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´╗┐Title: Hints on Dairying
Author: Curtis, T. D.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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NOTE TO THE WWER
The tables on pages 45 and 58 have been left as a replica of the
original because there is no way to ensure a clear reading if the size
is reduced.



                          Farmer and Dairyman

                        Edited by T.D. Curtis.


            AN EIGHT PAGE MONTHLY, 6 COLUMNS 20 INCHES LONG
                             TO THE PAGE.

            THE * BEST * AND * CHEAPEST * PAPER * PUBLISHED

                                FOR THE

                          Dairy or the Farm.


                      IT KEEPS UP WITH THE TIMES
                       AND GIVES ALL THE LATEST
                          METHODS AND IDEAS.

                            [Illustration]

                      Price Only 50 Cents a Year.

                 T.D. CURTIS & SONS, - SYRACUSE, N.Y.



    [Illustration: THOMAS HIGGIN, ESQ., LIVERPOOL,

    Inventor of the Higgin Improved Process for manufacturing Salt, an
    improvement in this industry as important as the Bessemer process
    in the manufacture of steel. His firm are the owners of two of
    the largest salt works in the Cheshire salt district, turning out
    immense quantities of this article, which they ship to all parts of
    the world.]

                     THE HIGGIN "EUREKA" SALT CO.,

           Liverpool, England, and 116 Reade St., New York.



  USING POOR SALT TO SEASON GOOD BUTTER IS LIKE USING POOR THREAD IN
                          SEWING GOOD CLOTH.

                           HIGGIN'S "EUREKA"

                          ENGLISH HIGH GRADE

                      DAIRY * AND * TABLE * SALT

                            [Illustration]

                              GOLD MEDALS

                                  AND

                            HIGHEST AWARDS

                                AT THE

                       Great Fairs of the World.

    1st Prize Centennial Ex., Phila.     1876
        "     Ex. Universelle, Paris     1878
        "     Dairy Show, London         1879
        "     Dairy Show, Dublin         1879
        "     International Exposition,
                Melbourne                1881
        "     International Exhibition,
                Adelaide                 1881
        "     Dairy Show, London         1882
        "     International Exhibition,
                New Zealand              1882
        "     Dairy Show, London         1883
        "     Dairy Show, London         1884
        "     World's Industrial and
                Cotton Centennial Ex.
                New Orleans              1885


    Over $15,000 in Premiums were awarded to parties using =HIGGIN'S
    "EUREKA" SALT= in their Prize Butter and Cheese at the principal
    Dairy Fairs in the U.S., carrying sweepstakes and highest awards
    wherever put in competition.

    ="EUREKA" SALT= has no equal in Purity, Strength, Flavor, Uniform
    Grain of Crystal, Keeping Quality, Perfect Dryness and cheapness.
    Give it a trial and be convinced of its merits.


                     THE HIGGIN "EUREKA" SALT CO.,

                        (OF LIVERPOOL, ENGLAND)

                Office, 116 Reade Street,--- NEW YORK.



    [Illustration: JERSEYS--ONE TON 2,000, MARPETRO 3,352, BOMA 4,834.
    PROPERTY OF BEECH GROVE FARM, BEECH GROVE, IND.]



                                 HINTS

                                --ON--

                               DAIRYING.


                            BY T.D. CURTIS.


       Complete success in dairying depends on right conditions.


                            SYRACUSE, N.Y.
                   PUBLISHED FROM THE OFFICE OF THE
                        _FARMER AND DAIRYMAN_.

                                 1885.



                     COPYRIGHTED IN THE YEAR 1885
                            BY T.D. CURTIS.



PREFACE.


It was intended by the Author to publish an exhaustive practical work
on Dairying. But his time was so occupied by other matters that he was
compelled to abandon the idea. Much of the following pages was written
while traveling, the intervals of waiting at hotels and railroad
stations being devoted to this work. But on reperusing the chapters
as they appeared in the columns of the FARMER AND DAIRYMAN,
and making slight additions, he has concluded to give them to the
Dairy Public in their present form, believing that they may be of some
assistance to the tyro, and perhaps afford a hint, here and there,
to the dairyman of more experience who wishes to keep abreast of his
fellows in the march of progress. This little book is not intended to
supersede any other work on the subject, but to play the part of an
auxiliary and present in a condensed form the pith which the reader
might not have time to get from a more elaborate volume. The favor with
which his "Hints on Cheesmaking"--now out of date--was received, gives
the author confidence that his later effort may serve to fill a place
that now remains unoccupied. Providence seems to have selected him as
one of the laborers in this field of education, and he conscientiously
devotes a portion of his energies to the service with envy toward none,
but entertaining the hope that his mite may not be unacceptable among
so many larger contributions.



                          HINTS ON DAIRYING.



HISTORICAL.


Dairying runs back to a period in the development of the human race of
which we have no record. Man early learned to not only slay animals and
eat their flesh, but to appropriate to himself the food belonging to
their young--a trait of selfishness which he has not yet overcome, and
even manifests by preying in various ways upon his fellows. We have in
the world large classes who add nothing to its real wealth, but live
and luxuriate on the fat of the earth by drawing the results of labor
from the toilers through cunningly devised schemes of finance, business
and government.


IN ASIA.

Away back in the dimness of antiquity, of which even tradition gives no
hint, comparative philology shows us that a civilized race, now known
as the Aryan race, dwelt on the steppes of Central Asia, and that the
ox and the cow constituted their chief means of subsistence. They lived
in simple peace and innocence, their language having no terms of war
and strife. But there came a time when separation began and migration
followed. They were scattered to the four corners of the Eastern
Continent, and their descendants now constitute the progressive nations
of the earth. The parent nation appears to have utterly perished in
giving birth to the nations of the future. No trace of it is left,
save the remnants of its language inherited by its children; but they
furnish indisputable evidence of a common parentage.


AMONG THE JEWS.

Our earliest authentic records about the dairy are of the use of milk
and its products among the Jews. We are told, in the 8th verse of
the 18th chapter of Genesis, that when Abraham entertained the three
strangers, "he took butter and milk, and the calf which he had dressed,
and set it before them." Moses, in his song, as recorded in the 23d
chapter of Deuteronomy, 14th verse, says of Jacob that the Lord, among
other things, gave him to eat "butter of kine and milk of sheep."
Deborah, who declares in her song that "the stars in their courses did
fight against Sisera," who was entertained and slain by Jael, says of
the murderess (Judges, 25th verse and 8th chapter) "he asked water
and she gave him milk, she brought forth butter in a lordly dish."
In the 17th chapter and 5th verse of 2d Samuel, the writer tells us
that David and his people, after the battle in the wood of Ephraim,
were given "honey and butter, and sheep and cheese of kine," to eat.
Zophar, in the 20th chapter of Job, 17th verse, declares of the wicked
hypocrite, who "hath swallowed down riches," that his triumph is short,
and "he shall not see the rivers, the floods, the brooks of honey and
butter"--which, we infer, are designed for the righteous; and Job (29th
chapter and 6th verse) bemoans the loss of his former prosperity,
"when I washed my steps with butter." In the 55th Psalm, 24th verse,
David says of his enemy that "the words of his mouth were smoother
than butter." Solomon appears to have understood the whole business.
In Proverbs, 30th chapter and 33d verse, he exclaims: "Surely, the
churning of milk bringeth forth butter." Isaiah, in the 7th chapter and
15th verse, declares of the coming Immanuel, that "butter and honey
shall he eat;" and again (22d verse) that "for the abundance of milk
that they shall give he shall eat butter."


IN SOUTHERN EUROPE.

Chambers says: "In ancient times, the Hebrews seem to have made
copious use of butter as food; but the Greeks and the Romans used it
only as an ointment in their baths, and it is probable that the Greeks
obtained their knowledge of the subject from the Scythians, Thracians,
and Phrygians, whilst the Romans obtained it of Germany." This would
indicate that the Germans at that time were engaged in dairying. But,
even now, in Southern Europe, butter is sparingly used, and in Italy,
Spain, Portugal and Southern France, it is sold by apothecaries as an
ointment. Dairying is now extensively carried on in all the countries
of Northern Europe.


IN AMERICA.

When the early settlers of America crossed the Atlantic, they brought
with them their favorite domestic animals, including the family cow.
But dairying for a long time, in this country, appears to have been
confined mainly to producing supplies for the family of the dairyman.
It was not until quite a recent date that dairying sprang into
commercial importance. But, to-day, dairying cannot be considered
second to any other industry as to either magnitude or importance; and
it is a patent fact that, in those sections where dairying is most
extensively and successfully carried on, the farming population is the
most prosperous and happy.

Within the last twenty years, since associated dairying has been
introduced, great progress has been made in the dairy--but not greater
than in many other occupations, nor out of proportion with the growth
of population. The growth of the dairy will probably never exceed the
growth of population so long as the present heavy tide of immigration
continues to set toward our shores.


FIGURES FROM THE CENSUS.

Let us refer to the census of 1880, and note the development of the
dairy during the previous 30 years:

By the census of 1850, we had 6,385,094 cows, and produced 314,345,306
pounds of butter, and 105,535,893 pounds of cheese--a total of
418,881,199 pounds of product.

By the census of 1860, we had 8,585,735 cows, and produced 459,681,372
pounds of butter, and 103,663,927 pounds of cheese--a total of
563,345,299 pounds of product.


By the census of 1870, we had 8,935,332 cows and produced 514,692,683
pounds of butter, and 162,927,382 pounds of cheese--a total of
677,620,065 pounds of product--and this notwithstanding the war of the
rebellion came in this decade.

By the census of 1880, we had 12,443,120 cows, and produced 803,662,071
pounds of butter, and 243,157,850 pounds of cheese--a total of
1,049,819,921 pounds of product.


GROWTH IN THIRTY YEARS.

This is an increase in annual product of 630,948,622 pounds in thirty
years, or 212,057,523 pounds more than double the amount, in 1880, that
was manufactured in 1850. History records no parallel to this anywhere
on the face of the globe.

Let us put some of these figures into tabular form. We had in

                          Cows            Inhabitants

    1880                12,443,120   to   50,155,783

    1850                 6,385,094   to   23,191,876
                         ---------        ----------
    Increase in 30 years 6,058,026        26,963,907

We did not quite double the number of cows, but considerably more than
doubled the population. The number of inhabitants was, in

    1850      3.63 per cow

    1880      4.03    "

The increase in 30 years is .40 inhabitant to each cow. That is to
say, the population, as compared with the number of cows, was .40
larger in 1880 than it was in 1850.


PRODUCT PER COW AND PER CAPITA.

And now let us compare the product per cow and per capita. It was in

                                Lbs. per   Lbs. per
                                   cow     capita

    1850     418,881,199 lbs., or 65.77 or 18.06
    1880   1,049,829,921 lbs., or 84.37 or 20.93
                                  -----    -----
    Increase in 30 years          18.60     2.87


HOME CONSUMPTION VS. EXPORTS.

But it should be borne in mind that in 1850 very nearly all our dairy
products were consumed at home; whereas in 1880, we exported a large
amount. As the exports do not all come in the year of production, we
will take the average amount of exports for 1879 and 1880:

                   Lbs. Butter.    Lbs. Cheese.

    Exports, 1879   38,248,016     141,654,474
       "     1880   39,236,658     127,553,907
                    ----------     -----------
    Divided by    2)77,484,674     269,208,381
                    ----------     -----------
    Yearly average  38,742,337     134,604,190
    Add butter and cheese together  38,742,337
                                   -----------
    We have a yearly av. export of 173,346,527

pounds of product. If we take this from the total product

    of 1880      1,049,829,921 pounds
                   173,346,527 pounds
                 -------------
    we have        876,483,394 pounds

of product for home consumption, or more than five times as much as
we export. This is a consumption of 17.47 pounds per capita for our
50,155,783 inhabitants, or .59 of a pound less than in 1850, when
it was 18.60 pounds per capita. Does not this indicate the folly of
catering for a foreign market to the neglect of our own?


FORMS OF MILK CONSUMPTION.

It is estimated by good judges that 45 per cent. of our milk product is
consumed in its natural state, 50 per cent. is used in butter making,
and 5 per cent. is made into cheese. The fact of there being a foreign
demand for so large a proportion of our cheese, has led everybody
astray, and magnified the cheese factory into the position of supreme
importance.


THE PRIVATE DAIRY VS. THE FACTORY.

Let us again turn to the census of 1880, and see how the factory
product compares in amount and importance with the product of the
private dairy. It appears by the census of 1880 that the number of
pounds of dairy products made in factories was as follows:

    Cheese made in factories    215,885,361 lbs.
    Butter  "    "    "          29,411,784  "
                                -----------
        Total factory product   245,307,145 lbs.

    Cheese made on farms         27,272,489 lbs.
    Butter  "    "  "           777,250,287  "
                                -----------
        Total farm product      804,522,776 lbs.
    Deduct factory product      245,307,145  "
                                -----------
        Excess of private dairy 559,215,631 lbs.

or considerably more than double the total factory product.

Now, let us make a comparison by values, calling the cheese 10 cents
and the butter 25 cents a pound. We made in factories:

    Cheese, 215,885,361 lbs., @ 1Oc. $21,538,536
    Butter,  29,411,784 lbs., @ 25c.   7,352,946
                                      ----------
        Value of factory product     $29,941,482

There was made in the private dairies:

    Cheese,  27,272,489 lbs., @ 10c. $  2,727,249
    Butter, 777,250,287 lbs., @ 25c.  194,312,571
                                      -----------
    Value of private dairy products  $197,039,820
    Deduct value of factory products   29,941,482
                                      -----------
    In favor of private dairy        $167,098,338

In short, the product of the private dairy is between three and four
times larger than that of the factory, and nearly seven times its
value. Important as the factory is and is likely to become, let us not
forget the private dairy nor overlook the home interest in striving for
a little foreign patronage.

Notwithstanding the fault with the census that is found by some, the
census is the most reliable source of statistical information about the
dairy that we have.



CONDITIONS.


It is not every novice that can take up the business of dairying and
carry it on successfully; yet, some of our most successful dairymen
are comparative novices in the business. Quick observation and sound
judgment are important qualities in a dairyman. These qualities are not
always acquired by long experience, but are oftener the generous gifts
of nature. Hence, it frequently happens that men of quick discernment
step into a new business and achieve success where others have met
only years of failure. Improvements in all callings are apt to be made
by sharp lookers-on, who are not bred in the habits of routinism, nor
prejudiced against radical innovations. They see at a glance where
the plodder fails, and fearlessly apply the remedy--often a short-cut
to ends that have hitherto been reached with much difficulty and hard
labor. And here is where the real inventor finds his greatest field of
usefulness.


PASTURES.

Sweet pastures, with a variety of nutritious grasses growing in them,
are essentials to success in dairying--especially in butter making--in
summer. Bitter and other mal flavored weeds must be avoided, as they
flavor both the milk and the product manufactured from it. The cows
must not be worried, nor over-worked in rambling over poor pastures to
get sufficient food.


WATER.

Plenty of clean water must be conveniently at hand for the cows to
drink. The water must be sweet and clean enough for the human stomach.
Abundance of such water is more essential in the pasture--for the cows
to drink while secreting milk that contains 87 per cent. of water--than
it is in the daily-house, where a small amount of water will answer, if
ice is used, and hence can more easily be obtained pure.


WINTER FOOD.

In winter, the food must be in proper condition, properly balanced
between the nitrogenous and carbonaceous materials, and in full
supply--all the cow can digest and assimilate. At least one ration a
day should include sweet ensilage, roots, or other succulent food, to
aid in the separation of the butter from the cream by action of the
churn, it having been shown that all dry feed not only reduces the
flow of milk, but makes churning slow and difficult, leaving a large
percentage of fat in the buttermilk.


THE STABLE.

While in stable, the cow must also have plenty of pure air and sweet
water, and not be chilled in obtaining either. Without pure air,
the cow becomes debilitated and diseased, and the milk impure and
unwholesome. Impure water both taints and corrupts the product. A
proper temperature--certainly above freezing--should be kept up.
Remember, the cow standing still cannot resist cold as she could if she
were free to move about. It is cheaper to build warm stables--always
providing for perfect ventilation, the air coming in at the head and
passing off in the rear of the cow--and even to resort to artificial
heating, than to compel the cow to burn an extra amount of carbonaceous
food in her system to keep up the temperature of her body. Not only is
fuel cheaper than food, but the system of the cow cannot devote to milk
secretion the energy which is expending in secreting and consuming fat
to maintain a proper amount of vital heat.


SHELTER.

Proper shelter in summer, from the scorching rays of the mid-day sun,
and from beating storms and winds, is necessary. This should be easily
accessible. Especially in early spring and late fall do the animals
suffer severely from exposure to the cold winds and storms of all hours
in the twenty-four.


DAIRY HOUSE.

Every dairyman should have a good dairy house distinct from the
dwelling apartments. It need not, necessarily, be a separate building,
but it should not be subject to the inflowing of odors from the kitchen
and sitting rooms. The dairy house should be so constructed that the
temperature may at all times be kept under perfect control. There
should be no surrounding cesspools or other malodorous sources of
taint, and the ventilation should be free without perceptible drafts or
currents of air. No matter what method of setting milk and churning may
be adopted, there is a decided advantage in having the dairy house, or
any other workshop, separate from the dwelling apartments, so that the
work of the one shall in no way interfere with the work of the other.
Almost all dairymen fail, to some extent, in not having the dairy
house entirely separate. It would cost but little extra; and until
dairymen look upon the business as their life work and build and plan
accordingly, we need not expect the best possible success in dairying.


CLEANLINESS.

Cleanliness everywhere and at all times is an absolute necessity. There
is not the least danger of being too clean. The writer has never yet
seen a dairy without defects in this particular. Yet, most people mean
to be clean, and suppose they are. Lack of information is often the
cause of uncleanliness, and habit goes a great way in making people
indifferent to untidy surroundings. It is safe to copy the neat points
found in every dairy, as well as to avoid the offensive ones. As Gov.
Seymour once said, "cleanliness is a comparative term." It is well to
keep making comparisons on this point, until no unfavorable comparisons
with anybody's dairy can be found; and these comparisons should extend
to the surroundings of the cows, the manner of milking, the handling
of the milk, the cleansing of milk utensils, and all the processes of
manipulation from beginning to end. The dairy house should not only
look clean, but be, as it were, fragrant with neatness and sweetness.
And it is all-important that the clothing and person should be clean
and neat to a fault. A sweet temper, even is no drawback.


THE HERD.

Of course, a thorough knowledge of the business must be had or be
acquired. The proper selection or rearing of dairy stock is essential
to success. The cow should not only be a good milker, but give milk
suited to the line of dairying pursued. If cheese making is the object,
there must be a large flow of milk rich in caseine. In butter making,
a large flow of milk is not essential, but there must be a large
percentage of fat in it. And the breeding must be such as to keep up
the status of the herd. Some depend on purchasing cows, and exercise
great care and judgment in so doing. In exceptional cases, a herd may
be kept up in this way. But somebody must breed and rear good cows, or
soon none can be had at any price. As a rule, it may be said to be the
duty of every dairyman to breed from the best blood obtainable, and
to rear the heifer calves from his best cows. Unless this condition
is fulfilled, the dairy as a whole must run down. It is only by
constant care and breeding from the best that the present status can
be maintained, and possibly a little progress made. It should be the
ambition of every dairyman to constantly improve the value of his herd,
and to make progress in every department of his dairy, while improving
the quality of his product.



DAIRY STOCK.


There is no more important subject connected with the dairy than
that of the selection and rearing of stock. The herd is the fountain
head. If there is failure here there is failure everywhere. Many a
dairyman has remained poor all his days because he spent his time
and energies on an unprofitable herd. This is the first thing to be
looked after. The selection of a herd is a matter of both knowledge
and judgment--knowledge of the characteristics of breeds and of
the requisites of a good dairy cow, and judgment as to whether
the individual cow in question possesses these characteristics
and requisites. We will give some of the generally acknowledged
characteristics of the different breeds, first indicating, as far as we
can in words, some of the points of a good dairy cow.


POINTS OF A MILKER.

The dairy cow should be deep and broad through the flank--deeper and
broader than through the shoulders--but must have a comparatively large
chest, giving capacity of lungs and stomach, for she must have good
digestive powers and inhale plenty of fresh air. Her hips should be
broad, setting her thighs well apart, and her thighs should be rather
thin. This gives space for a large udder, which is indispensable, for
it is unreasonable to expect a large flow of milk from an udder of
small capacity. The udder should be soft and fleshless when empty, and
extend high up in the rear. It should also extend well forward, and
from it should extend further forward large, protruding milk-veins. If
they are double and are crooked and knotty, all the better. These veins
carry off the blood after it has passed through the udder and performed
its part in elaborating milk, and their size indicates the amount of
blood employed, and by inference the amount of milk secreted. So the
escutcheon, which should extend out on the thighs and run with even
edges and unbroken surface up to or near the vulva, is supposed to be
some indication of the extent of the arterial system that contributes
blood for the elaboration of milk. The neck should be slender, taper
and thin, the horns small and slender, the face dishing or flat, the
eyes wide apart and mild and intelligent in expression, the muzzle
broad when viewed from the front but thin when viewed from the side,
and the lips thick and strong. A long, slender tail is indicative of
good breeding. A yellow skin, or one which secretes an oily yellow
scurf--especially seen in the ears, along the back and at the end of
the tail--is considered a sign of milk rich in fat. The skin should be
soft and pliable, the hair fine, and the coat glossy. We prefer rather
light to very dark colors. Our observation is that a black cow never
gives as rich milk as one in which the white predominates. In other
colors we have not noted such a difference. Viewed from the front, the
general shape of the cow should be a little wedging--thinner in front
and thicker in the rear. Viewed from the side, the cow should taper
from rear to front, with the upper and lower lines generally straight,
with little or no, slope from the rump to the tail.


DUTCH-FRIESIAN.

For general or all purposes, the Dutch-Friesian cow is not excelled.
She may be equaled, but where is her superior? We use the name
Dutch-Friesian because it expresses precisely what we mean--the black
and white cattle of Friesian origin which have been bred pure in
Friesland or North Holland, and not the cattle called "Holstein" in
this country, which have been picked up promiscuously in the different
provinces of Germany, because of their peculiar markings, but without
reference to their breeding. Some of these may be pure bred, but they
are liable to disappoint the honest purchaser, who buys them for and
pays the price of pure bloods. The Dutch-Friesian cow is large, readily
takes on flesh when not in milk, and therefore makes splendid beef.
She is hardy, docile and easily cared for. No other breed equals her
in yield of milk. Her milk is of average richness, and she gives so
much of it that it makes her valuable as a butter cow. Microscopists
say the fat globules in her milk are very small. This makes it somewhat
difficult to separate the fats from the milk for the purposes of butter
making. Though the fat globules are quite uniform in size, it requires
a long time to raise the cream by the ordinary methods, and the
separation is not complete; but this makes the skim-milk all the more
valuable for cheese making, feeding, or to market. With the centrifuge,
there would be no difficulty in getting out all the cream. For market,
or family use, or for cheese making, the milk of the Dutch-Friesian
cow, because of the slowness with which the cream separates from the
milk, is superior. It is rich in caseine, and therefore very valuable
for cheese making. We could not recommend any other breed with greater
confidence. Dutch-Friesian grades--the result of using pure-blooded
Dutch-Friesian bulls on common or other stock--make very valuable dairy
stock.

    [Illustration: Dutch-Friesian Bull, MOOIE, 26 D.F.H.B.

    Property of the Unadilla Valley Stock Breeders' Association,
    Whitestown, N.Y.]

    [Illustration: Dutch-Friesian Cow, JACOBA HARTOG, 2 D.F.H.B.

    Property of the Unadilla Valley Stock Breeders' Association,
    Whitestown, N.Y.]


THE JERSEY.

Perhaps as widely separated from the Dutch-Friesian cow as any breed is
the Jersey. She certainly is the smallest of all as the Dutch-Friesian
is the largest--unless we except the Shorthorn and Hereford. The
Jersey gives a small mess of milk, but it is very rich in fat, and
the fat readily separates from the milk, leaving the skim-milk very
blue and poor. It is not generally considered very rich in caseine,
and it is therefore as poor and worthless as skim-milk well can be.
But, considering size, the Jersey is conceded to yield more butter
than any other breed. The cream globules are said to be very large
and very uniform in size. Hence, they not only readily separate from
the milk, but churn easily. The Jersey is out of the question as a
beef animal, there is so little of her carcass; but we never heard
complaint of the quality of the meat. But lack of beef qualities we
do not consider a very serious objection in a dairy cow. We get our
profit from her in the dairy. We cannot reasonably expect all good
qualities in one animal or one breed. Nature is nowhere thus partial
in her gifts. We find some good quality predominating in every one of
the several breeds, and we must select accordingly to suit our line of
dairying and our circumstances. The Jersey is a fawn-like, beautiful
animal, with a mild eye and intelligent face, but usually has a quite
angular frame, as a consequence of her excessive dairy qualities. She
is rather tender, and cannot bear the exposure and harsh treatment that
some of the breeds can. But no animal ought to receive such treatment.
Kindness and comfortable quarters are due to all domestic animals, and
such care, with proper feed, is the most profitable to the owner. The
Jersey will not stand harsh usage; but for the man of refined taste and
good judgment, who wants a nice thing and to turn out fancy goods, she
is most decidedly the cow, and will not disappoint him. Solid colors
and black muzzles are the fashion in Jerseys, but we are not aware
that there is any practical merit in these. They have been bred down
in size, to suit the taste of the English Lord, who wants them as pets
on his lawns. This is rather against than in favor of the Jersey as a
dairy cow, as it must of necessity reduce her capacity for converting
food into milk and cream.


THE GUERNSEY.

There are but few of these animals as yet in this country, but the few
that have been imported and bred here have proved very satisfactory
and promising. They are pale red or buff red and white. The colors are
about in equal proportions, though the red may predominate. They are
considerably larger than the Jersey and possess all the good qualities
of the latter. Indeed, there is pretty good evidence that these
breeds have the same origin, and that the Jersey is the Guernsey bred
down in size and bred also for solid colors. The Guernsey is just as
beautiful in face and form as the Jersey, and we think rather hardier
and possesses more capacity. For all practical purposes, we should be
inclined to give preference to the Guernsey, which has no rival in
her line, except the Jersey. This breed can lay claim to some beef
qualities, because of its size. It is destined to become a popular
favorite in the butter dairy and as a family cow.


THE AYRSHIRE.

This breed is a great favorite with many. It is small--scarcely larger
than the Guernsey--and is remarkably nimble and hardy, thriving on
scant feed and in rough pastures where some of the other breeds would
starve. The Ayrshires are red or red and white and give a large flow
of milk, fairly rich in caseine and in butter. The breed has its
phenomenal cows, both as milkers and as butter makers. The cream
globules of the milk are quite irregular in size, and hence do not
readily separate from the milk by ordinary methods of cream raising.
But this fact makes the milk all the better for family use, for
marketing and for the cheese factory, or for both butter and cheese
from the same milk. The Ayrshire, like the Dutch-Friesian, may be
called a good general purpose cow. The greatest objections to this
breed have been its nervousness and its small teats; but both of these
may be overcome by gentle treatment and careful breeding--indeed, have
been overcome in many cases. For rough, hilly pastures, there is no
better cow than the Ayrshire. But although she can stand some hard
fare, she responds quickly to gentle and generous usage. Well-selected
and well-bred Ayrshires make a splendid dairy herd.


THE SHORTHORN.

This has long been a popular breed, and there may be said to be a
strong popular prejudice in its favor. Its undisputed, and perhaps
unequaled, beef qualities have been its strongest recommend. It was,
however, originally a milch breed, and some families of the breed are
still hard to excel for the dairy. But it is quite difficult to select
and maintain a milking strain, so long have the Shorthorns been bred
for "beef and beauty," and so effectually have the milking qualities
been bred out of them. In some of the beef families, the cows do not
give milk enough to support their calves. Yet, many dairymen cling to
this breed and keep unprofitable dairies because they can get a good
price for the old carcass as beef when the cow is no longer tolerable
in the dairy herd. This is short-sightedness, and holding beef for
market too long and at too great a cost. The profit should be in
the dairy products, where a dairy herd is kept, and beef should be
altogether a subordinate consideration. The Shorthorn is usually red or
roan, and occasionally red and white, though we always suspect other
blood--Ayrshire, for instance--in the spotted animals. As a rule, we
do not consider the Shorthorns as really profitable dairy cows, though
there are many exceptions where a milking strain is cultivated. But
there is no disputing their value for beef.

    [Illustration: GUERNSEY BULL, "LORD FERNWOOD." PROPERTY OF L.W.
    LEDYARD, FERNWOOD FARM, CAZENOVIA, N.Y.]


    [Illustration: GUERNSEY COW, "COUNTESS OF FERNWOOD." PROPERTY OF
    L.W. LEDYARD, FERNWOOD FARM, CAZENOVIA, N.Y.]


THE DEVON.

This is one of the choicest and most reliable of the dairy breeds.
They are uniformly red, of fair size, have a sprightly appearance, and
reproduce their like more certainly than any other breed that we know.
As has been said, they are so prepotent, uniform, and distinct from
the other breeds that they may be called a _race_ of cattle. Their
history runs back hundreds of years, until it is lost in tradition and
uncertainty. But origin and history are of little consequence, since it
is the living fact--the cattle themselves--that we have to deal with.
The cows give a good sized mess of milk--large milkers have appeared
among them as among other breeds--and their milk is very rich. It is
not as rich as the Jersey's and the Guernsey's milk, but there is more
of it, and it approximates the richness of the milk of these breeds
more closely than that of any other. Hence, they are excellent butter
cows, and justly favorites among those who are the most familiar with
them and know how to breed them. Healthy, hardy, and easy to keep,
they are adapted to almost any circumstances, and are excellent as
butter or family cows, while the males, owing to their activity and
endurance, make splendid oxen--both useful and fine looking. They make
fine beef and a fair amount of it. They would be useful animals for
crossing on the common stock and grades of the Northwest, where the
climate is rigorous and both butter and beef are objects of importance.
As workers, they would be very useful there. They will stand as much
hardship as any breed we have, and as much as any breed ought to, but
will do better under favorable than under unfavorable circumstances.
Like all other breeds, they respond readily to kind and generous
treatment, it being a universal law that want and abuse are sources of
loss in the keeping of stock, the best results always following the
best treatment. They will do well on level, hilly or rough pastures,
because of their nimbleness and endurance: while the certainty of their
breeding makes it perhaps less difficult to perpetuate their good
qualities than is the case with any of the other breeds. In short,
they are the most prepotent and uniform of all, give a good-sized
mess of very rich milk, are easy to keep, hardy and active, and fill
a sphere which it would be difficult to fill without them. We do not
know how their milk appears under the microscope, but we judge from the
characteristics of these animals that the butter globules are above
the average size and very uniform. Hence the cream rises readily, is
easily churned, and makes a rich-colored, fine-flavored butter. It is a
little remarkable that the breeders of these cattle have not succeeded
in getting up a "boom;" but the probability is that no strenuous and
persistent effort has been made in this direction. Their superior
merits are unquestioned and unquestionable.


THE AMERICAN HOLDERNESS.

This is a new breed, and its reputation is mainly of a local character.
But it is not without its representatives in most of the Northern and
Northwestern States, and its fame has traveled quite extensively,
considering the quiet and unpretentious manner in which it was
originated and has been bred. In some particulars it is the most
uniform of the breeds, even more uniform than the Devon. Especially is
this true of the quality of the milk, which is as uniform throughout
the herd as if it were drawn from a single cow, the quality varying,
where the keep is the same, only with the age of the cow, and the lapse
of time since calving. The yield of milk, though not excessive, is
large and very rich--almost equal to that of the Jersey and Guernsey,
and quite equal to that of the Devon. It churns easily, and the butter
completely separates from the buttermilk, rendering a second churning
of no avail. Three hundred pounds per cow a year of high-colored
and fine-flavored butter is a fair average for a herd. Few, even of
selected herds, of other animals equal this. We are not aware of
phenomenal milkers among the Holderness cattle, unless all can be
called such, their chief characteristic being uniformity. They breed,
it may be said, perfectly true to type, so that all are excellent.
The reason for this uniformity is plain, and is found in the origin
of the breed in the closest possible inbreeding for thirty years.
They originated from a cow with calf which was bought by Mr. Truman
A. Cole, of Solsville, N.Y., of a drover who had just purchased it at
auction in Knoxboro, N.Y., where a herd of pure-bloods, because of
the death of the owner, had been sold under the auctioneer's hammer.
The cow dropped a bull calf, which was bred to its mother, then to
both mother and sister; and this system of close inbreeding, even sire
to daughter, as well as brother to sister, has been continued down
to the present time, or for thirty years, as before stated. This has
fixed and intensified the qualities, and at the same time secured the
greatest possible uniformity and really established a breed, separate
and distinct from all others. This is the way in which all the valuable
breeds have been established, and this is the first persistent and
successful effort at establishing a purely American breed that has ever
been made. While carefully watching results and selecting for breeding
purposes, Mr. Cole has steadily refused to be turned from his course,
or to change his purpose of establishing a uniform butter breed, and of
testing the fallacy of the popular notion about the injurious effects
of inbreeding. His thirty years of the closest inbreeding have shown
no such disastrous effects, but, on the contrary, have produced only
good ones. There is no failure in form or constitution. The only marked
external change, save in securing the greatest uniformity, has been in
the gradual change of color. The original animals were pale red and
white, the white being along the back from the shoulders to the tail,
down the hind-quarters, and along the belly to the shoulders. This
distribution of the light and dark colors has remained essentially the
same, but the light red gradually turned to dark red, then to brindle
and finally to black. The later bred animals are all black and white.
But the calves, when first dropped, are still red and white, the red
changing to black when the first coat of hair is shed. This is probably
one of the most remarkable cases of inbreeding on record, as the breed
is also one of the most remarkable. All who have tried this stock are
remarkably well pleased with it, and calves readily sell for $100
a head with a demand greater than the supply--and this without any
newspaper advertising. The breed is endorsed by Mr. Lewis F. Allen,
former editor of the Shorthorn Herd-Book, and author of a work on
cattle that stands second to none as authority. This endorsement has
appeared in print over Mr. Allen's signature, as have the favorable
opinions of many other good judges. In the latest edition of his book
on the Cattle of America, he says:

    "I never saw a more uniform herd of cows, in their general
    appearance and excellence, which latter quality they daily prove
    in the milk they produce. * * Compared with ordinary dairy herds,
    the uniformity in yield testifies to their purity of breeding and
    management."

    [Illustration: American Holderness Bull, LEWIS F. ALLEN, at 16 months.

    Property of T.A. Cole, Solsville, N.Y.]

    [Illustration: American Holderness Cow, ADELAIDE 17th.

    Property of T.A. Cole, Solsville, N.Y.]

Col. Weld, who saw these cattle on exhibition at the New York State
Fair, held at Utica in 1879, said of them, in the November number of
the _American Agriculturist_;

    "The cattle of this 'Cole-Holderness breed' are of good size
    and fair form as beef animals. * * * They are deep-bodied, with
    large udders and teats, with excellent escutcheons, great swollen
    and tortuous milk-veins and skins as yellow as Guernsey's. The
    interior of their ears was almost like orange-peel. The butter made
    from their milk * * * showed admirable color and keeping qualities.
    * * * Could we test the various breeds of cattle, with the view of
    determining with accuracy which is the most profitable dairy cow
    for all purposes--butter, cheese, veal, and ultimately beef--giving
    to each its fair weight in the scale of excellence, I would not be
    surprised if Mr. Cole's breed would win the distinction of being
    the most useful of all."


INBREEDING.

A word here about inbreeding will not be out of place. It may be
disastrous, or it may be beneficial. So also may be crossing or
grading. The evil as well as the good qualities are developed and
intensified. Like begets like. Couple animals having the same bad
points, and these points will be increased and strengthened. Couple
those with good points, and corresponding results follow--that is, the
good are increased and strengthened. But if one animal has one point
to excess, so as to become a deformity, and the other is deformed by
lack of this same point, it is both safe and advantageous to breed them
together, as the result is likely to be a medium between the two. So,
whatever the manner of breeding--inbreeding, crossing or grading--the
good or evil results depend altogether on the characteristics of the
animals coupled. Inbreeding intensifies and fixes the qualities, be
they good or bad.


SWISS.

There have been a few importations of Swiss cattle, which are
short-legged and strong-boned, and hence well adapted to hilly
regions. Some of these have made splendid butter records--from 500 to
over 700 pounds of butter in a year. We should have great hopes of them
for the mountainous sections of our country; but as yet importation
and breeding of this stock is not extensive enough to permit of their
availability to any considerable extent for dairy purposes.


POLLED.

The polled or hornless cattle are great favorites with some of the
Western people, and an effort is made to get up a boom on them. But
they not only lack in numbers, but in the essential quality of a large
flow of milk, or of a very rich one. The best information we can get
does not indicate usefulness for the dairy. Neither do they excel
several of the other breeds for beef. Their chief recommend appears to
be their destitution of horns, which in our eye is far from a mark of
beauty. It gives them a sort of bald, unfinished look that is anything
but pleasing. We prefer, for looks, short, well-turned horns. But of
course, without horns there is no hooking, but pushing is by no means
avoided. Besides, in some cases we have known a lack of horns to make
it difficult to fasten the animals in stanchions or with ropes. This
may not be true of the cows; but we were cognizant of an instance on
the New York State Fair grounds where a polled bull was constantly
getting loose. His neck was so thick that he could slip his head
through any place not tight enough to choke him. As to disposition, we
presume the lack of horns would not make the bulls any more amiable.
However, we have nothing to say against this kind of stock, and would
advise all who like them to keep them. If horns are objectionable, it
is easy to prevent them from growing on any stock by removing the first
appearance of them on the calf. This can be done without much pain to
the calf and without much trouble to one who knows how to do it. It, as
we understand, requires no great skill, and can hardly be said to come
under the head of cruelty to animals. It is nothing like as painful as
castration.


HEREFORDS.

The Herefords are having quite a boom in the West, but it is not as
dairy stock, but as superior for beef. We have seen no strong claims
put in for them for dairy purposes. The few we have seen did not seem
to indicate any great dairy qualities, nor have any of the numerous
portraits we have seen published borne the marks of dairy stock. But
the claim of beef qualities we believe is well founded. Their great
rivals in this line are the Shorthorns.


COMMON STOCK.

We have not mentioned the so-called "Native" stock as a dairy breed,
because it is not a breed, but a mixture of breeds--crazy-quilt stock.
We would not be understood as considering it of no value for dairy
purposes, for when carefully selected, a dairy herd of common stock
may be very valuable. Great milkers and great butter makers are not
uncommon among them; but there is such a mixture of blood in their
veins that there is no guarantee of their producing their like. They
originally sprang from the best animals that the early emigrants could
select to bring over with them from Europe. But they were subsequently
cross-bred so promiscuously that no trace of the original blood
can be discovered with any certainty. They were also subjected to
great exposure and hardship, with scanty food, which had a greatly
deteriorating tendency. But, perhaps worst of all, there was no careful
selection of males for breeding purposes, nor any attempt at judicious
coupling for improvement, or for even the maintenance of the existing
status. In short, the entire treatment and all the surroundings had a
deteriorating influence and a tendency to the production of scrubs. If
we were to take all the existing pure-blood stock and breed it together
promiscuously, while at the same time subjecting it to harsh treatment
and neglect, it would not require a very long period to reduce it to
the same mongrel and scrub condition in which we now find the common
stock of the country. Yet some of our common stock make excellent
crosses, when pure-blood males are used. But no improvement or valuable
results could come from using common stock bulls on pure-blood or other
cows. The male has the controlling influence, and to the constant use
of pure-blood males must we look for the improvement of the common
stock of the country and for the maintenance of the existing status
of the pure-bloods; and not only must we use pure-blood males, but
keep up a constant and careful selection of the best. Neither should
we trust to cross-bred or grade bulls for breeding purposes; for the
progeny will inherit the traits of ancestors on one side or the other,
and hence will lack in uniformity, both in appearance and in quality.
When we use a grade bull, the result is just the opposite of what it
is when we use a pure blood. With the latter, we get half-bloods, then
quarter, then eighths, sixteenths, thirty-seconds, and so on, toward
pure blood; but with a half-blood grade bull, the first offspring from
common stock has only one-fourth pure blood, the next cross has only
one-eighth, the third one-sixteenth pure blood, and so on--reducing
the purity in the same ratio as the use of pure blood improves it--if
we continue to breed from the grade male offspring. If we always use a
half-blood male, there may be a slight improvement in the blood. But
the improvement is too slow and the benefit too uncertain to make the
use of a grade bull advisable when a pure blood can be had.



BREEDING DAIRY STOCK.


Having briefly glanced at the characteristics of the different breeds,
it will not be out of place to say a few words about breeding and
rearing dairy stock. There are three things to be considered:

  1. Selection.
  2. Coupling.
  3. Care.


SELECTION.

By selection, we mean not only the selection of the breed adapted to
the line of dairying pursued, but the selection of the individual
animals to breed and rear animals from, and especially the bull to
be used on the herd. This male should have a good pedigree--that is,
be the lineal descendant of animals known to possess the qualities
desired in the future herd. This is all-important; for however
well-formed and comely he may be, he will transmit the qualities of
his ancestors as surely as like begets like. This fact can never be
safely ignored. Milk and butter qualities, in a dairy herd, must take
precedence over beauty of form, however desirable the latter may be.
The cows to rear stock from should be selected, as far as possible,
on the same principle. Pedigree is not of as much consequence in
a cow, so far as practical results are concerned, though it helps
insure certainly in the quality of the offspring when that of the
cow, as well as of the bull, is right. But we may safely venture on
raising the calves of a good milker, as the probabilities are that the
offspring will inherit the qualities of the sire, while it may also
inherit the qualities of the dam, though she be of the most mongrel
or mixed blood. If there is failure, however, it need not go beyond
that one animal--unless an attempt is made to use a grade bull on a
nondescript dam, in which case prepotency is weakened and mongrelism
may show in the offspring. But grade bulls should never be used when it
is possible to have the use of the right kind of pure blood, which is
always stronger than mixed blood, and hence a pure blood sire is pretty
sure to transmit the qualities of his herd and family, in a great
degree, even when coupled with a cow of uncertain blood. In breeding,
the one bull makes half the herd, and when used on common stock, the
offspring will always be half-bloods the first generation. The second
generation they become three-quarter bloods; the third seven eighths;
the fourth fifteen-sixteenth, and so on, constantly approaching,
but never reaching, purity. For all dairy purposes, however, they
become practically as good as pure-bloods. But if the breeding is the
other way--that is, if a scrub bull is used on pure-blood cows--the
degeneration to the scrub status is in precisely the same ratio that we
have just given for improvement when pure-blood males are constantly
used. By using grade bulls, there is also a constant deterioration
of blood, but not as rapid as when scrub bulls are used. The only
safety is in using pure blood males. With these well selected and all
other conditions maintained, the status is certain to be preserved,
if improvements, in consequence of better care and selection, are not
secured.


COUPLING.

Proper coupling, or rather the coupling of proper animals, has received
little attention, and is now confined generally if not exclusively to
professional breeders. But it is a subject to which the dairymen can
as well as not pay attention with good results. By coupling proper
animals, we mean having regard to individual points and qualities,
never coupling those having the same defects, either in form or
quality. For instance, to illustrate, a cow high on the rump may be
safely bred to a bull low on the rump, or _vice versa_, the result, in
all probability, being an offspring with a level rump. This is breeding
together opposite extremes, depending on the one to correct the other.
But if we breed two sloped rumps together, or two humped rumps,
the result would be to exaggerate and intensify or strengthen this
deformity in the offspring. So of quality or disposition. A nervous cow
bred to a nervous or irritable bull, would be pretty sure to drop a
calf that would be more nervous than either sire or dam. But if one of
the parents is dull and sluggish and the other irritable and sensitive,
the offspring might be an improvement on both. Again, a cow lacking in
the quality of richness of milk, though giving a large flow, should
not be coupled with a bull descended from a family having the same
peculiarity of large flow lacking in richness. But if there is richness
on one side and abundance on the other, the coupling of the two might
reasonably be expected to result in improvement in the offspring,
which might inherit both the large flow and the rich quality. Bad
points and qualities are inherited as well as good ones. Hence, the
constant aim and care must be to avoid developing what is objectionable
as well as to develop what is desired. It must be constantly borne
in mind that like begets like. All the trouble attending inbreeding,
crossing or grading comes from not properly regarding this fact. Where
inbreeding is followed, the only disadvantage arises from the fact
that all the animals are likely to have the same defects of form,
quality and constitution. But where these are all right, the advantage
is that inbreeding fixes the features and qualities and secures the
establishment of them in a type or breed. But crossing or grading
animals having the same failing will prove just as disastrous as
would inbreeding. But crossing may be done in a way to develop good
qualities, and these may afterward be fixed by careful selection and
inbreeding of offspring. This subject of breeding is one of great
importance, and yet little understood. Many things pertaining to it are
yet to be settled, though great progress has been made during the last
few years, and public attention is being drawn to it as it never was
before. It will be found that man can become master of the situation,
and may, by observing certain fundamental conditions and varying only
the details, breed domestic animals of almost any form, disposition,
and quality, that he may desire.


CARE AND KEEP.

Better care and keep, however, are the key notes to improvement.
Higher conditions and better surroundings lead to improvements which
may be developed into fixed traits by proper selection and coupling,
provided the improved environment is maintained. The status can be
maintained only by maintaining the conditions. This is what we mean
by care. Under this head, we include all that pertains to the health
and comfort of the animal. Judicious care is of prime importance not
only in breeding but in securing the best results in dairy products.
Proper food and drink and enough of it, with shelter, kind treatment,
regularity and the most thorough system, must be provided, or
corresponding failure, for any and all abuse, neglect or mistake, is
sure to follow.



FEEDING STOCK.


The question of feeding stock is yearly rising into greater prominence
and importance. Formerly, it was thought that anybody who could throw
out coarse fodder and hay to cattle knew enough for all practical
purposes about feeding, and that any sort of a shelter, or no shelter,
if the animal survived, was sufficient. Better ideas are beginning to
prevail. Few men now think they know all that can be learned about
feeding stock, and those who know the most are the most anxious
to learn. A thorough knowledge of feeding requires a knowledge of
physiology and biology, with the chemical composition and nutritive
qualities of the different kinds of food. Added to this must be the
practical knowledge gained by observation of the effects of the
different foods on different animals under various conditions. And
when all is known that can be, there will still be room left for the
exercise of the best judgment of the feeder as to the conditions and
requirements of the animal fed, and as to the quality of the foods
available and the quantity and proportions of each.


CARBONACEOUS AND NITROGENOUS FOODS.

It is pretty well known what the constituents of the animal organism
are, and what elements of nutrition are required in the food for the
sustenance of the animal. Of these primal elements--some twelve or
fifteen in number--it is found that, practically, when foods combined
contain two of them in proper proportion, the rest are generally
present in sufficient quantity. These two are CARBON and
NITROGEN, and the foods containing them in relatively large
proportion are respectively called _carbonaceous_ and _nitrogenous_.
All foods contain these elements in greater or less proportion. The
proper proportion for feeding is found to be about _one_ of nitrogen to
_five_ or _six_ of carbon. If the temperature of the weather is low,
the proportion of carbon may be raised to eight, and even ten, where
little exercise is had--as, for instance, milch cows standing in a cold
stable. But, in hot weather, when cows are giving milk, the carbon may
be reduced to four and even three--that is, so that there shall be
one part of nitrogen to three or four parts of carbon. The carbon is
heat and fat producing, and some class it as motor producing, but we
think this is a mistake, save so far as heat is essential to motion. We
think nitrogen is motor producing as well as muscle producing--or, in
other words, that the element which produces the organs of motion also
fills them with energy, for the exercise of which heat is essential. We
cannot have motion, or even life, much below the normal temperature of
about 98 degrees Fahrenheit. At all events, it is found necessary to
feed nitrogenous food to all animals that are working hard, to supply
the waste of muscle--and we think also to replace the expended energy.
Dr. J. Milner Fothergill, in his work on the "Maintenance of Health,"
published by G.P. Putnam's Sons, says: "The effect of the nitrogen
upon the brain is to _evolve nerve force freely_, and this rules and
regulates the actual force which takes its origin in the respiratory
foods consumed. These respiratory foods furnish the force itself, but
the nitrogenized foods furnish the manifesters of force." It appears to
us that the nerve force, which he says is evolved, is all there is of
it, save the requisite conditions afforded by heat. Dr. Houghton says:
"The hunted deer will outrun the leopard in a fair open chase, because
the force supplied to its muscles by vegetable food is capable of being
given out continuously for a long period of time; but in a sudden
rush at a near distance, the leopard will infallibly overtake the
deer, because its flesh food stores up in the blood a reserve of force
capable of being given out instantaneously in the form of exceedingly
swift muscular action." Dr. Fothergill goes on to say: "Nitrogen is
the essential factor in all explosive compounds, from gunpowder to
nerve force. It endows the consumer of it with energy and enables him
to discharge his force quickly and rapidly." Again, he says of the
race-horse: "His food affects his speed and endurance, and without his
nitrogenized food he would cut a poor figure at a race, because without
it he could not discharge his force fast enough."


WHAT IS CARBON?

It is pure in the diamond, nearly pure in coal, and is the principal
constituent of all woody fiber--also of oils, fat, starch, sugar,
etc. Nearly all the visible organic world is composed of carbon. It
appears to be very plentiful, but of our atmosphere it composes only
about four-ten-thousandths, while oxygen, with which it unites to
form carbonic acid gas for vegetation to feed on, composes one-fifth
and nitrogen four-fifths. Really, we have little trouble in securing
carbonaceous foods. The only difficulty is to get them in a digestible
form. Only what is soluble can be digested and assimilated by the
animal organism. Hence, great care must be taken to get food in a
proper condition for animal nutrition.


WHAT IS NITROGEN?

It is almost pure in the albumens; both vegetable and animal. It
is nearly pure in the white of egg. Hence, nitrogenous foods are
quite commonly called albuminoids. It exists abundantly in all the
proteins--as cheese or caseine, fibrin or lean meat, albumen, etc.
Nitrogen, in its free state, appears to be an innocuous gas, diluting
the oxygen and preventing it from rapidly oxydizing or burning
up everything. As before said, it constitutes four-fifths of our
atmosphere, but does not appear to be directly appropriated by either
vegetables or animals. As food for either, it must be in combination
with other elements--especially carbon--and yet it is very difficult to
make it unite with other elements, and hard to maintain the union when
it is once formed. Its disposition is to break these unions and seek
an idle state of freedom. Hence it is that, when held in durance, its
constant tendency to free itself makes it the motor force in all animal
organisms, and the terrible energy in all explosives. It is secured
in the form of ammonia in rain, by a process called nitrification it
unites with the soil, and it exists in all decayed animal and vegetable
matter in a form suitable for plant food. Men and animals get it by
eating vegetables or by eating one another. It is a very abundant and
important element, yet very difficult to obtain in an available form
for plant and animal food. Fortunately, but comparatively little of it
is needed.


COMPOUNDING RATIONS.

By referring to the feed tables furnished by the analysts of this
country and Europe, the farmer can learn the constituents of foods.
Then, knowing the ration required, he can take different foods and
compound in the right proportions aimed at in feeding, whether for
work, for growth, for fat, for bare maintenance, or for milk. We give
the German standards for feeding animals:

                             PER DAY AND PER 1,000 LBS. LIVE WEIGHT.
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                         Nutritive digestible sub.
                                         -------------------------
            ANIMALS.           Total      Albumi-   Carbo-             Total   Nutritive
                            organic dry   noids.   hydrates.  Fat.   nutritive   ratio.
                             substance.                                 sub.
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                 lbs.      lbs.      lbs.     lbs.      lbs.      lbs.
  1. Oxen at rest in stall       17.5      0.7        8.0     0.15      8.85      1:12
  2. Oxen moderately worked      24.0      1.6       11.3     0.30     13.20      1:7.5
  3. Oxen heavily worked         26.0      2.4       13.2     0.50     16.10      1:6.0
  4. Oxen fattening, 1st period  27.0      2.5       15.0     0.50     18.00      1:6.5
     Oxen fattening, 2d period   26.0      3.0       14.8     0.70     18.50      1:5.5
     Oxen fattening, 3d period   25.0      2.7       14.8     0.60     18.10      1:6.0
  5. Cows in milk                24.0      2.5       12.5     0.40     15.40      1:5.4
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              GROWING CATTLE--PER DAY AND PER HEAD.
  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Age.    Average live weight
  Months.       per head.
   2 to 3      150 pounds         3.3      0.6        2.1     0.30      3.00      1:4.7
   3 to 6      300 pounds         7.0      1.0        4.1     0.30      5.40      1:5.0
   6 to 12     500 pounds        12.0      1.3        6.8     0.30      8.40      1:6.0
  12 to 18     700 pounds        16.8      1.4        9.1     0.28     10.78      1:7.0
  18 to 24     850 pounds        20.4      1.4       19.3     0.26     11.96      1:8.0


SAMPLE RATIONS.

Dr. Wolf gives an illustration of the standard for a milch cow, by
saying that 30 lbs. of young clover hay will keep a cow in good milk;
and that this contains of dry organic substance, 23 lbs., of which is
digestible--albuminoids 3.21, carbohydrates 11.28, and fat 0.63. This
is .71 lb. albuminoids more, and .22 lb. of carbohydrates less, with
.13 lb. of fat more, than the standard. Then he takes the richest and
best meadow hay, of which 30 lbs. contains of organic substance 23.2
lbs., having digestible--albuminoids 2.49 lbs., carbohydrates 12.75
lbs., and fat 42 lb. This is almost exactly the feeding standard.

As will have been seen by what has preceded, the German standard ration
for a milch cow is 24 lbs. of dry organic substance, containing 2.50
lbs. nitrogenous food, and 12.90 lbs. of carbonaceous food. To secure
this, Dr. Wolff recommends for every 1,000 lbs. of live weight:

  12 lbs. average meadow hay.
   6  "   oat straw.
  20  "   mangolds.
  25  "   brewers' grain.
   2  "   cotton seed cake.

Prof. S.W. Johnson's ration for the same purpose is:

  20 lbs. corn fodder.
   5  "   rye straw.
   6  "   malt sprouts.
   2  "   cotton seed meal.

The following milk rations are recommended by Prof. E.W. Stewart:

  No. 1.
  18 lbs. oat straw.
   5  "   bean straw.
   6  "   cotton seed cake.

  No. 2.
  20 lbs. barley straw.
   5  "   pea straw.
   2  "   wheat bran.
   5  "   linseed meal.

  No. 3.
  20 lbs. poor hay.
   5  "   corn meal.
   5  "   cotton seed cake.

  No. 4.
  20 lbs. wheat straw.
   5  "   wheat bran.
   3  "   corn meal.
   4  "   linseed meal.

  No. 5.
  20 lbs. fresh marsh hay.
   5  "   corn meal.
   5  "   cotton seed meal.

  No. 6.
  10 lbs. good mead'w hay.
  10  "   rye straw.
   3  "   wheat bran.
   5  "   linseed meal.

The following are given by the same author as milk rations:

  No. 1.
  10 lbs. clover hay.
  10  "   straw.
   4  "   linseed oil cake.
   4  "   wheat bran.
   2  "   cotton seed cake.
   4  "   corn meal.

  No. 2.
  16 lbs. meadow hay.
   8  "   wheat bran.
   2  "   linseed meal.
   6  "   corn meal.

  No. 3.
  18 lbs. corn fodder.
   8  "   wheat bran.
   4  "   cotton seed meal.
   4  "   corn meal.

  No. 4.
  15 lbs. straw.
   5  "   hay.
   4  "   cotton seed meal.
   4  "   bran.
   4  "   corn meal.
   3  "   malt sprouts.

  No. 5.
  10 lbs. corn fodder.
  10  "   oat straw.
   2  "   linseed meal.
   4  "   malt sprouts.
  10  "   oat & corn meal.

  No. 6.
  60 lbs. corn ensilage.
   5  "   hay.
   2  "   linseed meal.
   4  "   bran.


FATTENING RATIONS.

The following rations are recommended by Prof. E.W. Stewart for
fattening cattle. The rations are for 1,000 pounds of live weight:

  No. 1.
  18 lbs. wint'r wh't straw.
  40  "   corn sugar meal.
   4  "   cotton seed meal.

  No. 2.
  12 lbs oat straw.
  10  "   wheat bran.
  40  "   corn sugar meal.

  No. 3.
  12 lbs. clover hay.
   6  "   oat straw.
  40  "   corn sugar meal.
   2  "   linseed meal.

  No. 4.
  15 lbs. corn fodder.
   5  "   malt sprouts.
   3  "   corn meal.
  40  "   corn sugar meal.

  No. 5.
  20 lbs. best clover hay.
  50  "   corn sugar meal.

  No. 6.
  20 lbs. wheat straw.
   8  "   timothy hay.
   6  "   cotton seed cake.

  No. 7.
  20 lbs. corn fodder.
   6  "   Indian corn.
   6  "   linseed cake.


WORKING RATIONS.

The following are rations for oxen at hard work, as given by Prof.
Stewart:

  No. 1.
  20 lbs. best meadow hay.
  10  "   corn meal.

  No. 2.
  20 lbs. corn fodder.
   5  "   clover hay.
   2  "   wheat bran.
   3  "   cotton seed cake.

  No. 3.
  17 lbs. clover hay.
   3  "   wheat bran.
  10  "   corn meal.

  No. 4.
  25 lbs. oat straw.
   5  "   wheat bran.
   4  "   linseed cake.


DIGESTIBILITY OF FOODS.

The following table, copied from Prof. Stewart, gives the digestibility
of a few of the more common foods:

                                                  Digestible
                       In 100 lbs.  Digestible.  in 2,000 lbs.
  -------------------------------------------------------------
  CLOVER HAY.
  Albuminoids             15.3         10.7           214
  Carbo-hydrates          35.8}        37.5           752
  Crude fibre             22.2}
  Fat                      3.2          2.1            42
                                                     ----
                                                     1008

                          In 100 lbs.    Digestible.    Digestible
                                                        in 2,000 lbs.
  -------------------------------------------------------------------
  AVERAGE MEADOW HAY.

  Albuminoids                9.7            5.4             108
  Carbo-hydrates            41.6}          41.0             820
  Crude fiber               21.9}
  Fat                        2.5            1.0              20
                                                           ----
                                                            948

  CORN FODDER.

  Albuminoids                4.4            3.2              66
  Carbo hydrates            37.9}          43.4             868
  Crude fiber               25.0}
  Fat                        1.3            1.0              20
                                                           ----
                                                            954

  OAT STRAW.

  Albuminoids                4.0            1.4              28
  Carbo-hydrates            36.2}          40.1             802
  Crude fibre               39.5}
  Fat                        2.0            0.7              14
                                                           ----
                                                            844

  LINSEED OIL CAKE.

  Albuminoids               28.3           23.77            475
  Carbo-hydrates            32.3}          35.15            703
  Fibre                     10.0}
  Fat                       10.0            9.0             180
                                                           ----
                                                           1358

  WHEAT BRAN.

  Albuminoids               15.0           12.9             252
  Carbo-hydrates            52.2}          42.6             852
  Fibre                     10.1}
  Fat                        3.2            2.6              52
                                                           ----
                                                           1156

  CORN MEAL.

  Albuminoids               10.0            8.4             168
  Carbo-hydrates            62.1}          60.6            1212
  Crude fibre                5.5}
  Fat                        6.5            4.8              96
                                                           ----
                                                           1476

  OATS.

  Albuminoids               12.0            9.0             180
  Carbo-hydrates            55.0}          43.0             860
  Crude fibre                9.3}
  Fat                        6.5            4.7              94
                                                           ----
                                                           1134


ELEMENTS OF FOOD.

We give the names of a few foods, with their relative amount of
nitrogenous and carbonaceous elements:

  FOODS.                     Nitrogenous.  Carbonaceous.
  ------------------------------------------------------
  Meadow hay, medium              1      to      8.0
  Red clover, medium              1       "      5.9
  Lucerne, good                   1       "      2.8
  Swedish clover (alsike)         1       "      4.9
  Orchard grass, in blos'm        1       "      6.5
  White clover, medium            1       "      5.0
  Timothy                         1       "      8.1
  Blue grass, in blossom          1       "      7.5
  Red top                         1       "      5.4
  Fodder rye                      1       "      7.2
  Italian rye grass               1       "      6.3
  Hungarian grass                 1       "      7.1
  Rich pasture grass              1       "      3.6
  Green maize, German             1       "      8.9
  Fodder oats                     1       "      7.2
  Sorghum                         1       "      7.4
  Pasture clover, young           1       "      2.5
  Red clover, before bl's'm       1       "      3.8
  Red clover, in blossom          1       "      5.7
  White clover, in blossom        1       "      4.2
  Buckwheat, in blossom           1       "      5.1
  Fodder cabbage                  1       "      5.2
  Ruttabaga leaves                1       "      3.9
  Fermented hay, from
    maize                         1       "     12.0
  Fermented hay, from
    beet leaves                   1       "      4.0
  Fermented hay, from
    red clover                    1       "      4.1
  Winter wheat straw              1       "     45.8
  Winter rye straw                1       "     52.0
  Winter barley straw             1       "     40.5
  Oat straw                       1       "     29.9
  Corn stalks                     1       "     34.4
  Seed clover                     1       "      7.4
  Wheat chaff                     1       "     24.1
  Rye chaff                       1       "     32.6
  Oat chaff                       1       "     23.8
  Barley chaff                    1       "     30.4
  Potatoes                        1      to     10.6
  Artichokes                      1       "      8.7
  Ruttabagas                      1       "      8.3
  Sugar beets                     1       "     17.0
  Carrots                         1       "      9.3
  Turnips                         1       "      5.8
  Wheat, grain                    1       "      5.8
  Rye, grain                      1       "      7.0
  Barley, grain                   1       "      7.9
  Oats, grain                     1       "      6.1
  Maize, grain                    1       "      8.6
  Millet, grain                   1       "      5.4
  Peas, grain                     1       "      2.9
  Buckwheat, grain                1       "      7.4
  Cotton seed                     1       "      4.6
  Pumpkins                        1       "     18.4
  Coarse wheat bran               1       "      5.6
  Wheat middlings                 1       "      6.9
  Rye bran                        1       "      5.3
  Barley bran                     1       "      4.5
  Buckwheat bran                  1       "      4.1
  Hempseed cake                   1       "      1.5
  Sunflower                       1       "      1.3
  Corn bran                       1       "     10.3
  Brewers' grain                  1       "      3.0
  Malt sprouts                    1       "      2.2
  Wheat meal                      1       "      5.7
  Rape cake                       1       "      1.7
  Rape meal, extracted            1       "      1.3
  Barley, middlings               1       "      6.0
  Oat bran                        1       "      9.7
  Linseed cake                    1       "      2.0
  Linseed meal, extracted         1       "      1.4
  Cot'n-seed meal, decort.        1       "      1.8
  Cot'n-s'd cake, undecort.       1       "      1.7
  Cow's milk                      1       "      4.4
  Buttermilk                      1       "      2.6
  Skimmed milk                    1       "      1.9
  Cream                           1       "     30.5


ENSILAGE.

Major Henry E. Alvord, of Houghton Farm, N.Y., gives the following
as the range and average of analyses by a large number of eminent
scientists:
                          Range in 100 lbs.  Average.
  Total dry matter         15.10 to 25.90     18.60
  Water                    84.90 to 74.10     81.40
  Protein                   0.90 to  1.90      1.30
  Fat                       0.30 to  0.90      0.60
  Nitrogen-free extract     7.60 to 13.40      9.60
  Crude Fiber               4.70 to  7.90      5.90
  Ash                       0.90 to  1.40      1.20


REMARKS.

It is safe to always feed cotton seed meal, bran, or linseed cake
with corn fodder, or fodder corn, or ensilage. And it will always be
found to work well if corn meal is fed with clover hay. Corn ensilage
with clover hay will constitute a proper feed. To avoid waste, and
secure the best results, we must learn to balance the nitrogenous and
carbonaceous foods. Our greatest difficulty in feeding, as in manuring
the soil, is to secure enough of the nitrogenous elements. These are
what we have mainly to look out for, the carbonaceous foods usually
being over abundant.

Not only must we proportion the elements of food properly, but we must
prepare the food so that it will be in a proper condition. It may
contain all the elements, but in consequence of being in a bad or wrong
condition, the animal cannot digest it. There is plenty of carbon in
coal, but who would expect the animal stomach to digest it? So there is
nitrogen in saltpeter and gun-cotton, but they are not in a suitable
condition or form for digestion, and hence have no food value. Most
raw vegetables are indigestible in the human stomach, but cook them,
and thus put them in a proper condition, and they become nutritious
foods.

There are few, if any, perfect foods. Every food needs to be
supplemented with something else. Hence it is that both men and animals
want variety. Summer pasture, composed of mixed grasses, makes the
best food for all kinds of stock. Meadow hay, cut at the right time
and properly cured--provided there is a mixture of grasses--makes a
proper food for winter; but even this needs to be accompanied by roots,
ensilage or something of a juicy nature, as a relish, if for nothing
else, and as an aid to digestion.

In a state of nature, roaming free, animals select and balance their
rations according to the cravings of appetite. But when domesticated,
they have no such freedom of choice, except perhaps in a few of the
summer months. In winter, they must take what is given to them. It is
our duty, therefore, to give their food a proper balance of elements as
far as possible; and in thus conforming to the laws of nature, we shall
find both the greatest economy and the greatest profit.



HANDLING MILK.


It is a comparatively easy operation to milk, if one knows how. The
process is about as simple as that of Columbus in making an egg stand
on end, but it requires skill, practice and a muscular hand to do it
well. Grasping the teat so as to fill it with milk, and then tighten
the thumb and fore finger so as to prevent a return of the milk to the
udder as the rest of the fingers are gently but firmly closed, so as to
give a downward pressure and expel the milk, is not likely to be done
by the novice the first time trying. But ordinarily, the performance
of this operation is soon achieved by any one who wishes to learn,
though it is declared by some that they "never could learn to milk."
Substitute "would" for "could," and we think the truth is more nearly
approximated. Still there is a great difference in milkers, as well as
in cows, the man or woman with a good grip in the hand having decidedly
the advantage, both as regards ease and expedition--and it is quite
important that the milk should all be quickly and continuously drawn
from the cow after the milking is begun, and while the cow is in the
mood of "giving down."


KEEP QUIET.

If a cow is suddenly disturbed, so as to get excited, or gets tired
and out of patience, the flow of milk may be prematurely stopped. If
this disturbance is continued from time to time, the effect will be
to permanently lessen the flow, or "dry up" the cow. Anything that
irritates a cow, while being milked, reduces both quality and quantity.
Hence, milking should be done in a quiet and orderly manner. Treat the
cow very kindly and gently, so as to gain her confidence, and be as
careful as possible not to hurt her teats by unnecessarily tearing open
any cracks there may be, or pinching any warts, and be sure to not dig
your finger-nails into the teats.


REGULARITY.

It is a good plan to milk cows regularly in the same order, taking the
same one first, and winding up with the same one every time. Regularity
of hour in commencing the milking of the herd is an advantage, in
securing the best results, since animals as well as men are greatly the
creatures of habit, and when the time comes around the cow will desire
to be milked and all the functions of her system will concur in this
desire.


KEEP DOWN THE FOUL ODORS.

The milking should be done in a sweet, clean place--either a stable
kept scrupulously clean, and plaster or other deoderizer freely used,
or in a row of stanchions in an open shed, with barely a roof to keep
off storm and sunshine, and no filthy deposits allowed to accumulate
around it. The milk, as fast as drawn, should be removed from the
place of milking, lest it absorb odors from the droppings, the breath,
or the exhalations from the cow's body--or even from the sweat and
grime of the person and clothes of the milker--for milk is extremely
sensitive to these influences. It is much more so than is popularly
supposed, and should be put in a sweet atmosphere as soon as possible
when drawn. Fine fancy goods, with the most delicious and delicate
flavor, cannot be made from milk that has been exposed to the influence
of a foul atmosphere.


KEEP OUT THE DIRT.

So, also, great care should be taken to keep out all hairs, dirt and
filth of every kind. If permitted to get into the milk, filth cannot
be entirely strained out, and hence some of its odors and flavors will
linger in the fats of the milk and appear in the product manufactured
from it. The indispensable necessity for clean utensils has already
been mentioned. Filth from this source will not only affect odor and
flavor, but is quite likely to contain the germs of ferment which will
multiply in the milk and product, and cause disastrous results. With a
clean can, clean pails and clean hands, begin the task of milking by
brushing off all loose materials from the cow's side that may rattle
down into the pail, carefully brush and clean the udder and teats, and
then place the pail between your knees in a way to prevent the cow
putting her foot into it, or upsetting it, if she should move about
nervously, or be suddenly startled--which should not be permitted if it
is possible to avoid it.


LET OUT THE COWS.

As fast as milked, it is best to let the cows go. This gives more room,
reduces the generation of heat in the stable or milking place, and
lessens the amount of droppings and consequent bad odors rising from
them. Those left will soon understand this and not get uneasy.


A LICK OF MEAL.

If the cows have been prepared for milking by giving them a lick of
meal, or a little dry hay, when they come into the stable, it will
be found to have a good effect. It will also cultivate a willingness
to come home at milking time and take their respective places in the
stanchions. It pays to please and satisfy a cow. She will deposit her
appreciation in the pail.


CARE OF MILK.

When the milking is over, the milk should be taken as directly to the
place of manufacture as possible. If it must be kept over night, see
that it is well stirred and properly cooled to 70 degrees Fahrenheit,
before leaving it. Do not put on a close cover, unless the milk
is thoroughly cooled. It is far better to deliver it directly to
the cheese or butter maker, who knows how to care for it, and has
facilities for doing the work--or, at least, ought to have. Very much
depends on having the milk delivered in good condition. If it is not,
no after care and skill can make a perfect product from it. True, if
all right when delivered, it may be afterward injured or spoiled, but
it is not likely to be. It is therefore the duty of the patron to do
his part of the work all right; then he may with some reason blame
the operator if the result is not right. But butter and cheese makers
are too often expected to turn out first-class products from second
or third class milk--a task impossible to perform. With good milk and
proper facilities, there is no valid excuse for failure.

The first object is the production of good milk. This is of prime
importance. Without it, the after product must of necessity be
inferior. The next object is to preserve the milk in its best
condition, all through the handling, in order to reach the best
results. Milk is often spoiled in the handling. Hence care and judgment
must be exercised to maintain the proper conditions to the end.


COMPOSITION OF MILK.

Few understand the delicate and complex nature of milk. It is a
compound of many ingredients; and if any one of these is disturbed, it
affects the whole. Their union is very weak and unstable, and liable to
be broken by many influences. To give a clearer idea of the composition
of milk, we copy the following diagram, prepared by Dr. E. Lewis
Sturtevant, Director of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station:

                                       MILK.
                                         |
                       +-----------------+--------------+
                     Cream.                         Skim Milk.
                       |                                |
            +----------+---------+              +-------+-----------+
          Butter.          Butter Milk.   Coag'ble Matter.    Whey or Serum.
            |                    |              |                   |
     +------+------+       ------+------     +--+----+       +------+----------
  Solid Fat.  Liquid Fat.  Casein.  Whey    By      By    Salts.  Nitrog. Matter
     |             |                 or   Rennet. Acetic     |          or
  ---+---      ----+----           Serum.    |     Acid.  ---+---   Osmazome.
  Stearin      Olein                      ---+---    |    Potash    Sach. Matter
  Palmatin     Butyrin                    Casein.  --+--  Soda          or
               Caproin                          [2]Ziega. Lime      Milk Sugar.
               Caprylm                                    Magnesia
               Caprin                                     Iron
               Arachin                                    Phos. Acid
            [1]Myristin.                                  Sulph. Acid
                                                          Carbonic Acid
                                                          Silicic Acid
                                                          Chlorine.

    [1] Not found in all milk.

    [2] Includes, albumen and whatever else is coagulable by acetic
        acid.

Here are between twenty and thirty different constituents, in various
proportions. Their combination is effected through the organism of the
cow, the ultimate work being performed by the udder, where it is no
sooner completed than reaction begins and change is the result.


DETERIORATION OF MILK IN THE UDDER.

The longer the milk remains in the udder, the more it is impoverished
by absorption of some of its ingredients. This is specially true of
the fats, which are taken up by the absorbent vessels of the udder
and carried into general circulation. For this reason, the first milk
drawn--which is the first secreted, and therefore remains in the udder
the longest--is the poorest milk drawn, and that which is last secreted
and last milked (the strippings) is the richest. Hence, the longer the
interval between milkings, the poorer the milk for butter making. Three
milkings a day will give better results than two.


DO FATS EXPAND BEFORE CONGEALING?

If milk is to be set for cream, the sooner it is put to rest and the
less heat it looses before setting, the better for the separation of
the cream. If cooled down much, the cream will rise more slowly and
separate more imperfectly. In cooling, the fluids and semi-fluids
condense faster than the fats, and hence become relatively heavier, and
settle as the fat globules rise, by virtue of the law of gravitation.
The theory has been broached by Mr. H.B. Gurler, of DeKalb, Illinois,
that in sudden cooling, the fluids and semi-fluids are not only
condensed, but the fats expanded, thus increasing the difference in
specific gravity in both directions. In this way, the rapid rising of
cream in sudden cooling he thinks may be better accounted for. His
idea is based on the fact that water, just before congealing, begins
to expand and continues to expand as the temperature lowers. Fats
consolidate at a much higher temperature than water, and he thinks the
same law of expansion may intervene in both cases. So far as we are
aware, it is not known whether fats do actually expand before and after
reaching the point of congelation or not, and we shall feel an interest
in having the question positively settled by the scientists. If it is a
fact, it introduces a new element into our philosophy, and will help in
the solution of some points not yet satisfactorily determined.


EFFECTS OF FALLING TEMPERATURE.

It is a fact that cream rises best in a falling temperature, very
slowly in a stationary one, and little or none in a rising temperature.
Hence, in cold weather, when milk cools very rapidly after being drawn
from the cow, it is the practice of many good dairymen to raise the
temperature of the milk to 100 degrees when set. In this way, they get
a quicker and more complete separation of the cream as the milk cools
down.

It would be a good idea to have, in all butter factories, apparatus
for setting milk so constructed that the temperature of the mass
of milk can be gradually and evenly raised to 100 degrees, or even
slightly above; for it is difficult to deliver warm milk in a good
condition especially in hot weather--if it has to be carried any
considerable distance, while in cold weather, it is sure to get
considerably reduced in temperature, both in milking and on the road to
the factory. Hence, it seems almost absolutely essential, if the best
results are to be attained, to have some means of properly raising the
temperature of the milk at the factory.


COOLING AND AIRING.

If milk is to be sent to the factory, for either butter or cheese
making, where the distance is half a mile or more, it should be aired
and cooled--especially if it is to be shut up in a tight can. This
cooling should be done as speedily as possible after milking, to avoid
taint or souring. If the milk is kept over night, such airing and
cooling are absolutely indispensable. The mode of doing this must vary
with conditions and circumstances; but, whatever method may be adopted,
we would by no means recommend putting ice directly into the milk. The
effect cannot be to improve flavor or keeping quality.


PROTECTION FROM THE HOT SUN.

By no means should the can of milk be exposed to the direct rays of
a hot sun, either on the platform waiting for the delivery wagon, or
on the wagon. Give it shelter and shade of some kind, in both cases.
If a woolen blanket is wet in cold water and wrapped around the can,
the rapid evaporation from the blanket will keep down the temperature.
Everything that can be should be done to preserve milk in its normal
condition.


TREATMENT OF NIGHT'S AND MORNING'S MILK.

The night's milk and the morning's milk should never be mixed before
starting for the factory, but kept in separate cans and so delivered.
The effect of mixing will be seen soon enough at the factory, and
often much too soon in hot weather. If the morning's milk were made
as cool as the night's, the effect of mixing would not be so speedy
and disastrous. But it appears to be an immutable law, that reducing
the temperature and then raising it hastens decomposition. A low
temperature only retards decomposition; it does not prevent it, unless
very low and it is continued. As soon as the temperature is raised,
decomposition sets in with accelerated rapidity, as if to make up for
lost time. Hence, we have always looked upon low temperatures in the
dairy as objectionable. As low as 60 degrees but not below 50 degrees
is the limit which we prefer. We think this range more effective
for long keeping than a lower one. Certainly, dairy goods made and
kept within this range will not go to decay so soon as in a higher
temperature.


RECEIVING.

In receiving either milk or cream from the patron, it is essential
not only that justice be done in the weight or measure, but that the
patron should be satisfied of this fact. The agent sent out to gather
cream should be an honest man, in whom the patrons as well as the
employer have confidence, and should understand his business and do
it in a workman-like manner, so as to inspire confidence. He should
also be versed in the various tricks that may be resorted to by
patrons to deceive and cheat, and be on his guard, quick to discern any
suspicious surroundings or indications. As much depends on his judgment
and observation as on his honesty--especially if any of the patrons
are disposed to be dishonest, as is sometimes the case where it would
generally be least suspected. The later device of not only measuring
cream by the gauge, but of testing its yield of butter by churning a
sample, is not only a guard, to considerable extent, against fraud, but
more closely approximates justice by getting at the actual quality of
the cream, on which depends its value. There is no associated system
yet devised--save that of churning every patron's cream separately and
weighing the product--that secures exact justice to all. Nature does
not appear to have furnished standards of commercial measure or value
for the purpose of indicating mine and thine in mixed transactions, or
in speculative exchange. We have only relative and approximate guides,
by which justice, in a business sense, is by no means secured.


TESTING.

Where milk is delivered at the factory, we have as yet no standard
test of value. All the receiver can do is to see that it is in a
normal condition--neither sour nor tainted, nor containing bad odors.
For this purpose, the smell must mainly be relied on. Hence, healthy
and keen olfactories are a great aid here, as in some other cases. If
one catches the fumes when the can cover is first removed, or as the
milk runs into the weighing can, he is pretty sure to detect any very
positive bad odor. The eye, to one of experience, is almost certain to
detect any great variation. Even slight watering is seen by some from
the peculiarity of the reflection of light from the surface--especially
when in motion. Much water shows from the "thin" appearance of the
fluid. Where the smell or appearance are cause for suspicion, or there
is any other cause, a sample may be saved and such tests as are at
hand may be applied. The so-called lactometer will show whether the
specific gravity is below or above the normal standard. The cream gauge
will give the percent of cream at a given temperature. If, afterward,
a sample right from the herd, taken so as to know that it has not been
tampered with, shows better quality by these two tests, it is pretty
conclusive evidence that the milk from which the factory sample was
taken was not in a normal condition. If the herd has been subject to
no change of feed or conditions between the times of taking the two
samples, any jury would be safe in bringing in a verdict against the
defendant for watering, skimming, or otherwise tampering with his milk,
as the facts in evidence might indicate.


BAD MILK.

Sour or tainted milk, to any perceptible degree, ought not to be
received at the factory. One such mess will injure, if it does not
spoil, a whole batch. The sour milk is likely to lead to a sour, leaky
batch, and the tainted milk to huffy if not floating curd, and porous,
quickly off-flavor and decaying cheese. We have little patience with
those who deliver such milk, and none with those who attempt to devise
means to work it into palatable cheese and thus to get it into the
unsuspecting stomachs of the consumers. It is too much like making
omelets of rotten eggs. This is especially the case with tainted
milk. The first stages of souring are not so objectionable, so far as
wholesomeness is concerned. Sour milk may make good pot-cheese to which
we do not object, but it will not make good American cheddar cheese. To
attempt to work it into this is the worst use it can be put to.


WEIGHING.

All possible precautions should be taken to avoid mistakes in weighing
and giving credit. A hasty comparison of each mess with that of the
previous one delivered by the same man will indicate any marked
departure from weight and serve as a check against error. It is well
to always announce the weight to the patron, who then has a chance
for comparison with his average or previous messes. He will be pretty
likely to mention any marked variation, especially if it is against
him. Some patrons like to have a pass-book, in which the weight of
each mess is entered. This is a little trouble to the receiver when
in a hurry, but it is a complete check against errors of entry on the
factory book, and against the forgetfulness of the patron, who may get
the impression that he has delivered more milk in a given time than
he has been credited with. Everything that guards against error or
misunderstanding will be found to pay and give satisfaction to honest
men. An honest factoryman not only wants to be right, but to appear
right and have the confidence of his patrons. A dishonest one will want
to appear right, and it is well to take such precautions as will make
him what he appears. See that the weighing can is properly balanced,
that the scales are true, and that the weights are correct. An honest
man will bear watching, and it is absolutely necessary to watch a
rogue. Where the milk is sold to the factory, of course all interest in
the matter with the patron ends when he gets his milk correctly weighed
and his money for it. Where the _pro rata_ system is carried out, this
interest extends to the weighing of the cheese, its marketing and the
division of the proceeds.


KEEPING MILK.

When the milk is in the cheese vat, it should be stirred and aired
at night until the temperature is down to 70 degrees, if it is to
stand quiet; if an agitator is used, which is preferable, no further
attention need be paid to the milk but to see that the supply of
cold water is ample and continuous. As to mixing the morning's with
the night's milk, it appears to be preferable to working up the two
milkings separately.



BUTTER MAKING.


There really are but four systems of setting milk for cream,
notwithstanding the numerous inventions and devices. These are: 1.
Cooling in water; 2. cooling in air; 3. shallow setting; 4. deep
setting.


DEEP SETTING AND WATER COOLING.

Deep setting, whether in pails or pans, is always accompanied with
water and the use of ice. In many instances, however, where running
water is abundant, ice is dispensed with, and the pails are set in
pools or tanks, while the pans have water run around them, if not
under them. Under-cooling, however, is pretty well understood to be
a disadvantage, unless the vessel containing the milk is submerged
in water or nearly so. Ice is a good deal used, and the milk rapidly
run down in temperature. Some think this is the better as well as
the quicker way, if not the only way to get all the cream. Our only
objection to this rapid cooling is that it runs the temperature too
low, and, in our opinion, injures the keeping quality of the product.


EFFECT OF TOO LOW COOLING.

If run below 40 degrees, or the point where water begins to expand, all
cooling below that point lessens the difference in specific gravity
between the water and the fat globules, and operates diametrically in
the opposite direction to what is desired. The aim is to condense the
water, which is a good conductor, and leave the fat globules, which are
poor conductors, unchanged or but slightly contracted. In this way,
the heavier fluid settles and drives the light particles of fat upward
to rest on the surface. But, if we go below 40 degrees, we produce
the directly opposite effect and retard the rising of the cream. For
quality, we prefer the slower cooling in water, and think the longer
time given will secure all the cream available and in a purer condition.


BUTTERMILK FLAVOR.

If more cream or butter is obtained by rapid cooling, we think it is
because more particles of caseine are entangled in the cream and remain
in the butter when churned. This would of course make more weight for
market, but of inferior quality and sooner to go off flavor. But where
the butter is consumed fresh from the churn, this does not matter
so much; and if the particles of caseine give the butter a slight
buttermilk flavor, it pleases some palates that have been educated
to like it. We, however, prefer the sweet, delicate flavor of cream
butter, free from caseine or lactic acid. But, if one has a special
line of customers, he must please them, whatever the demand may be. If
the butter is thrown on the general market, and there is liable to be
delay in getting it into consumption, it cannot be made too pure, nor
retain its rosy flavor too long.


SHALLOW SETTING AND AIR COOLING.

Generally, in shallow setting, whether in large or small pans, cooling
the milk in air is depended upon. Formerly, an underground room, or
one in a shady place, was the only appliance usually resorted to for
cooling. But, of late years, some method of artificially cooling the
air by the use of ice is generally adopted. In some cases, the milk
room is made small, with low ceiling and double walls, so that a cake
of ice near the ceiling does the cooling. Usually, however, some sort
of refrigerator construction is resorted to, so that cool air from the
ice-house, or ice placed above the milk room, is introduced to regulate
the temperature and keep it steady. We prefer cooling in air, though
it may take a little more space and time. By this method, extremely
rapid cooling and low temperature are avoided, and no violence is done
to the milk or cream. Deep setting, it is true, exposes less surface
to the air; but if the milk is not submerged, the surface is likely to
be cooler than the air above, and to condense the vapor in it, which
falls with all its impurities on the surface of the cream. Any foulness
or bad odors are thus absorbed and go into the butter product. While
submerging obviates this objection and keeps out all impurities from
the air, it also prevents all escape of bad odors by evaporation.
Whatever that is objectionable may be in the milk is retained there. By
setting in open air, which should of course always be pure and sweet,
the air, being cooled down and used as a medium for cooling the milk,
takes up the exhalations of moisture and odor from the milk, and thus
purifies it. The colder medium is always the condenser and absorbent,
and it is only when the milk gets colder than the air above it that it
condenses the moisture in the air and absorbs its odor. This will never
occur where cold air is the cooling medium. The milk theoretically can
never get cooler than the air, while practically it remains a degree or
two warmer than the air.


OXYDIZING CREAM.

There is another advantage in using the air as a cooling medium. In
shallow setting, more surface is exposed and the air, coming in contact
with the surface, imparts to it a portion of its oxygen, which mingles
with the oils and develops that fine butter flavor so much relished by
most and which is a peculiarity of fine butter. Again, slow cooling
gives more time for this oxydation to go on, and thus "ripen" the cream
for churning without souring it. This leaves all the fine flavor in
it, unmixed with flavors resulting from acidification. But, where milk
is set deep for creaming--and especially where there is no exposure to
the air, as is the case in submerging--no butter flavor is developed,
and the cream has to be kept until sour before it is properly
oxydized. There is not a full development of butter flavor proper, but
development of flavor resulting from the mingling of lactic acid with
the oils. But without this exposure and acidification, the butter is
insipid and comparatively flavorless. Any subsequent exposure to the
air soon throws the butter off flavor, the oxygen mingling with the
fats alone while the cream is rising and still sweet. This development
of flavor by oxydation is not mere theory; it has been scientifically
demonstrated at Cornell University, New York, if not elsewhere, and
must sooner or later be generally accepted and butter making proceed on
a more rational and certain basis. But it is hard work to get people
out of old ruts, or to overcome fixed habits and prejudices. Really
scientific butter making, in which every step will be thoroughly
understood and deliberately taken, is a thing of the future. It will
come in time, and then our descendants will wonder why we were so
stupid and slow as not to see and adopt the simplest principles when
they were thrust into our very faces. But mind and judgment are matters
of growth, the same as everything else in this universe of being.


SKIMMING MILK.

So many improvements or inventions have been introduced in the
setting of milk for cream that the term "skimming" has become almost
a misnomer. In both deep and shallow setting, arrangements have been
made in several of the patent pans and cans for drawing out the milk
from the bottom and leaving the cream. Glass gauges are set in the
vessels so that the exact depth of the cream can be seen, and the milk
drawn down close to the cream or a small amount of the upper portion
of the milk left with the cream. In skimming with a skimmer or dipper,
many aim to take the upper portion of the milk, on the theory that
the separation is less perfect toward the top than it is lower down.
Especially may this be done where a dipper or skimmer without holes is
used. It is claimed by some careful experimenters and close observers
that this adds to the quantity of butter yielded without deteriorating
the quality.


WHEN TO SKIM.

Whether skimming off the cream or drawing off the milk be practiced,
the question arises as to the proper time for performing the operation.
The more general practice is to "skim" just as the milk gives
unmistakable signs of acidity, or thickens a very little on the bottom
of the pan or can. A few prefer to skim the cream sweet, and still
another few let the milk lopper. This wide divergence of opinion and
practice shows how very imperfectly is the real philosophy of butter
making understood; but, notwithstanding this, each one is usually very
tenacious in his belief as to the superiority of his own practice. A
few fancy butter makers say that the finest butter is made from sweet
cream, raised in cold air by shallow setting. It is insisted by them
that airing and oxydizing, and not souring, is what "ripens" cream and
fits it for easy churning, while this airing and oxydizing imparts
the fine aroma so much desired in the finest butter. This view of
the origin or development of flavor is sustained by experiments made
at Cornell University, at the suggestion or under the supervision of
Prof. L.B. Arnold. It is also claimed that the lack of flavor and the
short-keeping of sweet-cream butter churned from cream raised by deep
setting is due to its lack of oxygen, and that souring the cream thus
raised, before churning, both oxydizes it and imparts a ranker and
more positive flavor resulting from the effects of the lactic acid. We
think both propositions look reasonable, and we should like to see a
series of scientific experiments made to determine both the effects of
oxygen and the effects of lactic acid on the butter product of cream.
At present, theory and practice vary so widely with different butter
makers who turn out a high-priced butter for the market, that one is
led to doubt all theories and query whether the quality of butter does
not depend on something not yet known, which is independent of all
current theories and practices.


CHURNING.

And as to the proper time of churning, there is an equal divergence
of opinion and practice. One churns his cream sweet, another wants it
slightly changed, a third wants positive acidity in the cream, and
a fourth loppers the cream, while a fifth lets the cream stand even
twelve hours after loppering--and this extremely sour cream butter
sells for the very highest market price. So we are left all at sea,
so far as acidity is an element in butter making. Again, to further
illustrate these extremes, while a gentleman in Vermont is setting his
neighbors agog by raising cream in a vacuum, a Canada gentleman is
experimenting with an invention to raise cream by hydrostatic pressure
and get the fat of the milk so pure as to dispense with churning. We
hope both will succeed.


TEMPERATURES.

There is not so wide a difference in opinion and practice as regards
the temperature at which churning should be done in order to secure
the best results; yet there is quite a wide range--from 55 degrees to
65 degrees--or 10 degrees Fahrenheit. But only a few go as high as 65
degrees or as low as 55 degrees. The great majority favor 60 degrees
to 63 degrees as the proper range of temperature for different seasons
and conditions. Some favor 58 degrees to 60 degrees, and all appear
satisfied with results. It is not improbable that different degrees
of acidity in the cream require different degrees of temperature
for churning, and that sweet cream requires still another variation
of temperature. So the breed, condition of the cows, kind of feed,
quality of feed, character of the water drank, length of time the
cows have been in milk, and other considerations, require variations
in the temperature. Sure we are that the difference in conditions and
surroundings must explain some of the differences of opinions and
practices among butter makers.


WHAT MAKES THE BUTTER COME.

It is not known whether concussion or friction, or both, cause the
separation of the butter from the buttermilk in churning. But we
suspect that concussion is the real agent that produces the separation,
as we have really seen no churn that did not in some way produce more
or less concussion. All the churns we have seen used appeared to
produce good results, and we find every dairyman is satisfied with
the work of the churn he uses, whatever the kind, style or patent. We
cannot, therefore, recommend any style of churn as superior to another,
but we prefer the simple and less expensive forms, as not only costing
less but being easier to keep clean.

The churning should be steady and not violent. A too rapid or sudden
separation of the butter from the buttermilk is not desirable. It is
no recommend for a churn that it churns quick. Such a churn is apt to
injure the so-called grain of the butter and make it salvy and greasy.
The least churning that will separate the butter from the buttermilk is
the best.


WHEN TO STOP CHURNING.

The improved modern method, now in practice by the best butter makers
generally, is to stop the churn as soon as the butter is collected in
particles the size of wheat kernels. Just before this, when the first
signs of the separation of the butter is seen, the sides of the churn
are washed down with cold water--usually below 60 degrees, or about 55
degrees--to not only prevent waste, but to harden the butter and make
it easier to handle. When the granules are the size of wheat kernels,
the butter is drawn off or the butter taken out of the buttermilk, as
the case may be. If the butter is left in the churn, water is poured
in to float the butter, which is then gently agitated a moment and
the water drawn off. This operation is repeated until the water runs
clear. Sometimes one of the washings is in brine, which coagulates the
caseine into a soluble form and prepares it to be washed out afterward.
In this way, it is believed that purer, longer-keeping butter can be
made. In some cases, however, butter makers have customers who want a
buttermilk flavor in their butter. They, therefore, do not wash the
butter, or wash it very little. Such butter must be consumed at once,
as it will not keep.


WORKING.

By this method of retaining the butter in a granulated form, only
sufficient working is required to evenly work in the salt. The less
working the better.


SALTING.

The salt, after the butter is properly drained, can be carefully mixed
with the butter by stirring. When thoroughly incorporated, barely
pressing the butter together into a solid mass is all that is needed.
If one does not want butter very salty to the taste, it can be evenly
and nicely salted by completely wetting it with saturated brine, then
carefully pressing the granulated butter together and leaving in it as
much of the strong brine as will remain. We have seen butter salted in
this way, and it was very evenly and completely salted, having in it no
undissolved grains of salt, but it was not as salt to the taste as some
like.

About an ounce to the pound is good salting; but more or less salt must
be used to suit the taste of customers. None but refined salt should be
put into butter. No salt is better for this purpose than the Onondaga
F.F., which is American, and the cheapest salt fit for dairy use that
can be obtained.

The principal office of the salt in butter is to impart an agreeable
flavor, in conjunction with the natural aroma of fine butter; but it
is a fact that too much salt injures good flavor, and it may, to
some extent, be used to cover up or neutralize bad flavors. We do not
recommend its use for this latter purpose, preferring that the natural
flavor of butter from pure cream should be preserved.


SALT AS A PRESERVATIVE.

Salt does very little to preserve butter. It retards the decomposition
of the caseous and albuminous materials left in it; but if butter is
properly made of cream not mixed with loppered milk and is completely
washed with pure water, it is a fair question if butter will not keep
longer without salt than with it. There are instances on record where
butter has been kept sweet without salt for a long time. We half
suspect that, though salt at first retards decomposition, the salt
itself, in time, decomposes and becomes sodium and chlorine gas, or
enters into new combinations with the constituents of the butter, and
thus makes new compounds that do not in the least improve the flavor.
We have no positive evidence of this, but have had this suspicion
awakened by facts related about the keeping of butter and by a process
of general reasoning. It is true that salt is one of the most stable
compounds known, but we have proof that it can be resolved into its
original elements, when stronger affinities are presented for one or
both of them to unite with. It would not, therefore, be strange if such
decomposition sometimes follows when used in our food preparations.


PACKING BUTTER.

It is quite a knack to properly pack butter in large packages, and
the work needs to be carefully done. Some use it too violently, by
pounding it down, and thus making the butter greasy or oily. It should
be gently pressed together in the package in such a way as to leave
no spaces filled with air, for the air will surely mingle with the
surrounding butter and injure its flavor. A good way is to begin the
pressure at the center and work carefully toward the circumference, so
that all air may escape at the sides. In this way, perfect solidity of
the mass is secured, and it is left in the best condition for keeping,
so far as the packing is concerned.


PREPARING THE PACKAGE.

Before putting the butter in the package, the package should be soaked
in water, so as to remove the taste of the wood, and then thoroughly
soaked in saturated brine, so that the wood will not draw the salt from
the butter which comes in contact with it. If it does, the butter thus
deprived of salt will turn white, have a sickish flavor, and soon turn
rancid. It is a good idea to not only sprinkle a thin layer of salt
over the bottom of the package, but to rub the moist inner sides with
dairy salt, and thus make sure that there is salt enough in contact
with the wood to prevent its absorbing the salt from the butter.


CLOSING THE PACKAGE.

When a package is filled, a piece of thin muslin, cut so as to just fit
into the top of the package and completely cover the butter, should be
wet in cold water and carefully placed over the top, having the edges
pressed down close to the sides of the tub. Then the cloth should be
completely covered with a thin layer of salt; and if the salt is
moistened, so as to form of it a thick paste that will become air-tight
when it dries, it will do much to keep the top of the butter clean and
sweet--for the more nearly air tight the package is when completed the
better it is for the preservation of the butter. Then put on the cover,
and seal the whole as tightly as possible.


STORING.

Remove the package to a cool, sweet place, not above the temperature of
60 degrees, and set it so that it will absorb no moisture or odors from
the ground. Much butter is spoiled by keeping, because of neglecting
the temperature, and setting the bottom of the package directly on the
cellar bottom. If kept at a temperature above 60 degrees, butter will
surely go off flavor, and wood will as surely draw moisture from the
ground, if in contact with it, and become sour and musty, sooner or
later affecting the flavor of the butter within the package. Nothing is
to be lost, but all to be gained, by paying attention to these little
things.


STYLE OF PACKAGE.

Of course, where a maker has a special market for his butter, he will
put it up in such style and form of package as suits his customers.
He needs no other guide and would injure his business if he followed
one. But, for general market purposes, the 50 lb. tub is the best form.
The New York and Boston dealers like this because it is convenient
for the retailer, who can readily slip the tub off from the butter
for either weighing or cutting up for his customers. But aside from
these considerations, the Welsh tub is a very bad form of package for
keeping butter, as it is by no means air-tight nor anything approaching
it. Hence, butter sent to market in these tubs must soon be sold and go
into consumption, or there is material depreciation in quality and a
corresponding loss in price. The old-fashioned firkin, which could be
headed up and the butter covered with brine, is a much better package
for keeping butter. But, where butter is consumed as fast as it is
made, and fresh winter made butter supplies the demand through the cold
season, the keeping of butter for any considerable length of time is
not of so much consideration. We think it fortunate that this is so.



CHEESE MAKING.


So much has been written and said, and so little understood, about
cheese making, that it seems almost a hopeless task, as well as a
thankless one, to attempt to say anything more on the subject. Sour
ignoramuses and floating charlatans have spoiled more curds than have
been spoiled by any defect in the milk. Sour, whey-soaked cheese has
been the rage, and it is generally supposed that acid alone makes a
firm cheese, when the experience of every cheese maker is that it is
very difficult, by the ordinary processes, to make a firm curd out of
sour milk--which, of course, no one ought to be asked to make into
cheese--unless it be pot-cheese. Acid may make a curd solid, but not
until it has cut out a large share of the goodness of the curd, and the
cheese resulting will be about as digestible as so much putty.


DUTY OF PATRONS.

It is the duty of every patron of a cheese factory to send good milk to
it, and to send the milk in good condition. It is not only his duty,
but his interest to do this. A bad mess of milk may spoil a whole
vat-full. This not only entails loss on his neighbor, where the factory
is run on the _pro rata_ plan, but the patron must stand his share of
the loss. Aside from the loss entailed on others and himself, he ought
to be ashamed to deliver milk in a bad condition. There is no valid
excuse for it. It ought to be his pride to deliver milk in as good
condition as anybody does. If he cannot, he should leave the business,
and go into something in which he has the ability to excel. Care and
cleanliness, if the cows are healthy and have proper food, will insure
good milk always.


UNREASONABLE EXPECTATION.

It is unreasonable to expect a cheese maker to turn a prime article of
cheese out of poor milk. If one carries shoddy cloth to the tailor,
he expects a shoddy suit in return, not a broadcloth one. So, if he
carries bad milk to the factory, he must expect bad cheese. If he takes
sour apples to the cider mill, he does not expect sweet-flavored cider,
but sour. So, if he carries sour milk to the cheese factory, he must
expect sour cheese. These defects, when they exist in a small degree,
may be overcome, or nearly so, and a passable cheese made. But, is
the cheese made from imperfect milk really a fit article of food? Who
would work rotten eggs into custard, or sour meal into bread? Yet this
is just as consistent as working sour or tainted milk into cheese, and
the product is just as wholesome. That which makes stinking eggs makes
stinking milk--decayed albumen--which is just as wholesome in the one
as in the other.


GUARANTEES.

The cheese maker who guarantees his cheese is very foolish if he does
not insist on a guarantee of good milk, nor should he be compelled
to rely on his judgment formed in the haste of receiving the milk. A
tricky man may juggle a bad mess of milk on to the best expert. How
can the cheese maker tell whether the milk is from a gargetty udder,
or the first milk after calving--both of which may develop in a very
offensive way when the milk is heated up? So the milk may be so nearly
tainted or so nearly sour that it will not stand the process of heating
up and cooking. The law ought to be very severe on the man who delivers
bad milk at a factory, or sells it to anyone. The factoryman who pays
the price of good milk for sour or tainted milk is certainly very
short-sighted, and cannot long maintain the respect of the man who
sells it to him, nor sustain himself pecuniarily. The man who pays
cash for milk has the right, above all others, to demand that the milk
shall be sweet and wholesome. This is one point that should be insisted
upon--the delivery of good milk in good condition.


HEATING.

After the milk is all in, or the requisite amount is in the vat, the
heat may at once be started and raised to some point between 80 and 86
degrees. If we set below this, the rennet works too slow; if we set
above, it is thought to work too fast--so custom has fixed upon this
range of temperature for setting, and there appears to be no valid
objection to it. But while the temperature of the milk is being raised,
and before, it should receive frequent stirrings to keep the cream
from rising, and thus becoming partially or wholly wasted. The rennet
should by no means be added until the temperature stops rising--or so
nearly so that by the time the rennet is stirred in and the stirring
stopped, because the milk begins to coagulate, a stationary temperature
will have been reached.


COLORING.

The coloring fluid should be added just before the rennet is--unless
white cheese is made. There is a limited demand for white cheese for
the London market. But do not make the color too high--as there is a
limited demand for high-colored goods, and this mainly from the South,
in spring and fall. Nor should the color be too pale, as there is
really no demand for pale cheese. It should be either white or of a
medium hue--a bright, golden yellow. There is a demand for uniformity
of color, as buyers often want large lots, all of the same hue or
shade. In selecting such a lot, they may rule out first-class cheese
that is too pale or too high-colored. The universal use of the same
manufacture of coloring extract guaranteed of uniform strength, might
secure uniformity in coloring. But this is doubtful and difficult.
A better, and we think, a feasible way, would be to have a standard
color--like those accompanying paints--furnished to every cheese maker
as a guide, and let him color to it as nearly as possible. In this
way, a close approximate to uniformity of color might be secured. He
could then use whatever coloring fluid he chose, and his eye would be
his guide. Coloring does not improve the product. If it does no harm,
it does no good beyond gratifying the eye and deceiving the palate
through the common notion that high color and high flavor go together.


SETTING.

Theoretically, 98 degrees or blood heat would seem to be the
temperature for setting, as rennet is the most active at this point.
Usually, 82 degrees in warm weather, and 86 degrees in cool weather,
are the points at which the rennet is added in setting. But there is no
reason for a different temperature at different seasons, except that
in cool weather the temperature is liable to run down a little--which
should not and would not be the case, if the make room were so
constructed that the temperature could be controlled and kept at summer
heat.


OTHER DETAILS.

Enough rennet should be added, as a rule, to cause thickening of the
milk to begin in 20 minutes, at 82 degrees. More or less rennet may be
used, as it is designed to have cheese cure more or less rapidly. As a
rule, the more rennet is used, the lower should be the temperature at
which the milk is set and the curd worked. Agitation of the milk should
be kept up for at least 15 minutes, where coagulation begins in 20
minutes, or as long as it can be and not prevent a solid coagulation.
The stirring after the rennet is incorporated is merely to keep the
cream from rising. The less cream gets to the surface, the less waste
there will be. In a cool room, where the surface cools quickly and
there is a falling of the temperature of the milk, there will be a thin
cream on the surface. This will form a soft cream curd, which will
adhere to the sides of the vat, to the rake, and to the hands, and be
quite annoying. The amount is trifling, but the annoyance of the thing
is enough of itself to make it desirable to keep the cream down; and a
summer temperature of the room is useful for this purpose, aside from
the comfort and the better handling of the curd, from first to last.


KEEP THE TEMPERATURE EVEN.

After the milk begins to thicken, a cloth should be thrown over the
vat to keep the surface warm. A convenient way is to tack a cloth to
slats a little longer than the vat is wide, putting the slats a foot or
eighteen inches apart. This is easily rolled up and set aside, when not
wanted, and is easily unrolled over the vat when needed. There should
be no raising of the temperature after the rennet is added and the mass
comes to a standstill. If there is, the portion next to the sides and
in the bottom of the vat will get the most heat, and there the rennet
will work the fastest and the curd will become tough before it is firm
enough on the surface. Therefore, let the heat be stationary after the
rennet is added and until the curd is cut fine, and keep the heat as
even as possible all this time.


CUTTING.

The coagulum should be cut as soon as it will break clean across the
finger when placed in it and lifted gently upward. This early cutting
is essential. There is seldom, if ever, any waste from cutting a curd
too soon. The clearest whey will always be obtained by cutting early.
The whey exudes from the curd much more freely when it is yet young and
tender--and the only object in cutting the curd at all is to get out
the whey. When cutting is begun, let it be continued as expeditiously
as possible until it is finished. Do not stop and let the curd stand
and toughen. It cuts more easily, with less friction and less waste by
loosening fine particles of curd, when it is tender and parts easily
before the knife. The more it toughens, the harder it cuts, the more
friction there is, the more the curd is torn and bruised, and the more
the waste. If we could cut early and cut instantaneously, it would be
all the better.


CUT FINE.

Cut the curd very fine. Seldom, if ever, is a curd cut too fine. As
the object is to get rid of the whey, the finer it is cut, the more
easily we achieve our object. It is not as far from the center of a
small piece of curd for the whey to run out as it is from the center
of a large piece. By cutting fine, we expose more surface for the whey
to run out of, and we have smaller pieces to heat up. Curd is a bad
conductor of heat. If the pieces are large, it takes a long time for
the heat to slowly penetrate them when we want to increase it. The
small pieces, therefore, absorb the heat more evenly, and this gives an
evener action of the rennet.


"COOKING."

After the cutting is done, if the whey is separating rapidly, the heat
may be started at once. If the action of the rennet is rather slow,
it is better to wait a few minutes for the curd to harden a little,
while with your hand you carefully rub down the side of the vat, thus
removing all the curd that may be adhering to it. Not over five minutes
waiting, as a usual thing, is necessary, and generally there need be
no waiting. But as soon as the heat is started, begin to gently stir
the curd with a rake, by passing it down into the middle of the vat
and gently raising the curd on each side. If uncut pieces appear,
carefully separate them with the teeth of the rake. Keep up this
stirring, which may be more violent after the curd hardens, until the
whole is heated up to 98 or 100 degrees--or to blood heat. The reason
for constant agitation is to keep an even temperature throughout the
mass and prevent the curd from packing. This secures even action of
the rennet. The reason for going to blood heat is because rennet is
most active at this point. It is the temperature indicated by Nature.
It is the one at which we digest our food, and the one at which the
calf's stomach forms curd and afterwards digests it. The pepsin or
gastric juice is more potent at blood heat, and this pepsin or rennet
is what does the work. The heat does not cook the curd in the vat any
more than it cooks the milk in the cow's udder. We choose 98 degrees
as the proper temperature because the digestive or cheesing process of
the rennet goes on faster at this point. To go above or below it is to
lose instead of gain. This temperature should therefore be maintained
until the curd is "cooked"--that is, until the action of the rennet has
expelled the proper amount of whey and the curd is as firm as we want
it. Anent the stirring of curds, use the hands as little as possible.
There is nothing better for this purpose than the common hay rake with
the handle shortened and one tooth cut off from each end by severing
the rake-head within three quarters of an inch of the next tooth.


DRAWING THE WHEY.

We next draw the whey down to the curd--leaving enough to stir it in
easily, and cool the whole mass down to 90 degrees, to avoid too much
packing, and draw off the balance of the whey. The whey should be run
off before the acid develops, because acid, formed from the milk in
the sugar, dissolves the minerals and cuts some of the oils in the
curd, and these run off in the whey. Many curds, by remaining in the
whey too long, become whey-soaked, and make cheese that is soggy and
hard, with a sour flavor. This kind of firmness is not desirable,
notwithstanding it is called for by buyers, who seldom know anything
about cheese making. If the acid develops before the whey is properly
expelled, or the curd is "cooked," it carries off the minerals, which
are in the form of phosphates, and this makes the cheese poor indeed.
These phosphates are of lime, iron, magnesium, etc., but the principal
is phosphate of lime. The affinity of these minerals for lactic acid
is stronger than for phosphoric acid; so they let go of the latter
and unite with the lactic acid, forming lactates and leaving the
phosphoric acid free. But if we get all of the whey out of the curd
that we desire, and then get the curd out of the whey--that is, draw
off the whey--before the acid comes on, we retain the phosphates and
fats in the cheese--all the goodness that belongs in it. The acid will
come on afterward, but we have reduced the sugar to a minimum, and the
amount of acid developed does no serious injury. As the whey is already
expelled, of course it cannot wash out the minerals that are dissolved.
These remain, and in the process of curing recombine with the
phosphoric acid. We have left in the curd about 3-1/2 parts of the 87
parts in 100 parts of milk. The whey left in the curd contains, we will
say, 1-10th of the sugar that was in the milk. The acid formed from
this, though too small to do any known injury, is large enough to do
all the good required, if it does any good at all. We are, therefore,
safe when we get the whey out of the curd and the curd out of the whey
before the development of the lactic acid.


SALTING.

When the whey is well out of the curd, so as not to waste the salt,
the salt may be applied and stirred in. The salt does not stop the
development of acid, as is popularly supposed. When applied, it aids
in keeping the curd loose. Then the curd may stand, with occasional
stirring, almost any length of time for the purpose of airing and
cooling, of getting rid of any bad odors, of developing flavor by
oxydation from contact with the atmosphere, and of letting the acid
come on. It is safest not to put the curd to press until it has a
positively clean sour smell. This shows that certain chemical changes
have taken place, freeing the curd of the gases generated by this
process, and prevents any huffing of the cheese on the shelf in the
curing room. Where cheddaring and grinding are practiced, the salt is
of course applied after the curd is ground. Cheddaring is the easier
and safer method, as the whey can be drawn early, and there is no
danger from the acid. Salting at the rate of 2-1/2 lbs. of salt to
1,000 lbs. of milk is the usual practice and not far from right. For
long keeping, 3 lbs. of salt are not too much. Use none but the best
dairy salt--the best of all the dairy salts, as well as the cheapest,
being the Onondaga, F.F.


PUTTING TO PRESS.

After the acid fermentation is properly progressed, the curd should be
put to press at a temperature not much below 80 degrees, nor much above
85. If higher, it is liable to heat and taint the cheese at the center;
if lower it is difficult to face the cheese and press the curd together
properly. But in warm weather, there is not much danger of getting the
curd too cool.



ACID IN CHEESE MAKING.


This has been written on so much that the subject has become hackneyed.
The acid seems to have eaten into the souls of some and turned them
sour; but notwithstanding, the so-called "sweet curd" idea has made
steady progress. Much of the opposition has come from buyers for
export, who do not appear to be able to distinguish between a firm
cheese and a hard cheese, and who ignore quality if they get a cheese
hard enough to ship, without danger of breaking, by the time it is ten
days old. This has been demonstrated by the fact that cheese condemned
when green as too soft has been pronounced by the same buyers fine and
all right, even endorsed with enthusiasm, when it was two or three
months old, which is about as young as a first-class cheese should be
shipped.


ANALYSIS OF MILK.

Of course, there would be no acid in milk if there were no sugar in
it. The proportion of sugar is shown by the following analysis of an
average sample of good milk made by Dr. Voelcker, the late chemist of
the Royal Agricultural Society of Great Britain:

  Water                                     87.30
  Butter                                     3.75
  Caseine                                    3.31
  Milk-sugar and extractive matter           4.86
  Mineral matter (ash)                       0.78
                                           ------
           Total                           100.00

It will be seen by this that the per cent. of sugar is at least 4.50,
if we deduct the extractive matter, the proportion of which is not
given. Numerous German analyses show it to range from 3.50 to 5.75
per cent. Henry and Chevalier put the average at 4.77, and Prof. L.B.
Arnold says milk from cows in perfect health should contain, during the
month of August, 4.30 to 5.50 per cent. We will call it 4.50 per cent.
There is 87.30 per cent of water.


WHAT THE CHEESE MAKER DOES.

In separating the solids from the liquids, by the action of rennet, at
the proper temperature, we expel, say 83.30 parts of the water, leaving
4 parts. We get rid of, say 4.20 parts of the sugar, which is held in
perfect solution in the water. We lose, say .50 of one part of butter,
.31 of one part of the caseine or albuminoids, and .13 of one part of
ash. This leaves--

  Water                                          4.00
  Butter                                         3.25
  Caseine                                        3.00
  Sugar                                           .30
  Ash                                             .65
                                                -----
           Total                                11.20

We thus have 11.20 per cent. of the 100 parts out of which to get our
cured cheese. A fair average is 10 lbs. of cheese for 100 pounds of
milk. Some of the water evaporates in curing, say 1 part, leaving 3
parts. Our 10.20 parts of cheese is then composed of the following:

  Water                                          3.00
  Butter                                         3.25
  Caseine                                        3.00
  Sugar, or what results from decomposition       .30
  Ash                                             .65
                                                -----
  Total                                         10.20

This is a little in excess of the general yield. The waste is usually
in the greater amount of ash, sometimes nearly the whole of it, when
the acid develops before the whey is expelled. In that case, the lactic
acid dissolves the phosphates and they run out with the whey. This
is so much loss of ingredients absolutely essential to digestion and
assimilation.


WHAT OUGHT TO BE.

So far from this, there ought to be less loss of ingredients than
we have supposed in our illustrative figures. But more of the butter
is cut and runs off with the whey when the acid is developed before
drawing the whey. The aim of the "sweet curd" system is to avoid this
waste as much as possible, especially that of the butter and ash. To
effect this, the whey is drawn sweet and the acid allowed to develop
after the curd is cooked and the whey expelled. There need be no
more water left in the curd, but more butter and ash, both of which
tend to make the cheese softer. But with proper curing rooms, there
is no trouble in making the cheese firm enough for all practical
purposes, including shipping. It is better to use less rennet and
not have coagulation begin under 25 minutes, cutting the curd about
15 or 20 minutes later, and to take more time for curing, at a lower
temperature. We then have a firmer, more buttery, and better flavored
cheese, which is a desideratum. But, with high and changing temperature
in the curing room, no certain or satisfactory results can be counted
on.


THEORY AND PRACTICE.

In theory, we ought to prevent the waste of butter and caseous matter
altogether; but in practice, there is always a little loss of butter,
and there are certain albuminous ingredients, called by the Germans
_ziega_, which rennet will not coagulate. There is, of course, no
means of saving this. The sugar we cannot and do not want to save in
the cheese. If retained, it would be injurious and probably spoil the
cheese, as the lactic acid in the small amount of sugar retained in
the water is all that we can well manage. But all matter coagulable by
rennet, all the butter, and all the ash, we ought to retain; and we
cannot really call ourselves scientific cheese makers until we can do
this. When accomplished, a greater weight of cheese will be the result.

There is no avoiding the acid resulting from the small amount of
sugar retained in the curd; but, having expelled sufficient whey, if
we keep the curd warm enough, and hold it in the vat or the sink long
enough, the lactic acid will come on and we shall get rid of the bad
results of putting a curd to press sweet. This acidity is absolutely
necessary with the generality of curing rooms. But with low and steady
temperature in the curing room, we can do about as we please.



RENNET.


Our recent observations more than ever convince us of the importance of
good rennet in cheese making. Great evils and losses result from the
use of bad rennet; and the great trouble is that many cheese makers do
not know when rennet is bad. There is not only the evil of diseased and
tainted rennets, to begin with, but the preparation from good rennets
is often spoiled in the preparing. Frequently, in hot weather, they are
allowed to taint while soaking; and when the liquid is prepared sweet,
it is often allowed to ferment and taint for want of sufficient salt
and from exposure in a high temperature.


SOAKING IN WHEY.

Soaking in whey, containing all its taints and impurities, is the
source of a vast amount of foul rennet and off-flavored cheese. If whey
is used, it should be boiled to kill taints and precipitate, as far as
possible, the solids remaining in it. But, do the best that can be done
with it, and still whey is objectionable for soaking rennets, because
of the acid that develops in it from the presence of sugar. This acid
neutralizes a corresponding amount of rennet and helps to impoverish
the cheese. Indeed, if carried far enough before the curd is removed
from it, the finer flavoring oils are cut by it, the phosphates are
dissolved, and these pass out with the whey, leaving the cheese but
little better than an indigestible mass. If the acid adds solidity to
the cheese, it does it by removing from it valuable ingredients.


TAINTED RENNET.

Frequently, we have encountered rennet preparations that were not only
very sour, but also tainted and having a strong smell of carrion.
Nothing but huffy, porous, stinking and rotten cheese can result from
the use of such rennet preparation. Yet it is used, and the result
is attributed to bad milk, or to the presence of some inscrutable
taint or ferment, so prone are mankind to attribute effects to wrong
causes. It has been to us unaccountable that cheese makers should use
such horrid broth as we have seen them use, if they have any sense of
smell whatever, and utterly astonishing that they should expect good
cheese to be made from using it. With good milk, the cheese may appear
fairly good for several days--especially if put to curing at a low
temperature. But sooner or later, the taint must make its appearance.
Possibly, it may not show ten days from the hoops, but the cheese can
never become a mellow mass without also becoming a stinking one. It
will soon be ripe and soon rotten.


CURING RENNETS.

It is usually understood that rennets are calves' stomachs salted and
dried, or otherwise prepared; but it is not so certain that all the
rennets in market are of this kind. The stomachs of the young of all
milk-eating animals may be used for curding milk. We are not so sure
but that among "Bavarian" rennets we get the stomachs of the young
of every animal known under the sun. They are of all sizes and all
degrees of strength, but are generally liked by those who use them.
They are cured by tying the two ends, and blowing the rennets up, like
bladders. A better way, we think, is to rub them well with pure dairy
salt, stretch them on a hoop or crotched stick, and hang them in a cool
dry place. Some simply fill them with salt, tie them, and hang them up
to dry. A great objection to this is, that the salt is likely to draw
moisture from the atmosphere, and in wet weather the rennets are liable
to drip and thus lose strength. Salting rennets down in a barrel, as we
do meat, is considered objectionable--for what reason, we know not. The
writer had excellent "luck," one season, with rennets preserved in this
way. In whatever way preserved, rennets should, by all means, be kept
cool. Heat is found to be very injurious, while cold--even freezing
and thawing--appears advantageous. Possibly because the freezing and
thawing loosen the fiber and set the rennet spores free.


AGE AN ADVANTAGE.

No rennets less than a year old should be used, if it can possibly be
avoided. The old rennets, other things being equal, are stronger and
make a firmer curd than new ones. Any one who has experimented with
both will always aim to have a supply of good old rennets on hand.


SAVING RENNETS.

In saving rennets, great care should be taken to have them right.
The fourth stomach of the calf is what is saved. Cut it from the
adjoining stomach, at the point of junction, and do not leave a piece
of intestine on the other end, but cut close to the opening of the
rennet. Remove straws and dirt of all kinds carefully, but be sure to
not rub off the delicate lining of the stomach, which is the digestive
or coagulative part and very much inclined to adhere to your hands,
especially if they are dry. Do not try to rinse off anything more
than the loose dirt, and that without rubbing, for you cannot rub
without waste. What is better, avoid having dirt or any thing else in
the stomach to remove. This you can do by letting the calf go sixteen
or eighteen hours without eating, and placed where it can get hold
of nothing to swallow before killing. Say, feed it at night and slay
it the next day about noon. The stomach will then be empty and clean
and well stored with pepsin for the digestion of the next meal. This
secretion, is just what you want. The rennet is best when the calf
is six or eight days old. But, in any case, digestion should be well
established before killing. If the calf should go too long without
food--as is often the case with veal calves--the stomach will get
inflamed. This is objectionable.


SELECTING RENNETS.

In selecting rennets to soak, all discolored and bad smelling ones
should be scrupulously rejected. But rubbing rennets is a disagreeable
and disgusting business, and it is somewhat difficult to keep your
rennet of uniform strength. Therefore, if good rennet extract can be
bought at a reasonable price, we would recommend its use. It ought to
be made better and cheaper in a wholesale way than in little batches
at each factory. To guard against imposition, one should buy only of
known reputable dealers. Preparing your own rennet is much like doing
your own shoe making. It doesn't pay, if you have got anything else
remunerative to do.


WHOLESALE PREPARATION.

If one must prepare his own rennet, the better way is to do it in a
lump before the cheese-making season begins. Get a strong barrel and a
pounder--such as used by washerwomen; also a wringer. Take old rennets
and cut them into strips. Make a weak brine of pure water, by using
one pound of salt to twenty pounds of water, and in this, soak, pound
and wring your rennets. Hang them up and freeze them; then soak, pound
and wring them again; and so on as long as you can get any strength.
When done, carefully settle, skim, and strain your liquid. Put it in a
clean barrel or stone jars, put in all the salt that it will dissolve,
so that a little will settle on the bottom, then stop or cover tight;
put in a cool place and take from it as wanted for use. There is
nothing better than saturated brine for keeping animal products. Be
sure, however, that you use only the purest dairy salt in preparing
brine. Some say that only stone jars should be used for keeping rennet.
We have used an ash tub for the amount prepared weekly. To keep the
wood from tainting, we invariably, every time we dipped out rennet and
exposed new surface, rubbed it with salt.


EXCLUDING AIR.

Rennet could be much more easily kept sweet if put in an air-tight
vessel. The "American Dispensatory" says: "When gastric juice is
completely protected from the air it may be kept unchanged for a
longtime; but on exposure it speedily undergoes decomposition,
acquires a very offensive odor, and loses its characteristic digestive
property." We think that the Dispensatory is right. The composition of
pure gastric juice is as follows: Water, 97.00; salts, 1.75; pepsin,
1.25; total, 100.00. There is also a small amount of free acid. Both
rennet extract and pepsin are used as medicine.



CURING ROOMS.


It is hard to determine which is of the greater importance, good
rennet or properly constructed curing-rooms; for both are necessary
to the production of the best cheese, while the want of either is
sure to injure if not to spoil it. The importance of controlling the
temperature in curing has not yet taken hold of the popular mind. The
best milk in the world may be spoiled by bad rennet, and the best curd
in the world may be spoiled by a bad curing-room.


TEMPERATURE.

In a large majority of the curing-rooms of the country, the temperature
ranges from 60 degrees Fahrenheit to 90 degrees and even above.
Sometimes these extremes are realized within a few days. Think of
setting a curd to fermenting at 80 to 90 degrees, when it ought to
start at 60 to 65 degrees! Yet, this is frequently done; and to prevent
the cheese from huffing and crawling it is proposed by some to make
the curd so dry and sour in the beginning that heat will not soften
it. In this way, is made what some buyers style a "firm" cheese. The
best English Cheddars, according to the American Encyclopedia, are set
to curing at a temperature of 60 degrees, and are never allowed to go
above 70 degrees. Our observation and experience are that the range of
temperature should never go above 75 degrees. Curing should begin as
low as 65 degrees, and no cheese should be marketed under thirty days
from the hoops. When the curing is slow, as it ought to be, the cheese
will not be ripe in less than that time. If sixty days old before
ready for market, the better. The hurrying process is everywhere bad
for the product, and no amount of souring helps the matter, however
hard it may make the cheese and however well it may stand up in hot
weather. We want something else besides standing-up quality. With a
low and even temperature for curing, we do not need to work all the
goodness out of the curd to make a firm cheese. We do not have to cut
the fats and phosphates out with acid, nor to dry all the moisture out
by fine cutting and high scalding or long scalding. We can stop the
cooking when the curd is evenly cooked through so as to be springy when
pressed together by the hands, take it out of the whey before the acid
develops, and put it to press without unnecessary delay.


AN EXAMPLE.

In the fall of 1884, we ate some cheese at Mr. N.L. Brown's, Gurnee,
Ill., which was dipped sweeter and put to press softer than we ever
thought of doing; yet the cheese was close-grained and fine-flavored,
and one that would pass muster as a first-class cheese anywhere. But it
was not cured in a hot curing room, nor in one where the temperature
went up and down the same as it did on the outside of the building.
It was placed in his cellar, at a temperature of 64 degrees, and
there remained until it was fit to cut. Nor was it even rubbed, but
occasionally turned over. When out, it looked like a cheese that had
been kept in a box a year, covered with mold and mites. The superfluous
moisture was dried out but the butter was all left. It demonstrated
what can be done by temperature. Had this cheese been cured in an
ordinary curing-room, it would have gone all out of shape in a few
days--as soon as rapid fermentation set in--and been off flavor by
the time it was ten days old. Several other cheeses were cured in the
same cellar, in the same way, but none of them were put to press so
soft or sweet, but all sweet-curd cheeses, and all buttery and fine.
This particular one was the result of hurry, as other matters than
the curd demanded attention. But the thought came that it would be a
good experiment, as it was, and the result was satisfactory, though
not different from what was expected. Cheeses made in the same way as
the others that were cured in the cellar, and some cooked more and
soured more, were made by the same gentleman and cured in an ordinary
curing-room. In hot weather, they swelled and some of them got out of
shape, while the flavor was sharp and rough. But those in the cellar,
at 64 degrees, apparently never moved a hair's breadth out of shape,
were as solid as old butter, yet firm enough for shipping even, and of
the finest flavor. It is hardly necessary to say that the cellar was
exceedingly clean and sweet, and was well ventilated. These cheeses
were a demonstration, if not a revelation.


MOISTURE IN CURING.

It should be remarked, by the way, that a curing-room does not want to
be a dry room. We do not want to dry cheese; we want to cure it; that
is, let it go through the proper chemical change. This it does best in
a somewhat moist room, in which the surface does not dry and become
hard and impervious, so that the gases cannot escape. It is better to
contend with a little mold than a dry atmosphere.


BETTER CHEESE CAN BE MADE.

We see, on turning to Prof. Arnold's "American Dairying," that he
says: "The temperature of a curing-room for whole milk should be 65 to
70 degrees; for part skims, 75 to 80 degrees." It is thus seen that
fat plays an important part in curing. "The more fat," he says, "the
cooler may be the room; and the less fat, the warmer may it be." Again:
"Under the present state of things, a cheese that will stand a voyage
of 4,000 miles can hardly be called a fancy cheese. * * * But a much
fancier cheese than we are now producing, one that will stand shipping,
can be made. To do this will require milk to be free from some of the
imperfections which are now quite common; it must be transported to
the factories in much better ventilated cans; _it must be made with
less rennet and less acidity; and it must be cured in an even and lower
temperature_." We mark the conclusion in _italics_, because we believe
these are vital points. We insist that we cannot do ourselves credit
nor realize the best financial results in cheese making until we build
better curing rooms--rooms in which we can control the temperature
without fail. We have not yet settled down to cheese making. We are
still trying experiments and resorting to temporary expedients. We must
build far more deliberately and for permanency. It is not necessary
that we should point out just how a building may be erected so as to
give control of the inside temperature. Architects know how to do
it. When our cheese makers get to the point where they demand such
buildings, they will get them without much trouble and at moderate
expense. It is only necessary that they should have the "will." The
"way" will speedily open.



WHEY.


We notice that, in some localities, the patrons of the cheese factory
are very much interested in the question of the value of whey for
feeding purposes--some going so far as to assert that what is left of
milk in cheese making is as valuable as what is removed! This is a
startling assertion, and, if true, would convict our dairymen of a vast
amount of stupid waste. Is it true? Let us try to get at the facts of
the case by a direct, common-sense investigation of it.


COMPOSITION OF MILK.

We will begin with the composition of milk. From hundreds of German
analyses, ranging from 81.30 to 91.50 parts of water, we take a fair
average analysis, which we think will do justice to the mixed milk of
our best cheese factories:

  Water                  87.18
  Caseine                 4.21
  Albumen                  .55
  Fat                     3.24
  Sugar                   4.21
  Ash                      .60
                         -----
        Total            99.99


WHAT IS TAKEN OUT BY CHEESE MAKING.

Now, in making cheese, what follows? We ought to secure all the
caseine, but we do not quite. There is a small waste. We loose all, or
nearly all, of the albumen. We leave in the whey most of the sugar, if
we do not convert it into acid before getting rid of the whey, in which
case we may have an injurious amount of the acid in the curd, besides
dissolving and washing out nearly all the ash, which is composed of
phosphates, principally of iron, magnesia and lime. These are changed
into lactates, leaving the phosphoric acid free--not a very good
food for anything but rats. We ought to save nearly or quite all the
ash--the phosphates. But by the ordinary process of cheese making,
these are nearly all lost, as is shown by the analyses of whey, which
probably accounts for the low estimate in the popular mind of the
value of cheese as food, it being rated at one-half the value that
it would have were the phosphates all retained. But, four-fifths of
the nitrogenous and muscle-making material has been removed, and also
nine-tenths of the fat, which is heat producing and some say furnishes
motor power. We have retained in the cheese 5.84 of the 12.82 parts
of solids, leaving 5.98 parts, 4.21 parts of which are sugar and not
wanted in the cheese, or, at most, only a fraction of it. We leave less
than one part of the albuminous and caseous matter, which is the most
valuable, and only one-third of one part of fat. So there is less than
one part of solids left besides sugar, and the rest of the whey is
water.


COMPOSITION OF WHEY.

What is whey, then, but sweetened water, using sugar of a very low
sweetening quality, with a fraction of albuminous matter and ash in
it? Again, by the so-called "sweet" process, which retains all, or
nearly all, the phosphates in the cheese, the whey is made still poorer
by analysis. Only the sugar and a fraction of the albuminous matter,
not coagulated by rennet, is left in the whey; and the amount of sugar
in milk varies considerably, ranging, in a large number of German
analyses, from 3.0 to 5.48 per cent. of sugar. But let us more closely
examine the composition of whey. An average of eighteen analyses made
by Voelcker is as follows:

  Water                93.02
  Nitrogenous matter     .96
  Fat                    .33
  Ash                    .70
  Sugar              }  4.99
  Lactic acid        }
                       -----
       Total          100.00


POOR STUFF.

Thus it is very plainly to be seen that whey is poor stuff to feed,
even in its best estate. It has some value to mix with other foods,
if used sweet; but when the sugar has all turned to acid, and the
phosphates have become lactates, leaving the phosphoric acid free,
the whey is abominable, and can be used only in small quantities and
with great care. It ought not to be fed to young animals with tender
stomachs, and does older animals no good.


CRUELTY TO ANIMALS.

All this corresponds with general observation and experience. The most
intelligent dairymen with whom we are acquainted do not consider sour
whey worth drawing home. It is cruel to feed sweet whey to any animal
exclusively. Even a hog, which has made its growth--and no animal
can more fully extract the nutrihealth while actually growing fat
on sweet whey. The portion of less than one per cent. of albuminous
matter prolongs, rather than sustains life. That is to say, the hog
will not starve to death quite so quick if fed whey as it will without
it. The sugar accumulates in the system as fat, while the hog is slowly
perishing of inanition. But if it is thus cruel to feed it alone to
full grown animals, it is doubly so to feed it to young and growing
animals--as pigs and calves--the necessities of the lives of which
demand tissue-making material as well as life-sustaining. If whey is
used, let it be fed sweet, and always with some kind of dry nitrogenous
food, as bean meal, oil meal, pea meal, clover, etc. But, with the
acid system of cheese-making, it is impossible to do this. The whey is
decomposed before run into the whey-vat.

[Illustration: THE END]



CONTENTS.


  PREFACE                                                         3-4

  HISTORICAL--In Asia; Among the Jews; In Southern Europe;
  In America; Figures from the Census; Growth in
  Thirty Years; Product per Cow and per Capita; Home
  Consumption vs. Exports; Forms of Milk Consumption;
  The Private Dairy vs. the Factory                              5-12

  CONDITIONS--Pastures; Water; Winter Food; The Stable;
  Shelter; The Dairy House; Cleanliness; The Herd.              13-17

  DAIRY STOCK--Points of a Milker; Dutch-Friesian; The
  Jersey; The Guernsey; The Ayrshire; The Shorthorn;
  The Devon; The American Holderness; Inbreeding;
  Swiss; Polled; Hereford; Common Stock                         18-34

  BREEDING DAIRY STOCK--Selection; Coupling; Care               35-39

  FEEDING STOCK--Carbonaceous and Nitrogenous Foods;
  What is Carbon? What is Nitrogen? Compounding Rations;
  Per day and per 1,000 lbs. Live Weight; Sample
  Rations; Fattening Rations; Working Rations; Digestibility
  of Foods; Elements of Foods; Ensilage; Remarks                40-52

  HANDLING MILK--Keep Quiet; Regularity; Keep Down
  the Foul Odors; Keep Out the Dirt; Let Out the Cows;
  A Lick of Meal; Care of Milk; Composition of Milk;
  Deterioration of Milk in the Udder; Do Fats Expand
  Before Congealing? Effects of Falling Temperature;
  Cooling and Airing; Protection from the Hot Sun; Treatment
  of Night's and Morning's Milk; Receiving; Testing;
  Bad Milk; Weighing; Keeping Milk                              53-66

  BUTTER MAKING--Deep Setting and Water Cooling;
  Effect of Too Low Cooling; Buttermilk Flavor; Shallow
  Setting and Air Cooling; Oxydizing Cream; Skimming
  Milk; When to Skim; Churning; Temperatures; What
  Makes the Butter Come; When to Stop Churning; Working;
  Salting; Salt as a Preservative; Packing Butter;
  Preparing the Package; Closing the Package; Storing;
  Style of Package                                              67-80

  CHEESE MAKING--Duty of Patrons; Unreasonable Expectation;
  Guarantees; Heating; Coloring; Setting;
  Other Details; Keep the Temperature Even; Cutting;
  Cut Fine; "Cooking;" Drawing the Whey; Salting;
  Putting to Press                                              81-91

  ACID IN CHEESE MAKING--Analysis of Milk; What the
  Cheese Maker Does; What Ought to Be; Theory and
  Practice                                                      92-95

  RENNET--Soaking in Whey; Tainted Rennet; Curing Rennets;
  Age an Advantage; Saving Rennets; Selecting
  Rennets; Wholesale Preparation; Excluding Air                96-101

  CURING ROOMS--Temperature; An Example; Moisture
  in Curing; Better Cheese Can Be Made                        102-106

  WHEY--Composition of Milk; Composition of Whey; Poor
  Stuff; Cruelty to Animals                                   107-110



                         Apparatus & Supplies

                                  FOR

                     CHEESE FACTORIES, CREAMERIES
                             AND DAIRIES.

                                  AT

                               WHOLESALE

                   A LIST OF ARTICLES NECESSARY FOR
                   MAKING CHEESE FROM 20 TO 800 COWS
                         SENT ON APPLICATION.

                            CHILDS & JONES,

                              UTICA, N.Y.



                           FREISIAN CATTLE.


                          THE UNADILLA VALLEY

                      STOCK BREEDERS' ASSOCIATION

    import only the finest registered Stock found in Friesland
    and North Holland, in conformity with the requirements of the
    Dutch-Friesian Breeders' Association of America. The renowned prize
    Bull,

                               MOOIE 26,

    at head of herd. Their herd has been widely exhibited and awarded
    more prizes than any herd in this country. An examination of the
    herd will convince the most skeptical of its great superiority.
    Catalogues on application.

       W. Langworthy, Sec'y,

      _WEST EDMESTON, N.Y._



                  CHEESE AND BUTTER MAKERS' SUPPLIES

                  and Complete Manufacturing Outfits.

    Pat. Gang Cheese Presses, Self Bandaging Cheese Hoops, Cheese Vats,
    Patent Twin Creamery Vats, Curd Sinks, Curd Mills, Curd Knives,
    Churns, Butter Workers, Rennet and Annatto Jars, Fairbanks Scales,
    Cheese Screws and Hoops.


                             PHILADELPHIA

                    DANISH-WESTON CREAM SEPARATOR.

    It saves time; gives ten to fifteen per cent. more butter and
    of better quality; no ice required; leaves skim milk fresh and
    purified; saves room in creamery; pays for itself in a short time;
    cost of maintenance very small as machine is very durable.

    Small Separator, portable, capacity 650 lbs. per hour.
    Medium Separator, capacity 900 to 1,000 lbs. per hour.
    Large Separator, capacity 1,600 to 1,800 lbs. per hour.
    Extra Separator, capacity 2,200 to 2,500 lbs. per hour.

    Send for Special Circular.


         Bradley Butter Boxes, Butter Pails and Butter Trays.

                 CHEESE BOX MATERIAL, TACKS AND NAILS.

       Wire's Patent, Self Cutting, Self Agitating, Self Salting

                         CIRCULAR CHEESE VAT.

    Three Sizes:--5,000, 8,000, 12,000 pounds of milk respectively.


    HANSEN'S DANISH LIQUID BUTTER COLOR.

    FORTY-SIX HIGHEST PRIZES, 3 GOLD MEDALS at World's Fairs. Vegetable
    Oil. Colors the Finest butter made in Europe. Fast superseding
    all other Coloring in America. Does not color the Buttermilk.
    Butter beautiful. Greatly enhances value. No Alkali. Dozen bottles
    and Directions free to Druggists. HANSEN'S EXTRACT of RENNET and
    STANDARD CHEESE COLOR. No manufacturer or repacker can afford to
    neglect Danish preparations.


                 BURRELL & WHITMAN, LITTLE FALLS, N.Y.



                          F.B. FARGO & CO.'S

                               Improved

                             BUTTER COLOR.

    Will Not Color the Buttermilk.
        It is the Strongest Color Made.
            It will not Change to Rancidity.

           It is the ONLY Oil Butter Color manufactured that

                       _WILL NOT FLAVOR BUTTER_

                         BEWARE OF IMITATIONS.

                     _USE ONLY THE MOST RELIABLE._

     Took the Highest Award at New Orleans and Wherever Exhibited.

    We have been engaged in the manufacture of butter color since 1870,
    and were the first to make an oil color in this country. Other
    manufacturers have followed our example, and are now endeavoring to
    reap where we have sown. Ours is the old reliable butter color and
    the only one that is safe to use. All others flavor the butter.

    Our Butter Color is for sale by druggists and grocers generally
    throughout the United States. If they do not have it, ask them to
    order it from their wholesale druggist or grocer. On receipt of
    price we will send our color to any point. Send for prices.

    F.B. Fargo & Co.,

    LAKE MILLS, WIS.



                          ONONDAGA F.F. SALT

                               WARRANTED

                  as Pure as any Salt in the Market.

     Not Excelled for Butter or Cheese, for the Table, or for all
                          Culinary Purposes.

    The following is the analysis made by Prof. Babcock, of the New
    York Experiment Station, in January, 1884:

    Water                                             0.593
    Insoluble Matter                                  0.019
    Sulphate of Lime                                  0.760
    Sulphate of Magnesia                              0.094
    Chloride of Sodium (Pure Salt)                   98.501
                                                     ------
                                                     99.967

    It will be seen by the foregoing that, the Onondaga F.F. Salt
    is very pure, containing only 1-1/2 per cent. of impurities and
    water. The amount of pure salt is 98.501. This is not materially
    different from the analysis of Walz & Stillwell, made by the
    direction of the New York Butter and Cheese Exchange, in 1875--one
    analysis showing 98.5242, and the other 98.3864 parts of pure salt.
    Ashton contained, according to their analysis, 97.7598, and Higgin
    97.6809 parts of pure salt, the impurities equaling 2.20 per cent.
    in Ashton and 2.25 per cent. in Higgin, while the impurities in
    Onondaga F.F. Salt are only 1.50 per cent.

    First premiums were taken at New Orleans, at the World's Fair, by
    both Butter and Cheese salted with Onondaga F.F. Salt. It wins
    everywhere that there is open and fair competition. Dairy goods
    salted with it took a majority of all the premiums (46 out of 89)
    awarded at the Grand Union Fair in Milwaukee, December 2d to 9th.
    1882, over four foreign competitors. It was awarded a medal at the
    Centennial by a committee of scientists and experts from all parts
    of the world, "for purity and high degree of excellence."

    SOLE Manufacturers,

    AMERICAN DAIRY SALT CO., L.

    ADDRESS

        J.W. Barker, Sec'y,

            _SYRACUSE, N.Y._



                         THE CROWELL CREAMER,

                        (_Patent Applied for_)

                     W.H. BOND, Sole Manufacturer.


    It is very easily adjusted when cleaning, no tools or wrenches
    being required, has no glass tubes to get broken, is smoothly,
    strongly and mechanically made and easy to handle or move, and is
    made in all sizes to suit small dairies.

    It consists of a heavy tin receptacle for milk, immersed in water,
    which is held in a double walled vat, and is so constructed that
    either a running stream ornd keeps the milk at an even temperature.

          Lowest in Price, Smoothest Make, Most Durable Stock
              Very Easily Cleaned, No Possible Chance for
                  Souring, and is a Complete Success.


                       THE NEWEST IN THE MARKET

                    Price, size for 56 Quarts, $25.

             Dealers Should Secure the Sale of it at Once.


    _SPECIALTIES_: Tin Roofing, Eave Troughs and Conductors, Sinks,
    Pumps and Lead Pipe, all kinds of Tin, Copper and Sheet Iron Work:
    Cream Pails, Milk Pails, Strainers, and other Dairy Goods Made to
    Order.


                              W.H. BOND,
         127 So. Salina and 3 E. Onondaga Sts., Syracuse, N.Y.



                       Cornish, Curtis & Greene.

    [Illustration: RECTANGULAR CHURN]

                        DAIRY GOODS AND CHURNS.

                    We make from the best material

                           SUPERIOR ARTICLES

              that are models of strength and simplicity.

            _Unquestioned Proof Given of their Durability_

                       SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF THE

             Curtis' Improved Factory Churn, Mason's Power
              Butter Worker, Lever Worker, Curtis' Square
                  Box Churn, Rectangular Churn, Cream
                      Vats, Dog Power, etc., etc.

        "ONE FAMILY CHURN AT WHOLESALE WHERE WE HAVE NO AGENT."

              All goods warranted exactly as represented.

      TWO GOLD AND FOURTEEN SILVER MEDALS AWARDED FOR SUPERIORITY


    =CORNISH, CURTIS & GREENE,
    Ft. Atkinson, Wis.=



                    JENK'S AUTOMATIC CHEESE MAKER,

                The Latest and Greatest Improvement in
                     Cheese Making Appliances for
                             Factory Use.

                  WILL PAY FOR ITSELF IN ONE SEASON.


                               AMERICAN

                        SWEEPSTAKES CURD CUTTER

                and Other Great Improvements in Cheese
                         and Butter Apparatus.


    The Cheapest, Handiest and Best Bandage Made, and a full line of

                  CHEESE FACTORY AND DAIRY SUPPLIES.

                  Send for our Illustrated Circular.

    =CHARLES MILLAR & SON=,
    UTICA, N.Y.



  Transcriber's Notes: There were a number of printer's errors in
  punctuation that have been corrected silently.

  The following changes in spelling have been made:

   Page 26 breedidg is now breeding
   Page 31 aovided is now avoided
   Page 32 ean is now can
   Page 32 commonn is now common
   Page 38 crossiug is now crossing
   Page 54 advantange is now advantage
   Page 67 disadvantange is now disadvantage
   Page 81 disadvantange is now disadvantage
   Page 85 controled is now controlled
   Page 86 aide is now aside

  Words that were printed in bold font are displayed in = =.





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