to Warsaw and
even to Stockholm. She persuaded no less a person than Queen Christina
of Sweden to plead for the Grand Condé's liberty. Moreover, her sister,
Marie de Gonzague, Queen of Poland, who had never ceased to be the
hero's devoted friend, also came to his aid with considerable effect.

Meanwhile France was rent by civil war, and Anne of Austria began to
regret the loss of Condé's strong arm, which had done so much for her
infant son, Louis XIV. The disorder, in fact, became so great and the
clamour for Condé's liberation so imperative, that Mazarin was compelled
to proceed to Havre with an order under the Queen-Regent's sign-manual
for his unconditional release. The Cardinal entered the cell wherein the
Princes were confined in his travelling attire and himself announced to
them that their captivity was at an end. Whereupon compliments were
exchanged and healths drunk; Mazarin even privately affirming to Condé
that it was not to him that he owed his long imprisonment. A carriage
was in waiting for the liberated prisoners, and Mazarin, taking his
leave of them, bowed so low as to create unbounded mirth amongst those
present. Then he himself departed into exile; whence, however, it was
not very long ere he returned.

All Paris turned out to welcome Condé, and no less than 5,000 cavaliers,
the flower of the French aristocracy, went out to meet the Princes at
Saint-Denis. They were conducted by Gaston d'Orléans to the
Palais-Royal, where they were received by the Queen-Regent and the young
King, who welcomed them with his accustomed warmth, as if nothing had
occurred. In the evening a supper was given in their honour by Monsieur
the King's uncle, and a ball by the Duchesse de Chevreuse. Next day a
solemn session of the Parlement took place, and for several nights Paris
was brilliantly illuminated.

The young Princesse de Condé came from Montroux, accompanied by the Ducs
de Bouillon and de Rochefoucauld, and the Prince, who appreciated to the
full all that she had done for him, endeavoured to show his gratitude.
He met her with a train of twenty carriages to accompany her entry into
Paris; and nothing could have touched the Princess's heart more
profoundly than to hear the crowds along the road repeat: "_Voici une
femme fort chèrie de son mari_." It testified to the sympathy held by
the public for this long-neglected wife.

From Paris the reunited pair proceeded to Chantilly, where festivities
and hunting-parties followed fast one upon another. Condé, however, felt
bound to claim a certain amount of recompense for the great wrong which
had been done to him. He demanded for himself the Governments of
Burgundy and Champagne, besides other rewards for his friends de
Rochefoucauld and Nemours. At first the Queen-Regent promised
everything, but presently, upon the remonstrance of the exiled Mazarin,
went back on her word.

This was sufficient to enrage Condé once more, and a report spread that
amid the rural charms of Chantilly he had opened negotiations with
Spain. Gondi, Archbishop of Paris, anxious to obtain a scarlet hat for
himself, went secretly to the Queen, and knowing that Her Majesty was
lamenting Mazarin's absence, promised her that he and Gaston d'Orléans
would bring the Cardinal back from exile if Condé were once more
arrested. Condé, although his freedom was so recent, felt insecure and
retired with his wife and son to Saint-Maur, where Madame de Longueville
joined them; so that he was not present when Louis XIV was proclaimed
King, but was holding council with his adherents at Chantilly. "_Il faut
pousser M. le Prince_" was a stock saying of Mazarin and Gondi (now
Cardinal de Retz), both of whom were endeavouring to goad Condé to his
own destruction.

Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, along with his many great
qualities, had unfortunately inherited also all the faults of the
Condés--faults which the Duchesse de Nemours (daughter-in-law of his
sister, Madame de Longueville) describes as follows: "_Ils avaient des
airs si moqueurs, et disaient des choses si offensentes que personne ne
les pouvaient souffrir ... quand on leurs déplaisait ils poussaient les
gens jusqu'a la dernière extremité, et ils n'etaient capable d'aucune
reconnaissance pour les services qu'on leurs avait rendu_." These were
the qualities which at this period of his life turned the scale against
him. It was not against France or the King that Condé proposed to fight,
but against the Italian Cardinal, the trusted confidant of Anne of
Austria; and his grievance was that he had not only been deprived of his
liberty, but that attempts had even been made upon his life. It was for
that reason that Condé did not take part in any of the festive
celebrations held at the King's Proclamation, and he made his excuses
in a letter presented to the King by his brother, the Prince de Conti.
This was unquestionably a great blunder, and was done against his wife's
wishes, who had given such great proofs of devotion and courage.

On September 13, 1651 Condé retired to Montroux, where his sister,
Madame de Longueville, and the leaders of his party triumphed over his
last scruples. It was then that he pronounced the famous words: "_Vous
me forcez à tirer l'epée,--eh bien! soit! mais souvenez vous que je
serai le dernier à la remettre dans le fourreau_."



CHAPTER V

CONDÉ'S ALLIANCE WITH SPAIN


Condé's alliance with Spain against Mazarin was the immediate cause of
another civil war in France. The Prince left his wife and son in
Bordeaux, where, as we have said, they had already acquired much
personal popularity. The history of this town and of its Parlement is of
considerable interest. In 1653 the people of Bordeaux sent envoys to
England to inquire into the details of the Revolution under Cromwell;
whereby we may note what strong Liberal tendencies had already
manifested themselves in this place, even at the beginning of the reign
of Louis XIII. More than once the townspeople had shown a spirit of
rebellion against the Government, and they had espoused, as we have
seen, the cause of the Princes against Mazarin during the second Fronde.
When the Princesse de Condé returned thither with her husband, she
found, to her surprise, that a Republican spirit had developed amongst
her former friends, and that they wished to see in Condé an ally rather
than a chief. Nor did Condé, although a Prince of the Blood, and well
known for his pride of birth, object to signing a Declaration before the
Parlement of Bordeaux, whereby he promised not to lay down his arms
until he had obtained for his country the following concession, namely:
"That the supreme authority should in future be given to a
representative of the people, chosen by free men, who were of age and
entitled to the vote."

Mazarin, at the head of a small army, had joined the King at Poitiers,
whilst the city of Paris, left under the command of Gaston d'Orléans and
the Paris Parlement, declared Condé guilty of high treason. On hearing
this the Prince made a desperate effort to reach Paris, and with the
help of the Grande Mademoiselle (Gaston's notorious daughter), who
boldly opened the gates to him, he entered the town with his troops at
the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, making himself for a moment master of the
situation. Unfortunately, however, the bloodshed which took place on
this occasion rendered his cause most unpopular, and, finding himself
abandoned by the populace, he was soon obliged to retreat before
Turenne. Whereupon the young King, accompanied by Mazarin, re-entered
the capital and succeeded in controlling it.

Bordeaux meanwhile continued to assert itself as a Republic. There were
two parties fighting against one another--the rich _bourgeoisie_
struggling against the lower classes. Claire-Clemence, who was still
resident amongst them, strove to make peace between these two parties,
but in the middle of it all her health broke down and she was obliged to
retire, leaving to Condé's brother Conti and to his sister, Madame de
Longueville, the task of managing public affairs. On hearing, however,
that the _Chapeau-Rouge_ party,--that is to say, the rich
_bourgeoisie_,--had actually opened fire upon their rivals, she again
made her appearance, accompanied by Lenet and Ormée, the head of the
popular party and succeeded in bringing about a peaceful settlement.

Shortly after this, on September 20, 1652, the Princesse de Condé gave
birth to another son, to whom was given the name of Louis Bordeaux. The
whole city was decorated to celebrate this auspicious event; and there
still exists in the archives at Chantilly a letter of Condé's, wherein
he writes as follows: "_J'ai une extrême joie de l'accouchement de ma
femme; elle serait parfaite si elle se portait bien, et si j'étais
assuré son enfant dût vivre_."

Unfortunately, however, Claire-Clemence found herself unable to recover
her former strength, and it was terrible news for her that her husband,
alone and bereft of his adherents, had left Paris and had even accepted
the post of General-in-Chief in the Spanish army. She had stood beside
him in his fight against Mazarin and a treacherous and faithless Court;
but Richelieu's niece could not get over the fact that the "Hero of
Rocroy" had actually gone over to the enemy. To fill her cup of
tribulation Condé found himself in terrible financial difficulties since
he had to feed his own troops whilst receiving insufficient support from
his allies, the Spaniards, who were themselves unable to offer him
material aid. In despair he wrote to Lenet: "Have my silver and plate
melted down, and tell my wife to pawn her jewellery. She will, I am
sure, not object, nor will my sister refuse to do the same. Borrow
wherever you can, and do not hesitate to pay high interest. I am so much
in want of money that I do not know what to do.... Sell everything, even
to my landed property."

This was certainly bitter news for the wife of the Grand Condé, and, at
the same time, she endured the heavy sorrow of losing her infant son,
Louis Bordeaux. In order to provide her husband with necessary material
help she ordered her own mode of living with strictest economy and
reduced her household. But Madame de Longueville and Conti, realising
that their brother was engaged in a hopeless cause, presently left
Bordeaux; and the latter, becoming reconciled with Mazarin, not long
after married one of his nieces.

[Illustration: PLATE XIV.

ANTOINE DE BOURGOGNE, CALLED _LE GRAND BÂTARD_.

_Photo. Braun & Co._

_Musée Condé._

Memling.]

A general amnesty was now offered to the people of Bordeaux if they
would surrender to the King. To this they agreed; and a passport was
granted to enable the Princesse de Condé to retire with her son wherever
she might choose. Claire-Clemence, for a moment, was undecided whether
to join her husband or to go to Flanders. She chose the latter course.
She had to part, however, with her elder--now her only--son, the Duc
d'Enghien, whose education was committed into the hands of the Jesuits
at Antwerp. Broken in health and spirits, she left for Valenciennes,
accompanied only by her secretary, the faithful Lenet, and a small
suite. Nor was the news which she received from her husband of a nature
to restore her health. The success which had hitherto always accompanied
him when fighting for his country seemed to have entirely abandoned him
since he raised his sword against France. Accused of high treason,
abandoned with insufficient resources to meet his liabilities, and
frequently prone upon a bed of sickness, we cannot but admire the man
who succeeded in facing such terrible trials. More than once he had to
rectify grave errors committed by the Spanish generals, even by Don Juan
of Austria himself, who was regarded in Spain as a conquering hero.

Mazarin, having succeeded in putting down the civil war, could now turn
his attention to the struggle with Spain; and at length the two armies
faced one another on the Dunes, near Dunkirk. The Spaniards were led by
Condé, the French by Turenne. The hero of Rocroy, so famous for his own
strategic powers, as he surveyed the two armies, was struck by the
excellent dispositions of Turenne. Addressing himself to a young
Englishman who was in his camp, he said, "Have you ever seen how a
battle is lost?" "No," answered the youth. "Well, in less than half an
hour you will see such an event," was Condé's grave response. His
prediction was verified; and Dunkirk was captured by the French,
although Condé, with great skill, succeeded in limiting the extent of
his rival's victory.

The result of this battle was the famous "Peace of the Pyrenees,"
signed at Münster on November 7, 1659 by Mazarin and Louis de Haros,
minister of Philip IV. Amongst the more particular clauses of this Peace
was a marriage contract, arranged between Louis XIV and the Infanta
Maria Theresa, which had far-reaching consequences. Another stipulation
made by Spain was that Condé should be allowed to return to France, and
be reinstated in all his rights as a Prince of the Blood. His implacable
enemy Mazarin opposed this at first, but through the prayers of his wife
and his sister Geneviève de Bourbon the Grand Condé was finally allowed
to return home. After having exercised so pernicious an influence over
her brother during the second Fronde, and after having brought upon him
so many disasters, Geneviève, on the death of her husband, the Duc de
Longueville, turned her attention to religion, and retired to the
convent at Moulins, where the widowed Marie Felice, last Duchesse de
Montmorency, still mourned her dead spouse.

Condé's letters, whereby he promised fidelity to the King and engaged to
live on good terms with the Cardinal, preceded him. Madame de
Longueville had, moreover, made great preparations for her brother's
return to Court; whilst Conti, who, as already mentioned, had meantime
married one of Mazarin's nieces, arranged the first meeting between the
Prince and the powerful Minister. He was welcomed by the Queen, and
presented his respects to the King; and on the following day the
_Gazette de France_ announced that he had dined with His Eminence
Cardinal Mazarin.

That Condé was truly sorry for having raised his sword against his own
country, is proved by the following remark: "When Mazarin had me
imprisoned, I was innocent; but I came out of prison the most culpable
of men."

From Paris the Prince went straight to his residence at Saint-Maur to
meet Turenne, who appeared at first embarrassed on seeing him. Condé,
however, at once addressed his rival in a most friendly manner, and
asked his advice regarding the repatriation of his soldiers, many of
whom were Swiss and Germans who declined to enter the French army.

When presently Louis XIV made his entry into Paris the Prince de Condé
and the Duc d'Enghien appeared amongst the Royal retinue, whilst the
Princesse de Condé sat in the State coach with the Queen.

Yet, although established once more as a Prince of the Blood, with all
the prerogatives and appurtenances of his rank--even his Government of
Burgundy--many years had still to pass before Condé could regain the
entire confidence of the King. Nor did Mazarin ever cease to distrust
him. And when, before his death, the Minister presented him with a
valuable diamond ring, assuring him of his sincere friendship, it was
merely a proof of his own power of dissimulation; for, with his last
breath, he warned the King to protect his crown from the insatiable
ambition of the Grand Condé.

If Condé had hoped to play a prominent part in the public affairs of
France after the death of Mazarin, he was mistaken; for the young King,
himself full of ambition, announced at the outset that he meant
henceforth to rule alone. In accordance with his famous saying "_L'Etat
c'est moi_" Louis now began to reign himself.

For Condé retirement from public life had come too early. His sword
which had rendered such great services to France was no longer needed;
and he therefore retired to his Château at Chantilly. Here he almost
immediately began to make extensive restorations, the completion of
which occupied over twenty years, and greatly changed the aspect of the
old place, so long abandoned and unoccupied. The financial difficulties
in which he found himself on his return were happily overcome by
Gourville, who acted energetically as his agent. The celebrated Le Nôtre
was called in to lay out the gardens; the vast grounds were converted
into parks, interspersed by the charming pieces of water which still
exist. With great ingenuity a channel was dug to receive the waters of
the streamlet Nonette, an affluent of the Oise, and a hydraulic machine
invented by Condé himself--who was as skilled an engineer as he was a
soldier--was constructed by Le Manse, under whom all these wonderful
waterworks were kept in order. The courtyard which forms the present
entrance to the Château dates from that time.

Letters have come down to us in which Condé expresses to Le Nôtre the
highest satisfaction with his work. The latter was quite overcome by the
Prince's appreciation, and replied to him: "_Jamais l'Honneur que je
receu d'embraser nostre Saint Pere, le pape, et de baiser sa mule ne m'a
fait tant de bien ny donne tant de joie que celle que je ressenty par la
bonté que vous avez eu de me donner le benefice que votre Altesse a
refusé a tant de testes couronnees.... Je continueray a eslever mes
pensées pour l'embellissement de vos parterres, fontaines, cascades de
vostre grand jardin de Chantilly._"

In 1684 Mansart was entrusted with the entire transformation of the
interior of the Petit Château; the first floor being arranged for the
use of the Grand Condé, whilst the ground floor was reserved for his
son, the Duc d'Enghien. The exterior of this exquisite building was
fortunately left intact, and has remained unchanged since the time of
Anne de Montmorency. Nor has the interior changed since Mansart's
alterations. When the visitor passes through these apartments to-day, he
can feel that they are in the same state as when the Grand Condé dwelt
there. The Grand Cabinet with its exquisite Beauvais tapestry, its
Boulle table, and its Louis XVI consoles and lustres, and the Petit
Cabinet where the victor of Rocroy came to rest from his labours, still
exist, to recall their former owner. In an adjacent apartment we may
admire a fine piece of furniture, companion to the famous Louis XV
bureau in the Louvre, upon which is placed the Grand Condé's own
despatch-box. Then there is the Long Gallery, where the painter Sauveur
Lecomte has illustrated, under the hero's own directions, all his
victories from the battles of Rocroy, Nördlingen, and Fribourg to the
conquest of the Franche Comté, and the campaign and passage of the
Rhine.

Mansart, once installed at Chantilly, did not leave it for many years.
He unfortunately attempted to tamper with the old feudal castle of the
Orgemonts and the mediæval architecture which combined so well with
Montmorency's Petit Château, creating an inordinately lofty building,
with a straight line of innumerable windows and attics all precisely
similar in form. It was this structure which was razed to the ground at
the time of the Revolution, and which was reconstructed in a far more
suitable style by the late Duc d'Aumale.



CHAPTER VI

FESTIVITIES AT CHANTILLY


Since there was no prospect for Condé to take any prominent lead in the
affairs of his own country his name was proposed as a possible successor
to the throne of Poland. He declined, however, to accept a crown which
had been the cause of so much misery to King Wladislav IV and to his
brother Jean Casimir. There being no heir-apparent to that throne the
eyes of Marie de Gonzague, Queen of Poland, turned upon the Duc
d'Enghien, Condé's only surviving son, and it was in connection with
this idea that a marriage was arranged between Henri Jules de Bourbon
and Anne of Bavaria, eldest daughter of the Princess Palatine, sister to
the Polish Queen. Claire-Clemence was not over-pleased at the idea of
this marriage, since she did not share her husband's ambitions. The
uneasy throne of Poland for her only son was a proposal which she could
not face with equanimity.

The union that she would have preferred was one with Mademoiselle
d'Alençon, youngest daughter of Gaston d'Orléans, a Princess whom Henri
Jules often saw and greatly admired, for the Orléans family at that time
lived in the sumptuous Palais d'Orléans, not far from the Palais Condé,
which was built on the site now occupied by the Odéon Théâtre. But the
Princess could not prevail upon her masterful husband, who had not only
taken his son's education, but also his entire future, into his own
hands. The brave lady, who had played so important a part during the
Fronde, and had shown so much courage and determination under her many
difficulties and trials, had at this time completely broken down in
health. She only appeared at Court festivities at long intervals, and
although she was present at her son's marriage she did not join the
young couple at Chantilly. The Grand Condé, surrounding himself with
friends, lived there from choice; and there Anne de Gonzague paid him
frequent visits, whilst Claire-Clemence was left neglected in Paris.
Society soon followed suit; and such neglect and isolation told upon a
constitution naturally delicate. This Princess, once so full of
admiration for her hero, now began to cherish resentment against him;
and she who for long years had, in spite of his neglect, never uttered
one word of complaint, at last broke out into bitter recrimination. We
gather from Condé's letters that she suffered from violent fits of
passion, and that a secret fear lest he should make away with her became
more and more a fixed idea. It is said, however, that when she appeared
at the baptism of the Dauphin her attitude was full of dignity and
commanded involuntary respect. Two years after this an unfortunate
incident happened, never entirely explained, which reduced
Claire-Clemence to imprisonment for the rest of her life. Condé had
compelled her to dismiss a page, named Duval, who had been in her
service. She had, however, promised him a pension which it seems was
left unpaid. One day, whilst the rest of the servants were at their
meals, he penetrated into the Princess's apartments to beg for his
pension. His voice was heard by the page on duty in the next room, who
at once entered the chamber in order to protect Her Highness from his
importunities. A violent quarrel arose between the two men, and the
Princess, in her endeavours to separate them, was severely wounded. When
the rest of the servants, on hearing the noise, rushed into the
apartment, Her Highness was found unconscious on the floor. This was the
version put about in Paris; but Condé, on being informed of it, was
beside himself with rage, and caused Duval to be arrested and condemned
to the gallows.

Condé, so magnanimous alike to friends and enemies, in this instance
behaved most brutally to his wife, and availed himself of this
opportunity to get rid of her. Instead of defending her against a
scandal which increased day by day from its very mystery, he himself
heaped calumny upon her. He immediately left Chantilly for Paris, and
without visiting the Princess his wife, went straight to Louis XIV and
demanded a _lettre de cachet_ against her. The King, however, with
greater humanity, refused his request; upon which Condé returned to
Chantilly in great wrath and contrived another scheme. He concocted a
document under which the Princess consented to transfer all her property
to her son during her lifetime; which deed he persuaded the Duke to
present to his mother for signature. There was, however, a clause under
which Her Highness was to retain a right of disposal over her jewels. By
this scheme he proposed to induce her to retire altogether from the
world without offering any defence.

Abandoned by her husband, robbed by her own son--who actually did
persuade her to sign the above-mentioned instrument--the unfortunate
Princess found herself no longer the courageous woman that she once had
been. Instead of rebutting the wicked calumnies which attacked her
honour, she merely endeavoured to save the unworthy Duval from the
guillotine--a wretch who, under torture, uttered confessions
compromising the Princess, which were, however, considered by the
Parlement as inconclusive. Condé, furious with his wife as the cause of
all this scandal, again demanded of Louis XIV a _lettre de cachet_ and
this time secured it. Her very generosity on behalf of the accused Duval
was employed as a pretext for separation; and crushed and broken in
health and spirits, she was transported one morning to the fortress of
Châteauroux. In the presence of her son, the Duc d'Enghien, she said to
the _curé_ of Saint-Sulpice, who was her confessor: "This is the last
time that I shall be able to talk to you, for I shall never return from
the place where the King is pleased to send me. Nevertheless the
confession which I have made to you will always prove my innocence."
Embracing her son for the last time, she fainted away; and in that state
she was conveyed to the carriage which was to transport her to the
distant castle of Châteauroux, where she was to be buried for the
remainder of her life. No news of the outer world ever reached her, and
even her only child never visited her. This barbarous treatment, this
cruel seclusion, brought on hallucinations, during which it is said that
she was haunted by the image of her husband. Châteauroux, a gloomy
fortress with numerous towers, inspired her with terror; and there were
even rumours that she was ill-treated by her gaolers. Madame de
Longueville was the only member of the Condé family who showed any pity
for this poor, forlorn woman, and she expressed a wish to visit her; but
Condé, unrelenting, refused her permission. He sent, however, Père
Tixier to ascertain whether she had all she needed, who reported that
she seemed to be in constant terror lest the food offered to her might
contain poison. Through many long years she dragged on a sad life in
this cruel solitude; and not even the news of her husband's death, whom
she outlived by several years, reached her. Unrelenting to the last,
Condé is said to have written on his death-bed a private letter to Louis
XIV, desiring him as a favour never to release Claire-Clemence. When at
last death delivered her, she was buried in the little church of St.
Martin, within the precincts of Châteauroux. Only a few Franciscan monks
and some poor people of the neighbourhood, whom out of her own scanty
resources she had continually assisted, attended at her funeral. Neither
her son nor any of her relations were present. When, in 1793, this
little church was restored, her remains were thrown to the winds, and
not one of her descendants took the trouble to raise a protest. More
than a century had to pass before even one voice was raised in defence
of this cruelly wronged woman. Louis Joseph de Bourbon, the father of
the last Condé, in his _Biography_ of his famous ancestor, could not
refrain from a severe condemnation of the cruelty with which the "Hero"
had treated the wife who had shown so much courage and loyalty on his
behalf.

The noble-minded Duc d'Aumale, in his _History of the Princes de Condé_,
is also full of sympathy and appreciation for poor Claire-Clemence;
although he endeavours to excuse the great Condé's conduct towards her
by explaining the repugnance he must have felt for Richelieu's niece.

A curious circumstance which seems still further to enhance the tragic
fate which befell Claire-Clemence is the indifference shown to her by
her own nearest relatives. At the very time when she was pining away in
the fortress of Châteauroux, not only her husband but her son also seems
to have felt no pity nor care for her. At Chantilly, where Anne de
Gonzague reigned supreme, festivity followed festivity, and it was she
who received the crowds of guests who thronged to visit that delectable
resort.

       *       *       *       *       *

The visits to Fontainebleau, where, after the death of the Regent, the
King so often shut himself up for hours together, are described as being
very tame compared with those to Chantilly, where the time passed far
more agreeably. Turenne and the Maréchal de Grammont were frequently
invited. Also such celebrated men of letters as Boileau, Racine,
Corneille, La Fontaine, and Molière found their way thither; for Condé
took a great personal interest in their works, and helped and encouraged
them considerably. Boileau was a specially welcome guest at Chantilly.
Once, however, during an animated conversation with the Prince, he
contradicted him in some statement; but noticing an angry look upon His
Highness's countenance, he became alarmed, and, making a profound bow,
said: "_Je serais toujours de l'avis de M. le Prince, surtout quand il
aura tort_"--a piece of tact which was much appreciated by his host, and
disarmed his anger. Condé was also the first to recognise the greatness
of Molière, and to protect him from his rivals. The _Precieuses
Ridicules_ were first acted at Chantilly, and the players were lodged
there for over a week. When Louis XIV fell so passionately in love with
Madame de Montespan, Molière wrote his poem _Amphitryon_, wherein he
advises husbands to offer to Jupiter a share of their nuptial love--a
work which he dedicated to the Prince de Condé. It was Boileau who
brought Racine to Chantilly, and his tragedies were often performed
there. Moreover, the Court itself paid prolonged visits to the Grand
Condé, and thither thronged all the most distinguished personages in
Europe. Madame de Sévigné, in her famous _Letters_, describes the
"_delices_" of Chantilly; and descriptions of festive gatherings of all
kinds held there are frequently to be found throughout the records of
the period. The _Gazette_ devoted many columns to details regarding
pleasure and hunting parties and lunches at the Maison de Sylvie.

In the month of April 1671 Chantilly opened its portals to receive Louis
XIV and his bride, the Infanta Maria Theresa. The Château itself was
reserved for the Royal party, whilst the courtiers and the officers of
the suite were lodged throughout the neighbouring villages. Sixty tables
were served three times a day; and it was during this Royal visit that
Vatel, the _maître d'hôtel_, whose skill directed the whole, suddenly
committed suicide because he was unable to provide the necessary fish on
a fast-day. He was greatly mourned, especially by his master; but a
substitute was soon found, who succeeded even better than his
predecessor, so far eclipsing him, in fact, that his loss was soon
forgotten.

Louis XIV was so charmed with this visit that he is said to have been
inspired by Chantilly to create Versailles. "_Mon cousin_" he jokingly
said to Condé when leaving, "_il faut que vous me cédiez Chantilly_." To
which Condé promptly replied, "_Chantilly est aux ordres du roi.
J'espère que sa majesté me nommera son concierge._"



CHAPTER VII

THE GRAND CONDÉ A WARRIOR ONCE MORE


Shortly after this memorable visit of the Court to Chantilly the Prince
de Condé was summoned by the King to Paris to give his opinion upon a
possible conquest of Holland. The truth was that the youthful monarch,
thirsting for military glory, had but recently uttered the celebrated
statement that the only way to conquer the Spanish Netherlands was to
subdue and annihilate the Dutch.

Upon the death of Philip IV of Spain the French King had immediately
asserted the Flemish rights of his wife Maria Theresa, daughter of the
late King of Spain by his first wife. According to the ancient Statutes
of Brabant there was no doubt about her title to this inheritance, but,
since the long-drawn-out negotiations regarding it led to nothing, Louis
XIV suddenly declared war. His Majesty had not forgotten Condé's
successes at Rocroy, Nördlingen and Lens, and his admiration for the
Prince's skill in strategy and geography was unbounded. In the
exuberance of his imagination he even contemplated, with the aid of so
great a hero, the subjugation of the whole of Europe.

It was in this spirit that Louis, accompanied by Turenne, marched into
Flanders, and made Lille a French town; whilst Condé once more
surprised the world by his conquest of the whole of Franche-Comté in
less than a month. England, Holland, and Sweden, terrified at the young
King's ambition and the success of the French arms, promptly entered
into a Triple Alliance, which arrested the conquering hero in full
career and brought about the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, whereby he was
forced to be content with Flanders alone. But such terms were scarcely
calculated to satisfy the ambitions of either the King, his generals, or
the French nation. Hostilities were therefore soon resumed. With an army
of thirteen thousand men commanded by Condé and Turenne Louis advanced
on Holland. He crossed the Rhine, devastating and conquering everything
before him. No less than ninety-five towns and villages capitulated in
ten days. Holland, conscious of her inability to resist, begged for
peace, but the French, encouraged by their successes, refused to lend an
ear to her entreaties.

It was then that William of Orange conceived the daring plan of
submerging the whole of Holland by piercing the dykes. In this way the
French were brought up short in their destructive course by an
inundation which lasted over two years. Louis, obliged by these
circumstances to postpone for a time the conquest of Holland, retired to
Saint-Germain and left to Turenne the arduous task of remaining with the
army. Condé, meanwhile, led the advance-guard with a rapidity which in
less than nine days made him master of six strong fortresses on the
Rhine; and it apparently only remained for him to cross the Yssel to
where the young Prince of Orange was stationed. Once more he displayed
remarkable military strategy in crossing this river at a point where he
was unexpected: and two Dutch regiments ordered to oppose him were cut
to pieces by overwhelming numbers, so that the French troops there and
then crossed the Rhine without hindrance. Montbas, the Dutch General,
accused of treason, was supplanted at the last moment by de Wirty, in
order to shield William of Orange himself, who recognized his mistake
too late.

This easy victory, however, was marred by an event which proved most
unfortunate in its consequences. When the French squadrons had reached
the opposite bank of the river Condé, with his son and his nephew, the
Duc de Longueville, also crossed immediately in a boat, followed by
their men and horses. The Princes, on landing, promptly threw themselves
into their saddles, and riding ahead fell in with a small body of Dutch
soldiers, who begged for mercy. The young Duc de Longueville, without
waiting for the decision of his chief, cried out: "_Pas de quartier_,"
and fired off his pistol. The Dutch promptly replied with a volley, one
shot of which struck de Longueville and mortally wounded him, whilst
another seriously injured Condé himself. The Prince and his dead nephew
were immediately transported to a fisherman's hut. By a strange
coincidence, the mourners were met by the Ambassador of Poland, who had
come to offer the crown of the Jagellons--refused by Condé for his own
son--to the unfortunate young Duke.

Condé's wound changed the course of the whole campaign, since it
incapacitated him at the supreme moment when he might have reaped the
full advantages of his victory. The wound healed but slowly, and his
son, Henri Jules, could not replace him at the head of his troops. Time
lost to the French was time gained by William of Orange, who, as has
been said, conceived the heroic plan of inundating Holland, whereby the
French military operations became impossible. The auspicious moment for
invading Holland being thus lost, Condé travelled slowly back to
Chantilly, where he found a much-needed rest, and by degrees recovered
his health.

On his way back he had an interview at Port Royal with his sister, the
Duchesse de Longueville, who, on hearing of her bereavement, gave way to
long but silent grief; and, retiring from the world, passed her days in
prayer and fasting for the repose of the soul of her dead son.
Subsequently she became a devout Jansenist.

Louis' ambitious plans to conquer Europe, frustrated for the moment, had
now roused Spain, Denmark, and some of the German Princes to take up
arms to prevent possible renewed attacks upon their territories; and two
great soldiers came forward to keep guard upon the Rhine: William of
Brandenburg (a hero himself and ancestor of heroes), and Montecucoli (so
named after his feudal castle), who took the command of the Imperial
troops. Condé, hardly yet recovered, was summoned by his sovereign, and
was requested once more to operate in the Netherlands. William of Orange
began by attacking the French army at Senef, and in spite of the
"_fougue_" of Condé the battle remained undecided. Turenne, meanwhile,
was manoeuvring on the Rhine against Montecucoli, who was marching on
Alsace; he succeeded in repulsing the Imperial troops near the Neckar,
taking Heidelberg and Mannheim, and forcing his way into the Palatinate.
Suddenly, however, he had to change his tactics owing to the unexpected
appearance of the Margrave of Brandenburg; and the French commander's
plans terminated in a campaign in Alsace, where he was victorious at
Mulhouse and Schletstadt. In that same year he was also confronted by
Montecucoli, and unfortunately met his death at Salzbach before any
decisive battle had been fought. His loss was a severe blow to his
soldiers. Condé was immediately sent for; and, inspired by the memory of
the dead general, followed his tactics, and succeeded without a single
battle in driving the Imperial troops back across the Rhine. This was
precisely what the King and his minister, Louvois, desired; for
Montecucoli was thus shut out of Alsace, and obliged to take up his
winter-quarters on the far side of the Rhine. By these brilliant
operations Condé preserved Turenne's army, and terminated this great
campaign, in which were engaged three of the most celebrated generals of
the period: Montecucoli, the profound strategist, the sagacious Turenne,
and the great Condé, who in the cause of France was always victorious.

These were his last exploits, and he returned to Chantilly, there to
pass a life of peaceful quiet until his death in 1687. Madame de
Sévigné, who was repeatedly invited to the Château, says in her
_Letters_ that Condé was quite admirable in his retreat, from which he
only emerged occasionally to pay a visit to the King at Fontainebleau,
Paris, or Versailles, where a splendid suite of apartments was always
reserved for him. Chantilly at that time became a small Court in itself.
Not only was it a resort for kings, princes, ambassadors, generals, and
statesmen, who never omitted to pay their respects to the Grand Condé,
but it was also a rallying-place for the most distinguished literary and
scientific men of the day. Here Bossuet, Fénelon, and the philosopher
Malebranche, the poets Corneille, Racine, and Molière discussed their
works and their theories in that avenue in the park which to this day
bears the name of "the Philosophers."

The newest books and publications passed their first public ordeal at
Chantilly; and at the theatrical representations which frequently took
place there, the greatest actors of the day produced famous plays, or
made their _début_. The Prince kept a special company of comedians in
his own pay at Rouen for practice, so anxious was he that they should
perform at Chantilly to the utmost perfection; and he himself
distributed to them their various parts.

His interest in scientific discoveries was also very great, and he
studied all the latest books upon these subjects. The humorous letters
addressed to him upon such matters by that fantastic personage Bourdelot
still exist. The famous waterworks at Chantilly, imitated later at
Versailles, were to a great extent, as we have already remarked, planned
and carried out according to his own designs. Nor was he lacking in
artistic interest, for he made important additions to the collection of
manuscripts founded by his ancestors, the Montmorencys; and during his
stay in Holland he collected many Dutch pictures and some fine
furniture, which may still be seen in his own rooms at the Petit
Château. For him Charles Le Brun and Mignard worked assiduously, and
some of the paintings by Paul Veronese, Guido, Guercino, the Carraccis,
Van Dyck, and Antonio Moro which now adorn the walls of the Musée Condé
were acquired by him.

His passion for the chase was notorious; and hunting and hawking in the
woods of Chantilly were amongst his greatest pleasures. He revived the
art of hawking, introduced into Europe from Arabia by the Crusaders, and
he is said to have taken particular interest in his own hawks,
conferring upon each of them individual names.

[Illustration: PLATE XV.

_Photo. Giraudon._

Molière. By Miguard. Musée Condé.]

In concluding these notices on the life and character of the Grand
Condé, we must not forget to mark a trait in his character which has
perhaps not been hitherto so generally acknowledged: namely, a feeling
that he owed it to family tradition to protect the Huguenots. When
therefore Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, and thereby caused an
exodus of some of the best amongst his subjects, Condé, wherever it was
possible, protected the persecuted Protestants; and Chantilly itself
became a shelter for Huguenot fugitives.

Disappointed in his own son, Henri Jules de Bourbon--a man devoid of all
ability, whose chief aim was to follow the Dauphin's hounds--Condé in
his old age attempted to take in hand the education of his grandson, the
young Duc de Bourbon, and of his favourite nephew, François, Prince de
Conti, left orphaned by the early death of his father. By these means he
hoped to restore the glory of the race: for François de Conti had
displayed military talent and great valour during the famous day of
Steinkerque, where two horses were killed under him, and where he
contributed greatly to the victory achieved by French arms. For the
benefit of these two young men, Condé invited to Chantilly La Bruyère,
who had been introduced to him by Bossuet, and engaged him to undertake
their education. But the Duke, like his father, was too much attracted
by the Court of Louis XIV. At a very early age his father arranged an
alliance for him with Mademoiselle de Nantes, a daughter of the King by
Madame de Montespan, and contemporary chronicles are filled with
references to this child-marriage, which was celebrated with the
greatest pomp; the bride being but thirteen and the bride-groom
seventeen years of age. After the nuptials, the two children took their
places in a state bed, supported on either side by their respective
mothers: but as soon as festivities were over they were separated and
only permitted to see each other in the presence of their relations. The
new Duchesse de Bourbon was extremely handsome; but her husband was
rather small and of an unamiable disposition. His shortcomings were,
however, compensated for by the brilliant valour which he displayed at a
subsequent period.

Bossuet himself was prevailed upon to give instruction to the young
Duke. This famous prelate was always greatly admired by the Grand Condé.
Upon one occasion we are told that he entered the Church of the Minimes,
when the great philosopher happened to be preaching. Bossuet, who was
arguing upon the vanity of the glories of this world to which Condé had
sacrificed so much, suddenly perceived the hero among the audience.
Whereupon, with his customary skill, on the spur of the moment he
introduced an appropriate compliment by pointing out how the Prince de
Condé, after having been so long the ornament of his century, was now
also endeavouring to attain Eternal Life--an immortality more lasting
than that which worldly fame affords.

In early life Condé had been a member of a society of free-thinkers, to
which the Princesses Marie and Anne de Gonzague had also belonged. He
had studied Spinoza, and had approved of his pantheistic doctrines;
then, gradually leaving Spinoza, he took up Descartes. Later the example
of his sister, Madame de Longueville--who, from leading a worldly life,
had become a pious Jansenist--made a deep impression upon him: as did
also the death of Anne de Gonzague, who, after a life of wildest
excitement, had before her end become a sincere and devout penitent. In
his old age he often sought the company of a friend of his early youth
and college-days at Bourges, who had distinguished himself as a
brilliant orator. Shortly before his death, in company with this friend,
Condé went to receive the Holy Communion at his parish church of
Saint-Sulpice; and on leaving was met by the plaudits of the people of
Paris. His own adherence to the Catholic Faith did not, however, change
his friendly attitude towards the Huguenots, nor did it alter in any way
his mode of living at Chantilly. Madame de Langeron at that time did the
honours of his house, and the freedom of thought which reigned there so
much appreciated by men like La Bruyère and Bossuet, was never
interfered with. Saint-Évremond sang Condé's praise in the following
characteristic verses:

    _À ta vertu, Condé, tu t'es enfin soumis_
    _Tu n'étais pas encore au comble de ta gloire,_
    _Senef, Lens, Fribourg et Nordlingen et Rocroi_
    _N'étaient que des degrés pour monter jusqu'à toi._
    _Le vainqueur s'est vaincu, c'est la grande victoire._

           *       *       *       *       *

                     _Tranquil et glorieux,_
    _Il vit à Chantilly comme on vit aux cieux._

Bossuet has described the last moments of the hero: "Such as he was in
his warrior days, resolute, quiet, always occupied, without anxiety for
what had to be done, such was he in his last hour. Nor did death seem to
him any more repulsive or terrible now than in the midst of battle and
victory."

Whilst his family and friends shed copious tears as his end approached,
he continued to give all necessary orders; and he remembered everyone,
from the highest to the lowest of his friends and attendants, showering
gifts upon them all with a munificence fully in accordance with his high
rank and generous heart.



CHAPTER VIII

THE LAST CONDÉS


When Henri Jules de Bourbon succeeded to the Condé inheritance, he
continued with filial piety to carry out all the improvements and
additions to Chantilly which his father had planned. François Mansart,
the most fashionable architect of the period, had by that time nearly
completed those unfortunate alterations which transformed the ancient
feudal fortress into a species of Versailles. This Prince also built the
parish church on a site presented by the Grand Condé to the inhabitants
of the hamlet which had begun to form itself around the castle. He
completed the menagerie and by his orders Mansart built an orangery
ending in a pavilion called by him _Le Pavillon d'Oronthée_. Statues of
the Grand Condé, of Bossuet, of Molière, of Le Nôtre, and of La Bruyère,
executed by the most famous sculptors of the day, were placed along the
Terrasse du Connétable; whilst marble copies of celebrated antiques were
set up in the gardens and park. He spoke of Chantilly as "_ses delices_"
and was never weary of planning improvements there. He also directed
that the famous deeds of his father should be recorded on canvas by
Sauveur Lecomte in accordance with directions left by that hero himself.

In 1688 the Prince de Condé entertained at Chantilly the Grand Dauphin,
only son of Louis XIV, with whom he was on terms of great intimacy; and
the apartments in the Petit Château occupied by that Prince were those
once inhabited by the Grand Condé himself. A description of the
entertainments given upon this occasion may be read in the _Mercure de
France_ of that year, as follows: "A great _battue_ had been arranged,
and the Dauphin appears to have been delighted by the enjoyment of such
splendid sport. Luncheon was served on a big stone table in the middle
of the forest.[12] On the centre of the table was placed a basket
containing the most exquisite fruit, and during the repast mythological
deities made their appearance whilst dances were performed to the sound
of appropriate music. Every day--and the Dauphin remained for
seven--some new diversion was contrived."

As Henri Jules de Condé grew older he seldom left Chantilly. His temper
became more and more violent and difficult; and during his last years he
rarely appeared at Court. He died in 1709, leaving a legacy to the
Hospital at Chantilly, which had been founded by his grandmother,
Charlotte de Montmorency.

The Duc de Bourbon, generally known as Louis III, Prince de Condé, died
soon after his father. Louise Françoise, his wife, had presented him
with six daughters and three sons; of whom the eldest, Louis Henri,
succeeded to the title of Prince de Condé at the early age of
eighteen.[13] He, like his predecessors, also spent great sums on the
embellishment of Chantilly. By him were built the great stables--a
monument unique of its kind--in which vast buildings more than two
hundred horses and packs of hounds for fox, deer, and boar hunts, were
housed. In the adjoining courtyards were lodged their numerous
attendants--_piqueurs_, _chasseurs_, and stable-boys--and the carriages,
coaches, etc., needed for such an establishment. The central cupola of
this stupendous edifice was originally adorned with a statue of _La
Renommée_, but this was destroyed by a cannon-ball during the Revolution
of 1792.

The famous Duchesse de Berry, daughter of the Regent and wife of the
younger grandson of Louis XIV, passed a whole week at Chantilly as the
guest of this Prince; and great magnificence was displayed for her
entertainment. Saint-Simon in his _Mémoires_ relates an incident which
happened during these festivities. On the farther side of the grand
canal the Duke kept a very beautiful menagerie, full of rare animals and
fine birds; and whilst the company were strolling about and playing
games in the grounds a huge tiger escaped and prowled about the gardens
to the terror of the gay revellers. After some time, however, and
fortunately before any accident had occurred, the beast was captured and
induced to return to his cage.

In consequence of the numerous royal visits paid to him, Louis Henri
entirely remodelled the interior of the Grand Château. The King's
Apartment was over the Museum; it extended from the Chapel to the
so-called North Tower, and was composed of guard-rooms, long galleries,
and vast chambers. That of the Queen was over the present Entrance-Hall,
and ran as far as the Treasury towers. From it one could penetrate into
the Chapel, which at that time was situated where is now the splendid
staircase leading to the Museum.

During the time of this Prince the youthful Louis XV came to Chantilly
from Reims. He arrived in the evening and the whole place was
beautifully illuminated--so much so that "every detail of the building
could be seen as if in broad daylight." The festivities on this occasion
were many and various. The chase during the day and in the evening
performances by an Italian comedy company engaged for the occasion, and
by a famous ballet which lasted four-and-twenty hours.

In 1723, after the death of the Regent, the Duc de Bourbon became Prime
Minister of France. His wife, Anne Marie de Bourbon, had died and his
mistress, the famous Marquise de Prie, reigned supreme--an even more
fascinating, and certainly a more intelligent woman than the Montespans,
Pompadours, and Du Barrys, who so completely succeeded in captivating
the Bourbon Kings. She possessed a beautiful voice, with which she
interpreted Italian music, learnt during her stay in Turin where her
husband for many years had been ambassador. She also, like Madame de
Pompadour, patronised art and had portraits of herself painted by
Rosalba and Vanloo. Her house was furnished with exquisite taste, and
she understood to perfection the arts of the toilet. At first she
devoted herself to a life of pleasure, but she soon saw the wisdom of
becoming her lover's adviser-in-chief. In order to shield him against
the intrigues of the Orleans family--as long as the King remained
unmarried and without a nearer heir--she persuaded the Prime Minister
that the Spanish Infanta, daughter of Philip V, who had been educated at
the French Court and was intended to be the future Queen-Consort of
France--though she was still a child of not much more than ten years
old--should be sent back to her father. When this had been accomplished
a marriage was speedily arranged with Maria Leczinska of Poland,
although she was several years older than the young King. This act led
to an immediate rupture with Spain and brought no political advantage to
France. But in order to understand to the full the game played here by
Madame de Prie, we should note that Maria Leczinska had been at first
intended for Monsieur le Duc; wherefore by making her Queen of France
she not only hoped to keep her lover to herself, but also to get
ascendancy over the King through a queen whom she had helped to raise to
so exalted a position. Somewhat unexpectedly, however, she found an
implacable enemy in Cardinal Fleury, who was to Louis XV what Richelieu
and Mazarin had been to his predecessors. He had been the young King's
preceptor and exercised a great influence over him. When it occurred to
Fleury that he might become Prime Minister in place of the Duc de
Bourbon the latter, notwithstanding the strenuous efforts of Madame de
Prie, was compelled to yield and to resign on the charge that he had
confided affairs of State to unqualified persons. He retired to
Chantilly with his mistress, where, the lady received a most
discourteous welcome from Madame la Duchesse Douarière; and to the grief
and dismay of the Duke a _lettre de cachet_ from the King presently
commanded her to retire to a property in Normandy which belonged to her
long-neglected husband. The Duc de Bourbon never ceased to regret her,
because, as he asserted, he felt that she was so devoted to his
interests as to have subordinated every other sentiment. She only
survived her humiliation a few years; but it was some time after her
death before the childless Duke thought of remarrying. His choice fell
upon a young princess of Hesse Rhinfeld, whose eldest sister had married
the King of Sardinia. The new Duchess, who was barely fifteen, was as
beautiful and graceful as she was good. This marriage put an end to the
disgrace into which the Duke had fallen at Court; and from that time
Louis XV, who very much admired the young _châtelaine_ of Chantilly,
never went to Compiègne without paying her a visit on the way. In memory
of these Royal visits he sent her a beautiful spray of diamonds, which
the Duc de Luignes in his _Mémoires_ values at seventy-two thousand
francs. The same writer adds that in the month of August 1738 the King
came to Chantilly for a stag-hunt; and that he arrived at the Château in
a gondola, accompanied by four Court ladies. The Duke and Duchess
received this gay party and supper was immediately served, but next
morning the heat was so excessive that the stag-hunt had to be
abandoned. At nine o'clock, however, His Majesty promenaded upon the
terrace, while airs from well-known operas were sung to amuse him. The
Queen, Maria Leczinska, also enjoyed strolling about the gardens and
driving through the park, where all sorts of games were specially
devised for her.

In 1740 the Duc de Bourbon fell ill and died rather suddenly. His young
wife survived him barely a year; and their only son, Louis Joseph, then
but five years of age, was left to the charge of his grandmother. She
presented him soon after to Louis XV as Prince de Condé, and it was then
remarked that he was very fair and tall for his age. His uncle, the
Comte de Charolais, meantime administered the property at Chantilly
with great judgment and skill on behalf of his nephew and ward.

The young Prince was taken to Chantilly by his uncle for the first time
at the age of fourteen, and all sorts of amusements suitable for his age
were prepared for his pleasure. He at once conceived a great affection
for the place, which continued for the rest of his life.

When he attained the age of seventeen his uncle Charolais considered it
time for him to marry, and proposed to him several suitable matches. At
one of the entertainments given to further this end the young Prince's
choice fell on Charlotte de Rohan Soubise, a young lady renowned for her
grace and beauty; and their marriage was celebrated at Versailles with
great pomp. The young couple passed their honeymoon at Chantilly and,
according to the chronicles of the old Château, they immediately
commenced to display the traditional Condé taste for profuse
hospitality. Balls, theatricals, garden-fêtes, etc., followed each other
in quick succession for six weeks.

[Illustration: PLATE XVI.

CHARLOTTE, PRINCESSE DE CONDÉ, WIFE OF LOUIS JOSEPH DE BOURBON.

_Musée Condé._

Jean M. Nattier.]

In 1756 their son and heir was born. At first he was known as the Duc
d'Enghien but this was afterwards changed to Duc de Bourbon. The second
child was a daughter, Louise de Condé, subsequently famed for her great
intelligence and beauty. The Princess Charlotte de Soubise was a general
favourite at Court; but in spite of her many social engagements she
never neglected her maternal duties and always showed herself a most
devoted wife and mother.

The Prince, notwithstanding his domestic felicity, considered it his
duty to add a "sprig of laurel" to the trophies of his glorious
ancestor, the Grand Condé. He therefore joined the army and greatly
distinguished himself during the Seven Years' War. In 1762 he gained the
victories of Grinningen and Johannesberg.

The sudden death of his wife the Princesse de Condé from an attack of
diphtheria put an end to his conjugal happiness; but to Chantilly he
always returned after his campaigns, so as to be in the old home and
with his children. A highly cultured gentleman, he took intense interest
in literature and scientific research, enriching with numerous volumes
the library of the Château and adding thereto mineralogical and
physiological collections of great value.

His only son, Louis Henri Joseph de Bourbon, when just fifteen was
affianced to Louise Marie Thérèse Bathilde d'Orléans, five years his
senior and an intimate friend of his sister Louise. Even in those days
of early marriages this union was considered abnormal, and it was at
first arranged that the young couple should wait for a time. But the
youthful pair threatened to elope unless they were allowed to marry that
same year, so with "_un éclat de rire_" the King gave his consent.

When Marie Antoinette as Dauphine visited Chantilly the grace and charm
of the young Duchess, who presided over the brilliant fêtes given upon
that occasion, were much admired. Louis Joseph, like the Grand Condé,
was passionately devoted to the art of the stage, and his
daughter-in-law, like so many great ladies of her time, was
distinguished for her literary talents. She herself composed the
comedies in which she, her husband, and her Royal guests took part.

The theatre at Chantilly, celebrated for its elaborate decorations and
beautiful scenery, was approached by a terrace adorned by forty-eight
marble vases; whence a double staircase led through the Salon d'Apollon.
Palm-trees formed an avenue before its entrance, and the back of the
theatre opened upon the garden, where a statue of Diana surrounded by
waterfalls stood in the background. Amongst the improvements in the
gardens first introduced by this Prince was a "_Hameau_," which was
erected long before that in the Petit Trianon at Versailles.

From the time of Henri IV Chantilly, as we have seen, had been a
favourite pleasure-resort for Royal personages. Louis XV used to combine
excursions thither with his visits to Versailles. The King of Denmark,
the hereditary Prince of Prussia, and Gustavus III, King of Sweden, were
all entertained at the Château; and the latter presented to the Prince
de Condé the magnificent cabinet containing many strange and curious
minerals now at the Musée Condé.

In 1782 the Comte du Nord, afterwards the Emperor Paul of Russia, with
his wife, Dorothea of Wurtemberg, paid a long visit to Chantilly. One
of the Russian ladies-in-waiting, the Baroness Oberkirch, gives the
following description of their stay: "We joined the Prince at eleven
o'clock, which was the dinner-hour. This dinner, which opened the fêtes
of the day--we were a hundred and fifty at table--was splendid, and
quite in accordance with the traditions of this princely house, so
famous for its magnificent hospitality. When we left the dining-hall we
found carriages waiting for us. The Prince and the Duke, his son,
themselves drove us along the avenues, where a thousand surprises were
prepared for us. The trees were hung with flags and decorated with the
Russian colours. After the drive we went to the theatre. They played
_The Friend of the House_, _The Supposed Poet_, and _The
Fifteen-year-old Lover_. The latter piece told the love-story of the Duc
and Duchesse de Bourbon and had been played on the eve of their wedding.
It ended with a fine ballet. On coming out we found the gardens
illuminated and fireworks blazing all round, while the façade of the
Château was decorated with the heraldic bearings of the Emperor and
Empress. Supper was served on the _Isle d'Amour_ and then followed a
ball which was so gay and full of merriment that it seemed to us a quite
exceptional thing, since this is not usually the case amongst princes.
The next morning a hunting-party was arranged, a diversion of which the
Condé princes and princesses are particularly fond. A stag was hunted
for three hours, and when at last he went into the water he was followed
by the whole pack of hounds. The sight was really superb."

A picture representing this famous hunting-party was painted by Le Paon
and presented to the Russian Emperor. It still hangs in one of the
Imperial Palaces in St. Petersburg; but a copy was offered to the Duc
d'Aumale by the Grand Duke Wladimir, which is now in the Musée Condé.

Another day the magnificent stables were visited and dinner was served
in the central hall beneath the cupola. Much admiration was expressed
for the gorgeous hangings which divided this part of the building from
the rest. When the Royal party left the table these hangings were lifted
on both sides, so as to exhibit the two hundred and forty horses stabled
in either wing.

At that time two bronze horses stood beside the great fountain, which
was completed in 1782. But they disappeared during the Revolution.

The hostess upon this occasion was the Princesse Louise de Condé, for
the Duchesse de Bourbon, after but a few years of married life,
separated herself from her gay young husband. This Princess inherited
her father's great qualities. She had been educated in the same convent
where a relation of hers, Henriette de Bourbon Condé, was Abbess under
the name of Madame de Vermandois--a lady of whom it was rumoured that
she had refused to marry Louis XV and had preferred the life of a
convent to that of Queen of France! Over the young Princesse de Condé
she exercised great influence and Princesse Louise tells us that she
looked upon her as a mother, since she had never known her own. Of her
father she saw very little; but in her childhood he used to send the
Surveyor of the Province to her every Sunday to ask whether she wanted
anything. At the age of twelve she left this peaceful life for Paris,
where she attached herself to her cousin Princesse Bathilde d'Orléans,
who presently became her sister-in-law.

These two Princesses had each a royal household of their own, with
maids-of-honour and attendants; and they were permitted to receive the
visits of relations and certain selected friends. The Duc de Bourbon,
whose attachment to his sister was the one redeeming point in his
otherwise unsatisfactory character, often came to see her, and it was
during one of these visits that he first met his wife.

The Princesse Louise de Condé at this time was presented at Court, where
her beauty and grace created a great sensation; and she then received
the title of "Mademoiselle." The Duc d'Artois, third son of the Grand
Dauphin, was greatly attracted by her, and a marriage between them was
much discussed in Court circles. It was even said that it was desired by
the people; but Louis XV, wishing to revenge himself upon Louis Joseph
for having opposed the "_pacte de famine_,"[14] insisted on his
grandson marrying Marie Thérèse of Savoy. This bitter disappointment,
coming to her in yet tender years, made a deep impression upon the
Princess, and from thenceforth she preferred solitude to worldly
pleasure. She continued to reside in the Convent, refusing all other
proposals of marriage, and devoting herself to literature. Later on in
life she indulged in a platonic friendship with the Marquis de
Gervaisais, who is said to have collaborated with her in the drama of
_Friendman_. They often made excursions together from the watering-place
of Bourbon d'Archambault, where the Princess had gone for her health, to
visit the old Château de Bourbon; and it was during these excursions,
amid ruins clad with ivy "as with a Royal mantle," that the young poet
wrote this drama (subsequently acted at Bourbon d'Archambault), wherein
he hymned the praises of his adored Princess. "_L'âme n'a pas d'âge,
comme elle n'a pas de sexe_" wrote her admirer.

But Louise de Condé, who at first had given herself up entirely to the
joy of meeting with a kindred soul, recoiled suddenly on finding that
this friendship was on both sides fast approaching passionate love. At a
period of history when princely personages rarely denied themselves
anything that attracted their fancy, it is remarkable to find a Princess
who held such a high moral standard, and this also at a time when Madame
du Barry was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of France. The Princess
went so far as to force herself to give up this friendship, because she
became aware that her sentiments towards the poet were after all not
wholly platonic, and that she, as a Princess of the Blood, could not
marry him.

It is characteristic of the customs of the period that Louis Joseph
looked very indulgently upon his daughter's friendship, and even
proposed to secure for the Marquis de Gervaisais means for leaving his
regiment at Saumur in order to come to Paris and thus be able to meet
the Princess more freely. It was the lady herself who could not be
induced to do aught that might bring a stain upon her name; and she
wrote a most touching letter of farewell to Gervaisais, imploring him
not to answer it, nor to try to meet her again, requests which his
unbounded love for her induced him to accede to.

The festivities given in honour of the Russian Grand Duke were the last
of the entertainments held at Chantilly; for, although the Princesse
Louise in the absence of the Duchesse de Bourbon made a charming
hostess, the separation of her brother from his wife, who had returned
to her own family, cast an inevitable gloom over Chantilly. The young
heir, the Duc d'Enghien, however, became warmly attached to his aunt,
who acted as a mother to him. He was highly gifted and very proud of his
famous ancestor, the Grand Condé. On taking his seat in the Parlement at
the early age of sixteen he made a most able speech; whereupon the
President remarked that never before had three members of the Condé
family honoured the House of Peers at the same time. This, alas! was
not for long; for we now approach that fateful year 1789, and the
horrors of the French Revolution.

In July of that year, late in the evening, an adjutant of the Prince de
Condé arrived breathless at the Château, bringing tidings of the
terrible events which had just occurred in Paris. He told how a bullet
aimed at the Royal carriage had killed a woman standing near; and how
the King had been applauded when he appeared on the balcony bearing a
"_cocarde tricolore_." On hearing this, the three Princes de Condé
accompanied by Princess Louise departed next day for Versailles. Their
advice to Louis XVI was "not to yield"--advice which the King was loth
to follow. The three Condés, seeing that they could not prevail upon him
to remain firm, determined to quit France so as to be able themselves to
remain true to their Royalist principles. In taking leave of the King,
Louis Joseph said that he would endeavour to serve the Monarchy abroad,
since he could no longer serve it in France.

[Illustration: PLATE XVII.

LOUIS JOSEPH DE BOURBON, PRINCE DE CONDE.

_Musée Condé._

Madame de Tott.]

The three Princes returned to Chantilly for one day only, and then left
France for Germany. The youngest, the Duc d'Enghien, was destined never
to see his ancestral home again. It must have been a touching spectacle
to see the old Prince de Condé, accompanied by his daughter, his son the
Duc de Bourbon, and his grandson the Duc d'Enghien, leaving the
sumptuous abode of their ancestors, so full of glorious memories. The
Comte d'Artois--afterwards Charles X--followed their example; and
numerous French officers volunteered to make common cause with Prince
Louis Joseph de Condé, whose name was associated so closely with the
glories of France.

There still exists a history of Condé's army written by Bittard des
Portes, wherein is related in detail the courage and fortitude with
which these French _emigrés_ endured their great privations. The
Austrian General Würsmer, we are told, was deeply moved at the sight of
Condé's regiment, which he styled "_la vielle France militaire_"; and
Napoleon, in his _Memoirs_, when speaking of the Condés and their army
abroad, wrote: "_La France donna la mort à leur action, mais des larmes
à leur courage. Tout dévoûment est héroïque_."



CHAPTER IX

CHANTILLY DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION


No sooner had Chantilly been deserted by its owners than a detachment of
the National Guard of Paris was sent down to the Château. The
twenty-seven cannons were first seized: then all the arms found were
taken away; and finally the whole property was confiscated. Next a band
of six hundred soldiers arrived, devastated the place, and removed what
they pleased. Fortunately, the art-treasures did not attract them, as is
proved by the _Inventory_ made in 1793 of the pictures and furniture
then at Chantilly--a document which took forty days and cost 2,130
francs to draw up.

Throughout the period of the Revolution the Château at Chantilly was
used as a prison for political offenders; and the first arrivals were
forty-one persons from Beauvais,[15] amongst whom were M. des Courtils
de Merlemont, Knight of St. Louis, with his wife and son. On the road
thither they were deliberately exposed to the insults of the mob, but
they escaped the execution which they anticipated. Arriving at two
o'clock in the morning, they were thrust into the Chapel, but later on
they were lodged in the Château itself, which had been already
demolished to such a degree that none of the rooms were wind or weather
tight.

The moats had been allowed to dry up, so that they began to exhale
unwholesome odours; and the number of sick persons amongst the prisoners
soon amounted to over three hundred. The corpse of a young woman, who
was the first to die, was transported on the back of the concierge to
one of the still-existing chapels on the Pelouse built by Madeleine de
Savoie, wife of Anne de Montmorency. Amongst the prisoners was the
Duchesse de Duras, daughter of Philippe de Noailles, who had defended to
the last the person of Louis XVI, and who, in consequence, ended his
life on the scaffold. In some notes descriptive of her misfortunes, her
arrival at Chantilly is most dramatically related: "We were first locked
up in the chapel, which was still elaborately gilded, and where in the
days of the Condés I had often heard Mass. It was now filled with sacks
of flour, on one of which I took my seat, whilst the Commissioner
mounted upon the altar. He was accompanied by one Marchand, whom I
recognised as the son of my aunt's chambermaid. This vulgar man
concentrated all the insolence of the Committee of Public Safety. He
derived much pleasure from saying rude and insulting things regarding
the nobles and the clergy, and even expressed a wish that I should be
lodged as uncomfortably as possible." Fortunately he departed soon
after this speech and the Commissioner, more humane, apportioned to the
Duchess one of the better rooms. From her window she could see into the
courtyard, and she descried many of her acquaintances amongst the
prisoners and their children there assembled. She describes the food as
scanty and of very poor quality. They dined in the gallery, where she
could remember the brilliant fêtes given by Prince Louis Joseph de Condé
not so long before.

The death-rate amongst the prisoners, to whom even the most necessary
relief was denied, after a few months became so great that Chantilly had
to be entirely evacuated; and it was then proposed that it should be
used as a military hospital--a proposal which was, however, not carried
out. Subsequently the Château d'Enghien[16] was converted into barracks,
whilst Chantilly with its woods and parks found purchasers amongst the
Black Band, who were then buying up the castles and palaces of the hated
aristocrats with the sole purpose of demolishing them and profiting by
just what could be got out of them as building material, etc. Of the
so-called Grand Château, erected by Mansart during the time of the Grand
Condé, nothing remained but the foundations; for it was razed entirely
to the ground. The adjoining Petit Château of the Montmorencys, however,
as already stated, miraculously escaped.

Under Napoleon I, Chantilly in 1805 became the property of the State,
but the revenue of its woods was assigned to Queen Hortense, who also
figures upon the list of the owners of this famous estate. A military
school was presently established in the Château d'Enghien, and the
magnificent stables were once again devoted to their proper uses.

Meanwhile Prince Louis Joseph de Condé since he left France had
sojourned with the Elector at Worms, as Commander of the army of the
French _emigrés_, whilst the Comte d'Artois had formed his camp at
Coblenz. The former subsequently found a refuge for his family and his
regiment with the Tsar Paul; but eventually, when he saw that he could
no longer serve France and his King, he retired with his son to Wanstead
House, near Wimbledon. Over the doorway of this most attractive abode
the Seigneur of Chantilly inscribed the motto "_Parva domus magna
quies_."

Here he married as his second wife Marie Catherine de Brignole, the
widowed Princess of Monaco, who had long been his constant and faithful
friend, especially during his exile. She shared with him his literary
and artistic interests, and she put her whole fortune at his disposition
when he was in need. His daughter, Louise de Condé, after many
vicissitudes, at last found quiet and rest in a Benedictine convent,
where she took the veil. In 1807 she received a terrible shock when the
news reached her of the tragic death of her beloved nephew, the Duc
d'Enghien, and she felt it to be her duty to leave her seclusion and
proceed at once to condole with her father and brother in their
overwhelming sorrow. She started immediately for England, where she was
received on landing with Royal honours: Pitt, Lord Moore, and the two
surviving Condé Princes coming to meet her.

The execution of the Duc d'Enghien has left a stain on Napoleon's
character; it was not only a crime, but what was worse, it was a
blunder; for d'Enghien at the time of his arrest was living in strictest
seclusion at Ettenheim in Baden with the Princesse Charlotte de Rohan,
to whom he was deeply attached, and, it was said, had married. He was
therefore absolutely innocent of the conspiracy against the Republic, of
which he was accused; and it is affirmed that it was only because
Bonaparte could not get hold of the legitimate Princes--Artois and
Berry--whose claims to the throne of France he grudged and feared, that
he took his revenge upon the Duc d'Enghien. He had tried in vain to
entrap these Princes, and failing committed this act of personal revenge
on the eve of proclaiming himself Emperor, in order to frighten the
Royalists, who, as he declared, were continually conspiring against him.
When this dastardly murder became known there was a cry of indignation
all over Europe. The Russian Court went into mourning, and Napoleon
found it necessary to lay the blame upon Talleyrand and Murat. The grief
of the unhappy father at the loss of his only son and the last scion of
his race was so great that he became a prey to chronic melancholy; but
Louis Joseph, the grandfather, strove bravely to live down his anguish.

More than twelve years had still to elapse before their exile was ended,
and then, for a brief period, on the collapse of the Napoleonic Empire,
the Bourbon Monarchy was restored in France. At last, in 1815, the two
Condés returned to Chantilly from England and found the old place, with
the exception of the Petit Château, which they henceforth made their
chief abode, a pile of ruins, and themselves almost strangers. The
Princess of Monaco had died in England; and the Duc d'Enghien, upon whom
all hope had centred, had been ruthlessly slain. In spite of all these
misfortunes Louis Joseph remained faithful to the old home and began to
repurchase his former possessions acre by acre. Some portions of the
property had passed into alien hands; as, for instance, the site of the
great waterfall, which had been separated from the original grounds by a
wall. One of the alterations made at this time was the filling in of the
moat, which hitherto had divided the smaller from the larger Château;
and later the present Entrance-Hall was built on that site, whilst two
new rooms decorated in the style of the period were added where the
covered bridges had formerly stood. These new buildings gave access to
the rooms formerly occupied by the Grand Condé, which, by a strange
piece of luck, the Revolutionists had not demolished. The old Prince
held these apartments in high honour; and they were the first to be
redecorated and exquisitely panelled. During the four remaining years of
his life he was continually occupied in restoring his ancestral palace
to that dignity which he remembered so well in the past. He also
succeeded in recovering the larger number of the works of art which the
Montmorencys and the Condés had accumulated, not only at Chantilly but
also at Ecouen and the Palais Bourbon in Paris. Most of these treasures
had fortunately fallen into good hands, for during the worst horrors of
the Revolution there had been men in France who had succeeded in
preserving the art treasures belonging to the old family mansions which
their proprietors had been compelled to abandon. Alexander Lenoir was
one of these faithful guardians, and it is certainly due to his efforts
that so many of these monuments and works of art in France were not
destroyed. Conspicuous amongst them were the valuable collections at
Chantilly.

But after the long exile of the owners no more entertainments were held
at Chantilly such as had been given so lavishly in happier days. After
the great reverses which Louis Joseph and his son had undergone they
seemed to indulge in one pleasure only, namely, that of the chase--the
single luxury which they allowed themselves. They kept a splendid pack
of hounds--the descendants of which still survive and are lodged in a
corner of the great stables--and in spite of his great age the Prince
himself appeared on horseback almost daily; often alone, but sometimes
accompanied by his son, and hunted until quite late in the afternoon.
Though past his eightieth year, he still had vigour enough, even on his
return from a day's hunting, to shoot the wild duck which abounded in
the moats. He died at Chantilly in his eighty-second year during the
absence of both his son and his daughter, and was buried at Saint-Denis.
As a true Condé he was very imperious and held strong opinions of his
own: but he was tenaciously faithful in his friendships; and it was, no
doubt, this fidelity to the Royal cause which characterised his conduct
during the Revolution, and made him sacrifice everything rather than
give up his Royalist principles.

His son, the Duc de Bourbon, had not the iron nature of his father. He
refused to take the title of Prince de Condé on his father's death,
since he knew that this title must die with him. He, who had begun life
under such happy auspices, long before his death became a broken man.
His wife, the Duchesse de Bourbon, Louise Marie Thérèse Bathilde of
Orléans to whom he became reconciled after a long separation, died
suddenly whilst attending a patronal festival at Saint-Geneviève. She
fainted whilst at her devotions, and on being transported to the
Sorbonne died before her husband could be summoned. Her favourite
nephew, the Duc d'Orléans--afterwards King Louis Philippe--was the only
member of her family present when she expired.

It was at about that time that Louis Philippe's fifth son was born--a
child who eventually became the last Seigneur of Chantilly. He was held
at the baptismal font by the last Condé, who from this time formed a
great affection for his godson. He used to walk with him in the grounds
of Chantilly and narrate to him all the memorable events which had taken
place in this ancestral abode; and Henri d'Orléans, then but seven years
old, would listen with the greatest attention, and long after remembered
the colloquies held with his princely sponsor and benefactor--the last
of the line of Condé. He thus refers to him: "When recalling my
childhood, I picture to myself M. le Duc de Bourbon, dressed in his
habitual grey coat, white silk stockings, and light shoes, walking about
in the grounds of Chantilly on cold December days. Leaning on his stick
he would sometimes stand still and relate to me what had happened in
years gone by at the old place; how he had known it in its splendour
during his youth; and how all these sad changes had come upon it. He
loved to recall also the grand festivities given by his father to King
Louis XV, to Marie Antoinette, and to the Emperor and Empress Paul of
Russia."

[Illustration: PLATE XVIII.

LOUIS HENRI JOSEPH DE BOURBON, LAST PRINCE DE CONDÉ.

_Musée Condé._

Danloux]

In 1830 Marie Amélie, Queen of Louis Philippe of France, visited
Chantilly with her son, Prince Henri d'Orléans, and was received by the
last of the Condés. A fortnight later the news was brought there that
this princely line had come to an end. It has been alleged that the
unfortunate liaison which the Duke had contracted with a heartless
and low-born woman--one Sophie Dawes, the daughter of a fisherman in
the Isle of Wight, and known as the Baronne de Feuchères--contributed
greatly to embitter the last days of his life. After pocketing all she
could, Madame de Feuchères on the death of the Duke left for England
rather suddenly, and from that time was heard of no more.

Louise, Princesse de Condé, died several years before her brother at the
Temple as Prioress of the Benedictine Nuns. She had borne with much
fortitude great trials; for during the Revolution she had to flee from
place to place for safety, until she found at last a shelter within the
walls of a convent--thus fulfilling the prophetic words of her friend,
Gervaisais, "_C'est un front à porter une couronne ... ou un voile de
religieuse_."



CHAPTER X

THE DUC D'AUMALE LORD OF CHANTILLY


After the death of the last Condé, Chantilly was once more left desolate
and abandoned, since Prince Henri d'Orléans, the heir, was still a
child.

In 1820 his eldest brother, the Duc d'Orléans, inaugurated at Chantilly
the races which now rank as the French Derby, and which have continued
every year up to the present day. In connection with these races the Duc
d'Orléans, with the help of General Peel--a brother of Sir Robert
Peel--successfully undertook to breed English racehorses in France; and
Chantilly thus became a racing centre to which the _élite_ of French
society thronged every year to attend a "Meeting" which speedily became
one of the most famous in the annals of Sport. Residential accommodation
was then very restricted, for only the Petit Château and the Château
d'Enghien were available, the Grand Château not having yet been rebuilt.
The theatre where Molière, Racine, and Corneille produced their plays
had also vanished; a substitute was therefore improvised for these
occasions by the Comédie Française on the site of the present Library.

But Orléans Princes in those days had not so much leisure for mere
recreation as had their predecessors. In that same year the Duc
d'Orléans started for Algiers, taking with him the Duc d'Aumale, then
only eighteen. In spite of his youth on the premature death of his elder
brother he was entrusted with the command at Medea, where he
distinguished himself greatly, and became so beloved that the tiny
little Arab house which was his temporary residence there is still
preserved by a grateful nation. Engaging in a variety of operations in
Algeria, he brought this campaign to a brilliant ending in 1844 by a
victory over Abdul Kader; by which he succeeded in capturing the
concealed camp "La Smalah" where this chieftain and his staff had been
residing. This victory was principally due to the young Duke's great
energy and powers of endurance. In the Musée Condé there is a room
called "La Smalah," where we may still see numerous paintings and
sketches by Bellange and Horace Vernet illustrating this victorious
African campaign.

On the Duke's return from Algiers a marriage was arranged between him
and Caroline Auguste de Bourbon, daughter of the Prince of Salerno and
the Archduchess Marie Clementine, sister to Napoleon I's second wife,
Marie Louise of Austria. The nuptials were celebrated at Naples, and a
few days later the young pair left for France, where they were
impatiently expected by Queen Amélie, who was overjoyed to welcome one
of her own relatives as her son's bride.

It had been agreed that Chantilly should be the home of the newly
married pair; and in 1843 the architect Duban received instructions to
execute the necessary alterations; whilst to Eugène Lami--the same
artist who painted the portrait of the young Duchess which now hangs
over one of the doors of the Salle Caroline--was entrusted the
decoration of the various apartments. The ground-floor apartments of the
Petit Château--the same suite which the Grand Condé had selected for his
son Henri Jules and his children--were the rooms chosen for the personal
occupation of the Duke and Duchess.

In 1845 Louis Philippe paid a visit to his son at Chantilly, and made
himself very popular on that occasion by telling his coachman to drive
slowly across the Pelouse, because he had heard some ladies complain
that if he drove so fast no one could see him.

The title of Condé was conferred upon the Duc d'Aumale's eldest son,
born at Saint-Cloud, in the hope that he would revive so illustrious a
name. He was brought to Chantilly at the age of six months and remained
there until the Duchess joined her husband at Algiers, where he had been
nominated Governor. It was then proposed that extensive alterations at
Chantilly should be carried out during the absence of the Duke and
Duchess, and it was their intention to return thither in the following
summer. Fate, however, decreed otherwise. In February 1848 Louis
Philippe was compelled to abdicate in favour of his grandson, the Comte
de Paris, then a mere child; and to avoid further difficulties the
ex-King left immediately for England, and took up his residence at
Claremont under the style of Comte de Neuilly. This unfortunate event
obliged the Duc d'Aumale to resign his commission in the French army, to
which he had rendered such signal service. He thenceforward resided with
his family in England, chiefly at Twickenham, whither the larger part of
the artistic furniture and works of art from Chantilly were transported.
This was done at the special request of the Duchess, whose desire it was
to reconstitute as far as possible her lost home in the land of their
adoption. An Imperial Decree next commanded that all the properties of
the Royal Family of France should be sold within a year. The sale of
Chantilly--of course a fictitious one--was thereupon carried out by the
English bankers Coutts & Co., who sent Colonel McCall, a representative
of their own, to reside upon the estate. He dwelt in the Château
d'Enghien, and administered the whole of the property on behalf of the
Duke; whilst the Petit Château was let to Lord Cowley, who made it his
summer residence. Later it was successively occupied by the Comte
Dûchatel and the Duc de la Trémoille.

Twenty-three years later, after the disaster at Sedan and the fall of
the second Empire, the Duc d'Aumale was once more permitted to return to
Chantilly. Many changes had occurred during this long interval. The
Duchess, overcome with grief at the death of her eldest son, the Prince
de Condé, had died in exile. That young Prince was the last to bear this
illustrious name. He is said to have been highly gifted, and to have
possessed great qualities. He had been educated chiefly in England, and
had distinguished himself in his studies at Oxford, where he showed a
remarkable talent for languages. It was, however, his noble and
affectionate character that specially endeared him to his parents.

Like his father he was filled with a passionate devotion for his native
country. When the Crown of Greece was offered to the Duke, subject to a
condition that the Heir-Apparent must change his religion and his
nationality, although he had decided not to accept the honour, he
thought it his duty to communicate the proposal to his son. Whereupon
the lad wrote from Switzerland, where he was undergoing his military
training, the following reply: "Having had the high fortune to be born a
Frenchman and a Roman Catholic, I will ever remain French and Roman
Catholic."

Not long after this incident the young Prince started for a voyage round
the world, but before its completion died of typhoid fever at Sydney in
Australia.

The Duc d'Aumale on his return to Chantilly was accompanied only by his
younger son, the Duc de Guise, and it was not possible even then for him
to obtain possession of it. The Château and the Pavillon d'Enghien were
still occupied by Prussian officers, whilst in the town of Chantilly
there was a garrison of German soldiers who were holding the Mayor and
the Vicar as hostages.

It was under such sad circumstances that the heir of the Condés saw once
more the heritage from which he had parted so many years before. On
attempting to enter the Park unobserved by a side gate his distinguished
appearance awoke recognition in one of his old keepers who, bowing low
and with tears in his eyes addressed him by name. Whereupon the Duke
found it impossible to control his emotion.

As soon, however, as the German troops had departed, His Royal Highness
entered upon his property and, in spite of all the sorrows which had
fallen upon him since he had left his beloved home, he yet felt happy at
being once more on French soil, and able to educate his only surviving
son in his native land. The young Duc de Guise was sent to a college in
Paris, but spent his holidays at Chantilly; and father and son, as in
the time of the last two Condés, were often seen riding and hunting
together in the park and woods. From time to time also the Archduchess
Marie Clementine, mother of the late Duchess, visited at the Château.

In 1872 all the surviving members of the French Royal Family assembled
at Chantilly to celebrate the wedding of Princesse Marguerite, daughter
of the Duc de Nemours with Prince Ladislas Czartoysky; and on this
occasion the great battle-pieces representing the military glories of
the great Condé were replaced in the Gallery.

In the early spring of that year, King Edward and Queen Alexandra--then
Prince and Princess of Wales--paid a visit to the Duc d'Aumale; with
whom they had contracted a warm friendship during his residence in
England.

But just when calm and happiness seemed to have at last returned to
Chantilly, another heavy blow fell upon it. The young Duc de Guise was
struck down by typhoid fever and died after a few days' illness. With
his sudden death all plans for the improvement of the Château and estate
came to an abrupt standstill, for the heart-broken father had now to
realise that, as he himself mournfully put it, "_la dernière flamme de
son foyer était éteinte_."

A new scheme now took shape in the heart of the Lord of Chantilly: a
scheme at first kept to himself, and which had revolved in his mind long
before he made it public. He intended to take France by surprise. This
scheme was a no less magnificent one than to bestow Chantilly with all
its appurtenances and contents upon the French nation. Once more the
long interrupted design of the architect Duban, made before the exile of
the Duke and Duchess, was recommenced: this time by M. Daumet, who
undertook also the difficult task of rebuilding the Grand Château. After
years of labour there arose once more upon the vaults of this famous
fortress the present building, destined to become the Musée Condé, a
veritable palace of Literature and Art. Its architecture, in order to
harmonise with that of Montmorency's Petit Château, is directly copied
from sixteenth-century designs. But to erect the stately marble
staircase with its splendid gilt iron railings, an undertaking which
offered the greatest difficulties, it was necessary to pierce the solid
rock. The Chapel, adorned by an elegant spire and full of valuable
relics of the Montmorency and the Condé families, was also restored at
this time. It contains an altar of Senlis marble, the joint work of Jean
Bullant and Jean Goujon; and exquisite wood carvings, dated 1548, were
brought from Écouen, an old seat of the Montmorency family. In the
stained-glass windows (dated 1544) are represented the sons and
daughters of Anne de Montmorency, whose effigy and that of his wife,
Madeleine of Savoy, are painted on the wall by a modern painter from a
cartoon by Lechevallier Chevignard.[17] The fine bronze monument to
Henri II de Bourbon by Jacques Sarrazin has also found a permanent abode
in this chapel. It was saved by Alexander Lenoir and presented to the
Prince de Condé in 1815.

During the execution of these works Chantilly was frequently the scene
of very interesting family gatherings. Queen Christina of Denmark, on
the occasion of the marriage of her youngest son Waldemar to Princesse
Marie, eldest daughter of the Duc de Chartres, made a lengthy stay at
Chantilly; and not long afterwards Princess Marie Amélie, daughter of
the Comte de Paris, was betrothed here to the Duke of Braganza,
afterwards King of Portugal. But in that same year Republican France
suddenly pronounced a further sentence of banishment upon all claimants
to the French Throne--Royalist and Imperialist; in which order the Duc
d'Aumale was included. In his quality of a General in the French Army,
he protested against this, but without avail; and once more Chantilly
was deserted. But this time it was not for long; for on returning with a
heavy heart to his English home at Woodnorton and feeling his end
drawing near the Duke resolved to make known immediately the act of
munificence upon which he had so long decided. He therefore made public
his intention of leaving Chantilly with all its forests, parks and
lakes, and all its art-treasures to the care of the Members of the
Institut de France, in trust for the French Nation. This was his
dignified answer to the French Republic; and it made a deep and lasting
impression in France. Nor was this act of generosity without immediate
consequences, for shortly after a Decree signed by President Carnot was
sent to the Duke with the assurance that France would welcome him back.

[Illustration: PLATE XIX.

HENRI D'ORLÉANS, DUC D'AUMALE.

_Musée Condé._

Léon Bonnat.

_facing page_ 124]

On March 9, 1889 he returned to Paris, and his first act was to present
his thanks to the President, who seemed much touched by the words
which he uttered upon this occasion. A hearty welcome greeted him from
the people of Chantilly; and on his arrival at the station he was
accompanied by a vast crowd to the door of the Château. A medal was cast
in commemoration of this return, upon the obverse of which was a figure
contemplating France from afar and the word "_Spes_"; upon the reverse a
figure at the gates of the Château holding an olive-branch and the
inscription "_À S.A.R. Monseigneur le Duc d'Aumale; en souvenir du 11
mars 1889, les habitants de Chantilly reconnaissants_."

Subsequently an equestrian statue of the Duke was cast and placed near
the entrance of the Château by the people of Chantilly, who regarded him
and his ancestors as their benefactors. And it was here amongst his art
treasures that he spent the last years of his eventful life.



SECOND PART

_THE MUSEE CONDE_



CHAPTER XI

THE ART TREASURES OF THE MUSÉE CONDÉ AND HOW THEY WERE BROUGHT TOGETHER


No sooner had the Duc d'Aumale resolved to bestow Chantilly with all its
treasures as a gift to the French nation than he joined, with even more
enthusiasm than he had previously done, the ranks of the great European
collectors, and he frequently attended in person important sales in
London, Paris, and elsewhere.

During the long years of exile, passed chiefly in England, he usually
resided either at Orleans House near Twickenham or at Woodnorton in
Worcestershire (till recently the residence of his nephew, the present
Duke of Orleans). It was, however, at the former place that all the
valuable manuscripts, paintings, books, and objects of art brought from
Chantilly were then housed.

The first exhibition of his taste as a pronounced bibliophile was given
by his acquiring the celebrated Standish Library, a collection
originally bequeathed to Louis Philippe by the English collector
Standish but sold by auction in 1851 on the death of that King. This
remarkable collection contained numerous Aldine editions and hundreds
of Italian and German _incunabula_. To this famous library the Duke next
added that of M. Armand Cigongne, a collection composed almost
exclusively of works in French--volumes of prose and poetry, exquisitely
bound, and many of them still bearing the coats-of-arms and book-plates
of former proprietors.

The most important acquisition, however, (added in 1855), was the famous
illuminated MS. known as _Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry_, an
unique example of primitive French Art, to a description of which we
shall return later on.

In course of time other additions were made of great value and interest:
such as, for instance, _Les Fables de Marie de France_, _Le Roman
d'Aspremont_ (thirteenth century), a copious selection of ballads and
songs of the fourteenth century, and many other works of note, amongst
them being a copy in four volumes of the _Songs_ of Laborde, illustrated
with original designs by Moreau.

In the year 1861 the Duc d'Aumale, for the moderate sum of 14,000
francs, purchased from the well-known connoisseur M. Reiset a collection
of no less than 380 drawings by Italian, Flemish, Dutch, and German
masters. Amongst these may be specially noted: _A Reading Monk_, by
Raphael (hung in the Galerie du Logis), and a design, dated
approximately 1505, which approaches in execution the _St. Catherine_ in
the Gallery of the Louvre.[18] Here are also drawings attributed to
Verrocchio: a _Warrior on Horseback_, five studies of horses, and an
interesting drawing of _A Man and Woman_, all in the style of Pisanello.

_La Joconde_ (also in the Galerie du Logis), a cartoon for the picture
attributed to Leonardo da Vinci at St. Petersburg, came from the Reiset
Collection, as also did studies for Signorelli's _Last Judgment_ at
Orvieto; studies for Michael Angelo's _Prophets_ in the Sixtine Chapel;
and drawings by Fra Bartolomeo for his great composition in the Pitti. A
fine group of eleven figures by Lucas van Leyden, illustrating _The
Return of the Prodigal Son_, is one of the most important items in this
series; and a study of a _Virgin_ by Dürer, an interesting _Portrait_ by
Holbein the elder, a _Mountainous Landscape_ by Rembrandt, and certain
studies of costume attributed to Pisanello, etc., are all worthy of more
than a passing notice.

Orléans House was soon found to be far too small to contain all these
treasures, and an annexe was built to it. The Duc d'Aumale presently
organised an exhibition, to which he invited the members of the
Burlington Fine Arts Club. Disraeli, who was present, and was much
struck by what he saw on that occasion, referred to him in his speech at
the anniversary of the Foundation of the Royal Literary Fund in the
following appropriate words: "Happy the prince who, though exiled from
his palaces and military pursuits through no fault of his own, finds a
consolation in books and an occupation in the rich domain of Art. Happy
the prince who, whilst living on terms of equality with the people of a
strange country, still distinguishes himself by the superiority of his
noble mind and character. Happy the prince who in adverse circumstances
can defy fate and make conquests in the kingdom of letters, which
cannot, like dynastic authority, be taken away from him." The great
statesman here alluded to the stupendous historical work in seven
volumes on the _History of the Princes de Condé_ upon which the Duke was
at that time occupied.

It must be remembered that these more recent acquisitions were
supplementary to the already existing collection which His Royal
Highness had inherited as heir to the last Prince de Condé--a collection
which comprised, amongst other things, two fine Van Dycks (the
_Princesse de Barbançon_ and the _Comte de Berghe_), paintings by
Christophe Huet, by Desportes and by Oudry, and precious Gobelins and
Beauvais tapestries.

Furthermore yet another collection came into the Duke's possession on
the death of his father-in-law, the Prince of Salerno, and with it no
less than seventy-two paintings, including works by Andrea del Sarto,
Luca Longhi, Giulio Romano, Luca Penni, Perin del Vaga, Daniele di
Volterra, Baroccio, Bronzino, Mazzola, Carracci, a _Portrait_ by Moroni,
a Guido Reni, a Spada, an Albano, a _Portrait of Himself_ by Guercino, a
fine _Madonna_ by Sassoferrato, two landscapes by Gaspar Dughet, and
several paintings by Salvator Rosa.

Examples of the Northern Schools in this same collection include
portraits of _Elisabeth Stuart_, Queen of Bohemia, daughter of James I
of England, by Mierevelt and of the _Duke of Neubourg_ by Van Dyck.

In the Salerno Collection is an interesting little work by Ingres
representing _Paolo Malatesta and Francesca da Rimini_ in the ecstasy of
their first kiss, and also a portrait of a _Young Woman_ by Van Loo and
some fine mosaics from Herculaneum and Pompeii.

Although this Salerno Collection is full of interest in itself, compared
with later acquisitions it is but of secondary importance. It was French
Art that chiefly attracted the Duke, and he consequently missed no
opportunity of extending his purchases in that direction. From the
well-known firm of Colnaghi in Pall Mall he bought portraits of members
of the Valois family, such as, for instance, _Henri II_ as a child
(attributed to Clouet), and as King by Primaticcio; the _Comte de Cossé
Brissac_; _Madame and Mademoiselle de Longueville_, by Beauburn; and
other portraits by Mignard, Largillière, etc.

At the Bernal Sale in 1855 he acquired for 6,000 francs the
much-discussed portrait of _Odet de Coligny_; portraits of _Queen
Eleonore_, of _Henri II_, of _Henri III_, of _Elisabeth of Austria_, and
of _Louis XIV_, the last named of these being by Hyacinthe Rigaud.

At the famous Utterson Sale the Prince acquired some of those wonderful
sixteenth-century French drawings which formed the nucleus of his unique
collection of this branch of art; and at about the same period he also
bought a number of engravings, amongst which were fine examples by Marc
Antonio Raimondi and Rembrandt.

From the collection of his brother the Duke of Orleans he bought _The
Assassination of the Duc de Guise_ by Delaroche, and a painting by
Descamps; and at the Lawrence Sale in 1856 secured a portrait of his
ancestor _Philippe Egalité_ by Sir Joshua Reynolds. This was apparently
a sketch for the life-size portrait commissioned by the Prince of Wales
(afterwards George IV) during the French Prince's exile in England. The
larger picture, formerly at Carlton House, was destroyed by fire in
1820, which greatly enhances the value of the sketch at Chantilly.

The portraits of _Mazarin_ and _Richelieu_ by Philippe de Champaigne,
now at Chantilly, were formerly at Château d'Eu, and formed part of
Louis Philippe's collection, as also did de Troy's _Déjeuner d'Huîtres_
and Lancret's _Déjeuner de Jambon_. From the same source came two
splendid cabinets by Riesener and the Beauvais furniture now in one of
the salons of the Petit Château.

The Prince was evidently a great admirer of Poussin, for in 1854 he
acquired for 9,175 francs the celebrated _Massacre of the Innocents_,
and in 1860 another work by the same master, _Thésée découvrant l'épée
de son père_, which is typical of that artist's particular style.

At the Northwick Sale in 1859 yet another Poussin, _The Infancy of
Bacchus_, was added; besides a large panel by Perugino, an early work,
once in the Church of San Girolamo at Lucca. An interesting painting
representing a _Dance of Angels_, probably by a Sienese master of the
fifteenth century, came also from this same sale. Titian's _Ecce Homo_
was bought for 15,000 francs from the Averoldi family of Brescia, for
whom it is said to have been painted.[19]

_The Woman taken in Adultery_ (attributed to Giorgione), _The Martyrdom
of St. Stephen_ by Annibale Carracci, and _Mars and Venus_ by Paolo
Veronese were bought in London in 1860 from M. Nieuwenhuys; and in 1864
at a public sale in Paris the celebrated painting by Ingres representing
_The Story of Antiochus and Stratonice_ fell, amid general applause, to
the lot of the Duc d'Aumale for 92,100 francs.

Rosa Bonheur's _A Shepherd in the Pyrenees_, presented by the Duke to
his wife, was acquired next, together with Gérome's _Le Duel après le
Bal_ and Protais' _Avant et après le Combat_.

From the Soltykoff Sale in Paris, for the sum of 54,000 francs, came the
four large portraits in Limoges enamel representing _Henri d'Albret,
King of Navarre_, _Antoine de Bourbon_, _Louis de Bourbon_, and
_Catherine de Lorraine_.

[Illustration: PLATE XX.

The Minerva of Chantilly.

Greek Bronze.]

In 1865 Baron Triqueti, who often represented the Prince at these sales,
was sent to Paris to acquire the famous Pourtales vase, a Greek amphora
with red figures of the time of Phidias. For this interesting work of
art he paid 10,000 francs; whilst two small Greek bronzes--one
representing _Jupiter_ and the other a statuette of _Minerva_--were
knocked down to him for 8,000 and 19,300 francs respectively. Upon this
occasion the Duke was bidding against the Louvre, the British Museum,
and Monsieur Thiers. These two bronzes, which were found near Besançon,
are of unequal merit; the _Jupiter_ is of only average workmanship; but
the _Minerva_ statuette is considered one of the greatest treasures at
Chantilly. Léon Heuzey places it in the late archaic period at a time
when the Greeks were still endeavouring to ennoble and beautify their
goddess before they finally arrived at the height of their ideal in the
famous _Athena of Lemnos_. The fact that this statuette was found at
Besançon indicates how highly Greek Art was valued, not only in Rome,
but also in Cisalpine Gaul; for such small portable figures often
accompanied their owners on their journeys, and who knows what great
personage it may have been who brought this exquisite little _Minerva_
with him to Gaul? We know that Tiberius never travelled without his
much-cherished _Amazon_ of the Vatican.

A fragment of an antique sarcophagus representing _Bacchus and Ariadne_
was acquired for 7,200 francs at the Nolivos Sale and is exhibited now
in the Salle Minerve along with the above-mentioned statuettes and some
charming Tanagra figures.

On the death of his mother, Queen Marie Amélie, the Duc d'Aumale
inherited a great many family portraits and miniatures, the most
noteworthy among these being a life-size portrait of _Gaston d'Orléans_
by Van Dyck, of which there is a replica in the Radnor Collection. This
painting was given to Louis Philippe by George IV and was probably
painted at the request of Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I, who
was a sister of the Royal sitter. There is not the slightest resemblance
in his features to the good King Henri IV, his father. Treachery lurks
in his mouth and eyes, and we cannot help being reminded that he was the
direct cause of the execution of the last Montmorency.

From the same source came a portrait of _Queen Marie Amélie_ herself,
painted by Gérard in 1817, and likenesses of the same Queen and two of
her daughters by Vigée Le Brun; a portrait of _Louis Philippe_ as Duc
d'Orléans, when professor at Reichenau, by Winterhalter; and others of
_Philippe Egalité_ and his charming wife, a daughter of the Duc de
Penthièvre, and of the _Duc d'Aumale_ as a child by Robert Fleury. Most
of the gems and miniatures are likewise from the collection of Queen
Marie Amélie; and to the miniatures, in course of time, were added
others of members of the Royal Family of France bought by the Duke
himself, such as of _Anne de Bretagne_, _François I_, _Gabrielle
d'Estrées_ and her two sons, _Henri II_, _Henri IV_, and _Sully_, the
famous Minister of Finance; of the _Duc de Guise_ (_le Balafré_), _Marie
de Medicis_, _Marie Thérèse_, Queen of Louis XIV, the _Grand Dauphin_
and his wife _Marie Anne of Bavaria_, and many more.

In 1865 Mr. Colnaghi sold to the Duke Meissonier's _Les Dragons sous
Louis XV_ and a landscape by S. W. Reynolds, who is best known as an
engraver. The charming portrait of _Maria, Lady Waldegrave with her
Daughter_ by Sir Joshua, was bequeathed to the Duke by Frances, Countess
of Waldegrave; and Lord Holland in 1860 presented him with
_Talleyrand's_ portrait by Ary Scheffer. From Sir Charles Robinson the
Duc d'Aumale acquired some fine Italian manuscripts, and an interesting
Rheno-Byzantine painting representing the _Emperor Otto I_ seated
between two allegorical female figures, each holding a small globe
signifying the vassal states of the Empire. This painting, which is of
considerable historical value, is apparently a detached portion of a MS.
illuminated for the Emperor about the year 1000. From the same source
came another fragment, a _Resurrection_, dating from the fourteenth
century and belonging to the Sienese School. This hangs in the Rotonde
near a miniature of a _Christ on the Cross_ attributed to Giulio Clovio.

In 1868, two years before his exile was suddenly terminated by the
downfall of the second Empire, the Duc d'Aumale bought for the sum of
600,000 francs the collection of the Marquis Maison; and amongst the
pictures which formed it were eight Descamps, three Marilhats, one Gros,
four Watteaus, four Greuzes and two paintings by Prud'hon. After that
followed the acquisition of one of Fromentin's finest works, _La Chasse
au Faucon en Algérie_; whilst a sea-piece by Vandervelde together with
the _Dunes at Scheveningen_ by Ruysdael were bought at the San Donato
Sale.

Presently there came the celebrated _Vierge de la Maison d'Orléans_ by
Raphael, which the Duke acquired at the Delessert Sale for the sum of
160,000 francs--a fascinating picture supposed to be one of the two
panels described by Vasari as having been painted for Guidobaldo di
Montefeltro, and of which he says "that they were small but exceedingly
beautiful examples of the master's second manner."[20] At one time in
the possession of Gaston d'Orléans, this charming work passed from
France into Flanders at the end of the sixteenth century, where it is
supposed to have belonged to David Teniers the Younger. Passavant
thought that it was then that the background was repainted and the shelf
with the various pots and vases added--a supposition which has,
however, since been refuted. The youthful Madonna is seated on a
cushioned bench in a small homely room; and behind her hangs a light
curtain of reddish grey. She bends tenderly over the Infant Christ, who
gazes intently at the spectator with an expression full of feeling and
inspiration. This is perhaps the most divine-looking of all Raphael's
Infants. The Bridgewater _Madonna_, seated on a similar seat in a homely
habitation, is closely analogous to the Virgin in this work, but instead
of the shelf there is an arched window to the right. The lights in both
pictures are subtle and extremely delicate, whilst the shadows are in
strongly marked contrast.

In the eighteenth century the Orléans _Madonna_ subsequently returned to
France to the house of the well-known collector Crozat, from whence it
passed into the Orléans Gallery and obtained thus its distinctive
appellation. During the Revolution this entire collection was
transported to Brussels, and the _Madonna_ changed hands several times
before it finally entered the haven of the Musée Condé.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: PLATE XXI.

_Photo Giraudon._

The Virgin of the Maison d'Orléans.

By Raphael.

Musée Condé.]

When the Duc d'Aumale returned to Chantilly after an absence of twenty
years, he at once formed as we have seen a plan for erecting a museum
upon the ruins of the old Château, with the further intention of
presenting the mansion with all its contents to the French nation. Many
years, however, elapsed before the building was complete and ready to
receive all the treasures which it was destined to hold; but meanwhile
the Duke continued to increase the collection by munificent and
judicious purchases.

At the Faure Sale in 1873, Delacroix's dramatic composition of _The Two
Foscari_ was acquired; in 1877 there were added the four Tanagra figures
which now adorn the case wherein the _Minerva_ is enshrined; and an
exquisite example of Italian enamel, representing _Apollo guiding the
Chariot of the Sun_ (attributed to Benvenuto Cellini), was bought from
M. Cadard for 6,000 francs.

In 1876 a very important acquisition was made in the shape of a
collection of French portraits, once in the possession of Gaignières but
subsequently belonging to Alexandre Lenoir, from whom it had passed into
England and become the property of the then Duke of Sutherland. This
collection, which was at Stafford House until the Duc d'Aumale acquired
it, consists of no less than 69 painted portraits, 148 drawings in
coloured chalk and several pastels. Amongst the most interesting of
these portraits are: _Francis I_ (painted about 1515), his sister,
_Marguerite d'Angoulême_, and her husband, _Henri d'Albret, King of
Navarre_; _Jeanne d'Albret_; _Admiral de Coligny_, and his brother the
_Cardinal_; _Catherine de Medicis_, _Diane de Poitiers_, _Charles IX_,
_Henri III_, _the Duc d'Alençon_, and _the Duc de Nemours_ (all
attributed to François Clouet); _Marguerite de France_, and _Madame de
Lansac_ (attributed to Corneille de Lyon); _Philippe de Clève_, _Sieur
de Ravenstein_; _Jean de Bugenhagen_ (attributed to Holbein); _Catherine
de Bora_, the wife of Luther; _Charles V_; _the Count and Countess
Hornes_; _Henri IV_ (by Pourbus), and an attractive likeness of his
daughter _Elizabeth, Queen of Spain_; _Gabrielle d'Estrées au bain_;
_the Duc de Retz_; _the Duc d'Aumont on horseback_; _Sully_ and
_Charost_ (by Quesnel); _George I_; several portraits by Mignard, among
them a magnificent likeness of _Molière_, another of _Mazarin_, and two
pastels representing _Colbert_ and _Quinault_. From the same collection
are the portraits of _Pope Benedict XIV_ by Subleyras and of _Marie
Antoinette_ as _Hebe_ by Drouais.

Another portrait which attracts much notice is that of Antoine de
Bourgogne, the _Grand Bâtard_, the second of the nineteen illegitimate
sons of Philippe le Bon. This painting was presented to the Duc d'Aumale
by the Duke of Sutherland. It is an exquisite work of art which has been
variously attributed to Memling, to Roger van der Weyden, and to Ugo van
der Goes, but it is to the last-named artist that it can be assigned
with greater probability. The _Grand Bâtard_[21] wears the Order of the
Golden Fleece instituted by his father at Bruges in 1430, and appears to
be about forty years of age, the period of life when he gained his great
victory over the Moors at Ceuta. He was not only a valiant warrior, but
also an arduous bibliophile and collector. His Château of La Roche
contained many interesting illuminated manuscripts now dispersed, and of
these the _Froissart_ at Breslau is amongst the most celebrated. Like
all those that belonged to him, it bears his autograph "_ob de
Bourgogne_" "ob" being an abbreviation of the Greek word _[Greek:
obalós]_, which means _bâtard_.[22]

The drawings of this Sutherland Collection, especially those belonging
to the sixteenth century, are less important, many of them appearing to
be copies by inferior hands; those, however, of the seventeenth century
by Quesnel and Dumoustier are first-rate. Among the portraits in pastel
may be noted likenesses of _Madame de Montespan_, _Louis XIII_, _Gaston
d'Orléans_, _Louis de Haros_, and an interesting portrait of _Watteau_
designed by Boucher after an original by Watteau himself.

In 1877 the Duc d'Aumale availed himself of another opportunity of
restoring to France a French collection which had been brought to
England, namely, that of M. Carmontelle, which comprised no less than
450 coloured sketches for portraits which date from the year 1757 to the
year 1775. Carmontelle, as tutor to the Duc de Chartres, had plenty of
opportunity during his leisure hours to sketch all the men and women
with whom he came in contact, which he did merely for his own amusement,
without any expectation of payment. The facility with which he executed
these sketches astonished even Grimm, who remarked upon his skill. In
about two hours each, with the greatest ease, he reproduced all the most
noticeable figures in the life of the period, from the Dauphin and his
courtiers, the Princes and Princesses of the House of Bourbon and
Orléans, the officers, ladies and gentlemen, ecclesiastics, musicians
and actors, down to the domestics, and even the floor-scrubber at
Saint-Cloud. These sketches amounted at the time of his death to the
number of 700, and in 1807 were bought _en bloc_ by his friend Richard
de Ledans, who disposed of a good many of them. When he died in 1816 450
drawings only were left. These were at once bought by Pierre de la
Mesangère, editor of _Le Journal des Dames et des Modes_, and they form
an exceedingly valuable record of the fashions at the time of Louis XV.

In 1831 the Carmontelle drawings reappeared in Scotland in the
Duff-Gordon-Duff Collection, whence they were acquired by the Duc
d'Aumale for the sum of 112,500 francs, to add to other examples of this
artist's work, particularly a portrait of _Carmontelle_ himself, which
he already possessed. They are now stored in large portfolios in the
Salle Caroline at Chantilly, and, catalogued with comments and notes by
the late Anatole Gruyer, afford great pleasure and amusement to those
who have leisure to examine them.

[Illustration: Plate XXII.

Photo. Giraudon.

A GAME OF CHESS.

Carmontelle.

Musée Condé.]

The next acquisitions were a number of paintings collected by M. Reiset,
who had already, as we have seen above, passed on his drawings to the
indefatigable Duke. The price paid for these was 600,000 francs, and
they include no less than twenty-five pictures of the Italian School,
amongst which we may mention the following: a small panel representing
the _Death of the Virgin_, attributed to Giotto (unfortunately much
repainted); _The Coronation of the Virgin_, by Giovanni del Ponte di San
Stefano; an allegorical figure representing _Autumn_, attributed to
Botticelli[23]; an _Annunciation_ by Francia and a _Holy Family_ by
Jacopo Palma; several Luinis and two small Filippo Lippis; and an
exquisite little _Madonna holding the Infant Christ_ by Bissolo. _The
Marriage of St. Francis of Assisi to Poverty_, by Sassetta (formerly
assigned to his pupil Sano di Pietro) is one of the most attractive
works by this master. It once formed part of an altarpiece at S.
Severino, long since broken up and dispersed. Several smaller panels
from the same altarpiece are to be found in the Chalendon Collection in
Paris, and one belongs to M. le Comte Martel; whilst the central portion
is in the possession of Mr. B. Berenson.[24]

In the painting at Chantilly Sassetta may be seen at the height of his
imaginative power.[25] An atmosphere of religious calm breathes over the
landscape from which the three figures of Chastity, Humility and Poverty
are floating upwards; the latter turning to wave a last friendly
greeting to the Saint whom they are leaving on earth. It is full of the
naïve sentiment for which this artist is so conspicuous.

Another interesting painting which belonged to the Reiset Collection is
the portrait of _Simonetta Vespucci_, formerly assigned to Pollaiuolo,
but attributed by Dr. G. Frizzoni to Piero di Cosimo. Simonetta was a
young Genoese lady renowned for her beauty, who came to Florence as the
wife of a Cattini. Poliziano wrote sonnets upon her charms, and Giuliano
dei Medici fell madly in love with her. Among the numerous likenesses of
her by Botticelli and others, in the National Gallery, at Berlin, and
elsewhere, this one in the Musée Condé seems to be the most lifelike.
Reiset bought this portrait in 1841 from the last member of the Vespucci
family.

Attention may here be drawn to a fine sea-piece by Everdingen, the
master of Ruysdael; to two small portraits of a _Husband and Wife_ of
the Van Eyck School; and to a _Procession_ attributed to Dierick
Bouts--all excellent examples of the Dutch School.

An extremely interesting picture, now known to be of French origin, came
also from the Reiset Gallery, namely, _The Virgin as Protector of the
Human Race_[26]--a work executed in 1452 by Charonton and Vilatte for
Jean Cadard and his wife, and of special importance in the history of
French painting.

[Illustration: Plate XXIII. Photo. Giraudon.

THE MYSTIC MARRIAGE OF S. FRANCIS, BY SASSETTA.

Photo. Giraudon.

SIMONETTA VESPUCCIA, BY PIERRE DI COSIMO.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 146_]

Five large Poussins, two Gaspar Dughets, a portrait of _Napoleon_ by
Gerard; and no less than three works by Ingres came also from this
same source: namely, the _Artist's own portrait as a youth_, a portrait
of a _Madame Devançay_, and the painting of _Venus Anadyomene_, upon
which he is known to have spent much time and thought throughout the
last forty years of his life.

Finally, to all these other treasures were added some drawings by
Prud'hon. Then in 1882, from the Hamilton Palace Sale interesting
portraits by Corneille de Lyon, and a small likeness of _Montaigne_
probably by a late pupil of that master; and at various subsequent
London sales drawings were purchased by Botticelli, Canaletto, Tiepolo,
Salomon Ruysdael, Dumoustier, Ingres, Van Loo, and Gericault, besides a
great number of engravings.

Whilst the Duke was making these important acquisitions he was at the
same time gradually rebuilding the old Château of the Condés in order to
house them adequately, and it is not to be wondered at that intellectual
France took a great interest in this vast artistic enterprise. His Royal
Highness was elected a Member of the Institut de France and invited to
occupy the chair of M. de Cardaillac at the Académie des Beaux Arts. It
was on this occasion that Victor Hugo, whom the Prince had referred to
in his address of eulogy upon his predecessor, wrote him the following
memorable letter:

     _Cher et Royal Confrère,_

     _Je viens de lire vos nobles paroles sur moi. Je vous ecris emu.
     Vous êtes né prince et devenu homme. Pour moi votre royauté a
     cessé d'être politique et maintenant est historique; ma république
     ne s'en inquiète pas. Vous faites partie de la grandeur de la
     France. Et je vous aime._[27]

It was, however, during the last years of his life that the Duke really
made his most important acquisitions. In 1885, for the sum of £3,800, he
bought from Mr. Fuller Russell the charming diptych painted in 1466 for
Jeanne de France, daughter of Charles VII. This painting was formerly
attributed to Memling, but Count Paul Durrieu now assigns it to Zanetto
Bugatto of Milan, one of that master's greatest pupils in Italy.

[Illustration: PLATE XXIV.

_Photo. Giraudon._

The Three Graces.

By Raphael.

Musée Condé.]

In the same year Raphael's picture of the _Three Graces_ was purchased
for the sum of £30,000 from the executors of the Earl of Dudley--a panel
so small as not to exceed the dimensions of a man's hand. The youthful
Raphael in this composition was clearly inspired by the beautiful
antique marble group at Siena; and we may observe how the genius of two
great artists in two such diverse epochs can be happily blended
together. The _Three Graces_ at Chantilly and _The Dream of a Knight_ at
the National Gallery are not far apart and may probably both be dated
at about 1500-1503; but around the former picture there seems to hang
some unsolved problem. The Duc d'Aumale expresses himself about it in
the following terms: "Are these really the _Three Graces_ whom we have
here before us? Or was it not rather the intention of Raphael to
represent the _Three Ages of Womanly Beauty_? To the left the virgin
with a veil around her slender hips; to the right the woman in her prime
wearing a necklace of coral; and in the centre, with her back turned to
the spectator, the woman in her full maturity, merely exhibiting her
fine profile. Does not this picture imply that Woman at all ages holds
in her hand the Empire of the World?"

This little panel, originally in the Borghese Gallery, passed
successively into the collections of Reboul, Fabre, Sir Thomas Lawrence,
Woodburn, and Lord Dudley whence it finally entered the sanctuary of the
Musée Condé.

Another important picture of the Italian School is the _cassone_ panel
representing _King Ahasuerus and Esther_.[28] This was originally
painted for the Torrigiani family of Florence and was formerly ascribed
to Filippino Lippi; but modern art-criticism assigns it to the
suppositious "Amico di Sandro," who, if he really did paint it, has
almost surpassed Filippino in both beauty and grace.

Another panel from the same _cassone_, representing the _Second
Appearance of Esther before Ahasuerus_, is in the possession of Leopold
Goldschmidt at Paris; whilst the two side panels of _Mordecai on
Horseback_ and _Esther as Queen walking in her Garden_ are in the
Lichtenstein Gallery at Vienna.

One more Italian picture deserves notice. It is a replica of the famous
composition which passed some years ago from the collection of Prince
Chigi in Rome into that of Mrs. John Gardiner at Boston, U.S.A. It
represents the _Virgin and the Holy Child_ attended by an angel who
offers the latter roses. This picture has much of the charm of both
Botticelli and Filippino but is by neither of them. It is the work of
some unknown but unquestionably highly gifted artist.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: PLATE XXV.

_Photo. Giraudon._

The Story of Esther.

School of Sandro Botticelli.

Musée Condé.]

In spite of these important purchases of Italian pictures the Duc
d'Aumale never neglected an opportunity of acquiring French works of
art, and he extended his collection as far as possible in that
particular direction. So that from M. Destailleur, from the Comte de
Fresnes, and from the Baron Seillier he acquired books that had been
bound expressly for François I, for Henri II and for Marguerite de
Valois. At the Hamilton Palace Sale he purchased for 12,375 francs a
_Book of Hours_ of the fourteenth century which had been specially bound
for its then owner, François de Guise. In 1892 the sumptuous _Psalter of
Ingeburge of Denmark_, wife of Philippe Auguste, found its way into this
ever-increasing collection; and this was quickly followed by the
interesting _Breviary_ executed in the fourteenth century for Queen
Jeanne d'Evreux.

In 1889 more than 310 French drawings were acquired from Lord Carlisle,
including original work by Jean Perréal, by Jean and François Clouet, by
Corneille de Lyon and by the Dumoustiers. The artistic, iconographic and
historical value of these drawings has been pronounced on all hands to
be almost unique; more especially with regard to the portraits of
celebrated personages living between the years 1514 and 1560. _Francis
I_ with his Queens, his mistresses, his courtiers, and the ladies of his
_petites bandes_; the famous _Preux de Marignan_, the great
_Montmorency_ and the _Colignys_, _Henri II_ and his numerous sons and
daughters; _Catherine de Medicis_ and _la belle Diane_--all these famous
heroes and heroines of history are met together in effigy at Chantilly:
a place they all knew so well and enjoyed so much during their lifetime.
The question of how these drawings, so highly valued under the Valois
_régime_, were ever allowed to leave France has never been
satisfactorily solved. Horace Walpole possessed a similar collection,
but it was of much less artistic importance. It was the collection once
owned by Mariette and is now apparently in the possession of an English
peer.[29] Gaignières also collected French drawings of the same type,
but after his death they greatly depreciated in value and passed from
the Bibliothèque Royale into the Bodleian Library at Oxford. But the
Howard portfolio, the most important of all, and also the Salting
Collection were discovered in Florence. It is certain that there is a
common link between all of the sets, and similar handwritings are to be
found upon the margins of most of them. We must, however, postpone
further discussion on this interesting question until a later chapter.

In 1889 the great painting by Meissonier, _Les Cuirassiers de 1805_, was
bought at the Secrétan Sale for the sum of 190,000 francs; and soon
after came Détaille's finest work, _Le Colonel Lepic à Eylau: "Haut les
Têtes."_

In 1890 Corot's _Concert Champêtre_ cost the Duke 20,000 francs and
proved how fully he appreciated the more recent art-movements in France.

His Royal Highness made his last acquisition in 1891, perhaps the most
important of all, and one which certainly procured for him immense
satisfaction--namely, forty miniatures by the famous Jean Fouquet from
the _Book of Hours_ of Étienne Chevalier. These unique treasures were
purchased from Herr Brentano of Frankfurt for the sum of 250,000 francs
and will be fully described presently.

[Illustration: Plate XXVI.

Photo. Giraudon.

PLAN OF ROME.

Pol de Limbourg and his Brothers.

From The "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."]

The Musée Condé affords the most unique opportunities for the study of
French art. The Wallace Collection may be richer in the work of the
seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries, but there is nothing
in that collection which can compare with the examples of French
fifteenth and sixteenth century art enshrined at the Musée Condé; for
example, the exquisite miniatures of the Brothers Limbourg and of Jean
Fouquet, or the precious pencil portraits by the Valois Court-Painters.
It is to these that closer attention will be drawn in the following
chapters.



CHAPTER XII

FRENCH ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS AT CHANTILLY


[Illustration: Plate XXVII.

Photo. Giraudon.

JANUARY

Pol de Limbourg.

From The "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."

_To face page 154._]

The leading part taken by French Art in the twelfth and thirteenth
centuries was not continued in the same degree during the fourteenth and
fifteenth. Nevertheless records have survived which afford sufficient
information whence we may conclude that France was at that period not as
entirely unproductive as has been hitherto supposed. It is true that,
owing to the fact that the wall-decorations in the Hôtel St. Paul, the
old Louvre, and the Hôtel de Savoisie in Paris, of the châteaux of
Bicêtre and Vaudreuil in Normandy, and of the castles of the Comtesse
d'Artois, have been almost entirely destroyed or demolished by fire,
siege or climate, native works of art of that period have become
extremely rare. Still those few which remain, such as the diptych
belonging to the Earl of Pembroke at Wilton,[30] the _Parement de
Narbonne_, now in the Louvre, the wall-paintings in the Cathedral at
Cahors and in the Church of Saint-Savin at Poitiers, etc., testify amply
to the importance of the work of that period. Moreover, the
miniatures of that period have not shared the disastrous vicissitudes of
the larger works. Thus the illuminated MSS. preserved at Chantilly offer
a special interest and are of an almost unique value in the general
history of Art.

By a fortunate chance an _Inventory_ has come down to us, compiled in
1416, immediately after the death of the Duc de Berry, brother of King
Charles V of France. This document contains a catalogue of all the
art-treasures in his possession; but hardly any names of artists are
mentioned except those of Pol Limbourg and his brothers. Among the
entries the following is worth quoting: "_Plusiers cayers d'une Très
Riches Heures qui faisoient Pol et ses frères, très richement historiez
et enluminez_"--a note which refers without a doubt to the MS. of _Les
Très Riches Heures_ now at Chantilly. Another document of no less
importance is one drawn up by François Robertet, Secretary to the Duc de
Bourbon, which informs us that several of the miniatures in the MS. of
Josephus' _Antiquities_ are by Jehan Fouquet, Court-Painter to Louis XI.
Thus it has been possible to identify the authentic work of the
Limbourgs and of Fouquet, some of the finest examples of which are to be
found in the Musée Condé.

Unfortunately these flashes of light are very rare; and absence of
record is no doubt one of the chief reasons why French paintings of this
period were so little known and appreciated in France, and why the
valuable collection bequeathed by Robert Gaignières to Louis XIV was but
little valued by that monarch. Trusting to the advice of the ignorant
critics of the time His Majesty reckoned them as of no importance and
did not consider the collection worthy of a place in the Louvre; so that
eventually, in 1717, it was scattered by public auction under the
directions of the painter de Troy.

Thus it happened that, whilst France was acquiring valuable antiques and
important examples of the art of the Italian Renaissance, she was unable
to estimate or retain the art which had sprung up on her own soil. To
cite one example only: Fouquet's diptych from Melun has been lost to
France for ever, one portion of it being at Antwerp, another at Berlin,
whilst the beautiful enamelled frame has disappeared altogether.

Fortunately, however, connoisseurs like Reiset and Mariette arose, who
bequeathed French fifteenth and sixteenth century pictures to the
Louvre; and later still this remarkable legacy from the Duc d'Aumale
restored to France some of her own most valuable treasures. By means of
these acquisitions this patriotic Prince has constructed a monument to
French Art which is as interesting as it is unique.

[Illustration: Plate XXVIII.

Photo. Giraudon.

FEBRUARY.

Pol de Limbourg.

From The "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."

_To face page 156._]

The _Cabinet des Livres_ at Chantilly, still just as it was when
occupied by the Duc d'Aumale, with his chair, his writing-table, his
reading-lamp and half-burnt candle, contains no less than fourteen
thousand manuscripts of the very highest importance. The most
noteworthy amongst these are: the first ten books of St. Augustine's
_Cité de Dieu_ (translated by Raoul de Presles); Aristotle's _Ethics_
(translated by Nicolas Oresmes); Livy's _Second Decade_ (translated by
Pierre Bersuire); all of which at one time belonged to the Duc de Berry.
Then there is the third volume of the _Gallic War_, a free translation
of the Commentaries of Cæsar,[31] on the last page of which is the
following inscription: _Albertus Pichius, auxilio Godofredi pictoris
Batavi faciebat praecipiete Francisco Molinio mense novembris anno
quinquimillesimo vigesimo_; whence we derive information regarding the
date of its completion, the names of the artists who were entrusted with
it and even the name of the man who commissioned it on behalf of Francis
I.

Most interesting are a selection of the _Table Ronde_ used by Gaston
Paris in Vol. XXX of the _Histoire littéraire de la France_ and a copy
of Dante's _Inferno_ with a _Commentary_ by Guido of Pisa. Furthermore a
French translation of Cicero's _Rhetorics_ written in 1282 by Master
Jean d'Antioch and commissioned by a monk called Guillaume de
Saint-Etienne of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem: a MS. which throws
interesting light on still more ancient translations and is ornamented
with fine old miniatures; a French translation of _Valere Maxime_ (in
two volumes), which belonged to the Cardinal George d'Amboise; a
translation of _Diodorus Siculus_, with a frontispiece representing
_King Francis and his Court_; and an illuminated manuscript, known to
have been the _Book of Hours_ of Anne de Montmorency, offer more than
ordinary interest. This last belongs to the sixteenth century and
contains miniatures in the style of Jean Cousin.

Next comes a _Legenda Aurea_, which once belonged to Charles V of France
and which in its time has travelled back and forth between England and
France (as was so often the case with old books and manuscripts); for on
the last page we read in an unknown hand:

    _And yf my pen were better_
    _Better shuld be my letter._

[Illustration: Plate XXIX.

Photo. Giraudon.

APRIL.

Pol de Limbourg.

From The "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."

_To face page 158._]

Other extremely important MSS. acquired by the Duke himself are the MS.
_de la Coche de Marguerite d'Angoulême_ and the _Psalter of Queen
Ingeburge_, of which the Duke was particularly proud. It commences with
a _Calendar_, followed by a series of paintings on gold backgrounds
representing scenes from the Old and New Testaments, and dates from the
thirteenth century. It belonged to Queen Ingeburge, the unhappy and
neglected wife of Philippe Auguste and in it are entered the names of
her father, Waldemar the Great, King of Denmark, of her mother, Queen
Sophia, and of the Comtesse Eleanore de Vermandois, her faithful friend
during long years of trial, thus proving unquestionably her ownership
of this precious volume. She has, moreover, entered in it the date 1214,
the year in which she was recognised as Queen of France. On the last
page appears the following entry: "_Ce psaultier fut de Saint Loys_,"
showing that the MS. subsequently came into the possession of St. Louis,
King of France, himself. In Charles V's _Inventory_, dated 1380, it is
described as "_mon gros psaultier, nommé le Psaultier St. Loys, très
richement enlumyne d'or et d'ancien ymages_," and we learn that in 1428
it was preserved in the Château of Vincennes. From that time, however,
it disappeared for nearly two hundred years until it was found in
England by Pierre de Bellièvre, who secured it and presented it in 1649
to Henri de Mesmes. The miniatures are similar in style to those found
in English MSS. of the thirteenth century; the colours are luminous,
black and blue being predominant, and the whole work is painted on a
gold ground. The initial letters and the decorative caligraphy show
skilful technique and were evidently designed at the period of which
Dante speaks as "_L'onor di quell'arte ch'alluminare è chiamata in
Parisi_."[32] It is very probable that this _Psalter of Queen
Ingeburge_[33] served as the model for many other illuminated
manuscripts.

Another noteworthy royal MS. acquired by the Duc d'Aumale which is of
special importance is the _Breviary_ of Jeanne d'Evreux. Amid the
delicate decorations of the border around the illuminated text may be
seen the coats-of-arms of France, Navarre, and Evreux; and it contains
no less than one hundred and fourteen miniatures in _grisaille_ upon
coloured and gold backgrounds. The Gothic attitudes and graceful figures
recall the style of Jean Pucelle, which, dating from the years
1327-1350, had been introduced into Paris before the coming of Northern
realism.

Jeanne d'Evreux, wife of Charles IV, was well known as a connoisseur in
illuminated books, and this exquisite work of art passed to Charles V,
by whom it was kept at Vincennes in a coffer along with the _Breviary_
of Belleville.

The small _Book of Hours_ belonging to M. Maurice de Rothschild
(published in facsimile by Count Delisle), the _Missal of St. Denis_ in
the Victoria and Albert Museum, the _Book of Hours_ designed for Jeanne
de France, Queen of Navarre, in the Yates Thomson Collection, form a
group of beautiful codices which have rightly been compared with this
MS. of Queen Jeanne d'Evreux.

[Illustration: Plate XXX.

Photo. Giraudon.

MAY.

Pol de Limbourg.

From The "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."

_To face page 160._]

The greatest gem, however, of all these illuminated MSS. is
unquestionably the precious volume known as _Les Très Riches Heures_ of
the Duc de Berry. The Duc d'Aumale himself relates the history of its
acquisition in 1855. On his way to visit his mother Queen Marie Amélie,
then lying ill at Nervi, he visited the Villa Pallavicini at Pegli,
near Genoa--at that time a boarding-school for young ladies--in order to
examine a MS. to which his attention had been drawn by Sir Antonio
Panizzi, Principal Librarian of the British Museum. Without any
hesitation he arranged on the spot to purchase the work of art for a sum
of 18,000 francs. On his return to Twickenham (where he was then
residing), the Duchess herself carefully unfolded the newly acquired
treasure from its "_cassetta foderato di velluto_" and every connoisseur
of note at once hastened to examine the wonderful MS. which the Duke had
been so fortunate as to acquire. As early as 1857 Waagen wrote about it
with much detail; later Count de Laborde, Anatol Gruyer, and Leopold
Delisle followed; and recently, and more exhaustively, Paul Durrieu
also. But it was Delisle who made the important discovery that the _Très
Riches Heures_ could be identified with the MS. described in the
Inventory of the Duc de Berry: "_Item une layette plusiers cayers d'une
'Très Riches Heures' que faisoient Pol et ses frères, très richement
historiez et enluminez_." The same writer also discovered that these
leaflets were valued at 500 _livres tournois_ (about 20,000 francs), a
very large price for that time, and one which showed the high value in
which this manuscript was held even at that date.

The death of the Duc de Berry brought these precious pages, begun under
such brilliant auspices, to a sudden standstill; and in consequence of
that prince's debts--which arose chiefly from his expensive artistic
tastes--a sale of his property immediately took place. The Duc de
Bourbon and the Comte d'Armagnac (the husbands of his two daughters and
co-heiresses) were making war upon one another on account of the murder
of the Duc d'Orléans by _Jean Sans Peur_--a war known in history as the
War of the Armagnacs and the Burgundians. Amid these disturbances there
was scarcely time to think of illuminated MSS.; for which reason the
work of Pol de Limbourg and his brothers was suspended, and was not
resumed until the year 1454, long after their death--unfortunately by a
far inferior hand--that of Jean de Colombe. By that time the volume had
come into the possession of Charles of Savoy and his wife Blanche of
Monferrat. It is not difficult to explain how this _Breviary_ came into
the House of Savoy--a fact which is proved by the armorial bearings and
two miniature portraits of Charles--because both husband and wife were
descendants in direct line from Bonne de Berry (one of the daughters of
the Duc de Berry), who had first been married to a Count of Savoy. In
1501 the MS. passed to Margaret of Austria, wife of Philibert of Savoy,
a Royal patroness of the Arts who corresponded with Jean Perréal
regarding the tomb of her husband in the church at Brou. By her this MS.
was provided with a velvet cover and a silver padlock; and she no doubt
took it to Flanders with her after her husband's death.

[Illustration: Plate XXXI.

Photo. Giraudon.

JUNE.

Pol de Limbourg.

From The "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."

_To face page 162._]

Comte Paul Durrieu identifies the _Très Riches Heures_ with a MS.
mentioned also in an _Inventory_ of 1523 as "_une grande heure escripte
à la main_," whereby it can be explained how the _Grimani Breviary_,[34]
executed about the end of the sixteenth century, and other Flemish MSS.
have obviously taken this famous Codex as a model; and even in some
points copied it very closely.

When Margaret of Austria died in 1530 the volume passed into the hands
of one of her executors, Jean Buffant, Treasurer to the Emperor Charles
V; and from that time there occurs a gap which even Paul Durrieu has so
far been unable to fill. The present binding of red morocco leather
belongs to the eighteenth century and bears the coat-of-arms of the
Spinola family, which points strongly to the probability that the volume
also once belonged to the celebrated General Spinola, who captured the
town of Breda--an historical event immortalised by Velasquez. From the
Spinolas it came into the family of the Sèvres, a fact proved by another
coat-of-arms amongst the illuminations; and from a member of that family
it was acquired by the Duc d'Aumale, by whom it was deposited at
Chantilly.

From this amazing list of MSS. we may see that nearly all the important
books and manuscripts of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are
represented at Chantilly. Some portions of the collection go back to the
old Montmorency and Condé acquisitions; whilst the Duc d'Aumale himself
has described the origin and vicissitudes of the articles gathered in by
himself in his admirable work _The Philobiblon Miscellanies_, which will
always remain the best guide to the _Cabinet des Livres_ at Chantilly.

[Illustration: Plate XXXII.

Photo. Giraudon.

JULY.

Pol de Limbourg.

From The "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."

_To face page 164._]



CHAPTER XIII

_LES TRÈS RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY_


The Duc de Berry was one of those enlightened and enthusiastic patrons
of Art who, by giving numerous commissions to the artists of his time
created important centres of Art in Paris and Dijon. It was for him that
Jaquemart de Hesdin and his school executed the famous _Très Belles
Heures_ (now dispersed), fragments of which are to be found in the
Louvre: in the collections of Baron Adolph de Rothschild in Paris; and
of Prince Trivulzio at Milan: whilst the largest and most interesting
portion, known as the _Hours of Turin_, once treasured in the Royal
Library of that city, perished in a disastrous fire in 1904.[35]

It was likewise for the Duc de Berry that the nephews of Malouel, Pol de
Limbourg and his brothers, painted these famous _Très Riches Heures_ now
at Chantilly. And that the Duke very greatly admired the work of these
artists is proved by entries in old _Inventories_, wherein we find that
he showered valuable presents upon them--pieces of gold (coins), rings,
etc. He moreover presented Pol the eldest and most eminent of the
brothers with a mansion at Bourges, where the artist and his wife
resided until his death.

The Duc de Berry was also one of those collectors whose taste rose above
that of his time; and who, furthermore, proved to be one of the leading
spirits in the development of the Art of that period. Besides famous
painters he also employed the celebrated architect Guy de Damartin to
build and restore his castles. The discovery of a MS. containing
architectural sketches of various fortresses (probably drawn by the hand
of this architect himself) proves that the Duke had a fancy to have his
various castles introduced with the greatest precision into the
backgrounds of the miniatures executed for him in this MS. No doubt it
was by his express wish that the landscape details in the _Calendar_ of
this famous _Book of Hours_ were copied direct from nature and not
treated merely conventionally as hitherto.

[Illustration: Plate XXXIII.

Photo. Giraudon.

AUGUST.

Pol de Limbourg.

From The "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."

_To face page 166._]

This remarkable work marks an important epoch in the history of
Primitive French Art, inasmuch as its influence extended not only over
France, but also to Italy, Flanders, and the School of Cologne. It
commences with a _Calendar_ delightfully decorated and illustrating
minor passing events in the life of the period, with portraits of the
Duke himself, his family, his friends and other personages.

The Month of January[36] begins by showing us a banqueting scene. The
Duc de Berry, attired in a richly brocaded mantle and a fur cap, is
seated before a screen in conversation with a church dignitary--the only
one among the company besides himself who is seated. Three elegantly
dressed pages are busy serving a meal, whilst another is playing with
some pet dogs; puppies being engaged in eating out of a plate upon the
table. Two cup-bearers stand ready with wine and in a prominent position
upon the board stands a _nef_. This beautiful example of the goldsmith's
art was known as the _Salière du Pavillon_ and its design is attributed
to Pol Limbourg himself.[37] In the background may be seen the Ducal
guards and one of his castles. The face of the Duke appears to be an
excellent likeness if we compare it with a Holbein drawing at the Bâle
Museum, which is said to have been copied from a statue of this prince
at Bourges. Above this miniature, in a blue and gold lunette, appears
the _Chariot of the Sun_ drawn by winged horses--a design repeated
several times in subsequent miniatures.

The Month of February exhibits a bright wintry landscape, where a silent
village[38] with a church tower lies beneath a mantle of white. The
feeling of a cold wintry day is well expressed by the heaped-up masses
of snow, against which the wool of sheep cowering in their folds is
sharply contrasted. We can almost see the shivers of the man to the
right, with his mantle drawn close around him. A haystack, bee-hives,
birds picking up crumbs, a peasant girl warming her feet at an open
fire, are so delightfully realistic, so free from convention, that we
feel that the artist has here given free rein to his imagination.

Then follows March: a peasant is ploughing, whilst behind rises the
fortress of Lusignan, the cradle of the Plantagenets. The sky is blue
and cloudless, and above one of the towers is a flying dragon, intended
to symbolise the fair Melusine. A close copy of this miniature is in the
_Grimani Breviary_.[39]

In the Month of April,[40] with the Castle of Dourdan on the River Orge
we find a scene characteristic of the period. An exchange of
presents--presumably an engagement--is in process between a noble knight
and a richly attired lady. The knight is the same personage who is
represented in attendance upon the Duke in the banquet scene. Another
pair of personages look on with sympathetic interest, whilst two young
ladies gather flowers.

[Illustration: Plate XXXIV.

Photo. Giraudon.

OCTOBER.

Pol de Limbourg.

From The "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."

_To face page 168._]

The fifth miniature (which the Duc d'Aumale designates as _La Reine de
Mai_)[41] is one of the most charming of the series, for May Day was
at that time an occasion of much festivity at the Court of France. A
gay cavalcade is passing through a wood, headed apparently by a Prince
of the Blood--perhaps even the Sovereign himself--and amid those in
attendance the knight of the last picture again appears, his head bound
with a chaplet of bay-leaves. He is turning back to gaze at his bride,
who rides beside him on a white horse. She wears the same ornaments as
in the previous picture, and it is by these that we can identify her. In
the background, silhouetted against the horizon, is the Castle of Riom,
pleasantly situated in its park and gardens. This picture displays with
much effect the gaiety of the persons represented, who all seem to be
engaged in animated converse. Pol de Limbourg evidently approaches in
this picture his highest capabilities; and becomes more and more
independent of convention.

In the Month of June[42] the Palais de Justice of Charles V with the
Sainte-Chapelle are visible in the rear. The reapers shown in this
composition and the two graceful peasant girls busy amid the fresh-cut
grass have aroused great enthusiasm amongst modern connoisseurs; and we
involuntarily recall the paintings of François Millet and the Barbizon
School--a school which, after nearly four centuries, has revived the art
of realistic landscape-painting in France.

In the Month of July[43] the lofty towers of the Castle of Poitiers,
which not long before had been restored by the Duc de Berry, appear in
the background. And just as the winter landscape of the Month of
February arouses the impression of winter's snow and ice, so this
brilliant composition, in which the sunshine blazes upon the cornfields,
makes one dream of the burning days of summer. The sheep, in February
huddled together in their pens, are now grazing in a meadow, whilst a
young peasant woman is busy plying her shears upon their fleecy coats
and a youth watches her with marked interest.

The Month of August[44] presents a hawking party. Two cavaliers mounted
on richly appointed steeds, their ladies mounted on pillions behind
them, are carrying hawks. One lady is, however, courageous enough to
manage her own palfrey, and holds a hawk upon her left wrist. Behind,
labourers are pursuing their toil and bathers are sporting in a stream.
At the back rises the Château d'Estampes which the Duc de Berry had
recently bought from his brother Louis of Anjou. The landscape is here
treated with admirable freedom. The artist has painted what he saw, just
as it really was, and the outlines of the château are represented with
remarkable fidelity.

The Castle of Saumur appears in the September miniature, where a vintage
is proceeding with life and vigour.

[Illustration: Plate XXXV.

Photo. Giraudon.

DECEMBER.

Pol de Limbourg.

From The "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."

_To face page 170._]

October[45] brings with it ploughing, whilst a man scatters seed only
to be devoured at once by flights of hungry birds. In the rear various
groups of figures parade up and down upon a quay before the old Palace
of the Louvre.

The Month of November is a disappointment. It is conjectured that the
artist intended to present the Tour de Nesle, the Duke's stately
town-residence, but that through his sudden death the page was left
unpainted until a century later, when Jean de Colombe undertook to fill
it in. It represents a swineherd with his pigs who are grubbing for
acorns; but the landscape is only a feeble attempt to imitate the
earlier work. The lunette, however, was evidently painted by the
Limbourgs.

In December[46]--the last of the series--a hunting-scene is presented,
with a pack of hounds careering through a spacious park, in the
background of which is the Keep of Vincennes, the Duke's birthplace.
This miniature, which somewhat differs in conception from the earlier
ones, was probably executed by one of the brothers of Pol Limbourg.

The fascinating landscapes and the graceful architecture of these
_Calendar Months_ excite our keenest admiration; for we must remember
that at this early date (1415) landscape-painting had hitherto been
treated as mere decoration, without any attempt at reality or
probability.[47] Their special charm lies very largely in their
truthfulness to nature, and the Duc de Berry himself added still further
to this element when he insisted upon the introduction of accurate
representations of his own castles and their surroundings.

Immediately after the _Months_ we come upon a strange miniature, which,
since it also displays the escutcheon of the Duc de Berry, may be
assigned to the years 1415-16 and is therefore presumably the work of
the Limbourgs. Two nude figures, classical in conception, are presented
propped back to back against one another. As in the case of the statue
found at Porto d'Anzio, doubt has recently arisen with regard to their
sex.[48]

It has been suggested that these two figures were inspired by the _Three
Graces_ of Siena; that they are not meant to represent the _Dioscuri_,
as had been hitherto supposed; but that they are two tall slender women
such as we find in early Renaissance Art inspired by Greek originals.
Their tresses are arranged in the characteristic Greek knot and their
slender bodies exhibit the Astrological and Horoscopical connection
between the various members of the human organism and the Signs of the
Zodiac. We do not find amongst the illustrations of the Middle Ages
anything analogous to this curious painting, so that it may be reckoned
amongst the many entirely original ideas peculiar to this interesting
Codex.

[Illustration: Plate XXXVI.

Photo. Giraudon.

THE ZODIAC.

Pol de Limbourg and his Brothers.

From The "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."

_To face page 172._]

This curious design is followed by small but exquisite miniatures of
the _Four Evangelists_ and of the _Tiburtine Sybil prophesying to
Augustus_. Our attent ion is then drawn to a large design representing
the _Terrestrial Paradise_. Four different scenes are shown on the same
plane: _Eve receives the apple from the Serpent_; _she offers it to
Adam_; _the Almighty interrogating the offenders_; and _their expulsion
from Paradise_ through a Gothic gateway by a stern-looking angel with
scarlet wings. This miniature, out of the entire number of not less than
206, is the only one which exhibits a marked Flemish influence and
reminds us of the fact that the Limbourgs were nephews and pupils of
Malouel, Court-Painter to the Duke of Burgundy. All the other miniatures
in this Codex which can be assigned to these artists are pre-eminently
French in feeling and sensitiveness, showing only occasionally a trace
of the influence of Simone Martini: as, for example, _Christ bearing His
Cross_.

The scenes from the _Life of Christ_ commence after traditional fashion
with the _Annunciation_ and end with the _Crucifixion_. The
_Annunciation_ is perhaps one of the most attractive of the series. It
no longer expresses merely Mediæval symbol but seems rather to simply
represent a story; so that we feel that we are already on the threshold
of the Renaissance. The Virgin kneels before a fald-stool in a Gothic
chapel, whilst the Holy Dove hovers above her head. Smiling with gentle
content, she welcomes the salutation of the Archangel--a handsome youth
who bears in his hand a branch of lilies. Tastefully grouped around the
central composition are angels singing and playing on musical
instruments, and the whole is executed in most vivid colours. The
armorial bearings of the Duke, a _fleur-de-lys_ displayed between a bear
and a swan, have given rise to the canting word _Oursine (ours-cigne)_,
which is said to have been the name of the Duke's favourite mistress.
They occur frequently in this MS.

The _Adoration of the Infant Saviour_, with choirs of rejoicing Angels
around the roof of the stable and Joseph--an Oriental-looking personage
with a long beard--in deep contemplation, is a representation full of
novelty and charm. A shepherd, followed by his flock, draws near to gaze
in awe upon the Divine Babe.

On the next page a number of shepherds are pointing to a choir of angels
who are singing and making melody in the air, whilst in the distance
rises a majestic Gothic cathedral, probably intended to represent the
Temple at Jerusalem. In the foreground is one of those conventional
hillocks so often met with in old mosaics; but the fountain of running
water which rises upon it and from which the sheep are drinking is
realistically conceived. It is interesting, therefore, to note the
admixture of symbolic tradition with realistic feeling.

[Illustration: Plate XXXVII.

Photo. Giraudon.

THE PROCESSION OF THE MAGI.

Pol de Limbourg and his Brothers.

From The "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."

_To face page 174_.]

The _Procession of the Magi_, again, is an example of the Limbourgs'
facility in applying new forms to conventional conceptions; and it is
worth observing how anxious they evidently were to study the special
wishes of their patron the Duke. We learn from the _Inventory_ of this
Prince that he was an ardent collector of medals, and that he had bought
from a Florentine dealer a medal of the _Emperor Constantine_. The
figure of the most prominent of these three Magi on the left of the
scene appears to have been copied from this very medal.[49] In the
background may be noticed the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the
Sainte Chapelle. Again two bears are introduced in allusion to the Ducal
device. In the centre of the picture is a tabernacle of pure French
Gothic style adorned with figures of prophets and saints. These
tabernacles were used in the fourteenth century (the Duc d'Aumale
observes), as halting-places between Paris and Saint-Denis and were
called _Montjoies_.

The _Fall of the Rebel Angels_[50] which comes next is one of the
loveliest pages of the series. God the Father, surrounded by Cherubim
and Seraphim, is enthroned above the golden rays of the Sun. From
amongst the ranks of the Angels--who are seated around in a
semicircle--the rebels are being cast headlong to Earth. As Lucifer in
his fall strikes his handsome head and diadem upon the ground fire
bursts from him, producing a marvellous colour-effect of gold, blue and
green.

Although this composition is otherwise entirely symbolical, a body of
French soldiers clad in armour of that period, with long staves, are
introduced striking down the angels as they fall from above. This
wonderful little design, although not more than 10 inches wide, is so
full of action that it has been compared to the Signorelli frescoes at
Orvieto; and this not without reason, for these miniaturists have, even
on so tiny a scale, produced very much the same forcible effect.

In direct contrast to this awe-inspiring composition is _The Coronation
of the Virgin_[51] shown here with a fine combination of grandeur and
elegance in style. Our Lady's mantle is rainbow-hued and her dress of
pure white is powdered with golden _fleur-de-lys_. Angels bearing her
crown descend from above, whilst Our Lord Himself raises His hands in
blessing. On the right are the Apostles and a group of female Saints,
one of whom is said to be a portrait of _Oursine_ herself. On the left
is a bishop attended by monks. This miniature seems to be a prototype of
a painting by Enguerrand Charonton, executed about half a century later
and now at Villeneuve les Avignon.

[Illustration: Plate XXXVIII.

Photo. Giraudon.

THE FALL OF THE ANGELS.

Pol de Limbourg and his Brothers

From the "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."

_To face page 176._]

_The Temptation of Our Lord_ deserves somewhat special attention. The
scene is represented as taking place upon a conventional mountain-top;
and Satan is pointing to a castle with three towers: none other than
the Duke's celebrated Castle of Mehun-sur-Yèvre,[52] described by
Froissart as the most beautiful place on earth.

In the _Crucifixion_, in accordance with the Biblical text, the artists
have endeavoured to represent eclipses of the Sun and of the Moon, thus
creating for the first time, as early as 1415, that _chiaroscuro_ which
later on was so much admired when employed by Rembrandt and Correggio.

_The Miracle of the Loaves_, within its graceful frame, is also
extremely interesting; and not less noteworthy is a _Plan of Rome_,[53]
in which may be observed the old basilica of St. Peter, Santa Maria
Maggiore, the Lateran, the Colosseum and the Capitol, the equestrian
statue of Marcus Aurelius, the aqueducts, etc. Nothing is to be seen of
the Forum, for at that time no excavations had yet been made.

In conclusion we must mention the exquisite miniature representing _Mont
St. Michel_, with the dragon and St. Michael fighting in the air, a lake
and sailing-boats below, and the effigy of the fair Oursine enshrined in
the letter B.

Attempts have been made from time to time to trace throughout these
beautiful pages the different hands of the three brothers, but no
definite conclusion has been arrived at. It is, however, certain that
Pol, the greatest of the three, was the leading spirit, and that he was
the sole author of the _Calendar Months_, except that of _November_,
which, as has already been mentioned, was completed seventy years later
by Jean Colombe. In this design, and likewise in that part of the book
executed by this latter artist, the originality which fascinates us so
much in the work of the Limbourgs suddenly vanishes and we find
ourselves contemplating mediocrity. In the _Pietà_ (one of Jean
Colombe's miniatures) kneeling figures of the Duke and Duchess of Savoy
are introduced. We cannot help wondering what different results might
have been achieved had Duke Charles of Savoy, on inheriting the _Très
Riches Heures_, employed Bourdichon or Perréal to complete them--or
perhaps Simon Marmion of Valenciennes, who at that very time was
painting his celebrated altarpiece for St. Bertin. Unfortunately this
prince was not a connoisseur like his august relative the Duc de Berry,
and he was unable in consequence to distinguish great art from lesser
achievements.

[Illustration: Plate XXXIX.

Photo. Girandon

THE CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN.

Pol de Limbourg and his Brothers

From The "Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry."

_To face page 178._]



CHAPTER XIV

JEAN FOUQUET OF TOURS


It is reasonable to inquire with some misgiving whether the _Très Riches
Heures du Duc de Berry_[54], so far surpassing all other artistic
creations of its period, are the only record of the labours of Pol de
Limbourg and his brothers which has come down to us. This would seem to
be almost the case, if we except the _Belles Heures de Jean de Berry_
(now in the possession of Baron Edmond de Rothschild,) which was the
_livre de chevet_ of the Duke and is far smaller in dimensions than the
_Très Riches Heures_.

We can trace in the _Bible Moralisée_ (_MS. Français_ 166 Bibl. Nat.)
miniatures strongly recalling the style of the Limbourgs, and if we
proceed to compare some of its later pages, supposed to have been the
work of the young Fouquet, with similar subjects as in the Chantilly
Codex a distinct resemblance can be observed. For instance a
representation of _Paradise_ in the _Bible Moralisée_ closely resembles
the Limbourgs' treatment of the same subject in the _Très Riches
Heures_. A few pages farther on the same scene appears, attributed once
more and not without reason to Fouquet--probably an early work--which
shows the decided influence of his predecessors and tends to suggest
that Jean Fouquet of Tours must have been a follower of Pol de Limbourg.
At any rate his taste for landscape-painting is already in evidence
here, and from the first he appears to have clearly grasped the fact
that his predecessors' greatness lay very largely in this branch of the
art of painting, so that he specially laid himself out to make it his
own also. The banks of the Loire and the country surrounding his native
town of Tours were his favourite subjects, and his treatment of these
provoked the fervent admiration of his Italian friend Florio.

[Illustration: Plate XL.

Photo. Giraudon.

ETIENNE CHEVALIER AND HIS PATRON SAINT KNEELING BEFORE THE VIRGIN.

Jean Fouquet.

Musée Condé.

_To face plate XLI._]

Fouquet was born in 1415, and was already famous when Louis XI ascended
the Throne of France, and made him his Court-Painter. He was, moreover,
well known in Italy before 1443; for he was commissioned whilst in Rome
to paint a portrait of _Pope Eugenius IV_ which is known to have been
long preserved in the Sacristy of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, but which
has only come down to us in a mediocre engraving. Filarete in his
_Treatise on Architecture_, dedicated to Francesco Sforza, speaks of
Fouquet as famous for portraits from life, and mentions this very
portrait of the Pope, together with those of two members of his family.
His name was still remembered in Italy in the sixteenth century (he died
before 1480), for Vasari mentions him as _Giovanni Fochet assai lodato
pitor_. And Jean de Maire of Belgium, who lived at the Court of that
highly cultured patroness of the Arts, Margaret of Austria,
daughter of the Emperor Maximilian, recalls Fouquet with highest
commendation. Indeed this princess, according to an _Inventory_ of 1516,
seems to have owned a small _Madonna_ painted by this master: "_Un petit
tableau de Notre Dame bien vieux de la main de Fouquet ayant etuy et
couverture_."

[Illustration: Plate XLI.

Photo. Giraudon.

THE VIRGIN AND CHILD RECEIVING HOMAGE

Jean Fouquet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 180._]

We know that Fouquet painted the portraits of _Charles VII_ and of
_Juvenal des Ursins_ in the Louvre, and also a recently acquired
portrait of a _Man with a Glass of Wine_. The life-sized portraits of
_Etienne Chevalier attended by his Patron Saint_ at Berlin and the
powerful likeness of an _Unknown Personage_ in the Lichtenstein Gallery
are by his hand. But although he won great fame as a portrait-painter
during his lifetime it is upon his achievements as a worker in miniature
that his highest reputation is based.

[Illustration: Plate XLII.

Photo. Giraudon.

THE MARRIAGE OF THE VIRGIN.

Jean Fouquet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 182._]

A very large number of the collections of miniatures have fortunately
been spared to us, and they have come down to us in almost perfect
condition. The most important may be enumerated as follows: the
_Statutes of the Order of St. Michael_; the _Boccaccio_ at Munich; the
_Book of Hours_ painted for Etienne Chevalier; the _Chronique de France_
in the Bibliothèque Nationale; some _MSS._ now in the possession of Mr.
Yates Thomson; and, finest of all, the _Antiquitates Judæorum_ of
Josephus. In the _Statutes of the Order of St. Michael_ (_MS._ 19819
Bibl. Nat.) Louis XI, as Founder of the Order, is portrayed surrounded
by his thirty-six Knights. A similar miniature, but of somewhat greater
dimensions, forms the frontispiece of the _Boccaccio_, which was
executed for the Controleur Laurens Gyrart and is now in the Public
Library at Munich. Count Paul Durrieu believes--and not without
reason--that all the miniatures in this Codex are by Fouquet himself. On
the frontispiece, a leaf not more than 20 inches square, Charles VII is
depicted surrounded by about 150 dignitaries--judges, magistrates,
etc.--passing judgment on Duc Jean d'Alençon. The scene is laid at the
Castle of St. George in Vendôme, and amongst those present is Etienne
Chevalier and the artist himself.[55] Most realistically conceived are
the crowd of onlookers, some of whom, pushing forward, are being
vigorously repressed by the guards. The _Chronique de France_ (_MS.
Français_ 6465 Bibl. Nat.), in which fifty-five illustrations record
events in the _Life of Philippe Augustus_, one of them showing the
_Coronation of Charlemagne_ in the old Basilica of St. Peter at Rome, is
another work by Fouquet which is full of points of interest. His
illustrations to the French translation of the _Antiquitates Judæorum_
of Josephus--now in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris--are usually
reckoned as his _chef d'oeuvre_. The Duc de Berry had, in the first
instance, commissioned André Beauneveu to execute this MS., but
presently it came, by way of inheritance, into the hands of Jacques
d'Armagnac, Duc de Nemours, who engaged Fouquet to complete the
unfinished work. A note in the first volume of this MS. by François
Robertet, secretary to Pierre de Beaujeu, Duc de Bourbon, records that
the first three miniatures in that volume were by the Duc de Berry's
artists, and the rest by Louis XI's "good painter and illuminator--Jean
Fouquet of Tours." It is by this note that we are enabled to identify
Fouquet's work. Subsequently the Codex became the property of Catherine,
daughter of the murdered Duc de Nemours, who on her marriage to the Duc
de Bourbon brought the treasure to the Court of Moulins. When, a century
later, the last Duc de Bourbon, the famous Constable, was killed at the
Sack of Rome, since he had no heirs and was an exile and fugitive from
France, all his property, including this Codex, was confiscated and
passed to the Crown. In course of time the second volume became
separated from the first, and having strayed to England, eventually
found its way into the Library of Colonel Townley, whence it was sold in
1814. At that time it still contained thirteen miniatures. It was not,
however, until 1905 that it reappeared once more at a sale at Sotheby's
when it contained but one miniature![56] Here it was secured by Mr.
Yates Thomson, who recognised its author. Two years later Mr. Warner,
Librarian of the Royal Library at Windsor, identified ten illuminated
miniatures, then in the possession of King Edward VII, as the work of
Fouquet and furthermore as belonging to the very MS. acquired by Mr.
Yates Thomson. His Majesty graciously consented to unite his precious
fragments with those of Mr. Yates Thomson, and the two owners agreed to
present the whole work to President Fallières. Thus the two volumes were
once more reunited after a separation of many centuries; but with two
sheets still missing. The illuminations harmonise in every respect
throughout, except that the designs in Volume I are somewhat superior to
those in Volume II. Amongst them one representing the _Children of
Israel led into Captivity by King Shalmaneser_ is most interesting and
exhibits Fouquet at the zenith of his powers. We may specially notice
the exquisitely beautiful landscape and the horses, which recall the art
of Pisanello. Another scene labelled _Clementia_ shows the _Return from
the Captivity_; and here we may observe a curious blending of classic
architecture with the French domestic style of the painter's own day.
This Codex of Fouquet's recalls the _Belles Heures_ of Ailly mentioned
above, which is considered to be an early work of the Brothers Limbourg
(_i.e._ circa 1403-13).

[Illustration: Plate XLIII.

Photo, Giraudon.

THE ANNUNCIATION.

Jean Fouquet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 184._]

But of all the MSS. illuminated by this artist the one which must most
particularly attract our attention is the _Book of Hours_ executed for
Etienne Chevalier, the greater part of which is now preserved at
Chantilly. Almost all these miniatures are reminiscent of impressions
received by Fouquet during residence in Florence and Rome. They were
apparently executed during the years 1453 and 1460, soon after his
return from Italy and immediately after the completion of the celebrated
diptych of _Etienne Chevalier and his Patron Saint_ and the _Madonna and
Child_ commissioned by this same Chevalier in 1453 for the Cathedral at
Melun in memory of his wife Catherine Buti. One portion of this diptych
(the _Madonna and Child_) is now, as mentioned above, in the Antwerp
Museum, whilst the other has found its way into the Kaiser Friedrich
Collection at Berlin. The miniatures at Chantilly, forty in number,
represent, if not the greatest, at least the most fascinating period of
the master's artistic career. Like the MS. of the _Antiquitates
Judæorum_ they also suffered many vicissitudes before finally entering
the haven of the Musée Condé. Nicolas, Baron of Navarre and Bearn, a
descendant of Etienne Chevalier, in the year 1630, when at the point of
death entreated his nephew, to whom he bequeathed his manuscripts, to
preserve and augment them "_en faveur des gens doctes_." Howbeit that
same nephew sold not only the _Boccaccio_ to Munich, but also his
ancestor Etienne Chevalier's _Book of Hours_. Whilst the former remained
intact the latter was mutilated by a dealer, who separated the text from
the miniatures in order to sell them individually. It is interesting to
note here that Gaignière in his _Receuils_ had copies made of the
portraits of Etienne Chevalier and of Charles VII from this MS. and
attached to them explanatory notes, as follows: "_Charles VII copié
après une miniature dans une prière d'heures faite pour Etienne
Chevalier, trésorier general de France sous ce Prince_"; and again,
"_Copie d'après une miniature dans un livre d'heures qu'il avait fait
faire_."

We may therefore gather from these notes that as late as the seventeenth
century the illustrations in this _Book of Hours_ had not been divided
from the text. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, however, the
portraits were again reproduced by Montfaucon; but this time they were
not copied from the originals, proving that the learned Benedictine
writer was then unable to discover their existence. Eventually in 1805
forty of these treasures were discovered at Bâle and bought by George
Brentano la Roche of Frankfurt, whence in 1891 they passed to the Duc
d'Aumale. Besides these forty, four more pages have been identified as
belonging to this same book, as follows: one in the British Museum,
which represents _David_ kneeling in prayer amid a beautiful landscape;
a _Mariensippe (Genealogy of the Blessed Virgin)_ in the Bibliothèque
Nationale, Paris; a fragment in the Louvre representing _St. Margaret_
with a landscape background; and yet one more, _St. Martin dividing his
mantle_, in the Conches Collection.

[Illustration: Plate XLIV.

Photo. Giraudon.

THE VISITATION.

Jean Fouquet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 186._]

The forty miniatures at Chantilly are hung upon the walls of the
_Santuario_--so called by the Duc d'Aumale because it sheltered his
greatest treasures--_i.e._ the forty Fouquets, Raphael's famous
_Graces_, the beautiful painting of _Esther before Ahasuerus_ and the
_Madonna_ of the Maison d'Orléans.

The miniature representing _Etienne Chevalier with his Patron St.
Stephen_[57] was intended as a frontispiece for this beautiful book. The
powerful Lord High Treasurer of France is represented humbly kneeling,
his eyes fixed steadily upon the Divine Mother, who, crowned and seated
beneath a Gothic canopy, holds upon her lap the Holy Babe.[58] To the
left angels are singing and playing upon musical instruments, whilst a
band of children clad in white timidly adore their Infant Saviour. The
architecture in the rear of the composition is of special interest, for
Gothic niches enshrining figures of the Prophets are intermingled with
panels in the style of the Italian Renaissance and Corinthian columns
after the manner of Brunelleschi and Michelozzo. A rich display of gold
in this miniature gives to it a strongly symbolic character, and may be
likened to the dying rays of the sun of Mediæval Art, to which the
artist desired to be not wholly indifferent. These exquisite designs
clearly exhibit the genius of an artist who had been profoundly
impressed by a sojourn in Italy, who had greatly profited thereby and
who, by assimilating into his own individuality the fruit of his studies
abroad, became a pioneer of pictorial art in his native land. The
likeness of the donor himself is especially attractive, for it appears
to have been taken direct from life, and, in spite of its smaller
dimensions, is superior to the life-size portrait of the same person
now at Berlin. It is this smaller presentation that Gaignières has
copied in his Receuils.

[Illustration: Plate XLV.

Photo. Giraudon.

THE BIRTH OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST.

Jean Fouquet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 188._]

_The Marriage of the Virgin_[59] is another scene of great interest. The
high-priest, arrayed in mitre and vestments, places the hand of Mary in
that of Joseph, the chosen suitor, who bears his budding rod. Like so
many of the artists of that period, the painter has taken his scene from
the _Legenda Aurea_ of Jacopo da Voragine, which tells us how Mary up to
the age of fourteen years had lived in the Temple and had there taken a
vow of virginity. Howbeit God commanded the High Priest Abiathar to
assemble all the unmarried men of the House of David and to give to each
a rod, upon which they were to inscribe their respective names. These
rods were then placed upon the Altar and to the owner of the one which
blossomed first the Blessed Virgin Mary was to be assigned. To this
extremely solemn act Fouquet gives a semi-humorous note by the
introduction of a realistic figure of Falstaffian proportions and a
group of disappointed suitors. In the background behind the principal
group St. Anne may be seen clad in exactly the same fashion as in the
_Mariensippe_ in the Bibliothèque Nationale. The style of the Temple
architecture gives the artist opportunity for introducing reminiscences
of Rome. In the broad frieze of fighting warriors we can recognise part
of Trajan's column; whilst the columns which flank the central arch
record the gilt bronze columns once grouped around the _Confession of
St. Peter_ in the old Basilica. These were, of course, in Fouquet's time
still _in situ_ and they reappear in the miniatures of the _Antiquitates
Judæorum_ in a scene where the victorious _Pompey enters the Temple in
triumph_.

As a strong contrast to this composition, where Renaissance and classic
architecture are happily blended, the _Annunciation_[60] transports us
to the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris; and we can recognise the long
stained-glass windows, the bronze lustres and the shrine which in
Fouquet's day was raised on pillars behind the high altar. Here all is
pure French Gothic impressed with the spirit of St. Louis. The action
takes place in the foreground; Mary, modest and girlish of mien, and the
Archangel, a prototype of those heavenly beings who figure in Jean
Perréal's triptych at Moulins.

The scene of the _Visitation_[61] is a portico supported by marble
columns, upon the frieze of which is inscribed the words "_Maistre
Etienne Chevalier_." The graceful figure of Mary closely resembles that
in the preceding illumination, while St. Elisabeth is presented in the
garb of a Flemish housewife. An obviously French servant to the right,
with dress tucked up and broom in hand, strikes once more that note of
realism which attracts Fouquet so much. In the background is to be seen
a well, around which children are playing.

Next follows the _Birth of St. John_[62] in the chamber of a French
home. To the left neighbours come to present their congratulations. Two
women prepare the bath and the linen, whilst the new-born infant sits
quietly upright upon the Virgin's lap, who gazes down upon him with
tender affection. That this figure is intended to represent the Mother
of God is indicated by the fact that her nimbus is unusually large. In
the Ghirlandajo frescoes of this scene at Santa Maria Novella there is
also a figure which appears to be intended for the Virgin Mary; but very
few artists besides Fouquet have introduced her into their presentations
of this episode. Zacharias is clad in the robes of a lawyer. Beneath the
scene are two quadrangles, in the first of which is inscribed the letter
D, and within it is a soldier holding a shield, which in turn bears the
initials E. C. (_Etienne Chevalier_). These initials occur repeatedly in
the frieze running round the page. In the second quadrangle, where
should have been the first words of the _Magnificat_, there is painted a
lamb and a tasteless wreath of roses, evidently an interpolation
introduced by the same hand that separated the text from the miniatures,
which we may observe again in no less than nineteen out of the forty
miniatures now at Chantilly. This composition of the _Birth of St. John_
exhibits, perhaps more than any of the preceding, the freedom with which
Fouquet treats these Biblical scenes.

[Illustration: Plate XLVI.

Photo. Giraudon.

THE ADORATION OF THE MAGI.

Jean Fouquet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 190._]

The same free tendency may be observed also in the _Nativity of Christ_
and in the _Adoration of the Magi_. This time and in both these scenes
the artist has chosen neither the columns of a Gothic church nor a Roman
temple, but remains faithful to tradition and presents the stable of
Bethlehem. In the _Nativity_ we may perceive to the right the angel
announcing to the shepherds the Birth of Christ. Hard by is a cavern, in
which, according to the legend, the shepherds took shelter from a
thunderstorm. The Infant Christ is extended upon the Madonna's blue
mantle and St. Joseph kneels between the ox and the ass. A humorous note
is again introduced by a shepherd playing on the bagpipes.

The Magi in the next scene are personified by the French King, Charles
VII himself, and his two sons--the Dauphin, afterwards Louis XI, and his
younger brother, the Duc de Berry, then a mere boy. The presence of the
Royal Guard clad in white and wearing helmets, leaves no doubt as to who
the personages were whom Fouquet intended to represent. The fortified
castle in the background is the Château de Chinon, whither Charles VII
retired during the English occupation of Paris and where he received
Joan of Arc.

Another illumination worthy of note is the _Betrayal_. The light which
pierces the dark shadows and illuminates the scene itself is very
remarkably treated.

The _Crucifixion_ in this series does not attain to the high level of
the similar episode in the _Très Riches Heures_. Its chief attraction
lies in the landscape, wherein, however, instead of Jerusalem and the
brook Cedron, Paris appears with the Sainte-Chapelle and the river
Seine. In the background the death of Judas Iscariot is most
dramatically represented. The _Crucifixion_ scene in the _Très Riches
Heures_ is, as we have already remarked, a most powerful creation, and
by the introduction of _chiaroscuro_ Pol Limbourg succeeded in producing
an effect which Fouquet, however much he may have admired it, did not
attempt to imitate. He laid greater stress upon the _Descent from the
Cross_. Amongst the men and women grouped around the Dead Saviour the
mourning figures of the Holy Mother and near her of SS. Mary Magdalene
and John, are clearly indicated. Joseph of Arimathæa holds a vase of
ointment, while a man with a peaked turban close at hand has been
pointed out as Gamaliel, the teacher of St. Paul.

[Illustration: Plate XLVII.

Photo. Giraudon.

THE ASCENSION.

Jean Fouquet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 192._]

Fouquet's power reaches its climax in the _Ascension_. Our Lord,
surrounded by angels, is borne to Heaven on a cloud, and beneath Him
golden rays apparently assist in raising Him upwards. Amongst the
disciples gazing Heavenwards may be singled out the powerful figure of
St. Peter, its simple grandeur reminding us of the creations of Masaccio
in the Brancacci Chapel in Florence, which Fouquet must have seen and
from which he seems to have drawn inspiration. The figure of the
Virgin Mary is also most impressive. No longer the sorrowing Mother
bowed down by grief as in the _Descent from the Cross_, she here appears
as the Mother of Christ the King of Heaven, and she shares His victory
over Hell and Death.

In the _Descent of the Holy Ghost_ Our Lady is seated upon a golden
throne and takes a more prominent part than is usually assigned to her
in other representations of the same scene.

Next to this comes the _Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin of her
approaching death_; and in accordance with the _Legenda Aurea_ the
Archangel Gabriel is presenting her with the palm of Paradise. This is a
somewhat unusual scene,[63] and proves that Fouquet must have studied
these legends with considerable care.

In the next illumination, representing _Mary's Obsequies_, the same palm
is borne by St. John, whilst St. Peter is one of the bearers of the
bier.

Fouquet's presentation of the _Coronation of the Virgin_ does not, as
with the Limbourgs or Enguerrand Charonton, take place in Heaven, but in
a hall richly decorated in the Renaissance style where the same
Corinthian columns are introduced that appear in the _Frontispiece_.

But one of the most remarkable compositions of the entire series is the
_Enthronement of the_ _Virgin_, a scene which Bossuet describes as
follows: "_Le ciel aussi bien que la terre a ses triomphes, et
l'exaltation de la Sainte Vierge dans le trône que son fils lui destine
doit faire un des beaux jours de l'éternité_." And Fouquet does indeed
depict this scene in a glow of colour which affords a vivid idea of
triumphant festivity. The Virgin, clothed in white, is seated beneath a
Gothic canopy to the left of the Trinity. Above her are countless angels
and below saints, priests and prophets who are praising God in concert.
Anatol Gruyer speaks of this miniature as the most important of all:
"What Dante so well described in the _Divina Commedia_ Fouquet painted
with masterly hand. It is a painting which may be described as sublime."

This wonderful series is brought to a close with a representation of _La
Toussaint_.[64] Our Lord, surrounded by angels, is enthroned between the
Virgin and the beloved disciple St. John. Below are seated apostles and
saints, amongst whom we can again discover Etienne Chevalier clad in a
red mantle beside his Patron Saint. On the opposite side kneels his
wife, Catherine Buti.

[Illustration: Plate XLVIII.

Photo. Giraudon.

ALL-SAINTS'-DAY.

Jean Fouquet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 194._]

Hung separately in the _Santuario_ at Chantilly these forty miniatures
of Fouquet form an important monument of French fifteenth-century Art
and provide strong evidence that French works of the highest merit
certainly existed at that time. Their present scarcity is no doubt due
to vandalism and wilful destruction. In these miniatures are apparent
all the qualities so characteristic of French Art, _i.e._ its exquisite
grace, its adaptability to foreign elements without loss of its own
individuality, its sense of humour, its restrained realism and its
overmastering love for Nature.



CHAPTER XV

JEAN PERRÉAL AND BOURDICHON


It is hardly conceivable that a master like Fouquet, so famous as a
painter of miniatures and portraits, should really have left no
followers. Indeed, it has been said that he ought to have been succeeded
by a French Raphael. Unfortunately the adverse circumstances which
surrounded French Art at that period prevented Fouquet's followers from
arriving at the eminence achieved by their master.

We hear of frescoes in the house of Joan of Arc, executed by some
unknown artist in 1481 (the year of Fouquet's demise), which represented
that great heroine and her noble deeds. Had they but survived an
interesting page of history would have come down to us and we might have
even possessed an authentic likeness of her. Montaigne, when passing
through the country of Lorraine on his way to Italy, saw these
paintings, and makes mention of them in his _Journal_[65] as follows:
"_La maisonette où naquit Jeanne d'Arc est toutes peintes de ses gestes;
mais l'orage en a fort corrompu la peinture_"--a further proof of the
havoc played upon early French Art by time and neglect.

A younger contemporary of Fouquet was Simon Marmion, who lived at
Valenciennes and is chiefly known to us by his fine altarpiece at
Saint-Bertin: a composition now divided between Berlin and London.
Moreover, two of Fouquet's sons served their father as assistants and to
them may be ascribed some of the works of his school--such, for
instance, as a miniature representing an _Angelic Choir_ shown at the
Exhibition of Illuminated MSS. arranged by the Burlington Fine Arts Club
in 1908.

Bourdichon and Jean Perréal, Jean Payet and Jean Colombe may be
considered as followers of Fouquet; yet documentary evidence is very
scanty. It is true, however, that there exist some fragments of
historical information which would seem to allude to their work; as, for
example, the following fact. Some fifty years ago cartridges which had
been made up during the time of the Revolution in default of other
material out of old manuscripts and contracts were found in the arsenal
of the Hôtel des Invalides; and it was to Comte de Laborde that the idea
occurred of making a closer investigation of the composition of these
cartridges. After a careful study of those time-worn and crumpled
fragments he discovered upon one of them the name of Bourdichon and with
it the additional facts that he resided in the town of Tours, where
Fouquet was born; that his birth took place in 1457; that at the early
age of twenty-one he was entrusted with the execution of certain
frescoes in a chapel; and that he was Court-Painter to Charles VIII,
whose portrait he painted, as well as that of his Queen, Anne de
Bretagne. A small portrait of her son, _Prince Orlant_,[66] who died in
childhood, has been attributed to Bourdichon; and a similar portrait,
representing his younger brother _Charles_, which came to light only
recently[67] and was acquired by the Louvre, is evidently by the same
hand.[68]

Bourdichon's skill can be traced with greater certainty in various
_Books of Hours_[69]: _i.e._ the "_Heures d'Aragon_," a small volume
adorned with graceful miniatures considered by M. E. Mâle to be one of
his early works; while the _Prayer Book of Anne de Bretagne_, which is
authenticated by a document dated 1508 (Bibl. Nat.), is a later and more
finished achievement. Compared, however, with Fouquet's style, the work
of Bourdichon seems like wine diluted with water, whilst the total
absence of landscape from the backgrounds of his miniatures gives to his
figures an unusually cold appearance. His _Madonna_ is distinguished-looking
but rather rigid and devoid of expression; his _Magdalen_ though
poetical seems lifeless; and as for the portrait of _Queen Anne_
herself and her companions on the _Frontispiece_ it is purely
conventional without attempt at aiming at a likeness. Instead of
the landscapes which form so fascinating a part of the work of his
predecessors we find him introducing great masses of flowers on the
margins of the illuminations. The Queen who commissioned the book
evidently was devoted to flowers; and thus Bourdichon, probably at her
express command, brought them in wherever he could. We must indeed give
him credit for a vast amount of charm and delicacy in the execution
of these lovely flowers and they form a very perfect and beautiful
decoration.

Although M. Bouchot mentions the name of Bourdichon more than once in
reference to certain drawings at Chantilly there is nothing amongst the
treasures of the Musée Condé which really can be attributed to him with
any certainty.

With Jean Perréal it is different. He is the artist who has been
identified by some authorities with the mysterious _Maître de Moulins_.
It was M. de Maulde and Henri Bouchot who first propounded this theory;
and they were supported by Mr. Roger Fry and M. Hulin after the
Exhibition of the French Primitifs in 1904, where a number of works
supposed to be by this master were arranged in definite order for
comparison purposes.

We know that Perréal at the beginning of his career lived at Moulins,
where he held the post of Court-Painter to Duc Pierre de Bourbon; and
that there he had the opportunity of studying Fouquet's miniatures in
the _Antiquitates Judæorum_, then an heirloom in the Ducal Library. Like
Bourdichon Perréal appears to have had no taste for landscape, and it
was chiefly portraiture that attracted him. This branch of art was, in
fact, the prevailing interest of his time, and that so-called
_inquiétude du portrait_ manifested itself more or less strongly in the
miniature-painting of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries until it
almost entirely superseded all landscape work. We find an excellent
portrait, for instance, of _Charles V of France_ in the _Heures
d'Anjou_[70] and another in the _Bible Historiée_[71].

The well-known portrait of _Jean le Bon_, father of Charles V of France,
in the Bibliothèque Nationale is considered to be the prototype of
French portraits, and it is therefore not inopportune to compare it with
the later portraiture. It was discovered by Gaignières at Oyron, an old
château of the Gouffier family, and was the only painting which the
Regent in 1717 thought worth keeping out of the sale of this collector's
treasures. It is ascribed to Girard d'Orléans, who is recorded as having
assisted Jean de Coste to decorate the Château de Vaudreuil. Girard is
also known to have accompanied the King to England, when the latter was
held prisoner there after the Battle of Poitiers. It is not improbable
that this portrait--which is one of a set of four--was painted during
his captivity.[72] Executed in England it no doubt gave an impulse to
English Art of the same kind; although it is an undisputed fact that at
that period there already existed the paintings in St. Stephen's Chapel
at Westminster,[73] through which England would appear to have a reason
to claim--as suggested by Mr. Lionel Cust[74]--priority in time over
France. On the other hand, there is nothing in England to compare with
the exquisite miniature portrait of the _Duc de Berry_ in the _Très
Riches Heures_ or with the work of Fouquet half a century later. The
portrait in the _Très Riches Heures_ of the _Duc de Berry_--who, by the
way, along with his brother Louis d'Anjou, shared their father's
captivity in England--was most probably painted from life, since it has
that note of realism which is so characteristic of all French Art.

Another remarkable portrait is that of _Louis II of Anjou_, King of
Sicily, also copied by Gaignières. Its date is 1415 and a miniature of
it is to be found in the _Livre d'Heures_ which once belonged to King
René.[75]

We hear also of an artist whom Charles VI, when choosing a consort, sent
to the various Courts of Europe to paint the portraits of eligible
Princesses. The name of this artist has, unfortunately, not come down to
us.

[Illustration: Plate XLIX.

Photo. Giraudon.

SEIGNEUR DE PALISSE.

Attributed to J. Perréal. (About 1515).

Photo. Giraudon.

COMTE DE LIGNY.

Attributed to J. Perréal. (About 1505).

Musée Condé.

_To face page 202._]

Fouquet, following in the steps of the Limbourgs, unquestionably gave
fresh impetus to French portraiture and it is not unreasonable to
suggest that the portraits of the so-called _Preux de Marignan_ at
Chantilly are sufficiently similar to his style as to be attributable at
least to the same school. Before, however, bringing forward the
proposition that these drawings may reasonably be ascribed to Jean
Perréal we must first refer to the _MS. de Saint Michel_,[76] which is
assigned to that master by no less an authority than Comte Paul Durrieu.
And here, at least, we have some historical proof on which to rely. The
Dedication to the King on the first page shows that this manuscript was
a present from the Duc de Bourbon to his young Sovereign; and it is
unlikely that the Duke would have employed upon this occasion anyone
else rather than his own Court-Painter whom he might perhaps have
desired to bring under the King's notice. On one of the pages of this
manuscript Charles VIII, who was delicate and small of stature,
appears wrapped in a wide mantle which imparts to him an air of
importance. As St. Michael, he stands between two courtiers and is
surrounded by angels, who bear a strong resemblance to the floating
angels in the triptych at Moulins attributed to Perréal. Moreover, in
the same MS. there is a drawing of a head in profile which recalls a
drawing at Chantilly attributed to Perréal, representing the _Comte de
Ligny_, a patron of the artist and confidant of Charles VIII, whom he
accompanied to Naples. It is not at all unlikely that de Ligny should
have commissioned Perréal to paint his portrait, in which he is
represented in a fur coat and cap, similar to that worn by his master
the King in the well-known bust in the Museo Nationale at Florence.

A drawing, also at the Musée Condé, representing _Lescueur_,
_Bourdillon_, and another which, although supposed by Bouchot to be
_Anne de Montmorency_, is apparently meant for _Louis XII_,[77] have
decided affinity with this portrait of _de Ligny_ and with the
profile-head in the _St. Michel_ manuscript assigned to Perréal. We must
remark, however, that these drawings are inferior in craftsmanship to
the supposed portrait of _Louis XII_. The supposition therefore arises
that they may be merely copies from lost originals. The interesting
drawing on which Moreau Nelaton[78] discovered the name of _Erasmus_ in
the strange, almost illegible handwriting of Catherine de Medicis is
most likely by the same hand, and this group of drawings all betray an
unmistakeable relationship to another group likewise at Chantilly;
namely, the well-known portraits of the _Preux de Marignan_ from which
the miniatures in the second volume of the MS. of the _Gallic War_ are
reproduced. Bouchot and also Dimier have tentatively ascribed both
drawings and miniatures to Jean Clouet. But others, and amongst them
both M. de Maulde and the present author,[79] assign the original
drawings of the _Preux_ to Perréal.

[Illustration: Plate L.

ERASMUS.

Attributed to J. Perréal.

JUST DE TOURNON.

Attributed to J. Perréal. (About 1515).

Musée Condé.

_To face page 204._]

It is strange that Bouchot and Dimier, and also Maulde La Clavière,
accept as a foregone conclusion that both drawings and miniatures must
necessarily be by the same hand. Yet everything points to the fact that
the miniatures in question were copied subsequently (about 1519-20) from
these very same drawings by Godfroy le Battave, the author of the
excellent _grisailles_ with which this manuscript is ornamented. It
stands to reason that it was he who also reproduced the miniature of
_Francis I_ on the frontispiece of the first volume of the MS. in
question. To judge from the costumes and headgears of these heroes they
cannot be dated later than 1514-15, a period anterior to Clouet. It is
therefore quite plausible to suggest that Perréal, who at the time of
the Battle of Marignan was Court-Painter, received from Francis I the
commission to portray his famous comrades, _Artur_ and _Guillaume
Gouffier_, _Just de Tournon_,[80] _Odet de Foix_,[81] _Fleuranges_, the
_Seigneur de la Palisse_,[82] and _Anne de Montmorency_.

It is a curious fact that all the numerous sixteenth-century French
drawings at Chantilly and in other collections should have been formerly
attributed indiscriminately to "Janet," a name employed to designate
both the Clouets, Jean and François. Yet we know that Perréal was
Court-Painter to Louis XII and that the latter was so enchanted with his
work that when he was in Italy he sent for them "_pour monstrer aux
dames de par deça_," and referred to him as a "_portraitiste de visages,
qui peint de petits portraits sur parchemin, et sans rival en
Italie_."[83] Some years later, after the death of his Queen, the aged
monarch sent Perréal to England to paint a portrait of his affianced
bride, _Mary Tudor_. He had previously been sent to Germany for a
similar object, so that it was the most natural thing in the world for
the young King Francis on ascending the throne to commission a painter,
who had already been employed by his predecessor, to portray also
himself and his warrior friends.

Yet another drawing at Chantilly may be attributed to Perréal
representing _Guillaume de Montmorency_,[84] father of the celebrated
Anne. Judging by the age and the attire this portrait must necessarily
be assigned to an artist working before Jean Clouet's time.

After having adduced these proofs in support of our argument it would
seem to be going purposely out of our way not to prefer Perréal as the
author of the _Preux de Marignan_ rather than Jean Clouet; and
especially as there are a vast number of drawings belonging to the
period when Clouet was Court-Painter--1523-39--which clearly prove the
greater elaboration of his style.

[Illustration: PLATE LI.

FRANCIS I.

_Photo Braun & Co._ _Musée Condé._ Attributed to Jean Perréal.

FRANCIS I.

_British Museum._

CÆSAR.

_British Museum._]

As for the miniatures in the MS. of the _Gallic War_ there can be no
doubt that they were reproduced from the original drawings at Chantilly,
_not_ because the author of the _grisailles_ in that manuscript was
unable to execute portraits himself--for he was evidently an excellent
draughtsman--but because it was the fashion of the time to have such
drawings taken from life and then reproduced in colour in order to spare
their noble patrons the inconvenience of sitting so often. We have
already stated that Godfroy le Battave reproduced in miniature on the
frontispiece of the first volume of this MS. the effigy of _Francis I_.
Beneath on the same page is a miniature of _Cæsar_, probably copied from
an old cameo; whilst the miniature of the King can be traced to a
painting now at Chantilly, attributed to Perréal, and formerly in the
possession of Gaignières. It represents Francis I at the time of his
accession and is so subtle in its representation of character that it
fascinates by its obvious verisimilitude.

Another circumstance in favour of our proposition is found in the notes
with reference to an intended execution in colours inscribed upon the
back of the drawing supposed to represent _Louis XII_.[85] These notes
are in a handwriting closely resembling the handwriting of Perréal in
the _Comptes de Lyon_ and in his autographs in the Bibliothèque
Nationale, where he speaks of his "_croions qui n'est que demy
couleurs_."[86]

From the above arguments we are led to the conclusion that this delicate
art of pencil drawing must have originated on French soil, and that it
was apparently practised by Jean Fouquet,[87] Perréal, and probably also
to a certain extent by Bourdichon, before Jean Clouet appeared in
France.

Nevertheless, the latter, when he came to Tours, adapted his style--till
then more closely resembling that of Holbein--to French requirements;
and his son, François Clouet, developed this art to its highest
perfection, combining his father's methods with those of his French
predecessors. It is to be hoped, since some examples of the work of the
long-neglected Perréal have now come to light, that more proofs of his
versatility and power may yet appear, and that we may arrive at
something more definite regarding him. The portraits of _Charles VIII_
and _Anne de Bretagne_, discovered by Bouchot in a small MS. volume once
the property of Gaignières, recall the drawings in the Musée Condé which
we have assigned to Perréal; and so also does a small panel portrait of
_Philip le Beau_ now in the Northbrook Collection.

[Illustration: Plate LII.

Photo. Giraudon.

LOUIS XII. (ABOUT 1514).

Attributed to Jean Perréal.

Photo. Giraudon.

ODET DE FOIX.

Attributed to Jean Perréal.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 2_.]

Furthermore, the so-called _Tournois_ tapestry, which may be assigned to
the beginning of the sixteenth century, seems to reveal Jean Perréal's
style. It is important to notice that documentary evidence proves that
Perréal presided as Master of the Revels on the occasion of the State
Entry into Lyons of Philip le Beau and his wife, Jeanne la Loca; on
which occasion they were received with great pomp by Louis XII and Anne
de Bretagne. We learn that he executed decorations for these
festivities, and it is therefore not impossible that his designs may
have been subsequently used for the tapestries in question, since they
present to us _Louis XII_ and _Anne de Bretagne_ with their Royal
guests and numerous suite.

Thus historical record also would seem to favour the theory which we
have endeavoured to establish--namely, that Jean Perréal as stated
worked with pencil and chalk some time before the appearance upon the
scene of Jean Clouet. In spite of the regrettable fact that most of his
work has either been swept away by time or is still attributed to other
artists enough evidence remains, if one will only accept it, of an
activity which it is not easy to discount.

Perréal is also mentioned in Royal Accounts as an architect and sculptor
in the service of Anne de Bretagne, who entrusted to him the design for
a tomb for her parents, François, Duc de Bretagne, and his wife
Marguerite de Foix, at Nantes--a monument subsequently executed by
Michel Colombe. The graceful angels who keep watch over the dead and the
noble figures of Justice and Temperance are silent tokens of Perréal's
ability. He was also consulted by that noble patroness of the Arts,
Margaret of Austria, in connection with the tomb at Brou of her husband,
Philibert of Savoy, and for this monument also some of his designs were
used.

Amongst the French medals (1476-1515) in the Metropolitan Museum (New
York) there is a masterpiece which bears the portraits of _Louis XII_
and _Anne de Bretagne_. This fine work of art (of which there is another
example in the Wallace Collection) is known to have been designed by
Jean Perréal (draughtsman), modelled by Nicolas Leclerc and Jehan de
Saint-Priest (sculptors) and cast by Jehan Lepère (goldsmith). It is
considered to be one of the finest examples of this species of work
executed during the French Renaissance and was struck on the occasion of
the marriage of Louis XII with the widow of Charles VIII. It was
formerly supposed to be of Italian origin but is now authoritatively
assigned to Jean Perréal. Reproductions of these medals, but smaller in
size, are at the Victoria and Albert Museum. It would seem that the
artist's fame received a final recognition in the fact that immediately
after his death in 1528 Francis I sent for Italian painters to decorate
Fontainebleau _on account of the dearth of native talent_.

[Illustration: Plate LIII.

LOUIS XII.

ANNE OF BRITTANY.

Victoria and Albert Museum.

JEAN CLOUET.

_To face page 210._]



CHAPTER XVI

JEAN CLOUET


The veil of oblivion which so undeservedly fell upon Perréal is
gradually lifted as we approach the period of Jean Clouet. Even if we
except some drawings which we are bound to assign to an earlier period
there still remain a great number which, judging by the age and style of
costume of the characters represented, must necessarily be reckoned as
falling within his period and may be reasonably attributed to him.
Mention is made of no less than four persons bearing the surname of
Clouet: Jean the grandfather, who painted for the Duke of Burgundy at
Brussels about 1485; Jean Clouet, Court-Painter to Francis I; and his
two sons--Clouet of Navarre[88] and François, who brought to its zenith
the art of drawing in sixteenth-century France.

[Illustration: Plate LIV.

THE DAUPHIN FRANCOIS, ELDEST SON OF FRANCIS I.

Antwerp Museum.

_To face page 212._]

Jean Clouet,[89] also known as _Jeannet_, migrated to France and settled
at Tours, where he presently married Jeanne Boucault, the daughter of a
goldsmith. He first appears in the Royal Accounts in 1516 as receiving
160 livres per annum--a sum which, on the death of Bourdichon in 1522,
was increased to 240 livres. Subsequently we find special references to
several portraits by him, taken from life[90] which the King was so
anxious to see that he sent for them by "diligence and post-horses."
Again we read further on that his wife, Jeanne, travelled expressly from
Paris[91] to Fontainebleau in order to convey to His Majesty portraits
done by her husband: "_Pour apporter et monstrer au dict seigneur aucuns
ouvrages du dict Jeannet_." After the death of Perréal in 1528 Jean
Clouet remained practically without a rival. Only one artist--a certain
Jean Champion who seems to have been in receipt of a very small
salary--is mentioned besides him; but none of this man's work is
actually recorded. Amongst the numerous works attributed to Jean Clouet
absolute certainty may be given to a portrait of _Oronce Finé_, which,
however, has only come down to us through a mediocre engraving in
Thevet's series of _Hommes Illustres_. Thevet speaks of this portrait as
an authentic work by Jean Clouet on the authority of the mathematician's
own son but it is not easy to judge fairly the work of any artist by an
engraving. We can, however, gather enough from it to justify us in
concluding that Jean Clouet's craftsmanship was of a more elaborate
nature than that which may be observed in the portraits of the _Preux
de-Marignan_. The portrait of _Oronce Finé_, for example, bears far
more resemblance to that of _Duc Claude de Guise_,[92] of which there is
a drawing at Chantilly and a coloured copy in the Pitti Gallery at
Florence, both executed at about the same time. Then again there is at
Hampton Court an excellent portrait of an _Unknown Man_ holding a volume
of Petrarch, which is attributed to Jean Clouet. The original drawing
for this somewhat later and more artistic piece of work is also at
Chantilly. Another drawing likewise at Chantilly (a capital example of
the artist's methods) represents _Francis I_ after his reverses at
Pavia, wherein His Majesty has lost that expression of youthful buoyancy
so conspicuous in the oil-painting in the same collection. He wears his
cap adorned with a white plume no longer close-set as formerly and
straight on his forehead, but according to the fashion of the day with
the hair projecting from underneath it and slightly tilted to the left.
His beard has also been allowed to grow, in order, it is said, to hide a
scar on his cheek. This drawing was unquestionably taken from life, and
was used for the portrait in oils now in the Louvre; which serves to
prove how much care and diligence Jean Clouet expended upon his
portraits. Just as a sculptor uses the clay for his models, so with
equal faithfulness the artist made his drawings serve for his final
portraits in a heavier medium. This small painting,[93] now recognised
as an original work, is infinitely superior to the larger portrait,[94]
also in the Louvre, although both have evidently been copied from one
and the same drawing. Both portraits were formerly at Fontainebleau,
where tradition had always assigned them to Jean Clouet. This likeness
of _King Francis_ seems to have been a very favourite one for we find
numerous copies of it: for example, in the Méjanés Collection at Aix; in
the _Recueil Marriette_; and in the _Recueil d'Orange_ in England.[95]
There are no less than eight copies of it in St. Petersburg, and the one
in Florence is said to have been made by Queen Catherine herself. A
later portrait of this King, likewise at Chantilly, represents him in
middle age, when years had already begun to tell upon him and the lines
of his face had become heavy and drawn. The original drawing for
this--perhaps also by Jean Clouet--is lost, but a copy survives in the
_Recueil Lenoir_. A miniature in oil at Florence, in which the King is
represented on horseback, seems to have been designed from this drawing;
whilst another similar miniature in the Louvre (Collection Sauvageot) is
generally considered to be the work of François Clouet, who had at that
time just begun his artistic career under his father's direction. This
is probably the last likeness of Francis designed by Jean Clouet. It
appears to have been painted in 1539 and may be regarded as the official
portrait of this King. It is certainly vastly superior to another
even later portrait, of which there is a copy in the Louvre and a
miniature in the _Recueil du Tillet_ (Bibliothèque Nationale), where His
Majesty is shown to have greatly increased in girth. Another similar
miniature is in the ante-room at Chantilly, the King being again
represented on horseback after a fashion affected by the succeeding
Valois Kings; and the same original reappears in the _Book of Hours_ of
Catherine de Medicis, where Francis figures as _King David_; appearing
to be older than he really was, for he was but fifty-three when he died.
Both Thevet in his _Hommes Illustres_ and Gautier in his _Kings of
France_ reproduce this same portrait.

[Illustration: PLATE LV.

MONSIEUR DE NEVERS.

_Musée Condé._ Jean Clouet.

DUC DE GUISE.

_Musée Condé._ Jean Clouet.]

The likeness of _Francis I_ at Hampton Court, though painted by some
mediocre copyist, has a special interest, inasmuch as it once belonged
to Henry VIII of England. This portrait is reproduced in pencil in the
_Recueil d'Arras_, and another, though superior, presentation of this
same King in the Tribune at Chantilly seems to be of the same type. The
King is here shown in profile, a treatment copied repeatedly by
Limousin, an example being in the Gallerie d'Apollon at the Louvre,
where he is seen kneeling beside Queen Claude. The latest portrait of
all of this monarch is a drawing at Chantilly taken full face, which
seems to have been made as a _post-mortem_ effigy, such as, according to
the Royal Accounts, François Clouet was commissioned to make. This again
is only a copy; so that of these many and varied types of portrait few
only can claim to be the original work of Jean Clouet. In this
connection we should like to mention an exquisite drawing recently
acquired by the British Museum which represents _Marguerite
d'Angoulême_, sister of King Francis, in the bloom of her youth.[96]

Portraits of _Queen Claude_[97] are as rare as those of her royal
husband are numerous. There is a slight drawing at Chantilly
representing the daughter of Louis XII: presumably taken soon after her
marriage to the heir to the French throne (which under the Salic Law she
could not ascend herself). This marriage took place after the death of
her mother, Anne de Bretagne, whose dearest wish it had been that she
should marry Charles V, a suitor to whom she had been affianced in
infancy. According to Brantôme the shrewd Queen Anne foresaw that her
timid little daughter could not have a particularly happy life between
so fickle a husband as Francis and so ambitious a mother-in-law as
Louise of Savoy; but King Louis thought otherwise and sacrificed his
daughter to his patriotism. This drawing, albeit very slight, is not
without considerable charm. It dates probably from the same period as
the portrait of the young King at Chantilly and may perhaps be
attributed to the same artist. It is nothing like so elaborately
finished as the drawing of Queen Claude's sister _Renée_, which in
craftsmanship recalls the drawing of _Duc Claude de Guise_ in the Musée
Condé. Another far more finished and far more elaborate drawing, now
in Florence, represents _Queen Claude_ some ten years later as
Queen-Mother; and it bears upon it marginal notes in no less august a
hand than that of Catherine de Medicis herself, which enhances its
importance. Apparently this too is a copy of one of Jean Clouet's lost
originals.

[Illustration: PLATE LVI.

FRANCIS I.

_Photo Giraudon._

_Louvre._

Jean Clouet.]

The next drawings of interest by this artist in the portfolios at
Chantilly are likenesses of the two _Dauphins of France_[98] and of the
other Royal Children: a portrait of the _Dauphin François_, which was
repeated in colours in an exquisite little panel now at Antwerp,[99]
with the slight difference that the Royal Child has exchanged his simple
cap for a plumed hat; and likenesses of _Monsieur d'Orléans_ (afterwards
the Dauphin Henri), and of the third son, _Charles_, so great a
favourite with his aunt Marguerite. This latter Prince had the good
fortune to be kept at home when his two elder brothers were given as
hostages to the Emperor Charles V after the disastrous defeat at Pavia
to be subjected by him to four years of most inhuman imprisonment.
Bodin, who was sent by their Royal Father to attend upon his unfortunate
sons, relates that he found them in a dark chamber seated upon small
wooden chairs. The hardest of straw mattresses were provided for them,
and they were not allowed to wear the plumed caps which he brought for
them, for fear that by some exercise of necromancy they might perhaps
contrive to fly away! According to Brantôme, the poor Dauphin had
almost forgotten his native French, so that his younger brother had to
assist him in making himself understood. The charming sketch at
Chantilly of the _Dauphin François_ wearing a plumed hat was evidently
made after his safe return to France.

[Illustration: Plate LVII.

Photo Giraudon.

QUEEN CLAUDE OF FRANCE.

Attributed to J. Perréal. About 1515.

Photo Giraudon.

RENEE OF FRANCE, DUCHESS OF FERRARA.

Attributed to Jean Clouet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 21_.]

A slight sketch shows _Madeleine de Valois_ as a child. This princess
was married at the age of seventeen to King James V of Scotland; and she
is said to have been so delighted at the prospect of becoming a Queen
that she soon consoled herself for having to leave _la douce France_ for
so rigorous a climate. She was, however, extremely delicate and died six
months later, to the unbounded grief of her husband, who for years could
not be persuaded to remarry. Princess Marguerite, on hearing of her
elder sister's untimely death, shut herself up in her own apartments and
refused food to the great injury of her health; and it was only by the
urgent persuasions of her aunt Marguerite d'Angoulême that she was
induced to resume her morning walks in the gardens of Fontainebleau and
so by degrees to recover. A variety of drawings at Chantilly present
this young princess at different periods of her life; and in the earlier
of these, as in the portraits of her sister and two brothers, we can
trace the handiwork of Jean Clouet. A painted portrait of her (which
formerly belonged to Gaignières) in the Tribune at Chantilly, is
attributed to Corneille de Lyon, and on the margin is written "_Marg. de
France, Duchesse de Berry_." She is represented with auburn hair and
blue eyes like her brother the Dauphin, whose portrait hangs in the
same room. The words "_Corneille fecit_" are written on the back of the
frame by Gaignières himself, who in so doing settled its authorship.
Whilst the Dauphin seems in his portrait to be but eighteen years of age
his sister Marguerite looks thirty, so that we may conclude that she sat
at a much later period. The numerous drawings that François Clouet made
of this Princess[100] reveal that amiable disposition so much praised by
Brantôme. He speaks of her as "_la bonté du monde, charitable,
magnifique, liberale, sage, vertueuse, si accostayle et douce que rien
plus_." She remained unmarried until she had reached the age of
thirty-six, because she declined (it is said) to marry one of her
brother's subjects and yet did not wish to leave her beloved France.
When quite young she had accompanied her aunt Marguerite to Nice, where
she fixed her choice upon the heir of the House of Savoy, to whom after
twenty-one years' interval she was, when adverse political complications
had finally passed away, eventually united.

She was meanwhile much admired at the French Court for her learning. A
Latin and Greek scholar of merit, she studied Aristotle's _Ethics_ and
is reported to have sent to Paris for at least three different editions
of Cicero. She had no special gift in the use of the pen like her
versatile aunt,[101] the authoress of the _Heptameron_, although she
occupied her mind with continual study and much careful reading. She
patronised the poet Du Bellay, who translated for her Bembo and
Naugerius and she induced him to assert that no century would ever
extinguish the memory of Boccaccio and Petrarch. Moreover, she attracted
to the French Court Baccio del Bene, of whom Ronsard said that he was
the only Italian author worthy of earnest consideration at this period.
Her learning acquired for her the _sobriquet_ of "Pallas"; her emblem
was an olive-branch; and she was looked upon as the symbol of Platonism
in its highest form. Her father, King Francis, paid but little attention
to her; but her brother, Henri II, loved and esteemed her greatly and
when she married ordered for her adornment magnificent robes, costly
lace and jewels, and organised great festivities. It was on the occasion
of these nuptials, however, that the terrible tragedy occurred which
brought about His Majesty's death. Like her aunt Rénée at Ferrara
Marguerite[102] in her home in Piedmont never ceased to long for her
"sweet France"; and every Frenchman who passed through Turin, on
presenting himself at her Court, was warmly welcomed and munificently
entertained. With her enlightened views she was able to act as mediator
in the religious differences which raged so violently in France during
the sixteenth century, and which extended into the country of her
adoption; and she protected, as far as she was able, the persecuted
Waldenses. The last years of her life were devoted chiefly to the
education of her son, Charles Emmanuel of Savoy; and Michel de
l'Hôpital declared that this Prince owed the success of his career
entirely to her. The French Ambassador at Constantinople left to her his
entire fortune, and the poet Du Bellay on his death-bed wept bitterly
because he was unable to take a last farewell of her. When she herself
died there perished with her all that was best in the spirit of the
neo-Platonism initiated by her aunt, the first Marguerite; so that it
presently fell entirely to pieces under the influence of the third
Marguerite, youngest daughter of Catherine de Medicis.

[Illustration: Plate LVIII.

THE DAUPHIN FRANCOIS, ELDEST SON OF FRANCIS I.

Jean Clouet.

Photo. Giraudon.

HENRI D'ORLEANS, AFTERWARDS HENRI II.

Attributed to Jean Clouet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 220._]

A likeness of _Rénée de France_[103] which bears some affinity to the
portrait of her sister _Queen Claude_ is also to be found at Chantilly.
It represents her at the time of her marriage to Ercole, Duke of
Ferrara, son of Lucrezia Borgia: nuptials which were celebrated in the
Sainte Chapelle at Paris. Like the other French princesses of her day
she was extremely intelligent and studious, and during her time the
Court of Ferrara became renowned as an intellectual centre to which
French visitors were always warmly welcomed. To the complaints of her
Italian courtiers that she spent too much money upon her compatriots she
replied, "_Que voulez-vous? Ces sont pauvres Français de ma nation
lesquelles si Dieu m'eut donné barbe au menton, et que je fusse homme,
seraient maintenant tous mes sujets, et si cette méchante loi Salique ne
me tenait trop de rigueur_." Rénée was a strong adherent of the
Reformed Faith and welcomed Calvin to her Court, thereby giving serious
annoyance to her husband, the Duke, whose policy it was to keep on good
terms with the Pope. The poor Duchess therefore presently found herself
compelled to part with all her French ladies-in-waiting on account of
their Protestant views. Furthermore, her brother-in-law, Cardinal
Ippolito d'Este, was sent to the French Court to discuss these matters
with the King, upon which occasion those two connoisseurs and patrons of
Art became fast friends.[104]

After the death of her husband the Dowager Duchess was exiled by her
son, Alfonso, to Montargis,[105] and there she was visited by the
Cardinal--who, in spite of her heretical leanings, had never ceased to
be on good terms with her. According to Brantôme she here provided
shelter and food for 300 Huguenots who had been despoiled of their
goods; and she even went so far as to remonstrate with her son-in-law,
François de Guise, for his cruel treatment of the Prince de Condé;
saying that "whoever had advised the King to take this course of action
had done a great wrong." Notwithstanding her Calvinistic views she was
always reckoned by the Royal Family as a true Daughter of France and was
held in high honour by them. Her portraits, like those of her sister
Queen Claude, are extremely rare.

[Illustration: PLATE LIX.

MADAME DE VENDÔME D'ALENÇON.

_Photo Giraudon._

_Musée Condé._

Jean Clouet.

JEANNE BOUCAULT.

_Musée Condé._

Jean Clouet.]

Besides the portraits of the Valois princes and princesses at Chantilly
there are a great number of likenesses of other interesting
historical personages. It would, however, lead us too far afield were we
to attempt to enumerate them all. Amongst them, however, the most
remarkable are as follows: _Madame Vendôme d'Alençon_,[106] mother of
Antoine de Bourbon and of Louis I Prince de Condé (a drawing on a larger
scale than most of the others); of the same size, _Madame
l'Estrange_,[107] a lady renowned for her beauty and greatly beloved by
the Dauphin François; _Henri d'Albret, King of Navarre_; _Chandus_, one
of King Francis' most faithful officers; and various portraits of
_Unknown Young Men_. All these are excellently drawn, may be assigned to
Jean Clouet and are evidently taken from life. In some of the portraits
we can detect a point of transition between the joint work of father and
son: for example, in a drawing representing _Louis de Nevers_,[108] son
of a Princesse de Bourbon and related to the Princes of the House of
Cleves. This drawing is incorrectly designated _Saint Marsault_; but a
copy supplies the right name. There is a copy of it in colours in the
Lochis Collection at Bergamo, which long passed under the name of
Holbein until Dr. G. Frizzoni assigned it to François Clouet, who
evidently executed it from the drawing at Chantilly. In this same
connection may be mentioned the _Sieur de Canaples_,[109] and the
portrait of an _Unknown Lady_ of singular force of expression, very
plainly clad and without ornaments, who may perhaps be _Jeanne
Boucault_[110] of Tours, Jean Clouet's own clever and devoted wife.

[Illustration: Plate LX.

Photo. Giraudon.

MADAME L'ESTRANGE.

Attributed to Jean Clouet. About 1535.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 224._]

Before we take leave of Jean Clouet and pass on to his brilliant son
attention should be called to a fascinating portrait of a young girl
inscribed "_la reine Jehanne de Navarre petite_,"[111] which, on account
of its excellence, might well be attributed to the master himself. In
this instance history comes to our aid, for we are informed that
Princesse Jeanne (known as "_la mignonne de deux rois_" on account of
the marked affection shown to her by both King Francis, her uncle, and
King Henry of Navarre, her father) was in her fourth year removed from
the charge of her own parents and transported to Plessis-le-Tours, a
château on the Loire; where there was provided for her a suite
consisting of a lady-in-waiting, a master of the horse, two chaplains
and other attendants. The reason for this strange arrangement was
political, inasmuch as Francis feared that Henry of Navarre would
negotiate a marriage between this child and Philip of Spain, eldest son
of Charles V. In vain the little Princess wept and implored her Royal
uncle to allow her to rejoin her mother. Her wish was not to be granted
until she had reached her twelfth year, and then only on condition that
she should be betrothed at once to the Duke of Cleves, whose sister Anne
was wife of King Henry VIII of England--a political scheme to unite the
Protestant Princes of Germany and England against the Emperor Charles
V. It was probably at the moment when the Princess was about to leave
the lonely château on the Loire that Francis commissioned Jean Clouet to
secure for him a likeness of his niece before her departure for Béarn.
Jeanne, who was born at Fontainebleau in 1528, appears here to be about
twelve years of age; so that the drawing may perhaps have been executed
in 1539-40, and, since it was one of the artist's last works it gains
greatly in interest.

That François Clouet succeeded his father as Court-Painter in 1541 is
proved by a document in the "_Trésor des Chartres_" which runs as
follows: "_François par la grace de Dieu, roy de France, etc.... Savoir
faisons ... que voulant reconnoistre envers nostre cher et bien aimé
painctre et varlet de chambre ordinaire, François Clouet les bons et
agréables services que feu M^{e} Jehannet Clouet, son père, aussi de son
vivant nostre painctre et varlet de chambre, nous a durant son vivant
faictz en son dict estat et art, auquel il estoit très expert et en quoy
son dict fils la jà très bien imité, et espérons qu'il fera et
continuera encores de bien en mieux cy après, a icelluy, François Clouet
pour ces causes et affin que de ce faire il ayt meilleure voullonté,
moïen et occasion, avons donné, octroïé, cedé et délaissé, tous et
chacuns les biens meubles et immeubles qui furent et appartendrent au
dict Me Jehannet Clouet, son père, à nous advenuy et escheuz, adjugez et
declarez appartenir par droit d'aubène au moïen de ce que le dict
deffunt estait estranger et non natif ne originaire des nostre royaume
et n'avoit obtenu de nos predecesseurs roys ny de nous aucunes lettres
de naturalité et congié de tester_" (published by E. de Freville, _Arch.
de l'art Français_, t. iii, p. 98).

From the above document we learn the following important facts, namely:
(_a_) that Jean Clouet was not of French origin; (_b_) that he was
highly esteemed by the King; and (_c_) that after his death François
Clouet, his son, inherited all his privileges and favours.

[Illustration: Plate LXI.

Photo. Giraudon.

JEANNE D'ALBRET, WHEN A CHILD.

Attributed to Jean Clouet.

MADAME MARGUERITE, SISTER OF HENRI II.

Attributed to François Clouet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 226._]



CHAPTER XVII

FRANÇOIS CLOUET AND HIS FOLLOWERS


Francis I, King of France, survived Jean Clouet but a few years, so that
the artistic career of his celebrated son, François, chiefly developed
during the reigns of Henri II, Francis II and Charles IX.

It is difficult to determine what effect Jean Clouet's death had upon
his son, but we are led to suppose that at first he continued closely to
adhere to parental teaching. Indeed from 1540 to 1545 it is scarcely
possible to discern any of those differences of style so conspicuous a
decade later.

Two female portraits, still existing, seem to give weight to this
argument. These likenesses, although in the style of the elder Clouet,
from the age and the attire of the sitters can only have been drawn
during the years 1544-5, by which date that artist had already vanished
from the scenes and his son was at work alone.

These drawings represent _Jossine Pisseleu_[112] (niece of the famous
Duchesse d'Estampe), better known under the name of "Hegli," and the
beautiful daughter of Diane de Poitiers, called "Brasseu."[113] Both of
these portraits are rendered specially interesting by the fact that
their respective names are written on the margin by Queen Catherine de
Medicis. These two ladies, Hegli and Brasseu, are known to have belonged
to that gay company known as _la petite bande_, of which the young
Catherine herself, when Dauphine, was also a member.

Francis I, thanks to his own great taste for Art, comprehended to the
full the different talents of the artists in his employ; and whilst he
commissioned Rosso and Primaticcio to execute the frescoes at
Fontainebleau, the two Clouets were successively entrusted with such
portrait painting as he required.

At Chantilly there is an exquisite portrait of _Louise de Clermont,
Duchesse d'Uzez_, another of the fair members of the _petite bande_ whom
the King nicknamed "la Grenouille" on account of her husky voice and
projecting eyes: a drawing which belongs to the same series already
referred to; that is to say, an early work with which François Clouet
was commissioned after his father's demise. A miniature taken from this
drawing is preserved in the Louvre.

[Illustration: PLATE LXII.

_Photo. Hanfstaengl._

Francis I.

Attributed to Jean Clouet.

Louvre.

_Photo. Giraudon._

Marguerite of Angoulême.

(Sister of Francis I. and Queen of Navarre).

Attributed to François Clouet.

Musée Condé.]

Henri II, whilst Dauphin, had apparently not much chance to employ
either of the Clouets, since their time was almost entirely monopolised
by the King; but there is evidence to prove that Catherine de Medicis'
children were repeatedly painted by Germain le Mannier[114] and his
brother Alois. There exist pencil sketches of _Francis II_ at the age of
five, and again at eight years and five months; to which latter there is
a pendant representing his _fiancée, Mary, Queen of Scots_, at the age
of nine and a half. There is another of _Charles IX_ aged between four
and five years. All of these were executed by this artist and are now in
the portfolios at Chantilly.

With reference to these drawings there is a letter still extant, written
on June 1 1552 by Queen Catherine to M. Humières (who with his wife were
in charge of the Royal nurseries at Saint-Germain-en-Laye), in which she
expresses a desire to have all her children, sons and daughters,
including _la Royne d'Ecosse_,[115] painted "_sans rien oublier de leur
visages_." There is also a letter from Henri II, written on the eve of
his accession, expressing a desire to recompense the painter Mannier.

This, however, did not prevent him, as soon as he became King, from
taking up François Clouet, whom he commissioned not only to make a
_post-mortem_ effigy of the late King, but also to prepare an official
representation of himself. His own portrait bears a note upon it,
apparently in the artist's own handwriting, "_Le Roy Henry 2_"[116]:
handwriting which bears close similarity to an existing quittance signed
_F. Clouet_. This drawing, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris,
became very popular. A version completed in colours, is now in the
Louvre: it was reproduced in miniature; and many copies were
subsequently made by lesser hands.

Contemporary with this portrait is a powerful likeness of the _Grand
Connétable, Anne de Montmorency_,[117] evidently taken from life. In
this drawing the individuality of the artist is very marked: more
realistic in his tendencies than his father, he is on that account more
French. This great warrior, the Lord of Chantilly, is shown here when at
the height of his fame, in high favour with the King and with _l'amie du
roi_, Diane de Poitiers.[118] This famous lady herself sat to François
Clouet, and so apparently about the same time did Catherine de Medicis,
and also Jeanne d'Albret,[119] Queen of Navarre. It is interesting to
compare the likeness of this latter princess, so eloquent of a noble
mind and a frank disposition, with that of Catherine de Medicis, past
mistress in the art of dissimulation.

[Illustration: Plate LXIII.

_Photo. Hanfstaengl._

CHARLES IX.

François Clouet. About 1569.

Vienna Gallery.

_To face page 230._]

Drawings and portraits of Catherine as Dauphine and as Queen of France
are comparatively rare. It is as a Queen-Dowager, growing old and well
away on her career of dangerous intrigue, that we chiefly meet her in
the Galleries of Europe. No small value can therefore be attached to the
drawing in the British Museum which came to the nation through the
Salting Bequest, inasmuch as it brings her before us at the period when
her husband had just ascended the throne of France; and to another
likeness at Chantilly, attributed to Corneille de Lyon, which is
supposed to be the one executed when she passed through Lyons with Henri
II in 1564. Brantôme relates that upon this occasion the great Diane de
Poitiers received more homage than the Queen herself, and that portraits
were drawn of all the royal ladies, amongst whom was the King's sister
Marguerite (soon to become Duchess of Savoy). The writer further tells
us how Catherine, when fifteen years later she revisited Lyons as
Queen-Mother, displayed much amusement at the old-fashioned attire in
which she and her Court ladies had then been portrayed.

To the years between 1559 and 1570 belong the drawings in the
Bibliothèque Nationale, which are considered as marking the height of
this artist's power. Such, for instance, are the portraits of _Maréchal
Strozzi_ (1567) and of _Maréchal de Vielville_[120] (1566), supposed to
have been dated by the artist himself, a circumstance which greatly adds
to their value.

We are on certain ground with regard to the genuineness of the signed
and dated portrait of _Charles IX_ now at Vienna; but, strange to say,
the date has here clearly been tampered with. We can ascertain this from
the fact that the young King in the portrait seems certainly only about
twenty years of age, and since he was born in 1550 the date upon the
picture ought to be 1569 instead of 1563. Furthermore, the original
drawing (now at St. Petersburg) from which this finished painting was
executed is dated 1569. There is also a miniature taken from it in the
Louvre.

It would lead us too far if we were to mention all the drawings which
bear the stamp of this master's own hand, but there are some on which we
ought to dwell as being examples of his finest work. Amongst these are
the drawings in the Bibliothèque Nationale of the boy-King _Francis
II_[121] and of his young and beautiful bride, _Mary Stuart, Queen of
Scots_.

In the delicate and subtle pencil drawing of the latter, more than in
all her other portraits, we can detect traces of her world-renowned
beauty; and this is how she must have looked when, with her young
husband beside her, and surrounded by the great dignitaries of State,
she entered the Cathedral of Notre Dame for her Coronation. Clouet has
succeeded in conveying to us something of the sweetness of her smile,
her wistful expression, and the thoughtful look in her eyes. In the
miniature at Windsor, which is said to have been reproduced from this
drawing, much of the refinement has been lost, and more attention has
been paid to accessories, _i.e._ her dress and her ornaments.[122]

[Illustration: _Mary Stuart

as Dauphine of France

From the drawing in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris._]

A later drawing, in which the young Queen is represented in her _deuil
blanc_ as a widow, is among the framed drawings at Chantilly: a portrait
probably executed by François Clouet when she was on the point of
leaving her beloved France. This is apparently a reproduction from a
lost original, and it found its way to Chantilly with the Lenoir
Collection. It is no doubt the last likeness of Mary Stuart made in
France. The charm which Clouet so deftly imparted to the portraits of
this unhappy Queen seems entirely absent from all the numerous
likenesses subsequently made in England by other artists. How hard and
set, for instance, do her features seem in the life-size oil-painting by
Oudry at Hardwick Hall. All that we can perceive in it is the only
too-evident havoc wrought by fate upon that beautiful face.

François Clouet's highest capabilities may be traced in the water-colour
sketch at Chantilly which represents _Margot de France_,[123] youngest
daughter of Catherine de Medicis, in her girlhood. It is exhibited in
the Psyche Gallery and is considered one of the gems of the collection.
Since correct drawing from life was the artist's first thought this
preparatory sketch is superior to the painting, also in all probability
executed by the artist himself, which a rare chance has brought into the
same gallery. This latter is supposed to be the actual portrait sent by
Catherine to her daughter Elizabeth, wife of Philip II of Spain, which
the Infante Don Carlos admired so much. Comparing the portrait with
those of the other marriageable princesses of Europe, he exclaimed,
"This little one is the prettiest of all"; whereat Elizabeth de Valois
in a letter to her mother writes: "_Le Prince était demeuré en extase
devant le miroir délicieuse de la mignonne_."

Clouet has painted the little Princess in a robe of delicate silver
tissue adorned with pearls; more pearls are round her neck and
intertwined amid the tresses of her hair. Her expression displays that
_joie de vivre_ which is known to have been one of her most marked
characteristics throughout her whole life.

It is, however, in the sketch that the high qualities of François Clouet
as a portrait-painter specially assert themselves. Here he appears as a
refined Holbein, endowed with graceful and elegant French qualities.
Light and shadow are barely perceptible but are nevertheless
sufficiently present to produce the necessary plastic feeling. The
costume and the jewels, though reproduced with closest accuracy, do not
mar the harmony, nor do they overpower the clearly defined features
which retain their fullest importance and prominence.

[Illustration: Plate LXV.

Photo. Giraudon.

ELISABETH OF AUSTRIA, QUEEN OF FRANCE.

François Clouet (About 1567).

Bibl. Nat. Paris.

Photo. Giraudon.

JOSSINE DE PISSELEU, NICKNAMED HEGLI.

François Clouet (About 1542).

Musée Condé.

_To face page 234._]

Another portrait by François Clouet, equalling this in excellence, is
that of _la bonne petite reine, Elizabeth of Austria_ in the Louvre--the
youthful consort of Charles IX, whose simple virtues shone out so
conspicuously during a most degenerate period in the history of the
French Court. The perfection of draughtsmanship in the delicate features
is astonishing; and the colouring, of a pale rosy hue, is most
effective. The hands, placed one over the other, have in their graceful
movements been justly likened to the petals of a white lily. There is a
copy of this picture at Chantilly, probably also by François Clouet, but
the exquisite hands are absent. Nor are they to be found in the
original drawing in the Bibliothèque Nationale, in the famous Lecurieur
album which once belonged to François Clouet's own nephew, Benjamin
Foulon. _Maréchal Strozzi_, _Madame de Retz_, _Albert de Gondi the Duc
de Retz_, _Robert de la Marck_, _the Duc de Bouillon_, _Jeanne d'Albret
in deep mourning_, and many others, have the same _provenance_ and all
bear notes in Foulon's[124] handwriting. It has been suggested by Henri
Bouchot that these admirable designs came to the nephew from his uncle
who had preserved them in his studio in order to reproduce them
subsequently in colour. We may presume then that these original pencil
drawings were the immediate work of François Clouet, whilst the coloured
portraits were reproduced from them either by himself (as in the case of
the portraits of _Elizabeth of Austria_ in the Louvre and at Chantilly)
or by the hands of his pupils.

There is, however, one exception to this proposition in the case of the
portrait of _Pierre Quthe_ recently acquired for the Louvre. It
certainly appears to be a portrait painted direct from life and not
reproduced from a drawing; and it reveals to us a new and more intimate
characteristic of the artist; since he has here shown us one of his own
personal friends, with whom he, no doubt, had many tastes in common.
Had this not been so he would not have appended to the picture the
following inscription: FR. JANETT OPUS PE. QUTTIO. AMICO SINGULARI
ETATIS SVE XLIII, 1562. This portrait, therefore, when compared, for
instance, with that of _Charles IX_ at Vienna, gives the impression of
being less conventional and more sympathetic. It has the same bluish
curtain in the background, and an open book lies on the table, in which
may be seen representations of certain plants, alluding to the fact that
the person represented was well known as a botanist.

Since the discovery of the portrait of _Pierre Quthe_ we can have no
hesitation in attributing to François Clouet another life-size portrait
at Chantilly: namely, that of _Cardinal Odet de Coligny_,
hitherto--though with some reserve--assigned to Primaticcio on account
of a misleading signature evidently posterior to the painting. This
portrait and that of _Henri II (Cabinet Clouet)_ (also attributed, and
with much more reason, to Primaticcio), clearly exhibit the difference
between the respective artists without need for any further comment. The
curtain in the background, for which François had so decided a
predilection, is also to be found in the portrait of _Odet_; and it
appears to have been Clouet's latest work. It exhibits very decidedly
his appreciation for Italian methods, more especially those affected by
Morone and Moretto of Brescia, to whose work these two large portraits
by François Clouet bear a marked analogy.

[Illustration: PLATE LXVI.

PIERRE QUTHE.

_Louvre._

François Clouet.]

Besides a fine drawing in red chalk of this same _Cardinal_, presented
to the Musée Condé by M. Moreau Nélaton, there exist two other drawings,
evidently preliminary sketches for the same picture. One of these is in
the British Museum (Salting Bequest) and the other in the Albertina at
Vienna. These form a further proof that the painting at Chantilly is by
François Clouet and not by Primaticcio.

Odet de Coligny, created a Cardinal by Clement VII at the early age of
seventeen, was the eldest brother of Admiral Coligny and of Dandelot. In
spite of the countless honours showered upon him by the Catholic party
he all at once in 1561 astonished the world by openly confessing the
Protestant Faith. Like his brothers he became a staunch supporter of
Calvin, proceeded publicly to marry Elizabeth de Hauteville--to whom he
had for many years previously been deeply attached--and presented her at
Court, where she received the title of Comtesse de Beauvais. The
scandalised Pope, Pius V, erased his name from the list of Cardinals,
whilst Catherine de Medicis merely smiled. It suited her purpose on the
death of Francis II to dismiss the Guises from her Court and to admit
thereto the Calvinistic party, even to the extent of attending their
sermons. This freak of hers did not, however, last long, but by it she
enticed the Protestants into her net. Odet de Coligny subsequently
retired to England, where in 1570, just when he was intending to return
to France, he died suddenly at Hampton Court, not without suspicion of
poison.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Plate LXVII.

Photo. Giraudon.

MARGOT OF FRANCE.

François Clouet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 238._]

Before concluding this chapter on François Clouet attention should be
directed to a specially interesting feature about these drawings. Upon
the margins, and also on the reverse sides of most of them, are to be
found annotations and legends of the utmost historical and iconographic
value. Sometimes they appear to be in the handwriting of the artists
themselves: often notes with regard to subsequent reproduction in
colours; but more often they seem to be the remarks of the connoisseurs
and collectors who at different times possessed the drawing--such as was
Catherine de Medicis herself. Her handwriting is to be found upon at
least sixteen of the drawings in the Musée Condé, easily identified by
existing fragments of her letters in the archives at Chantilly and
elsewhere. There is, for example, a drawing of _Erasmus_ which had
hitherto passed unnoticed until Moreau Nélaton discovered that the Queen
had written his name upon it in her own hand. Her autograph is clear
enough also on the drawings which present her favourite
ladies-in-waiting Hegli[125] and _Montchenu_ and _la Romène_; whilst she
has also annotated the drawings representing _Monsieur de S. Valier_,
"_le père de la Grande Senechalle_," and "_Monsieur de Nevers_," "_le
père de Madame de Nevers_." Then upon a drawing of _Brissac_ (so
celebrated for his good looks) she notes "_brassac depuis maréchal_."
Again, "_le fu roy de Navarre, Henri_," "_Monsieur de Chateaubriand_,"
"_Monsieur de Voldemont_," and "_Chandu, capitaine de la porte du Roy_."
Besides the sixteen drawings at Chantilly which so obviously bear the
Queen's handwriting, there is as already mentioned in the Deligand
Collection a likeness of "_Brasseu_," daughter of Diane de Poitiers, and
in the Uffizi a drawing representing _Queen Claude_, "_mère du roi
Henri_," on both of which we also find Her Majesty's angular writing.
She has corrected, moreover, the title upon one pencil drawing wrongly
entitled _Madame de Nevers d'Albret_ into _Madame de Vendôme d'Alençon_.

Yet by far the larger number of the drawings bear notes in a variety of
different handwritings: at Chantilly, the Bibliothèque Nationale, in the
Uffizi and in the British Museum (Salting Bequest). M. Moreau Nélaton is
strongly of opinion that these notes were all made either by the Queen
herself or by secretaries written at her dictation. He is certainly
right in regard to one of these, for we can trace the same handwriting
in a private letter "_a ma cousine Madame la Connetable_" signed by the
Queen; and again on the margin of the three drawings representing
"_François Dauphin_," "_Marie Royne d'Ecosse_,"[126] and "_Charles
Maximilian d'Orleans_" respectively. It is a well-formed caligraphy
with a peculiar trick of abbreviating "_et_" into "_&_," which appears
both in the letter and in the notes. There is no proof, however, as to
who were the other annotators, whether Court secretaries or not. They
may just as well, as M. Dimier[127] suggests, be other collectors
through whose hands in the course of time the drawings have passed. This
much, however, is quite certain: that all are posterior to the drawings
themselves. The different handwritings--of which there are at least
four, if not five (including that of the Queen), have puzzled Bouchot as
much as Dimier and Moreau Nélaton, and all these authorities have their
own special theories upon the subject. It is evident that in most cases
the notes do identify the persons represented in the drawings upon which
they are found, and they are thus of greatest historical value: and more
especially is this the case with the drawings at Chantilly (many of
which are stained with blotches of colour), since they are the originals
from which were derived the copies and portraits found now in other
collections.

[Illustration: Plate LXVIII.

DIANE DE POITIERS.

François Clouet. About 1543.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 240._]

There is ample evidence to prove how much interest was taken by
Catherine de Medicis in French portrait-painting. A list has been found,
bearing the heading of "_Les peintures qu'il faut_," of the pictures
which she desired should be reproduced. Numerous "_gens de maîtres_"
like Philibert Delormes, Jean Bullant, Scipion Bruisbal, and others were
busily employed in making these copies from Clouet originals, in
order to satisfy the great demand which then existed for them.

After Catherine's death an _Inventory_ of not less than 476 paintings
(amongst which were 341 portraits) was made at the Palais de Tournelle,
where she habitually resided; whilst another _Inventory_ notes 39 small
pictures executed in enamel, and 32 portraits in colour, 1 foot square
each, of ladies and gentlemen of the Court.

An original drawing of _Diane de Poitiers_ is preserved in the
portfolios at Chantilly; and a portrait of the same lady executed in
colour hangs in the next room (Cabinet Clouet). Similarly the Bethune
and Destailleur albums at Chantilly, as well as the Ashmolean collection
at Oxford, contain numerous copies from originals in the Musée Condé.
Many of these copies were made by enamellers and goldsmiths for the
purposes of their respective trades. These, however, are usually of
inferior workmanship, although they have a certain value attached to
them; especially when, as in the case of _Mary Tudor_, the original has
been lost.

In this connection the Mejanés album at Aix should not be forgotten; for
it is no doubt the most important amongst the various albums which
contain copies of these original drawings at Chantilly and elsewhere.
This collection is supposed to have been copied by Madame de Berry, wife
of Arthur de Gouffier, one of the _Preux de Marignan_. Francis I, whose
own portrait is at the beginning of the album, when on a visit to this
lady, is said to have composed the remarks which are written on the
margins. They are suggestive and often witty; indeed none but the King
himself would have dared to fling at Mary Tudor[128] of England the
insulting words "_plus sale que royale_"; whilst Diane de Poitiers is
greeted with the flattering remark, "_fair to see and virtuous to
know_." Perhaps even more important especially, from an artistic point
of view, is the Hagford album bequeathed to the British Museum by Mr.
Salting, since it includes not only a number of old copies but also
several very valuable originals. This collection was made by an English
painter, Ignatius Hagford, who lived in Florence in the eighteenth
century. He believed them to be the work of Holbein, as is indicated by
the frontispiece; and he seems to have even bought also old copies of
originals which he already owned. Part of his collection is now in the
Pitti Palace; and seeing that the Howard Collection, now at Chantilly,
was also originally acquired in Florence, there is strong reason to
believe that probably these two collections were once united.

[Illustration: Plate LXIX.

MARY TUDOR, QUEEN OF FRANCE.

Copy after Perréal.

Photo. Giraudon.

MADAME DE BOUILLON.

Attributed to Jean Clouet.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 232._]

Henri de Mesmes, a gentleman of whom Brantôme speaks as "_un très grand
habile et subtil personnage d'état d'affaires de science et de toute
gentillesse_," often acted as go-between for Catherine in her art
dealings; and it was he who corresponded on her behalf with a certain
Claude de Hery, who had been commissioned to make a new engraving from a
portrait of _Charles IX_ on his accession to the throne. This artist
had failed to satisfy the Queen-Mother and the King, in spite of the
fact that his work had been fully approved of by no less a personage
than François Clouet himself.

One of the last works of François Clouet was a miniature of _Elizabeth
of Austria_, executed in 1572 and destined for her sister-in-law, the
Queen of Spain. The goldsmith Dugardin designed for it a golden frame;
and here also Henri de Mesmes acted as medium, as is shown by a
memorandum referring to it in the handwriting of Catherine de Medicis
herself.

It was in this same year (1572) that the artist died; a year which was
also fatal to Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre, who did not live to
attend the nuptials of her son Henri IV with Margot de France. This took
place shortly after her demise and not long before the Massacre of St.
Bartholomew; a terrible event which reveals Catherine de Medicis in a
very different light from that of a connoisseur and collector of works
of art. There is a portrait of her in the Cabinet Clouet at Chantilly
which dates from about this period. From it the bloom of youth has fled,
the face has grown heavier and the smile is more than ever fixed and
conventional.

The ablest contemporary and follower of the Clouets was Corneille de
Lyon; but he in turn developed a decided individuality of his own. By
him are those small portraits, painted upon light-green or light-blue
backgrounds, which may be found scattered throughout the Galleries of
Europe. As already mentioned, a likeness of the _Dauphin François_[129]
at Chantilly (Tribune) has been attributed to him by Gaignières, to whom
it once belonged. It is on the authority of this connoisseur that other
portraits in the Musée Condé exhibiting the same style are by comparison
assigned to him: such, for instance, as _Le Grand Ecuyer de Boisy,
Marguerite de France_ (sister of Henri II), _Madame de Martigné Briant_,
a portrait supposed to be of _Madame de Canaples_, and a portrait of a
young woman, erroneously styled _Claude de Valois_. [An authentic
portrait of this latter lady, attributed to Clouet himself, is at
Munich.] _Madame d'Elboeuf_, presented to the Louvre by the late
Rudolph Kahn, is a fine example of Corneille's skill.

Another artist who followed the Clouet style was Jean de Court, Court
Painter to Henri III, the last of the Valois Kings, whose portrait in
the Cabinet Clouet at Chantilly is probably an example of his work. His
talent is much praised by Desportes; and this likeness of _Henri III_
does not suffer in comparison with the portraits of _Charles IX_
attributed to François Clouet. The pencil drawing of _Marie Touchet_,
Charles IX's mistress, in the Bibliothèque Nationale is also attributed
to him.

[Illustration: PLATE LXX.

FRANÇOIS, DAUPHIN.

_Photo Giraudon._

_Musée Condé._

Corneille de Lyon.]

The painter who acquired the old Queen's special favour after the death
of François Clouet was Carron, who made a series of designs
(reproduced in tapestry) from the _History of Artemisia_, in which
Catherine herself is represented mourning for Henri II in the guise of
the Queen of Caria. A drawing by Carron representing the _Duc
d'Alençon_, her youngest son, on horseback is in the passage of the
Tribune at Chantilly.

Pierre Gourdel, Dubois and Bussel, followers of François Clouet, are
only known to us by mediocre engravings, but numerous drawings by the
Brothers Lagneau have come down to us. These may be met with in the
Louvre, in the portfolios at Chantilly and elsewhere. They suffer from
an exaggerated taste for realism; and representations of old, wrinkled
men and women seem to have been their favourite themes. A good example
of their work is the portrait of an _Old Man_ at Dijon, where, however,
it is erroneously assigned to Daniel Dumoustier. This latter artist, on
the contrary (according to his own statement), took particular pleasure
in representing his sitters as younger and more beautiful than they
really were. By him there are at Chantilly portraits of _Louis XIII_ (in
coloured chalk), of _Albert de Gondi Archdeacon of Paris_, of _Henri Duc
de Guise_,[130] of the _Princess Palatine_ (the devoted friend of the
Grand Condé), and an interesting portrait of _Henriette de France_ in
her girlhood. Numerous other examples of his work are in the Louvre; and
he is certainly the most important of the artists who followed François
Clouet. In company with his sons Pierre and Nicolas he carried on the
art of pencil drawing in France from the sixteenth well into the
seventeenth century. Saint-Simon speaks of him as a man who was fond of
books and knew both Italian and Spanish. He lived in the Louvre, and
throughout his lifetime retained his hold upon public taste.

There is yet one more artist-family to be mentioned: that of the
Quesnels, who were held by the two first Bourbon Kings, Henri IV and
Louis XIII, in the same high estimation as were the Clouets by the
Valois. There are two portraits at Chantilly (Cabinet Clouet) which are
attributed to François Quesnel: that of the _Duc de Sully_ and of his
brother _Philippe de Bethune_. These paintings markedly display the
strong tendencies to realism so characteristic of the Brothers Quesnel.

[Illustration: Plate LXXI.

HENRI DE GUISE.

Dumoustier.

Musée Condé.

MARECHAL DE VIELVILLE.

François Clouet. (Salting Collection).

British Museum.

_To face page 246._]

Yet another French picture at Chantilly of the Clouet School has to be
recorded, the authorship of which is uncertain. It represents _Gabrielle
d'Estrées_, mistress of Henri IV, seated in her bath, with her infant
sons (one being on the arm of his nurse) beside her. It is a composition
which occurs frequently and seems to be rather meant for an allegory
than for a portrait. Other versions of it are in the Louvre, at Doughty
House Richmond, and in the Collections of Baron Pichon and the
Viscomtesse de Zanzé. In this last example one of Gabrielle's sisters is
also introduced. She turns her back to the spectator, whilst Gabrielle
herself--her bare neck adorned with a string of fine pearls--faces
full round. At the Musée Condé (Cabinet des Gemmes) there is a
miniature representing _Gabrielle d'Estrées and her two Children_, which
bears unmistakable likeness to this portrait. The late M. Gruyer in his
_Catalogue Raisonnée_ of the Musée Condé justly points out that this
composition testifies to the decadent turn taken by the late
sixteenth-century French School; and we sadly miss the good taste and
the refinement which are such marked qualities in the portraiture of
François Clouet.



CHAPTER XVIII

FROM NICOLAS POUSSIN TO COROT


French seventeenth-century Art does not offer any such difficult
problems as those presented to us by the portrait-painters who lived and
laboured during the period of the Clouets, for the artists of this
latter period in most cases were accustomed to sign their names to at
least a certain number of their works, whereby they can be easily
identified.

On the very threshold of this new Art-development we find the Brothers
le Nain, who, choosing a totally different type of work, kept aloof from
kings, princes and courtiers and devoted their attention chiefly to
scenes of peasant life. _Le Repos des Paysans_ at the Louvre is one of
their best and most characteristic works. So also are _La Forge_ and a
portrait of _Henry II de Montmorency_, the last of his race, which ought
to be at Chantilly. There is in the Cabinet Clouet at the Musée Condé a
powerful portrait of _Dr. Fagon_, physician to Louis XIV, by Mathias le
Nain. Chardin, who continued in their tradition a century later, is
unfortunately not represented in the Musée Condé.

Nicolas Poussin also adopted a style of his own, although it was of a
different kind. He was greatly attracted by the antique and his heart
was set on visiting Rome, whither, after long struggles in Paris, he at
length found his way. There he received from the painter Domenichino the
necessary training for the work which he desired to take up. The French
sculptor Quesnoy befriended him, and the poet Marino introduced him to
Cardinal Barberini, who commissioned from him two pictures: _The Death
of Germanicus_ and _The Capture of Jerusalem_. When fame came to him
France reclaimed him. He was greatly favoured by Richelieu and entrusted
with the decoration of the Louvre. He found, however, a rival in this
enterprise in the person of Simon Vouet; and difficulties arose, because
Poussin claimed his right to carry out the whole work independently and
on his own responsibility. Finding that he could not attain this object,
he returned to Rome under the pretext of fetching his wife and never
returned. He lived thenceforth in Italy; for, like the Brothers le Nain,
he had no desire to become a Court Painter. His pictures were,
nevertheless, greatly admired in France during his lifetime; and there
are no less than nine large canvases by him in the Galerie des Peintures
at the Musée Condé, besides numerous drawings. Amongst these may be
noted: _The Infancy of Bacchus_; _Theseus finding his Father's Sword_
(with a striking architectural background); and _Numa Pompilius and the
Nymph Egeria_, a composition wherein the artist displays to the full
his skill in dealing with romantic landscape. A drawing of _Daphne[131]
flying to her father's protection_ who transforms her into a
laurel-bush, has special charm and shows those characteristics which he
handed on to his brother-in-law and pupil Dughet, called after him
"Gaspar Poussin." There are two landscapes by the latter at Chantilly
(Galerie des Peintures): _An Alley in a Wood_, and _A View of the Roman
Campagna_, a subject of which he never tired. His sunsets foreshadow
those of Claude Lorraine, who in his power of rendering atmospheric
effect and the rays of the sun was only equalled by Turner some
centuries later. The National Gallery and the Louvre possess some of
Claude's finest landscapes, while Chantilly has chiefly drawings,
amongst which the most noteworthy are the _Castello di S. Angelo_ and
the _Aqueducts of the Roman Campagna_.[132]

[Illustration: PLATE LXXII.

DAPHNE METAMORPHOSED INTO A LAUREL TREE.

_Photo. Giraudon._

_Musée Condé._

Nicolas Poussin.]

Philippe de Champaigne, who came in his youth to France from Brussels,
was a college friend of Poussin at Laon in 1623; and shares with him
that same sense of freedom in his work. Poussin reached his goal in Rome
through classical work, whilst Philippe de Champaigne devoted himself to
portraiture, in which class of work he was most assiduous. His portraits
of _Cardinals Richelieu_ and _Mazarin_ in the Musée Condé came from
the Gallery in the Palais-Royal and are magnificent examples of his
methods.

Another portrait-painter who deserves mention here is Jacques Stella,
who painted the _Grand Condé_ as the Hero of Rocroy, at the age of
twenty-two--a portrait which is singularly attractive and has a special
historical interest. This painting, which was always highly prized by
the Bourbon-Condé family, now hangs in the Galerie des Batailles.

Another portrait of the same personage, painted after he had reaped
further laurels at Fribourg and at Nördlingen, is by Beaubrun, the same
artist who painted his only sister _Geneviève de Bourbon_. Both these
pictures are in the Cabinet Clouet.

A figure which stands out with some insistence amongst French artists of
the seventeenth century is Charles Le Brun. He was first of all a pupil
of Simon Vouet, but becoming acquainted with Nicolas Poussin and urged
on by enthusiasm for his work, followed this master to Rome. Returning
to Paris with an established reputation, he fell in with Colbert, who
perceived in him the very person needed for the Gobelins Factory. Le
Brun fully realised these expectations since he not only organised this
great concern but subsequently, with the assistance of Van Meulen,
furnished designs for a _History of the Kings of France_, which was
presently reproduced in tapestry in those celebrated workshops. He was
also the founder of the French Academy in Rome; and Louis XIV, who
conferred on him the office of Court Painter, took him to Flanders
during the campaign of 1676. The portrait at Chantilly of _Pomponne de
Bellièvre_, first President of the Parlement of Paris (engraved by Van
Schuppen), represents his skill as a painter of portraits. His work can,
however, be more profitably studied in the Galerie d'Apollon at the
Louvre.

Eustache Le Sueur, another pupil of Simon Vouet, earned fame by his
decorative work in the Hotel Lambert at Paris and by his _Scenes from
the Life of St. Bruno_, now in the Louvre. He is represented at the
Musée Condé by some fine drawings.

When Colbert was supplanted by Louvois another painter came to the front
in the person of Mignard, also a pupil of Vouet. He studied in Rome,
where he copied a number of paintings in the Farnese Gallery for the
Cardinal of Lyons, Richelieu's brother. He married the beautiful Anna
Avolara, daughter of a Roman architect and model for his _Madonnas_, for
which there was a great demand. No sooner had he acquired a certain
amount of fame than the King of France commanded him to return home. On
the way, however, he fell ill, and had to stop at Avignon. Here he first
became acquainted with Molière; and the portrait which he painted of
this great poet is beyond doubt his _chef d'oeuvre_.[133] It occupies
a prominent position in the Tribune at Chantilly, where it commands
much attention and admiration. The great esteem in which the author of
_Tartuffe_ was held by the Grand Condé is well known and it is by a
singular piece of good fortune that the best of all the existing
portraits of Molière should have found its way into the Musée Condé. If
Mignard--and not without reason--is sometimes accused of superficiality,
this complaint must surely be modified by the evidence of this portrait,
which displays an artist of very considerable power.

There is at Chantilly another portrait by Mignard of special interest.
It is that of _Madame Henriette d'Angleterre_, the beautiful and
ill-fated daughter of Charles I, first wife of Philippe, Duc d'Orléans,
the King's brother. He also repeatedly painted likenesses of the young
King himself, including one sent to Spain to be shown to his intended
bride the Infanta Marie Thérèse.

At a maturer age Louis XIV was painted by Rigaud, a pupil of Le Brun.
The portrait of him at Chantilly (Cabinet Clouet) is a smaller replica,
signed by the painter himself, of the larger work executed in 1701 for
his son, Philip V of Spain--a painting which was, however, kept back at
Versailles and is now in the Louvre.

Hyacinthe Rigaud was considered a great portrait-painter and many
personages of note gave him commissions. There is also a fine portrait
at Chantilly by his younger contemporary and follower, Largillière, of
_Mademoiselle Duclos_, a celebrated _tragédienne_ who made her _début_
at the Comédie Française in 1683. She is here portrayed in the rôle of
_Ariane_ (Salle Caroline), and her sumptuous robes are painted with all
the care and minuteness so characteristic of this artist. These
qualities are again displayed in a portrait of the _Princess Palatine,
Charlotte Elizabeth_, second wife of Philippe d'Orléans and mother of
the Regent. In this portrait Largillière shows his highest talents, and
had it not been for the fact that "Liselotte" (although already
middle-aged) followed the taste of her time by permitting herself to be
painted as a Naiad this would perhaps have been one of the most faithful
likenesses of this interesting princess.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXIII.

LOUISE-HENRIETTE DE BOURBON CONTI.

_Photo Braun & Co._

J. M. Nattier.

A FRIEND OF THE CONDÉS.

_Photo Braun & Co._

Largillière.]

Largillière resided for many years in England and studied for some time
under Sir Peter Lely. On his return to Paris he was taken up by Charles
Le Brun. His style belongs as much to the seventeenth as to the
eighteenth century. Elegance and luxury, and a touch of serenity prevail
in all his portraits. Mariette was greatly struck by his personal vigour
and tells us that he went on working even up to his eighty-sixth year.
Although too often over-exuberant he generally succeeded in imparting to
his patrons great liveliness of aspect, and they _live_ still, clad in
their most sumptuous apparel. Such is the portrait of the elegant
"_Unknown_"[134] at Chantilly, once in the Collection at the Palais
Bourbon; from which circumstance we may suppose that the sitter was some
intimate friend of the Condé family.

By Jean Marc Nattier there is at Chantilly a life-size portrait of
_Mademoiselle Nantes_, daughter of Louis XIV by Madame de Montespan, and
wife of the Duc de Bourbon, grandson of the Grand Condé. Her daughter
Louise Henriette, who married the Prince de Bourbon Conti, was also
painted by Nattier[135]; and by the same artist--one of his best
works--is the above-mentioned portrait of _Charlotte Elizabeth
Soubise_,[136] the young wife of Louis Joseph, Prince de Condé,
represented plucking carnations in the gardens at Chantilly.

Nattier's portraits of the Royal Family of Bourbon, both in the Louvre
and at Versailles, are very numerous. He painted every one of Louis XV's
daughters[137] and many other fair women, who, however, bear a strong
general resemblance to one another, whereby his portraits are often
rendered conventional and monotonous.

It is therefore rather refreshing to turn from Jean Nattier to Desportes
and Oudry, who both stand on the threshold of the eighteenth century and
who revived realistic landscape painting--an art which had practically
lain dormant since the days of Pol de Limbourg; for Claude Lorraine and
the Poussins had directed it into wholly diverse channels. _Briados_ and
_Balthazar_, two Spanish hounds formerly belonging to the House of
Condé, are exquisitely painted by Desportes, who was highly thought of
by all lovers of the chase and was a constant guest at the
hunting-parties held in the various French châteaux. A painting by him
in the Louvre representing a _Huntsman with his dog and bag of game_
standing in a fine landscape shows his skill at its very best.

Oudry's compositions come very near those of Desportes: for example, his
_Chasse du Loup_ and _Chasse du Renard_ at Chantilly, both of which are
noted in the _Inventory_ of the Palais Bourbon. Oudry was encouraged by
Largillière to take up decoration also, which he did with conspicuous
success. He was admitted into the Academy in 1699, and being appointed
to the Directorship of the Tapestry Factory at Beauvais instilled new
life into that interesting branch of art, which had sadly decayed under
the direction of Charles Le Brun's imitators. His graceful talent shows
itself in certain exquisite designs from La Fontaine's _Fables_ executed
in tapestry at this factory. His favourite abode was the forest around
Chantilly; and there he spent much time in painting animals direct from
nature. By insisting that his ideas should be accurately transcribed he
trained the weavers at Beauvais with much care, thus preparing the way
for Boucher, the decorative genius of the next generation. A splendid
Gobelins tapestry, executed after a cartoon by Boucher, adorns one side
of the Grand Staircase at Chantilly. It represents a young woman seated
in a garden to whom a boy and girl are offering fruit and flowers. On
the opposite wall there is another tapestry from the workshop of
Audran, executed after de Troy.

A copy in this collection (intended for the purposes of an engraving) by
Boucher of a portrait of _Watteau_ by himself is not devoid of interest;
but it is in the Louvre, at Versailles, and above all in the Wallace
Collection, rather than at Chantilly, that we derive a clear idea of
Boucher's light and graceful style. His _Sunrise_ and _Sunset_ on the
staircase of Hertford House are considered to be among the finest of his
creations. Madame de Pompadour, who was his enthusiastic patroness,
frequently sat to him in a variety of attitudes; although his great
talent was not portraiture, but decorative work, whereby he marks a
decidedly new phase in French Art.

       *       *       *       *       *

After an exceptionally long reign Louis XIV had at last passed away. He
had asserted himself as strongly in Art as he had done in politics and
it is worthy of note that, immediately after his death, artists were
once more able to take their own independent courses. At this point,
therefore, in the history of French Art we come upon a somewhat sudden
change, visible also in the art of the cabinet-maker and the decorator.
The later Bourbon Kings and Queens left their gorgeous salons and took
refuge (with evident personal relief) in smaller and homelier chambers.
These less imposing apartments, however, also required suitable
decoration and serviceable furnishings: and it was here that Boucher
found his opportunity. The boudoir with its delicate colouring and
elegant upholstery played a significant rôle under the reigns of Maria
Leczinska and Marie Antoinette, and the _petits appartements_ at
Versailles became examples of a new style. Paintings on a smaller scale
suitable for these graceful _bonbonnières_ were soon in demand; and from
these it was but a step to the taste of Watteau, who is perhaps the most
typical artist of this period. _Plaisir Pastoral_, _l'Amante Inquiète_,
and _l'Amour Désarmé_ at Chantilly are fine examples of this artist's
work. _Le Donneur des Sérénades_ in the Musée Condé, of which there is a
similar composition at Buckingham Palace belongs to his later period,
that is to say, to the last five years of his life. This work is said to
represent Mezetin (one of the leading actors at the Comédie Italienne
established at the Hôtel du Bourgogne) seated on a bench in a classic
garden tuning his guitar. The _Amante Inquiète_, which forms a pendant
to this picture, is of equal merit. Everything in these small paintings
is refined and elegant, even to Nature herself--a style far more typical
of Watteau, than the scenes of camp-life which mark his stay at
Valenciennes in 1709. A study in red chalk of a _Warrior_, preserved in
the Rotunda at Chantilly, recalls this period. In his sketches, of which
a great number are in the Louvre, Watteau exhibits his talent as a
draughtsman of the highest order and as a worthy pupil of Claude Gillot,
the earliest creator of the style for which Watteau became so famous.
His relations with Crozat, the famous financier and collector, who was
the first to recognise his genius, began in 1612, and it was in his
palace that he had an opportunity of studying paintings by the great
Venetian masters and landscapes by Rubens, both of which so decidedly
influenced his subsequent style. There are exquisite pictures by him in
the Louvre and in the Wallace Collection. His _Ball under the Colonnade_
at Dulwich is very famous.

[Illustration: Plate LXXIV.

Photo. Giraudon.

JOSEPH AND POTIPHAR'S WIFE.

By Prud'hon.

Photo. Giraudon.

THE GUITARPLAYER.

By Watteau.

Musée Condé.

_To face page 25_]

Lancret was a younger contemporary of Watteau, and observing his success
adopted his style; without, however, attaining to his eminence. His
_Déjeuner de Jambon_ in the Galerie des Peintures at Chantilly presents
a company of merry-makers on the point of becoming riotous; and opposite
to it hangs a companion picture by de Troy entitled _Le Déjeuner
d'Huîtres_. The host in this latter composition--a figure dressed in
scarlet--is probably a Prince of the House of Orleans presiding at a
feast in the Palais Royal. Many of the guests represented are said to be
personages well known in their day: for King Louis Philippe was still
able to distinguish them by name. They are certainly enjoying their
oysters and iced champagne; and the satisfaction of the well-fed is
clearly exhibited in their features and gestures.

Together with this group of artists mention must be made of Christophe
Huet, designer and decorator of the _Grande Chinoiserie_ at Chantilly.
These decorations in a style so much in vogue in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries were once attributed to Watteau, Gillot, Oudry,
and others until an Account, dated 1741, was found in the Archives of
Chantilly disclosing the name of Christophe Huet. They cover the panels
of the so-called "Salon des Singes." Scenes and episodes from the chase
and the tea-party, architectural effects and other subjects, all are
carried out in a pseudo-Chinese style. Apes clad in Condé uniforms and
carrying flags act as outriders or grooms under the direction of
grim-looking mandarins robed in gorgeous Oriental apparel. Besides the
decorations here there is on the ground floor of the Château a "Petite
Singerie" decorated in very much the same style: humorous scenes,
wherein female monkeys are riding or occupied with their toilet. Jean
Baptiste Huet, son of this Christophe, was also repeatedly commissioned
by Prince Louis Joseph de Condé to paint pictures of his favourite
animals.

The celebrated painter of pastels, Latour, is represented at Chantilly
by a portrait of _Madame Adelaide de France_, daughter of Louis XV. His
portraits, now recognised as even superior to those of Boucher and
Lancret, are fine studies of character, but they are very rare. The
pastel of the handsome _Marie Fel_, an opera-singer from Bordeaux by
whom this artist was befriended, is very celebrated; and a group of
portraits at St. Quentin place him in the foremost rank of French
portrait-painters. His pre-eminent talents have been fully recognised by
modern students of the French School.

His contemporary, Peronneau--till recently known chiefly as an engraver
of the works of Boucher, Van Loo, and others--is now known to be the
artist who painted a charming _Portrait of a Girl_ in the Louvre and
other pastels. Rosalba Carriera's great success in that medium is also
well known. The young King Louis XV, the Regent, and many other
important personages were painted by her, and in her time she put into
the shade both Latour and Peronneau.

Duplessis brings us to the time of the Revolution, when ruin fell upon
so many of the artists of that day. His portrait of the _Duchesse de
Chartres_, mother of Louis Philippe and grandmother of the Duc d'Aumale,
is at Chantilly. She is seated in a garden, lost in profound sorrow at
the departure of her husband to a naval engagement, symbolised by a ship
disappearing in the distance: a refined and graceful presentation of a
charming woman capable of winning the hearts of all around her. The
portraits of _Louis XVI_ and of the _Comte de Provence_ by this painter
in the Musée Condé are considered to be among the best likenesses of the
last Bourbon Kings. Duplessis held the post of Administrator of the
Galleries at Versailles.

Greuze, like Watteau, marked out a special line of his own; and with him
French bourgeois Art reappears once more. His domestic scenes were
described by Diderot as follows: "_Cet artist est le premier entre nous
qui se soit avisé de donner des murs dans l'art_." This remark applies
to his _Malédiction Paternelle_, _l'Accordée du Village_, etc.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXV.

_Photo. Giraudon._

Young Girl.

By Greuze.

Musée Condé.]

His charming _Portrait of a Young Girl in a little cap_ at Chantilly
represents Georgette, daughter of his concierge in Paris; and she can be
recognised again in the same artist's _l'Accordée du Village_ in the
Louvre, and perhaps also in the painting of a _Young Girl winding Wool_,
lately added to Mr. Pierpont Morgan's Collection. The pendant to
_Georgette_ in the Musée Condé is a portrait of a _Young Boy_, her
brother. These two paintings, together with _Le Tendre Desir_, belong to
the artist's best period, whilst _La Surprise_ is a work of his old age.
This last work exhibits to us the curious fact that a problem which had
steadily pursued him throughout his long life--namely, how to paint the
first awakenings of love in a maiden's mind--still puzzled him at the
age of nearly eighty. It is certainly an irony of fate that after a
romantic attachment to a young Italian Countess--whose portrait he
painted, but whom he was prevented from marrying--he should have
returned to Paris, to become the husband of a woman much older than
himself, who presently made his life almost unendurable. It was perhaps
the memory of this youthful idyll which induced him to paint so often
those young maidens whose faces smile at us from the walls of so many
Galleries throughout Europe. The _Young Woman in a Hat_ in the Wallace
Collection is perhaps the most fascinating of them all, since nothing
can surpass the grace and piquancy of expression in her lovely
countenance.

Greuze was in high favour with the Royal Family, and it is believed that
he painted a portrait of the Dauphin at the Tuileries after the
unfortunate flight to Varennes, and another of his elder sister, Madame
Royale, when in the Temple. The great upheaval of the Revolution struck
Greuze also, and as a painter he became no longer the fashion. His wife
squandered his fortune and he died in poverty, slaving to the very last.

The portraits at Chantilly of _Marie Antoinette_ (in 1795) and of
_Madame de Pompadour_, two of the loveliest women of their day, are by
Drouais, a pupil of Van Loo and Boucher. The happy days of Trianon were
not yet over when these were painted, and the Dauphine of France,
presented here as _Hebe_, seems to be at the height of her glory and
charms. How different to the careworn and haggard woman whose portrait
hangs in the Musée Carnevalet over the very bed occupied by her in the
Temple before her execution!

Madame Vigée Le Brun carried the style of Greuze, at one time her
master, into the middle of the nineteenth century. She is represented in
the Musée Condé (Cabinet Clouet) by several small portraits: _Marie
Caroline, Queen of Naples_, painted in 1768, and her two daughters,
_Marie Thérèse Caroline_, wife of Francis II Emperor of Austria, and
_Marie Louise Josephine_, wife of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. Whilst the
first two of these appear to be copies of already existing pictures the
portrait of _Marie Louise Josephine, Queen of Etruria_, shows special
merits and seems to be taken directly from life, probably during one of
Madame Le Brun's tours in Italy. A strong vitality is expressed in her
beautiful face, forming a marked contrast to the portrait of her mother,
the Queen of Naples. Madame Le Brun, who, in spite of her sex became a
member of the French Academy, was one of Marie Antoinette's favourite
painters. After the Revolution she established herself in St. Petersburg
and did not return to Paris until 1801, when she was enthusiastically
welcomed. She painted many of the most celebrated beauties of her day,
but all these portraits seem to bear the mark of a period then fast
disappearing.

Louis Joseph de Bourbon, about 1787, commissioned Fragonard to paint
small portraits of the Princes and Princesses of the Royal House[138] of
Bourbon and the House of Bourbon Condé. Among these are portraits of the
_Dauphin Louis_, son of Louis XVI, and of the _Duc d'Enghien_ by whose
tragic death the Condé family became extinct. Fragonard was a pupil of
both Boucher and Chardin. He went to Italy with the Prix de Rome and in
1765 was elected a member of the Academy. He excelled in every style of
painting--_genre_, landscape, portraits, interiors, and historical
subjects. When in 1765 he exhibited his _Callirhoé and Corésus_ (a
subject taken from the poet Roy) Diderot and Grimm thought for a moment
that he might resuscitate the art of historical painting in France. This
picture was bought by King Louis XV but was never paid for, and
Fragonard returned to his portrait-painting, which he accomplished with
very great brilliance and rapidity. There is a series of these portraits
in the La Caze section of the Louvre, chiefly representing the actors
and actresses of his day. His remarkable talent for decorative painting
reveals itself in certain designs destined for Madame Du Barry's
pavilion, but stupidly condemned by her advisers. When the Revolution
broke out, the artist fled to Grasse to escape imprisonment and the
scaffold taking these paintings with him, and there completed the series
by a fifth composition. The whole set are now in the collection of the
late Mr. J. F. Pierpont Morgan.

Fragonard in some of his work rose to the level of Watteau and he
certainly surpassed Boucher: but, like Greuze, he suffered the
humiliation of seeing himself pass out of fashion, supplanted by the
rising sun of Louis David.

It certainly is to be regretted that Fragonard was not also commissioned
to paint the above-mentioned life-size portrait of _Louis Joseph de
Bourbon_ at the Musée Condé. This privilege was given to a Madame de
Tott, an artist quite unknown in the history of Art. She was a
contemporary of Bartolozzi, who engraved her picture, and thus handed
down her name to posterity; for we read upon it, "_Madame de Tott
pinxit--Bartolozzi sculpsit_."

Louis Petit, another indifferent painter of the same period, executed a
portrait of the last _Prince de Conti_ in hunting costume. This Prince
left France with his Orleans cousins during the Revolution and died in
Spain. To the same artist is attributed the portrait of _Louis Henri de
Bourbon, Duc d'Enghien_. He has an interesting face, recalling that of
his ancestor the Great Condé, but there is a touch of melancholy in his
expression, telling of adversity endured and apparently foreshadowing
his tragic death. His father, the last Prince de Condé, who during the
French Revolution lived chiefly in England, was painted by Danloux, a
Frenchman who had also sought shelter on the hospitable shores of Great
Britain. This Prince is here represented as leader of the Condé forces,
that is, of the French _émigrés_; and we can detect the influence of
Reynolds and Gainsborough in the light, harmonious colouring of the
composition, which was bought by the Duc d'Aumale from a descendant of
Robert Claridge, in whose house the last Condé lived during his exile.

By Charles Vernet, son of the celebrated marine painter Joseph Vernet,
there is at Chantilly a large landscape with a hunting scene. It was
painted during the Directoire, and _Philippe Egalité_ and his son the
_Duc de Chartres_ (afterwards _Louis Philippe_) may be distinguished in
the foreground. Charles Vernet delighted in depicting horses and scenes
of sport, a style rendered even more famous by his son Horace Vernet.
There are no less than four pictures by the latter in the Musée Condé:
_The Duc d'Orleans (Louis Philippe) asking for hospitality from the
Monks of St. Bernard_; a portrait of _Louis Philippe_, while still Duc
d'Orléans; _Le Parlementaire et le Medjeles_, in which the various
Algerian types are represented in glowing colours; and _Louis Philippe
entering the gates of Versailles attended by his sons_. This latter is a
reduced copy by Perrault of the large original at Versailles, painted to
commemorate the occasion when Louis Philippe handed over the Palace of
Versailles, with all its treasures of art and historical reminiscences,
to the French Nation as a Public Museum.

We now come to an artist whose place is upon the threshold of the
nineteenth century--namely, Pierre Prudhon. A sketch of a _Venus_ at
Chantilly is a study for the picture _Venus and Adonis_, which made his
name at the Salon of 1812. Most fascinating are _Le Sommeil de Psyché,
Homage à Beauté_, and a sketch[139] of _Joseph and Potiphar's Wife_:
elegant and graceful creations recalling the style of Greuze; who in
point of fact admired his work greatly, and said of him, "This man will
go farther than I have done." David and his set contemptuously
designated him as the "_Boucher of to-day_"; but Napoleon commissioned
him to paint portraits of both his Empresses, _Josephine_ and _Marie
Louise_, and conferred upon him the Cross of the Legion of Honour.

For his own portrait the Emperor chose his official painter, Gérard,
who was at that time considered so great an exponent of this branch of
art that he was styled "_the painter of kings_" and "_the king of
painters_." Napoleon is represented by him as _First Consul_; and the
expressive eyes, the mouth displaying power to command and the broad
forehead partially concealed by a mass of hair, recall the great Roman
whom he emulated and with whom he loved to be compared. The painter, no
doubt, purposely accentuated in this portrait such facial resemblances
as he was able. This commission was executed at the Tuileries in 1803.

At the Fall of the Empire Gérard was presented by Talleyrand to Louis
XVIII; and later still in 1820 Louis Philippe commissioned him to paint
a portrait of the _Duchesse d'Orléans_ (afterwards Queen Marie Amélie)
in a white robe adorned with pearls. This painting was highly treasured
by the Duc d'Aumale, who out of filial affection hung it above his bed,
where it still remains.

Another portrait by Ary Scheffer of the same royal lady as a widow is
also here. This was painted at Claremont during the exile of the Orleans
family; and by the same artist is a portrait of the _Duc d'Orléans_,
Louis Philippe's eldest son, who met with an untimely end in a carriage
accident. But Ary Scheffer's _chef d'oeuvre_ at Chantilly is a
portrait of _Talleyrand_, the most renowned and brilliant man of the
Revolution,--a painting bequeathed to the Duc d'Aumale by his friend
Lord Holland.

Ary Scheffer's greatest pupil was Puvis de Chavannes, who far surpassed
his master in the art of exquisite line--a characteristic especially
noticeable in his painting of _Ste. Geneviève_ in the Pantheon, where he
shows us the Patron Saint of Paris watching over her beloved city; and
again in another painting of _St. Mary Magdalen_ at Frankfort. This
artist is unfortunately not represented at Chantilly; nor is Jacques
Louis David, whose vast canvases, the _Sacre et l'Intronisation de
l'Empereur_ and _La Distribution des Aigles_, are so conspicuous in the
Louvre. In spite of the comments of Diderot--who very wisely pointed out
that the chief aim of the ancients was to reproduce Nature and that
those who merely copied archaic painters were doing just the reverse of
those whom they were trying to imitate,--public taste followed David and
discarded their former favourites, Greuze and Watteau.

Ingres, David's pupil, is represented at Chantilly by some of his finest
work. There is in the first place _His Own Portrait_ painted at the age
of twenty-four--a fine work, grand in its very simplicity--which Prince
Napoleon always desired to possess and which the artist could hardly
refuse to present to him. It passed thence into the possession of Reiset
in 1868 and eventually in 1879 became the property of the Duc d'Aumale.

A most impressive picture is _Stratonice_ (Tribune), painted for the Duc
d'Orléans, who desired it as a pendant for Delaroche's _Assassination of
the Duc de Guise_. It was painted at the Villa Medici in Rome, where it
aroused great enthusiasm. His princely patron generously gave him 63,000
francs for it, which was double the price agreed upon.

Another greatly admired composition by him at Chantilly is a _Venus
Anadyomène_, which bears close affinity to the famous _La Source_ in the
Louvre.

The genius of Paul Delaroche brings us into the nineteenth century. His
style has been characterised as the _juste milieu_; for he neither
affected the manner of the Neo-Classics nor did he lean too much toward
the Romantics. Never was a cowardly and dastardly murder better depicted
than in his treatment of the _Assassination of Henri, Duc de Guise_. The
King, Henri III, pale and trembling, emerges from behind a curtain to
gaze upon his slaughtered victim, whilst the hired assassins gloat over
their ghastly deed. This picture, which hangs in the Tribune, was
painted by Delaroche specially for the Duc d'Orléans.

We now come to Eugène Delacroix, who, in company with Gericault, is
considered as the pioneer of Romanticism. His _Capture of Constantinople
by the Crusaders_ at Chantilly is a vividly composed representation of
this important event. _The Two Foscari_ (Tribune) depicts one of the
greatest tragedies in Venetian history. The Doge Francesco Foscari is
shown to us sitting in judgment upon his own son, whom he is condemning
to torture and banishment as a traitor to his country. The anguish of
the son and the stern despair of the old father are suggested with
wonderful skill. Delacroix's greatest efforts were, however, directed
against the paralysing influences of Academism; and his paintings in the
Palais Bourbon and in the Galerie d'Apollon in the Louvre prove him to
have been the finest colourist of the later French School.

Another artist of the Romantic School is Descamps, who is represented at
Chantilly by no less than ten paintings and several water-colours.
Amongst these a _Turkish Landscape_, painted during the artist's early
period, is perhaps the most attractive. On one side of the picture all
is mystery and darkness, whilst upon the other fall the rays of a golden
sunset. The problems of light and shade, to which he devoted himself so
earnestly up to the very end of his career, are here treated with great
effect. The same idea pervades his painting of _Turkish Guards on their
way from Smyrna to Magnesia_. A town with minarets is to be seen in the
background; a dark blue sky flecked with luminous white clouds; camels
and their riders; all breathing that dreamy oriental sensation which
appealed to him so strongly, and which he was never weary of
reproducing.

Eugène Fromentin, who was as celebrated as a writer as he was as a
painter, is represented in the Musée Condé by one of his finest
landscapes. Transported to the Marshes of Medeah, a country so well
described by him in his book _Un Éte dans le Sahara_, we see in the
foreground three Bedouin chiefs, mounted on splendid Arab steeds,
engaged in hawking. The atmosphere is transparent and clear, refreshed
as it were by a recent shower, and the sky is flecked by white clouds.
This artist, who died in 1876, was one of the most accomplished men of
his time.

By his contemporary Meissonier there are several paintings at Chantilly;
the most important being _Les Cuirassiers de 1805 avant le Combat_. The
moment is just before a projected attack; and the look of strained
expectation upon the faces of the combatants is admirably expressed.
Napoleon, surrounded by his staff, is easily recognised; and in the
varying expressions of the long line of horsemen we perceive looks of
determination to win or die. The reproach made by Mauclair to Meissonier
that his style suffered from lack of originality and was copied from
Dutch artists, if sometimes well founded, may at any rate be questioned
by this picture. His _La Vedette des Dragons sous Louis XV_, though
small in dimensions, is another important historical picture, whilst
_Les Amateurs des Tableaux_ recalls a similar composition in the Wallace
Collection.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXVI.

ARAB CHIEFS HAWKING IN THE DESERT.

_Photo Giraudon._

_Musée Condé._

Eugène Fromentin.]

Meissonier's best pupil was Jean Baptiste Detaille, the famous painter
of battle-pieces. There is a picture of his at Chantilly entitled _Les
Grenadiers à cheval à Eylau_,[140] where a gallant French officer with
the cry "_Haut les Têtes_" leads his regiment on to victory. This is
one of the _chef d'oeuvres_ of this artist, whose recent death is so
much to be deplored.

Of quite a different nature are the allegorical paintings of P. J. Aimé
Baudry. The excellence of this master lies principally in decoration, as
may be seen by his _Vision of St. Hubert_ in the Galerie des Cerfs; and
he may be considered one of the most talented of the French artists who
flourished during the second half of the nineteenth century.

Winterhalter, who, although a native of Baden, acquired his artistic
education in Paris and Rome, was one of the Court Painters to both Louis
Philippe and Napoleon III. His portrait of the _Duc d'Aumale_ at the age
of eighteen, as Commander of his regiment before his victorious campaign
in Algiers, is at Chantilly; and there is here also a companion portrait
of the _Duchesse_ as a young bride. She is clad in white, with a single
rose in her fair hair, and her face is full of refinement and delicacy.

Landscape-painting in France at the beginning of the nineteenth century
had undeniably become conventional and tame; but quite suddenly this
stagnant condition came to an end, and a revolution set in, caused by
the exhibition of Constable's paintings _The Hay Wain_ and _A View near
London_ in the Paris Salon of 1827. These pictures, purchased and
exhibited in Paris by a French connoisseur, created intense interest in
the French World of Art; and it is alleged that they were the immediate
cause whereat French artists suddenly emerged from the studios wherein
they had lingered so long and proceeding to the woods of Fontainebleau,
began working from Nature herself. They awoke to recognise their own
defects, already denounced by Chateaubriand, who had declared that
French landscape-painters ignored Nature.

Throughout the studios French artists warmly discussed the work of
Constable, upon whom Charles X, at their special desire, conferred the
Médaille d'Or; and it was suggested that the _Charette_ (_The Hay Wain_,
now in the National Gallery) should be acquired by the French Nation.

S. W. Reynolds, Constable's friend and pupil, whose exquisite little
picture of the _Pont de Sèvres_ hangs in the Tribune at Chantilly, at
this time also removed to Paris in order to satisfy the general demand
for engravings of his master's works.

But if the Barbizon School owed much to Constable, it is also certain
that Constable and Wilson owed an equal debt to Claude Lorraine; and
Turner perhaps even more so.

By Corot there is but one painting at Chantilly, but it is one of his
finest works. Everything in this picture breathes a spirit of peace and
joy; the sky, the earth and the graceful young women--one of whom is
playing a viola and another singing, whilst their companions listen or
are plucking fruit--give a cheerful note to this vision of content.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXVII.

THE GRENADIERS AT EYLAU.

_Photo Giraudon._

Détaille.]

It is styled _Le Concert Champêtre_[141] and recalls his series of
paintings entitled _Souvenir d'Italie_. Corot appears to have commenced
his studies in the woods at Fontainebleau even before Millet, Rousseau
and Diaz, so that he may fairly be styled the _doyen_ of the now famous
Barbizon School.

By his pupil A. P. C. Anastasi there are several landscapes at the Musée
Condé, one of which represents _Amsterdam at Eventide_.

That Millet is absent from this collection is much to be regretted; but
by Theodore Rousseau there are several landscapes, small in point of
size, but nevertheless exhibiting this artist at his best; as for
example, _Le Crépuscule en Sologne_ and _Fermes en Normandie_. Ary
Scheffer was the first artist to understand and befriend Rousseau when
he started away on lines of his own, and it was through the kind offices
of this painter that one of his first pictures was bought by the Duc
d'Orléans. His landscapes in Auvergne are early works; and those painted
at Barbizon--such as the pictures above named--are later and more
finished achievements.

Dupré, by whom there are three early works, _Port St. Nicholas_, _Paris_
and _Le Soleil Couchant_, accompanied Rousseau in 1841 to the
neighbourhood of Monsoult, where they were frequently visited by Barye,
Corot, and Daubigny. There is at Chantilly by this last artist a sketch
of the _Château de St. Cloud_, a charming record of a spot full of
memories, now no more. By Diaz de la Pena, the last of this group of
painters, there is a wreath of flowers and birds painted in vivid
colours upon the ceiling in the boudoir of the Petit Château once used
by the Duchesse d'Aumale; and by Ziem (known as the "Painter of Venice")
there is a landscape, _Les Eaux Douces d'Asie_, a subject magnificently
treated by Diaz in a composition now in the Wallace Collection.
Monticelli, Diaz's greatest pupil, the leading painter of the Second
Empire and a great admirer of the Empress Eugenie, is unfortunately not
represented here; nor are there any examples of the early French
Impressionists. For here the Hand of Death intervened.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXVIII.

_Photo. Giraudon._

"Concert Champêtre."

By Corot.

Musée Condé.]

With Léon Bonnat's fine portrait of the _Duc d'Aumale_ our description
of the paintings at Chantilly comes to an end; but attention should yet
be drawn to various pieces of sculpture exhibited in the apartments of
the Château, on the terraces, in the gardens and in the Park. A fine
figure of _Jeanne d'Arc_ by Chapu is in the Rotunda, whilst a group of
_Pluto and Proserpine plucking daffodils_ by the same sculptor is on the
Great Terrace. Here also is the equestrian statue of the _Grand
Montmorency_ by Dubois; and not far from it a life-size figure of the
_Grand Condé_ by Coysevox, surrounded by busts of _Bossuet_, _La
Bruyère_, _Molière_ and _Le Nôtre_. Copies in marble from the antique
and the renaissance adorn the niches and plinths of the mansion and the
avenues of the Park. A figure of _St. Louis_ by Marqueste surmounts
the roof of the Chapel and Jean Goujon's reliefs ornament the Altar
within. The famous portrait in wax of _Henri IV_ is in the Galerie de
Psyché; and busts in marble of the _Grand Condé_ and of _Turenne_ by
Derbais, of _Richelieu_ and of the last Princes of the House of
Bourbon-Condé, are placed in the Cabinet des Livres and in various other
rooms. Fine bronzes by Barye, Mène, Fremiet and Cain, adorn the
mantel-pieces and consoles; whilst some exquisite enamel portraits by
Limousin are exhibited in the Salle des Gardes.

Most interesting, and worthy of more than a passing notice, is the
collection of Chantilly Porcelain, an industry founded in 1730 by the
Duc de Bourbon. A set of porcelain made at that time was placed in the
King's Bedroom.[142]

In the centre of the Galerie des Peintures stands a fine bust of the
_Duc d'Aumale_ by Dubois, and in the Marble Hall lies his recumbent
figure in full uniform by the same artist, a cast[143] of the marble
figure upon his tomb in the Cathedral at Dreux.

And so with the death of the man his work came to a close. But his
genius as a collector has furnished France with one of the finest Homes
of Art in the World; and she does well to remember with gratitude this
scion of the Bourbon race, who stretched out his hand to expiate much.
Every lover of Art throughout the world, and every wayfarer who in his
wanderings finds his way to Chantilly, may well stand amazed at this
collection and praise its creator. Nor in passing out should he fail to
give a last glance at the silent effigy: a glance in which gratitude
should be mingled with that emotion which ever holds the thoughtful
spectator of departed greatness.

[Illustration: PLATE LXXIX.

TOMB OF THE DUC D'AUMALE.

_In the Cathedral at Dreux. Cast at Chantilly._

Paul Dubois.]



INDEX


Abdul Kader, Duc d'Aumale's victory over, 117

_Accordée du Village, Le_, by Greuze, 262

_Adoration of the Magi_, by Jean Fouquet, 190, 191

Ahasuerus. See King

_Ailly, Heures de._ See Books of Hours

Aix-la-Chapelle, Peace of, 79

Albano, a work by, 132

Albret, Duc de. See Condé, fifth Prince de

Albret, Henri de, King of Navarre, portraits of, 136, 141, 223

Albret, Jeanne de, Queen of Navarre, marriage, 16;
  a Protestant, 17;
  helps the Huguenots, 21;
  sudden death, 22, 243;
  portraits of, 22, 141, 224, 225, 226, 230, 235

Aldine editions in the Standish Library, 129

Alençon, Duc de, portraits of, 141, 182, 245

Alençon, Mme. Vendôme de, portraits of, 222, 223, 239

Alençon, Mlle. de, and Duc d'Enghien, 69

Alexandra, Queen, visits Chantilly, 122

_Alley in the Wood, An_, by Dughet, 250

Allori, Alexander. See Bronzino

_All Saints' Day_, by Fouquet, 194

_Amante Inquiète_, by Watteau, 258

_Amateurs des Tableaux, Les_, by Meissonier, in the Wallace Collection, 272

_Amazon_ of the Vatican, a statuette, 137

Amboise, Cardinal George de, owner of _Valere Maxime_, 158

Ambrogio di Spinola, Marchese. See Spinola

Amélie, Queen, and the Duc d'Aumale's marriage, 117

"Amico di Sandro," 149

_Amour Désarmé, Le_, by Watteau, 258

_Amphitryon_, poem by Molière, 75

_Amsterdam at Eventide_, by Anastasi, 275

Anastasi, A. P. C., 275

_Angelic Choir_, miniature by Simon Marmion, 197

Angers, disaster of, 25

Angleterre, Mme. Henriette de, portrait of, 253

Angoulême, Duc de. See Francis I

Angoulême, Duchesse de (formerly Diane de France), marriage, 9;
  portrait of, 151

Angoulême, Marguerite (sister of Francis I), portraits of, 141, 216, 228;
  manuscript of, 158

Anjou, Duc de. See Henri III

Anjou, Louis II of, King of Sicily, portrait of, 201

Anne of Austria, character, 40;
  and the Grand Condé, 44, 45, 47, 55, 56, 64;
  and Princesse de Condé, 52, 54

Anne of Bavaria, marriage of, 69

Anne de Bretagne (wife of Louis XII), miniature of, 138;
  Prayer Book of, 198;
  portrait of, 208;
  _Tournois_ tapestry, 208, 209;
  medal of, 210;
  her daughter's marriage, 216

_Annunciation_, by Francia, 145;
  by the Limbourgs, 173;
  by Jean Fouquet, 184, 189, 193

Antioch, Jean de, translates Cicero's _Rhetorics_, 157

_Antiochus and Stratonice, The Story of_, by Ingres, 135

_Antiquitates Judæorum_ of Josephus, miniatures by Jean Fouquet,
   155, 181, 182, 185, 189, 200

_Arab Chiefs Hawking in the Desert_, by Fromentin, 272

_Architecture, Treatise on_, by Filarete, 180

_Ariane._ See Duclos Mille.

Aristotle's _Ethics_, 157

Armagnac, Comte de, war with Duc de Bourbon, 162

_Arsenal_ MS., 159 _n._

_Artemisia, History of_, 244

Artois, Duc de (afterwards Charles X), marriage, 101, 102;
  leaves France, 104;
  at Coblenz, 109, 110

_Ascension, The_, by Jean Fouquet, 192

Ashmolean Collection at Oxford, 241

_Assassination of the Duc de Guise, The_, by Delaroche, 134, 269, 270

_Athena of Lemnos_, famous bronze, 136

Aumale, Duc de (Henri d'Orléans), Lord of Chantilly: _Histoire des
   Princes de Condé_, 38, 40, 74, 132;
  military success in Algiers, and marriage, 117;
  birth of a son, 118;
  an exile in England and return to Chantilly, 119-123;
  his scheme to bestow Chantilly on the French nation, 122-124;
  his second banishment, 124;
  return and welcome back to Chantilly, 124, 125;
  equestrian statue of, 125;
  portraits of, 126, 137, 177 _n._, 220, 273, 276, 277;
  collects the art treasures of the Musée Condé, 129-153;
  Victor Hugo's letter, 147;
  on Raphael's _Three Graces_, 149;
  French illuminated manuscripts at Chantilly, 154-164;
  the Cabinet des Livres, 156;
  _Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry_, 165-178;
  works of Jean Fouquet, 179-195;
  Jean Perréal, Bourdichon, and others, 196-210;
  Jean Clouet, 211-226;
  François Clouet, 225-247;
  from Nicholas Poussin to Corot, 248 _et seq._;
  tomb of, 278

Aumont, Duc de, portrait by Quesnel, 142

Auneau, Victory of, 26

Austria, Elizabeth of, portrait of, 234, 235;
  miniature of, 243

Austria, Margaret of, and the _Très Riches Heures_, 162, 163;
  and Jean Fouquet, 181;
  and Jean Perréal, 209

_Autumn_, by Botticelli, 145

_Avant et après le Combat_, by Protais, 135

Averoldi family, _Ecce Homo_ purchased from, 135

Ayr Collection, portrait of Prince Orlant, 198


_Bacchus and Ariadne_, antique sarcophagus, 137

Baccio del Bene, Italian author, 220

_Ball under the Colonnade_, by Watteau, 259

_Balthazar_, a Spanish hound, by Desportes, 255

Bandol, Johannes, painter, 200

Barbançon, Princesse de, by Van Dyck, 132

Barberini, Cardinal, and Quesnoy the sculptor, 249

Barbizon school, 274, 275

Bardon, M., painter, 8

Baroccio, Federigo, painter, 132

Bartolozzi, _Louis Joseph de Bourbon_, 265

Barye, bronzes by, 277

Bassompère, Maréchal de, his marriage, 11

Battave, Godfrey le, his work, 204

Baudrey, P. J. Aimé, allegorical painter, 273

Bavaria, Marie Anne of, portrait of, 138

Béarn, Henri de, and the Protestants, 21

Beaubrun, his portraits of _Comte de Cossé Brissac_, _Mme.
   and Mlle. de Longueville_, 12, 133;
  _the Grand Condé_, 251

Beaujeu, Anne de, and Jean Perréal, 207 _n._

Beaujeu, Pierre de, 183

Beauneveu, André, a _Book of Hours_, 177 _n._;
  _Antiquitates Judæorum_, 182

Bellay, Du, poet, and Marguerite de France, 220, 221

_Belles Heures de Jean de Berry_. See Book of Hours

_Bellièvre_, _Pomponne de_, portrait of, 252

Benedict XIV, Pope, portrait by Subleyras, 142

Berenson, Bernard, _A Sienese Painter of the Franciscan Legend_, 145 _n._

Berghe, Comte de, portrait by Van Dyck, 132

Bernal Sale, 133, 134

Berry, Duc de, _Les Très Riches Heures_, 130, 160, 161, 165 _et seq._;
  his illuminated manuscripts, 157;
  portrait of, 201

Berry, Duchesse de, at Chantilly, 91

Bersuire, Pierre, translator of Livy's _Second Decade_, 157

Bethune album, 241

Bethune, Philippe de, portrait by François Quesnel, 246

_Betrayal_, by Jean Fouquet, 191

_Bible Historiée_, 200

_Bible Moralisée_, 179

_Birth of St. John the Baptist_, by Jean Fouquet, 188, 190

Bissolo, _Madonna holding the Infant Christ_, 145

_Boccaccio_ at Munich, 181, 182, 185

Bodleian Library (Oxford), 151

Boileau, N., celebrated French poet, a guest at Chantilly, 75

Boissy, Gouffier de, Battle of Marignan, 6

Boisy, Le Grand Ecuyer de, portrait of, 244

Bonheur, Rosa, _A Shepherd in the Pyrenees_, 135

Bonnat, Léon, portrait of _Duc d'Aumale_, 126, 276

Bonnivet, Gouffier de, Battle of Marignan, 6

Book of Hours:
  (1) of fourteenth century, owned by François de Guise, 150
  (2) of Anne de Beaujeu, 198 _n._
  (3) of Anne de Montmorency, 158
  (4) of Catherine de Medicis, 215
  (5) of Étienne Chevalier, miniatures by Jean Fouquet, 152, 181
  (6) belonging to Maurice de Rothschild, 160
  (7) _Belles Heures de Jean de Berry_, also called _Heures d'Ailly_,
   by Limbourg brothers, 179, 184, 185
  (8) _Heures d'Anjou_, 200
  (9) _Heures d'Aragon_, by Bourdichon, 198
  (10) Livres d'Heures, 202
  (11) _Très Belles Heures_, or _Hours of Turin_, by Hesdin, 165, 177 _n_.

Book of Hours--_Cont._
  (12) _Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry_, by the Limbourg brothers,
   130, 152, 154, 156, 158, 160, 162, 164 _et seq._

Bora, Catherine de, portrait by Pourbus, 142

Bordeaux, Claire-Clemence at, 52, 53;
  as a Republic, 59, 60;
  surrenders to the King, 62

Bossuet, Jacq., the famous Prelate, at Chantilly, 83;
  and the Grand Condé, 86-88;
  statue of, 89;
  on Fouquet's _Enthronement of the Virgin_, 194;
  bust of, 276

Botticelli, Sandro, _Autumn_, 145;
  _Simonetta Vespucci_, 146;
  other drawings, 147

Boucault, Jeanne, wife of Jean Clouet, 211, 224;
  portrait of, 222

Boucher, François, French painter, _Watteau_, 143, 257;
  cartoon by, 256

Bouchot, Henri, 199, 204, 208, 235

Bouillon, Duchesse, joins the Fronde, 45;
  portrait of, 242

Bourbon, Anne Marie de, death of, 92

Bourbon, Antoine de (afterwards King of Navarre);
  portraits of, 16, 136;
  and the Guises, 18, 20

Bourbon, Caroline Auguste de, marriage to the Duc d'Aumale, 117

Bourbon, Charles de, the famous Constable, death, 16

Bourbon, Duc de. See Bourbon, Louis Henry Joseph;
  Condé, sixth, seventh, and eighth Princes de

Bourbon, Geneviève. See Longueville, Mme. de

Bourbon, Henri I de. See Condé, second Prince de

Bourbon, Henri II de. See Condé, third Prince de

Bourbon, Henri de, King of Navarre. See Henri IV

Bourbon, Henri Jules de. See Condé, fifth Prince de

Bourbon, Jacob de, 16

Bourbon, Louis I de. See Condé, first Prince de

Bourbon, Louis II de. See Condé, fourth Prince de

Bourbon, Louis Henry Joseph de (Duc d'Enghien, son
   of eighth Prince de Condé, known as Duc de Bourbon,
   last of the Condés), birth, 96;
  early marriage, 97;
  at Chantilly, 98, 99;
  separated from his wife, 100;
  leaves France, 104, 105;
  return to Chantilly, 111;
  death of his father, 113;
  reconciliation with and death of his wife, 113;
  and his godson, 114;
  death, 114, 115;
  portraits of, 114, 266

Bourbon, Louis Joseph de. See Condé, eighth Prince de

Bourdelot, Jean, and the Grand Condé, 84

Bourdichon, a follower of Jean Fouquet, 197, 207;
  his works, 198, 199

Bourdillon, Lescueur, portrait of, 203

Bourgogne, Antoine de, the _Grand Bâtard_, portraits of, 62, 142

Bouts, Dierick, _Procession_, 146

Braganza, Duc de (afterwards King of Portugal), betrothal, 124;
  assassination, 124 _n._

Brandenburg, William, Margrave of, guards the Rhine, 82

Brantôme, P. de: Diane de France, 9;
  Louis de Bourbon, 19;
  Duc d'Anjou, 24 _n._;
  the Dauphin, 217;
  Diane de Poitiers, 231;
  Henri de Mesmes, 242

"Brasseu," daughter of Diane de Poitiers, a member of _la petite band_, 228;
  portrait of, 239

Brentano, Herr, purchase and sale
of forty miniatures by Jean Fouquet, 152, 186

Bretagne, Anne de. See Anne de Bretagne

Bretagne, François, the Duke of, tomb of, 42, 209

_Breviary_, fourteenth century, 150, 151;
  of Belleville, 160;
  _Grimani_, sixteenth century, 162, 163, 168

Brézé, Maréchal de, 35

_Briados_, a Spanish hound, by Desportes, 255

Bridgewater _Madonna_, 140

Brignole, Marie Catherine de, the widowed
   Princess of Monaco, marries eighth Prince de Condé, 109

Brissac, Maréchal, portrait of, 238, 239

British Museum, the _Gallic War_, 157;
  _Book of Hours_, 186;
  Salting Collection, 230, 231, 242

Bronzes, 136, 277

Bronzino, Le (Alexander Allori), painter, 132

Broussel, Councillor, and Cardinal Mazarin, 44, 45

Bruges, Jean de, 200 _n._

Bruisbal, Scipion, 240

Brun, Charles Le, Court-painter to Louis XIV, 84;
  and the Gobelin Factory, 251, 252

Brun, Mme. Vigée Le, her works, 137, 263, 264

Bruyère, La, educates the Condés, 85;
  and Mme. de Langeron, 87;
  bust of, 276

Budos, Louis de, death of, 9

Buffant, Jean, once possessor of _Breviary Grimani_, 163

Bugato, Zanetta, 148

Bugenhagen, Jean de, portrait of, 142

Bullant, Jean, architect, 6, 240;
  altar of Senlis marble, 123

Bussel, a follower of François Clouet, 245

Buti, Catherine, in _La Toussaint_, 194


_Cabinet des Livres_ at Chantilly, 156

_Cabotière, La_, 32

Cæsar's Commentaries, 157

Cain, bronzes, 277

_Calendar_ of months in _Book of
   Hours_, 152, 154, 156, 158, 160, 162,
   164, 166 _et seq._, 178

_Callirhoé and Corésus_, by Fragonard, 264

Canaletto, Antonio, 147

_Canaples, Mme. de_, portrait of, 244

_Canaples, Sieur de_, portraits of, 223

Cantillius, a Gallo-Roman, origin of name Chantilly, 3

_Capture of Constantinople by the Crusaders_, by Delacroix, 270

_Capture of Jerusalem_, by Poussin, 249

Carlisle, Lord, his collection of French drawings, 151

Carmontelle, M., collection of, 143, 144;
  portrait of, 144

Carracci, Annibale, paintings in Musée Condé, 84, 132, 135

Carriera, Rosalba, 261

Carron, M., his designs from the _History of Artemisia_, 244

_Castello di S. Angelo_, by Claude, 250

Cellini, Benvenuto, _Apollo guiding the Chariot of the Sun_, 141;
  _Life of_, by R. H. Cust, 222 _n._

Champaigne, Philippe de, portraits of _Mazarin_ and _Richelieu_, 134;
  his work, 250

Champion, Jean, 212

Chandus, portrait of, 223

Chantilly, Château of (see also Musée Condé), owners of, 1 _et seq._;
  origin of name, 3;
  the Montmorencys, 3-15;
  improvements and restorations, 5, 66 _et seq._, 89, 90, 92, 118, 119, 121;
  windows, 5, 8;
  pictures of, 6, 50;
  the Petit-Château, 7;
  its beauty, 9, 10;
  and the Condés, 16 _et seq._;
  confiscation and restoration of, 32, 106, 109, 111, 112, 119,
   121, 124, 125;
  the Grand Condé, 33-46;
  portraits, 42, 50;
  return of Prince and Princesse de Condé, 56;
  festivities at, 69-77, 90-92, 97, 99;
  illustrious visitors, 83, 90, 92, 97-99, 118, 121-123;
  famous waterworks at, 84;
  pictures, 84;
  used as a prison, 106, 108;
  during the French Revolution, 106 _et seq._;
  races at, 116;
  Duc d'Aumale, Lord of Chantilly, 116 _et seq._;
  Musée Condé erected, 122, 123;
  bequeathed to the nation, 124, 125;
  Grand Chinoiserie, 259

_Chapeau-Rouge_ party, 61

Chapu, _Jeanne d'Arc_, 276

_Chariot of the Sun_, 167

_Charlemagne, Coronation of_, 182

Charles IV of Germany, portrait of, 201 _n._

Charles V of France, portraits of, 142, 200;
  his _Inventory_, 159;
  imprisons the two Dauphins, 217

Charles VII, portraits by Fouquet, 181, 182, 185, 186, 191

Charles VIII, by Perréal, 203, 208

Charles IX and Prince de Condé, 23;
  death, 24;
  portraits by François Clouet, 141, 229, 230, 231, 244

Charles X confers the Médaille d'Or on Constable, 274

Charlotte, Elizabeth. See Princess Palatine

Charolais, Count de, at Chantilly, 95, 96

Charonton, Enguerrand, works by, 42, 146, 176, 193

_Charost_, by Quesnel, 142

Chartres, Duc de (afterwards Louis Philippe), portrait by Charles Vernet, 266

Chartres, Duchesse de, portrait by Duplessis, 261

_Chasse au Faucon en Algérie, La_, by Fromentin, 139

_Chasse du Loup_ and _du Renard_, by Oudry, 256

_Château de St. Cloud_, by Daubigny, 275

_Chateaubriand, Monsieur de_, 239

Châteauroux, Castle of, Claire-Clemence exiled to, 73

Châtillon, Mme. de, 50

_Chaudin, capitaine de la porte du Roy_, 239

Chavannes, Puvis de, his works, 269

Chavignard, Lechevallier, cartoon by, 123

_Chess._ See _Game of_

Chevalier, Étienne, _Book of Hours_, executed for, 152, 184;
  portraits of, 180, 181, 182, 185, 187, 189, 194

Chevreuse, Duchesse de, 55

_Chiaroscuro_, introduction of, 177, 192

Chigi, Prince, collection of, 150

_Children of Israel led into Captivity by King Shalmaneser_, 184

Chinon, Château de, 191

_Christ, Life of_, scenes from, 173

_Christ on the Cross_, miniature, 139

Christina of Denmark, Queen, at Chantilly, 123

Christina of Sweden, Queen, and Claire-Clemence, 54

_Chronique de France_, 181, 182

Cicero's _Rhetorics_, 157

Cigongue, Armand, collection of, 130

_Cité de Dieu_, 157

Claire-Clemence (wife of the Grand Condé),
   early marriage and excellent qualities of, 34;
  retires to a convent, 35;
  with her son at Chantilly, 41;
  sudden departure, 45;
  her husband's imprisonment, 49;
  her escape, 51;
  at Bordeaux, 52, 53, 59, 60;
  obtains her husband's freedom, 54, 55;
  entry into Paris, 56;
  retirement to Saint-Maur, 57;
  birth of second son, 61;
  retires to Flanders, 62;
  return to France, 64, 75;
  and her son's marriage, 69;
  ill-health, 70;
  and the page Duval, 71;
  her husband's ill-treatment, 71, 72;
  exile and death, 73, 74

Claridge, Robert, and the Condés, 266

Claude, Queen (wife of Francis I), portraits of, 216, 217, 218, 239

_Clementia_, 184

Clermont, Louise de, portrait of, 228, 255

Clève, Marie de, marriage, 22;
  and Charles IX, 23;
  death, 24

Clève, Philippe de, portrait by Holbein, 142

Clouet, François, his works, 8, 20, 22,
   26, 141, 151, 205, 208, 214, 215, 219, 223, 226-243, 246;
  succeeds his father as Court-painter to François I, 225, 226;
  his style of work, 227, 234, 238, 247;
  death, 243

Clouet, Jean, painter to the Duke of Burgundy, 211

Clouet of Tours, Jean (son of above), court-painter to Francis I,
   151, 204-208;
  medal of, 210;
  marriage, 211;
  his methods and works, 212-226, 228, 242;
  death, 227

Clouet of Navarre (son of above), 211

Clovio, Giulio, _Christ on the Cross_, 139

_Coche de Marguerite, de la_, manuscript, 158

Codex with Fouquet's miniatures, 182-184

Colbert, pastel of, 142;
  and Le Brun, 251

Coligny, Admiral de, portrait of, 141

Coligny, Dandelot de, 42

Coligny, Gaspard, on the death of Francis II, 19;
  and the Condés, 21;
  death, 23

Coligny, Odet de, a Cardinal, portrait of, 133, 236;
  history of, 237

Colnaghi, Messrs., sell portraits and pictures to Duc d'Aumale, 133, 138

Colombe, Jean de, works of, 162, 171, 178, 197

Colombe, Michel, 209

_Colonel Lepic à Eylau_, by Détaille, 152

_Comptes de Lyon_, by Perréal, 207

_Concert Champêtre_, by Corot, 152, 275, 276

Conches Collection, 186

Condé family, the, 4, 16 _et seq._

Condé, first Prince de (Louis de Bourbon), 16;
  religion and marriage, 17;
  imprisonment, 17, 18;
  release, 19;
  infidelities, 19;
  death, 20;
  portraits of, 18, 136

Condé, second Prince de (Henri I de Bourbon), portrait of, 18;
  and Mlle. de Saint-André, 19;
  and his mother, 20;
  succeeds his father, 21;
  marriage, 22;
  and the Protestant faith, 23, 24;
  death of his wife, 24;
  second marriage, 24, 25;
  the War of the Four Henris, 25, 26;
  becomes heir-presumptive, 27;
  death, 28

Condé, third Prince de (Henri II de Bourbon), portrait of, 12;
  marriage and its result, 12-15, 30;
  imprisonment, 31;
  and Louis XIII, 32;
  death, 43;
  bronze monument of, 123

Condé, fourth Prince de (Louis II de Bourbon, Duc d'Enghien,
   the "Grand Condé"), baptism and education, 33;
  early marriage, 34;
  life in Burgundy, 35, 36;
  elected general, 37;
  victor of Rocroy, Thionville, and Nordlingen, 38-41;
  illness, 41;
  influence of women on, 42;
  death of his father, 43;
  victor of Lens, 43, 44;
  reception by the King, 44;
  puts down the Fronde, 45;
  Mazarin an implacable enemy, 47 _et seq._;
  imprisoned at Vincennes, 48, 49;
  removed to Havre, 54;
  his wife obtains his freedom, 55, 56;
  betrayed by his enemies, 57;
  his faults, 57;
  retires to Montroux, 58;
  alliance with Spain, 59 _et seq._;
  entry into and retreat from Paris, 60;
  financial difficulties, 61, 62;
  a lost battle, 63;
  returns to France, 64;
  his regrets, 65;
  retires to Chantilly, 66;
  improvements at Chantilly, 66, 67;
  refuses Crown of Poland, 69;
  cruel treatment to his wife, 70-73;
  her death, 73;
  illustrious visitors and festivities at Chantilly, 75-77, 83;
  war with Holland, 78 _et seq._;
  wounded, 81;
  return to Chantilly and death, 83;
  interest in scientific discoveries and passion for the chase, 84;
  protects the Huguenots, 85;
  and his grandson, 85;
  a free-thinker, 87;
  his death, 88;
  statues of, 89, 276;
  portraits of, 251;
  bust of, 277

Condé, fifth Prince de (Henri Jules de Bourbon, Duc d'Albret, Duc d'Enghien),
   son of the Grand Condé, 41;
  escapes with his mother, 50, 51;
  educated by Jesuits, 62;
  Louis XIV's entry into Paris, 65;
  at Chantilly, 67;
  marriage, 69;
  sad interview with his mother, 73;
  his mother's death, 73;
  his father wounded, 81;
  character, 81, 85, 90;
  death of his father, 87;
  succeeds and carries out his father's improvements at Chantilly, 89;
  violent temper and death, 90

Condé, sixth Prince de (Louis III, Duc de Bourbon),
   early marriage and education, 85, 86;
  death, 91

Condé, seventh Prince de (Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon), early succession, 91;
  improvements and illustrious visitors at Chantilly, 91, 95;
  Prime Minister of France, 92;
  death of his wife, 92;
  and the Marquise de Prie, 92-94;
  resignation, 94;
  second marriage, 94, 95;
  death, 95

Condé, eighth Prince de (Louis Joseph), condemns the Grand
   Condé's treatment of his wife, 74;
  early succession, 95;
  marriage and birth of a son, 96;
  gained victories of Grinningen and Johannesberg, 97;
  death of his wife, 97;
  illustrious visitors at Chantilly, 98-104;
  leaves France owing to Revolution, 104;
  at Worms, 109;
  retires to Wanstead House, Wimbledon, 109;
  second marriage, 109;
  returns to Chantilly, 111;
  restores Chantilly, 111, 112;
  death, 113;
  and Jean Baptiste Huet, 260;
  and Fragonard, 264;
  portrait of, 265

Condé, ninth Prince de. See Bourbon, Louis Henri Joseph, Duc de

Condé, Henriette de Bourbon (Mme. de Vermandois), Abbess, 100

_Condé, Histoire des Princes de_, by Duc d'Aumale, 38, 74

Condé, Louise de (daughter of eighth Prince de Condé), birth, 96;
  life at Chantilly, 100, 101;
  and the Marquis de Gervaisais, 102, 103;
  the French Revolution, 104;
  retires to a convent, 109;
  tragic death of Duc d'Enghien, 109, 110;
  reception in England, 110;
  death, 115

Condé, Mme. la Princesse Douarière de, 35

Condé, Musée, erection of, 122, 123;
  bequeathed to the French nation, 124, 125;
  art treasures of, and how they were brought together, 129 _et seq._;
  French illuminated manuscripts at, 154-164;
  _Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry_, 165-178;
  works of Jean Fouquet of Tours, 179-195;
  of Jean Perréal and Bourdichon, 196-210;
  of Jean Clouet, 211-226;
  of François Clouet, 227-248;
  _Catalogue Raisonnée_ of, 247;
  works of painters from Nicolas Poussin to Corot, 248-278

_Condé, Sur la femme du Grand_, 34

_Confession of St. Peter_, 189

Constable, John, effect of his work on French painters, 273, 274

_Constantine, Emperor_, medal of, 175

Conti, Prince de, brother of the Grand Condé, 48;
  illness, 49;
  at Bordeaux, 60, 61;
  and Mazarin, 64

Conti, François, Prince, nephew of the Grand Condé, 85

Conti, Louise Henriette de Bourbon, portrait by Nattier, 254

Corneille de Lyon, his works, 26, 141, 147, 218, 231, 242, 244

Corneille, Pierre, the Poet at Chantilly, 75, 83

_Coronation of Charlemagne_, by Fouquet, 82

_Coronation of the Virgin, the._ See _Virgin_

Corot, Jean B. C., _Le Concert Champêtre_, 152, 274, 275, 276

Cosimo, Piero di, _Simonetta Vespucci_, 146

Coste, Jean de, the Château de Vaudreuil, 200

Court, Jean de, Court-painter to Henri III, 244

Courtils de Merlemont, M. des, Knight of St. Louis,
   imprisoned at Chantilly, 106

Coutras, Battle of, 26

Cowley, Lord, occupies Chantilly, 119

Coysevox, statue of the _Grand Condé_, 276

_Crépuscule en Sologne, Le_, by Rousseau, 275

Croix, Mlle. de la, 35

Crozat, M., the financier and collector, owned the Orleans _Madonna_, 140;
  and Watteau, 259

_Crucifixion, The_, in _Les Très Riches Heures_, 177, 192

_Cuirassiers, Les_, by Meissonier, 152, 272

_Cupid and Psyche_, in windows at Chantilly, 5

Cust, H. Hobart, _The Life of Benvenuto Cellini_, 222 _n._

Cust, Lionel, _History of Art in England_, 201

Czartoysky, Prince Ladislas, marriage, 121


Damartin, Guy de, architect, 166

_Dance of Angels_, 135

Danloux, M.;
  portraits by, 114, 266

Danté's _Inferno_ with _Commentary_ by Guido of Pisa, 157

_Daphne flying to her father's protection_, by Poussin, 250

Daumet, M., rebuilds the _Grand Château_, 122

Dauphin, the Grand (only son of Louis XIV.), at Chantilly, 90;
  portraits of, 138, 217

Dauphin François, portraits of, 212, 217, 218, 220, 239, 244

Dauphin Louis (son of Louis XVI), portrait of, 264

David, Jacques Louis, and Prud'hon, 267;
  his works, 269

Dawes, Sophie, known as Baronne de Feuchères, 115

_Death of Germanicus, The_, by Poussin, 249

_Déjeuner d'Huîtres_, by de Troy, 134, 259

_Déjeuner de Jambon_, by Lancret, 134, 259

Delacroix, Eugène, his works, 141, 270, 271

Delaroche, Paul, his works, 134, 269, 270

Delessert Sale, 139

Deligand Collection, 228 _n._, 239

Delisle, Count Leopold, 161

Delormes, Philibert, 240

Denmark and Louis XIV, 81

Derbais, M., his works, 277

Descamps, Jean Baptiste, painter, works of, 134, 139, 271

Descartes, René, and the Grand Condé, 87

_Descent from the Cross_, by Fouquet, 192, 193

_Descent of the Holy Ghost_, by Fouquet, 193

Desportes, P., poet, his works, 132, 255, 256;
  and Jean de Court, 244

Detaille, Jean Baptiste, his works, 272, 273, 274

Détaille, M., his finest work, 152;
  album, 241

_Devançay, Mme. de_, by Ingres, 147

Diane de France. See Angoulême, Duchesse de

Diane de Poitiers. See Poitiers

Diaz de la Pena, works of, 275, 276

Diderot, M., on Greuze, 261;
  on David, 269

Dimier, L., 204;
  _Bulletin de la Société Nationale des Antiquaires de France_, 240 _n._

Dinier, Louis, _Les Portraits peints de François I_, 151 _n._

_Diodorus Siculus_, translation of, 158

Disraeli, Benjamin, in praise of Duc d'Aumale, 131

_Distribution des Aigles, La_, by David, 269

_Divina Commedia_, by Dante, 194

Domenichino, Domenico, and Poussin, 249

Donato, San, Sale, 139

_Donneur des Sérénades, La_, by Watteau, 258

Dourdan, Castle of, in _Les Très Riches Heures_, 168

_Dragons sous Louis XV, Les_, 138

_Dream of a Knight, The_, by Raphael, 148

Drouais, M., portraits by, 142, 263

Duban, M., architect, 118, 122

Dubois, P., a follower of François Clouet, 245;
  statue of the _Grand Montmorency_, 276;
  bust and tomb of _Duc d'Aumale_, 277, 278

Duccio's famous altar-piece at Siena, 193 _n._

Dûchatel, Comte, at Chantilly, 119

_Duclos, Mlle._, portrait of, 254

Dudley, Earl of, owner at one time of _The Three Graces_, 148, 149

_Duel après le Bal, Le_, by Gérome, 135

Duff-Gordon-Duff Collection, 144

Dugardin, the goldsmith, frames the miniature of _Elizabeth of Austria_, 243

Dughet, Gaspar, works by, 133, 146, 250

Dumoustier, M., works by, 42, 143, 147, 151, 245, 246

_Dunes at Scheveningen_, by Ruysdael, 139

Duplessis, M., administrator of the galleries at Versailles, 261

Dupré, M., works by, 275

Duras, Duchesse de, a prisoner at Chantilly, 107

Dürer, Albert, celebrated artist, _Virgin_, 131

Durrieu, Comte Paul, 148;
  and the _Très Riches Heures_, 161, 163;
  made reproduction of _Hours of Turin_, 165;
  and the medal of _Emperor Constantine_, 175;
  and the Fouquet miniatures, 182;
  and the _MS. de Saint Michel_, 202


_Eaux Douces d'Asie, Les_, by Diaz, 276

_Ecce Homo_, by Titian, 135

Edward III, portrait of, 201 _n_.

Edward VII, visits Chantilly when Prince of Wales, 122;
  presentation of Fouquet's miniatures to President Fallières, 184

_Elboeuf, Mme. de_, by Corneille, 244

_Eleonore, Queen_, portrait of, 133

_Elizabeth of Austria_, portraits of, 133, 234

Enghien, Duc de (see also Bourbon, Louis Henri Joseph),
   son of Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon, 103;
  the French Revolution, 104, 105;
  execution by Napoleon, 110;
  portrait of, 264

_Enthronement of the Virgin_, by Fouquet, 193, 194

Epéron, Duc de, the hated Governor of Bordeaux, 52

Erasmus, portrait of, 204

Estampes, Château de, in the _Calendar_ of Months, 170

Estampes, Duchesse de (mistress of Francis I), intrigues of, 6

Este, Cardinal Ippolito de, 222

_Esther as Queen, walking in her garden_,
   in the Lichtenstein Gallery at Vienna, 150, 151

_Estrange, Madame le_, portrait by Clouet of, 223, 224

Estrées, Gabrielle de (mistress of Henri IV), portraits of, 136,
   142, 246, 247

Eugenius IV, Pope, portrait of, 180

_Eve and the Apple_, in _Les Très Riches Heures_, 173

Everdingen, the master of Ruysdael, 146

Evreux, Jeanne de (wife of Charles IV), _Breviary_ executed for, 151, 160

Eyck, Hubert Van, works by, 146, 165 _n._


_Fables de Marie de France, Les_, 130

Fabre Collection, 149

Fagon, Dr. (physician to Louis XIV), portraits of, 248

_Fall of the Rebel Angels_, 175, 176

Fallières, President, presentation of the Fouquet MSS. to, 184

Faure Sale, 141

Fel, Marie, opera singer, pastel of, 260

Fénélon, François, at Chantilly, 83

Ferdinand III, Emperor, Peace of Westphalia, 44

_Fermes en Normandie_, by Rousseau, 275

Ferrara, Ercole, Duc de, marriage, 221

Ferrara, Duchesse de. See Rénée de France

Filarete, _Treatise on Architecture_, 180

Flanders, invaded by Louis XIV, 78

Fleuranges, Maréchal de, portrait of, 205

Fleury, Cardinal, and the Marquise de Prie, 94

Fleury, Robert, works by, 138

Foix, Odet de, portraits of, 205, 208

Fontaine, La, at Chantilly, 75;
  designs executed in tapestry from his _Fables_, 256

_Foscari, The Two_, by Delacroix, 141, 270, 271

Foulon, Benjamin, and the Lecurieur album, 235

Fouquet of Tours, Jean (Court-painter to Louis XI), his works, 152,
   153, 155, 156, 179-195, 202, 207 _n._;
  early history of, 180

_Four Evangelists_, 173

Fragonard, J. Honoré, painter, his works, 264, 265

_France, Chronique de._ See Chronique

France, Diane de. See Angoulême, Duchesse de

France, Henriette de, portrait of, 245

_France, Histoire litteraire de la_, 157

_France, History of the Kings of_, 251, 252

France, Jeanne de (Queen of Navarre, daughter of Charles VII), 148;
  _Book of Hours_ designed for, 160

_France, Les Fables de Marie de_, 130

France, Margot de (daughter of Catherine de Medicis), engagement, 22;
  portraits of, 233, 234, 238;
  marriage, 243

France, Marguerite de (sister of Henri II), portraits of, 141, 218, 244;
  history of, 218-221;
  marriage, 219

France, Mme. Adelaide de, portrait of, 260

France, Rénée de. See Rénée

France, war with Spain, 38 _et seq._;
  the Fronde rising, 44, 45;
  civil war, 55, 59;
  Peace of the Pyrenees, 64;
  invasion of Holland, 78-82;
  Revolution, 104, 105;
  gift of Musée Condé to the nation, 124

Francia, his _Annunciation_, 145

Francis I (formerly Duc d'Angoulême), Battle of Marignan, 6;
  jealous of Anne de Montmorency, 6;
  portraits of, 138, 141, 151, 158, 204, 206, 207, 213-215, 216, 228, 241;
  and Jean Perréal, 205;
  his daughter Marguerite de France, 220;
  Princesse Jeanne, 224

Francis II, imprisonment of Louis de Bourbon-Condé, 17, 18;
  illness, 18;
  death, 19;
  portraits of, 20, 229, 232

Fremiet, M., bronze by, 277

Fresnes, Comte de, 150

Frizzoni, Dr. G., 146

Froissart, Jean, French poet, manuscript, 143;
  description of the castle of Mehun-sur-Yevre, 177

Fromentin, Eugène (a celebrated writer and painter), his works, 139, 271, 272

Fronde, outbreak of the, 44, 45

Fry, Roger, and the _Maître de Moulins_, 199


Gaignière, Robert, collection of French drawings, 141, 151, 156;
  his _Receuils_, 185, 188, 201;
  discovers portrait of _Jean le Bon_, 200;
  miniatures, 207;
  portraits, 208, 218, 245

_Gallic War_, manuscript history of, 157, 204, 206

_Game of Chess, A_, by Carmontelle, 144

Gardiner, Mrs. John, owner of _The Virgin and the Holy Child_, 150

Gautier, Leonard, _Cupid and Psyche_, 6;
  _Kings of France_, 215

_Gazette des Beaux Arts_, 172, 198, 203 _n_.

_Genealogy of the Blessed Virgin_, a _Mariensippe_, 186

George I, portrait of, 142

_Georgette_, by Greuze, 262

Gerard, François (styled "the painter of Kings" and "King
   of Painters"), _Queen Marie Amélie_, 137;
  _Napoleon_, 146, 268

Gericault, M., 147;
  a pioneer of Romanticism, 270

Gérome, M., _Le Duel après le Bal_, 135

Gervaisais, Marquis de, and Princess Louise de Condé, 102, 103

Ghirlandajo frescoes, 190

Gillott, Claude, earliest creator of the Watteau style, 258, 259

Giorgione, M., _The Woman taken in Adultery_, 135

Giotto's _Death of the Virgin_, 145

Giovanni del Ponte di San Stefano, _The Coronation of the Virgin_, 145

Gobelins tapestry, the, 132, 251, 256

Goes, Ugo Van der, the _Grand Bâtard_, 142

Goldschmidt, Leopold, 149, 150

Gondi, Albert de, portrait of, 235

Gondi, Henri, Archdeacon of Paris, portrait of, 245

Gondi, Paul (subsequently known as Cardinal Retz), Archbishop
   of Paris and the Fronde rising, 44;
  and the Queen Regent, 56, 57

Gonzague, Princesse Anne de (known as Princesse Palatine),
   and the Grand Condé, 42, 43, 54, 70;
  at Chantilly, 75;
  a free-thinker, 87;
  death, 87

Gonzague, Princesse Louise Marie de (afterwards Queen of Poland),
   and the Grand Condé, 42, 43, 54;
  and the Crown of Poland, 69;
  a free-thinker, 87

Gouffier, Artur and Guillaume, portraits of, 205

Goujon, Jean, the altar of Senlis marble, 123;
  his altar reliefs, 277

Gourdel, Pierre, a follower of François Clouet, 245

_Graces, The Three_, by Raphael, 148, 149, 187

Grammont, Duchesse de, on the death of Henri de Bourbon-Condé, 28

Grammont, Maréchal de, at Chantilly, 75

_Grenadiers à Cheval à Eylau, Les_, by Detaille, 272, 274

Greuze, J. B. (French painter), his style and works, 139, 261-263, 267

_Grimani._ See Breviary

Grinningen, victory of, 97

Gros, Antoine Jean, Baron, painter, 139

Gruyer, M. F., a _Catalogue Raisonnée_ of the Musée Condé, 144, 247;
  on _Les Très Riches Heures_, 160;
  his works, 251

Guercino, works of, 84, 132

Guido of Pisa, _Commentary_, 157

Guido Reni, a celebrated Italian painter, 132

Guifard, M., 9

Guise, Duc de (son of Duc d'Aumale), at Chantilly, 120, 121;
  death, 122;
  portrait by Clouet, 214

Guise, Duc de (le Balafré), miniature of, 138

Guise, Duc Claude de, portrait of, 213

Guise, Henri, Duc de, the War of the Four Henris, 25, 26;
  death, 26, 27;
  _Assassination_ of, by Delaroche, 134, 269, 270;
  portrait by Dumoustier, 245, 246

Guises of Lorraine, the, 17

_Guitar Player, The_, by Watteau, 258


Hagford album, in Salting Bequest, 242

Hainau, Count, 165 _n._

"Hameau," a, at Chantilly, 98

Hamilton Palace Sale, 147, 150

Haros, Louis de (minister of Philip IV), Peace of the Pyrenees, 64;
  portrait of, 143

Hauteville, Elizabeth de (afterwards
Comtesse de Beauvais), marries Cardinal Coligny, 237

Hawking, art revived by the Grand Condé, 84

_Hay Wain, The_, by Constable, 273

"Hegli," 6

Heidelberg, Capture of, 82

Henri I de Bourbon. See Condé, second Prince de

Henri II creates Anne de Montmorency a Duke, 8;
  portraits of, 26, 133, 151, 236

Henri II de Bourbon. See Condé, third Prince de

Henri III (formerly Duc d'Anjou), admiration for Marie de Clève, 22, 24;
  and the Huguenots, 23;
  battle at Coutras, 26;
  assassination of, 27;
  portraits of, 133, 141, 244

Henri IV (Henri de Bourbon, King of Navarre), admiration for Charlotte
   de Montmorency of Chantilly, 10, 11, 28;
  murder of, 15;
  marriage, 22, and the Protestant faith, 23, 24;
  War of the Four Henris, 25, 26;
  succeeds to the throne, 27;
  portraits of, 138, 142, 277

Henri, Duc de Guise. See Guise

Henri of Navarre. See Henri IV

Herbert of Cherbury, Lord, his _Memoirs_, 9

Hery, Claude de, 242

Hesdin, Jaquemart de, executes _Très Belles Heures_, 165, 177 _n._

Heseltine Collection, 207 _n._, 214 _n._

Heures d'Ailly. See Book of Hours

Heures d'Anjou. See Book of Hours

Heures d'Aragon. See Book of Hours

Heuzey, Léon, on date of _Minerva_, 136

_Histoire des Princes de Condé_, by Duc d'Aumale, 38, 74

_Histoire litteraire de la France_, 157

_History of Art in England_, 201 _n._

Hoe, Robert, sale of his collection, 198 _n._

Holbein, Jean, portrait by, 131;
  _Jean de Bugenhagen_, 142;
  the Hagford Collection, 242

Holland submerged to stay the French advance, 79

Holland, Lord, presents _Talleyrand's_ portrait to Duc d'Aumale, 138

_Holy Family_, by Jacopo Palma, 145

_Hommes Illustres_, Thevet's, 212, 215

Hôpital, Michael de le, resignation of, 20

Hortense, Queen, owner of Chantilly, 109

_Hours of Anne de Beaujeu._ See Book of Hours

_Hours of Turin._ See Book of Hours

Howard Collection, 151, 152, 242

Huet, Christophe, works by, 132;
  designer and decorator of the _Grande Chinoiserie_ at Chantilly, 259, 260

Huet, Jean Baptiste (son of above), painter, 260

Hugo, Victor, his letter to the Duc d'Aumale, 147, 148

Huguenots, Prince de Condé one of their leaders, 17;
  religious wars, 20, 21, 23-26;
  protected by the Grand Condé, 85

Hulin, M., 199

_Huntsman with his dog and bag of game_, by Desporte, 256

_Husband and Wife_, 146


_Infancy of Bacchus_, by Poussin, 135, 249

_Inferno_, Dante's, 157

_Ingeburge, Psalter of Queen_, 158, 159

Ingres, Jean D. A., works by, 133, 135, 147;
  his pupil David, 269
_Inventory_ of Charles V, 159;
  of the Palais de Tournelle, 241

Isabella, Archduchess, and the Princesse de Condé, 14, 15

Italian enamel, 141

Italian manuscripts, 138


James V of Scotland, marriage, 218

Jarnac, Battle of, 20

Jean II, Baron de Montmorency, 4

Jean le Bon (father of Charles V of France), portrait of, 200

_Jeanne d'Arc_, by Chapu, 276

_Joconde, La_, Reiset Collection, 131

Johannesberg, Grand Condé's victory at, 97

Jones Collection in Victoria and Albert Museum, 232

_Joseph and Potiphar's Wife_, by Prud'hon, 258, 267

_Josephine_, portrait by Prud'hon, 267

Josephus, _Antiquitates Judæorum_ of, 155, 181, 182, 185, 189, 200

Jott, Madame de, portrait by, 104

Joyeuse, Duc de, battle of Coutras, 26

_Jupiter_, a bronze, 136

Just de Tournon. See Tournon

_Juvenal des Ursins_, portrait of, 181


Kahn, Rudolph, presented _Madame d'Elboeuf_ to the Louvre, 244

Kaiser Friedrich Collection at Berlin, 185

_King Ahasuerus and Esther_, 149

_Kings of France._ See Gautier


Laborde, Comte de, his discoveries, 197

Laborde, Jean de, _Songs_ of, 130;
  _La Renaissance_ and _Comptes des Bâtiments_, 212 _n._

Labruyère, Jean de, statue of, 89

Lagneau Brothers, their work, 245

Lami, Eugène (painter), his work, 118

_Lansac, Madame de_, portrait by Corneille, 141

Lancret, Nicolas, his _Déjeuner de Jambon_, 134, 259

Langeais, Châteaux of, bequeathed to the French nation, 7

Langeron, Mme. de, hostess at Chantilly, 87

Largillière, Nicolas, his works, 133, 254

_Last Judgment_, by Signorelli, 131

Latour, Maurice Quentin de (painter), his works, 260

Lawrence, Sir Thomas, 149

Leclerc, Nicolas, sculptor, 210

Lecomte, Sauveur, painter of the Grand Condé's famous deeds, 39, 68, 90

Lecurieur Album, the famous, 235

Leczinska of Poland, Maria, marriage with Louis XV, 93;
  at Chantilly, 95

_Legenda Aurea_ of Jacopo da Voragine, the property of
   Charles V of France, 158, 188, 193

Lenet accomplishes with Claire-Clemence the release of
   the Grande Condé, 49, 50, 52, 54;
  at Bordeaux, 61;
  financial difficulties of the Grand Condé, 62, 63

Lenoir, Alexander, a faithful guardian of French treasures
   during French Revolution, 112, 141

Lens, Battle of, 43

_Lepic à Eylau, Le Colonel_, by Détaille, 152

Leprieur, M., _Gazette des Beaux Arts_, 198 _n._

Lestrange, Madame, portrait by Clouet, 223, 224

Leyden, Lucas van, _The Return of the Prodigal Son_, 131

Lichtenstein Gallery at Vienna, 150, 181

Ligny, Comte, portraits by Perréal, 202, 203

Lille made a French town, 78

Limbourg, Pol, and his brothers, miniatures by, 153, 155, 172;
  illuminated manuscripts by, 162;
  _Très Riches Heures_, 152, 154, 156, 158, 160, 162, 164-179, 192, 193;
  _Belles Heures_, 184

Limeuil, Isabelle de, and the Grand Condé, 19

Limoges enamel, portraits in, 136

Limousin, M., painter, 215;
  enamel portraits by, 277

Lippi, Filippo, his works at Chantilly, 145;
  Filippino, 149

_Liselotte as a Maid_, by Largillière, 254

_Livres d'Heures._ See Book of Hours

Livy's _Second Decade_ translated by Pierre Bersuire, 157

Lochis Collection at Bergamo, 223

Longhi, Luca (painter), 132

Longueville, Duc de, and Grand Condé's arrest, 48;
  death, 64

Longueville, Duc de (son of above), death 80

Longueville, Duchesse de (formerly Geneviève de Bourbon),
   portraits of, 12, 133, 251;
  birth, 31;
  beautiful but vain, 34;
  and Claire-Clemence, 34, 35, 73;
  joins the Fronde, 45;
  escape from Mazarin, 49;
  at Saint-Maur, 57;
  wins over her brother the Grand Condé to ally himself with Spain, 58;
  at Bordeaux, 61, 62;
  retires to a convent on death of her husband, 64;
  her son's death, 81;
  becomes a pious Jansenite, 87

Loo, Van, portraits by, 133, 147

Lorraine, Cardinal de, and Queen Mary Stuart, 21 _n._

Lorraine, Catherine de, portrait of, 136

Lorraine, Claude, his wonderful atmospheric effects, 250

Louis II of Anjou, King of Sicily, portrait of, 201

Louis XI, portrait as founder of the Order of St. Michael, 181;
  as one of the Magi, 191

Louis XII, portraits of, 203, 207-210;
  appoints Jean Perréal Court-painter, 205;
  _Tournois_ tapestry, 208;
  medal of, 210

_Louis XII, Lettres de_, by Just de Tournon, 205

Louis XIII regrets his cruelty to the Condé family, 32;
  and Richelieu, 37;
  last words and death, 39;
  portraits of, 143, 245

Louis XIV and Isabelle de Montmorency, 42;
  reception of the Grand Condé, 44, 64, 66;
  the Fronde rising, 45;
  proclaimed King, 57;
  recovers Paris, 60;
  entry into Paris, 65;
  refuses a _lettre de cachet_ against Claire-Clemence, 71;
  at Fontainebleau, 75;
  and Mme. de Montespan, 75;
  at Chantilly, 76, 77;
  war with Holland and Spain, 78-82;
  portrait of, 134;
  and the Gaignières bequest, 156;
  appoints Charles Le Brun Court-painter, 252;
  death, 257

Louis XV at Chantilly, 92, 95;
  intrigues of Mme. de Prie, 93, 94;
  and the Duchesse de Bourbon, 95;
  and the _pacte de famine_, 101;
  portrait of, 261

Louis XVI and the French Revolution, 104, 105, 107;
  portrait of, 261

Louis Bordeaux (son of the Grand Condé), rejoicings at his birth, 61;
  early death, 62

Louis Philippe. See Orléans, Duc de

_Lucifer_, 175

Luignes, Duc de, his _Mémoires_, 95

Luini, Bernardino, his paintings at Chantilly, 145

Lusignan, Fortress in the _Calendar_ of Months, 168

Lustrac, Marguerite de, and Louis de Bourbon, 19


McCall, Colonel, administers the estate of Chantilly, 119

_Madonna_, by Sassoferrata, 133;
  the Maison d'Orléans, by Raphael, 140, 187;
  the Bridgewater, 140;
  by Bissolo, 145;
  by Fouquet, 181, 185;
  by Bourdichon, 198;
  by Mignard, 252

_Magdalen_, portrait by Mignard, 198

_Magi._ See Adoration and Procession of

_Maison de Sylvie_, 32

Maison, Marquis, collection of, 139

_Maître de Moulins_, 199

Malatesta. See Paolo

Malebranche, Nicolas, philosopher and theologian, 83

_Malediction Paternelle_, by Greuze, 262

Malonel, M., Court-painter to the Duke of Burgundy, 173

_Man and Woman, A_, 131

_Man with a Glass of Wine_, by Fouquet, 181

Mangin, Jean, _Cupid and Psyche_, 6

Mannheim, Capture of, 82

_Mannier, Les le_, by G. Moreau Nélaton, 229

Manuscripts, French illuminated, 154 _et seq._, 204

Marchand, insults the Duchesse de Duras, 107

Marck, Robert de la, portrait of, 235

Margot de France. See France, Margot de

Marguerite, Princesse (daughter of Duc de Nemours), marriage, 121;
  portrait of, 226

Marie Amélie, Princesse (daughter of Comte de Paris),
   betrothal to Duke of Braganza, 124

Marie Amélie, Queen (wife of Louis Philippe), portrait by Gerard, 137;
  her collection, 138;
  visit from her son the Duc d'Aumale, 160

Marie Anne of Bavaria, portrait of, 138

Marie Antoinette (wife of Louis XVI), visits Chantilly, 97;
  portraits of, as _Hebe_, 142, 263

Marie Caroline, Queen of Naples, portrait by Mme. Vigée Le Brun, 263

Marie de Medicis, portrait of, 138

Marie Louise (wife of Napoleon), portrait by Prud'hon, 267

Marie Louise Josephine (wife of Grand Duke of Tuscany), portrait
   by Mme. Vigée le Brun, 263, 264

Marie Thérèse of Spain, Infanta, marriage to Louis XIV, 64;
  portrait of, 138

Marie Thérèse Caroline (wife of Francis II, Emperor of Germany),
   portrait by Mme. Vigée Le Brun, 263

_Mariensippe_, a, 186, 188

Mariette, M., his bequests to the Louvre, 156;
  on Largillière's personal vigour, 254

Marignan. See Preux de

Marilhat, M., his works at Musée Condé, 139

Marmion, Simon, his fine altar-piece at Saint-Bertin, 178, 197

Marqueste, M., his figure of St. Louis, 276

_Marriage of St. Francis of Assisi to Poverty_, by Sassetta, 145

_Marriage of the Virgin, The_, 188

_Mars and Venus_, by Paolo Veronese, 135

Martel, M. le Comte, 145

_Martigné Briant, Madame de_, portrait of, 244

Martini, Simone, 173

_Martyrdom of St. Stephen, The_, by Carracci, 135

Mary Stuart, portraits of, Frontispiece, 229, 232, 241;
  King's insulting words to, 242

_Mary's Obsequies_, by Fouquet, 193

_Mary Tudor_, portrait of, 242

Masaccio, Tomaso, 171 _n._; his work in the Brancacci Chapel in Florence, 192

_Massacre of the Innocents_, by Poussin, 135

Maulde, M. de, and the _Maître de Moulins_, 199

_May Day_, miniature of, 168

Mazarin, Cardinal, created Cardinal, 36;
  an implacable enemy to the Grand Condé, 40, 47-49, 53, 55, 57, 59-66;
  his attempt to force taxation on merchandise, 44;
  his exile, 55, 56, 57;
  helps the King to recover Paris, 60;
  Peace of the Pyrenees, 63, 64;
  reconciliation with Grand Condé, 65;
  portraits of, 134, 142, 251

Mazzola, Giuseppe, his works in the Musée Condé, 132

Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Duke of, marriage, 42

Medici, Giuliano del, and Simonetta Vespucci, 146

Medicis, Queen Catherine de (wife of Henri II), her
   dislike for Anne de Montmorency, 8;
  appointed Regent, 18-20;
  her character, 22;
  her son's treachery, 26;
  portraits of, 26, 141, 151, 230;
  her _Book of Hours_, 215;
  and M. Humières, 229;
  and Cardinal Odet de Coligny, 237;
  as a collector and severe critic, 238-245

Medicis, Queen Marie de (wife of Henri IV of France), 12;
  murder of Henri IV, 15;
  and the Grand Condé, 38;
  miniature of, 138

Mehun-sur-Yèvre, Castle of, 177

Meissonier, Jean L. E., his works, 138, 152

Méjanés Collection at Aix, 214

Mely, M. de, _Gazette des Beaux Arts_, 172 _n._

Memling, painting by, 62

Mène, M., bronzes by, 277

_Mercure de France_, description of entertainments at Chantilly, 90

Mesangère, Pierre de la, his collection, 144

Mesmes, Henri de, _Psalter of Queen Ingeburge_ presented to, 159;
  and Catherine de Medicis, 242, 243

Meulen, Van, _History of the Kings of France_, 251

Michelangelo's _Slaves_, 276

Michel de l'Hôpital, resignation of, 20

Mierevelt's, _Elizabeth Stuart_, 133

Mignard, Pierre, and the Grand Condé, 84;
  portraits by, 84, 133, 142;
  life of, 252, 253

Millet, François, painter of the Barbizon School, 169, 275

_Minerva_, a famous bronze, 136, 137

_Miracle of the Loaves_, 177

_Missal of St. Denis_ in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 160

Molière, J., at Chantilly, 75, 83;
  his poem _Amphitryon_, 75;
  portraits of, 84, 142, 253;
  statues of, 89, 276

_Monatshefte für Kunstwissenschaft_, by Louise M. Richter, 204 _n._

Montaigne, Michel de, portrait of, 147;
  his _Journal du voyage_, 196

Montbas, the Dutch General, and William of Orange, 80

Montecucoli, Comte de, Austrian General, battle of Salzbach, 82

Montespan, Mme., mistress of Louis XIV, 75;
  her daughter's marriage, 85, 86;
  portrait of, 143

Montfaucon, Bernard de, and the _Book of Hours_, 186

Months. See Calendar

Monticelli, painter of the Second Empire, 276

_Montjoies_, 175

Montmorency, Anne de (known as the _Grand Connétable_),
   history of, 5 _et seq._;
  his artistic taste, 5, 6;
  as a warrior, 6, 8;
  jealousy of Francis I, 6;
  Diane de Poitiers, 7;
  created Duke, and death, 8;
  portraits of, 8, 205, 230;
  and Emperor Charles V, 10;
  _Book of Hours_, 158;
  statue by Dubois, 276;
  bust, 277

Montmorency, Charlotte de (wife of third Prince de Condé), her beauty, 9;
  Henri IV's admiration for, 10-15;
  marriage and retirement to the country, 12;
  flight to the Netherlands and life there, 12-14;
  shares her husband's imprisonment, 30, 31;
  flight from Paris, 45;
  at Chantilly, 50

Montmorency, François de, succeeds Anne de Montmorency
   as Lord of Chantilly, and marriage, 9

Montmorency, Guillaume de, history of, 4, 5;
  portraits of, 4, 206

Montmorency, Henri II de, Lord of Chantilly,
   imprisonment and execution of, 4, 31;
  portrait of, 248

Montmorency, Isabelle de, her pernicious influence over the Grand Condé, 42

Montmorency, Jean de, 4

Montmorency, Jean II de, marriage, 4

Montroux, escape of Claire-Clemence to, 51, 52, 54

_Mordecai on Horseback_ in the Lichtenstein Gallery in Vienna, 150

Morgan, J. F. Pierpont, his collection, 262, 265

Moro, Antonio, his works in the Musée Condé, 84

Moroni, Giovanni, a portrait by, 132

_Moulins, Maître de_, 199, 200

Mulhouse, victory at, 82

Munich Public Library, works by Fouquet at, 181, 182

Musée Carnevalet, 263

Musée Condé. See Condé

Museo Nationale at Florence, 203

_Mystic Marriage of St. Francis, The_, Gassetta, 146


Nain, Brothers le, their paintings, 248

Nantes, Edict of, 85

Nantes, Mlle. (daughter of Louis XIV), child marriage, 85, 86;
  portrait of, 255

Naples, Queen of. See Marie Caroline

Napoleon I, his _Memoirs_, 105;
  Chantilly the property of the State, 109;
  portraits by Gérard, 146, 268;
  by Meissonier, 272;
  and Prud'hon, 267

National Gallery, Claude Lorraine's finest landscapes in, 250

_Nativity of Christ_, by Fouquet, 191

Nattier, Jean Marc, his paintings, 96, 254, 255

Navarre, Henri de. See Henri IV

Navarre, King of. See Bourbon, Antoine de

Navarre, Queen of. See Albret, Jeanne de

Navarre, Nicholas Baron, his manuscripts, 185

Nélaton, Moreau, 203, 239;
  his drawing in red chalk of Cardinal Odet de Coligny, 237;
  _Erasmus_, 238;
  _Le Portrait à la cour des Valois_, 239 _n._

Nemours, Duc de, 56; portraits by Fouquet, 141;
  _Antiquitates Judæorum_, 183

Nemours, Duchesse de, her description of the Grand Condé, 57

Neubourg, Duc of, portrait by Van Dyck, 133

Nevers, Louis de, portraits of, 214, 223, 238

Nieuwenhuys, M., sells _Mars and Venus_, 135

Nolivos Sale, 137

Nord, Comte du (afterwards Emperor Paul of Russia),
   his visit to Chantilly, 98-100

Nördlingen, Battle of, 40

Northbrook Collection, 208

Northwick Sale, 135

Nôtre, André Le, lays out the Gardens at Chantilly, 66, 67;
  statues of, 89, 276

_Numa Pompilius and the Nymph Egeria_, by Poussin, 249


Oberkirch, Baroness, describes the visit of the
   Comte du Nord to Chantilly, 99, 100

Odet de Foix. See Foix.

_Old Man_, by Brothers Lagneau, 245

Orgemont, Pierre de (Chancellor to Charles V of France), owned Chantilly, 3

Orlant, Prince, portrait of, 198

_Orléans, Charles Maximilian_, 239

Orléans, Duc de (afterwards King Louis Philippe),
   death of Louis Joseph de Condé, 113;
  breeds English racehorses in France, 116;
  visit to Chantilly, 118;
  abdication, 118, 119;
  portraits of, 137, 266, 267

Orléans, Duchesse de (wife of above), portrait by Gérard, 268

Orléans, Duc de (son of above), portrait of and death, 268

Orléans, Gaston, Duc de (brother of Louis XIII), and the
   Grand Condé, 55, 56, 57, 60;
  portraits of, 137, 143;
  owned _Vierge de la Maison d'Orléans_, 139

Orléans, Girard de, assists Jean de Coste to decorate the
   Château de Vaudreuil, 200

Orléans, Henri de. See Aumale, Duc de

Orléans, Louise Marie Thérèse Bathilde de, marriage, 97

Orme, Nicolas, translates Aristotle's _Ethics_, 157

_Oronce Finé_, portrait by Clouet of, 212, 213

Orsini, Marie Felice, pleads in vain for her husband Henri
   de Montmorency's life, 31, 32

Otto I, Emperor, portrait of, 138

Oudry, M., his works, 132, 256;
  _Mary Stuart_, 233;
  character of his work, 255, 256

_Oursine_, meaning of name, 174;
  portrait of, 176


Palatine, Princess. See Princess

Palisse, Seigneur de la, portraits of, 202, 205

Pallavicini, villa at Pegli, illness of Queen Marie Amélie, 161

Palma, Jacopo, _Holy Family_, 145

Panizzi, Sir Antonio, Principal Librarian of the British Museum, 161

_Paolo Malatesta and Francesca da Rimini_, by Ingres, 133

Paon, Le, a hunting-scene by, 100

_Papal Legate_, by Fouquet, 207 _n._

_Parement de Narbonne_, now in the Louvre, 154

Paris, breaking out of the Fronde, and blockade of, 44, 45;
  welcome of the Grand Condé, 55;
  capture of Paris by the Grand Condé and retreat from, 60;
  entry of Louis XIV, 65;
  painting by Dupré, 275

Paris, Comte de. See Louis Philippe

Paris, Comte de, abdication of his grandfather Louis Philippe
   in his favour, 119

Paris, Gaston, _Histoire litteraire de la France_, 157

Pazet, Jean, a follower of Fouquet, 197

Pembroke, Earl of, owner of the _Parement de Narbonne_, 154

Penni, Luca, his works in Musée Condé, 132

Peronneau, M., his works, 261

Perrault, M., 267

Perréal, Jean (Court-painter to Louis XII), his works, 4, 151,
   189 _et seq._, 199-210, 218;
  a follower of Fouquet, 197;
  history of, 199, 202-210

Perugino, 135

Petit-Château, 6, 123

Philip II, King of Spain, and the Princesse de Condé, 14

Philip le Beau, portrait of, 208

Philippe Augustus, illustrations of events in his life
   in _Chronique de France_, 182

Philippe Egalité, portraits by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 134;
  by Fleury, 137;
  by Vernet, 266

_Philobiblon Miscellanies_, The, 164

Pichius, Albertus, _The Gallic War_, 157

Pichon, Baron, his collection, 246

Pierre des Iles, known as "Macon" of Chantilly, 8

Pisanello, 131

Pisseleu, Jossine (niece of Duchesse d'Estampes), portraits of, 227, 234

Pitt, William, reception in England of Louise de Condé, 110

Pius V, Pope, and Cardinal Odet de Coligny, 237

_Plaisir Pastoral_, by Watteau, 258

_Pluto and Proserpine plucking Daffodils_, by Chapu, 276

Poitiers, Castle of, in _Calendar_ of Months, 170

Poitiers, Diane de (mistress of Henri II), intimate friend
   of Anne de Montmorency, 7, 230;
  portraits of, 141, 240, 241;
  her beautiful daughter "Brasseu," 228;
  reception at Lyons, 231

Poliziano, writer of sonnets on Simonetta Vespucci, 146

Pollaiuolo, Antonio, 146

Pompadour, Mme. de, and Boucher, 257;
  portraits of, 257, 263

_Pompey enters the Temple in Triumph_ in _Antiquitates Judæorum_, 189

_Pont de Sèvres_, by S. W. Reynolds, 274

Porcelain, collection of Chantilly, 277

_Port St. Nicholas_, by Dupré, 275

Pot, Anne de (mother of Anne de Montmorency), marriage, 5

Pourbus, portrait of _Henri IV_, 142

Pourtales vase, the famous, 136

Poussin, Nicolas, his works, 135, 146, 249, 250;
  history of, 249, 250;
  and Simon Vouet, 251

_Prayer Book of Anne de Bretagne_, 198

_Precieuses Ridicules, The_, acted at Chantilly, 75

Presler, Raoul de, translates St. Augustine's _Cité de Dieu_, 157

_Preux de Marignan_, 151, 157, 202, 204;
  painted by Perréal, 204, 206

Prie, Mme. de (mistress of the Duc
de Bourbon), charms and machinations of, 93, 94;
  exile and death, 94

Primaticcio, Francesco, his portrait of Henri II, 133, 236;
  the frescoes at Fontainebleau, 228

Princess Palatine, Charlotte Elizabeth (devoted friend of the
   Grand Condé), portrait of, 245;
  Charlotte Elizabeth (second wife of Philippe d'Orléans), 254

_Procession, A_, by Bouts, 146;
  _of the Magi_, by the Limbourgs, 174, 201 _n._

_Prophets_, by Michael Angelo, 131

Protais, _Avant et après le Combat_, 135

Protestant cause in France, 17-19, 21, 23, 85;
  disaster at Vimory and Auneau, 26

Provence, Comte de, portrait by Duplessis, 261

Prud'hon, Pierre, works by, 139, 147, 258, 267;
  Napoleon confers the Legion of Honour on, 267

_Psalter of Queen Ingeburge of Denmark_, 150, 158

Pucelle, Jean, 160

Pyrenees, Peace of the, 64


Quesnel, Brothers, works by, 142, 143, 246

Quesnoy, M. (French sculptor), and Poussin, 249

Quitaut, Captain, arrests the Grand Condé, 48

Quthe, Pierre, portraits by François Clouet, 235, 236


Racine, Jean, at Chantilly, 75, 76, 83

Raimondi, Marc Antonio, works of, 134

Raphael, works by, 130, 139, 140, 148, 149

Ravaillac assassinates Henri IV, 15

_Reading Monk, A_, by Raphael, 130

Reboul's Collection, 149

_Recueils, Gaignière_, 185, 186;
  _Lenoir_, 214;
  _Marriette_, 214;
  _d'Orange_, 214;
  _du Tillet_, 215;
  _d'Arras_, 215

_Reine de Mai, La_, 168

Reiset Collection, 130, 144-146, 156, 269

Rembrandt, Paul, _Mountainous Landscape_, 131;
  other works, 134

Renaissance, distinction between French and Italian, 7;
  architecture, 187

_Renaissance, La_, by Laborde, 212

René, King, owned _Livre d'Heures_, 202

Rénée de France (Duchesse de Ferrara), her marriage, 221;
  portraits of, 218, 221

Reni, Guido, his work at Musée Condé, 132

_Repos des paysans, Le_, by Brothers le Nain, 248

_Resurrection_, 138

_Return from the Captivity_, 184

_Return of the Prodigal Son_, by Lucas van Leyden, 131

Retz, Cardinal de. See Gondi, Paul

Retz, Duc de, portraits of, 142, 235

Retz, Mme. de, portrait of, 235

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, portraits of _Philippe Egalité_, 134;
  _Maria Lady Waldegrave with her daughter_, 138

Reynolds, S. W. (Constable's friend and pupil), works by, 138, 274

Rheno-Byzantine painting of _King Otto I_, 138

_Rhetorics._ See Cicero

Richelieu, Cardinal, imprisonment of third Prince de Condé, 31;
  marries his niece to the Grand Condé, 34-36;
  selects the Grand Condé
as Commander-in-Chief, 37;
  portraits of, 134, 250, 277

Richter, Louise M., _Monatshefte für Kunstwissenschaft_, 204

Riesener, M., a splendid cabinet at Chantilly by, 134

Rigaud, Hyacinthe, portrait painter, 134, 253

Riom, Castle of, 169

Robertet, François (secretary to Duc de Bourbon),
   on Josephus' _Antiquities_, 155, 183

Robinson, Sir Charles, sells Italian manuscripts to Duc d'Aumale, 138

Rochefoucauld, Duc de, 56

Rochelle, La, Huguenots' flight to, 21, 23

Rocroy, Battle of, 39

Rohan, Princesse Charlotte de, 110

_Roman Campagna, A View of_, by Dughet, 250

_Roman Campagna, Aqueducts of_, by Claude Lorraine, 250

Romano, Giulio, his works at Musée Condé, 132

_Rome, Plan of_, 152, 177

Rosa, Salvator, works by, 133

Rosso executes frescoes at Fontainebleau, 228

Rothschild, Baron Adolph de, his collection, 165

Rothschild, Baron Edmond de, owner of _Belles Heures de Jean de Berry_, 179

Rothschild, Maurice de, owner of _Book of Hours_, 160

Roye, Eleanore de (wife of first Prince de Condé), marriage and
   imprisonment of her husband, 17;
  his release, 19;
  her death, 20

Russell, Fuller, sells the Jean de France diptych to Duc d'Aumale, 148

Ruysdael, Jacob, _Dunes at Scheveningen_, 139;
  other works, 147


St. Augustine's _Cité de Dieu_, 157

St. Bartholomew, Massacre of, 20, 22, 243

St. Bertin, fine altarpiece at, 197

_St. Bruno, Scenes from the Life of_, by Le Sueur, 252

_St. Catherine_ on the Louvre, 130

St. Chapelle, 169, 189

St. Denis, Convent of, Claire-Clemence at, 35, 36

_St. Denis, Missal of_, in Victoria and Albert Museum, 160

St. Etienne, Guillaume de, a monk, 157

St. Evremond, his praise of the Grand Condé, 87, 88

_St. Francis._ See _Mystic Marriage of Ste. Geneviève_, by Chavannes, 269

_St. John, Birth of_, by Fouquet, 188, 190

_St. Louis_, by Marqueste, 276

_St. Margaret_, by Fouquet, 186

_St. Martin dividing his Mantle_, in the Conches Collection, 186

_St. Mary Magdalen_, at Frankfort, 269

St. Michel, Mont, 177

_St. Michel, MS. de_, 202

St. Priest, Jehan de, sculptor, 210

St. Simon's _Mémoires_, 91, 246

St. Stephen's Chapel at Westminster, paintings in, 201

_Sacre et l'Intronisation de l'Empereur_, by David, 269

Salerno, Prince de, his collection, 132, 133

_Salière du Pavillon_, by Pol Limbourg, 167

Salting Collection, in the British Museum, 152, 230, 231, 242

San Donato Sale, 139

_Santuario_ at Chantilly, 186

Sarcophagus, antique, _Bacchus and Ariadne_, 137

Sarrazin, Jacques, bronze monument
of Henri II de Bourbon, 123

Sarto, Andrea del, his works at Chantilly, 132

Sassetta, _The Marriage of St. Francis of Assisi to Poverty_, 145, 146

Sassoferrato, Giambattista, _Madonna_, 133

Saumur, Castle of, in _Calendar_ of Months, 170

Sauvageot Collection, 214

Savoy, Charles of, owned _The Breviary_, 162

Savoy, Charles Emmanuel, education of, 221

Savoy, Philibert, and Perréal, 209

Scheffer, Ary, works by, 138, 268;
  his pupil Puvis de Chavannes, 269;
  and Rousseau, 275

Schlestadt, Battle of, 82

_Second Appearance of Esther before Ahasuerus_, 149

_Second Decade_, Livy's, translated by Pierre Bersuire, 157

Secretan Sale, 152

Seillier, Baron, 150

Senlis, Seigneurs of, also named _Bouteillers_, 3

Sévigné, Mme. de, _Letters of_, describes Chantilly, 76, 83

_Shepherd in the Pyrenees, A_, by Rosa Bonheur, 135

Sienese School, 139

_Sieur de Canaples_, portraits of, 223

Signorelli frescoes, 176

_Simonetta Vespucci_, portrait of, 146

Sixtine Chapel, 131

_Soleil Couchant_, by Dupré, 275

Soltykoff Sale, 136

_Sommeil de Psyche_, by Prud'hon, 267

Sotheby, auctioneer, sale of _Antiquitates Judæorum_, 183

Soubise, Princesse Charlotte de, marriage to sixth Prince de Condé, 96;
  portraits of, 96, 255;
  character and death, 97

_Souvenir d'Italie_, by Corot, 275

Spada, Lionello, his work at Musée Condé, 132

Spain, war with France, 38 _et seq._, 78;
  Grand Condé's alliance with, 61;
  a lost battle, 63;
  Peace of Pyrenees, 64

Spain, Elizabeth, Queen of, portrait, 142

Spain, Infanta of, 93

Spinola, General, the captor of Breda, 163

Spinola, Marchese Ambroglio di, history of, 13, 14

Spinoza, Benedict, his Pantheistic doctrines, 87

Standish Library, the famous, 129, 130

_Statutes of the Order of St. Michael, The_, 181

Stella, Jacques, his portrait of the _Grand Condé_, 251

_Stratonice_ (Tribune), by Ingres, 269

Strozzi, Maréchal, portraits of, 231, 235

Stuart, Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, portrait of, 133

Stuart, Mary, Queen of Scots, 21

Sueur, Eustache le, his work, 252

Subleyras, M., his portrait of _Pope Benedict XIV_, 142

Sully, Maximilien, Duc de, Minister of Finance, portraits of, 138, 142, 246

_Sunrise and Sunset_, by Boucher, 257

_Surprise, La_, by Greuze, 262

Sutherland Collection, the, 141-143


_Table Ronde_, 157

Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles Maurice de, portraits of, 138, 268

Tanagra figures, four, 141

_Temptation of our Lord, The_, 176

_Tendre Desir, Le_, by Greuze, 262

Teniers, David, the younger, 36, 139

_Terrestrial Paradise_, 173

Thérèse, Marie, Queen of Louis XIV, portrait of, 138

_Thésée découvrant l'épée de son père_, by Poussin, 135, 249

Thevet's series of _Hommes Illustres_, 212, 215

Thionville, Battle of, 40

Thomson, Mr. Yates, his collection, 160, 181;
  _The Romance of a Book_, 183 _n._

Thouars, Duc de, 24

_Three Graces, The_, by Raphael, 148, 149, 187

_Tiburtine Sybil prophesying to Augustus_, 173

Tiepolo, his works at Musée Condé, 147

Titiens, Tiziano Vecelli, the celebrated painter, _Ecce Homo_, 135

Tixier, Père, and Claire-Clemence, 73

Tott, Mme. de, her portrait of _Louis Joseph de Bourbon_, 265

Touchet, Marie (mistress of Charles IX), portrait of, 244

Tour d'Auvergne, Henri de la. See Turenne

Tournon, Just de, portraits by Perréal of, 204, 205

_Toussaint, La_, by Fouquet, 194

Trémoille, Charlotte Catherine de la, portrait of, 16;
  history and marriage of, 24, 25;
  her husband's death, 27;
  compromising conduct of, 28;
  imprisonment, and birth of a son, 29;
  abjures the Protestant faith, 30

Trémoille, Duc de la, occupies Chantilly, 119

_Très Belles Heures._ See Book of Hours

_Très Riches Heures de Duc de Berry, Les._ See Book of Hours

Triqueti, Baron, buys the famous Pourtales vase, 136

Trivulzio, Prince, his collection, 165

Troy, De, _Déjeuner d'Huîtres_, 134

Tudor, Mary, portrait by Perréal, 205

Turenne (Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne), Vicomte de, Commander-in-Chief, 37;
  war between France and Spain, 38;
  Battle of Rocroy, 39;
  Battle of Nördlingen, 40;
  imprisonment of the Grand Condé, 49;
  reception of Claire-Clemence at Bordeaux, 52;
  compels the Grand Condé to retreat from Paris, 60;
  defeats the Grand Condé in battle near Dunkirk, 63;
  Peace of the Pyrenees, 64;
  reception of the Grand Condé, 65;
  at Chantilly, 75;
  marches into Flanders, 78;
  advance on Holland, 79 _et seq._;
  his death, 82, 83;
  bust by Derbais of, 277

_Turkish Guards on their way from Smyrna to Magnesia_, by Descamps, 271

_Turkish Landscape_, by Descamps, 271


_Unknown Lady_, by Clouet, 223

_Unknown Young Men_, by Clouet, 223

Utterson Sale, 134


Vaga, Perin del, his works at Musée Condé, 132

_Valere Maxime_, French translation of, 157

Valier, De S., portrait of, 238

Valois, Claude de, portrait of, 244

Valois, Elizabeth de, 233

Valois, Madeleine de, history and portrait of, 218

Valois, Princes of, hostages in hands of the Emperor Charles V, 6

Van der Velde, sea-piece by, 139

Van Dyck, Sir Anthony, his works, 84, 132, 133, 137

Van Loo's portrait of a _Young Woman_, 133

Vâtel, the _maître d'hôtel_ at Chantilly, commits suicide, 76

Vaudreuil, Château de, 200

Vauldy, M. de, the escape of Claire-Clemence, 51, 52

_Vedette des Dragons sous Louis XV_, La, by Meissonier, 272

_Venus Anadyomène_, by Ingres, 147, 270

_Venus and Adonis_, by Prud'hon, 267

Vermandois, Comtesse Eleanore de, 158.

Vermandois, Mme. de, 100

Vernet, Joseph, celebrated marine painter, 266

Vernet, Charles (son of above), his works at Musée Condé, 266

Vernet, Horace (son of above), his works at Musée Condé, 266, 267

Veronese, Paolo, his paintings, 84, 135

Verrochio, his drawings, 131

_Vespucci, Simonetta_, portrait of, 146

Victoria and Albert Museum, _Missal of St. Denis_, 160;
  _Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots_, 232 _n._;
  Chantilly porcelain, 277 _n._

Vielville, Maréchal de, portraits of, 231, 246

_Vierge de la Maison d'Orléans_, by Raphael, 139

_View near London, A_, by Constable, 273

Vilatte, M., painting by, 42, 146

Vimory, Battle of, 26

Vincennes, Château of, 159

_Virgin_, by Dürer, 131

_Virgin and the Holy Child_, 150

_Virgin as Protector of the Human Race, The_, 42, 146

_Virgin, Coronation of the_, by San Stefano, 145;
  by Limbourg Brothers, 178

_Virgin, Death of the_, by Giotto, 145

_Virgin, Marriage of the_, by Fouquet, 182, 188

_Virgin with the Infant Christ_, by Fouquet, 181

_Vision of St. Hubert_, by Baudry, 273

_Visitation, The_, by Fouquet, 186, 189

Voldemont, Monsieur de, portrait by François Clouet of, 239

Volterra, Daniele di, his works in Musée Condé, 132

Voragine, Jacopo da, _Legenda Aurea_, 188

Vouet, Simon, and the decoration of the Louvre, 249;
  Charles Le Brun his pupil, 251


Waagen, Dr. G. F., 161

_Waldegrave with her daughter, Maria Lady_, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 138

Wallace Collection, compared with Musée Condé, 152;
  _Louis XII and Anne de Bretagne_, medal by Jean Perréal, 209;
  Watteau's works, 257, 259;
  Greuze's works, 262;
  Meissonier's works, 272

Walpole, Horace, his collection, 151

Warner, Mr., Librarian of Royal Library of Windsor, and the
   _Antiquitates Judæorum_, 183

_Warrior, A_, by Watteau, 258

_Warrior on horseback_, 131

Watteau, Ant., his paintings, 139, 143, 257, 258

Westphalia, Peace of, 44

William of Orange submerges Holland to withstand attacks of
   France, 79, 81, 82

Winterhalter, F. (Court-painter to Louis Philippe and Napoleon III),
   _Louis Philippe_, 137;
  _Duc d'Aumale_, 273

Wirty, De, the Dutch General, 80

_Woman taken in Adultery, The_, by Giorgione, 135

Woodburn Collection, 149

Würmser, the Austrian General, and Condé's regiment, 105


Yates-Thomson. See Thomson

_Young Boy_, by Greuze, 262

_Young Girl winding Wool_, by Greuze, 262

_Young Girl in a Cap_, by Greuze, 262


Zanzé, Vicomtesse de, collection of, 246

Ziem, the painter of Venice, _Les Eaux Douces d'Asie_, 276

_Zodiac, The_, in Très Riches Heures, 172

PRINTED BY

HAZELL, WATSON AND VINEY, LD.,

LONDON AND AYLESBURY.

       *       *       *       *       *

ERRATA (corrected in etext)

Page 6, line  6. Boisy _instead of_ Boissy.

 "   7,   "   5. Viollet le Duc _instead of_ Violet le Duc.

 "  25,   "   8. Angers _instead of_ Angera.

 "  28,   "  21. la bague _instead of_ la bagoc.

 " 105,   "   9. Würmser _instead of_ Würmer.

 " 141, last line. Madame de Lansac _instead of_ Lançai.

 " 142, line 13. Subleyras _instead of_ Suleyras.

 " 152,   "  11. Détaille _instead of_ Détailleur.

 " 155,   "   8. 1416 _instead of_ 1516.

 " 157,   "   4. Raoul de Presles _instead of_ Raoul de Presler.

 "  " ,   "   5. Nicolas Oresmes _instead of_ Nicolas Orme.

 " 162,   "  13. 1454 _instead of_ 1545.

 " 165,   "   2 of _Note_. Hours _instead of_ Horus.

 " 275,   "  23. Dupré _instead of_ Duprés.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] This last-named castle has also been bequeathed to the French
nation by its owner.

[2] The grandfather of Henri II de Bourbon, husband of the fair
Charlotte de Montmorency.

[3] When the Cardinal de Lorraine, her uncle, suggested to the young
Queen this marriage as political salvation for himself, she exclaimed
ironically, "Truly I am beholden to my uncle. So that it be well with
him, he careth not what becometh of me."

[4] See Plate VII.

[5] According to Brantôme, the Duc d'Anjou was inconsolable after her
death and for a long time wore deepest mourning for her.

[6] See Plate VI.

[7] See p. 10 _et seq._

[8] _Journal historique et anecdote de la Cour et de Paris._

[9] Octave Homberg et Fernand Jousselin.

[10] See Plate V.

[11] Called in Germany "Allerheim" to distinguish it from the battle of
Nördlingen, where the Archduke Ferdinand was victorious over Bernard of
Weimar in 1434.

[12] This stone table is still used as a _rendezvous de chasse_ by the
Duc and Duchesse de Chartres.

[13] He, however, was generally known not as Prince de Condé but as Duc
de Bourbon or Monsieur le Duc.

[14] This brought enormous benefits to the Crown, but was the cause of
the famine in 1768.

[15] "_Histoire de Chantilly pendant la Revolution_," par M. Alexandre
Sorel.

[16] The Château d'Enghien, built in 1770, was chiefly used for the
attendants and suites of the illustrious guests who came to Chantilly.

[17] See p. 8.

[18] A sketch for the well-known picture of that Saint in the National
Gallery.

[19] There is a certain affinity between this picture and the portrait
in the National Gallery which is said to represent _Ariosto_.

[20] The other is the _Madonna del Connestabile_ now in the Hermitage.

[21] See Plate XIV.

[22] _Der Breslauer Froissart_ von Arthur Lindner. (Berlin, 1912.)

[23] A drawing of which is in the British Museum.

[24] Bernhard Berenson, _A Sienese Painter of the Franciscan Legend_.
(_Burlington Magazine_, 1903).

[25] See Plate XXIII.

[26] See Plate XII.

[27] DEAR AND ROYAL BROTHER,

I have just read your appreciative words about me. I write to you
with emotion. You are a prince by birth and have become a man. For
me your Royalty has ceased to be political and is now historical; my
Republican conviction is not disturbed by it. You have contributed to
the greatness of France. And I love you.

[28] See Plate XXV.

[29] Louis Dimier, _Les Portraits peints de François I_.

[30] This interesting picture was painted at Calais in 1396 on the
occasion of the marriage between Richard II of England and Isabelle,
daughter of the King of France.

[31] The first volume of this MS. is in the British Museum, and
the second with the miniatures of the _Preux de Marignan_ in the
Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

[32] _Purgatorio_, canto II, v. 80.

[33] Closely allied to the _Ingeburge Psalter_, and likewise
showing English influence, is the _Arsenal_ MS., formerly at the
Sainte-Chapelle, and executed for Blanche Castille, mother of St. Louis.

[34] Cf. p. 168.

[35] It was fortunate indeed that Comte Paul Durrieu had made a
reproduction in phototype from the original _Hours of Turin_ before
they were burnt; for they were by far the most interesting part of
the MS. Some of the miniatures have been attributed to Hubert van
Eyck--namely that portion which in 1417 belonged to Count Hainau, who
is himself represented in one of them arriving with his train on the
shores of the North Sea, where his daughter Jaqueline and her attendant
ladies are awaiting him.

[36] See Plate XXVII.

[37] "_Une Salière d'agathe garnie d'or et de perles, laquelle salière
l'artiste donna à monseigneur aux estraignes._"--Léon de Laborde,
_Glossaire_, p. 367.

[38] See Plate XXVIII.

[39] Cf. p. 163.

[40] See Plate XXIX.

[41] See Plate XXX.

[42] See Plate XXXI.

[43] See Plate XXXII.

[44] See Plate XXXIII.

[45] See Plate XXXIV.

[46] See Plate XXXV.

[47] Masaccio (born in 1401), it is believed, could not have painted
the frescoes at San Clemente before 1417; perhaps even, considering his
age, rather later.

[48] M. de Mely, _Gazette des Beaux Arts_, 1912.

[49] Durrieu mentions that one of the _Kings_ seems to have been
_inspired_ by this medal, but as a matter of fact he is _faithfully
copied_ from it.

[50] See Plate XXXVIII.

[51] See Plate XXXIX.

[52] It was in this castle that the Duc de Berry commissioned André
Beauneveu, Pol Limbourg's predecessor, to prepare for him a _Book of
Hours_, subsequently completed with the assistance of Jacquemart de
Hesdin. This MS., which contains a very characteristic portrait of the
_Duke_ himself, is now to be seen in the Library at Brussels. Beauneveu
died in 1413, two years before the Brothers Limbourg appeared upon the
horizon of French Art.

[53] See Plate XXVI.

[54] Also called _Heures d'Ailly_, after its former owners.

[55] Probably the figure to the right drawn full face, for it bears
an unmistakable resemblance to Fouquet's _Portrait of Himself_ in the
Louvre, executed in enamel.

[56] Cf. _The Romance of a Book_, by Yates Thomson (_Burlington
Magazine_, 1906).

[57] See Plate XL.

[58] See Plate LXI.

[59] See Plate XLII.

[60] See Plate XLIII.

[61] See Plate XLIV.

[62] See Plate XLV.

[63] We find this composition also in Duccio's famous altarpiece at
Siena.

[64] All Saints' Day. See Plate XLVIII.

[65] _Journal du voyage de Michel Montaigne_, i. p. 17.

[66] In the collection of Mr. Ayr in London.

[67] M. Leprieur, _Gazette des Beaux Arts_, January 1911.

[68] A contemporary monument in the Cathedral at Tours erected by Anne
de Bretagne to the memory of these two little boys has assisted greatly
in the identification of these portraits.

[69] At the sale of the collection of Mr. Robert Hoe in New York there
came to light another example of Bourdichon's skill in the _Hours of
Anne de Beaujeu_.

[70] _MS. 18014_, Bibl. Nat. Paris.

[71] There is a portrait of the same monarch in a MS. at The Hague
(copied for Gaignières) to which is attached a note giving its date and
the name of the artist as a certain Jean de Bruges, who according to M.
B. Prost seems to be identical with Johannes Bandol _pictor regis_.

[72] The three others, representing _Edward III_, _Charles IV of
Germany_, and _Charles, Duke of Normandy_ (afterwards Charles V of
France), have unfortunately disappeared.

[73] _The Magi with the Portraits of Edward III and Queen Philippa as
Donors._

[74] _History of Art in England_ (Burlington Fine Arts Club Exhibition,
1909).

[75] Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.

[76] A _chef d'oeuvre_ of French miniature-painting during the reign
of Charles VIII (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris).

[77] See Plate LII.

[78] _Gazette des Beaux Arts_, June 1907.

[79] Louise M. Richter, _Monatshefte für Kunstwissenschaft_, July 1909.

[80] See Plate L.

[81] See Plate LII.

[82] See Plate XLIX.

[83] _Lettres de Louis XII, Nouvelle citè de l'Heptameron._

[84] See Plate II.

[85] See Plate LII.

[86] _MS. Fr._ 20,490, fo. 6. These autographs display elegance in
handwriting; and one of them refers to a mission with which Perréal
was entrusted by Anne de Beaujeu, wife of Pierre de Bourbon, to fetch
back the diamonds which she had deposited with Madame du Plessis Bourré
during the Civil War. The Court of Moulins at that time was known as
a centre of art and literature under the auspices of the cultured
daughter of Louis XI.

[87] Among the drawings attributed to Fouquet the _Papal Legate_,
formerly in the Heseltine Collection, is the best known.

[88] Called "of Navarre" because he worked for Marguerite de Valois,
Queen of Navarre, sister of Francis I. The portrait of _Louis de
Saint-Gelais_ in the Louvre (1513-39), of which a drawing is in the
British Museum, is attributed to him.

[89] See Plate LIII.

[90] _Plusiers portraits et effigies au vif qu'il a faictes_, Laborde,
_La Renaissance_, p. 15.

[91] Laborde, _Comptes des Bâtiments_, III, p. 237.

[92] See Plate LV.

[93] See Plate LVI.

[94] See Plate LXII.

[95] Formerly in the Heseltine Collection.

[96] I am indebted for this information to Sir Sidney Colvin.

[97] See Plate LVII.

[98] See Plate LVIII.

[99] See Plate LIV.

[100] See Plate LXI.

[101] See Plate LXII.

[102] See Plate LXI.

[103] See Plate LVII.

[104] Cf. _The Life of Benvenuto Cellini_. A new version by Robert H.
Hobart Cust (London: George Bell & Sons, 1910).

[105] A town which formed part of her own dowry.

[106] See Plate LIX.

[107] See Plate LX.

[108] See Plate LV.

[109] Admirable portraits of this same _Sieur de Canaples_, whose wife
was one of the _Petite Bande_ of Francis I, are in the British Museum
(Salting Collection) and at the Albertina, Vienna.

[110] See Plate LIX.

[111] See Plate LXI.

[112] See Plate LXV.

[113] Collection Deligand, Paris.

[114] G. Moreau Nélaton, _Les Le Mannier_.

[115] See Frontispiece.

[116] See Plate X.

[117] See Plate IV.

[118] See Plate LXVIII.

[119] See Plate IX.

[120] See Plate LXXI, British Museum, Salting Collection.

[121] See Plate VIII.

[122] The painting in the Victoria and Albert Museum (Jones Collection)
is also an echo of this same drawing.

[123] See Plate LXVII.

[124] The nephew of François Clouet, whose signature, _Fulonis fecit_,
we find on some of the markedly weaker drawings of the Lecurieux album.

[125] See Plate LXV.

[126] See Frontispiece.

[127] Dimier, _Bulletin de la Société Nationale de Antiquaires de
France_.

[128] See Plate LXIX.

[129] See Plate LXX.

[130] See Plate LXXI.

[131] See Plate LXXII.

[132] The late M. F. A. Gruyer recently presented to the Musée Condé a
fine landscape by Claude Lorraine which hangs in the Salle de Minerve,
and there are some excellent drawings by this master in the portfolios
in the Salle Caroline.

[133] See Plate XV.

[134] See Plate LXXIII.

[135] See Plate LXXIII.

[136] See Plate XVI.

[137] These may be seen at Versailles.

[138] These are exhibited in one of the rooms of the Petit Château.

[139] See Plate LXXIV.

[140] See Plate LXXVII.

[141] See Plate LXXVIII.

[142] There are several examples of Chantilly porcelain in the Victoria
and Albert Museum.

[143] See Plate LXXIX.

       *       *       *       *       *

Typographical errors corrected by the etext transcriber:

Revue de l'Art Ancienne et Moderne=> Revue de l'Art Ancien et Moderne
{pg xxvi}

Les Quarante Fouquets=> Les Quarante Fouquet {pg xxvi}

Les Le Manniers, Peintres=> Les Le Mannier, Peintres {pg xxvii}

Les Clouets, Peintres officiels des Rois de France=> Les Clouet,
Peintres officiels des Rois de France {pg xxvii}

portraist of, 137, 266, 267=> portraits of, 137, 266, 267 {pg 298}

Paremont de Narbonne=> Parement de Narbonne {pg 299}

in Tres Riches Heures=> in Très Riches Heures {pg 305}

Horus of Turin=> Hours of Turin {pg 165 n.}

the the teacher of St. Paul.=> the teacher of St. Paul. {pg 192}





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