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Title: New Zealand Moths and Butterflies - (Macro-Lepidoptera)
Author: Hudson, G. V.
Language: English
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Transcriber's note: Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).
      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_). A carat
      character is used to denote superscription: a single character
      following the carat is superscripted (example: 27^9). The
      conventional male and female symbols are indicated by [M] and [F].

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       *       *       *       *       *

NEW ZEALAND

MOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES.

  "The rearing of larvæ, . . . when joined with the entomological
  collection, adds immense interest to Saturday afternoon rambles, and
  forms an admirable introduction to the study of physiology."



  "When simple curiosity passes into the love of knowledge as such, and the
  gratification of the æsthetic sense of the beauty of completeness and
  accuracy seems more desirable than the easy indolence of ignorance; when
  the finding out of the causes of things becomes a source of joy, and he
  is counted happy who is successful in the search; common knowledge of
  Nature passes into what our forefathers called Natural History, from
  whence there is but a step to that which used to be termed Natural
  Philosophy, and now passes by the name of Physical Science."



  "It is interesting to contemplate a tangled bank, clothed with many
  plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various
  insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth,
  and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different
  from each other, and dependent upon each other in so complex a manner,
  largest sense, being Growth with Reproduction; Inheritance which is
  almost implied by reproduction; Variability from the indirect and direct
  action of the conditions of life, and from use and disuse: a Ratio of
  Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence
  to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the
  Extinction of less-improved forms. Thus, from the war of Nature, from
  famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of
  conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly
  follows. There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several
  powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms
  or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according
  to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms
  most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved."



NEW ZEALAND

MOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES

(MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA).


BY

G. V. HUDSON, F.E.S.,

_Author of 'An Elementary Manual of New Zealand Entomology.'_


WITH 13 PLATES.


LONDON:

WEST, NEWMAN & Co., 54, HATTON GARDEN, E.C.

1898.

[Illustration]



PREFACE.


The present work is intended as a guide to those who desire to collect or
study our native _Lepidoptera_, and also as a book of reference to the
general reader.

In the Introduction I have first given an outline of the Transformations
and Structure of the _Lepidoptera_. Then a brief sketch of the Darwinian
theories respecting the origin of species and their special application to
various phenomena exhibited by moths and butterflies, as well as a short
outline of the general principles which have been followed in framing
modern classifications of the order. Next follow five chapters on the
various groups dealt with.

With a few exceptions this work only treats of what are, for the sake of
convenience, termed the _Macro-Lepidoptera_. A similar work on the numerous
and interesting species of _Micro-Lepidoptera_ found in New Zealand may at
some future time be undertaken.

In conclusion, I have to discharge the pleasurable duty of thanking the
numerous entomologists who have so liberally assisted me in the production
of this work. First, and especially, my thanks are due to Mr. Meyrick,
without whose masterly papers and 'Handbook' but little could have been
accomplished. Next, to Mr. R. W. Fereday, who very kindly allowed me to
figure many species of which he alone possesses specimens--in itself an
invaluable assistance. I have also to express my thanks to Messrs. E. F.
Hawthorne, H. P. Hanify, R. I. Kingsley, A. Norris, A. Philpott, and others
for the loan of specimens, and for much valuable information regarding the
localities and habits of rare or local species. Lastly, I have to
acknowledge the aid so willingly given by my lamented friend, the late Mr.
A. S. Olliff, of Sydney.

  KARORI, WELLINGTON,
      NEW ZEALAND,
          1897.



CONTENTS.


                                                          PAGE

  INTRODUCTION                                              ix

  THE CARADRININA                                            1

  THE NOTODONTINA                                           38

  THE PAPILIONINA                                          101

  THE PSYCHINA                                             122

  THE MICROPTERYGINA (PART ONLY)                           127

  APPENDIX (DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF PLANTS)                    137

  GENERAL INDEX                                            141

  SPECIAL INDEX                                            142

  PLATES AND EXPLANATIONS                                  145



{ix}INTRODUCTION.


The order _Lepidoptera_, which includes all those insects commonly known as
Moths and Butterflies, is chiefly distinguished by its members possessing
four wings clothed with numerous minute scales, the term _Lepidoptera_
being derived from the two Greek words, [Greek: lepis], a scale, and
[Greek: pteron], a wing. The mouth of these insects is suctorial, the
maxillæ forming a spiral proboscis which is coiled up between the large
labial palpi when not in use (see Plate I., figs. 5 and 6). The other oral
organs are rudimentary. To acquire this form these insects pass through
three very distinct stages, viz., the Egg, the Larva, and the Pupa.


I.--METAMORPHOSIS.

THE EGG.

The eggs of _Lepidoptera_ are generally somewhat globular, much flattened
above and beneath. Some are very elaborately sculptured, whilst others are
quite smooth. They are usually white or yellowish, but always change much
in colour as the contained embryo develops.


THE LARVA.

The larvæ of moths and butterflies are popularly known as caterpillars.
They always consist of thirteen segments, segment number one being the
head. The head is furnished with several simple eyes (Plate I., fig. 2,
AA), a pair of very short antennæ (BB), and a very powerful masticatory
mouth. The mouth consists of the following organs: The labrum, or upper lip
(1); a pair of mandibles, or upper jaws, working like scissor-blades (2,2);
two maxillæ, or lower jaws (3,3), each carrying a jointed organ termed the
maxillary palpus; and the labium, or lower lip (4); which bears another
pair of minute jointed appendages--the labial palpi.

Segments 2, 3, and 4, which answer to the thorax of the perfect insect, are
each furnished with a pair of legs. They consist of the six following
joints (fig. 2): (_a_) coxa, (_b_) trochanter, (_c_) femur, (_d_) tibia,
(_e_) tarsus, and (_f_) claw. These legs correspond to those of the perfect
insect. The remaining nine segments of the body constitute the abdomen.
Usually segments 7 to 9 and 13, each have a pair of fleshy pads, which are
termed prolegs and are furnished on their edges with a row of minute
hooklets (see Plate I., fig. 14, proleg highly magnified). It is these
hooklets which enable caterpillars to hold on by means of their prolegs
with such great tenacity. The number of the prolegs varies considerably in
different groups and families.

The _spiracles_, or orifices of the air-tubes, are situated on each side of
the larva just above the legs. They are usually present on segments 2 and 5
to 12, but vary {x}considerably in different groups and families. The larva
is provided with a very complete digestive system, which consists of the
following organs (see Plate I., fig. 9): A, the oesophagus; D, the
ventriculus; F, the clavate intestine; E, the ilium; H, the colon; K, the
biliary vessels; and O, the spinning vessels. These last open at a small
orifice in the labium termed the spinneret (fig. 2, 5). They supply the
silken threads which are employed by most larvæ in constructing their
cocoons, and which also serve in cases of danger as a rapid means of
retreat. Many larvæ, which live on shrubs and trees, suddenly lower
themselves to the ground by means of one of these silken threads, and thus
often escape being devoured by insectivorous animals.

The entire growth of the insect is accomplished during the larval
condition, the increase in size being frequently very rapid. Owing to this
circumstance larvæ are often compelled to shed their skin, and in many
species a very considerable alteration both in the shape and colour takes
place at each moult, or ecdysis as it is sometimes termed.


THE PUPA.

The pupa of a Lepidopterous insect is completely encased in a chitinous
envelope. With the exception of a slight twirling of the abdominal segments
it is incapable of any motion. In the pupa of _Micropteryx_ the mandibles
and labial palpi are said to be functionally active, but this is a very
exceptional though extremely interesting case. In conjunction with other
evidence it would appear to indicate that the _Lepidoptera_ originated from
insects with active pupæ. The number of free or movable segments of pupæ
varies considerably in different groups and genera, and by some modern
authors it is regarded as a character of much importance in the framing of
their classifications. The various organs of the perfect insect are
distinctly marked out on the otherwise uniform integument of the pupa. In
some groups, notably the _Micropterygina_, these organs are much more
distinctly indicated than in others.


II.--ANATOMY.

THE PERFECT INSECT OR IMAGO.

In common with all other members of the class, the body of a Lepidopterous
insect consists of three main divisions: (1) the head, (2) the thorax, and
(3) the abdomen.


THE HEAD.

The front of the head is termed the _face_, the top the _crown_, the sides
are nearly entirely occupied by the compound eyes (Plate I., fig. 11, AA),
and the lower surface by the organs of the mouth.

The _Eyes_ consist of a very large number of simple lenses arranged in the
form of two hemispheres, one on each side of the head. The _ocelli_, or
simple eyes, are situated on the crown, and are usually almost entirely
covered by scales.

The _Antennæ_ are two jointed appendages attached to the top of the head
above the eyes. They vary very much in structure. The following are the
terms used in describing the different forms of antennæ in the
_Lepidoptera_:--

1. _Pectinated_, when the joints have long processes like the teeth of a
comb. If these are on one side only, the antennæ are _unipectinated_; if on
both sides, _bipectinated_. (Plate I., fig. 20, bipectinated antenna of
_Nyctemera annulata_.)

2. _Dentate_, when the joints are armed with slight pointed spines.

{xi}3. _Serrate_, when the joints have sharp projections like the teeth of
a saw. (Fig. 18, antenna of _Melanchra composita_.)

4. _Filiform_, when the whole antenna is simple or thread-like. (Fig. 19,
antenna of _Epirranthis alectoraria_.)

The clothing of the antennæ also varies, and is distinguished as under:--

1. _Ciliated_, when clothed with one or two series of short, fine hairs.

2. _Fasciculate-ciliated_, when the hairs are collected into tufts. (Fig.
17, antenna of _Chloroclystis plinthina_.)

3. _Pubescent_, when the antennæ are clothed with uniform short hairs.
(Fig. 19.)

The functions of the antennæ are still a matter of dispute amongst
entomologists. The majority of the older naturalists regarded them as
organs of hearing. The antennæ are almost always more fully developed in
the male than in the female. From this circumstance many modern
entomologists consider that one of their functions is to enable the former
to find the latter.

The organs of the mouth are thus distinguished:--

1. The _Labrum_, or upper lip (Plate I., fig. 11, _l_), a minute
rudimentary plate situated in front immediately above the proboscis.

2. The _Mandibles_, or upper jaws (m.m), two minute sickle-shaped organs
situated just below the labrum, also rudimentary.

3. The _Proboscis_, or _Haustellum_[1] (c), a tubular extensible organ
formed of the two maxillæ, or lower jaws, which have become greatly
elongated, semi-tubular, and closely pressed together at the edges, but
separable at the will of the insect--a structure which enables the organ to
be easily cleansed when necessary, and is extremely interesting as
indicating so clearly the true development of the proboscis from the
maxillæ.

The _Maxillary palpi_ (p.p) are two jointed organs attached to the base of
the proboscis and very frequently rudimentary, but fully developed amongst
certain of the _Micro-Lepidoptera_.

The _Labium_, or lower lip, is situated below the proboscis and carries the
_Labial palpi_ (figs. 5 and 6), two large jointed organs which are very
conspicuous in nearly all the species and often quite conceal the maxillary
palpi. They are usually regarded as organs of touch, but their true
function does not seem to be properly understood. In the _Lepidoptera_ they
appear to protect the proboscis, which, when out of use, is always coiled
up in a spiral between them. The labrum and mandibles can only be seen by
removing the large labial palpi.


THE THORAX

carries the organs of locomotion, which consist of two pairs of wings
attached to its sides, and three pairs of legs attached beneath, a pair
belonging to each of the three segments of which the thorax is composed. On
the front of the thorax there are two flap-like organs covered with scales,
termed the _patagia_.

The _Wings_ vary greatly in shape, but usually they are triangular. The
portion of the wing which joins on to the thorax is termed the _base_. The
front margin is called the _costa_, the outer margin the _termen_, and the
lower margin the _dorsum_, these being described as situated when the wing
is extended in flight. The angle between the costa and termen {xii}is
called the _apex_, and the angle between the termen and the dorsum the
_tornus_ (see Plate I., fig. 1). The termen and dorsum are edged with a
fringe of hair-like scales, termed the _cilia_. At the base of the
hind-wings is generally situated a stiff bristle, or several stiff hairs,
called the _frenulum_, the ends of which pass through a chitinous process
on the under side of the fore-wing near the dorsum. This process is termed
the _retinaculum_, and serves, in conjunction with the frenulum, to lock
the wings together during flight. In the female both these organs are often
very imperfectly developed, the frenulum consisting of several bristly
hairs, and the retinaculum of a group of stiff scales. In many of the
_Lepidoptera_ both frenulum and retinaculum are entirely wanting.

"In the _Micropterygina_, a membranous or spine-like process called the
_jugum_ rises from the dorsum of the fore-wing near the base and passes
under the hind-wing, which is thus held between the process and the
overlapping portion of the fore-wing."--(Meyrick.)

The veins of the wings are thus described by Mr. Meyrick:--

"The wings are traversed by a system of _Veins_--tubular structures which
serve at once as extensions of the tracheal system, and to form a stiff
framework for the support of the wing. In the normal type of _Lepidoptera_
the fore-wings possess three free veins towards the dorsum, termed 1_a_,
1_b_, and 1_c_; a central cell, out of which rise ten veins, numbered 2 to
11, the sides of the cell being known as the upper median, lower median,
and transverse veins respectively; and a free subcostal vein, numbered 12;
whilst the hind-wings differ from the fore-wings in having only six veins
rising from the central cell, numbered 2 to 7, so that the free subcostal
vein is numbered 8 (see Plate I., figs. 3 and 4, assumed type of neuration
of a Lepidopterous insect). In some forms a forked parting-vein traverses
the middle of the cell longitudinally, and a second parting-vein traverses
the upper portion, so as to form a secondary cell; but these are more
frequently absent or represented only by folds in the membrane. In a few
forms there is a tendency to the production of several false veins, termed
_pseudoneuria_, appearing as short branches from the subcostal vein of the
hind-wings to the costa; these are thickenings of the membrane, and are
commonly very irregular and variable, often uneven in thickness or
incomplete. Sometimes one of these near the base is better developed and
more permanent in character; it is then termed the _præcostal spur_ (see
Plate I., figs. 8^9 and 27^9). Modifications in the general arrangement of
the veins may arise through any of the following processes, viz.: (1)
_obsolescence_, when a vein loses its normal tubular structure, becoming
attenuated and reduced in substance, until it appears a mere fold of the
membrane (Plate II., fig. 60, vein 5 in hind-wings of _Selidosema_); (2)
_stalking_, when the two veins are fused together for a portion of their
length from their base, so as to appear to rise on a common stalk (Plate
II., fig. 34, veins 6 and 7 in hind-wing of _Hydriomena_); (3)
_coincidence_, when two veins are fused together for the whole of their
length, so that one appears entirely absent, an extreme form of stalking;
(4) _anastomosis_, when two veins rise separate, meet, and are fused
together for a certain distance, and then separate again (Plate II., fig.
23, veins 7 and 8 in the hind-wings of the [F] of _Tatosoma_); (5)
_concurrence_, when a vein rises separate, runs into another, and does not
separate again, an extreme form of anastomosis; (6) _connection_, when two
veins are connected by a short transverse bar passing from one to the
other, a special form of anastomosis, evolved from the ordinary form under
the influence of a tendency to lateral extension (Plate II., fig. 28, veins
7 and 8 in hind-wing of _Paradetis_). Vein 1_b_ in both wings is often
furcate at the base.

{xiii}"The type of veins in the _Micropterygina_ differs from that
described above in two essential particulars, viz.: (1) there may be three
additional veins in the fore-wings, rising out of vein 11 or 12; and (2)
the veins of the hind-wings are practically identical in number and
structure with those of the fore-wings, being thus much more numerous than
in the ordinary type. There is also often a system of cross-bars between
the veins near the base of the wing (Plate I., figs. 22 and 23, neuration
of _Hepialus_).

"The structure of the veins can be best observed on the under surface of
the wing, where they are more prominent. The student should begin by
completely denuding of scales a few wings of common species: the wing
should be cut off and laid on a moistened piece of glass, to which it will
adhere; the scales should then be removed, first from one surface and then
from the other, with a fine, moist camel's-hair brush--an operation
requiring a little patience and delicacy of touch; the veins will thus be
rendered conspicuous.[2] When, however, the student has familiarised
himself with the general subject, it will not be found necessary in
practice to resort to this process; most details will be easily observed
without denudation[3]; where this is not the case (as where the veins are
closely crowded or otherwise obscured), the scales can be removed with the
brush on the under surface in the locality of the difficulty only, without
cutting off the wing or otherwise damaging the specimen, which remains in
the collection available for all purposes as before; with proper practice,
even the smallest species are amenable to this treatment, which does not
require more skill than the actual setting of the specimen. Some workers
prefer to put a drop of benzine on the spot, which renders it temporarily
transparent; the effect is short-lived, as the benzine evaporates rapidly,
and the cilia (if long) are liable to be damaged by this method."

The _Legs_ consist of the following joints (see Plate I., fig. 21): (1)
_coxa_, (2) _trochanter_, (3) _femur_, (4) _tibia_, (5) _tarsus_, (6)
_claw_. The tarsus normally consists of five joints, but is more or less
aborted when the leg is not employed for walking. The spines (SS) on the
tibiæ of the several legs vary considerably in size and number. They are
often useful to the systematist for purposes of classification.


THE ABDOMEN

consists of nine segments, some of which are often fused together. It
contains the various internal organs, of which the most important are those
of Digestion and Reproduction. The _Digestive System_ (Plate I., fig. 10)
consists of the following organs: A, the _oesophagus_, or throat; C, the
_sucking stomach_; D, the _ventriculus_ or stomach; E, the _small
intestine_; G, the _cæcum_; H, the _colon_; K, the _biliary vessels_; N,
the _salivary vessels_. The function of the _sucking stomach_ is to exhaust
the air in the throat and proboscis, and thus to cause the ascent of the
fluids into the stomach when the insect is feeding.


III.--ORIGIN OF SPECIES.

The theory of the origin of species as propounded by Darwin may be thus
very briefly summarised:--

{xiv}VARIATION.--No two organisms are exactly alike; there is always some
variation from the parent form, in some cases very slight, in others
considerable. (For examples of variation see Plate VII., figs. 1 to 9,
varieties of _Hydriomena deltoidata_; Plate VIII., figs. 42 to 47,
varieties of _Epirranthis alectoraria_; Plate IX., figs. 6 to 14, varieties
of _Selidosema productata_; Plate X., figs. 13 to 23, varieties of _Azelina
gallaria_; Plate X., figs. 39 to 47, varieties of _Declana floccosa_.)

INHERITANCE.--Many of these variations are inherited--a fact demonstrated
by our domestic plants and animals, where man has selected and bred from
varieties suitable for his purposes, and has thus produced races in which
the variation is permanent. Many of the races of domestic animals differ as
much from one another as do some distinct species of wild animals.

STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE.--All animals and plants produce far more offspring
than can possibly survive, thus giving rise to the struggle for existence.
For example: The average number of eggs laid by a Lepidopterous insect is
certainly over 100, and in many species this number is greatly exceeded.
Assuming each female to lay 100 eggs, the progeny from a single pair would
amount, after six generations, to over six million individuals.

NATURAL SELECTION, or the SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST.--In the struggle for
existence which necessarily results from such a great increase of
individuals, those variations which favoured the possessors would be
preserved, whilst those which did not, would be gradually exterminated.
This principle of the preservation of the favourable varieties in the
struggle for life is called Natural Selection, or the Survival of the
Fittest.

DIVERGENCE OF CHARACTER.--As there are so many different places and
conditions in the economy of nature which can be occupied by organic beings
differently constituted, individuals which diverged most from the original
type would be brought into less severe competition, than those which
diverged only in a slight degree. For instance, if we represent the
original form as A, occupying one place in the economy of nature; a second
form as B, occupying a somewhat similar place; a third form as C, occupying
a very different place to A although somewhat similar place to B, it is
obvious that B would enter into severe competition with both A and C,
whilst A and C might not trend to any great extent on one another's place
in the natural economy; hence B would be exterminated before either A or C.
In other words, natural selection continually tends to increase the slight
differences, which we call varieties, into the greater differences, which
we call species.



The following phenomena, which have long been observed by students of the
_Lepidoptera_, will serve as excellent examples of the operation of natural
selection:--

PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE.--This term is applied to those classes of form or
colour which enable an animal to so closely resemble its surroundings as to
escape the notice of its enemies. Numerous examples of protective
resemblance exist in the New Zealand moths and butterflies; in fact, it may
safely be asserted that nearly all the colouring we observe in these
insects has been acquired for protective purposes. The following species,
amongst many others which will be described hereafter, exhibit in a very
marked degree the phenomenon of protective resemblance: _Epirranthis
alectoraria_, _Selidosema dejectaria_, and _Drepanodes muriferata_ resemble
dead leaves; _Chloroclystis {xv}bilineolata_, _Tatosoma agrionata_, and
_Erana graminosa_ resemble, when at rest, patches of moss; _Selidosema
productata_ and _S. lupinata_ resemble the bark of trees; _Chloroclystis
lichenodes_, _Declana floccosa_, and _Elvia glaucata_ resemble variously
coloured lichens. It is almost unnecessary to point out that all those
variations, which tended to conceal the possessors from their enemies,
would be preserved in the struggle for existence, and that these numerous
and perfect instances of protective resemblance would inevitably result
from the operation of natural selection. The dark colouration of Alpine and
Arctic _Lepidoptera_, which enables them to rapidly absorb heat during the
short and fitful gleams of sunshine experienced on mountains or in high
latitudes, is also an instance of adaptation to conditions through the
influence of natural selection. This was first pointed out by Lord
Walsingham in 1885. The almost complete absence of white species in these
localities is a good example of the extinction of forms unfitted to their
surroundings.

CONTRAST COLOURS.--In this class of colouring the fore-wings only are
protectively coloured, the hind-wings being very conspicuous. Contrast
colouring is well exemplified by several of the insects included in the
genus _Notoreas_. The sudden exhibition of the hind-wings during flight
dazzles the eye of the pursuer. When the insect immediately afterwards
closes its wings and the fore-wings alone are visible, it is extremely
difficult to see. This form of protective colouring was also first drawn
attention to by Lord Walsingham. (See page 75.)

WARNING COLOURS.--Insects, which are unfit for food or nauseous, are not
protectively coloured, but on the contrary are rendered as conspicuous as
possible. This class of colouring is well illustrated by one of our
commonest moths, _Nyctemera annulata_ (Pl. IV., figs. 1 and 2). The
principle of warning colours was first discovered by Mr. A. R. Wallace, and
is graphically described in Professor Poulton's entertaining work, 'The
Colours of Animals.' The possession of nauseous qualities would be of
little value to an insect, unless it could be at once recognised by
insectivorous animals and avoided as food. If a nauseous insect were not
easily identified it would speedily be destroyed by what Professor Poulton
ingeniously terms "experimental tasting"; hence, through the process of
natural selection, all nauseous species have become very conspicuously
coloured. It may be remarked that warning colours are extremely rare
amongst the New Zealand species, and I am not aware of any other example
than that already given.

MIMICRY.--This term is applied to those remarkable cases where a harmless
or edible species imitates in form and colouring a highly armed or nauseous
species. No instances of this extremely interesting class of protection are
yet known amongst the New Zealand _Lepidoptera_, but a very perfect example
of mimicry exists between two common introduced species of _Hymenoptera_
and _Diptera_, the well-known honey-bee and the drone-fly. The superficial
resemblance between these two insects is very close. The bee, as every one
knows, is armed with a powerful sting, whilst the drone-fly is unarmed. In
this case it can be seen that if a harmless insect varied in the direction
of resembling a formidable or objectionable species it would be a decided
advantage to it, and such varieties would tend to be continually preserved
and improved, through the operation of natural selection. The subject of
mimicry has been alluded to here as it is not impossible that some
instances of it may yet be discovered in connection with our native
_Lepidoptera_.

{xvi}ORNAMENTAL COLOURING.--This class of colouring occurs in many species,
especially amongst the butterflies, and is not apparently connected in any
way with protection. Darwin supposes that it has arisen through the females
of each species always selecting the most beautiful males as mates, hence
these alone would leave progeny, and the females themselves would
afterwards become beautiful through the effects of inheritance. This
principle Darwin has termed Sexual Selection, and has discussed it in great
detail in his work on the 'Descent of Man.' The fact, that amongst birds
and butterflies the males are nearly always the most brilliantly coloured
and the most beautiful, together with an immense mass of other evidence,
tends, I think, to entirely support Darwin's theory, although it should be
mentioned that several eminent naturalists, including Mr. Wallace, do not
admit the principle of Sexual Selection.


IV.--CLASSIFICATION.

From a further consideration of the foregoing principles it will be seen
that all existing species are held to be descended by true generation from
pre-existing species, and that, consequently, all the relationships we
observe between species are explained by community of origin. The most
natural system of classification is, therefore, that which best reveals the
scheme of descent, or, as it is termed, the phylogeny, of the group of
organisms classified. To construct a perfect system of classification on
these principles a knowledge of not only all the existing species of
_Lepidoptera_ would be essential, but also of all the extinct species, and
it is needless to say that such knowledge is quite unattainable.
Nevertheless large numbers of species are now known from many parts of the
world, and a very extensive collection has recently been employed by Mr.
Meyrick in framing a classification of the _Lepidoptera_, which is, to the
best of my belief, the first constructed on strictly Darwinian principles.
Although adopting Mr. Meyrick's system in the present work I do not agree
unreservedly with all his conclusions; but I have not attempted to alter
his system in accordance with my own views, as I conceive that the
conclusions of a naturalist, who has only had the opportunity of studying a
restricted fauna, would necessarily be liable to considerable error.

The general principles on which Mr. Meyrick has founded his system are
practically those laid down by Darwin in his 'Origin of Species,' and may
be thus summarised:--

A. Resemblances between all organisms are explained by community of origin,
the amount of difference representing the amount of modification and
expressible in the classification as varieties, species, genera, families,
groups, orders, &c. The amount of difference does not _necessarily_ bear
any direct relation to time, many forms remaining almost stationary whilst
others are undergoing development.

B. By a consideration of the following laws the age of a division can be
approximately arrived at; that is to say, its position in the great
genealogical tree of the _Lepidoptera_ can be, to some extent,
determined:--

"(1) No new organ can be produced except as a modification of some
previously existing structure.

"(2) A lost organ cannot be regained.

"(3) A rudimentary organ is rarely redeveloped."--(Meyrick.)

{xvii}C. The greatest care is necessary to avoid being misled by adaptive
characters, _i.e._, characters which are very important to the welfare of
the species, and hence much modified through the agency of natural
selection. A familiar instance of superficial resemblance, due to the
presence of similar adaptive characters, may be observed in fishes and
whales, where two groups of animals with but little real relationship have,
through living under similar conditions, become extremely like each other
in external appearance. Other examples might be given amongst exotic
_Lepidoptera_. Thus, many noxious species are closely mimicked by harmless
forms which are often far removed from them in real affinity. These cases
of adaptive resemblances abound amongst all organisms, and have often
deceived experienced naturalists. It is in consequence of the illusive
nature of these external resemblances amongst different members of the
_Lepidoptera_, that the structure of the neuration of the wings is now
considered of such great importance as a character for purposes of
classification. The numerous modifications in the position of the veins and
their presence or absence in certain groups can, so far as we are able to
see, have had very little effect on the well-being of those insects
possessing such modifications. Hence it may fairly be assumed, that these
structures have been free from the influence of natural selection for a
very lengthened period. It is thus contended that the neuration of a
Lepidopterous insect probably reveals more plainly than any other character
its true relationship with other species.

The descent of all the _Lepidoptera_ from some ancient member of the
_Trichoptera_ (or caddis-flies) is thus proved, according to Mr. Meyrick:--

"From a consideration of the laws enunciated above, there can be no doubt
that the _Micropterygina_ are the ancestral group of the _Lepidoptera_,
from which all others have descended; this is sufficiently proved by the
existence of the four or more additional veins in the hind-wings of that
group, for these veins, if not originally present, could not have been
afterwards produced. Of the two families of that group, the
_Micropterygidæ_, which possess an additional vein (or veins) in the
fore-wings, and fully developed six-jointed maxillary palpi, must be more
primitive than the _Hepialidæ_. Now if the neuration of the whole of the
_Lepidoptera_ is compared with that of all other insects, it will be found
that in no instance is there any close resemblance, except in the case of
the _Micropterygidæ_; but the neuration of these so closely approaches that
of certain _Trichoptera_ (caddis-flies) as to be practically identical. The
conclusion is clear, that the _Lepidoptera_ are descended from the
_Trichoptera_, and that the _Micropterygidæ_ are the true connecting link.
If the other marked structural characters of the _Micropterygidæ_ are taken
into consideration, viz., the possession of the jugum, the large
development of the maxillary palpi as compared with the labial, and the
sometimes functionally active mandibles, they will be all found commonly in
the _Trichoptera_, affording additional confirmation. It may be added that
in one New Zealand species of _Micropterygidæ_ (_Palæomicra chalcophanes_)
vein _1b_ is basally trifurcate, a character frequent in the _Trichoptera_,
but not yet discovered in any other _Lepidopteron_. In most _Trichoptera_
the veins of the hindwings are much more numerous than those of the
fore-wings, in the _Micropterygina_ they are usually equal in number, in
other _Lepidoptera_ they are less numerous; in the course of descent there
has therefore been a greater progressive diminution in the number of veins
of the hind-wings as compared with those of the fore-wings, though these
also have diminished.

{xviii}"It is unnecessary to trace back the descent of the _Lepidoptera_
further; but it may be worth while to point out that we may assume as the
primitive type of Trichopterous neuration, a system of numerous
longitudinal veins gradually diverging from the base, mostly furcate
terminally, and connected by a series of irregularly placed cross-bars near
base, and another series beyond middle."

The following is Mr. Meyrick's method of arrangement, which has been
adopted in this book:--

"The natural order of arrangement, which is that of a much-branched tree,
cannot be adequately expressed by a simple linear succession, such as is
alone practicable in a book. It is, however, possible to devise a linear
succession which shall be consistent with the natural genealogical order,
if some additional explanation can be given. The method here adopted is as
follows:--

[Illustration]

"Suppose the accompanying diagram represents a portion of the genealogical
tree; then the order will begin at M and descend to K, recommence at L and
descend to K, and thence to G, recommence at H and descend to G, and thence
to B, recommence at F and descend to D, recommence at E and descend to D
and thence to B, recommence at C and descend to B and thence to A, and so
on. Thus the order begins with the most recently developed forms and
descends gradually to the earliest or most ancestral, which are the last in
the book. To understand the order in practice, it may be assumed that each
genus is descended from that which immediately follows it in the book,
unless its actual descent is expressly stated otherwise; such statement
will, of course, require to be made before every recommencement of a fresh
branch. This system has been adhered to throughout, and after a little use
will not be found unintelligible. If adopted in the arrangement of a
collection in the cabinet, it would be a good plan to indicate the
recommencement of a fresh branch by a special mark, such as a red bar drawn
above the first (or highest) species."

PHYLOGENY OF LEPIDOPTERA. (After Meyrick.)

                       Notodontina          Papilionina
                            |                     |
  Caradrinina         Lasiocampina           Pyralidina
       |                    |                     |
       +--------------------+---------------------+
                            |
                        Psychina      Tortricina
                             |              |
                             +-------+------+
                                     |
                                  Tineina
                                     |
                              Micropterygina


{xix}V.--GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.

The details of geographical distribution are given under the headings of
the respective species, so far as I have been able to ascertain them; but
our knowledge in this direction is necessarily limited, and I have found
much difficulty in obtaining reliable information, on account of the
obstacles which exist in regard to the correct identification of species in
other countries.

The distribution of the species within New Zealand is also very imperfectly
known at present, owing to the paucity of collectors and observers,
particularly in the extreme north of New Zealand, and on the west coast of
the South Island. In the latter locality no doubt many interesting species
remain to be discovered, especially amongst the mountain ranges.



In employing the book for identifications, the reader is recommended to
first refer to the Plates and see if he can find anything at all resembling
the species he has, and then to refer to the description for verification.
In dealing with variable forms, it is always well to remember that the
_shape_ of markings is generally far more constant than their intensity, or
even their colour.

The purely descriptive portions of the work have been made as brief as
possible, and characters, of special importance for the identification of
species, are printed in italics. Those who desire to consult more detailed
descriptions may readily do so by referring to Mr. Meyrick's papers, in the
Transactions of the New Zealand Institute and elsewhere. References to such
papers are invariably given under the synonomy of each species which has
been described by Mr. Meyrick.

It should be mentioned that the figures and descriptions in this work have
been prepared from nature, quite separately, and no attempt has been made
to reconcile the figure with the description. This course has been followed
so that any character, which may have been accidentally omitted from the
figure, will not necessarily be wanting in the description.

The figures of neuration (Plates I. and II.) have all been made from fully
denuded specimens examined under the microscope. They are in nearly every
instance considerably enlarged. Each drawing has afterwards been compared
with Mr. Meyrick's description, and if found to differ, a second
examination of the wings has been made with a view to a reconciliation of
results. Any important differences observed between Mr. Meyrick's
descriptions and my final results are in every case specially mentioned.



{1}NEW ZEALAND

MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA.



I.--THE CARADRININA.


The _Caradrinina_ may be distinguished by the following characters:--

  "The maxillary palpi are obsolete, the fore-wings have vein _1b_ simple
  or hardly furcate, _1c_ absent, and 5 approximated to 4 towards base. The
  hind-wings are furnished with a frenulum, vein _1c_ is absent, and 8 is
  connected or anastomosing with cell." (See Plate II., figs. 1 to 12 and
  14 to 18.)

  "Imago with the fore-wings more or less elongate-triangular, termen not
  very oblique; hind-wings broad-ovate.

  "Larva sometimes very hairy, usually with 10 prolegs, those on segments 7
  and 8 sometimes absent. (Plate III., figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15 and 16.)
  Pupa with segments 9 to 11 free; not protruded from cocoon in
  emergence."--(Meyrick.)

So far as New Zealand is concerned, the _Caradrinina_ may be said to
comprise that group of the Lepidoptera formerly known as the _Noctuina_,
with the addition of the family _Arctiadæ_. Its members are chiefly
nocturnal fliers; the body is usually stout, the forewings are narrow, and
(except in the _Arctiadæ_) mostly dull-coloured, with three very
characteristic spots. 1. The orbicular stigma, a round spot situated near
the middle of the wing; 2. The claviform stigma usually somewhat
club-shaped and situated immediately below the orbicular; and 3. The
reniform stigma, a kidney-shaped marking situated beyond the orbicular. The
claviform is very frequently absent, and the orbicular less frequently so,
but the reniform is an almost constant character throughout the entire
group, with the exception of the _Arctiadæ_.

There are three families of the _Caradrinina_ represented in New Zealand,
viz.:--

1. ARCTIADÆ.    2. CARADRINIDÆ.    3. PLUSIADÆ.


Family 1.--ARCTIADÆ.

The _Arctiadæ_ may be characterised as follows:--

  "Eyes smooth. Tongue developed. Posterior tibiæ with all spurs present.
  Hind-wings with veins 6 and 7 connate or stalked (rarely approximated or
  coincident), 8 anastomosing with cell nearly or quite from base to middle
  or beyond."--(Meyrick.) (See Plate II., figs. 1, 2, and 4, 5.)

This interesting family, although generally distributed throughout the
world, is very poorly represented in New Zealand. Unlike most of the
_Caradrinina_, many of the included species are day fliers and gaily
coloured. One of these, _Nyctemera annulata_, is probably one of the most
familiar of New Zealand insects, whilst the four remaining representatives
of the family are but seldom seen. To British entomologists the name of
{2}"tiger moths" will probably at once recall several conspicuous and
beautiful members of this family.

Three genera of the _Arctiadæ_ are represented in New Zealand, viz.:--

1. NYCTEMERA.    2. UTETHEISA.    3. METACRIAS.


Genus 1.--NYCTEMERA, Hb.

  "Tongue well developed. Antennæ in [M] bipectinated throughout. Palpi
  moderately long, porrected or rather ascending, with appressed scales;
  terminal joint moderate, cylindrical. Forewings with vein 6 out of 9 or
  separate, 7 and 8 out of 9, 10 connected with 9 by a bar. Hind-wings with
  veins 6 and 7 stalked or separate, 8 anastomosing shortly with margin of
  cell near base." (Plate II., fig. 3 head, 4 neuration of fore-wing, 5
  ditto of hind-wing.)

  "The single New Zealand species is endemic, but nearly allied to an
  Australian form."--(Meyrick.)


NYCTEMERA ANNULATA, Boisd.

  (_Leptosoma annulata_, Boisd., Voy. Astr. v. 197, pl.  v.  9; Dbld.,
  Dieff, N. Z. ii. 284. _Nyctemera doubledayi_, Walk., Bomb. 392.
  _Nyctemera annulata_, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 1886, 700; ditto,
  Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 218.)

(Plate IV., fig. 1 [M], 2 [F]; Plate III., fig. 9, larva.)

This species is perhaps one of the best known of the New Zealand
Lepidoptera, occurring in great profusion in all parts of both North and
South Islands. It is also common at Stewart Island, in the neighbourhood of
cultivation.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1¾ inches. _All the wings are deep
  sooty black. The forewings have an irregular cream-coloured band running
  from beyond the middle of the costa towards the tornus._ This band is
  interrupted in the middle, and crossed by several black veins, which
  sometimes almost break it up into a chain of spots. The hind-wings have a
  single large cream-coloured spot near the middle. The body is black, with
  several orange markings on the thorax, and a series of broad orange rings
  on the abdomen.

This species varies a good deal in the extent of the cream-coloured
markings.

The larva feeds on the New Zealand groundsel (_Senecio bellidioides_), but
in cultivated districts it is more often observed on _Senecio scandens_, a
plant having a superficial resemblance to ivy, which frequently grows in
great profusion on fences and hedgerows in various parts of the country.

Mr. W. W. Smith informs us[4] that it also feeds on the common groundsel
(_S. vulgaris_) as well as on _Cineraria maritima_. I have often seen these
caterpillars on mild days in the middle of winter, and full-grown specimens
are very common towards the end of August, so that I think there is little
doubt that the species passes the winter in the larval condition. At other
seasons there is a continuous succession of broods.

  The length of the caterpillar when full grown is 1½ inches. It is covered
  with numerous tufts of long black hair, and is black in colour, with the
  dorsal and lateral lines dark-red. There are several large blue spots
  round the middle of each of the segments, and the membrane between each
  segment is bluish-grey. In younger larvæ the bluish-grey colouring
  extends over a considerable portion of the insect.

This caterpillar may be readily found, as it feeds on the upper surface of
the leaves fully exposed to view. Its hairy armour evidently renders it
unpalatable to birds, and hence the secret habits we observe in most larvæ
are absent in this species.

When full-fed it selects a secluded spot, generally a crevice in the trunk
of a tree, where it spins an oval cocoon of silk intermixed with its own
hairs. Here it changes {3}into a shining black pupa, speckled and striped
with yellow. The insect remains in this state about six weeks.

The moth first appears in September, and continues abundant until about the
end of March. It is extremely common, especially during the latter end of
summer, when specimens may often be seen flying in all directions. Mr.
Meyrick observes[5] that this species has the curious habit of soaring in
the early morning sunshine, soon after sunrise, in calm, fine weather. He
states that he has seen them in numbers, flying round the tops of trees, at
a height of over 100 feet. I can fully corroborate the accuracy of this
interesting observation, and have noticed the insect to be most active
between the hours of five and eight on fine mornings in midsummer. The
habit is certainly a very unusual one, as most insects are rarely seen at
that time of the day.

This moth is confined to New Zealand, but two closely allied species,
belonging to the same genus, are found in Australia.


Genus 2.--UTETHEISA, Hb.

  "Head smooth. Ocelli large. Antennæ in [M] ciliated, with longer setæ at
  joints. Palpi moderate, ascending, with loosely appressed scales. Thorax
  smooth beneath. Abdomen smooth-scaled. Tibiæ smooth-scaled, spurs very
  short. Fore-wings with veins 7 and 8 out of 9, 10 connected with 9.
  Hind-legs with veins 3, 4, 5 rather approximated, 6 or 7 connate or
  short-stalked, 8 from middle of cell."

"A small genus inhabiting the warmer regions of the world. Larva with
rather scanty hairs, some finely branched."--(Meyrick.)

Represented in New Zealand by a single species of wide distribution.


UTETHEISA PULCHELLA, L.

(_Deiopeia pulchella_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 217.)

(Plate IV., fig. 3.)

This species was first observed in New Zealand in February, 1887, when I
captured a single specimen in the Wainui-o-mata valley. Since that time Mr.
A. Norris has seen two others near Petone, one of which is now in his
collection. All the specimens at present noticed have consequently occurred
in a very restricted portion of the Wellington District, though it is
probable that the insect is far more generally distributed throughout the
country than these records would seem to indicate.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1¼ inches. _The fore-wings are white,
  with five irregular transverse rows of oblong crimson spots, alternating
  with six irregular rows of small black dots._ The hind-wings are white,
  irregularly clouded with black on the termen; there are two small black
  spots near the middle. The body is white; the head and thorax are spotted
  with crimson, and the antennæ are black.

The larva is thus described by Newman:--[6]

  "The ground colour is leaden with a covering of black hairs; there is a
  broad white stripe down the back, and on each segment down the side is a
  double scarlet spot. On the continent of Europe this caterpillar is said
  to feed on the forget-me-not (_Myosotis arvensis_)."

In New Zealand the moth appears in February. Mr. Meyrick remarks[7]:--"It
is probably only an occasional immigrant. Although a feeble-looking insect,
it possesses extraordinary capabilities of flight, and is sometimes met
with far out at sea. It occurs throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia,
and the Pacific Islands." It is well known to {4}English entomologists as a
great rarity, and many discussions have taken place at various times as to
the propriety of retaining it on the list of British Lepidoptera.


Genus 3.--METACRIAS, Meyr.

  "Tongue obsolete. Antennæ in [M] moderately bipectinated throughout.
  Palpi rather short, hairy, concealed in rough hairs of head. Thorax and
  femora densely hairy beneath. Anterior tibiæ with developed spine
  beneath, and apical hook. Fore-wings with vein 2 from 2/3, 6 from point
  with or out of 9, 7 and 8 out of 9, 10 sometimes connected with 9 at a
  point above 7. Hind-wings with veins 3 and 4 almost from point, 6 and 7
  from point or short-stalked, 8 from about 1/3. Wings in [F] rudimentary.
  (Plate II., fig. 1 neuration of fore-wing, fig. 2 ditto of hind-wing.)

"An interesting and peculiar genus, apparently most allied to some
Australian forms of _Spilosoma_, but quite distinct. Three species have
been discovered, two of them quite recently, and it is not unreasonable to
hope that additional forms may hereafter be found amongst the mountains, to
which they seem especially attached."--(Meyrick).


METACRIAS STRATEGICA, Hdsn.

(_Arctia strategica_, Hdsn., Entom., 1889, 53. _Metacrias strategica_,
Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 216.)

(Plate IV., fig. 4.)

This handsome species is at present only known by a single specimen,
captured by Mr. W. W. Smith, near the summit of the Richardson Range, in
South Canterbury, at an elevation of about 3,000 feet.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1½ inches. _The fore-wings are
  black, with two broad, dull yellow, longitudinal streaks_; between the
  costa and the first streak is a very fine yellowish line, and between the
  two streaks there are three similar lines. _The hind-wings are bright
  yellow, with a broad black band, parallel to the termen, interrupted just
  before the tornus; the vicinity of this black band is tinged with
  crimson._ The body is black; the top of the head, collar, and sides of
  the thorax and abdomen are dull yellow. The female is probably apterous.

This species may be readily distinguished from the two following by the
yellow collar, absence of any large spot in the centre of both fore-wings
and hind-wings, and the red colouring of the termen of the hind-wings. The
moth was taken in February, frequenting a species of _Carmichælia_. It may
be looked for in the mountainous regions of South Canterbury, but at
present nothing further is known of its habits.


METACRIAS ERICHRYSA, Meyr.

(_Metacrias erichrysa_, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1886, 749; ditto,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 216.)

(Plate IV., fig. 5.)

This species was discovered by Mr. Meyrick on Mount Arthur in the Nelson
District in 1886. Since that time I have taken eleven specimens in the same
locality, and have seen several others, but as yet I have not heard of its
occurrence elsewhere.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. _The fore-wings are black, with
  orange-yellow markings._ These consist of a fine line near the costa,
  becoming very broad near the base, several elongate markings between the
  veins near the middle, a series of spots near the termen, and a broad
  streak parallel to the dorsum. The hind-wings are orange-yellow, with a
  curved black spot in the middle, and a broad black band on the termen,
  ending considerably before the tornus, and nearly broken a little before
  its termination. The female, according to Mr. Meyrick,[8] is "wholly
  whitish-ochreous; wings minute, aborted; legs short, stout, well
  developed."

The life-history is thus described by Mr. Meyrick[9]: "The larva is wholly
black, clothed with long black hairs, those covering segmental incisions
brownish-ochreous. It feeds on _Senecio bellidioides_. The pupa is enclosed
in a slight cocoon."

{5}The perfect insect occurs in January, frequenting sunny, grassy slopes
on the mountain-sides, at about 4,000 feet above the sea-level. It flies
with great rapidity; hence it is generally very difficult to catch.


METACRIAS HUTTONII, Butl.

(_Phaos huttonii_, Butl., Cist. Ent. 487; _Metacrias huttonii_, Meyr.,
Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1886, 750; Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 216.)

(Plate IV., fig. 6.)

This interesting species was discovered at Lake Wakatipu, by Professor
Hutton.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1-1/8 inches. The fore-wings
  are black; _there is an oblique crimson line near the base_, two broad
  longitudinal cream-coloured lines above and below the middle, and a
  double transverse series of oblong cream-coloured spots near the termen.
  The hind-wings are pale ochreous, with a black crescent-shaped spot near
  the middle, and a broad black band almost touching the termen except a
  little before the tornus. The female is apterous.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


Family 2.--CARADRINIDÆ.

The _Caradrinidæ_ are distinguished by the following characters:--

  "Ocelli usually present. Tongue usually well developed. Labial palpi
  moderate, more or less ascending, second joint densely scaled, usually
  rough, terminal rather short, obtuse. Thorax usually densely hairy
  beneath. Posterior tibiæ with all spurs present. Fore-wings with veins 7
  and 8 out of 9, 10 connected with 9. Hind-wings with veins 3 and 4
  connate or short-stalked, 5 obsolete or imperfect, parallel to 4, 6 and 7
  connate or short-stalked or seldom closely approximated only, 8 shortly
  anastomosing with cell near base, thence evenly diverging." (Plate II.,
  figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.)

"A dominant family in temperate regions, especially in the northern
hemisphere, the species being very numerous and often occurring in great
plenty; within the tropics, however, their place is largely taken by the
_Plusiadæ_. The structure is in most particulars remarkably uniform, the
neuration and palpi being practically identical throughout the family. The
markings are usually very similar, and the colouring dull and adapted to
conceal insects which are accustomed to hide amongst dead leaves or refuse;
hence this family is not one of the easiest or most attractive to study.
The species are the most truly nocturnal of all the Lepidoptera; few are
readily obtainable by day, but at night they are found in abundance at
flowers or sugar. Imago with fore-wings usually elongate, body relatively
stout, and densely scaled. It may be noted as an established conclusion
that antennal pectinations, if not extending to the apex of the antennæ,
are in this family seldom sufficient to mark generic distinction.

"Ovum spherical, more or less distinctly ribbed, and reticulated. Larva
usually with few hairs, often nocturnal, sometimes subterranean; often very
polyphagous. Pupa usually subterranean."--(Meyrick.)

The family is represented in New Zealand by the following twelve genera:--

                                { 1. MISELIA.
  Sub-family 1.--POLIADES       { 2. ORTHOSIA.
                                { 3. XANTHIA.

                                { 4. PHYSETICA.
                                { 5. LEUCANIA.
  Sub-family 2.--MELANCHRIDES   { 6. ICHNEUTICA.
                                { 7. MELANCHRA.
                                { 8. ERANA.

                                { 9. BITYLA.                          {6}
  Sub-family 3.--CARADRINIDES   { 10. AGROTIS.
                                { 11. HELIOTHIS.
                                { 12. COSMODES.


Sub-family 1.--_POLIADES_.

  "Eyes naked, ciliated (_i.e._, furnished with a marginal row of long
  cilia curving over them)."--(Meyrick.)


Genus 1.--MISELIA, Steph.

  "Antennæ in male filiform, moderately ciliated. Thorax with anterior
  angles projecting, somewhat crested. Abdomen not crested."--(Meyrick.)

We have at present but one New Zealand species.


MISELIA PESSOTA, Meyr.

(_Miselia pessota_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 29.)

(Plate V., fig. 26.)

This little species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at
Lake Coleridge and Rakaia in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. The fore-wings are dull
  purplish-brown; _there is an oblong black mark at the base of the dorsum
  containing a slender curved white line_; the orbicular is rather small,
  round, margined first with dull white and then with black; the reniform
  is large, oblong, dull white, margined with pale ochreous towards the
  base of the wing; _there is a conspicuous oblong black mark between the
  orbicular and reniform stigmata_. The hind-wings are dull grey, with the
  cilia paler.

The perfect insect appears in January. One specimen was taken at sugar in
the Wellington Botanical Gardens, and two specimens are recorded from
Canterbury. It is evidently a scarce species.


Genus 2.--ORTHOSIA, Ochs.

  "Head rough-scaled; eyes naked, ciliated. Antennæ in male ciliated.
  Thorax with or without anterior crest. Abdomen not crested.

"A considerable genus of nearly universal distribution, though mainly found
in temperate regions of both hemispheres. The imagos are almost all
autumnal, and their yellow and ferruginous colouring is doubtless adapted
to the autumn tints of falling leaves."--(Meyrick.)

Represented in New Zealand by three species.


ORTHOSIA MARGARITA, Hawth.

(_Orthosia margarita_, Hawth., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxix. 283.)

(Plate V., fig. 31.)

This species was discovered at Wellington by Mr. E. F. Hawthorne.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-1/3 inches. The fore-wings are dark
  brownish-black and rather glossy; there are several obscure dark marks
  near the base; the orbicular is oval, oblique, brownish-yellow, slightly
  darker in the middle; the claviform is almost obsolete; the reniform is
  rather large, bordered with dull white towards the base and termen;
  beyond the reniform there is a very distinct wavy transverse line;
  another line is situated near the termen emitting several black
  wedge-shaped markings from its inner edge. _The hind-wings are shining
  white and iridescent, with the veins black and the costa and termen
  narrowly shaded with black._

Described and figured from specimens in Mr. Hawthorne's collection.


{7}ORTHOSIA COMMA, Walk.

  (_Mamestra comma_, Walk., Noct. 239; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix., 6.
  _Graphiphora implexa_, Walk., Noct. 405. _Hadena plusiata_, ib., Suppl.
  742; _Nitocris bicomma_, Gn., Ent. Mon. Mag. v., 4. _Orthosia comma_,
  Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 30.)

(Plate V., fig. 27 [M], 28 [F]; Plate III., fig. 11, larva.)

This is apparently a common and generally distributed species. It has
occurred plentifully at Wellington, Blenheim, Christchurch, and Rakaia.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. The fore-wings are dark
  grey crossed by four wavy, black-margined, transverse lines; beyond the
  outermost of these lines there is a black band running parallel with the
  termen, and beyond this again a broader band of the ground colour; the
  orbicular spot is very minute and dull white; the reniform, which is
  surrounded by a black shading, is large, yellow towards the costa, and
  white towards the termen. The hind-wings are dark grey. The females are
  generally much darker than the males, some specimens having the
  fore-wings very dark brownish-black.

Both sexes vary a good deal in the depth of colouring, but the markings
appear to be quite constant.

  The larva is dark brown, tinged with pink; the subdorsal region is paler,
  there are a series of diagonal blackish stripes on each segment, and the
  anterior portions of the larva are much darker than the rest of the body.

The specimens I reared were fed on lettuce, but I expect that the
caterpillar feeds on low plants generally. It is full grown about January.
The pupa state is spent in the earth.

The moth appears in January, February, and March. It is very common at the
flowers of the white rata, and may also be attracted by sugar and by light.


ORTHOSIA IMMUNIS, Walk.

  (_Tæniocampa immunis_, Walk., Noct. 430. _Cerastis innocua_, ib. 1710
  (locality probably erroneous). _Agrotis acetina_, Feld., Reis. Nov. pl.
  cix. 6. _Orthosia immunis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 30.)

(Plate V., fig. 29.)

This species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at
Blenheim in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. _The fore-wings vary from
  bright orange-brown to dull reddish-brown_; there is an obscure black dot
  near the base, a faint transverse line at about one-fourth; the orbicular
  is oval, faintly outlined in brown; the claviform is very faint, its
  position indicated by a small brown dot; the reniform is large, oblong,
  much indented towards the termen, doubly outlined with dull yellow and
  containing a blackish spot towards its lower edge, its posterior margin
  is shaded with dark brown; there are several faint, wavy, transverse
  lines near the termen, and the termen itself is shaded with
  brownish-black; the cilia are reddish-brown. The hind-wings are dull
  grey; the cilia are pale reddish-ochreous tipped with white. _The head is
  covered with scattered white scales_, the thorax is reddish-brown, and
  the abdomen is grey tipped with reddish-brown; _the upper joints of the
  tarsi of the anterior legs are white_.

The perfect insect appears in January, February, and March. It frequents
the blossoms of the white rata, where it occasionally may be taken in the
daytime, but more frequently at night. It is not, however, a common
species.


Genus 3.--XANTHIA, Tr.

  "Antennæ in male filiform, moderately ciliated. Thorax with sharp
  compressed anterior and small posterior crest. Abdomen not
  crested."--(Meyrick.)

Only one New Zealand species is known at present.


{8}XANTHIA PURPUREA, Butl.

(_Graphiphora purpurea_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. _Xanthia ceramodes_, Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 31. _X. purpurea_, ib. xx. 46.)

(Plate V., fig. 32.)

This handsome species has been found at Wellington in the North Island, and
at Dunedin in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. The fore-wings are rich, glossy
  reddish-brown with several scattered whitish scales; there is a distinct
  yellow mark on the costa at about one-fourth, forming the beginning of a
  broken transverse line; the orbicular is small, round, and yellowish; the
  reniform is small, crescentic and yellowish, _the space between the
  orbicular and the reniform is very dark blackish-brown_; beyond the
  reniform there is a conspicuous white mark on the costa forming the
  beginning of a second broken transverse line; a third shaded line is
  situated near the termen. The hind-wings are pale brown with a dark spot
  in the middle, very conspicuous on the under surface.

The perfect insect appears from September till April. It is usually taken
at sugar or light, but is not a very common species.


Sub-family 2.--_MELANCHRIDES_.

  Eyes hairy.

Genus 4.--PHYSETICA, Meyr.

  "Palpi with terminal joint in male greatly swollen, as broad as second,
  rather short, rounded, with an orifice in outer side, in female normal.
  Antennæ in male filiform, simple. Thorax and abdomen smooth."--(Meyrick.)
  (Plate II., fig. 8.)


PHYSETICA CÆRULEA, Gn.

(_Agrotis cærulea_, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 38. _Physetica cærulea_, Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 5.)

(Plate IV., fig. 7.)

This fine species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at
Blenheim and Rakaia in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-5/8 inches. _The fore-wings are
  slaty-blue_; there is an obscure, wavy, whitish transverse line near the
  base, two very wavy blackish lines at about one-third, a dark transverse
  shaded line across the middle, containing the orbicular spot, then a very
  wavy line followed by a darker space and a wavy, dull, whitish terminal
  line. Hind-wings dark grey, paler near the base, cilia shining white.

The perfect insect appears in October, December, and January. Mr. Fereday
states that it was formerly very common at blossoms.


Genus 5.--LEUCANIA, Ochs.

  "Head rough-scaled; eyes hairy. Antennæ in male ciliated. Thorax with or
  without slight anterior crest. Abdomen not crested.

"A very large cosmopolitan genus, equally common everywhere; it is a
development of _Melanchra_, to which some of the New Zealand species give
such a complete transition that a line of demarcation can hardly be drawn.
The larvæ all feed on _Gramineæ_."--(Meyrick.)

We have seventeen species.


{9}LEUCANIA GRISEIPENNIS, Feld.

  (_Mamestra griseipennis_, Feld., pl. cix. 22. _Chera virescens_, Butl.,
  Cist. Ent. ii. 489. _Spælotis inconstans_, ib. 545; _Leucania moderata_,
  Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 7 (nec Walk.). _Leucania griseipennis_,
  Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 44.)

(Plate IV., fig. 8.)

This species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island. In the South
Island it has been taken at Mount Arthur, Lake Coleridge, Rakaia, Akaroa,
and Lake Guyon.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. The fore-wings are dull
  greenish-grey; there are two obscure blackish transverse lines near the
  base and several dull white dots; _a very conspicuous transverse curved
  black shade near the middle, followed by an extremely jagged dull white
  transverse line, another less jagged transverse line near the termen; the
  orbicular is oval, pale, edged with black_; the reniform and claviform
  are also pale but inconspicuous; the cilia are tinged with brown. The
  hind-wings are grey _with the cilia wholly white_.

The following variety, taken on Mount Arthur, is thus described by Mr.
Meyrick:--

  "_Var. A._ Thorax and fore-wings without ochreous tinge, with numerous
  white scales tending to form suffused spots and margins to lines; cilia
  distinctly barred with darker; hind-wings grey, with dark grey, irregular
  terminal band."[10]

The perfect insect appears from November till March, and is said to be very
common in certain localities. It has been taken at considerable elevations
in the Nelson province (4,700 feet above the sea-level on Mount Arthur, by
Mr. Meyrick and myself). In Wellington it is certainly a scarce species.


LEUCANIA MODERATA, Walk.

  (_Agrotis moderata_, Walk., Suppl. 705. _Eumichtis sistens_, Gn., Ent.
  Mo. Mag. v. 39. _Mamestra sistens_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 19.
  _Leucania moderata_, ib. xx. 45.)

This species has occurred at Rakaia in the South Island. It very closely
resembles the preceding species, from which it is said to be distinguished
by the cilia of the hind-wings, which are "partially grey in _Leucania
moderata_, wholly white in _L. griseipennis_."--(Meyrick.)

The perfect insect appears in February. I am unacquainted with this
species.


LEUCANIA TEMPERATA, Walk.

(_Bryophila temperata_, Walk., 1648 (nec Meyrick). _Xylina inceptura_, ib.
1736. _X. deceptura_, ib. 1737. _Leucania temperata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z.
Inst. xx. 45.)

  "Terminal joint of palpi moderate; form of wing as in _Leucania
  griseipennis_, first and second lines whitish, inconspicuous, margined
  with black dots, second line evenly curved, subterminal perceptible;
  cilia grey, indistinctly barred with white. Hind-wings grey."--(Meyrick.)

Described by Mr. Meyrick from the British Museum specimens.

I am unacquainted with this species.


LEUCANIA NULLIFERA, Walk.

  (_Agrotis nullifera_, Walk., Noct. 742; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix. 5.
  _Alysia specifica_, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 3. _Leucania nullifera_, Meyr.,
  Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 7.)

(Plate IV., fig. 9; head, Plate II., fig. 11.)

This large though sombre-looking insect has occurred in the North Island at
Taupo and Wellington. In the South Island it has been taken commonly at
Mount Arthur, Christchurch, and Rakaia.

  The expansion of the wings is from 2½ to 2¾ inches. _The fore-wings are
  uniform dull grey_, with a double row of very faint white spots parallel
  to the termen; _the hind-wings, head, thorax, and abdomen are pale grey_.

{10}In some specimens the fore-wings are quite destitute of markings,
whilst in others the ground colouring varies considerably, and is
occasionally dull brown instead of grey.

  The larva is very stout, bright yellowish-brown, considerably paler on
  the under surface; the dorsal line is faintly indicated, the subdorsal
  and lateral lines are dull brown, with a chain of elongate white spots
  beneath each; the spiracles and dorsal surface of the posterior segments
  are black; there are also numerous white dots all over the larva.

This caterpillar feeds on spear-grass (_Aciphylla squarrosa_), and only a
single individual inhabits each clump. It devours the soft, central
portions of the tussock, and its presence can generally be detected by a
quantity of pale brown "frass," or discoloration, which is generally
visible near the bases of the leaves. Owing to the formidable array of
spines presented by the spear-grass, this larva can have but few enemies.
The presence of these spines makes the insect a difficult one to obtain
without special apparatus. A sharp pair of strong scissors, however, will
enable the collector to cut off a sufficient number of the "spears" to
allow of the insertion of a small trowel or hatchet under the root. The
plant can then be lifted out of the ground, and the larva afterwards
carefully extracted from its burrow in the stem. These larvæ are full grown
about the end of May, which is consequently the best time to obtain them
for rearing. The pupa is enclosed in an earthen cell amongst the roots of
the spear-grass. The moth appears in November, December, January, February,
and March. It is sometimes attracted by light. I have found it commonly on
the Tableland of Mount Arthur at elevations of from 3,500 to 4,000 feet
above the sea-level, where its food-plant also flourishes.


LEUCANIA PURDII, Frdy.

(_Leucania purdii_, Frdy., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xv. 195; Meyr., ib. xix. 8.)

(Plate IV., fig. 11.)

This fine species was discovered at Dunedin by Mr. Purdie. A single
specimen has also been taken at Wellington.

  The expansion of the wings is from 2¼ to 2½ inches. _The fore-wings are
  brownish-crimson; there are two broad, shaded, yellow, longitudinal
  streaks above and below the middle_; the costa is margined with yellow
  near the base, and the dorsum is yellow throughout its entire length; the
  cilia are deep orange. The hind-wings are dark grey, and the cilia
  yellow.

The perfect insect appears in December.

Described and figured from specimens in the collections of Messrs. Fereday
and Hawthorne.


LEUCANIA ATRISTRIGA, Walk.

(_Xylina atristriga_, Walk., Suppl. 756. _Mamestra antipoda_, Feld., Reis.
Nov., pl. cix. 23. _Leucania atristriga_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix.
8.)

(Plate IV., fig. 12.)

This smart-looking species is very common in the North Island in the
neighbourhood of Wellington. In the South Island it has occurred abundantly
at Nelson, Christchurch, Lake Coleridge, and Dunedin.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. The fore-wings are rich
  reddish-brown; _there is a broad bluish-grey longitudinal streak on the
  costa, reaching nearly to the apex, and a very broad, pale brown,
  longitudinal shading on the dorsum; there is a conspicuous longitudinal
  black stripe in the middle of the wing from the base to one-third, the
  orbicular, reniform, and claviform spots are bluish-grey, edged with
  black_, the transverse lines are very indistinct; the cilia are
  reddish-brown. The hind-wings are dark grey with the cilia ochreous.

  {11}This species varies slightly in the intensity of its markings and in
  the extent of the pale dorsal area.

The moth first appears about January and continues in great abundance until
the middle or end of April, being one of the last of our _Leucanias_ to
disappear in the autumn. It is extremely partial to the flowers of the
white rata (_Metrosideros scandens_), where, on warm, still evenings, it
may be often met with in the utmost profusion. It also comes freely to
sugar, and is frequently attracted by light.


LEUCANIA PROPRIA, Walk.

(_Leucania propria_, Walk., Noct. iii.; Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 2; Butl.,
Voy. Ereb., pl. ix. 4; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 9.)

(Plate IV., fig. 13.)

This insect has occurred in the South Island at Mount Arthur, Blenheim, and
Mount Hutt.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. The fore-wings are pale
  ochreous; _there is a conspicuous longitudinal black streak in the middle
  of the wing, extending from the base to about one-third, and a broad,
  dark brown longitudinal shading, slightly above the middle, from
  one-fourth to the termen_; the reniform is rather small, dull grey,
  faintly edged with darker, the orbicular and claviform are very
  indistinct or absent; there is a transverse series of black dots on the
  veins a little before the termen, and another series on the termen; the
  cilia are ochreous banded with brown. The hind-wings are pale grey, with
  a terminal series of small black marks; the cilia are ochreous. The head
  and thorax are pale reddish-brown, and the abdomen is ochreous.

This species varies slightly in the depth of its colouring.

The perfect insect is met with from January till March. On the Mount Arthur
Tableland it occurred very commonly at about 3,800 feet above the
sea-level. In this locality it was freely attracted by light, and large
numbers of specimens were captured by the aid of a single candle, exhibited
at the tent door during mild evenings.


LEUCANIA ACONTISTIS, Meyr.

(_Leucania acontistis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 9.)

(Plate IV., fig. 14.)

A single specimen of this species was captured at Castle Hill by Mr. J. D.
Enys, and is now in Mr. Fereday's collection.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. _The fore-wings are dull
  ochreous; the veins are slightly darker; there is a fine, black,
  doubly-curved, longitudinal streak from the base to about one-third._ The
  hind-wings are pale yellowish-grey. The cilia of all the wings are dull
  ochreous.

Described and figured from the specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


LEUCANIA PHAULA, Meyr.

(_Leucania phaula_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 10.)

(Plate IV., fig. 15.)

Two specimens of this insect, "bred from tussock grass," were found at
Christchurch.[11]

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. The fore-wings are dull
  ochreous, with the veins obscurely indicated by black and white dots;
  there is a curved series of minute black dots near the termen. The
  hind-wings are pale ochreous, clouded with grey towards the termen. The
  cilia of all the wings are dull ochreous. This insect may be
  distinguished from _Leucania unica_ by its larger size, duller
  coloration, less oblique termen of fore-wings, and simple antennæ in the
  male.

The perfect insect appears in November.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


{12}LEUCANIA ALOPA, Meyr.

(_Leucania alopa_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 10.)

(Plate IV., fig. 16.)

This species has occurred at Lake Coleridge and at Lake Guyon.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. _The fore-wings are dull
  orange-brown_; there are three obscure black dots at about one-third;
  _the reniform is represented by a rather conspicuous cloudy spot_; there
  is a curved series of black dots near the termen. The hind-wings are
  grey, paler towards the base. The cilia of all the wings are dull
  orange-brown.

The moth appears in March.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


LEUCANIA MICRASTRA, Meyr.

(_Leucania micrastra_, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 383.)

(Plate IV., fig. 10.)

Three specimens of this insect have occurred in my garden at Karori.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-5/8 inches. The fore-wings are _bright
  orange-brown_; there are several white scales near the base, two
  black-edged white dots at about one-third, _a small black spot with a
  shining white dot on each side of it at the origin of veins 3 and 4_, and
  a series of black and white dots on all the veins near the termen; the
  cilia are orange-brown _tipped with white_. The hind-wings are pale
  ochreous-brown. The cilia are ochreous broadly _tipped with white_.

This species somewhat resembles _Leucania alopa_ in general appearance, but
the wings are narrower and the colour of the fore-wings is considerably
brighter.

The moth appears in December.


LEUCANIA UNICA, Walk.

  (_Leucania unica_, Walk., Noct. 112; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix. 9.
  _Nonagria juncicolor_, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 2. _Leucania unica_, Meyr.,
  Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 10.)

(Plate IV., fig. 17.)

This insect has been taken at Blenheim and at Rakaia.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. The fore-wings are dull
  ochreous with the veins darker; there are one or two obscure blackish
  dots at about one-third from the base, and several faint dots near the
  termen. Hind-wings paler with very pale cilia; _the antennæ in the male
  are moderately bipectinated_.

The moth appears in November.

Described and figured from Mr. Fereday's specimens.


LEUCANIA AROTIS, Meyr.

(_Leucania arotis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 11. _Leucania
aulacias_,[12] Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 11.)

(Plate IV., fig. 18.)

This species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island. In the South
Island it has been found at Blenheim, Christchurch, and Rakaia.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. _The fore-wings are
  cream-colour with the veins finely marked in grey; there is a series of
  streaks of darker cream-colour between the veins_, and a row of minute
  black dots near the termen; the cilia are cream-colour. The hind-wings
  are dark grey with the cilia white.

The perfect insect appears in November and December. It is rather a scarce
species.


{13}LEUCANIA SULCANA, Fereday.

(_Leucania sulcana_, Frdy., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xii. 267, pl. ix.; Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 11.)

(Plate IV., fig. 19 [M], 20 [F].)

This species has occurred at Akaroa and at Dunedin.

  The expansion of the wings is from 1½ to 1¾ inches. _The fore-wings are
  light ochreous with the veins white_; there is a shaded, brownish,
  longitudinal streak near the apex, another from the end of the cell to
  the termen, a stronger streak from the base of the wing to near the
  tornus, and another along the dorsum; there is a minute black dot near
  the base above the middle, a slightly larger dot at about one-third, a
  conspicuous dot between the origins of veins 3 and 4, and a very minute
  dot on vein 6. _Hind-wings dark blackish-grey, cilia paler._

The perfect insect appears in February, and has been taken at sugar.

Described and figured from specimens in Mr. Fereday's collection.


LEUCANIA SEMIVITTATA, Walk.

(_Leucania semivittata_, Walk., Suppl. 628; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix.
12.)

(Plate IV., fig. 21 [M], 22 [F].)

This species has occurred commonly at Christchurch, Mount Torlesse, and
Dunedin.

  The expansion of the wings is from 1-1/8 to 1-3/8 inches. The fore-wings
  are pale ochreous; there is a very obscure, shaded, brownish,
  longitudinal streak below the middle, _a conspicuous black dot at the
  base, a second at about one-sixth, a third at one-third_, a fourth
  between the origins of veins 3 and 4, a curved series of minute terminal
  dots. Hind-wings much paler with a darker blotch near the middle. In the
  female the wings are browner with the dots much smaller or absent.

The moth appears in April and May, being found at night on the blossoms of
the _scabious_.

Described and figured from specimens in Mr. Fereday's collection.


LEUCANIA BLENHEIMENSIS, Frdy.

(_Leucania blenheimensis_, Frdy., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xv. 196; Meyr., ib.
xix. 12.)

(Plate IV., fig. 23 [F].)

This rather striking insect has occurred at Napier and at Blenheim.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. _The fore-wings are
  cream-coloured with the veins darker_; there are three faint black dots
  at about one-third, a curved series of black dots near the termen, _the
  termen itself being strongly shaded with dark greyish-brown_; the cilia
  are dark greyish-brown. The hind-wings are grey, paler towards the base;
  the cilia are also grey.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


LEUCANIA UNIPUNCTA, Haw.

  (_Leucania unipuncta_, Haw., Lepidoptera Britannica, p. 174, No. 37.
  _Leucania extranea_, Gn., Noct. v. 77; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix. 2;
  Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 12.)

(Plate IV., fig. 24.)

This species has occurred at Napier and at Wellington in the North Island.
In the South Island it has been found at Nelson and at Christchurch.

  The expansion of the wings is 1¾ inches. The fore-wings vary from dull
  ochreous to bright reddish-ochreous; there are numerous indistinct
  blackish dots; _the orbicular and reniform are almost round and slightly
  paler than the rest of the wing; there is a minute white dot immediately
  below the reniform and an obscure, oblique blackish line from the apex of
  the wing_ ending in a series of minute black dots; _the termen is not
  indented_. The hind-wings are grey, darker near the termen; the cilia are
  white.

Varies considerably in the ground colour and in the extent of the black
speckling.

  "The larva is extremely variable. Its usual colour is pale brown with a
  white dorsal line and several dark lines on each side.

{14}"Young larvæ closely resemble their food-plant in colour, and
occasionally this is persistent throughout life; in fact the larva is very
variable. Feeds on various grasses."[13]

The perfect insect first appears about January, and continues in increasing
numbers until the middle or end of April. It is often met with at sugar.

This species is of almost universal distribution, having occurred in
Australia, Java, India, Europe, and North and South America. In England it
is regarded as a great rarity.


Genus 6.--ICHNEUTICA, Meyr.

  "Antennæ in male strongly bipectinated throughout. Thorax and abdomen
  smooth."--(Meyrick.)

This genus is very closely allied to _Leucania_. It appears to be
exclusively limited to New Zealand, where it is represented by two
conspicuous species. Probably when the extensive mountainous regions of the
country have been more fully explored by entomologists other species will
be discovered.


ICHNEUTICA DIONE, n. sp.

(Plate IV., fig. 27 [M].)

A single specimen of this interesting species was captured by Mr. C. W.
Palmer, on Mount Arthur at an elevation of about 4,400 feet.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. The fore-wings are dull
  blackish-brown, _darker near the middle; there is a rather oblique,
  white, longitudinal stripe below the middle from about one-eighth to
  one-third; above this there is a very conspicuous, large, elongate white
  mark; this mark has a semicircular indentation above, probably
  representing the orbicular; another indentation towards the termen,
  probably representing the reniform, and below this it emits two short
  teeth-like projections_; beyond these markings the ground colour becomes
  paler, and is traversed by an obscure, jagged, transverse line; the cilia
  are grey. The hind-wings are pale grey; the cilia are also grey. The body
  is dark brownish-black. The pectinations of the antennæ of this insect
  are slightly shorter than those in _Ichneutica ceraunias_.

The type specimen is slightly damaged; but the species is so evidently
distinct that I feel no hesitation in describing it.


ICHNEUTICA CERAUNIAS, Meyr.

(_Ichneutica ceraunias_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 13.)

(Plate IV., fig. 25 [M], 26 [F]).

This handsome species has hitherto only occurred on the Tableland of Mount
Arthur, where, however, it seems to be common.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1¾ inches, of the female 2
  inches. The fore-wings of the male are rich orange-brown, paler towards
  the base. There are two very broad, longitudinal, yellowish stripes, one
  on the costa and the other on the dorsum. The costal stripe divides into
  two branches before its termination, one of which is produced downwards;
  there is also a _conspicuous white mark a little beyond the middle of the
  wing emitting two tooth-like projections towards the termen_, and two
  narrow, dark brown streaks near the base of the wing. The hind-wings are
  dark brownish-grey. The head, thorax, and abdomen are yellowish-brown,
  and the antennæ are very strongly bipectinated. The female is much
  narrower in the wings, the ground colouring is dull brown, and the
  markings are all dull yellow.

This species varies slightly in the intensity of the markings.

The moth appears early in January. It is much attracted by light. In 1891 I
took over twenty specimens by means of a single candle exhibited, during
three evenings, {15}at the door of my tent. Prior to this date only one
specimen had been taken by Mr. Meyrick during January, 1886. All these
moths were met with over 3,500 feet above the sea-level, so that the insect
is evidently confined to mountain regions.


Genus 7.--MELANCHRA, Hb.

  "Head rough-scaled; eyes hairy. Antennæ in [M] ciliated, or sometimes
  bipectinated with apex simple. Thorax with more or less developed
  anterior and posterior crests. Abdomen more or less crested, in [F]
  obtuse. Anterior tibiæ rarely with apical hook."

"A large genus of very general distribution, but much commoner in temperate
regions of both hemispheres. Relatively much more numerous in New Zealand
than elsewhere."--(Meyrick.)

This genus includes no less than thirty-four species. Some of these are
extremely difficult to distinguish owing to the obscurity of their
markings, which offer unusual obstacles to clear description and
delineation. I have, however, endeavoured to point out what, in my opinion,
constitute the most reliable distinctions; but I fear that amongst those
species, where only one or two specimens are known, cases of real
difficulty will arise. Future investigation will no doubt result in a
remodelling of some of the more obscure species in this genus.

It may be well to point out that the genus _Melanchra_ was formerly known
by the name of _Mamestra_.


MELANCHRA DISJUNGENS, Walk.

  (_Heliophobus disjungens_, Walk., Noct. 1681; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix.
  1. _Hadena nervata_, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 40. _Mamestra disjungens_,
  Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 15.)

(Plate V., fig. 43.)

This species has occurred in the South Island at Ashburton and at Rakaia.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-3/8 inches. The fore-wings are
  brownish-grey; _the veins are very conspicuously marked in white_, the
  orbicular and reniform are large, white, each with a dusky centre; there
  is a conspicuous, white, transverse line near the termen, emitting two
  white, tooth-like projections on veins 3 and 4, _and connected with a
  longitudinal line running to the base of the wing_. The hind-wings are
  grey with the cilia white.

The perfect insect appears from November till January. It was formerly a
common species near Rakaia, but is now much scarcer.


MELANCHRA PARACAUSTA, Meyr.

(_Mamestra paracausta_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 15.)

(Plate IV., fig. 28 [M], 28A [F].)

This species has occurred in the South Island at Mount Arthur, Castle Hill,
and Invercargill.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-3/8 inches. _The fore-wings are
  dull white with an irregular, central, longitudinal, blackish-brown
  streak becoming very broad towards the termen; there is an oval
  reddish-brown blotch near the base, but no distinct transverse lines; two
  conspicuous elliptic, white marks are situated on the termen near the
  tornus._ The hind-wings are pale grey, with an obscure central shade and
  a series of brownish dots along the termen.

The species appears somewhat variable. In some male specimens the white
colouring is largely replaced by pale yellowish-brown. Described and
figured from specimens in the collections of Messrs. Fereday, Hawthorne,
and Philpott[14].


{16}MELANCHRA INSIGNIS, Walk.

  (_Euplexia insignis_, Walk., Suppl. 724. _Xylina turbida_, ib. 754.
  _Mamestra polychroa_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 16. _Mamestra
  insignis_, Meyr., ib. xx. 45.)

(Plate IV., fig. 29 [M], 30 [F].)

This pretty species has occurred at Palmerston and Wellington in the North
Island, and at Blenheim, Christchurch, and West Plains near Invercargill in
the South Island. It is probably common and generally distributed.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-3/8 inches. _The fore-wings are
  pinkish-brown_; there is a short black streak near the centre of the wing
  at the base, and an irregular, extensive black marking along the dorsum;
  _the orbicular, reniform, and claviform spots are large, margined first
  with green and then with black_; a fine white line is situated parallel
  with the termen, edged with green, and emitting two sharp tooth-like
  markings; beyond this line the ground colour of the wing is
  dark-brownish-black. The hind-wings are dull brown, darker towards
  termen; the cilia are white with a brown line. The antennæ of the male
  are slightly bipectinated. In the female the ground colour is
  considerably paler, the black markings much darker, and more suffused,
  and the posterior half of the reniform is usually creamy-white.

Some specimens have the green and black markings slightly more pronounced,
but otherwise there are no important variations.

The eggs are deposited in October and November. When first laid they are
pale greenish-white, but become dark brown in the centre as the enclosed
embryo develops. The young larvæ emerge in about a fortnight. At this time
the two anterior pairs of prolegs are very short, causing the caterpillar
to loop up its back when walking. In colour the young larva is pale brown,
with numerous black warts emitting several long, stiff bristles. It is very
active, and busily devours the soft green portions of the dock leaves,
leaving the harder membrane untouched. Twelve days later the larva becomes
pale green in colour, and moults for the first time, after which traces of
subdorsal and lateral lines present themselves. Growth then proceeds with
great rapidity, and in another eleven days the larva again sheds its skin.
The last moult occurs a fortnight later.

  At this time the larva is pale greenish-brown, inclining to yellow on the
  ventral surface. The lateral lines consist of a series of black markings
  near the posterior margin of each segment; the subdorsal lines are
  represented by four oblique black marks on each side of the four
  posterior segments of the larva. The region between these lines is much
  clouded with yellowish-green or pink, the larvæ having a tendency to
  diverge into pink and green varieties. The anal segment is dull yellow.
  The head is brown, with two black stripes and several black dots.

Whilst rearing these larvæ I noticed that during the daytime they
invariably hid themselves under the blotting paper at the bottom of the
breeding cage. No doubt, under natural conditions, they retreat beneath the
ground, only coming abroad at night to feed. This habit would account for
the difficulty experienced in finding larvæ of this genus in a state of
nature.

The pupa state is spent in the earth, and occupies about a month.

The moth appears towards the end of January. It evidently hibernates
through the winter, as it is often seen very late in the autumn, and is
always one of the first moths to come to sugar in the early spring. It is
frequently observed at rest on fences and trees in the daytime.


{17}MELANCHRA MAYA, n. sp.

(Plate IV., fig. 31.)

A single specimen of this species was taken on the Tableland of Mount
Arthur, at an altitude of about 3,500 feet.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-5/8 inches. The fore-wings are bright
  yellowish-brown, paler towards the apex; there are two broad, shaded,
  black stripes at the base, one near the middle edged with yellow above,
  and one below the middle edged with yellow beneath; the orbicular is
  oval, oblique, edged with black except towards the costa; the claviform
  is rather irregular, dark purplish-brown; _the reniform is very large,
  dark purplish-brown edged with black; there is a large elongate patch of
  very dark brown at the tornus, partly edged first with yellow and then
  with black_; another smaller patch is situated on the termen near the
  middle, bisected by a fine yellow line. The hind-wings are grey; the
  cilia of all the wings are yellowish-brown. The head and thorax are
  purplish-brown, the abdomen dull brownish-grey.


MELANCHRA PLENA, Walk.

  (_Erana plena_, Walk., Suppl. 744. _Mamestra sphagnea_, Feld., Reis.
  Nov., pl. cix. 17. _Dianthoecia viridis_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 547.
  _Mamestra plena_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 17.)

(Plate IV., fig. 32.)

Apparently common in the Canterbury district, where it has been taken at
Christchurch and Mount Hutt. In the North Island it has occurred in the
neighbourhood of Wellington.

  It resembles _Melanchra insignis_ in every respect except that the head,
  thorax, and fore-wings are entirely suffused with green; there is no
  central black streak at the base, and the orbicular, reniform, and
  claviform spots are smaller.

It varies a little in the intensity of the green colouring.

The eggs are deposited early in November. At first they are white in
colour, but soon become dull brown, with two concentric circular markings.
The young larva closely resembles that of the _Melanchra insignis_, but is
much more sluggish. It feeds on grasses and other low plants.

In about six weeks' time it is full grown, when it still resembles the
caterpillar of _Melanchra insignis_, except that its colouring is
considerably darker, and a number of rust-red spots are situated on the
subdorsal line. This larva also appears to spend the daytime underground,
only coming abroad in the evening to feed. The pupa is concealed in the
earth.

The perfect insect may be occasionally found at rest on tree-trunks in the
forest, where it is very hard to discover, as it almost exactly resembles a
little patch of moss or lichen. Specimens are sometimes noticed in the
middle of winter, so there is little doubt that this species hibernates. It
occurs in spring as late as November, and as the pupæ emerge during the
latter end of January the insect is about for most of the year.


MELANCHRA LITHIAS, Meyr.

(_Mamestra lithias_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 17.)

(Plate IV., fig. 33.)

Two specimens of this species were taken at Castle Hill by Mr. J. D. Enys,
and are now in Mr. Fereday's collection.

  The expansion of the wings is 1¼ inches. _The fore-wings are slaty-brown;
  there is a broken, black-edged, white, transverse line near the base, and
  another at about one-third; the orbicular is indicated by a conspicuous
  black-edged white crescent, the reniform is large, oblong, white,
  margined with {18}black, and crossed by two grey lines_; there is an
  interrupted white terminal transverse line and a series of black dots on
  the termen. The hind-wings are grey, paler towards the base; the cilia of
  all the wings are slaty-brown.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


MELANCHRA MUTANS, Walk.

  (_Hadena mutans_, Walk., Noct. 602. _H. lignifusca_, ib. 603. _Mamestra
  angusta_, Feld., Reis. Nov., pl. cix. 18. _M. acceptrix_, ib., pl. cix.
  19. _Hadena debilis_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 385, pl. xlii.
  6. _Mamestra mutans_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 17.)

(Plate IV., fig. 34 [M], 35 [F], 36 [M], variety; Plate III., fig. 15,
larva.)

This is a very abundant species throughout the country.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. The fore-wings are pale
  reddish-brown in the male, grey in the female; the markings are black and
  somewhat indistinct; the orbicular spot is nearly round, the claviform
  semicircular, the reniform large and not margined with black towards the
  termen; a line runs parallel with the termen, and emits on its outer side
  a tooth-like mark; inside this line the ground colouring of the wing is
  usually lighter. The hind-wings are grey, darker in the male; the cilia
  are white with a cloudy line. The head, thorax, and abdomen are brown in
  the male, grey in the female. The antennæ are slightly bipectinate in the
  male.

This species varies much in the ground colouring of the fore-wings,
especially in the male, where it ranges from pale pinkish-brown to dark
brown. The wings of the female are frequently much clouded with dark grey.

  The larva is rather stout, with the anterior segments wrinkled. It varies
  much in colour; the dorsal surface is usually reddish-brown; the lateral
  line is broad and black; a series of subdorsal stripes are also black;
  the ventral surface is green. Sometimes these markings are hardly
  visible, and the larva is entirely green, whilst occasionally the brown
  colouring predominates.

It is a sluggish caterpillar, and feeds on low plants (_Plantago_, &c.)
during the whole of the spring and summer. It often frequents the luxuriant
growth surrounding logs and stones which have long been left undisturbed.

The pupa state is spent in the earth or amongst moss on fallen trees. When
this stage occurs in the summer it is of short duration, but in the case of
larvæ becoming full grown in the autumn, the regular emergence does not
take place until the following spring.

The moth may be observed on mild evenings nearly all the year round, but is
commoner during the summer. It is an extremely abundant species, and is
very often seen resting on tree trunks during the daytime, in which
position the colouring of both sexes will be seen to be very protective.


MELANCHRA AGORASTIS, Meyr.

(_Mamestra agorastis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 18.)

(Plate V., fig. 30 [F].)

This species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at Akaroa
and Lake Guyon in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. _The fore-wings are rich
  reddish-brown_, with dull yellowish-white markings; the claviform is
  small, grey, margined with dark reddish-brown; the orbicular is also
  rather small, grey, margined with dull white; the reniform is rather
  large, oblong, dark grey, margined rather broadly with yellowish-white.
  The hind-wings are dark brown. _The antennæ of the male are shortly
  pectinated._

This species very closely resembles a dark specimen of _Melanchra pelistis_
so far as the female is concerned, which is the only sex I have had an
opportunity of examining.

The perfect insect appears in February and March. It is a scarce species.


{19}MELANCHRA PICTULA, White.

  (_Dianthoecia pictula_, White, Tayl. New Zeal., pl. i. 3. _Meterana
  pictula_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 386, pl. xlii. 1.
  _Mamestra pictula_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 18.)

(Plate IV., fig. 37 [M].)

Three specimens of this handsome species have occurred at Lake Coleridge in
the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-5/8 inches. The fore-wings are grey, very
  faintly tinged with pink, the markings are yellowish-green margined with
  black, _the reniform is large, oval, clear white, with a minute white dot
  above and below it_, there is a series of conspicuous black-edged yellow
  spots near the termen; the cilia are grey with a series of minute black
  and white dots at their base. _The hind-wings are pale crimson shaded
  with dark grey near the termen_, there is an obscure grey spot near the
  middle; the cilia are grey. The sides of the abdomen are bright crimson.

The moth appears in March.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


MELANCHRA RHODOPLEURA, Meyr.

(_Mamestra rhodopleura_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 19.)

(Plate IV., fig. 38.)

This species has been taken in the North Island at Napier and Wellington.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. The fore-wings are
  greenish-grey, with the markings yellow margined with black; _the
  hind-wings are dark grey_ with a terminal series of small yellow spots.
  The sides of the abdomen are bright crimson.

This insect is very closely allied to _Melanchra pictula_, _but the absence
of the white reniform spot and the grey hind-wings, will at once
distinguish it from that species_.

The perfect insect appears in May and June. It is decidedly rare.


MELANCHRA MEROPE, n. sp.

(Plate V., fig. 2.)

A single specimen of this handsome insect was taken in the Wellington
Botanical Gardens in October, 1887.

  The expansion of the wings is nearly two inches. _The fore-wings are rich
  chocolate-brown, with yellow markings outlined in very deep brown_; there
  is a rather broad broken transverse line near the base; a yellow blotch
  containing a slender curved brown line, on the dorsum at about
  one-fourth, forming the end of another extremely broken transverse line;
  _the reniform is large, finely outlined with brown towards the base of
  the wing and half filled in with yellow towards the termen; between the
  reniform and the dorsum there is a jagged yellow transverse line_; there
  is a terminal series of dark brown streaks and yellow spots, and the
  termen itself is scalloped; the cilia are dark brown. The hind-wings are
  pale brown, pinkish tinged; there is an obscure terminal line; the cilia
  are brownish-pink. The head and thorax are dark brown, the abdomen pale
  brown, with the crests darker.


MELANCHRA PELISTIS, Meyr.

(_Mamestra pelistis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 20.)

(Plate V., fig. 3 [M], 4 [F].)

This species has occurred at Wellington and at Paikakariki, in the North
Island. In the South Island it has been found at Akaroa and Lake Coleridge.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. The fore-wings are dull
  ochreous more or less shaded with dark reddish-brown, _especially in the
  vicinity of the transverse lines_; there are several obscure pale marks
  near the base; _the orbicular is grey, margined towards the dorsum with a
  conspicuous white or dull yellow crescentic line; the claviform is small,
  round, dull grey, edged with darker; the reniform is large, darker grey,
  paler towards the costa, margined with {20}white or dull yellow towards
  the base of the wing and termen_; there are two obscure transverse lines,
  the outer one often being slightly toothed towards the termen; sometimes
  there is a terminal series of minute black marks; the cilia are brown.
  The hind-wings are dark grey, with the cilia white.

This species varies considerably in the ground colouring of the fore-wings.
In some specimens the wing is almost entirely rich reddish-brown, whilst in
others this colouring is confined to the vicinity of the stigmata and
transverse lines. Numerous intermediate varieties exist which seem to
connect these two forms.

The perfect insect appears in January, February, and March. It is very
common in the Wellington Botanical Gardens on the white rata blossoms.


MELANCHRA PROTEASTIS, Meyr.

(_Mamestra vitiosa_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 20 (nec Butl.).
_Mamestra proteastis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 45.)

(Plate IV., fig. 40 [M].)

This insect is very common in the neighbourhood of Christchurch.

  The expansion of the wings is 1¼ inches. The fore-wings are dark
  chocolate-brown; there are several very obscure marks near the base, the
  orbicular and claviform spots are almost invisible, the reniform is pale
  brown with a minute dot above and below it towards the termen, followed
  by a pale, darker-margined, transverse line. The hind-wings are dull
  brownish-grey, with the cilia paler. The female is rather darker in
  colour than the male.

  This is a very obscurely marked insect, closely allied to the next
  species, from which it can only be distinguished with difficulty. _Its
  somewhat smaller size and the two minute white dots on the reniform
  stigma appear to be the most definite characteristics._

The perfect insect appears in May and June.

Described and figured from specimens in Mr. Fereday's collection.


MELANCHRA VITIOSA, Butl.

  (_Apamea vitiosa_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 384, pl. xlii. 3.
  _Mamestra ochthistis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 20. _Mamestra
  vitiosa_, Meyr. Trans. N. Z. Inst., xx. 45.)

(Plate IV., fig. 42; Plate III., fig. 16, larva.)

This is a scarce species in the neighbourhood of Wellington. In
Christchurch it is very common.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. In general colouration it
  closely resembles the preceding insect, but is considerably paler, with
  the markings much more distinct. There are no clear white dots above or
  below the reniform stigma, the orbicular is obliquely oval and rather
  conspicuous, and the claviform is strongly margined with black.

  The larva is rather robust, very pale green above with numerous white
  lines and dots; dark green beneath with yellow dots. In the light part
  there is a triangle of black spots on each segment. The young larva has a
  strong pink lateral line, but in mature specimens this line is confined
  to the anterior and posterior segments only. Length when full grown about
  1¼ inches.

This caterpillar feeds on _Melicope simplex_, and when amongst the foliage
of its food-plant it is extremely hard to detect, owing to its protective
colouring and sluggish habits. The larva is full grown about October.

The pupa is enclosed in a light cocoon on the surface of the ground.

The perfect insect appears from November till April.


{21}MELANCHRA DIATMETA, Meyr.[15]

(Plate V., fig. 5.)

This species has occurred at Wellington.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. The fore-wings are
  reddish-brown; there is a short longitudinal black streak near the base,
  an obscure yellow transverse line at about one-fourth, and several short
  oblique brown or yellow marks on the costa; the orbicular is oval oblique
  outlined very distinctly in yellow; the reniform is white, margined with
  yellow towards the base of the wing; _there is a black longitudinal
  streak at the base on the dorsum, which bends upwards at about
  one-fourth, and runs in a somewhat curved direction to a little above the
  tornus_. The veins are faintly marked in black, and there are several
  large yellow dots between the veins near the termen; the termen itself is
  slightly indented, the cilia are reddish-brown. The hind-wings are
  greyish-brown with the cilia reddish. There are two very conspicuous
  curved yellowish stripes on each side of the thorax.

The perfect insect appears in September and October. It is a rare species.


MELANCHRA TARTAREA, Butl.

(_Graphiphora tartarea_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 384, pl.
xlii. 2. _Mamestra tartarea_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 21.)

(Plate V., fig. 6.)

This species has occurred on the Murimutu Plains in the North Island. In
the South Island it is a common species in the neighbourhood of
Christchurch.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. The fore-wings are dark
  chocolate-brown; there is a short, dark-margined, pale transverse line
  near the base, and another at about one-third, the claviform spot is
  small, oval, dark brown, margined with black, the orbicular and reniform
  are very large, pale brown and very conspicuous; _there is a broad pale
  brown terminal band, and a narrow shading of pale brown along the
  dorsum_. The hind-wings are dark grey and the cilia dull white.

This species can easily be recognised by the pale terminal band of the
fore-wings.

The perfect insect appears in March and April.


MELANCHRA HOMOSCIA, Meyr.

(_Mamestra homoscia_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 21.)

(Plate V., fig. 7; Plate III., fig. 10, larva.)|.

This dull-looking species has hitherto only occurred in the Wellington
district, where it seems to be fairly common.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-3/8 inches. The fore-wings are
  uniform dark grey; the veins are marked with a series of white dots,
  preceded and followed by black marks; the orbicular, reniform, and
  claviform spots are scarcely visible; an indistinct wavy line runs
  parallel with the termen. The hind-wings are grey; the cilia are white
  with a cloudy line. The head, thorax, and abdomen are grey.

  Sometimes the grey colouring is very much darker, and a faint wavy line
  is present between the orbicular spot and the base of the wing. In other
  respects the species does not vary.

  The larva is rather attenuated and black in colour; the dorsal line is
  narrow and bright yellow; the subdorsal is broader and white; and the
  lateral line is pale brown. The head, legs, prolegs, and under surface
  are pale brown, speckled with black; the spiracles are pink; a
  conspicuous white spot is situated above the spiracles.

This caterpillar feeds on the Tauhinu (_Pomaderris ericifolia_) in December
and January. It is very active in its habits, and immediately drops to the
ground when disturbed. It is much infested by a dipterous parasite. The
pupa state is spent in the earth and lasts about six weeks.

The moth appears in February, March, and April. It is attracted by light,
and in consequence often enters houses.


{22}MELANCHRA OMICRON, n. sp.

(Plate V., fig. 42.)

This species was discovered at Wellington by Mr. A. Norris.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. The fore-wings are pale
  olive-green, mottled and striped with dull grey; there is a double
  transverse line near the base, another at about one-fourth, and another
  at about one-half, passing between the orbicular and the reniform; beyond
  this there are two indistinct shaded lines, and a terminal series of
  black marks; _the orbicular is large, almost circular, and sharply
  outlined in black_; the claviform is small and indistinct, and the
  reniform ill-defined, obscurely outlined in black towards the base. The
  hind-wings are brownish-grey, darker towards the termen.

The perfect insect appears in November.


MELANCHRA COMPOSITA, Gn.

  (_Cloantha composita_, Gn., Noct. vi. 114. _Auchmis composita_, Walk.,
  Noct. 616; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. ix. 12. _Mamestra maori_, Feld., Reis.
  Nov., pl. cix. 24. _Leucania dentigera_, Butl. _Mamestra composita_,
  Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 22.)

(Plate V., fig. 8 [M], 9 [F]; Plate III., fig. 7, larva.)

One of the most abundant of our night-flying moths, occurring in great
profusion throughout the country.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. The fore-wings are pale
  reddish-brown, darker towards the middle. There are two elongate,
  pointed, white markings touching the termen below the middle, and a
  central white streak, interrupted in the middle, by a small semicircular
  white mark, which represents the lower portion of the reniform spot; the
  orbicular and claviform spots are obsolete. The hind-wings are dark grey.
  The head and thorax are reddish-brown, and the abdomen is dark grey. The
  antennæ are serrate in the male but simple in the female. In some
  specimens the white markings are more extensive than usual, but otherwise
  there are no important variations.

  The larva is bright reddish-brown; the dorsal stripe is broad and black;
  the subdorsal narrower, edged with white; the lateral lines are dull red,
  white, and black; the ventral surface, head, legs, and prolegs are
  greenish-grey with black markings; the spiracles are black.

This caterpillar varies considerably in the intensity of the light and dark
markings. It feeds on grasses in January and September, and is very active.
It often occurs in prodigious numbers, and at such times may frequently be
seen travelling at a great rate over bare ground in search of food. Amongst
the grass it is hard to detect, as the striped colouring is very protective
in that situation.

The pupa state is spent in the earth, or under moss on fallen trees.

The moth appears from September till April. It is double-brooded. A few of
the second brood emerge in the autumn and hibernate as moths, but the
majority pass the winter in the pupa state. Hence we sometimes meet with
specimens on mild evenings in the middle of winter.

This insect is much attracted by light, and occasionally assembles in vast
numbers round a brilliant lamp. I have had as many as one hundred specimens
in my verandah at Karori, attracted during two or three hours. It is by far
the commonest insect at the collectors' sugar, the numerous visitors of
this species eagerly jostling each other in their haste to obtain a share
of the sweets. _M. composita_ is likewise observed in the utmost profusion
on attractive flowers of all kinds, crowding out the rarer and more
aristocratic species. Mr. Hanify has drawn my attention to the remarkable
habit this insect has of suddenly stopping {23}during its flight, and thus
eluding pursuit. It also takes wing with unusual rapidity. Specimens of
this moth may constantly be observed at rest in various situations during
the daytime, when the protective character of the colouring will be at once
apparent, especially when the insect is partially concealed amongst grass.
Mr. Meyrick informs us that this species is common in Tasmania and
South-Eastern Australia.


MELANCHRA STEROPASTIS, Meyr.

(_Mamestra steropastis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 22.)

(Plate V., fig. 10 [M], 11 [F].)

This insect has occurred in the North Island at Napier. In the South Island
it has been taken at Blenheim and Christchurch, but does not seem to be a
common species anywhere.

  The expansion of the wings is from 1¼ to 1½ inches. In general appearance
  it somewhat resembles the preceding species, from which it may chiefly be
  distinguished by the absence of the sharp white central line and
  conspicuous tooth-like markings near the termen. _There is also a minute
  white dot situated at the junction of veins 3 and 4 of the fore-wings._
  The hind-wings are dark grey.

The perfect insect appears from November till February.

Described and figured from Mr. Fereday's specimens.


MELANCHRA INFENSA, Walk.

(_Orthosia infensa_, Walk. 748. _Mamestra arachnias_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z.
Inst. xix. 23. _Mamestra infensa_, Meyr., ib. xx. 45.)

(Plate V., fig. 12.)

This species has occurred in the North Island at Napier, and in the South
Island at Blenheim.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. The fore-wings are
  reddish-brown, slightly speckled with dull white except on a suffused
  central streak from the base to about two-thirds; an obscure, moderately
  broad white costal streak extends from the base to two-thirds, sharply
  defined near the base only, and containing several very oblique
  ill-defined blackish marks; the orbicular is narrow oval, longitudinal,
  very finely margined with white and then with black; the claviform is
  obsolete; the reniform is only indicated by two white dots, representing
  its lower angles; the transverse lines are very acutely dentate but
  hardly traceable; the subterminal line is indicated only by three very
  acute slender whitish-ochreous dentations--one below apex, two touching
  the termen below the middle; the cilia are reddish-brown mixed with dull
  white. The hind-wings are dark grey; the cilia are dull white, with a
  faint grey line and tips white. The head, palpi, and thorax are
  reddish-brown speckled with white; the forehead with two black transverse
  lines; and the collar with a slender white line; thorax with strong
  anterior double tuft. Abdomen light reddish-grey.

Description compiled from that of Mr. Meyrick. Figured by Mr. W. B. Hudson
from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


MELANCHRA OMOPLACA, Meyr.

(_Mamestra omoplaca_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 24.)

(Plate V., fig. 13.)

This species has occurred in the South Island at Lake Coleridge and Rakaia.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. The fore-wings are dark
  reddish-brown, there is a short black median streak from the base,
  margined above with ochreous-white; the space between this and the costa
  is marked with suffused ochreous-whitish lines; in one specimen {24}a
  blackish suffusion extending from base of the dorsum obliquely to
  orbicular and reniform, the space between this and the subterminal line
  is suffused with pale whitish-ochreous; the orbicular and reniform are
  blackish-fuscous, black-margined, and connected by a blackish-fuscous
  spot; the orbicular is large, roundish; the reniform with its outer edge
  white; the claviform is small, suboval, blackish-fuscous; the transverse
  lines are indistinct; the subterminal is obscurely paler or hardly
  traceable, with two somewhat acute dentations below the middle; the
  terminal space is mixed with blackish-fuscous; the cilia are
  reddish-fuscous mixed with blackish. The hind-wings are fuscous-grey; the
  cilia grey-whitish, with a grey line.

The perfect insect appears in December, February, and March.

Description compiled from that of Mr. Meyrick. Figured by Mr. W. B. Hudson
from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


MELANCHRA ALCYONE, n. sp.

(Plate V., fig. 14 [M].)

During the autumn of 1894 several specimens of this interesting species
were captured in the Wellington Botanical Gardens by Mr. A. Norris.

  The expansion of the wings of the [M] is 1-5/8 inches, of the [F] 1½
  inches. The fore-wings of the male are _warm brown, darker towards the
  base_; there is a wavy, white-edged, black, transverse line at about
  one-fifth, followed by a round black spot; _the costa is yellowish, with
  four pairs of short oblique black marks_; the orbicular is large, oval,
  oblique, pale yellowish-brown slightly darker in the middle; the
  claviform is small, obscure, and brownish-black; the reniform is black,
  outlined with dull white; _there is a series of very acute, dull white,
  tooth-like terminal markings_, and the termen itself is slightly
  scalloped; the cilia are dark brown. The hind-wings are grey with a
  series of small dark marks on the termen; the cilia are reddish-ochreous.
  The head and anterior portion of the thorax are reddish-ochreous; the
  rest of the thorax is rich brown, and there is a conspicuous black
  transverse line between the pale and dark colouring; the abdomen is
  reddish-ochreous with the crests reddish-brown. The female is much darker
  and duller than the male, the markings are much less distinct, there are
  several additional jagged transverse lines, and the white markings of the
  male are indistinctly indicated in drab.

The perfect insect appears in March.


MELANCHRA DOTATA, Walk.

(_Dasypolia dotata_, Walk., Noct. 522. _Mamestra dotata_, Meyr., Trans. N.
Z. Inst. xix. 24.)

(Plate V., fig. 16.)

This species has occurred at Nelson.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. The fore-wings are very dark
  brownish-black; there are several obscure black marks near the base; _the
  orbicular is large, oblong, finely margined with black, the claviform is
  triangular, also finely margined with black, both orbicular and claviform
  are surrounded by a conspicuous black shading; the reniform is large
  ear-shaped, white towards the termen and dark brown towards the base of
  the wing_, the white portion is traversed by a curved brownish line;
  there is a curved transverse line near the termen, the space immediately
  inside this line being paler than the rest of the wing; there is a
  terminal series of obscure pale dots. The hind-wings are dark brown,
  paler towards the base; the cilia are also brown.

A single specimen of this insect was reared from a pupa found at Wakapuaka,
near Nelson. Mr. Fereday also has a specimen, but without note of locality.


MELANCHRA ASTEROPE, n. sp.

(Plate V., fig. 15.)

A single specimen of this insect was taken at light on the Tableland of
Mount Arthur, in January 1891, at about 3,600 feet above the sea-level.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. The fore-wings are dull brown
  _with a pale area on the dorsum near the base, and a very broad pale band
  just before the termen_; there is a broken {25}black-edged transverse
  line near the base, and a fainter transverse line at about one-third; the
  orbicular is oblong, the claviform crescentic, _and the reniform oblong,
  white, and very conspicuous_, all are strongly outlined in black; there
  is a shaded transverse line on each side of the broad pale terminal band;
  the termen is dark brown; the cilia are brown, and the veins are marked
  in black. The hind-wings are pale grey; there is a rather conspicuous
  dark crescent in the middle, and two shaded transverse lines; the cilia
  are grey.

This species is evidently allied to _Melanchra dotata_.


MELANCHRA STIPATA, Walk.

(_Xylina stipata_, Walk., Suppl. 753. _Mamestra stipata_, Meyr., Trans. N.
Z. Inst. xix. 25.)

(Plate V., fig. 17 [F].)

This fine species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and in
the South Island at Christchurch, and West Plains, near Invercargill.

  The expansion of the wings is 1¾ inches. The fore-wings are brown; there
  is a shaded, pale yellowish-brown, longitudinal line on the costa, _and
  an extensive irregular patch of the same colour from about two-thirds to
  within a short distance of the termen; the orbicular is large, oval,
  oblique, pale yellowish-brown; the claviform is semicircular, broadly
  margined with black_; the reniform is dull grey, with one large and one
  small white mark towards the termen; the termen is broadly shaded with
  dark blackish-brown, except near the apex of the wing and a little below
  the middle. The hind-wings are dark brownish-grey, with the cilia
  reddish-brown. The female is rather paler with a slightly olive tinge.
  Both sexes vary a little in the depth of their colouring.

The perfect insect appears from October till May. It is common at
Christchurch, but rather scarce in Wellington.


MELANCHRA OCTANS, n. sp.

(Plate V., fig. 1.)

This distinctly marked little species was discovered by Mr. Philpott, at
Mount Linton, near Invercargill.

  The expansion of the wings is 1¾ inches. The fore-wings are pale
  ochreous-brown; there are several wavy brown transverse lines near the
  base, two lines at about one-third, _then a large_ V-_shaped white mark
  extending almost from the costa and touching the dorsum_; the orbicular
  and reniform spots are situated in the middle of this mark, the orbicular
  is very finely outlined in brown, and contains a black dot towards the
  base of the wing; the reniform is large, dark brown, _surrounded by a
  large triangular dark brown shading_; there is an obscure subterminal
  line; the termen is slightly indented. The hind-wings are dark brown,
  paler towards the termen.

This species may be immediately recognised by the large, white, V-shaped
markings on the fore-wings.

The perfect insect appears in March.


MELANCHRA RUBESCENS, Butl.

(_Xylophasia rubescens_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 489. _Mamestra rubescens_,
Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 25.)

(Plate V., fig. 18 [M].)

This insect is apparently a mountain species. It has been taken at Mount
Arthur, Castle Hill, and Lake Wakatipu.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-5/8 inches. The fore-wings are pale
  orange-brown, the orbicular and claviform spots are faintly margined with
  reddish-brown; the reniform is dark brown and very conspicuous; there are
  two large reddish-brown markings on the termen. The hind-wings are dark
  grey tinged with red. The cilia of all the wings are reddish-brown.

This species varies slightly in the shape and extent of the markings on the
termen {26}of the fore-wings, which occasionally cause the pale ground
colour to form tooth-like projections. It also varies a little in the
intensity of the other markings, and in the depth of the ground colour.

The moth appears in January and February, and is attracted by light. I have
taken it in some abundance on the Tableland of Mount Arthur, at an altitude
of 3,500 feet above the sea-level.


MELANCHRA LIGNANA, Walk.

(_Hadena lignana_, Walk., Noct. 758. ? _Xylophasia morosa_, Butl., Cist.
Ent. ii. 543. _Mamestra lignana_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 26.)

(Plate V., fig. 19 [M].)

This pretty species is very common at Wellington in the North Island. In
the South Island it has occurred at Mount Hutt.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. _The fore-wings are
  greyish-cream-colour_, slightly paler on the costa. There are two very
  distinct blackish transverse marks on the costa near the base, and two
  others at about one-third; _the stigmata are all sharply and finely
  outlined in black; the orbicular is oval, the claviform triangular, the
  reniform large and oblong, containing a smaller black-edged mark in its
  centre, and a blackish blotch towards its lower margin_; beyond the
  reniform there is a faint jagged transverse line; there are two dark
  patches on the termen, _the pale ground colour forming two sharp
  tooth-like markings slightly below the middle_; the termen itself is
  slightly indented, and the cilia are dark brown. The hind-wings are dark
  grey with the cilia white.

Some specimens of this insect are slightly darker than others, but in other
respects there are no important variations.

The perfect insect appears from October till April. It comes freely to
sugar and to light, and is often taken at rest on trees and fences in the
daytime.


MELANCHRA COELENO, n. sp.

(Plate IV., fig. 39.)

This interesting species has been taken at Wellington by Messrs. Hawthorne
and Norris.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. The fore-wings are very pale
  brownish-cream-colour; _there is a large irregular dark brown patch on
  the dorsum from about one-eighth to about two-thirds, another smaller
  patch at the tornus, and another still smaller on the termen a little
  above the middle_; there are two very obscure transverse lines; the
  orbicular is finely outlined in brown; the reniform contains two very
  dark brown dots, and is rather strongly outlined in brown towards the
  base. The hind-wings are dark grey. The cilia of all the wings are grey
  with a paler line.

The perfect insect appears in November.


MELANCHRA USTISTRIGA, Walk.

(_Xylina ustistriga_, Walk., Noct. 630. _X. lignisecta_, ib., 631.
_Mamestra ustistriga_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 26.)

(Plate V., fig. 20 [M], 20A [F].)

This beautiful insect has occurred commonly at Wellington in the North
Island, and in the South Island, at Blenheim, Christchurch, and Lake
Coleridge.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1¾ inches. _The fore-wings, head, and
  thorax are pinkish-grey in the male, pale grey in female; the orbicular
  spot is rather large, nearly round, finely outlined in black; the
  reniform is very large, margined with black towards the base of the wing,
  and usually touching the orbicular spot or connected with it by a short
  black line_; the claviform is triangular, also black margined; there is a
  cloudy oblique line below the reniform, and an irregular line between the
  reniform and the termen. The hind-wings and abdomen are pale pinkish-grey
  in male, dull grey in female; the cilia are white with a cloudy line.

{27}This insect varies slightly in size, especially in the female. The
larva is dull greyish-brown, with the subdorsal and lateral lines darker.
It feeds on honeysuckle during the summer months.

The pupa state is spent in the earth.

The moth is very irregular in its appearance. I have captured specimens in
January, February, March, April, July and September. It appears to pass the
winter in both the pupa and imago states. It is very partial to light, and
in consequence often enters houses.


MELANCHRA PRIONISTIS, Meyr.

(_Mamestra prionistis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 27.)

(Plate V., fig. 21 [M].)

This species is common at Wellington in the North Island. In the South
Island it has been taken at Rakaia.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1-5/8 inches, of the female 1¾
  inches. _The fore-wings are rather pale yellowish-brown, with numerous
  irregular longitudinal grey streaks_; there are several very obscure
  jagged transverse lines, and the stigmata are almost invisible; _a very
  broad blackish longitudinal band is situated on the dorsum_. The
  hind-wings are brownish-grey; the cilia are grey tipped with white. The
  head and thorax are grey tinged with yellowish-brown; there is a
  conspicuous blackish streak on each side of the thorax.

In this species the dorsal band is often considerably paler, but otherwise
there is no variation.

The perfect insect appears from November till April. It comes freely to
sugar, and occasionally to light. It is also sometimes met with at rest on
trees in the daytime, where its colouring is protective. I have noticed
that this moth is much commoner in some years than in others.


MELANCHRA PHRICIAS, Meyr.

(_Mamestra temperata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 27 (nee Walk.).
_Mamestra phricias_, Meyr., ib., xx. 46.)

(Plate V., fig. 22.)

This species has occurred in the Manawatu district in the North Island. In
the South Island it has been found at Christchurch and Lake Coleridge.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. _The fore-wings are pale
  silvery-grey_; there are several obscure blackish marks near the base,
  _two dark, shaded, transverse bands, one just before the orbicular, and
  one between the orbicular and the reniform_; the orbicular is round,
  nearly white, with a faint greyish ring in the middle; the reniform is
  large, oblong, margined first with white and then with black; there is a
  series of black crescentic marks near the termen, and another smaller
  series on the termen; the cilia are dark grey. The hind-wings are dull
  brownish-grey, the cilia are grey tipped with white. The terminal joint
  of the palpi is elongated.

The perfect insect has been taken in December, February, March and June,
and is attracted by light. It is rather a rare species.


MELANCHRA CUCULLINA, Gn.

  (_Xylocampa cucullina_, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 40. Agrotis mitis, Butl.,
  Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 383, pl. xlii. 5. _Mamestra cucullina_,
  Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 28.)

(Plate V., fig. 23 [M].)

This species has occurred at Mount Arthur, and at Rakaia.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. _The fore-wings are
  bluish-grey, speckled and dappled with blackish-brown_; there is a pale
  transverse line near the base, partially edged with black; the orbicular
  is round, containing a blackish dot in the middle; the reniform is
  elongate-oval, including a {28}dark spot in its lower portion; the space
  surrounding the stigmata is clouded with dark blackish-brown; there is a
  terminal series of small blackish crescentic marks, and the cilia are
  dark grey. The hind-wings are brownish-grey; the cilia are also grey
  tipped with white.

This species is evidently closely allied to _M. phricias, but may at
present be distinguished by its darker and more bluish colouring_.

The perfect insect appears in January and March. I have taken it at light
on the Tableland of Mount Arthur, at 3,600 feet above the sea-level.


Genus 8.--ERANA, Walk.

  "Eyes hairy. Antennæ in male filiform, simple, with scattered single
  cilia. Thorax with anterior and posterior crests. Abdomen with strong
  dorsal crests towards base. Fore-wings in male beneath with a very long
  dense tuft of scent-giving hairs from base; transverse vein absent, 7 and
  8 out of 9, 10 free. Hind-wings with transverse vein absent, costa in
  male broadly dilated."--(Meyrick.) (Plate II., fig. 9 fore-wing, 10
  hind-wing.)[16]


We have one species representing this interesting genus.


ERANA GRAMINOSA, Walk.

(_Erana graminosa_, Walk., Noct. 605. _E. vigens_, ib., Suppl. 743. _Erana
graminosa_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 28.)

(Plate V., fig. 24 [M], 25 [F]; Plate III., fig. 8, larva.)

This beautiful species appears to be fairly common in many forests in the
North Island. It has occurred at Wanganui, Masterton, Palmerston, and
Wellington. In the South Island it has been taken by Mr. Philpott, at West
Plains, near Invercargill.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. The fore-wings are bright
  green; there are three paler green transverse lines, edged with black;
  one near the base of the wing, one just beyond the reniform spot, and one
  close to the termen; this last is inwardly much clouded with dark
  olive-green; the reniform spot is pale green edged with black. The
  hind-wings are very broad, pinkish-brown, tinged with green on the
  termen. In the female the hind-wings are considerably narrower, and are
  not so strongly tinged with green as in the male.

Some specimens appear to be rather darker than others, but beyond this I
have not detected any variation.

The eggs are rather large, globular, flattened above and beneath, and pale
green in colour.

The larva feeds on the mahoe (_Melicytus ramiflorus_).

  When first excluded from the egg it is about 1/8 inch long, and of a very
  pale green colour. After the first moult the caterpillar is bright green,
  darker towards the head, with white dorsal, subdorsal, and lateral lines;
  there are eight rows of shining black spots, each spot emitting a number
  of stout black bristles; the head is yellowish-brown with a few black
  dots. After the last moult the larva has a totally different appearance.
  It is pale green marbled with darker green; there is often a whitish
  lateral line, and an obscure series of diagonal green stripes on the
  sides of each segment. Sometimes the whole larva has a pinkish-brown
  tinge, and there are often two or three rows of pale spots. In fact the
  full-grown caterpillar is very variable in its colouring.

These larvæ hibernate during the winter months, often secreting themselves
in the burrows which have been made in the stems of the mahoe by various
species of wood-boring insects. They come abroad about the end of August,
and are full grown early in October. The pupa state is spent in the earth.

The moth appears in December, January, February, March and April. It is
often {29}found at rest on tree-trunks in the daytime, where its beautiful
green colouring causes it to resemble, in the closest possible manner, a
patch of moss. Mr. Hawthorne tells me that he has frequently found dead
specimens in this situation.

This insect is, I think, commoner at slight elevations above the sea-level,
forest ranges of from 500 to 1,000 feet in height being apparently the most
favourable localities for the species. The appearance of the moth over so
long a period would seem to indicate that there are two generations in a
year, but I have never found full-grown larvæ in the middle of summer.
There is, however, no doubt that the insect passes the winter in the larval
condition. This species is often met with very late in the season,
frequenting the few remaining blossoms of the white rata until the first or
second week in April. Mr. Meyrick thus alludes to the scented tuft of hairs
in the male insect: "The large tuft of the fore-wings is the source of a
very strong vanilla-like perfume, which scents the box in which the
specimens are contained for more than a week after their death; the scent
is excited more strongly, even in the dead specimen, by stirring the tuft
with a pin."[17]

I can fully testify to the accuracy of this interesting observation.


Sub-family 3.--_CARADRINIDES_.

  "Eyes naked, not ciliated."


Genus 9.--BITYLA, Walk.

  "Antennæ in male filiform, shortly ciliated. Thorax not crested, collar
  sub-erect. Abdomen not crested."--(Meyrick).

Of this genus we have two species in New Zealand.


BITYLA DEFIGURATA, Walk.

(_Xylina defigurata_, Walk., Suppl. 756. _Bityla thoracica_, ib. 869.
_Bityla defigurata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 31.)

(Plate V., fig. 33.)

This species has been taken at Palmerston in the North Island, and at
Blenheim, Christchurch, Lake Coleridge, Dunedin, and West Plains near
Invercargill, in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. _The fore-wings are uniform dull
  bronzy-brown and very glossy_; there are one or two faint indications of
  transverse lines. The hind-wings are dark grey, also glossy.

The perfect insect appears in January, February, and March, and is
attracted by light. The single specimen I possess in my collection was
taken in July, evidently hibernating. It is a rare species.


BITYLA SERICEA, Butl.

(_Bityla sericea_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 387, pl. xlii. 12;
Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 31.)

(Plate V., fig. 34.)

This rather striking insect has occurred at Wellington in the North Island,
and at Christchurch and Lake Guyon in the South Island.

  {30}The expansion of the wings is about 1¾ inches. _The fore-wings are
  very dark greyish-black, darker near the termen, and very glossy_; there
  are several isolated white scales towards the base of the wing, and a
  very obscure transverse line at about three-fourths; the cilia are cream
  colour and very conspicuous. The hind-wings are dark grey and glossy;
  _the cilia are pale grey, very broadly tipped with cream colour_.

The perfect insect appears in February and March, and is attracted by
light. It is a rather scarce species.


Genus 10.--AGROTIS, Ochs.

  Head rough-scaled; eyes naked. Antennæ in [M] ciliated, often acutely
  bidentate or bipectinated, with apex simple. Thorax usually with more or
  less developed anterior and posterior crests. Abdomen not crested. Tibiæ
  all spinose.

"A very large genus occurring all over the world but much more plentifully
in the northern hemisphere. The larvæ are very indiscriminate in their
tastes, often feeding on almost any low plant; they are frequently
subterranean in habit, but usually emerge by night to feed."--(Meyrick.)

This genus is represented in New Zealand by five species, one of which is
an insect of almost world-wide distribution.


AGROTIS YPSILON, Rott.

(_Noctua ypsilon_, Rott. Agrotis suffusa, Hb. _Agrotis ypsilon_, Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 32.)

(Plate V., fig. 35 [M], 36 [F].)

This handsome insect is probably very common throughout the country. It has
occurred abundantly at Napier, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, Ashburton
and Invercargill.

  The expansion of the wings is 2 inches. The fore-wings are pale brown,
  shaded with rich brown on the costa and termen; the reniform is large and
  black, with a conspicuous longitudinal streak pointing towards the
  termen; the orbicular is round, centred with black; the claviform is
  elongate; there is a dark shaded line below the reniform, followed by a
  double wavy transverse black line. The hind-wings are grey with pinkish
  reflections; they are shaded with darker grey towards the termen; the
  cilia are white, the head and thorax are dark brown, the abdomen grey. In
  the female the brown costal shading extends across the central portions
  of the fore-wings to the dorsum, and the general colouring is also
  darker.

There are no noteworthy variations in either sex. The larva feeds on the
roots of grasses. Its head is pale brown mottled with darker brown, and its
body is lead-colour with darker dorsal and lateral lines. It remains
underground during the daytime, coming abroad at night to feed.

The pupa is red-brown with a very sharp, spine-like extremity. It is
concealed in the earth.[18]

The perfect insect appears in January, February and March. It is often very
abundant at various blossoms in the evening, and comes readily to sugar. It
is an insect of almost universal distribution, occurring in Australia,
China, India, Africa, Europe, and North and South America.[19]


{31}AGROTIS ADMIRATIONIS, Gn.

(_Agrotis admirationis_, Gn. (nec Meyrick), Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 38.)

(Plate V., fig. 37.)

This species has been taken at Christchurch.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. The fore-wings are dull grey;
  there are two minute black marks on the costa near the base, a slender
  interrupted transverse line at about one-third, _the orbicular, reniform,
  and claviform spots are very large and conspicuous, surrounded by a dark
  grey shading_; there is a series of black dots on the termen. The
  hind-wings are pale grey. The cilia of all the wings are also pale grey.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. I am
assured by Mr. Fereday that the above-described insect is the true _Agrotis
admirationis_ of Guenée, described from an identical specimen which he
forwarded to Guenée. The following species, which is regarded by Mr.
Meyrick as _Agrotis admirationis_, Gn. (see Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 33), is
therefore renamed as below.


AGROTIS INNOMINATA, n. sp.

(_Agrotis admirationis_, Meyr. (nec Guenée), Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 33.)

(Plate V., fig. 39 [M].)

Two specimens of this species have been taken at Wellington.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. The fore-wings are pale
  pinkish-yellow; there is a slender black longitudinal streak on the costa
  at the base, _a broad black longitudinal streak at the base near the
  middle, and another a little beyond the base above the middle, containing
  the orbicular and reniform stigmata, these are sharply outlined in
  pinkish-yellow_; there are several rather indistinct black streaks
  between the veins, and a series of terminal black dots; the cilia are
  dull pinkish-yellow. The hind-wings are dull white; there is a series of
  brownish terminal dots, and the veins are marked in brown; _the cilia are
  shining white_. The head and thorax are pinkish-brown; the latter has two
  transverse black lines near the head, and two longitudinal black streaks
  on each side. The abdomen is dull white tipped with pale brown.

One specimen of this insect is considerably tinged with very pale
olive-green instead of pink, but it is otherwise identical. As the
available material is so extremely limited, I am unable to say which is the
typical form.

The perfect insect appears in December. I am indebted to Messrs. J. H.
Lewis and W. R. Morris for my specimens.


AGROTIS SERICEA, Butl.

  (_Chersotis sericea_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 490. _C. inconspicua_, ib.
  545. _Agrotis sericea_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 33. _A.
  inconspicua_, ib. 34. _Agrotis sericea_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx.
  46.)

(Plate V., fig. 38 [F].)

This species has occurred in the South Island at Christchurch, Rakaia, and
Ashburton.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. The fore-wings vary from
  very pale grey to dark blackish-grey; there is an obscure transverse line
  near the base, and another at about one-fourth; _the orbicular is oval
  and dark centred, the claviform is elongate, often very obscure, the
  reniform is broad dark centred, usually joined to the orbicular by a dark
  patch_; all the stigmata are outlined in black; beyond the reniform there
  is a rather jagged transverse line, and _several faint wedge-shaped
  markings_; there is a series of minute elongate black marks on the
  termen; the cilia are grey with three dark lines. The hind-wings are grey
  with several fine black marks on the termen; the cilia are white.

This species seems to be rather variable both in ground colour and in
markings.

The perfect insect appears in October, November, December and January. It
is not a common species.


{32}AGROTIS CEROPACHOIDES, Gn.

(_Agrotis ceropachoides_, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 39; Meyr., Trans. N. Z.
Inst. xix. 34.)

(Plate VI., fig. 1.)

This species has occurred at Rakaia.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. _The fore-wings are bluish-grey,
  dotted and streaked with darker grey; there are no distinct markings_,
  except an obscure transverse shading near the termen, and a series of
  dull terminal spots; _the costa is slightly concave_. The hind-wings are
  grey, paler towards the base, with a dark line on the termen; the cilia
  of all the wings are grey.

The perfect insect appears in July, August and September.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


Genus 11.--HELIOTHIS, Ochs.

  "Head rough-scaled; eyes naked. Antennæ in [M] ciliated. Thorax without
  crest. Abdomen not crested. Tibiæ spinose, anterior tibiæ with horny
  apical hook.

"A rather small genus, but very generally distributed, though commoner in
subtropical regions; it is a development of _Caradrina_; some of the
species have a very wide natural range. The larvæ feed especially on the
blossoms of their food-plants."--(Meyrick.)

This genus is represented in New Zealand by the world-wide _Heliothis
armigera_.


HELIOTHIS ARMIGERA, Hb.

(_Heliothis armigera_, Hb. _H. conferta_, Walk., Noct. 690. _H. armigera_,
Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 34.)

(Plate V., fig. 40 [M], 41 [F].)

This species has occurred plentifully at Waimarama (Hawkes Bay) and
Wellington, in the North Island; and at Nelson, Blenheim, Christchurch,
Rakaia, and Ashburton in the South Island. In Wellington it is certainly
not so common as formerly, and Mr. Meyrick observes that its abundance is
declining in some other localities also.

  The expansion of the wings is from 1½ to 1¾ inches. The fore-wings are
  pale yellowish-brown, sometimes tinged with red. There is an irregular
  band of dull grey or brown near the termen; _the reniform is small and
  black; the orbicular minute, also black; the claviform is obsolete_;
  there are several very indistinct traces of transverse lines towards the
  base of the wing. The hind-wings are dull yellow, _with a very broad,
  blackish, terminal band_. The head and thorax are yellowish-brown, and
  the abdomen is dull yellow.

This insect varies a good deal in the ground colouring of the fore-wings,
which ranges from dull yellow to brick-red, or even to dark
yellowish-brown. The hind-wings are also much darker in some specimens than
in others.

The larva feeds on the seeds and flowers of various plants. It is extremely
variable in its colouring.

  Some specimens are dull green, with a few obscure red spots on the sides
  of the anterior segments. Others are brownish-black, with many fine
  yellow stripes and dots, and the red spots confined to the three anterior
  segments. Others, again, have numerous olive-green, white, and pale green
  lines, with a reddish blotch on the side of nearly every segment.

This caterpillar is often rather destructive in gardens. Amongst other
things, it devours tomatoes and peas, the flowers and young fruit of
pumpkins and vegetable marrows, the flowers and leaves of geraniums,
veronicas, &c. It is full grown in the autumn.

The pupa is concealed in the earth, the insect remaining in this condition
until the following summer.

{33}The moth appears in January and February. It often flies by day, and
may then be seen disporting itself amongst the flowers of the Scotch
thistle. Its larva may also be found feeding on these flowers.

This insect is practically cosmopolitan; it has occurred in the following
countries: Australia, Samoa, India, Ceylon, Madagascar, Africa, Europe,
North and South America.[20]


Genus 12.--COSMODES, Gn.

  "Eyes naked. Antennæ in male filiform, shortly ciliated. Thorax with
  strong transverse anterior and posterior crests. Abdomen strongly crested
  towards base. Hind-wings with veins 6 and 7 short-stalked."--(Meyrick.)

We have only one species in New Zealand.


COSMODES ELEGANS, Don.

(_Phalæna elegans_, Don. Ins. N. H. _Cosmodes elegans_, Gn., Noct. vi. 290;
Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 35.)

(Plate VI., fig. 2.)

This beautiful species has occurred at Napier and Ohau in the North Island.
In the South Island it has been taken at Christchurch and Governor's Bay.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-1/8 inches. The fore-wings are rich
  orange-brown, with _four large green spots margined with silver_; there
  is a curved silvery mark near the apex. The hind-wings are pale yellow,
  shaded with orange-brown towards the termen; the cilia are pale
  orange-brown mixed with white.

The perfect insect appears in March and April.

Mr. Meyrick states that it occurs commonly in Eastern Australia.[21]


Family 3.--PLUSIADÆ.

The _Plusiadæ_ are characterized as follows:--

  "Ocelli usually distinct. Tongue well developed. Posterior tibiæ with all
  spurs present. Fore-wings with veins 7 and 8 usually out of 9, 10 usually
  connected with 9. Hind-wings with veins 3 and 4 connate or short-stalked,
  5 well developed, 6 and 7 connate or short-stalked or seldom closely
  approximated only, 8 shortly anastomosing with cell near base, thence
  evenly diverging." (See Plate II., figs. 14 to 18.)

"This family is by no means very prominent in temperate regions, but within
the tropics it assumes immense proportions, and is there, probably, the
most abundant family of the Lepidoptera. There is much greater diversity of
size, colour, and form than in the _Caradrinidæ_, and also more variation
in structure, though this remains more uniform than usual. Imago with
fore-wings usually relatively broader and less elongate than in the
_Caradrinidæ_, body often more slender.

"Ovum spherical, more or less reticulated, often also ribbed. Larva with
few hairs, sometimes with prolegs on segments 7 and 8 absent or
rudimentary. Pupa usually in a cocoon above the ground."--(Meyrick.)

The family is represented in New Zealand by the following four genera:--

  Sub-family 1.--HYPENIDES  1. HYPENODES.

                           {2. PLUSIA.
  Sub-family 2.--PLUSIADES {3. DASYPODIA.
                           {4. RHAPSA.


{34}Sub-family 1.--_HYPENIDES_.

Vein 5 of hind-wings parallel to 4.


Genus 1.--HYPENODES, Gn.

  Head loosely scaled, with small frontal tuft. Antennæ in [M] ciliated.
  Palpi very long, porrected, second joint thickened with rough projecting
  scales, terminal rather short, cylindrical. Thorax with appressed scales.
  Abdomen with small crest near base. Tibiæ smooth-scaled. Fore-wings with
  vein 7 separate, 9 and 10 out of 8. Hind-wings with vein 5 parallel to 4.

"Although consisting of very few species, this genus is almost universally
distributed. Imago with fore-wings unusually elongate. Larva without
prolegs on segments 7 and 8."--(Meyrick.)

We have one species in New Zealand.


HYPENODES EXSULARIS, Meyr.

(_Hypenodes exsularis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 46.)

  "_Male._--16 mm. (about ¾ inch). Head, antennæ, thorax, and abdomen
  whitish-ochreous, brownish-tinged; abdominal crest black. Palpi dark
  fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, posterior pair whitish-ochreous. Fore-wings
  elongate, posteriorly gradually dilated, costa slightly arched, termen
  obliquely rounded; ochreous-brown, closely irrorated with rather dark
  fuscous; a black mark beneath costa at base; a cloudy blackish
  longitudinal mark in disc beyond middle; second line obscurely indicated,
  paler, anteriorly partly blackish-edged, from posterior extremity of
  discal mark to dorsum beyond middle; an oblique wedge-shaped white spot
  from apex, touching second line; a sub-terminal series of white dots; a
  terminal row of black dots; cilia fuscous, with a basal series of
  whitish-ochreous dots. Hind-wings pale whitish-grey; a grey transverse
  discal spot; a dark grey interrupted terminal line; cilia grey-whitish.

  "Taranaki, in March; one specimen.

"In the British Museum is an unnamed specimen from China, which appears to
be certainly the same species; it, therefore, probably ranges through many
of the South Pacific islands. From its small size and inconspicuous
appearance it is doubtless often overlooked."--(Meyrick.)


Sub-family 2.--_PLUSIADES_.

Vein 5 of hind-wings more or less approximated to 4.


Genus 2.--PLUSIA, Ochs.

  "Head rough-scaled. Antennæ in [M] very shortly ciliated. Palpi rather
  long, curved, ascending, second joint rough-scaled, terminal moderately
  long or short, more or less rough-scaled in front, somewhat pointed.
  Thorax with large central or posterior crest. Abdomen with one or more
  crests. Tibiæ rough-scaled. Hind-wings with vein 5 more or less
  approximated to 4." (Plate II., figs. 14 and 15.)

"A considerable genus, occurring throughout the world. Most of the imagos
are handsome insects, often with metallic markings; some of them fly
actively in bright sunshine. Larva usually without prolegs on segments 7
and 8, segment 12 more or less prominent above. Pupa in a rather open
cocoon."--(Meyrick.)

This genus is represented in New Zealand by a single and very widely
distributed species.


{35}PLUSIA CHALCITES, Esp.

  (_Plusia criosoma_, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. 285; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pl. x. 1,
  2. _P. argentifera_, Gn., Noct. vi. 352. _P. eriosoma_, Meyr., Trans. N.
  Z. Inst. xix. 36.)

(Plate VI., fig. 3 [M].)

This insect is probably generally distributed in the North Island, and in
the northern portions of the South Island. It has occurred very commonly at
Taranaki, Napier, and Nelson, but in Wellington it is rather a scarce
species.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. The fore-wings are dark
  grey with bronzy reflections; there is a pale band on the termen, and
  several of the transverse lines are indicated by paler colouring, the two
  basal ones being often silvery; _the orbicular is partly outlined with
  golden-white, and the claviform is wholly filled in with the same
  colour_. The hind-wings are yellowish-grey, darker towards the termen.

Mr. Meyrick mentions a variety in which the characteristic golden-white
discal spots on the fore-wings are absent. I have not yet had the good
fortune to see this form, and think it must be a rare one.

The larva has twelve legs; it is much attenuated towards the head; its
colour is pale green, darker on the back; there is a number of wavy white
lines and dots on the larva, as well as a few isolated black dots and
hairs. It feeds on geraniums, mint, bean, Scotch thistle, and many other
garden plants and weeds. Its original food appears to have been the "potato
plant" (_Solarium aviculare_); but now it only occurs on this shrub in
uncultivated localities, where there is no European vegetation.

The pupa is enclosed in a cocoon of white silk, generally situated between
two dead leaves on or near the ground.

The moth first appears about September, and continues abundant until the
end of summer. In Nelson I have seen it in great profusion, hovering over
various flowers in the evening, at which time it also occasionally
endeavours to gain access to beehives. In the same locality I have met with
the young larvæ in the middle of winter, so that there is probably a
continuous succession of broods all the year through in favourable
situations.

This insect is found in Australia, Pacific Islands, Africa, South Asia,
South Europe, and occasionally in the South of England.[22]



Genus 3.--DASYPODIA, Gn.

  "Eyes naked. Palpi with terminal joint very slender. Antennæ in male
  filiform, hardly pubescent. Thorax and abdomen not crested. Tarsi in male
  very much thickened, with dense scales (_teste Guenée_)."--(Meyrick.)

We have one species.


DASYPODIA SELENOPHORA, Gn.

(_Dasypodia selenophora_, Gn., Noct. vii. 175; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst.
xix. 38.)

(Plate VI., fig. 4.)

This large and very handsome insect has occurred at Auckland, Napier, and
Wellington in the North Island, and at Nelson, Richmond, and Christchurch,
in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about 3 inches. _The fore-wings are very
  rich deep brown_; there are two faint jagged transverse lines near the
  base, a straight shaded line at about one-third; _the reniform is very
  large, crescentic, steely blue, finely margined first with black, then
  with orange, and {36}then again with black; the centre of the crescent is
  filled in with black; beyond this spot there are three fine black wavy
  transverse lines emitting three very sharp teeth between the reniform and
  the dorsum_; there is a faint shaded line near the termen. The hind-wings
  are rich brown, slightly paler than the fore-wings; there are three
  shaded, wavy, transverse lines. The termen of both wings is slightly
  scalloped with a minute bluish-white dot at each indentation; the cilia
  are dark brown.

The life-history is thus described by Mr. Colenso:--

  The larva when full grown is about 3¾ inches in length, elongate,
  slightly thicker in the middle, and with the skin smooth. It is
  ash-colour, speckled with minute points of black and red; two minute
  carmine spots are situated close together on its back; and, when in
  motion, two large triangular black splashes are also visible. The under
  side of the larva is dull white, with several dull olive spots
  corresponding to its ventral prolegs. Its head is small, and pale Indian
  yellow in colour; its anal and ventral prolegs are large; on being
  touched the caterpillar coils itself up very rapidly and closely.

The specimen from which Mr. Colenso's description was taken, was found at
rest on the trunk of a large acacia-tree, which is probably the food-plant
of the larva.

The pupa is enclosed in a cocoon formed of leaves fastened together with
silk. The insect appears to remain in this condition for about two months.

The pupa-case (after emergence) is nearly cylindrical, very obtuse at the
head, and tapering regularly downwards from the end of the wing-cases, with
the tail conical; the abdominal segments are very strongly marked. Its
colour is dark red, with a bluish or violet bloom, but smooth and shining
on its prominent parts.[23]

The perfect insect appears in January, February, and March, but it is
rather a scarce species. It is attracted by light, and thus occasionally
enters houses, where specimens are generally captured. Mr. Meyrick states
that this insect occurs commonly in Eastern Australia.[24]


Genus 4.--RHAPSA.

  "Eyes naked. Palpi very long, obliquely ascending, loosely rough-scaled
  throughout, second joint with dense long projecting tuft above towards
  apex, terminal joint moderate, Antennæ in male moderately bipectinated,
  apex simple. Thorax and abdomen not crested. Fore-wings in male beneath
  with large broad costal fold on anterior half."--(Meyrick.) (Plate II.,
  figs. 16 and 17 neuration of [M] _Rhapsa scotosialis_; fig. 18 head of
  ditto.)

We have two species.


RHAPSA SCOTOSIALIS, Walk.

  (_Rhapsa scotosialis_, Walk., Suppl. 1150. _Herminia lilacina_, Butl.,
  Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, pl. xlii. 11. _Rhapsa scotosialis_, Meyr.,
  Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 38.)

(Plate VI., fig. 5 [M], 6 [F].)

This remarkable species is extremely abundant and generally distributed
throughout the country.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. _The fore-wings have the
  costa considerably arched towards the apex, and the termen is bowed
  outwards in the middle_; the colour is pale brown in the male and dark
  brown in the female; there are several obscure black marks near the base;
  _the orbicular is very small, orange or pale grey outlined in black, the
  claviform is absent, the reniform is conspicuous, the outer edge is much
  indented, the inner edge is outlined with dull orange-red_, there is a
  black blotch between the orbicular and the reniform; beyond the reniform
  there is a curved transverse line enveloping a series of minute black
  dots, then a very conspicuous wavy transverse line shaded towards the
  base of the wing; _there is a pale triangular area at the apex_, and a
  series of small crescentic dark brown markings on the termen; the cilia
  are dark brown. The hind-wings are greyish-ochreous; there is a rather
  faint line across the middle, followed by a broad shade; a series of
  {37}small crescentic marks is situated on the termen; the cilia are dark
  greyish-ochreous. _The antennæ of the male are strongly bipectinated. The
  female is considerably darker, the markings are less distinct and
  numerous, and there is no black blotch between the orbicular and the
  reniform._

  Some male specimens are much paler in colour than others, but with this
  exception there does not appear to be any important variation.

  The eggs are round, flattened above, bright green, becoming dull purplish
  about two days after being laid.

  The young larva when first emerged is about 1/8 inch in length; the head
  is brown; the body dull white, with a series of black tubercles round
  each segment, each tubercle emitting a tuft of bristles. The larva has
  sixteen legs, but the two anterior pairs of ventral claspers are not
  employed in walking, the caterpillar's mode of progression, consequently,
  resembling that of a larva with twelve legs only. The food-plant is
  _Piper excelsum_.

The perfect insect appears from September till April, and is very common
amongst undergrowth in the forest. It is seldom found in the daytime, but
at night it is extremely abundant in densely wooded situations. It flies in
a very stealthy manner, and may soon be recognised on the wing by this
feature alone. When disturbed it always secretes itself amongst dead fern
fronds or other vegetable refuse, where its sombre colour effectually
conceals it.

The costal fold on the under side of the fore-wing of the male contains a
very large tuft of extremely long hairs. It probably emits a scent
agreeable to the female.


RHAPSA OCTIAS. Meyr.

(_Hyperaucha octias_, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1897, 383.)

(Plate VI., fig. 7.)

This interesting little species has recently occurred in some numbers in
the neighbourhood of Wellington. I have no record at present of its capture
in any other New Zealand locality.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings have the costa
  straight, and the termen with a large projection slightly above the
  middle; the colour is pale brown; _there is a broad dark brown patch on
  the costa at the base_, a jagged transverse line at about one-fourth, _a
  very broad, oblique, blackish-brown, oblong patch on the costa at about
  one-third; beyond this patch is situated the reniform which is very
  large, indented towards the termen where it is outlined in dark brown_;
  there is a very fine jagged transverse line from beneath the reniform to
  the dorsum; _a large irregular patch of dark brownish-black just before
  the apex_, and an obscure transverse line; there is a series of minute,
  dark brown, crescentic marks on the termen. The hind-wings are dull
  whitish-grey; there is a faint blackish dot in the middle, a wavy line a
  little below the middle, and a terminal series of small dark marks. The
  antennæ are filiform in both sexes.

The perfect insect appears in October, November and December. It frequents
dense forest ravines, and is generally disturbed from amongst dead leaves
or old fern fronds. It is usually a very scarce species, but appears to be
much commoner in some years than in others. According to Mr. Meyrick, it is
also found in Australia.

This species is placed by Mr. Meyrick in the genus _Rhapsa_. The simple
antennæ and absence of the broad costal fold in the males would appear,
however, to remove it from that genus, as restricted by him in the
'Transactions' of the New Zealand Institute, xix. 38. In all other respects
it appears to conform to the genus.[25]



{38}II.--THE NOTODONTINA.


The _Notodontina_ are characterized as follows:--

  "The maxillary palpi are obsolete. Fore-wings with vein 1b usually
  furcate, but with lower fork often weak or tending to be obsolete, 5
  rising not nearer to 4 than to 6, parallel, 7 and 8 out of 9. Hind-wings
  almost always with frenulum, 1c absent. (Plate II., figs. 19 to 64, and
  Plate I., figs. 12 and 13.)

  "Imago with fore-wings more or less broad-triangular; hind-wings
  broad-ovate."--(Meyrick.)

  Larva (in New Zealand) generally with 10 or 12 legs only (Plate III.,
  figs. 12, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 24), rarely with 16 (_Sphinx_, Pl.
  III., figs. 13 and 14).

  "Pupa with segments 9 to 11 free; not protruded from cocoon in
  emergence."--(Meyrick.)

This is a very extensive group of the Lepidoptera, and so far as it is
represented in New Zealand is equivalent to that group formerly known as
the _Geometrina_, with the addition of the family _Sphingidæ_. The insects
here included comprise many of our most interesting, abundant, and
beautiful species. Some of them are so extremely variable that it is often
a matter of considerable difficulty to determine the most convenient points
on which to base the specific distinctions; although fortunately great
advances have been made in this direction of late years owing to the
increase in the number of workers, and the consequent accumulation of
available material. In connection with this portion of the subject, special
mention should be made of Mr. Meyrick's paper on the group, which appeared
in the 'Transactions' of the New Zealand Institute for 1883. This essay has
been of the greatest value in dispelling the doubts which formerly existed
respecting the limits of many of the most variable species.

The _Notodontina_ are represented in New Zealand by the six following
families:--

  1. HYDRIOMENIDÆ.     4. ORTHOSTIXIDÆ.
  2. STERRHIDÆ.        5. SELIDOSEMIDÆ.
  3. MONOCTENIADÆ.     6. SPHINGIDÆ.


Family 1.--HYDRIOMENIDÆ.

The _Hydriomenidae_  are thus characterized:--

  "Tongue well developed. Fore-wings with vein 10 rising separate;
  anastomosing with 11 and 9 (forming double areole), or rising out of 11
  and anastomosing with 9 (forming simple areole). Hind-wings with vein 5
  fully developed, parallel to 4, 6, and 7 almost always stalked or
  connate, 8 anastomosing with upper margin of cell from near base to
  beyond middle, or sometimes approximated only and connected by a bar or
  shortly anastomosing beyond middle." (Plate II., figs. 19 to 43.)

"A very large family distributed in equal plenty throughout all temperate
regions, but becoming scarcer within the tropics. The structure is very
uniform throughout, and the generic distinctions slight. Imago with body
slender, fore-wings usually broad.

"Ovum broad, oval, rather flattened with usually oval reticulations. Larva
elongate, slender, with few hairs, without prolegs on segments 7 to 9;
often imitating live or dead twigs and shoots. Pupa usually
subterranean."--(Meyrick.)

{39}This family is very extensively represented in New Zealand by the
following fifteen genera:--

  1. TATOSOMA.        5. ELVIA.        9. VENUSIA.        13. DASYURIS.

  2. PARADETIS.       6. HYDRIOMENA.  10. ASAPHODES.      14. NOTOREAS.

  3. CHLOROCLYSTIS.   7. EUCHOECA.  11. XANTHORHOE.     15. SAMANA.

  4. PHRIXOGONUS.     8. ASTHENA.     12. LYTHRIA.



Genus 1.--TATOSOMA, Butl.

  "Face smooth. Palpi long, straight, porrected, shortly rough-scaled,
  terminal joint short. Antennæ in male simple, stout, gradually dilated
  from base to near apex, apex attenuated. Abdomen in male very excessively
  elongate. Hind-wings in male deeply excised near dorsum, dorsal lobe
  folded into a long pocket, fringed with hairs. Fore-wings with vein 6
  rising out of 9, 7 from or above angle of areole, 10 anastomosing
  moderately with 9, 11 anastomosing moderately with 10, 12 free.
  Hind-wings with veins 6 and 7 separate, 8 free, united with 7 before
  transverse vein by an oblique bar.

"This singular genus is a remnant of a widely diffused, but now fragmentary
group, to which belong also _Lobophora_ (Europe), _Rhopalodes_ (South
America), _Sauris_ (Ceylon), and _Remodes_ (Borneo.) In all, the hind-wings
of the male are peculiarly modified, usually much diminished in size, and
with the dorsum formed into a distinct lobe, the object of which is
unknown. A similar structure is found only in one or two genera of
_Tortricina_. _Rhopalodes_ is the nearest genus to this, but vein 5 is said
to be obsolete, and the lobe does not form a pocket; in _Sauris_ the areole
is simple, and the antennæ thickly scaled; in _Remodes_ the areole is also
simple, the antennæ flattened and scaled, and the dorsum is furnished with
three superposed lobular folds, so that it represents the extreme of
development in this direction."--(Meyrick.)

It will be seen on reference to Plate II., figs. 22 and 23, which represent
the structure of the hind-wings of the male and female of _Tatosoma
agrionata_ respectively, that in the male veins 1 and 2 are absent, having
no doubt become absorbed during the formation of the characteristic sexual
lobe; vein 8 is connected with the margin of the cell by an oblique bar,
this being probably due to an extension of the wing in the costal region,
compensating for the loss in the dorsal region due to the above-mentioned
lobe. In the hind-wings of the female the normal neuration of the family is
almost preserved, the only peculiar feature consisting in the origin of
veins 6 and 7 from a point on the margin of the cell.

Of this remarkable genus we have three species, and I think it quite
possible that others may reward the industry of future collectors.


TATOSOMA LESTEVATA, Walk.

(_Cidaria lestevata_, Walk. 1416. _Sauris ranata_, Feld. cxxxi. 11.,
_Tatosoma lestevata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 67.)

(Plate VI., fig. 25 [M].)

This beautiful species has occurred at Wainuiomata, near Wellington, in the
North Island, and at Nelson and Christchurch, in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. _The fore-wings are
  bright-green; there are four wavy, black, transverse lines; the first
  near the base, the second a little before the middle, the third
  considerably beyond the middle, and the fourth near the termen_; the
  terminal line is very faint towards the tornus, and it emits three or
  four very sharp, longitudinal, black, tooth-like marks; all the
  transverse lines are much stronger where they cross the principal veins.
  The hind-wings are very pale yellowish-green.

The perfect insect appears in February. At present I believe the species is
represented by four specimens only--two in Mr. Fereday's collection and two
in my own.


{40}TATOSOMA AGRIONATA, Walk.

  (_Cidaria agrionata_, Walk. 1417. _Cidaria tipulata_, ib. 1417. _Cidaria
  inclinataria_, ib. 1418. _Cidaria transitaria_, ib. 1419. _Sauris
  mistata_, Feld. cxxxi. 12. _Tatosoma transitaria_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z.
  Inst. xvi. 68. _Tatosoma agrionata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvii. 64.)

(Plate VI., fig. 26 [M], 27 [F].)

This fine species has occurred commonly at Wellington in the North Island.
It is generally distributed in the South Island, and has also been found at
Stewart Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. _The fore-wings are
  bright-green traversed by numerous black, wavy, transverse lines; these
  black lines are grouped into four more or less distinct bands, the
  outermost of which is interrupted at each of the veins_; there is a
  conspicuous black dot in the middle of the wing, a number of small
  triangular black marks near the termen, and a series of minute black dots
  on the termen. The hind-wings are ochreous, tinged with green towards the
  termen. In the female the abdomen is much shorter, and the hind-wings are
  larger than in the male.

The perfect insect appears from December till April. It frequents dense
forests, and is generally found at rest on the trunks of trees. In these
situations the pattern of the fore-wings is extremely protective, the whole
insect bearing the closest possible resemblance to a patch of moss. This
species may also be taken at sugar, and sometimes at light, but I have
found that it can be obtained most plentifully by a careful scrutiny of the
tree-trunks in a favourable locality. As a rule I think that the males are
considerably commoner than the females. I have noticed them in the
proportion of about four to one.


TATOSOMA TIMORA, Meyr.

(_Tatosoma agrionata_, Meyr. (nec Walker), Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 68.
_Tatosoma timora_, Meyr., ib. xvii. 64.)

(Plate VI., fig. 28 [M], 29 [F].)

This rather sombre, though interesting insect, has occurred at Palmerston
and Wellington in the North Island, and at Christchurch and Akaroa in the
South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. _All the wings are sparsely
  covered with scales. The fore-wings of the male are dull reddish-brown,
  with numerous obscure transverse dusky stripes; there are two rather
  conspicuous blackish blotches on the costa_, a white dot in the middle of
  the wing, a wavy, pale, transverse line near the termen, and a series of
  black terminal dots; the veins are dotted in black. The hind-wings are
  very small, dull grey, with the lobe large and conspicuous. _The female
  is faintly tinged with green, the markings on the fore-wings are rather
  indistinct_; the hind-wings are small, though much larger than those of
  the male.

The perfect insect appears from November till May. It frequents densely
wooded districts, but is not a common species.


Genus 2.--PARADETIS, Meyr.

  "Palpi short, arched, roughly-scaled beneath. Antennæ bipectinated.
  Fore-wings with vein 6 from below 9, 7 from below angle of areole, 10
  very shortly anastomosing with 9, 11 out of 10 considerably before angle
  of areole, 12 free. Hind-wings with veins 6 and 7 stalked, 8 separate,
  united to 7 before transverse vein by an oblique bar.

"This singular genus is of quite uncertain affinity, and stands at present
alone. The simple areole, and connecting bar of 7 and 8, can only have
arisen by modification of the normal type of this family, to which it must
be referred. It is also the only New Zealand genus except _Declana_ in
which the female has pectinated antennæ; but this character recurs in a few
exotic genera not otherwise allied."--(Meyrick.)

Plate II., figs. 27 and 28 represent the neuration of the male of
_Paradetis porphyrias_, vein 2 of the hind-wings being absent in that sex.
In the female, which is the sex from which Mr. Meyrick characterized the
genus, the vein is present as usual. Only one species is known.


{41}PARADETIS PORPHYRIAS, Meyr.

(_Parysatis porphyrias_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 58. _Paradetis
porphyrias_, Meyr., ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VI., fig. 36 [M].)

This interesting little insect has occurred in the South Island at Mount
Arthur, Castle Hill, the Otira Gorge, and Lake Wakatipu.

  The expansion of the wings is about ¾ inch. _The fore-wings of the male
  are deep purplish-brown_; there is a wavy, reddish, transverse line at
  about one-third and another at about two-thirds; between these two lines
  near the dorsum there are often four, more or less distinct, yellow dots;
  there is an obscure orange mark at the origin of the first line and a
  conspicuous mark at the origin of the second. _The hind-wings are deep
  purplish-brown._ The cilia of all the wings are white. _The fore-wing has
  the apex hooked and the termen deeply excavated above and below the
  middle._ The female is very much paler; the lines are more distinct and
  the veins are marked in brown.

The perfect insect appears in January. It frequents rather open spots in
the forest, and flies in a very busy manner close to the ground amongst the
numerous ferns and other plants, which are always abundant in such
situations. It is consequently very inconspicuous and sometimes difficult
to capture. Thus, no doubt, it is often overlooked, and perhaps is much
commoner than at present appears probable.



Genus 3.--CHLOROCLYSTIS, Hb.

  "Face with short cone of scales. Palpi rough-scaled. Antennæ in male
  shortly ciliated. Abdomen crested. Fore-wings with areole simple, vein 11
  running into or anastomosing with 12. Hind-wings with vein 8 anastomosing
  with cell from near base to beyond middle." (Plate II., figs. 19 and 20.)

"This genus is especially characteristic of New Zealand, and is also found
in South Asia, a few stragglers occurring in Europe and
elsewhere."--(Meyrick.)

We have twelve species, several of which are very beautiful.


CHLOROCLYSTIS PLINTHINA, Meyr.

(_Pasiphila plinthina_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 49.)

(Plate VI., fig. 8.)

This pretty species has occurred at Wellington.

  The expansion of the wings is about ½ inch. All the wings are traversed
  by numerous obscure, wavy, reddish-yellow lines; the fore-wings have a
  dark shading near the base, _a very large white blotch in the middle_,
  and a dark chocolate-brown patch near the apex. _The hind-wings have a
  large shaded white patch in the middle_, a blackish dot near the base,
  and a series of brownish crescentic marks on the termen; the cilia of all
  the wings are pale brown barred with brownish-black. The termen of the
  fore-wings is very oblique, of the hind-wings rather irregular.

Many specimens of this insect are strongly tinged with green, and the shape
and size of the white patches on the fore- and hind-wings are subject to
slight variations.

The perfect insect appears in November and December. It frequents
brushwood, where it may be occasionally taken at rest on tree-trunks but
more often dislodged from the foliage. It is not a very common species.


CHLOROCLYSTIS BILINEOLATA, Walk.

  (_Eupithecia bilineolata_, Walk. 1246. _E. muscosata_, ib. 1246.
  _Scotosia humerata_, ib. 1362. _Eupithecia semialbata_, ib. 1708. _E.
  cidariaria_, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 62. _Cidiaria aquosata_, Feld., pl.
  cxxxi. 33. _Helastia charybdis_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 503. _H. calida_,
  ib. 504. _Pasiphila muscosata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. 50. _P.
  bilineolata_, ib.)

(Plate VI., fig. 9 type, fig. 10 variety.)

This beautiful little species is common, and generally distributed
throughout the country.

  {42}The expansion of the wings is ¾ inch. _The fore-wings are bright
  green with numerous wavy darker lines._ There is a jagged transverse
  black line near the base, two at about one-fourth, enclosing a rather
  paler space; beyond this there are several rather irregular, fine black
  marks, and an obscure white patch below the apex; the cilia are dull
  green. The hind-wings are grey slightly tinged with reddish; the dorsum
  and termen are shaded with green, and there is a number of curved black
  lines on the dorsum; the cilia are dull greenish-grey. The termen of the
  fore-wings is slightly bowed, and all the wings are finely scalloped and
  sharply outlined in black.

A very distinct variety frequently occurs in which the entire ground colour
is _orange-yellow_. This variety can be artificially produced by exposing a
typical specimen to the fumes of bruised laurel leaves. Intermediate forms
may also be found, but are much scarcer than either the typical form or the
variety.

The larva (according to Mr. Purdie[26]) is about ½ inch long; colour
brownish, surface very rugged; body tapering somewhat towards the head. Two
pairs of small dorsal tubercles about the middle, the posterior pair being
larger; oblique lateral dark markings faintly seen on dark ground colour;
below lighter. Food-plants: _Aristotelia_, _Leptospermum ericoides_,
_Rubus_ (?), and _Muhlenbeckia_ (?). Found in December and January.

The perfect insect appears from September till May, and is often very
common. It rests on tree-trunks with outspread wings, in which position it
so closely resembles a patch of moss that it is extremely difficult to
detect, even when specially searched for.


CHLOROCLYSTIS ANTARCTICA, n. sp.

(Plate VI., fig. 20.)

This species was discovered by Mr. Philpott at West Plains, near
Invercargill.

  The expansion of the wings is 7/8 inch. The fore-wings are rather dull
  green; there is a reddish-brown patch near the base, followed by two,
  slightly oblique, reddish bands; the central band is very broad, green,
  traversed by numerous fine wavy lines; there is a broad reddish band on
  the termen. The hind-wings are slaty-grey, tinged with pink towards the
  termen and dorsum. The cilia of all the wings are pink barred with black.

Two other specimens kindly given to me by Mr. Philpott have the bands on
the fore-wings more or less brown in place of red, but are otherwise
identical.

This insect is evidently very closely allied to _C. bilineolata_, but its
larger size, longer wings, and barred cilia will, I think, distinguish it
from that species.

The perfect insect appears in November.


CHLOROCLYSTIS ARISTIAS, Meyr.

(_Chloroclystis aristias_, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 385.)

(Plate VI., fig. 21 [M], 22 [F].)

This beautiful insect was discovered on the Mount Arthur Tableland in
January, 1896, at an elevation of about 4,000 feet.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-1/8 inches. _All the wings are very pale
  greenish-grey._ The male has three distinct dark brownish bands near the
  base, an irregular broad suffused band near the middle, becoming obsolete
  before it reaches the dorsum, a dark patch at the apex, another patch on
  the termen below the apex and another near the tornus. The hind-wings are
  traversed by numerous, very fine, wavy blackish lines, becoming darker
  towards the dorsum. In the female there are three wavy reddish-brown
  bands on the costa of the fore-wings, becoming obsolete towards the
  dorsum, then a wavy yellowish line, followed by two rust-red patches. The
  hind-wings resemble those of the male. Both sexes have the veins dotted
  with black, and the cilia of all the wings are grey barred with black.

{43}The perfect insect was found in a limestone valley at the foot of Mount
Peel, where it was fairly common.


CHLOROCLYSTIS NEREIS, Meyr.

(_Pasiphila nereis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 51.)

(Plate VI., fig. 11 [M].)

This insect has occurred at Mount Arthur, Mount Hutt, and the Humboldt
Range, Lake Wakatipu, at elevations from 2,500 to 4,000 feet.

  The expansion of the wings is nearly an inch. _All the wings are dusky
  grey with numerous black and dull white, wavy transverse lines_; there is
  often a somewhat paler area near the apex of the fore-wings, and the
  termen of the hind-wings is slightly scalloped; the cilia are dull white
  barred with dark greyish-black.

The perfect insect appears in January and February. It generally frequents
cliffs on mountain sides, resting with outspread wings on the dark rocky
surfaces. In these situations it is extremely difficult to detect, and the
protective value of its colouring is thus at once demonstrated.


CHLOROCLYSTIS DRYAS, Meyr.

(_Pasiphila dryas_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxiii. 97.)

(Plate VI., fig. 12 [M].)

This species has occurred at Wellington.

  The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. _The fore-wings are dull
  rosy-brown, traversed by numerous obscure blackish transverse lines,
  somewhat concentrated towards the middle and forming an ill-defined
  central band_; the termen is slightly shaded with blackish, and the veins
  are marked with dotted lines. The hind-wings are grey, tinged with
  rosy-brown; there are numerous very faint blackish transverse lines and
  the veins are marked with blackish dots. The cilia of all the wings are
  dark grey. The termen of the hind-wings is rather irregular.

The perfect insect appears in December and January, and is attracted by
light. I once took a specimen in July, but this may have been due to an
exceptionally mild winter.


CHLOROCLYSTIS SPHRAGITIS, Meyr.

(_Pasiphila sphragitis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 51.)

(Plate VI., fig. 13 [M], 14 [F].)

This extremely variable insect has occurred at Wellington in the North
Island, and at Christchurch in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 5/8 inch, of the female ¾ inch.
  _The fore-wings are pale ochreous; there is a narrow darker area at the
  base followed by a narrow oblique pale band_; then a broad central band,
  formed of numerous oblique, wavy, brown, transverse lines, next, a rather
  narrow curved pale band, followed by several small irregular patches on
  the termen, sometimes forming a dark brown terminal band; all the
  markings are much darker on the costa, and portions of the costa, termen,
  and dorsum are frequently tinged with green. The hind-wings are pale
  ochreous; there are numerous wavy, pale brown lines on the dorsum,
  becoming obsolete towards the costa. The termen of all the wings is edged
  with fine black crescents. The cilia are pale ochreous barred with dark
  brown.

The perfect insect may be met with from September till February, but is
most abundant in the early spring. It is extremely common in the Wellington
Botanical Gardens, frequenting the forest gullies, where numerous specimens
may be easily dislodged from amongst the dense undergrowth. This moth rests
with expanded wings on the leaves and stems of shrubs, but is extremely
difficult to find in such situations, the colouring of the insect causing
it to closely resemble the droppings of birds.


{44}CHLOROCLYSTIS LICHENODES, Purd.

(_Pasiphila lichenodes_, Purdie, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 70.)

(Plate VI., figs. 15 and 16, varieties.)

This extremely interesting species has occurred at Wellington in the North
Island, and at Dunedin in the South Island; it has also been found at
Stewart Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about ¾ inch. The fore-wings are dull
  green; _there is a large pale brown area near the base, divided by fine
  black lines into three distinct patches_; the central portion of the wing
  is mottled with black, pale brown, and dull green; _there is a very
  broad, irregular band of chocolate-brown near the termen, outlined with
  black towards the base and with white towards the termen, the white line
  almost dividing the band into four or five patches_. The hind-wings are
  dull greenish-brown; there are several irregular black and white
  transverse lines and small patches of chocolate-brown, the markings being
  more distinct towards the dorsum. The cilia of all the wings are pale
  brown barred with dark brown.

I have observed that in many specimens of this species the ground colour is
entirely pale brown instead of green; the markings, however, are not
variable.

The perfect insect appears from November till February. It frequents
forests, resting with outspread wings on lichen-covered tree-trunks, where
its wonderfully perfect protective colouring may be seen to great
advantage. The remarkable brown patches on the wings have undoubtedly been
acquired for this protective purpose, and Mr. Purdie's name is certainly a
most appropriate one. It is not, I think, a common species.


CHLOROCLYSTIS INDICATARIA.

(_Eupithecia indicataria_, Walk. 1708. _Pasiphila indicataria_, Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 52.)

(Plate VI., fig. 17 [M], 17A [F].)

This rather dull-looking species has occurred at Napier and Wellington in
the North Island, and at Nelson in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 7/8 inch. _The fore-wings of the male are
  dull greenish-grey_; there is an oblique, black-edged, reddish,
  transverse band at about one-third, and another very irregular band near
  the termen; between and beyond these bands there are numerous irregular,
  broken, reddish and blackish transverse lines; there is a rust-red patch
  on the termen below the apex. The cilia are grey barred with brown. The
  hind-wings are dull grey with several faint, jagged, transverse lines;
  the termen is rather irregular. The female is much browner than the male,
  and the lines are more numerous and distinct, especially on the
  hind-wings. _The antennæ are simple in both sexes._

The perfect insect appears from October till March, and is fairly common in
wooded localities. It is sometimes attracted by light.


CHLOROCLYSTIS INDUCTATA, Walk.

(_Coremia inductata_, Walk. 1322. _Scotosia subitata_, ib. 1362. _Pasiphila
inductata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 53.)

  "This is a distinct species; but I have only seen the British Museum
  specimens, and am unable to say to which section it belongs, or to give a
  proper description. The termen of the fore-wings is more bent, and the
  hind-wings are narrower than in any other species; ground colour light
  reddish, with the margins of the median band formed by distinct black
  lines."--(Meyrick.)

I am unacquainted with this insect.


CHLOROCLYSTIS MACULATA, n. sp.

(Plate VI., fig. 18.)

This interesting species was discovered at Wellington by Mr. W. P. Cohen.

  The expansion of the wings is about 7/8 inch. _All the wings are
  creamy-white slightly tinged with green. The fore-wings have several
  irregular large black marks on the costa_ extending about {45}two-thirds
  towards the apex; there is a curved transverse series of black dots at
  about two-thirds, and several obscure brown marks on the termen near the
  middle and at the tornus. _The hind-wings have several irregular rows of
  conspicuous black spots._ The cilia are cream-coloured barred with black.
  The apex of the fore-wing is very much rounded.

The perfect insect appears in December, and is attracted by light.

Described and figured from a specimen kindly given to me by Mr. Cohen.


CHLOROCLYSTIS RECTILINEATA, n. sp.

(Plate VI., fig. 22.)

This species was discovered at Wellington by Mr. W. P. Cohen.

  The expansion of the wings is ¾ inch. _The fore-wings are pale grey_;
  there are several irregular black, transverse lines near the base, very
  broad on the costa; a broad, pale, central area with no distinct
  markings; _then two very fine, almost straight, parallel, dark transverse
  lines alternating with two broader white lines, and followed by a very
  conspicuous black line, this being again immediately followed by a
  fainter black line_; beyond these lines the wing is darker, with a wavy
  transverse white line and a row of black terminal marks. The hind-wings
  are grey with several faint, wavy, transverse lines and a series of
  darker marks on the termen. The cilia of all the wings are grey.

Described and figured from a specimen kindly given to me by Mr. Cohen.


Genus 4.--PHRISSOGONUS, Butl.

  "Face with short cone of scales or smooth. Palpi moderate or short,
  porrected, more or less rough-scaled. Antennæ in male ciliated or naked.
  Posterior tibiæ with all spurs present. Fore-wings in male with swelling
  or tuft or rough scales on costa, vein 5 sometimes distorted or absent;
  areole simple, 11 running into 12. Hind-wings with vein 8 anastomosing
  with cell from near base to beyond middle."--(Meyrick.)

We have one species in New Zealand.


PHRISSOGONUS DENOTATUS, Walk.

(_Scotosia denotata_, Walk. 1361. _Phibalapteryx parvulata_, ib. 1721.
_Phrixogonus denotatus_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 53.)

(Plate VI., fig. 19 [M].)

This dull-looking insect is common and generally distributed throughout the
country.

  The expansion of the wings is ¾ inch. _The fore-wings are very dark
  grey_, with numerous obscure black and pale brown transverse lines; there
  are several black dots on the veins, and a white mark on the termen near
  the apex. The hind-wings are pale grey with numerous wavy black lines,
  especially near the dorsum. _The antennæ are simple in both sexes._ The
  cilia are dull pink barred with black. The female is slightly tinged with
  reddish-brown. _The male has a peculiar dilation on the costa, beyond the
  middle, beneath which is a naked longitudinal mark occupying the space
  between veins 10 and 12, these veins being slightly distorted in
  consequence._

The larva, which feeds on the blossoms of the wharangi (_Brachyglottis
repanda_), is pale green with a series of elongate triangular brown
markings down the back and an obscure series of brown marks on each side.
It may be found during the latter end of October and beginning of November,
but is extremely inconspicuous amongst its food-plant. The pupa is
concealed in a light cocoon constructed of the remains of the blossoms.

The perfect insect appears from October till February. It frequents dense
undergrowth in the forest, and is generally found resting with extended
wings on the dark-coloured stems of the kawakawa (_Piper excelsum_), where
it is practically invisible. In this situation its colouring is evidently
specially adapted for protective purposes.


{46}Genus 5.--ELVIA, Walk.

  "Face smooth. Palpi rather long, straight, porrected, densely
  rough-scaled above and beneath, terminal joint short. Antennæ in male
  stout, flattened, bipectinated (2½). Thorax somewhat crested. Fore-wings
  with vein 6 from a point with 9, 7 from angle of areole, 10 anastomosing
  moderately with 9, 11 out of 10, running shortly into 12. Hind-wings with
  veins 6 and 7 stalked, 8 anastomosing with 7 from near base to near
  transverse vein."--(Meyrick.)

We have one species.


ELVIA GLAUCATA, Walk.

(_Elvia glaucata_, Walk. 1431; Feld. cxxxii. 25. _Elvia donovani_, Feld.
cxxxii. 5. _Elvia glaucata_,  Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 65.)

(Plate VI., fig. 23 and 24 varieties.)

This very pretty insect is generally distributed throughout the country.

The expansion of the wings is about an inch.

  _The fore-wings vary from pale green to dark steely blue_, rarely pale
  reddish-brown; _there is an almost straight, black transverse line near
  the base; a broad curved line before the middle, shaded towards the
  termen; then a straight line, breaking up into dots towards the dorsum,
  followed by a conspicuous cream-coloured blotch near the costa; this
  again is followed by a fine jagged cream-coloured line_; there is a
  terminal series of black dots. The hind-wings are cream-coloured, tinged
  with steely blue or green towards the termen; there are a few obscure
  transverse lines and a short series of dots from the dorsum. The apex of
  the fore-wing is very blunt, and the termen is slightly hollowed out
  towards the tornus; _the termen of the hind-wings is deeply scalloped_.

This species is extremely variable. In addition to the variations above
indicated, the markings of many specimens differ considerably in intensity,
and there are frequently several large cream-coloured blotches towards the
base or middle of the forewings.

The perfect insect appears from September till March, but is not a common
species. It frequents forest districts, and may sometimes be found at rest
on tree-trunks, where the beautiful colouring of its fore-wings closely
imitates that of certain lichens, and renders its detection in such
situations extremely difficult. Unlike the insects included in the two
preceding genera, this species closes its wings when at rest, the anterior
pair alone being visible. These wings are not held flat, but are curiously
folded longitudinally, and the end of the abdomen is also curled upwards.
By slightly raising the insect above the level of the surrounding surface,
this peculiar attitude considerably increases its resemblance to a lichen
growing on the stem or branch of a tree. It will also be observed that in
this species, which when at rest exposes only its fore-wings, these alone
are protectively coloured; whilst in the genera _Chloroclystis_ and
_Phrissogonus_, where both pairs of wings are displayed, both pairs are
protectively coloured.


Genus 6.--HYDRIOMENA, Hb.

  "Face with somewhat projecting or loose scales, or with conical tuft.
  Palpi rough-scaled. Antennæ in male ciliated, rarely dentate or naked.
  Abdomen not crested, or with crests on two basal segments only.
  Fore-wings with areole double. Hind-wings with 8 anastomosing with cell
  from near base to beyond middle. (See Plate II., fig. 32 head, figs. 33
  and 34 neuration of _Hydriomena deltoidata_.)

"A very large genus, principally characteristic of temperate regions in
both hemispheres.--(Meyrick.)

There are twelve New Zealand species.


{47}HYDRIOMENA GOBIATA, Feld.

  (_Cidaria gobiata_, Feld. cxxxi. 2. _Phibalapteryx simulans_, Butl.,
  Cist. Ent. ii. 506. _Phibalapteryx undulifera_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii.
  506. _Phibalapteryx anguligera_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 507.
  _Phibalapteryx rivularis_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 507. _Scotosia gobiata_,
  Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 70. _Cephalissa gobiata_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VI., fig. 43 [M], 44 [F].)

This insect has occurred plentifully at Wanganui and Wellington in the
North Island, and is generally distributed throughout the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is from 1 to 1¼ inches. _All the wings vary
  from pale ochreous to rather dull yellowish brown, sometimes very
  slightly tinged with green. There is usually a large number of fine,
  slightly waved, oblique lines arranged on both pairs of wings, very like
  the markings in Venusia verriculata_ (see page 53), both insects
  evidently having acquired this style of colouring for similar protective
  purposes. In many specimens the whole of the anterior portion of the
  fore-wings, a small area at the base of the hind-wings, and a band near
  the termen are much paler in colour than the rest. There is usually a
  very oblique elongate pale area near the apex, and an irregular dark spot
  considerably below the apex. The outline of all the wings is more or less
  distinctly scalloped.

The larva (according to Mr. Purdie[27]) is about 1 inch in length,
greyish-brown, with a rough prominent dorsal tubercle about the ninth
segment. There are sometimes other smaller tubercles. It feeds on various
species of _Coprosoma_ in January, March, and May.

The perfect insect appears from October till March, and generally frequents
rather open country where Manuka and Cabbage Tree Palms are abundant.


HYDRIOMENA PRIONOTA, Meyr.

(_Arsinoe prionata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 73. _Anachloris
prionata_, Meyr., ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VI., fig. 47.)

This species has been taken in the South Island at Mount Arthur, Castle
Hill and Dunedin.

  The expansion of the wings is rather under 1½ inches. The fore-wings are
  dull yellowish-brown, with many obscure, wavy, transverse, brown lines,
  which tend to form two ill-defined bands, one rather narrow near the base
  and the other much broader near the middle of the wing. _The hind-wings
  are very pale yellowish-brown_; there are a few obscure dark lines near
  the dorsum. _The veins are distinctly dotted in black, and the outline of
  all the wings is deeply scalloped._

The perfect insect appears in January, but is not common.


HYDRIOMENA DELTOIDATA, Walk.

  (_Coremia deltoidata_, Walk. 1321. _Cidaria inclarata_, Walk. 1411.
  _Cidaria perductata_, Walk. 1412. _Cidaria congressata_, Walk. 1412.
  _Cidaria conversata_, Walk. 1413. _Cidaria descriptata_, Walk. 1414.
  _Cidaria bisignata_, Walk. 1415. _Cidaria aggregata_, Walk. 1415.
  _Cidaria congregata_, Walk. 1415. _Cidaria plagifurcata_, Walk. 1416.
  _Coremia pastinaria_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 64. _Cidaria inopiata_, Feld.
  cxxxii. 3. _Cidaria monoliata_, Feld. cxxxii. 8. _Cidaria perversata_,
  Feld. cxxxii. 14, 24. _Scotosia deltoidata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst.
  xvi. 70. _Cephalissa deltoidata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VII., figs. 1 to 9 varieties.)

This pretty insect is extremely abundant throughout the country.

  The expansion of the wings varies from 1-1/8 to 1-3/8 inches. The
  fore-wings vary from brownish-black to dull orange-brown; there is a
  small darker area near the base, then two pale whitish wavy transverse
  lines, then a broad darker central band, often containing within it a
  still darker central band, bounded by two wavy black transverse lines;
  beyond the central band there are nearly always two or three pale brown
  or whitish, wavy, transverse lines, then an interrupted line just before
  the termen, and a short oblique whitish line below the apex; there is a
  black dot a little above the centre of the wing, and _a white dot on the
  termen near the middle_. The hind-wings are yellowish-brown, with several
  wavy, transverse lines near the dorsum; there is a series of fine
  crescentic black lines on the termen of both fore- and hind-wings.

{48}This species is extremely variable, but may generally be recognised by
a careful scrutiny of the above-named characters. One very striking variety
occasionally met with has the central band of the fore-wing completely
divided in the middle, which thus forms two dark patches, one on the costa,
and one on the dorsum. (See Plate VII., figs. 7 and 8.) A further
development of this variety, of which I have only seen one example, taken
by Mr. Hawthorne at Springfield, Canterbury, and now in his collection, has
only the costal patch present, the whole of the lower portions of the band
being completely obliterated.[28]  (See Plate VII., fig. 9.) The minor
varieties are too numerous to specify.

The larva feeds on grasses. When full-grown its length is about 1 inch. The
colour is dark brown, with the skin very much wrinkled. It is sluggish in
its habits, and lives through the winter, becoming full-grown about the end
of September. During severe weather it generally seeks refuge from the
elements amongst the stalks and roots of the rank herbage often surrounding
stones or fallen logs.

The pupa is concealed in the earth.

The perfect insect appears early in January, and continues in the utmost
profusion until the middle or end of March. It may often be seen resting
with the wings folded backwards and forming together a triangle, whence the
moth has probably derived its name of _deltoidata_. In the neighbourhood of
Wellington I have observed that this insect has very much decreased in
numbers during the last ten or fifteen years.


HYDRIOMENA HEMIZONA, Meyr.

(_Hydriomena hemizona_, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 385.)

(Plate VII., fig. 10.)

This insect has occurred at Terawhiti in the North Island, and at Mount
Arthur in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-3/8 inches. The fore-wings are
  blackish-brown, darker towards the apex and termen; _there is an obscure
  rust-red wavy band near the base, and another at three-fourths,
  considerably bowed towards the termen at the middle_; there are also
  numerous wavy darker lines. The hind-wings are dull grey, and the termen
  is slightly scalloped.

This species may be distinguished from any of the varieties of _H.
deltoidata_ by its _narrower wings, and the absence of any distinct central
band on the fore-wings_.

The perfect insect appears in January. It is a scarce species.


HYDRIOMENA SUBOCHRARIA, Dbld.

  (_Aspilates (?) subochraria_, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. ii. 285. _Camptogramma
  subochraria_, Butl., Cat., pl. iii. 16. _Camptogramma strangulata_, Gn.
  x. 423. _Camptogramma fuscinata_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 92. _Arsinoe
  subochraria_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 73. Anachloris subochraria,
  Meyr., ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VI., figs. 45 and 46 varieties.)

This species is fairly common and generally distributed throughout the
country.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1¼ inches. _The fore-wings are bright
  ochreous-yellow_; there is a brown dot a little above the middle, _and a
  dark brown transverse band at about three-fourths; the termen is shaded
  with dark brown_. The hind-wings are ochreous, with an obscure central
  transverse line.

  A variety (_Hydriomena fuscinata_, Gn.) often occurs in which the whole
  of the wings are more or less tinged with purplish-brown (Plate VI., fig.
  46).

The perfect insect appears from November till April. It chiefly frequents
tussock country and swampy situations. In the Wellington district it is
extremely abundant in {49}the clearings at the foot of the Tararua Range.
According to Mr. Meyrick the typical form is common in Tasmania and
Victoria.


HYDRIOMENA TRIPHRAGMA, Meyr.

(_Cidaria triphragma_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 74.)

  "_Male._--26-27 mm. (about 1 inch). Fore-wings moderate, termen strongly
  sinuate; pale dull greyish-purple; a very small darker basal patch, outer
  edge strongly convex, margined by a dark fuscous fascia, posteriorly
  whitish-edged; a dark fuscous fascia before one-third, irregularly
  outwards-curved, posteriorly suffused, anteriorly sharply defined and
  whitish-edged; a minute blackish discal dot; a dark fuscous fascia beyond
  middle, forming a strong angle in middle, upper and lower halves both
  inwards-curved, anteriorly suffused, posteriorly sharply defined and
  whitish-edged. Hind-wings moderate, termen somewhat irregular, projecting
  in middle; whitish-ochreous mixed with pale purplish; an angulated darker
  band before middle.

"A very distinct species, probably not variable.

"Blenheim; two specimens received by Mr. Fereday from Mr.
Skellon."--(Meyrick).

I am unacquainted with this species, which Mr. Fereday stated he was unable
to identify. I have therefore inserted Mr. Meyrick's description without
alteration.


HYDRIOMENA RIXATA, Feld.

(_Cidaria rixata_, Feld. cxxxii. 1; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 75.
_Coremia squalida_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 505.)

(Plate VII., fig. 11.)

This pretty insect is very common, and generally distributed throughout the
country.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings have a dull
  green patch near the base, with numerous dull brown and dull white wavy
  transverse lines; _there is a very broad blackish-brown central band
  paler in the middle, but almost black at the edges; this band has a large
  rounded projection on its outer edge near the middle, and below this
  projection it is deeply indented_; the remainder of the wing is dull
  yellowish-green, with several brown and white transverse lines; one of
  the white lines is more conspicuous than the rest and very wavy; there is
  a shaded oblique black mark from the apex. The hind-wings are very pale
  yellowish-brown; there are a few obscure brownish transverse lines near
  the dorsum, and a faint series of crescentic marks near the termen.

The perfect insect appears in December and January, and frequents the
overhanging banks of streams in densely wooded ravines, where it often
occurs in the utmost profusion.


HYDRIOMENA PURPURIFERA, Fereday.

(_Cidaria purpurifera_, Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 119; Meyr., ib.
75.)

(Plate VII., fig. 12.)

This extremely pretty insect has been taken in the South Island at Mount
Arthur, Mount Hutt, Castle Hill, Dunedin, and Lake Wakatipu.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings are rather
  bright green; there is a darker area near the base, _a very broad
  purplish-brown central band, with a large square projection on the middle
  of its outer edge; above this projection there is a very conspicuous
  white mark, bordering the central band_; the remainder of the wing is
  green; there is a wavy white line near the termen, and an oblique
  bluish-black mark near the apex. The hind-wings are pale brownish-yellow.

This species is closely allied to _Hydriomena rixata_, but easily
distinguished by its brighter green colouring, purplish central band with
square projection, and broad white marking beyond the central band.

The perfect insect appears in December and January, and frequents forest at
elevations of from 1,000 to 3,000 feet. It is found in drier situations
than the {50}preceding species, and is not confined to forest streams. It
is common in certain localities, but is not nearly so generally distributed
as _Hydriomena rixata_.


HYDRIOMENA SIMILATA, Walk.

(_Cidaria similata_, Walk. 1413. _Cidaria timarata_, Feld. cxxxii. 19.
_Cidaria similata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 76.)

(Plate VII., fig. 14.)

This beautiful species has occurred at Napier and Wellington in the North
Island, and at Christchurch, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu, and Invercargill in
the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1¼ inches. _The fore-wings are dark brown,
  with the veins and margins broadly shaded with bright green; there are
  numerous irregular wavy blackish streaks forming three ill-defined darker
  transverse bands_; the first at the base; the second from one-fourth to
  about two-thirds, partially divided into two from the costa downwards;
  and the third near the termen outwardly edged with white. The termen
  itself is bordered first with green, and then with a series of fine black
  marks; the cilia are dark brown. The hind-wings are very pale
  reddish-brown, darker towards the dorsum, with numerous pale brown wavy
  transverse lines. There is a series of black crescentic marks on the
  termen, and the cilia are pale reddish-brown.

  This species is rather variable. The spaces between the darker bands on
  the fore-wings are usually green, but in some specimens this is partially
  or wholly replaced by pale yellowish-brown. The dark bands also vary
  considerably in width and distinctness, and in many specimens the central
  band is entirely divided by a conspicuous pale brown or green transverse
  space.

  The larva, according to Mr. Purdie, is about 1 inch long, cylindrical.
  Back a dull deep green; lateral stripe reddish-white, edged below with a
  darker colour; ventral side lighter green, with four parallel white or
  yellow lines close together, extending from the forelegs to the prolegs.
  Outer side of prolegs white. There are traces of a median dorsal stripe
  of brownish-red on the anal segments. Beaten from _Coprosma_. Found in
  January. Mr. Purdie states that he is not quite certain as to the
  identification of the species, as the median belt of the fore-wings is
  much more distinctly defined, and the colour is a duller green than is
  usual in _H. similata_.

The perfect insect appears from November till March. It is generally found
resting on moss-covered tree-trunks, where its colouring affords it a most
efficient protection from enemies.


HYDRIOMENA CALLICHLORA, Butl.

(_Cidaria callichlora_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 509; Meyr., Trans. N. Z.
Inst. xvi. 76.)

(Plate VII., fig. 13.)

This beautiful insect has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and
at Christchurch and Invercargill in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. _The fore-wings are bright
  green, with three very distinct wavy black transverse lines_; the first
  near the base, the second a little before the middle, and the third
  considerably beyond the middle; between these there is a number of
  fainter fine wavy lines. The hind-wings are whitish with several very
  faint wavy transverse lines; the cilia of all the wings are dull
  yellowish-brown.

The perfect insect appears in January, February, and March. Described and
figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


HYDRIOMENA ARIDA, Butl.

(_Melanthia arida_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 505. _Cidaria chaotica_, Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 76. _Cidaria arida_, Meyr., ib. xvii. 64.)

(Plate VII., fig. 15.)

This species has occurred in the South Island at Akaroa, Mount Hutt,
Arthur's Pass, and Dunedin.

  The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. The fore-wings are dull grey; there
  is a fine yellowish {51}transverse line near the base, _and a very broad
  central band with a prominent projection somewhat below the middle,
  almost touching the termen_; there is a brown dot above the middle of the
  wing and numerous fine brown wavy lines in the central band; the veins
  are marked in white near the termen. The hind-wings are pale ochreous,
  with a few very faint transverse marks near the dorsum. The termen of the
  fore-wings is slightly bowed in the middle.

The perfect insect appears in January and February, and frequents forest,
sometimes being found as high as 2,600 feet above the sea-level. Described
and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


HYDRIOMENA SIRIA, Meyr.

(_Cephalissa siria_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 93.)

(Plate VI., fig. 48.)

This odd little species was discovered by Professor Hutton at Dunedin.

  The expansion of the wings is 5/8 inch. _The fore-wings are rich brown
  with two transverse bands of darker brown_; the first near the base,
  rather narrow; the second near the middle, considerably broader,
  especially on the costa. _The hind-wings are bright orange._ The termen
  of the fore-wings is slightly excavated below the apex, and considerably
  bowed a little below the middle.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


Genus 7.--EUCHOECA, Hb.

  "Face smooth, flat. Antennæ in [M] shortly ciliated. Palpi short,
  slender, loosely scaled. Fore-wings with areole simple. Hind-wings with
  vein 8 anastomosing with cell to beyond middle.

"A small genus containing a few species distributed throughout the northern
hemisphere and one Australian."--(Meyrick.)

We have one species.


EUCHOECA RUBROPUNCTARIA, Dbld.

  (_Ptychopoda rubropunctaria_, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. li. 287. _Asthena
  visata_, Gn. ix. 438. _Asthena_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 42. _Asthena
  pulchraria_, Butl., Cat. pl. iii. 18. _Hippolyte rubropunctaria_, Meyr.,
  Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 60. _Epicyme rubropunctaria_, Meyr., ib. xviii.
  184.)

(Plate VI., fig. 35.)

This little species is common and generally distributed throughout both the
North and South Islands, and has also occurred at Stewart Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about 7/8 inch. _All the wings are pale
  ochreous, with numerous obscure reddish transverse lines._ On the
  fore-wings there are four transverse series of black dots; the first near
  the base, the second a little before the middle, the third a little
  beyond the middle, and the fourth on the termen; between the second and
  third series of dots there is very frequently _an elongate blackish
  patch, especially towards the dorsum_. The hind-wings have three series
  of black dots; the first near the base, the second near the middle, and
  the third on the termen. The termen of both fore- and hind-wings slightly
  projects near the middle.

This species varies considerably in the extent of the blackish marking near
the middle of the fore-wings, as well as in the colour and intensity of the
reddish transverse lines.

  The larva is thus described by Mr. Fereday:[29] "The caterpillar has ten
  legs, is cylindrical, rather stout, with the segmental divisions incised;
  its colour is pale dull green, sometimes suffused with pink, brown,
  purple, or dark green; the dorsal line is purplish-brown, suffused, the
  central line whitish; the spiracular line is whitish, broadly margined
  with purplish-brown; the segmental divisions are pale yellowish-brown."

The food is _Haloragis alata_, a common herbaceous plant growing in swampy
situations. The pupa is enclosed in a slight earth-covered cocoon.

{52}The perfect insect appears from September till March, and is sometimes
common. It is generally found in wooded districts, but prefers rather open
situations in the vicinity of streams, where its food-plant may often be
seen. According to Mr. Meyrick,[30] this insect is common in New South
Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, and the Australian and New Zealand specimens
are similar in appearance.


Genus 8.--ASTHENA.

  "Face smooth, flat. Antennæ in [M] shortly ciliated. Palpi short,
  slender, loosely scaled. Fore-wings with areole double. Hind-wings with
  vein 8 anastomosing with cell to beyond middle.

(Plate II., figs. 30 and 31.)

"A genus of a few widely scattered species most numerous in the Australian
Region."--(Meyrick.)

We have two species.


ASTHENA PULCHRARIA, Dbld.

  (_Acidalia pulchraria_, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. ii. 286. _Chlorochroma
  plurilineata_, Walk. 563, 676. _Asthena ondinata_, Gn. ix. 438, pl. xix.
  4; Butl., Cat. pl. iii. 20. _Cidaria ondinata_, Feld. cxxviii. 17.
  _Asthena pulchraria_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 69.)

(Plate VI., fig. 37 [M], 38 [F].)

This beautiful little insect has occurred at many localities throughout
both the North and South Islands. It is probably a common species in most
wooded districts.

  The expansion of the wings is almost an inch. _All the wings are very
  pale greenish-white with numerous faint green, wavy, transverse lines._
  The fore-wings have a more or less distinct brown band on the costal
  edge, and a conspicuous greenish central dot. The hind-wings often have a
  slight projection on the termen near the middle.

The perfect insect appears from October till May, and frequents dense
forest undergrowth. It is chiefly attached to the Kawakawa (_Piper
excelsum_), and may often be found resting with outspread wings on the
under-surfaces of the leaves of this plant, where it is very inconspicuous.
There are probably two or more broods during the summer.

On the 11th of May, 1892, I observed large numbers of this species flying
over the Manuka bushes in the Wellington Botanical Gardens in brilliant
moonlight. The night was very cold, but notwithstanding this the moths were
most numerous and active. The appearance of this insect under such unusual
conditions may have been quite accidental, as I have never seen a
recurrence; but one is often somewhat unobservant in the winter, hence the
record of this observation may be of use in directing the attention of
others to the subject.

According to Mr. Meyrick this species is also found in Tasmania, and
South-east Australia.


ASTHENA SCHISTARIA, Walk.

  (_Acidalia schistaria_, Walk. 782. _Asthena subpurpureata_, Walk. 1588.
  _Acidalia tuhuata_, Feld. cxxviii. 5. _Asthena schistaria_, Meyr., Trans.
  N. Z. Inst. xvi. 69.)

(Plate VI., figs. 39, 40 [M], 41, 42 [F] varieties.)

This pretty species is common, and generally distributed throughout the
country.

  The expansion of the wings is nearly an inch. _All the wings vary from
  very pale brown to rather dull purplish-brown; there are numerous jagged,
  darker, transverse lines forming several more or less distinct bands._
  The first of these bands extends from the base to about one-eighth; the
  second, composed of only two or three lines, is situated at about
  one-third; the third extends from {53}three-fourths to about
  five-eighths; there are in addition, numerous very fine, wavy lines near
  the termen. The spaces between these bands are paler, and in some
  specimens the bands are very conspicuous, whilst in others they are
  hardly perceptible. One specimen in my collection (Plate VI., fig. 39)
  has a very broad chocolate-brown band across the middle of both pairs of
  wings, the remaining portions being unusually pale in colour. There is
  always a dark brown dot in the centre of each wing, and a series of very
  fine dots on the termen.

  The larva, which feeds on Manuka (_Leptospermum_), is very ornamental.
  Its general colour is light green, with black dorsal and lateral stripes,
  and a series of diagonal markings bordered with crimson; the legs and
  prolegs are also crimson, and the segments are divided by brilliant
  yellow rings, a white line extending down each side of the larva.

This caterpillar is difficult to find, as it remains closely concealed
amongst the dense Manuka foliage, from which it can be dislodged only by
vigorous and continued beating. The larvæ allow themselves to fall a short
distance, hanging suspended by a silken thread, which they rapidly ascend
when the danger is past.

The pupa is enclosed in a slight cocoon about one inch below the surface of
the earth.

The perfect insect appears from October till April. It is very common in
most situations where its food-plant is found and, owing to its pale
colour, is readily seen when flying in the evening twilight. Specimens may
also be taken in the daytime resting with outspread wings on the trunks of
trees and on fences, where they are much more easily detected than many
other species.

Mr. Meyrick thinks that this insect will also be found in Australia.


Genus 9.--VENUSIA, Curt.

  "Face smooth. Antennæ in [M] bi-pectinated, apex simple. Palpi loosely
  scaled. Fore-wings with areole simple. Hind-wings with vein 8
  anastomosing with cell to beyond middle."--(Meyrick.) (Plate II., fig.
  13, head of _V. verriculata_; figs. 25 and 26, neuration of _V.
  undosata_.)

We have three species represented in New Zealand.


VENUSIA VERRICULATA, Feld.

(_Cidaria verriculata_, Feld. cxxxi. 20. _Panopæa verriculata_, Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 62. _Pancyma verriculata_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VI., fig. 30 [M], 31 [F].)

This remarkable species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and
in the South Island at Christchurch, Ashburton, Dunedin and West Plains.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. _All the wings are pale
  yellowish-brown, with many straight oblique parallel dull brown lines; on
  the fore-wings there are three lines broader and more isolated than the
  rest, running from the apex to the dorsum_; on the hind-wings the lines
  near the middle are rather thicker than the others, and have a broad
  space on each side of them; _all the lines are clearly marked on the
  abdomen, so that each line appears to be continuous from one side of the
  moth to the other_.

The perfect insect appears from October till May, and frequents the Cabbage
Tree Palm (_Cordyline_), on which its larva probably feeds. According to
Mr. Fereday the moth always rests on the dead leaves of the plant, keeping
its wings in such a position that the lines are continuous with the
parallel veins of the dead leaf, which they precisely resemble in
appearance. We have, I think, in this species a most instructive instance
of special adaptation to surrounding conditions; and the action of natural
selection, in preserving favourable variations of colour and habit, appears
to be here unmistakably indicated. Had our investigations been confined to
the examination of cabinet specimens only, we might {54}have long remained
in the dark as to the explanation of such an unusual type of wing-marking.


VENUSIA XANTHASPIS, Meyr.

(_Hermione xanthaspis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 61. _Aulopola
xanthaspis_, Meyr., ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VI., fig. 32 [M].)

This handsome insect has occurred in the South Island at Mount Arthur and
at Lake Guyon.

  The expansion of the wings is a little over 1 inch. _The fore-wings are
  bright yellow; there is a broad pale reddish-brown band on the costa; a
  conspicuous oval dark brown spot above the middle_, often touching the
  costal band; a double series of minute brown dots near the termen. The
  hind-wings are pale yellow, with a double series of minute brown dots
  parallel to the termen.

The perfect insect appears in January, February, and March. It is
apparently a rare species. Mr. Fereday has six specimens taken at Lake
Guyon, and I have two specimens captured on the Tableland of Mount Arthur,
at an elevation of about 3,500 feet. These comprise, I believe, all the
specimens at present taken.


VENUSIA UNDOSATA, Feld.

(_Cidaria undosata_, Feld. cxxviii. 2. _Epiphryne undosata_, Meyr., Trans.
N. Z. Inst. xvi. 60.)

(Plate VI., fig. 33 [M], 34 [F].)

This neatly marked little insect has occurred at Napier and Palmerston in
the North Island; and at Nelson, Mount Hutt, Christchurch, Dunedin, and
Lake Wakatipu in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is hardly an inch. _All the wings are pale
  yellow with a variable number of fine jagged reddish-brown transverse
  lines, which are usually most distinct towards the termen._ The
  fore-wings have a broad band of reddish-brown along the costal edge; a
  blackish dot above the middle just touching the costal band, and a small
  brown mark near the apex. The hind-wings have a minute black dot a little
  above the middle.

This species is rather variable: in some specimens the transverse lines are
much broader, forming bands of reddish-brown; in others the whole of the
wings are dull reddish-brown, except a small yellow area near the base;
whilst others are _entirely dull greyish-brown with the transverse lines
very faint_, intermediate varieties between all these forms also occurring.

The larva, according to Mr. Purdie,[31] is about ½ inch long, feeding on
the Ribbonwood (_Plagianthus betulinus_). The ground colour is green, with
the dorsal and lateral stripes white. The dorsal stripe is interlined with
short black dashes, and there is a dark blotch about the ninth segment. The
dorsal and lateral stripes may be margined with purplish-red. The under
side is green. The larvæ were found in April.

The perfect insect appears from November till February, and frequents
forest. According to my experience it is rather a local species, although
plentiful where found. Mr. Meyrick states that it is "very common in bush,
from August to February, and in May."[32]


Genus 10.--ASAPHODES, Meyr.

  "Face with a tuft or hardly projecting scales. Palpi moderate, porrected,
  rough-scaled. Antennæ in male bi-pectinated, apex simple. Thorax glabrous
  beneath. Posterior tibiæ with all spurs present. Fore-wings with areole
  simple. Hind-wings with vein 8 anastomosing with cell from near base to
  beyond middle."--(Meyrick.) (See Plate II., figs. 35 and 36, neuration of
  _Asaphodes megaspilata_.)

We have five species of this genus in New Zealand.


{55}ASAPHODES ABROGATA, Walk.

  (_Aspilates abrogata_, Walk. 1075. _Fidonia (?) servularia_, Gn., E. M.
  M. v. 43. _Thyone abrogata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 61.
  _Asaphodes abrogata_, Meyr., ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VII., fig. 21 [M].)

This species has occurred at Murimutu in the North Island; and in the South
Island at Kekerangu, Christchurch, Castle Hill, Dunedin, and Invercargill.

  The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. _All the wings are ochreous with
  pale brown markings._ The fore-wings have a conspicuous dot in the
  middle, _a wavy transverse line a little beyond the middle, another line
  just before the termen, and a brown shading on the termen broader near
  the apex of the wing_. The hind-wings have a brown central dot and two
  transverse lines. The cilia of all the wings are brownish.

This species varies considerably in the distinctness of the brown markings,
and there is occasionally a transverse line near the base of the
fore-wings.

The perfect insect appears in February and March, and frequents open
country, often at elevations of from 2,000 to 4,000 feet above the
sea-level. It is, I think, rather a local species, though abundant where
found. I met with it in considerable numbers on the chalk range near
Kekerangu in the Marlborough Province.


ASAPHODES SIRIS, Hawth.

(_Asaphodes siris_, Hawth., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxix. 283.)

(Plate VII., fig. 16.)

This interesting little species was discovered near Wellington by Mr.
Hawthorne.

  The expansion of the wings is about 7/8 inch. The fore-wings are dull
  ochreous; there is a small curved brown patch near the base; then a pale
  band, followed by a very broad brown central band, paler in the middle;
  there is a very sharp projection on the outer edge of the central band, a
  conspicuous black dot in the centre of the wing, and a series of minute
  black dots on the termen. The hind-wings are pale ochreous, with a faint
  central transverse line.

The perfect insect appears in March.

Described and figured from the type specimen in Mr. Hawthorne's collection.


ASAPHODES MEGASPILATA, Walk.

  (_Larentia megaspilata_, Walk. 1198. _Cidaria assata_, Feld. cxxxi. 4.
  _Cidaria nehata_, Feld. cxxxi. 6. _Harpalyce megaspilata_, Meyr., Trans.
  N. Z. Inst. xvi. 63. _Probolæa megaspilata_, Meyr., ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VII., figs. 17, 18, and 19 [M]; figs. 19A and 20 [F], varieties.)

This species is very common, and generally distributed throughout the
country.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings are dull
  ochreous; there is a series of fine brown and reddish wavy transverse
  lines near the base, forming a rather broad basal band; then a pale
  central area containing a blackish dot above the middle; next, a very
  distinct band made up of several fine wavy grey lines, with a rounded
  projection near the middle; this is followed by numerous pale brown
  curved marks forming more or less broken transverse lines; _there is
  always an oblique slaty patch below the apex_, and a series of minute
  dots on the termen. The hind-wings are ochreous brown, slightly darker
  towards the base, with numerous indistinct wavy brown lines. _The apex of
  the fore-wing is very pointed and slightly hooked downwards; the termen
  is bowed near the middle._ The female is much duller and more uniform in
  colour than the male, and the antennæ are simple.

This species is very variable. Some male specimens have several more or
less distinct white markings on the middle of the fore-wings; the
transverse bands also differ considerably in both size and intensity. The
females are not so variable; but in some specimens the bands on the
fore-wings are almost absent, whilst others have the fore-wings rich brown,
with a very conspicuous dark central band.

  {56}The eggs when first deposited are pale yellow. They turn dark
  reddish-brown for some days before the young larva emerges.

  The young larva is rather stout, dark brownish-black with numerous fine
  parallel ochreous lines; the whole body is covered with rather long
  bristles.

The perfect insect appears from October till April, and frequents forest,
where it is generally very abundant. It is a difficult insect to identify
on the wing, and in consequence is often captured under a misapprehension.

This species probably hibernates in the imago state during the winter
months, as we may often observe specimens abroad on mild evenings, at that
season.


ASAPHODES PARORA, Meyr.

  (_Harpalyce humeraria_, Meyr. (nec Walk.), Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 64.
  _Harpalyce parora_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvii. 63. _Probolæa
  parora_, ib. xviii. 184.)

  "_Male, female._--29-34 mm. (about 1¼ inches). Fore-wings moderate, apex
  acute, termen excavated on upper half, acutely projecting in middle;
  varying from light grey to light reddish-fuscous; about eighteen
  irregular dentate darker striæ, sometimes partially obsolete; first
  three, seventh and eighth, and eleventh to thirteenth usually more
  distinct and blackish; seventh and eighth closely approximated, forming a
  small blackish or reddish spot on dorsum, sometimes partially suffused
  with blackish; eleventh to thirteenth closely approximated, widely remote
  from eighth, parallel to termen; a blackish discal dot; sometimes a broad
  purplish-grey median band; sixteenth sometimes spotted with blackish
  towards costa; a terminal row of blackish dots. Hind-wings moderate,
  upper angle broadly projecting, termen shortly projecting in middle;
  varying from whitish-grey to very pale reddish-fuscous, faintly striated
  with darker.

"Very variable in colour, but always distinguishable by the peculiar form
of wing.

"Wellington, Christchurch, Mount Hutt; common amongst bush, in January,
February, April, and May; probably generally distributed; twenty
specimens."--(Meyrick.)

I am unacquainted with this insect, but it would appear to closely resemble
_A. megaspilata_.


ASAPHODES RUFESCENS, Butl.

  (_Larentia(?) rufescens_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 502. _Eurydice cymosema_,
  Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 63. _Eurydice rufescens_, ib. xvii. 63.
  _Homodotis rufescens_, ib. xviii. 184.)

  "_Male, female._--25-29 mm. (about 1¼ inches). Fore-wings moderate,
  termen rather strongly sinuate; brown-whitish, sometimes more or less
  suffused with brown; numerous fine dark fuscous sinuate subdentate lines;
  three before middle and four beyond middle more blackish, generally
  partially suffused with brown, leaving a clear median space on costal
  half, in which is a transverse blackish discal dot; termen suffusedly
  greyish; a suffused oblique dark fuscous sub-apical streak. Hind-wings
  moderate, termen irregularly crenulate, somewhat projecting in middle;
  grey whitish; several subdentate grey lines, only distinct towards
  dorsum; a dark grey discal dot.

"Variable only in the degree of the brownish suffusion; in the markings of
the fore-wings it agrees almost exactly with some forms of _A.
megaspilata_, but, apart from structure, may be always known by the whitish
hind-wings and rather larger size.

"Dunedin; ten specimens sent to Mr. Fereday by Capt. Hutton."--(Meyrick.)

I have only seen one specimen of this insect, in Mr. Fereday's collection,
and it appeared to me to be identical with the somewhat variable female of
_A. megaspilata_.


Genus 11.--XANTHORHOE, Hb.

  "Face with somewhat projecting scales or conical tuft. Antennæ in male
  bi-pectinated, apex usually simple. Palpi rough-scaled. Fore-wings with
  areole double. Hind-wings with vein 8 anastomosing with cell to beyond
  middle."--(Meyrick.) (See Plate II., figs. 37 and 38.)

{57}This interesting genus is relatively far more numerous in New Zealand
than elsewhere, its place in other regions being largely taken by
_Hydriomena_. We have no less than thirty-one known species, and many
others will no doubt be ultimately discovered, especially in the
mountainous districts of the west coast of the South Island.


XANTHORHOE LIMONODES, Meyr.

(_Epyaxa limonodes_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 54.)

(Plate VII., fig. 46 [M].)

This species has occurred at Wellington and at Cape Terawhiti in the North
Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. _The fore-wings of the male
  are dull olive-green with numerous, rather obscure, wavy brownish
  transverse lines; these lines are all more distinct near the costa; there
  are two transverse rows of white dots near the base, a very broken line
  of white dots at about three-fourths, one of the dots forming a
  crescentic mark above the middle_; beyond this line the colour is often
  paler, especially towards the apex, but inside this line there is often a
  considerably darker patch; there is a very distinct blackish patch just
  below the apex. The apex of the wing slightly projects, and the termen is
  arched. The hind-wings are very pale greenish-ochreous; there is an
  obscure dusky transverse line in the middle. _The female has the
  fore-wings much browner; there are several additional rows of white dots
  and two conspicuous white spots above the middle._

The species is rather variable. In many specimens the dorsal half of the
fore-wing is much paler than the costal half.

The perfect insect appears from November till March, and frequents dense
forest. It is not a common species.


XANTHORHOE SUBDUCTATA, Walk.

(_Larentia subductata_, Walk. 1198. _Epyaxa subductata_, Meyr., Trans. N.
Z. Inst. xx. 55.)

This species has occurred at Auckland.

  "The expansion of the wings of the female is 26 mm. (about 1 inch). Head,
  palpi, and thorax pale greyish-ochreous, somewhat mixed with
  yellow-greenish, and densely irrorated with fuscous. Antennæ
  whitish-ochreous annulated with fuscous. Abdomen grey-whitish, densely
  irrorated with fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, apex of joints
  ochreous-whitish, middle and posterior pair irrorated with grey-whitish.
  Fore-wings with costa gently arched, termen waved, slightly rounded,
  oblique; pale greyish-ochreous, mixed with yellow-greenish, and thinly
  sprinkled with fuscous, tending to form faint waved lines; three light
  fuscous fasciæ, each marked with three dark fuscous lines; first near
  base, outer edge sharply angulated above middle; second from two-fifths
  of costa to before middle of dorsum, slightly curved; third from
  two-thirds of costa to two-thirds of dorsum, outer edge somewhat
  prominent in middle, rather sinuate above it; a crescentic black
  obscurely whitish-margined discal spot; a short oblique cloudy fuscous
  streak from apex; cilia light fuscous, somewhat sprinkled with whitish.
  Hind-wings light grey; a grey discal dot before middle; a median band of
  three darker lines, outer rather prominent in middle; faint indications
  of other darker lines, most distinct posteriorly; cilia grey-whitish,
  with two cloudy grey lines."--(Meyrick.)

The perfect insect appears in December.


XANTHORHOE ROSEARIA, Dbld.

  (_Cidaria rosearia_, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. ii. 285, Butl., Cat. pl. iii.
  13. _Coremia ardularia_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 63. _Coremia inamænaria_, Gn.,
  E. M. M. v. 63. _Epyaxa rosearia_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 71.)

(Plate VII., fig. 22 [M], 23 [F].)

This species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island; and in the
South Island at Akaroa, Christchurch, and Dunedin.

  {58}The expansion of the wings is about 1-3/8 inches. The fore-wings of
  the male vary _from pale pinkish-grey to pale greenish-grey_; there is an
  obscure darker basal area, a rather broad central band, _formed of
  numerous shaded, wavy, dark grey lines, which are generally absent
  towards the middle of the band_; there is a black dot above the middle;
  the termen is shaded with dark grey, and there is an oblique pale mark
  near the apex. The hind-wings are grey with a few very faint wavy lines.
  The cilia of all the wings are pinkish-grey. _The female is dull
  yellowish-grey, with the markings very indistinct._

Both sexes vary slightly in the ground colour, and in the intensity of the
markings. Mr. Purdie has pointed out that the species is very liable to
fade, and hence it appears to vary more than is actually the case.[33]

  The eggs are oval, pale yellow, changing first to orange, and then to
  dull grey before hatching. The young larva, when first emerged, is pale
  greyish-brown and very slender. Later on the caterpillar becomes dull
  olive-green speckled with black; there are two paler stripes just below
  the middle of the back, then a fine black line, followed by a very fine
  white one, then a broad pink stripe on the side; below this is a broad
  black line followed by a white line and two fine black ones. The larva is
  moderately stout, and the two prolegs are very close together.

  The larva, when full-grown, measures about ¾ inch in length. The general
  colour is dull reddish-brown, often greenish-tinged. The back and sides
  are marked with numerous slightly waved fine black lines; there is a
  double series of black dots down the back, a broad black lateral line,
  followed by a fine white line. The under side of the larva is
  pinkish-brown; the head greenish-brown speckled with black. The
  caterpillar is obscurely marked, and very variable. It is often clouded
  with greenish colouring.

The food-plant is watercress.

The pupa, which is enclosed in a slight cocoon constructed of earth and
silk, is found on the surface of the ground.

The perfect insect is most abundant in December, and is attracted by light.
It seems to be about during the entire year, as Mr. Meyrick states that he
has taken numerous specimens from May till September, and hence concludes
that it is essentially a winter species.[34] I can to some extent confirm
this observation, as I have also found the insect during the winter,
although not commonly. It is probable that there are several broods in the
course of a year, and that the species hibernates as an imago.

Regarding the synonymy of this species Mr. Meyrick remarks that "_C.
ardularia_, Gn., is the male and _C. inamænaria_, Gn., the female of this
species. _C. subidaria_, Gn., quoted by Butler as a synonym, is an
Australian species, and not identical."[35]


XANTHORHOE OROPHYLA, Meyr.

(_Epyaxa orophyla_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 71.)

(Plate VII., fig. 24 [M], 25 [F].)

This  fine  species  has  occurred  in  the South Island at Nelson, Castle
Hill, Mount Hutt, Dunedin and Lake Wakatipu.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1¼ inches, of the female 1-3/8
  inches. _The fore-wings of the male are pale brownish-grey_; there is an
  obscure bent blackish line near the base, _a moderately broad central
  band bounded by two very distinct shaded blackish lines, the basal one of
  which is not curved_; the termen is shaded with darker grey, and there is
  an oblique pale mark near the apex. The hind-wings are pale grey tinged
  with ochreous.

  The female is slightly darker than the male; and there are numerous wavy
  pale and dark grey lines filling up the entire wing on each side of the
  central band.

The perfect insect appears in December, January, and February. It frequents
open country on the mountain sides, at elevations of from 2,500 to 4,000
feet.

{59}I observed it in great abundance on the Humboldt Range at the head of
Lake Wakatipu, where it frequented the damp rocky precipices which were
fringed with a luxuriant growth of Alpine plants. At Castle Hill it
occurred much less commonly, so that it would appear to be most plentiful
in the extreme south of New Zealand. The colouring is protective when the
insect is resting on rock surfaces.


XANTHORHOE SEMIFISSATA, Walk.

  (_Coremia semifissata_, Walk. 1320. _Coremia ypsilonaria_, Gn., E. M. M.
  v. 64. _Cidaria delicatulata_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 94. _Epyaxa semifissata_,
  Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 72.)

(Plate VII., fig. 26 [M], 27 [F].)

This extremely pretty insect is very common, and generally distributed
throughout the country.

  The expansion of the wings is about an inch. The fore-wings of the male
  are _pale pink_; there are several wavy brown lines near the base, _a
  very distinct brown central band, narrowest near the middle, but much
  broader on the costa than on the dorsum_; the centre of this band is
  paler towards the costa; the termen is shaded with brown, except near the
  apex of the wing; _the veins are dotted in black. The hind-wings are
  bright ochreous with numerous wavy darker lines._ The female is darker in
  colour than the male, the central band is broader; _there are numerous
  brown and pink wavy lines on each side of the central band, and the
  principal veins are marked in pale ochreous_. The grey transverse lines
  on the hind-wings are much more distinct in the female than in the male.

The perfect insect appears from September till April, and is very common in
rather open forest districts, usually frequenting undergrowth on the edges
of the denser forest. It is often one of the earliest of the _Notodontina_
to appear in spring, and its advent is then especially welcome to the
collector after the long inaction of winter. It is evidently closely allied
to _X. orophyla_, which appears to be the southern and Alpine
representative of this interesting insect. _Coremia ypsilonaria_, Gn., is
the male, and _Cidaria delicatulata_, Gn., is the female of this species.


XANTHORHOE LOPHOGRAMMA, Meyr.

(_Xanthorhoe lophogramma_, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 386.)

(Plate VII., fig. 47 [M], 48 [F].)

This species was discovered at Castle Hill in January, 1893.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-1/8 inches. The insect differs from
  _X. semifissata_ in the following respects: In the male the general
  colour is slightly duller, _the outer edge of the central band on the
  fore-wings is more indented, and the veins are not dotted in black_. In
  the female the markings on the fore-wings are less distinct, the veins
  are not marked in pale ochreous, the outer edge of the central band is
  more deeply indented, and there is a darker shading near the termen than
  in _X. semifissata_. _The hind-wings of both sexes are dark ochreous,
  without any transverse markings._


XANTHORHOE CHLAMYDOTA, Meyr.

(_Epyaxa chlamydota_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 72.)

(Plate VII., fig. 28.)

This very handsome species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island,
and at Christchurch and Akaroa in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1¼ inches. The fore-wings are pale
  ochreous, _with two broad, dark, purplish-brown bands. The first, which
  is at the base, is slightly paler near the body, and strongly curved
  outwards towards the termen_; it is followed by several very fine pale
  brown transverse lines. _The second band is very broad, and is situated
  near the middle of the wing; its inner edge is curved inwards, and its
  outer edge has two rounded projections, one very large about the middle,
  and {60}another much smaller near the dorsum_; the middle portion of this
  central band is considerably paler than the edges; _the two projections
  of the central band are bordered with bright red_. The upper part of the
  termen is ochreous, with several faint brown marks; the lower part is
  dull grey. The hind-wings are dark ochreous, with a few obscure
  purplish-grey markings; the termen of the hind-wing projects slightly
  near the middle, and is rather jagged.

The species varies a little in the depth of its colouring, but the markings
appear to be constant. The perfect insect appears from November till April.
It chiefly frequents forest, but is not a common species. At present, more
specimens have been found in the Wellington Botanical Gardens than
elsewhere.


XANTHORHOE STINARIA, Gn.

(_Camptogramma stinaria_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 92. _Larentia stinaria_, Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 78.)

(Plate VII., fig. 29 [M].)

This species has occurred in the South Island at Christchurch, Dunedin, and
at the foot of Mount Hutt.

  The expansion of the wings is barely 1 inch. _All the wings are deep
  ochreous; the fore-wings have an oblique white line running from the
  dorsum near the base, towards the middle of the wing; this line is edged
  with blackish-brown towards the dorsum; there is a very conspicuous white
  transverse line at about three-fourths shaded with brown towards the
  body_; the apex of the fore-wing slightly projects. The hind-wings have
  no markings.

The perfect insect appears in December and January. It seems to be fairly
common, frequenting _Carex subdola_.[36]

Described and figured from a specimen kindly given to me by Mr. Fereday.


XANTHORHOE MNESICHOLA.

(_Larentia mnesichola_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 56.)

(Plate VII., fig. 39 [M].)

This dull little species has occurred in the South Island on Mount Arthur,
at elevations of from 4,000 to 4,800 feet.

  The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. _The fore-wings are pale
  brownish-ochreous, and rather glossy; there is a series of minute black
  dots at the base, a second series at about one-third, then a cloudy
  curved band, slightly darker than the rest of the wing, followed by a
  third series of minute black dots; a fourth series is situated slightly
  before the termen._ The hind-wings are very pale brownish-ochreous.

The perfect insect appears in January. Mr. Meyrick states that it is rather
common.


XANTHORHOE PRÆFECTATA, Walk.

  (_Acidalia præfectata_, Walk. 781. _Acidalia subtentaria_, Walk. 1610.
  _Acidalia absconditaria_, Walk. 1611; Butl., Cat. pl. iii. 21. _Larentia
  præfectata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 78.)

(Plate VII., fig. 30.)

This interesting species has occurred in the South Island at the Dun
Mountain, Mount Arthur, Christchurch, and Dunedin.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. _All the wings are pure
  white_; the fore-wings have a minute grey dot above the middle, _a series
  of extremely minute dots a little before the termen, and several rows of
  very faint grey marks close to the termen_. The hind-wings have a row of
  very obscure dots across the middle, and several rows of very faint grey
  marks close to the termen. The face and collar are brown, and there is
  sometimes an extremely faint brown tinge on the costal edge of the
  fore-wings. The body is pure white.

The perfect insect appears in November, December, January, and February. I
do not think it is a very common species, and at present I have only
observed it on the Dun {61}Mountain near Nelson, at an elevation of about
2,700 feet above the sea-level. Here I took several specimens on the
flowers of an Alpine veronica in the dusk of evening, and saw several
others, which I was unable to capture. Mr. Meyrick has taken it on Mount
Arthur at an elevation of 4,500 feet, and Mr. Fereday states that it
frequents swampy places near Christchurch.


XANTHORHOE NEPHELIAS, Meyr.

(_Larentia nephelias_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 78.)

This species was discovered by Mr. Meyrick in the South Island at Arthur's
Pass, West Coast Road, and he has since taken it on Mount Arthur.

  "_Male, female_.--The expansion of the wings is 32-34 mm. (about 1¼
  inches). Fore-wings moderate, in female narrower and more elongate,
  termen rounded; pale whitish-grey, slightly ochreous-tinged; an
  indistinct suffusion of dark fuscous scales before middle; a small dark
  fuscous discal dot; a rather irregular cloudy dark fuscous line beyond
  middle, sinuate beneath costa, shortly angulated in middle; a very faint
  stria beyond this; a terminal band composed of two rows of cloudy
  partially confluent dark fuscous spots, separating on costa; cilia pale
  whitish-grey. Hind-wings moderate, in female narrower, termen rounded;
  ground colour as in fore-wings, with a few grey scales posteriorly.

"A remarkable-looking species.

"I took two fine specimens above Arthur's Pass (4,600 feet), in
January."--(Meyrick).

I am unacquainted with this species. It is evidently very conspicuous and
distinct.


XANTHORHOE CATAPHRACTA, Meyr.

(_Larentia cataphracta_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 79.)

(Plate VII., fig. 33 [M], 34 [F].)

This large and conspicuous species has occurred in the South Island at
Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass, Lake Guyon, and Lake Wakatipu.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1-5/8 inches, of the female 1½
  inches. _The fore-wings are dull yellowish-brown, with numerous slightly
  waved oblique black and white transverse bands; one very broad white band
  is situated near the middle, and another at about three-fourths; there is
  a broad longitudinal reddish-brown line on the costal edge, in which the
  transverse lines almost disappear_; there is also a pale, somewhat
  triangular, area at the apex. The hind-wings are very pale
  greyish-ochreous. The cilia of all the wings are very pale ochreous. The
  female is duller and paler than the male.

The perfect insect appears from December till March, and frequents grassy
slopes on the mountain sides, at elevations of from 3,000 to 4,000 feet. I
observed this insect in great abundance on the Humboldt Range at the head
of Lake Wakatipu, but have not found it at any of the other Alpine
localities I have visited, so I imagine that it is a rather local species.


XANTHORHOE CLARATA, Walk.

  (_Larentia clarata_, Walk. 1197; Butl., Cat. pl. iii. 14. _Cideria
  pyramaria_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 93. _Larentia clarata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z.
  Inst. xvi. 79.)

(Plate VII., fig. 31 [M], 32 [F].)

This conspicuous species has occurred in the South Island at Lake Rotoiti,
Mount Arthur, Castle Hill, Mount Hutt, Dunedin, and Lake Wakatipu.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1½ inches, of the female 1-3/8
  inches.

  The species differs from the preceding in the following respects: The
  ground colour of the fore-wings is brighter, the markings are less
  oblique and much more jagged; the large white central band is often
  broken up into several distinct oval patches; the costal edge is very
  slightly shaded with {62}brown, _and the transverse lines do not
  disappear before reaching the costa_. The hind-wings are bright ochreous.
  _The cilia of all the wings are white, strongly barred with
  yellowish-brown_.

There is slight variation in the details of the markings, but the species
can always be immediately recognised.

The perfect insect appears in December, January, and February. It frequents
open grassy places at elevations ranging from 2,000 to 4,500 feet, and is
often extremely abundant in these situations.


XANTHORHOE COSMODORA, Meyr.

(_Larentia cosmodora_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 57.)

This species was discovered by Mr. Meyrick in the South Island on Mount
Arthur, at an elevation of 4,500 feet.

  _Female_.--27 mm. (slightly over 1 inch). Head, palpi, antennæ, thorax,
  abdomen, and legs whitish-ochreous, slightly brownish-tinged; abdomen
  with a double dorsal series of dark fuscous dots. Fore-wings with costa
  hardly perceptibly arched, termen slightly rounded, oblique;
  whitish-ochreous, slightly yellowish-tinged; a curved irregular black
  line rather near base, followed by a white line; median band rather
  darker, tinged with yellowish-fuscous towards edges, margined with
  dentate black lines and outside these with white, anterior from one-third
  of costa to two-fifths of dorsum, rather curved, posterior from
  two-thirds of costa to three-fourths of dorsum, somewhat prominent
  beneath costa, and with a more distinct double prominence in middle; two
  white dentate-edged spots within median band, first beneath costa,
  containing small black discal dot, second on dorsum; a waved white
  subterminal line; a fine dark fuscous terminal line interrupted into
  numerous dots; cilia whitish-ochreous, with dark fuscous bars hardly
  reaching base. Hind-wings whitish-ochreous, with faint darker
  greyish-tinged lines; a median band of four more distinct cloudy grey
  lines, first three straight, fourth well marked, rather dark fuscous,
  waved, somewhat prominent in middle, beneath confluent with third; a
  faint white subterminal line; cilia pale whitish-ochreous, with a faint
  greyish line tending to form spots.

"Appears in January; one specimen. It is conceivable that this may be the
other sex of the following species, but they are very dissimilar, and I do
not at present think it probable."--(Meyrick.)


XANTHORHOE BRYOPIS, Meyr.

(_Larentia bryopis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 57.)

Discovered by Mr. Meyrick in the South Island on Mount Arthur, 4,500 feet
above the sea-level.

  "_Male_.--29-32 mm. (about 1¼ inches). Head, palpi, thorax, abdomen, and
  legs pale greyish-ochreous, slightly greenish-tinged, irrorated with
  blackish. Antennæ whitish, annulated with black. Fore-wings with costa
  gently arched, termen somewhat rounded, rather oblique; pale
  greyish-ochreous, tinged with olive-greenish, irrorated with
  blackish-grey, tending to form waved transverse lines on basal area;
  median band margined with dentate black lines and outside them with
  white; anterior from one-third of costa to one-third of dorsum, curved,
  posterior from beyond two-thirds of costa to three-fourths of dorsum,
  somewhat indented above middle, with a moderate double prominence in
  middle; three blackish-grey subdentate lines within median band, first
  near and parallel to anterior edge, other two near and parallel to
  posterior edge, first and second tending to be confluent below middle,
  space between these more or less suffused with white, enclosing a small
  black discal spot; an obscure dentate whitish subterminal line,
  anteriorly margined with dark fuscous, preceded and followed by waved
  fuscous lines; a terminal series of pairs of dark fuscous dots; cilia
  ochreish-grey, whitish, barred with fuscous, and with a fuscous basal
  line. Hind-wings ochreous-grey, with waved darker grey transverse lines,
  except towards base; a dark grey discal dot before middle; posterior edge
  of median band formed as in fore-wings, followed by an obscure whitish
  line and somewhat paler band; terminal dots and cilia as in fore-wings,
  but more obscure.

"Appears in January; not uncommon. Nearest allied to _X.
beata_."--(Meyrick.)


{63}XANTHORHOE BEATA, Butl.

(_Cidaria beata_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 397, pl. xliii. 6.
_Larentia beata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 79.)

(Plate VII., fig. 35 [M], 36 [F].)

This very beautiful species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island,
is common and generally distributed throughout the South Island, and has
also been found at Stewart Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. _The fore-wings are bright
  green; there is a darker area at the base edged with a jagged white line;
  then a paler band followed by a very broad darker green central band
  edged with very jagged white lines, and containing several white patches
  in the middle, one of which is situated close to the costa and encloses a
  black dot; beyond this central band there is a paler area, then an
  interrupted darker green band edged with white towards the termen_. There
  is an oblique pale mark from the apex of the wing. The hind-wings are
  very pale ochreous, sometimes slightly tinged with green; there are
  several obscure rows of dusky spots.

  The white markings included in the central band are rather variable.

  The egg is smooth, oval, and pale green in colour.

  The young larva is orange-brown, becoming greenish-brown soon after
  emergence. The full-grown larva is dark brown above and pale brown
  beneath, the two colours being sharply separated on the sides by a broken
  white line. A series of V-shaped markings is situated on the back, each
  mark enclosing a paler area. Several fine black wavy lines traverse the
  darker portions of the larva, and a dark mark, edged with black beneath,
  is situated on each segment just above the ventral surface.

The food-plant is watercress.

The pupa is enclosed in a frail cocoon on the surface of the ground.

The perfect insect appears from October till March, and frequents forest.
It is often dislodged from dense undergrowth during the daytime, and may be
found in the evening on the blossoms of the white rata. It is very much
commoner in some years than in others; but occasionally several seasons
will pass without our noticing a single specimen of this attractive insect.
The colouring is extremely protective when the moth is resting on
moss-covered tree trunks.


XANTHORHOE ADONIS, n. sp.

(Plate VII., fig. 49 [M].)

This extremely beautiful insect has occurred in the South Island at Castle
Hill, and at Lake Wakatipu.

  The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. _The fore-wings are vivid green_;
  there is a broad, wavy, black transverse line near the base; a somewhat
  broken line at about one-third, much broader on the costa and edged with
  white towards the base; _a very conspicuous broad black line at
  two-thirds, shaded towards the base, and sharply edged with white towards
  the termen_; between this line and the termen there are several black
  marks, forming another extremely broken transverse line. _The hind-wings
  are pale orange-brown, with a faint grey central band_.

The perfect insect appears in January. It frequents forests at elevations
of from 1,000 to 2,000 feet above the sea-level, but it is not common.

Mr. Meyrick regards this insect as identical with _Xanthorhoe beata_.


XANTHORHOE CHLORIAS, Meyr.

(_Larentia chlorias_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 80.)

This species was discovered in the South Island at Castle Hill, by Mr.
Meyrick.

  "The expansion of the wings of the male is 30 mm. (about 1¼ inches).
  Fore-wings moderate, termen hardly rounded; bright yellow; base of costa
  dark fuscous-purple; a curved row of three very small dark purple-fuscous
  spots about one-fourth, and another of four spots before middle, costal
  spots larger; a {64}triangular purple blotch on costa before apex,
  reaching half across wing, anteriorly margined by a strongly sinuate
  bluish-black streak; a row of three dark purple-fuscous dots from apex of
  this to dorsum, and a subterminal row of six similar dots; cilia yellow.
  Hind-wings moderate, termen rounded; rather paler than fore-wings, with
  two curved posterior rows of cloudy purple-fuscous dots.

"A very beautiful and conspicuous species.

"I took one fine specimen in a wooded gully near Castle Hill, at 3,100
feet, in January."--(Meyrick.)


XANTHORHOE ÆGROTA, Butl.

(_Selidosema ægrota_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 499. _Larentia ægrota_, Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 80.)

(Plate VII., fig. 37 [M].)

This rather inconspicuous species has occurred at Palmerston and Kaitoke in
the North Island; and at Christchurch, Dunedin, and Lake Wakatipu in the
South Island. It has also been taken at Stewart Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-1/8 inches. _The fore-wings are
  dull ochreous-brown; there are several indistinct wavy blackish lines
  near the base, a black dot above the middle, then three or four more
  lines, followed by a cloudy shading on the termen._ The hind-wings are
  pale ochreous-brown. _The cilia of all the wings are dull ochreous-brown
  barred with black._

The perfect insect appears from November till March and is sometimes very
common. It usually frequents rather open situations in the neighbourhood of
forest, and I have often observed it amongst the bushes of "Wild Irishman"
(_Discaria toumatou._) It is extremely abundant on the banks of the River
Dart, at the head of Lake Wakatipu.


XANTHORHOE LUCIDATA, Walk.

  (_Larentia lucidata_, Walk. 1200. _Coremia plurimata_, ib. 1321. _Panagra
  venipunctata_, ib. 1666. _Larentia psamathodes_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z.
  Inst. xvi. 81. _Larentia lucidata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvii. 64.)

(Plate VII., fig. 38 [M].)

This rather dull-coloured species has occurred at Napier, Palmerston, and
Wellington in the North Island, and at Dunedin in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. _The fore-wings are dull
  yellowish-brown; there are numerous fine, almost straight blackish lines
  parallel to the termen, forming four more or less distinct transverse
  bands_; the first at the base rather broad, the second a little before
  the middle, the third beyond the middle, and the fourth just before the
  termen; there is a black dot a little above the middle of the wing, and
  the veins are marked with white dots between the transverse bands. The
  hind-wings are pale brownish-ochreous; there are numerous, rather faint,
  wavy, blackish, transverse lines, which are much more distinct near the
  dorsum. There is a series of distinct black dots on the termen of both
  fore- and hind-wings.

The perfect insect appears during the winter months from March till August.
It is rather a scarce species, but on mild evenings it is sometimes taken
at light.


XANTHORHOE HELIAS, Meyr.

(_Larentia helias_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 81.)

(Plate VII., fig. 40.)

Two specimens of this species have been taken at Dunedin in the South
Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. All the wings are pale ochreous;
  the fore-wings have a slender brown transverse line at the base, then a
  large loop-like marking from the costa, almost meeting a smaller,
  similarly looped marking from the dorsum; next a broad irregular dark
  brown band a little beyond the middle, considerably indented towards the
  termen; this is followed by a rather narrow pale band, and then by a
  narrow brown band, also indented towards the termen; there is a small
  oblique brown mark below the apex, and a terminal series of black dots.
  The hind-wings have several faint dusky transverse lines near the base, a
  row of small spots near the {65}termen, and a terminal series of minute
  black dots. The cilia of all the wings are reddish-ochreous.

The perfect insect appears in January.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


XANTHORHOE PRASINIAS, Meyr.

(_Larentia prasinias_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 81.)

(Plate VII., fig. 41.)

This bright-looking species has occurred in the South Island at Mount
Arthur, Castle Hill, and Invercargill.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. _The fore-wings are bright
  orange-yellow; there is a small brown area near the base, with the outer
  edge indented; then a pale band followed by a very broad brown central
  band, composed of wavy transverse lines, with irregular yellow spaces
  between them_, the largest of these spaces containing a small black dot;
  the outer edge of the central band is very wavy, and has several rather
  prominent projections near the middle; beyond this are several rather
  faint brownish lines; the cilia are yellow, barred with dark brown. The
  hind-wings are pale ochreous, shaded with grey near the base, and with
  yellow near the termen; the cilia are yellow, barred with brown.

The perfect insect appears in January, and frequents forest. It is found at
elevations of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet, but is not by any means a common
species.


XANTHORHOE CHIONOGRAMMA, Meyr.

(_Larentia chionogramma_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 82.)

(Plate VII., fig. 42 [M], 43 [F].)

This rather dull-looking  species has occurred in the South Island at Mount
Arthur and Mount Hutt.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-1/8 inches. _The fore-wings are
  rather dark greyish-brown; there are numerous indistinct wavy paler and
  darker transverse lines near the base; a rather broad transverse brown
  band towards the middle, shaded towards the base, and edged with an
  interrupted jagged white line towards the termen_; beyond this there are
  several broken darker and paler lines. The hind-wings are very pale
  greyish-ochreous, clouded with grey near the base, and with several rows
  of small cloudy grey spots near the termen. The female is paler than the
  male and the markings are less distinct.

The perfect insect appears in December and January, and frequents wooded
valleys on the lower slopes of the mountains, at elevations of from 2,000
to 3,000 feet.


XANTHORHOE CAMELIAS, Meyr.

(_Larentia camelias_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 58.)

This species was discovered by Mr. Meyrick in the North Island at
Whangarei.

  "The expansion of the wings of the male is 23 mm. (rather less than 1
  inch). Head, antennæ, and thorax whitish-ochreous, greyish-tinged, with a
  few dark fuscous scales. Palpi fuscous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, with a
  double dorsal series of dark fuscous dots. Legs whitish-ochreous,
  irrorated with purple-reddish and dark fuscous. Fore-wings with costa
  rather sinuate in middle, on anterior half gently, on posterior half very
  strongly arched, termen moderately sinuate below apex, bowed in middle;
  light greyish-ochreous, with numerous cloudy, waved, brown-grey
  transverse lines, somewhat bent near costa; a black discal dot; margin of
  basal patch and anterior edge of median band indicated by series of very
  minute white dots, preceded and followed by black points; posterior edge
  of median band marked by a darker line, followed by a fine white line
  reduced on lower half to a series of points, subterminal line represented
  by four cloudy blackish dots on upper half and another above tornus;
  cilia greyish-ochreous (imperfect). Hind-wings fuscous-whitish; a median
  band of four cloudy greyish lines, bent near costa; a cloudy grey spot
  above tornus; cilia fuscous-whitish (imperfect.)

"Appears in December. Immediately recognisable by the peculiar form of
forewings."--(Meyrick.)


{66}XANTHORHOE FALCATA, Butl.

(_Larentia falcata_, Butl., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 58.)

A single specimen of this species is in the British Museum collection of
New Zealand Lepidoptera. Of this specimen Mr. Meyrick remarks as follows:--

"This appears to be a good species allied to _X. camelias_, but with the
costa of fore-wings less arched posteriorly, and posterior edge of median
band practically straight, not bent near costa; also much darker in general
colouring. I have not yet seen any specimen except the original type."


XANTHORHOE OBARATA, Feld.

(_Cidaria obarata_, Feld. cxxxii. 33. _Larentia obarata_, Meyr., Trans. N.
Z. Inst. xvi. 82.)

(Plate VII., fig. 45.)

This little species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at
Christchurch and Mount Hutt in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is barely 1 inch. _The fore-wings are pale
  greyish-ochreous; there is an interrupted reddish-brown transverse band
  near the base; two faint, interrupted, shaded blackish lines, one at
  about one-third and the other at about two-thirds, enclosing between them
  a large central area, which contains a very distinct black dot above the
  middle, and several irregular shaded black marks; beyond this there is a
  wavy reddish-brown band; the apex of the wing is somewhat projecting, and
  the termen is considerably bowed._ The hind-wings are pale grey, with a
  paler central band, and numerous faint, wavy, darker grey lines. _The
  cilia of all the icings are white, banded with dark grey._

The perfect insect appears from November till January. Mr. Fereday states
that it is a plain-frequenting species, especially attached to gorse
hedges.[37]

Described and figured from a specimen kindly given to me by Mr. Fereday.


XANTHORHOE CHORICA, Meyr.

(_Larentia chorica_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 58.)

(Plate VII., fig. 44.)

A single specimen of this beautiful insect was taken at Akaroa by Mr.
Fereday.

  The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. All the wings are pale ochreous.
  The fore-wings have a short transverse black mark from the costa near the
  base; a fine wavy white transverse line, followed by a wavy black band;
  _the middle of the wing is white, marbled with very pale blue; beyond
  this there is a broad black band wavy towards the termen, with a very
  prominent rounded projection near the middle_; there are two
  reddish-brown marks on the costa before the apex, a blackish patch on the
  termen below the apex, and a row of terminal black dots; the apex is
  slightly projecting, and the termen is strongly arched. The hind-wings
  have several fine blackish transverse lines near the base; a broad shaded
  band in the middle, and a terminal series of black dots.

The perfect insect appears in January.

Described and figured from the specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


XANTHORHOE SUBOBSCURATA, Walk.

(_Scotosia subobscurata_, Walk. 1358. _Larentia petropola_, Meyr., Trans.
N. Z. Inst. xvi. 82.)

This species has occurred in the South Island at the Otira Gorge.

  "The expansion of the wings is 39 mm. (1½ inches). Fore-wings moderate,
  termen rounded dark grey, densely irrorated with bluish-whitish; costa
  broadly suffused with ochreous-whitish anteriorly; a very obscure curved
  ochreous-whitish line towards base, anteriorly dark-margined; two obscure
  curved subdentate adjacent whitish lines about one-third, followed by a
  dark line; a blackish {67}discal dot; a very irregular dentate curved
  dark grey line beyond middle, followed by two adjacent whitish lines; a
  sharply dentate obscure whitish subterminal line, anteriorly
  dark-margined. Hind-wings moderate, termen rounded; markings as in
  fore-wings, but more obscure, paler and more suffused towards base.

"A fine species, with a peculiar bluish tinge.

"I took two specimens at rest on rock-faces in the Otira Gorge, at 1,800
feet, in January, and saw others."--(Meyrick.)


XANTHORHOE CINEREARIA, Dbld.

  (_Cidaria (?) cinerearia_, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. ii. 286. _Larentia (?)
  invexata_, Walk. 1199; Butl., Cat., pl. iii. 11. _Larentia semisignata_,
  Walk. 1200. _Larentia inoperata_, Walk. 1201. _Larentia diffusaria_,
  Walk. 1201. _Larentia punctilineata_, Walk. 1202; Butl., Cat., pl. iii.
  12. _Cidaria dissociata_, Walk. 1734. _Cidaria semilisata_, Walk. 1735.
  _Larentia corcularia_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 61. _Larentia infantaria_, Gn.,
  E. M. M. v. 62. _Helastia eupitheciaria_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 95. ? _Cidaria
  sphæriata_, Feld. cxxxi. 14. _Larentia cinerearia_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z.
  Inst. xvi. 83.)

(Plate VIII., figs. 2 and 2A, varieties.)

This species is extremely abundant, and generally distributed throughout
the country.

  The expansion of the wings is from 5/8 inch to 1 inch. _The fore-wings
  vary from pale to dark grey; there are generally four more or less
  distinct blackish marks on the costa, forming the beginning of transverse
  bands_; the rest of the wing is marbled with dark-grey or black, the
  disposition of the markings varying exceedingly in different specimens.
  The hind-wings are pale grey, with a black dot above the middle.

The variation existing in this species is very great, and is thus described
by Mr. Meyrick:[38] "Three main forms occur: one large, greyer, and more
uniform; a second of middle size whiter and generally strongly marked
sometimes bluish-tinged, only found in the hills; and a third small greyish
but ochreous-tinged, strongly marked; these are connected by scarcer
intermediate forms, and are, I believe, due to the direct effect of food
and situation.

"The larva feeds on lichens."

The perfect insect appears from October till March, and frequents a great
variety of situations. The colouring of the fore-wings is beautifully
adapted for protection on lichen-covered banks, rocks, or fences, where
specimens may often be found resting with closed wings during the daytime.
This species flies rather freely at evening dusk, and may then be taken
plentifully at sugar, blossoms or light. It is, however, a difficult matter
to procure specimens in really good condition for the cabinet, as the
insect is so extremely restless when confined in a box that if it is not
killed at once, it will speedily injure itself during its struggles to
escape. This moth is found at elevations ranging from the sea-level to
3,500 feet.


XANTHORHOE ANTHRACIAS, Meyr.

(_Larentia anthracias_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 84.)

This species has occurred in the South Island at Mount Hutt and Lake
Wakatipu.

  "The expansion of the wings of the male is from 24-25 mm. (about 1 inch).
  Fore-wings moderate, termen sinuate; dark fuscous, faintly striated, more
  or less sprinkled with whitish; a curved blackish line near base,
  posteriorly obscurely whitish-margined; a curved, obscure whitish fascia
  at one-third, blackish margined and bisected by a blackish line; a
  well-defined black discal dot; a white fascia, partially mixed with
  fuscous, beyond middle, anteriorly strongly blackish-margined,
  posteriorly more obscurely, and bisected by a blackish line, somewhat
  irregular, moderately angulated in middle; {68}an obscure dentate
  yellowish or whitish subterminal line; an interrupted black terminal
  line. Hind-wings moderate, termen rounded; dark fuscous; two nearly
  straight lines before middle, faintly darker; a faint paler or sometimes
  whitish sinuate fascia beyond middle, margined and bisected with darker.

"Varies slightly in distinctness of pale markings.

"Mount Hutt and Lake Wakatipu (5,400 feet), on the open mountain sides, in
December and January; twelve specimens."--(Meyrick.)


XANTHORHOE BULBULATA, Gn.

(_Cidaria bulbulata_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 94. _Larentia bulbulata_, Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 84.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 1.)

This species has occurred in the South Island at Kekerangu, Christchurch,
Castle Hill, and Dunedin.

  The expansion of the wings is barely 1 inch. _The fore-wings are very
  pale brownish-ochreous; there is a brown area near the base; a moderately
  broad brown central band with a distinct projection near the middle; the
  termen is broadly shaded with brown, with a wavy paler line in the middle
  of the shading_; there are often several oval paler marks in the middle
  of the central band, and pale brown spots and lines between the darker
  brown markings. _The hind-wings are bright orange, with the cilia pale
  brown._

The perfect insect appears from September till March, and frequents open,
grassy places, from the sea-level to elevations of from 2,000 to 3,000
feet.


Genus 12.--LYTHRIA, Hb.

  "Face rough-haired or loosely scaled, antennæ in male bi-pectinated, apex
  sometimes simple. Palpi with long rough hairs. Thorax roughly hairy
  beneath. Fore-wings with areole simple. Hind-wings with vein 8
  anastomosing with cell to beyond middle."--(Meyrick.) (Plate II., figs.
  39 and 40, neuration of _L. chrysopeda_.)

We have two interesting little species in New Zealand. The genus also
occurs in Europe, and probably elsewhere.


LYTHRIA CHRYSOPEDA, Meyr.

(_Arcteuthes chrysopeda_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 48.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 33 [M], 34 [F].)

This bright-looking little species has been taken in the South Island at
Mount Arthur.

  The expansion of the wings is about ¾ inch. _The fore-wings are very
  dark, glossy brown; there is a pale yellowish transverse line near the
  base, a broader, rather wavy orange-yellow line a little before the
  middle, another still broader at about two-thirds, and an indistinct fine
  line near the termen. The hind-wings are rich orange-brown, with three
  broad, wavy, dark brown transverse bands; the termen is narrowly margined
  with dark orange-brown._ The female is generally rather paler than the
  male, very faintly marked specimens occasionally occurring.

The perfect insect appears in January and February. It frequents the
tussock openings in the forest on the Tableland of Mount Arthur, at
elevations of from 3,000 to 4,000 feet. In these situations it appears to
be fairly abundant, flying actively in the hottest sunshine.


LYTHRIA EUCLIDIATA, Gn.

  (_Coremia euclidiata_, Gn. x. 420. _Coremia glyphicata_, ib. 420.
  _Fidonia catapyrrha_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 392, pl. xliii.
  2. _Stratonice catapyrrha_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 64.
  _Stratonice euclidiata_, ib. xvii. 63. _Arctesthes euclidiata_, ib.
  xviii. 184. _Arcteuthes euclidiata_, ib. xx. 47.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 35 [M].)

This pretty little species has occurred in the South Island at Lake Rotoiti
near Nelson, Lake Guyon, Otira Gorge, Dunedin, and Mount Linton near
Invercargill.

  {69}The expansion of the wings is ¾ inch. The fore-wings are dark
  greyish-brown speckled with black and white; there is a curved black
  transverse line near the base, followed by a white line, then two black
  lines close together followed by another white line, then a broad black
  line followed by a pale central band containing a well-marked central
  dot, beyond this there are two angulated black lines, and a very
  conspicuous white line; there is a broad black shading on the termen,
  traversed by a rather obscure fine white line. The hind-wings are rather
  narrow, yellowish-orange speckled with black near the base, there is a
  strongly angulated black line near the middle, and an obscure blackish
  band near the termen. _On the under side the fore-wings are yellow, with
  two black transverse bands from the costa near the termen and a red mark
  near the apex; the hind-wings are streaked with white and yellow, and
  broadly bordered with red on the costa and termen; there are two very
  broad black transverse bands._ The female is paler than the male, with
  the dark markings rather narrower.

The perfect insect appears in February and March, and frequents open, sunny
places, at elevations of from 1,000 to 2,000 feet above the sea-level.


Genus 13.--DASYURIS, Gn.

  "Face rough-haired or with projecting scales. Palpi moderate, porrected,
  with long dense rough hairs. Antennæ in male shortly ciliated. Thorax and
  coxæ densely hairy beneath. Posterior tibiæ with all spurs present.
  Fore-wings with areole double. Hind-wings with vein 8 anastomosing with
  cell from near base to beyond middle."--(Meyrick.) (Plate II., fig. 42,
  neuration of fore-wing. Hind-wing as in _Xanthorhoe_.)

Of this genus we have four species in New Zealand.


DASYURIS ENYSII, Butl.

  (_Fidonia enysii_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 391, pl. xlii. 9.
  _Statira homomorpha_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 91. _Statira
  enysii_, ib. xvii. 65. _Stathmonyma enysii_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 28.)

This species has occurred in the South Island on the Dun Mountain near
Nelson, and at Mount Hutt.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings are
  greyish-brown, with numerous wavy blackish transverse lines; there is
  usually a wavy yellowish transverse stripe near the base, and another
  broader and more conspicuous stripe near the termen; the termen itself is
  broadly shaded with dark brown. The hind-wings are orange-yellow; there
  is a small dusky brown area near the base, then a faint straight
  transverse line, followed by a slightly waved conspicuous dark brown
  line; there is a very wavy broad dark brown line near the termen, and the
  termen itself is narrowly edged with dark brown.

The perfect insect appears in January and February, and frequents stony
situations on the mountains, at elevations of from 2,500 to 4,000 feet. I
have taken numerous specimens on the "Mineral Belt," Dun Mountain, but have
not yet met with it elsewhere. This insect is probably often mistaken
during flight for _Notoreas brephos_, from which it may easily be
distinguished by its _larger size, paler colouring, and simple antennæ of
the male_.


DASYURIS ANCEPS, Butl.

  (_Fidonia anceps_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 392, pl. xliii. 3.
  _Statira anceps_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 91. _Stathmonyma
  anceps_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 29.)

This species has been taken in the South Island at Mount Arthur, Castle
Hill, and Arthur's Pass.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-1/8 inches. _The fore-wings are
  bluish-grey; there are four wavy dark grey transverse lines_, the three
  lines nearest the base are double, and the line nearest the termen is
  shaded towards the base. _The hind-wings are pale yellow_; there is a
  small dusky area near the base, then a slightly curved grey line,
  followed by two curved dark grey lines {70}close together; there is a
  series of irregular blotches near the termen, and the termen itself is
  broadly edged with black near the apex of the wing, and narrowly near the
  tornus. The cilia of all the wings are bluish-grey, barred with dusky
  black.

The perfect insect appears in January and February, and frequents bare
rocky situations on the mountains, at elevations of from 4,000 to 5,000
feet. On one occasion I met with this species very plentifully, though in
poor condition, on Mount Peel, near Mount Arthur; but subsequent visits
have led me to think that, as a rule, it is rather a scarce species. The
bluish-grey colouring of the fore-wings affords this moth a most efficient
protection from enemies, whilst resting on the rocky ground which it always
frequents.

Apart from special characters, the fainter colouring of this insect will at
once distinguish it from any of the numerous allied species.


DASYURIS PARTHENIATA, Gn.

(_Dasyuris partheniata_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 93; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst.
xvi. 92.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 30 [M], 31 [F].)

This bright-looking species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island,
and at Mount Arthur and Mount Hutt in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-1/8 inches. _The fore-wings are
  bright orange-yellow; the base is speckled with black and dull green
  scales; there is a rather indistinct band at about one-third; a broad
  wavy dark brown band a little beyond the middle, with a projection
  towards the termen, followed by a clear space and another broad irregular
  dark transverse band_; the termen is broadly bordered with dark brown,
  which is often almost continuous with the last-named transverse band.
  _The hind-wings are bright orange; there is a large speckled area near
  the base edged with a curved black line, followed by a clear space, and
  an interrupted dark brown transverse line considerably beyond the
  middle_; the termen is rather narrowly edged with a dark brown line, wavy
  towards the base of the wing. The cilia of all the wings are yellow
  barred with black.

  The species varies considerably in the extent of the dark markings,
  especially on the fore-wings.

  The egg is oval and white, without sculpture.

  The young larva, which is very attenuated, has sixteen legs. Its colour
  is pale yellowish-brown above, and dull ochreous beneath. The food-plant
  is unknown.

The perfect insect appears from October till March, and frequents open,
grassy situations. At Wellington, during October and November, it is common
on the cliffs close to the shores of Cook's Strait, flying very rapidly on
hot, sunny days, which renders its capture very difficult in such steep
situations. Mr. Fereday's specimens were obtained amongst the tussock grass
at the foot of Mount Hutt. The insect was also found plentifully on the
slopes of Mount Arthur, at an elevation of about 4,500 feet above the
sea-level, and also on the Tararua Range in the North Island.


DASYURIS HECTORI, Butl.

  (_Euclidia hectori_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 387, pl. xlii.
  4. _Statira hectori_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 91. _Stathmonyma
  hectori_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 32.)

This very striking species has occurred in the South Island at Mount
Arthur, Mount Hutt, and Ben Lomond, Lake Wakatipu.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. _All the wings are dark
  greyish-black, speckled with bluish-grey scales._ The fore-wings have
  five rather indistinct wavy darker transverse lines, and a very broad
  darker shading near the termen; there is a fine white mark near the apex,
  continued as an indistinct wavy line towards the tornus. The hind-wings
  have three or four {71}indistinct darker transverse lines, and a very
  broad terminal shading; there are two, more or less distinct, fine, wavy,
  white lines, the first a little below the middle, and the second near the
  termen; the cilia are dark grey barred with pale grey. _On the under side
  all the wings are dark blackish-grey, traversed by six broad, wavy
  whitish lines._

The perfect insect appears in December, January and February, and frequents
rocky crags on mountains, at elevations of from 4,700 to 5,700 feet above
the sea-level. It delights to rest on blackened rocks in the hottest
sunshine, but dashes away with the greatest rapidity on the approach of the
collector, so that it is generally rather difficult to capture.


Genus 14.--NOTOREAS, Meyr.

  "Face roughly haired. Palpi moderate, second joint with long or very long
  spreading hairs beneath, terminal joint moderate or rather long, often
  concealed. Antennæ in male bi-pectinated. Thorax beneath more or less
  strongly clothed with long hairs. Fore-wings with vein 6 rising out of 9,
  7 almost from angle of areole, 10 anastomosing moderately with 9, 11
  anastomosing moderately or very shortly with 10, 12 free. Hind-wings
  normal."--(Meyrick.) (See Plate II., fig. 43, fore-wing of _Notoreas
  brephos_.)

This interesting genus, of which we have no less than fifteen species,
comprises a number of gaily coloured little insects, chiefly inhabiting
mountain regions. All the species are day-fliers, and most of them only
appear during the hottest sunshine. Mr. Meyrick regards the genus
_Notoreas_ as most closely approaching to the ancestor of the family
_Hydriomenidæ_.


NOTOREAS INSIGNIS, Butl.

  (_Aspilates insignis_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 393, pl.
  xliii. 1. _Pasithea insignis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 85.
  _Notoreas insignis_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 3 [M].)

This very striking species has been taken in the South Island at Castle
Hill.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1¼ inches, of the female 1
  inch. _The fore-wings of the male are dull yellowish-brown; in the middle
  of the wing there is an almost straight long white streak from the base
  to about three-fourths; there is another straight white streak parallel
  to the termen and almost touching the apex. The hind-wings are bright
  ochreous speckled with brown near the base._ The female has the wings
  rather narrower than the male, and the ground colour is paler.

The perfect insect appears in January. Mr. Fereday's specimens, which
formed the basis for the above figure and description, were captured on a
bare mountain side at an elevation of about 4,000 feet. Mr. Hawthorne has
directed my attention to the remarkable similarity existing between the
markings on the fore-wings of this species and those on _Xanthorhoe
stinaria_.


NOTOREAS ORPHNÆA, Meyr.

(_Pasithea orphnæa_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 85. _Notoreas orphnæa_,
ib. xviii. 184.)

This species was discovered by Mr. Meyrick in the South Island at Lake
Wakatipu.

  The expansion of the wings of the female is from 28 to 30 mm. (about 1¼
  inches). "Fore-wings moderate, termen rounded; dark fuscous, mixed with
  yellowish and whitish, which tend to form alternate fasciæ; a discal dot
  and numerous curved irregularly dentate blackish lines, varying in
  strength and intensity; cilia barred with blackish and whitish.
  Hind-wings moderate, termen rounded; dark fuscous; a blackish discal dot;
  a cloudy whitish irroration forming a double curved fascia beyond middle,
  and a dentate subterminal line; cilia as in fore-wings.

"Imitative in colour of the dark lichen-grown rocks.

{72}"I took three specimens almost on the summit of Ben Lomond, Lake
Wakatipu, at 5,600 feet, in January."--(Meyrick.)


NOTOREAS ISOLEUCA, Meyr.

(_Notoreas isoleuca_, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1897, 386.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 27.)

This little species has been taken in the South Island on the Craigieburn
Range, near Castle Hill.

  The expansion of the wings is about ¾ inch. _All the wings are very dark
  blackish-brown; the fore-wings have five slender wavy white transverse
  lines. The hind-wings have three white transverse lines_, the first near
  the base, the second near the middle, and the third, which is very
  slender and considerably broken, near the termen. _The cilia of all the
  wings are white, barred with blackish-brown._

The perfect insect was captured in January, amongst a varied growth of
stunted Alpine vegetation, at an elevation of about 5,600 feet.


NOTOREAS MECHANITIS, Meyr.

(_Pasithea mechanitis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 86. _Notoreas
mechanitis_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., figs. 9, 10, 11, varieties.)

This insect has occurred in the South Island at Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass
and Mount Hutt.

  The expansion of the wings is about 7/8 inch. _All the wings are dark
  brownish-black. The fore-wings have an almost straight transverse yellow
  or white stripe near the base, edged with black towards the body; a
  rather wavy stripe at about one-third, edged with black towards the
  termen; then several irregular yellowish or white spots or marks,
  followed by a very distinct white stripe, somewhat projecting towards the
  termen near the middle; there is a broken fine yellow line near the
  termen._ The hind-wings have a shaded white or yellow transverse line
  near the base, another near the middle, a third, considerably finer and
  often broken, near the termen. The cilia of all the wings are white
  shaded with grey near the base, _but with no distinct bars_.

The perfect insect appears from January till March, and flies with great
activity in the hottest sunshine. It frequents grassy mountain sides at
elevations ranging from 3,000 to 4,500 feet above the sea-level, and in
these situations it is often very abundant.


NOTOREAS PARADELPHA, Meyr.

(_Pasithea paradelpha_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 86. _Notoreas
paradelpha_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., figs. 12, 13, 14, varieties.)

In the South Island this insect has occurred on Mount Arthur, and on Ben
Lomond, Lake Wakatipu, at elevations of from 3,600 to 5,000 feet.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The species is said to be
  distinguished from the preceding "by the barred cilia, the absence of any
  clear yellow colouring, the less prominent angulation of the post-median
  line and the more elongate wings."[39] (Meyrick.)

The perfect insect appears in December, January and February. In habits it
exactly resembles _Notoreas mechanitis_.


NOTOREAS PERORNATA, Walk.

(_Fidonia perornata_, Walk. 1672. _Pasithea perornata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z.
Inst. xvi. 87. _Notoreas perornata_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, varieties.)

This very pretty insect has occurred at Palmerston and Wellington in the
North Island, and at Kekerangu, Mount Arthur, Lake Coleridge, Mount Hutt
and Lake Wakatipu, in the South Island.

  {73}The expansion of the wings is about ¾ inch. _The fore-wings are dark
  brownish-black, with five transverse white or orange-yellow lines, which
  vary considerably both in width and colour in different specimens_; the
  two basal lines are almost straight, the rest are wavy, the last but one
  has, near the middle, a strong projection towards the termen. _The
  hind-wings are bright orange, with three or four more or less broken
  black transverse lines._ The termen is narrowly bordered with black; the
  cilia of all the wings are white, more or less distinctly barred with
  blackish-brown.

The perfect insect appears in February, March and April, flying very
actively in the hot afternoon sunshine. It is extremely abundant on the
coast hills in the neighbourhood of Wellington. It also occurs commonly at
Kekerangu, and is occasionally found on mountains as high as from 3,000 to
4,000 feet above the sea-level. I have observed that all the Wellington
specimens have the transverse lines on the fore-wings narrow and mostly
white; those from Mount Arthur broad and white, those from Kekerangu and
Lake Wakatipu broad and orange-yellow. The last-named forms approximate
most closely to some of the very yellow varieties of _Notoreas
paradelpha_.[40]


NOTOREAS STRATEGICA, Meyr.

(_Pasithea strategica_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 87. _Notoreas
strategica_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 15.)

A single specimen of this conspicuous species was taken in the South Island
at Lake Guyon, by Mr. W. T. L. Travers.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. _The fore-wings are dull
  yellowish-brown, becoming blackish-brown near the base; there are two
  broad white transverse lines near the base, the outermost slightly
  curved, then a dull orange shading, followed by a very broad, outwardly
  bent, white transverse band, edged with black towards the base_; between
  this band and the termen there is a fine wavy white transverse line. _The
  hind-wings are dull yellowish-brown near the base, becoming blackish
  towards the termen; there is a small cream-coloured area near the base,
  then two rather broad, slightly irregular, cream-coloured bands, and a
  rather fine wavy white line near the termen._ The cilia of all the wings
  are white, barred with blackish-brown.

The perfect insect appears in January.

Described and figured from the type specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


NOTOREAS CALLICRENA, Meyr.

(_Pasithea callicrena_ Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 87. _Notoreas
callicrena_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 16.)

A single specimen of this very handsome species was captured by Mr. Fereday
in the South Island, high on the mountains at the head of Lake Wakatipu.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. _The fore-wings are deep
  orange-brown, shaded with black near the base and in the vicinity of the
  three cream-coloured transverse bands; the first of these bands is
  situated near the base, the second at about one-third, and the third,
  which is rather wavy, at about two-thirds_; there is a fine wavy white
  line close to the termen. _The hind-wings are dark grey, with two broad
  cream-coloured bands, the first near the base and the second near the
  middle_; there is a slender wavy line near the termen. The cilia of all
  the wings are cream-coloured, barred with brownish-black.

The perfect insect appears in January, and evidently frequents high
mountains.

Described and figured from the type-specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


{74}NOTOREAS NIPHOCRENA, Meyr.

(_Pasithea niphocrena_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 88. _Notoreas
niphocrena_, ib. xviii. 184.)

This species was discovered by Mr. Meyrick in the South Island, at Arthur's
Pass, West Coast Road.

  "The expansion of the wings of the female is from 24 to 25 mm. (1 inch).
  Fore-wings moderate, termen rounded; rather dark fuscous, mixed and
  obscurely striated with orange; a curved white subdentate line before
  one-fourth, anteriorly blackish-margined; a similar white line beyond
  one-fourth, posteriorly blackish-margined; space between these sometimes
  suffused with orange; a slender irregularly dentate white fascia beyond
  middle, rather strongly angulated in middle, anteriorly
  blackish-margined, posteriorly closely followed by a dentate orange line;
  a dentate orange line near termen, dilated on costa. Hind-wings moderate,
  termen rounded; orange, lighter anteriorly; basal half dark fuscous mixed
  with orange, its outer edge irregularly curved; a dentate subterminal
  fascia and narrow terminal fascia dark fuscous, sometimes obscure.

"Possibly when the male is known this may prove to be a _Dasyuris_.

"I took two specimens on the mountain-side above Arthur's Pass at 4,500
feet, in January."--(Meyrick.)


NOTOREAS SIMPLEX, n. sp.

(Plate VIII., fig. 26.)

A single specimen of this species was captured on Mount Arthur in the South
Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-1/8 inches. _The fore-wings are
  bright ochreous; there are four broad black transverse bands near the
  base, edged with white, and separated from one another by yellow spaces
  of almost equal width_; the outermost of these bands is situated a little
  more than half-way between the base and termen; the last two lines become
  obsolete before they reach the costa; there are no other markings, except
  a black shading on the termen near the tornus, which is traversed by an
  obscure jagged paler line; the cilia are white barred with black. The
  hind-wings are bright orange-yellow, without markings; the cilia are
  ochreous.

The perfect insect appears in January.

The type-specimen was taken on the mountain-side, at an elevation of about
4,000 feet.


NOTOREAS FEROX, Butl.

  (_Fidonia ferox_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 392, pl. xlii. 8.
  _Pasithea ferox_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 88. _Notoreas ferox_,
  ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 17.)

Two specimens of this species were captured by Mr. J. D. Enys, at Castle
Hill in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings are dull
  brown, with numerous fine, wavy, dusky lines and a faint dot above the
  middle. The hind-wings are orange-yellow, dotted with black near the
  base; _there is a rather broad_ STRAIGHT _transverse black band near the
  middle, followed by a much finer wavy line; there are three fine, wavy
  lines parallel with the termen, and the termen itself is finely bordered
  with black._

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


NOTOREAS ZOPYRA, Meyr.

(_Pasithea zopyra_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 89. _Notoreas zopyra_,
ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., figs. 18 and 19, varieties.)

This bright-looking little species has occurred at Mount Arthur and at
Mount Hutt, in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about ¾ inch. The fore-wings are _dark
  bluish-grey_, with numerous slender, wavy, blackish transverse lines, and
  a distinct blackish dot above the middle. The hind-wings are _bright
  orange_, speckled with grey near the base and dorsum; there are from two
  to four very fine, wavy, broken, blackish, transverse lines, and the
  termen is narrowly bordered with black.

{75}The perfect insect appears in January, frequenting shingle flats on the
mountain sides, at about 4,000 feet above the sea-level. It flies rapidly
in the hottest sunshine, and, when it alights on the stones, is extremely
difficult to find. The brilliant hind-wings, which are very conspicuous
when the moth is flying, quite disqualify the eye from detecting the
extremely obscure object, which the insect instantly becomes when resting
with its fore-wings alone exposed. This method of increasing the value of
protective tints by means of bright colours temporarily displayed was very
clearly described, I believe for the first time, by Lord Walsingham in his
address to the Fellows of the Entomological Society of London, in January,
1891. It is certainly well exemplified by this and several other species of
the genus _Notoreas_, and it will be at once noticed by the collector, how
extremely difficult it is to follow these active little moths, as they fly
with short and rapid flight over the grey rocks and stones, with which
their fore-wings so completely harmonize; the momentary glimpse obtained of
the brilliant hind-wings so completely deceives the eye, that there is much
more difficulty in marking the spot where the insect alights, than would
have been the case if the brilliant colour had never been displayed.


NOTOREAS VULCANICA, Meyr.

(_Pasithea vulcanica_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 89. _Notoreas
vulcanica_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 24.)

This species has been taken in the North Island at Makotuku, and the Kaweka
Range, in the Hawkes Bay District.

  The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. The fore-wings are _very dark
  blackish-grey_; there is a rather narrow black transverse line near the
  base, another at about one-third; then a small black dot, followed by a
  wavy, rather broad, black band, and two cloudy wavy black transverse
  lines near the termen. The hind-wings are _very dark orange; there is a
  large black basal patch, then a broad black band joining the basal patch
  near the dorsum; beyond this is a fine black line, then another broad
  black line followed by a very fine wavy line of the orange ground colour;
  the termen is very broadly margined with black_.

The perfect insect appears from January to March. Mr. Meyrick states that
he found it resting on the roads near Makotuku.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


NOTOREAS BREPHOS, Walk.

  (_Fidonia brephosata_, Walk. 1037; Butl., Cat. pl. iii. 14. _Larentia
  catocalaria_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 62. _Fidonia brephos_, Feld. cxxix. 5.
  _Pasithea brephos_, Meyr., Trans.  N. Z. Inst. xvi. 89. _Notoreas
  brephos_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., figs. 20, 21, 22, and 23, varieties.)

This very pretty species is common, and generally distributed throughout
the country.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings are dark grey;
  there is a wavy black line near the base, two similar lines enclosing a
  very broad central area, with a black dot a little above the middle;
  beyond this there is a more or less distinct wavy band of pale grey or
  brown; there are several obscure wavy blackish lines near the termen. The
  hind-wings are bright orange, dotted with grey near the base and dorsum,
  with from two to four more or less distinct wavy black transverse lines,
  generally rather narrow; the termen is moderately broadly bordered with
  black.

This insect is extremely variable, and, so far as I can judge from an
extensive series, several of the varieties appear to indicate that both
_Notoreas zopyra_ and _N. vulcanica_ may ultimately have to be ranked as
varieties of _N. brephos_, but the evidence on this point is not yet
conclusive enough to render such a course at present desirable.

{76}The perfect insect appears from December to March. It is very active,
and is extremely fond of settling on roads or bare ground in the hot
sunshine, instantly darting away on the approach of an enemy. It is also
common on the mountains, and is often found at elevations of from 3,000 to
4,000 feet above the sea-level.


NOTOREAS OMICHLIAS, Meyr.

(_Pasithea omichlias_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 90. _Notoreas
omichlias_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 25.)

Two specimens of this dull-looking little species were captured at Castle
Hill, by Mr. J. D. Enys.

  The expansion of the wings is 7/8 inch. _All the wings are dark grey_;
  the fore-wings have several obscure blackish marks near the base, _a dull
  black spot on the costa at about one-third with a yellowish centre;
  beyond this there are four similar spots forming a transverse band_, and
  several more or less conspicuous wavy blackish lines near the termen. The
  hind-wings have several obscure wavy blackish transverse lines near the
  base and dorsum; the cilia are pale grey, obscurely barred with darker
  grey.

The perfect insect was taken "high up" on the mountains, probably at an
elevation of about 5,000 feet.

This species is probably often overlooked through being mistaken for
_Xanthorhoe cinerearia_.


Genus 15.--SAMANA, Walk.

  "Face loosely haired. Palpi long, straight, porrected, attenuated.
  Antennæ in male dentate, ciliated (1). Fore-wings with vein 6 rising
  below 9, 7 from below angle of areole, 10 anastomosing strongly with 9,
  11 anastomosing strongly with 10, 12 free. Hind-wings
  normal."--(Meyrick.)

Of this genus we have two species in New Zealand.


SAMANA FALCATELLA, Walk.

(_Samana falcatella_, Walk. xxvii. 197. _Panagra falcatella_, Meyr., Trans.
N. Z. Inst. xvi. 93. _Samana falcatella_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvii.
65.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 36.)

This unusual-looking species has occurred in the South Island, at Nelson
and at Dunedin.

  The expansion of the wings is 1¼ inches. The fore-wings are very pale
  ochreous, speckled with grey; _there is a very fine longitudinal black
  streak from a little beyond the base to considerably before the middle,
  slightly clouded above; an elongate dot above the middle; a very oblique
  slightly curved black streak from near the apex to the middle of the
  dorsum, edged with white towards the base, and clouded with brown towards
  the termen_; the apex of the wing is very acute. The hind-wings are
  white, with a black dot above the middle.

The perfect insect appears in February. It is apparently a rare species.


SAMANA ACUTATA, Butl.

(_Samana acutata_, Butl., P. Z. S. L. 1877, 401; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst.
xvii. 67.)

The type-specimen of this species exists in the collection of the British
Museum. According to Mr. Meyrick, who made a cursory examination of it, the
species differs from _S. falcatella_ in the following respects:--

  The first dark line runs from the dorsum near the base to below the costa
  before the middle; the lower extremity of the second line is connected
  with the tornus by an oblique streak.


{77}Family 2.--STERRHIDÆ.

  "Face smooth. Tongue developed. Palpi shortly rough-scaled. Fore-wings
  with vein 10 rising out of 9, 11 anastomosing or connected with 9.
  Hind-wings with vein 5 fully developed, rising from middle of transverse
  vein, parallel to 4, 8 very shortly anastomosing with upper margin of
  cell near base, thence rapidly diverging."--(Meyrick.) (See Plate II.,
  figs. 49 and 50.)

Although less numerous than the preceding, the family is pretty evenly
distributed throughout the world, but poorly represented in New Zealand. We
have only one genus, viz., LEPTOMERIS.


Genus 1.--LEPTOMERIS, Hb.

  "Antennæ in male ciliated with fascicles. Posterior tibia in male dilated
  without spurs, in female with all spurs present. Hind-wings with veins 6
  and 7 sometimes stalked (variable in the same species)."--(Meyrick.) (See
  Plate II., figs. 49 and 50.)

We have one species, which also occurs in Australia.


LEPTOMERIS RUBRARIA, Dbld.

  (_Ptychopoda_ (?) _rubraria_, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. ii. 286; Walk. 781.
  _Fidonia_ (?) _acidaliaria_, Walk. 1037. _Acidalia figlinaria_, Gn. ix.
  454, pl. xii. 8. _Acidalia rubraria_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 57.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 37 [M], 38 [F].)

This pretty little insect is very common, and generally distributed
throughout the country.

  The expansion of the wings is about 7/8 inch. _The fore-wings are
  reddish-ochreous with three dull brown wavy transverse lines_, the first
  rather narrow at about one-fourth, the second slightly broader at about
  one-half, the third much broader, and sometimes partially divided near
  the costa; there is a black central dot, a series of rather large dull
  brown spots near the termen, and a chain of minute black dots on the
  termen. _The hind-wings are pinkish-ochreous; there is a dull brown wavy
  transverse band near the base, then two close together a little beyond
  one-half, a shading on the termen, and a very distinct series of minute
  black terminal dots._ The cilia of all the wings are dull brown, mixed
  with reddish-ochreous.

There is often considerable variation in the intensity of the colouring of
this insect, some specimens being much darker than others, but the markings
are very constant, and the species is thus always easily recognizable.

The eggs are yellowish-white, and very large for the size of the moth.

The young larva is brownish-purple with a dull white line on each side. The
food-plant is unknown.

The perfect insect appears in January, February and March. In the late
summer and autumn it frequents dried-up, weedy pastures, where it is often
extremely abundant. Straggling specimens, which have probably hibernated
during the winter, may also be taken in the early spring.

Mr. Meyrick states that this species occurs very commonly in New South
Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, and that there is no difference between
Australian and New Zealand specimens.[41]


Family 3.--MONOCTENIADÆ.

  "Hind-wings with vein 5 fully developed, parallel to 4, rising from about
  or below middle of transverse vein, 8 free or anastomosing shortly near
  base or seldom from near base to beyond {78}middle (then without areole
  of fore-wings), approximated to upper margin of cell to middle or
  beyond." (See Plate II., figs. 44 and 45.)

  "Ovum subcylindrical, smooth. Larva more or less elongate, usually with
  few hairs, prolegs on segments 7, 8, and sometimes 9 rudimentary or
  absent. Pupa subterranean or in bark."--(Meyrick.)

According to Mr. Meyrick this is to be regarded as a decaying family. In
Australia it is still prominent, being represented there by nearly 100
known species.

We have two genera represented in this country--

1. DICHROMODES.    2. THEOXENA.


Genus 1.--DICHROMODES, Gn.

  "Face smooth. Palpi long, straight, porrected, roughly scaled above and
  beneath. Antennæ in male pectinated on inner side only. Fore-wings with
  vein 6 from a point with 9, 7 from angle of areole, 10 anastomosing
  moderately with 9, 11 separate, approximated to 10 in middle, 12 free.
  Hind-wings with veins 6 and 7 separate, 8 free, closely approximated to 7
  from base to near transverse vein."--(Meyrick.) (See Plate II., figs. 44
  and 45, neuration of _D. petrina_.)

There are three species belonging to this genus known in New Zealand.


DICHROMODES NIGRA, Butl.

(_Cacopsodos niger_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc., Lond. 1877, 395, pl. xliii.
4. _Dichromodes nigra_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 60.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 40.)

This little insect has been taken at Nelson.

  The expansion of the wings is 7/8 inch. _All the wings are dull black.
  The fore-wings have a darker central area, bordered by two jagged pale
  grey transverse lines_, the first at about one-third and the second at
  about two-thirds; there is also a faint line near the termen. The
  hind-wings have a very obscure dark central line.

The perfect insect appears in February. It occurs quite commonly on the
track to the Dun Mountain, near Nelson, frequenting openings in the birch
forest, where it may be captured at rest on bare ground in the hot
sunshine, at elevations of from 1,500 to 2,000 feet.


DICHROMODES GYPSOTIS, Meyr.

(_Cacopsodos niger_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 94 (nec Butl.).
_Dichromodes gypsotis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 60.)

This insect was discovered by Mr. Meyrick at Lake Wakatipu in the South
Island.

  The expansion of the wings of the female is 13 mm. (½ inch). "Fore-wings
  rather narrow, costa sinuate, termen sinuate; white, slightly mixed with
  grey; dorsum narrowly grey; a slender black fascia almost at base; a
  slender black fascia at one-third, dentate inwards above middle, dilated
  on costa; a slender black fascia beyond middle, sharply angulated in
  middle, dilated on costa, connected below middle with preceding fascia by
  a suffused bar; close beyond this a rather broad parallel grey fascia; an
  indistinct grey subterminal line. Hind-wings moderate; termen rounded
  dark grey."--(Meyrick.)

Taken in December, at an elevation of about 1,500 feet above the sea-level.


DICHROMODES PETRINA, Meyr.

(_Dichromodes petrina_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxiv. 216.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 39.)

This dull-looking little insect has occurred at Paikakariki and Wellington
in the North Island, and at Kekerangu in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is ¾ inch. _The fore-wings are dull
  greenish-grey; there is a {79}black, wavy, somewhat broken transverse
  line at about one-third, and another at about two-thirds, enclosing a
  slightly darker central band, with a black dot above middle_; there is
  also a darker shading on the termen, and an obscure wavy paler line. _The
  hind-wings are grey_, with an obscure wavy central line.

The perfect insect appears in January, February and March. It frequents
dry, open, sunny situations, generally alighting on paths or roads. It is
also attracted by light.


Genus 2.--THEOXENA, Meyr.

  "Palpi moderate, triangularly scaled, porrected. Antennæ in male
  bi-ciliated with long tufts of cilia (5). Fore-wings with vein 6 from
  below 9, 7 from angle of areole, 10 out of 9 above 7, 11 anastomosing
  shortly with 9, 12 free, closely approximated to 11 on areole. Hind-wings
  with veins 6 and 7 from a point or short-stalked, 8 free, closely
  approximated to 7 from base to near transverse vein."--(Meyrick.)

We have one species.


THEOXENA SCISSARIA, Gn.

(_Panagra scissaria_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 43. _Theoxena scissaria_, Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 56.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 41.)

This delicate-looking species has occurred at Christchurch.

  The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. _All the wings are white. The
  fore-wings have a longitudinal, slightly curved black line, extending
  from a little beyond the base, almost as far as the termen below the
  apex_; above this line there is a black dot at about one-third; the apex
  of the fore-wing is slightly hooked, and there is a row of minute black
  dots on the termen of both fore- and hind-wings.

The perfect insect appears in January. According to Mr. Fereday it
frequents the plains near Christchurch, and towards the foot of Mount Hutt.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


Family 4.--ORTHOSTIXIDÆ.

  "Hind-wings with vein 5 fully developed, rising from about middle of
  transverse vein, 8 connected with upper margin of cell by an oblique bar
  towards base."--(Meyrick.) (See Plate II., figs. 46 and 47.)

This small family is represented in New Zealand by a single genus only. The
peculiar oblique bar connecting vein 8 with the cell towards base, combined
with the development of vein 5, distinguish it from all other families. If
there is any chance of confusion with those forms of _Hydriomenidæ_ in
which vein 8 is also connected by a bar (though in them the bar is placed
beyond and not before the middle of cell), the absence of the
characteristic areole of the _Hydriomenidæ_ will be a further test.


Genus 1.--EPIRRANTHIS, Hb.

  "Face with appressed scales. Tongue developed. Palpi very short or
  moderate, porrected or subascending, rough-scaled. Antennæ in male evenly
  ciliated. Thorax rather hairy beneath. Femora glabrous; posterior tibiæ
  with all spurs present. Fore-wings with vein 10 anastomosing with 9, 11
  anastomosing with 12 and 10 before 9. Hind-wings with 6 and 7
  separate."--(Meyrick.) (Plate II., figs. 46 and 47, neuration of
  _Epirranthis alectoraria_; fig. 48, head of ditto.)

Represented in New Zealand by two species.


{80}EPIRRANTHIS ALECTORARIA, Walk.

  (_Lyrcea alectoraria_, Walk. 259; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 95.
  _Aspilates_ (?) _primata_, Walk. 1076; Butl., Cat. pl. iii. 4. _Endropia
  mixtaria_, Walk. 1506; Butl., Cat. pl. iii. 5. _Amilapis_ (?)
  _acroiaria_, Feld. cxxiii. 6. _Lyrcea varians_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii.
  496. _Ploseria alectoraria_, Hdsn., Manual N. Z. Ent. 86.)

(Plate VIII., figs. 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, and 47, varieties; Plate III., fig.
24, larva.)

This species has occurred in tolerable abundance at many localities in both
the North and the South Islands. It is probably generally distributed
throughout the country.

  The expansion of the wings is from 1 inch to 1½ inches. The wings range
  in colour from pale yellow to dark orange-brown, dark reddish-brown, or
  even dull brown, with innumerable intermediate tints. There is often a
  central transverse line reaching from the costa of the fore-wing to the
  dorsum of the hind-wing. Many of the varieties are speckled with darker
  colour; others have irregular yellow patches, generally situated on the
  fore-wings just below the apex and on the dorsum near the base; there are
  often two white dots near the apex of the fore-wings.

Most of the varieties closely resemble the varied hues of fading leaves. In
many of the forms greyish speckled marks occur on various parts of the
wings, no doubt imitating the irregular patches of mould which are often
present on dead leaves. One very well-marked variety is bright yellow, with
the costa rosy and two large white-centred rosy spots arranged transversely
on each wing. (See Plate VIII., fig. 47.) All the specimens of this insect
are so extremely variable that it is almost impossible to adequately
describe the species. The apex of the fore-wing is always very acute; the
termen is bowed just below the apex, and is furnished with slight
indentations of variable depth. The termen of the hind-wing is also
furnished with variable indentations.

  The egg is oval and much flattened above. When first laid it is pale
  green in colour, but becomes dull olive-green as the embryo develops.

  The young larva is _very pale green_, with the head brownish-yellow. At
  this early stage its colouring already completely harmonises with that of
  the under side of the leaves of its food-plants, _Pittosporum
  eugenioides_ and _P. tenuifolium_.

  The full-grown larva is very robust, and about 1 inch in length. Its
  colour is pale green, with numerous yellow dots and a series of diagonal
  yellow stripes on each segment; there is, in addition, a series of broad
  crimson blotches on the back and a small crimson flap projecting from the
  end of the terminal segment; the prolegs and spiracles are also crimson.

The remarkable shape and colouring of this caterpillar, in conjunction with
the peculiar attitude assumed when at rest, affords it complete protection,
causing it to resemble, in the closest possible manner, one of the buds of
its food-plant. These larvæ grow very slowly, and probably occupy three or
four months in attaining their full size. They are very sluggish in their
habits. The pupa is greenish-brown in colour. It is enclosed in a cocoon,
constructed of two or three leaves of the food-plant, fastened together
with silk. The insect remains in this condition for three weeks or a month.
The moth first appears about the end of October, and is met with until the
middle of March. It frequents forest, where it is occasionally dislodged
from amongst the undergrowth. It is also found in the evening on the
flowers of the white rata. It is, however, rather uncertain in its
appearance, being much commoner in some years than in others.


EPIRRANTHIS HEMIPTERARIA, Gn.

  (_Hemerophila hemipteraria_, Gn. ix. 220, pl. vi. 2. _Xyridacina
  hemipteraria_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 60. _Ploseria hemipteraria_,
  Hdsn., Manual N. Z. Ent. 85.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 48 [M], 49 [F]; Plate III., fig. 19, larva.)

This remarkable-looking species has occurred in the North Island, at
Auckland and Wellington. At present it has not been observed in the South
Island.

  {81}The expansion of the wings is from 1-3/8 to 1-5/8 inches. All the
  wings are pale ochreous-brown, with a variable number of minute black
  dots; there are four or five oblique, wavy brown transverse lines on both
  fore- and hind-wings, the central and terminal lines being often slightly
  darker than the others; there is always a black dot in the middle of the
  fore-wing, and a shaded spot near the termen below the apex. The apex of
  _the hind-wing is very pointed and projects downwards; the almost
  straight termen has a series of prominent projections_.

This species varies much in the intensity of the markings, and in the
number of the black dots on both the fore- and hind-wings. The peculiar
outline of its hind-wings, however, distinguishes it from any other species
with which I am acquainted.

The larva feeds on veronicas in September and October.

  Its length when full grown is about 1 inch. Some larvæ are green, with a
  broad bluish dorsal line, and two fine yellow lateral lines. Others are
  brown, with a dull yellow dorsal line.

During the daytime these caterpillars firmly clasp the stem of their
food-plant with their prolegs, and hold the rest of their body rigidly out
from the branch. In this position they are very inconspicuous, and may
readily be mistaken for young leaves or twigs. At night they become much
more active, and may then be seen walking about and feeding.

The pupa is rather robust, with a sharp spine at its extremity. Its colour
is pale olive-brown, with the wing-cases and sides of the abdomen pinkish.
It is not enclosed in any cocoon, but is merely concealed amongst the dead
leaves and rubbish around the stem of the veronica. The insect remains in
this state for less than a month, so that the protection of a cocoon would
appear to be unnecessary.

The moth appears in December and January. It usually frequents gardens and
other cultivated places, probably on account of the number of veronicas
that are often growing in such situations. It is also attracted by blossoms
and by light, but is not a common species. The colouring and wing-outline
of this moth cause it to very closely resemble a dead leaf, especially when
resting amongst foliage or on the ground. This insect may be occasionally
noticed abroad on mild evenings in the middle of winter; the females
probably hibernate and deposit their eggs early in the spring.


Family 5.--SELIDOSEMIDÆ.

  "Hind-wings with vein 5 imperfect (not tubular) or obsolete, 6 and 7
  usually separate, 8 usually obsoletely connected with upper margin of
  cell near base, approximated to near middle." (See Plate II., figs. 51 to
  64.)

"A very large family, equally common throughout all regions. It varies
considerably in superficial appearance, and is also remarkable for the
variability of structure of veins 10 and 11 of the fore-wings in many (not
all) species. Imago with body slender to rather stout; fore-wings broad to
rather elongate, triangular; posterior tibiæ of male often enlarged and
enclosing an expansible tuft of hairs. The structure termed the fovea is a
circular impression on the lower surface of the fore-wings above the dorsum
near the base, usually placed about the origin of the basal fork of 1_b_;
it is generally confined to the male, and is often sub-hyaline, sometimes
surmounted by a small thickened gland; it may possibly be a scent-producing
organ. It is strictly confined to that branch of which _Selidosema_ is the
type, but is not invariably present there.

  "Ovum subcylindrical or elongate-ovate, more or less reticulated,
  sometimes ribbed. Larva elongate, more or less slender, with few hairs,
  without developed prolegs on segments 7, 8, and usually 9; often
  remarkably like a twig of its food-plant. Pupa subterranean, or in a
  slight cocoon above ground."--(Meyrick.)

{82}Of this extensive family we have nine genera represented in New
Zealand:

  1. SELIDOSEMA.
  2. HYBERNIA.
  3. CHALASTRA.
  4. SESTRA.
  5. GONOPHYLLA.
  6. DREPANODES.
  7. AZELINA.
  8. IPANA.
  9. DECLANA.

Genus 1.--SELIDOSEMA, Hb.

  "Face with appressed or shortly projecting scales. Tongue developed.
  Antennæ in male bipectinated, towards apex simple. Palpi rough-scaled.
  Thorax sometimes crested posteriorly, hairy beneath. Femora nearly
  glabrous; posterior tibiæ in male dilated. Fore-wings in male with fovea;
  vein 10 sometimes connected with 9, 11 sometimes out of 10 near base
  only, or if separate, sometimes anastomosing with 12."--(Meyrick.) (Plate
  II., figs. 59 and 60, neuration of _Selidosema dejectaria_.)

This genus is universally distributed and of considerable extent. We have
nine species in New Zealand.


SELIDOSEMA FENERATA, Feld.

(_Rhyparia fenerata_, Feld. cxxxi. 7. _Zylobara fenerata_, Butl., Cist.
Ent. ii. 498. Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 97.)

(Plate VIII., fig. 50 [M], 51 [F].)

This species is common, and generally distributed throughout the country.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. The fore-wings of the male
  are _very pale_ ochreous-brown; there is a double jagged transverse line
  near the base, a single jagged line a little before the middle, and a
  double one a little beyond the middle; an almost continuous jagged line
  near the termen. The hind-wings are very pale ochreous, almost white;
  _their outline is peculiar; the dorsum is very short, the termen very
  long, first oblique and then rounded with a small projection midway
  between the apex and the tornus_. The female has the fore-wings pale
  grey, and the hind-wings dull white; the markings resemble those of the
  male, but the outline of the hind-wing is of the usual form.

This insect varies slightly in the depth of its colouring. It may be
distinguished from the allied species by the peculiar outline of the
hind-wings in the male, and by the pale grey colouring of the female.

The perfect insect appears from October till March and is very common. It
has a great liking for the faded fronds of tree-ferns, from which specimens
may often be dislodged. Both sexes are very abundant at various blossoms
during the evening, and are also attracted by light. The female is
sometimes observed in the winter months, and probably hibernates.


SELIDOSEMA RUDIATA, Walk.

(_Cidaria rudiata_, Walk. 1420. _Boarmia astrapia_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z.
Inst. xxii. 218. _Boarmia rudiata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxiii. 101.)

(Plate IX., fig. 1 [M], 2 [F].)

This species is fairly common in the neighbourhood of Wellington, and has
occurred at Dunedin, and at Stewart Island. It is probably generally
distributed throughout the country.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1½ inches, of the female 1-5/8
  inches. The fore-wings are _very pale ochreous-brown_; there are two
  interrupted jagged transverse lines near the base; a single very
  indistinct line in the middle; a double, nearly continuous jagged
  transverse line beyond the middle; a double jagged line near the termen
  completely interrupted in the middle; there is generally a dark patch on
  the termen just below the apex of the wing. The hind-wings are very pale
  ochreous. There is a series of black dots on the termen of both
  fore-wings and hind-wings, and the termen of the hind-wing is slightly
  indented.

This species varies a good deal in size; the specimens from Stewart Island
are {83}considerably larger and have more distinct markings, than those
found in the vicinity of Wellington.

The larva is cylindrical, of even thickness throughout, and almost uniform
dull greyish-brown in colour, occasionally with a series of small oblong
black marks on segments 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. It feeds on the young leaves and
buds of the ake ake (_Olearia traversii_). It is extremely difficult to
find as it almost exactly resembles a twig of its food-plant. It is full
grown about April.

The pupa is concealed in the earth.

The perfect insect appears from October till March. It seems to prefer
cultivated districts, and is generally observed at rest on garden fences or
tree-trunks. It also frequents flowers in the evening.


SELIDOSEMA SUAVIS, Butl.

  (_Pseudocoremia suavis_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 497. _Pachycnemia
  usitata_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 501. _Pseudocoremia lupinata_, Meyr.,
  Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 98. _Boarmia suavis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst.
  xxiii. 101.)

(Plate IX., fig. 3 [M], 4 [F].)

This species is very common and generally distributed throughout the
country, and has occurred as far south as Stewart Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1¼ inches. The fore-wings of the male are
  _dull yellowish-brown, speckled with black_; there are two curved
  transverse lines near the base; a very obscure line near the middle,
  darker on the costa; two doubly curved lines beyond the middle, slightly
  darker on the dorsum; and two very faint jagged lines near the termen.
  The hind-wings are pale ochreous, tinged with brown near the termen. The
  female has narrower wings, shorter body, and is usually duller in colour
  than the male.

This insect is rather variable, some specimens of both sexes being much
darker than others; but all the forms may usually be recognised by their
dull speckled colouring and absence of conspicuous markings.

The larva feeds on the white rata (_M. scandens_) and the tawa
(_Beilschmiedia tawa_).

  Its length when full grown is about 1-1/8 inches. The upper surface is
  dark reddish-brown with numerous blackish stripes and white markings,
  which give it a very variegated appearance; the under side is pale green;
  there are two small tubercles on the back of the eighth segment.

The pupa is concealed amongst refuse on the ground, the larva constructing
no cocoon before changing.

The perfect insect appears from October till April, and may often be
observed on mild days in the middle of winter. It is common in forest
districts, where it is usually seen resting on the tree-trunks, in which
situation its colouring must afford it efficient protection from many
enemies.


SELIDOSEMA HUMILLIMA, n. sp.

(Plate IX., fig. 5.)

This inconspicuous-looking insect has occurred at Wellington.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is about 1-1/8 inches. _The
  fore-wings are dull yellowish-brown; there are three short oblique dark
  brown stripes on the costa, inclined very much towards the termen_; the
  first of these stripes is distinctly double, and the second and third
  partially so; there is an indistinct brown mark just below the apex,
  several slender faint streaks on the veins near the middle of the wing,
  and a very distinct brown shading on the dorsum. The hind-wings are very
  pale ochreous.

This species may be readily distinguished from the other species of the
genus by its small size and by the obliquity of the costal stripes. In _S.
humillima_ the costal markings slope very rapidly from the base towards the
termen; in the {84}other allied species these markings are but slightly
inclined, and in some cases slope in the reverse direction.

The perfect insect appears from December till March. It frequents the
immediate neighbourhood of Wellington, but is not a common species. At
present I am only acquainted with the male insect.


SELIDOSEMA PRODUCTATA, Walk.

  (_Larentia productata_, Walk. 1197 (?). _Selidosema pungata_, Feld.
  cxxxi. 23. _Selidosema_ (?) _fragosata_, Feld. cxxxi. 29. _Zylobara
  productata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 98.)

(Plate IX., figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 [M] varieties, 11, 12, 13, and 14 [F]
ditto; Plate III., fig. 22, larva.)

This species is very common, and generally distributed throughout both the
North and South Islands. It has also occurred at Stewart Island.

The expansion of the wings of the male is 1-3/8 inches, of the female 1-1/8
inches.

  The fore-wings vary from pale yellowish-brown to rich chocolate-brown;
  there are two curved transverse lines near the base, generally enclosing
  a paler stripe between them; next a broad dark central area; then a wavy
  paler transverse line, usually followed by a very much paler irregular
  band, generally formed by two partially disconnected patches, one on the
  costa and one on the dorsum; there is a jagged, whitish, transverse line
  near the termen, _always broken in the middle_, and often shaded with
  black towards the base of the wing. The hind-wings are ochreous, speckled
  with brown towards the dorsum; there is usually a brown central dot.

This is an extremely variable insect. In some specimens there are very
extensive white patches on the wings, whilst in others the colouring is
almost uniform rich brown, and the characteristic markings can only be
detected with difficulty. It may, however, be distinguished from the allied
species by the _interrupted pale jagged transverse line near the termen and
by the absence of greenish colouring_.

  The eggs are oval with the surface honeycombed; they are pale green in
  colour.

  The young larva, when first hatched, is much attenuated, light
  reddish-brown with a broad pale lateral stripe, and a few bristles. The
  full-grown larva measures about 1½ inches in length; it is rather slender
  and has a large hump on the sixth segment. Its colour is dark
  reddish-brown, mottled and striped with dull white and greenish.

It feeds on the white rata (_Metrosideros scandens_). During the day it
firmly grasps a stem of its food-plant with its prolegs, holding the rest
of its body out from the branch in a perfectly straight and rigid position.
When in this attitude it so exactly resembles a twig, that, even in the
case of captive specimens, it is often a matter of the greatest difficulty
to find a caterpillar amongst the branches. Several times I have even
caught hold of a larva, thinking it to be a twig, so perfect is the
resemblance. At night these larvæ become much more active, and by the aid
of a lantern they may then be seen busily walking about and feeding.

The pupa is enclosed in a slight cocoon about two inches below the surface
of the earth. The larvæ of the autumnal brood remain in this condition
during the winter, but in the case of the spring and summer broods the pupa
state only occupies a few weeks.

The moth appears from November till May. It is very common in forest
regions, and may be observed resting on the trunks of the trees, its pale
yellow hind-wings being completely concealed by the mottled brown
fore-wings. In this position the insect is almost invisible, and the
protection afforded by its colouring is at once apparent. In the autumn
evenings it is often very abundant at the blossoms of the white rata.


{85}SELIDOSEMA ARISTARCHA, Meyr.

(_Selidosema aristarcha_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxiv. 216.)

(Plate IX., fig. 17 [M], 18 [F]; Plate III., fig. 17, larva.)

Of this fine species only about a dozen specimens have hitherto been
captured, all of which have occurred in the immediate vicinity of
Wellington. It is consequently at present a rarity, but future collectors
will probably find the insect in many other parts of the country.

  The expansion of the wings varies from 1¼ to 1½ inches. The fore-wings
  are light ochreous-brown; there is a small white-edged brown spot near
  the base; two oblique curved brown transverse lines enclosing between
  them a white space towards the dorsum; a short stripe on the costa, near
  the middle, edged with white towards the base of the wing; a doubly
  curved transverse line beyond the middle, finely edged with white towards
  the base of the wing; there is also a short white-edged brown stripe
  extending from the apex of the wing to the last-named transverse line,
  the two lines enclosing between them a small pale triangular area; there
  are five short longitudinal brown lines running from the termen to the
  outermost of the transverse lines, two of them being tipped with white
  towards the base of the wing. The hind-wings are dull ochreous-brown,
  with two very faint brown transverse lines towards the dorsum, and
  several whitish spots and one brown spot near the tornus. The female is a
  little darker in colour than the male.

This insect varies slightly in size.

The larva feeds on _Cyathea dealbata_ (tree-fern) in September. Its colour
is dull reddish-brown with an irregular brownish-black blotch on the side
of each segment, and a dark brown dorsal line. It is very sluggish in its
habits.

The pupa is concealed amongst moss, &c., on the surface of the ground, the
insect remaining in this state for about six weeks.

The moth appears from September till March, and frequents dense forests. It
has been dislodged from its food-plant in the daytime, and has also been
taken on the flowers of the white rata in the evening.


SELIDOSEMA MELINATA, Feld.

  (_Numeria melinata_, Feld. cxxix. 9. _Pseudocoremia indistincta_, Butl.,
  Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 394, pl. xliii. 8. _Pseudocoremia melinata_,
  Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 99.)

(Plate IX., fig. 15 [M], 16 [F].)

This species is very common, and generally distributed throughout the
country.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1¼ inches, of the female 1½
  inches. The fore-wings are _dull greenish-grey_, with black markings;
  there is a transverse line near the base; another near the middle,
  followed by two broken irregular lines, then a broader, paler area
  sometimes white, followed by a series of jagged pale markings shaded with
  black. The hind-wings are ochreous mottled with pale brown near the
  dorsum; there is a series of black dots on the termen of both fore- and
  hind-wings.

This species is extremely variable, but may always be recognised by its
greenish tinge, and the absence of indentations on the termen of both fore-
and hind-wings.

The larva, according to Mr. Purdie, is about ¾ inch long; dull green with
darker longitudinal striations. It may be beaten from New Zealand broom
(_Carmichælia_) in February. There must be some other commoner food-plant,
as the moth is found in many localities where the New Zealand broom does
not occur.

The perfect insect appears from November till March, and is generally very
abundant in all wooded districts. It is also common in birch forests on the
mountain sides, where it may be taken at altitudes of from 3,000 to 4,000
feet above the sea-level. {86}In the lowlands I have observed as many as
half a dozen specimens on a single tree-trunk. Whilst resting in this
situation they are very inconspicuous, the colouring of the fore-wings
harmonizing perfectly with the insect's surroundings, and the pale-coloured
hind-wings being then entirely concealed by the upper pair. In connection
with this fact it is very interesting to notice that in all those cases
where the hind-wings are exposed to view during repose, they are
protectively coloured in a similar manner to the fore-wings. It will be
observed that the two following species of _Selidosema_ exhibit protective
colouring on both pairs of wings, these being invariably exposed when the
insects are at rest.


SELIDOSEMA DEJECTARIA.

  (_Boarmia dejectaria_, Walk. 394. _Boarmia attracta_, Walk. 394. _Boarmia
  exprompta_, Walk. 395. _Tephrosia patularia_, Walk. 422; Butl., Cat., pl.
  iii. 8. _Tephrosia scriptaria_, Walk. 422. _Scotosia erebinata_, Walk.
  1358. _Scotosia stigmaticata_, Walk. 1359. _Scotosia lignosata_, Walk.
  1361. _Gnophos pannularia_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 42. _Scotopteryx maoriata_,
  Feld. cxxvi. 4. _Hemerophila_ (?) _sulpitiata_, Feld. cxxvi. 7.
  _Hemerophila caprimulgata_, Feld. cxxvi. 12. _Boarmia dejectaria_, Meyr.,
  Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 100.)

(Plate IX., figs. 19, 20, 21 and 22 [M] varieties, 23 and 24 [F] ditto;
Plate III., fig. 12, larva.)

This large insect is very common, and generally distributed throughout the
country.

  The expansion of the wings is from 1½ to 2 inches. The fore-wings vary
  from pale ochreous to very dark rich brown; there is an oblique
  transverse line near the base, often enclosing a darker basal area; a
  small dark brown spot in the middle of the wing surrounded by a ring; a
  very oblique, wavy, transverse line beyond the middle, often double
  towards the dorsum, and several irregular markings on the termen; there
  is often a white spot on the middle of the termen, and a pale blotch on
  the apex of the wing. The hind-wings resemble the fore-wings in colour;
  there are two obscure transverse lines near the base; generally forming a
  dark basal area; a wavy line near the middle, and a strongly shaded line
  near the termen. The termen of both the wings is indented, the depth of
  the indentations varying greatly in different specimens.

This insect is very variable, but its large size and _oblique transverse
lines_ suffice to distinguish it from any of the other allied species.

The larva feeds on a great variety of plants, mahoe (_Melicytus
ramiflorus_), white rata (_Metrosideros scandens_), _Solanum aviculare_,
fuchsia (_Fuchsia excorticata_), and _Pennantia corymbosa_ being amongst
the number. The caterpillar may often be recognised by a large hump, which
is situated on each side of the third segment. Its colouring appears to be
so entirely influenced by its surroundings that a description is
impossible. For instance, larvæ taken from the pale green foliage of the
mahoe resemble in colour the twigs of that plant; others captured feeding
on the white rata are dark reddish-brown, those from _Solanum aviculare_
are purplish slate-colour, whilst those from the fuchsia are pale
olive-green tinged with brown, like the sprouting twigs.

The pupa is enclosed in a slight cocoon situated about two inches below the
surface of the ground. Those larvæ which become full grown in the autumn
remain as pupæ during the winter, but the summer broods only remain in the
pupa state a few weeks.

The perfect insect appears from November till March. It has a great
partiality for resting with outspread wings on the walls of sheds and
outhouses, where it is frequently noticed by the most casual observer. It
is very common in most situations, and may be taken in large numbers at
sugar, light, or blossoms, during the whole of the summer. Its extreme
abundance and great variability, in both the larval and imago states, would
render it a good subject for a series of experiments, resembling those
conducted by Messrs. Poulton and Merrifield on several allied European
species.


{87}SELIDOSEMA PANAGRATA, Walk.

  (_Scotosia panagrata_, Walk. 1360. _Angerona menanaria_, Walk. 1500.
  _Epirrhanthis_ (?) _antipodaria_, Feld. cxxvi. 3. _Hyperythra desiccata_,
  Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 495. _Hyperythra arenacea_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii.
  495. _Barsine panagrata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 100.)

(Plate IX., figs. 25, 26, 27, and 28 [M] varieties, 29 and 30 [F] ditto.)

This species is very common, and generally distributed throughout the
country. It has occurred as far south as Stewart Island.

  The expansion of the wings is from 1½ to 1¾ inches. The fore-wings of the
  male vary from pale yellowish-white to rich brown or dark brownish-black;
  there is a jagged transverse line near the base; a large black or white
  spot in the middle of the wing; a doubly curved transverse line beyond
  the middle, then a very jagged transverse line, followed by several paler
  markings, and an obscure line parallel with the termen. The hind-wings
  are paler in colour; there is a slightly curved transverse line near the
  base; a jagged line near the middle, and a very faint line beyond the
  middle. The termen of both fore- and hind-wings is slightly indented. The
  female varies from pale ochreous to dark slate-colour; the markings
  resemble those of the male, but the termen of the wings is more indented.

This species is so extremely variable that a more detailed description
would be useless; its numerous forms may, however, be at once recognised by
the _unbroken jagged transverse lines of both fore- and hind-wings_.

The larva is quite as variable as the perfect insect. When very young it is
bright green, with a conspicuous white dorsal line; as age advances the
caterpillar becomes dark olive-brown, sometimes striped with paler brown or
green, whilst many specimens retain the green colouring throughout the
whole of their lives. The favourite food-plant is the kawa-kawa (_Piper
excelsum_), which the larvæ voraciously devour, thus causing the riddled
appearance which the leaves of that plant almost invariably present. These
larvæ often select a forked twig to rest in, where they lie curled round,
with the head and tail close together. Other food-plants are _Aristotelia
racemosa_ and _Myrtus bullata_. Those caterpillars found on the latter
plant are strongly tinged with pink, and are consequently very
inconspicuous amongst the young shoots, where they generally feed. The
burrows of the larvæ of _Hepialus virescens_ are frequently utilised by the
caterpillars, which feed on the _Aristotelia_, as convenient retreats
during the winter. When full-grown these caterpillars descend to the ground
and construct loose cocoons of silk and earth on the under sides of fallen
leaves. The moth usually emerges in about a month's time, but the autumnal
larvæ either hibernate or remain in the pupa state throughout the winter.

The perfect insect appears from October till April. It frequents forest and
is extremely common. It also occurs in great abundance on the white rata
blossoms in the autumn, and specimens may be occasionally seen even in the
depth of winter.


Genus 2.--HYBERNIA, Latr.

  "Face with appressed scales or short rough scales. Tongue developed or
  weak. Antennæ in male bi-pectinated, pectinations sometimes short and
  terminating in fascicles of cilia, apex simple. Palpi shortly
  rough-scaled. Thorax with small triangular anterior crest, hairy beneath.
  Femora glabrous; posterior tibiæ in male not dilated. Fore-wings in male
  without fovea; vein 10 sometimes out of 9, sometimes anastomosing or
  connected with 9, 11 sometimes out of 10, usually anastomosing with or
  running into 12, rarely absent. Female semiapterous or
  apterous."--(Meyrick.)

We have one species.


{88}HYBERNIA INDOCILIS, Walk.

(_Zermizinga indocilisaria_, Walk. 1530. _Hybernia boreophilaria_, Gn., E.
M. M. v. 61. _Hybernia indocilis_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 97.)

(Plate IX., fig. 31 [M], 32 [F].)

This species has occurred plentifully in the neighbourhood of Christchurch.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1¼ inches, of the female ½
  inch. _All the wings are pale grey, speckled with darker grey. The
  fore-wings have four obscure wavy transverse lines_; the first near the
  base, the second and third near the middle, rather close together, and
  the fourth near the termen, much interrupted; there is a series of black
  dots on the termen. The hind-wings have two very faint transverse lines,
  and a series of black terminal dots; the termen of the hind-wings is
  slightly scalloped. The cilia of all the wings are grey. _The female has
  the wings extremely small and quite useless for flight_; in colour and
  markings they resemble those of the male, except that the transverse
  lines are black and sharply defined.

The perfect insect appears from July to January. Mr. R. W. Fereday states
that the male is found plentifully at rest on the bare ground, amongst
_Leptospermum_, and the female on the stems.

Described and figured from specimens kindly given to me by Mr. Fereday.


Genus 3.--CHALASTRA, Walk.

  "Face with a slight cone of scales. Palpi rather long, porrected, roughly
  scaled. Antennæ in male bi-pectinated. Fore-wings with vein 6 from below
  9, 7 from below angle of areole, 10 very shortly touching 9, 11 free, 12
  very shortly touching 11. Hind-wings normal."--(Meyrick.) (Plate II.,
  figs. 51 and 52.)

This genus is represented by one species only.

I have made a very careful examination of several denuded specimens of
_Chalastra pelurgata_, and I find that in the fore-wings veins 9, 10, and
11 rise almost from a point. Vein 10 afterwards approaches closely to 9,
but does not actually touch it, and consequently does not form a true
areole. Vein 12 also appears to me to be free.


CHALASTRA PELURGATA, Walk.

(_Chalastra pelurgata_, Walk. 1430. _Itama cinerascens_, Feld. cxxxi. 1.
_Stratocleis streptophora_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 106.)

(Plate IX., figs. 33 and 34 [M] varieties, 35 and 36 [F] ditto; Plate III.,
fig. 21, larva.)

This species is very abundant in the neighbourhood of Wellington. It has
also occurred at Palmerston North, and is probably common throughout the
whole of the North Island. In the South Island it has been taken in the
Otira Gorge, and at Dunedin, Otara and Invercargill.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-3/8 inches. _The fore-wings of the
  male vary from pale orange-brown to dull yellowish-brown_; there is a
  doubly curved dark brown transverse line near the base; _a broad straight
  line a little before the middle; a very strongly curved line a little
  beyond the middle, and a less strongly curved line near the termen, often
  composed of a series of triangular white dots edged with dark brown_; all
  these lines are much stronger on the costa, and are sometimes almost
  obliterated elsewhere. The hind-wings are pale yellow, with several
  brown-edged white spots at the tornus, and an indistinct line parallel to
  the termen. The apex of the fore-wing is considerably produced, and there
  is a large rounded projection on the termen. The hind-wings have several
  small projections on the termen. In the female the fore-wings are pale
  yellow or orange, the transverse lines and white spots are usually more
  conspicuous, and the projections on the termen of the fore- and
  hind-wings larger.

This is a very variable insect, especially in the male, some specimens of
which sex are very much clouded and dappled with dark brown both on the
fore- and hind-wings. {89}Many of these darker forms might readily be taken
for distinct species, when compared with the pale orange-brown variety, but
a good series of specimens presents numerous intermediate forms which
completely connect these extreme varieties. The females also vary, but are
never as dark as the males.

The larva feeds on _Todea hymenophylloides_, a fern which grows in shady
places in the depths of the forest. The length of the caterpillar when full
grown is about 1¼ inches. It is very variable; some specimens are dull
brown, with a row of green or pale brown lunate spots down each side, and a
dark brown line down the back. Others are bright green, with a diagonal
reddish-brown stripe on the side of each segment; the segmental divisions
are reddish-brown, intersected by numerous very minute whitish lines.

The pupa is enclosed in a loose cocoon on the surface of the ground.

The perfect insect appears from November till March, and is very common in
forest regions. It may often be dislodged from the dead fronds surrounding
the stems of tree-ferns, and is also met with in great abundance towards
the end of summer on the blossoms of the white rata.


Genus 4.--SESTRA, Walk.

  "Face smooth. Palpi short, rough-haired beneath, porrected. Antennæ in
  male stout, serrate, shortly ciliated. Fore-wings with vein 6 from below
  9, 7 from below angle of areole, 10 rising out of 9 above origin,
  anastomosing again shortly with 9, 11 anastomosing shortly with 10, 12
  anastomosing shortly with 11. Hind-wings normal."--(Meyrick.) (Plate II.,
  fig. 53, neuration of fore-wing of _Sestra humeraria_.)

We have two species in New Zealand.

It will be seen that my figure of the neuration of _Sestra humeraria_ does
not precisely agree with Mr. Meyrick's description. The differences in the
results arrived at are probably due to the variability in structure of
veins 10, 11 (and 12), mentioned when dealing with the characters of the
entire family. Similar slight discrepancies also occur in connection with
the three following genera.


SESTRA HUMERARIA, Walk.

  (_Macaria humeraria_, Walk. 940. _Lozogramma obtusaria_, ib. 985.
  _Cidaria obtruncata_, ib. 1421. _Sestra fusiplagiata_, ib. 1751.
  _Amastris encausta_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 105. _Sestra
  humeraria_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate X., figs. 1 and 2 varieties; Plate III., fig. 20, larva.)

This species is very common, and generally distributed throughout both the
North and the South Islands; it also occurs plentifully at Stewart Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1-3/8 inches. _The fore-wings are pale
  plum-colour_; there is an indistinct, curved, brownish transverse line
  near the base; _a straight dark brown line across the middle, and a
  curved series of blackish dots beyond the middle_; the apex is pointed,
  and the termen has a strong projection a little above the middle. The
  hind-wings are ochreous, with a series of minute brownish dots across the
  middle.

This is a variable species. The fore-wings are often much clouded with rich
brown, and in some specimens scarcely a trace of the original purplish
colour remains; the central straight transverse line is often absent, and
the other lines are frequently very indistinct, except on the costa; the
dots on the hind-wings are also often absent, and occasionally specimens
are met with in which all the wings are almost white.

  The larva is rather elongate, dull yellowish-brown or greenish-brown;
  there is a very broad dark brown dorsal line, and several wavy lateral
  lines; the prolegs are black, the spiracles are also black; there is a
  slight hump on the posterior edge of each of the last six segments, the
  hump on the penultimate segment being considerably larger than the
  others. The length of the caterpillar when full grown is about 1 inch.

{90}It feeds on _Pteris incisa_, a beautiful pale green fern, attaining a
height of four feet or more, and growing in open situations in the forest.
This fern is especially abundant on old decaying logs situated amongst
light brushwood. When disturbed these larvæ immediately drop to the ground
and coil themselves up. In this situation they are very inconspicuous, as
their colouring so closely resembles that of the faded fronds or stems of
the fern.

The pupa is buried in the earth about two inches below the surface, the
insect remaining in this state during the winter months.

The moth first appears about September, and continues in great abundance
until the end of March or beginning of April. It frequents forest, and is
noticed most commonly in the neighbourhood of its food-plant. There are
probably several broods in the course of a year.


SESTRA FLEXATA, Walk.

(_Cidaria flexata_, Walk. 1421.)

(Plate IX., fig. 37.)

This species has occasionally occurred in the neighbourhood of Wellington.
I have no records of its capture elsewhere, but expect it will be found to
be generally distributed.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1¼ inches. _The fore-wings are bright
  orange-red_; there is a very faint transverse line near the base, darker
  on the costa; a dark red oblong mark on the costa near the middle; and a
  faint transverse line beyond the middle, also darker on the costa. The
  hind-wings are bright ochreous-yellow, with the cilia orange.

This insect varies considerably in the intensity of its colouring. It has
long been considered as merely a variety of _Sestra humeraria_, but as I
have not observed any intermediate forms, although the two insects
frequently occur together, I think it may be regarded for the present as a
distinct species.

The perfect insect appears from October till December, and is found in the
same localities as _S. humeraria_.


Genus 5.--GONOPHYLLA, Meyr.

  "Face shortly rough-haired. Palpi moderate, arched, ascending, shortly
  rough-scaled, terminal joint short. Antennæ in male rather stout,
  pubescent. Coxæ and femora densely rough-haired beneath. Fore-wings with
  vein 6 from below 9, 7 from below angle of areole, 10 shortly touching 9,
  11 separate, 12 free. Hind-wings normal."--(Meyrick.) (Plate II., figs.
  63 and 64, neuration of _Gonophylla nelsonaria_.)

Of this genus we have but one species.


GONOPHYLLA NELSONARIA, Feld.

  (_Gonodontis_ (?) _nelsonaria_, Feld. cxxiii. 3. _Gonodontis felix_,
  Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 389, pl. xlii. 10. _Phyllodoce
  nelsonaria_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 104. _Gonophylla nelsonaria_,
  ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate X., figs. 3 and 4 [M] varieties, 5 and 6 [F] ditto.)

This handsome insect is common in the neighbourhood of Wellington. It has
also occurred at Nelson and Dunedin, and is possibly generally distributed
throughout the country.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. The fore-wings of the male are
  _rich reddish-brown, mottled with darker_; there are several small white
  marks on the costa; a black dot in the middle of the wing, and _an almost
  straight white transverse line beyond the middle_; outside this line the
  wing is speckled with greyish-white. The hind-wings are pale
  pinkish-brown; there is a black dot in the middle, and a curved blackish
  transverse line a little beyond the middle, being a continuation of the
  transverse line of the fore-wing; beyond this line, and on the dorsum,
  there are generally several small blackish markings. The female has the
  fore-wings {91}orange-red, speckled with darker; there is a doubly curved
  transverse line near the base, and an almost straight transverse line
  near the termen, both dark red; beyond the outer transverse line the wing
  is shaded with dark brown. The hind-wings are pale reddish-orange, with a
  curved blackish transverse line. In both sexes the apex of the fore-wing
  is projecting, and there is a strong angular projection on the termen a
  little before the middle; the termen of the hind-wing has several small
  projections.

The variation of this insect is considerable, especially in the male. The
ground colour of the fore-wings often inclines to dull brown, or even dull
yellowish-brown; the light and dark mottling, and the greyish markings near
the termen are sometimes hardly visible; there is often a yellowish blotch
opposite the large angle in the termen of the fore-wing. The hind-wings
also are very variable in their colouring. All these varieties exist in the
female in a less pronounced degree.

The perfect insect appears during the first week in February, and is
generally over by the middle or end of March. The males are first noticed,
the females not appearing until about a fortnight later. I have never taken
this insect in the daytime, and in fact have never seen it except on the
blossoms of the white rata, where, on fine evenings, it is often very
abundant. As yet, however, Wellington is the only locality where I have met
with it.


Genus 6.--DREPANODES, Gn.

  "Face with cone of scales. Palpi moderate, triangularly scaled,
  porrected. Antennæ in male moderate, simple. Fore-wings with vein 6 from
  below 9, 7 from below angle of areole, 10 very shortly touching 9, 11
  rising out of 10 before angle of areole, 12 free. Hind-wings normal.
  (Plate II., figs. 61 and 62 neuration of _Drepanodes muriferata_.)

A characteristic South American genus. The single New Zealand species is
very similar to some South American forms."--(Meyrick.)


DREPANODES MURIFERATA, Walk.

  (_Gargaphia muriferata_, Walk.  1635. _Panagra ephyraria_, Walk. 1761. ?
  _Zanclognatha_ (?) _cookaria_, Feld. cxxiii. 26. _Zanclognatha_ (?)
  _haastiaria_, Feld. cxxiii. 32. _Drepanodes muriferata_, Meyr., Trans. N.
  Z. Inst. xvi. 107.)

(Plate X., figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 [M] varieties, 12 [F].)

This species is very abundant in the neighbourhood of Wellington. It has
also been taken at Taranaki, Christchurch, Dunedin, Invercargill and
Stewart Island, and is probably common and generally distributed throughout
the country.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. All the wings of the male
  are yellowish-brown; there is a faint transverse line near the base, and
  a conspicuous darker transverse line running from a little before the
  apex of the fore-wing to the middle of the dorsum of the hind-wing; there
  is also a dark spot in the centre of the fore-wing, often containing two
  white dots. In the female, all the wings are slate-coloured; the
  transverse lines are very faintly indicated, and the central dot of the
  fore-wing is reddish-brown. The apex of the fore-wing in each sex is
  conspicuously hooked, and the termen is bowed and sometimes has a very
  slight angle in the middle.

Both sexes of this insect are very variable. In the male, the ground colour
ranges from dingy-brown to bright orange-brown; the transverse lines differ
much in intensity, and in some specimens the central area of the wings
enclosed by them is much darker than either the basal or the marginal
portions; occasionally there is a series of black markings between the
outer transverse line and the termen of the fore-wings, whilst the
transverse line itself is frequently edged with a band of paler
{92}colouring. The female also varies in the ground colour and in the
intensity of the transverse lines, which are sometimes marked by a few
black dots.

The larva, according to Mr. Purdie, is light grey, cylindrical, about 5/8
inch in length. It may be beaten in February from an undergrowth of
_Carpodetus_ and _Aristotelia_.

The perfect insect appears from November till March. It frequents dense
forest and is often very abundant. The colouring of the upper and under
surfaces of its wings, and the shape of the wings are both very protective,
giving the moth an exact resemblance to a dead leaf. When disturbed, the
insect adds to this deception by keeping its wings quite motionless and
rigidly extended, and allowing itself to fall through the air like a leaf.
The resemblance in this case to the inanimate object is very perfect, and
has no doubt enabled the moth to escape from many enemies. It is, in fact,
an extremely interesting example of the simultaneous development of
structure and instinct in a useful direction, through the agency of natural
selection.

This species is much attracted both by light and by blossoms.


Genus 7.--AZELINA, Gn.

  "Face with some projecting hairs. Palpi rather long, obliquely ascending,
  roughly scaled, attenuated. Antennæ in male thick, simple. Fore-wings
  with vein 6 from below 9, 7 from below angle of areole, 10 very shortly
  touching 9, 11 separate, 12 free. Hind-wings normal.

  A genus of some extent, specially characteristic of South America. Guenée
  made a separate genus (_Polygonia_) of the New Zealand species, but
  without any point of distinction."--(Meyrick.) (Plate II., figs. 54 and
  55, neuration of _Azelina gallaria_.)

We have three species in New Zealand.[42]


AZELINA GALLARIA, Walk.

  (_Selenia gallaria_, Walk. 185, Butl., Cat., pl. iii. 6, 7. _Euchlaena_
  (?) _palthidata_, Feld. cxxxii. 21, 22. _Stratocleis gallaria_, Meyr.,
  Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 105; _Azelina gallaria_, xx. 62.)

(Plate X., figs. 13 to 20 [M] varieties, 21 to 23 [F] ditto.)

This species is very common in the neighbourhood of Wellington. It has also
occurred at Palmerston North, Makotuku, Christchurch, Dunedin and Stewart
Island.

  The expansion of the wings is 1¼ inches. The fore-wings of the male vary
  from pale yellowish-brown to bright orange-brown, or reddish-brown; there
  is a wavy transverse line near the base, often obsolete except on the
  costa; another wavy transverse line beyond the middle, also frequently
  obsolete except on the costa; _followed by a very conspicuous straight
  line, often double, running obliquely from a little before the apex to
  the dorsum_; outside this line, near the tornus, there are, in most
  specimens, two black spots or one large rust-red spot; the termen has two
  projections near the apex, inside which there is usually a darker blotch.
  The hind-wings are as variable in colour as the fore-wings; there is one
  wavy line near the base, _followed by an almost straight line_, which is
  a continuation of the straight line of the fore-wing; beyond this line
  the ground colour is generally much darker; the termen itself has no
  projections. The female has broader wings and a shorter body than the
  male; the ground colour and markings are similar to those of the male,
  but are usually more sombre, and the termen of both fore- and hind-wings
  is furnished with a number of prominent projections. The under side of
  the wings in both sexes is beautifully marbled with yellow and
  reddish-brown, and several of the markings of the upper surface are
  faintly indicated.

This species, as will be seen from the foregoing, is so extremely variable
that a more detailed description would be useless, especially as the
straight, oblique, transverse lines of both fore- and hind-wings will at
once distinguish it from the two other members of the genus.

{93}The perfect insect appears from November till March. It frequents dense
forest, and is most abundant at the flowers of the white rata in the
evening. Earlier in the year, before the rata blooms, it may sometimes be
taken at sugar.


AZELINA OPHIOPA, Meyr.

(_Gonophylla ophiopa_, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 387.)

(Plate X., fig. 26 [M], 27 [M] variety, 28 [F].)

This species has occurred occasionally in the neighbourhood of Wellington,
but has not yet been recorded from any other locality.

  The expansion of the wings is 1½ inches. The fore-wings of the male are
  pale orange-brown; there is a doubly toothed shaded transverse line near
  the base, the teeth being marked with two black spots; _a conspicuous
  wavy transverse line runs from the apex to the dorsum_, and is also
  marked with several black dots; the space between the two transverse
  lines is paler than the rest of the wing; there is a row of small black
  dots on the termen, and the termen itself has two small projections. The
  hind-wings are yellowish at the base, becoming orange beyond the middle;
  there is a faint brownish transverse line near the base, and a
  conspicuous wavy transverse line at the middle, marked by a series of
  black dots; this central transverse line divides the yellowish ground
  colour of the basal area, from the orange ground colour of the rest of
  the wing. The female is larger and duller than the male; the fore-wings
  are yellowish drab, with the outer transverse line dull red; there is a
  series of minute black dots on the termen; the hind-wings are dull
  yellow, with a wavy central transverse line.

The only variety of this species which has come under my observation is a
male. In this specimen all the wings are pale yellowish-brown, with very
broad black transverse lines. (See Plate X., fig. 27.)

This insect is evidently closely allied to _Azelina fortinata_. It may,
however, be distinguished from that species by the smaller projections on
the termen of the fore- and hind-wings, and the dotted transverse lines of
the male.

The perfect insect appears from January till April. It is met with much
later in the season than either of the two other species of _Azelina_. It
frequents forest, and may be found on the blossoms of the white rata, but
is, I think, the rarest of the genus.


AZELINA FORTINATA, Gn.

(_Polygonia fortinata_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 41. _Caustoloma_ (?) _ziczac_,
Feld. cxxxii. 4. _Azelina fortinata_, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 106.)

(Plate X., fig. 24 [M], 25 [F].)

This beautiful insect occurs occasionally in forests in both the North and
the South Islands. It has been taken at Wellington, Nelson, Castle Hill,
Akaroa, Mount Hutt, West Plains and Otara.

  The expansion of the wings is 1¼ inches. The fore-wings of the male are
  pale orange-brown, with _a doubly toothed black transverse line near the
  base, and a less acutely toothed line beyond the middle_; between these
  there is a black mark on the costa; the termen has two large projections,
  and several smaller ones; between the outer transverse line and the
  termen there are several small black markings. The hind-wings are
  yellowish, clouded with orange-brown towards the termen, which also has
  several projections; there is a faint blackish line near the base, and a
  much stronger black line near the middle, starting from the dorsum and
  reaching about half-way across the wing. The female has the fore-wings
  dark brown, with the central area between the two transverse lines paler;
  the hind-wings are also considerably darker than those in the male.

This species varies a little in the depth of the ground colour, but not
otherwise.

The perfect insect appears in December, January and February. It frequents
dense forest, and is generally disturbed from amongst ferns and
undergrowth.


{94}Genus 8.--IPANA, Walk.

  "Face roughly haired. Antennæ in male simple, shortly ciliated. Palpi as
  in _Declana_. Thorax densely hairy above and beneath, with slight median
  crest. Abdomen in male elongate. Femora densely hairy; posterior tibiæ in
  male short and much swollen, furnished on inner side with very large
  dense tuft of hairs. Fore-wings in male without fovea; veins 10 and 11
  separate."--(Meyrick).

We have one species in New Zealand.


IPANA LEPTOMERA, Walk.

(_Ipana leptomera_, Walk., Noct. 1662.)

(Plate X., figs. 29, 31, and 31A [M] varieties, 30 [F].)

This species is common in the neighbourhood of Wellington, and I expect
generally distributed throughout New Zealand; but as there appears to have
been some confusion in Mr. Meyrick's papers between it and the female of
_Declana junctilinea_, I am unable to assign the localities there mentioned
to either of the species.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1½ inches, of the female 1-3/8
  inches. The fore-wings of the male are uniform pale brownish-ochreous,
  generally with two transverse series of minute darker brown dots parallel
  to the termen, and two or three similar dots near the middle of the wing.
  There is a series of very small parallel brown lines on the costa. The
  hind-wings are greyish-brown with two very deep indentations in the
  termen. The female has the fore-wings pale grey, and the hind-wings
  darker grey; the markings and outline resemble the male.

In a few male specimens I have observed four large black spots on the
fore-wings, two near the base, and two near the termen. All these spots are
sometimes joined together by a very broad black band, which extends along
the whole of the central portion of the fore-wings. I have also a male
specimen in which the fore-wings are entirely marbled with dark grey. In
the female two or three moderately large spots are occasionally present on
the fore-wings, near the termen. All these varieties appear to be much
scarcer than the typical form.

The larva, which feeds on manuka (_Leptospermum_), has ten legs. It is
rather slender, dark brown, mottled with grey and dull red. There are two
large tubercles on the sides of the seventh and eighth segments. It is a
sluggish caterpillar and is generally seen in a motionless condition,
clasping the stem of its food-plant with its prolegs, and holding the rest
of its body in a perfectly rigid position like a small branch. The pupa is
enclosed in a cocoon of silk and refuse on the surface of the ground.

The perfect insect appears in January, February and March. It is a
forest-dwelling species, and may often be captured in some numbers, at
dusk, on the flowers of the white rata (_M. scandens_). It is very sluggish
and nearly always drops to the ground when disturbed and feigns death.


Genus 9.--DECLANA, Walk.

  "Face roughly haired. Antennæ in male bi-pectinated to apex or simple.
  Palpi with second joint ascending, rough-haired, terminal joint rather
  long, slender, clavate, porrected. Thorax densely hairy above and
  beneath, with more or less developed median crest. Femora densely hairy.
  Fore-wings in male without fovea; vein 6 sometimes out of 9, 10 sometimes
  out of 9, connected or anastomosing with 9, 11 sometimes out of 10,
  sometimes connected or anastomosing with 10."--(Meyrick.) (Plate II.,
  figs. 56 and 57, neuration of _Declana floccosa_, 58 head of ditto.)

We have seven species.


{95}DECLANA ATRONIVEA, Walk.

  (_Detunda atronivea_, Walk., Suppl. ii. 619. _Chlenias_ (?) _manxifera_,
  Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xii. (1879), 268, pl. ix. 1. _Detunda
  atronivea_, Meyr., ib. xvi. 101.)

(Plate X., fig. 33 [M], 34 [F]; Plate III., fig. 18, larva.)

This very handsome and conspicuous insect appears to be restricted to the
North Island, where it is rather rare. It has occurred at Wellington,
Otaki, and Napier.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1-5/8 inches, of the female
  nearly 2 inches. The fore-wings are _brilliant shining white, with
  numerous black markings_; these consist chiefly of three irregular
  branching transverse bands, and a series of wedge-shaped spots on the
  termen; the larger markings are brownish in the centre. The hind-wings
  are dark grey, becoming almost black on the termen, with a fine wavy
  transverse black line.

This species varies considerably in the size and shape of the black
markings on the fore-wings, which are often slightly different on the
opposite sides, in the same specimen.

The eggs of this moth are oval in shape, slightly roughened on the surface
and light blue in colour. They are deposited towards the end of October.
The young larva escapes by gnawing a hole out of the side.

  When first hatched it is dull brownish-black, with creamy-white lateral
  lines and prolegs; the head is reddish. It feeds on _Panax arborea_.
  After the first moult the lateral lines become much wider, especially
  towards the head. After the second moult the two dorsal tubercles are
  fully developed, the thoracic segments much swollen and flattened above,
  the latter bearing traces of the black markings of the full-grown larva.
  After the third moult the larva becomes a dark brownish colour inclining
  to chocolate on the dorsal surface. The characteristic markings on the
  penultimate and anal segments of the adult larva now appear, and the
  dorsal tubercles are yellowish in colour; the extra prolegs are very
  small, and are visible as wart-like appendages on the lower surface of
  the tenth segment.

  The full-grown caterpillar is a remarkable-looking animal. The head is
  very small; the first three segments of the body are enormously swollen
  and flattened above, the flattened portions being white, with several
  small black ring-shaped markings; there is a pair of large yellowish
  tubercles on the dorsal surface of the seventh segment, and two smaller
  ones on the tenth and eleventh segments; the larva is much stouter
  towards the posterior extremity, especially behind the ninth segment; the
  penultimate segment is furnished with a large creamy-white ridge,
  starting on the back and proceeding downwards and forwards; the extra
  pair of prolegs is small and only occasionally used in walking. The
  general colour of the larva is brownish- or blackish-green; the tenth and
  eleventh segments are generally darker, and there are many fine parallel
  lines of darker colouring on the central portions of the larva; the whole
  insect is also speckled with black; the spiracles are red. The larva
  varies a good deal in colour, but its peculiar structure will at once
  distinguish it from any other.

These larvæ often coil themselves up when at rest, clinging firmly with
their large prolegs to their food-plant. Whilst thus engaged they have a
very remarkable appearance. I have not yet ascertained the precise object
of the peculiar shape and coloration of this caterpillar. It appears to
resemble very closely a lichen-covered twig, but I suspect in this case
there is something more special aimed at.

In connection with this subject, it is noteworthy that the flattened
extremities of the elytra of the beetle, _Ectopsis ferrugalis_, closely
resemble in both shape and colour the remarkable anterior segments of the
larva of _D. atronivea_. As both insects feed on the same plant, and thus
exist under very similar conditions, it is highly probable that the
peculiarities have been independently acquired in each species for similar
purposes.

The pupa is enclosed in a light cocoon amongst dead leaves, &c, on the
surface of the ground.

{96}The perfect insect appears in February and March, and may sometimes be
taken at blossoms in the evening. It is also attracted by light, and has
been found occasionally, in the daytime, resting on tree-trunks. It
hibernates during the winter, coming abroad again the following spring to
lay its eggs. I have observed that a good many pupæ from the autumnal brood
do not emerge until September or October, so that the insect evidently
spends the winter both as a pupa and as an imago.


DECLANA EGREGIA, Feld.

(_Chlenias egregia_, Feld. cxxxi. 24; Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xii. 268,
pl. ix. 2. _Detunda egregia_, Meyr., ib. xvi. 101.)

(Plate X., fig. 35.)

This very handsome insect has occurred in the South Island at Nelson,
Christchurch, Akaroa and the Otira Gorge.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1¾ inches. _The fore-wings are
  creamy-white; there is a small dark brown mark at the base, a broad
  transverse wavy brown band before the middle, a very large four-cornered
  irregular brown mark beyond the middle, one of its corners touching the
  apex and the other the tornus_; the termen is shaded with pale grey, and
  there is a series of faint brown marks on the costa and dorsum. The
  hind-wings are dull white, darker towards the termen; there are two very
  faint transverse lines.

The perfect insect appears from November till February. It is a very rare
species.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


DECLANA FLOCCOSA, Walk.

  (_Declana floccosa_, Walk. xv. 1649. _Argua scabra_, Walk, xxviii. 448.
  _Declana feredayi_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 398, pl. xliii.
  5. _Declana nigrosparsa_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 500. _Declana floccosa_,
  Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 102.)

(Plate X., figs. 39 to 43 [M] varieties, 44 to 47 [F] ditto.)

This species has occurred very commonly at Wellington, Christchurch and
Dunedin. It is probably generally distributed throughout the country.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1-3/8 inches. The fore-wings are pale
  greyish-white with numerous small brownish-black streaks, exhibiting a
  slight concentration near the apex. The hind-wings are dull white,
  clouded with greyish towards the termen.

  This insect is so extremely variable that I have given descriptions of a
  few of the principal varieties below; all these forms may, however, be
  connected by specimens exhibiting every intermediate gradation both in
  colour and in markings.

    1. Fore-wings with several large brown spots near the middle.

    2. Fore-wings covered with numerous black spots (formerly known as
    _Declana nigrosparsa_) (fig. 47).

    3. Fore-wings with two more or less conspicuous curved black or brown
    lines from costa to dorsum (figs. 41, 42, and 44).

    4. Fore-wings with these transverse lines joined by two others running
    parallel to dorsum and costa.

    5. Fore-wings with transverse lines and black spots (fig. 43).

    6. Fore-wings diffused with dark greyish-black, except two broad bands
    of the original light colour extending from costa to dorsum; hind-wings
    darker than usual (fig. 45).

    7. Fore-wings with a dark brown central band; hind-wings clouded with
    dark brown towards termen, with a faint curved transverse line near the
    middle (figs. 39 and 40).

  All these varieties occasionally have tufts of orange-yellow scales on
  both the wings and on the body, and they also vary in other minor
  particulars (fig. 46).

  The egg of this insect when first laid is oval in shape and light green
  in colour, becoming bronzy a few days before the emergence of the larva.
  The young larva is very attenuated, with only ten legs. {97}Its colour is
  pale yellow striped with brownish-pink near the segmental divisions. It
  is very active, and does not devour the egg-shell after emergence.

  The full-grown larva has the body much flattened underneath. In colour it
  is pale brownish-pink, with numerous irregular darker markings, which in
  some specimens almost form two broad subdorsal lines. The under surface
  of the larva is pale green. There is a series of fleshy filaments of a
  pinkish-brown colour along each side of the insect, and an extra pair of
  prolegs on the ninth segment.

This caterpillar is, however, very variable, its colouring appearing to
depend largely on its surroundings. The favourite food-plants are
_Leptospermum ericoides_ and _Aristotelia racemosa_. The larvæ found on the
former plant are usually pale yellowish-brown, whilst those from the latter
are much darker brown, often mottled with grey like the stems of the
_Aristotelia_. A specimen I once found on a mountain beech (_Fagus
cliffortioides_), the gnarled stem and branches of which were covered with
grey lichens and mosses, was mottled with the most beautiful shades of
greenish-grey. These larval varieties are very interesting, and in order to
test the direct influence of food on the colouring of the larvæ, I once
divided a batch of eggs deposited by a single female into two equal parts,
and fed one half on _Aristotelia_, and the other half on _Leptospermum_.
The differences in colouring between the two lots of larvæ thus treated
were, however, of the most trivial description. This somewhat surprised me
at first, as I had previously observed quite distinct varieties on each
plant, when found in a state of nature. Hence I am now disposed to think
that these differences have been brought about gradually, by natural
selection acting on larvæ feeding on the same plant for a large number of
generations. By this means a sufficient amount of variation might be
accumulated, to cause the closest possible approximation in colouring to
the stems of the several food-plants. It is also noteworthy that many of
these food-plants grow in widely dissimilar localities, so that the free
inter-breeding of insects dependent on them would not be likely to occur,
and thus the peculiarities of colouring adapted to the stems of each
food-plant would not be disturbed by the effects of inter-breeding.

In connection with the foregoing experiment it is also interesting to
observe, that the specimens fed on _Aristotelia_ matured much more rapidly
than those on _Leptospermum_; the former plant evidently being the more
nourishing food for the larvæ. Also that out of the batch fed on
_Aristotelia_ 28 became moths, of which 12 were males and 16 females;
whilst out of those fed on _Leptospermum_ only 24 became moths, of which 15
were males and 9 females. In all other respects, excepting food-plant, the
two lots of larvæ were subjected to identical treatment.

During the day this larva rests quietly attached to the stem of its
food-plant, where it is very difficult to detect, as the filaments so
closely embrace the twig or tree-trunk that the whole insect exactly
resembles a swelling in the stem.

The pupa of _D. floccosa_ is enclosed in a loose cocoon on the surface of
the ground.

The perfect insect appears about September, and continues in more or less
abundance until the end of April. There are most likely several broods in a
season, and, as we frequently meet with specimens of the moth on mild days
in the middle of winter, it probably also hibernates.

This insect is usually observed at rest on fences and tree-trunks, where
its grey mottled colouring causes it to closely resemble a patch of lichen.


{98}DECLANA JUNCTILINEA, Feld.

(Plate X., fig. 37 [M], 38 [F].)

This species has occurred occasionally in the Wellington Botanical Gardens.
It is no doubt found elsewhere, but I cannot give any other localities with
certainty.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1¼ inches, of the female 1-3/8
  inches. The fore-wings of the male are pale yellowish-brown, with two
  indistinct, irregular, transverse darker lines near the base, a
  conspicuous curved line a little beyond the middle, followed by a
  blackish patch; _there is a series of very fine parallel oblique brown
  stripes on the costa_, and several series of curved, blackish marks near
  the termen, and on the central portions of the wing. The fore-wings of
  the female are much greyer, with a conspicuous, irregular, white streak
  from the apex towards the dorsum, the central portions of the wing are
  white, and, with the exception of the fine, oblique costal stripes, the
  other markings of the male are usually absent. The hind-wings of both
  sexes are dull ochreous. The strongly pectinated antennæ of the male, and
  the oblique costal markings of both sexes, will at once distinguish this
  species from any of the varieties of _Declana floccosa_.

This moth varies in the intensity of the markings, which in some specimens
are very indistinct.

The perfect insect appears from November till March. It is generally
captured on blossoms in the evening.


DECLANA HERMIONE, n. sp.

(Plate X., fig. 36.)

A single specimen of this very handsome insect was captured at Khandallah
near Wellington.

  The expansion of the wings is 1¼ inches. _The fore-wings are bright
  purplish-brown, clouded with silvery-white towards the middle and on the
  termen_; there is a very fine oblique chocolate-brown mark at the base, a
  broad broken transverse band at about one-eighth; a fine curved
  transverse line at about three-fourths, shaded towards the termen; there
  are four wavy brown marks on the termen inclining obliquely upwards
  towards the costa; the termen itself is narrowly edged with
  chocolate-brown. The cilia are silvery mixed with brown; the termen is
  very strongly bowed. The hind-wings are grey, shaded with purplish-grey
  towards the termen; the cilia are grey.

The type specimen was captured at sugar in November.


DECLANA GRISEATA, n. sp.

(Plate X., fig. 32 [F].)

This species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at Lake
Wakatipu in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1-1/8 inches, of the female
  1-3/8 inches. _The fore-wings are dull slaty-grey, with a slightly paler
  central band_; there is a fine oblique wavy transverse line at about
  one-fourth, another at about one-half, and indications of a third at
  about three-fourths; _numerous minute black streaks are thickly scattered
  over the wing, especially near the base and the termen_; the outline of
  the termen is very slightly scalloped. The hind-wings are pale grey,
  darker near the termen. The body is very dark slaty-grey. _The antennæ of
  the male are not bi-pectinated._

The perfect insect appears in January, and is attracted by light. It is a
scarce species.


DECLANA NIVEATA, Butl.

(_Declana niveata_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 500. _Atossa niveata_, Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 104.)

This species has occurred at Dunedin, in the South Island.

  "The expansion of the wings of the male is 30 mm. (about 1¼ inches).
  Fore-wings elongate-triangular, costa somewhat sinuate, termen rounded,
  dentate; dull white, faintly irrorated with grey; costa marked with short
  indistinct dark grey direct strigulæ; an irregular line towards base, and
  another twice angulated about two-thirds, obscurely indicated by dark
  grey scales; some scattered {99}dark grey strigulæ before termen.
  Hind-wings moderate, termen crenate, angularly projecting in middle;
  wholly white.

"I took one fine specimen at rest on a tree-trunk near Dunedin, in
February."--(Meyrick.)


Family 6.--SPHINGIDÆ.

  "Head with dense appressed hairs. Ocelli absent. Eyes glabrous. Antennæ
  thickened towards middle or posteriorly, in male ciliated with partial
  whorls. Labial palpi moderate, ascending, with dense projecting scales.
  Thorax densely hairy beneath. Femora densely hairy. Fore-wings with vein
  1_b_ furcate, 6 out of 8, 9 absent (rarely present in exceptional
  individuals). Hind-wings with veins 3 and 4 approximated at base, 5 from
  middle of transverse vein, parallel to 4, 6 and 7 connate or stalked, 8
  connected by oblique bar with margin of cell before middle, more or less
  approximated to 7 near beyond cell." (Plate I., figs. 12 and 13,
  neuration of _Deilephila_ [after Meyrick].)

"This family is generally distributed, but is most plentiful in the
tropics. The imagos are usually large insects, with stout, heavy bodies,
elongate-triangular fore-wings with very oblique termen, and relatively
small hind-wings; the wing muscles are very strong, and the flight
exceptionally powerful. Ovum spheroidal, smooth. Larva stout, usually with
an oblique, projecting anal horn, anterior segments sometimes retractile or
raised in repose. Pupa subterranean."--(Meyrick.)

Only one genus is represented in New Zealand, viz., _Sphinx_.


Genus 1.--SPHINX.

  "Tongue strongly developed. Antennæ less than one-half, gradually
  thickened to apex, then pointed, apex slender, hooked. Thorax with low
  double posterior tuft. Abdomen smooth, broad, conical, pointed. Tibiæ
  with appressed scales.

"A moderately large genus, ranging over the whole world, but principally
characteristic of America. Imago flying at dusk, feeding on the
wing."--(Meyrick.)

This genus is represented in New Zealand by one almost cosmopolitan
species.


SPHINX CONVOLVULI, L.

(_Protoparce distans_, Butl. _Sphinx convolvuli_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst.
xxii. 213.)

(Plate XIII., fig. 1.; Plate III., figs. 13 and 14 varieties of larvæ.)

This handsome insect often occurs in the northern portions of the North
Island, but becomes very rare southward of Napier and New Plymouth. In the
South Island it has been taken at Nelson, and recently a very mutilated
specimen of what appears to be this species has been found by Mr. Philpott,
near West Plains, Invercargill. With these exceptions I have not heard of
its appearance in any other localities in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings is about 3½ inches. The fore-wings are
  greyish-brown with several irregular, darker markings near the base; and
  a broad, dark, central band; beyond the central band there is a very
  irregular, pale grey, toothed line. The hind-wings are yellowish-grey,
  with four transverse, darker stripes, the outermost one strongly toothed.
  The head and thorax are dark grey, paler on the back, with two
  conspicuous tufts of pale grey hair on the shoulders. _The abdomen is
  grey, striped on the sides with rose-colour and black._

The larva feeds on _Convolvulus_. Like many of the caterpillars of the
_Sphingidæ_, there are two very distinct varieties: one is bright green,
with white spiracles, and a series of diagonal yellow lines above them; the
other is dull yellowish-brown, with broad blackish-brown dorsal and ventral
lines, and a series of triangular blackish spots above the spiracles, which
in this variety are jet-black. In both these forms of {100}larvæ the anal
horn is dark red tipped with black, and the skin is covered with numerous
fine wrinkles. The length of the caterpillar when full grown is 3½ inches.

About the middle or end of February these larvæ generally bury themselves
in the ground, where they are transformed into pupæ. They remain in that
condition until the following summer.

The pupa is about 2 inches in length and is of a dark mahogany-brown
colour. It is furnished with a large curved process, projecting from the
lower side of the head, and containing the enormous proboscis of the future
moth.

The perfect insect appears in November and December. It flies with
incredible velocity at evening dusk, and is often observed hovering over
flowers, and whilst poised in the air above them, extracts the honey with
its long proboscis. Mr. A. P. Buller has very kindly furnished me with the
following interesting notes on the habits of this species, as observed by
him in the Auckland district:--

"During the summer of 1879 I came across _S. convolvuli_ in great numbers,
near Ohinemutu, in the Hot Lake district, frequenting at dusk a tall,
delicately perfumed meadow flower (_Oenothera biennis_, commonly called the
evening primrose). They were to be seen on the wing soon after sundown, and
on warm, still evenings literally swarmed. It was an extremely pretty sight
to watch their rapid movements as they darted from flower to flower, never
alighting, and keeping up a constant vibration of their wings as they
probed the yellow blossoms. They appeared to be extremely local, for I only
met with them on a few of the grassy slopes round the shores of Lake
Rotorua. I visited the same locality two years later, at the same season,
and only occasionally saw one, although the evening primrose was in full
bloom at the time. In 1882 I captured several at flowers of the
trumpet-tree (_Brugmansia_) in a garden near Auckland. The same summer I
found large numbers of the larvæ at Waiwera (near Auckland), on a species
of convolvulus growing in profusion on the sandhills in the vicinity.
Although the larvæ were so abundant I never came across the perfect insect.
I obtained some twenty or thirty of the pupæ, but unfortunately was never
successful in hatching out the imago. As far as my knowledge goes, this
beautiful moth is confined to the Auckland and Waikato districts, although
I have heard of a single specimen being taken in Hawkes Bay."

I am also much indebted to Mr. Buller for the loan of a very perfect
specimen of this moth, expressly lent to me for figuring and describing in
the present work.

Mr. Meyrick informs us that this insect occurs throughout Europe, Asia,
Africa, Australia and the islands of the South Pacific, wherever a suitable
situation is found, and has been met with far out at sea.[43] In America it
is represented by a form which seems to be regarded as specifically
distinct, but which he thinks is probably identical. If this be the case
the insect is practically cosmopolitan.



{101}III.--THE LASIOCAMPINA.

Not represented in New Zealand.



IV.--THE PAPILIONINA.

The _Papilionina_ are distinguished by the following characters:--

  "Head rough-haired. Ocelli absent. Tongue developed. Antennæ slender,
  dilated apically, forming a gradual or abrupt club. Labial palpi
  moderately long, more or less rough-haired, terminal joint rather
  pointed. Maxillary palpi obsolete. Thorax more or less hairy. Fore-wings
  with 1_b_ simple, 1_c_ absent, 5 usually from or above middle of
  transverse vein. Hind-wings without frenulum, 1_c_ absent, 3 and 4
  usually connate, 8 rising out of cell near base, rapidly
  diverging."--(Meyrick.) (See Plate I., figs. 7, 8, 15, 16, 25, 26, 27.)

This is one of the most interesting groups of the Lepidoptera. The insects
comprised in it are popularly known as butterflies, and from their bright
colouring and conspicuous appearance are always favourites with beginners.
The _Papilionina_ attain great development in the tropics, especially in
South America, where, it is said, a single valley sometimes contains as
many species as the whole of Europe. In New Zealand there are only fifteen
species of butterflies, the group being extremely poorly represented both
here and in the South Pacific Islands.

Formerly the _Papilionina_ was known as the _Rhopalocera_, and was regarded
as constituting a division of equivalent value to the remainder of the
Lepidoptera, which was termed the _Heterocera_. For some time past
entomologists have, however, practically abandoned this classification of
the order, the _Heterocera_, or moths, being clearly composed of several
groups each of equivalent value to the _Rhopalocera_, or butterflies. Mr.
Meyrick states in his 'Handbook of British Lepidoptera' that the
_Papilionina_ "stands rather conspicuously isolated at the present day, but
there is little doubt that its origin must be traced to the _Thyrididæ_, a
family of the _Pyralidina_."

In this group the wings are generally held erect in repose, the under
surface of the hind-wings and the apical portion of the under surface of
the fore-wings being nearly always protectively coloured, these being
portions of the wings exposed to view when the insect is at rest. There is
an unusual amount of ornamental colouring on the upper surface. The flight
is invariably diurnal. The larva has ten prolegs.

The three following families of _Papilionina_ are represented in New
Zealand:--

1. NYMPHALIDÆ.    2. SATYRIDÆ.    3. LYCÆNIDÆ.


{102}Family 1.--NYMPHALIDÆ.

  "Anterior legs in both sexes much reduced, useless for walking; posterior
  tibiæ without middle spurs. Fore-wings with veins 8 and 9 out of 7.
  Hind-wings with præcostal spur." (Plate I., figs. 7 and 8.)

"An extremely large family, mainly tropical. The species are of large or
moderate size, usually dark-coloured, with light or bright bands or rows of
spots.

"Ovum cylindrical or sub-conical, ribbed and often reticulated. Larva with
pairs of tentacles or more usually series of bristly spines. Pupa exposed,
suspended by the tail, often angular or with metallic spots."--(Meyrick.)
(See Plate III., figs. 1, 2, and 3 larvæ, 27, 31 and 32 pupæ.)

We have three genera represented in New Zealand:--

1. ANOSIA.    2. VANESSA.    3. JUNONIA.


Genus 1.--ANOSIA.

  "Eyes glabrous. Club of antennæ elongate, gradual. Fore-wings with vein
  10 separate. Hind-wings with transverse vein present." (Plate I., figs. 7
  and 8, neuration of _A. erippus_.)

"A genus of moderate extent, generally distributed within the tropics, with
two or three species ranging beyond them. Imago with termen of fore-wings
sub-concave. Larva with pairs of long tentacles. Both larva and imago are
protected by a strong nauseous scent, or taste, and are uneatable to
birds."--(Meyrick.)

We have two species in New Zealand.


ANOSIA ERIPPUS, Cr.

  (_Papilio archippus_, Fabricius, Spec. Ins., p. 55, n. 243 (1781).
  _Danais archippus_, Butler, Butterflies of N. Z., Trans. N. Z. Inst. x.
  265. _Anosia plexippus_, L.)

(Plate XI., fig. 1, fig. 2 under side; Plate III., fig. 3 larva, fig. 27
pupa.)

This handsome insect has occurred from time to time at various localities
in both the North and the South Islands, but does not appear to be
generally common. Particulars of the early captures of this butterfly are
thus given by Mr. Enys[44]: "First recorded as a New Zealand insect by Mr.
Fereday, in a paper read before the Canterbury Institute, January 2, 1874,
and printed in vol. vi. of 'Transactions.' Mr. Fereday received the
butterfly from F. H. Meinertzhagen, of Hawkes Bay. Dr. Hector also obtained
it in Westland. It has also been caught near Auckland. In vol. xi. of
'Transactions' Mr. F. W. Sturm records that he first saw this insect, or a
closely allied one, at the Reinga, up the Wairoa River, Hawkes Bay,
December, 1840, or January, 1841. In 1848 he captured a number at the
Waiau, a tributary to that river. Again in 1861 he captured three on the
Rangitikei River near Mr. Birch's run. He also records other captures."
From these records it will be seen that the insect was observed as early as
1840, and it thus seems scarcely probable that it was accidentally
introduced by man, as Mr. Butler appears to suppose.[45] Recently _A.
erippus_ has occurred many times in the neighbourhood of Cook's Straits. In
1879 several specimens were bred from larvæ found by Mr. C. W. Lee near
Wangaehu. In 1881 I captured two specimens near Nelson and saw three
others. In 1890 two specimens were taken by Mr. R. I. Kingsley, and in
January of the following year I captured two more, all near Nelson. During
the autumn of 1892 {103}one specimen was taken near Otaki by Mr.
Rutherfurd, and several others were seen. The same year a specimen was also
taken by Sir James Hector at Petone. In 1896, I understand from Mr.
Kingsley, several specimens were again seen in the Nelson district.

  The expansion of the wings is from 3¾ to 4¼ inches. Above, all the wings
  are rich orange-brown bordered with black, the veins are also black.
  There are two rows of small white spots round the margins of all the
  wings, and several orange-brown spots near the apex of the fore-wings.
  Beneath, the markings are similar, except that the white spots are
  larger, and the hind-wings are very pale yellowish-brown. The male has a
  black chitinous spot on vein 2 of the hind-wings which is wanting in the
  female; the wing-veins in the male are also slightly narrower.

The larva of this insect feeds on most of the different kinds of milkweed
(_Asclepias_), and also upon dogbane (_Apocynum_). A single caterpillar,
fully grown, which was found in a building in the centre of the town of
Wellington, formed the subject from which the figures of the metamorphosis
of this insect were taken, but this specimen did not afford sufficient
material for an exhaustive investigation of the life-history. The following
account, taken from Professor Riley's 'Third Annual Report of the Noxious,
Beneficial, and other Insects of the State of Missouri,' is therefore
inserted:--

  "The egg is invariably deposited on the under side of a leaf, and is
  conical and delicately reticulate with longitudinal ribs, and fine
  transverse striæ. It is yellowish when first deposited, but becomes grey
  as the embryo within develops.

  "In about five days after laying the egg hatches, and the young larva as
  soon as hatched usually turns round and devours its egg-shell--a custom
  very prevalent with young caterpillars. At this stage it differs
  considerably from the mature larva; it is perfectly cylindrical, about
  0·12 inch long, and of much the same thickness throughout. The head is
  jet black and polished; the colour of the body is pale greenish-white,
  with the anterior and posterior horns showing as mere black conical
  joints, and with two transverse-oval black warts, nearer together, on the
  first joint. It is covered with minute black bristles, arising from still
  more minute warts.

  "When the young larva is three or four days old a dusky band appears
  across the middle of each joint, and by the fifth or sixth day it spins a
  carpet of silk upon the leaf, and prepares for its first moult. After the
  first moult the anterior horns are as long as the thoracic legs, the
  posterior ones being somewhat shorter; the characteristic black stripes
  show quite distinctly, but the white and yellow stripes more faintly.
  After this it undergoes but slight change in appearance, except that the
  colours become brighter, and that at each successive moult the horns
  become relatively longer. There are but three moults, and the intervals
  between them are short, as the larvæ frequently acquire their full growth
  within three weeks from hatching.

"As soon as the larva is full grown it spins a little tuft of silk to the
under side of whatever object it may be resting upon, and after entangling
the hooks of its hind legs in the silk it lets go the hold of its other
legs and hangs down, with the head and anterior joints of the body curved.
In this position it hangs for about twenty-four hours, during which the
fluids of the body naturally gravitate towards the upturned joints, until
the latter become so swollen that at last, by a little effort on the part
of the larva, the skin bursts along the back behind the head. Through the
rent thus made the anterior portion of the pupa is protruded, and by
constant stretching and contracting the larval skin is slipped and crowded
backwards until there is but a small shrivelled mass gathered around the
tail. Now comes the critical period--the culminating point.

"The soft and supple chrysalis, yet showing the elongate larval form with
distinct traces of its prolegs, hangs heavily from the shrunken skin. From
this skin {104}it is to be extricated and firmly attached to the silk
outside. It has neither legs nor arms, and we should suppose that it would
inevitably fall while endeavouring to accomplish this object. But the task
is performed with the utmost surety, though appearing so perilous to us.
The supple and contractile joints of the abdomen are made to subserve the
purpose of legs, and by suddenly grasping the shrunken larval skin between
the folds of two of these joints as with a pair of pincers, the chrysalis
disengages the tip of its body and hangs for a moment suspended. Then with
a few earnest, vigorous, jerking movements it succeeds in sticking the
horny point of its tail into the silk, and firmly fastening it by means of
a rasp of minute claws with which that point is furnished. Sometimes severe
effort is needed before the point is properly fastened, and the chrysalis
frequently has to climb by stretching the two joints above those by which
it is suspended, and clinging hold of the shrivelled skin further up. The
moment the point is fastened the chrysalis commences, by a series of
violent jerkings and whirlings, to dislodge the larval skin, after which it
rests from its efforts and gradually contracts and hardens. The really
active work lasts but a few minutes, and the insect rarely fails to go
through with it successfully. The chrysalis is a beautiful object, and as
it hangs pendant from some old fence-board or from the under side of an
_Asclepias_ leaf, it reminds one of some large eardrop; but, though the
jeweller could successfully imitate the form, he might well despair of ever
producing the clear pale-green and the ivory-black and golden marks which
so characterize it.

"The chrysalis state lasts but a short time, as is the case with all those
which are known to suspend themselves nakedly by the tail. At the end of
about the tenth day the dark colours of the future butterflies begin to
show through the delicate and transparent skin, and suddenly this skin
bursts open near the head, and the newborn butterfly gradually extricates
itself, and stretching forth its legs and clambering on to some surrounding
object, allows its moist, thickened, and contracted wings to hang
listlessly from the body."

The perfect insect appears in March and April, hibernated specimens being
met with in the spring. It is a most striking species on the wing, and one
which, when once seen, is not likely to be forgotten.


ANOSIA BOLINA, L.

  (_Diadema nerina_, Butler, Butterflies of N. Z., p. 13. Female.--_Papilio
  nerina_, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 509, n. 277 (1775); Donovan, Ins. of New
  Holland, pl. 27, fig. 1 (1805). _Papilio iphigenia_, Pap. Exot., 1, pl.
  lxvii., figs. D, E, (1775). Var. _Papilio proserpina_, Cramer, Pap.
  Exot., 3, pl. ccxviii., figs. C, D, (1782). Male ? _Papilio auge_,
  Cramer, Pap. Exot., 2, pl. cxc., figs. A, B (1779).)

(Plate XII., fig. 7 [M], 8 [F], 9 under side.)

This fine species appears to be rare in New Zealand, but I think it has now
occurred often enough to entitle it to a place amongst our native
butterflies. The following is a list of the captures so far as I am able to
ascertain them:--

From Mr. Eny's 'Catalogue of New Zealand Butterflies'[46] the first
specimen taken appears to have been a male, which was captured by Dr.
Sinclair, of Auckland, and sent to the British Museum before the year 1855.
The Rev. Richard Taylor also caught  one male specimen in his garden at
Wanganui, and saw another, the only {105}two he observed in thirty-four
years. Dr. Baker saw one in his garden at Christchurch on lilac flowers,
also a male. Mr. R. W. Fereday[47] records the capture of the first female
specimen by a son of Mr. Thomas Tanner, near Napier, in January, 1876. On
the 18th of March, 1885, Mr. R. I. Kingsley[48] took a fine female specimen
in Nelson, and on the 25th of March, 1886, I saw another female specimen in
the same locality; I also understand that quite a number of specimens of
both sexes have been recently captured in the neighbourhood of
Auckland.[49]

From the foregoing records, I think that there are very good reasons for
regarding this as an indigenous species, as it is very improbable that such
a large number of specimens would have been accidentally introduced to the
various localities at so many different times.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 3½ inches, of the female 4
  inches. On the upper side all the wings of the male are rich
  brownish-black, with a large white blotch in the middle of each,
  surrounded by a patch of brilliant flashing blue; there is also a small
  white spot near the apex of the fore-wings and a series of white
  crescent-shaped markings on the termen of all the wings. The fore-wings
  of the female are brownish-black, with a patch of deep orange-brown near
  the tornus; there is a series of four very large oval white spots on the
  costa, beyond the middle, a smaller white spot near the apex, and three
  rows of small white marks parallel to the termen; the hind-wings are
  brownish-black, with a broad white band across the middle, several small
  white spots, and a double series of white markings parallel to the
  termen; all the wings of the female have brilliant bluish reflections
  near the white spots. On the under side the wings of both sexes are rich
  brown with white markings, and a double series of white crescents on the
  termen.

The female appears to be very variable in almost every respect.

The perfect insect appears in January, February and March. From its large
size and brilliant colouring it is easily recognised. Although rare in New
Zealand, it is very common in Australia. It also occurs in Java, New Guinea
and the Loyalty Islands. A smaller representative is found in Samoa
(_Anosia otaheitæ_, Feld.), which is probably only a variety of this
species.

The figures and descriptions of this insect are taken from Australian
specimens, which were kindly forwarded to me by the late Mr. Olliff.


Genus 2.--VANESSA.

  Eyes hairy. Club of antennæ abrupt. Fore-wings with vein 10 separate.
  Hind-wings with transverse vein present.

"A moderate genus, principally characteristic of the Northern Hemisphere.
Larva with six or seven rows of bristly spines. Pupa with angular
prominences, often with golden metallic spots."--Meyrick.

Of this very beautiful and interesting genus we have three species in New
Zealand.


VANESSA GONERILLA, Fabr.

  (_Papilio gonerilla_, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 498, n. 237 (1775);
  Donovan, Ins. New Holland, pl. 25, fig. 2 (1805). _Vanessa gonerilla_,
  White in Taylor's New Zealand, pl. 2, fig. 1 (1855).)

(Plate XII., fig. 5, 6 under side; Plate III., figs. 1 and 2 larvæ, 31 and
32 pupæ.)

This handsome insect is the most familiar of New Zealand butterflies. It is
very common and generally distributed throughout the country.

  {106}The expansion of the wings varies from 2-3/8 to 2¾ inches. Above,
  all the wings are black, becoming bronzy towards the body. _The
  fore-wings have a band of dark red nearly across the middle, and a series
  of three small blue spots, and three larger white spots near the apex.
  The hind-wings have a broad dark red band near the termen, containing two
  pairs of black spots with blue centres._ On the under side the fore-wings
  are dark brown, with a broad patch of red in the middle, and a very
  conspicuous eye-like mark on the costa, consisting of a black central
  spot surrounded by a blue ring, and encircled by a yellow crescent
  towards the termen. The hind-wings are brownish-grey, with many darker
  and paler markings; the four spots on the upper surface are faintly
  indicated on the under side by blackish rings and central dots; the
  colouring of the under side varies a good deal. It is considerably darker
  and duller in some specimens than in others.

  The egg, which is deposited on a nettle-leaf, is barrel-shaped,
  ornamented with a series of longitudinal ribs meeting in a central spot
  on the top. It is pale green, with the ribs white. The young larva, when
  first hatched, is dusky-yellow, with the spines black. In about a week it
  moults for the first time, and is then of an almost uniform brown, with
  the lateral lines faintly indicated. Ten days later it again sheds its
  skin, after which time the white lateral markings are considerably
  stronger. The full-grown larva varies from black to reddish-brown, with
  interrupted pale lateral and dorsal lines. On the third and fourth
  segments there are four spines, on the fifth to eleventh seven spines;
  the twelfth segment has six spines, and the thirteenth two spines. There
  are numerous white dots all over the larva. The spines vary from pale
  green to black. The caterpillar is considerably attenuated at each end,
  the central portions being somewhat swollen. Length about 1½ inches.

This caterpillar constructs for itself a small tent by fastening together
several of the leaves of its food-plant. In this dwelling it can feed,
safely concealed from all enemies. There are two kinds of nettles
constituting the food of this insect--one a small plant, which generally
grows in little patches amongst ferns in the forest (_Urtica incisa_), the
other a large shrub or tree often found in rather open situations near
rivers (_Urtica ferox_). The shrub is easily recognised by the formidable
array of long, white spines which project from the midrib of each leaf. The
larvæ of _V. gonerilla_ are much more easily collected on the tree nettle
than on the dwarf species; their leafy tents being easily detected by an
examination of the foliage. When once discovered the larvæ are best
obtained by cutting off, with a pair of strong scissors, the leaves which
form their habitations. Like most larvæ of the genus _Vanessa_, these
caterpillars are extremely voracious and soon eat themselves out of house
and home. Those feeding on the tree nettle have an unlimited supply of
leaves available both for food and shelter, but in the case of larvæ, which
are dependent on the dwarf nettle for their supplies, no doubt individuals
must occasionally die of starvation, as we sometimes observe large patches
of the _Urtica incisa_ completely destroyed by the larvæ of this butterfly.
In some seasons these larvæ may be found as early as the middle of
September, and continue abundant until the middle or end of January.

When full grown, this caterpillar suspends itself by the tail to a little
patch of silk, which it has spun on the under side of a leaf, having also
drawn two or three other leaves around it in the same way as the feeding
larva. In this situation it hangs, with the head and three anterior
segments slightly curved upwards, for nearly twenty-four hours before the
transformation to the pupa state occurs. I have often watched these larvæ
changing, and as their manoeuvres during the process exactly resemble those
of _Anosia erippus_ a special description is unnecessary. The actual
transformation may be easily observed in this species, as the larvæ are
common and {107}can be obtained in large numbers. It is well worth
watching, and if a good many specimens are kept at once, some of them are
sure to change at a convenient time for observation. The pupa varies from
pale yellowish-brown to dark purplish-brown, darker on the wing-cases and
ventral surface. The spines on the back are golden. The whole insect is
also speckled with brown or black dots. The pupa varies considerably in
size as well as in colour. In this insect the pupa state is of very short
duration, usually only lasting about a fortnight. I am informed by Mr.
Helms that the pupa of _Vanessa gonerilla_ is often destroyed by the common
hemipteron, _Cermatulus nasalis_, which penetrates its shell by means of
its long rostrum, and speedily consumes the liquid internal portions.

The perfect insect usually emerges early in the morning. It dries its wings
for a few hours whilst resting on the old nettle-leaves which formed its
home when a larva. The increasing warmth of the sunshine soon hardens the
wings sufficiently to allow the new-born butterfly to fly away.

This insect is very common in most situations from January till April. It
lives through the winter, appearing again on fine days towards the end of
August. During the spring and early summer these hibernated individuals
occur in great profusion, a few specimens always remaining until the
earliest of the new ones have emerged; so that about December we may
occasionally observe both hibernated and recent specimens together.

In the autumn these butterflies may be seen feeding on the flowers of the
scabious and the white rata, thus preparing for their long winter sleep. In
the spring, however, the insect is most abundant in the vicinity of the
nettle-plants, where the females are busily engaged depositing their eggs.

I have noticed that this insect possesses the power of emitting a distinct
grating or hissing noise, evidently closely resembling the sound, which has
been observed to be emitted by several European species of the genus.[50]
This sound is only made when a specimen is roused from a semi-torpid
condition; and it is thought that it may be useful to the insect for the
purpose of intimidating intruders during its period of hibernation.

This butterfly is a rapid flier and may often be seen pursuing a straight
course high above the tree-tops, apparently migrating in search of fresh
breeding-grounds. It appears to have a singular liking for hill-tops, and a
specimen which has selected one of these places will keep on returning to
the same spot, after being repeatedly frightened away. In such situations,
if the weather be calm and sunny, we may frequently see two specimens
engaged in aerial battle. They fly upwards, and coursing round each other
with great velocity, almost disappear in the clear blue sky. A few seconds
later the two insects, gently fanning their wings in the warm sunshine, are
again seen in their respective places.


VANESSA ITEA, Fabr.

  (_Papilio itea_, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 498, n. 238 (1775); Donovan Ins.
  New Holland, pl. 26, fig. 1 (1805). _Vanessa itea_, Godart, Enc. Meth.
  ix. p. 321, n. 57 (1819); White in Taylor's New Zealand, pl. 2, figs. 2,
  2 (1855). _Bassaris itea_, Hubner, Samml. Esot. Schmett. (1816-24).
  _Pyrameis itea_, Doubleday, Gen. Diurn. Lepid., p. 202 (1849).)

(Plate XII., fig. 3, fig. 4 under side.)

This beautiful butterfly is, I believe, fairly abundant in the northern
portions of the North Island, but becomes scarcer southwards of Napier and
New Plymouth. In the {108}South Island I believe I once saw a specimen at
Nelson, but beyond that I can find no record of its occurrence there.

  The expansion of the wings is about 2 inches. The fore-wings are black,
  becoming reddish-brown speckled with gold towards the base; _there is a
  very broad yellow band nearly across the middle, and one yellow and two
  white spots near the apex_. The hind-wings are rich reddish-brown,
  broadly bordered with black, especially towards the costa; there are four
  small black spots with blue centres near the termen, and a blue stripe
  bordered with black at the tornus. The under surface closely resembles
  that of _Vanessa gonerilla_, except that the red patch on the fore-wings
  is replaced by pale yellow, and the markings on the hind-wings are more
  sharply defined.

The perfect insect appears from January till April, hibernated specimens
occurring in the spring. It is very fond of selecting a perch on the top of
a hill, and often engages in violent encounters with _Vanessa gonerilla_.
During the contest both insects course round each other with great
rapidity, and generally ascend to a considerable elevation. They almost
invariably return to their former resting-places. This is a fortunate habit
for the collector, as it frequently enables him to ultimately capture a
specimen, which he has almost touched with the net on several previous
occasions. I have noticed this propensity to return to a favourite perch in
the European species of the genus _Vanessa_, so that it is most likely a
congenital habit, probably of great antiquity.

This insect has a fine appearance when flying; the large yellow spots on
the forewings are then very conspicuous, and ensure its immediate and
certain recognition.


VANESSA CARDUI, L.

  (_Vanessa cardui_, L. _Cynthia kershawii_, McCoy, Ann. and Mag. Nat.
  Hist. iv., vol. i. p. 76 (1868). _Pyrameis cardui_, var. _P. kershawii_,
  Butler, Erebus and Terror Lep., p. 29 (1874).)

(Plate XII., fig. 1, 2 under side.)

This elegant butterfly occurs throughout both islands, but is very
irregular in its appearance. In some years it is quite abundant, whilst in
others scarcely a specimen will be seen. During the summer of 1889-1890 it
was extremely plentiful in the Wellington district, being at that time much
commoner than _Vanessa gonerilla_, but its appearance in such large numbers
as this was, I think, very exceptional.

  The expansion of the wings varies from 2 to 2¼ inches. _Above, all the
  wings are orange-red, spotted and mottled with black._ The fore-wings are
  bronzy towards the base; _in the black apex there are five white spots_.
  Near the termen of the hind-wings three of the black spots have blue
  centres. On the under side of the fore-wings the markings are very
  similar to those on the upper side, except that there are several
  additional white blotches, and the orange-red ground colour has a rosy
  blush towards the base. The hind-wings are very beautifully mottled with
  an elaborate series of pale brown, purplish-grey, yellowish-brown, and
  white markings; three of the large spots near the termen have pale blue
  centres.

I have not yet met with the larva of this insect, neither can I find any
record of its having been observed in New Zealand. The following
description by Mr. Stainton is taken from a European specimen:[51] "The
spiny larva is brown with two dorsal and two lateral yellow lines; on the
third, fourth, and twelfth segments there are four spines; on the fifth to
eleventh segments seven spines, and on the thirteenth two spines; it feeds
solitarily in rolled thistle-leaves."

The perfect insect appears in January, February, March and April,
hibernated specimens occurring from August until December. It is a much
more wary butterfly than either _Vanessa gonerilla_ or _V. itea_, and can
seldom be captured after it has once been {109}disturbed, although it will
often return to the same spot several times in succession. In fact, owing
to its extreme timidity, its capture is generally attended with some
difficulty.

This insect is found almost throughout the entire world. In specimens from
the Northern Hemisphere the black spots on the hind-wings have no blue
centres, and the butterflies are a little larger than those found in the
Southern Hemisphere, otherwise the two insects are exactly alike. The
southern form has been called _V. kershawii_ by several writers, but the
differences do not appear to me to be sufficiently important to merit a
distinct specific name, especially as both forms occur together in South
Africa.

This insect has frequently been observed at various places on the European
Continent migrating in vast swarms; and it seems probable that its strong
migratory instinct may have led to its enormously wide range at the present
time.


Genus 3.--JUNONIA.

  "Eyes glabrous. Club of antennæ abrupt. Fore-wings, with vein 10
  separate. Hind-wings with transverse vein, absent between veins 4 and 5."
  (Meyrick.)

We have one species in New Zealand.


JUNONIA VELLEDA.

(Plate XI., fig. 16, fig. 17 under side.)

This butterfly was very common in the neighbourhood of Wellington during
the summer of 1886-87. To the best of my knowledge the insect had not
previously been observed in New Zealand, but I understand from Mr. R.
Holloway that he has since met with it on the sea-coast near New Plymouth,
in 1893, and at Motueka in 1898.

  The expansion of the wings is nearly 2 inches. On the upper side all the
  wings are dull blackish-brown, with greenish or bronzy reflections. The
  fore-wings have two broad orange-brown stripes on the costa, and _a very
  large patch of the same colour along the termen, containing a large black
  spot with a bluish-white centre_; there are three irregular whitish marks
  near the apex of the wing, and a minute blue-centred ocellus. The
  hind-wings have _two very large orange-brown spots almost touching each
  other near the termen; each of these contains a large blue-centred
  ocellus in the middle_; there are also two terminal rows of brown
  crescent-shaped markings. Underneath, the markings of the fore-wings
  resemble those of the upper side, but they are very much paler, and the
  ground colour is light brown. The hind-wings are pale brown, with a wavy
  black line across the middle, followed by a brown shading towards the
  termen; there are also four small round black spots and a series of
  irregular black dots near the termen.

The perfect insect occurred very plentifully in December, January and
February, and was fond of settling on barren, stony places in the hot
sunshine. It was very timid and difficult to catch, darting off with great
rapidity when approached. During the season I managed to secure about nine
specimens, some of them in very good condition. I am unable to explain the
sudden appearance of this butterfly in New Zealand during the
above-mentioned year. The large numbers, which were observed over extended
areas, almost seem to forbid its accidental importation from Australia,
whilst the distance of New Zealand from that continent would render
immigration a most unlikely circumstance. On the other hand, if the insect
is a regular inhabitant of this country, it is strange that it had never
before been observed. When on the wing, its superficial resemblance to
_Vanessa cardui_ may have led to its having been overlooked, and hence it
is very desirable that entomologists should use every effort to detect it
in the future.

According to Mr. Olliff, this butterfly has a very wide geographical range,
being {110}found in Java, Sumatra, Tasmania and all parts of the Australian
Continent. About the year 1830 it was described by Stephens, in his
'British Entomology,' under the name of _Cynthia hampstediensis_, on
account of its having been taken at Hampstead, the well-known suburb of
London. Subsequently it transpired that the specimen in question was no
doubt of foreign origin, its "appearance" having been due to a practical
joke perpetrated on the British Lepidopterists of the day.


Family 2.--SATYRIDÆ.

  "Characters of _Nymphalidæ_, but fore-wings with vein 12 greatly dilated
  towards base." (Plate I., figs. 25, 26, and 27, neuration of _Erebia
  pluto_.)

"A large group of very general distribution. The species are usually of
moderate size, generally dark coloured with light bands or spots, and with
several round, black, white-centred spots on lower surface. Some of them
are more fond of shady places than is customary in this group.

"Ovum spherical-ovate, surface reticulated and often ribbed. Larva more or
less tapering towards extremities, with short hairs; segment 13 ending in
two points; feeding on grass. Pupa suspended by the tail or unattached,
sometimes subterranean."--(Meyrick.) (See Plate III., figs. 4 and 5 larvæ,
28 and 29 pupæ.)

Of this family we have three genera represented in New Zealand:--

1. ARGYROPHENGA.    2. DODONIDIA.    3. EREBIA.


Genus 1.--ARGYROPHENGA.

  Eyes glabrous. Club of antennæ somewhat abrupt. Fore-wings with lower
  margin of cell greatly dilated towards base; veins 8, 9, 10, and 11 out
  of 7; vein 12 greatly dilated towards base.

Of this genus there is one species in New Zealand.


ARGYROPHENGA ANTIPODUM, Doubleday.

  (_Argyrophenga antipodum_, Doubleday, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. xvi. p.
  307 (1845); Gen. Diurn. Lepid. pl. 63, fig. 6 (1851); Butler, Erebus and
  Terror Lep., pl. 8, figs. 4, 7 (1874).)

(Plate XI., fig. 4 [M], 5 [F], 3 variety, 6 under side of [M], 7 under side
of variety; Plate III., fig. 4 larva, fig. 29 pupa.)

This species occurs commonly on the tussock lands from Christchurch to
Invercargill. In the provinces of Nelson and Marlborough it is, I believe,
confined to situations having elevations of from 2,000 to 4,000 feet above
the sea-level. It has never been captured in the North Island.

  The expansion of the wings varies from 1-3/8 to 1¾ inches. _Above, all
  the wings are dull brownish-black, paler near the body; the outer portion
  of each is covered with a large patch of bright orange-brown (northern
  form), or fawn colour (southern form); on the fore-wings this patch
  contains a large oval black spot, with two white dots in the middle; on
  the hind-wings there are two, three, or four black spots, with one white
  dot in the centre of each_; beneath, the markings on the fore-wings
  resemble those of the upper surface, except that there are often several
  short silvery stripes near the apex; the hind-wings are dull yellow, with
  silver streaks between the veins, and one broader streak in the centre of
  the wing. The female is much paler than the male, with the borders of the
  wings whitish.

This insect is extremely variable. The colouring appears to be much
influenced by local conditions. On the Dun Mountain, Nelson district, at an
elevation of about 2,700 feet, a very small light form occurs in which the
sexes are almost exactly alike. There are only two perfect spots on the
upper surface of the hind-wings; the other spot is {111}rudimentary, and
has no white central dot. On the under side there are no silver stripes
near the apex of the fore-wings, and only five or six silver stripes on the
marginal portions of the hind-wings (see Plate XI., figs. 3 and 7). At
Kekerangu, on the "Chalk Range," at an elevation of from 3,000 to 4,000
feet, a similar but slightly larger form occurs. On the Tableland of Mount
Arthur, Nelson district, 3,600 to 4,600 feet above the sea-level, the
females are paler than in either of the preceding forms, and the males
darker, so that the sexes are well marked; but there are no silvery stripes
on the under side of the apex of the fore-wings, and usually only five
stripes on the marginal portions of the hind-wings. Finally, in the
Canterbury, Otago and Southland butterflies (southern form), we have the
large, very dark reddish-brown coloured male insect with large ocelli, and
the extremely pale yellow female with small ocelli, the two sexes here
exhibiting the greatest differentiation. On the under side, the male has
several small silver stripes near the apex of the fore-wings, and seven
stripes on the marginal portions of the hind-wings. (See Plate XI., figs.
4, 5, and 6.) In elevated situations in Canterbury, however, I have taken a
somewhat similar variety to that found on the Mount Arthur Tableland. I
have also taken similar forms on Mount Robert near Lake Rotoiti, Nelson
district, these having, in addition, numerous white hairs on the wings near
the body.

Besides these extreme variations, which appear to be largely dependent on
local conditions, great variability exists with respect to the number and
size of the ocelli or white-centred spots. In some specimens there are no
ocelli on the hind-wings; in others, two, three, or four very minute ones,
whilst others have all four very large. Occasionally specimens have a
minute ocellus below the large one on the fore-wings. Were it not for the
intermediate varieties, there would probably be little hesitation in
separating the extreme forms of this insect into several distinct species;
but as they are connected by a host of intermediate forms, it is quite
impossible even to divide them into varieties.

In a paper communicated to the 'Entomologist' in February, 1889,[52] by Mr.
W. W. Smith, the author makes some interesting remarks on the variation of
this butterfly, as observed by him in Canterbury and Otago. After pointing
out the great diversity exhibited by different specimens in the depth of
colouring, and in the number and size of the ocelli, he states that in his
opinion the greatest variation occurs during the summers that succeed wet
winters. In the year 1888 I had the opportunity of inspecting a most
interesting series of this insect, presented by Mr. Smith to the Wellington
Museum. They embraced specimens of very varied colouring, and included,
amongst other remarkable forms, a male, which was entirely destitute of all
ocelli, both on the fore- and on the hind-wings. Amongst these specimens,
however, I did not see any resembling those I have described from Nelson
and Marlborough. This collection has, I regret to say, since been disposed
of by the Museum authorities, and cannot therefore be utilised by New
Zealand students.

The larva of this insect feeds on the tussock grass (_Poa australis_). Its
length, when full grown, is about 1 inch. The top of the head is furnished
with a very large process, which projects forwards. The body is much
attenuated towards the tail, which is bifid. The general colour is dull
green, with a crimson line on each side and numerous alternate lines of
yellow and white. The legs and prolegs are very small. There are four
wrinkles on the posterior edges of each segment.

{112}When feeding, this caterpillar rests on a blade of the tussock, where
it is very inconspicuous. It appears to prefer the dead or drier portions
of the grass, and feeds and grows very slowly. It is strictly diurnal in
its habits, relapsing into a death-like repose at night.

The pupa is suspended by the tail to an upright blade of the tussock. In
the specimen I reared, I was fortunate enough to witness the actual
transformation, and during the process, observed it seizing hold of the
larval skin with its posterior segments, its manoeuvres whilst thus engaged
exactly resembling those of the pupa of _Anosia erippus_, described above
by Professor Riley.

The length of the pupa is about ½ inch. Its colour is bright green, with a
reddish line along the edge of each wing-case, and several white lines on
the sides and back.

The perfect insect appears from December till the end of March. It is
usually very abundant where found, the males being more numerous than the
females in the proportion of about five to one. It flies amongst the
tussock grass in a weak and aimless manner. When rapidly pursued it has a
habit of plunging into a tussock and closing its wings, where it remains
quite invisible until the danger is past.

The silver stripes on the under side of the hind-wings are very protective
to the insect when at rest on its food-plant, the striped coloration of the
larva and pupa no doubt serving similar protective purposes.


Genus 2.--DODONIDIA, Butl.

  Characters as in _Argyrophenga_, except that vein 11 of the fore-wings
  rises from upper margin of cell, shortly before transverse vein.

We have one species in New Zealand.


DODONIDIA HELMSI, Fereday.

(_Dodonidia helmsi_, Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xv. 193.)

(Plate XI., fig. 14, fig. 15 under side; Plate III., fig. 5 larva, fig. 28
pupa.)

A single specimen of this interesting butterfly was discovered by Mr. R.
Helms, in 1881, on the Paparoa Range, near Greymouth, at an elevation of
about 1,500 feet above the sea-level. Until within the last three years
only three other specimens had been captured, viz., one near Wainui-o-mata,
in Mr. A. P. Buller's collection; one on the Dun Mountain, Nelson, at an
elevation of about 2,500 feet, which is in my collection; and one on the
Tableland of Mount Arthur, at about 3,300 feet, which was kindly given to
me by Mr. C. W. Palmer. In the summer of 1894-95 several specimens were
captured by Mr. P. Marshall near Wanganui,[53] and during the same season
Messrs. Smithers and Hawthorne discovered the insect in considerable
abundance at a locality near Silverstream, in the Wellington district.
During the two following summers additional specimens were obtained near
Silverstream, and I was fortunate enough to discover there a number of
specimens of the larva, which furnished the material for the illustration
and description of the preparatory stages of the insect given in this work.

  The expansion of the wings is about 2 inches. _On the upper side all the
  wings are dark brown. The fore-wings have two broad bands of
  yellowish-orange, the outer one containing a {113}small patch of dark
  brown near the costa, which touches a white-centred black ocellus. The
  hind-wings have one large patch of yellowish-orange containing two
  ocelli; a large ocellus, surrounded by a broad ring of reddish-orange, is
  situated on the tornus_; the tornus is produced into two very broad but
  short tails, which are bordered with white cilia. On the under side the
  fore-wings are light ochreous-yellow; there is a shaded brown patch at
  the base; the termen is broadly bordered with brown, the border
  containing a silver streak; two broad brown patches are situated on the
  costa, the outer one terminated by a small ocellus, and enclosing a
  silvery patch near the apex of the wing. _The hind-wings are silvery,
  narrowly bordered with deep reddish-brown, with five deep reddish-brown
  stripes running from the costa towards the tornus_; the fourth stripe
  from the base of the wing contains three ocelli surrounded by yellow
  rings; a conspicuous ocellus is situated at the tornus, surrounded by a
  broad orange-red ring.

This insect appears to vary a little in the extent of the yellowish-orange
colouring of the upper side. It also varies in size, specimens from the
North Island being slightly larger than those from the South Island.

The larva feeds on a species of sedge (_Galinia setifolia_), which always
grows abundantly in the birch forests, where the butterflies are found.
When full grown the length of this caterpillar is about 1¼ inches. Its body
is much attenuated at each end and rather stout in the middle; the head and
tail are bifid; there are numerous straight, shallow, transverse wrinkles
on each segment, especially towards the head. The colour is green, with a
number of fine, paler and darker green, dorsal and lateral lines; the head
and thirteenth segment are yellowish. The legs are very minute, and the
prolegs of moderate size. It is extremely susceptible to the attacks of a
Dipterous parasite. In fact, out of thirty larvæ kept by Mr. Hawthorne and
myself, no less than 75 per cent. were thus destroyed. This larva feeds on
the leaves of the sedge, eating out long notches parallel to the veins of
the leaf. These notches are the best guides to follow in searching for the
larva, as the colouring of the caterpillar renders its discovery amongst
the food-plant extremely difficult. The larvæ should be looked for during
the end of December or the beginning of January.

The pupa is rather stout, light green, with the edge of the wing-case and
the prominences formed by the back and palpi, edged with crimson and white.
It is suspended by the tail to any firm object in the neighbourhood of the
sedge.

The perfect insect appears in February. It frequents sunny glades in the
birch forest, usually at considerable elevations above the sea-level. Mr.
Helms informs me that he has seen specimens near Greymouth in October, and
hence concludes that there are two broods in the year. The butterfly is
very difficult to capture, as it has a most provoking habit of resting on
the foliage of the birch-trees, just out of the collector's reach. I am
unable to explain the object of the remarkable colouring of the under side
of this insect, but it is probably protective, although in what way has yet
to be discovered.


Genus 3.--EREBIA, Dalm.

  "Eyes glabrous. Club of antennæ abrupt." (Plate I., figs. 25, 26, and 27
  neuration of _Erebia pluto_.)

"An extensive and essentially Alpine genus inhabiting the mountains of
Europe, Asia, North America, and South Africa. Pupa unattached amongst stem
bases of grass."--(Meyrick.)

We have two species in New Zealand.


{114}EREBIA PLUTO, Fereday.

  (_Erebia pluto_, Fereday. _Erebia merula_, Hewitson, Ent. Mo. Mag. xii.
  10 (1874). _Oreina othello_, Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. viii. 302, 304,
  pl. ix. (1876). _Percnodaimon pluto_, Butl., Ent. Mo. Mag. xii. 153
  (1876); Catalogue of N. Z. Butterflies, 10.)

(Plate XI., fig. 8 [M], 9 [F], 10 under side.)

This fine butterfly has occurred plentifully on many mountain-tops in the
South Island, from Nelson to Lake Wakatipu. It has never been observed in
the North Island.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1¾ inches, of the female 2
  inches. _On the upper side all the wings are a very rich bronzy-black.
  The fore-wings have a paler patch near the apex, containing two small,
  and three large black ocelli with white centres_; these ocelli are
  usually joined together. On the under side all the wings are considerably
  paler and greyer. The hind-wings have a series of pale spots near the
  termen, and a paler shade across the middle.

The insect varies chiefly in the number of ocelli. On the upper side of the
fore-wings there are sometimes only four, the minute ocellus on the costa
being absent, whilst occasionally a small extra ocellus appears below the
normal series. On the under side this last-mentioned ocellus is very
frequently, but not invariably, present. In some female specimens an
extremely minute ocellus may be detected on the upper surface of the
hind-wings near the termen. On the under side of the hind-wings in both
sexes the series of pale terminal spots are often absent, and the general
depth of the colouring varies considerably.

Mr. Fereday has described and figured a very interesting variation
occurring in the structure of the costal veins of this species,[54] vein 11
of the fore-wings sometimes running into 12 (see Plate I., fig. 26), and
sometimes being entirely absent (fig. 25). After reading Mr. Fereday's
article I examined the specimens in my own collection, and found that all
those taken on Mount Arthur and on Mount Peel, in the Nelson district, had
veins 11 and 12 joined, whilst the two specimens I took on Mount Enys,
Castle Hill, West Coast Road, had vein 11 absent. As, however, Mr. Fereday
has specimens exhibiting both forms of neuration, from Castle Hill and from
Mount Hutt, I do not think it likely that the peculiarity is confined to
butterflies from any particular locality. Like Mr. Fereday, I have observed
that the specimens having veins 11 and 12 joined, are smaller than those
having vein 11 absent.

The perfect insect appears in January, February and March. It frequents
shingle slopes on mountains, at elevations ranging from 4,000 to 6,000 feet
above the sea-level. Sometimes the butterflies occur in considerable
numbers, flying in a lazy, aimless manner in the scorching sunshine, but
instantly retreating into crevices between the stones when the sun is
obscured. I have observed that this species is most abundant in the
neighbourhood of the carpet grass, on which I fully anticipate its larva
feeds. It seldom, however, settles on this grass, preferring to alight on
the shingle, which, owing to the rarefied air existing at such high
elevations, soon becomes intensely heated by the sun's rays.

When disturbed this insect flies with considerable rapidity and thus often
eludes the net, so that the capture of a good series of specimens on a
rugged mountain-top is usually very exciting, if not actually dangerous
work. As with many other {115}insects, mountain ranges are more prolific in
this butterfly than isolated peaks. Mount Peel, situated to the west of
Mount Arthur, is the best locality I know of for this and many other Alpine
species. Its gentle slopes enable the collector to work with perfect ease
and safety, whilst the patches of rich soil occurring nearly to the top of
the mountain support an unusually varied Alpine flora of great interest.


EREBIA BUTLERI, Fereday.

(_Erebiola butleri_, Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xii. 264; Catalogue of N.
Z. Butterflies, 19.)

(Plate XI., fig. 11 [M], 12 [F], 13 under side.)

This interesting butterfly was described from three dilapidated specimens
captured by Mr. J. D. Enys at Whitcombe's Pass, Canterbury, on March 8,
1879, at about 4,000 feet above the sea-level. From that time I believe no
other specimens had been found until January, 1894, when I took quite a
large number on the Humboldt Range, at the head of Lake Wakatipu, at
elevations ranging from 4,000 to 5,000 feet above the sea-level.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1-5/8 inches, of the female 1½
  inches. _On the upper side all the wings of the male are smoky-brown; the
  fore-wings have a large black ocellus near the apex, enclosing two white
  dots, followed by a smaller ocellus towards the dorsum; the hind-wings
  have three black spots near the termen, sometimes enclosing white dots._
  Occasionally these ocelli are surrounded by a patch of deep
  reddish-brown. The female is much paler, with large patches of
  yellowish-brown surrounding the ocelli. On the under side the fore-wings
  of the male are smoky-brown, with an irregular blotch of reddish-brown
  near the apex, surrounding a small white-centred black ocellus. _The
  hind-wings are dark reddish-brown, with several conspicuous black-edged
  silvery markings, and four yellowish-red spots near the termen._ The
  under side of the female is very much paler.

This butterfly varies considerably on the upper side in the number and size
of the ocelli, and in the extent of the reddish-brown markings which
surround them; on the under side the silvery spots on the hind-wings are
also variable.

The perfect insect has been taken in January and March. It evidently
frequents mountains in the South Island, at elevations of about 4,000 feet,
but does not appear to be generally distributed in such localities. It
seldom settles on the shingle, mostly resting on the snow grass, on which
its larva probably feeds. It is a smaller insect than _E. pluto_, and flies
much more feebly. These characteristics will at once enable the collector
to distinguish it from _E. pluto_ when on the wing.

Immediately a cloud obscures the sun these butterflies retreat into the
tufts of the snow grass, remaining closely hidden there until the sun
shines out again. This circumstance makes the capture of the insect, even
in a favourable locality, a matter of considerable uncertainty, as bright
sunshine is more often the exception than the rule on the summits of high
mountains.


Family 3.--LYCÆNIDÆ.

  "Anterior legs developed, but tarsi of [M] more or less abbreviated, or
  with one or both claws absent; posterior tibiæ without middle spurs.
  Fore-wings with vein 7 absent, 8 and 9 stalked or coincident. Hind-wings
  without præcostal spur." (Plate I., figs. 15, 16, neuration of
  _Chrysophanus salustius_.)

"The family is large and very generally distributed. The species are of
moderate size or more often rather small, usually blue, dark brown, or
coppery-orange in colouring, often with series of small black pale-ringed
spots on lower surface.

{116}"Ovum flattened--spherical or subcylindrical, reticulated and
sometimes ribbed, seldom smooth. Larva stout, with few hairs. Pupa attached
by tail and a central belt of silk, or sometimes unattached or
subterranean."--(Meyrick.)

We have two genera represented in New Zealand, viz.:--

1. CHRYSOPHANUS.    2. LYCÆNA.


Genus 1.--CHRYSOPHANUS, Hb.

  "Eyes glabrous. Club of antennæ elongate. Fore-wings with vein 6
  separate, 8 and 9 stalked." (Plate I., figs. 15 and 16 neuration of _C.
  salustius_).

"An extensive and nearly cosmopolitan genus. Larva short, stout, attenuated
at extremities, with short hairs. Pupa attached by the tail and central
belt of silk, or sometimes unattached on the ground."--(Meyrick.)

There are three New Zealand species.


CHRYSOPHANUS SALUSTIUS, Fabr.

  (_Chrysophanus salustius_, Fabr., Butler, Butterflies of N. Z., Trans. N.
  Z. Inst. x. 263. _Chrysophanus rauparaha_, Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst.
  ix. 460. _Chrysophanus maui_, ib. x. 252.)

(Plate XII., fig. 18 [M], 19 [F], 20 and 21 under side;  Plate XIII., figs.
2, 3, 4, and 5 varieties.)

This pretty little butterfly appears to be very common in most parts of New
Zealand. I have records of its occurrence in abundance at various
localities, from Napier southwards to Invercargill.

  The expansion of the wings varies from 1 to 1½ inches. _On the upper side
  all the wings are brilliant shining copper, with black markings._
  Fore-wings with three spots near the middle, then a row of black spots,
  often forming a band nearly parallel with the termen, another row on the
  termen, generally touching the narrow black border of the wing.
  Hind-wings resembling fore-wings, except that there is only one elongate
  spot in the centre, and the terminal series of spots is nearly always
  separated from the black border. In the female the black spots are united
  and form bands, those on the termen often having violet or blue centres.
  The veins in both sexes are indicated by black lines, which are often
  double in the male, when the vein itself is coppery. On the under side
  the fore-wings are orange-brown, bordered with yellow; the spots resemble
  those of the upper side, except that the terminal series are generally
  faint or obsolete towards the costa. The hind-wings vary from light
  yellow to dull brown; the spots are dull greyish, the posterior series
  often having white centres.

From the foregoing it may be seen that the variation in this insect is
considerable. After a careful examination of a large number of specimens
taken at various localities in both North and South Islands, I am, however,
unable to find characters of sufficient constancy to entitle any of the
forms to specific rank. The most striking of these varieties appears to be
that described by Mr. Bates as _Chrysophanus feredayi_.[55] (See Plate
XIII., fig. 2, upper side; Plate XII., fig. 21, under side.) On the upper
surface it has the central series of spots almost forming a band in the
male, and the coppery ground colour is paler than in the typical form. On
the under side the borders of the fore-wings, and the whole of the
hind-wings are dull brown. This form closely resembles _C. rauparaha_,
Fereday.[56] _C. maui_, Fereday, is evidently that variety of the male
having the veins bordered with two fine black lines. Mr. Fereday states
that he has never been able to find the female of his _C. maui_. This is
readily accounted for by the fact, that the female of _C. maui_ is nothing
more than the female of _C. salustius_.

Recently two very remarkable aberrations of _C. salustius_ have come under
my {117}notice; one captured by Mr. Hawthorne at Karori, in which the
hind-wings are almost entirely suffused with blackish-brown, excepting a
small patch of copper colour near the centre, and two patches on the
termen. Another specimen, taken by Mr. Grapes near Paraparaumu, has the
fore-wings also suffused with blackish-brown, except near the middle, where
there are five coppery patches between the veins. On the under side there
are six large oblong spots near the termen of the fore-wings, and a series
of dusky oblong spots on the hind-wings. (See Plate XIII., fig. 3, fig. 4
under side.) Plate XIII., fig. 5, represents another variety discovered by
Mr. Grapes on the coast near Paikakariki, in the Wellington district. It is
remarkable for the bright blue terminal spots which are present in both
sexes.

The eggs of _C. salustius_, when first deposited, are pale green with
yellow reticulations, the whole egg having a honeycombed appearance when
magnified. They become uniform pale yellow before hatching. The young larva
is shaped somewhat like a wood-louse. The head is quite hidden by the three
anterior segments, which are much larger than the rest. After the first
moult the larva becomes bright green, with a crimson line down the back;
the head is then larger, and the three anterior segments considerably
reduced. Unfortunately the life-history could not be investigated beyond
this point, as the larvæ all died. The time of year when this occurred was
late autumn, and it therefore seems probable that the larvæ hibernate and
undergo their transformation early the following spring.

The perfect insect first appears in November and continues abundant until
the middle or end of February. Specimens of what I believe to be a second
brood may be taken in March and April if the weather be fine, but in stormy
seasons these are frequently not observed. I have also noticed that the
autumnal specimens are usually smaller and paler in colour than those
captured in the spring.

This butterfly frequents open situations, and in fine, sunny weather it is
often very common.


CHRYSOPHANUS ENYSII, Butl.

(_Chrysophanus enysii_, Butler, Ent. Mo. Mag. xiii. 153 (1876).)

(Plate XII., fig. 22 [M], 23 [F], 24 under side.)

This species is tolerably common in the Wellington district, and I expect
it will be found to occur in most localities in the North Island. I have
also taken the insect at Nelson, but have not heard of its capture
elsewhere in the South Island.

  The expansion of the wings varies from 1 to 1¼ inches. On the upper
  surface both sexes resemble some of the females of _Chrysophanus
  salustius_, except that the dark markings are very much broader, and the
  coppery colour is paler and less lustrous. On the under side the
  fore-wings are pale yellowish-brown, bordered with darker brown, with
  three black spots near the middle, and a chain of black spots beyond the
  middle. _The hind-wings are yellow, with a very large irregular patch of
  purplish brown extending over the costal and terminal portions._

This insect varies chiefly in the extent of the dark markings on the upper
side, which sometimes very much encroach on the golden ground colour. The
spaces between veins 2, 3, and 4, near their origin are sometimes yellow
and sometimes black, but, as every intermediate form exists, cannot be
distinguished as species. Mr. Fereday regards the form with the black
spaces as _C. feredayi_, Bates. As previously stated, however, I am
inclined to think that _C. feredayi_, Bates, is the same form as _C.
rauparaha_, Fereday.

{118}This butterfly is essentially a forest-loving species, and may
sometimes be taken quite plentifully in sunny openings on fine days, during
December and January. It is not nearly so common as _C. salustius_, and I
do not think that there is more than a single brood in a season.


CHRYSOPHANUS BOLDENARUM, White.

  (_Lycæna boldenarum_, White, Proc. Ent. Soc., Ser. 3, 1, p. 26 (1862).
  _Chrysophanus boldenarum_, Butl., Zool. Erebus and Terror, Ins. Lep., p.
  29, n. 8, pl. 8, figs. 8, 9 (1874).)

(Plate XII., figs. 13, 14, [M] varieties, 15 under side of [M], 16 [F], 17
under side of [F].)

This brilliant little butterfly is very common in most localities in the
South Island. In the North Island it has occurred at Lakes Wairarapa and
Taupo.

  The expansion of the wings is 7/8 inch. On the upper side the male has
  all the wings brown, _tinged with the most brilliant glistening purple_.
  The fore-wings have two or three black spots near the middle, a curved
  series beyond the middle, and on the termen. The hind-wings have two
  black spots near the middle, a series beyond the middle, and a terminal
  series, generally with blue centres. All the wings are narrowly bordered
  with black. The female is pale yellowish-brown, the spots resemble those
  of the male, except that all the marginal series have bright purple or
  blue centres. On the under side the fore-wings of both sexes are pale
  yellow, bordered with slaty-blue: the spots are the same as on the upper
  side. The hind-wings are brownish-grey in male, slaty-grey in female,
  with the basal portion darker, and the spots of the upper side always
  indicated.

This insect is extremely variable, but I do not think it likely that any of
the numerous forms will prove sufficiently constant to be regarded as
distinct species. The male varies in the size and number of the black
spots, many of which are often absent; in the extent of the purple sheen
which is sometimes absent from the hind-wings, sometimes partially absent
from the fore-wings, and sometimes extends over the whole of both pairs of
wings; also in the colour of such sheen, which often inclines towards blue.
Some specimens are much paler than others, and so far as my experience
goes, these are chiefly found at considerable elevations; in such
specimens, the ground colouring inclines towards yellow or orange, and the
purple sheen is very brilliant, and extends over the whole of the wings.
The female of this form is proportionately paler. Other specimens have the
hind-wings almost black with no purple sheen, whilst in others the purple
sheen remains. Another form has the usual markings, but the hind-wings are
deep orange-brown, without purple sheen, which is also absent from the
outer portions of the fore-wings. One female in my collection is dull
brown, with yellow markings between the two rows of black spots. The under
side is still more variable. One very striking form has only the basal
portions of the fore-wings yellow, the rest of the ground colour is pale
bluish-grey, and the spots black. On the hind-wings there are a number of
black spots near the base; then an irregular band of black, and then a
double row of marginal spots. An almost unlimited number of varieties
appears to connect this form with one, in which all the markings on the
hind-wings are nearly obsolete. The specimens of this insect taken in each
district appear to exhibit differences from those taken elsewhere, but
specimens also differ from the same district, so that at present we are
unable to detect any well-marked local variation, or topomorphism, as it
has been termed. It is consequently highly desirable that collectors should
endeavour to obtain specimens from as many localities as possible, so that
the nature of the variation of this butterfly may be better understood.

Mr. Fereday states[57] that after carefully examining a patch of _Donatia
{119}novæzealandiæ_, a plant he had noticed much frequented by this
butterfly, he succeeded in finding a larva which there could be little
doubt would have given rise to this insect, had it lived. The following is
taken from his description: The caterpillar is shaped like a wood-louse,
hairy, and pale green. There is a series of conical purplish spots down the
back, edged first with white, and then with dull red. On the sides there is
a series of pale pinkish oblique stripes, blended with dull red towards the
spiracles.

The perfect insect is very common in dry, stony places, generally near
river-beds, during January, February and March. It flies only a short
distance when disturbed, but is very quick on the wing, and hence difficult
to catch until one becomes accustomed to it. In some places these little
butterflies are so abundant that they take wing like a swarm of blow-flies.
They seldom open their wings whilst at rest, so that when perched on the
ground they are very inconspicuous.


Genus 2.--LYCÆNA, F.

  "Eyes hairy. Club of antennæ elongate. Fore-wings with vein 6 separate, 8
  and 9 stalked.

"A large genus of nearly universal distribution. Imago usually with a horny
apical hook on anterior tibiæ. Larva short, stout, attenuated at
extremities, with short hairs. Pupa attached by tail and often a central
belt of silk, or unattached or subterranean."--(Meyrick.)

Represented in New Zealand by two species.


LYCÆNA PHOEBE, Murray.

(_Lycæna phoebe_, Murray, Ent. Mo. Mag., 1873, 107.)

(Plate XII., fig. 10, 11 under side.)

This little butterfly is extremely abundant in the neighbourhood of Nelson.
I have also taken it in plenty in several localities in the Wellington
district, and suspect it is common throughout the North Island. In other
parts of the South Island its place appears to be taken by _L. oxleyi_.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1 inch, of the female 7/8 inch.
  On the upper side all the wings are pale blue, broadly bordered with dull
  brown. The cilia are white, faintly barred with brownish. _On the under
  side all the wings, are pale slaty-grey._ There is a faint blackish spot,
  edged with white, near the middle of the fore-wings, and two rows of
  similar spots near the termen. The hind-wings have several very faint
  white-edged spots near the base, a row near the middle, and another row
  almost entirely white near the termen.

The perfect insect frequents waste grounds and sandhills, generally beside
roads and river-beds, and when found is usually very common. It is on the
wing from the beginning of October until the end of March.


LYCÆNA OXLEYI, Feld.

(_Lycæna oxleyi_, Felder, Reise de Novara Lep. ii., 280, pl. 35, fig. 6,
1865.)

(Plate XII., fig. 12 under side.)

According to Mr. Enys[58] this butterfly is common in both islands. I have
taken specimens in the Canterbury and Nelson districts.

  On the upper side this species can only be distinguished from the
  preceding by its somewhat brighter colour, and by the cilia which are
  more sharply barred with brown. _On the under side the whole of the
  fore-wings, and the central portions of the hind-wings between the outer
  and inner series of spots, are much darker and browner than in L.
  phoebe_; the spots themselves are also considerably darker, and the
  central series of the hind-wings is almost black. A careful examination,
  however, shows that the markings are practically identical in both
  species, although of different degrees of {120}intensity. In view of the
  great variability, which many species of this genus are known to exhibit
  in other countries, I am inclined to think that this butterfly's claim to
  specific distinction is a very slender one.

The perfect insect may be taken in similar situations to _Lycæna phoebe_.


REPUTED NEW ZEALAND BUTTERFLIES.

The following species are recorded by various observers as having occurred
in New Zealand. In nearly every case they are only represented by single
specimens. They cannot, in my opinion, be regarded as properly belonging to
the fauna:--


1. HAMADRYAS ZOILUS,[59] Fabr.

  The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. On the upper side all the wings are
  black, becoming brown towards the base; the fore-wings have three dull
  white spots near the apex; the hind-wings have the whole of the central
  portions white.

Stated by Dieffenbach to occur in New Zealand, probably in error, as it has
not since been observed. An Australian species. Mr. W. W. Smith, however,
informs me, that his eldest son recently saw near Ashburton a specimen of
what he believed to be this butterfly; but as he was unable to capture it
he cannot speak with any degree of certainty.


2. EUPLOÆ ---- sp?

  The expansion of the wings is 2¾ inches. On the upper side all the wings
  are dull, brownish-black, with a series of large white terminal spots.

Two or three specimens of this insect are stated by Mr. T. W. Kirk to have
been taken near Flat Point on the east coast of the North Island, but no
further details are forthcoming. The late Mr. Olliff, to whom I forwarded a
sketch of the insect, informed me that it was not represented in the Sydney
collections of Australian and South Sea Island butterflies, but he thought
it might be a Malayan species of _Euploæ_.


3. VANESSA ATALANTA,[60] L.

  The expansion of the wings is from 2½ to 2¾ inches. "The fore-wings are
  black, with a broad deep red central band, and with one large and five
  small white spots near the apex. The hind-wings are black, with a broad
  deep red band at the termen, in which are four black spots; at the tornus
  is a large blue-and-black spot."[61]

Mr. T. W. Kirk states[62] that he captured a specimen of this familiar
English butterfly in the Wellington Botanical Gardens, in the summer of
1881. On a subsequent occasion he saw several others. No specimens have
since been detected.


4. VANESSA URTICÆ, L.

  The expansion of the wings is from 2 to 2¼ inches. "The fore-wings are
  reddish-orange with three large black spots on the costa (the third
  followed by a white spot), two smaller black spots near the centre, and
  one large one on the dorsum; a dark border, containing cresentic blue
  spots, runs along the termen. The hind-wings are black at the base, then
  reddish-orange, with a blue-spotted dark border along the termen."[63]

Mr. Kirk states[64] that he also obtained specimens of this very common
English butterfly during the same season and in the same locality as
_Vanessa atalanta_. None have been seen by other observers.


{121}5. CATOPSILIA CATILLA,[65] Cramer.

  The expansion of  the wings is nearly 3 inches. On the upper side all the
  wings of the male are pale sulphur-yellow, with a minute brown mark at
  the apex. The female is paler, with a brown spot in the centre of the
  fore-wings, and a chain of brown spots on the termen towards the apex.

A single male specimen of this butterfly was captured in the grounds of St.
John's College, Auckland, and is now in the Auckland Museum. The species is
very common in Australia, and as this is the only specimen observed it was
no doubt accidentally introduced from that country on board a steamer.



{122}V.--THE PYRALIDINA.


Not dealt with in this volume.



VI.--THE PSYCHINA.


The _Psychina_ are distinguished by the following characters:--

  "Eyes glabrous. Maxillary palpi rudimentary or obsolete (yet sometimes
  well marked in pupa). Posterior tibiæ, with spurs very short, middle
  spurs often absent. Fore-wings with vein 1_b_ furcate, 1_c_ usually
  developed, 5 more or less approximated to 4. Hind-wings with frenulum,
  retinaculum often very broad, 1_c_ present, 8 connected or anastomosing
  with cell." (See Plate I., figs. 30, 31 neuration of _Oeceticus
  omnivorus_.)

"This ancient group, which furnishes the origin of the five preceding, is
not now very prominent, though much more numerous in warm regions.

"Imago with fore-wings more or less elongate-triangular, hind-wings ovate,
often rather small.

"Larva with 10 prolegs, usually with few hairs.

"Pupa with segments 8-11 free, usually 7 also (except in _Psychidæ_), in
male 12 also; protruded from cocoon in emergence."--(Meyrick.)

The _Psychina_ and _Micropterygina_ are included amongst the _Micros_ by
most modern authors. I have, however, described and figured certain
conspicuous and interesting species belonging to both these groups. The
insects in question have, until so very recently, been regarded as
_Macros_, that I think it would be a mistake to omit them in the present
volume. There can, however, be no question that the modern view is the
correct one, and that notwithstanding the large size of some of the
species, they are really closely allied to those _Micro-Lepidoptera_, with
which they are now associated.

Of the _Psychina_ we have one family represented in New Zealand--the
_Psychidæ_.


Family 1.--PSYCHIDÆ.

  "Head densely rough-haired. Ocelli large. Tongue obsolete. Antennæ half
  the length of the fore-wings or less, in male strongly bi-pectinated to
  apex. Labial palpi very short, hairy. Thorax densely hairy above and
  beneath. Abdomen, femora, and tibiæ densely hairy, posterior tibiæ
  without middle spurs, end spurs extremely short. Fore-wings with vein
  1_a_ anastomosing with 1_b_ before middle; 1_c_ (if present) coincident
  with 1_b_ beyond middle, 7 absent. Hind-wings, with vein 8, connected by
  bar with upper margin of cell. Female apterous, without legs or developed
  antennæ.

{123}"A rather small family of universal distribution, but commoner in warm
countries. Male imago with thinly scaled wings, without markings; flight
strong and swift, sometimes in sunshine. The female is almost wholly
helpless; the abdomen is at first greatly distended with eggs, and
ultimately shrivels up.

"Ovum oval, smooth. Larva inhabiting a strong portable silken case, covered
with fragments of stick or refuse. Pupa within the larval
case."--(Meyrick.)

There are two genera in New Zealand closely allied to each other.

1. OECETICUS.    2. OROPHORA.


Genus 1.--OECETICUS, Guild.

  "Ocelli present. Antennæ 1/3, in male strongly bi-pectinated, much more
  shortly on apical half. Labial palpi extremely short, rough-haired.
  Abdomen in male very elongate, roughly hairy. Legs hairy, tibiæ without
  spurs, posterior tarsi extremely short and stout. Fore-wings with veins 4
  and 5 short-stalked, 7 sometimes out of 9, 8 and 9 stalked, forked
  parting-vein well defined. Hind-wings with veins 4 and 5 stalked, forked
  parting-vein well defined, 8 connected by bar with cell beyond middle. An
  additional vein (9) rising from 8 beyond bar, another (10) from 8 before
  bar, and another (11) from base of costa running into 8 before 10." (See
  Plate I., figs. 30, 31.)

"This generic name was wrongly spelt _Oiketicus_ by its originator and
others, for which there is no possible justification. I have corrected
it."--(Meyrick.)

Although I have made several examinations of fully denuded wings of _OE.
omnivorus_, I have been unable to discover any trace of the additional
veins mentioned by Mr. Meyrick. The hair-like scales which clothe the wings
of this insect are very long and slender, and might easily be mistaken for
a short vein, if placed in the requisite position. I am disposed to think
that the examination of undenuded specimens has led to the discrepancy
between the results.

We have one species.


OECETICUS OMNIVORUS, Fereday.

(_Liothula omnivora_, Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. x., 260, pl. ix.
_Oeceticus omnivorus_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 212.)

(Plate XIII., fig. 6 [M]; Plate III., fig. 26, larva in its case; fig. 25
ditto withdrawn from case.)

This interesting species is seldom seen as an imago in the natural state,
although the cases constructed by its larva are of common occurrence.
Specimens of these cases have been noticed at several localities between
Palmerston, in the North Island, and Invercargill, in the South Island, so
that apparently the insect is common, and generally distributed throughout
New Zealand.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is from 1¼ to 1½ inches. _The
  fore-wings are very elongate and narrow. All the wings are
  blackish-brown, and sparsely covered with scales_, the hind pair being
  semi-transparent. The body is very hairy, and deep black. The antennæ are
  broadly bi-pectinate at the base, becoming almost filiform towards the
  apex. The female insect is apterous, having a close superficial
  resemblance to a large maggot. The head and thorax are very small, and
  the legs and antennæ rudimentary. The extremity of the body is furnished
  with a two-jointed ovipositor, and there are a few scattered yellowish
  scales on various parts of the insect. Its length is about 1 inch.

The eggs of this species are deposited inside the old case, which the
female insect never leaves during the whole of her life. The young larva
when first hatched is about 1/8 inch in length. Its head and three anterior
segments are corneous and much larger than the others, which are rather
soft with the exception of the last one. These little {124}larvæ are
extremely active, and immediately after hatching leave the old case, and
roam in all directions over the tree, letting themselves down from branch
to branch by silken threads. They carry the posterior portion of their body
elevated in the air, walking whilst doing so by means of their strong
thoracic legs.

The food-plants of this species are numerous. The following are a few of
them: Manuka (_Leptospermum scoparium_ and _ericoides_, _Cupressus
macrocarpa_, _Pinus insignis_), and various species of willow, &c. These,
it will be observed, include several introduced trees. In fact, the insect
is a very general feeder. About three days after leaving the egg, the
little caterpillar constructs a minute, conical-shaped, silken case, which
it carries almost in an upright position on its posterior segments. Later
on in life this case becomes too heavy to be held vertically, and is
afterwards dragged along by the larva, and often allowed to hang downwards.
The case has two apertures--a large one in front, through which the head of
the larva is projected, and a smaller one at the posterior extremity, which
allows the pellets of excrement to fall out of the case, as soon as they
are evacuated.

Owing to the apterous and completely helpless condition of the female
imago, it is evident that the dispersal of this insect must take place in
the larval state. Distribution is of course quite impossible without a
female being transported in some way, and from observations made on a good
many larvæ of various ages, I am disposed to think that the migration of
this insect to new localities takes place at an early age, possibly soon
after its emergence from the egg. On this account I think that the
occurrence of the moth in both North and South Islands is of great
interest, as it would seem to indicate the existence of some connection
between the two islands, at a period not sufficiently remote to have
allowed any appreciable modification to take place in the insect's
structure and habits. At the same time, it should be borne in mind, that
the protection afforded the larva by its case, and its ability to feed on
so many different plants, may have rendered any modification unnecessary
for the preservation of the species during recent times. The length of the
full-grown caterpillar is about 1 inch. The head is dull yellow speckled
with black. The first three segments are very hard, dark brown, with
numerous white markings. The remaining segments are considerably thickened
near the middle of the insect, rudimentary prolegs being present on the
seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth segments of the larva. The anal prolegs
are very strong, and are furnished with numerous sharp hooklets, which
retain the larva very firmly in its case. As the caterpillar grows, it
increases the length of its domicile from the anterior, causing it
gradually to assume a more tubular form, tapering towards the posterior
aperture, which is enlarged from time to time. The outside is covered with
numerous fragmentary leaves and twigs of various sizes, placed
longitudinally on the case, and, frequently, near the anterior aperture the
materials, owing to their recent selection, are fresh and green. The
interior is lined with soft, smooth silk of a light brown colour, the
thickness of the whole fabric being about the same as that of an ordinary
kid glove, and so strong that it is impossible to tear it, or indeed to cut
it, except with sharp instruments. The size of the case, when the
caterpillar is mature, varies considerably, ranging from 2¼ to 3 inches or
more in length, and about ¼ inch in diameter, the widest portion being a
little behind the anterior aperture.

During the day the larva closes the entrance, and spins a loop of very
strong silk {125}over a twig, the ends being joined to the upper edges of
the case on each side; in this way it hangs suspended, the caterpillar
lying snugly within. I have often known a larva to remain thus for over
three weeks without moving, and afterwards resume feeding as before; this
probably occurs whilst the inmate is engaged in changing its skin. At night
the larvæ may be seen busily engaged: they project the head and first four
segments of the body beyond the case, and walk about with considerable
rapidity, often lowering themselves by means of silken threads; the only
locomotive organs are, of course, their strong thoracic legs, which appear
to easily fulfil their double function of moving both larva and case. If
disturbed, these insects at once retreat into their cases, closing the
anterior aperture with a silken cord, which is kept in readiness for the
purpose, and pulled from the inside by the retreating larva. This operation
is most rapidly performed, as the upper edges of the case are flexible, and
thus fold closely together, completely obstructing the entrance. When full
grown, this caterpillar fastens its case to a branch with a loop of strong
silk, which is drawn very tight, preventing the case from swinging when the
plant is moved by the wind, and also rendering the insect's habitation more
inconspicuous, by causing it to resemble a broken twig. The anterior
aperture is completely closed, the loose edges being drawn together and
fastened like a bag. The posterior end of the case is twisted up for some
little distance above the extremity, thus completely closing the opening
there situated. It is lined inside with a layer of very soft silk spun
loosely over the sides, and partly filling up each end. In the centre of
this the pupa lies with its head towards the lower portion of the case, the
old larval skin being thrust backwards amongst the loose silk above the
insect.

The male and female pupæ may very easily be distinguished. The male pupa is
rather attenuated, and has all the organs of the future moth plainly
indicated on the integument, as is usual with lepidopterous pupæ. The
female pupa, on the contrary, is merely a chain of segments, with a few
faint indications of rudimentary organs on the anterior extremity. It is,
moreover, much larger than the male pupa.

The insect remains in this condition during the winter months. About
September the male pupa works its way down to the lower end of the case,
forces open the old aperture there situated, and projects the head and
thorax, the pupa being secured from falling by the spines on its posterior
segments, which retain a firm hold in the silk. Its anterior portion then
breaks open, and the moth makes its escape, clinging to the outside of its
old habitation, and drying its wings.

The perfect insect must be about from September till December, but I have
never then observed it. The only specimen I have seen was noticed flying
very rapidly in the street in Wellington, in July. I was at first unable to
tell what species it was, as it had a most unusual appearance on the wing,
but its subsequent near approach enabled me to ascertain for certain that
it was a specimen of this insect. In captivity I have also noticed the
extreme activity of the male when first emerged. Indeed this moth is so
vivacious, that it often happens, owing to the emergence usually taking
place very early in the morning, that specimens are more or less injured by
their efforts to escape, before they are discovered in the breeding cage.
This restless energy of the male is no doubt essential to the insect's
well-being, as the females, hidden away in their cases and incapable of any
movement, must of necessity be very hard to discover. The power of
locomotion lost in the one sex is thus doubled in the other. Considering
the protection {126}afforded this insect by the case, which it inhabits
during its preparatory stages, its enormous mortality from the attacks of a
parasitic dipteron (_Eurigaster marginatus_) is very remarkable. In this
connection the following analysis of 38 cases, gathered at random, may be
of interest:--

  26 had parasites.
   8 were dead.
   2 contained eggs.
   2 contained living pupæ, 1 male and 1 female respectively.

Amongst some of these parasites I once obtained a specimen, which was in
its turn infested by a secondary or hyper-parasite, belonging to the genus
_Pteromalus_, in the order Hymenoptera. Eighteen of these minute insects
emerged from a single pupa of _E. marginatus_. The method by which the
_Pteromalus_ introduces its eggs into the dipterous larva, which is in its
turn enclosed in a caterpillar, is not at present known to entomologists;
but it seems probable that the eggs of the hyper-parasite are either
deposited in the eggs of the dipterous insect, or else on the very young
larvæ, before they penetrate the skin of the caterpillar.[66]


Genus 2.--OROPHORA, Fereday.

  "Ocelli present. Antennæ 2/3, in male moderately bi-pectinated
  throughout. Labial palpi rudimentary, hairy. Abdomen densely hairy.
  Fore-wings with veins 4 and 5 short-stalked, 7 and 8 out of 9. Hind-wings
  with veins 4 and 5 stalked, parting-vein well defined, 8 connected by bar
  with cell beyond middle, and additional vein (9) rising out of 8 before
  bar."

We have one species.


OROPHORA UNICOLOR, Butl.

  (_Psyche unicolor_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc., London, 1877, 381. _Orophora
  toumatou_, Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. x. 262, pl. ix. _Orophora
  unicolor_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 212.)

(Plate XIII., fig. 7 [M].)

This odd-looking little insect has been found by Mr. Fereday, at Rakaia.

  The expansion of the wings is hardly 1 inch. _All the wings are rather
  broad, rounded, and very sparsely covered with dusky brown hair-like
  scales_; the body is very hairy, and the antennæ are slightly
  bi-pectinated. The female is apterous.

The life-history is thus described by Mr. Fereday: "I have never seen the
larva. Its case measures in length about 16 lines (1-3/8 inches); the
exterior is covered with pieces of stems of grass from a line to 5 lines in
length, laid longitudinally and in the manner of thatch; the interior is
thinly lined with fine silk. The cases are found fixed to the twigs of the
Wild Irishman (_Discaria toumatou_), but it may be inferred from the
covering of the case, that it probably does not feed on the shrub but upon
the tussock grass, generally growing where the shrub is found. It is some
years since I found the cases on _Discaria toumatou_, growing in the
river-beds of the Rakaia and Waimakariri, on the Canterbury Plains, and I
did not find any case in its earlier stage before the larva had fed up and
changed into the pupa state."[67]

All Mr. Fereday's specimens were bred from the cases, and to the best of my
belief no one has ever observed the insect on the wing. It is evidently a
very scarce species, and is probably restricted to a few river-beds in the
South Island.



{127}VII.--THE TORTRICINA.


Not dealt with in this volume.



VIII.--THE TINEINA.


Not dealt with in this volume.



IX.--THE MICROPTERYGINA.

The following are the principal characters of the _Micropterygina_:--

  "Fore-wings with an oblique membranous dorsal process (jugum) near base,
  forming with the dorsal margin a notch or sinus, which receives the costa
  of the hind-wings. Hind-wings without frenulum, 1_c_ present, with 11 or
  more veins, neuration essentially, almost or quite identical with that of
  fore-wings. Fore-wings and hind-wings more than usually remote at origin.

"In the two families, which constitute this highly interesting group, is
fortunately preserved a type of _Lepidoptera_ whose existence could never
have been inferred from a study of other forms. Without a knowledge of
these two families the true origin of the order could never have been more
than a matter of more or less probable conjecture. The _Micropterygidæ_ are
the primeval ancestors of all the Lepidoptera, indicating their origin from
the _Trichoptera_ so nearly that one or two more discoveries might make it
hard to draw any line of demarcation. The _Hepialidæ_ are an offshoot from
the _Micropterygidæ_ (with considerable extinction of intermediate forms),
constituting a separate line of development quite unconnected with any
other _Lepidoptera_; if, as is possible, this separate stem may have ever
given rise to other branches forming distinct families, all trace of their
existence seems to have been lost.

"Imago with fore-wings and hind-wings more or less semi-oval, termen and
dorsum forming a nearly uniform curve.

"Larva with few hairs, with 10 to 16 prolegs, or apodal, living concealed.

"Pupa in _Hepialidæ_ with segments 7 to 11 and in male 12, in
_Micropterygidæ_ with all segments free."--(Meyrick.)

In this work the _Hepialidæ_ alone are dealt with, the _Micropterygidæ_
being reserved {128}for a future work. It may, however, again be mentioned
that the last-named family contains amongst its New Zealand representatives
_Palæomicra chalcophanes_, a species which more closely approximates in
structure to a Neuropterous insect than does any other member of the
_Lepidoptera_. This insect is consequently regarded by Mr. Meyrick as the
most ancient species of the order yet known. The survival of _Palæomicra_
in New Zealand is quite in accord with the existence of such forms as
_Apteryx_ and _Dinornis_ amongst the birds, the tuatara lizard
(_Sphenodon_) amongst reptiles, and _Peripatus_ amongst _Myriapoda_,
archaic forms which have been preserved in this country through its long
isolation from continental areas, and the resulting absence of more recent
competing forms.


Family 1.--HEPIALIDÆ.

  "Head rough. Ocelli absent. Tongue obsolete. Maxillary palpi obsolete.
  Tibiæ without spurs. Fore-wings with all main veins and costa connected
  by bars near base, 1_b_ furcate, forked parting vein strong." (Plate I.,
  figs. 22, 23, 24, 28, 29.)

"By no means an extensive family, yet of universal distribution. It stands
more conspicuously isolated than any other group of _Lepidoptera_, for
although it is without doubt a terminal development from the
_Micropterygidæ_ (that is one from which no existing family has
originated), the gap between them is considerable; exotic genera, whilst
differing in various details, are remarkably uniform in the more important
peculiarities of structure, and do not at all tend to bridge the gap. The
relatively large size of the _Hepialidæ_ (of which some species exceed six
inches in expanse of wing) may be attributed to the larval habits, which
render these insects independent of the seasons or fluctuations of
food-supply, thus removing the check which ordinarily limits growth. The
modified type of neuration may have resulted directly from the increase of
size, involving a great strengthening of the main veins beneath the costa
to support the weight. As a consequence of this strengthening, the flight
of the larger species is very powerful, and to this, combined with a choice
of larval food, which is often rather indiscriminate, may perhaps be
ascribed the wide range of the group, rather than to its antiquity. It is
probably of Indo-Malayan origin, and must have existed in that region long
enough to acquire fixity of type before its dispersal, which, geologically
speaking, may not have been exceedingly remote."--(Meyrick.)

There are two genera represented in New Zealand.

1. HEPIALUS.    2. PORINA.


Genus 1.--HEPIALUS, F.

  "Antennæ 1/8 to ¼, in male lamellate or simple. Palpi short, drooping,
  hairy. Posterior tibiæ usually densely rough-haired, in male sometimes
  with long projecting tuft above. Fore-wings with vein 7 from angle, 8
  remote, 9 and 10 stalked. Hind-wings as fore-wings, 8 seldom connate or
  stalked with 7." (Plate I., figs. 22 and 23, neuration of _Hepialus
  virescens_, 24 head of ditto.)

"A genus of universal distribution, but not very numerous in species. Ovum
spheroidal, smooth. Larva elongate, active. Pupa with segmental whorls of
spines, enabling it to move actively before emergence."--(Meyrick.)

Represented by one species only--the largest moth we have in New Zealand.


{129}HEPIALUS VIRESCENS, Dbld.

  (_Hepialus virescens_, Dbld., Dieff. New Zeal., ii. 284; White, Taylor
  New Zeal., pl. i. 6. _Hepialus rubroviridans_, White, l.c., pl. i. 1.
  _Charagia virescens_, Walk., Bomb., 1569; Scott, Trans. Ent. Soc. N. S.
  Wales, ii. 28. _C. fischeri_, Feld., pl. lxxx. 1. _C. hectori_, Butl.,
  Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 380. _Hepialus virescens_, Meyr., Trans. N.
  Z. Inst., xxii., 211.)

(Plate XIII., fig. 16 [M], 17 [F]; Plate III., fig. 23 larva, 30 pupa.)

This large and conspicuous insect appears to be generally distributed
throughout the North Island.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 4 inches, of the female
  sometimes fully 5½ inches. The fore-wings of the male are _bright green,
  with a series of paler ring-shaped markings between the veins; an
  irregular row of white spots crosses the wing near the middle_, and a
  small white spot is situated on the costa at the base. The hind-wings are
  very pale yellowish-brown near the body, becoming pure white in the
  middle, and pale green on the termen. The head and thorax are green, the
  abdomen is white, tinged with green at the apex. The female has all the
  wings of a relatively more attenuated shape; _the fore-wings are green,
  mottled with black_; the hind-wings are pale reddish-brown, shaded with
  green near the termen; the abdomen is also reddish-brown, becoming green
  at the extremity.

The species is rather variable in both sexes. In the male the white spots
on the fore-wings vary considerably in size, and there are occasionally
several additional spots near the body. In the female the black markings of
the fore-wings are sometimes much more extensive than the green ground
colour. This dark form of the female was described by Butler as a distinct
species, under the name of _Charagia hectori_. In both sexes the green
colouring is occasionally entirely absent, a dull orange-brown taking its
place. I formerly attributed this peculiarity to the effects of fading, but
Mr. Norris has shown me a very perfect specimen of this variety, which he
bred from the pupa, he having noticed the orange-brown colouring
immediately after the insect emerged.

The transformations of this insect are very interesting. The female lays an
enormous number of very small, round, yellowish eggs, which she seems to
deposit quite indiscriminately. The young larvæ consequently have to find
their way along the ground to the stems of their food-plant, a large
percentage no doubt perishing before they succeed in doing so, and this
circumstance probably accounts for the great number of eggs produced.

The food-plants of this species are numerous; the following are a few of
them: "wineberry" or "currant" (_Aristotelia racemosa_), apparently the
favourite; "manuka" (_Leptospermum ericoides_); "ki-ki" (_Astelia
solandri_); "black maire" (_Olea apetela_); titoki (_Alectryon excelsum_);
and _Melicope_. The larva tunnels the stems of these trees, feeding
entirely on the wood, which it bites off with its strong mandibles.

For the most part it inhabits the main stem of the tree, its gallery always
having an outlet, which is covered with a curtain of silk and refuse, and
is spun exactly level with the surrounding bark, and very inconspicuous.
These burrows usually run towards the ground, and are mostly two or three
inches from the surface of the trunk. In some instances the larvæ inhabit
branches, in which case, if they are small, the tunnels are made near the
centre. Later on in its life, but probably some time before its
transformation into the pupa, the caterpillar of this insect constructs a
far more complicated burrow than the above. It consists of a spacious,
irregular, but shallow cavity, just under the bark, having a very large
opening to the air, which is entirely covered {130}with a thin silken
curtain, almost exactly the same shape and size as the numerous marks
occurring at intervals on the trunks of many of the trees. Three large
tunnels open into this shallow cavity: one in the centre, which runs into
the middle of the stem, and one on each side, which run right and left just
under the bark. These lateral tunnels are usually very short, but sometimes
they extend half-way round the tree, and occasionally even join one another
on the opposite side. The central tunnel has a slightly upward direction
for a short distance inwards, which effectually prevents it from becoming
flooded in wet weather; afterwards it pursues an almost horizontal course
until it reaches the centre of the tree, when it appears to suddenly
terminate. This, however, is not the case, for, if the gallery floor be
carefully examined a short distance before its apparent termination, a
round trap-door will be found, compactly constructed of very hard, smooth
silk, and corresponding with the surrounding portion of the tunnel so
exactly that it almost escapes detection. When this lid is lifted a long,
perpendicular shaft is disclosed, which runs down the middle of the tree to
a depth of 14 or 16 inches, and is about ½ inch in diameter. The upper end
of this shaft is lined with silk, which forms a framework on which the
trap-door rests when closed. The lid itself is of a larger size than the
orifice which it covers, and this makes it extremely difficult, if not
impossible, to force it open from the exterior, especially as it always
fits down very closely as long as the insect remains in its burrow. The
object of this contrivance is, no doubt, to prevent the ingress of enemies,
large numbers of spiders, slugs, wood-lice, and various orthoptera being
frequently found in both central and lateral tunnels, but they are quite
unable to pass the trap-door. The galleries of individual larvæ are all
wonderfully alike, the only differences observable being in the length of
the perpendicular shaft, and in the direction of the horizontal burrow,
which is sometimes curved. These variations are usually caused by the
presence of other tunnels in the tree, which the larva appears to carefully
avoid; at least I have never known an instance where a larva has allowed
its tunnel to communicate with another one, whether inhabited or otherwise.

  The caterpillar, when full grown, measures from 2½ to 3 inches in length.
  It is tolerably uniform in thickness, and of a dull yellow colour. The
  head is large, dark brown, very irregularly striated, and covered with a
  few short bristles. The first segment is hard and shining with the back
  and sides ruddy-brown. Its spiracle, which is very large, is situated
  near the posterior margin, and a little above it there is a dull black
  spot, filling a slight concavity about the same size as the spiracle
  itself. Each remaining segment has on its dorsal surface two horny
  plates, and two similar plates are situated on each side immediately
  below the spiracle. The body of the larva is thinly covered with yellow
  and black bristles. In many specimens the ventral surface and connecting
  membrane between the horny plates is pale purple. Younger specimens
  differ in being of an olive-green colour, which is much more pronounced,
  when they are small.

The last act performed by the caterpillar, prior to undergoing its
transformation, is the construction of the above-described trap-door at the
top of its burrow. This done the insect retreats to the bottom, its
posterior segment resting on the termination of the vertical gallery. In
the course of a few days the skin is cast off and worked downwards to the
bottom of the burrow, underneath the last segment of the pupa.

  This pupa varies from 2 to 2½ inches in length. It is attenuated in form
  and pale reddish-yellow in colour. The head and dorsal portion of the
  thorax are dark brown and harder than the rest of the body. The edges of
  the abdominal segments are furnished dorsally with a row of small
  {131}hooklets above and below all the divisions; on the ventral surface
  there is only a single row, which is situated in front of each
  articulation.

As development progresses in the pupa it becomes darker in colour,
especially on the wing-cases, where, in some female specimens, the future
black markings of the moth are quite discernible as long as two months
before emergence. Other specimens remain pale in colour until within a
fortnight or three weeks of the appearance of the imago, when the green
colouring of the wings suddenly becomes visible through their
semi-transparent envelopes.

When about to emerge the pupa works its way up the vertical tunnel by means
of the above-mentioned hooklets, forces open the trap-door, and wriggles
along the horizontal burrow until it reaches the air, only the last three
or four segments remaining in the tree. Its anterior portions then break
open and the moth crawls out and expands its wings in the ordinary way,
resting on the trunk of the tree, until they are of sufficient strength and
hardness for flight.

The perfect insect appears in October and November. Although it must be
common, it is rarely seen; specimens are consequently best obtained in the
pupa state and reared in captivity. The easiest way to find the pupa is to
pass a straw into the horizontal burrow, and move it about until it touches
the trap-door. The collector is at once apprised of this circumstance by a
distinct hollow sound, produced by the straw when it comes in contact with
the lid, which acts like a miniature drum. If no such sound is heard after
moving the straw into every possible position, it may be assumed either
that the insect has left the burrow, or that it is inhabited by a larva
only. When, however, a pupa is actually discovered, a section of the
tree-trunk should be cut out, extending from about two inches above the
horizontal burrow to about one foot below it, and the log, thus obtained,
taken home. Should a number of pupæ be found in one tree the whole trunk
may then be taken, if practicable, and kept in a well-lighted room or a
conservatory, until the enclosed insects emerge. The specimens usually come
out of the pupa at about five or six o'clock in the evening, and if
intended for the cabinet should be killed before dark, as they very soon
injure themselves when flying.

The best time of year to obtain the pupa of this insect is during August
and September, as most of the specimens are then in that condition. Apart
from the indications above described, burrows containing larvæ may often be
known by the fresh pellets of excrement which are present near the opening.
The vacated burrows frequently have the remains of the old pupa shell at
the entrance, and generally look gnarled and weather-worn. These
indications are useful as guides to the collector before exploring the
burrow with a straw in the manner above described.

This insect is much attracted by light, and in consequence sometimes enters
shop-windows and houses. In fact nearly all the _captured_ specimens are so
taken, the moth being very rarely found in its native forests. This
circumstance is no doubt due to its very perfect protective colouring
which, notwithstanding its large size, causes it to be almost invisible,
when resting on the branch of a tree. On one occasion I discovered a
specimen in this situation; being obliged to leave it for a short time, I
experienced the utmost difficulty in finding it again, although I had taken
a special note of its position. This species appears to be much persecuted
by insectivorous birds, as we may frequently see its large green wings
lying on the ground, where they are very conspicuous.


{132}Genus 2.--PORINA.

  "Antennæ ¼-2/5, in male bi-pectinated, or more or less shortly
  bi-dentate. Palpi moderate, porrected, basal joint rough-haired, second
  joint rough-haired or almost smooth, terminal joint smooth, sometimes
  subclavate. Posterior tibiæ densely rough-haired. Fore-wings with vein 7
  from angle of cell, 8 and 9 out of 10, rising from upper margin much
  before angle. Hind-wings as in fore-wings."--(Meyrick.) (Plate I., figs.
  28 and 29 neuration of _Porina signata_.)

Of this genus we have eight species in New Zealand.


PORINA DINODES, Meyr.

(_Porina dinodes_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 206.)

(Plate XIII., fig. 8.)

This handsome species was discovered at Invercargill by Professor Hutton.

  The expansion of the wings is 2¾ inches. The fore-wings are dark brown.
  There is an irregular white mark with a brown centre at the base, several
  white dots and crescentic marks near the middle, an oblique series of
  double crescentic marks followed by a considerably fainter series near
  the termen. The hind-wings are yellowish-brown; the cilia of all the
  wings are white, barred with dark brown. _The antennæ of the male are
  strongly bi-pectinated._

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


PORINA MAIRI, Buller.

(_Porina mairi_, Buller, Trans. N. Z. Inst. v. 279, pl. xvii., Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 207.)

A single specimen of this fine species was discovered by Sir Walter Buller
on the Ruahine Ranges, in the Wellington district, during the summer of
1867.

  The expansion of the wings is about 5 inches. "Wings large, broad,
  front-wings produced, ovate-triangular, pale dirty testaceous; six black
  spots terminating veins on outer margin, and bounded by a lunated
  marginal white band; a submarginal series of arrow-headed black spots,
  and beyond these a series of rounded spots, the first four encircled with
  white, the rest with pale brown; two broken, black discal lines filled in
  with brown; a broad irregular band to below centre of wing, beyond cell,
  and formed of three black lines with brown interspaces; a triangular
  white spot below cell and a white patch terminating it and traversed by
  two black crosses; two diverging black bars surrounded with white in
  centre of cell and a third surrounded with dirty testaceous near base; a
  large irregular patch of whitish-brown below end of cell, bounded on
  internal area by three unequally formed patches which together almost
  form the sides of a large triangle; two small spots near base; hind-wings
  greyish, becoming browner towards outer margin and crossed by eight
  interrupted black bars."--(Buller).

The type specimen of this species was unfortunately lost in the wreck of
the barque 'Assaye' in 1890. I have copied the above from Sir Walter
Buller's original paper, and it may be well to point out that his
description proceeds from the termen to the base, being the _reverse_ order
to that followed by me in all the other descriptions in this work.

The so-called "vegetable caterpillar" (infested with the _Sphæria_ fungus
[_Cordiceps robertsii_]) is, I think, very probably the larva of this
insect. It was formerly supposed to be the larva of _Hepialus virescens_;
but I have pointed out elsewhere[68] that this is certainly erroneous, the
larva of _H. virescens_ living in the stems of trees, and never going
beneath the ground, even to pupate, whilst the "vegetable" larva is
subterranean. The real point to be discovered is the precise species of
_Lepidoptera_ this caterpillar would develop into, if not attacked by the
fungus; but at present no definite information has been obtained on the
subject.


{133}PORINA ENYSII, Butl.

(_Porina enysii_, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 381, pi. xlii. 7.
_Porina enysii_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 207.)

(Plate XIII., fig. 9 [M], fig. 10 [F].)

This species appears to be confined to the North Island, where it is rather
rare.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 2½ inches, of the female 3½
  inches. The fore-wings are dark orange-brown, more or less marbled with
  yellow and dark brown; there is a very variable number of small dull
  white spots margined with black and arranged irregularly on the wing.
  _The hind-wings are pinkish-brown, tinged with ochreous on the termen._

This species varies a good deal in the extent of the darker markings, and
number and position of the dull white spots. When alive it is usually very
strongly tinged with pink.

The perfect insect appears in December and January, and frequents forests.
It is especially fond of resting on the stems of tree-ferns in the daytime,
where, however, it is extremely inconspicuous, and can only be discovered
by very careful searching. It is also very partial to light, and specimens
might perhaps be secured more plentifully, if a good attracting lamp were
exhibited in a suitable locality.


PORINA CHARACTERIFERA, Walk.

(_Hepialus characterifer_, Walk., Suppl. 594. _Oxycanus impletus_, ib. 598.
_Porina characterifera_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 208.)

(Plate XIII., fig. 11 [M].)

This fine species has been taken in the North Island at Auckland, Kaitoke,
and Wellington.

  The expansion of the wings is about 3 inches. The fore-wings are rather
  dull yellow, finely marbled with black; _there are two conspicuous
  irregular black marks a little above the middle of the dorsum. The
  hind-wings are very dark purplish-brown with the cilia yellow, barred
  with brown._ The head and thorax are dull yellow, speckled with black,
  and the abdomen is dark purplish-brown, barred with dull white, with a
  yellow tuft at the apex.

The perfect insect appears in October, November, and December. At present I
am only aware of four specimens in collections, viz., two in the British
Museum, taken at Auckland; one in Mr. Meyrick's collection, taken by Mr. H.
B. Kirk on the Rimutaka Ranges, at an elevation of about 1,500 feet; and
one kindly given to me by Mr. W. R. Morris, who took it at Wadestown, near
Wellington.[69] It is evidently a scarce species, but may be looked for in
the forest districts of the North Island.


PORINA CERVINATA, Walk.

  (_Elhamma cervinata_, Walk., Suppl. 595. _Porina vexata_, ib. 597.
  _Pielus variolaris_, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 1. _Porina fuliginea_, Butl.,
  Cist. Ent. ii. 488. _Porina cervinata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii.
  208.)

(Plate XIII., fig. 12 [M], fig. 18 variety of [F].)

This insect is fairly common, and generally distributed throughout the
country. It is very abundant in the Manawatu district.

  The expansion of the wings is about 1½ inches. The fore-wings vary from
  brownish-black to dull yellow; there are several small white spots near
  the base margined with black, and an obscure cloudy central streak,
  sometimes containing one or two minute irregular white marks; near the
  termen a broad, pale, wavy line runs from the costa to the dorsum, and
  contains several elongate dull white spots, margined with black; another
  series of smaller spots is often situated between this line and the
  termen; there is a terminal row of small black spots. The {134}hind-wings
  vary from pale greyish-brown to dull yellow. The cilia of all the wings
  are barred with dark brown.

This species is extremely variable. In many cases a large number of the
spots is wanting. Mr. Meyrick states that the northern specimens are more
yellow-ochreous, and more distinctly spotted than the southern ones. He
adds that "the ochreous forms are easily distinguished from other species
by the numerous spots and the absence of a continuous pale discal streak;
the fuscous forms are sometimes very similar in colouring to _P. despecta_,
but they are distinctly shorter-winged, and the compound discal spots
appear to be a good character."

I have taken several specimens of what appears to be a variety of this
species on the Tableland of Mount Arthur. It is much paler than the typical
form, the markings much less distinct, and the central portions of the
fore-wings very pale yellow (see fig. 18).

The moth appears in October. It is very much attracted by light.


PORINA DESPECTA, Walk.

(_Hepialus despectus_, Walk., Suppl. 594. _Porina despecta_, Meyr., Trans.
N. Z. Inst. xxii. 209.)

(Plate XIII., fig. 13 [F].)

This species has occurred in the South Island, at Christchurch, the Otira
River and Lake Wakatipu.

  The expansion of the wings is from 1½ to 1¾ inches. The fore-wings are
  dull brown with several irregular dull white markings near the centre of
  the wing. The hind-wings are also dull brown. In general appearance it
  closely resembles the last-mentioned species (_P. cervinata_), _but may
  always be recognised by its longer and narrower wings, smaller body and
  antennæ, and absence of distinct markings near the termen_.

The perfect insect appears in January, and is usually taken at light.


PORINA  UMBRACULATA, Gn.

(_Pielus umbraculatus_, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 1. _Porina umbraculata_,
Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 209.)

(Plate XIII., fig. 14 [M].)

This species is probably common, and generally distributed throughout the
country. It has been taken at Palmerston, North Wellington, Nelson,
Christchurch, Invercargill and Stewart Island.

  The expansion of the wings of the male is 1¾ inches, of the female 2¼
  inches. The fore-wings are dull yellowish-brown; _in the centre there is
  a broad longitudinal blackish streak, containing a conspicuous straight
  white stripe, occasionally broken into two or three very elongate spots_;
  there are often several black dots along the termen. The hind-wings are
  dull ochreous, strongly tinged with pink towards the base.

This species varies considerably in the depth of the ground colour, and in
the number of the black dots. A blackish shaded line, parallel to the
termen, is also frequently present. The species may, however, be at once
recognised by the straight, white, central stripe of the fore-wings.

The perfect insect appears from October till January, and is generally
captured at light.


PORINA SIGNATA, Walk.

(_Elhamma signata_, Walk., Bomb. 1563. _Porina novæ-zealandiæ_, ib. 1573.
_Porina signata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 210.)

(Plate XIII., fig. 15 [M]; Plate III., fig. 6 larva.)

Apparently an abundant species in the North Island, having been taken
{135}commonly at Napier, Palmerston and Wellington. I suspect it occurs in
the South Island also, but I have no records of its capture there.

  The expansion of the wings is from 2 to 2¼ inches. The fore-wings are
  dark brownish-ochreous, becoming dull white near the middle and on the
  termen; _there is a shaded central, longitudinal, blackish band
  containing several white spots, forming an irregular stripe in the middle
  of the wing_; there are also many irregular markings with dull white
  centres, chiefly situated near the veins, and often arranged in two or
  three rows parallel to the termen. All the markings are very variable,
  but the insect may be at once known by the irregular central white
  stripe. When alive the entire colouring is always strongly tinged with
  pink.

I have often found a large subterranean caterpillar, that I believe to be
the larva of this insect; but as I have never succeeded in rearing a
specimen, I cannot assign it to this species with absolute certainty.

  The length of this larva when full grown is nearly 3 inches. Its colour
  is dirty white, becoming darker on the back. The head is dark brown, very
  rough and horny; the three first segments are also horny on the dorsal
  surface. The rest of the body is very much softer, and is furnished with
  several horny tubercles, each of which emits a long bristle.

This larva is very lively when disturbed. It usually disgorges a large
quantity of black juice from the mouth, biting meantime, in order no doubt
to frighten its enemies. It feeds on the roots of various grasses.

The perfect insect appears in January, February and March, and is often
extremely abundant at light.



{137}APPENDIX.

BY FLORENCE W. HUDSON.

A BRIEF DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF THE PLANTS MENTIONED IN THIS WORK.


The following list of trees, shrubs, &c, has been prepared to assist
entomologists in recognising the various food-plants mentioned in
connection with the insects described in the foregoing pages. In order to
meet the requirements of beginners, all botanical terms have been omitted.
Those desiring precise scientific information on these plants, will of
course consult works specially dealing with botany.

  ACIPHYLLA SQUARROSA (Spear-grass). A plant often found on the sea-coast,
  or open hilly country, with long, very sharp spines instead of leaves.
  The flowers are very small, and are placed round a tall central shoot,
  which is also covered with spines.

  ASCLEPIAS (Milkweed).

  ASTELIA SOLANDRI. A plant found growing on the stems of large forest
  trees. It has very long, narrow, dark green leaves springing from the
  base of the plant, and lemon-coloured flowers arranged on a long stem.
  The berries are bright crimson.

  ALECTRYON EXCELSUM (Titoki). A moderate-sized tree with leaves rather
  long, toothed, and light green. The fruit has a very remarkable
  appearance; it consists of a shining black seed, partially surrounded by
  a bright red fleshy covering.

  APOCYNUM (the common Periwinkle).

  ARISTOTELIA RACEMOSA (Wine-berry, New Zealand Currant, Makomako). A
  well-known tree, often found in clearings in the forest, where it usually
  takes the place of the original trees; in fact this plant seems to seize
  on every vacant space. Its leaves are pale green, the flowers are much
  like those of the garden "flowering currant," and the berries are small
  and dark red.

  BEILSCHMIEDIA TAWA (Tawa tree). A handsome tree, with very long, narrow,
  light green leaves, and smooth bark.

  BRACHYGLOTTIS REPANDA (Wharangi). One of the early flowering shrubs, with
  large bunches of small, strong-scented, white flowers. The leaves are
  large and pale green, the under side being white.

  CARMICHÆLIA, or New Zealand Broom. A genus of shrubs closely resembling
  the common broom, but with very small flowers, more or less streaked with
  blue or lilac.

  {138}CARPODETUS SERRATUS. A pretty shrub or small tree with rather small,
  serrated, bright green leaves and numerous clusters of small whitish
  fragrant flowers, followed by nearly globular hard green fruits.

  CAREX SUBDOLA (Sedge).

  COPROSMA. A genus of shrubs with small, generally rather dull green
  leaves, insignificant flowers, and bright, variously coloured berries.
  One common species, _Coprosma foetidissima_, has a most objectionable
  odour when cut or bruised.

  CORDYLINE AUSTRALIS (Ti-tri, or Cabbage tree, as it is usually called).
  This is one of the most remarkable-looking trees in New Zealand. It much
  resembles a palm in general appearance. The leaves are long and narrow,
  with parallel veins; the flowers are whitish, very numerous, growing in
  drooping clusters at the top of the tree.

  CYATHEA DEALBATA (Silver tree fern). A large tree fern, growing from ten
  to forty feet high, with a slender black stem, and dark green fronds
  silvery underneath.

  DISCARIA TOUMATOU (Wild Irishman, Tumatakuru). A straggling shrub, or
  small tree, often common in dry, open places. It is furnished with
  numerous long sharp spines, with several very insignificant flowers and
  leaves at the base of each spine.

  DONATIA NOVÆZEALANDIÆ. A small Alpine plant, with very short stems,
  around each of which are placed numerous leaves. It has a superficial
  resemblance to a moss.

  FAGUS CLIFFORTIOIDES (Mountain Beech, but more often known as Birch or
  Black Birch). A very handsome forest tree, usually growing in somewhat
  elevated localities. It has small light green leaves, and black stems
  with very rough bark.

  FUCHSIA EXCORTICATA (our native Fuchsia). A very common tree or shrub
  growing in the forest. The bark is pale reddish-brown; the leaves rather
  elongate, dark green, with pale under-side. The flowers closely resemble
  those of the cultivated fuchsia, but are less brightly coloured. This
  plant partially sheds its leaves in winter.

  GALINIA SETIFOLIA. A large, grass-like plant growing in clumps, with very
  long, dark green leaves, which cut the fingers unless the plant is
  carefully handled. A number of small, brown flowers is situated near the
  top of a tall stem, in the centre of each clump.

  HALORAGIS ALATA. A herbaceous plant abundant on dry hills; the leaves are
  deeply indented, slightly rough, and arranged on opposite sides of the
  stem. The flowers are small and green; the fruit is a nut with small
  wings attached.

  LEPTOSPERMUM SCOPARIUM (Manuka, Tea tree). A small tree, growing usually
  in poor soil. The leaves are very small and dull green, and the numerous
  star-like flowers are white, tinged with pink.

  MELICOPE SIMPLEX. A somewhat straggling shrub with very small, roundish,
  light green leaves.

  MELICYTUS RAMIFLORUS (Mahoe or Hinahina). A shrub or tree. The leaves are
  moderately toothed, bright green, and very pretty. The flowers are in
  clusters, hanging from the bases of the leaves; the fruit is
  violet-coloured with black seeds.

  METROSIDEROS SCANDENS (White Rata). A common climbing shrub with small,
  roundish, glossy, dark green leaves and very numerous feathery white
  flowers. The seed has a powdery appearance, and is enclosed in a large
  capsule.

  {139}MUHLENBECKIA ADPRESSA. A common climbing plant, generally found near
  the edge of the forest. It has a very tangled growth. Leaves heart-shaped
  or broadly oblong; in young plants, three-lobed; spike, many-flowered.

  MYOSOTIS ARVENSIS (Forget-me-not).

  MYRTUS BULLATA (Ramarama). A remarkably pretty shrub with reddish-brown
  or green leaves, much crinkled. The flowers are white, tinged with pink,
  and very much resemble those of the English myrtle. Berries about the
  size of currants, red or purple.

  OENOTHERA BIENNIS (the Evening Primrose). This herb grows to the height
  of two or three feet. It has large, bright yellow flowers, opening
  towards evening. Found in sandy soil on the sea-coast.

  OLEA APETALA (Maire, New Zealand Olive). A shrub or small tree with broad
  leaves, and insignificant flowers growing on opposite sides of the
  flower-stalk.

  OLEARIA TRAVERSII (Ake-ake). A small tree or shrub with oval, very wavy,
  thick, pale green leaves, white underneath. The flowers are very small,
  yellowish-white and strongly scented. They do not appear till late in
  autumn.

  PANAX ARBOREA. A small tree with bright, glossy green, compound leaves.
  Each leaf consists of five separate leaflets on distinct footstalks,
  connected with branch by a long, stout stem. The large bunches of black
  berries are very conspicuous in the autumn.

  PENNANTIA CORYMBOSA. A small tree with oval, serrated, bright green
  leaves, and handsome clusters of sweet-scented white flowers.

  PIPER EXCELSUM (Kawa-kawa). A small tree generally growing in damp
  places. The leaves are broad, heart-shaped, bright green, and nearly
  always riddled with holes.

  PITTOSPORUM EUGENIOIDES (Tarata). A shrub or small tree, with rather
  elongate, pale green wavy leaves, and bundles of fragrant, small, yellow
  flowers.

  PITTOSPORUM TENUIFOLIUM, var. NIGRESCENS (Matipo). A very ornamental
  shrub with small, shining, bright green leaves, and black stems. The
  flowers are dark purple, and rather buried among the foliage.

  PLAGIANTHUS BETULINUS (South Island Ribbon Wood). A tree of moderate
  size. The leaves are rather light green, and doubly serrated. The flowers
  are small, white, with red anthers, and very numerous.

  POA AUSTRALIS (Tussock). One of the common native grasses of New Zealand.
  It grows in large clumps, often about two feet in height. It is
  especially common in open situations in the South Island.

  POMADERRIS ERICIFOLIA (Tauhinu, or Cotton Wood). A shrub usually growing
  in rather exposed places. The leaves are very small, pointed, dull green
  above and white underneath. They are placed very closely on the stems,
  which are also white. The flowers are dull yellowish-white, and grow in
  clusters.

  PTERIS INCISA. A soft, light green, straggling fern, growing in open
  places in the forest, and round decayed logs.

  SCABIOUS ("Pincushion"). An introduced garden plant. The flowers are of
  many different colours--the name "pincushion," gives the best description
  of appearance. It is very attractive to insects.

  {140}SENECIO BELLIDIOIDES. A common mountain herb, with rather dark green
  leaves, and a small tuft of bright yellow daisy-like flowers.

  SENECIO SCANDENS (called by settlers French Ivy). A common climbing plant
  having a superficial resemblance to ivy, but with much brighter green
  leaves, and yellow flowers.

  SENECIO VULGARIS (Groundsel). A common garden weed.

  SOLANUM AVICULARE (Poro-poro, or Potato Plant). A shrub, with very dark
  green, pointed leaves, purple underneath, and bright purple flowers
  resembling those of the potato.

  TODEA HYMENOPHYLLOIDES. One of the "crape" ferns, growing in very shady
  places in the forest. It has soft, graceful, light green fronds.

  URTICA FEROX ("Nettle Tree"). It has prickly, light green leaves, with
  very long thick spines; a row of these spines is situated along the
  midrib of each leaf. It grows in open situations.

  URTICA INCISA (Ground Nettle). A herbaceous plant found in shady places
  amongst ferns. The leaves are covered with spines, which give a very
  sharp sting when touched.

  VERONICA (Koromiko). A genus of shrubs, found commonly on the margins of
  forests, and on hill-tops. The leaves are rather long, smooth, and dark
  green, and the flowers are mostly purplish-white.



INDEX TO GENERAL SUBJECTS.


                                      PAGE

  Abdomen,                            xiii
  Adaptive characters,                 xvi
  Air-tubes,                            ix
  Alpine Lepidoptera, colours of,       xv
  Anastomosis,                         xii
  Antennæ of imago,                      x
      "   of larva,                     ix
  Apex of wing,                        xii
  Arctic Lepidoptera, colours of,       xv

  Base of wing,                         xi
  Biliary vessels of imago,           xiii
     "       "    of larva,              x
  Bi-pectinated,                         x
  Butterflies,                         101

  Cæcum,                              xiii
  Caterpillars,                         ix
  Classification,                      xvi
  Clavate intestine,                     x
  Coincidence of veins,                xii
  Colon of imago,                     xiii
     "  of larva,                        x
  Concurrence of veins,                xii
  Connection of veins,                 xii
  Contrast colours,                     xv
  Costa,                                xi
  Coxa of imago,                      xiii
    "  of larva,                        ix
  Crown,                                 x

  Digestive system of imago,          xiii
      "       "    of larva,             x
  Divergence of character,             xiv
  Dorsum,                               xi

  Ecdysis,                               x
  Egg,                                  ix
  Eyes, compound,                        x
    "   simple,                          x

  Face,                                  x
  Fasciculate-ciliated,                 xi
  Femur of imago,                     xiii
    "   of larva,                       ix
  Filiform,                             xi
  Frenulum,                            xii

  Geographical distribution,           xix

  Haustellum,                           xi
  Head,                                  x

  Ilium of imago,                     xiii
    "   of larva,                        x
  Imago,                                 x
  Inheritance,                         xiv

  Jugum,                               xii

  Labium of imago,                      xi
    "    of larva,                      ix
  Labrum of imago,                      xi
    "    of larva,                      ix
  Larva,                                ix
  Legs of imago,                      xiii
    "  of larva,                        ix
  Lepidoptera, descent of,            xvii
        "      arrangement of,       xviii

  Mandibles of imago,                   xi
       "    of larva,                   ix
  Maxillæ of imago,                     xi
      "   of larva,                     ix
  Mimicry,                              xv

  Natural selection,                   xiv
  Neuration,                           xii

  Obsolescence of veins,               xii
  Ocelli,                                x
  Oesophagus of imago,                xiii
       "     of larva,                   x
  Ornamental colouring,                 xv

  Palpi, labial, of imago,              xi
     "     "     of larva,              ix
     "   maxillary, of imago,           xi
     "         "    of larva,           ix
  Pectinated,                            x
  Præcostal spur,                      xii
  Proboscis,                            xi
  Prolegs,                              ix
  Protective resemblance,              xiv
  Pseudoneuria,                        xii
  Pubescent,                            xi
  Pupa,                                  x

  Retinaculum,                         xii

  Salivary vessels,                   xiii
  Serrate,                              xi
  Sexual selection,                    xvi
  Species, origin of,                 xiii
  Spinneret,                             x
  Spinning vessels,                      x
  Spiracles,                            ix
  Stalking of veins,                   xii
  Struggle for existence,              xiv
  Sucking stomach,                    xiii
  "Survival of the Fittest",           xiv

  Termen,                               xi
  Tibia of imago,                     xiii
    "   of larva,                       ix
  Tongue,                               xi
  Tornus,                              xii

  Unipectinated,                         x

  Variation,                          xiii
  "Vegetable caterpillar",             132
  Veins of wings,                      xii
  Ventriculus of imago,               xiii
        "     of larva,                  x

  Warning colours,                      xv
  Wings,                                xi



SPECIAL INDEX.


  Names of Groups are printed in capitals (CARADRININA, &c.).
     "     Families, in small capitals (ARCTIADÆ, &c.).
     "     Sub-families, in sanserif italic (_Poliades_, &c.).
     "     Genera, in roman beginning with a capital (Agrotis, &c.).
     "     Species, in roman (annulata, &c.).
     "     Synonyms, in ordinary italic (_doubledayi_, &c.).


                                      PAGE

  abrogata,                             55
  _absconditaria_,                      60
  _acceptrix_,                          18
  _acetina_,                             7
  _acidaliaria_,                        77
  acontistis,                           11
  _acroiaria_,                          80
  acutata,                              76
  admirationis,                         31
  adonis,                               63
  ægrota,                               64
  Agrotis,                              30
  agrionata,                            40
  agorastis,                            18
  alcyone,                              24
  alectoraria,                          80
  alopa,                                12
  anceps,                               69
  _anguligera_,                         47
  _angusta_,                            18
  annulata,                              2
  Anosia,                              102
  antarctica,                           42
  anthracias,                           67
  _antipoda_,                           10
  _antipodaria_,                        87
  antipodum,                           110
  _aquosata_,                           41
  _arachnias_,                          23
  _archippus_,                         102
  ARCTIADÆ,                              1
  _ardularia_,                          57
  _arenacea_,                           87
  _argentifera_,                        35
  Argyrophenga,                        110
  arida,                                50
  aristarcha,                           85
  aristias,                             42
  armigera,                             32
  arotis,                               12
  Asaphodes,                            54
  asterope,                             24
  Asthena,                              52
  _astrapia_,                           82
  _assata_,                             55
  atalanta,                            120
  atristriga,                           10
  atronivea,                            95
  _attracta_,                           86
  _auge_,                              104
  _aulacias_,                           12
  Azelina,                              92

  beata,                                63
  _bicomma_,                             7
  bilineolata,                          41
  _bisignata_,                          47
  Bityla,                               29
  blenheimensis,                        13
  boldenarum,                          118
  bolina,                              104
  _boreophilaria_,                      88
  brephos,                              75
  _brephosata_,                         75
  bryopis,                              62
  bulbulata,                            68
  butleri,                             115

  cærulea,                               8
  _calida_,                             41
  callicrena,                           73
  callichlora,                          50
  camelias,                             65
  CARADRINIDÆ,                           5
  _Caradrinides_,                       29
  CARADRININA,                           1
  _caprimulgata_,                       86
  cardui,                              108
  cataphracta,                          61
  _catapyrrha_,                         68
  catilla,                             121
  _catocalaria_,                        75
  Catopsilia,                          121
  _ceramodes_,                           8
  cerapachoides,                        32
  ceraunias,                            14
  cervinata,                           133
  Chalastra,                            88
  chalcites,                            35
  chalcophanes,                        128
  _chaotica_,                           50
  characterifera,                      133
  _charybdis_,                          41
  chionogramma,                         65
  chorica,                              66
  chlamydota,                           59
  chlorias,                             63
  Chloroclystis,                        41
  chrysopeda,                           68
  Chrysophanus,                        116
  _cidariaria_,                         41
  _cinerascens_,                        88
  cinerearia,                           67
  clarata,                              61
  coeleno,                              26
  comma,                                 7
  composita,                            22
  _conferta_,                           32
  _congregata_,                         47
  _congressata_,                        47
  _conversata_,                         47
  convolvuli,                           99
  _cookaria_,                           91
  _corcularia_,                         67
  Cosmodes,                             33
  cosmodora,                            62
  cucullina,                            27
  _cymosema_,                           56

  Dasypodia,                            35
  Dasyuris,                             69
  _debilis_,                            18
  _deceptura_,                           9
  Declana,                              94
  defigurata,                           29
  dejectaria,                           86
  _delicatulata_,                       59
  deltoidata,                           47
  denotatus,                            45
  _dentigera_,                          22
  _descriptata_,                        47
  despecta,                            134
  _desiccata_,                          87
  Diadema, _see_, Anosia,              102
  diatmeta,                             21
  Dichromodes,                          78
  _diffusaria_,                         67
  dinodes,                             132
  dione,                                14
  disjungens,                           15
  _dissociata_,                         67
  _distans_,                            99
  Dodonidia,                           112
  _donovani_,                           46
  dotata,                               24
  _doubledayi_,                          2
  Drepanodes,                           91
  dryas,                                43

  egregia,                              96
  elegans,                              33
  Elvia,                                46
  _encausta_,                           89
  enysii (Chrysophanus),               117
  enysii (Dasyuris),                    69
     "   (Porina),                     133
  _ephyraria_,                          91
  Epirranthis,                          79
  Erana,                                28
  Erebia,                              113
  _erebinata_,                          86
  erichrysa,                             4
  _eriosoma_,                           35
  erippus,                             102
  Euchoeca,                             51
  euclidiata,                           68
  _eupitheciaria_,                      67
  Euploæ,                              120
  _exprompta_,                          86
  exsularis,                            34
  _extranea_,                           13

  falcata,                              66
  falcatella,                           76
  _felix_,                              90
  fenerata,                             82
  _feredayi_ (Declana),                 96
  _feredayi_ (Chrysophanus),           116
  ferox,                                74
  _figlinaria_,                         77
  _fischeri_,                          129
  flexata,                              90
  floccosa,                             96
  fortinata,                            93
  _fragosata_,                          84
  _fuliginea_,                         133
  _fuscinata_,                          48
  _fusiplagiata_,                       89

  gallaria,                             92
  GEOMETRINA, _see_ NOTODONTINA,        38
  glaucata,                             46
  _glyphicata_,                         68
  gobiata,                              47
  gonerilla,                           105
  Gonophylla,                           90
  graminosa,                            28
  griseata,                             98
  griseipennis,                          9
  gypsotis,                             78

  _haastaria_,                          91
  Hamadryas,                           120
  hectori (Dasyuris),                   70
  _hectori_ (Hepialus),                129
  helias,                               64
  Heliothis,                            32
  helmsi,                              112
  hemipteraria,                         80
  hemizona,                             48
  HEPIALIDÆ,                           128
  Hepialus,                            128
  hermione,                             98
  _homomorpha_,                         69
  homoscia,                             21
  humeraria,                            89
  _humerata_,                           41
  humillima,                            83
  huttonii,                              5
  Hybernia,                             87
  Hydriomena,                           46
  HYDRIOMENIDÆ,                         38
  _Hypenides_,                          34
  Hypenodes,                            34

  Ichneutica,                           14
  immunis,                               7
  _impletus_,                          133
  _implexa_,                             7
  _inamænaria_,                         57
  _inceptura_,                           9
  _inclarata_,                          47
  _inclinataria_,                       40
  _inconspicua_,                        31
  _inconstans_,                          9
  indicataria,                          44
  _indistincta_,                        85
  indocilis,                            88
  inductata,                            44
  _infantaria_,                         67
  infensa,                              23
  _innocua_,                             7
  innominata,                           31
  _inoperata_,                          67
  _inopiata_,                           47
  insignis (Melanchra),                 16
  insignis (Notoreas),                  71
  _invexata_,                           67
  Ipana,                                94
  _iphigenia_,                         104
  itea,                                107
  isoleuca,                             72
  _juncicolor_,                         12
  junctilinea,                          98
  Junonia,                             109

  _kershawii_,                         108

  LASIOCAMPINA,                        101
  leptomera,                            94
  Leptomeris,                           77
  lestevata,                            39
  Leucania,                              8
  lichenodes,                           44
  lignana,                              26
  _lignifusca_,                         18
  _lignisecta_,                         26
  _lignosata_,                          86
  _lilacina_,                           36
  limonodes,                            57
  lithias,                              17
  lophogramma,                          59
  lucidata,                             64
  _lupinata_,                           83
  Lycæna,                              119
  LYCÆNIDÆ,                            115
  Lythria,                              68

  maculata,                             44
  mairi,                               132
  Mamestra, _see_ Melanchra,            15
  _manxifera_,                          95
  _maori_,                              22
  _maoriata_,                           86
  margarita,                             6
  _maui_,                              116
  maya,                                 17
  mechanitis,                           72
  megaspilata,                          55
  Melanchra,                            15
  _Melanchrides_,                        8
  melinata,                             85
  _menanaria_,                          87
  merope,                               19
  _merula_,                            114
  Metacrias,                             4
  micrastra,                            12
  MICROPTERYGIDÆ,                      127
  MICROPTERYGINA,                      127
  _mitis_,                              27
  Miselia,                               6
  _mistata_,                            40
  _mixtaria_,                           80
  mnesichola,                           60
  moderata,                              9
  MONOCTENIADÆ,                         77
  _monoliata_,                          47
  _morosa_,                             26
  muriferata,                           91
  _muscosata_,                          41
  mutans,                               18

  _nehata_,                             55
  nelsonaria,                           90
  nephelias,                            61
  nereis,                               43
  _nerina_,                            104
  _nervata_,                            15
  _niger_,                              78
  nigra,                                78
  _nigrosparsa_,                        96
  niphocrena,                           74
  niveata,                              98
  NOCTUINA, _see_ CARADRININA,           1
  NOTODONTINA,                          38
  Notoreas,                             71
  _novæ-zealandiæ_,                    134
  nullifera,                             9
  Nyctemera,                             2
  NYMPHALIDÆ,                          102

  obarata,                              66
  _obtruncata_,                         89
  _obtusaria_,                          89
  _ochthistis_,                         20
  octans,                               25
  octias,                               37
  Oeceticus,                           123
  Oiketicus,                           123
  omichlias,                            76
  omicron,                              22
  _omnivora_,                          123
  omnivorus,                           123
  omoplaca,                             23
  _ondinata_,                           52
  ophiopa,                              93
  Orophora,                            126
  orophyla,                             58
  orphnæa,                              71
  Orthosia,                              6
  ORTHOSTIXIDÆ,                         79
  _otaheitæ_,                          105
  _othello_,                           114
  oxleyi,                              119

  Palæomicra,                          128
  _palthidata_,                         92
  panagrata,                            87
  _pannularia_,                         86
  PAPILIONINA,                         101
  paracausta,                           15
  paradelpha,                           72
  Paradetis,                            40
  parora,                               56
  partheniata,                          70
  _parvulata_,                          45
  _pastinaria_,                         47
  _patularia_,                          86
  pelistis,                             19
  pelurgata,                            88
  _perductata_,                         47
  perornata,                            72
  _perversata_,                         47
  pessota,                               6
  petrina,                              78
  _petropola_,                          66
  phaula,                               11
  phoebe,                              119
  phricias,                             27
  Phrissogonus,                         45
  Physetica,                             8
  pictula,                              19
  _plagifurcata_,                       47
  plena,                                17
  _plexippus_,                         102
  plinthina,                            41
  _plurilineata_,                       52
  _plurimata_,                          64
  Plusia,                               34
  PLUSIADÆ,                             33
  _Plusiades_,                          34
  _plusiata_,                            7
  pluto,                               114
  _Poliades_,                            6
  _polychroa_,                          16
  Porina,                              132
  porphyrias,                           41
  præfectata,                           60
  prasinias,                            65
  _primata_,                            80
  prionistis,                           27
  prionota,                             47
  productata,                           84
  propria,                              11
  _proserpina_,                        104
  proteastis,                           20
  _psamathodes_,                        64
  PSYCHIDÆ,                            122
  PSYCHINA,                            122
  pulchella,                             3
  pulchraria,                           52
  _punctilineata_,                      67
  _pungata_,                            84
  purpurea,                              8
  purpurifera,                          49
  purdii,                               10
  PYRALIDINA,                          122
  _pyramaria_,                          61

  _ranata_,                             39
  _rauparaha_,                         116
  rectilineata,                         45
  Rhapsa,                               36
  rhodopleura,                          19
  RHOPALOCERA, _see_ PAPILIONINA,      101
  _rivularis_,                          47
  rixata,                               49
  rosearia,                             57
  rubescens,                            25
  rubraria,                             77
  rubropunctaria,                       51
  _rubroviridans_,                     129
  rufescens,                            56
  rudiata,                              82
  _rudisata_,                           82

  salustius,                           116
  Samana,                               76
  SATYRIDÆ,                            110
  _scabra_,                             96
  schistaria,                           52
  _scriptaria_,                         86
  scissaria,                            79
  scotosialis,                          36
  selenophora,                          35
  Selidosema,                           82
  SELIDOSEMIDÆ,                         81
  _semialbata_,                         41
  semifissata,                          59
  _semilisata_,                         67
  _semisignata_,                        67
  semivittata,                          13
  sericea (Agrotis),                    31
  sericea (Bityla),                     29
  _servularia_,                         55
  Sestra,                               89
  signata,                             134
  similata,                             50
  simplex,                              74
  _simulans_,                           47
  siria,                                51
  siris,                                55
  _sistens_,                             9
  _squalida_,                           49
  _specifica_,                           9
  _sphæriata_,                          67
  _sphagnea_,                           17
  Sphinx,                               99
  SPHINGIDÆ,                            99
  sphragitis,                           43
  steropastis,                          23
  STERRHIDÆ,                            77
  _stigmaticata_,                       86
  stinaria,                             60
  stipata,                              25
  _strangulata_,                        48
  strategica (Metacrias),                4
       "     (Notoreas),                73
  _streptophora_,                       88
  suavis,                               83
  subductata,                           57
  _subitata_,                           44
  _subobscurata_,                       66
  subochraria,                          48
  _subpurpureata_,                      52
  _subtentaria_,                        60
  _suffusa_,                            30
  sulcana,                              13
  _sulpitiata_,                         86

  tartarea,                             21
  Tatosoma,                             39
  temperata,                             9
  Theoxena,                             79
  _thoracica_,                          29
  _timarata_,                           50
  timora,                               40
  TINEINA,                             127
  _tipulata_,                           40
  TORTRICINA,                          127
  _toumatou_,                          126
  _transitaria_,                        40
  triphragma,                           49
  _tuhuata_,                            52
  _turbida_,                            16

  umbraculata,                         134
  undosata,                             54
  _undulifera_,                         47
  unica,                                12
  unicolor,                            126
  unipuncta,                            13
  urtica,                              120
  _usitata_,                            83
  ustistriga,                           26
  Utetheisa,                             3

  Vanessa,                             105
  _varians_,                            80
  _variolaris_,                        133
  velleda,                             109
  _venipunctata_,                       64
  Venusia,                              53
  verriculata,                          53
  _vexata_,                            133
  _vigens_,                             28
  _virescens_ (_Chera_),                 9
  virescens (Hepialus),                129
  _viridis_,                            17
  _visata_,                             51
  vitiosa,                              20
  vulcanica,                            75

  xanthaspis,                           54
  Xanthia,                               7
  Xanthorhoe,                           56

  ypsilon,                              30
  _ypsilonaria_,                        59

  _ziczac_,                             93
  zoilus,                              120
  zopyra,                               74



PLATES AND EXPLANATIONS.


PLATE I.

ANATOMICAL.


  1. Outline of a Lepidopterous insect showing the terms employed in
      describing the various margins and angles of the fore- and
      hind-wings.
  2. View of the under side of the head and first segment of the larva of
      a Lepidopterous insect. AA, eyes; BB, antennæ; 1, labrum; 22,
      mandibles; 33, maxillæ; 4, labium; 5, spinneret; _a_, coxa; _b_,
      trochanter; _c_, femur; _d_, tibia; _e_, tarsus; _f_, claw (highly
      magnified).
  3. Assumed type of neuration of fore-wing of a Lepidopterous insect.
      (After Meyrick.)
  4. Ditto of hind-wing. (After Meyrick.)
  5. Side view of the head of _Vanessa gonerilla_ with proboscis extended.
      (Imago, Plate XII., fig. 5.)
  6. Ditto with proboscis coiled up. (In both these figures only the basal
      portions of the antennæ are shown.)
  7. Neuration of fore-wing of _Anosia erippus_. (Imago, Plate XI., fig.
      1.)
  8. Ditto of hind-wing.
  9. Digestive system of a Lepidopterous larva. A, oesophagus; D,
      ventriculus; F, clavate intestine; E, ilium; H, colon; K, biliary
      vessels; O, spinning vessels. (After Suckow.)
  10. Ditto of perfect insect. N, salivary vessels; C, sucking stomach; G,
      cæcum. The rest as before. (After Herold.)
  11. Front view of the head of _Vanessa gonerilla_ with the labial palpi
      removed showing the organs of the mouth. AA, eyes; BB, antennæ
      (basal portion); _l_, labrum; _mm_, mandibles; _pp_, maxillary
      palpi; C, proboscis formed of elongated maxillæ (highly magnified).
  12. Neuration of fore-wing of _Sphingidæ_. (_Deilephila_; after
      Meyrick.)
  13. Ditto hind-wing. (After Meyrick.)
  14. Proleg of caterpillar highly magnified.
  15. Neuration of fore-wing of _Chrysophanus salustius_. (Imago, Plate
      XII., figs. 18-21.)
  16. Ditto of hind-wing.
  17. Fasciculate-ciliated antenna of _Chloroclystis plinthina_. (Imago,
      Plate VI., fig. 8.)
  18. Serrate antenna of _Melanchra composita_. (Imago, Plate V., fig. 8.)
  19. Pubescent antenna of _Epirranthis alectoraria_. (Imago, Plate VIII.,
      figs. 42-47.)
  20. Bi-pectinated antenna of _Nyctemera annulata_. (Imago, Plate IV.,
      figs. 1, 2.)
  21. Leg of _Agrotis ypsilon_. (Imago, Plate V., figs. 35, 36.) 1, coxa;
      2, trochanter; 3, femur; 4, tibia; 5, tarsus; 6, claw; SS, spurs.
      (All these are highly magnified.)
  22. Neuration of fore-wing of _Hepialus virescens_. (Imago, Plate XIII.,
      figs. 16, 17.)
  23. Ditto of hind-wing.
  24. Head of ditto.
  25. Neuration of fore-wing of _Erebia pluto_. (Imago, Plate XI., figs.
      8-10.) Vein 11 absent.
  26. Ditto, veins 11 and 12 concurrent.
  27. Ditto of hind-wing.
  28. Neuration of fore-wing of _Porina signata_. (Imago, Plate XIII.,
      fig. 15.)
  29. Ditto of hind-wing.
  30. Neuration of fore-wing of _Oeceticus omnivorus_. (Imago, Plate
      XIII., fig. 6.)
  31. Ditto of hind-wing.

[Illustration: Plate I.]


PLATE II.

ANATOMICAL.


  1. Neuration of fore-wing of _Metacrias erichrysa_. (Imago, Plate IV.,
      fig. 5.)
  2. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  3. Head of _Nyctemera annulata_. (Imago, Plate IV., figs. 1, 2.)
  4. Neuration of fore-wing of ditto.
  5. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  6. Neuration of fore-wing of _Mamestra mutans_. (Imago, Plate IV., figs.
      34-36.)
  7. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  8. Head of male of _Physetica cærulea_. (Imago, Plate IV., fig. 7.)
  9. Neuration of fore-wing of _Erana graminosa_. (Imago, Plate V., figs.
      24-25.)
  10. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  11. Head of _Leucania nullifera_. (Imago, Plate IV., fig. 9.)
  12. Head of _Dasypodia selenophora_. (Imago, Plate VI., fig. 4.)
  13. Head of _Venusia verriculata_. (Imago, Plate VI., figs. 30-31.)
  14. Neuration of fore-wing of _Plusia chalcites_. (Imago, Plate VI.,
      fig. 3.)
  15. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  16. Neuration of fore-wing of _Rhapsa scotosialis_. (Imago, Plate VI.,
      figs. 5-6.)
  17. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  18. Head of ditto.
  19. Neuration of fore-wing of _Chloroclystis bilineolata_. (Imago, Plate
      VI., figs. 9-10.)
  20. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  21. Neuration of fore-wing of _Tatosoma agrionata_. (Imago, Plate VI.,
      figs. 26-27.)
  22. Neuration of hind-wing of male.
  23. Neuration of hind-wing of female.
  24. Head of ditto.
  25. Neuration of fore-wing of _Venusia undosata_. (Imago, Plate VI.,
      figs. 33-34.)
  26. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  27. Neuration of fore-wing of _Paradetis porphyrias_. (Imago, Plate VI.,
      fig. 36.)
  28. Neuration of hind-wing of male.
  30. Neuration of fore-wing of _Asthena pulchraria_. (Imago, Plate VI.,
      figs. 37-38.)
  31. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  32. Head of _Hydriomena deltoidata_. (Imago, Plato VII., figs. 1-9.)
  33. Neuration of fore-wing of ditto.
  34. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  35. Neuration of fore-wing of _Asaphodes megaspilata_. (Imago, Plate
      VII., figs. 17-20.)
  36. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  37. Neuration of fore-wing of _Xanthorhoe clarata_. (Imago, Plate VII.,
      figs. 31-32.)
  38. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  39. Neuration of fore-wing of _Lythria chrysopeda_. (Imago, Plate VIII.,
      figs. 33-34.)
  40. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  42. Neuration of fore-wing of _Dasyuris partheniata_ (hind-wings as in
      _Xanthorhoe_). (Imago, Plate VIII., figs. 30-31.)
  43. Neuration of fore-wing of _Notoreas brephos_ (hind-wings also as in
      _Xanthorhoe_). (Imago, Plate VIII., figs. 20-23.)
  44. Neuration of fore-wing of _Dichromodes petrina_. (Imago, Plate
      VIII., fig. 39.)
  45. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  46. Neuration of fore-wing of _Epirranthis alectoraria_. (Imago, Plate
      VIII., figs. 42-47.)
  47. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  48. Head of ditto.
  49. Neuration of fore-wing of _Leptomeris rubraria_. (Imago, Plate
      VIII., fig. 37.)
  50. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  51. Neuration of fore-wing of _Chalastra pelurgata_. (Imago, Plate IX.,
      figs. 33-36.)
  52. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  53. Neuration of fore-wing of _Sestra humeraria_ (hind-wing as in
      _Selidosema_). (Imago, Plate X., figs. 1-2).
  54. Neuration of fore-wing of _Azelina gallaria_. (Imago, Plate X.,
      figs. 13-23.)
  55. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  56. Neuration of fore-wing of _Declana floccosa_. (Imago, Plate X.,
      figs. 39-47.)
  57. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  58. Head of ditto.
  59. Neuration of fore-wing of _Selidosema dejectaria_. (Imago, Plate
      IX., figs. 19-24.)
  60. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  61. Neuration of fore-wing of _Drepanodes muriferata_. (Imago, Plate X.,
      figs. 7-12.)
  62. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.
  63. Neuration of fore-wing of _Gonophylla nelsonaria_. (Imago, Plate X.,
      figs. 3-6.)
  64. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto.

[Illustration: Plate II.]


PLATE III.

PREPARATORY STAGES.


  FIG.                                                                 PAGE
  1, 2. Larvæ of _Vanessa gonerilla_. (Pupæ, figs. 31, 32; Imago, Plate
      XII., fig. 5.)                                                    105
  3. Larva of _Anosia erippus_. (Pupa, fig. 27; Imago, Plate XI., fig.
      1.)                                                               102
  4. Larva of _Argyrophenga antipodum_. (Pupa, fig. 29; Imago, Plate
      XI., fig. 4.)                                                     110
  5. Larva of _Dodonidia helmsi_. (Pupa, fig. 28; Imago, Plate XI.,
      fig. 14.)                                                         112
  6. Larva of _Porina signata_. (Imago, Plate XIII., fig. 15.)          134
  7. Larva of _Melanchra composita_. (Imago, Plate V., fig. 8.)          22
  8. Larva of _Erana graminosa_. (Imago, Plate V., fig. 24.)             28
  9. Larva of _Nyctemera annulata_. (Imago, Plate IV., fig. 1.)           2
  10. Larva of _Melanchra homoscia_. (Imago, Plate V., fig. 7.)          21
  11. Larva of _Orthosia comma_. (Imago, Plate V., fig. 27.)              7
  12. Larva of _Selidosema dejectaria_. (Imago, Plate IX., fig. 21.)     86
  13, 14. Larvæ of _Sphinx convolvuli_. (Imago, Plate XIII., fig. 1.)    99
  15. Larva of _Melanchra mutans_. (Imago, Plate IV., fig. 34.)          18
  16. Larva of _Melanchra vitiosa_. (Imago, Plate IV., fig. 42.)         20
  17. Larva of _Selidosema aristarcha_. (Imago, Plate IX., fig. 17.)     85
  18. Larva of _Declana atronivea_. (Imago, Plate X., fig. 33.)          95
  19. Larva of _Epirranthis hemipteraria_. (Imago, Plate VIII., fig.
      48.)                                                               80
  20. Larva of _Sestra humeraria_. (Imago, Plate X., fig. 1.)            89
  21. Larva of _Chalastra pelurgata_. (Imago, Plate IX., fig. 34.)       88
  22. Larva of _Selidosema productata_. (Imago, Plate IX., fig. 6.)      84
  23. Larva of _Hepialis virescens_. (Pupa, fig. 30; Imago, Plate
      XIII., fig. 16.)                                                  129
  24. Larva of _Epirranthis alectoraria_. (Imago, Plate VIII., fig. 42.) 80
  25. Larva of _Oeceticus omnivorus_ withdrawn from case. (Imago, Plate
      XIII., fig. 6.)                                                   123
  26. Larva of ditto in its case.
  27. Pupa of _Anosia erippus_. (Larva, fig. 3; Imago, Plate XI., fig.
      1.)                                                               102
  28. Pupa of _Dodonidia helmsi_. (Larva, fig. 5; Imago, Plate XI.,
      fig. 14.)                                                         112
  29. Pupa of _Argyrophenga antipodum_. (Larva, fig. 4; Imago, Plate
      XI., fig. 4.)                                                     110
  30. Pupa of _Hepialus virescens_. (Larva, fig. 23; Imago, Plate
      XIII., fig. 16.)                                                  129
  31, 32. Pupæ of _Vanessa gonerilla_. (Larva, figs. 1, 2; Imago, Plate
      XII., fig. 5)                                                     105

[Illustration: Plate III.]

PLATE IV.

CARADRININA.


  FIG.                                                                 PAGE
   1. _Nyctemera annulata_ [M]
      (Larva, Plate III., fig. 9.)                                        2
   2.     "        "     [F]
   3. _Utetheisa pulchella_                                               3
   4. _Metacrias strategica_ [M]                                          4
   5.     "     _erichrysa_  [M]                                          4
   6.     "     _huttonii_ [M]                                            5
   7. _Physetica cærulea_ [M]                                             8
   8. _Leucania griseipennis_ [F]                                         9
   9.     "    _nullifera_ [F]                                            9
  10.     "    _micrastra_ [M]                                           12
  11.     "    _purdii_ [M]                                              10
  12.     "    _atristriga_ [M]                                          10
  13.     "    _propria_ [M]                                             11
  14.     "    _acontistis_ [M]                                          11
  15.     "    _phaula_ [M]                                              11
  16.     "    _alopa_ [M]                                               12
  17.     "    _unica_ [F]                                               12
  18.     "    _arotis_ [F]                                              12
  19.     "    _sulcana_ [M]                                             13
  20.     "       "    [F]
  21.     "    _semivittata_ [M]                                         13
  22.     "        "       [F]
  23.     "    _blenheimensis_ [F]                                       13
  24.     "    _unipuncta_ [F]                                           13
  25. _Ichneutica ceraunias_ [M]                                         14
  26.      "         "     [F]
  27.      "     _dione_, n. sp. [M]                                     14
  28. _Melanchra paracausta_ [M]                                         15
  28A.     "         "      [F]
  29.     "     _insignis_ [M]                                           16
  30.     "         "    [F]
  31.     "     _maya_, n. sp. [F]                                       17
  32.     "     _plena_ [M]                                              17
  33.     "     _lithias_ [M]                                            17
  34.     "     _mutans_ [M]
      (Larva, Plate III., fig. 15.)                                      18
  35.     "        "   [F]
  36.     "        "   [M] variety
  37.     "     _pictula_ [M]                                            19
  38.     "     _rhodopleura_ [F]                                        19
  39.     "     _coeleno_, n. sp. [M]                                    26
  40.     "     _proteastis_ [M]                                         20
  42.     "     _vitiosa_ [F]
      (Larva, Plate III., fig. 16.)                                      20

[Illustration: Plate IV.]


PLATE V.

CARADRININA.


  FIG.                                                                 PAGE
   1. _Melanchra octans_, n. sp.                                         25
   2.     "     _merope_, n. sp. [M]                                     19
   3.     "     _pelistis_ [M]                                           19
   4.     "         "    [F]
   5.     "     _diatmeta_ [M]                                           21
   6.     "     _tartarea_ [M]                                           21
   7.     "     _homoscia_ [M]
      (Larva, Plate III., fig. 10.)                                      21
   8.     "     _composita_ [M]
      (Larva, Plate III., fig. 7.)                                       22
   9.     "         "     [F]
  10.     "     _steropastis_ [M]                                        23
  11.     "          "      [F]
  12.     "     _infensa_ [F]                                            23
  13.     "     _omoplaca_ [F]                                           23
  14.     "     _alcyone_, n. sp. [M]                                    24
  15.     "     _asterope_, n. sp. [F]                                   24
  16.     "     _dotata_ [F]                                             24
  17.     "     _stipata_ [F]                                            25
  18.     "     _rubescens_ [M]                                          25
  19.     "     _lignana_ [M]                                            26
  20.     "     _ustistriga_ [M]                                         26
  20A.     "         "      [F]
  21.     "     _prionistis_ [M]                                         27
  22.     "     _phricias_ [M]                                           27
  23.     "     _cucullina_ [M]                                          27
  24. _Erana graminosa_ [M]
      (Larva, Plate III., fig. 8.)                                       28
  25.   "        "    [F]
  26. _Miselia pessota_ [M]                                               6
  27. _Orthosia comma_ [M]
      (Larva, Plate III., fig. 11.)                                       7
  28.     "      "   [F]
  29.     "    _immunis_ [M]                                              7
  30. _Melanchra agorastis_ [F]                                          18
  31. _Orthosia margarita_ [F]                                            6
  32. _Xanthia purpurea_ [M]                                              8
  33. _Bityla defigurata_ [M]                                            29
  34.    "   _sericea_ [M]                                               29
  35. _Agrotis ypsilon_ [M]                                              30
  36.    "      "     [F]
  37.    "    _admirationis_ [M]                                         31
  38.    "    _sericea_ [F]                                              31
  39.    "    _innominata_, n. sp. [M]                                   31
  40. _Heliothis armigera_ [M]                                           32
  41.     "         "    [F]
  42. _Melanchra omicron_, n. sp. [M]                                    22
  43.     "     _disjungens_ [M]                                         15

[Illustration: Plate V.]


PLATE VI.

CARADRININA AND NOTODONTINA.



  CARADRININA.

  FIG.                                                                 PAGE
       1. _Agrotis carapachoides_ [M]                                    32
       2. _Cosmodes elegans_ [F]                                         33
       3. _Plusia chalcites_ [M]                                         35
       4. _Dasypodia selenophora_ [M]                                    35
       5. _Rhapsa scotosialis_ [M]                                       36
       6.    "        "      [F]
       7. _Rhapsa octias_ [F]                                            37

  NOTODONTINA.

       8. _Chloroclystis plinthina_ [M]                                  41
   9, 10.       "       _bilineolata_ varieties                          41
      11.       "       _nereis_ [F]                                     43
      12.       "       _dryas_ [M]                                      43
  13, 14.       "       _sphragitis_ varieties                           43
  15, 16.       "       _lichenodes_ varieties                           44
      17.       "       _indicataria_ [M]                                44
      17A.       "            "      [F]
      18.       "       _maculata_, n. sp.                               44
      19. _Phrissogonus denotatus_ [M]                                   45
      20. _Chloroclystis antarctica_, n. sp.                             42
      21.       "       _aristias_ [M]                                   42
      22.       "          "     [F]
  23, 24. _Elvia glaucata_ varieties                                     46
      25. _Tatosoma lestevata_  [M]                                      39
      26.     "    _agrionata_ [M]                                       40
      27.     "        "     [F]
      28.     "    _timora_ [M]                                          40
      29.     "       "   [F]
      30. _Venusia verriculata_ [M]                                      53
      31.    "         "      [F]
      32.    "    _xanthaspis_ [M]                                       54
      33.    "    _undosata_ [M]                                         54
      34.    "        "    [F]
      35. _Euchoeca rubropunctaria_ [F]                                  51
      36. _Paradetis porphyrias_ [M]                                     41
      37. _Asthena pulchraria_ [M]                                       52
      38.    "         "     [F]
   39-42. _Asthena schistaria_ varieties                                 52
      43. _Hydriomena gobiata_ [M]                                       47
      44.      "         "   [F]
  45, 46.      "     _subochraria_ varieties                             48
      47.      "     _prionota_                                          47
      48.      "     _siria_                                             51

[Illustration: Plate VI.]


PLATE VII.

NOTODONTINA.


  FIG.                                                                 PAGE
      1-9. _Hydriomena deltoidata_ varieties                             47
       10.      "     _hemizona_                                         48
       11.      "     _rixata_                                           49
       12.      "     _purpurifera_                                      49
       13.      "     _callichlora_                                      50
       14.      "     _similata_                                         50
       15.      "     _arida_                                            50
       16. _Asaphodes siris_ [F]                                         55
    17-19.     "     _megaspilata_ [M] varieties                         55
  19A, 20.     "          "      [F] varieties
       21.     "     _abrogata_ [M]                                      55
       22. _Xanthorhoe rosearia_ [M]                                     57
       23.      "         "    [F]
       24.      "     _orophylla_ [M]                                    58
       25.      "         "     [F]
       26.      "     _semifissata_ [M]                                  59
       27.      "           "     [F]
       28.      "     _chlamydota_                                       59
       29.      "     _stinaria_ [M]                                     60
       30.      "     _præfectata_ [F]                                   60
       31.      "     _clarata_ [M]                                      61
       32.      "        "    [F]
       33.      "     _cataphracta_ [M]                                  61
       34.      "          "      [F]
       35.      "     _beata_ [M]                                        63
       36.      "       "   [F]
       37.      "     _ægrota_ [M]                                       64
       38.      "     _lucidata_ [M]                                     64
       39.      "     _mnesichola_ [M]                                   60
       40.      "     _helias_ [F]                                       64
       41.      "     _prasinias_ [F]                                    65
       42.      "     _chionogramma_ [M]                                 65
       43.      "           "      [F]
       44.      "     _chorica_                                          66
       45.      "     _obarata_                                          66
       46.      "     _limonodes_ [M]                                    57
       47.      "     _lophogramma_ [M]                                  59
       48.      "          "      [F]
       49.      "     _adonis_ [M]                                       63

[Illustration: Plate VII.]


PLATE VIII.

NOTODONTINA.


  FIG.                                                                 PAGE
       1. _Xanthorhoe bulbulata_ [M]                                     68
    2, 2A.      "     _cineraria_ varieties                              67
       3. _Notoreas insignis_ [M]                                        71
     4-8.     "    _perornata_ varieties                                 72
    9-11.     "    _mechanitis_ varieties                                72
   12-14.     "    _paradelpha_ varieties                                72
      15.     "    _strategica_ [F]                                      73
      16.     "    _callicrena_ [F]                                      73
      17.     "    _ferox_ [M]                                           74
  18, 19.     "    _zopyra_ [M] varieties                                74
   20-23.     "    _brephos_ varieties                                   75
      24.     "    _vulcanica_                                           75
      25.     "    _omichlias_ [M]                                       76
      26.     "    _simplex_, n. sp. [F]                                 74
      27.     "    _isoleuca_ [F]                                        72
      28. _Dasyuris enysii_ [F]                                          69
      29.     "    _anceps_ [M]                                          69
      30.     "    _partheniata_ [M]                                     70
      31.     "         "      [F]
      32.     "    _hectori_ [M]                                         70
      33. _Lythria chrysopeda_ [M]                                       68
      34.    "         "     [F]
      35.    "    _euclidiata_                                           68
      36. _Samana falcatella_ [F]                                        76
      37. _Leptomeris rubraria_ [M]                                      77
      38.     "          "    [F]
      39. _Dichromodes petrina_                                          78
      40.      "      _nigra_                                            78
      41. _Theoxena scissaria_                                           79
   42-47. _Epirranthis alectoraria_ varieties.
          (Larva, Plate III., fig. 24.)                                  80
      48.      "      _hemipteraria_ [M]
          (Larva, Plate III., fig. 19.)                                  80
      49.      "            "      [F]
      50. _Selidosema fenerata_ [M]                                      82
      51.     "         "     [F]

[Illustration: Plate VIII.]


PLATE IX.

NOTODONTINA.


  FIG.                                                                 PAGE
       1. _Selidosema rudiata_ [M]                                       82
       2.      "       "     [F]
       3.      "     _suavis_ [M]                                        83
       4.      "       "    [F]
       5.      "     _humillima_, n. sp. [M]                             83
    6-10.      "     _productata_ [M] varieties.
          (Larva, Plate III., fig. 22.)                                  84
   11-14.      "         "      [F] varieties
      15.      "     _melinata_ [M]                                      85
      16.      "         "    [F]
      17.      "     _aristarcha_ [M]
          (Larva, Plate III., fig. 17.)                                  85
      18.      "          "     [F]
   19-22.      "     _dejectaria_ [M] varieties.
          (Larva, Plate III., fig. 12.)                                  86
  23, 24.      "         "      [F] varieties
   25-28.      "     _panagrata_ [M] varieties                           87
  29, 30.      "         "     [F] varieties
      31. _Hybernia indocilis_ [M]                                       88
      32.     "        "     [F]
  33, 34. _Chalastra pelurgata_ [M] varieties.
          (Larva, Plate III., fig. 21.)                                  88
  35, 36.     "         "     [F] varieties
      37. _Sestra flexata_ [F]                                           90

[Illustration: Plate IX.]


PLATE X.

NOTODONTINA.


  FIG.                                                                 PAGE
    1, 2. _Sestra humeraria_ varieties.
          (Larva, Plate III., fig. 20.)                                  89
    3, 4. _Gonophylla nelsonaria_ [M] varieties                          90
    5, 6.      "         "      [F] varieties
    7-10. _Drepanodes muriferata_ [M] varieties                          91
  11, 12.      "          "     [F] varieties
   13-20. _Azelina gallaria_ [M] varieties                               92
   21-23.   "         "    [F] varieties
      24.   "     _fortinata_ [M]                                        93
      25.   "          "    [F]
      26.   "     _ophiopa_ [M]                                          93
      27.   "         "   [M] variety
      28.   "         "   [F]
  29, 31, 31A. _Ipana leptomera_ [M] varieties                           94
      30.   "         "     [F]
      32. _Declana griseata_, n. sp.                                     98
      33.   "     _atronivea_ [M]
          (Larva, Plate III., fig. 18.)                                  95
      34.   "         "     [F]
      35.   "     _egregia_ [M]                                          96
      36.   "     _hermione_, n. sp. [M]                                 98
      37.   "     _junctilinea_ [M]                                      98
      38.   "          "      [F]
   39-43.   "     _floccosa_ [M] varieties                               96
   44-47.   "         "    [F] varieties

[Illustration: Plate X.]


PLATE XI.

PAPILIONINA.


  FIG.                                                                 PAGE
     1. _Anosia erippus_ [F]
        (Larva, Plate III., fig. 3; Pupa, fig. 27.)                     102
     2.    "       "   under side.
  3, 4. _Argyrophenga antipodum_ [M] varieties.
        (Larva, Plate III., fig. 4; Pupa, fig. 29.)                     110
     5.       "           "    [F]
  6, 7.       "           "    under sides.
     8. _Erebia pluto_ [M]                                              114
     9.    "     "   [F]
    10.    "     "   under side.
    11. _Erebia butleri_ [M]                                            115
    12.    "       "   [F]
    13.    "       "   under side.
    14. _Dodonidia helmsi_ [M]
        (Larva, Plate III., fig. 5; Pupa, fig. 28.)                     112
    15.      "       "   under side.
    16. _Junonia velleda_                                               109
    17.     "       "   under side.

[Illustration: Plate XI.]


PLATE XII.

PAPILIONINA.


  FIG.                                                                 PAGE
       1. _Vanessa cardui_                                              108
       2.     "      "   under side.
       3.     "   _itea_                                                107
       4.     "     "  under side.
       5.     "   _gonerilla_.
          (Larva, Plate III., figs. 1 and 2; Pupa, figs. 31, 32.)       105
       6.     "        "    under side.
       7. _Anosia bolina_ [M]                                           104
       8.    "       "  [F]
       9.    "       "  under side.
      10. _Lycæna phoebe_ [M]                                           119
      11.    "     "   under side.
      12.    "   _oxleyi_, under side.                                  119
  13, 14. _Chrysophanus boldenarum_ [M] varieties                       118
      15.       "           "     under side of [M]
      16.       "           "     [F]
      17.       "           "     under side of [F]
      18.       "      _salustius_ [M]                                  116
      19.       "          "     [F]
      20.       "          "     under side
      21.       "          "     under side of variety
          (upper side, Plate XIII., fig. 2.)
      22.       "      _enysii_ [M]                                     117
      23.       "         "   [F]
      24.       "         "   under side.

[Illustration: Plate XII.]


PLATE XIII.

NOTODONTINA, PAPILIONINA, PSYCHINA, AND MICROPTERYGINA.



  NOTODONTINA.

  FIG.                                                                 PAGE
    1. _Sphinx convolvuli._
       (Larva, Plate III, figs. 13 and 14.)                              99

  PAPILIONINA.

  2-5. Varieties of _Chrysophanus salustius_                            116

  PSYCHINA.

    6. _Oeceticus omnivorus_ [M]
       (Larva, Plate III., figs. 25, 26.)                               123
    7. _Orophora unicolor_ [M]                                          126

  MICROPTERYGINA.

    8. _Porina dinodes_ [M]                                             132
    9.     "  _enysii_ [M]                                              133
   10.     "     "   [F]
   11.     "  _characterifera_ [M]                                      133
   12.     "  _cervinata_ [M]                                           133
   13.     "  _despecta_ [M]                                            134
   14.     "  _umbraculata_ [M]                                         134
   15.     "  _signata_ [M]
       (Larva, Plate III., fig. 6.)                                     134
   16. _Hepialus virescens_ [M]
       (Larva, Plate III., fig. 23; Pupa, fig. 30.)                     129
   17.     "        "     [F]
   18. _Porina cervinata_ [F] variety                                   133

[Illustration: Plate XIII.]



Notes.

 [1] This organ is termed the tongue by Mr. Meyrick. As many mandibulate
     insects possess a true tongue, and the proboscis of the _Lepidoptera_
     is not homologous with the tongue, but with the maxillæ, I think the
     term is very misleading.

 [2] For the examination of the wings taken from _dried_ specimens, I have
     found that immersion in methylated spirits renders the veins visible
     after _partial_ denudation with the camel's-hair brush. With recent
     specimens, however, the scales can easily be _entirely_ removed.

 [3] I have found considerable difficulty and uncertainty in examining the
     neuration of undenuded specimens.

 [4] Entom. xxvi. 220.

 [5] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 218.

 [6] 'British Moths,' 31.

 [7] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 217.

 [8] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 216.

 [9] Ibid.

[10] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 7.

[11] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 10.

[12] _Leucania aulacias_, Meyr., is distinguished by having grey cilia to
     the hind-wings. The species was described from a single specimen taken
     at Dunedin and now in Mr. Fereday's collection. I have carefully
     examined this specimen, and find that the cilia, although considerably
     injured, are distinctly grey. As, however, I think it undesirable to
     characterize species so closely resembling each other from such meagre
     material, I here regard it as a synonym of _Leucania arotis_.

[13] Report of American Department of Agriculture, 1881, p. 93.

[14] Mr. Philpott informs me that the larva of _M. paracausta_ closely
     resembles that of _M. vitiosa_.

[15] This species has been recently named by Mr. Meyrick, but a description
     of it has not yet been published.

[16] The accurate ascertainment of the positions of the veins near the
     costa in this species is a matter of considerable difficulty owing to
     the extremely dense tuft of hairs there situated.

[17] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 29.

[18] Newman's British Moths, 319.

[19] Meyrick, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 33.

[20] Meyrick, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 35.

[21] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 35.

[22] Meyrick, 'Handbook of British Lepidoptera,' 159.

[23] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xi. 300.

[24] Ib. xix. 38.

[25] Since this was written I find that Mr. Meyrick has created a new
     genus, _Hyperaucha_, for the reception of this insect. See
     'Transactions of the Entomological Society of London,' 1897, 383.

[26] N. Z. 'Journal of Science,' July, 1884.

[27] N. Z. 'Journal of Science,' July, 1884.

[28] A second specimen of this variety has since occurred in the
     neighbourhood of Nelson.

[29] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 60.

[30] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 60.

[31] N. Z. 'Journal of Science,' July, 1884.

[32] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 60.

[33] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xviii. 208.

[34] Ib. xvi. 71.

[35] Ib.

[36] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 78.

[37] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 82.

[38] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 83.

[39] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 86.

[40] In connection with these three species of _Notoreas_ I should here
     mention that I have a number of specimens in my collection which
     appear to me to establish a complete transition between _N.
     mechanitis_, _N. paradelpha_, and _N. perornata_. From a careful study
     of these specimens I am led to believe that these three forms are
     really only varieties of one very variable species. Mr. Meyrick does
     not at present share this opinion, but I am disposed to think that
     this is chiefly due to the comparatively limited number of specimens
     he has had the opportunity of examining. In any case I do not regard
     the question of the specific or varietal values of these, or indeed of
     any other forms, as matters of great scientific importance, being, to
     a great extent, merely matters of individual opinion.

[41] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 57.

[42] Mr. Meyrick now includes these three species in the genus
     _Gonophylla_. (_See_ Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 387.)

[43] 'Trans. N. Z. Inst.' xxii. 214.

[44] 'Catalogue of N. Z. Butterflies,' p. 21.

[45] 'Trans. N. Z. Inst.' x. 265.

[46] 'Cat. N. Z. Butterflies,' p. 22.

[47] 'Trans. N. Z. Institute,' x. 463.

[48] Ibid. xviii. 205.

[49] Since writing the above, I have been informed by Mr. Kingsley that one
     male specimen of _A. bolina_ was taken at Wakapuaka, in 1896, and two
     others reported as seen at Collingwood and Nelson in March, 1897. Mr.
     A. P. Buller has also kindly informed me of the capture of a male
     specimen in perfect condition, at Ohau, Manawatu district, in March,
     1898.

[50] See notes by Mr. Stainton in the Ent. Mo. Mag., xxv. pp. 225, 268.

[51] 'British Butterflies and Moths,' p. 103.

[52] 'Entomologist,' xxii. 37.

[53] 'Trans. N. Z. Inst.' xxviii. 312.

[54] 'Trans. N. Z. Inst.' xv. 197.

[55] Ent. Mon. Mag. iv. p. 53.

[56] 'Trans. N. Z. Inst.' ix. 460; x. 252.

[57] 'Trans. N.Z. Inst.,' vol. x. 259.

[58] 'Catalogue of N. Z. Butterflies,' 22.

[59] 'Catalogue of New Zealand Butterflies,' 18, 23, Pl. II., fig. 1.

[60] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 550.

[61] Stainton's 'British Butterflies and Moths,' 103, Pl. II., fig. 1.

[62] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 550.

[63] Stainton's 'British Butterflies and Moths,' 106.

[64] Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 550.

[65] 'Catalogue of N.Z. Butterflies,' 17, 23. Pl. IV., figs. 3, 4.

[66] For further details on this subject see 'The Entomologist,' xiii. 245,
     and xviii. 159.

[67] 'Trans. N. Z. Inst.' x. (1877), 262.

[68] 'Entomologist,' xviii. 36.

[69] Since writing the above I understand from Mr. Baunehr that he has met
     with several specimens of this species in forest on the Dun Mountain,
     Nelson, at an elevation of about 2,000 feet.





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