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Title: Handy War Guide for My Company - Handy Company Commander's Guide
Author: Hanguillart, André Godefroy Lionel
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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HANDY WAR GUIDE FOR MY COMPANY

Handy Company Commander's Guide

Written at the front by

CAPTAIN HANGUILLART

of the French Army

Translated and edited by

Louis J. A. Mercier, A.M.

First Lieutenant, Harvard R. O. T. C.
Interpreter with British Expeditionary Force on the
French Front 1914-17.

"_DASH UNDER DISCIPLINE_"



Copyright, 1918
by
R. D. Cortina Company.

The Cortina Academy of Languages
New York
1918



TABLE.


    Preface                                     5


    Part I.

    Trench Life and Trench Warfare

    Taking over the Trenches                   11
    Care and Improvement of the Trenches       14
    The Watch from the Trenches                17
    Patrolling                                 22
    Interrogating Prisoners                    25
    Devices to draw the Enemy's Fire           28
    An Attack, the Repulse                     32
    The Counter-Attack                         34
    Precautions against Enemy's Artillery      36
    Use of Trench Artillery                    37
    Field Artillery Cooperation                39
    Daily Schedule                             41
    Turning over the Trenches                  43
    Out of the Trenches                        44
    Topical Questions on Part I                46


    Part II.

    French Infantry Combat Principles.

    Open Warfare                               53
    The Approach                               55
    Precautions against Silent Artillery       58
    Crossing a Bombarded Zone                  59
    Use of Woods as Shelter                    64
    To Cross a Crest                           65
    The Fire Attack                            69
    Precautions against Cavalry                65
    The Termination of the Approach            67
    Use of Machine Guns                        71
    The Company Supports                       72
    The Companies in Support                   73
    The Charge and the Pursuit                 73
    Attack of a Wood                           75
    Attack of a Village                        76
    Attack of a Defile                         77
    Night Attacks                              77
    Defense of Woods                           80
    Defense of a Village                       81
    Defense of a Defile                        82
    Night Defense of a Position                83
    The Counter Attack                         83
    Topical Questions on Part II               86


    Appendix

    A Division Front in Trench Warfare.

    The Trench System
    The Back Areas



Printed in the United States of America
by the International Press
150 Lafayette Street
New York City



PREFACE.


The first part of Captain Hanguillart's little book "_Petit Guide
pratique de Guerre pour ma compagnie_" has been incorporated in the new
manuals of instruction published for the young recruits of the French
army by the official military publishing house "Librairie Militaire
Berger-Levrault," the editors of the "Annuaire officiel de l'Armée."[A]

Its special value comes from the fact that it was written at the front
and is wholly based on the orders which Captain Hanguillart drew up for
the instruction of his own company and tested repeatedly through actual
experience.

Thus its very omissions are significant.

The text as it stands represents essentials.

Its every paragraph is a unit of tried advice.

=It embodies the practical data that has secured results.=

=It sums up the cautions that have saved lives.=

In the second part, Captain Hanguillart has merely reproduced the
French Infantry Combat principles long published in the official manual
for the instruction of platoon leaders.

In presenting this little work, no claim is made that it is adequate to
the complete instruction of company commanders.

    Its obvious supplements are such works as: Colonel Paul
    Azan--_The War of Position_.

    _The Army War College_--Translation of the French
    Manual for Commanders of Infantry Platoons.

    Cole and Schoonmaker--_Military Instructors Manual_.

    Major J. A. Moss--_Manual of Military Training_.

    _U. S. A. Infantry Drill Regulations._

Captain Hanguillart's book should be carefully compared with these.
But because of its peculiar origin it has for the officer a value not
possessed by other books on this subject.

It gives what a company commander =actually found essential=.

Furthermore, it corresponds to the booklets published in France which
are placed in the hands of every recruit.

Every officer should have full knowledge of his specialty, but =every
private= should understand the essential concerns of his officers so as
to appreciate orders the more readily.

The army of democracy should be an intelligent thinking army.

Such little books have helped to give the French poilu his famed
self-reliance and resourcefulness.

It is the hope of the publishers that this translation may help to do
the same for his American comrades.

The publishers also believe that the book offers just the information
needed by civilians to follow intelligently reports of military
operations and of life at the front.

The editor has felt it his duty in rearranging the loose notes of
Captain Hanguillart to respect scrupulously the text, though, at times,
the best way to do so was through a free translation.

The paragraphs have been numbered and questions and diagrams added to
facilitate assimilation.

    Cambridge, Mass.

    L.J.A.M.

FOOTNOTE:

[A] Cf Chapuis. _Instruction théorique et générale du soldat pour la
période de guerre._ 27e édition, January 1917.



    Part I.

    Trench Life and Trench
    Warfare.



TRENCH LIFE AND TRENCH WARFARE.



TAKING OVER THE TRENCHES.


1.--Leaving Billets.

The battalions of a Brigade occupying a given sector of the front are
billeted when out of the trenches, in the villages closest to their
sector. Cf. appendix.

When their turn comes to relieve the battalions in the trenches, the
officers in charge should have the following instructions carried out:


2.--On the day before the relief make sure:

    That the rifles, bayonets, etc., are in good condition.

    That the ammunition and reserve rations are supplied.

    That the equipment of every man is complete.

    That all officers and N.C.O.'s watches are set to
      division time.


3.--On the day of the relief, one hour before departure:

    Have rifles stacked and equipment laid out outside the
      billets.

    Make sure that nothing is left behind, that premises
      are cleaned, all rubbish burnt, and latrines filled.

    Have rifles loaded and with the safety lock turned to
      the safe.

    Assign an energetic N. C. O. to act as file closer of
      each platoon to prevent straggling.

    Call the roll and have it duly forwarded to the company
      commander.


4.--On the way to the trenches:

    If under fire, have units march at proper intervals
      (Cf. par. 117ff.)

    Adopt marching order best suitable to avoid blocking
      the road.

    At night do not allow smoking.

    Exact silence when nearing the trenches.

    Take special precaution at all times to maintain
      constant communication between units, especially at
      night and when crossing woods.

    If enemy aeroplanes appear, stop and keep out of sight
      as much as possible. (Cf. par. 120.)


5.--On reaching the trenches:

    The relief should be completed in silence--without
      hurry.

    Carefully ascertain the orders of the battalion
      relieved.

    Check up and assign to each unit the supplies taken
      over.

    Requisition at once additional supplies and ammunition
      wanted.

    Each platoon should be assigned its special duties,
      the duty roster drawn up for all sentry and patrol
      duties, details, etc.

    Have all the men locate the enemy trench as they come
      on duty and give them the range.

    Inspect the dugouts and assign them.

    Forbid all digging under the parapet.

    Inspect the latrines. Give strict order that small
      amount of dirt be thrown in after use and that lime
      be sprinkled in daily.

    See that the men are provided with ammunition.

    Communication should be insured between the various
      units to the right and left and with the rear.



CARE AND IMPROVEMENT OF THE TRENCHES.


6.--Improvements:

    Investigate the work under way for the improvement
      of defense and prepare plans for further work if
      necessary.

    Obvious improvements are: making additional
      communication trenches, repairing or completing
      shelters, listening posts, mining tunnels, wire
      entanglements.


7.--Ammunition shelters:

    See that there are a sufficient number of shelters
      for rifle ammunition, grenades, rockets and other
      supplies.


8.--Loopholes and Parapet:

    Ascertain the conditions of all the loopholes and
      have them repaired if need be. (They should cut the
      parapet diagonally and be concealed in every way
      possible with vegetation, branches, and the opening
      blocked when not in use.)

    Have all damages to the parapet and to the ground
      underneath quickly attended to.

    See that in each section there are small ladders to
      permit of easy access to the top of the parapet.

    See that means are provided to fire above the parapet
      in case of an attack.


9.--Drainage:

    Attend carefully to the drainage. Have the trench
      bottom kept convex with small gutters on either side
      running into pits lined with gabions. If trench
      bottom is lined with board walks, keep it in repair.
      Have water pits emptied if necessary.


10.--Sanitation:

    Have latrines kept in perfect sanitary order.

    Have them filled up and others dug =if need be=.

    Have all rubbish collected and carried out.


11.--Precautions against capture of fire-trench.

    Prepare for the obstruction of the communicating
      trenches in case the enemy should capture the fire
      trench: Have piles of sand bags above the entrance of
      each trench ready to be dumped into it. Have chevaux
      de frise lined up on one parapet of the trench and
      all held up in such a way by a single wire that when
      the wire is cut they will fall into the trench. Mines
      can also be prepared to blow up the trench when
      invaded. The communicating trench between the fire
      trench and the listening post should be covered with
      barbed wire screens or be tunnelled.



THE WATCH FROM THE TRENCHES.


12.--Trench Warfare an outpost duty.

Trench warfare, the inevitable form of modern warfare, is a continuous
series of outpost duty. Hence it is based wholly on eternal vigilance.
The patrols correspond to the scouts; the listening posts to the
sentinels; the firing trench to the outguards; the cover trench to the
supports. The safety of the sector depends entirely on the vigilance
of the advanced elements and the rapidity with which supports and the
reserves can be summoned.

Watching is thus the fundamental duty in trench warfare.

The following points should be kept in mind:



AT ALL TIMES


13.--Number of men in the fire trench.

There must be as many sentinels in each section as is necessary to
cover completely the sector to be watched, no more, no less, each
sentinel being given the exact limits (such as tree, copse, post,
etc.) at each end of the line he should watch.


14.--Fix bayonets.

The men on duty should have bayonets fixed as, in case of a possible
surprise, they are needed for defense. Otherwise too, fixing bayonets
would be an indication to the enemy of an impending raid.



DURING THE DAY.


15.--Observation of open terrain.

When the terrain opposite is open country, the necessary observation
may be done by the smallest possible number of men. Fire only, if any
of the enemy are sighted. Then, have two rounds fired, then three. But
keep fire under strict control. (If enemy continues to approach. Cf.
par. 52 ff.)


16.--Observation of covered terrain.

When the terrain is covered (high brush wood, copses, trees, etc.) a
sharpshooter in each section should fire occasionally into the trees,
etc., which may be observation or sharpshooters' posts but this should
not be overdone.



AT NIGHT.


17.--Double sentinels.

Post double sentinels in each section, each man watching in turn, the
other resting but within call.


18.--Silence.

They should refrain from making the least noise so as to hear and not
be heard.


19.--No firing when fired upon.

There should be no firing when the enemy fires since when the enemy
fires, he does not advance.


20.--Look and listen.

They should keep a sharp lookout but listen even more attentively.


21.--In the listening posts.

Sentinels in the listening posts should listen especially for the noise
of crushed branches, stirring leaves, slight noise of arms or utensils.

If enemy is detected, these sentinels should hasten back to fire trench
to give the alarm quietly so that the enemy may be surprised.

They should fire only if they are themselves caught unawares.

Listening posts should not be too numerous, about two per battalion.

If there are no listening posts, patrols should be sent out to
favorable spots especially at sundown and before sunrise.


22.--Enemy sighted or heard, fire.

If the night is clear and the terrain is open, proceed as during the
day: If the enemy is sighted or heard, fire in short volleys. In case
of doubt throw grenades with the first volley.


23.--Otherwise no firing.

Otherwise, absolute silence should be observed. No firing whatever.


24.--Unless night is dark.

If the night is dark, to avoid surprise, keep up firing: One man per
section should fire in turn, from time to time varying the direction.


25.--Digging by enemy.

If digging by the enemy is reported, cease firing. Have it located,
throw bombs followed by volleys. Notify sappers for counter mining.


26.--Watch for light of enemy's fire.

If enemy fires, note where light appears.


27.--Posting of sharpshooters.

Locate sharpshooters in advantageous posts behind the trenches (trees,
etc.). Have them fire into the enemy's listening posts and into the
enemy's trench, especially wherever light appears. These posts should
not be occupied during the day.


28.--Patrols.

Send out patrols, stationary or mobile.



PATROLLING.


29.--Functions of Patrols.

The aim: to supplement the work of the listening posts and of the
sentinels through more forward observation. To discover the movements
and the operations of the enemy. To locate his emplacements.

To keep in close touch with the enemy so as to take advantage of his
possible weaknesses: lack of watchfulness, of ammunition, of sufficient
troops. To verify, repair and complete advance defences. To get the
exact range of enemy's positions. To bring back prisoners.


30.--Time to patrol.

Patrols should be on duty through the night but be specially watchful
before sunrise.


31.--Assignment of patrol duty.

N. C. O. and men should be assigned to patrol duty by roster or as
volunteers. In the former case, if there is reason to think that a
patrol has not done its best to secure information, the same men should
be sent out again.


32.--Sentinels should know about patrols.

Neighboring companies should be notified of the departure, route and
probable time of return of patrols. If several patrols are sent out at
the same time they should know one another's itinerary.


33.--Dress and equipment of patrols.

The men (3 to 5 commanded by N. C. O.) should carry no impediments
and their dress should not interfere with ease of movements: sweaters
should be worn instead of overcoats. The woolen cap or comforter should
be worn as they cover most of the face. Slits should be cut for the
ears that hearing be not interfered with. The helmet should always be
worn over comforter. Also dark gloves to hide the hands. No equipment
save the rifle, the bayonet fixed or carried in the hand, (no bayonet
scabbard), a few hand grenades.


34.--Method of advance.

Patrols should crawl forward or advance by short dashes, silently, stop
often and for long periods, listen intently.


35.--Under flare light.

If the enemy sends up lighting rockets (flares) or fires volleys, lie
flat on the ground until he stops.


36.--Against an hostile patrol.

If a small hostile patrol approaches, do the same, throw a stone or two
so as to turn its attention away and take advantage of this to surprise
it. If men of enemy's patrol give the alarm, kill them--lie flat on
ground during enemy's volleys which will follow. Then strip bodies of
distinctive uniform badges, and search for papers, etc. Otherwise bring
men back as prisoners.


37.--Need of initiative.

Patrols should exercise initiative, take advantage of circumstances, in
devising ways of bringing back the greatest possible amount of useful
information.



INTERROGATING PRISONERS.


38.--Information from prisoners.

One of the chief aims of patrolling is to bring back prisoners from
whom information may be gathered.


39.--Its use by General Staff.

The General Staff is interested to know the nationality, the division,
the age, etc. of prisoners captured in a given sector.


40.--Its use by company commander.

But these are of little value to the battalion or company commander.
Hence, when possible, they should ask the prisoners questions more
pertinent to the organization of the enemy sector opposite:


41.--Questions to ask.

How strongly are your various lines held?

Where are the C. O. Post and the officers' dugouts?

When and by what routes are the reliefs made, how often and on what
days and at what time. Ask the same questions for the fatigues.

At what time are rations brought or served?

What is the actual muster of the company?

How many regular army officers, how many reserve officers? What do the
men think of their officers?

How many advanced posts? How many men in each, by day and by night? Do
they have grenades and how are they relieved?

How many men are sent out on patrol, how often, at what time, by what
route coming and going? How are they dressed and armed? What are their
instructions?

What does the enemy know about our own patrols?

Are snipers placed in trees during the day and at night? If so, what
trees are used. What parts of our sectors can they see?

Are they planning any raids? Do they anticipate raids by us?

What work are they carrying on during the day and at night?

Have they any idea of our own activities?

What is the nature and the location of their accessory defences?

What is the location of their machine guns, trench mortars?

Have they any asphyxiating gas or liquid fire apparatus?

Have they abundant supplies of hand grenades, etc., etc.



DEVICES TO DRAW THE ENEMY'S FIRE.


42.--To make enemy waste ammunition.

Any devices which lead the enemy to waste ammunition or to expose
themselves is a clear gain.

Many may be readily devised and officers and men should be encouraged
to do so. The following have often proved successful:


43.--Pretend abandoning trench.

Remain absolutely quiescent during several days. This may lead the
enemy to send out patrols or raiding parties which may be the more
surely destroyed. They should be allowed to approach to the wire
entanglements before a shot is fired.


44.--Pretend a raid.

On dark nights, have all firing stop. Throw stones by hand or with
slings, a dozen at a time toward the enemy's trench. This will lead
him to fire repeated volleys and waste ammunition in his fear of an
attack, especially if the trenches are in wooded terrain and there are
leaves on the ground. Repeat several times during the night.

Patrols may also tie strings to the enemy's barb wire. On dark nights
pulling on the string may lead the enemy to fire.


45.--Use decoys.

Decoys may be arranged in trees or stuck up momentarily over the
parapet. They will draw the enemy's fire.


46.--Pretend a fire attack.

If the enemy's trenches are near enough for the sound to carry,
whistles may be blown all along the line before a volley. They may
be blown again after the command to omit the volley. The enemy may
continue to fire indefinitely.


47.--Watch out for enemy's ruses.

Let the aim of all these devices be to make the enemy waste ammunition
and to save your own. On the other hand, the enemy is likely to attempt
like ruses and many others which are not permissible such as the use of
white flags or raising hands to indicate pretended surrender.


48.--His use of blank cartridges.

A legitimate ruse, of which the enemy is fond and which should be
guarded against, consists in their firing blank cartridges to mask an
advance of their men. It is clear that men do not advance while bullets
are fired from their own trenches. Nor does one fire in retaliation
until the enemy's fire ceases. A little attention will be sufficient to
spoil this plan as, when only blank cartridges are fired, no bullets
will whiz by. As long as the enemy fires blank cartridges, withhold
your own fire, be on guard against the appearance of patrols and be
ready to receive them when they draw near.


49.--His use of flares.

In case the enemy sends up flares, patrols should lie flat and
motionless till after the volley which often follows. The sentinels in
the fire trench should note spot where flare was sent up and abstain
from firing unless enemy is sighted out of his trenches.


50.--His machine guns.

If a machine gun opens fire from the trench opposite, try to locate it
through the light and sound at night, through sound and actual sight
during the day.

Fire a converging volley of two rounds in its direction, and repeat,
but not over six rounds if unsuccessful.

At the same time let trench mortars fire bombs in the same direction.


51.--His field and trench artillery fire.

If enemy's artillery fires upon trenches (Cf. par. 69 ff.)



AN ATTACK.



THE REPULSE.


52.--A threatened raid.

As has been stated (par. 15 and 22) in case enemy patrols approach,
volleys of two, then of three rounds should be fired. Keep cool. Do not
fire prematurely.


53.--Fire above parapet.

The firing should be done over the parapet and not through the
loopholes.


54.--When alarm is given.

If the sentinels report that an attack is developing, every one on duty
takes his post.


55.--Flares.

Flares are sent up from each section.


56.--Trench Mortars.

Trench mortars fire bombs with the first volley.


57.--How to repulse an attack.

If the attack materializes, repeat volleys and trench mortar discharge
and open fire with the machine guns.

(On dark nights, in covered terrain, the machine guns should be fired
with the first volley.)


58.--Use of hand grenades.

Hand grenades should be thrown as soon as the enemy is within 30 yards.

The grenadiers of the odd number squads should aim to throw their
grenades upon the assailants while those of the even number squads
should try to establish a barrage by throwing behind the assailants.


59.--Use of trench mortars.

The trench mortars are aimed at the enemy's trench.


60.--Use of the machine guns.

The machine guns fire directly at the assailants, with slight
differences in height of aim, (knee high, waist high, etc.) according
to the directions previously given to each man.


61.--Fire Control.

Carefully keep fire rifle under control and avoid wasting ammunition.

Never fire without aiming. If the ground ahead is flat, aim waist-high;
if it slopes down, aim close to the soil; if it slopes up, aim at
height of chest.


62.--Repulse with the bayonet.

If some of the enemy reach the trench, dispose of them with the bayonet.


63.--Save ammunition.

Cease firing and abstain from further firing as soon as the attack is
repulsed.



THE COUNTER ATTACK.


64.--Immediate.

It should follow immediately upon the successful repulse of the attack.


65.--Counter attack formation.

It should be developed in the following formation:

1st. Grenadiers armed only with a bayonet, a bowie knife, a revolver
and a full stock of grenades. With them a few men with pliers for wire
cutting.

2nd. Next a skirmish line of riflemen with a full supply of ammunition.

3rd. Lastly, a line of men with entrenching tools.[B]


66.--Method of advance.

Proceed by short leaps making use of available protection and crawl
flat on the ground in approaching the enemy's trench.


67.--Capture of the enemy's fire trench.

After the defenders in the fire trench are killed, jump in, throw bombs
into the dugouts, pursue the enemy into the support and communication
trenches.


68.--Organize it against the enemy.

Let then the engineers block up to the right and left the captured
trench and organize it rapidly against the enemy, making it face about
(through changing the parados into a parapet). The enemy is pursued as
far as possible and kept away while fatigue parties from the rear bring
up all necessary ammunition, sand bags, barbed wire, etc., carrying
back all the captured enemy material. Other fatigue parties start at
once to connect the former fire trench with the captured trench by
communication trenches.

FOOTNOTE:

[B] Modifications of this formation have since been adopted. Cf. Works
cited in preface.



CONCERNING ARTILLERY.



PRECAUTIONS AGAINST ENEMY'S ARTILLERY.


69.--Artillery Bombardment.

Whether preliminary to, in connection with, or independent of an
infantry attack, the enemy may make use of his artillery.

This bombardment may be directed against the fire trench or back of the
fire-trench.


70.--Case I.--Bombardment of the Fire Trench.


71.--All in shelter except sentinels.

Leave in the fire trench the necessary sentinels.

Station all the other men in the shelters of the support trench, or
along the communication trench, if there are no shelters, but fully
equipped and ready to jump to their places in the fire trench as soon
as the enemy's artillery fire will stop or lengthen to allow his
infantry to advance.


72.--Fire to impede observation.

All through the bombardment, the sentinels should fire at all objects
in the distance which may be used as observation posts. The machine
guns should cooperate with a slow sweeping fire.


73.--Case II.--Bombardment back of Fire Trench.


74.--Watch for infantry attack.

All should stand to in the fire trench watching for a possible infantry
attack and for a possible shortening of the enemy's bombardment. If it
occurs, proceed as in Case I.


75.--Prevent observation.

Fire against possible observation posts as in Case I.



USE OF TRENCH ARTILLERY.


76.--Use with a purpose.

Whatever trench artillery appliances are provided, bomb-throwers,
trench mortars, catapults, etc., they should never be used hap-hazard,
but always with great deliberation and forethought.

Have a distinct end in view and watch for the best opportunity to
attain it.

Such definite aims may be: to interfere with a relief, a fatigue, a
trench construction or repair, to destroy accessory defences, etc.


77.--Keep it ready.

Let the mortars, etc., be kept loaded and trained on the target
selected, ready to be fired instantly. The crews should be near at hand
and a sentinel posted to watch for a favorable opportunity.


78.--Save ammunition.

Until this opportunity occurs, do not fire.


79.--Have several emplacements.

Several emplacements should be provided so that mortars, etc., may be
removed as soon as they have obtained desired results or been located
by the enemy.

The trench mortar commander should make it his business to study
carefully all possibilities for effective emplacements and should
inspire his men to be alert and quick to improve opportunities.


80.--Use of machine guns.

The machine guns should likewise be handled as a mobile weapon and
not be used merely from elaborate carefully concealed emplacements
commanding otherwise uncovered ground or enfilading communication
trenches, etc.[C]


81.--Use of hand grenades.

Hand grenades may be listed as trench artillery. The temptation is to
use them too freely. Like other ammunition they should never be wasted
and always used with a definite aim.

FOOTNOTE:

[C] Captain Hanguillart treats this important subject very summarily.
Cf. Cole & Schoonmaker's Military Instructor's Manual p. 319. He also
barely mentions Gas attacks. Cf. very complete treatment in same work,
p. 356 to 370.



FIELD ARTILLERY COOPERATION.


82.--Communications with the artillery.

Should be permanent so that it may cooperate whether to repulse an
enemy's attack, to silence his artillery, to damage his defences or to
prepare and protect an attack or a counter attack.


83.--Observations posts.

To avoid a waste of ammunition, and attain the desired result as well
as to prevent the artillery fire from falling short upon one's own
trenches, artillery observation posts should be provided in the fire
trench or at one of the outposts.


84.--Artillery fire falling short.

In case artillery fire does fall short upon one's own trenches,
communicate at once with artillery commander and proceed as when
bombarded by enemy. (Cf. 69 ff.)


85.--Artillery preparation of infantry attack.

Special caution should be exercised in the case of a raid against the
enemy's trench. Make sure that the artillery preparation has secured
the desired result. Synchronize carefully the infantry advance and the
lengthening of the artillery fire.



DAILY SCHEDULE.


86.--Rosters and schedules.

Throughout the stay in the trenches, the various fatigues should be
assigned by roster and carried out according to schedule. The following
schedule has been found practical:



7 A.M. (6 A.M. in summer).


87.--Cleaning of trenches.

Have trenches cleaned of all rubbish, latrines disinfected, drinking
water supplied.


88.--Collecting of broken equipment.

All cartridge shells, broken tools, etc. should be collected.


89.--Requisition Report.

A list of the supplies and ammunition needed should be drawn up.


90.--Report on night activities.

Full report should be brought to the company commander, covering the
work of the patrols and of the fatigue parties, and giving full details
of all that has happened during the night.


91.--Report on casualties.

Also the list of casualties in the last twelve hours with full names
and nature of wound if possible.


92.--Disposal of property of dead and wounded.

The arms and complete equipment of the wounded should be sent out
with them. The arms and equipment of the killed should be sent to
the battalion commander. Their personal effects; money, papers,
letters, etc., should be carefully collected, listed, and sent to the
sergeant-major.



8 A.M.


93.--Sick Parade.

The men able to walk are taken to the doctor's dugout by an N.C.O.



4 P.M.


94.--Assignment of patrols.

Assign night patrols from roster. Point out itinerary while light
permits. Have neighbouring sectors advised of same.



(8. P.M.)


95.--Inspections.

Inspection of sentinels in fire trench. Inspection of ammunition
supplies.



TURNING OVER THE TRENCHES.



THE RELIEF.


96.--In the afternoon and in each section:

Have all the tools and supplies collected and list drawn up ready to
hand over to successor against receipt for same.

Inspect equipment of men that they may be taken out completely.

Check up exact itinerary of relief in and out.


97.--At the time of relief:

Have rifles inspected and emptied.

Give strict orders for silence.

Follow same marching order as when coming in.

Have officer march in rear.


98.--On reaching billets.

Have the roll called and sent to the officer of the day.

Have rifles inspected.



THE DAY AFTER THE RELIEF.


99.--Replace equipment.

Have all arms cleaned and oiled.

Have broken arms turned in and others issued.

Inspect shoes, clothes, equipment, tools, and replace when needed.

Have special inspection of gas-masks and replace if needed.


100.--Sanitation.

Have underwear washed, and personal cleanliness attended to, baths,
hair-cuts, etc.

Have premises kept clean and latrines disinfected daily.



OUT OF THE TRENCHES.


101.--Specialists' Instruction.

While in rest billets: Have all specialists' instruction continued:
sharpshooters, bomb-throwers, signallers, etc.


102.--Bayonet exercises.

Should be given special attention.


103.--Close and extended order drill

and marching give the men needed exercise.


104.--Relaxation.

should also be provided: in the form of games, contests,
entertainments, etc. They help to keep the men "fit."


105.--Efficiency.

The company commander should make it is his constant concern that his
men be kept at the highest possible point of efficiency.



QUESTIONS.


    The following questions are topical. Supplements to the
    answers found in this book should be looked for in the
    larger works referred to in the preface.


Trench Life and Trench Warfare.

1.--What inspections should be made on the day before the relief?

2.--State orders to be issued one hour before departure.

3.--What may be the marching orders, on the way to the trenches?

4.--Describe precautions to be taken against enemy's fire, against
aeroplanes.

5.--What other precautions should be taken?

6.--What should the company commander attend to on reaching the
trenches?

7.--What possible improvements of trenches are obviously called for?

8.--What special attention should be given the parapet?

9.--Give rules for drainage and sanitation.

10.--What precautions may be taken against capture of fire-trench?

11.--What does trench warfare correspond to in open warfare?

12.--What does the safety of a sector depend on?

13.--What is the fundamental duty in trench warfare?

14.--What rule determines the number of men to be posted in the
fire-trench?

15.--Sum up their orders about firing before open terrain, before
covered terrain.

16.--What is meant by double sentinels?

17.--Why is listening attentively even more important than keeping a
sharp look out?

18.--Why should the sentinels refrain from answering the enemy's fire?

19.--What is expected of the men in the listening posts?

20.--When should the sentinels fire on a clear night? When, on a dark
night?

21.--What should the sentinels do, if they hear the enemy's digging?

22.--When and where are sharpshooters posted and what is their duty?

23.--What information may patrols bring back?

24.--When should patrols be sent out and how should they be assigned?

25.--What should the sentinels along a sector know about the patrols,
and the several possible patrols know about one another?

26.--Describe dress and equipment of men on patrols.

27.--Describe their method of advance.

28.--What should they do on encountering a hostile patrol?

29.--What should be the motto of men on patrol?

30.--What are some of the most useful informations about the enemy, you
should try to obtain?

31.--What motto should you have about ammunition?

32.--Describe several ways of leading enemy to waste ammunition.

33.--What is the distinction between legitimate and illegitimate ruses?

34.--On what principle is the enemy's ruse of the use of blank
cartridges based?

35.--How may this ruse be foiled?

36.--What should the sentinels, and what should the men on patrol do,
when the enemy sends up flares?

37.--How should the enemy's machine gun fire be answered?


An Enemy's Attack.

38.--Describe procedure when enemy's patrols are sighted by sentinels
and when an attack develops.

39.--When are the trench mortars and the machine guns fired?

40.--How are hand grenades thrown?

41.--Where should the rifle fire be aimed?

42.--When are bayonets used?

43.--Is it sufficient to repulse an attack?

44.--What formation should be adopted for the counter attack?

45.--How is the advance made and the counter attack carried out?

46.--Describe what is meant by organization of a newly conquered trench.

47.--What should be done, if the enemy bombards the fire-trench?

48.--What should the sentinels do?

49.--What should be done if the bombardment is back of the fire-trench?

50.--What general rule applies to the use of all trench artillery?

51.--What are its ordinary objectives?

52.--How are trench mortars handled?

53.--What is meant by calling trench-artillery mobile weapons?

54.--Give a general caution for the use of all ammunition.

55.--What is essential to secure effective artillery fire?

56.--What should be done if one's own artillery fire falls short upon
one's own trenches?

57.--How is coordination between artillery and infantry secured in case
of a raid?

58.--What are the principal items of the morning schedule, of the
afternoon schedule?

59.--Describe the preparations for leaving the trenches.

60.--What orders are given at the time of relief?

61.--What is done before the men are dismissed to their billets?

62.--How should the days in rest billets be utilized?

63.--Describe a typical day in the trenches.

64.--Describe a typical day in rest billets.

65.--What should be the supreme aim alike of men and officers?



    Part II.

    French Infantry Combat
    Principles.



FRENCH INFANTRY COMBAT PRINCIPLES.



OPEN WARFARE.


106.--Is open warfare probable?

It is improbable that in this war trench warfare will definitely give
place on all sectors of the front to open warfare.

But the tactics that have forced several retirements will force others.

If sufficient troops are available, tried and fit and resolute, with
the necessary quantities of ammunition and improved artillery, we shall
see German arrogance and brutality in victory become again cringing
fear and demoralization in defeat; the experience of the Marne will
be repeated and the invaders will be driven out of the territory they
swarmed over through treacherous breaking of treaties.


107.--The need of training in Infantry Combat Principles.

That day the infantry will come again unto its own and its dash and
resolution will insure victory.

To achieve it, it must be a well trained infantry, in the old sense
of the word. Officers, non-commissioned officers and men must have a
thorough and practical knowledge of Infantry Combat Principles.

These should be practiced in the intervals of trench service when the
battalion is in rest billets.

Their theory should be thoroughly mastered by all on whom may devolve
responsibility.


108.--The two phases of the Combat.

We shall study here the two principal phases of the combat: the
approach and the attack, from the point of view of the company
commander.


109.--The Defense.

We shall also consider the Combat from the standpoint of the Defense.



THE APPROACH.


110.--All maneuvering at close range impossible.

In the attack, the infantry can proceed only straight ahead. Under
infantry fire all maneuvering is impossible. Therefore by "approach" is
meant all maneuvering preparatory to the attack: It brings the troops
directly in front of and as near as possible to the objective.



PRELIMINARY DISPOSITIONS TO START THE APPROACH.


111.--The orders to attack.

The company commander will receive his orders from the battalion
commander.


112.--Equipment and Liaison.

In the meanwhile let the lieutenants:

    a) make sure that the men are fully equipped and
    provided with full allotment of ammunition;

    b) appoint and parade connecting files (runners) to
    await orders.


113.--Distribution of Orders.

The company commander having received his orders from the battalion
commander, will then call his subordinates and issue his own orders
accordingly, including the formation to be adopted.


114.--Combat patrols.

He will make sure that there are combat patrols on the exposed flank or
flanks and to the front and rear if need be.

It is well to have combat patrols detach automatically. It may be
understood, once for all, that, without further orders, the first squad
will cover in front, the second to the right, the third to the left,
the fourth to the rear, whenever needed. Still, the officer in charge
should make sure that this arrangement is carried out.

A combat patrol, if not a full advance guard, will thus always precede
a unit and be the first to take contact with the enemy.


115.--Officers as guides.

The officers serve as guides to their units, until deployment, a
mounted officer in liaison with the advance guard or advanced combat
patrol checking up the itinerary.


116.--Keep Close Order as long as possible.

The advance of a company into an engagement is conducted in close
order, preferably columns of squads, until possible observation by the
enemy or encountering of hostile fire makes it advisable to deploy.

Deployment should not be premature and should always follow upon the
conditions arising during the progress of the advance.



PRECAUTIONS AGAINST HOSTILE ARTILLERY.



AGAINST SILENT ARTILLERY.


117.--Nearing artillery which may open fire.

About two or three miles from the positions liable to be occupied by
the enemy's field artillery, precautions should be taken against the
possibility of its opening fire.


118.--Deployment.

Deployments should be adopted best suited to escape observation:


119.--To escape direct observation:

March in single or double file, the whole section[D] keeping closed up
so as to diminish the number of files seen from the front.


120.--Under aeroplane observation:

Avoid especially the center of roads as they show white, utilize on the
contrary the spaces between cultivated fields of different colors,
make use of all possible cover, trees, shrubs, ditches, embankments.
Always walk in the shade when possible. If hostile aeroplanes are
flying low, halt and lie down on left side, hiding face in elbow.

FOOTNOTE:

[D] The French "section" comprises 54 men. It is thus equivalent to 7
squads, and may be considered as 2 platoons.



CROSSING A BOMBARDED ZONE.


121.--Case I. Artillery opening fire to register.

A registering fire is easily recognized as the German artillery
registers either with a single percussion shell at a time, or with two
time-shells at three seconds interval.

In the German field gun, the setting of the angle of sight[E] and of
the elevation[F] involves two operations.


122.--Oblique to right then to left.

Therefore infantry under registering fire should oblique forward
rapidly.


123.--Case II: Artillery opening fire for effect.

The zone has necessarily been previously registered. Such a zone is
easily recognized by the presence of shell holes.


124.--Avoid Zone if possible.

It should be avoided and the advance made on its outskirts.


125.--The five cases of fire for effect.

If this cannot be done and the fire for effect materializes five cases
are to be distinguished as the shells may be:

    1. Shrapnel shells bursting at right height;

    2. Shrapnel shells bursting high;

    3. Time-Fuse high explosive shells bursting at right
    height;

    4. Time-Fuse high explosive shells bursting high;

    5. Percussion high explosive shells.


126.--Case 1. Burst Area of Shrapnel shells bursting at right height.

The area of burst is about 250 to 300 yards in length and 30 yards in
width, half the bullets falling on the first 50 yards of the beaten
zone.


127.--Protective Formation against Shrapnel.

Advance in line of section, in single or double file keeping as closed
up as possible with 30 yards intervals between sections.

The second line should be 250 to 300 yards behind the first.


128.--Case 2. Shrapnel shells bursting high.

Much less dangerous than when bursting at right height as initial speed
of bullets is spent. Same formation as for Case 1.


129.--Case 3. Burst area of Time-fuse high explosive shells bursting at
right height.

The area of burst is opposite to that of shrapnel: short depth, large
width, only 7 to 10 yards depths as opposed to 60 to 100 yards in width.


130.--Protective Formation against Time-fuse high explosives.

Advance in line of section, single or double file, keeping as closed up
as possible with 60 to 100 yards intervals between sections.

The second line may be 15 yards behind the first.


131.--Case 4. High explosive shells bursting high.

The depth of the area of burst is longer than when shells burst at the
right height; therefore widen interval between the lines.


132.--Case 5. Burst area of percussion high explosive shells.

The radius of the explosion is only about 25 yards but the local effect
is intense and the displacement is effective in more than double the
radius.


133.--Protective Formation against percussion high explosive shells.

Advance in line of section in double file, keeping as closed up as
possible, with about 100 yards intervals between sections.

The second line may be about 50 yards behind the first.

FOOTNOTES:

[E] Inclination of the line of sight to the horizontal.

[F] The vertical inclination of the gun.



GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS AGAINST ALL TYPES OF EFFECTIVE FIRE.


134.--Dangerous to stop, useless to run.

Do not stop in a zone under fire for effect as lying down only provides
a larger target. If absolutely obliged to stop, remain standing
and packed together like sardines, maintaining above formations and
intervals. It is useless to run, but, as much as possible, advance
steadily.


135.--Protective Formation against all types of shells.

As may appear from the study of the above the following formation
and intervals will afford the best protection against all types and
combinations of types of shells, as a shell will never affect more than
one section.

Advance in lines of sections in double file, keeping as closed up as
possible, with 85 to 110 yards intervals[G] between sections.

The second line should be 250 to 300 yards behind the first.

FOOTNOTE:

[G] All through this chapter, maximum intervals are given. They may
have to be shortened to secure closer order at the expense of greater
safety.



SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE APPROACH.



USE OF WOODS AS SHELTER ON THE ADVANCE.


136.--Avoid if small.

They should be used to advance or halt only if they are of considerable
size. Then, they hide movements and provide some shelter from fire. On
the contrary, when they are small, they are to be avoided as they draw
artillery fire and do not offer sufficient protection.


137.--Liaison difficult.

When advancing in woods, special care should be taken to keep all
fractions connected.


138.--Exit quickly at one time.

To exit from wood, take all necessary dispositions under cover so that,
on the signal of the commander, all fractions may be ready to spring
out together. They should continue to advance forward, as rapidly as
possible, to avoid the enemy's likely shelling of the outskirts.


138.--Otherwise exit in different places.

If the exit cannot be made by all fractions at one time, the elements
of the second line should avoid coming out at the same point as those
of the first line.



TO CROSS A CREST.


139.--Cross altogether and rapidly.

Let the line of sections assemble at top of crest, crouching carefully
below the sky line. Then, upon concerted signal, all should leap
quickly across and down the descending slope, making as extended bounds
as possible.

This makes crossing fairly safe as even the infantry will have to
modify both its elevation and angle of sight for every new position of
this quickly moving target.



PRECAUTIONS AGAINST CAVALRY.


140.--Cavalry Patrols.

During the whole "approach" watch should be kept for possible cavalry
patrols. The elements acting as advance guard and flank guards or
as combat patrols have as part of their special mission to keep the
cavalry away from the main body.


141.--Face and Fire.

To repulse cavalry, the infantry must be able to face quickly toward
the charging horsemen and furnish a heavy fire.


142.--Protective formations.

If cavalry patrols are expected ahead, deployment as skirmishers will
secure this, if on the flanks, deploy in columns of squads marching in
double file. A formation in echelon is effective at all times.


143.--Repulsing the charge.

If cavalry appears, stop, face the charge quickly, fix bayonets and
fire at will, the section leaders controlling the fire.


144.--In case of surprise.

If surprised, deploy quickly and lie down.



THE ATTACK.



THE TERMINATION OF THE APPROACH.


145.--The Objective.

The standard objective of a battalion is a maximum front of 550 yards.


146.--Determination of the Objective.

On nearing the objective the battalion commander reconnoiters rapidly
to determine the number of companies to put in the front line and the
part of the objective to be assigned to each.


147.--Horses sent back.

Mounted officers now send back their horses to reserve battalion.


148.--Assignment of position to companies.

The battalion commander assigns to each company its part of the
objective and the position from which it is to start the attack.


149.--Getting into position for the attack.

The orders are given verbally by the battalion commander to the
captains and by the captains to the company usually through the platoon
leaders as the company is not in close order.


150.--Deployment before infantry fire.

As soon as the zone swept by the infantry fire of the enemy is reached
(about 1000 yards) deployment as skirmishers becomes imperative.


151.--Methods of advance.

Keep on advancing toward positions for the attack by fractions, varying
method according to the terrain; short rushes, crawling, making use of
all possible cover.


152.--Position of officers.

The battalion commander and the captains march with the supports, the
battalion commander controlling the despatch of reinforcements. As
soon as the supports are all sent forward they march with the fraction
nearest the enemy.


153.--Liaison.

A connecting file (runner) accompanies the battalion commander and each
of the captains.



THE FIRE ATTACK.


154.--The time to fire.

It is determined by the casualties.


155.--The order to fire.

It is given by the captains; (only in case of extreme emergency by a
subaltern.)


156.--Fire Control.

The section leaders, under the direction of the captain; control the
fire: classes of firing, volley firing, firing at will; the target (the
nearest hostile troops within the sector of the objective being the
usual target); the range, the opening and cessation of fire in volley
fire.


157.--Fire observation.

The section leaders are helped in their observation of the fire effect
by observers standing besides them. The fire is usually directed
independently by section or half section.


158.--Verification of range.

In principle, the corporals do not take part in the fire but verify
the range and direction of the fire of their respective squads.



ADVANCING THE FIRING LINE.


159.--Methods of advance.

To advance the firing line in attack, all means are good: by section,
half-section, squad, the only condition being that it be by commanded
fractions.


160.--Closing in to replace casualties.

As men fall, the rest close in toward the section leader, the sections
rectifying intervals on the sections furthest advanced (the captain is
with this section, all sections being now in line.)


161.--Closing in on the battalion front.

The several companies rectify intervals in the same way on the furthest
advanced company (the battalion commander being with this company).


162.--Seize every opportunity to advance.

Every propitious occasion to advance should be seized at once by the
various elements of the line: greater effectiveness of the neighboring
section's fire, slackening fire of the enemy, effects of artillery,
etc.


163.--Each fraction protects advance of neighbor.

The movement forward of each fraction of the line should be protected
by the fire of the neighboring fraction.


164.--Keep fit to fire accurately.

The fraction leader, after each rush forward, should give time to the
men to get back their breath so that they may fire with careful aim.


165.--Liaison with the Captain.

The captain should be kept informed by a conventional signal as to the
need of ammunition, etc.



USE OF MACHINE GUNS IN THE ATTACK.


166.--During the Approach.

Use them judiciously but boldly. They should advance as first units.


167.--During the fire attack.

Strive to keep abreast or ahead of the most advanced elements
especially on the flanks.


168.--During the charge.

Try to have them reach the objective with the firing line and
contribute to the pursuit.



THE COMPANY SUPPORTS.


169.--In liaison with the captain.

The sections kept in support are at the disposition of the captain.


170.--Method of advance.

Under the command of the section leader, they advance, in double file,
at proper intervals or deployed, according to their proximity to the
enemy and according to the terrain (covered or uncovered).


171.--Distance from the firing line.

They should be about 250 yards behind the firing line to whose
movements they conform.


172.--Supplying the firing line.

The section leaders keep in sight of the captain and upon his signaled
command advance into the firing line either to fill up a gap or to
reinforce a section.


173.--When filling a gap.

They advance as far as possible ahead of the line.


174.--Reinforcing.

They come up with a rush and shout to rehearten the line.



THE COMPANIES IN SUPPORT.


175.--Position.

They are kept out of range of the enemy's fire upon the firing line but
near enough to interfere as soon as called upon.


176.--Liaison with battalion commander.

The captains keep in touch with the battalion commander.


177.--Advance into action.

These companies advance into the fire zone with the necessary
precautions, either by fractions or entire, taking advantage of
favorable conditions: inefficiency of the enemy's fire, effectiveness
of the firing line, etc.



THE CHARGE.


178.--The final aim.

The charge is the final aim of the whole attack. Its success means the
defeat of the enemy.


179.--Caution.

It should not be launched too soon.


180.--By whom ordered.

The order may come directly from the commander of the attacking line or
be solicited by any of his subordinates.


181.--Method of advance.

Fix bayonets, advance, stop to fire, advance again, but always so as to
arrive on the enemy's position without being out of breath.



THE PURSUIT.


182.--One essential rule.

It should be vigorously pressed.


183.--Organize new position.

In the meanwhile the conquered position should be organized.



SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE ATTACK.



ATTACK OF A WOOD.


184.--First objective.

In the attack of a wood, the first objective should be the outskirts.
Concentrate the first effort on the salients.


185.--Method of Advance.

As soon as the wood is penetrated, advance quickly forward, utilizing
all roads, paths and trails. The company advances by sections or half
sections, in single or double file, preceded by strong patrols.

Every effort should be made to close in with the bayonet.


186.--Outflanking.

The companies or fractions on the flank strive to outflank the enemy so
as to attack him on the flank or from behind.


187.--Frontal Attack.

The companies or fractions in the center try to get across the wood as
quickly as possible, or, at least, to reach a clearing.



ATTACK OF A VILLAGE.


188.--First Objective.

In the attack of a village, the first objective should be the nearest
outskirt.


189.--Organize.

Consolidate this first position as soon as conquered. Signal to the
artillery to lengthen the range.


190.--Frontal attack.

Then try to gain as rapidly as possible the opposite end.


191.--Outflanking.

The flanking units endeavor to encircle the objective.


192.--Against interior defense.

If the defense has been strongly organized inside the village, fight
forward step by step. Blow up the obstacles with explosives.


193.--Cooperation of Artillery.

Have artillery bring up a few guns within close range.



ATTACK OF A DEFILE.


194.--When defended in front.

If it is defended in front, try to advance rapidly by one or both
flanks, small fractions only attacking on the valley bottom, while the
greater part of the attacking force progresses on the heights on either
side, the flanks striving to keep forward so as to reach the other end
before the defenders and encircle them.


195.--When defended in rear.

If the defile is defended at the farther end, as in the case of a
bridge, echelon units (properly covered) for heavy concentrated fire
from the bank held and cross the bridge on the run and in small groups.



NIGHT ATTACKS.


196.--Of limited scope.

They must be confined to simple movements over easy ground.


197.--Orders to be given.

They must be carefully prepared secretly beforehand in every detail.
The orders must include detailed particulars on the role of each unit
or fraction of units, precise data on the rallying points and on the
signals to be used.


198.--Small units used.

For many reasons, chief among which is the difficulty of handling large
units at night and maintaining contact, small units should be used.


199.--A battalion the maximum.

The fire of the adversary being negligible at night, there is seldom
any advantage in putting more than a battalion in line against a given
objective, the quality, discipline and cohesion of the troops making up
for the number.


200.--Special precaution.

Before beginning the approach, carefully secure all arms and utensils
so as to prevent noise. Fix bayonets.


201.--Method of advance.

Walk in double files on sides of roads, never in the center. Otherwise
as long as practicable, in columns of squads.


202.--Liaison.

Commands are to be transmitted in a low voice by connecting files.


203.--To secure surprise.

Keep absolute silence. Forbid all lights. No smoking allowed.


204.--Reconnaissance.

The itinerary should be reconnoitered beforehand, if possible, and
index stakes planted; otherwise an officer should precede with a
luminous compass and men to plant the stakes.


205.--No fire before charge.

Do not answer the enemy's fire until the charge.


206.--Quickness essential.

Success depends above all on the rapidity and continuity of the
advance. Get there as quickly as possible.



THE DEFENSE.

DEFENSE OF POINTS d'APPUIS: WOODS, VILLAGES, DEFILES.



DEFENSE OF WOODS.


207.--Distribution of Troops.

The commander should distribute his command so as to provide a defense
of the outskirts, an interior defense and reserves for a counter attack.


208.--The outskirt defense.

The outskirts defense troops should organize their positions and remain
hidden near the combat emplacements until the attack is announced as
impending by their sentinels.


209.--The interior defense.

The interior defense troops should organize their positions (abatis,
barb-wire) on the edges of clearings and other open spaces so as to
secure convergent fire.


210.--The Reserves.

The counter-attack reserves should be placed in the rear and on the
outside of the flank best suited for launching a counter attack. They
should proceed to organize the ground so as to prevent the enemy from
issuing from the wood, and should strive to keep on.



DEFENSE OF A VILLAGE.


211.--Distribution of Troops.

The same as for the defense of a wood.


212.--The exits.

The outskirts defense organization should include trenches and
accessory defences before all the exits. These should be strongly
barricaded.


213.--Interior strong point.

The interior defense should be organized about the houses most strongly
built and least visible to the enemy's artillery. It should include
hidden communications between these strong points, thus facilitating a
prolonged defense.


214.--Special precautions.

The streets should be barricaded and loopholes provided in the walls of
the houses. Precautions should be taken against fire: pails of water,
boxes of sand provided in the houses.



DEFENSE OF A DEFILE.


215.--To keep the exits open for an advance.

If the aim is to keep the exits open so as to permit the advance of
troops, the defense should be organized at some distance in front of
the defile: far enough to permit the unimpeded progress of the advance.


216.--To keep exits open for a retreat.

If the aim is to keep the exits open so as to cover the retreat of
troops, the roads at the bottom of the defile should be left free and
the defense troops so placed as to draw the enemy's fire on other
points.


217.--To block the defile.

If the aim is to block the defile, the defense should be organized
in the interior of the defile on both sides of the place of greatest
width, so as to secure convergence of fire. Echelon detachments all
along the defile to act as a rear guard in case a retreat is necessary.
Keep the flanks well protected.



NIGHT DEFENSE OF A POSITION


218.--Precautions against attack.

Attack should be guarded against by accumulating obstacles and the
defense further prepared by previous reconnoitering of the best ground
for counter-attacks.


219.--Receive with violent fire and immediate counterattacks.

The enemy's charge should be met with a violent fire at the shortest
possible range, followed immediately by counter-attacks with the
bayonet, especially on the flanks.



THE COUNTER ATTACK.


220.--Confine to definite Objective.

Indicate the objective very definitely including the position to be
reached but not gone beyond.

Its direction should not interfere with the fire of neighboring troops.


221.--Necessary Reconnaissance.

The Counter Attack should be prepared cautiously and the itinerary
carefully, even if rapidly, reconnoitered. (This may have been done as
part of the preparation of the defense. It should be done with special
care if the counter-attack is to take place at night.)


222.--Watch for opportunity.

It may be decided upon independently of the incidents of the defense or
to take advantage of the mistakes or weakness of the adversary.


223.--Counter from short distance.

The most favorable moment is when the enemy is within a short distance
and its artillery consequently obliged to stop or to lengthen its fire.


224.--Sudden and intense fire.

It should be launched suddenly so as to surprise the enemy and pushed
vigorously, the fire being increased to great intensity along the whole
front.


225.--Rapid and continuous advance.

Rapidity and continuity of advance is essential.


226.--Bayonet charge.

Its culmination is the bayonet charge against the prescribed definite
objective.


227.--Stop!

Hold this objective once conquered but do not go beyond.


228.--Dash under Discipline.

Let the motto be always, but here especially: "DASH UNDER DISCIPLINE."



QUESTIONS.


    The following questions cover the principles of
    combat in open warfare. These principles have been
    supplemented rather than changed in the light of
    experience since 1914. In their original form, as
    given in this book, they still may be considered as
    fundamental. Compare them carefully with the treatment
    of the same topics in the larger works recommended. The
    questions are shaped to cover the topics supplemented.

1.--What is the difference between "trench warfare" and "open warfare"?

2.--What is meant by the "combat"?

3.--What are the two phases of the combat?

4.--What is the distinction between "the approach" and the "attack"?

5.--Why is maneuvering impossible under infantry fire?

6.--What is the purpose of the approach?

7.--How are orders issued?

8.--How is liaison secured?

9.--What were the original functions of combat patrols?

10.--When should close order be abandoned for deployment?

11.--At what distance from the enemy does deployment become imperative?

12.--What is the last formation to escape direct observation?

13.--What precautions may be taken against aeroplane observations?

14.--What is the difference between a registering fire and fire for
effect?

15.--How may the German registering fire be recognized?

16.--What precaution may be taken against it and why is it effective?

17.--What preliminaries are necessary to open fire for effect?

18.--What is an easy way to recognize whether fire for effect may be
expected?

19.--What five cases of fire may be distinguished?

20.--What is the burst area of a shrapnel shell?

21.--What is the safest protective formation against shrapnel?

22.--What is the difference between a shrapnel shell, a time-fuse high
explosive shell and a percussion high explosive shell?

23.--What is the burst area of a time-fuse high explosive shell?

24.--What is the safest protective formation against it?

25.--What is the burst area of percussion high explosive shells, and
what precautions can be taken against them?

26.--What is the safest protective formation against all types of
shells?

27.--What objections may it be open to?

28.--What is the safest way and direction to go when under artillery
fire?

29.--Why should small woods be avoided?

30.--In large woods, what precautions must be taken to secure a steady
advance?

31.--How should the exit from a wood be made?

32.--Describe method of crossing a crest.

33.--What are good protective formations against cavalry and how is it
repulsed?

34.--What elements have the mission to deal with cavalry patrols?

35.--What is meant by "the objective" in attack?

36.--What is the distinction between determining the objective and the
position from which to start the attack?

37.--What is the distinction between "the approach" and getting into
position for the attack?

38.--At what distance from the enemy does deployment as skirmishers
become imperative?

39.--Describe method of advance toward positions for the attack.

40.--Where should the officers be during this advance?

41.--How is liaison (communication) secured between the various
commands?

42.--What is meant by the fire attack?

44.--How is the time to fire determined?

45.--How are fire control and fire effect secured?

46.--How is the firing line advanced?

47.--How is it rectified?

48.--Why should care be taken not to have men out of breath?

49.--How should machine guns be made to contribute to the approach,
the fire attack, the charge?

50.--How far should the company supports be from the firing line?

51.--Who commands them?

52.--How is the firing line reinforced?

53.--Describe the company supports going into the line to fill up a
gap, to reinforce a section.

54.--Describe position and behavior of companies in support.

55.--What is the final stage of the whole attack?

56.--Who orders the charge and how is it made?

57.--What is the difference between the charge and the pursuit?

58.--What should be done with a newly conquered position?

59.--What is the first objective in attacking a wood?

60.--How does the aim of the troops on the wings differ from that of
those in the center?

62.--Distinguish the different objectives in the attack of a village.

63.--Describe the attack to proceed through a defile in which the enemy
is located.

64.--Describe the attack of a bridge.

65.--Why should night attacks be of limited scope?

66.--What special precautions should be taken?

67.--What is the largest unit advisable?

68.--How is surprise secured?

69.--Describe the methods of reconnaissance, advance and liaison for a
night attack.

70.--Should the enemy's fire be answered in a night attack?

71.--What does the success of a night attack chiefly depend on?

72.--How should troops be distributed for the defense of woods and what
is the function of each?

73.--Describe the distribution of troops for the defense of a village.

74.--How should the outskirts defense be organized?

75.--Describe the interior defense.

76.--How can a defile be kept open for an advance?

77.--How can a defile be safeguarded for a retreat?

78.--Give necessary orders for the blocking of a defile.

79.--Why should reconnoitering for counter attacks always be part of
the organization for defense.

80.--Describe repulse of a night attack.

81.--Is an attack ever advisable without previous reconnaissance?

82.--Explain the importance of understanding the exact objective in a
counterattack.

83.--What is the best time to launch a counter attack?

84.--What precautions must be taken to secure the success of a counter
attack?

85.--What is a good motto under all conditions, but especially in the
attack?



    Appendix.

    A Division Front in
    Trench Warfare.



EXPLANATION OF PLATE I.


The following may be considered a standard scheme of distribution of
troops, for trench warfare, in a fully developed trench system.

An infantry division is composed of two brigades, each brigade of two
regiments, each regiment of three battalions. Each brigade thus has six
battalions, each battalion numbering 1026 officers and men, normally
divided into four companies.

One battalion occupies about 1000 yards in ordinary trench warfare. As
reliefs must be frequent, three battalions of each brigade will be on
duty, while the other three are in rest-billets, at least two miles
back of the trenches.

Two of the battalions on duty occupy the trenches, the third is
stationed about a mile back, in reserve.

A brigade can therefore hold about 2000 yards of trenches: two
battalions in front line trenches, one battalion in reserve, and three
battalions in rest billets.

Hence a division (two brigades) will hold a front of about 4000 yards.

Within each 1000 yards front, the distribution may be as follows:

Three platoons of Companies A, B, and C occupy the dugouts of the cover
trench and of the support trench and post sentinels by roster in the
fire trench.

Platoon No. 4 of each company occupy the dugouts of the reserve trench,
together with the entire Company D.

Platoons and companies then relieve one another according to roster,
a platoon of each company and an entire company, in turn, enjoying
comparative rest in the reserve trench even during the stay of the
battalion in the trenches.



EXPLANATION OF PLATE II.


The following is a description of the back areas of a divisional sector
in which there has been no great changes since 1915. There are still
several hundred miles of such sectors.

The line at the top marks the beginning of the trench-system described
in Plate I. being the entrance to the communication trenches.

Road a, b, with the river c, d, run at the bottom of a small valley
surrounded by hills of about 80 ft. elevation. A branch of the river
runs from c. to e. and a railroad beside it, along road h, i, and
crossing road j, k. A good size village is at D, a smaller one at C,
hamlets at A and B. The latter are about one mile back of the trenches,
village C. about two miles and village D. between three and four.

Hamlets A and B have probably been heavily bombarded at the time line
was established and have been evacuated by the civilians. Village
C. has received shells, but, if there has been no big attack in the
sector, is in fair shape and some of the inhabitants remain. Village D.
may also have suffered from shells but probably most of the inhabitants
remain. Such villages may be clusters of farms or of cottages,
depending upon the region. If village is made up of cottages, farm
houses will be found along the roads at frequent intervals. The fields
are likely to be under cultivation almost as far as road k, l.

Villages A, B, C are used to billet the battalion in reserve of each
brigade. Village D. and the nearest villages further back are used as
rest-billets by the battalions of the brigades who will relieve those
in the trenches.

Near or in villages A, B and C or near hill E and G are located the
transports of the infantry battalions in the trenches. Supplies are
sent daily to the trenches from this headquarters of the quartermaster
and transport officer.

Somewhere along road k, l, or about hills E and G are hidden in gun
pits the batteries of field artillery attached to the division. The men
live in dugouts alongside. The camps for the horses, wagons and supply
headquarters of these batteries are hidden in the woods or on the
further slopes of hills E, F, G.

In village D are very likely located the Brigades' headquarters
and such services as the Field Ambulance and the Divisional Supply
Departments. The Y. M. C. A. recreation centers, divisional theatre,
football fields, army canteens etc., are also located in village D
or just back of it. If the houses in the villages do not provide
enough billets, huts and tents are erected. Otherwise the officers are
billeted in the houses of the inhabitants and the men in the barns.

The Divisional Headquarters, the Ammunition Column, the Artillery
Brigade Headquarters, the Engineers, the Ammunition Dumps, etc., are
strung out in the villages and along the roads just back of village D.
The heavier artillery is also posted back of this line.

In sectors that have been the scenes of offensives the several elements
remain in the same relation, but as the villages have been obliterated,
shelters must be provided. [The Editor.]

[Illustration: PLATE I--DIVISION FRONT--4000 yards (Trench System)]

[Illustration: PLATE II--DIVISION FRONT (Back Areas)]



       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's note:

Varied hyphenation was retained, for example as fire trench and
fire-trench, and counter attack, counterattack and counter-attack.

Obvious punctuation errors were corrected.

Page 3, Table of Contents, "74" changed to "73" to reflect the heading
of "THE CHARGE."

Page 3, Table of Contents, "78" changed to "77" to reflect the heading
of "NIGHT ATTACKS."

Page 3, Table of Contents, "74" changed to "83" to reflect the heading
of "THE COUNTER ATTACK."

Page 7, "resourcefulnes" changed to "resourcefulness" (and
resourcefulness)

Page 12, final item under "3.--On the day of the relief" was formatted
to match the rest of the items. In the original it was typeset as a
paragraph instead of as an item with a hanging indent.

Page 26, "offlcers" changed to "officers" (many reserve officers)

Page 56, "preceed" changed to "precede" (always precede a unit)

Page 63, a footnote marker was added to the text (110 yards
intervals[G] between)

Page 66, "controling" changed to "controlling" (the section leaders
controlling)

Page 68, "controling" changed to "controlling" (commander controlling
the)

Page 78, "or" changed to "of" (files on sides of)

Page 87, "shapnel" changed to "shrapnel" (shrapnel shell, a time-fuse)

Page 89, there is no question 43 on the list. This was retained as
printed.





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