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Title: A Comprehensive History of Norwich
Author: Bayne, A. D.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Comprehensive History of Norwich" ***

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NORWICH***


Transcribed from the 1869 Jarrold and Sons edition by David Price, email
ccx074@pglaf.org



                             A COMPREHENSIVE
                            HISTORY OF NORWICH


                                INCLUDING

                          A SURVEY OF THE CITY:

                        AND ITS PUBLIC BUILDINGS;

                       CIVIL AND MUNICIPAL HISTORY:

             INCLUDING COMPLETE LISTS OF MAYORS AND SHERIFFS,
                     AND NOTICES OF EMINENT CITIZENS;

                            POLITICAL HISTORY:

         INCLUDING COMPLETE ELECTION RETURNS AND LISTS OF MEMBERS
                              OF PARLIAMENT;

                            RELIGIOUS HISTORY:

             INCLUDING MEMOIRS OF BISHOPS AND DEANS—RISE AND
                        PROGRESS OF NONCONFORMITY;

                           COMMERCIAL HISTORY:

       INCLUDING THE SUBSTANCE OF PRIZE ESSAYS ON THE MANUFACTURES
                          AND TRADE OF NORWICH.

                                * * * * *

                             By A. D. BAYNE.

                                * * * * *

              JARROLD AND SONS, 12, PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON;

                AND LONDON AND EXCHANGE STREETS, NORWICH.
                                MDCCCLXIX.



PREFACE.


SOME account of the sources of information should be given in the preface
to a history, in order to assure the reader of the authenticity of the
narrative.  No one can have turned over a bookseller’s catalogue of local
historical publications without observing how few they are in comparison
with the extent and importance of the particular district in view.  The
fact is, that most of the productions of the early authors are either
very scarce or are entirely out of print.  No city or county can boast of
so many industrious topographers and antiquarians as Norwich and Norfolk.
If we arrange them in alphabetical order, we have:—Ames, Beatniffe,
Blomefield, P. Browne, Brettingham, Sir Thomas Browne, Chambers, Cory,
Cotman, Dixon, Eldridge, Sir Richard Elles, Forby, Sir John Fenn, Sir
Andrew Fountaine, R. Fitch, Gibson, Gillingwater, Hudson Gurney, Green,
Gunn, Gurdon, Harrod, Ives, Kent, J. Kirkpatrick, Le Neve, Lawrence,
Mackerell, Manship (both father and son), Marshall, Tom Martin, Matchett,
Neville, Nashe, Parkin, Prideaux, Quarles, Richards, Sir H. Spelman, Sir
John Spelman, Clement Spelman, Swinden, Dawson Turner, Wilkins, Watts,
Wilkinson, and the Woodwards (father and son).  Most of these, however,
were antiquarians, and contributed more to archæology and topography than
to history.

Mr. J. Kirkpatrick, in the early part of the eighteenth century, was the
first who formed the plan of a regular historical narrative.  He spent
the greater part of his life in making researches and collecting
materials for a history of Norwich; and he wrote an immense quantity of
matter in thick folio volumes, the whole of which he left in MS. to the
old corporation.  They comprised—

No. 1.  A thick folio volume of the Early History and Jurisdiction of the
City; date 1720.

No. 2.  A similar folio volume, being an account of the Military State of
the City, its walls, towers, ponds, pits, wells, pumps, &c.; date 1722.

No. 3.  A thick quarto.

No. 4.  Several large bundles, foolscap folio; Annals of Norwich.

No. 5.  A fasciculus, foolscap folio; Origin of Charities, and Wills
relating thereto, in each parish.

No. 6.  Memorandum books of Monuments.

No. 7.  Ditto of Merchants’ Marks.

No. 8.  Ditto of Plans of Churches.

No. 9.  Paper containing Drawings of the City Gates, and a plan of
Norwich.

No. 10.  Drawings of all the Churches.

No. 11.  An immense number of pieces of paper containing notes of the
tenure of each house in Norwich.

No. 12.  A MS. quarto volume of 258 pages; the first sixty devoted to
notes upon the Castle at Norwich, the remainder to an account of
Religious Orders and Houses, and the Hospitals of the City.

After the new corporation was constituted, all Kirkpatrick’s MSS. were
dispersed into different hands.  The late Hudson Gurney, Esq., obtained
possession of some of them, and published a very limited number of copies
of those relating to the castle and to religious houses.  Mr. Dawson
Turner edited the last-named MS. (No. 12), and it was printed in 1845.
He says that all the other MSS. had disappeared, but that they were safe
in the custody of the old corporation, thirty years before (1815), when
Mr. De Hague held the office of town clerk.

Fortunately, Mr. Kirkpatrick was the contemporary of the Rev. F.
Blomefield, the historian of Norfolk, who appreciated his researches, and
bore this testimony to his merits:—

    “Mr. Kirkpatrick was a most laborious antiquary and made great
    collections for the city of Norwich, of which he published a large
    prospectus.  In pursuing his studies, he worked with Peter Le Neve,
    Norroy; and as they were very intimate, they mutually exchanged their
    collections for this place, Mr. Kirkpatrick giving all his draughts
    to Mr. Le Neve, and Mr. Le Neve giving his to Mr. Kirkpatrick.  To
    the labours of both these gentlemen I am exceedingly obliged, and did
    I not acknowledge my obligations in this public manner, I should
    inwardly condemn myself as guilty of the highest ingratitude.”

Mr. Blomefield was, indeed, indebted to his deceased friend for the most
valuable parts of his History of Norwich, published in 1742.  It is the
only part of his work which can be properly called history, the rest
consisting of topographical descriptions of different hundreds and
parishes in Norfolk.  Mr. Blomefield began to print his “History of
Norfolk” at his own press in his own house at Fersfield, in 1739, by
subscription, and intended to publish a list of his subscribers when the
whole was finished.  During his life the History came out in monthly
folio numbers; but he died when he had proceeded as far as page 678 of
the third volume.  This volume was completed by the Rev. Charles Parkin,
rector of Oxburgh, Suffolk; and after his death was printed in 1769 by
Whittingham, bookseller at Lynn, by whom the “Continuation” was published
in two more volumes in 1777, these two volumes being very inferior to the
previous three.  Blomefield’s work is of course the chief source of
information respecting Norwich, and it has been republished in many
abridged forms, the best edition being that printed by J. Crouse for M.
Booth, bookseller, in 1781, in ten vols., the last relating to Norwich.
Many smaller abridgements have also been published, carrying on the
narrative to a later date.

The most reliable authority for the whole of the eighteenth century is
the “Norfolk Remembrancer,” compiled with great care by Mr. Matchett.  R.
Fitch, Esq., published a very full and accurate account of the Old Walls
and Gates from J. Kirkpatrick’s MSS., illustrated with views by the late
John Ninham.  B. B. Woodward, Esq., F.S.A., librarian of the royal
library at Windsor Castle, has also been a contributor to the history of
the old city, but as yet we have only brief reports of his lectures “On
Norwich in the Olden Time,” as published in the local journals.  He
directed attention to the purely fictitious accounts of the origin of the
city to be found in the early historians, who drew in all good faith on
their fertile imaginations.  He gave a much more probable account, and
described the progress of the city at different periods, as quoted in the
following pages.  Mr. Harrod, too, has contributed a good deal to more
accurate views of early periods, especially in relation to the
earth-works of the castle, and to the monasteries.

The chapters on the “Rise and Progress of Nonconformists in Norwich” in
this history, are the first given in any work of the kind, and supply
information which will readily account for the political condition of the
city.  From a few hundreds in the seventeenth century, the Nonconformists
have so greatly increased that now they number many thousands, and have
at the same time attained to considerable wealth and influence.

The chapters on Trade and Commerce supply a new feature in Norwich
history, and are very important to men of business.  The information on
this head, including the history of the Manufactures and of the Wholesale
Trade of the city, is for the most part taken from Essays, by the
compiler, to which the prizes were awarded at the Norwich Industrial
Exhibition of 1867.

The great length of the secular narrative must suffice as an apology for
the brevity of the ecclesiastical details, which occupy the greater
portion of Blomefield’s work.  A full history of the churches in Norwich
would fill many volumes; indeed, Kirkpatrick’s account of the Old
Religious Houses occupies as many as 300 pages.  But the general reader
would not be interested by such details.

A full history of Norwich, up to the latest date, has long been wanted,
and the present compiler has availed himself of all sources of
information, but he has been obliged to compress a great deal into a
small compass.  He has introduced many notices of eminent citizens of
every period, including bishops and ministers of all denominations, who
exercised much influence in their day and generation.

Accurate views of local history afford the clearest insight into the
state of society at different periods.  Thus the records of Norwich
Castle prove that nearly all the land in the country was either assigned
to bear, or was chargeable with, the castle guard of some castle or other
in ancient times.  The castles being fortresses were the centres around
which large towns arose, and where people most congregated for protection
in lawless ages.  The whole island was one vast camp during the feudal
period.  Monasteries were the only places of refuge for travellers, or
for the destitute poor, and when the religious houses were dissolved, an
entire change took place in the state of society.

Local history, properly understood, is not a dry register of events, but
leads from particular conclusions to higher generalisations.  The
predominance of certain ideas at different times produced all the events
of those periods.  Norwich men took an active part in all the great
movements of the day,—in the Reformation, the Civil Wars, the
Commonwealth, and all the agitations of more modern times.  Therefore,
the story of the city is interesting and important in every period, and
it is identified with the whole course of events in East Anglia.  Indeed,
it is difficult to separate the history of Norwich, the capital of East
Anglia, from that of the whole district.

                        [Picture: Decorative mark]



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS.

                               PART I.
                                                                 PAGES
SURVEY OF NORWICH.  Rise and Progress of the City—The            9–115
Modern City—Public Buildings—Parishes and Parish
Churches—Nonconformist Chapels.
                               PART II.

                              CHAPTER I.
The Ancient City—Old Walls and Gates—Desecrated Churches       116–145
and Chapels—Monastic Institutions—Monumental Brasses
                             CHAPTER II.
The Aborigines                                                 146–151
                             CHAPTER III.
Norwich in the Roman Period—The Venta Icenorum                 152–157
                             CHAPTER IV.
Norwich in the Anglo-Saxon Period                              151–161
                              CHAPTER V.
Norwich under the Danes                                        162–164
                             CHAPTER VI.
Norwich in the Norman Period                                   165–168
                             CHAPTER VII.
Norwich in the Twelfth Century                                 169–172
                            CHAPTER VIII.
Norwich in the Thirteenth Century                              173–176
                             CHAPTER IX.
Norwich in the Fourteenth Century                              177–182
                              CHAPTER X.
Norwich in the Fifteenth Century                               183–187
                             CHAPTER XI.
Norwich in the Sixteenth Century—Bilney’s                      188–211
Martydom—Dissolution of the Monasteries—Kett’s
Rebellion—Queen Mary—Queen Elizabeth—Eminent Citizens of
the Period
                             CHAPTER XII.
Norwich in the Seventeenth Century—The Civil Wars—Eminent      212–240
Citizens
                            CHAPTER XIII.
Nonconformity in Norwich—The Independents—The                  241–257
Baptists—The Methodists
                             CHAPTER XIV.
Social State of Norwich from Fourteenth to Eighteenth          258–267
Centuries—Trade Regulations, &c.
                             CHAPTER XV.
Norwich in the Eighteenth Century—Social                       268–356
State—Nonconformity—Eminent Citizens—Norwich in the
Nineteenth Century
                             CHAPTER XVI.
History of the Norwich Navigation                              357–365
                            CHAPTER XVII.
Leading Events of the Nineteenth Century                       366–378
                            CHAPTER XVIII.
The Reform Era—Commission of Enquiry respecting the Old        379–404
Corporation—The Election of Stormont and Scarlett
                             CHAPTER XIX.
The Reign of Queen Victoria—Leading Events                     405–415
                             CHAPTER XX.
The Murder of Isaac Jermy, Recorder of Norwich                 416–428
                             CHAPTER XXI.
The Census of 1861—New Poor Law Act—Visit of Prince and        429–454
Princess of Wales, the Duke of Edinburgh, and the Queen
of Denmark—The New Drainage Scheme
                            CHAPTER XXII.
History of the Triennial Musical Festivals                     455–474
                            CHAPTER XXIII.
Eminent Citizens of the Nineteenth Century                     475–540
                            CHAPTER XXIV.
Norwich Artists in the Nineteenth Century                      541–551
                              PART III.

                              CHAPTER I.
Rise and Progress of the Manufacture of Textile Fabrics,       552–594
and Present State of the Trade
                             CHAPTER II.
Trade and Commerce of the City—Banks and                       595–633
Banking—Wholesale Producers and Dealers—Cattle and Corn
Trade—Traffic by Rail and Water, &c.
                               PART IV.

                              CHAPTER I.
Political History—Elections for the City—List of Members       634–683
of Parliament
                             CHAPTER II.
Political History continued—Lists of Mayors, Sheriffs,         684–705
Stewards, and Recorders
                             CHAPTER III.
Ecclesiastical History—Origin of the See—Lists of              706–721
Bishops, Deans, and Clergy—Dignitaries of the
Diocese—Nonconformist Ministers
                             CHAPTER IV.
Religious, Educational, and Benevolent                         722–735
                              APPENDIX.
City Authorities and Officials, &c.                            736–738

                        [Picture: Decorative mark]



INDEX TO CONTENTS.

                                                                  PAGE
Aborigines of the District                                         146
Act obtained for Paving and                                   291, 324
Lighting
Agricultural Implement Makers                                      611
Agricultural Society’s (Royal)                                     416
Visit
Agriculture, Chamber of                                            441
Alexander Rev. John                                                490
Alfred Prince, in Norwich                                          443
Alfred the Great, Reign of                                         159
Allen Thomas, M.A.                                                 248
Anchorages or Hermitages                                           139
Ancient City, The                                                  117
Anderson William, Notice of                                        307
Andrew’s, St. Hall—see St.
Andrew’s Hall
Angles, Arrival of                                                  11
Anglo-Saxon Coins                                             160, 161
Anglo-Saxon Dynasty, Restoration                                    12
of
Anglo-Saxon Period, Norwich in                                     158
the
Archæological Society, (British)                                   433
Visit of
Artists of Norwich                                                 541
Art, School of (in Free Library)                                    61
Assize Courts, City and County                                      50
Assizes removed to Norwich                                         381
Asylum, New Lunatic, contemplated                                  441
Austin Friars                                                      138

Bank, the Crown                                                     76
Banks and Banking                                                  595
Baptist Chapels                                          110, 111, 112
Baptists in Norwich, History of                                    253
the
Barbauld, Anna Letitia                                             307
Barlow, Peter                                                      307
Barracks, Cavalry                                                   76
Bathurst Bishop                                           36, 300, 328
Bathurst Bishop, Memoir of                                         520
Bathurst Bishop, Professor                                         329
Taylor’s account of
Beechey, Sir William                                               307
Benedictine Priory                                                 136
Bethel Built                                                       270
Bible Society, Norwich Auxiliary                                   335
Established
Bignold, Sir Samuel                                      378, 381, 432
Bigod, Hugh                                              169, 170, 172
Bigod, Roger                             163, 166, 168, 169, 172, 173,
                                                              174, 175
Bigod, William                                                     169
Bilney, the Martyr                                             51, 191
Bishop Bathurst, monument of                                   36, 521
,, ,, mentioned in _Monthly                                        300
Magazine_
,, ,, elected                                                      328
,, ,, Professor Taylor’s account                                   329
of
,, ,, Memoir of                                                    520
,, Goldwell, tomb of                                                36
,, Hall, driven out                                           222, 227
,, ,, Memoir of                                                    226
,, Hall’s palace                                                   100
,, Herbert de Losinga (first                                        13
bishop)
,, ,, Norman statue of                                              39
,, Hinds, memoir of                                                524
,, Horne, monument of                                               36
,, Nykke, tomb of                                                   34
,, Parkhurst, tomb of                                               35
,, Pelham, notice of                                               714
,, Stanley, memoir of                                              524
,, Wren and the “Book of Sports”                                   244
Bishop’s Palace, History and                                        43
description of
Bishops of Norwich, list of                                        708
Black Friars                                                       138
Blomefield, the Norfolk Historian                             127, 306
Blind, Hospital for the                                       327, 733
Blythe, Hancock                                                    307
Board of Health                                                14, 429
Boleyn, Sir William, tomb of                                        37
Bombazines, manufacture of                                         204
introduced
Book of Sports                                                 78, 244
Boot and Shoe Trade, Wholesale                                     601
Bourn, Samuel                                                      297
Bracondale Lodge (Miss Martineau)                                  106
Brand, John, B.A.                                                  307
Brasses, Monumental                                           140, 563
Bread Riots                                              286, 292, 340
Brethren of the Sac Friars                                         139
Brewers’ Mark, &c., Mr. R. Fitch                                   264
on
Brewers, Wholesale                                                 616
Bridge, Carrow, first stone laid                                   333
,, Duke’s Palace, erected                                          347
,, Foundry, first stone laid                                       334
Bridge W., M.A.                                                    245
British Archæological Society,                                     433
Visit of
,, Association for the                                             444
Advancement of Science, Visit of
Brooke, Sir James, educated at                                 45, 726
Grammar School
Brown, Rev. Robert                                                 243
Browne, Sir Thomas, memoir of                                      230
Brush and Paper Bag Makers                                         620
Burial Ground—the Rosary                                           108
Bury and Schneider unseated                                        656
Buxton, Thomas Fowell                                              104

Caer Gwent or Guntum, Norwich                                  10, 157
called so by the Iceni
Caister, a village on the bank of                               10, 11
the Taas
Caister and Norwich, Traditional                                    10
Couplet
Caister Camp                                                  105, 157
Canons Honorary                                                    718
Canute assigned custody of                                         152
Norwich Castle to Earl Turkel
Cardinal Wolsey visited Norwich                                    189
Carmelite Friars                                                   137
Caroline, Queen, Address to                                        350
Carriage Manufacturers                                             620
Carrow Abbey                                                   84, 139
Carrow Bridge, first stone laid                                    333
Carrow Works (Messrs. J. and J.                                84, 605
Colman’s)
Carrying Trade                                                     625
Carter, Rev. John, memoir of                                       239
Castle built                                                   11, 163
,, burnt by Danes                                                   12
,, description and history of                                       20
,, fortifications of                                            21, 22
,, ,, Mr. Woodward’s opinions                                  23, 119
,, ,, Kirkpatrick’s opinions                                        23
,, ,, Mr. Harrod’s opinions                                         24
,, made the public prison                                          178
,, Corporation, the                                                339
,, Hill, View from                                                  47
Cathedral, additions and repairs                       29, 30, 31, 276
by Eborard, John de Oxford,
Walter de Suffield, Ralph de
Walpole, &c.
,, Brasses destroyed during                                         37
Commonwealth
,, Chartists attended at                                           406
,, Cloisters, description of                                        41
,, Close, Upper and Lower                                           44
,, Dignitaries of the                                              717
,, Dimensions of                                                    32
,, Edward I. and Eleanor at                                         29
,, Exterior, description of                                         39
,, Gateways                                                         46
,, Injuries by fires, wind, and                  29, 30, 189, 212, 323
lightning
,, Injuries by Reformers                                       31, 219
,, Interior description of                                          33
,, Monument of Bishop Bathurst                                      36
,, ,, Bishop Home                                                   36
Cathedral, Monument of Sir                                          37
William Boleyn
,, Original Structure                                               28
,, Prideaux, Dr., Inscription in                                    34
Memory of
,, Queen Elizabeth dined in                                    43, 205
Cloisters
,, Tomb of Bishop Goldwell                                          36
,, ,, ,, Herbert de Losinga                                         37
,, ,, ,, Nykke                                                      35
,, ,, ,, Parkhurst                                                  35
,, ,, Miles Spencer                                                 34
,, Yarmouth people ask for stones                                   31
for a workhouse
Catherine, Queen, visited Norwich                                  189
Catholic Apostolic Chapel                                          115
Cattle and Corn Trade                                              623
Cattle Food and Manure Trades                                      622
Cattle Market, cost of                                              49
improvements, &c.
Cavalry Barracks                                                    76
Cemetery, Public (opened 1856)                                101, 432
,, The Rosary                                                      108
Census of 1861                                                     435
Chamber of Agriculture                                             441
Chantrey’s, Sir Francis last work                              37, 521
Chapel Field                                                   98, 133
Chapels, Nonconformists’                                           720
,, ,, Ber Street (Wesleyans)                                       112
,, ,, Calvert Street (Methodist                                    112
Free Church)
,, ,, Catherine’s Plain                                            113
(Primitive Methodists)
,, ,, Chapel-in-the-Field                                          110
(Independents)
,, ,, Cherry Lane (Baptists)                                       112
,, ,, Clement Court (Catholic                                      115
Apostolic—Irvingites)
,, ,, Crook’s Place (Methodist                                     112
Free Church)
,, ,, Cowgate Street (Primitive                                    113
Methodist)
,, ,, Dereham Road (Primitive                                      113
Methodist)
,, ,, Dutch Church (Free                                           114
Christian Church)
,, ,, Ebenezer (Baptists)                                          111
,, ,, French Church                                                114
(Swedenborgians)
,, ,, Gildencroft (Baptists)                                       111
,, ,, Jireh—Dereham Road                                           112
(Baptists)
,, ,, Lady Lane (Wesleyans)                                        112
,, ,, Octagon (Unitarians)                                         113
,, ,, Old Meeting (Independents)                                   109
,, ,, Orford Hill (Baptists)                                       111
,, ,, Pottergate Street                                            112
(Baptists)
,, ,, Princes Street                                               109
(Independents)
,, ,, Priory Yard (Baptists)                                       112
,, ,, Queen Street                                                 114
(Swedenborgians)
,, ,, St. Clement’s (Baptists)                                     111
,, ,, St. Faith’s Lane (Jews)                                      115
,, ,, St. John’s Maddermarket                                      113
(Roman Cath.)
,, ,, St. Mary’s (Baptists)                                        110
,, ,, St. Peter’s Hall                                             112
(Presbyterians)
,, ,, Tabernacle (Lady                                             110
Huntingdon’s)
,, ,, Upper Goat Lane (Friends)                                    113
,, ,, Willow Lane (Roman                                           113
Catholics)
Chapels, Desecrated                                                133
Charing (Sherers’) Cross removed                                   275
Charitable Institutions                                            732
,, ,, Bethel                                                       270
,, ,, Blind Hospital                                          327, 733
,, ,, Doughty’s Hospital                                           733
,, ,, Great Hospital (called also                    79, 197, 279, 733
Old Men’s, St. Giles’, or St.
Helen’s)
,, ,, Jenny Lind Infirmary                                    430, 733
,, ,, Lying-in Charity                                             377
,, ,, Norfolk and Norwich                                     280, 733
Hospital
,, ,, Norwich Magdalen                                             733
,, ,, Orphans’ Home                                                733
,, ,, Public Dispensary                                       325, 733
Charles II. and Queen visited                                 223, 225
Norwich
Chartist Movements                                       406, 408, 653
Christ Church, New Catton                                      92, 405
Church Congress in Norwich                                         442
Church of England Young Men’s                                      732
Society
Churches, All Saints                                                96
,, Christ Church (New Catton)                                  92, 405
,, desecrated                                                  127–133
,, despoiled by Reformers                                          219
,, Holy Trinity (Heigham)                                          102
,, list of                                                         719
,, number of, in olden times                                        62
,, St. Andrew                                                       70
,, St. Andrew (Eaton)                                              104
,, St. Augustine                                                    87
,, St. Bartholomew (Heigham)                                       102
,, St. Benedict                                                     75
,, St. Clement                                                      91
,, St. Edmund                                                       93
,, St. Etheldred                                                    82
,, St. George Colegate                                              87
,, St. George Tombland                                              77
,, St. Giles                                                        67
,, St. Gregory                                                      68
,, St. Helen                                                        80
,, St. James                                                         9
,, St. John Maddermarket                                            69
,, St. John Timberhill                                              97
,, St. John Sepulchre                                               95
,, St. Julian                                                       81
,, St. Lawrence                                                     73
,, St. Margaret                                                     75
,, St. Martin at Oak                                                86
,, St. Martin at Palace                                             79
,, St. Mark (Lakenham)                                             105
,, St. Mary at Coslany                                              88
,, St. Matthew (Thorpe)                                            106
,, St. Michael Coslany                                              85
,, St. Michael at Plea                                              77
,, St. Michael at Thorn                                             96
,, St. Paul                                                         93
,, St. Peter Hungate                                                78
,, St. Peter of Mancroft                                            65
,, St. Peter per Mountergate                                        81
,, St. Peter Southgate                                              82
,, St. Philip (Heigham)                                            102
,, St. Saviour                                                      92
,, St. Simon and Jude                                               79
,, St. Stephen                                                      94
,, St. Swithin                                                      73
,, Trinity, Holy (Heigham)                                         102
Cigar and Tobacco Trade                                            617
City and County of Norwich                                         170
City Jail                                                      99, 355
City Library                                                        61
City Officials, list of                                            736
City separated from County of                                      170
Norfolk
Civic Feasts                           52, 197, 204, 378, 402, 403 _et
                                                               passim_
Civil Wars, the                                                    216
Clabburn Thomas, monument of                                        87
Clarke, Dr. Adam, in Norwich                                       257
Clarke, Dr. Samuel, memoir of                                      236
Clergy, ignorance of, in                                           242
fifteenth century
Clergy of City and Hamlets, list                                   719
of
Close, Cathedral, Upper and Lower                                   44
Clothiers, Wholesale                                               601
Clover Joseph, artist                                              546
Coaches, Mail, to London                                           282
Coal Trade                                                         622
Coins, Anglo-Saxon                                            160, 161
Coins of Iceni                                                     149
Collinges Dr.                                                      296
Commercial History                                                 552
Commercial School                                                  726
Compounding for Poor-rates                                         440
abolished
Cooper Henry                                                       308
Corn Exchange (old) opened                                         372
,, description of                                                   58
Corn Exchange, portraits in (Earl                                   59
Leicester & Jno. Culley, Esq.)
Corn, high price of                                           286, 293
Corn Trade                                                         623
Corporation, Municipal                                             170
,, ,, First Mayor of New                                           402
,, ,, History of the                                               316
,, ,, Last Mayor of Old                                            401
,, ,, Members of, for 1869                                         736
,, ,, Present state of the                                         395
,, ,, Presents to the, by Lord                                     279
Howard, 223; Sir Robt. Walpole,
275; Sir Armine Wodehouse
Corporation, Old, _Commission of                                   381
Inquiry_
,, Evidence of Athow, John                                         395
,, ,, Bacon, R. M.                                                 395
,, ,, Barnard, A.                                                  391
,, ,, Bignold, S. (mayor)                                          383
,, ,, Bolingbroke, Alderman                                   383, 391
,, ,, Francis, John                                           391, 394
,, ,, Gurney, J. J.                                      383, 388, 392
,, ,, Newton, Alderman                                             386
,, ,, Palmer, George                                               392
,, ,, Robberds, J. W.                                              395
,, ,, Simpson, W.                                                  383
,, ,, Stan, John Rising                                            390
,, ,, Wilde, William                                               389
,, ,, Willett, H.                                                  393
,, ,, Wright Mr.                                                   394
Cosin, Dr. John, memoir of                                         238
Costume of various periods                                         553
Cotman, J. S., artist                                              550
Council Chamber                                                     50
County Jail (the Castle)                                            27
Crape Manufacture                                        581, 592, 593
Crome, John, artist (“Old Crome”)                              89, 542
Memorial of
Crome, Miss, artist                                                546
Crome, J. B., artist                                               545
Cromwell and the Commonwealth                                      222
Cromwell, John                                                     249
Crosse, John Greene, memoir of                                     530
Crotch, Dr. William                                                538
Crown Bank (Harveys and Hudson)                                     76
Crucifixion of a boy by Jews,                                      174
alleged

Dalrymple, William, memoir of                                      526
Danes, Incursions of                                                12
Danes settled in Norwich                                           162
Dean and Chapter                                                   718
Dean and Chapter’s Library                                          44
Deans of Norwich, list of                                          715
Deave, Reuben                                                      308
Denmark, Queen of, visit to                                        443
Norwich
De Dominâ Friars                                                   138
De Pica or Pied Friars                                             138
De Sacco Friars                                                    139
Desecrated Chapels                                                 133
Desecrated Churches                                            127–133
Dignitaries of the Diocese                                         717
Diocese, Dignitaries of                                            717
Disfranchisement of Freemen                                   374, 402
Dispensary, Public                                            325, 733
Dissolution of the Monasteries                                     194
Dixon, W. R., artist                                               547
Domesday Book                                         12, 13, 165, 260
Dominican Friars                                                   138
Doughty’s Hospital                                                 733
Drainage, the New Scheme for                                       446
Drapers, Wholesale                                                 616
Dress at different periods                                         553
Drill Hall                                                          98
Duchess of Norfolk (died 1593),                                     70
monument of
Duke of Sussex visited Norwich                                     345
Duke of Wellington, Statue of                                       63
Duke’s Palace Bridge erected                                       347
Dungeon Tower                                                       76
Dutch and Flemings, arrival of                                166, 557
Dutch Church (Free Christian                                       114
Church)

Earlham Hall                                                       103
Earlham, Hamlet of                                                 103
Earthquakes felt in Norwich                                        278
Eaton, Hamlet of                                                   104
Ecclesiastical History                                             706
Edinburgh, Duke of, in Norwich                                     443
Education in Norwich                                               726
Edward I. and Eleanor at                                            29
Cathedral
Edward III. and Philippa visit                                     178
Norwich
Edward VI. Commercial School                                       726
,, Grammar School                                              45, 726
Eighteenth Century, Norwich in                                     268
the
Eldon Club                                                         641
Election, First under the Reform                                   662
Act of 1867
Election of Stormont and Scarlett
(see Stormont and Scarlett)
Elections since Reform Act of                                      650
1832
Elizabeth Fry                                            104, 503, 505
Elizabeth, Queen, visits of, to                            43, 51, 205
Norwich
Elizabeth Woodville, Queen of                                      185
Edward IV., visits Norwich
Eminent Citizens, Notices of—
,, ,, Alexander, Rev. John                                         490
,, ,, Anderson, William                                            307
,, ,, Barbauld, Anna Letitia                                       307
,, ,, Barlow, Peter                                                307
,, ,, Bathurst, Bishop                                             520
,, ,, Beechey, Sir William                                         307
,, ,, Blomefield, Rev. F.                                          306
,, ,, Blythe, Hancock                                              307
,, ,, Brand, John, B.A.                                            307
,, ,, Browne, Sir Thomas                                           230
,, ,, Carter, Rev. John                                            239
,, ,, Clarke, Dr. Samuel                                           236
,, ,, Cooper, Henry                                                308
,, ,, Cosin, Dr. John                                              238
,, ,, Crosse, John Greene                                          530
,, ,, Crotch, Dr. William                                          538
,, ,, Dalrymple, William                                           526
,, ,, Deave, Reuben                                                308
,, ,, Enfield, Dr.                                            298, 309
,, ,, Fenn, Sir John                                               309
,, ,, Fry, Elizabeth                                          503, 505
,, ,, Goslin, John                                                 239
,, ,, Gurney, John                                                 499
,, ,, Gurney, Joseph John                                          503
,, ,, Hall, Bishop                                                 226
,, ,, Hall, Thomas                                                 309
,, ,, Hinds, Bishop                                                524
,, ,, Hobart, John                                                 310
,, ,, Hooke, James                                                 310
,, ,, Hooker, Dr.                                                  536
,, ,, Kaye, John                                                   210
,, ,, Kinnebrook, David                                            310
,, ,, Kirkpatrick, John                                            303
,, ,, Legge, Dr.                                                   209
,, ,, Lens, John                                                   310
,, ,, Lubbock, Dr.                                                 311
,, ,, Mountain, Right Rev. J.                                      311
,, ,, Opie, Mrs.                                                   537
,, ,, Parker, Archbishop                                           211
,, ,, Parr, Dr. Samuel                                             311
,, ,, Pearson, Dr. John                                            238
,, ,, Rigby, Dr.                                                   311
,, ,, Robert, Viscount of                                          237
Yarmouth
,, ,, Saint, William                                               312
,, ,, Sanby, George, D.D.                                          312
,, ,, Say, William                                                 312
,, ,, Sayers, Frank, M.D.                                          312
,, ,, Smith, Sir J. E., M.D.                                       312
,, ,, Stanley, Bishop                                              522
,, ,, Stevenson, William                                           313
,, ,, Taylor, John, D.D.                                           313
,, ,, Taylor, Professor Edward                                     475
,, ,, Taylor, William                                              313
,, ,, Thurlow, Edward, Baron                                       313
,, ,, Wilkins, William                                             314
,, ,, Wilkins, William, sen.                                       314
,, ,, Wilks, Rev. Mark                                             482
,, ,, Windham, William                                             314
,, ,, Wrench, Sir Benjamin                                         314
Enfield, Dr.                                                  298, 309
Erpingham Gate                                                      46
Erpingham, Sir Thomas                                           46, 51
Ethelbert Gate                                                      46
Exhibitions, Great, (1851 & 1862)                             430, 436
Norwich Contributors to
Exhibition, Norwich Industrial                                     443
Extent of Modern City                                               15

Fastolf Sir John, House of                                          46
Fenn, Sir John                                                     309
Fifteenth Century, Norwich in the                                  183
Fires, serious injuries by                               188, 277, 323
Fish Market                                                         64
Fitch, R., Esq., on the Old Walls                                  121
and Gates
Flag of France taken by Nelson                                      58
Flemings, Arrival or                      166, 171, 204, 557, 560, 567
Flemish Refugees banished                                          244
Flint Implements of Iceni                                          148
Flint Structure, curious specimen                                   72
of
Floods, violent, in Norwich                              269, 279, 280
Flour Mills                                                        621
Fortifications of the Old City                                     122
Foundry Bridge, first stone laid                                   334
Fourteenth Century, Norwich in                                     177
the
Fourteenth to eighteenth                                           258
Centuries, social state
Franciscan Friars                                                  137
Fransham John                                                      309
Free Christian Church                                              114
Free Library                                                        61
Freemasons, Dean Prideaux, first                                   272
master here
Freemen, disfranchisement of                                  374, 402
French Church (Swedenborgian)                                      114
French Revolution commemorated                                     284
Friaries                                                           136
Friars, Carmelites or White                                        137
Friars de Dominâ                                                   138
Friars de Pica or Pied Friars                                      138
Friars de Sacco                                                    139
Friars Franciscan or Grey                                          137
Friars of St. Mary                                                 138
Friars, Preachers (Black Friars)                                   138
Friends’ Meeting House                                             113
Fry, Elizabeth                                           104, 503, 505
Fynch, Martin                                                      249

Gates and Walls, old                                               121
Gateways of Cathedral                                               46
Gedge, Mr. G., promoted National                         410, 412, 414
Rate
Goslin John, Memoir of                                             239
Grammar School                                                 45, 726
,, Brooke, Sir James, educated at                              45, 726
,, Lord Nelson                                                 45, 726
,, Valpy Dr., once head master                                 45, 726
Grantham Thomas                                                    253
Great Exhibitions (1851 and                                   430, 436
1862), Norwich Contributions to
Great Hospital (see Charitable
Institutions)
Grey Friars                                                        137
Grocers, wholesale                                                 617
Guardians, Corporation of                                     375, 438
Guild Feasts                                                        52
Guild Hall, description of                                          50
,, memorials of Nelson in                                           51
,, Bilney the martyr confined                                       51
there
Guilds and Pageants                       180, 208, 239, 274, 282, 403
Guild, the Tanners’                                                 74
Gurney Family                                                 103, 498
,, Hudson, on Venta Icenorum                                       153
,, John                                                            502
,, Joseph John                                                368, 509
,, ,, buried in Gildencroft                                   111, 518

Hall, Bishop, memoir of                                            226
Hall’s Bishop, Palace                                              100
Hall, Guild (see Guildhall)
Hall, St. Andrew’s (see St.
Andrew’s Hall)
Hall, Thomas                                                       309
Hallett, Rev. J., on History of                                    251
Old Meeting House
Hamlets—Earlham                                                    103
,, Eaton                                                           104
,, Heigham                                                          98
,, Hellesdon                                                       103
,, Lakenham                                                        104
,, Pockthorpe                                                      108
,, Thorpe                                                          106
,, Trowse, Carrow, and Bracondale                                  106
Harrod on Fortifications of                                         24
Castle
Hart, Rev. R., on Old Costumes                                     564
Harvey, Charles                                                    353
Harvey, John                                                       354
Harvey, Robert                                                     339
Harvey, Sir R. J. H., Bart.,                                  107, 597
Heigham, Hamlet of                                                  98
Hellesdon, Hamlet of                                               103
Henry I. visited Norwich                                           169
Henry VI. visited Norwich                                          184
Henry VII. visited Norwich                                         186
Herbert de Losinga (first bishop)                                   13
,, tomb of                                                          37
Hermitages or Anchorages                                           139
Hinds, Bishop, memoir of                                           524
Hobart, John                                                       310
Hodgson, Charles, artist                                           547
Hodgson, David, artist                                             548
Holy Trinity, Church of the                                        102
Hooke, James                                                       310
Hooker, Dr., notice of                                             536
Horticultural Implement Makers                                     611
Hospitals (see Charitable
Institutions)
Huntingdon’s, Lady, Connexion                                      110

Iceni, the                                                     11, 147
,, Coins of                                                        149
,, Flint Implements of                                             148
,, Woodward on                                                     117
,, Sepulchral Urns                                                 148
Independent Chapels                                           109, 110
Independents, History of the                                       247
Indigent Blind Hospital                                       327, 733
Indulgences to those buried in                                     137
“Pardon Cloister”
Industrial Exhibition                                              443
Innes, Rev. J. B.                                                  251
Iron Trade                                                         609
Irvingites’ Chapel                                                 115

Jail, the City                                                 99, 355
Jail, the County                                                    27
Jenny Lind Infirmary                                          430, 733
Jermy, Isaac, Recorder, Murder of                                  416
Jews accused of crucifying a boy                                   174
Jews, first settled in Norwich                                     165
Jews, large influx of                                              169
‘Jews’ Synagogue                                                   115
John’s (King) visit to Norwich                                     173
John of Gaunt visited Norwich                                      179

Kaye, John, memoir of                                              210
Kett’s Castle                                                      136
Kett’s Rebellion                                                   198
King (see Royal Visits)
King Edward VI. Commercial School                                  726
King Edward VI. Grammar School                                 45, 726
Kinghorn, Rev. J., Tributary                                       256
Lines by Mrs. Opie
Kinnebrook, David                                                  310
Kirkpatrick, John, memoir of                                       303
Kirkpatrick—buried in St. Helen’s                              80, 305
Church
,, on fortifications of Castle                                      23

Ladbrooke, Robert                                                  548
Lady Huntingdon Chapels                                            110
Lakenham, Hamlet of                                                104
Law of Settlement and Removal                                      414
Legge, Dr., memoir of                                              209
Lens, John, M.A.                                                   310
Library, City (at Free Library)                                     61
,, Dean and Chapter’s                                               44
,, Free Library                                                     61
,, Literary Institution                                             60
,, Norwich Public                                              59, 298
Literary Institution, Norfolk and                                   60
Norwich
Lollards’ Pit (see also Martyrs)                    136, 184, 193, 203
Lord Abinger                                                       401
Lord Nelson                                  45, 51, 56, 288, 289, 330
Lubbock, Richard, M.D.                                             311
Lunatic Asylum, new one                                            441
contemplated
Lying-in-Charity, Established                                      377

Magdalen, or Female Home                                           733
Mail Coaches, first started to                                     282
London
Maltby, Dr. Edward                                                 297
Manufacture of Bombazines                                          204
introduced
Manufacture of Worsted introduced                                  166
Manufacturers of the last century                                  302
Manufactures mentioned in “Paston                                  178
Letters”
Manufactures, Norwich, at Great                               430, 436
Exhibitions
Manufactures, Norwich, presented                                   437
to Princess of Wales
Manufactures—Textile                                               553
Fabrics—History of
,, ,, in Eighteenth Century                                        569
,,, , in Nineteenth Century                                        578
Manure Manufacturers                                               622
Margaret of Anjou (Queen of Henry                                  185
VI.) visited Norwich
Market, Corn                                                        58
Market Cross, the                                                  188
Market, Cattle, cost of                                             49
improvements, &c
Market, Fish                                                        64
Market Place, dimensions of                                         63
Market Place, formerly the Great                                    18
Croft
Martineau Family                                                   106
Martyr, the Boy William                                            174
Martyr, Thomas Bilney                                          51, 191
Martyrs (see also Lollards’ Pit)         184, 191, 193, 196, 203, 206,
                                                              242, 243
Masons, Free, Dean Prideaux first                                  272
master here
Mayor and Sheriff, alternate                                       429
nominations of
Mayor, the first                                          72, 170, 684
Mayors and Sheriffs, complete                                      684
list of
Mayor’s Feast, curious speech at                                    53
a
Mayors’ Feasts (see also Civic           52, 204, 378, 403 _et passim_
Feasts)
Mayors’ Gold Chain                                                 271
Members of Parliament first                                        176
elected for Norwich
Members for Norwich, complete                                      669
list of
Methodists, Calvinistic                                            256
Methodist Free Church Chapels                                      112
Methodist, Primitive, Chapels                                      112
Methodists, Wesleyan                                          112, 257
Miles Spencer, Tomb of                                              34
Ministers, Nonconformist                                           720
Modern City, situation and extent                                   15
of
Monasteries, dissolution of                                        194
Monastic Institutions                                              135
Monumental Brasses                                                 140
Moore William (last Mayor of Old                                   401
Corporation)
Mountain, Right Rev. Jacob                                         311
Municipal Reform Act                                          170, 400
Murder of Isaac Jermy, Recorder                                    416
Museum, Norfolk and Norwich                                    60, 401
Musical Festivals                                   324, 333, 356, 403
,, History of                                                      455
Mustard and Starch Manufactory                                 84, 605
(Messrs. J. and J. Colman’s)

National Rate advocated by Mr. G.                        410, 412, 414
Gedge and others
Navigation, Norwich, history of                                    357
the
Nelson, Lord, educated at Grammar                              45, 726
School
,, memorials of, in Guildhall                                  51, 288
,, portrait of, in St. Andrew’s                                56, 289
Hall
,, statue of, in Cathedral Close                                    45
,, victory of, celebrated in                                       330
Norwich
New Catton (Christ Church)                                     92, 405
New Mills                                                           74
Newspaper, first in Norwich                                        269
Nineteenth Century, Norwich in                                     315
the
Nonconformist Ministers, list of                                   720
Nonconformists (see Chapels)                                  109, 720
,, Baptists                                              110, 111, 112
,, Catholic Apostolic                                              115
,, Friends                                                         113
,, Free Christian Church                                           114
,, Independents                                               109, 110
,, Irvingites                                                      115
,, Jews                                                            115
,, Lady Huntingdon’s Connexion                                     110
,, Methodist Free Church                                           112
,, ,, Primitive                                                    112
,, ,, Wesleyan                                                     112
,, Presbyterian                                                    112
,, Roman Catholics                                            113, 114
,, Swedenborgians                                                  114
,, Unitarians                                                      113
Nonconformity in Norwich, history                             241, 294
of
Norman Conquest                                                    165
Norman Architecture, specimens of                                   62
Northwic, Norwich named so by the                                   11
Angles
Norwich—Aborigines                                                 146
,, and Caister, traditional                                         10
couplet
,, “a Port”                                                        357
,, Antiquities                                                     116
,, Assizes removed to                                              381
,, became a Danish City                                             12
,, Bishops, list of                                                708
,, Clergy of City and Hamlets                                      719
,, Corporation of (see
Corporation)
,, Crape Manufacture                                     581, 592, 593
,, custody of, assigned by Canute                                  162
to Earl Turkel
,, Deans, list of                                                  715
,, during Civil Wars                                               216
,, during Commonwealth                                             222
,, extract from Domesday Book                                      166
,, first represented in                                            176
Parliament
,, from fourteenth to eighteenth                                   258
centuries
,, in the Roman Period                                         10, 152
,, in the Anglo-Saxon Period                                       158
,, in the Norman Period                                            165
,, in the Twelfth Century                                          169
,, in the Thirteenth Century                                       173
,, in the Fourteenth Century                                       177
,, in the Fifteenth Century                                        183
,, in the Sixteenth Century                                        188
,, in the Seventeenth Century                                      212
,, in the Seventeenth Century,                                     224
Sir Thos. Browne and Lord
Macaulay on
,, in the Eighteenth Century                                       268
,, in the Nineteenth Century                                       315
,, Jews first settled in                                           165
,, made a Staple Town                                              178
,, Mayors and Sheriffs, complete                                   684
list of
,, Members of Parliament for,                                      669
complete list of
,, Navigation, history of the                                      357
,, Nonconformity, history of                                  241, 294
,, Recorder of, Isaac Jermy,                                       416
murdered
,, Recorders, list of                                              704
,, seriously injured by Fire                                  188, 277
,, Shawl Manufacture                                               587
,, Site of, formerly under the                                   9, 10
sea
,, Stewards, list of                                               705
,, supplies against Spanish                                        205
Armada
,, under the Angles n                                               11
,, under the Danes                                                 162
,, under the Reform Era                                            379
,, Union (New Act)                                                 438
,, Venta Icenorum of the Romans                           11, 117, 153

Octagon Chapel (Unitarian)                               113, 138, 295
Old Bridewell, a curious flint                                      71
structure (built about 1370)
Old Corporation (see Corporation)
“Old Crome,” artist                                            89, 542
Old Meeting House                                                  109
,, Rev. J. Hallett on the History                                  251
of
Old Men’s Hospital                                   79, 197, 279, 733
Old Norwich                                                        117
,, fortifications of                                               122
Old Walls and Gates—Mr. R. Fitch                               121–127
on
Opie, Mrs., buried in Gildencroft                                  111
,, Notice of                                                       537
Orphan’s Home                                                      733

Paper Bag Makers                                                   620
Paper Manufacturers                                                621
“Pardon Cloister” Indulgences                                      137
Parker, Archbishop, memoir of                                      211
Parishes and Parish Churches                                        62
Parliament—Norwich first                                           176
represented in
Parliamentary Reform, Movements                284, 341, 380, 643, 648
in favour of
Parr, Dr. Samuel                                                   311
Parry, Capt. W. E., Freedom of                                     351
City presented to
“Paston Letters” on Norwich                                        178
Manufactures
Paving and Lighting, Act obtained                             291, 324
for
Paving of Norwich, worst in                                    14, 291
England
Pearson, Dr. John, Memoir of                                       238
Pelham, Dr., present Bishop,                                       714
notice of
Perpendicular Architecture,                                         62
Specimens of
Peter, the Wild Youth                                              277
Physical Condition of Norwich at                                     9
an early period
Plagues and Pestilences                   203, 206, 213, 214, 259, 377
Pockthorpe, Hamlet of                                              108
Police Introduced                                                  403
Political History                                                  635
Poor Law, New Act for Norwich                                      438
Poor Law Reform                                                    410
Poor Law Removal Act                                               412
Population, &c., by Domesday Book                          12, 13, 260
,, at various periods                      13, 315, 375, 408, 430, 435
Portrait of J. H. Gurney, Esq.,                                     60
in Museum
Portrait of Nelson by Beechey                                       56
Portraits and Pictures in St.                                       57
Andrew’s Hall
Portraits in Corn Exchange (Earl                                    59
of Leicester & J. Culley, Esq.)
Portraits in Shirehall (Lord                                        50
Wodehouse, Earl of Leicester, and
H. Dover, Esq.)
Post Office                                                         62
Precedence, Questions of                                           213
Presbyterian (Scotch) Chapel                                       112
Presbyterians (Unitarians)                                         295
History of
Prideaux, Dr., Inscription in                                       34
memory of
Primitive Methodist Chapels                                        112
Prince Alfred in Norwich                                           443
Prince and Princess of Wales in                                    443
Norwich
Prince’s Street Chapel                                             109
Priories—Benedictine and St.                                       136
Leonard’s
Priory Yard Chapel                                            112, 253
Protestant Association                                             407
Established
Provisions, high price of                                     286, 293
Public Dispensary Established                                      325
Public Library                                                      59
Publishers, Manufacturing                                          615
Pull’s Ferry                                                        44
Puritans, their doings and                               219, 243, 244
sufferings

Queen (see Royal Visits)
Queen Caroline, Address to                                         350

Railway Communications                                     15, 16, 409
Rajah of Sarawak, Educated at                                  45, 726
Grammar School
Read, Sir Peter, tomb of                                            65
Rebellion, Kett’s                                                  198
Rebellion, Wat Tyler’s                                             178
Recorder of Norwich (Isaac Jenny)                                  416
murdered
Recorders of Norwich, list of                                      704
Reed, Rev. Andrew                                                  251
Reed, Rev. Andrew, on the Rise of                                  247
Nonconformity in Norwich
Reformation, the                                              184, 206
Reform in Parliament, movements                284, 341, 380, 643, 648
in favour of
Reformed Parliament—first                                          650
election (1832)
Religious History of Norwich                                       722
Rifle Volunteers                                                   433
Rigby, Edward, M.D.                                                311
Rise and Progress of the City                                    9, 11
River Wensum, rise and course of                                    16
River Yare                                                          15
Robert, Viscount of Yarmouth,                                      237
memoir of
Roger Bigod                              163, 166, 168, 169, 172, 173,
                                                              174, 175
Roman Catholic Chapels                                        113, 114
Roman Invasion                                                     152
,, opinion of Rev. Scott Surtees                                   152
Roman Roads                                         117, 118, 119, 153
Rosary Burial Ground                                               108
Royal Agricultural Society’s                                       416
Visit
Royal Visits—Catherine                                             189
,, Charles II. and Queen                                      223, 225
,, Duke of Edinburgh (Prince                                       443
Alfred)
,, Duke of Sussex                                                  345
,, Edward I. and Eleanor                                            29
,, Edward III. and Philippa                                        178
,, Elizabeth                                               43, 51, 205
,, Elizabeth Woodville (Queen of                                   185
Edward IV.)
,, Henry I.                                                        169
,, Henry VI.                                                       184
,, Henry VII.                                                      186
,, John                                                            173
,, Margaret of Anjou (Queen of                                     185
Henry VI.)
,, Prince and Princess of Wales                                    443
,, Prince Alfred (Duke of                                          443
Edinburgh)
,, Queen of Denmark                                                443
Rush, James Blomfield, murderer                                    416
of Isaac Jermy, Recorder

Saint William                                                      312
Saints, All, parish of                                              96
Sampson and Hercules’ Court                                         46
Sandby, George, D.D.                                               312
Sandringham Gates, the                                        437, 612
Savings Bank opened                                                339
Say, William                                                       312
Sayers, Frank, M.D.                                                312
Scarlett, Sir James, made Lord                                     401
Abinger
School, Commercial                                                 726
,, Grammar                                                     45, 726
,, of Art                                                           61
Schools, Endowed and Charity                                       628
See, Bishop’s, origin of                                           706
,, removed to Norwich                                          13, 706
Separation of Norwich and Norfolk                                  170
Sepulchral Urns of Iceni                                           148
Settlement and Removal, Law of                                     414
Seventeenth Century, Norwich in                                    212
the
,, ,, Sir T. Browne & Lord                                         224
Macaulay on
Shawls made in Norwich                                             587
Sheriffs of Norwich, complete                                      688
list of
Shirehall, portraits in (Earl of                                49, 50
Leicester, Lord Wodehouse, and H.
Dover, Esq.)
Shoe Trade, Wholesale                                              601
Shops, Warehouses, Banks, &c                                        18
Sixteenth Century, Norwich in the                                  188
Slavery, Abolition of                                    368, 371, 374
Smith, Sir James Edward                                            312
Soap Manufacture                                                   621
Soc, Sac, and Custom                                               166
Spanish Armada, supplies against                                   205
Springfield, T. O.                                            373, 588
,, first Mayor of New Corporation                                  403
St. Andrew, Parish of                                               70
,, Andrew, Parish of (Eaton)                                       104
,, Andrew’s Hall, description and                                   51
history of
,, ,, dimensions of                                                 54
,, ,, Flag of France taken by                                       58
Nelson
,, ,, Mayor’s Feasts in                                 52 _et passim_
,, ,, Musical Festivals                    53, 324, 333, 356, 403, 455
,, ,, Portraits and Pictures in                                     57
,, ,, Portrait of Nelson, by                                        56
Beechey
,, ,, restored                                                     281
,, ,, used as Corn Hall and                                    54, 272
Exchange
,, Augustine, parish of                                             87
,, Bartholomew, Heigham                                            102
,, Benedict, parish of                                              74
,, Clement, parish of                                               91
,, Edmund, parish of                                                93
,, Etheldred, parish of                                             82
,, George Colegate, parish of                                       89
,, George Tombland, parish of                                       77
,, Giles, parish of                                                 67
,, Giles’ Hospital (see
Charitable Institutions)
,, Gregory, parish of                                               68
,, Helen, parish of                                                 79
,, Helen’s Hospital (see
Charitable Institutions)
,, James, parish of                                            93, 108
,, John Maddermarket, parish of                                     69
,, John Sepulchre, parish of                                        95
,, John Timberhill, parish of                                       97
,, Julian, parish of                                                81
,, Lawrence, parish of                                              73
,, Leonard’s Priory                                                136
,, Margaret, parish of                                              74
,, Mark (Lakenham)                                                 105
,, Martin at Oak, parish of                                         86
,, Martin at Palace, parish of                                      79
,, Mary, Friars of                                                 138
,, Mary Coslany, parish of                                          88
,, Matthew (Thorpe)                                                106
,, Michael at Coslany, parish of                                    85
,, Michael at Plea, parish of                                       77
,, Michael at Thorn, parish of                                      96
,, Paul, parish of                                             93, 108
,, Peter Hungate, parish of                                         78
,, Peter Mancroft, parish of                                        64
,, Peter per Mountergate, parish                                    81
of
,, Peter Southgate, parish of                                       82
,, Philip (Heigham)                                                102
,, Saviour, parish of                                               92
,, Simon and Jude, parish of                                        79
,, Stephen, parish of                                               94
,, Swithin, parish of                                               73
Stanfield Hall, Murders at                                         416
Stanley, Bishop, Memoir of                                         522
Stannard, Alfred, artist                                           549
Stannard, Joseph, artist                                           548
Stannard, Mrs., artist                                             549
Staple Town, Norwich made a                                        178
Starch and Mustard manufactory                                 84, 605
(Messrs. J. and J. Colman’s)
Stark, James, artist                                               550
Stevenson, William, F.S.A.                                         313
Stewards of Norwich, list of                                       705
Stormont and Scarlett’s
Election—Commission of Enquiry
,, ,, Evidence of Bush, Henry                                      397
,, ,, ,, Cooper, William                                           397
,, ,, ,, Cozens, Mr.                                               397
,, ,, ,, Francis, J.                                               397
,, ,, ,, Hayes, John                                               397
,, ,, ,, Rust, Thomas                                              396
,, ,, ,, Turner, Alderman                                          397
,, ,, ,, Wortley, Mr.                                              397
Stracey, Sir H. J., Bart., M.P.,                                   668
unseated
Street Improvements (London and                                     19
Opie Streets)
Streets named from Trades                                          121
Streets, names of, first put up                                    280
Surtees, Rev. Scott F., on Roman                                   152
Invasion
Survey of the City                                                   9
Sutton, Dr. Charles Manners                                        328
Swedenborgians (French Church)                                     114
Sweyn, landing of                                                  118

Tabernacle Chapel                                             110, 256
Tanners’ Guild                                                      74
Taylor, Dr. John                                              295, 313
Taylor, Professor Edward                       295, 344, 350, 458, 643
,, ,, Memoir of                                                    475
Taylor, William                                                    313
Telegraphic Communications                                          16
Textile Manufactures, History of                                   553
,, in Eighteenth Century                                           569
,, in Nineteenth Century                                           578
Theatre Royal                                             61, 322, 367
Thelwall, the Republican Orator                                    287
Thirteenth Century, Norwich in                                     173
the
Thorpe, Hamlet of                                                  106
Thurlow, Edward Baron                                              313
Tillett, J. H., petitioned                                         668
against Sir H. J. Stracey, Bart.,
M.P.
Tobacco and Cigar Trade                                            617
Tombland, St. George’s                                              77
Towers of the Old City                                             124
Trade Regulations in Seventeenth                                   265
Century
Trade Stations and Rows in Olden                               19, 121
Times
Trinity, Holy, Church of                                           102
(Heigham)
Trowse Millgate                                                    106
Turnpike Roads opened                                              280
Twelfth Century, Norwich in the                                    169
Tyler’s Wat, Rebellion                                             178

Unitarian Chapel (Octagon)                                         113
Unitarians, History of the                                         295
Upholsterers, Manufacturing                                        619
Urns, Sepulchral, of Iceni                                         148

Valpy, Dr., Head Master of                                     45, 334
Grammar School
Venta Icenorum                                                      11
,, Gurney, Hudson, on the                                          153
,, Woodward, B. B., on the                                         117
Volunteer Infantry                                            325, 326
Volunteer Rifle Corps                                         433, 738

Wales, Prince and Princess of, in                                  443
Norwich
Walloons settled here                                              204
Walls and Gates, old                                               121
Ward Elections, cost of contests                              319, 320
Water Gate to Cathedral Precincts                                   44
Water Works                                                         99
Wat Tyler’s Rebellion                                              178
Weavers’ Co-operative Society                                      441
Weavers, disturbances by                                 373, 406, 583
Weavers, number of (in 1839–1840)                                  584
Wellington, Statue of                                               63
Wensum River, rise and course of                                    16
Wesley, Revs. John and Charles in                             112, 257
Norwich
White Friars                                                       137
Whitlingham (Sir R. J. H.                                          107
Harvey’s)
Wilkins, William                                                   314
Wilks, Rev. Mark                                              482, 637
William, “The Boy Martyr”                                          174
Windham, Major General, “Hero of                                   433
the Redan”
Windham, William                                                   314
Wine, Spirits, and Beer Trade                                      615
Woodward, B. B., on                                                 23
Fortifications of Castle
,, on Venta Icenorum                                               117
Wool Weaving Introduced                                            171
Workhouse, first act for erecting                                  269
a
Workhouse, New (built in 1859)                                     101
Workhouse, Old                                                     327
Worship, Places of (see
“Churches” and “Chapels”)
Worsted Manufacture introduced                                     166
Wren, Bishop, and the “Book of                                     244
Sports”
Wrench, Sir Benjamin                                               314

Yarn Company, first stone of                                       403
factory laid
Young Men’s Christian Association                                  732

                      [Picture: Decorative graphic]



A SURVEY OF NORWICH.


Rise and Progress of the City.


IN tracing the rise and progress of the city, it is necessary to inquire
respecting the physical condition of the district around it at an early
period.  Before the dawn of authentic history, it is in vain to expect
full information on this point; but the natural changes that have taken
place may be traced with tolerable clearness.  Geologists inform us that
the whole area of Norfolk, including Norwich, was in remote ages under
the sea; that by the slow accumulation of alluvial matter islands were
formed in this estuary; and that the waters were divided into several
channels.

We may speculate as to the causes of these changes of the level of land
and water, but we cannot doubt the fact of such changes having taken
place.  When or why the great body of waters retired to its great
reservoir in the bed of the ocean is unknown; but whatever the causes, it
is certain that between the first and the eleventh century the waters did
gradually recede till the river assumed a narrower appearance.  The
higher part of the city from Ber Street up to Lakenham was probably, 2000
years ago, like an island surrounded by water flowing up the valley of
the Taas on that side, and over the valley of the Wensum on the other
side.

The existence of Norwich as a city during the Roman period from B.C. 50
till A.D. 400 or 500 is very doubtful.  Camden says that its name occurs
nowhere till the Danish wars.  If it did exist, it was only a fishing
station, for then a broad arm of the sea flowed up the valley of the
Yare, and covered a great part of the north side of the present city.
Indeed, for centuries after the Christian era this arm of the sea may
have flowed over the greater part of the ground on which the north side
of the city now stands.  In the course of time, however, the arm of the
sea gradually silted up and left only the present narrow river Wensum
flowing into the Yare.

Tradition has handed down this couplet:

    “Caister was a city when Norwich was none,
    And Norwich was built of Caister stone.”

There is, however, no evidence that Caister was ever more than a village
on the banks of the Taas, where the Romans built a camp to overawe the
neighbourhood; while all the old Roman roads have always radiated from
Norwich, proving that it was a place of importance in the Roman period.
The _Iceni_ called it _Caer Gwent_, altered by the Romans into _Venta_,
so that it was the _Venta Icenorum_ of the Romans, who probably threw up
the mound on which a castle was afterwards built, in the Anglo-Saxon
period.

Norwich very likely took its rise after the departure of the Romans,
about A.D. 418, on account of the distracted state of the empire.  Then,
the camp or station at Caister being almost deserted, the few remaining
Romans joined with the natives, and they became one people; and the
situation of Norwich being thought preferable to that of Caister, many
retired hither for the facility of fishing and the easier communication
with the country.  Caister, however, though almost deserted, kept up some
reputation, till the river becoming so shallow, cut off all intercourse
with it by water and reduced it to a place of no importance.

After the departure of the Romans, the Angles from the opposite coast
made themselves masters of this part of the island, and to them is
chiefly owing the further progress of the city and its present name.
“Northwic” signifies a northern station on a winding river, and may have
been so called because of its being situated north of the ancient station
at Caister.

Norwich Castle was probably built in the reign of Uffa, the first king of
the East Angles, soon after the year 575.  About 642 it became a royal
castle, and one of the seats of Anna, king of the East Angles, whose
daughter Ethelfred, on her marriage with Tombert, a nobleman or prince of
the Girvii (a people inhabiting the fenny parts of Norfolk), had this
Castle, with the lands belonging to it, given her by her father.  About
677, this Tombert and his wife granted to the monastery of Ely, which
they had founded, certain lands held of Norwich Castle, by Castle guard,
to which service they must have been liable before the grant, for, by the
laws of the Angles, lands granted to the church were not liable to
secular service, unless they were at first subject thereto whilst in
secular hands, which proves that this was a Royal Castle in the time of
King Anna.

The Danes soon came over in such large numbers and so frequently, that
they at last got possession of the whole of East Anglia, and became the
parent-stock of the inhabitants of parts of Norfolk and Suffolk.  In
1003, Sweyn or Swaine, King of Denmark, came over with his forces and, in
revenge for the massacre of the Danes in the previous year, burnt Norwich
and its Castle, as well as many other places.  They afterwards rebuilt
the city and castle, and came hither in such large numbers, that Norwich
became a Danish city, with a Danish Castle, about 1011.  After the
restoration of the Anglo-Saxon dynasty, the city entered on a new career
of prosperity, and according to the Domesday Book of Edward the
Confessor, it contained 25 churches, and 1320 burgesses, besides the
serfs or labourers.  It was still the capital of East Anglia, with a few
hundred houses, but the greater part of the area round the Castle
presented only marshes and green fields.  Two broad arms of the sea still
flowed up the valleys on each side of the city.  The whole district all
around consisted of marsh, and moor, and woods, and yet uncultivated
land.

In 1094, Herbert de Losinga, then Bishop of Thetford, removed the See
hither, and began to build the Cathedral, from which time the city
increased yearly in wealth and trade.  Domesday Book (1086) contains an
account of all the lands and estates in England, and also of all the
towns.  Norwich was then next in size to York, and contained 738
families.  Thetford had at the same time 720 burgesses, and 224 houses
empty.  Thetford, therefore, was decaying and Norwich was rising.  In
1377, a census was taken of several great towns in England, and Norwich
was found to contain 5300 people, for a migration hither of Flemings and
Walloons, who introduced the manufacture of woollen and worstead fabrics,
had increased the population.  In 1575, the muster roll of men delivered
to the government capable of bearing arms contained 2120 names, which
would be the proportion for 15,000 people.  The population in 1693
amounted to 28,881 inhabitants.  In 1752 it had increased to 36,241, and
in 1786 to 40,051.  In 1801 it had decreased to 36,832.  In 1811 the
number was 37,256, and during the next ten years so large was the
increase that in 1821 the number was 50,288.  In 1831, when the census
was taken, Norwich contained 61,116; in 1841, 61,796; in 1851, 68,713; in
1861, 74,414.

Notwithstanding the continued succession of wars from the revolution in
1688 to the conclusion of the peace in 1763, the city continued to
prosper, and its trade had become very great, extending all over Europe,
and Norwich manufactures were in demand in every town on the continent.
Indeed, the period of war, from 1743 to 1763, was the most prosperous era
in Norwich history.  The prosperity continued till the disputes arose
between the government and the North American colonies, which commenced
in 1765 and became serious in 1774, and were not terminated till 1783,
when the independence of the United States was acknowledged.  During this
period, in fact, the trade of the place was so good, that great numbers
of people came from the surrounding villages and obtained employment in
the factories.  After the passing of the paving act in 1806, the new
paving of the city commenced, and proceeded very slowly.  This necessary
work was interrupted at intervals from the want of money, and the
Commissioners got deep in debt.  In forty years they spent £300,000, and
left Norwich the worst paved town in England.  The drainage was very
defective, and the hamlets were not drained at all.  The supply of water
was altogether insufficient, and in the hamlets was obtained from wells.
The Board of Health was established in 1851, under the powers of the
Public Health Acts, and since then its provisions have been carried out.
The sanitary condition of Norwich has subsequently greatly improved and
the rate of mortality decreased, owing to the wise and judicious measures
which have been adopted of late years.  A fuller description of “the
Ancient City” will be found under the head of “Norwich Antiquities.”



The Modern City.


THE modern city, with all its improvements and extensions, presents a
very different aspect to what it did in former times, when it was
enclosed by high walls and gates.  It stands for the most part on the
summit and sloping sides of a rising ground, running parallel with the
river Wensum on the southern side, above its confluence with the Yare.
Its greatest extent from St. Clement’s Hill (north) to Hartford Bridges
(south) is four and a quarter miles; and following the zigzag line of
boundary it is about seventeen miles in circumference, comprising 6630
acres of land.  Within its jurisdiction, as a city and a county of
itself, it includes the picturesque hamlets of Lakenham and Bracondale on
the south, of Catton on the north, of Thorpe on the east, and of Heigham
on the west, in which direction Norwich is rapidly extending.

The city is situated in the eastern division of Norfolk, of which county
it is the capital.  It is 20 miles distant from the sea at Yarmouth, 108
miles distant from London, 42 from Lynn, 22 from Cromer, 43 from Ipswich,
72 from Cambridge, and 99 from Lincoln; being in latitude 52° 42′ N., and
in longitude 1° 20′ E of Greenwich.  The Great Eastern Railway system
places it in communication with all the towns before named, and all the
large towns of England.  There is a railway station at Thorpe for the
Norfolk line from Yarmouth to Ely, and another station at St. Stephen’s
Gates for the Suffolk line from Norwich to Ipswich.  Telegraphic lines
are established along both railways, and there is also another line from
London, viâ Norwich, to Cromer, on the northern coast of the county.
Navigation is carried on by river from Norwich to Yarmouth.  The Wensum,
which rises at Rudham, enters the city on the N.W., and leaves it on the
S.E.  It pursues a boldly serpentine course through the town, first
traces for a short space the western limits, then describes a semi-circle
round the left bank, then winds through a thinly-built part of the city,
and next traverses a compact eastern side.  An eminence, that may be
called a hill, compared with the flatness of the surrounding country,
extends along the right bank of the river and terminates near its last
bend; and this eminence bears on its summit and its slopes all the more
ancient parts of the city, with a large portion of its present streets
and buildings.  The outline of the area within the old walls somewhat
resembles the form of a cornucopia, with the narrow end twisted round
from the S. to the S.E., and has been aptly compared to the figure of a
haunch of venison.  A strong flint embattled wall, flanked with forty
towers, pierced by twelve beautiful gates, and fortified by a broad
ditch, formerly surrounded the city, except at two places, where the
Wensum formed a natural defence; but having fallen into decay, and being
considered a hindrance to the growth and improvement of the town, it was
stripped of all its gates, its ditch was filled in, and the only portions
of walls which were permitted to remain are a few strips, here and there,
of crazy ruin.  The city inside the walls is divided into thirty-five
parishes, and has five more and parts of two others within the county of
the city.  Altogether it contains forty parish churches, exclusive of the
Cathedral, the French and Dutch Churches, and Christ’s Church, New
Catton; and upwards of twenty Nonconformist chapels.  It formerly
included about twenty other parishes, but they have been consolidated
with some of the present parishes, and the churches either desecrated or
taken down.  Among the chapels which have altogether disappeared may be
mentioned the Chapel of St. Mary in the Field, St. Catherine’s Chapel,
Hildebrand’s Chapel, Magdalen Chapel, St. Michael’s Chapel, (Tombland),
St. Nicholas’s Chapel, St. Olave’s Chapel, (near King Street gates), and
others.

The older portion of the city in most of its street arrangements is very
irregular; and its thoroughfares are narrow and winding, following in
some instances the line of the ancient walls.  Some of its houses,
however, are handsome structures, and are often admired by strangers as
beautiful specimens of squared flint facings.  The old street
architecture, however, is rapidly vanishing before the hand of
improvement.  Many of the half-timber, lath and plaster houses,
remarkable for their grotesque gables and picturesque appearance, have
given place to plainer, but more comfortable and convenient dwellings;
some of which have handsome fronts, more especially round the Market
Place, and in the principal streets.  We may, especially, notice the
warehouses and shops of Messrs. Chamberlin, Mr. G. L. Coleman, and others
in the Market Place; of Mr. Caley, Mr. Fiske, Mr. Livock, Mr. Dixon, Mr.
Sawyer, and Mr. Allen in London Street; the offices of the National
Provincial Bank in London Street; and of the Crown Bank on the Castle
Meadow.



THE MARKET PLACE.


The Market Place, which occupies the centre of the city, is one of the
most spacious in England; and being overhung by the singularly massive
square tower of St. Peter’s, and presenting several specimens of antique
houses of the gable-front construction, is very picturesque in its
appearance.  It was formerly the great Croft, belonging to the Castle, on
the outer ditch of which it is supposed to have abutted.  The first parts
built upon were the east and west sides and the north end.  The other
portions were built by virtue of royal licenses.  As already indicated,
it has been within the last few years greatly improved, by the erection
of new houses and fronts; and upon the whole it may be said to be well
paved—though as regards the paving of the city generally, there is still
room for improvement.  The approaches to the Market Place, it should here
be mentioned, were formerly very narrow and difficult, and they are not
even now all that could be wished; but many improvements have
nevertheless been made at very great expense.  Thus, London Street has
within the last few years been widened, at a cost of £20,000; and Opie
Street has been opened from London Street to the Castle Hill.  Of course,
the principal places of business are mostly clustered together, either in
the Market Place or in the nearest streets; but in former times, every
business in Norwich had its particular row or station.  Thus, in ancient
deeds, we read of the Glover’s Row, Mercers Row, Spicer’s Row, Needler’s
Row, Tawer’s Row, Ironmonger’s Row; also of the Apothecary’s Market, the
Herb Market, the Poultry Market, the Bread Market, the Flesh Market, the
Wool and Sheep Market, the Fish Market, the Hay Market, the Wood Market,
the Cheese Market, the Leather Market, the Cloth-cutter’s Market, the
White-ware Market; all of which we find mentioned before the reign of
Richard II.; for about the latter end of the reign of Edward III., trades
began to be mingled in such a manner, that many of these names were lost.



NORWICH CASTLE.


                        [Picture: Norwich castle]

HIGH over the centre of the old city, over all its churches, and towers,
and streets, rises the Norman Castle, frowning in feudal grandeur over
the whole district.  It stands on the summit of a mound or hill, steep on
all sides, which appears to be chiefly the work of nature, with additions
by human labour.  The embattled quadrangular keep, in its restored state,
retaining all the details of architectural decoration peculiar to the
Norman style, presents a faithful image, though without the grey
antiquity, of its original exterior, and is a noble striking object from
whatsoever point it is seen.  The common history is, that a fortress
existed here during the Saxon period, and that Uffa, the first King of
the East Angles, formed one of earth, according to the rude method of the
times.  In 642, Anna, another of the East Anglian kings, is said to have
resided here; and during the Danish wars, this fortress was often taken
and retaken.  Alfred is believed to have repaired it, and to have erected
the first stone structure, which was destroyed by the Danes in 1004.
Canute probably erected another castle here about 1018, and after the
conquest it was much injured during a siege, and was rebuilt by Roger
Bigod.  The plan of the fortifications has been a subject of some
controversy.  According to the account commonly given of the fortress, it
consisted of a barbican or outwork to defend the entrance; three nearly
concentric lines of defence, each consisting of a wall and ditch, and
enclosing a ballium or court; and a great central keep, as the last
resort in the event of a siege.  The area comprised a space of
twenty-three acres, and each ditch had a bridge over it similar to the
one now remaining.  The barbican, or outwork of the fortification, was
situated beyond the outer ditch, if it ever existed.  The wall commenced
at the opening called Orford Street, and gradually extended to the end of
Golden Ball Lane, the other extremity terminating in Buff Coat Lane.  The
widest part is stated to have been forty yards broad, and gradually
decreasing at the extremities, the length being about 220 yards.  Part of
the original form of the wall was supposed to be traceable from the
position of the buildings erected on its site in Buff Coat Lane.  The
road to the castle from Ber Street was supposed to pass through the
barbican, exactly where Golden Ball Lane recently stood.  The circuits of
the outer vallum and the middle vallum are minutely described by most of
the local historians; but unfortunately there is no sufficient evidence
in support of this old theory of three ditches round the castle—nothing
but a vague traditional story, filled up by imagination.  The editors of
the history published by Crouse in 1768, say:

    “This castle was defended by a wall surrounding it, built on the brow
    of the hill on which it stands, and by three ditches; the outermost
    of which reached on the west to the edge of the present Market Place,
    on the north to London Lane, which it took in; on the east nearly to
    Conisford Street, and on the south to the Golden Ball Lane.  The
    postern or back entrance into the works was on the north-east, by
    which a communication was had with the earl’s palace, then occupying
    the whole space between the outer ditch and Tombland.  The grand
    entrance is on the south, from which you passed three bridges in
    going to the Castle.  The first hath been immemorially destroyed; the
    ruins of the second remained till the ditches were filled up and
    levelled thirty years since; and the third still continues and
    consists of one whole arch, exceeded by very few in England.”

Mr. John Kirkpatrick, who wrote an account of the Castle in the last
century, gives quite a different description of the earth works.  He
notices the present ditch, and a second entrenchment lying between the
present ditch and the Shire house, which then stood near the old weighing
house on the hill.  He also refers to the Shire house ditch as a distinct
entrenchment.  He describes a bridge house on the inner side of the great
southern ditch in the middle of the present Cattle Market, and the line
of the houses forming the southern limit of the Cattle Market seems to
show the limit of the outwork.

Mr. B. B. Woodward, F.S.A., in his lectures delivered here on “Norwich in
the Olden Time,” adopted this view of the earth works, which he believed
did not consist of three concentric lines of defence.  He described the
Saxon fortress as probably no more than a strong palisade carried along
the inner edge of two great trenches and the top of the steep bank of the
small stream called the “Cockey;” the buildings consisting of a great
timber hall with offices and stabling.  He believed that the Normans
strengthened the outworks, cast up the great mound, dug the vast inner
ditch, and reared the noble donjon, which, before the “restoration” of
its exterior, was a fine feudal monument.  After the Norman period the
earth works, Mr. Woodward thought, underwent great changes.  The
horse-shoe trench on the east side disappeared and was built upon.  This
horse-shoe trench enclosed the Castle Meadow.  Another smaller outwork
was formed on the south side of the original great southern trench, both
of the last named being crossed by bridges.  In support of this view, Mr.
Woodward referred to the account given by Kirkpatrick, who, as we have
said, described the second ditch as lying between the great circular
ditch and the Shire house, which then stood near the old weighing house.
The old way from King Street had been disused because the growth of the
city had so greatly altered the defensive character of the fortress.  In
addition to this, there were the names of two churches, one of which was
St. Martin’s, (originally called “on the Hill,”) but afterwards “at
Bailey” or “at the Castle gate;” and the other, St. John, now Timberhill,
but then “at the Castle gate.”  Unless a way existed through the outworks
to the castle hill, these churches could not have been properly called
“at the Castle gate;” and as the “Bailey,” was the space enclosed within
the intrenchments of the Castle, the other name of St. Martin would be
quite inappropriate.  The Buckes, in their view of the Castle,
represented a ruined building, like a bridge house, on the inner side of
the great southern ditch.  Before the end of the last century, the level
of the south side of the hill was raised to form a Cattle Market.

Mr. Harrod, some years since, at a meeting of the Archæological Society
held in the Museum, exploded the theory of three circular ditches by
showing from the city records that houses had always stood on the sites
of the supposed outer and middle ditches; the inner vallum was the only
one, and extended round the base of the hill on which the keep is
erected, and is plainly traceable at the present time.  It is planted
with trees and shrubs, having a gravelled walk in the centre, and is
enclosed with an iron palisade.  The area of the upper ballium is level
and comparatively high, and forms an irregular circle on the summit of
the hill, surrounded by an iron railing.  The great Keep situated within
this area is a massive quadrangular pile, 110 feet in length from east to
west, 92 feet 10 inches in breadth from north to south, and 69½ feet high
to the top of the merlons of the battlements, and the walls are from 10
to 13 feet in thickness.  From the basement to the top are three stories,
each strengthened by small projecting buttresses, between which the walls
are ornamented with semi-circular arches resting on small three-quarter
columns.  In the upper story the backs of some of these arcades are
decorated with a kind of reticulated work, formed by the stones being
laid diagonally, so that the joints resemble the meshes of a net.  To
give it greater richness of effect, each stone had two deeply chased
lines, crossing each other parallel with the joints, so as to present the
appearance of Mosaic.  On the exterior of the west side are two arches
which appear to have been originally intended as a deception to the
enemy, giving an idea of weakness externally, where in fact was the
greatest strength; for the wall is not only 13 feet in thickness in this
place, but, within, it was additionally barricaded by two oblique walls
which were, long ago, taken down.  On the east side of the keep there is
a projecting tower called Bigod’s tower, which was most probably built by
Hugh Bigod, third Earl of Norfolk, who succeeded his brother as High
Constable of the Castle, early in the 12th century.  This tower, which
was an open portal to the grand entrance of the Castle, is of a richer
kind of architecture, and in the genuine Norman style, and since 1824,
has been entirely restored, so as now to exhibit its pristine aspect,
which is certainly different from the rest of the keep.  The interior of
the keep has been so greatly altered in order to adapt it to prison
purposes, that the original arrangement of apartments cannot be traced.

The style of architecture has been a matter of dispute, as to whether it
is Saxon, Danish, or Norman.  Mr. Boid, in his history and analysis of
the principal styles of architecture, ventures to challenge any one to
prove the existence of any monument in this country of real Saxon skill;
nor has any specimen been discovered.  Mr. Wilkins, of Norwich, who has
described both the ancient and modern states of the fortress in Vol. xii.
of the Archæologia, believed, however, that the part which yet remains
might have been constructed chiefly in the reign of Canute, but that it
is notwithstanding in the style of architecture practised by the Saxons,
long before England became subject to the Danes, and is the best exterior
specimen of the kind.  Other and later writers, with much better
evidence, believe the whole keep to be Norman, of the time of William
Rufus; for it is similar in style to Castle Rising, built in the reign of
that king, by Albini.  The earth works and stone works are very similar.
The whole of the exterior of the keep has been refaced, the original
style being preserved.  It is to be regretted that the work was not
wholly refaced with small square stones, in the Norman manner, instead of
commencing with the large massive freestone, which is coloured to
represent smaller stones.  This defect, however, on being discovered was
remedied, for a great part of the exterior was finished after the Norman
fashion.  The county jail stands on the east side of the keep, and was
built on the site of a previous prison in 1824–28 at a cost of £15,000.
It comprises a governor’s house and three radiating wings, and has room
for 224 male prisoners.  Three bridges are, as we have said, thought by
some authorities to have crossed three ditches, but for more than a
century the present bridge has been the only one.  This bridge consists
of one large semicircular arch.  Mr. Wilkins supposed that it was the
original bridge built by the Saxons, but this is only conjectural like
the rest of his theory about the earth works.  At the termination of this
bridge, upon the upper ballium, are the remains of two circular towers,
14 feet in diameter, which are supposed to have flanked the portal of the
ballium wall.  The history of the castle will be given at some length in
subsequent pages.  We shall now proceed to



THE CATHEDRAL.


THIS grand Norman pile is the great ornament to the city, but its
situation is so low that its goodly proportions can be seen only from one
point of view, namely from Mousehold Heath.  From that elevation it
presents the dignity of a great work of architecture, and the spire may
be seen on a clear day, on the north, at a distance of twenty miles.  The
noble tower, with its gracefully tapering spire, second in height only to
that of Salisbury, the flying buttresses, and the circular chapels at the
east end, are objects of interest to the attentive antiquarian observer.

The cloisters on the south side, and the bishop’s palace and grounds on
the north, and other premises, shut out from public view most of the
exterior, except the west front.  A fine view of the splendid effect,
produced by a series of unbroken lines, may be obtained opposite the
south transept, where the whole pile, comprising the transept, tower, and
spire, blend themselves into one harmonious whole.  The interior from the
west front entrance presents a most imposing appearance, and when
surveying the vast length of the nave, we feel that our forefathers

    “Builded better than they knew,
    Unconscious stones to beauty grew.”

We shall first give, in as complete a manner as our limited space will
permit, a sketch of the foundation and progress of the edifice, the
erection of which occupied a century, and then we shall describe its
different parts, exterior and interior, including the nave, the screen,
the choir, the transepts, and the cloisters.

The original structure was begun in 1096 by Herbert de Losinga, the first
bishop of the diocese.  The portions he built comprise the choir, with
the aisles surrounding it, the chapels of Jesus and St. Luke, and the
central tower with the episcopal palace on the north side of the church,
and a monastery on the south.  Bishop Eborard, the successor of Herbert,
added the nave and its two aisles, from the ante-choir or rood loft, to
the west end.  The building, as left by Eborard, remained till 1171, when
it sustained some damage by fire, but was repaired by Bishop John de
Oxford, about 1197, who also added some alms houses to the monastery.
The Lady chapel at the east end, which has long since been destroyed, was
the next addition to the building, and was erected by Walter de Suffield,
the tenth bishop, who filled the See from 1244 to 1257.

In the year 1271, the tower was greatly injured by lightning during
divine service, and in 1272 the whole church was damaged considerably, in
the violent warfare which was at that time carried on between the monks
and the citizens; but in 1278, having been repaired, the church was again
consecrated by William de Middleton on the day he was enthroned Bishop of
Norwich, in the presence of King Edward I. and Eleanor his queen, the
Bishops of London, Hereford, and Waterford, and many lords and knights.
We can now form no idea of the grandeur of such a ceremony in that age.

The tower having been much injured and weakened by fire, a new one,
according to Blomefield, was begun and finished by Bishop Ralph de
Walpole; but this, says Britton, more properly applies to the spire, the
style of which, rather than of the tower, corresponds with that period.
Bishop Walpole ruled the diocese from 1289 to 1299.  Before his
translation to Ely, which took place in the latter year, he commenced the
cloister at the north-east angle, and built the chapter house.  He only
completed a small portion of the east aisles.  The chapter house has
since been destroyed.  The rest of the cloister was built by Richarde de
Uppenhall, Bishop Salmon, Henry de Will, John de Hancock, Bishop
Wakering, Jeffery, Symonds, and others, and was completed A.D. 1430, in
the 133rd year from the first commencement of the work.

In January, 1362, the spire was blown down, and the choir thereby much
injured; but under the auspices of Bishop Percy, the present spire was
erected and the choir repaired.  In 1629, the upper part of the spire was
again blown down, and in 1633, at a general chapter, it was ordered to be
repaired.  In 1843, seven feet were added to its elevation, with the
present finial which formed a consistent termination to the crockets.

In 1463, the church was much injured by fire, the wood work in the
interior of the tower having been ignited by lightning.  Under Bishop
Lyhart, however, it was again repaired and ornamented.  The splendid
stone roof of the nave was added, the cathedral was paved, and a tomb was
erected over the founder, which was afterwards demolished during the
great rebellion.  About the year 1488, Bishop Goldwell built the roof of
the choir of similar but inferior work to that of the nave, adding the
upper windows and flying buttresses.  He also fitted up the choir and the
chapels around it, and covered the arched stone work with lead.  In 1509
the transepts having been much injured by fire, Bishop Nykke repaired
them, adding stone roofs to them in the same manner as the rest of the
church.

At the dissolution of the monasteries, the cathedral suffered greatly
from the zeal of the Reformers, much curious work being destroyed; and
several obnoxious crucifixes, images, niches, tabernacles, and paintings,
were removed.  In 1643, the fanatics took possession of the church and
the adjoining palace, and plundered them of all that was valuable.  The
Yarmouth people being in want of a workhouse, sent a petition to the Lord
Protector, praying that “that great useless pile, the cathedral, might be
pulled down, and the stones given them to build a workhouse.”  Of course
the petition was not granted.  Soon after the restoration, the church was
fitted up again.  In 1740, the nave and aisles were newly paved, the
tower was repaired, and the church cleaned.  In 1763, the floor of the
choir was again repaved, the stalls repaired and painted, and other
improvements made, not always in harmony with the original structure.

The edifice was extended, embellished, altered, and repaired by many
bishops and by wealthy families till it was completed about 1500.
Alternate dilapidations and restorations followed.  The dilapidations
were sometimes sudden, sometimes gradual, and the restorations have
continued at frequent intervals almost to the present day.  The entire
pile was repaired and beautified on an extensive scale in 1806–7.  The
decayed ornaments of the west front were restored, and many improvements
in other parts were effected in 1818 and following years.  The south
front was renovated, and several houses which had stood against the walls
were removed in 1831.  The entire fabric was again restored, on the plan
of Edward Blore, about 1840–3; and some portions were repaired, some
embellishments were added, and some interesting ancient features were
brought into view between the years 1843 and 1868.

The pile as it now stands, comprises a nave of fourteen bays with aisles,
a transept of three bays in each wing, a central tower, a steeple, an
apsidal sacristy on the north-east side, a choir of four bays with
aisles, an apsidal end, and a procession path; also three chapels, in the
south side, the north-east side, and south-east side; and a cloister with
each alley of eleven panes to the south of the nave.  The dimensions of
the Cathedral as taken from actual measurement are as follows:—

                                 _Feet_.   _Inches_.
Length of church                      407           0
,, nave to choir screen               204           0
,, choir from screen                  183           0
,, roof of nave                       251           0
,, transept                           178           0
Breadth of nave and aisles             72           0
,, choir from back of stalls           27           1
,, aisles of choir                     15           0
Height of spire from ground           315           0
,, tower                              140           5
,, spire from tower                   174           7
,, roof of nave from pavement          69           6
,, roof of choir from pavement         83           6

_The Interior_.


We shall now proceed with our description of the interior, which contains
the finest specimens of Norman architecture in existence, and admired by
all men of taste.  Nothing can exceed the grandeur of the lofty nave,
massive columns, and wide circular arches.  The whole pile is chiefly of
the early Norman style, wherein the semi-circular arches and massive
short columns are the leading features.  These are considerably varied in
size, moulding, and ornament, in different parts of the edifice.

The Nave comprises fourteen semicircular arches, ornamented with billet
and zigzag mouldings, and supported by massive piers.  The arches of the
triforium are of similar style to those below.  The magnificent roof, the
work of Bishop Lyhart, the rebus of whose name is of frequent occurrence
upon the vault and corbels, is ornamented with 328 historical figures,
curiously carved, in a kind of relievo peculiar to itself, being chiefly
composed of little figures, most exactly put together, said to be the
only work of the kind in existence, being a complete chain of sacred
history, beginning at the tower with the Creation of the World; the
different days of the creation being disposed of in the several figures
in the intersections of the arched work of the roof.  The Fall of Man,
Noah’s Ark, and incidents in the lives of the patriarchs, are represented
in the first seven arches; the rest to the west end represent events
narrated in the New Testament.  The interior of the nave looks much too
long in proportion to the rest of the pile, and the triforium is out of
keeping in consequence of its heavy circular arches being too high as
compared with those of the tier below, but the piers of the nave, with
the grand arches which they support, are splendid specimens of Norman
work and decoration.

The south transept is Norman work modified by a few innovations, and is
flanked by square turrets, arcaded at the top and terminating in
pinnacles.  The north transept is of similar character.  The side aisles
are low, and the roof of plain vaulting.  The west window is of unusually
large size, and is of the same design, as regards the tracery, with that
in Westminster Hall.  This window has been filled in with gorgeously
coloured glass, being designed as a memorial of Bishop Stanley, who was
buried in the middle of the nave.

In the seventh arch of the north side are the remains of a doorway, with
a stone bench, formerly leading into the monks’ preaching yard, now part
of the bishop’s garden.  Even after the Reformation, and up to the time
of the great rebellion, sermons were preached here before the Civic
Authorities and the Members of the Cathedral.  Between the sixth and
seventh pillars is an unpretending inscription to the memory of the
learned Dr. Prideaux, formerly Dean of Norwich, author of the “Connection
of the Old and New Testaments,” who died November 1st, 1724.  The tomb
between the corresponding pillars on the opposite side is that of Miles
Spencer, Chancellor of the Diocese in 1537.  Between the seventh and
eighth pillars is the low tomb of Bishop Nykke, who died in 1535.  At the
eighth pillar a pulpit formerly stood.  Bishop Parkhurst’s tomb stands in
the next space, between the eighth and ninth pillars.

The Screen was originally the division between the rood-loft and the
chapel of our Lady of Pity.  Bishop Lyhart erected the rood-loft, and
upon it the principal rood or cross was placed with the representation of
the Holy Trinity, to whom this church was dedicated; together with the
images of the Blessed Virgin and St. John, and such other saints as were
esteemed here.  The rood or crucifix, of full proportions, was made of
wood, and in most churches was placed in a loft constructed for the
purpose over the entrance from the church into the chancel.  The nave
represented the Church Militant, and the chancel the Church Triumphant.
Those, therefore, who would pass out of the former into the latter, must
go under the loft; that is, must go under the cross and suffer
affliction.  But no rood was complete without the images of the Virgin
and St. John on either side of the cross, in allusion to St. John xix.
26,—“Jesus saw His mother and the disciple standing by, whom He loved.”

The Choir contains sixty-two stalls according to the number of the old
foundations, namely, a prior, sub-prior, and sixty monks.  They are
adorned with rich and quaint carvings and canopies, as far as the west
pillars of the tower.  The “misereres” (projecting brackets on the under
side of the seats of stalls in churches), are richly carved and present a
great variety of design.  Among the stalls the Rev. R. Hart discovered
upwards of sixty _misereres_, and he described them very minutely.  In
every example that he had seen the space under the ledge is carved in a
bold relief, with an ornamented boss on each side to balance, as it were,
the centre, whatever it might have been.  As may be supposed scriptural
or legendary designs are not often found in such a position.  There are,
however, a few examples.

The interior of the tower, which is raised on four massive arches,
presents three arcades, the upper and lower forming galleries, and the
former containing the lower windows of the lantern, which are filled with
painted glass.  The clerestory and roof of the chancel are the work of
Bishop Goldwell.  Here is an admirable specimen of engrafting a later
style upon the Norman architecture, with as little violence to the eye as
possible.

The tomb of Bishop Goldwell stands within the chapel, formerly dedicated
to St. James, and with its canopy forms a rich specimen of ornamental
sculpture and architecture.  On the east side of the fifteenth north
pillar is the monument to the memory of the learned Bishop Home, author
of an excellent “Introduction to the Study of the Bible.”  In the space
between the seventeenth and eighteenth pillars was the chapel dedicated
to St. Anne, and in the next space was the seat occupied by Queen
Elizabeth, when she attended divine service during her visit to this
city.  The monument to the late Bishop Bathurst now occupies the spot, a
sitting statue sculptured in white marble.  Not only for its intrinsic
merits is this statue of great value, but also because it is the last
finished work of Sir Francis Chantrey, who visited Norwich for the
purpose of fixing it only a few days before his death.  Opposite to this
monument is the altar tomb of Sir William Boleyn, now despoiled of its
brasses.  Sir Thomas Browne tells us in his “Repertorium,” that, during
the Commonwealth, “more that a hundred” brasses were reeved in the
Cathedral alone,—a greater number than the whole county of Norfolk could
now supply.  Hence our readers may easily understand what an immense
number of these interesting memorials must have been lost, independently
of the number that have been partially despoiled by the removal of their
canopies.

At the foot of the altar steps, in the middle of the chancel, is the tomb
of Bishop Herbert de Losinga, erected by the Dean and Chapter, in 1682,
in the place of one destroyed during the civil wars.  It has been
levelled with the pavement and presents a long Latin inscription from the
pen of Dean Prideaux.  The east windows of the clerestory were the gift
of the Bishop, the Misses Morse, and the Dean and Chapter of the
Cathedral, and were erected between 1840 and 1847.  The lower one in the
triforium is an obituary window to the memory of the late Canon Thurlow,
placed there by his friends.  This space had before been occupied by a
window with a pointed arch, representing the Transfiguration.  The window
was removed to the south transept, and the arches of both windows have
been restored.

The bishop’s throne, ascended by three steps, was originally placed at
the east end of the church, behind the altar, and raised so high that
before the partition was made between the altar and the entrance to Our
Lady’s chapel, the bishop had an uninterrupted view from his throne
directly in a line through the whole church.  The custos, or master of
the high altar, annually accounted for the offerings made there, which
produced a large sum; and at the annual processions of the city and
country clergy, on the feasts of the Holy Trinity and St. Paul, something
considerable was realized.

The stone roof of the south transept, as well as that of the north, was
raised by Bishop Nykke, about 1501.  At the same time, probably, the old
Norman arch leading into the chancel aisle was filled with the rich and
numerous mullions and tracery, which characterise the last period of
pointed architecture.  The adjoining aisle leads to the chapel of our
Lady the Less, otherwise called Bawchyn’s Chapel, having been dedicated
to the Virgin and all the Saints, by William de Bawchyn, about the middle
of the fourteenth century.  The founder is buried in an arched vault
under the chapel.  This chapel is now used as the Consistory Court.
Adjoining is St. Luke’s Chapel, sometimes used as the parish church of
St. Mary in the Marsh, that church having been demolished.  Strictly
speaking, the circular part only is the chapel dedicated to St. Luke, but
the adjoining aisle, as far as the most eastward point, is now enclosed
and fitted up for the use of the parish.  It is part of Bishop Herbert’s
original foundation.  The font was brought from the parish church; it is
richly carved with designs of the seven sacraments, &c.  Passing round at
the back of the altar we come to the Jesus Chapel.

The north transept is similar to the south.  From the east wall of it
there was a doorway leading to a chapel, said to be the ancient Vestiary.
The arch has been filled up, and the entrance is from a small door on the
outside.  Over the exterior of the door leading to the Bishop’s palace is
a niche, containing a figure, said to represent Bishop Herbert, one of
the few specimens extant of a Norman statue.


_The Exterior_.


THE exterior of the Cathedral is not very imposing.  The west front was
the work of Bishop Alnwick, in the reign of Henry VI.  It is divided into
three compartments, forming the termination of the nave and the aisles.
The central division presents the grand entrance doorway, and a large
central window filled with coloured glass, which we have already
described.  It rises into a gable, formerly pierced with a small light,
now a niche, flanked by two turrets with spirelets and round-headed
single panels, and surmounted by a cross.  The doorway is formed by a
bold deep-pointed arch, and is much enriched in the spandrels and side
fasciæ with mouldings, niches, pedestals, statues, and other decorations.
The central window is divided, both horizontally and vertically, into
three leading compartments, and subdivided by small mullions; and has
good decorations of perpendicular character.  Each of the two lateral
divisions of the west front exhibits pure Norman work, and is of three
stories; the first pierced with the doorway; the second pierced with four
windows separated only by small columns; the third displaying three blank
arches, and flanked with a small staircase turret.  At each side of the
great window, and at the extremities of the side divisions, are Norman
turrets, lately restored and substituted for very debased cupolas.
Engravings are extant representing this front with high and slender
pinnacles where the Norman turrets now stand.

The north and south elevations of the nave show a three-storied aisle;
and a clerestory and triforium, with an embattled parapet in each,
exhibit a great height, and tiers of blank arches or arcades with some
later perpendicular windows.  On the exterior of the nave will be
observed many traces of alterations in times long subsequent to the
original building.  The lowest tiers of windows are of comparatively
modern insertion, and intersect the string course of a billet moulding,
all round the exterior of the edifice.  Next above is the arcade of blank
arches, with semicircular mouldings, having regular bases and capitals,
and continuing round the whole structure.  Above these was the tier of
original windows now closed up, but surmounted by windows of the
sixteenth century.  The exterior of the side aisles is here terminated by
a plain embattled parapet of the same date as the windows before
mentioned.  The windows of the clerestory are, however, Norman, and have
blank arches on each side, and continue the same all round the upper part
of the nave and transept.  They are surmounted by a parapet similar to
that of the side aisles.  The exterior of the south transept has been
lately restored, and various old houses that blocked up the entrance have
been cleared away.

The tower is grandly Norman in four stages, each adorned with arcades,
columns, and tracery mouldings.  It has, at the corners, square turrets
with their angles cut off, and is surmounted by decorated battlements and
crocketted pinnacles.  The spire is decorated English octangular,
elegantly proportioned, enriched with bands, and boldly crocketted in
ribs running up its angles.  It terminates in a handsome finial, and is
the loftiest in England except that of Salisbury.  The base of the spire
is supported by projecting buttresses at each angle, terminating in a
small pinnacle.


THE CLOISTERS.


The Cloisters, which are entered by a tasteful modern door on the south
side of the nave, form one of the most beautiful quadrangles in England.
They comprise a square of about 174 feet, and are 12 feet wide.  They
were commenced by Bishop Walpole about 1297, but were not completed by
succeeding prelates till 1430.  The style of architecture is the
decorated, with traces of the perpendicular.  The eastern part is the
most ancient, and a progressive change may be observed in the tracery of
the windows, commencing at the north-east corner, continuing through the
south and the west, and terminating with the north sides.  The roof is
much admired for its exquisitely beautiful groining, and its bold yet
elegant bosses, with their sculptured subjects and tasteful foliage.  The
doorway leading from the eastern aisle of the cloisters to the nave is
deserving especial notice, being a pointed arch with four columns on each
side, having archwolt mouldings, in front of which are seven canopied
niches, with richly-sculptured crockets containing figures.  Above the
door, at the south-west corner, are carved figures of “The Temptation of
our First Parents.”  In the first two arches on the west side of the door
are two lavatories, where the monks used to wash their hands before going
into the refectory or common eating hall.  Over each of these are three
niches, where images formerly stood.  The cloisters are surpassed by none
in beauty of architecture and solemnity of effect.  They branch off from
the south transept, and enclose a square court or area.  There are eleven
noble windows or arched openings on the western side, twelve on the east,
eleven on the north, and eleven on the south.  All these windows are
divided into three lights by two columns, and are decorated with a
variety of beautiful tracery.  They are of decorated architecture, except
eight on the north side, which have perpendicular tracery in decorated
arches.  The upper portion of the tracery of all the windows appears to
have been once filled with stained glass.

The pavement of the north side of the cloisters was torn up in the great
rebellion, and relaid by William Burleigh, Esq.  In this alley Queen
Elizabeth dined in public when she visited Norwich in 1578.  In memory
thereof, her Majesty’s arms and those of the nobility who attended her
were painted on the wall of the church, and properly blazoned with
supporters, etc., but they were entirely effaced a century ago.

The dormitory of the monks adjoined the cloisters on the south.  At a
short distance from the cloisters are the only remains of the Priory
founded by Bishop Herbert, consisting of three massive clustered columns,
the capitals of which are curiously carved.


THE BISHOP’S PALACE.


The Bishop’s Palace stands on the north side of the Cathedral Church, to
which there was in former times a passage from the door of the north
transept, arched over with stone similar to the cloisters.  The original
palace was founded by Bishop Herbert, but has undergone so many repairs
and alterations, that but little of the first building remains, and that
part adjoins a new structure, in a similar style of architecture.  In the
garden there is a fine ruin, said to be remains of the grand entrance
into the great hall, which reached to the site of the present episcopal
chapel, and was 110 feet long, and 60 broad.  This chapel was restored in
1662, and in it are monuments of Bishops Reynolds and Sparrow.  The
entrance to the episcopal residence is from St. Martin’s Plain, by the
palace gate, built by Bishop Alnwyck about 1430.  It has a large pointed
arch of several mouldings, and the spandrels are filled with tracery; but
it has suffered materially from injudicious repairs.  Over the arch is a
series of pannelled compartments with the letter M crowned.  On the west
side is a small door, on which, amongst other ornaments, are a heart and
mitre, the supposed rebus of Bishop Lyhart.


THE CATHEDRAL PRECINCTS.


The Cathedral Precincts include the Upper and Lower Close, and a large
portion of garden ground, with good houses on the south side.  The Upper
Close was formerly used as a play ground to the Grammar School; it is now
enclosed with palisades.  At the south-east corner is the Audit Room,
which contains the library of the Dean and Chapter.  The Lower Close was
enclosed by Dean Lloyd, in 1782, and converted into a garden.  At the
extremity of the Lower Close, near the edge of the river, still stands a
double arch of black flint, which is considered the roughest bit of
picturesque in Norwich, and has been frequently sketched.  It was
formerly the Water-gate to the precincts, and is now known as “Pull’s
Ferry.”



THE FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL.


                    [Picture: The Free Grammar School]

The Free Grammar School, near the west end of the Cathedral, was founded
by Bishop Salmon, in 1325, and annexed to a small Collegiate Chantry.  At
the dissolution of this college, the Corporation, by their Hospital
Charter, were required to find a master and usher, and to remunerate them
out of the ample revenues assigned to them by that charter.  This trust
was transferred, in 1836, from the Corporation to the Charity Trustees.
There are generally a little more than a hundred pupils at the school.
The celebrated Dr. Valpy was once the head-master; and in addition to
many eminent scholars, the celebrated “Norfolk hero,” Lord Nelson; Sir
James Brooke, the Rajah of Sarawak; and other noted characters, were
educated here.  Opposite the school is a colossal marble statue of
Nelson.  It was executed by Mr. Milne, of London, and has been highly
commended as a work of art.  Of this school, and also of the Commercial
School, which is under the same trust, we shall have more to say in
subsequent pages.

The Gateways to the Cathedral on the west side are deserving of notice.



THE ERPINGHAM GATE


is situated directly before the west front of the Cathedral, and is in an
excellent state of preservation.  It was built in 1428 by Sir Thomas
Erpingham, (who lies buried in the choir of the Cathedral) as a penance
for having espoused the cause of Wickliffe.  It consists of a lofty
pointed arch, in the mouldings of which are a series of thirty-eight
statues in canopied niches.  The spandrels are highly decorated with
tracery mouldings and shields, the whole being enclosed in a kind of
square frame with semi-circular buttresses, each of which is divided into
four compartments with statues, niches, pedestals, and shields.  As a
matter of some interest, it may here be mentioned that over against the
front of this gate is a large block of buildings, enclosing what is
commonly called Sampson and Hercules’ Court.  The grotesque wood figures,
designed to represent these personages, formerly supported the portico,
but are now placed in the paved court.  The one holds a club, and the
other the jawbone of an ass.  The house itself was formerly owned by Sir
John Fastolf, and afterwards by the Countess of Lincoln; and in the time
of Henry VII. by Elizabeth Duchess of Suffolk, who used it as a city
house for herself and family.  It is now in the occupation of Messrs.
Pratt and Hancock, wholesale grocers and cheese factors, who have covered
in the whole court.



THE ETHELBERT GATEWAY


leads to the south end of the Upper Close.  It was built by the citizens
as an atonement for the injuries done in a quarrel which they had with
the monks in 1272.  The chamber over the arch was formerly used as a
chapel dedicated to St. Ethelbert, the church of that name having been
destroyed during the riots.  The west front has a modern pediment of
stone tracery, inlaid with flint.  Beneath is a series of blank niches
with a statue in the centre.  In the spandrels of the arch are figures,
in basso relievo, of a man with a sword and round shield attacking a
dragon.  The east front consists of stone tracery and flint with painted
windows.



THE VIEW FROM THE CASTLE HILL.


We shall now return to the Castle-hill Walk, which is favourable for a
view of the whole city, with all its churches and towers.  If we take our
position on the eastern side we shall see the broad vale of the Yare,
where the Romans came up in their galleys and landed on that side of the
river, then very wide.  We shall see also where the first street (King
Street,) extends southward the whole length of the city, with tall
chimnies of great breweries sending forth volumes of smoke.  Northward
the same street extends to an open space called Tombland; beyond which,
Wensum Street and Magdalen Street lead in a straight line to Catton and
the village of Sprowston.  The circle of vision includes the Cathedral,
the Grammar School, St. Helen’s Church, Mousehold Heath, Kett’s Castle,
Lollards’ Pit, the hamlet of Thorpe, the churches of St. Peter per
Mountergate, St. Julian, and St. Peter Southgate, in King Street.
Walking round to the west side, we have before us the spacious Market
Place, and the noble church of St. Peter Mancroft, with a mass of
buildings.  From the Market Place we see several lines of streets running
in a direction from east to west; Bethel Street, leading to St. Giles’
Church, and St. Giles’ Street, in a straight line to Heigham.  Here in
the foreground, the Guildhall is a conspicuous object.  More on the right
we have London Street, Prince’s Street, St. Andrew’s Street, Pottergate
Street, and St. Benedict’s Street, running in lines from east to west.
Here, the chief objects are the churches of St. John’s Maddermarket and
St. Gregory; and in the distance, St. Lawrence, St. Margaret’s, and St.
Michael’s at Coslany.  From the north side of the Castle walk we see
Exchange Street, Post Office Street leading into St. Andrew’s, and St.
George’s Street, Pitt Street, and St. Augustine’s, and St. Martin’s at
Oak, all the lower parts of the town, full of close narrow streets,
yards, and courts.  The principal objects in view are St. Andrew’s Hall,
the churches of St. Martin at Oak, St. Mary, St. Augustine, St. George’s
Colegate, St. Saviour, St. Clement, St. Peter Hungate, St. Michael at
Plea, St. Paul, St. Simon and Jude, St. Edmund, and St. George Tombland.



THE CATTLE MARKET.


The Cattle Market, on the south side of the hill, has been greatly
extended, and presents the most extensive area for the purpose in
England.  On the east side whole blocks of old houses have been cleared
away, and great additions made to the space for the display of horses,
cattle, sheep, and pigs.  The improvements cost the city over £50,000.
Every Saturday the hill presents a busy and highly interesting scene, and
a vast amount of business is transacted here in the space of a few hours.
The area has recently been further enlarged by the demolition of some old
houses at the corner of Golden Ball Street.  A line of new houses has
been built on the east side, ending with the handsome show rooms of
Messrs. Holmes and Sons, the well-known Agricultural Machine Makers, who
have won many prizes for their implements.



THE SHIREHALL.


The Shirehall, on the Castle Meadow, was erected from a plan by William
Wilkins, Esq.  It was commenced on September 9th, 1822, and opened
September 27th, 1823, and is a poor imitation of the Tudor style of
architecture.  It stands on the north-east side of the Castle, and is a
substantial brick edifice, possessing all the usual accommodations.  It
comprises Crown Court, Nisi Prius Court, and rooms for witnesses and
others.  The county assizes and sessions are held in these courts.  Near
the crown court there is a small room communicating, by a shaft, with the
prison above, whence prisoners are brought down for trial.  The grand
Jury room is a large apartment, and the walls are adorned with fine
portraits of the late Lord Wodehouse and the late Earl of Leicester,
painted by Sir T. Lawrence.  There is also a portrait of the late Henry
Dover, Esq., for many years Chairman at Quarter Sessions.



THE GUILDHALL.


The Guildhall is a large antique building, chiefly of flint, at the north
end of the Market Place.  It was completed in 1413, when the windows of
the Council Chamber were glazed chiefly with stained glass; but all these
ornaments have disappeared, except in three east windows.  The furniture
of this room is of the time of Henry VIII., and the wood work is
ornamented with the linen pattern.  The room has been much improved of
late years.  The principal court is on the ground floor, where the city
assizes and sessions are held.  The Police Court is in a room above,
opposite the Council Chamber.  The Town Clerk and City Treasurer have
offices in the building.  The Police Station is on the ground floor of
the east side.

The interior of the hall is decorated with portraits, some interesting
trophies of the battle of St. Vincent, presented by Nelson, the city
regalia, and the buskins of a famous dancer, who danced from London to
Norwich in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.  When that Queen visited the
city in 1578, there was a magnificent banquet given in the Council
Chamber, and a pageant devised for her amusement was exhibited.  In one
of the cells at the bottom of the building, the martyr Thomas Bilney was
confined, and there tested his powers of endurance by holding his finger
in the lighted flame of a candle, to prove his willingness to suffer his
approaching doom.  In 1660, the lower court at the west end, now used as
an assize court, was set apart as a cloth hall, and the room above as a
place for the sale of yarn.  During the present century the hall has been
much improved on the south side.  New windows should be inserted on the
north side.



ST. ANDREW’S HALL.


St. Andrew’s Hall stands in the centre of the city, in the parish of St.
Andrew.  It was originally the Church of the Convent of the Blackfriars,
the building of which was begun about the year 1415, by Sir Thomas
Erpingham, who died in 1428, before it was finished.  It was completed by
his son, Sir Robert Erpingham, who was rector of Bracon Ash, in Norfolk,
a friar of the order of St. Dominic, and a member of this convent.  This
convent extended from St. Andrew’s Street to the river from south to
north, and as far as Elm Hill on the east.  The cloister was on the north
side of the church, with a burial place in the middle.  The convent
kitchen was at the north-west corner.  Between the nave and choir of the
church there was a neat sexangular steeple, which had three large bells
in it and a clock.  It was built about 1462, and fell down on November
6th, 1712.  A turret was afterwards erected in its place, in which a
clock bell hung.  At the dissolution of the monasteries in 1538, the
citizens applied to Henry VIII., through the interest of the Duke of
Norfolk, for a grant of the convent for the use of the city, and
requested that he would allow them to make the church into “a large hall,
for the mayor and his brethren, with all the citizens to repair unto at
common assemblies,” to make a chapel of the choir, and to appropriate the
rest of the building to other purposes.  This was complied with, and the
petition is dated June 25th, 1540.  After this, the guilds of the several
companies in the city, twenty in number, used to hear mass in the choir,
and make their offerings in that place; and most of them held their
feasts in the hall.

In 1544, Henry Fuller, Esq., being then mayor, kept the first mayor’s
feast in grand style in the new hall.  In 1561, the Earls of
Northumberland and Huntingdon, the Lord Thomas Howard, and Lord
Willoughby, with many other lords and knights, came to Norwich to visit
the Duke of Norfolk, and they lodged at the Duke’s palace.  At that very
time the mayor’s feast was held; and William Mingay, then mayor, invited
the noble lords and their ladies to the banquet.  They accepted the
invitation, and were entertained in princely style; and they expressed
great satisfaction with their reception.  After dinner, Mr. John Martin,
a wealthy citizen, delivered the following characteristic speech:—

    “Maister Mayor of Norwich, and it please your Worship, you have
    feasted us like a King.  God bless the Queen’s Grace.  We have fed
    plentifully; and now, whilom I can speak plain English, I heartily
    thank you Maister Mayor; and so do we all.  Answer, Boys, Answer.
    Your Beer is pleasant & potent, and will soon catch us by the
    _caput_, and stop our manners: And so Huzza for the Queen’s Majesty’s
    Grace, and all her bonny-brow’d Dames of Honour.  Huzza for Maister
    Mayor and our good Dame Mayoress.  His noble grace, there he is, {53}
    God bless him, and all this jolly company.  To all our friends round
    county, who have a penny in their purse, and an English heart in
    their bodies, to keep out Spanish Dons, and Papists with their
    faggots to burn our whiskers.  Shove it about, twirl your cap cases,
    handle your jugs, and Huzza for Maister Mayor, and his brethren,
    their Worships.”

On many subsequent occasions, the hall was the scene of grand civic
festivities, to which we shall have to allude hereafter.

The Triennial Musical Festivals are held here.  And, formerly, the
assizes for the city; the nomination of candidates to represent the city
in Parliament; and the mayor’s feasts, which were generally given on the
day when he was sworn into office, were also all held in this spacious
building; and on some festive occasions, nearly 1000 ladies and gentlemen
have dined here, including most of the principal families of the city.
Several times between 1650 and 1700 the hall was proclaimed “a public
exchange for the despatch of business between merchants and tradesmen.”
The last time was in 1725, when it was used only one year.  It was opened
in October, 1796, as a corn exchange and continued to be used as such
every Saturday till 1828.  Under the superintendance of Mr. Barry, the
City Surveyor, a complete restoration of the hall was effected in 1863.

The exterior of the hall, as seen from the plain, presents an imposing
appearance, chiefly owing to the fine effect of its long range of
clerestory windows, of which there are fourteen on each side.  The five
westernmost windows on the south side are each of three lights, of
decorated character, being of earlier date than any of the other windows.
The sixth or easternmost window is of four lights, perpendicular in
style.  On the north side are six beautiful perpendicular windows of four
lights, probably the most elegant in style in the eastern counties.  The
principal entrance is through the new porch on the south-west, which is
similar in style to the original building.  A large entrance door is
provided in the centre of the west front, and above this there is a large
and beautiful five-light window, producing a fine effect in the interior
of the hall.  The interior consists of a nave, 124 feet by 32 feet; and
north and south aisles, 124 feet by 16 feet, each being divided from the
nave by six lofty and handsomely-moulded stone columns, supporting seven
elegant stone arches.  Above these arches are the clerestory windows,
fourteen on each side, perpendicular in style, and somewhat later in
character than the other windows.  The roof, which is of chestnut, is of
hammer-beam construction, with moulded spandrel brackets and circular
shafts.  From the hammer-beams spring moulded arch ribs.  The rafters,
which were originally visible, are plastered on the underside, giving the
effect of panelling; the ground-work being intense blue with gilded
stars.  The hollows in the whole of the timber are coloured vermillion,
and gilded pateræ are inserted within these hollows at stated distances.
The circular ribs are finished with a bead on the underside, which is
decorated by spiral bands, alternately drab and oak colours.  The
intersection of the main timbers at the apex of the roof is distinguished
by carved bosses, richly gilt.  The aisle roofs are similarly decorated,
but without the gilded pateræ.  At the east end the orchestra is placed
within a recess, under a fine deeply-moulded stone arch, of large size.

The nave and aisles are lighted at night by nine polished brass coronæ,
of characteristic design, pendant from the centres of the arched ribs of
the roof.  When lighted up at night, during the Choral Society and
Festival Concerts, the interior presents a very brilliant appearance.
Amongst the principal attractions of the hall are the portraits of city
worthies and some historical paintings.  A fine work of art, Queen
Eleonora sucking the poison from her husband’s wound; and another, the
Death of Lady Jane Grey, by Martin, a native of this city; may be seen at
the west end.  Large sums have been offered for them.  The two oldest
portraits in the hall are Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark.  A
fine portrait of Admiral Lord Nelson, painted by Sir William Beechey, was
the last for which the illustrious “Norfolk Hero” sat after his return to
England in 1801.  It is allowed to be an admirable likeness.  He is
standing on the quarter deck of a man of war; the tri-coloured flag of
France is lying at his feet; and the flag of Spain lies on a cannon;
leaning against which is the sword of the Spanish Admiral, Don Xavier
Winthysen, surrendered to him on February 14th, 1797.  On the hero’s hat
is the magnificent diamond Aigrette, or Plume of Triumph, and under it
the rich pelisse of sable fur, both of which were presented to him by the
Grand Seigneur.  He is decorated with the red riband as Knight of the
Bath, and with the blue riband and medal suspended therefrom, which are
the Insignia of the Order of St. Ferdinand.  On his breast are stars of
the most honourable Order of the Bath, of the Grand Cross, of the Order
of St. Ferdinand, and of the Imperial Order of the Crescent Suspended
from his neck by a riband, hang two gold chains, and another is affixed
to his button hole on the right side, all of which had been presented to
him, at various times, for his unparalleled naval victories.

    “Such honours England to her hero paid,
    And peaceful sleeps the mighty Nelson’s shade.”

This superb painting may be seen at the west end of the hall on the north
side.  Gainsborough painted the portrait of Sir Harbord Harbord,
afterwards Lord Suffield, considered one of the best in the hall.
Amongst the other portraits in the building are some painted by
Gainsborough, Beechey, Heins, Smith, Bardwell, Stoppelaer, Adolphe, Opie,
Clover, Hoppner, Lawrence, and Thompson.  The following is a list in
chronological order, with names of the painters.

_Name_.                              _Artist_.                _Date of
                                                             Picture_.
Queen Anne                                                        1705
Prince George                                                     1705
Benjamin Nuthall      Mayor          Heins                        1721
Robert Marsh          Mayor          Heins                        1731
Francis Arnam         Mayor          Heins                        1732
Timothy Balderstone   Mayor          Heins                        1736
Thomas Vere, M.P.     Mayor          Heins                        1736
Thomas Harwood        Mayor          Heins                        1737
Robert Harvey         Mayor          Smith                        1738
William Clarke        Mayor          Heins                        1740
Hon. Horace                          Heins                        1741
Walpole, M. P.
William Wiggett       Mayor          Heins                        1743
Robert Earl of                       Heins                        1743
Orford
John Lord Hobart                     Heins                        1743
Simeon Waller         Mayor          Heins                        1746
William Crowe         Mayor          Bardwell                     1746
Thomas Harvey         Mayor          Heins                        1749
Thomas Hurnard        Mayor          Heins                        1752
John Press            Mayor          Bardwell                     1753
John Gay              Mayor          Bardwell                     1755
Peter Columbine       Mayor          Stoppelaer                   1755
Jeremiah Ives, Sen.   Mayor          Stoppelaer                   1756
Nockold Thompson      Mayor          Heins                        1756
John Goodman          Mayor          Bardwell                     1757
Robert Rogers         Mayor          Bardwell                     1758
John Spurrell         Mayor          Smith                        1758
Sir Thomas            Mayor          Bardwell                     1761
Churchman, Knt.
Jeremiah Harcourt     Mayor          Bardwell                     1762
Benjamin Hancock      Mayor          Adolphe                      1764
John Dersley          Mayor          Bardwell                     1764
James Poole           Mayor          Bardwell                     1765
Thomas Starling       Mayor          Williams                     1767
Jeremiah Ives, Jun.   Mayor          Catton                       1781
Sir Harbord                          Gainsborough                 1783
Harbord, Bt., M.P.
Robert Partridge      Mayor          Beechey                      1784
Edward and Eleonora                  Martin                       1787
Lady Jane Grey                       Martin                       1787
John Patteson         Mayor          Beechey                      1797
John Harvey           Mayor          Opie                         1797
John Herring          Mayor          Opie                         1799
Horatio Lord Nelson                  Beechey                      1801
Rt. Hon. Henry                       Opie                         1802
Hobart, M.P.
Rt. Hon. W.                          Hoppner                      1803
Windham, M.P.
Charles Harvey,       Recorder       Lawrence                     1804
M.P.
Thomas Back           Mayor          Glover                       1809
Barnabas Leman        Mayor          Glover                       1813
William Smith, M.P.                  Thompson                     1814
Sir J. P. Yallop      Mayor          Clint                        1815
William Hankes        Mayor          Clint                        1816
Crisp Brown           Mayor          Glover                       1817
Robert Hawkes         Mayor          Haydon                       1822
J. S. Patteson,       Mayor          Beechey                      1823
Jun.
Henry Francis         Mayor          Lane                         1824
William Simpson       Town Clerk     Phillips                     1826
Charles Turner        Mayor          Briggs                       1835
T. O. Springfield     Mayor          Westcott                     1852
Sir Samuel Bignold,   Mayor          J. P. Knight                 1853
Knt.
Rt. Hon. Lord                        J. P. Knight                 1868
Stafford

And over the west window is festooned the Flag of France taken by Lord
Nelson from the ship _Genereux_ in 1800.



THE CORN EXCHANGE.


The Corn Exchange is situated in Exchange Street, which commences at the
north end of the Market Place.  The original building, which was erected
in 1828, at a cost of £6000, being found too small, was taken down in
1861, and the present spacious edifice was built by a company at a cost
of £16,000, including the site.  The exterior is massive in its effect.
The key stone of the large window has a carved head of Ceres.  The
interior is well lighted from the roof, the superficial area of the glass
being equal to the area of the hall.  The inside measurement is 125 feet
by 81 feet.  The height from the floor is 66 feet.  At the east end are
portraits of John Culley, Esq., the originator of the Exchange, and of
the late Earl of Leicester, who was justly regarded as the greatest
farmer in Norfolk.  A large amount of business is transacted here every
Saturday afternoon.



THE NORWICH PUBLIC LIBRARY.


The Norwich Public Library is located in a spacious room built for the
purpose at the end of an avenue opposite the Guildhall.  The first
meeting of subscribers was held there on September 7th, 1837.  The
library contains about 30,000 volumes, including many old books of
divinity and archæology.  The yearly subscription is one guinea paid by
shareholders, and 26s. paid by others; and subscribers are entitled to
borrow two sets of books at a time.  The library is open from 10 a.m.
till 9 p.m.  Besides the large room which contains the books, there are
smaller rooms for the convenience of readers.  Mr. Langton is the
librarian.



THE NORFOLK AND NORWICH MUSEUM


is a fine building, erected in 1839, in Broad Street, St. Andrew’s.  It
contains very valuable collections in geology, ethnology, and entomology,
but chiefly in ornithology.  The specimens in ornithology comprise nearly
all the varieties of the raptores or birds of prey, mostly supplied by J.
H. Gurney, Esq.  A large new room in the adjoining building is filled
with specimens of British birds, also contributed by J. H. Gurney, Esq.,
whose portrait adorns the room.  The fossil remains of mammalia, for the
most part discovered in Norfolk, are extremely interesting.  Two other
spacious rooms have just been added to the Museum, one of which is filled
with Elephantine Remains, contributed by the Rev. Jno. Gunn; and the
botanical department has been enriched by the late J. D. Salmon’s
well-arranged specimens, bequeathed by him to this institution, which is
open free on Mondays and Saturdays.



THE NORFOLK AND NORWICH LITERARY INSTITUTION


occupies the upper part of the same building as the Museum, and a large
room in the adjoining one.  It was established in 1822, and contains more
than 20,000 well-selected volumes in the various departments of
literature.  It is supported by several hundred subscribers who pay two
guineas yearly, and the shareholders pay a guinea and a half yearly.
Every member has the privilege of borrowing two books, and a pamphlet and
review at the same time.  A greater number is allowed to country members,
as well as a longer time for reading.  The rooms are open from 10 a.m.
till 9 p.m.  Mr. F. Quinton is the librarian.



THE FREE LIBRARY.


This is a large building at the corner of St. Andrew’s Broad Street;
erected in 1856, and opened in 1857, under the Free Libraries and Museum
Act, by the Corporation, at a cost of £10,000.  It includes large rooms
for the Museum and the Free Library, the Literary Institution, and the
School of Art.  The Free Library, in the lower room, contains about 4,000
volumes, and the Old Collection called the City Library.  The middle room
above is fitted up as a lecture hall.  The School of Art is located at
the top of the building, where rooms are furnished for about 200 pupils,
who receive instruction in drawing, designing, and decorative art.  There
is a committee of management for the Free Library, another for the
Museum, and another for the School of Art.  Mr. Harper is the librarian.



THE THEATRE ROYAL


is situate at a short distance from the Market Place, in Theatre Street.
It is a very plain building, erected in 1826, but the interior is quite
commodious enough for the limited number of patrons which Norwich
furnishes to the drama.



THE POST OFFICE


is a large, but by no means handsome building; situate in Post Office
Street, near the Market Place.  There are two deliveries from London
daily, and mails daily to all parts of the kingdom.



THE PARISHES AND PARISH CHURCHES.


Norwich appears to have taken the lead in the erection of religious
edifices.  At a very early period, before the reign of Edward the
Confessor, the city contained 25 churches, and in the eleventh century,
55 existed in or near the town.  After the conquest, 43 chapels were in
the patronage of the burgesses, most of which were afterwards made
parochial.  In the reign of Edward III., 58 parish churches and chapels
were within the walls, besides 19 monastic institutions and cells,
anchorages, &c.  Norwich still contains a greater number of churches and
parishes than any other city in England except London.  Many of the
present churches are excellent specimens of ancient architecture.
Several of them are built of squared flints.  Besides the cathedral there
are three undoubted specimens of the Norman style, and there are also
many examples of the decorated or florid which succeeded the lancet
style, of the transition style, and of the perpendicular.  This later
perpendicular style, which prevailed during the 15th and 16th centuries,
is the chief characteristic of the city churches.  The best examples of
this style are the churches of St. Peter Mancroft, St. Andrew, St.
Stephen, St. Giles, and St. John Maddermarket; also St. Andrew’s Hall.
Of all these churches complete restorations have been lately effected.
The original designs have been faithfully adhered to by the architects
and contractors, which is the highest praise that can be awarded them.
In this age we can only restore or rebuild; we cannot invent new orders
of architecture.  All our restorations take us back to the middle ages,
and the spirit of those ages seems to be again revived in our parish
churches.

We shall now proceed to describe the parishes and parish churches, in
four districts, west, east, north, and south.


WESTERN DISTRICT.


The western district is the most prominent, comprising the Market Place,
the parishes of St. Peter at Mancroft, St. Giles, St. Gregory, St. John’s
Maddermarket, St. Andrew, St. Margaret, St. Benedict, St. Swithin, and
St. Lawrence.  Nearly all the public buildings are situated in this part
of the town—the Guildhall, the Corn Hall, the Post Office, the Museum,
the Free Library and School of Art, the Public Library, and the Literary
Institution.  The Market Place is about 200 yards in length, and 110 in
breadth, but part of that area is occupied by the Guildhall, and St.
Peter’s church.  A handsome bronze statue of the Duke of Wellington, 8 ft
6 in. high, was erected, at a cost of £1000, in the middle of the Market
Place in 1854.  This statue is placed on a granite pedestal, surrounded
by a low railing with lamps at the corners.  The new Fish Market is on
the western side of the Market Place.  It consists of two rows of shops
with an open space between, and was built, a few years ago, at a cost of
£6000.  On Saturdays the Market Place presents a highly animated scene,
and is well supplied with provisions of every kind.  It is generally
crowded from morning till night by the citizens, and by the vendors of
the produce of the field, the garden, or the dairy.  It is surrounded by
handsome shops, warehouses, hotels, and taverns.


_St. Peter of Mancroft_.


This parish was, at the beginning of the Confessor’s reign, an open
field, that part of it which is now the Market Place, being the great
croft of the Castle or Magna Crofta.  Towards the end of the Confessor’s
reign it began to be built over and inhabited; and at the survey of 1086,
the whole field was owned and held by Ralf de Guader, Earl of Norfolk, in
right of his castle, who granted it to the King in Common to make a new
burgh between them, which burgh contained the entire parishes of St.
Peter of Mancroft and St. Giles.  The Earl Ralf founded the church of St.
Peter and St. Paul at Mancroft, and gave it to his chaplains.  On his
forfeiture, Robert Blund, the Sheriff, received an ounce of gold, yearly,
from the chaplains; and on Godric’s becoming sheriff, the Conqueror gave
it to Wala his chaplain, at which time it was worth £3 per annum.

Sir Peter Read, though not certainly known to be a native of this city,
yet deserves to be mentioned here, because he was buried in St. Peter’s
Church, having this inscription on his monument:—

    “Hereunder lieth the corps of Peter Read, Esq., who hath worthily
    served not only his prince and country, but also the Emperor Charles
    the Fifth, both at his Conquest of Barbary, and his siege of Tunis,
    as also in other places, who had given him, by the said Emperor, the
    Order of Barbary, who died on the 29th December, in the year of our
    Lord God 1566.”

If it be demanded why the title of “knight” was not put on his tomb, but
only “esquire,” it may be answered that he was knighted by the Emperor
Charles V., and Queen Elizabeth would suffer no foreign honour to be worn
by her subjects in her dominions, saying, “Her sheep should be known by
her mark only.”  The knight lies buried in the east corner of the north
aisle of this church.  His effigy in complete armour is on a brass plate
on the stone.  He gave £4 4_s._ yearly from the rental of houses in St.
Giles’, that the great bell of St. Peter’s Mancroft Church should ring at
four o’clock every morning and eight in the evening for the benefit of
travellers.

The following epitaph in this church is a specimen of good versification
for the time in which it was written, 1616:—

    “Here Richard Anguishe sleepes for whom alyve
    Norwich and Cambridge lately seemed to strive;
    Both called him son as seemed well they might;
    Both challenged in his life an equal right:
    Norwich gave birth and taught him well to speake
    The mother English, Latin phrase, and Greeke;
    Cambridge with arts adorned his ripening age
    Degress and judgment in the sacred page;
    Yet Norwich gains the vantage of the strife,
    Whiles there he ended where began his life.

                                          September XXIII.  Ao Dni. 1616.”

The church is a large handsome cruciform structure of freestone mixed
with flint, begun in 1430 and finished in 1455.  It is a good example of
the perpendicular style, and is the finest parish church in the city.  It
is 212 feet in length, and 70 feet in breadth, with a noble tower 98 feet
high, covered with paneling, and containing an excellent peal of 12
bells, a clock, and chimes.  The bells weigh 183 cwt. 2 qrs. 14 lbs., and
were exchanged for an old peal of ten in 1775, at a cost of £800 raised
by public subscription.

The clustered pillars supporting the roof, with the arches surmounting
them, are lofty and slender, and the windows are large and numerous, so
that the whole interior has a light and airy appearance.  The roof of the
nave is of fine open timber work, with a sort of wooden vault over each
window, like a stone roof.  The Clerestory has seventeen fine windows on
each side, with short transoms in the heads, and good tracery.  The
vaulting shafts are brought down to the bottom of the clerestory windows,
and have niches under them.  There is a chancel or small transept on each
side of the nave.  The font stands under a perpendicular canopy,
supported by pillars, and forming a baptistry on a raised platform, with
room to walk round the font.  The east window is filled with beautiful
stained glass, mostly ancient.  There are some fine paintings in the
vestry.  The church was restored, the old pews were replaced by open oak
benches, and a new pulpit, reading desk, and altar rail, handsomely
carved, were purchased in 1851.  During the alterations, a vault four or
five feet deep was discovered under the stalls of the choir.  The outer
wall of this vault supported the screen dividing the choir from the nave
and aisles, and contained a range of about a dozen earthen jars, placed
on their sides with their mouths open to the vault.  The use of these
jars has never been ascertained.  The benefice is a perpetual curacy
certified at £10, and now valued at £87.  It was augmented in 1746 with
£200 given by the Rev. J. Francis, with £100 of royal bounty from 1742 to
1810, and with £400 subscribed by the minister and parishioners in 1818.
The Rev. C. Turner, M.A., is incumbent.


_St. Giles_.


St. Giles’ Street, west of the Market Place, is one of the best built in
the city, and leads to the small parish of St. Giles.  The church, near
the top of the street, was founded in the reign of William I. by Elwyn
the priest, who gave it to the monks of Norwich.  Consequently it is now
in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter.  It is frequently called “St.
Giles on the Hill” in ancient records.  It is a fine structure in the
perpendicular style, and is one of the handsomest old churches in the
city.  It was wholly rebuilt in the reign of Richard I., but after 1581
the old chancel was demolished.  A new chancel has been recently built,
and the church completely restored.  The nave is of five bays, and has a
good open timber roof, supported by angels bearing shields, emblazoned
with the arms of England, France, and Castile.  The clerestory windows
have been modernised.  The south porch has a fine groined vault with fan
tracery, and is surmounted by a parvise, and a rich parapet and cornice.
The nave and aisles are 81 feet long, divided by slender pillars, and are
lighted by large and elegant windows.  The tower is 120 feet high, and
contains a clock and eight bells.  The church estate consists of small
tenements given by Thomas Parker in 1534.  The perpetual curacy, valued
at £70, was augmented from 1744 to 1791 with £1000 of Queen Anne’s
bounty.  The Rev. W. Nottidge Ripley, M.A., is the incumbent.

Passing from the Market Place to Pottergate Street we come to the parish
of


_St. Gregory_.


The church is a fine structure of great antiquity, in the perpendicular
style.  The chancel was rebuilt in 1325, and the whole pile has received
many modern repairs.  The nave and aisles, with the two chapels at the
east end, were new leaded in 1537.  In 1597, a timber spire covered with
lead was erected on the tower, and was the only spire in Norwich, except
that of the Cathedral, but being unsafe, it was taken down.  The tower
contains a clock and six bells, the latter given by the parishioners in
1818.  The tower arch is very lofty, and across it is the original stone
gallery for the singers, with groined vaults above and beneath, the lower
part forming a western porch opening into the north and south porches,
which are also groined.  There are four well moulded arches on each side
of the nave, with clustered shafts having embattled caps.  The rood stair
turret remains on the north side of the edifice.  The clerestory windows
have decorated tracery, and the windows of the aisles are of a mixed
character under arches recessed in the walls.  In 1861, Mr. Wm. Smith,
and the incumbent collected £800 for the purpose of restoring the church
and reseating it in oak.  The perpetual curacy was certified at £3, and
is now valued at £120.  It was augmented from 1747 to 1812 with £1400 of
royal bounty.  The Dean and Chapter are patrons.  The present incumbent
is the Rev. J. Wortley.


_St. John’s Maddermarket_.


is a very populous parish near the Market Place, between Pottergate
Street and Charing Cross.  The church is a large handsome edifice in the
perpendicular style, consisting of a nave, two aisles, two porches, and a
fine tower, under which is an arched rood, and on the top are four
figures at the angles.  The fine decorated east window is of five lights
with flowing tracery.  The north porch has a richly-groined vault, and
its outer doorway is deeply recessed.  The roofs of the chapel of All
Saints at the east end of the north aisle, and of St. Mary the Virgin in
the south aisle, are boarded under and painted with angels holding books
and scrolls, with sentences from the Te Deum, the Angelical Salutation,
&c.  The church has been completely restored recently at a cost of £1200.
Lady Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, (second wife of the Duke, who was
beheaded in Elizabeth’s reign,) died at the Duke’s Palace, in this
parish, in 1563, and was interred with great pomp on the north side of
the choir, where a mural monument was erected to her memory in 1791 by
Lord John Howard of Waldon.  The benefice is a discharged rectory, valued
in K. B. at £7 10s. 2d., and now at £110.  It was augmented from 1714 to
1814 with £1800 of royal bounty.  It is in the patronage of New College,
Oxford, to which it was granted by Henry VI.  The Rev. G. F. Price is the
present incumbent.


_St. Andrew_.


The parish of St. Andrew is extensive, and populous, and improvements
have been made in some of the streets, where large premises have been
built.  The church in Broad Street, to which it gives its name, is a fine
large perpendicular structure, consisting of nave, chancel, aisles,
clerestory, and tower.  The latter, which has seven bells and a clock,
was rebuilt in 1478, and the nave and chancel were rebuilt in 1606.  The
window at the east end is filled with stained glass.  There are sedilia
for three priests in the chancel, and several old stalls with
“misereres.”  The interior contains many ancient as well as modern
monuments and inscriptions.  The whole of the interior has been recently
restored and renovated, and furnished with open benches instead of the
old pews.  The gallery, which obscured the noble tower arch, was removed
in 1863, and the fine screen work, so long hidden, brought to light.
There is no chancel arch, but the rood stair turret still remains on the
south side; and under the east window, externally, are some good niches
and panels.  A beautiful carved stone reredos was erected in 1850 by
subscription in memory of the late Rev. James Brown, B.D., who was the
esteemed incumbent of this parish from 1807 to 1856.  The benefice is a
perpetual curacy valued in 1831 at £90, and augmented from 1756 to 1786
with £800 of Queen Anne’s bounty, and with a grant of £600 in 1815.  The
church estate is let in long leases, for £22 16s. yearly.  The
parishioners are the patrons.  The Rev. A. C. Copeman, M.A., incumbent.
In this parish, on St. Andrew’s Hill, stood one of the oldest churches in
this city, dedicated to St. Christopher.  It was destroyed by fire in the
reign of Henry VIII.  Remains of old vaults may be traced in a line of
vaults and crypts under the City Arms Tavern, and on the premises of Mr.
Harman, Wine and Spirit Merchant, higher up the street on the east side.

The Old Bridewell, in this parish, was built by Bartholomew Appleyard
about the year 1370.  The north wall is 79 feet in length and 27 feet in
height, and is considered one of the greatest curiosities of the kind in
England.  The flints are squared to such a nicety, that the edge of a
knife can scarcely be put between them.  Most of them are about three
inches square.  The surface is very smooth, and no brickwork can appear
more regular.  The building was nearly destroyed by fire on October 22nd,
1751, and again much damaged by fire on July 28th, 1753, but this curious
wall sustained little injury.  Mr. Talman says, “That the Jews introduced
the art of squaring flints;” and Dr. Cromwell Mortimer, Secretary to the
Royal Society, states that the gate of the Austin Friars at Canterbury,
that of St. John’s Abbey at Colchester, and the gate near the Whitehall,
Westminster, are in the same taste, but the platform on the top of the
Royal Observatory at Paris, built in 1667, which is paved with flint in
this manner, is an instance in proof that the French had recovered this
art exemplified in the Old Bridewell here.  William Appleyard, son of the
builder, the first mayor of Norwich, occupied this house in 1403.  After
passing through many hands, it became the property of the late Mr.
Newbegin, who converted it into a tobacco factory.  His son, Mr. J.
Newbegin, now holds the property, and has lately built a handsome
wholesale tobacco warehouse on the premises next to the alley.

In Broad Street, St. Andrews, stood the ancient church of St. Crucis.  It
was dedicated to the honour of the Holy Cross, and was erected before the
year 1272.  It was desecrated in 1551, and the parish united to St.
John’s Maddermarket.


St. Lawrence.


St. Lawrence Church stands upon the very spot to which the arm of the sea
rose in former times, when Norwich was merely a fishing town, and this
spot was the quay or landing place for all herrings brought into the
city.  After the water had receded, the church was founded on the same
site in the reign of Edward the Confessor, in the 10th century.  In 1460,
the original building was taken down, and the present one was erected
twelve years afterwards.  It consists of a nave, chancel, aisles, north
and south porches, clerestory, and a tower 112 feet high, with six bells.
The roof of the church is supported by clustered columns, the inside is
light and regular, and the windows are large and well filled with
tracery.  They were formerly decorated with stained glass, all of which
was demolished by the Puritans in 1643.  There is here an ancient
octangular font, ornamented with shields, angels, &c.  In the spandrels
of an arched door, in the western side of the church, are two ancient
carvings, one representing the martyrdom of St. Lawrence broiling on a
gridiron, and the other a number of Danish soldiers shooting arrows into
the body of King Edmund, whose head is seen lying in a thicket, as
described in the old legend.  The Rev. E. A. Hillyard is the present
incumbent.


_St. Swithin_.


St. Swithin’s Church, situated between upper and lower Westwick Street,
is a neat building, containing a nave, two aisles, and tower.  One side
of the nave is supported by pointed arches on columns, and the other by
round arches and square piers.  The Chapel of St. Mary, at the east end
of the north aisle, had an altar, and the guild of the Holy Virgin,
called the tanner’s guild, was kept there.  The rectory was anciently in
the donation of the See of Norwich, and in the year 1200 was annexed to
the deanery of Norwich, as were the churches of St. Simon and Jude, and
Corstweyt, and the deanery of Taverham, and so held till 1329, when the
deaneries were separated from the churches which were then perpetually
united.  But notwithstanding this union, in 1546 Bishop Rugge separated
the advowson from the bishopric, and granted it to William Farrar and
others.  In 1608, John Ward was patron, who suffering a lapse, was by the
bishop collated to it; and entry being made that the bishop had collated
him in full right, it has ever since been supposed to be in the bishop’s
patronage, and held by sequestration or license at the bishop’s
nomination.  During the cleaning of this Church in 1834, an ancient
portrait of Edward the Confessor, painted on a panel, was found beneath
one of the seats, where it is supposed to have been placed during the
civil wars.  The altar piece contains portraits of Moses and Aaron, and
the church has an ancient font.  The rectory, valued in K. B. at £6 3s.
4d., has been augmented, and is still in the patronage of the bishop.

                                * * * * *

The New Mills, as to a principal part of them, are in this parish.
Formerly all the city bakers were obliged to grind here, and the miller,
as a public servant, had a livery and badge given him every year.  The
mills are still the property of the city, and in 1706 were let, with the
baker’s grant thereto belonging, for the term of 87 years, at the yearly
rent of £200, but reduced in 1708 to £180.  The Mills are now let to Mr.
Wells, and produce a large quantity of flour weekly.  Steam mills are now
also at work in this locality, in the occupation of Messrs. Barber and
Sons, who are also proprietors of Hellesdon Mills.


_St. Margaret_.


St. Margaret’s Church, in Westwick Street, has a square tower with a
spacious nave, chancel, and south aisle.  It is a plain building of the
perpendicular period.  The rood stair turret remains on the north side of
the church, and on the south side of the altar is a small pedestal on
which the bell that was rung at mass stood in former times.  The rectory
is valued at £80.  The bishop is the patron, and the Rev. J. W. Cobb is
the rector.  The church which has been for some time disused, being in a
very ruinous condition, has just been restored.


_St. Benedict_.


St. Benedict’s Church, at the end of the street to which it gives its
name, is a small building with nave, chancel, north aisle, and round
tower.  The tower contains three bells, and in the chancel is a piscina.
The church was repaired and re-roofed a few years since, at a cost of
£150.  The living is a perpetual curacy valued at £95, and was augmented
by royal bounty.  The Rev. J. Dombrain is the incumbent.


THE EASTERN DISTRICT.


This side of the city has been greatly improved by the formation of a new
road called Prince of Wales’ Road, from Foundry Bridge to the Castle
Hill.  Handsome houses have been built on each side, and broad pavements
laid down.  Rose Lane has been widened and improved.  The Castle Meadow
has been adorned by the erection of a new bank called the Crown Bank, a
very handsome building in the Corinthian style of architecture.  This is
the finest building of the kind in the eastern counties.

The Cavalry Barracks are situated in Barrack Street on the east side of
the city, on the site of an old manor house.  They were built by the
government in 1791 at a cost of £20,000.  The buildings are of brick, and
form three sides of a square, the centre being for the accommodation of
the officers.  The wings accommodate the soldiers to the extent of 320
men, and 266 horses.  The high wall which surrounds the entire barracks,
including the parade ground, encloses an area of ten acres.

The Dungeon Tower is opposite the barracks, on land called “The Hospital
Meadow.”  It is a large round tower of brick, originally surrounded by a
battlement.  It was built as a prison for the cathedral precincts.  The
Norfolk Railway Station stands in the hamlet of Thorpe near the Foundry
Bridge.


_St. Michael at Plea_.


The Church of St. Michael at Plea is at the top of Queen Street.  This
church was so named from the Archdeacon holding his pleas or courts
there.  It is a cruciform church with a low flint tower, and a modern
bell turret.  Its transepts were formerly chapels dedicated to St. John
the Baptist and the Virgin Mary.  It contains several old paintings of
the crucifixion, resurrection, &c., in the panels.  About two years ago
the tower was restored at a cost of £250.  The rectory, valued in K. B.
at £6 10s., and in 1831 at £85, was augmented with £600 of Queen Anne’s
bounty from 1774 to 1791, and with a parliamentary grant of £1000 in
1816.  The lords of the manors of Sprowston and Horsford are patrons
alternately.  The Rev. C. Morse, LL.B., is the incumbent.


_St. George Tombland_.


The Church of St. George Tombland stands at the end of Prince’s Street,
and is so named from the open space near it having formerly been used as
a burying place.  It has a handsome square tower which contains five
bells, and was erected by the parishioners in 1445.  The nave, aisles,
and chancel are covered with lead, and have some spacious galleries and
ornamental inscriptions of ancient and modern times.  The building is
chiefly of the perpendicular period, but some portions are of an older
date.  Three new memorial windows were recently inserted on the north
side.  Messrs. J. and J. King, Prince’s Street, put in the stained glass.
The Rev. W. Bridge was ejected from the incumbency of this parish for
refusing to read the Book of Sports.  He afterwards became pastor of the
Old Meeting House.  The churchyard has been planted with shrubs, and if a
neat iron railing were substituted for the present wall, it would greatly
improve the appearance of Tombland.  The Rev. K. Trimmer is the
incumbent.


_St. Peter Hungate_.


St. Peter Hungate Church is in the same street at the top of Elm Hill.
The original church was demolished in 1458, when the present one was
built.  It was built by John Paston and Margaret his wife.  It is of
black flint in the form of a cross, having a nave, chancel, transepts,
and square tower with two bells.  The roof of the nave is ornamented with
figures of angels.  In 1861 the interior was much improved.  The rectory
of St. Peter Hungate, valued in K.B. at £3 1s. 5½d., and now at £63, was
augmented from 1743 to 1810 with £600 of royal bounty.  The Lord
Chancellor is patron, and the Rev. S. Titlow, M.A., has been rector since
1839.


_St. Simon and Jude_.


St. Simon and Jude’s Church in Wensum Street has a nave, a chancel, and a
low flint and stone tower, with five bells.  It is in the perpendicular
style, and is of great antiquity.  It contains a few old brasses, and
several monuments of the Pettus family, in one of which lies, in complete
armour, the figure of Sir J. Pettus, the first of the family who was
knighted.  The Rev. J. F. Osborne is the incumbent.


_St. Martin at Palace_.


St. Martin at Palace Church stands opposite the entrance to the Bishop’s
Palace.  It has a nave with aisles, chancel with aisles, clerestory, and
a tower with five bells.  It is of the plain perpendicular style, and
contains a good panelled octagon font.  The east window of the chancel is
filled with stained glass, representing the adoration of the magi, the
annunciation, the crucifixion, the resurrection of our Saviour, &c.  The
living is a perpetual curacy valued at £70, and augmented from 1743 to
1813 with £1800 of royal bounty.  The Dean and Chapter are patrons.  The
Rev. R. W. Barker is incumbent.


_St. Helen_.


The parish of St. Helen is situated on the east side of the cathedral,
and nearly the whole of the parish belongs to the Great Hospital, which
is an extensive range of buildings, comprising the antique remains of the
dissolved hospital of St. Giles, and several modern additions erected at
various periods, for the accommodation of the alms people who have been
increased in number progressively with the augmentation of the income.
In 1850, ninety-two men, and eighty-two women were lodged, fed, and
clothed at the expense of the charity, which also supports a master and
ten nurses.  The alms people must be of the age of 65 years or upwards
before their admission.  They are clothed in dark blue, and allowed
sixpence per week each for pocket money.

St. Helen’s Church in Bishopgate Street belonged to the monks, who
demolished it and consolidated the cure with the church of St. Giles’
Hospital, now called the Great Hospital, on the opposite side of the
street, soon after the foundation of the latter by Bishop Suffield in
1250.  The whole of this hospital church, which serves as the parish
church of St. Helen, is still standing.  It has a square perpendicular
tower at the south-west corner, containing one bell.  The greater part of
the pile has been converted into lodgings for the alms people.  The
church is fitted up with gothic carved work and open seats.  Kirkpatrick,
the antiquary, is buried here.  The perpetual curacy received by lot £200
of Queen Anne’s bounty in 1816, and was valued in 1831 at £16 exclusive
of the glebe house, but is now worth £200 per annum.  The City Charity
Trustees are patrons.  The Rev. W. F. Patteson, incumbent.

                                * * * * *

In King Street are the churches of St. Peter per Mountergate, St. Julian,
St. Etheldred, and St. Peter Southgate, all ancient edifices.


_St. Peter per Mountergate_.


St. Peter per Mountergate derives the latter part of its name from a gate
formerly placed near the churchyard, at the foot of the Castle mount.
The old church is in the perpendicular style, and has a nave, chancel,
south porch with parvise, and a square embattled tower, with five bells
and a clock.  The building has been recently restored and fitted up with
open benches, those in the nave being stained deal, and in the chancel
oak.  The famous Thomas Codd, who was Mayor of Norwich during Kett’s
Rebellion, and who was a great benefactor to the city, was interred in
the nave.  The benefice is now a perpetual curacy, valued at £78, and
augmented with £200 of Queen Anne’s bounty in 1766, and with a
parliamentary grant of £800 in 1812.  The Dean and Chapter are patrons.
The Rev. John Durst, incumbent.


_St. Julian_.


St. Julian’s Church, in King Street, is a very small ancient structure,
founded before the conquest, and comprises nave, chancel, north porch,
and tower.  It is principally of the Norman period, and most of the
windows are decorated and perpendicular insertions.  The tower, which is
ruined, has a deeply recessed Norman arch, slightly pointed, and having
shafts with caps and bases.  It has also a small Norman loop window in
the thickness of the wall splayed both inside and outside.  The south
doorway is a very fine specimen of Norman architecture, and was restored
in 1845, when the chancel was rebuilt and the church thoroughly restored
at a cost of £500.  The east window was at the same time filled with
stained glass, representing our Saviour seated and surrounded by the
evangelists.  The font is perpendicular in style, cup-shaped and
panelled.  There was a hermitage for a female recluse in the churchyard,
but it was demolished at the dissolution.  The rectory, certified at £19
3s. 1d., has been long consolidated with All Saints.  The Rev. C. F.
Sculthorpe, M.A., is patron.


_St. Etheldred_.


St. Etheldred’s Church, in King Street, is supposed to be one of the
oldest structures in the city, and had in its burial ground a very
ancient anchorage, which continued till after the Reformation.  It is a
small building with a nave, chancel, and tower.  The benefice is a
perpetual curacy, certified at £2 14s., and valued at £77.  It was
augmented from 1745 to 1802 with £800 of Queen Anne’s bounty.  The
Trustees of the Great Hospital are patrons.  The Rev. W. Bishop is the
present incumbent.

The parish of St. Etheldred seems to have been one of the parishes of the
Anglo Saxon period, and in it formerly were the houses of many families
of distinction, including the residences of Sir Thomas de Helgheton, of
Henry de Norwich, of the Abbot of Wymondham, of Sir James Hobart, and of
Sir Robert de Sulle, who was killed by the rebels in the reign of Edward
III.  No remains of these houses now exist.  All along the east side of
King Street, next the river, there is a line of vaults, which seem to
have formed the foundations of old churches now demolished.  The Old
Music House still stands in King Street, in the parish of St. Etheldred,
and on its site formerly stood the house of one of the rich Jews, who
settled here in the reign of William Rufus.  It afterwards became the
property of his grandson Isaac, at whose death it was escheated to the
crown.  Henry III. gave it to Sir William de Valeres, Knt., and in 1290
it was the residence of Alan de Frestons, Archdeacon of Norfolk, who had
a public chapel there.  In 1626, it belonged to John Paston, Esq., and in
1633 it was the city house of Chief Justice Coke.  The present house is
not older than the 17th century.  Under it there are very extensive
vaults of a more ancient date, now occupied by Messrs. Youngs, Crawshay,
and Youngs, as ale stores.


_St. Peter Southgate_.


St. Peter Southgate, near the south end of King Street, is an ancient
church, with a nave, chancel, north chapel, south porch, and a square
flint tower, in which are three bells.  The windows are chiefly square
headed, and the architecture is of the late perpendicular period.  There
is a good cross on the east gable.  Part of an old screen remains in
front of the north chapel.  The Rev. W. Bishop is the incumbent.

                                * * * * *

Carrow Works, at the top of King Street, are the most extensive in
England for the production of flour, starch, mustard, and blue.  The
works cover an area of five acres.  They are conveniently situated on the
banks of the Yare, and are permeated by trams from the Great Eastern
Railway.  Here are large flour mills, starch mills, and mustard mills, in
which 1200 hands are employed.  Steam engines to the enormous amount of
400 horse power are used to drive the machinery.  About 100 tons of goods
are produced here weekly, and sent away by rail to all parts of England,
Europe, and America.  A large number of hands are engaged in making the
tins and wooden boxes in which most of the mustard is packed.  We visited
Carrow Works chiefly to see the mustard, starch, and blue factories; but
we were tempted to take a peep at the great flour mill which has been
erected by Messrs. J. and J. Colman, and which for magnitude and
completeness has few equals.  The machinery in this mill is driven by a
magnificent pair of engines of 80 horse power.  The Mayor for the present
year, 1868, J. J. Colman, Esq., is the principal proprietor of these
great works, and he has built many houses all around for his work-people,
and also schools for their children at a cost of £2000.

A Nunnery formerly stood outside of King Street Gates, and was called
Carrow Abbey, from “carr” a watering place, and “hoe” a hill.  This abbey
was dedicated to St. Michael and St. John.  It was founded in the year
1146 by two ladies named Leftelina and Seyna.  It was richly endowed by
King Stephen, and consisted of a prioress and nine benedictine black
nuns, afterwards increased to twelve.  The site within the walls
contained about ten acres of land, and the revenues and possessions were
extensive.  At the dissolution the abbey and lands became private
property.  J. H. Tillett, Esq., is the present occupier.


THE NORTHERN DISTRICT.


This district includes all the parishes from the north-west to the
north-east side of the river Wensum; and comprises the parishes of St.
Michael at Coslany, St. Martin at Oak, St. Augustine, St. Mary, St.
George’s Colegate, St. Clement, St. Saviour, St. Paul, St. James, and St.
Edmund.  On the north side we enter the oldest part of the city, which
seems to have been always chosen by the poorest portion of the
population, near the great factories, which stand high above all the
surrounding poverty-stricken dwellings.


_St. Michael at Coslany_.


St. Michael at Coslany, commonly called St. Miles’, is a spacious church,
with a lofty square tower and eight musical bells.  The nave was rebuilt
by John and Stephen Stallon, who were sheriffs in 1511 and 1512.  The
south aisle was begun by Gregory Clark, and was finished by his son, who
was Mayor in 1514.  The interior is handsomely decorated.  At the east
end of the south aisle there is a chapel, founded by Robert Thorp in the
reign of Henry VII., encrusted externally with black flints, like inlaid
work.  The altar piece, by Heins, represents the Resurrection and the
Four Evangelists, and the floor is paved with black and white marble,
brought from the domestic chapel at Oxnead.  There are a few ancient
brasses and modern mural monuments.  The rectory, valued in K.B. at £13
6s. 8d. and now at £117, was augmented in 1738 with £200 bequeathed by
the Rev. E. Brooke; in 1818, with £200 given by the late rector; and from
1738 to 1818 with £1000 of royal bounty.  Gonville and Caius College,
Cambridge, had the patronage of the living, which was usually given to
the oldest bachelor of that college.  It has recently been purchased by
the Rev. E. Hollond, Benhall Lodge, Suffolk.  The Rev. R. H. Kidd is the
incumbent.


_St. Martin at Oak_.


The parish of St. Martin at Oak, in Coslany Street, and the whole
neighbourhood, is a very old part of the city, full of very poor people.
The church derived its name from a large oak which formerly stood in the
churchyard.  This was much visited during the reign of superstition, and
many legacies were given towards painting, repairing, and dressing the
image of St. Mary in the Oak.  Another oak was planted on the same spot
in 1656, but that now growing was planted eight years ago.  The church is
built of flint and stone in the perpendicular style, and contains some
good piers.  In 1852, the chancel was rebuilt and a new organ was placed
in the church; and in 1862, plain open benches were substituted for the
old pews in the chancel.  There are a few monuments and brasses in the
church, and in one of the former are effigies of Jeremiah Ravens and his
wife in alabaster.  She died in 1711, and he in 1727.  The south porch is
now used as a vestry, and the outer doorway is built up.  The benefice is
a perpetual curacy, certified at 20s., and now valued at £102.  It was
augmented with £200 given by William Nockells in 1722, and £1000 of royal
bounty obtained from 1723 to 1824.  The Dean and Chapter are patrons.
Rev. C. Caldwell, B.A., the esteemed incumbent, is much respected for his
kindness to the poor.


_St. Augustine_.


From St. Martin at Oak we pass onward into St. Augustine’s, where we find
various factories and a very populous neighbourhood.  The church, on the
east side of the Gildencroft, is in the perpendicular style, and consists
of a nave with aisles, chancel with aisles, south porch and tower.  The
tower contains a clock and three bells.  The roof of the north aisle of
the chancel is finely carved, and the clerestory is built of flint.  In
the south aisle of the nave is a marble monument in memory of Thomas
Clabburn, manufacturer, who died in 1858.  It was erected by the
subscriptions of more than 600 weavers of Norwich as a tribute to his
many virtues.  The rectory, valued in K.B. at £6 7s. 8½d. and now at
£150, was augmented in 1781 with £200 of Queen Anne’s bounty, and in
1810, 1811, and 1821, with £1400 in parliamentary grants.  The Dean and
Chapter are the patrons.  The Rev. Matthew John Rackham is the incumbent.


_St. Mary Coslany_.


From St. Augustine’s we pass down Pitt Street to the parish of St. Mary,
inhabited chiefly by poor people.  The church is a cruciform structure
with a tall round tower of flint, containing six bells.  There are no
aisles.  The south porch has a good groined vault and a richly moulded
doorway, with a parvise or chamber above.  The chancel has a panelled
ceiling with rich perforated work.  The pulpit is ancient and has tracery
in the upper part of the panels, with the linen pattern below, and a
perforated iron projection for the book rest.  The font is octagonal, and
has painted shields of arms in its upper panels.  The rood-stair turret
is at the intersection of the north transept and chancel.  At the west
end of the nave there is an old parish chest, and in the south transept
there is a square-headed foliated piscina.  Several ancient stalls are
remaining, and in the north wall of the chancel there is a tombstone of
the Elizabethan era, dated 1578, and having incised figures of Martin
Vankermbeck, M.D., and his wife.  The perpetual curacy was augmented,
from 1733 to 1824, with £2200 of royal bounty, and is valued at £124.
The Marquis of Townshend is patron.  Rev. C. Morse, LL.B., is incumbent.


_St. George Colegate_.


We pass on eastward to the parish of St. George’s Colegate, wherein are
some of the best built streets on this side of the city.  The church is a
large structure rebuilt at different periods, viz., the tower and nave
about 1459; the chancel in 1498; the north aisle with the chapel of St.
Mary in 1504; and the south aisle with the chapel of St. Peter in 1513.
The tower is lofty and has a clock and three bells.  The rood-stair
turret still remains on the south side.  The east window is of three
lights, and is filled with painted glass by Mr. Swan, with figures
representing Faith, Hope, and Charity.  The living is a perpetual curacy,
valued at £98, and augmented from 1737 to 1792 with £1000 of Queen Anne’s
bounty.  The Dean and Chapter are patrons.  The Rev. A. W. Durdin,
incumbent.  The memorial to John Crome, familiarly known to Norwich
citizens, and to artists and connoisseurs in paintings as “Old Crome,”
one of the most esteemed of our Norwich “worthies,” has just been placed
in the church of St. George Colegate, in which parish he passed the
latter years of his life, and in which he died soon after being chosen
churchwarden, in the year 1821.  The idea of erecting a monument to the
memory of Crome originated in 1841, amongst some of his fellow-citizens
who were lovers of the fine arts, but the subscriptions received up to
1844 appear only to have amounted to about twenty-six pounds.  At the
death of Mr. Lound, who had been receiving the subscriptions, in 1861,
Mr. J. B. Morgan, determining to carry out the object of the subscribers,
recommended the work of canvassing for subscriptions, which ultimately
reached the sum of about £100.  Funds having been raised, a committee of
amateur artists was formed, who consulted Mr. Bell, an eminent sculptor,
of London, and a native of this city, by whom a handsome mural tablet has
been placed at the east end of the south aisle of St. George’s Church to
the memory of Crome.  This tablet, which is of white marble, is divided
into three panels, the centre panel containing a bas-relief profile bust
of John Crome.  Judging from the portrait of Crome recently hung in the
Council Chamber, this is an admirable likeness of the Norwich landscape
painter.  Beneath are the name “John Crome” in gold letters, and a
palette and pencils; and above an elegantly carved laurel wreath.  On one
panel is the following: “Near this spot lie the remains of one of
England’s greatest landscape painters, born in this city, December 21st,
1769, and died in this parish April 22nd, 1821;” and on the right-hand
panel, “This memorial is erected forty-seven years after his death by
admirers of his art, principally connected with Norfolk, his native
county.”

St. Clement’s parish includes St. Clement Within and St. Clement Without.
The population increased from 853 inhabitants in 1801 to nearly 4000 in
1861.  This large increase occurred chiefly in the northern suburb of the
city, called New Catton, which, in 1842, was constituted an
ecclesiastical district, and assigned to Christ Church, a new edifice
built there.  Some centuries ago, several old churches, called St. Anne’s
Chapel, All Saints, St. Botolph, and St. Margaret, existed in this
parish, but no vestiges now remain.

St. Clement’s Church, in Colegate Street, is one of the oldest in the
city, and belonged to the manor of Tokethorpe.  It has a square tower
with three bells, a nave without aisles, and a chancel, all in the
perpendicular styles.  The chancel contains four dedication crosses, and
is separated from the nave by a fine arch.  The tower arch is blocked by
the organ and gallery.  The communion plate weighs 88 ozs., including a
silver gilt cup given by S. Sofyld in 1569.  Three parish houses are let
for £26 10s. yearly, which is applied with the church rates, except a
reserved yearly rent of 3s. 4d. payable to the Great Hospital, pursuant
to a lease granted in 1569 for 500 years.  The rectory valued in K.B. at
£7 9s. 2d., and now at £96, was augmented in 1738 with £200 of Queen
Anne’s bounty, and £200 bequeathed by the Rev. Edward Brooke.  It is in
the patronage of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, and incumbency of
the Rev. R. Rigg.


_Christ Church_.


Christ Church in New Catton was consecrated by Bishop Stanley amid a
disturbance caused by the chartists.  It is a chapel of ease in the
improving parish of St. Clement.  It is a neat structure of flint and
brick in the early English style, comprising nave, chancel, transepts,
and a bell turret at the west end.  It was finished in 1841 at a cost of
about £2500, and has sittings for 600 people.  It was built by
subscription, and by the same means £800 have been invested for its
endowment, and £200 for its reparation.  The rector of St. Clement’s is
patron of the perpetual curacy, valued at £150, and it is now in the
incumbency of the Rev. Robert Wade, B.A.


_St. Saviour_.


St. Saviour’s Church, in Magdalen Street, is a small structure, and has a
square tower with two bells.  It has some modern monuments.  The south
porch is now used as a baptistry.  The font has an octagonal panelled
basin, and is supported by four shafts resting on lions’ heads, and
carried through ogee canopies with pinnacles between.  The perpetual
curacy was certified at £3, and is now valued at £103.  It was augmented
from 1729 to 1813 with £1800 of royal bounty.  The Dean and Chapter are
patrons.  The Rev. W. Harris Cooke, M.A., incumbent.


_St. Edmund_.


St. Edmund’s Church, in Fishgate Street, was founded in the reign of
William I.  It comprises a nave, chancel, south aisle, and tower with one
bell.  The arches of the nave are nearly flat, and the sub-arches are
carried on shafts with moulded caps.  The rectory, valued in K.B. at £4
6s. 3d., and now at £165, was augmented in 1726 with £200 given by Rev.
W. Stanley and Rev. R. Corey, and from 1726 to 1819 with £1000 of royal
bounty.  The Rev. T. Taylor is the incumbent.


_St. James_.


St. James’ Church, in Cowgate, includes Pockthorpe in its parish, and was
a well endowed rectory till 1201, when it was appropriated to the
Cathedral Priory.  It is now a peculiar of the Dean and Chapter.  The
Rev. A. D. Pringle, incumbent.


_St. Paul_.


St. Paul’s Church, in the square called St. Paul’s Plain, is an old
dilapidated building with a small round tower, the upper part of which
was octagonal, but was rebuilt about 1819 of white brick with stone
coping.  It has some decorated windows, but is chiefly in the
perpendicular style.  There is a north aisle, and at the east end a
parclose, the two screens of different patterns, but both in the same
perpendicular style.  The perpetual curacy was certified at only £2, but
was augmented from 1745 to 1749 with £200 of Queen Anne’s bounty, and is
now worth £150.  The Dean and Chapter are patrons, and the Rev. Bell
Cooke is incumbent.


THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT.

_St. Stephen_.


The parish of St. Stephen’s, on the south side of the city, is extensive
and populous.  The streets present some good shops and places of
business.  The principal streets are Rampant Horse Street, St. Stephen’s
Street, and Surrey Street.  The Norfolk and Norwich Hospital is at the
top of St. Stephen’s Street, and the far-famed Norwich Union Fire and
Life Office is in Surrey Street.

The church, at the west end of Rampant Horse Street, is a handsome
edifice of the late perpendicular style, of the 16th century, with a nave
and clerestory, two aisles, a chancel, two small chapels, and a square
tower.  The nave is divided from the aisles by fluted columns with
pointed arches.  The windows are large and numerous, and that at the east
end is filled with stained glass representing the life of the Virgin
Mary, and dated 1610.  This church was founded before the Norman
Conquest, but has been all rebuilt at different periods, the chancel
about 1520, and the nave in 1550.  The roof is a fine specimen of open
timber-work, and is richly carved.  The tower stands on the north side of
the church, and beneath it is the porch.  In 1859, the interior was
thoroughly restored at a cost of £1500, and a new carved pulpit and a
reading desk were put up at the same time.  Under the superintendence of
Mr. Phipson, the county architect, ten new windows have been lately
inserted in this church, five on each side.  They are in the
perpendicular style corresponding to the style of the building.  They are
glazed with cathedral glass and a ruby border.  There is also a new
window over the south door of the chancel.  It is glazed with painted
glass of a geometrical pattern, put in by the London firm that produced
the work in the large western window, representing the death of St.
Stephen.  That window cost £300.  The benefice is a discharged vicarage,
valued in K.B. at £9, and now at £212.  It was augmented from 1715 to
1812 with £1000 of royal bounty.  The Dean and Chapter are patrons.  The
Rev. C. Baldwin, vicar.


_St. John Sepulchre_.


St. John Sepulchre is a large church at the top of Ber Street, dedicated
to St. John the Baptist and the Holy Sepulchre, and founded in the reign
of Edward the Confessor.  It consists of a nave, chancel, a sort of
transept chapel on each side, and a lofty tower with five bells and a
clock.  The font is octagonal and is ornamented with angels, lions, &c.
The east window is of three lights filled with stained glass, the centre
light presenting a figure of St. John the Baptist.  The window is in
memory of the Rev. Samuel Stone, M.A., incumbent of this parish, who was
a great friend of the poor, and died in 1848.  Here is a fine mural
monument of the Watts family.  The rood-stair turret still remains, and
in the south side of the chancel is a fine consecration cross.  The
living is a perpetual curacy, certified at £9 1s., and now valued at
£144.  It was augmented from 1737 to 1812 with £1600 of royal bounty.
The Dean and Chapter are patrons.  The Rev. W. T. Moore, incumbent.


_St. Michael at Thorn_.


This part of the city includes the parish of St. Michael at Thorn, so
called from the “thorns” formerly growing in the neighbourhood, of which
there is one now in the churchyard.  The Rev. A. Davies is incumbent of
the parish.  The church is remarkable for its antiquity.


_All Saints_.


At the bottom of Ber Street we may turn to the left into the parish of
All Saints, where the church stands in an open space called All Saints’
Green.  The church is a small structure, having a nave, chancel, porch,
and tower containing three bells.  The chancel contains some decorated
windows, but the other portions of the church are perpendicular.  The
east window is modern and filled with poor stained glass, but there are
some fragments of ancient stained glass, containing heads of bishops,
&c., in the windows of the aisles.  The font is octagonal and in the
perpendicular style.  There are three monuments with merchant’s marks
upon them.  The rectory, valued in K.B. at £3 14s. 7d., is consolidated
with St. Julian, valued in K.B. at £5.  The joint benefices are now worth
£300 per annum.  They were augmented with £300 of Queen Anne’s bounty in
1769 and 1810, and with £200 given by John Drinkwater, Esq., and £500
given by S. Thornton, Esq., in 1800.  The Rev. C. F. Sculthorpe, M.A., is
patron, and the Rev. G. S. Outram is incumbent.


_St. John Timberhill_.


St. John’s Timberhill, at the north end of Ber Street, was founded soon
after the priory of Norwich, to which it was appropriated, and it was
dedicated to St. John the Baptist.  It has a nave, chancel, south porch
with parvise, and two aisles with chapels at their east ends.  That on
the north, a part of which is now used for the vestry, was called our
Lady’s Chapel.  There is a hagroscope or squint on the south side of the
chancel, and near it is a small decorated piscina.  The font is circular
and Norman.  The whole building needs restoration.  The square tower fell
down on August 20th, 1784, and damaged the west end of the church.  Its
foundations still remain, but the bells were sold to pay for the repairs.
The perpetual curacy was augmented from 1738 to 1813 with £1000 of royal
bounty, and valued in 1835 at £31.  The Dean and Chapter are patrons.
The Rev. S. Titlow, M.A., has been the incumbent since 1831.


_Chapel Field_.


There is yet left unnoticed a small district lying south of St. Giles’,
and which is generally known as Chapel Field.  Near this field once stood
a college called St. Mary in the Fields, founded about the beginning of
the 13th century by John Le Brun.  Soon after its establishment its
benefactors were so numerous that in a short time it became a very noble
college, having a dean, chancellor, precentor, treasurer, seven
prebendaries, and six chaplains.  Miles Spencer, the last dean, persuaded
the college to resign its revenues for small pensions, after he had
obtained a grant of the whole for himself from Henry VIII. at the
dissolution.  The property afterwards passed through several hands, and
the field is now the property of the corporation.  It has recently been
enclosed by a massive palisade, and much improved as a place of
recreation; and a large Drill Hall has been built at the north-west
corner for the use of the Volunteers.  The Drill Hall was opened by the
Prince of Wales in 1866.


THE HAMLETS.

_Heigham_.


The hamlets have, of late years, been greatly increased in extent and
population, and are likely to leave the old city in the shade.  Heigham,
on the west side of the city, has become a town, with two churches, and
another about to be built, three chapels, and several large schools.
Since 1801, the population has increased from 544 to 15,000 souls.  Many
new streets have been laid out between the Dereham and Earlham Roads;
long rows of new houses have been built, and are nearly all occupied.
The National School-house, on Dereham road, was built in 1840 at a cost
of £1000, and is attended by about 270 children.

                                * * * * *

The CITY JAIL, an ugly building, stands in this hamlet at the corner of
St. Giles’ Road.  It was built in 1827 from a design by Mr. Philip
Barnes, of Norwich, at a cost of £30,000.  The front elevation is massive
and is supported by Tuscan columns.  The whole building encloses an area
of 1 acre 2 roods 34 poles, and contains 114 cells.  The house of the
governor stands in the centre and commands a view of the entire prison,
which is well ventilated and supplied with water pumped by the
tread-wheel.

                                * * * * *

The NEW WATER WORKS are in this hamlet, and supply the city with water
from the river Wensum.  After filtration the water is forced up by steam
power to the distributing reservoir at Lakenham, at a height of 134 feet
above the level of the river at Carrow Bridge, whence it flows by
gravitation to all parts of the city and the suburbs.  The present
company has a capital of £60,000 in £10 shares, and was incorporated
under an act of parliament passed in 1850, the powers of which have been
enlarged by subsequent acts, so that wholesome and pure water is now
constantly supplied at very low terms.  Excellent provision has also been
made for a plentiful supply for extinguishing fires, by fixing hydrants
at every 100 yards.


_Bishop Hall’s Palace_.


                     [Picture: Bishop Hall’s Palace]

The OLD PALACE, where the celebrated Bishop Hall resided, (now known as
the Dolphin Inn,) is in this hamlet.  Here he retired after his expulsion
from the bishop’s palace by the republican party in 1644.  The house,
which is fast going to decay, displays the peculiarities of the domestic
architecture of the time of James I.  The front presents two projecting
bays, one on each side of the door, which afford a light to the lower and
upper rooms.  The doorway deserves a passing notice, and some curiously
carved heads will be found in the interior, as well as the remains of an
ancient piscina in the wall at the entrance.  There is a large parlour on
the right hand, wainscotted all round from the floor to the ceiling.

                                * * * * *

The NEW WORKHOUSE was erected in 1859 at an expense of £33,000 exclusive
of £680 paid for about nine acres of land.  It is an extensive range of
brick buildings in the Tudor style of architecture, having room for about
1000 inmates, but it has never had so many as yet, though the number is
increasing every year.  The debt on the building was £22,000, and will be
gradually paid off by instalments.

                                * * * * *

The NEW CEMETERY.  The greatest improvement effected in Norwich during
the present century was the closing of all the churchyards for burials,
and the opening of a new cemetery for the dead.  It was opened in 1856
and is pleasantly situated on high ground next the Earlham Road; the
whole area being divided into two parts, one side being consecrated and
the other unconsecrated.  The whole comprises 35 acres of land prettily
laid out and planted.  It was formed at a cost of £7000 by the Burial
Board.  There are entrances from the Earlham and Dereham Roads.  The two
principal chapels are of early English architecture with porches and
apsidal terminations.  There is also a small chapel for the use of the
Jews.

                                * * * * *

The long contemplated division of this extensive hamlet into three
parishes, has at length been carried into effect.  The old church of St.
Bartholomew is to be the parish church of the new parish of that name on
the north side next the river.  The estimated population is 5,600.  The
Rev. J. G. Dixon is rector.  The central part of the hamlet, lying
between the Dereham and Earlham Roads, with a population of 4,400, is to
form the new parish of St. Philip; but a church has not been yet built.
The third parish, the incumbency of which is retained by the Rev. C. T.
Rust, includes all that part of Heigham which lies between Earlham Road
and the boundary of St. Stephen’s.  The population is about 6,400.  The
church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, in Essex Street, is the parish
church.  The church of St. Bartholomew stands on an eminence above the
Wensum, and is a small structure in the perpendicular style, with a nave,
south aisle, north porch, chancel, and a square tower, in which are three
bells.  It has a mural monument to the pious Bishop Hall, who was buried
here in 1656.  The living is a rectory valued in K.B. at £6 13s. 4d., and
now at a little over £200.  Trinity Church, near Unthank’s Road, was
built by subscription, and consecrated in August 1861, to supply the
great want of church accommodation which had long been felt in this part
of the hamlet.  It is a large building in the decorated style, and
consists of nave, transepts, and apsidal chancel, with a tower containing
one bell, and surmounted by a slated spire 120 feet high.  The total cost
was £7000.

In 1861, an ancient lead coffin, containing the remains of a female
skeleton, was discovered about four feet below the surface on a chalk pit
at Stone Hills, Heigham.  It was perfectly plain, and appeared to have
been formerly enclosed in an outer case of wood, and was probably of the
Roman period.  Near it were found two bronze torque rings of a twisted
pattern, encrusted with a fine green patina, and evidently of the
Anglo-Saxon period.


_Hellesdon_.


Hellesdon, adjoining Heigham, is a small and pretty village on an
eminence two miles north-west of the city, but the parish is partly in
Taverham hundred.  It adjoins the river, which is here crossed by a
cast-iron bridge, built by the corporation of Norwich in 1819.  The
common was enclosed in 1811.  The Bishop is lord of the manor and owner
of a great part of the soil.


_Earlham_.


Earlham is a very pleasant village, situated at the end of the Earlham
Road.  The ivy-mantled church is a very ancient building of small size.
The hall, situated in a park, is associated with the honoured name of
Gurney, and will long be an object of deep interest.  Amongst other
members of that distinguished family who resided here was the deservedly
esteemed Joseph John Gurney, who often entertained many of the
celebrities of his day.  It was here that Wilberforce, Chalmers, and a
host of worthies, well known to fame, visited one of the happiest of the
homes of England, where the sterling character of Thomas Fowell Buxton
was formed and matured, and where he met with the partner of his future
life.  It was the birthplace of Elizabeth Fry the philanthropist, of whom
there is yet no monument in this city.


_Eaton_.


The hamlet of Eaton, two miles south-west of Norwich, is in the vale of
the Taas.  The manor is about 1300 acres, and belongs to the Dean and
Chapter, but the soil is let to a number of lessees, many of whom have
handsome houses in the Newmarket Road, one of the finest approaches to
the city.  Indeed, this road may be called the “west end” of Norwich.
Eaton church is dedicated to St. Andrew, and is a long ancient building
covered with thatch, and having an embattled tower with three bells.  It
was originally a Norman structure, but it appears to have been rebuilt in
the early English period, and to have been considerably altered in the
15th century.  About two years ago the church was thoroughly restored at
a cost of about £400, when a number of beautiful mural paintings were
discovered, some of them well preserved.  The living is a vicarage not in
charge, valued at £87, and augmented in 1732 with £200 given by the Earl
of Thanet, and £200 of Queen Anne’s bounty.


_Lakenham_.


Lakenham is the next hamlet on the south side of the city, and the roads
to it are favourite walks of the citizens.  Caister is an adjoining
village, where may be seen extensive remains of a Roman camp, built
before Norwich existed.  The configuration of the camp may still be
traced as a parallelogram, enclosing an area of 32 acres, sufficient for
a force of 6000 men.  On the western side, which was washed by the Taas,
formerly stood the water gate, with a round tower, where vessels used to
unload.  A very large number of Roman coins have been dug up here.
Returning to the hamlet of Lakenham, we ascend a hill called Long John’s
Hill.  Lakenham church stands on high ground above the river Taas, and is
a small structure dedicated to St. John the Baptist and All Saints.  It
has a tower with three bells.  The benefice is a vicarage united to
Trowse Newton, and with it valued at £261, in the patronage of the Dean
and Chapter, and incumbency of the Rev. Alfred Pownall, M.A.

St. Mark’s Church, in Lakenham, was consecrated September 24th, 1844, and
is a neat structure in the perpendicular style, comprising a nave without
aisles, and an embattled tower with turrets, pinnacles, and three bells.
It was built by subscription at a cost of £4000, and contains 900
sittings, most of which are free.  The interior has commodious galleries,
and is neatly fitted up.  Ladies presented the communion table, plate,
books for divine service, font, &c.  The population in this hamlet has
increased from 428 in 1801 to 4866 in 1861.  The perpetual curacy, valued
at £150, is in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter.  The Rev. N. T.
Garry, M.A., is incumbent.


_Trowse-Millgate_, _Carrow_, _and Bracondale_.


Trowse-Millgate, Carrow, and Bracondale, extend southward from King
Street to the river Yare, opposite Trowse Newton.  They form one hamlet,
though each division had formerly a parochial chapel.  Miss Martineau
owns the greater part of the soil, and lives at Bracondale Lodge, a
handsome mansion with delightful pleasure grounds.  The late P. M.
Martineau collected here many remnants of Gothic architecture in 1804,
and used them in the erection of a lofty arch and an edifice,
representing a small priory with windows filled by stained glass.


_Thorpe_.


The hamlet of Thorpe, one of the most delightful suburbs of the city,
lies on the south-east side, opposite Foundry Bridge, and extends to
Mousehold Heath.  It contains many handsome villas, which are mostly
surrounded by gardens.  Many of the city gentry reside in this pleasant
hamlet, which now contains about 3000 inhabitants.  The church, dedicated
to St. Matthew, was built in 1852 at a cost of £2300, for an
ecclesiastical district, comprising that part of Thorpe parish within the
city liberties, containing about 2500 inhabitants.  It is a neat
structure in the Norman style of architecture, from a design by Mr. Kerr,
formerly architect of this city.  It consists of a nave, transepts, and
apsidal chancel, and is a unique structure.  The five windows of the
chancel are filled with stained glass.  The rector of Thorpe is patron of
the perpetual curacy, valued at £130, which is now held by the Rev.
George Harris Cooke, M.A., who has a handsome parsonage house, erected in
1863 at a cost of £1400, in the Tudor style.

The road from the Foundry Bridge to Thorpe village is a favourite walk of
the citizens.  Thorpe lodge (the entrance to which is guarded by couchant
lions, and is a conspicuous object on the left,) was the residence of the
late John Harvey, Esq., “a fine old English gentleman,” who was a great
promoter of manufactures, and of aquatic sports.  Its present proprietor
and occupant is Donald Dalrymple, Esq.  The old hall, the name by which
the manor house is now known, stands at the entrance to the village.  It
was formerly the country seat of the bishops.  Adjoining are the remains
of a chapel, now used as a coach house and stable.  On the south side of
the river, which was once reached by the ferry boat, stands the village
of Whitlingham, where the citizens formerly resorted by thousands in the
summer months.  The grounds in this locality present a pleasing variety
of hill and dale, wood and water, and the view from the White House
includes the windings of the “bonny Yare,” the opposite village of
Thorpe, the spire of the Cathedral rising above the distant hills, and
the frowning aspect of the old Norman Castle.  The whole of the land here
now belongs to R. J. H. Harvey, Esq., M.P., who has greatly improved an
estate of 2000 acres next the river.  He has often thrown the grounds
open to the citizens.

The Rosary Burial Ground, in Thorpe hamlet, was established in 1819 by
the late Rev. Thomas Drummond, for the use of Dissenters.  Being aware
that many of the burial grounds attached to their chapels are held on
leases under the corporation, he urged the necessity of a general
cemetery on freehold land, so securely vested in trust that it could not
be converted to other uses at any future time.  The Rosary occupies eight
acres of land in a good situation.  It is divided into sections separated
by plantings of trees or shrubs, and contains a small chapel.  It is not
consecrated, and ministers of any denomination may officiate at funerals.
In this beautiful resting-place for the dead are deposited the remains of
many of the worthiest of the Norwich citizens.


_Pockthorpe_.


Pockthorpe was originally part of Thorpe, but when severed in the time of
the Conqueror, with the parishes of St. James and St. Paul, took the name
of Paucus Thorpe or Little Thorpe, corrupted into Pockthorpe.  The place
is apparently wedded to poverty, with no Divorce Court to grant it
relief.  It is chiefly inhabited by poor weavers or spinners, who still
adhere to an old pastime, the rearing of pigeons, as appears from many
coops at the broken windows.  The brewery here is an old well-established
concern, and sends out about 100,000 barrels of beer yearly.



NONCONFORMISTS’ CHAPELS.


The OLD MEETING HOUSE, Colegate Street, was erected in 1693 by the
Independents, a congregation of which body had existed in Norwich since
the Commonwealth.  They had originally assembled in a brewery in St.
Edmund’s, and afterwards in the “west granary” of St. Andrew’s Hall.  Mr.
Bridge, the first pastor, who was incumbent of St. George’s, Tombland,
seceded from the church in the reign of James II., and sat in the
Westminster Assembly of Divines.  The building is a large structure of
red brick, fronted with four Corinthian pilasters.  It contains sittings
for 700 persons, and has spacious schoolrooms adjacent.  The Rev. John
Hallett is the present minister.

                                * * * * *

PRINCE’S STREET CHAPEL (Independent) was erected in 1819.  It is a
handsome building of white brick, and has been enlarged and almost
rebuilt at a cost of £2000, under the superintendence of Mr. Boardman,
architect, of this city.  It will now accommodate 1000 persons.  The new
front presents an elevation in the modern Italian or composite style,
with seven windows of ornamental design.  The roof has been raised and
new windows inserted, eight on each side.  New galleries have been
erected with cast-iron columns, and ornamental iron front.  A new apse
has been added, and a vestry or retiring room at the back.  The whole
interior has been reseated with plain open benches.  The entrances,
staircase, hall, and avenues, are laid with tessellated tiles.  At a
short distance from the chapel there is a spacious schoolroom, with class
rooms on each side.  The Rev. G. S. Barrett is the present minister.

                                * * * * *

THE CHAPEL IN THE FIELD, (Independent) opened in 1858, is a handsome
edifice with two imposing spiral turrets.  Its arched interior has a fine
effect, increased by the introduction of four painted windows in the
apse.  The building affords sittings for 900 persons.  Adjoining are
spacious schoolrooms in a similar style of architecture.  The Rev. Philip
Colborne is the present minister.

                                * * * * *

THE TABERNACLE (Lady Huntingdon’s Connexion) is situate near St. Martin’s
at Palace.  It was built by the Calvinistic Methodists, under Mr.
Wheatley, in 1772, at a cost of £1752.  In 1775, the Tabernacle was sold
to the Countess of Huntingdon, who visited Norwich in the following year,
and vested the building in trust with four clergymen and three laymen of
the same connexion to appoint ministers whose preaching and sentiments
are according to the articles and homilies of the church of England.  It
contains 1000 sittings.  The Rev. Burford Hooke is the present minister.
There is also another chapel of the same connexion on the Dereham Road,
of which the Rev. John Joseph James Kempster is the minister.

                                * * * * *

ST. MARY’S CHAPEL (Baptist) was originally erected in 1714, but was
rebuilt in its present style in 1811 and enlarged in 1838.  Rev. Joseph
Kinghorn was pastor from May 20th, 1791, till his death, on September
1st, 1832.  Rev. William Brock was pastor from 1833 to 1848, when he
resigned his charge and went to London, where he preaches at Bloomsbury
chapel.  Since 1849, the Rev. G. Gould has been the pastor.  Spacious
schoolrooms adjoining the chapel are now in course of erection.

                                * * * * *

ST. CLEMENT’S (Baptist) was erected in 1814 and contains 900 sittings,
and there is a spacious schoolroom adjacent.  The celebrated Mark Wilks
was once the pastor.  The present minister is the Rev. T. Foston.

                                * * * * *

EBENEZER CHAPEL (Baptist), on Surrey Road, was built in 1854, the
minister being the Rev. R. Govett, who some years since seceded from the
established church.

                                * * * * *

THE GILDENCROFT (Baptist), in St. Augustine’s, formerly occupied by the
Society of Friends, was erected in 1680.  There is a spacious burial
ground attached, in which lie the remains of Joseph John Gurney, Mrs.
Opie, and other eminent Friends.  The Rev. C. H. Hosken is the minister.

                                * * * * *

ORFORD HILL CHAPEL (Baptist) was opened as a chapel in 1832.  The Rev. J.
Brunt is the present minister.

There are also Baptist Chapels in Cherry Lane, (Rev. W. Hawkins); this
was formerly a Wesleyan Chapel in which the Rev. John Wesley preached;
Priory Yard, (Rev. R. B. Clare); Pottergate Street, (Rev. H. Trevor); and
Jireh Chapel, Dereham Road, (no regular pastor).

                                * * * * *

THE PRESBYTERIANS recently purchased St. Peter’s Hall, in Theatre Street,
as a place of worship.  The hall contains about 700 sittings, which are
generally all occupied.  The Rev. W. A. Mc Allan was ordained minister in
1867, and he preaches with great success to large congregations.

                                * * * * *

WESLEYANS.  The Revs. John and Charles Wesley paid their first visit to
this city in 1754, but their followers had no settled place of worship
here till 1769, when they built a small chapel in Cherry Lane, where the
late Dr. Adam Clarke was stationed in 1783, and began to display that
vast genius which afterwards astonished the religious world.  The
Wesleyan Methodists have two chapels, one a very spacious edifice in Lady
Lane, and the other, just finished, in Ber Street.

                                * * * * *

The UNITED METHODIST FREE CHURCH has two chapels.  That in Calvert Street
was erected by the Wesleyan Methodists in 1810, and is a large brick
edifice with about 1200 sittings, and two houses for the ministers.  The
other is in Crook’s Place, Heigham, and was opened in 1839, and contains
800 sittings.

                                * * * * *

THE PRIMITIVE METHODISTS have chapels on St. Catherine’s Plain, Cowgate
Street, and Dereham Road.  The first named, called Lakenham Chapel, was
built in 1835, and contains 600 sittings.  The second, in Cowgate Street,
was built about 20 years since, and contains 300 sittings.  The third, on
Dereham Road, was built in 1864, on the site of a smaller one, at a cost
of £1316, raised by subscription.  Sunday schools are connected with all
these chapels.

                                * * * * *

THE UNITARIANS occupy the OCTAGON CHAPEL, St. George’s, a handsome
building, of the shape implied by its name.  It is surmounted by a dome,
supported by eight Corinthian pillars.  It was erected in 1756, on the
site of the old Presbyterian Meeting-house.  Dr. John Taylor, and Dr.
Enfield (compiler of the Speaker) preached in this chapel.  Rev. D. H.
Smyth is the minister.

                                * * * * *

THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS have a meeting-house in Upper Goat Lane, a fine
white-brick structure, with Doric portico, and lighted by a dome lantern.

                                * * * * *

The ROMAN CATHOLICS have two chapels.  In the last century there was a
chapel connected with the palace of the Duke of Norfolk on the site of
the present Museum, but it was lost when that property was sold by him.
The Roman Catholics raised a subscription and built their present chapel
in St. John’s Maddermarket in 1794.  It is merely a plain building, but
the altar is very handsome.  It contains sittings for about 600 people.
The services here are carried out with great solemnity, and with a strict
adherence to the ritual of the Church of Rome.  There is generally a
large congregation at divine service.  The Rev. Canon Dalton is the
officiating priest.  He resides near the chapel in a very ancient
building that was occupied by the City Sheriff in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth.  The chapel in Willow Lane, called the Chapel of the Apostles,
is a handsome building, erected in 1828.  The windows are of stained
glass, and the interior decorations are very striking.  This chapel is
served by Fathers of the Society of Jesus, commonly called Jesuits.  It
is the custom of that order to change the officiating clergy every few
years.  The Rev. Mr. Lane of the order was a contemporary of the Rev. Mr.
Beaumont, the first priest of St. John’s chapel, during the greater part,
if not all, of that gentleman’s lengthened ministry of 62 years, and died
about the same time.  The congregation is generally larger than at St.
John’s Chapel.

                                * * * * *

FREE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.  The Dutch Church, in St. Andrew’s Hall,
originally the Conventual Church of the Black Friars, was granted to the
Walloon congregation; but they now have service only once a year, when a
sermon is preached in Dutch and afterwards in English.  During the rest
of the year the place is used by the Free Christian Church—Rev. J.
Crompton, minister.

                                * * * * *

THE FRENCH CHURCH, Queen Street—originally the parochial church of St.
Mary Parva, and afterwards a cloth exchange—was granted, in 1637, to the
French Protestant refugees.  It is now occupied by the receivers of the
doctrines enunciated by Emanuel Swedenborg.  Mr. E. D. Rogers, leader.

                                * * * * *

THE JEWS—who were formerly very numerous in this city—have a handsome
synagogue in St. Faith’s Lane, erected in 1849, at a cost of £1600.  Rev.
S. Caro, minister.

                                * * * * *

The CATHOLIC APOSTOLIC CHURCH (Irvingites) occupy a building in Clement
Court, Redwell Street.  The present minister is the Rev. Arthur Inglis,
B.A.

Since the 17th century Nonconformists have increased from a few hundreds
to 10,000 in this city.



PART II.


CHAPTER I.


Norwich Antiquities.


THE Castle, Cathedral, and churches already described are the chief
antiquities of the city, but other remains are worthy of notice, and have
been described by Blomefield, Kirkpatrick, Taylor, Harrod, S. Woodward,
B. B. Woodward, the Rev. R. Hart of Catton, R. Fitch, Esq., and other
antiquaries, who have explored every part of the old city.  They nearly
all agree in their accounts of the rise and progress of Norwich, and of
its condition at different periods.


THE ANCIENT CITY.


B. B. Woodward, Esq., F.S.A., delivered two lectures on “Norwich in the
Olden Time,” to the members of the Church of England Young Men’s Society,
at the Assembly Rooms, some years since.  He showed a thorough knowledge
of all the previous authorities, with whom he sometimes differed.  He
exhibited four large maps, presenting views of the Old City at different
periods, from A.D. 400 to A.D. 1400.  He stated that he had derived the
greater part of his materials for them from the series of maps of ancient
Norwich made by his father, the late Mr. S. Woodward, but he had
corrected and completed them from the publications of various
Archæological Societies since they had been constructed, and he hoped
that they would serve to illustrate the growth and progress of the
ancient city with general fidelity to facts.  Directing attention to the
first map, which represented the condition of the _Venta Icenorum_, A.D.
400, Mr. Woodward pointed out the purely fictitious character of the
earliest accounts of Norwich to be found in the older historians, who
drew, in all good faith, on their fertile imaginations, and both
persuaded themselves that they were writing history, and that they were
believed to be doing so by others.

The old-established tradition, that the sea came up to Norwich, he
stated, was undoubtedly to be accepted, but not as having occurred within
the historic period.  From various facts, and particularly from the
occurrence of a Roman road at Wangford, near Bungay, near the edge of the
present stream, he concluded that in the times of the Romans, the valleys
of the Eastern Counties did not present a very different aspect from
their present one, though of course where there was now meadow, marsh
existed formerly, and many small streams have disappeared.  Mr. Woodward,
on this point, differed entirely from all the local historians and
antiquarians, and his opinion is not supported by any evidence.  The
existence of a Roman road at Wangford, near Bungay, if such there be, has
nothing to do with the river Yare.  Mr. Woodward offered no proof that it
is a Roman road.  All the local historians state that a broad arm of the
sea flowed up to Norwich till the 11th century, when Sweyn came up with a
great fleet and landed an army here.  Parochial records prove that the
river came up to St. Lawrence Steps at a later period.  We may therefore
dismiss this singular opinion as untenable.

Mr. Woodward regarded Norwich as the _Venta Icenorum_ of the Romans for
several reasons, and particularly because it was plain from the
occurrence of these Ventas in Britain, and none in any other part of the
Roman world, that this was the name of a British town, which its being
called the Venta of the Iceni strongly confirmed—even, in fact, a British
stronghold, constructed according to the custom of that people in parts
of the country without hills.  In hilly countries the strongholds were
entrenchments round the summits of the hills, but then there were small
tracts of land surrounded by marshes.  Such were the British strongholds
on Bungay Common, and that at Horning, and such he believed was the
_Venta Icenorum_.  They were not intended for permanent occupation, but
as places of safety for their wives and children, and for their cattle,
in case of the attack of another tribe; and they could rarely be held
against the enemy for any length of time.  In this instance, the trench
was drawn in a horse-shoe form, from the eastern slope of the ground on
which the Castle now stands to the western side, the steep bank of the
little stream, called the Cockey, being rendered more steep by art,
whilst the Wensum and marshes protected the other sides.  The position of
the Roman camp, as the map showed, was determined by its being the
fittest for keeping in check the _Iceni_ of _Venta_, and preventing them
from marching against the southern part of the island; and it might
probably have been placed there after the disastrous experiment of what
the _Iceni_ could do under such a leader as their famous Queen Boadicea.
In the latter part of the Roman period it would seem that the conquerors
had less occasion for mere military force here, for the remains of a
Roman villa had been found in the northern side of the camp at Caister.

Mr. Woodward said the Map of Norfolk still showed traces of Roman roads
radiating from Norwich.  The principal roads were—one entering the
stronghold in the western side, now St. Stephen’s Street; another
entering it on the east, now known as King Street.  This last crossed the
river by a ford at Fyebridge, and was the origin of Magdalen Street and
St. Augustine’s Street; another road left the fortress on the western
side, near the river, and was called St. Benedict’s Street; and the last
crossed the river at Bishopbridge by another ford, and sent off branches
to the north-east and east of Norfolk.  He believed that nearly all the
main lines of road originated with the Romans, but this is at least
doubtful.  Norwich must then have been a very large town to have required
so many main lines of roads; but its very existence as a town is
uncertain during the Roman period.

Mr. Woodward’s second map exhibited the entrenchments round the fortress
as already described, at the time of the Conquest.  Map the third
exhibited the condition of the city in the time of the Domesday Survey,
or about A.D. 1100, when 54 churches and chapels existed.  Map the fourth
showed the state of the city A.D. 1400, when Norwich was described as at
the acme of its splendour and importance, and second only to Bristol,
after London.  This arose from its being the capital of East Anglia, and
the residence of so many of the clergy and gentry.  Mr. Woodward pointed
out the sites of some of the old monasteries in this period.  The
Bishop’s palace was then within the precincts of the close.  Besides the
monastery there, and that of St. Leonard’s, there were then several
others in Norwich.  In King Street, to the south of St. Faith’s Lane,
were the Austin Friars, and to the north of Rose Lane the Grey Friars.
Both these monastic communities were said to have encroached on the
adjacent streets, churchyards, &c., by extending their precincts; which
accounted for the changes around them.  The Carmelites occupied the whole
angle of the city between the river, the walls, and Bargate Street.  But
few traces of these establishments now remain.  The case of the Black
Friars was very different.  Their magnificent church is still almost
entire; much of the convent is still standing in St. Andrew’s Hall, and
the Dutch or Walloon Church, and the oldest parts of the former
Workhouse.  In addition to these, there had been several smaller monastic
orders which were merged in the others before the 15th century.  In this
period, most of the streets on the north side of the town were in
existence, and some on the south side.

Formerly, as already intimated, some of our streets were named from the
trades of those who occupied them.  Thus there were Saddlers’ Gate, now
White Lion Street; Wastelgate, now Red Lion Street; Cordwainers’ Row, now
part of the Walk; Goldsmiths’ Row, north side of the Market; Hosiers’
Row, in part of London Street; Cutlers’ Row, in part of London Street;
Hatters’ Row, now St. Giles’ Street; Dyers’ Row, in St. Lawrence Street;
and Pottergate Street, still so called.  The Cloth Hall stood in the
Haymarket; and on the west side were the Butchery, the Fishmarket, and
various other rows, where articles of food were sold.


OLD WALLS AND GATES.


R. FITCH, ESQ., is the very best authority respecting the old walls and
gates, of which he made a study for many years; and in 1861 he published
a very handsome illustrated volume entitled, “Views of the Gates of
Norwich made in the years 1792–3, by the late John Ninham; with an
Historical Introduction, Extracts from the Corporation Records, and
Papers by the late John Kirkpatrick, contributed to the Transactions of
the Norfolk and Norwich Archæological Society, by Robert Fitch, F.S.A.,
F.G.S.”  The author says:—

    “The history of the walls of Norwich is a history of the gate houses,
    and in speaking of the origin of the first we include that of the
    second.  In 1294, being the 23rd Edward I., the first mural tax was
    granted, and continued three years.  A second tax succeeded this, and
    in 1304 a third tax was imposed, to continue in operation for five
    years.  In the 11th of Edward II., a fourth tax of the like nature
    was allowed; and in two years after, namely in 1319, the walls of
    Norwich were completed.”

    “When the thickness and extent of the fortifications of this city are
    considered, it cannot be thought surprising that a period of 25 years
    elapsed before these mural defences were finished, so far as to
    render no additional tax necessary.  It must not, however, be
    considered that no other pecuniary assistance was required towards
    the work.  The citizens themselves manifested the greatest interest
    in the subject; and the ancient books of account contain not only
    entries of money expended on the walls and gates, but also register
    the private contributions of persons towards the same object and for
    necessary reparation.”

    “It has been previously observed, that in 1319 the walls of the city
    were said to have been completed; but something more was required to
    render them adequate to the purpose for which they were designed.
    Neither towers nor gates could be of use unless properly furnished
    with munitions of war and the implements then in use for their
    projection.  This does not appear to have taken place until 23 years
    after completion, namely in 1342, in 16th Edward III., when a
    patriotic citizen, Richard Spynk, for the honour of the monarch and
    the safety of his fellow citizens, gave thirty espringolds to cast
    stones with, to be kept at divers gates and towers; 100 gogions, or
    balls of stone, locked up in a box; a box with ropes and
    accoutrements; four great arblasters, or crossbows, and 100 gogions
    for each arblaster; two pairs of grapples, to bring the bows to the
    requisite tension for discharge; also other gogions, and some
    armour.”

After stating other acts of this citizen, Mr. Fitch proceeds:—

    “From this long recital of gifts, it must be concluded that Richard
    Spynk was virtually the fortifier of the city; for it is clear that
    until his munificence made the gates and walls complete, they were
    imperfect.  Nor did he suffer his work to fall into decay; but by the
    adoption of rules and regulations, he preserved to the city the full
    benefit of what he had done.”

    “Before proceeding further with an outline of the history of the
    Walls and Gates, it should be stated that Norwich had been previously
    surrounded by a ditch and bank for protection.” * * * * *

    “One benefit produces another, and to Richard Spynk was the City not
    only indebted for its safety from aggression, but also for an
    extension of its liberties.

    “It is recorded that Queen Isabella induced the king, her son, in
    consideration of the costs and charges for the Walls which had been
    raised without call on the Government, to grant a charter to the
    Citizens, that they, and their heirs and successors, dwelling in the
    said City, should for ever be free from jurisdiction of the Clerk of
    the Market and of the household of the King, and his heirs, so that
    the said Clerk or his officers should not enter the City, or fee or
    make assay of any measures or weights, or to exercise or do anything
    belonging to the said office of the Clerk of the Market.

    “In this King’s reign, according to the Customs’ Book, there is an
    account of the battlements on the various gates, towers, and walls.
    These were numbered, in order that each parish might be made
    acquainted with its responsibilities of repairs in this respect.
    Beginning from the river to Coslany Gate, there were 112 battlements,
    and 10 on the gate itself.  From that point to St. Augustine’s Gate,
    were 69 battlements, and on the gate, 12.  Thence to Fibrigge Gate—on
    the walls and towers were 153 battlements, and on the gate, 13;
    thence to Pockthorpe Gate—on the walls and towers were 178, and on
    the gate, 10; and from this gate to the river were about 40.  From
    this point to the tower of Conisford Gate, the river chiefly protects
    the city, but the tower bore 12 battlements; and from the tower on
    the city side of the water to Conisford Gate, were 26 battlements
    with 14 on the gate.  Thence to Ber Street Gate, were 150; on the
    gate and its wicket were 27; and from thence to St. Stephen’s Gate
    were 307 (here were some strong towers); and on this gate and wicket
    were 28.

    “From St. Stephen’s to St. Giles’ Gate were 229 (here again were
    several strong towers), and on the gate and wicket were 15; and from
    St. Giles’ to St. Benedict’s Gate were 100, and on the gate itself
    and wicket were 16; thence to Heigham Gate 79, and on the gate 4—and
    from this gate to the tower and wall on the river were 16
    battlements; in all, 1630.  At this period (1345, according to the
    Domesday Book of the City) there was a tax called ‘Fossage,’ to
    defray the great charges of the walls and ditches.”  * *

    “In 1385 a general survey was made, and all the walls and gates were
    placed in good repair, with a sufficient number of men appointed to
    guard them.  It was also agreed that churchwards should be chosen
    annually, whose duty it should be to prevent any decay or permanent
    injury to the fortifications by timely repair or by reconstruction.
    In 1386, the expectancy of invasion caused general fear throughout
    the realm, and particularly in the eastern counties.  The king sent
    nearly a thousand men to Yarmouth for the defence of the coast; and
    so imminent was the peril, that the king commanded the authorities of
    Norwich to place the walls, towers, and gates in full and able
    condition to repel all who might appear in opposition to the king’s
    authority, or crush a design to injure the city.  The towers were
    therefore filled with engines of defence, the walls rendered perfect,
    and the ditches made as wide and as deep as the necessities of the
    case demanded.” * * * *

The author proceeds to show the anxious attention which was paid to the
preservation of the walls and gates, by copious extracts from a roll,
dated 1386.  He then gives a full history of the fortifications, from
which we shall make some extracts in our narrative of events at different
periods.  He thus concludes his historical sketch:—

    “Not a fragment of the gates now exists, but the certain indications
    of where, in some instances, they once stood, are yet accidentally
    preserved.”

With a short notice of these, the account is concluded:—

    “CONISFORD GATE.  A fragment of the wall of the east side of this
    gate still exists, attached to the west of the ‘Cinder Ovens’ public
    house at the south end of King Street, and also on the opposite side
    of the street.

    “BER STREET GATE.  No portion of this gate remains; but where the
    structure stood is sufficiently evident by the high wall on the west
    side of the upper end of Ber Street.

    “BRAZEN DOORS.  Not a fragment remains.

    “ST. STEPHEN’S GATE.  No portion left.

    “ST. GILES’ GATE.  The house against which the south side of this
    gate abutted still stands, and part of the lower walls of the
    building can be seen. {126}

    “ST. BENEDICT’S GATE.  Here a corresponding house or abuttal of this
    gate stands perfect, with one of the strong iron staples, on which
    hung one of the doors, projecting from the wall.

    “HEIGHAM GATE.  Very slight remains left.

    “ST. MARTIN’S GATE.  A portion of the north side of this gate is left
    erect and firm, with small tenements abutting against it

    “ST. AUGUSTINE’S GATE.  No fragment is left.  A large portion of the
    ditch between this gate and St. Martin’s is clearly seen, very few
    buildings having been erected on its site.

    “MAGDALEN GATE.  No portion left, but the form and interior of the
    city wall is well seen at this point.

    “BARRE or POCKTHORPE GATE.  Indications are left of where the gate
    stood, with fragments of the wall on the right and left

    “BISHOP’S GATE.  Nothing of the gate exists, but the exact site may
    be seen by the necessary increased width of the bridge.

    “The precise spot where each gate stood may be found by tracing a
    line of the city wall, where it crossed a street; the gates being of
    course integral portions of the wall perforated for traffic and
    fortified with extra work for adequate defence.”



DESECRATED CHURCHES.


The Rev. Francis Blomefield, of Fersfield, who flourished in the first
half of the last century, was the chief of Norfolk historians and
antiquarians.  He was great in genealogy and heraldry, and very elaborate
on monuments and epitaphs, while he altogether passed over more important
matters.  We might almost wish that he had known less of heraldry and
more of history; but his great work must ever be the foundation of local
history in Norwich and Norfolk.  A perfect copy of his work, being very
scarce, is now worth at least £20.  It contains most of the documentary
antiquities of the city, such as charters, acts of parliaments,
proceedings of public bodies, and other official sources of information,
of which he has made a good use.  He has given full details from the
records of every parish, and of the old corporation.  He states the great
changes which took place in the city and county at the time of the
Reformation, and the dissolution of the monasteries, when nineteen of
those institutions existed in Norwich.

Blomefield notices several large conventual churches, which were
desecrated at the Reformation, and many parish churches which have been
demolished, their parishes being incorporated with those now existing.

                                * * * * *

ALL SAINTS’, situated in Fyebridge Street, was at the north corner of the
street called Cowgate, at its entrance into Magdalen Street, and was
built before the Conquest.  At the foundation of the cathedral it was
appropriated to the convent, and at the Reformation to the dean and
chapter.  It was said to have had a very fine font, erected in 1477.  In
1550 the church was taken down, and the parish, with that of St.
Margaret, was annexed to St. Paul’s.

                                * * * * *

ST. BARTHOLOMEW’S, in Ber Street, was in the patronage of the prior of
Wymondham, and at the Dissolution was consolidated with St. John’s
Sepulchre, and the church taken down.

                                * * * * *

ST. BITTULPH’S stood in Magdalen Street, a little north of Stump Cross.
It was founded before 1300 and was taken down in 1548, and the parish
united to St. Saviour’s.

                                * * * * *

ST. CHRISTOPHER’S stood on the east side of St. Andrew’s Hill, and was
one of the oldest churches in the city.  It was burnt down in the reign
of Henry III.  The greater portion of the parish was united to St.
Andrew’s and a smaller part to St. Michael’s at Plea.

                                * * * * *

ST. CRUCIS, or St. Crowches, stood in Broad Street, St. Andrew’s.  It was
dedicated to the honour of the holy cross, and was erected before the
year 1272.  In 1551 it was desecrated, and the parish united to St.
John’s Maddermarket.

                                * * * * *

ST. CLEMENT’S, in Conisford, situated in King Street, was a very ancient
church, founded long before the Conquest.  It was united with St.
Julian’s in 1482.

                                * * * * *

ST. CUTHBERT’S was situated at the north end of King Street, near
Tombland.  About 1492 it was united to the church of St. Mary the Less at
the monastery gates, and was demolished in 1530.

                                * * * * *

ST. EDWARD’S stood on the west side of King Street, near St. Etheldred’s
church.  About the end of the 13th century it was united to St. Julian’s.
All along King Street there are many vaults and crypts, which seem to
have formed the foundations of old churches and monasteries.

                                * * * * *

ST. FAITH’S or ST. VEDAST’S was situated near the place where Cooke’s
hospital now stands, in Rose Lane.  It was founded before the Conquest
and was taken down in 1540, the parish being united with that of St.
Peter per Mountergate.  The latter is a corruption of the old name
“Parmenter Gate,” which should be restored by authority.  It was the old
Tailor Street.

                                * * * * *

ST. FRANCIS’ belonged to the Grey Friars, whose convent stood near the
site of Cooke’s hospital.  It was a noble church, 300 feet in length and
80 feet in breadth, with cloisters and a large chapter house.  At the
Dissolution it was, with the convent, granted to the Duke of Norfolk.

                                * * * * *

ST. JAMES’, CARROW, belonged to the nunnery there, and with it became
private property at the Dissolution, the parish being united to Lakenham.

                                * * * * *

ST. JOHN’S IN SOUTHGATE stood at the north corner of Rose Lane, and about
1300 was annexed to St. Peter Parmenter Gate.  The Grey Friars pulled it
down and annexed the site of it to their convent.

                                * * * * *

ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST’S stood on the site of the present Octagon chapel.
It was originally a parish church; but when the Dominicans, or Friars’
Preachers, settled here in 1226, it was given to them, and the parish was
united to St. George’s at Colegate.  They immediately built a convent in
this place and the church was used by them as a chapel, till they removed
to their new convent in St. Andrew’s, where they dedicated their church
also to St. John the Baptist.  The church is now St. Andrew’s Hall, and
the chancel (formerly the Dutch church) is now the place of worship of
the FREE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.

                                * * * * *

ST. MARGARET’S, IN FYEBRIDGE, was a church of ancient foundation,
situated on the west side of Magdalen Street, near the gate.  There is no
account how long it has been dissolved.  The parish is now united with
St. Paul’s.

                                * * * * *

ST. MARGARET’S AT NEWBRIDGE, anciently called St. Margaret’s at Colegate,
was situated near Blackfriars’ bridge, on the west side of the street.
The parish was depopulated by the great pestilence, in 1349, when the
church ceased to be parochial, and the parish was annexed to that of St.
George’s Colegate.  The church occupied the site of Weston’s brewery, now
demolished.

                                * * * * *

ST. MARTIN’S in BALLIVA was situated near the spot where, until lately,
the Golden Ball tavern stood, on the south side of the Castle Hill.  The
church was on the right hand of the entrance into Golden Ball Lane.  In
1562, this church was demolished and the parish united to St. Michael’s
at Thorn.  Formerly all persons dying in the castle, and all criminals
executed, were buried in this churchyard, but this right, after the
desecration of the church, was conferred upon St. Michael’s at Thorn.

                                * * * * *

ST. MARY THE VIRGIN’S was situated in Conisford, and belonged to the
Augustine Friars, being also dedicated to St. Augustine.  It was a noble
structure, 450 feet long and 90 feet wide, with cloisters on the north
and south sides.  After the Dissolution it became private property in
1547, when the church and conventual buildings were demolished.

                                * * * * *

ST. MARY UNBRENT stood on the west side of Magdalen Street, near Golden
Dog Lane.  The church was demolished at the dissolution, and the parish
united to St. Saviour’s.  “Unbrent” means unburnt.  The church was called
St. Mary _in combusto loco_, or in that part of the city burnt in the
great fire in the time of William I.  Blomefield thinks that the church
was then consumed, and afterwards rebuilt; and that it was erroneously
written in ancient documents _uncombusto_, instead of _in combusto_.

                                * * * * *

ST. MATTHEW’S, near the palace, was a small church.  The parish has,
since the great pestilence of 1349, been united with that of St. Martin’s
at Palace.

                                * * * * *

ST. MICHAEL’S in Coslany was sold to the Austin Friars in 1360, and
shortly afterwards the parish was united to that of St. Peter Parmenter
Gate, when the church was demolished and a cloister erected on its site.

                                * * * * *

ST. OLAVE’S, or St. TOOLEY’S, stood on the east side of Tooley Street,
next to the corner of Cherry Lane.  It was demolished in 1546, and the
parish consolidated with St. George’s Colegate.

                                * * * * *

ST. CATHERINE’S in NEWGATE was situated on St. Catherine’s Hill.  In 1349
the whole parish was almost depopulated by the pestilence, after which
the church was deserted and converted into a chapel, the parish being
united with that of All Saints.  At the Dissolution the chapel was
granted to Sir John Milton, and in 1567 conveyed to the city for the use
of St. Giles’ hospital.  Thus a large amount of Church property was
applied to secular purposes.


DESECRATED CHAPELS.


Blomefield gives an account of different chapels dedicated to various
purposes, most of which were destroyed at the Dissolution.

                                * * * * *

ST. CATHERINE’S CHAPEL stood upon Mousehold, about a mile north-east of
the barracks, was founded about the time of the Conquest, and was deemed
a parochial chapel while it was standing.  At the Dissolution this chapel
was demolished and the parish united with that of St. James.

                                * * * * *

THE CHAPEL OF ST. THOMAS A BECKET, which was not parochial, stood near
the same place.  No traces of the building can now be discovered.

                                * * * * *

THE COLLEGE OF ST. MARY IN THE FIELDS, originally called the Chapel in
the Fields (whence the present name of Chapel Field was derived), was a
chapel dedicated to Mary the Virgin.  It was founded about the year 1250,
by JOHN LE BRUN, as an hospital, but its benefactors were so numerous and
munificent that in a very short time it became a noble college,
consisting of a dean, chancellor, precentor, treasurer, and seven other
prebendaries.  Six chaplains or chantry priests were afterwards added.
The dean was collated by the bishop in right of the see, or by the king
during a vacancy.  The premises were very extensive, and were granted at
the dissolution to Miles Spencer, LL.D., the last dean.  After passing
through many hands the property came into possession of shareholders, who
built Assembly Rooms on the site of the college.  Bond Cabbell, Esq.
subsequently bought the whole building for a Freemasons’ Hall.

                                * * * * *

GUILDHALL CHAPEL adjoined the south side of the hall, and was dedicated
to St. Barbara.  It served as a chapel for the prisoners as well as for
the Court to attend divine service when they assembled on public
business.  It was pulled down long since, and the present porch was
erected on its site.

                                * * * * *

ST. MICHAEL’S CHAPEL, TOMBLAND, stood on the site of the obelisk, and was
one of the most ancient religious buildings in Norwich.  It was founded
by the Earl of the East Angles long before the Conquest and prior to the
building of the Cathedral; served as a chapel for the use of their
palace, which stood facing the south side of the chapel-yard; and
occupied the south end of Tombland, from the monastery gate to the chapel
ditch.  Bishop Herbert demolished it, and the whole site was laid open
for the improvement of the monastery, and a stone cross was erected on
the spot.  Instead of this, the Bishop built another chapel on the summit
of the hill outside of Bishopgate, and dedicated it to St. Michael.

                                * * * * *

ST. NICHOLAS’ CHAPEL, Bracondale, was situated at the corner of the road
now leading to Carrow Bridge.  It was much frequented by fishermen and
watermen, who were then numerous, and who made offerings there to St.
Nicholas, their patron saint.  It was founded before the Conquest and was
parochial; but in the time of Edward II. the parish was returned as
belonging to Lakenham, with which it is now united.

                                * * * * *

ST. OLAVE’S CHAPEL, near King Street Gates, was a parochial chapel long
before the Conquest, and in the reign of Edward III. the parish was
united to that of St. Peter Southgate.  The chapel was demolished before
1345.


MONASTIC INSTITUTIONS.


Mr. Taylor’s _Index Monasticus_ contains the fullest account of the old
monasteries which, at one period, were very numerous in the city.  Many
of them possessed large churches, great wealth, and considerable power.
They comprised Priories, Friaries, and Nunneries, which were situated in
or near King Street, or St. Faith’s Lane, or the Cowgate.  Formerly all
the west side of the river was called the Cow-holm, where cows fed on the
meadows, and Cowgate consisted of open fields.


PRIORIES.


The Benedictine Priory at the cathedral was founded by Bishop Herbert as
already noticed.  The Priory of St. Leonard’s was founded by Bishop
Herbert before he built the cathedral, and here he placed the monks while
the priory was being built.  It was situated on Mousehold Heath, opposite
Bishop’s Bridge, and served as a cell to the cathedral priory till the
Dissolution.  At the Dissolution it was granted by Henry VIII. to Thomas,
Duke of Norfolk, whose son Henry, Earl of Surrey, erected on its site a
splendid house, called Surrey house, which has long since fallen into
decay.  St. Michael’s Chapel, built by Bishop Herbert, was near the
priory, and served by monks.  It was demolished by the rebel Kett, who,
with his followers, encamped near it, so that it has since been called
Kett’s Castle.  Near the remains of this chapel, in the valley beneath,
was Lollard’s Pit, the spot where many of the early Reformers were
burned.


FRIARIES.


This class of monastic institutions consisted of houses erected for the
Friars, of orders grey, or white, or black.  The monasteries were seldom
endowed, because the Friars were, by profession, beggars, and lived on
what they could get.  They obtained a great deal of money in the ages of
superstition.  Many of their buildings were large and stately, and
connected with noble churches in which great personages were frequently
interred.  Most of the monasteries were houses of refuge for the
destitute poor in the middle ages.

                                * * * * *

THE GREY OR FRANCISCAN FRIARS seem to have been the first who settled
here near the site of Cooke’s Hospital about 1226.  This convent was a
place of great resort, and the church, as already stated in our notice of
the Desecrated Churches, was a large building 300 feet in length, and 80
feet in breadth, with spacious cloisters and conventual buildings; not a
stone of which now remains.  One of the cloisters of this convent was
called “Pardon Cloister,” on account of the pope granting indulgences to
all who were buried there, a source of revenue to the monks.  At the
Dissolution the possessions were granted to the Duke of Norfolk.

                                * * * * *

THE WHITE FRIARS or CARMELITES had a flourishing convent near White
Friars’ Bridge, which was founded by Philip de Cowgate in 1256.  He
assumed the name from his estates, being the principal person in those
parts of the city.  The monks were called White Friars from their dress,
and Carmelites from the monastery of Mount Carmel in Palestine, the place
of their first residence, from which they were driven by the Saracens
about the year 1238, after which they settled in different parts of
Europe.  The monastery has been long demolished, and the site built upon.

                                * * * * *

THE BLACK FRIARS, sometimes called the Dominican Friars or Friars’
Preachers, settled here about 1226, in the church of St. John the
Baptist, which formerly stood in Colegate Street, on the site of the
Octagon Chapel.  They afterwards removed into the parish of St. Andrew,
where they built a large monastery.  The name of the church is now St.
Andrew’s Hall.

                                * * * * *

AUSTIN FRIARY.  The possessions of this convent were bounded on the north
by St. Faith’s Lane, and extended as far as the river.  At the
Dissolution they were granted to Sir Thomas Heneage.

                                * * * * *

THE FRIARS DE DOMINA arose in 1288, and in 1290 were introduced here.
They had a house on the south side of St. Julian’s Churchyard, where they
continued till the reign of Edward III., when, all the brethren dying of
the great pestilence of 1348, their convent became private property.

                                * * * * *

THE FRIARS OF ST. MARY occupied a house situated in the yard of the
desecrated church of St. Martin in Balliva, where the Golden Ball Tavern
stood.  They joined the order of White Friars.

                                * * * * *

THE FRIARS DE PICA or PIED FRIARS, so called from their black and white
garments, lived in a college at the corner of the churchyard of St. Peter
Parmentergate.  They joined one of the other orders.

                                * * * * *

THE FRIARS DE SACCO, or BRETHREN of the SAC, settled here about 1250 in a
house opposite to the church of St. Peter’s Hungate.  The whole premises,
bounded by Bridge Street on the west, by the river on the north, and by
the street leading to Hungate on the south, were settled on them, where
they built a church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, on the site of which
St. Andrew’s Hall now stands.  The Black Friars were united with them in
1307, when the convent was greatly enlarged, extending to the river on
the north side, and to Elm Hill on the east side.

                                * * * * *

A NUNNERY formerly existed at Carrow Abbey, dedicated to St. Mary and St.
John.  It was founded in the year 1146 by two ladies named Leftelina and
Seyna.  It was richly endowed by King Stephen, and consisted of a
Prioress and nine Benedictine Nuns, which number was afterwards increased
to twelve.  The site within the walls contained about ten acres of land,
and the revenues and possessions were great.  At the Dissolution the
abbey and lands became private property.

                                * * * * *

ANCHORAGES or HERMITAGES were connected with several of the monastic
institutions in the city, and even inhabited by recluses.  Anchorets were
a sort of monks, so called from their shutting themselves up in
anchorages or cells.  Of these there were male and female, the eremite or
hermit, who pretended to follow the example of John the Baptist, and the
anchoress, who professed to imitate the conduct of Judith.  All these
anchorages were abolished at the Dissolution or at the Reformation.


THE MONUMENTAL BRASSES OF NORWICH AND NEIGHBOURHOOD.


To Archæologists, and particularly to those directing their attention to
Monumental Brasses, the following list of Brasses in Norwich and the
principal villages in the neighbourhood, may be considered useful.  They
are classified under their distinctive characters, namely—1st,
Ecclesiastics; 2nd, knights; 3rd, civilians and ladies; 4th,
miscellaneous.  The list specifies those consisting of effigies generally
perfect, with their inscriptions, unless otherwise mentioned.

An alphabetical list of the churches, with the various brasses in each,
is also appended.

ECCLESIASTICS.
    1389.  Richardus Thaseburgh, rector of                _Hellesdon_.
           Hellesdon.
    1437.  Galfridus Langley, installed Prior          _St. Lawrence_.
           of Saint Faith the Virgin, at
           Horsham, 1401.
    1450.  John Alnwik, in academic costume.             _Surlingham_.
    1487.  Roger Clarke, priest.                         _St. Peter at
                                                           Southgate_.
    1497.  Walter Goos, priest.                         _St. Swithin_.
    1499.  John Smyth, priest—chalice.                    _St. Giles_.
           Henry Alikok—chalice.                             _Colney_.
           Thome Coke, rector of                       _St. Michael at
           Bodham—chalice lost, inscription                  Coslany_.
           only remaining.
           An individual unknown—chalice.          _Poringland Magna_.
           Randulphus Pulvertoft—inscription           _The Cathedral_
           only.                                    (_Jesus’ Chapel_).
    1531.  William Richies, vicar of                       _Bawburgh_.
           Bawburgh.
    1545.  Thome Capp, vicar.                           _St. Stephen_.
KNIGHTS.
   c1460.  John Toddenham.  A small figure,               _St. John in
           with scroll from the mouth.                  Maddermarket_,
                                                            _Norwich_.
    1499.  Thome Heveningham, and Anne, his            _Ketteringham_.
           wife.  This is a beautifully
           executed brass, and is placed
           under a canopy upon an altar tomb.
           He died 1499.  The blank intended
           for the date of the death of his
           wife still remains.
    1559.  John Corbet, and Jane, his wife.               _Sprowston_.
           He died 1470.  The blank left for
           the date of her death still
           remains.
    1565.  Sir Edward Warner.                       _Plumstead Parva_.
    1568.  Sir Peter Rede.  Discovered to be     _St. Peter Mancroft_,
           a Palimpsest, in 1851.                           _Norwich_.
CIVILIANS AND LADIES.
 _c_1380.  Richard de Heylesdone, and                     _Hellesdon_.
           Beatrice, his wife.
    1384.  John de Heylesdone, and Johanna,               _Hellesdon_.
           his wife.  An inscription only.
    1412.  Walter Moneslee, and Isabella, his             _St. John in
           wife.                                        Maddermarket_.
    1432.  Robert Baxter, and Christiana, his             _St. Giles_.
           wife.
    1435.  Robert Brasyer, and Christiana,              _St. Stephen_.
           his wife.  A celebrated
           bell-founder.
           Roberti Brasyer (mutilated).                 _St. Stephen_.
    1436.  Richard Purdaunce, and Margaret,               _St. Giles_.
           his wife.
    1436.  John Asgar, the younger.                    _St. Lawrence_.
 _c_1445.  Alice Thorndon.                               _Frettenham_.
    1460.  Thomas Bokenham, and wife.                   _St. Stephen_.
 _c_1460.  A Lady (unknown).                             _Frettenham_.
    1470.  Jane Corbet, in Brass, of John                 _Sprowston_.
           Corbet, and Jane, his wife—see
           “Knights.”
    1475.  William Pepyr, and Joan, his wife.             _St. John in
           Inscription and four shields lost            Maddermarket_.
    1475.  William Norwiche, and Alicia, his            _St. George at
           wife.  A Bracket Brass.  Canopy                  Colegate_.
           mutilated.
    1495.  John Horslee, and Agnes, his wife.           _St. Swithin_.
    1499.  Anne Heveningham, in Brass, of              _Ketteringham_.
           Thome Heveningham, and Anne, his
           wife—see “Knights.”
           A Lady (unknown).  There are two            _Ketteringham_.
           Inscriptions, with a figure of a
           Child, inserted with this Brass,
           in the wall of the church, which
           do not relate to it.
    1591.  Richard Ferrers, Mayor of Norwich,          _St. Michael at
           in the years 1473, 1478, 1483,                    Coslany_.
           1493, 1498.  Merchant’s mark and
           inscription only remaining.
    1502.  Thomas Cook.                                 _St. Gregory_.
    1503.  Edward Ward.                                      _Bixley_.
    1505.  William Dussing, and Katherine,              _Kirby Bedon_.
           his wife.  In winding sheets.
    1505.  Thome Tyard.  In winding sheets.                _Bawburgh_.
 _c_1510.  Juliane Anyell.                                   _Witton_.
    1514.  Margaret Pettwode.                           _St. Clement_.
    1515.  Henrici Scolows, and Alicia, his            _St. Michael at
           wife.  In winding sheets, with                    Coslany_.
           four evangelical emblems.
    1524.  John Terri, and Lettys, his wife.              _St. John in
           An elaborate Brass, with twenty              Maddermarket_.
           lines of English verse.
_c_1527.   John Gilbert.  Fragments of canopy            _St. Andrew_.
           and inscription only remaining.
1528.      Edwardus Whyte, and Elizabeth, his          _Shottisham St.
           wife.                                                Mary_.
_c_1538.   William Layer, and wife.                      _St. Andrew_.
           Inscription lost.
1540.      Nicholas Suttherton.  An                       _St. John in
           inscription and shield.  A                   Maddermarket_.
           palimpsest, now in the church
           chest, formerly at east end of
           nave.
1546.      Bel Buttry.                                  _St. Stephen_.
1558.      Robarte Rugge, Mayor of Norwich,               _St. John in
           and Elizabeth, his wife.                     Maddermarket_.
1560.      Helen Caus, wife of Thomas Caus,               _St. John in
           Mayor of Norwich.  This is one of            Maddermarket_.
           three effigies which represented
           Thomas Caus, Mayor in 1495 and
           1503, and Johanna and Helen, his
           wives, and is a late example of
           the pedimental head dress.  The
           other effigies are lost.
           A Mayor of Norwich, and his Wife.              _St. John in
           Name and date unknown.                       Maddermarket_.
           Inscription lost.
    1577.  Anne Rede, wife of Sir Peter Rede           _St. Margaret_.
           (whose Brass lies in St. Peter of
           Mancroft Church).
    1600.  Mary Bussie.  Lost since 1850;                _St. Peter of
           formerly in the church of                        Mancroft_.
    1605.  Mis Anē Claxton; an inscription                _St. Mary at
           and shield.                                       Coslany_.
    1649.  Clere Talbot, and his Wives.                     _Dunston_.
    1818.  Mary Elizabeth, wife of Edward              _The Cathedral_
           South Thurlow.  A cross, brass,             (_north side of
           with a border inscription; laid                    Choir_).
           down within the last few years.
MISCELLANEOUS.
    1452.  Thomas Childes.  A skeleton                  _St. Lawrence,
           figure, inscription lost.                         Norwich_.
           An individual unknown.  A heart              _Kirby Bedon_.
           with three scrolls.
           A small figure in winding sheet;                _Bawburgh_.
           comparatively modern.

LIST OF THE CHURCHES WITH BRASSES.

_St. Andrew_, _Norwich_.
     John Gilbert                                                 1527
     William Layer, and wife                                      1538
_The Cathedral_, _Jesus’ Chapel_, _Norwich_.
     Randulphus Pulvertoft                                        1499
     Mary Elizabeth, wife of Edward South Thurlow                 1818
_St. Clement_, _Norwich_.
     Margaret Pettwode                                            1514
_St. George at Colegate_, _Norwich_.
     William Norwiche                                             1475
_St. Giles_, _Norwich_.
     Robert Baxter, and Christiana, his wife                      1432
     Richard Purdaunce, and Margaret, his wife                    1436
     John Smyth, priest                                           1499
_St. Gregory_, _Norwich_.
     Thomas Cok                                                   1502
_St. John in Maddermarket_.
     Walter Moneslee, and Isabella, his wife                      1412
     John Toddenham                                            _c_1460
     William Pepyr, and Joan, his wife                            1476
     A Mayor of Norwich, name unknown
     John Terri, and Lettys, his wife                             1524
     Nicholas Suttherton                                          1540
     Robarte Rugge, and Elizabeth, his wife                       1558
     Helen Caus                                                   1560
_St. Lawrence_, _Norwich_.
     John Asgar, the younger                                      1436
     Galfridus Langley                                            1437
     Thomas Childes                                               1452
_St. Margaret_, _Norwich_.
     Anne Rede                                                    1577
_St. Mary at Coslany_, _Norwich_.
     Mis Anē Claxton                                              1605
_St. Michael at Coslany_, _Norwich_.
     Richard Ferrers                                              1501
     Henrici Scolows, and Alicia, his wife                        1515
     Thome Coke
_St. Peter of Mancroft_, _Norwich_.
     Sir Peter Rede                                               1568
     The Brass of Mary Bussie, date 1600, has been lost
     since 1850
_St. Peter at Southgate_, _Norwich_.
     Roger Clarke                                                 1487
_St. Stephen_, _Norwich_.
     Robert Brasyer, and Christiana, his wife                     1435
     Thomas Bokenham and wife                                     1460
     Roberti Brasyer
     Thome Capp, vicar                                            1545
     Bel Buttry                                                   1546
_St. Swithin_, _Norwich_.
     John Horslee, and Agnes, his wife                            1495
     Walter Goos, priest                                          1497
_Bawburgh_.
     Thome Tyard                                                  1505
     William Richies—chalice                                      1531
     A small figure, in winding sheet
_Bixley_.
     Edward Ward                                                  1503
_Colney_.
     Henry Alikok
_Dunston_.
     Clare Talbot, and his wives                                  1649
_Frettenham_.
     Alice Thorndon                                            _c_1445
     Lady (unknown)                                            _c_1460
_Hellesdon_.
     Richard de Heylesdone, and Beatrice, his wife                1380
     John de Heylesdone, and Johanna, his wife                    1384
     Richardus Thaseburgh                                         1389
_Ketteringham_.
     Thome Heveningham, and Anne, his wife                        1499
     Lady (unknown)
_Kirby Bedon_.
     William Dussing, and Katherine, his wife                     1505
     An individual unknown.  A heart with three scrolls
_Plumstead Parva_.
     Sir Edward Warner                                            1565
_Poringland Magna_.
     An individual unknown—chalice
_Shottisham St. Mary_.
     Edwardus Whyte, and Elizabeth, his wife                      1528
_Surlingham_.
     John Alnwick                                                 1450
_Sprowston_.
     John Corbet, and Jane, his wife                              1470
_Witton_.
     Juliana Anyell                                            _c_1505

CHAPTER II.
The Aborigines.


NORWICH is very remarkable for its antiquities, its historical
associations, its manufactures, and its trade; and also for the eminent
men who have flourished at various periods in the city.  It was the scene
of many important events in the times of the Iceni, the Romans, the
Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Danes, and Normans.  It was the royal seat of
Anglo-Saxon princes.  It was the Hierapolis Monachopolis of the middle
ages; famous for its churches and convents; and in later times,
celebrated for its Norman castle and cathedral.

The first foundations of history are very often mere traditions, which
are transmitted from parents to their children, from one generation to
another.  Probable only in their origin, they become less probable in
every succeeding age.  In process of time fable gains and truth loses
ground.  Hence it is almost impossible to ascertain the origin of any
place claiming a high antiquity.  The early writers could not divest
their minds of the fascinating fables of Geoffrey of Monmouth.  In former
times, when the power of imagination prevailed, the distinction between
legend and history was scarcely recognised.  For centuries there are not
even legendary accounts of East Anglia or of its capital.  But instead of
legends, there are permanent memorials of the past; great earthworks,
fortifications, camps, strongholds, buildings, churches, ruins of
monasteries and abbeys.  The soil has yielded up relics of the
dead—weapons, utensils, coins, ornaments, and sepulchral urns, showing
the presence of the Iceni, the Romans, the Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Danes,
and Normans, at different periods.  All these energetic nations were
concerned in events that took place in Norfolk and Norwich.

The Iceni appear to have been politically independent up to the period of
the Roman invasion, B.C. 55.  Their alarm in consequence of that invasion
led them to negociate an alliance, but we have no reason to suppose that
it was ever carried into effect.  They took the lead in a rebellion which
the Roman General Ostorius was barely able to quell; and Roman historians
bear testimony to the valour with which they struggled to maintain their
liberty.  The superior discipline of the Roman soldiers enabled them,
however, to triumph over a semi-barbarous people, unprotected by body
armour and unused to military tactics; but it was no easy victory.  For
about 600 years after the defeat of the Iceni, no reliable information
respecting that people is to be found in any history.  Indeed they
disappear from history altogether, and we can only infer what advances
they made in civilization from the scattered remains that have been found
in the eastern counties.  These remains prove that the Iceni were not
semi-savages, but that they had made some progress in useful arts, that
they built houses, and wore woven garments.

There are no remains in the eastern counties of cairns, cromlechs,
Druidical circles, or other memorials of ancient perseverance and
mechanical skill, nature having interposed an absolute veto.  But there
are remains of earth works and tumuli, burrows or artificial mounds in
which were deposited the urns or ashes of the dead.  There are thousands
of pits in many places, and these are supposed to have been the
foundations of Icenian houses.  Remarkable excavations are thickly
clustered all over Weybourne Heath, varying from 8 to 20 feet in
diameter, and from 2 to 6 feet in depth.

The Norwich Museum contains some remains of articles made by the Iceni,
amongst which may be mentioned sepulchral urns, varying from the most
primitive simplicity, up to forms and patterns worthy of any age.  The
_chevron_ ornament, which is by far the most usual style of decoration,
has been traced not merely in India, Egypt, Etruria, and Nineveh, as well
as in Saxon and Norman work, but even among the works of ancient American
settlers in Yucatan!  The Museum also contains specimens of Icenic Celts
or javelin heads, made of flints, which appear to have been originally
fitted on a wooden shaft or handle, with a provision for drawing it back
after the infliction of the wound, by means of a cord passing through the
ring, as in the metal specimens.  It is probable that these flint
specimens were in use long anterior to the Roman invasion.

About 1844 or 1845, some discoveries were made in Norfolk of gold torques
and coins of the Iceni.  In March 1855, at Weston in Norfolk, 300 coins
of the Iceni were found.  The most ordinary type is the rude
representation of a horse on each side; others have two crescents placed
back to back; and on some (in about the proportion of one in twenty,) is
a rude profile of a human head, while in a few instances there is a
figure of a wild boar.  Beneath the horse in some cases are the letters E
C E or E C N, (supposed to be a contraction of Iceni,) also C E A, T, A T
D, A T E D, or A N T D, which antiquarians are as yet unable to explain.
Probably all the coins, like a single coin which has been found of
Boadicea, the unfortunate Queen of the Iceni, were subsequent to the
Roman invasion, for Cæsar expressly tells us that the Britons in his time
used metal rings instead of money, the value being determined by their
weight; and Camden, with great probability, supposes that most of the
British coins must have been struck as a sort of poll tax or tribute
money to the Romans.

Generally speaking, the antiquities of the British period are articles of
the most urgent necessity, and of the rudest possible form; but a long
interval of tranquillity brought even luxuries in its train, and it is a
very remarkable fact that even the lapse of 1800 years has scarcely
effected any change in some articles of general utility.  The discoveries
made at Herculaneum and Pompeii have led to a revival of the classical
forms, both in porcelain and in plate, the greatest practical compliment
that could be paid to the taste of the Roman artists.

Among the objects which have been found at different places may be
mentioned sepulchral vases, varying, of course, in style and taste, but
in some instances most beautifully formed; funeral lamps, lacrymatories,
(or phials supposed to have contained the tears of the sorrowing
relations,) _fibulæ_ (or brooches), gold rings, gold seals, steelyards,
weights, tweezers, a curiously formed brass lamp for three lights, a
patera of Samian ware, and coins of the Roman emperors.  All these may be
seen in the Norwich Museum.

There is no evidence of the existence of Norwich as a city for 400 years
after the Christian era.  The whole island was a howling wilderness, and
Norfolk was a vast common, like Roudham Heath.  The natives lived by
hunting or fishing, and sheltered themselves in the woods, or in caves,
or huts.  Water covered nearly all the area in which the city is now
built, and filled all the valley of the Yare.  The aborigines, called the
Iceni, probably lived in huts near the banks of the river, as it afforded
a good supply of fish; but there is no proof that they lived in any place
that could be called a town or even a village.  There is in fact, no
reliable account whatever of the natives, how they lived, or where they
lived in this district; for they have not even left any names of places,
and very few traces of any progress in the useful arts, and certainly
none of any buildings.  On Mousehold Heath, near the city, and at various
places in the county, there are hollows supposed to have been made by the
Iceni as the foundation of huts, or of houses of wicker work, or some
other perishable material, with a conical thatching at the top.
Externally they must have looked like very low bastions, having doorways,
but apparently neither chimneys nor windows.



CHAPTER III.
Norwich in the Roman Period.


WHEN Julius Cæsar invaded the island, B.C. 55, he found seventeen tribes
of the ancient Britons or Celts, and the Iceni, inhabiting this eastern
district.  They belonged to a very old family of mankind, of whose
beginning there is no record, and their end is still more remote in the
future.  They first planted this island and gave to the seas, rivers,
lakes, and mountains names which are poems, imitating the pure voices of
nature.  Julius Cæsar only made an inroad into the country through a part
of Kent, and gained no permanent hold of the island.  The Rev. Scott F.
Surtees, in a recent work, maintains (and some persons think
successfully) that Julius Cæsar effected his first landing on the coast
of Norfolk.

The Romans, under Claudius, landed on the eastern coast; and established
his power in this part of the country.  He built strongholds at Gorleston
and camps at Caister, near the present site of Yarmouth, and on the
opposite shore at Burgh Castle, where extensive ruins yet remain.
Advancing up the arm of the sea, the Romans built a camp at Reedham; and
sailing yet higher up they built camps on the southern side of Norwich,
at Caistor and Tasburgh.  Historians for a long time believed that
Caistor was the _Venta Icenorum_ of the Romans, and preserved a very
ancient tradition, that Norwich was built of Caistor stone out of the
ruins of the Roman camp.


THE VENTA ICENORUM.


The late Hudson Gurney, Esq., collected ample materials for a full
history of Norwich, but the only result of his researches seems to have
been a letter to the late Dawson Turner, Esq., on the question of the
_Venta Icenorum_ mentioned by the Roman writers, whether it was Elmham,
as Blomefield supposed, or Caistor, as later historians believed, or
Norwich, as most antiquarians now think.  The question is of some
importance as regards the antiquity of the city; for supposing it to have
been the _Venta Icenorum_ of the Romans, with all the Roman roads
radiating from it, the _Venta_ must have been a large place.  Main roads
were of course made for traffic and for means of communication, which
imply the existence of many people living in settled habitations.

Main roads prove a certain advance in civilization; but the question is,
whether the Romans really made all the roads attributed to them, in
Norfolk and Suffolk, during the four hundred years of their occupation.
Main roads might have radiated from Caistor originally, and afterwards
might have been diverted to Norwich.

Mr. Hudson Gurney adduced some proofs that Norwich and not Caistor was
the Venta Icenorum.  He says—

    “The first question to examine, on the view of Norwich, Norwich
    Castle, and the Roman Camp at Caistor, may be, whether Norwich or
    Caistor be the ‘Venta Icenorum’ of the Romans; Norwich standing on
    the Wensum, and Caistor on the Taes, on the opposite side of what was
    the great estuary.”

    “To begin, then, with Camden.  In his accounts of Norwich and of
    Caistor he falls into the most extraordinary errors, confounding the
    courses of the three rivers, the Wensum, the Taes, and the Yare.  He
    places Norwich upon the Yare instead of the Wensum, and gives the
    Wensum the course of the Taes as ‘flowing from the south;’ and still
    more strangely, as a king-at-arms, he attributes the erection of the
    present Castle of Norwich to Hugh Bygod, ‘from the lions salient
    carved in stone on it, which were the old arms of the Bygods on their
    seals, though one of them bore a cross for his seal.’”

Mr. Hudson Gurney remarks on this error—

    “Now the lions were two lions passant regardant, very rudely carved,
    one on each side of the arch of the great entrance, and the Bygods,
    whose original arms were or, a cross gules, never bore the lion till
    assumed by Roger Bygod in the reign of Henry III., who took the arms
    of his mother, the heiress of William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, in
    whose light he became Earl Marshal of England.”

Thus Camden is disposed of, and other authorities are quoted in the
letter in favour of Norwich being the Venta Icenorum.

    “Horsley, in his _Britannia Romani_, states that Venta was the
    capital of the _Iceni_, situated on the Wentfar, and thence deriving
    its name; and misled by and quoting Camden, he places Venta at
    Caistor.”

    “King, who, born in Norwich, might have been supposed to have been
    better informed, in his _Munimenta Antiqua_ follows Camden, and turns
    the Taes into the Wensum; and in his paper in the fourth volume of
    the _Archæologia_, he pronounces the existing Castle of Norwich to be
    ‘the very tower which was erected about the time of King Canute.’”

Mr. Hudson Gurney, after setting aside Wilkins as an authority, proceeds—

    “In 1834, I went over the Camp at Caistor and the country adjacent,
    with Colonel Leake, who may be considered the greatest living
    authority for the sites of ancient cities and fortified camps, and he
    at once said that he was convinced that Norwich was the _Venta
    Icenorum_, and capital of the Iceni, and Caistor the fortified camp
    planted by the Romans over against it, on the other side of the
    estuary, to bridle, as was their custom, a hostile population.”

After quoting a letter to the same effect, Mr. Hudson Gurney continues—

    “In the Roman Itineraries you have three Ventas; Venta Bulgarum,
    Winchester; Venta Silurum, Caer Went, in Monmouthshire; and Venta
    Icenorum; and of these Ventas, the confusion between Winchester and
    the Venta Icenorum seems to have been begun very early, both with the
    chroniclers and romancers, probably from the one having retained the
    rudiments of the name, and the other becoming known as Northwic.”

    “Sir Francis Palgrave, in the researches which he has made for his
    forthcoming history of ‘England under the Normans,’ being led to the
    examination of all contemporary authors, in order to clear up points
    which he found otherwise inexplicable, has referred me to the two
    following passages, which would seem to prove that Norwich was the
    Venta Icenorum almost beyond dispute.”

Here follow Latin quotations from the life of William the Conqueror by
William of Poictiers and from Ordericus Vitalis under the year 1067.

William of Poictiers says:—

    “Gwenta urbs est nobilis atque valens, cives ac finitimos habet
    divites, infidos, et audaces: Danos in auxilium ceteris recipere
    potest: a mari quod Anglos a Danis separat millia passuum
    quatuor-decim distat.  Hujus quoque urbis intra mœnia, munitionem
    construxit, ibidem Gulielmum reliquit Osberni filium præcipuum in
    exercito suo, et in vice sua interim toti regno Aquilonem versus
    præesset.”

And Ordericus Vitalis states:—

    “Intra mænia Gwentæ, opibus et munimine nobilis urbis, et mari
    contiguæ, validem arcem construxit, ibique Gulielmum Osberni filium
    in exercitu suo præcipuum reliquit, eumque vice sua toti Regno versus
    Aquilonem præesse constituit.”

And Mr. Gurney proceeds:—

    “Taking, then, Norwich for the Venta Icenorum of the Romans—called
    Caer Guntum by the British, and Northwic by the Saxons and Danes—you
    find the Capital of the Iceni, founded on the shoulder of the
    promontory overlooking the Wensum, towards the great estuary, which
    formed a natural stronghold for successive races of inhabitants.
    Whilst the Romans, fixing their permanent camp at Caistor, on the
    Taes, where that river joined the estuary, into which the Wensum, the
    Taes, and the Yare, all discharged themselves, would command the
    passage into the interior of the country; and taking Caistor for the
    ‘Ad Taum,’ you will find the distances sufficiently to agree with the
    Roman Itineraries.”

    “The Camp at Caistor contains an area of about thirty-five acres, and
    the Roman station at Taesborough, on another promontory higher up
    upon the stream, has an area of about twenty-four acres.”

Another strong point in favour of Norwich having been the Venta Icenorum
is, that all the roads radiated from the city to all parts of East
Anglia.

In tracing the rise and progress of the city we must remember that it was
in the centre of a vast common, and that it was the nucleus of an
agricultural community, at first without any trade or any kind of
manufactures.  It was merely a collection of huts or a fishing station,
near the banks of a river or arm of the sea.  The social state of the
place should be considered with reference to the progress of agriculture
at different periods in the surrounding district.  Norwich was for ages
only a small market town, with a very small number of inhabitants.



CHAPTER IV.
Norwich in the Anglo-Saxon Period.


THE destruction of all documents relating to East Anglia, during the
irruptions of the Danes, has rendered this period the most obscure of any
period of our history.  The Angles, Saxons, and Jutes having subjugated
the fair territory of England, they divided it into seven kingdoms,
called the Heptarchy, in which Norfolk formed a part of East Anglia.  The
Anglo-Saxon leader, Uffa, established himself in this part of the island,
in 575; and assumed dominion over that portion of the eastern district
now divided into Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire, giving it the name
of East Anglia, of which Norwich was made the metropolis.  Norwich was,
therefore, a royal city, and the residence of the kings.  Uffa, the first
king, is supposed to have formed here a strong entrenchment of earth on
the site of the present castle, encircled by broad ramparts and a ditch,
as under the present Saxon arch.  Uffa, who died A.D. 578, was succeeded
by his son Titul; on whose demise, in 599, his son Redwald assumed the
reins of government and embraced Christianity, but by the influence of
his wife renounced it again.  He was succeeded, A.D. 624, by his son
Erpenwald, who was killed by a relation named Richbert, A.D. 633.  His
half brother Sigebert, who succeeded to the crown, established the
bishopric of Dunwich, in Suffolk, and formed the first seminary for
religious instruction, which led to the establishment of the university
in Cambridge.  Fatigued with the crown and its cares, he resigned it,
A.D. 644, to his kinsman Egric, and retired into the famous monastery at
Bury St. Edmund’s.

Norwich then became one of the chief seats of Anna, king of the East
Angles, who gave the castle, with the lands belonging to it, to his
daughter Ethelfrida on her marriage with Tombert, a prince of the
_Gyrvii_ or Fenmen, who inhabited the fens of Lincolnshire and the
adjacent parts of Norfolk.  At the same time Tombert granted to
Ethelfrida, as a marriage settlement, the isle of Ely, which for greater
security was to be held by castle guard service to the castle of Norwich.

From the time of Anna till the reign of Alfred the Great there are few
events on record except the frequent incursions of the piratical Danes,
who at last over-ran East Anglia, and had their head quarters at Thetford
in 870.  But the reign of the Great Alfred was distinguished by his
decisive victories over those Northern marauders.  One of his chief
objects was to fortify the principal parts of his kingdom against hostile
attacks.  Finding the walls or ramparts of Norwich Castle too weak for
repelling the attacks of the Danes, he caused others to be erected with
the most durable materials.  That it was a noted military station, and a
royal castle in his time, is evident from a coin struck here in the year
872, having round the head _AElfred Rex_, and on the reverse _Northwic_.
After making peace with the Danes in 878, he assigned to them, for their
residence, the whole of East Anglia, and their leader Guthrum fixed his
seat at Norwich; but, breaking his faith, the city and county were
wrested from him, and reverted again to the Angles under six successive
sovereigns.

Edward the Elder succeeded his father, the illustrious Alfred, in the
year 901, and kept the Danes at bay.  Ericke, one of their chiefs, held
East Anglia under the king, till he rebelled in 913, when he was
overthrown and slain.  Athelstan, who succeeded Edward, totally expelled
the Danes, and reduced the whole kingdom under his government.  In his
reign Norwich flourished, and it is probable that he was here in 925, for
a coin still extant has on the obverse _Ethalstan_, and on the reverse
“_Barbe Mon Northwic_,” that is “Barbe, mint master of Norwich.”  Among
the other East Anglian coins struck here, the following may be mentioned;
one of Edmund, the successor of Athelstan, inscribed round the head
_Edmund Rex_, and on the reverse _Edgar Mon Northwic_; several of Edred,
coined about 946, and inscribed round the head _Eadred Rex_, and on the
reverse _Hanne Mo Northwic_; two of Edward the Martyr, having on the
obverse _Edward Rex. Angl._ and on the reverse _Leofwine Mon Nor._; and
three of Ethelred the Unready, having on the obverse _Edelred Rex_.

There is no account of the castle after the time of Anna till the Danish
wars; and then it was often won and lost by the contending powers.

Blomefield, in his History of Norfolk, vol. II. p. 4, notices the coins
of several Anglo-Saxon princes, Alfred, Athelstan, Edmund I., Edred,
Edward the Martyr, and Ethelred II.  The circumstance of Alfred coining
money here is remarkable, as at the date of this coinage, (872) the
government of East Anglia could only have just come into his hands, upon
the extinction of the East Anglian dynasty in the person of St. Edmund,
and the country either was or had just been in the military possession of
the Danes.

During the reign of Athelstan the city appears to have been in a
flourishing state.  In the reign of Edward, 941, and his successor Edred,
945, it greatly increased in wealth and extent.  The greater part of the
city was then built on the north side of the river Wensum, with a small
population.  The city is certainly of Anglo-Saxon origin, but as an
Anglo-Saxon city it was destroyed by the Danes, and no vestiges remain of
its Anglo-Saxon buildings, excepting, perhaps, one or two round towers of
churches.



CHAPTER V.
Norwich under the Danes.


THE Danes became settled in the city, and fortified themselves against
all enemies, about 1011; and the next year, Turkil or Turketel, a Danish
earl, took possession of all Norfolk, having expelled the English Earl
Ulfketel, and held it under Sweyn till his death, which happened in 1014.
Then the Danish army chose Canute his son for their king: but upon
Sweyn’s death the English took courage and sent for Ethelred out of
Normandy, who returned and drove Canute out of the country.  Turkel,
however, continued governor of the East Angles, and he persuaded Canute
to return; and he became king of England in 1017.  That monarch assigned
all Norfolk to Earl Turkel; and according to the old author of an Essay
on the Antiquity of the Castle:—

    “Committed to him the custody of Norwich, which his father Sweyn
    burnt and destroyed; and to keep the East Angles secure to him, he
    (Canute) was most like to be the builder of the present stone Castle
    of Norwich.  For when by compact with the English nobles, the law
    called _Engleshire_ was made by universal consent, for the safety of
    the Danes that were by agreement to remain in England, Canute sent
    home to Denmark his mercenary army of Danes, but in great caution
    built several strong forts and castles, garrisoning them with such
    Danes as had been settled in England before his time, intermixed with
    such English as he had confidence in.”

The author of this ingenious Essay produces sufficient arguments to show
that there was a building in the fortifications in the reign of Canute,
and that there had been one since the time of King Alfred, and that
Canute might have repaired or even rebuilt it.  Indeed, there must have
been a castle before the Conquest, as in Domesday Book a number of
tenements are stated to have belonged to the castle.  The present
building was probably reared after the Conquest, it being so like Rising
Castle and others.  Roger Bigot very likely built it, and Thomas
Brotherton repaired it in the reign of Edward I., as proved by his arms
still in the stone work.  Certain it is, from the time of Sweyn’s
settling in the city in 1010, and the Danes swarming hither in large
numbers, it rose almost at once to great importance, as appears from the
Survey in the reign of Edward the Confessor.  This is highly probable if
we believe the best authority on the subject, namely the _Saxon
Chronicle_, which states that the city rose from desolation, in 50 years,
to be a place of great magnitude, far exceeding its former size.  The
Danes came hither in such numbers that they became the parent stock of
the people of Norwich and Norfolk; and this is proved by the names of
many places in Norfolk.

Edward the Confessor began his reign in 1041, and the Earldom of Norfolk
was given to Harold, son of Earl Godwin, who was afterwards king of
England, and on his rebellion was seized by the king and given to Algar,
son of Leofric, Earl of Chester, who resigned it again to Harold at his
return; and in 1052, on the death of Earl Godwin, Harold, in recompense
for his generosity, gave Algar his earldom again; but he being banished
in 1055, it came to the king, who pardoned him at Harold’s request, so
that he enjoyed it till his death, when it came again to the king.



CHAPTER VI.
Norwich in the Norman Period.


THE Norman Conquest of England caused many changes in Norfolk and
Norwich.  One of the immediate results of the invasion, in 1066, was a
vast influx of foreigners into the county and city; and the pressure of
the Norman yoke was felt as much in Norwich as in any part of the
kingdom.  It was about the same period that Jews began to settle here for
the first time, enriched by the extortions incident to a conquest, and,
as Fuller says, “buying such oppressed Englishmen’s goods as Christians
did not care to meddle with.”

William the Conqueror caused a survey to be made of all the lands in the
country, the register of which is called the DOMESDAY BOOK, and was
finished in 1081.  It is written in Roman with a mixture of Saxon, and is
still preserved in the chapter-house at Westminster, amongst the national
archives.  It was printed in the 40th of George III. for the use of the
members of both houses of parliament, and the public libraries of the
kingdom.  It specifies the extent of the land in each district; the state
it was in, whether meadow, pasture, wood, or arable; the name of the
proprietor; the value, &c.  Domesday Book, p. 13, states:—

    “In Norwic, in the time of King Edward, were 1320 burgesses, of whom
    one was so much the king’s vassal, that he might not depart or do
    homage (to any other) without his licence.  His name was Edstan; he
    possessed 18 acres of land and 12 of meadow, and two churches in the
    burgh and a sixth part of a third, and to one of these churches there
    belonged one mansion in the burgh and six acres of meadow: these six
    acres Roger Bigod holds by the king’s gift.  And of 1238 (of the said
    burgesses) the king and the earl had soc, sac, and custom; and of 50
    Stigand had the soc, sac, and patronage; and of 32 Harold had the
    soc, sac, and patronage,” &c., &c.

Soc, sac, and custom was the entire jurisdiction, for _soc_ is the power
that any man had to hold courts, wherein all that dwell on his land, or
in his jurisdiction are answerable to do suit and service; _sac_ is the
right of having all the amerciaments and forfeitures of such suitors; and
_custom_ includes all other profits.  At this time, also, there were no
fewer than 136 burgesses who were Frenchmen, and only six who were
English in the new burgh, which comprised the parishes of St. Giles’ and
St. Peter’s Mancroft.  The Dutch and the Flemings, about this time, came
over the sea and located themselves in the city and county, and
introduced the worsted and other manufactures.

William I. gave the Earldom of the city of Norwich to Ralph de Guader,
who designed to wed the daughter of one William Fitz-Osbern, sister of
Roger Earl of Hereford, and a relative of the king.  This matrimonial
scheme not pleasing the king, it was prohibited, but barons in those days
would sometimes have a will of their own, and the fair affianced was made
a bride within the castle walls, whose doorway in an angle marks the site
of the act of disobedience to the sovereign.  After the sumptuous feast,
with its attendant libations, a rebellion was planned by Waltheof, Earl
of Northumberland, Huntingdon, and Northampton, and Roger, Earl of
Hereford.  Having carried the forbidden marriage into effect, they became
bold in their language and designs, until a chorus of excited voices
joined them in oaths as conspirators against their lord the king.
Treachery revealed the plot, and the church lent its aid to the crown to
crush the rebels.  Lanfranc, then the primate and archbishop, sent out
troops, headed by bishops and justiciaries, the highest dignitaries of
church and law, to oppose and besiege them.  The bridegroom fled for
succour to his native Brittany, leaving his bride for three months to
defend the garrison with her retainers, at the end of which time the
brave Emma was forced to capitulate, but upon mild terms, obtaining leave
for herself and her followers to flee to Brittany.  Her husband became an
outlaw, her brother was slain, and scarcely one guest present at that
ill-fated marriage feast escaped an untimely end.

Nor did the city go unscathed.  The devastation carried into its midst
was heavy; many houses were burnt, many were deserted by those who had
joined the earl, and it is curious to read in the valuation of land and
property, taken soon after this event, how many houses are recorded as
void, both in the burgh or that part of the city under the jurisdiction
of the king and earl, and in other portions, subject to other lords; for
it would seem that the landlords of the soil on which the city stood were
the king or earl of the castle, the bishop, and the Harold family.
Clusters of huts were then built round the base of the hill, and
constituted the feudal village; its inhabitants consisting of villains,
of which there were two classes, the husbandmen or peasants annexed to
the manor or land, and a lower rank described as villains in gross, or
absolute slaves, transferable by deed from one owner to another, the
lives of these slaves being a continual state of toil, degradation and
suffering.

After the banishment of Earl Ralph, the king, having obtained possession
of the castle, appointed Roger Bigod constable, with a limited power as
bailiff, he having to collect the rents and revenues belonging to the
crown.  He retained these honours during the reign of the succeeding
monarch, William Rufus, though he joined in the fruitless attempt to
place that king’s elder brother, Robert Curthose, on the throne.  These
troubles were not ended till 1091, when the king made peace with his
brother Robert, agreeing that the lands of those who had assisted him
should be restored to them.



CHAPTER VII.
Norwich in the Twelfth Century.


ABOUT the commencement of this century, a considerable addition was made
to the population of the city by a vast influx of Jews, who originally
came from Normandy, and were allowed to settle in England as chapmen for
the sale of confiscated goods.  They afterwards became numerous, and were
so much in favour with William Rufus that he is said to have sworn, by
St. Luke’s face, his usual oath, that “If the Jews should overcome the
Christians, he himself would become of their sect.”  In his reign the
present castle is supposed to have been built.

Henry I., on his accession to the crown, met with great opposition from
many of the nobles who were in the interest of his elder brother, Robert,
Duke of Normandy; but Roger Bigod strongly espousing his cause, became a
great favourite.  In the first part of his reign, the king gave him
Framlingham in Suffolk, and continued him Constable of the Castle till
his death.  He was succeeded by his son William Bigod, on whose decease
Hugh Bigod, his brother, who inherited his estate, was appointed Governor
of the Castle.  In 1122, the king kept his Christmas in Norwich, when,
being pleased with the reception he met with, he severed the government
of the city from that of the castle, the constable of which had been
heretofore the sole governor.  Henry I. granted the city a charter
containing the same franchises as the city of London then enjoyed, and
the government of the city was then separated from that of the castle,
the chief officer being styled Propositus or Provost.  The liberties of
the city from the time of Henry I. to Edward III., were often suspended
and gradually enlarged.  In 1403 the city was separated entirely from the
county of Norfolk, under the name of the county and city of Norwich; and
the first Mayor was then elected by the citizens.  The old corporation
generally comprised a dignified body of men, who maintained the
hospitalities of the city.  Under the ancient charter the corporation of
Norwich consisted of a mayor, recorder, steward, two sheriffs,
twenty-four aldermen, including the mayor, and sixty common councilmen.
The Municipal Reform Act transferred its government into the hands of a
mayor, a sheriff, and a town council consisting of forty-eight
councillors, and sixteen aldermen elected by the council, who unitedly
elect the mayor and sheriff.  To these, and to a recorder, with an
indefinite number of magistrates appointed by the crown, the government
of the city is entrusted.

King Stephen, on his accession, granted the custody of the castle to his
favourite, Hugh Bigod, who was a principal instrument in advancing him to
the crown, by coming directly from Normandy where Henry I. died, and
averring that he on his deathbed had disinherited his daughter Maud, the
empress, and appointed Stephen, Earl of Bolyne, his heir.  The citizens,
therefore, taking this opportunity, used what interest they could with
the king to obtain a new charter, vesting the government of the city in
coroners and bailiffs instead of provosts; but the affair took a
different turn to what they expected, for the king, upon a distrust of
Bigod favouring the cause of the Empress Maud, seized the castle and all
the liberties of the city into his own hands, and soon afterwards granted
to his natural son William, for an appanage or increase of inheritance,
the town and burgh of the city of Norwich, in which were 1238 burgesses
who held of the king in burgage tenure; and also the castle and burgh
thereof, in which were 123 burgesses that held of the king in burgage,
and also the royal revenue of the whole county of Norfolk, excepting what
belonged to the bishopric, &c.  The whole rent of the city, including the
fee farm, was then about £700 per annum.  The king restored the city
liberties for a fine in 1139.

During the reign of King Stephen more Flemings came over; and these
successive immigrations were a real blessing to the land.  England had
not been a manufacturing country at all till the arrival of the Flemings,
who introduced the preparation and weaving of wool, so that, in process
of time, not only the home market was abundantly supplied with woollen
cloth, but a large surplus was made for exportation.  The Flemings were
kinsmen of the Anglo-Saxon race, and were distinguished for that probity
in their commercial dealings which afterwards became the characteristic
of the English merchants at large.

Henry II., in the first year of his reign, 1155, took the city, castle,
and liberties from William, the natural son of Stephen; but, as a
recompense, restored to him all those lands which his father held in the
reign of Henry I.  He also prevailed upon Hugh Bigod to yield up all his
castles, whereby the whole right became vested in the crown; the king
governing the city by the sheriff, who paid the profits arising therefrom
into the exchequer.  About the year 1163 Hugh Bigod was restored to the
title of the Earl of Norfolk, and at the same time appointed Constable of
Norwich Castle, by which means he became sole governor of the city.  In
1182, the citizens recovered the liberties of the city on paying a fine
of 80 marks to the king.

Richard I. was crowned September 4th, 1189, and a riot happened on
account of a Jew attempting to enter Westminster Hall contrary to the
king’s express command.  Many of the Jews were killed, and their houses
plundered and burnt.  A rumour was thereupon spread throughout the nation
that the king did not favour them, on which the people of Bury, Lynn, and
Norwich, took occasion to rise and rob great numbers of them.  On
November 27th following, Roger, son of Hugh Bigod, was created Earl of
Norfolk, and steward of the king’s household.  By his means the city
regained as ample a charter as London then possessed, for in 1193, the
king granted the city in fee farm to the citizens and their heirs, for a
fee farm rent of £180 yearly.



CHAPTER VIII.
Norwich in the Thirteenth Century.


KING JOHN ascended the throne in 1193, and in a few years afterwards the
barons rebelled against him.  In 1215, Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk,
joined the insurgent barons.  The king seized the castle, expelled the
earl, and appointed the Earl of Pembroke and John Fitz-Herbert Constables
of the Castle.  Lewis, the Dauphin of France, having obtained a grant of
the kingdom from the pope, brought over a large force, ravaged the
counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, took the castle, and reduced the city.
He made William de Bellomonte his marshal and constable, and placed him
with a garrison within the castle walls.

King John granted two charters to the citizens, bestowing certain
privileges; and he came to the city in 1256, as is evident from the
Charter of Liberties granted to the port of Yarmouth, it being dated
March 25, 1256, by the king at Norwich.  On the same day he likewise
granted his third Charter to the city, bestowing certain commercial
privileges.  In 1265 Simon Montfort and his adherents seized all the
king’s castles and committed the custody of them to their own friends,
and having also gotten the king’s person into their power, they obliged
him to send letters to the sheriffs of counties, including Norfolk,
commanding them to oppose all attempts in favour of the king.  But the
king having routed the barons at Eversham, removed all the constables
which the confederates had appointed, and amongst the rest Roger Bigod;
in whose stead, John de Vallibus, or Vaux, was made Constable of this
Castle, and Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, and soon afterwards, in
consequence of great disturbances in the city, he was ordered to enter
it, and did so, notwithstanding its liberties.  In December, 1266, the
displaced barons, headed by Sir John de Evile, entered the city and
killed many persons, imprisoned more, plundered the town, and carried
away the wealthiest of the inhabitants.

According to Blomefield, about this time, on a Good Friday, the Jews were
accused of having crucified a boy, twelve years of age, named William;
and the date of his alleged death, March 24th, was marked as a holiday.
No evidence is adduced that the crime was committed, and no motive is
assigned for it.  The date of the year is not given, and the boy’s name
besides William is not stated.  The Jews denied the charge, but it was
generally believed, and they were terribly persecuted.  The people then
seized upon every pretence for robbing and plundering the poor Jews.  It
is said that the crime was discovered by Erlward, a burgess, as they were
going to bury the body in Thorpe Wood.  On this the Jews applied to the
sheriff, and promised him 100 marks if he would free them from this
charge.  The sheriff sending for Erlward obliged him to swear that so
long as he lived he would never accuse the Jews nor discover the fact.
About five years afterwards, Erlward, on his deathbed, made known the
whole affair, and the body, it is said, having been found in the wood,
was taken and buried in the churchyard of the monks.  They alleged that
many miracles were there wrought by it which occasioned its being removed
into the church and enshrined in the year 1150.

Edward I. succeeded to the throne in 1272, and in the next year the king
appointed Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, to be Constable of the Castle.
The interdict, which was removed on Christmas eve, was renewed on the day
after Epiphany, but was taken off till Easter, when it was renewed the
third time.  In 1274, the affair between the monks and citizens
continuing unsettled, it was referred to the pope, who left it to the
decision of the king, who adjudged the citizens to pay 500 marks yearly
for six years, and to give the church a cup of the value of £100, and
weighing 10 lbs. in gold.  The monks were to repair their gates and to
have access to all parts of the city, and some of the chief citizens were
to go to Rome to beg the pope’s pardon.  These conditions being agreed
to, the king restored to the city all its ancient privileges on payment
of a fine of 40s. yearly, besides the old fee farm.  The interdict was
also removed on November 1st, 1275.  The king kept his Easter in the city
in 1277, and he granted a new charter in 1285.  In 1289 the liberties
were seized, but were restored again at the end of the year.  Soon
afterwards the king, while on a pilgrimage to Walsingham, granted a new
charter.  In 1296, the city first sent representatives to parliament,
originally four in number, who were paid for their services, but on
account of the expense the number was reduced to two members.



CHAPTER IX.
Norwich in the Fourteenth Century.


IN this century this city and other towns began to obtain political
privileges.  The kings of the middle ages found themselves obliged to
summon burgesses to parliament in order to obtain supplies.  The early
parliaments appear to have been convened chiefly for this purpose, and
were constantly dissolved as soon as the business for which they met was
transacted.  Formerly the burgesses returned were always citizens, who
really were representatives of the city and its interests, and not merely
supporters of the ministry of the day.  There is no record of the early
local elections, but lists will be given of the burgesses returned.

Edward II. began his reign on July 7th, 1307, and he reigned nineteen
years.  Walter de Norwich, son of Jeffry de Norwich, was so much in
favour with the king as to be one of the Barons of the Exchequer in 1311,
and in 1314 was summoned as a parliamentary baron, and afterwards made
the Treasurer of the Exchequer, which office he held several years.  He
obtained liberty for free warren in all his demean lands, and a fair to
the manor of Ling in Norfolk, on July 20th, and two days following.  He
continued in favour till his death.

In the reign of Edward III., A.D. 1328, the king, by a statute, made
Norwich a staple town for the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, by which
the trade of the city was much increased.  In the “Paston Letters” we
find the following reference to articles of Norfolk manufacture:

    “I pray that you will send me hither two ells of worsted for
    doublets, to happen me this cold winter, and that ye enquire where
    William Paston bought his tippet of fine worsted which is almost like
    silk, and if that be much finer that ye sh’d buy me, after seven or
    eight shillings, then buy me a quarter and the nail thereof for
    collars, though it be dearer than the other, for I would make my
    doublet all worsted for the honour of Norfolk.”

In 1340, Norwich Castle was made the public prison for the county of
Norfolk, and the custody thereof was committed to the sheriff.  A great
tournament was held in Norwich, at which the king, with his queen
Phillippa, was present; and they kept their court at the bishop’s palace.
In 1342 the king and queen honoured the city with another visit.

In 1344 a new charter was granted, by which the liberty of the castle was
reduced to the outward limits of the present ditch, and so continues.  By
this charter, the citizens became proprietor’s of the ancient fee of the
castle, that is, the castle ditches, and the great croft, now the market
place.

In the reign of Richard II., A.D. 1381, Wat Tyler’s rebellion broke out
in London.  Insurrection became prevalent in many parts of the kingdom,
manufactures declined, and discontent became general.  Norwich and
Norfolk shared in the general plunder at the hands of armed bands.  Under
John Lyster, Litister, or Linster, a dyer, 50,000 men attacked the city
and committed great depredations.  They were, however, pursued to North
Walsham by the king’s troops under the command of Henry Le Spencer,
Bishop of Norwich, and defeated.  Their leader and many of his adherents
were taken and executed for high treason.  They were hung, drawn, and
quartered, according to the barbarous usage of the times.  In 1399, the
bailiffs having put the city into a proper posture of defence, openly
declared for Henry Duke of Lancaster, son and heir of John of Gaunt, the
late deceased duke, their especial friend.  On this declaration, Henry
gave them strong assurances that, whenever it was in his power, the
charter which they so earnestly desired for electing a mayor, &c., should
be granted them, and he was afterwards as good as his word.  The great
connection there was between John of Gaunt and this city, arose through
William Norwich, a knight, who was a friend of the Duke’s, and who
frequently visited the town, for which he always expressed great regard.
In 1389, the great John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, visited this city,
and was honourably received.

In the first year of Henry IV., Sir Thomas Erpingham, knight, a Norfolk
man, Warden of the Cinque Ports, and Lord Chamberlain, obtained the
King’s Charter, dated at Westminster, February 6th, 1399, confirming all
the former charters ever granted to the city.  In 1409, through the
interest of Sir Thomas, a grant was made to the city for a certain term
of years of the alnage and survey of all manner of worsteds made in
Norwich and Norfolk.

                                * * * * *

ST. GEORGE’S COMPANY took its rise in the second half of the fourteenth
century, and consisted of a society of brethren and sisters associated in
honour of the Martyr St. George, who by voluntary contributions supported
a chaplain to celebrate service every day in the cathedral before the
altar, for the welfare of the brethren and sisters of the Guild, whilst
living, and of their souls when dead.  In this state they continued till
the fourth year of Henry V., when that prince granted them a charter
dated at Reading, incorporating them by the name of the Aldermen,
Masters, Brethren, and Sisters of the Fraternity and Guild of St. George
in Norwich; and empowering them to choose yearly, one Alderman and two
Masters, and to make all reasonable orders and constitutions for their
own government; to have a common seal; to sue and be sued; and to
maintain a chaplain to pray daily for the health of the king, the
alderman, masters, and sisters whilst alive, and their souls when dead;
and lastly to purchase £10 per annum in mortmain.  The prior, mayor,
sheriffs, and aldermen of the Guild, had power to expel or remove any
member for bad behaviour.  In consequence of this charter, ordinances
were made for the well-governing of the society, and for yearly choosing
one alderman, four masters, and twenty-four brethren, for the Assembly or
Common Council.  In 1451, by the mediation of Judge Yelverton, the
disputes between the Guild and the city were settled; when it was agreed
that the mayor for the time being should yearly, on the day after the
Guild, be chosen Alderman of the Guild for the year following his
mayoralty, that the Assembly of the Guild should consist of twenty
persons, and that the common council of the city should be eligible for
admission into the company, but be liable to the charge of the feast.
Indeed, the chief object of the Guild was feasting.  Every brother took
an oath on admission.  The Aldermen and Common Council of the Guild had
power to choose such men and women, inhabitants of the city, to be
brethren and sisters of the Guild, as they might think fit.  But no man
living out of the city could be chosen unless he was a knight, esquire,
or gentleman of note.  Many other orders were made in regard to their
procession, which was always very grand.  This Guild, with the other
ancient crafts or companies of the city, made a very splendid appearance
on all public occasions.  The companies were then on the same footing as
those of the city of London now are, and some of the trades long
continued as a fraternity, and chose wardens among themselves.  From the
Friday after May day, to the Friday before the Guild day, the members of
St. George’s Company used to meet every evening at the Guildhall in the
Market Place, where they refreshed themselves with as much sack and sugar
rolls as they pleased, besides two penny cakes from the baker’s.  Being
thus assembled they sent for the last chosen feast-makers, and asked them
whether they intended to bear the charges of the feast, “which” (said
they) “will cost you more than you think.”  By this they so terrified
timorous, wary people, that they were persuaded to buy it off, though,
had they agreed to make the feast, it would not have cost them much more
than £6 or £7, which sum they were glad to save.  The Company continued
till February 24th, 1731, when the committee appointed for the purpose
reported to an assembly held that day, that they had treated with St.
George’s Company, who had agreed to deliver up their charters, books, and
records, into the hands of the corporation, provided the latter would pay
their debts, amounting to £236 15s. 1d., which, being agreed to, they
were accordingly delivered up and deposited with the city records in the
Guildhall.  Thus terminated this ancient feasting company by the
surrender of all their goods to the corporation.



CHAPTER X.
Norwich in the Fifteenth Century.


AT the commencement of this century (in 1402) the grand affair of
obtaining a new charter occupied the greater part of the time of the
citizens, but as nothing could be done without the concurrence of Bishop
Spencer, they at last found means to soften him, and to obtain his
promise that he would not oppose them in this their favourite object.
All obstacles being now removed, they offered to lend Henry 1000 marks,
which so far obliged the king that he was willing to give them as full a
charter as they could desire.  This was accordingly done, and the new
charter was granted on January 28th, 1403.  By this charter the city
obtained a full power of local self-government.

Henry V. began his reign on March 20th, 1412, in which year the city was
in great disorder, occasioned by the disputes between the Mayor and the
Commons, respecting the election of mayors, sheriffs, and other officers
of the corporation, and the powers granted by the charter, concerning
which they could not agree.  These contentions exhausted the city
treasury, and at length they were settled by the mediation of Sir Robert
Berney, John Lancaster, William Paston, and others.  The burgesses who
served in Parliament in this reign were R. Brasier, R. Dunston, W.
Sedman, J. Biskelee, H. Rufman, W. Eton, J. Alderfold, W. Appleyard, R.
Baxter, and Henry Peking.

In 1422 the doctrines of the Reformation were introduced into the city,
and several persons were executed as Wickliffites or Lollards.  A large
chalk pit, in Thorpe Hamlet, on the outskirts of the city, is to this day
called “Lollards’ Pit.”

Henry VI., when only nine months old, was proclaimed king on August 31st,
1422, and in his reign a general persecution of the Lollards broke out in
this diocese.  The Lollards were men who earnestly desired the
reformation of the church, and they were followers of that great and good
man John Wickliffe, but they were called Lollards as a name of infamy.
They were so zealous for the truth that they chose rather to suffer
grievous torments and death than forsake their faith.  On this account
about 120 persons were persecuted for their profession of the pure gospel
of Christ.

On June 6th, 1448, the king paid a royal visit to the city, and among
other preparations the gates were decorated, and the King’s arms, and the
arms of St. George, were painted and raised on six of the gates.  In
1449, his Majesty paid another visit, after a sojourn with the Earl of
Suffolk at Costessey.  The king entered Norwich by St. Benedict’s Gate,
which was especially ornamented for the occasion.  These peaceable
entries, with the picturesque pomp of a royal procession, always pleased
the loyal citizens.

In 1452, it being rumoured that Edward earl of March, son to the duke of
York, was advancing towards London, the queen, much terrified thereat,
tried to make as many friends as she could, and for that purpose came to
this city, when, in full assembly, the Commons resolved to advance 100
marks as a loan to the king; and the aldermen at the same time presented
the queen with 60 marks, to which the Commons added 40 more, so that the
king had now 200 marks of the city.  The citizens then obtained a new
charter, dated March 17th, and consented to in full parliament.  It
contained a restitution of all liberties, a general pardon of all past
offences, and a confirmation of all former charters.

In 1460, during the contest between the houses of York and Lancaster, the
mayor and aldermen raised forty armed men and the Commons eighty, and
appointed Wm. Rookwood, Esq., their captain, with whom they agreed for
six weeks’ pay, at six-pence a day for each soldier, and sent them to the
assistance of the king, who wrote them a letter of thanks, with a request
that they would maintain the soldiers for one month longer, which was
readily complied with.  In 1474, the king visited the city, and was
presented with a sum of money by way of benevolence; but in the following
year the city had to pay £80 6s. 11d. for the forces employed in France.

In July 1469, Elizabeth Woodville, the queen of Edward IV., visited
Norwich and remained here several days.  Her majesty, with a great
retinue, entered the city through “Westwyk Gate,” which was decorated for
the occasion.  John Parnell was brought from Ipswich to exercise his
skill in ornamentation; and under his superintendence, a stage covered
with red-and-green worsted was erected, adorned with figures of angels,
escutcheons, and banners of the royal lady and the king, with a profusion
of crowns, roses, fleur-de-lys, &c.  Gilbert Spurling exhibited a
fragment of the salutation of Mary and Elizabeth, which required from him
a speech in explanation.

In 1486, being the 1st Henry VII., on the rebellion of Lambert Simnel,
who assumed the name of Edward Plantagenet, the king, expecting an
invasion of the eastern parts of his kingdom, made a progress through
Norfolk and Suffolk to confirm the inhabitants in their loyalty, and
spent his Christmas at Norwich, when the city made him a handsome
present.  Hence he went a pilgrimage to Walsingham, so famous for its
pretended miracles, where he made his vows; and after he returned
victorious, he sent his banner to be offered there as an acknowledgment
of his prayers having been heard.

The monastic institutions of this city might claim the honour of having
some learned men connected with them in the 15th century.  Thomas
Brinton, or Brampton, a monk of Norwich, attained to such an eminence in
the schools of England that his fame was spread abroad, and he was sent
for by the pope to Rome.  He often preached before the pope in Latin, and
being first made his penitentiary was afterwards raised to the see of
Rochester.  His sermons preached before the pope were published, with
some others.  John Stow, who flourished in 1440, was a Benedictine monk
of the monastery of St. Saviour, in Norwich, and doctor of divinity of
Oxford.  It appears, by his works, that he was at the council of Basil.
His works were _The Acts of the Council_ at Basil; various _Collections_;
and _Solemn Disputations_, &c.  John Mear, a monk of Norwich, and D.D. of
Oxford, was a person of subtle art for explaining difficulties.  He was
divinity reader at several monasteries, and the author of several works,
which have all been lost.



CHAPTER XI.
Norwich in the Sixteenth Century.


AT the commencement of this century most of the houses in the city were
built of wood with thatched roofs.  This accounts for the number of fires
which broke out at different times, and which, in 1507 and 1509, reduced
a large portion of the city to ashes, no fewer than 718 houses being
consumed in the latter year.  These conflagrations induced the
corporation, in 1509, to issue an order that no newly-erected buildings
in the city should be covered with thatch, but this injunction not
extending to those previously erected, some few still retain this
dangerous covering.

In 1501, John Rightwise, then mayor, began building the cross in the
Market Place, and finished it in 1503.  It was a commodious and handsome
pile, but falling into decay, it was sold by the Tonnage Committee in
1732 for £125, and soon afterwards it was taken down.  About 1506, St.
Andrew’s Church was built, near the site of the old church of St.
Christopher.

Henry VIII. began his reign on April 22nd, 1509, when the city was in a
state of great distraction, on account of the terrible fires which caused
much destruction of property.  In that year a great part of the
cathedral, with its vestry, and all the ornaments and books were
destroyed by a fire, which broke out on St. Thomas’ night.  In 1515, the
Lady Mary, sister to the king, and her consort the Duke of Suffolk,
visited the city on their return from France, and were nobly entertained.
Henry VIII., while he continued a papist, burned the reformers; and when
in a fit of anger he disowned the pope and assumed the English tiara, he
was no less zealous against both Papist and Puritan, who would not bind
their consciences to his royal decrees.  During the prelacy of Richard
Nykke or Nix, the bigotted bishop of Norwich, several church reformers
were burnt here and at other places.

In 1517, Cardinal Wolsey visited the city to mediate between the citizens
and the monks, but their disputes were not finally settled till 1524,
when the jurisdiction of the convent was ascertained and separated from
that of the corporation until 1538, when they were converted into a dean
and chapter.

On March 2nd, 1520, Queen Catherine and Cardinal Wolsey visited the city,
and all the city companies went to meet the queen “in Puke and Dirke
Tawney Liveries,” and the city presented her with 100 marks.

In 1522, in consequence of the many vexatious suits in the Sheriff’s
Court for words and trifling debts, it was agreed that four aldermen be
named, one out of each of the great wards, to sit in person, or by
deputies, every Wednesday, from eight till nine in the morning, to adjust
all debts under two shillings, and all actions on words, for the ease and
peace of the city.  This institution was of great benefit, and in some
measure answered the purpose of the old Court of Conscience.

In 1524, on September 2nd, through the mediation of Cardinal Wolsey, a
composition and final agreement was sealed between the prior and the city
at the Guildhall, by which the city resigned all jurisdiction within the
walls of the priory, the whole site thereof being hereby acknowledged to
be part of the County of Norfolk and in the Hundred of Blofield; and the
church gave up all right of jurisdiction in every place without their
walls and within the walls of the city; so that now, Tombland, with the
fairs kept thereon, and all things belonging to those fairs—and
Holmstrete, Spytelond, and Ratten Row, with their letes—were adjudged to
belong to the city, and to be part of the county thereof.  The prior and
convent and their successors were also exempted from all tolls, customs,
and exactions whatever, by land or water in the whole city, or county of
the city and its liberties, for goods or chattels bought or sold for the
use of the prior and convent, their households, or families.

In 1525 the king granted the city another charter, confirmed likewise by
parliament, in which the late composition and agreement between the city
and prior was fully recited and established, and new privileges were
granted.

In 1530 the king was declared supreme head of the church of England; and
was acknowledged so by act of parliament in 1535.  In the latter year an
act was passed for recontinuing liberties in the crown, by which all
cities, boroughs, and towns corporate, had their liberties and privileges
fully confirmed.


BILNEY’S MARTYRDOM.


A short account of the martyrdom of Thomas Bilney, in 1531, may serve to
illustrate the persecuting spirit of the age.  He had renounced the
tenets of the Church of Rome, and was condemned on the following passages
extracted from two sermons which he had preached in 1527, at Ipswich.

    “Our Saviour Christ is our Mediator between us and the Father; what
    need have we therefore for any remedy from saints?  It is a great
    injury to the blood of Christ to make such petitions, and blasphemeth
    our Saviour.”

    “Man is so imperfect by himself, that he can in no wise merit by his
    own deeds.”

    “The coming of Christ was long prophesied before, and desired by the
    prophets; but John Baptist, being more than a prophet, did not only
    prophesy, but with his finger shewed Him, saying, ‘_Behold the Lamb
    of God_, _which taketh away the sins of the world_.’  Then, if this
    was the very Lamb which John did demonstrate, that taketh away the
    sins of the world, what injury is it to our Saviour Christ, that to
    be buried in St. Francis’ cowl should remit four parts of penance?
    What is then left to our Saviour Christ, which taketh away the sins
    of the world?  This I will justify to be a great blasphemy to the
    blood of Christ.”

    “It is great folly to go on pilgrimages; and preachers in times past
    have been antichrists; and now it hath pleased God somewhat to shew
    forth their falsehoods and errors.”

    “The miracles done at Walsingham, Canterbury, and Ipswich, were done
    by the devil through the sufferance of God, to blind the poor people;
    and the Pope hath not the keys that St. Peter had, except he
    followeth Peter in his living.”

    “Christian people should set up no lights before images of saints,
    for saints in heaven need no lights, and images have no eyes to see;
    and, therefore, as Ezechias destroyed the brazen serpent that Moses
    made by the commandment of God, even so should the kings and princes
    of these times destroy and burn the images of saints set up in
    churches.”

It was further deposed against Bilney, that he was notoriously suspected
to be a heretic, and that in his sermons he had exhorted the people to
put away their gods of silver and gold, and to desist from offering to
them either candle, wax, money, or any other thing; and that in
rehearsing the litany he said, “pray you only to God and no saints;” and
when he came to that part, Sancta Maria, &c., or, O Saint Mary pray for
us, he called out, “stop there.”

These and many other articles of the like nature being proved, he was
exhorted to recant and abjure them; and upon his refusing to do so, the
Bishop of London, having pulled off his cap, and made the sign of the
cross on his forehead and breast, pronounced the following sentence:—

    “I, by the counsel and consent of my brethren here present, do
    pronounce thee, Thomas Bilney, who has been accused of divers
    articles, to be convicted of heresy; and for the rest of the sentence
    we will deliberate till to-morrow.”

The next day Bilney was again asked whether he would recant and return to
the unity of the church; when he desired a day or two for consideration
and to consult his friends.  In fear of a dreadful death at the
expiration of the time, he subscribed his abjuration; and being absolved,
he had the following penance enjoined him; to bear a faggot at the
procession at St. Paul’s, bareheaded, and to stand before the preacher
during the sermon there, and to remain in prison till he should be
released by Cardinal Wolsey.  When in prison, the reflection on what he
had done drove Bilney almost to despair, and he suffered all the agonies
of remorse for more than twelve months.

At length he resolved to seal that truth which he had so shamefully
abjured, with his blood.  For this purpose he travelled to Norwich, and
on his way to the city he openly preached those doctrines for which he
had been condemned; and being apprehended, was confined in one of the
cells under the Guildhall.  On August 19th, he was taken to Lollards’
pit, outside of Bishopsgate, and burnt there in the presence of a crowd
of horrified spectators.

This and many other instances may serve to show the persecuting spirit of
a church which had arrogated to itself a dominion over the consciences of
men, and dared to propagate a religion of fear as the religion of Christ.
After the Reformation, which had now begun, the same persecuting spirit
was manifested by the Church of England; and many suffered here for their
nonconformity to the Establishment.  Several other martyrs were burnt in
Norwich during the same reign, and in 1539, one William Leyton, a monk of
Eye, in Suffolk, was burnt here, for speaking against a certain idol
which used to be carried about in procession at Eye; and for asserting
that the sacrament ought to be administered in both kinds.

In the same year peace and amity were settled between the church and the
city on a much more stable foundation than had been previously effected,
by an arrangement as to jurisdictions of the authorities.

                                * * * * *

In 1534 an act was passed for rebuilding those parts of the city which
were laid waste by the late fires; by which it was enacted that if the
owners of such void grounds should, by the space of two years after
proclamation made by the mayor for all persons to rebuild or enclose
their grounds, neglect to rebuild on such ground, or sufficiently enclose
the same with mortar and stone, then it should be lawful for the mayor,
etc., to enter on such vacant grounds, and hold and retain them to their
own use and their successors’ use for ever, discharged of all rents and
outgoings whatsoever, provided that, within two years after such entry
made, they either rebuild or enclose them as aforesaid.


DISSOLUTION OF THE MONASTERIES.


If, in giving an account of the state of society in the middle ages, we
were to omit from our enumeration of causes the vast influence of the
clergy of the church of Rome, we should present a very imperfect view of
the subject.  The priests dominated over the minds of men for many
centuries, and their influence either for good or evil pervaded all
classes of society.  This influence caused the erection of monasteries,
nunneries, priories, and friaries, nineteen in number, in Norwich before
the 16th century.  Monastic institutions were originally beneficial to
society.  In the dark ages, they preserved learning to some extent, and
were houses of refuge for the destitute.  No doubt there were many good
self-denying men and women amongst the monks and nuns, who did some
service to the poor who then abounded in the land.  But in time the
monasteries sunk for the most part into dissolute confraternities; stupid
and sleepy, where not vicious; and banded together against the liberties
of the nation; and there were constant broils between the monks and the
citizens in Norwich.

The king having entirely renounced the authority of the church of Rome,
and assumed the title of Head of the Church of England, caused a very
strict inquiry to be instituted into the state of all monastic
institutions.  This inquiry resulted in their suppression, more for the
gratification of the monarch’s avarice than from his desire to benefit
his subjects; and most of the monks in Norwich and Norfolk, as well as in
other parts of England, were sent adrift with small pensions.  The king,
indeed—in revenge for being excommunicated by the pope—suppressed 1148
monasteries in England, whose revenues amounted to £183,707 yearly.  He
either seized the property for himself or divided it amongst his
favourites, and the Duke of Norfolk obtained a great part of it in
Norwich.  The dissolution of those ancient institutions caused a great
deal of poverty; the priests were driven out homeless over the land, and
the poor had no houses of refuge and no means of relief.

In 1538, Thomas Cromwell, lord privy seal, the king’s vicegerent, sent
injunctions to all bishops and curates, charging them to take care that
an English bible of the largest size be placed open in each parish
church, for every one to have recourse to.  The open bible was generally
read in this city and elsewhere, and this, no doubt, promoted the
reformation of religion.  In spite of the tyranny of kings, the
domination of priests, and the superstition of the people, the
Reformation still advanced, and the national mind was emancipated by
degrees from ancient thraldom.

                                * * * * *

In 1545, one Rogers, of Norfolk, was condemned and suffered martyrdom,
for opposing the six articles of an act passed for abolishing diversity
of opinions in religion.  This act inflicted the penalty of death upon
those—1st, who by word or writing denied transubstantiation; 2nd, who
maintained that communion in both kinds was necessary; 3rd, or asserted
that it was lawful for priests to marry; 4th, or that vows of chastity
might be broken; 5th, or that private masses are profitable; 6th, or that
auricular confession is not necessary to salvation.

The king died on the 28th January, 1546; and his exequies were celebrated
here with great pomp, as appears from the chamberlain’s account; though
what good he ever did for the city it would be hard to say.  He was a
king who spared no man in his anger and no woman in his lust.  In his
reign, 72,000 persons were hung for political offences or for the crime
of poverty as a warning to others.  The “Merry England” of those days was
in fact a terrible country to live in.  Men were beaten, scourged,
branded with hot irons, and killed without mercy or limit.

Edward VI. was proclaimed king on January 28th, 1546; and on February
25th, his coronation was celebrated with much pomp in Norwich, where
great rejoicings took place.  Six large guns were fired on Tombland; the
populace were treated with plenty of beer; and bonfires were lighted in
several of the streets.  There was a grand procession with a pageant, in
which the king was represented by an effigy of king Solomon.

On March 8th, 1546, Edward VI., and the executors of his deceased father,
granted to the mayor, sheriffs, citizens, and commonalty, the hospital of
St. Giles’ in this city, now called the Old Men’s hospital, with all the
revenues belonging thereto for the maintenance of poor people dwelling
therein, all which the late king had promised to give them at the request
of the citizens, a short time before his death.

Norwich has always been noted for its civic feasts and good cheer; and
Bale, writing at this time (1549), in his “Continuation of Leland’s
Antiquities,” says:—

    “Oh, cytie of England, whose glory standeth more in belly chere than
    in the searche of wisdome godlye, how cometh it that neither you nor
    yet your ydell masmongers have regarded this most worthy commodytie
    of your countrye?  I mean the conservacyon of your antiquyties, and
    of the worthy labours of your learned men.  I thynke the renowne of
    such a notable act would have much longer endured than of all your
    belly banquettes and table triumphes, either yet of your newly
    purchased hawles, to keep St. George’s feast in.”

And again he says:—

    “I have been also at Norwyche, our second cytie of name, and there
    all the library monuments are turned to the use of their grossers,
    candelmakers, sope sellers, &c.”

Small credit is here given to the city for the patronage and promotion of
intellectual pursuits.


KETT’S REBELLION.


In 1549 the city was the scene of an insurrection resembling that of the
Jacquerie in France, and the War of the Peasants in Germany.  The facts
of this local rebellion were simple enough.  The poor people objected to
the enclosure of waste lands, in the neighbourhood of Attleborough and
Wymondham, by the nobility and gentry, who had been put in possession of
the abbey lands, which had been previously appropriated for the use of
the poor, who still considered that they had a right of commonage on the
waste lands and open pastures.  The rebellion commenced at Eccles, Wilby,
Attleborough, and the neighbouring villages, the inhabitants of which
were enraged at Mr. John Green, lord of the manor of Wilby, who had
enclosed that part of the common belonging to his manor, which had from
time immemorial been open to the adjoining commons of Hargham and
Attleborough, and in which the people had enjoyed all rights of
intercommoning with each other.  The people continued quiet till
Wymondham fair, on July 7th, when they collected in large numbers.  The
leaders of the movement, accompanied by a large number of others, went to
Morley, about a mile from Wymondham, and laid open the new enclosures;
and on returning to Wymondham, they destroyed all the fences by which the
commons and wastes were enclosed.  John Flowerdew, of Hethersett,
incensed at the destruction of his fences, gave forty pence to a number
of the country people to throw down the fences of Robert Kett, alias
Knight, whose pasture lay near Wymondham Fairstead.  They carried out his
wishes to the full, and on the following morning returned to Hethersett,
where, at Kett’s instigation, they laid open other enclosures of
Flowerdew’s.  After this, the rioters appointed Robert Kett and his
brother William, a butcher, to be their captains, and the movement soon
assumed the form of an organized rebellion.  The numbers of the rebels
quickly increased, and marching on Mousehold Heath, they took possession
of the mansion of the Earl of Surrey; and thence proceeded to lay siege
to the city.  They held courts of justice under a large tree, called the
“Oak of Reformation:” and having augmented their numbers to 16,000 from
the citizens, and strongly fortified their camp, they summoned the city
to surrender.  For months they maintained hostilities, and the country
round was pillaged and laid waste, until at length they gained an
entrance to the city, and took the mayor and several councillors
prisoners to their camp.  A strong force was thereupon sent down for the
defence of the city, under the Marquis of Northampton, and a regular
battle was fought at the base of the hill on St. Martin’s Palace Plain.
In this engagement Lord Sheffield was slain; and the rebels, having
forced the Marquis to retreat, plundered the city, and set fire to it in
many parts.  In short, all attempts to quell this violent insurrection
were ineffectual, till a large army, which had been raised to proceed
against the Scots, was ordered to march to the relief of Norwich, under
the command of the Earl of Warwick, who arrived under the city walls on
the 23rd of August.  On the following day, after making an ineffectual
offer of pardon to the insurgents, on the condition that they should lay
down their arms, the king’s troops commenced their attack; and having
made several breaches in the walls, and forced open some of the gates,
they soon entered the city, and took possession of the Market Place.  In
the midst of this scene of blood, the king’s ammunition carriages, having
entered apart from the main body of the army, were captured by the enemy,
but were soon retaken by a detachment from the Market Place.  A large
body of the rebels still remaining in the city now made a lodgement on
Tombland, and through their superior local knowledge, greatly annoyed the
soldiers by posting small parties at the angles of the different streets
leading to the Market.  The Earl of Warwick, however, brought out his
whole force to scour the city, and the rebels, after setting fire to
their camp, were obliged to quit their post on the hill and retreat to
Dussyn’s Dale, on Mousehold, resolving to finish the business by a
general engagement in the valley.

On August 27th, being re-enforced by a newly-arrived detachment of
troops, the Earl marched out of the city to attack the rebels, to whom he
again offered pardon, provided they would quietly lay down their arms;
but, confident in their numbers, they refused to capitulate.  A bloody
conflict ensued, but the rebels, being unaccustomed to the discharge of
artillery, were soon in confusion.  Of this the Light Horse took
advantage, and advancing to the charge, drove the rebels from the field
and pursued them with great slaughter.  Over 3000 were killed, and about
300 of the ringleaders were afterwards executed.  The gates of the city
suffered much damage during this insurrection.  The rebels set Bishop’s
gate on fire, with some of the houses in the street, and those belonging
to the Great Hospital.  Pockthorpe, Magdalen, St. Augustine, Coslany, and
Ber Street gates, shared the same fate.  When the disturbances ceased,
the repair of the city generally was commenced, and especially of the
gates.  Outside Magdalen Gates a gallows was erected, at which place and
at the cross in the Market Place 300 rebels were executed.  Two, styled
prophets, were hanged, drawn, and quartered, their heads being placed on
the towers, and their quarters on the gates.

Robert and William Kett were tried in London for high treason and
rebellion, and convicted.  On November 29th, they were delivered to Sir
Edmund Windham, High Sheriff of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, to
receive punishment.  Robert was conveyed to Norwich, and being brought to
the foot of the castle, was drawn up to a gibbet erected at the top, and
there left hanging alive till he died by famine; and his body, being
entirely wasted, at length fell down.  A similar sentence was executed
upon William, who was suspended alive upon the top of Wymondham steeple.
This fearful rebellion having been thus brought to an end, the citizens,
after the departure of the kings troops, began to repair the damages to
the walls and gates.  Unhappily, however, their trials were not yet over,
for the late disastrous occurrences were followed by such a scarcity and
dearness of provisions, that the corporation issued an edict, requiring
all the wealthier inhabitants to find corn for their own households
elsewhere, so that their poorer neighbours might have the exclusive
benefit of the city markets.


QUEEN MARY.


The Princess Mary was proclaimed here on July 18th, 1553, and was the
first English Queen in her own right, and the people of Norwich and
Norfolk rushed to her standard, impelled by the memory of Kett’s
rebellion.  The queen was a bigoted Roman Catholic, and in her reign
popery was revived in its worst form, associated with all the atrocities
of the most sanguinary persecution.  Protestants were gathered like fuel
for burning; and as for the Puritans, no fate could be too severe for
them.

In March, 1556, William Carman, of Hingham, was burnt in Lollards’ pit,
outside of Bishop’s Gate.  He was charged with being an obstinate
heretic, and actually having in his possession a bible, a testament, and
three psalters in the English tongue.

On July 13th, of the same year, Simon Miller, merchant of Lynn, and
Elizabeth Cooper, a pewterer’s wife, of the parish of St. Andrew, were
burnt together in Lollards’ pit.  On August 5th, Richard Crashfield, of
Wymondham, Thomas Carman, William Seaman, and Thomas Hudson, were burnt
for heresy in the same place.

On July 10th, 1557, Richard Yolman, a devout old minister, seventy years
of age, was burnt for heresy.  He had been curate to that learned and
pious martyr, Mr. Taylor, of Hadleigh.

As if a judgment had come on the country for such atrocities, the quartan
ague and a new sickness soon afterwards raged so violently, that it was
said that “fire, sword, and pestilence,” had swept away a third part of
the men of England; and it is recorded that ten of the Norwich aldermen
fell victims to the latter scourge.

During this short reign, the city was afflicted by the presence of those
merciless persecutors, Bishop Hopton and Chancellor Dunnings, at whose
instigation several martyrs to the reformed religion were burnt here in
1557 and 1558.  Happily the career of this bigoted, blood-thirsty,
priest-ridden queen, was cut short, and a new and brighter era dawned
upon the nation.


THE REIGN OF QUEEN ELIZABETH.


This queen ascended the throne on Nov. 7th, 1558, and was proclaimed here
on the 17th of the same month.  She was a zealous promoter of the
Reformation.  The form of worship used in the churches was similar to
that in the time of Edward VI.; but the protestants were almost as
intolerant in this reign as the Romanists had been before, though they
claimed the right of private judgment; and the principle of toleration
was not recognised for centuries by any church, or sect, or party.

In 1561, on the Guild day, the Duke of Norfolk, and the Earls of
Northumberland and Huntingdon, with many other nobility and gentry, dined
with the Mayor, William Mingay, Esq., in St. Andrew’s Hall, which could
scarcely contain the company and their retinue.  The entertainment is
said to have been very magnificent, and the expense of the feast amounted
to 32s. 9d.

In 1565, the prosperity of the city, which had begun to decline, was
again revived by the settling here of 330 Flemings and Walloons, who had
fled from the Netherlands, from the rigid persecution under the
sanguinary Duke of Alva.  In 1570, by the fostering encouragement of
Queen Elizabeth, the number of these foreign settlers had increased to
3925, and by the introduction of bombazine, and other manufactures, they
contributed much to the wealth and prosperity of Norwich.

During the long reign of Elizabeth, numerous conspiracies were formed for
the re-establishment of Popery, and in 1570, John Throgmorton, Thomas
Brooke, and G. Redman, were hanged and quartered here for having joined
in these traitorous enterprises.  In 1572, the Duke of Norfolk and
several other noblemen were attainted and beheaded for similar offences,
at London, York, and other places.  The Duke not only espoused the cause
of Mary, Queen of Scots, but even offered to marry that Roman Catholic
Princess.

In 1574, a rumour was spread of invasion by the so-called invincible
Armada.  Norwich, towards the general defence, exhibited on its muster
roll 2120 able men, of whom 400 were armed; the total number enrolled in
the whole county of Norfolk, being at the same time, 6120 able men, of
whom 3630 were armed.  Happily there was no occasion for their services,
the Armada being destroyed by a storm at sea.

Queen Elizabeth made a progress through Suffolk and Norfolk, from the
16th to the 22nd August, 1578.  She came on horseback from Ipswich to
Norwich, though she had several coaches in her train; and she lodged in
the Bishop’s Palace.  For several days she was entertained by splendid
pageantries, principally allusive to the trade and manufactures of the
city.  Whilst here she dined publicly in the North Alley of the Cathedral
Cloister, and often went a hunting on horseback, and to witness wrestling
and shooting on Mousehold heath.  The city records contain full details
of the pageantries on the occasion of the royal visit.  In no other city
was the Queen received with greater cordiality and pageantry than in
Norwich.  The corporation, the inhabitants, the clergy, with the nobility
and gentry of the county, contributed largely to afford the royal lady as
pleasant and costly a reception as should be pleasing to her as a
spectacle, and demonstrative of exuberant loyalty.  This joy was soon
turned into mourning; for, says a record known as the _Norwich Roll_,
“The trains of Her Majesty’s carriage being many of them infected, left
the plague behind them, which afterwards increased and contynued, as it
raged about a year and three quarters.”  Nearly 5000 fell victims to this
dreadful malady.

In 1578, Matthew Hamond, of Hethersett, wheelwright, a heretic and
blasphemer, being convicted of reviling the queen and of denying the
authority of the Scriptures, the Godhead, the atonement of our Lord Jesus
Christ, and the existence of the Holy Ghost, was set in the pillory on
May 13th, and both his ears were nailed.  Afterwards, on May 20th, he was
burnt in the castle ditch.  In 1587 and 1588 Francis Knight and Peter
Cole, of Ipswich, were burnt in the same place for their deistical
sentiments.

The Reformation was not only stayed, but thrown backward by this
arbitrary, despotic queen.  Though she was well disposed to reformation
in the abstract, yet the fear of popish influence and a jealousy for her
ecclesiastical authority over the church, made her act in the spirit of
the worst excesses of popery.  She persecuted all who disputed her
authority in religious matters.  In vain did the exiles return, hoping
for peace and “freedom to worship God.”  The expulsion of a multitude of
clergy, who refused to conform to many impositions, and the many
hardships suffered by the puritans, especially in Norfolk and Suffolk,
evinced that no concession was to be expected from her.  Her great idol
was perfect uniformity.  To enforce it, she passed many laws, which made
nonconformity worse than felony, and she treated the Puritan as a rebel
against all authority, both human and divine.  A beautiful “Memorial” of
the ministers of Norfolk is still preserved in vindication of their
loyalty, and in advocacy of greater liberty of conscience.  The result of
it, however, was that seven or eight of them were suspended in Norwich.
But instead of this being the means of stopping the progress of
Puritanism, the sincere inquirers after truth were incited by such harsh
measures to fresh investigations, and more emboldened to declare their
views.

In 1582, on a second return made of the strangers settled here, they were
found to be 1128 men; 1358 women; 815 children, strangers born; 1378
children, English born; in all 4679.  The whole population was about
15,000, and the citizens continued to return burgesses to parliament from
time to time, but not so frequently as in former reigns.  During this
reign William Kemp, a comic actor of high reputation, and greatly
applauded for his buffoonery, danced a morris dance all the way from
London to Norwich in nine days, and was accompanied by crowds of people
as he passed on from town to town.  When he arrived in Norwich he was
very kindly treated by the citizens, who turned out to meet him in large
numbers.

                                * * * * *

NORWICH PAGEANTS were celebrated during the middle ages, and occupy a
large space in the records of the corporation.  Books of the several
companies relating to the pageants have been lost except that of St.
George, but some additional information has come to light on the subject.
A series of extracts were made early in the last century from the
Grocers’ book, showing the proceedings and expenditure of that company in
regard to their pageants from 1534 to 1570, and also the versions of the
plays in 1533 and in 1563.  All the plays of that period were called
mysteries or miracle plays, and were founded on bible history.  The play
was performed in a carriage called a “House of Waynscott, painted and
builded on a cart with fowre whelys.”  Painted cloths were hung about it,
and it was drawn by four horses, “having head stalls of brode inkle with
knoppes and tassels.”  The vehicle had a square top with a large vane in
the midst, and one for the end, and a large number of smaller ones.  The
company was evidently unable to afford the cost of four horses in 1534;
only one was hired, and four men attended on the pageant with “Lewers.”
One of the plays was called “Paradyse,” and was performed by the Grocers
and Raffmen.  It begins much in the same manner as the Coventry play,
with God the Father relating the planting of the garden of Eden, the
creation of man and placing him there, and God’s intention to create
woman.  The other characters are Lucifer, Adam, and Eve, who exhibit the
incidents related in Genesis.  Of the good taste or propriety of these
entertainments any observation is needless.  They formed a remarkable
feature in the life of the middle ages, and show the childishness of the
people.  The dialogues in all these plays are puerile doggerel.


EMINENT CITIZENS OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.

_Dr. Legge_.


Few of the citizens of Norwich could make any pretensions as to birth,
whatever they might say about their birth-place.  Among the natives of
this city of obscure parentage may be mentioned Thomas Legge, LL.D., who
was educated in Trinity College, where he was fellow, as also at Jesus
College, till he was chosen by Dr. Kaye as second master of Kaye’s
College.  He was Dean of the Arches, one of the Masters of Chancery,
twice Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, and thirty-four
years Master of Kaye’s College.  Justus Lipsius eulogised him as a very
excellent antiquary, and as an oracle of learning.  He was a great
benefactor to this college, bequeathing £600 for the building of the east
part thereof, besides several lesser liberalities.  Thomas Bacon, the
fifteenth Master of Gonville Hall, had done great damage to it, and left
it in debt; but Dr. Legge and his two successors repaired all losses,
acting not so much like the masters as the stewards of the house.  Dr.
Legge was the author of two tragedies, namely, “The Destruction of
Jerusalem,” and “The Life of King Richard III.,” which last was performed
before Queen Elizabeth, with great applause, in St. John’s College Hall.
The doctor died July 12th, 1607, leaving the college his heir, and he was
buried in it, so that he left his native city only the barren honour of
his name.


_John Kaye_.


John Kaye, or as he is sometimes called, Caius, was born at Norwich in
1510, and studied in Gonville Hall, Cambridge, from which he removed to
travel abroad.  He took his degree of M.D. in the University of Padua.
In the reign of Edward VI. he was appointed principal physician at court,
a place which he enjoyed under both the Queens Mary and Elizabeth.  The
College of Physicians of London elected him one of their Fellows, and he
presided over that body several years.  Being very rich and desirous to
promote learning, he procured a charter from Queen Elizabeth dated 1565,
to turn Gonville Hall into a College; and he endowed it with the greater
part of his estate.  He lived as an ornament to his profession till July,
1573, when he died, aged 63, at Cambridge.  He wrote the “Antiquities of
Cambridge,” an excellent book; and he presented it to James I. as he
passed through his college.  The King said, “Give me rather _Caius de
Canibus_,” a work of his as much admired, but hard to be got.  He was
master of his college for some time, but in his old age he resigned that
office to Dr. Legge, a fellow commoner in his college, and a native of
Norwich.


_Archbishop Parker_.


Archbishop Parker, a native of Norwich, flourished in this reign, and was
a great benefactor to the city.  He was born August 6th, 1504, being the
son of William Parker, a wealthy citizen.  He was educated at the Grammar
School here, and in 1520 he was sent to Corpus Christi College, where he
took his degrees of B.A., M.A., and D.D., before 1538.  The Queen
afterwards appointed him Archbishop of Canterbury, and he was very active
in persecuting the Puritans here.  He was the author of many works which
showed much learning.  He died on May 17th, 1575, and was buried in
Lambeth Chapel.



CHAPTER XII.
Norwich in the Seventeenth Century.


THIS was a very eventful period in the annals of the city.  The century
opened with storms and inundations in the physical world, heralding
commotions in the political world.  On April 9th, 1601, a sudden storm of
hail and rain passed over the city, whereby the upper part of the
Cathedral spire, which had been lately repaired, was beaten down.  It
fell on the roof of the church, which it broke through, doing great
damage to it as well as to the walls of the choir.  The spire was split
on the south-east side from top to bottom.

James I. was proclaimed king on March 24th, 1602; and soon after he was
seated on the throne he granted a general pardon to the mayor, sheriffs,
and commons of this city, for all past offences.  The local occurrences
were not very important during this reign of 23 years.  There were,
however, great disturbances between the citizens and Dutch strangers
respecting trade rights and privileges.

In 1602, the plague raged with unusual fury in this country.  As many as
30,578 persons died in London, and 3076 in Norwich.  This visitation was
attended with so great a scarcity of food, that wheat sold for ten, rye
for six, and barley for five shillings per bushel.  In the summer of
1609, the city was again visited by the plague, though but few died of
it.

At the assizes held August, 1617, a dispute arose between Sir Henry
Montague, Lord Chief Justice of the Court of Queen’s Bench, and John
Mingay, Esq., then Mayor, concerning precedence.  This was occasioned by
the indiscretion of Sir Augustine Palgrave, Sheriff of Norfolk, who had
imprudently informed the Chief Justice that it was his right to sit in
the chair at the preaching place in the Green yard, with the Mayor on his
left hand.  This the Mayor opposed, resolutely asserting his right to the
chair; and the Chief Justice as resolutely insisted, being misled by the
information of the sheriff.  But this matter was afterwards set right,
and the sheriff was obliged to acknowledge his error, after having been
severely reprimanded by the Judge for misleading him.  On the next day, a
contest of the same kind happened between the High Sheriff and the
Sheriffs of Norwich; when, to prevent any disputes of the like nature in
future, it was determined that only the High Sheriff should attend the
Judges when they are upon the county business, and only the Sheriffs of
Norwich when they are on the city business.

Charles I. was proclaimed king, on March 1st, 1625.  The mayor of
Norwich, stewards, justices, sheriffs, and aldermen, were present at the
ceremony.

On March 31st, 1625, Charles I. was proclaimed in Norwich, and on May
13th following, Thomas, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl-Marshal of
England, was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of the county of Norfolk, and of
the city of Norwich, and county of the same.

On October 19th, 1625, the citizens petitioned the king to be released of
taxes, on account of their poverty and the ravages of the plague; and in
1641, the citizens petitioned Parliament, to be discharged from paying
£2500 assessed upon them, on account of their great poverty and the
impossibility of raising the money.

In 1626, writs of quo warranto were brought against the mayor, &c., for
refusing to furnish two ships of war demanded of them; and the
corporation, on the trial, which took place in 1629, obtained a verdict
in their favor, having proved that they neither used nor usurped any
privileges but what their charters warranted.  During this contest the
city raised a sum of money, and presented to the king by way of loan, as
settled by the lord keeper, lord treasurer, comptroller, and chancellor
of the duchy of Lancaster, who came hither for that purpose.

In 1627, an order arrived for levying 250 foot soldiers in the city of
Norwich and county of Norfolk, of which number the citizens were ordered
to furnish 25; but they would raise no more than 17, that being their
full proportion.

During this reign the plague raged with great violence in the city and
county.  On July 12th, 1625, the king issued a commission to the mayor,
&c., to scour the city ditches, to remove all nuisances in and about the
city, to repair the walls and turrets, and to tax all residing in the
several wards, according to their ability, toward the work; it being
thought very necessary, in order to stop the plague which had been
brought from Yarmouth, and begun to spread here.  The mayor had
previously requested the bailiffs at Yarmouth to order all the wherrymen
to carry no infected persons dwelling in their town to the city.
Constables of every ward gave notice that no person coming from London
should be entertained without notice given to the aldermen of their ward;
and watch was set at every gate, day and night, to hinder all persons
coming from infected places entering the city, and the carriers were
commanded to bring no such persons, nor any wool whatever.
Notwithstanding all this caution, the plague began to spread, so that on
July 23rd, the aldermen of every ward appointed “Searchers” in each ward,
to be keepers of such persons as were suspected of being infected.  The
bellman warned all the citizens to take their dogs and swine outside of
the walls, on pain of being killed.  On July 30th, the watch of the gates
ceased, it being known that the plague raged within the city.  Twenty-six
persons died of it in that week; and before August 11th, it had so much
increased, that it was resolved that every alderman should have power to
send his warrants to the city treasurers to relieve the infected persons;
and the plague abated that very week.  Orders were issued that the doors
of all persons who died of the disease should be nailed up and watched.
Every one who begged about the streets was whipped, because all the poor
were then relieved, so that no one had any excuse for begging for food.

In 1634, under date of March 23rd, a letter signed by the king, was
directed to the mayor, sheriff, and aldermen, requiring their constant
attendance at the sermon preached every Sunday morning, either in the
Cathedral or Green yard, and that they would be there at the beginning of
the service, after the manner observed in the city of London; and that
none be absent without the consent of the bishop.  On this point a court
was held, and it was ordered that the mayor and court should constantly
meet at the Free School, and thence proceed to church agreeably to his
majesty’s instructions; the king having great regard for their spiritual
welfare.


THE CIVIL WARS.


The first parliament of the reign of Charles I., in 1625, has been
severely censured on account of the penurious supply which it doled out
for the exigencies of a war in which its predecessors had involved the
king.  Nor is the reproach wholly unfounded.  A more liberal proceeding,
if it did not obtain a reciprocal concession from the king, would have
put him more in the wrong.  But the Puritans in parliament formed a
majority, and were determined not to vote money without a redress of what
they deemed to be grievances.  The king finding he could not obtain the
supplies he required from the House of Commons, determined to rule
without a parliament, and to raise money by some other means.  Hence the
contests between the king and the parliaments, which were often called
and soon dissolved.  This served only to aggravate the embarrassments of
the crown.  Every successive House of Commons inherited the feelings of
its predecessor, otherwise it would not have represented the people.  The
same men, for the most part, came again to parliament more irritated and
difficult of reconciliation with the sovereign than before.  Even the
politic measure, as it was fancied to be, of excluding some of the most
active members from seats, by nominating them sheriffs for the year,
failed of the expected success because all ranks partook of a common
enthusiasm.

In 1642, July 12th, the parliament voted and declared the necessity of
recourse to arms, and on the 29th of the same month, Moses Treswell was
apprehended for attempting to enlist men into the king’s service, after
having been forbidden to do so by the corporation.  The citizens
supposing that this act would be deemed a declaration against their
sovereign, ordered a double watch to be set in every ward, and a
provision of all military stores to be made.  They received a letter from
the parliament thanking them for their great services in sending up
Captain Treswell, and exhorting them to raise the militia, and to prevent
anyone from levying troops within their jurisdiction without consent of
parliament.  Soon afterwards, the king issued proclamations requiring the
assistance of his subjects against the rebels, but no regard was paid to
them in Norwich.  On the other hand, the magistrates ordered a general
muster of the trained bands and volunteers, and put the city into the
best state of defence, fearing an attack from the gentlemen of Norfolk
and Suffolk who had declared for the king.  As a further proof of their
zeal they sent fifty Dragoons for Colonel Cromwell’s regiment, which
composed part of the troops under Lord Grey of Wark, raised for the
preservation of the peace in the associated counties of Norfolk, Suffolk,
Essex, Cambridgeshire, Hertfordshire, and Huntingdonshire.  As soon as
these had marched, the magistrates raised a hundred more dragoons, and to
mount them, gave orders for seizing the horses of those citizens who
favoured the cause of the king, and who were called malignants.  On March
13th, the city raised fifty more Dragoons, and on March 26th, 1643, a
hundred men were ordered to be raised and sent to Cambridge to re-enforce
the associated army.  The weekly contribution levied by parliament on the
county was £1250 in the following proportions: Norfolk £1129, Norwich
£53, Lynn £27, Yarmouth £34 16s. 5d., Thetford £5 11s. 9d.  On April 2nd,
being Easter day, Captain Sherwood marched to Lynn with a hundred
volunteers to secure that town from any sudden surprise by the king’s
forces.  On August 12th, a meeting of the associated counties was
appointed on account of the danger with which the city was threatened by
the approach of the enemy, and the castle was ordered to be fortified.
Lincolnshire was also admitted amongst the associated counties.  Lynn was
garrisoned by the forces of the parliament, and fortified at the expense
of the Association.  On November 18th, four of the Court, representing
the Association, were fined £10 each for want of expedition in collecting
the proposition money, and the Earl of Manchester ordered the immediate
assessing and levying of such sums of money as should have been raised by
any edict of parliament.  This stringent commission was carried out by
force of arms.

In 1643, it having been agreed between the English and Scotch
commissioners that £100,000 should be immediately advanced to the Scots,
to enable them to put their army in march for England, an order was sent
down to Norwich for levying £6000, part of the said sum in the following
proportions; in Norwich, £265; in Yarmouth, £174; in Lynn, £132; in
Thetford, £27 18s. 9d., and the remainder in the county of Norfolk.

By order of the Court, on March 9th, 1644, seven pictures, taken from St.
Swithin’s Church, the Angel and Four Evangelists from St. Peter’s, Moses
and Aaron and the Four Evangelists from the Cathedral, and other
paintings, were publicly burnt in the Market Place.  A committee was
appointed to “view the churches for pictures and crucifixes,” in
consequence of which, these over-zealous Reformers committed all kinds of
outrages and excesses by destroying monuments in the churches, and
burning valuable paintings, as stated by Bishop Hall in his “Hard
Measure,” a pamphlet on the proceedings of the Puritans.  On Christmas
eve, 1645, the mayor issued orders to all the city clergy commanding them
neither to preach, nor to administer the sacrament, in their respective
churches on the day following, and to the inhabitants, charging them to
open their shops as on other days; so little did the Puritans in that age
understand the principles of toleration.

In 1648, a petition was presented to the mayor, &c., signed by 150
persons, praying for a more speedy and effectual reformation, and
complaining that their faithful ministers were discouraged and slighted;
the ejected ministers countenanced and preferred; old ceremonies, and the
service book constantly used, and the directory for worship almost
totally neglected; and further praying, that the ordinances against
superstition and idolatry might be put in strict execution; “so, shall
the crucifix on the cathedral gate be defaced, and another on the roof of
the cathedral neere the west door in the inside, and one upon the free
school, and the image of Christ on the parish house of St. George at
Tombland be taken down, and many parish churches more decently made for
the congregations to meet in.”  The mayor, John Utting, paying little
regard to this petition, was sent for to London, and Mr. Alderman Baret
put in his place.  After he was gone, the common people, having a great
affection for the mayor, went to the committee house, then on the site of
the present Bethel, where the gunpowder was kept, and set fire to
ninety-five barrels, which killed and wounded about one hundred persons
and greatly damaged the adjacent buildings.  For this outrage six of the
perpetrators were hanged in the Market Place.

On January 30th, 1649, King Charles was beheaded at Whitehall.  Soon
after the death of the king the House of Commons published a decree to
forbid the proclaiming of Charles Stuart, eldest son of the late king, or
of any person whatsoever, on pain of high treason; and afterwards enacted
that the kingly office should be abolished as unnecessary, burdensome,
and dangerous; and that the state should be governed by the
representatives of the people without king or lords, and under the form
of a Commonwealth.

In 1650, on discovery of an intended insurrection in Norfolk in favour of
King Charles, which was to have broken out on October 7th, several of the
conspirators were apprehended and tried at the new hall, in Norwich,
before three judges, commissioned by the parliament for that purpose.
Their sitting continued from December 20th to December 30th, and they
condemned twenty-five persons, who were all executed, some of them at
Norwich and others in different parts of Norfolk.

On June 24th, 1654, an ordinance was published for the six months’
assessment for the maintenance of the armies and fleets of the
Commonwealth, at the rate of £120,000 per month for the first three
months, and £90,000 per month for the rest.  Towards each monthly payment
of the last sum, Norwich raised £240 and Norfolk £4660.  On August 29th,
an ordinance was issued for ejecting scandalous and insufficient
ministers and schoolmasters; whose qualifications were to be tried by
commissioners appointed for that purpose in every county.  In consequence
of this ordinance many able divines in the kingdom were ejected from
their livings, and their places filled by such as best suited the views
of the ruling party.  During the Commonwealth, the city was put in
defence against the royalists, the castle was fortified for the service
of Cromwell, the goods of the bishops and clergy were sequestrated, the
bishops palace was sacked, the cathedral and churches were plundered and
defaced, and Bishop Hall was turned out and driven into retirement at his
palace in Heigham, which is still in existence, being used as a tavern
called the Dolphin.  He died there and was buried in the old church in
Heigham.  We shall speak more at length of this distinguished prelate in
our notice of “The Eminent Citizens” of the 17th century.

On the death of Oliver Cromwell, which happened on September 3rd, 1658,
the mayor of Norwich, like the mayors of other towns, received letters
from the privy council, notifying that event and the election of his son
Richard Cromwell to the dignity of Protector, and commanding him to
proclaim the said Richard protector of the three kingdoms, which was done
accordingly on the seventh of that month.  The new protector’s honours
were, however, but of short continuance; for in the month of April, 1659,
the army obliged him to dissolve the parliament which he had convoked,
and soon afterwards deposed him from his high office.  During the fatal
contentions respecting the prerogatives of the crown and the privileges
of parliament, the city suffered less than might have been expected, and
Norfolk less than many other counties.

                                * * * * *

The citizens, tired of strife and commotion, were among the first to hail
the return of monarchy in the person of Charles II., who was proclaimed
here on May 10th, 1660, and the sum of £1000 was presented to His
Majesty, on behalf of the city, by the mayor, who received the honour of
knighthood.  In 1663 the king granted to the city the charter by which,
with little interruption, it was governed till 1835, when the municipal
act came into force.  In 1670, Lord Howard presented the corporation with
a noble mace of silver gilt, and a gown of crimson velvet for the mayor.
In 1671, the king and queen and many nobles visited the city, and were
entertained in grand style at the palaces of the bishop and the Duke of
Norfolk.

In 1682, a majority of the corporation surrendered to the king the
charter which he had granted them nine years before, and in lieu of it a
new one was substituted not so favourable to the city; the king having
reserved the right of removing magistrates of whom he did not approve.

In 1687, by the mandate of James II., ten aldermen and nineteen
councillors were displaced; but the arbitrary conduct of that monarch
soon brought about his ruin, and when Henry, Duke of Norfolk, rode into
the Market Place at the head of 300 knights and gentlemen and declared
for a _free_ parliament, the corporation and citizens responded with loud
acclamations.  After the glorious revolution of 1688, the first charter
of Charles II. was restored to the city, and the aldermen who had been
removed were reinstated in their offices.

William and Mary, king and queen of England, began their reign on
February 13th, 1688, and during their reign the city flourished
exceedingly, and the country in general was prosperous.

In 1697 the coin was regulated afresh, the old money being called in and
recoined, for which purpose, mints were established in various places,
among others one in this city, which coined £259,371.  The quantity of
coin and plate brought in here to be coined was 17,709 ounces.

We may here give the statements of two eminent writers respecting Norwich
and Norfolk in this century.  Sir Thomas Browne, jun., in 1662, wrote as
follows about the city and county:—

    “Let any stranger find me out so pleasant a county, such good ways,
    large heaths, three such places as Norwich, Yarmouth, and Lynn, in
    any county of England, and I’ll be once again a vagabond and visit to
    them.”

And he wrote so with good reason.  Few, if any, of the cities of England
then contained more handsome buildings, or presented so good an
appearance as did the old city of Norwich, while only London and Bristol
surpassed her in the extent and importance of their commerce.  Lord
Macaulay, in his graphic History of England thus describes the state of
the city in the 17th century:—

    “Norwich was the capital of a large and fruitful province.  It was
    the residence of a bishop and of a chapter.  It was the seat of the
    manufacture of the realm.  Some even distinguished by learning and
    science had recently dwelt there, and no place in the kingdom, except
    the capital and the universities, had more attractions to the
    curious.  The library, the museum, the aviary, and the botanical
    gardens of Sir Thomas Browne were thought by the Fellows of the Royal
    Society well worthy of a long pilgrimage.  Norwich had also a court
    in miniature.  In the heart of the city stood an old palace of the
    Duke of Norfolk, said to be the largest town house in the kingdom out
    of London.  In this mansion, to which were annexed a tennis court, a
    bowling green, and a wilderness extending along the banks of the
    Wensum, the noble family of Howard frequently resided.  Drink was
    served to the guests in goblets of pure gold; the very tongs and
    shovels were of silver; pictures of Italian masters adorned the
    walls; the cabinets were filled with a fine collection of gems
    purchased by the Earl of Arundel, whose marbles are now among the
    ornaments of Oxford.  Here, in the year 1671, Charles and his court
    were sumptuously entertained; here, too, all comers were annually
    welcomed from Christmas to Twelfthnight; ale flowed in oceans for the
    populace.  Three coaches, one of which had been built at a cost of
    £500 to contain fourteen persons, were sent every afternoon round the
    city to bring ladies to the festivities, and the dances were always
    followed by a luxurious banquet.  When the Duke of Norfolk came to
    Norwich he was greeted like a king returning to his capital; the
    bells of St. Peter’s Mancroft were rung, the guns of the castle were
    fired, and the mayor and aldermen waited on their illustrious citizen
    with complimentary addresses.”



Eminent Citizens of the Seventeenth Century.

_Bishop Hall_.


Dr. Hall, Bishop of Norwich, the first English Satirist, was a noted
character in this century.  He was born July 1st, 1574, in Bristow Park,
within the parish of Ashby de la Zouch, in Leicestershire.  He was
educated by a private tutor till he was fifteen years of age, when he
removed to Cambridge, and was admitted to Emmanuel College, of which he
was a chosen scholar, and took the degree of Bachelor of Arts.  His
satires were published in 1597, 1598, and 1599, and added greatly to his
reputation by their pungency and classical style.  They equal the satires
of Juvenal and Persius on similar themes, and in lashing the vices of the
age.

Dr. Hall, in 1624, refused the bishopric of Gloucester, but in 1627 he
accepted that of Exeter, holding with it _in commendam_ the rectory of
St. Breock in Cornwall.  At this time he seems to have been suspected of
a leaning to the Puritans, and it must be allowed that his religious
views were more consonant with theirs than with the lax Arminianism of
Laud.  But at the same time, Dr. Hall was a zealous supporter of the
church.

On November 15th, 1641, he was translated, by the little power left to
the king, to be Bishop of Norwich, but having joined with the Archbishop
of York and eleven other prelates, in a protest against the validity of
such laws as should be made during their compulsory absence from
parliament, he was ordered to be sent to the tower, with his brethren, on
the 30th of January following.  Shortly afterwards they were impeached by
the Commons for high treason, and on their appearance in parliament were
treated with the utmost rudeness and contempt.  The Commons, however, did
not think fit to prosecute the charge of high treason, having gained
their purpose by driving them from the House of Lords, and Hall and his
brethren were ordered to be dismissed; but upon another pretext they were
again sent to the tower.  In June following, Hall was finally released on
giving bail for £5000!  He returned to Norwich, and being received with
rather more respect than he hoped for, in the then state of public
opinion, he resumed his duties, frequently preaching to large
congregations, and enjoying the forbearance of the predominant Puritan
party till April, 1643, when the destruction of the church was
contemplated.  About this time, the ordinance for sequestrating notorious
delinquents having passed, and our prelate being included by name, all
his rents were stopped, his palace was entered, and all his property was
seized.  A friend, however, gave bond for the whole amount of the
valuation, and the bishop was allowed to remain a short time in his
palace.  While he remained there, he was continually exposed to the
insolence of the soldiery and mob, who demolished the windows and
monuments of the cathedral.  At length he was ordered to leave his
palace, and would have been exposed to the utmost extremity, if a
neighbour had not offered him the shelter of his humble roof.  Some time
afterwards, but by what interest we are not told, the sequestration was
taken off a small estate which he rented at Heigham, to which he retired.
The house in which he lived, now called the Dolphin Inn, is still
standing, and should be carefully preserved as a memorial of a great and
good man.

Bishop Hall, in his tract _Hard Measure_, has given a most touching
account of the treatment he experienced.  He says in his tract “The
Shaking of the Olive Tree:”—

    “It is no other than tragical to relate the carnage of that furious
    sacrilege whereof our eyes and ears were the sad witnesses, under the
    authority and presence of Linsey, Tofts the sheriff, and Greenwood.
    Lord, what work was here; what clattering of glasses, what beating
    down of walls, what tearing up of monuments, what pulling down of
    seates, what wresting out of irons and brass from the windows and
    graves, what defacing of armes, what demolishing of curious stone
    work which had not any representation in the world, but only of the
    cast of the founder, and skill of the mason; what toting and piping
    upon the destroyed organ pipes, and what a hideous triumph on the
    market day, before all the country, when, in a sacrilegious and
    profane procession, all the organ pipes, vestments, both copes and
    surplices, together with the leaden crosse which had been newly sawn
    down from over the green yard pulpit, and the service book and
    singing books that could be had, were carried to a fire in the public
    Market-place; a lewd wretch walking before the train in his cope
    trailing in the dirt, with a service book in his hand, imitating in
    an impious scorne the tune and usurping the words of the litany
    formerly used in the church.  Neer the publick crosse all these
    monuments of idolatry must be sacrificed to the fire, not without
    much ostentation of a zealous joy in discharging ordinance to the
    cost of some who professed how much they longed to see that day.”

The good bishop’s sufferings did not damp his courage, for in 1644, we
find him preaching in Norwich whenever he could obtain the use of a
pulpit; and with yet more boldness, in the same year he sent _A modest
offer of some meet considerations in favour of Episcopacy_ addressed to
the Assembly of Divines.  During the rest of his life he appears to have
remained at Heigham, unmolested, performing the duties of a faithful
pastor, and exercising such hospitality and charity as his scanty means
permitted.  He died, September 8th, 1656, in the 82nd year of his age,
and was buried in the church of St. Bartholomew, in Heigham.  In his
will, he says:—

    “I leave my body to be buried without any funeral pomp, at the
    discretion of my executors, with the only monition that I do not hold
    God’s house a meet repository for the dead bodies of the greatest
    saints.”

He left a family behind, according to Lloyd, of whom Robert, the eldest
son, was afterwards a clergyman, and D.D.  His wife died in 1647.  His
prose works were published at various periods in folio, quarto, and
duodecimo.  They were collected in a handsome edition of 10 vols.,
octavo, by the Rev. Josiah Pratt, and are his best memorials.  The
“Meditations” have been often reprinted.  As a moralist, he has been
called the British Seneca.


_Sir Thomas Browne_.


Sir Thomas Browne flourished in this century in Norwich, as a Physician.
Dr. Johnson wrote a memoir of him, from which we learn the following
particulars.  He was born in London, in the parish of St. Michael, in
Cheapside, on October 19th, 1605.  Of his childhood or youth there is
little known, except that he lost his father very early; that he was,
according to the common fate of orphans, defrauded by one of his
guardians; and that he was placed for his education at the School of
Winchester.  He was removed in 1623 from Winchester to Oxford, and
entered a gentleman commoner of Broadgate Hall, which was soon afterwards
endowed and took the name of Pembroke College, from the Earl of Pembroke,
the Chancellor of the University.  He was admitted to the degree of B.A.,
January 31st, 1626–7, being the first man of eminence who graduated from
the new college, to which the zeal or gratitude of those that love it
most can wish little better than that it may long proceed as it began.
Having afterwards taken his degree of M.A., he turned his attention to
physic.  He practised it for some time in Oxfordshire, but soon
afterwards, either induced by curiosity or invited by promises, he
quitted his settlement and accompanied his father-in-law, who had some
employment in Ireland in the visitation of the forts and castles, which
the state of Ireland then made necessary.  He left Ireland and travelled
on the Continent, and was created an M.D. at Leyden.  About the year 1634
he is supposed to have returned to London; and the next year to have
written his celebrated treatise, called _Religio Medici_, or, “The
Religion of a Physician,” which excited the attention of the public by
the novelty of paradoxes, the dignity of sentiment, the quick succession
of images, the multitude of abstruse allusions, the subtlety of
disquisition, and the strength of language.  At the time when this book
was published the author resided at Norwich, where he had settled in
1636, by the persuasion of Dr. Lushington, his tutor, who was then rector
of Burnham Westgate, in West Norfolk.  His practice became very
extensive, and in 1637 he was incorporated Doctor of Physic, in Oxford.
He married in 1641, Mrs. Mileham, of a good family in Norfolk.  He had
ten children by her, of whom one son and three daughters survived their
parents.  In 1646, Sir Thomas Browne published his “Enquiries into Vulgar
and Common Errors,” which passed through many editions.  In 1658, the
discovery of some ancient urns in Norfolk, gave him occasion to write
“Hydriotaphia, Urn-burial, or, a Discourse of Sepulchral Urns;” in which
he treats with his usual learning on the funeral rites of ancient
nations, exhibits their various treatment of the dead, and examines the
substances found in the Norfolcian urns.  To this treatise on Urn-burial
was added the “Garden of Cyrus; or, the Quincuxial Lozenge, or Network
Plantation of the Ancients, Artificially, Naturally, Mystically
Considered.”  He doubted the Copernican hypothesis, on the same ground as
some divines distrust the Cuvierian system of Geology, as opposed to
Genesis.  These were all the tracts which he published, but many papers
were found in his closet.  Of these, two collections were published in
1722, and all his works were issued in a cheap form by G. H. Bohn, and
are in the Norwich Free Library.  To the life of this learned man there
remains little to be added, but that in 1665 he was chosen Honorary
Fellow of the College of Physicians, as a man “_Virtute et literis
ornatissimus_,” eminently embellished with literature and virtue.  In
1671, he received at Norwich, the honour of Knighthood from Charles II.,
a prince, who, with many frailties and vices, had yet skill to discover
excellence and virtue, to reward it with such honorary distinctions, at
least, as cost him nothing.

Sir Thomas Browne, in 1680, wrote a _Repertorium_, or Account of the
Tombs and Monuments in the Cathedral Church of Norwich.  The basis of the
work was a sketch hastily drawn up twenty years previously on the
information of “an understanding singing man,” ninety-one years old, in
order to preserve the remembrance of some of the monumental antiquities
which barbarous zeal had destroyed.  The reckless character of these
ravages has thus been exhibited in a description made on the spot and at
the moment, by one who suffered in his person, property, and health.

Thus the knight lived in high reputation, till he was seized with a
colic, which, after having tortured him for about a week, put an end to
his life at Norwich, on his birthday, October 19th, 1682, having
completed his 77th year.  Some of his last words were expressions of
submission to the will of God, and fearlessness of death.  He lies buried
in the Church of St. Peter Mancroft, within the rails at the east end of
the chancel, with this inscription on a mural monument, placed in the
south pillar of the altar:—

                                  M. S.
                              HIC SITUS EST
                           THOMAS BROWNE, M.D.
                                ET MILES.
                         Ao 1605.  LONDONI NATUS
         GENEROSA FAMILIA APUD UPTON IN AGRO CESTRIENSI ORIUNDUS.
                    SCHOLA PRIMUM WINTONIENSI, POSTEA
                             IN COLL. PEMBR.
                      APUN OXONIENSES BONIS LITERIS
                          HAUD LEVITER IMBUTUS.
                    IN URBE HAC NORDOVICENSI MEDICINAM
               ARTE EGREGIA, ET FŒLICI SUCCESSU PROFESSUS,
                 SCRIPTIS, QUIBUS TITULI, RELIGIO MEDICI
                    ET PSEUDODOXIA EPIDEMICA ALIISQUE
                           PER ORBEM NOTISSIMUS
               VIR PIENTISSIMUS, INTEGERRIMUS, DOCTISSIMUS;
                         OBIIT OCTOBR. 19, 1682.
                       PIE POSUIT MŒSTISSIMA CONJUX
                             Da DOROTH.  BR.

Mr. Simon Wilkin, F.L.S., in a supplementary memoir, states that Dr.
Browne steadily adhered to the royal cause in perilous times.  He was one
of the 432 principal citizens, who, in 1643, refused to subscribe towards
a fund for regaining the town of Newcastle.  Charles II. was not likely
to have been ignorant of this, and he had, no doubt, the good feeling to
express his sense of it by a distinction which was, no doubt, gratifying
to Sir Thomas Browne.  Sir Thomas is supposed to have lived in the last
house at the south end of the Gentleman’s Walk, where the Savings’ Bank
now stands.  Blomefield asserts that he lived where Dr. Howman then
lived, (1760) and that he succeeded Alderman Anguish in that house; and
Mr. Simon Wilkin says that he ascertained by reference to title deeds,
that the last house at the southern extremity of the Gentleman’s Walk,
Haymarket, belonged, in Blomefield’s time, to Dr. Howman.  This house was
for many years a china and glass warehouse, and tradition has always
asserted it to be Dr. Browne’s residence.  The last occupier was Mr.
Swan, and the house was pulled down to make room for the Savings’ Bank.
It contained some spacious rooms.  In the drawing room there was, over
the mantel-piece and occupying the entire space of the ceiling, a most
elaborate and richly ornamented carving of the royal arms of Charles II.,
no doubt placed there by Sir Thomas to express his loyalty, and to
commemorate his knighthood.  In Matthew Stevenson’s poems, 12mo, 1673,
there is a long poem on the progress of Charles II. into Norfolk, in
which the honour conferred on Browne is thus noticed:—

    “There the king knighted the so famous Browne,
    Whose worth and learning to the world are known.”

Early in October, 1673, Evelyn went down to the Earl of Arlington’s, at
Euston, in company with Sir Thomas Clifford, to join the royal party.
Lord Henry Howard arrived soon afterward, and prevailed on Mr. Evelyn to
accompany him to Norwich, promising to convey him back after a day or
two.  “This,” he says, “as I could not refuse I was not hard to be
persuaded to, having a desire to see that famous scholar and physician,
Dr. T. Browne, author of the _Religio Medici_, and _Vulgar Errors_, &c.,
now lately knighted.”  After arriving in Norwich, Evelyn says:—

    “Next morning I went to see Sir Thomas Browne, with whom I had some
    time corresponded by letter, though I had never seen him before.  His
    whole house and garden being a paradise and cabinet of rarities, and
    that of the best collections, especially medails, books, plants, and
    natural things.  Amongst other curiosities, Sir Thomas had a
    collection of the eggs of all the foule and birds he could procure,
    that country (especially the promontory of Norfolk) being frequented,
    as he said, by severall kinds, which seldome or never go further into
    the land, as cranes, storkes, eagles, and a variety of water foule.
    He led me to see all the remarkable places in this ancient city,
    being one of the largest, and certainly, after London, one of the
    noblest in England for its venerable Cathedralle, number of stately
    churches, cleanesse of the streets, and buildings of flints so
    exquistely headed and squared, as I was much astonished at; but he
    told me they had lost the art of squaring the flints in which they
    once so much excelled, and of which the churches, best houses, and
    walls are built.  The Castle is an antique extent of ground which now
    they call Marsfield, and would have been a fitting area to have
    placed the ducal palace in.  The suburbs are large, the prospects are
    sweete, with other amenities, not omitting the flower gardens, in
    which all the inhabitants excel.”

At that time the hamlets of Thorpe, Lakenham, and Heigham, were all
fields or cultivated grounds and gardens, and the city was interspersed
with gardens.


_Dr. Samuel Clarke_.


Samuel Clarke, D.D., was the son of Edward Clarke, one of the Aldermen of
Norwich, where he was born in 1675, and where he was educated at the
Grammar School, his father being at that time one of the representatives
of the city in parliament.  In 1691, he was entered as a student in Caius
College, Cambridge, where his great capacity for learning was soon
developed, and where he became distinguished as a metaphysician,
mathematician, and divine.  He was the author of many works, the chief of
which was a “Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God.”  Upon his
entering into holy orders, he became Chaplain to the learned Dr. Moore,
Bishop of Norwich, with whom he lived in great esteem, having the
advantage of the fine library of that prelate.  In 1704, he was called to
an office worthy of all his learning, namely, that of lecturer on Mr.
Boyle’s foundation.  He preached sermons concerning the Evidences of
Natural and Revealed Religion, which will always be highly esteemed.
Soon afterwards, he was presented to the living of St. Bennet’s, near
Paul’s Wharf, London, and where he constantly preached without notes.  In
the same year he translated the _Optics of Sir Isaac Newton_ into elegant
Latin, which was so acceptable to that great philosopher, that he
presented £500 to the divine, being £100 for each of his children.  He
was soon after made one of the Chaplains in Ordinary, and in 1709, Queen
Anne presented him to the Rectory of St. James’, Westminster, when he
went to Cambridge and took his degree of Doctor of Divinity.  He died on
May 17th, 1729, aged 54 years.


_Robert_, _Viscount of Yarmouth_.


In 1683 died the Rt. Hon. Robert, Viscount of Yarmouth, Baron of Paston,
Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk and Norwich.  He was buried at Oxnead.  His
funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. John Hildeyard, LL.D., then
rector of Cawston, and it was afterwards published.  At page 27 there is
the following passage, referring to the deceased viscount:

    “Great was his love to the ancient, loyal, and honourable corporation
    of Norwich, because the members of that body, generally speaking,
    loved the king; they found him their friend and, _maugre_ the blast
    of calumny, the _new charter_ shall remain a token of it.  He spared
    no cost nor pains, as themselves can witness, to make the world
    believe that he loved them.  Most of the tables of his house were
    spread together for their entertainment, and all his friends employed
    to bid them welcome; nay, his very sleep was ofttimes broken to find
    out ways how best to serve them, and he commended the care of the
    city with his last breath, to all his best friends, and the blessing
    of God.”

Happy corporation, that had such a friend; but Blomefield says,

    “Whatever the Dr. (Hildeyard) might think of it, the effects of the
    new charter now began to be too visible, for Mr. Nic Helwys was
    chosen mayor, and eleven common council in room of those eleven of
    the sixty common council appointed by the charter, which were not
    qualified; but such choice was of no force till confirmed by the
    king, who sent a letter under the privy seal, dated at Windsor, May
    17th, signifying by the Earl of Arundel that he approved of them, and
    the names of the two elected sheriffs were signified to the Lord
    Lieutenant, and that they were persons of loyalty, and therefore they
    desired his lordship to give his gracious Majesty information thereof
    in order to his approbation.”



_Dr. John Cosin_.


John Cosin, D.D., was born in this city in 1594, and finished his studies
in Caius College, Cambridge, where he took his last degrees.  When he
entered into holy orders he was presented to a Prebendary in the
Cathedral Church of Durham, and appointed Archdeacon of the East Riding
of Yorkshire.  But the civil wars breaking out, and he being an active
Papist, he was obliged to seek refuge abroad till the Restoration in
1660, when he returned, and was promoted first to the Deanery of
Peterborough, and then to the Bishopric of Durham.  He died at Durham,
aged 78, in 1672.


_Dr. John Pearson_.


John Pearson, D.D., was the son of a Clergyman in Norwich, where he was
born in 1613.  He received the first rudiments of learning at Eton,
whence he was removed to King’s College, Cambridge, where he finished his
studies, and took his degrees.  His first ecclesiastical preferment was a
Prebendary of Salisbury; and soon afterwards he was chosen Rector of St.
Clements, East Cheap, where he remained till 1660, and where he wrote his
learned explanation of the Creed.  At the Restoration, he was appointed
Archdeacon of Surrey, and afterwards he was promoted to the See of
Chester, where he continued till his death, in 1686.


_John Goslin_.


John Goslin, a native of Norwich, flourished in the 17th century.  He was
first Fellow and then Master of Caius College, in Cambridge, Proctor of
that University, and thrice Vice Chancellor thereof, a general scholar,
eloquent Latinist, and a rare physician, in which faculty he was Regius
Professor.  He was a great benefactor to Catherine’s Hall, but left his
native city only the honour of his name.  He died in 1625.


_The Rev. John Carter_.


The Rev. John Carter was an eccentric character in the city during this
century.  He was born at Bramford, in Suffolk, in 1594, and became upper
minister of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, which position he held from 1638
to 1653.  He preached three extraordinary sermons before the corporation,
preparatory to the guild day festival in 1644, 1647, and 1650.  The title
of the first is “The Nail Hit on the Head, and Driven into the City and
Cathedral Wall of Norwich;” of the second, “The Wheel Turned by a Voice
from the Throne of Glory;” and the third, “A Rare Sight; or, the Lyon
Sent from a Far Country, and Presented to the City of Norwich in a Sermon
upon the Solemne Guild Day, June 18th, 1650.”  The third sermon fills 150
pages, is the length of several modern sermons, and must have occupied
two hours and a half in the delivery; a terrible long grace to a guild
day dinner.  It is ornamented with many wood cuts, among which is the
lion in various attitudes, couchant, guardant, rampant, passant, &c.,
giving the preacher opportunities of displaying his knowledge of, at
least, the terms of heraldry, and sarcastically to apply them to the
magistracy.  He says:—

    “In one respect, your city arms do very well befit you.  It is a lion
    with a castle over it.  Many of you can be like lions, very
    courageous, so long as you have a castle over you for protection and
    countenance; but take away the castle, and who will expose himself to
    danger?  What a sordid thing is this!  There is a lion couchant, but
    never did I hear of a lion crouchant, or current, a fearful and
    dastardly lion.  Who among you will strike down a disorderly
    ale-house, if the brewer that serves it be an alderman, a rich man,
    or a friend?”

The rest of the discourse is replete with coarse expressions, biting
sarcasms, and party prejudices, not likely to have edified, and much less
to have pleased the congregation.



CHAPTER XIII.
Nonconformity in Norwich.


THE Church of Rome reigned supreme over all Europe for a thousand years,
but in the 15th century, reason revolted against her authority.
Lutheranism and Calvinism were the first forms of the revolt on the
Continent, and they assumed the names of Presbyterianism and Puritanism
in England and Scotland.  Norwich, in common with Norfolk and Suffolk,
eventually took up the cause of the Reformation with a zeal and vehemence
which make them stand alone in the annals of history.

Norwich Nonconformists, in times of the fiercest persecution, held many
prohibited meetings, which were sometimes discovered in different parts
of the city.  Norfolk, situated as it is in the eastern coast, was the
refuge of many protestants, who fled from the Netherlands to escape from
the severe persecutions of the infamous Duke of Alva.  Even before this
time, there were many in the county and city who objected to the new
service book, or English liturgy, published by the authority of Edward
VI.

The Reformation made much progress here in the reign of this young and
pious king; but even then a disposition lingered to retain and enforce
some of the Romanist rites and ceremonies.  The excellent Bishop Hooper,
who after all became a martyr, would probably have lost his life simply
for refusing to wear the priestly vestments, through the rigour of Bishop
Ridley (who himself afterwards suffered martyrdom) had he not at length
consented to wear them at his consecration.  The Baptists, the
Unitarians, and all who went beyond the new state model were consigned to
the flames.

Bishop Hooper was born in the year 1495, and was burnt in the reign of
Queen Mary.  The sixty years of his life formed the most important period
of English history.  When he was born, the Reformation had just begun;
when he died it had struck such deep roots amongst the people, especially
of Norwich and Norfolk, that neither force, nor persecution, nor argument
could stop its progress.  In Bishop Hooper’s time, and in his diocese of
Gloucester, the ignorance of the clergy was amazing.  Out of 311 of his
clergy he found 168 unable to repeat the ten commandments; 31 out of the
168 could not tell in what part of the Bible the ten commandments were to
be found; 40 could not tell where the Lord’s prayer was given, and 31 did
not know who was the author of it.  In Norfolk and Norwich the clergy
were quite as ignorant of Scripture.  They practised all kinds of
impositions on the people who were debased by superstition, immorality,
and vice.  There was over all the land a darkness which might be felt.
The people had no bibles nor testaments, and the prayers of the church
were all in Latin, and of course the people could not understand them.
There was scarcely any preaching at all, but instead thereof profane
miracle plays were performed in the cathedral, and were paid for like any
other dramatic performance.

In 1574, so notorious was the city for the nonconformity of many of the
ministers, that when orders were given to Archbishop Parker “to punish
the Puritan ministers, and put down the prophecyings, and readings, and
commenting on the Scriptures, which had been introduced into the church,”
the queen gave him private orders to begin with Norwich.  Accordingly, in
1576, many of the Norwich ministers were suspended and treated so
severely, that even the Norfolk justices presented a petition to Her
Majesty, praying for lenity towards them.

Robert Brown, a clergyman of Norwich, originated the sect of the
Brownists, afterwards called the Independents.  He was at one time a
zealous promoter of that system, but English societies existed before
him, holding similar views.  According to Sir Walter Raleigh, 20,000
persons at least held independent principles of ecclesiastical polity.
Amongst these were many men of great learning and distinction, all of
whom were commanded to quit the realm.  Wherever found, they were
imprisoned, with or without law, for life.  Elias Thacker and John
Copping suffered death at Bury St. Edmund’s.  John Lewis was burnt at
Norwich.  Francis Kett, M.A., for holding “detestable opinions,” was also
burnt alive in Norwich.  William Dennys was a martyr in the same cause,
at Thetford.  Greenwood, Barrow, and Penry fell as martyrs of conscience.
Johnson, Smith, Answorth, Canne, Robinson, and Jacob, only escaped by
flight to Holland, and found liberty there to form several churches, and
to compose an elaborate account of their doctrines and principles, a fact
which testifies to their enlightened piety and superior learning.

In the reign of James I. no favour was shown to the Puritans, but on the
contrary, severities were continued.  The king amply fulfilled his threat
to the Puritans at the Hampton Court conference;—“_If this be all your
party has to say_, _I will make them conform or harrie them out of the
land_, _or else do worse_.”  By these proceedings the country was
rendered almost destitute of preachers, and scandalous men undertook the
care of souls in place of the zealous refugees.  This King James
published the “Book of Sports,” in vindication of the encouragement of
various games on the sabbath day.  Bishop Kennett styles it “A trap to
catch tender consciences,” and a means of promoting the ease, wealth, and
grandeur of the bishops.  This book was, in the next reign, (Charles I.)
republished by the bigotted Archbishop Laud; and it was ordered to be
read in every church throughout the kingdom.  The bishop of Norwich, then
Bishop Wren, was very peremptory on this and other points.  He is said to
have driven upwards of 3000 persons to seek bread in a foreign land.  The
woollen trade of Norwich, which had been created by the Flemish refugees,
was mostly in the hands of the Puritans, and the rigorous measures of
this prelate nearly destroyed it by banishing them.

Mr. W. Bridge, M.A., was the lecturer of St. George Tombland, Norwich, up
to the year 1637.  He was a pious and learned man, who held other livings
and performed his duties well.  To him, on a certain day, came Bishop
Wren’s order to read the “Book of Sports” on the next Sunday in church.
He sat in dejection, with the odious volume before him, abhorring the
profaneness of its contents and its daring contradiction of Scripture.
He resolved not to read it.  He took counsel of his brethren, and several
of them together refused compliance, fled to Yarmouth, and thence with
sad hearts embarked for Holland, where they spent many anxious years,
hoping to be allowed to return.  Laud informed King Charles I. that
Bridge had left two livings and a lectureship and had fled to Holland;
and the king wrote against his name this bitter sentence: “_We are well
rid of him_.”  It was an expression worthy of a bigoted and worldly mind.
Thus it appears that the reformation was not the work of kings or
bishops, or the great and learned.  The history of those times is the
history of persecuting power in opposition to the progress of the
Gospel—an opposition the more dreadful inasmuch as it was carried on
under the pretence of doing service to religion.

The Reformed Church of England acknowledged the right of private judgment
in theory, but ignored it in practice.  The Puritans, on the other hand,
carried it out to its legitimate consequences; and Milton, their great
champion, advocated absolute freedom of thought and speech as the
birthright of every man.  No doubt Puritanism ran into some excesses of
bigotry and intolerance, but it was an intolerant age.  Puritanism,
however, preserved civil and religious liberty and the right of private
judgment, and perpetuated that right to all sects and classes of the
nation.  Puritanism has been charged with the sin of schism, but the
early reformers were forced into it by persecution for conscientious
scruples respecting points of doctrine and discipline.  William Bridge,
Asty, Allen, Cromwell, and Fynch, all were thrown out of their livings by
the Act of Uniformity, and became Nonconformist ministers in Norwich.
Without any conference the question put to them was, “_Will you upon oath
conform_?”  The answer was, “We cannot.”  Immediate expulsion followed.
Where, then, was the sin of schism?  Their sin would have been in
conformity.  They would have proved to the world that they were mere
hirelings, like the “Vicar of Bray,” who changed his religion to please
the reigning sovereign of the day.  Bridge, returning with some others to
his native county, founded the first Independent church at Yarmouth about
1642.  A year later the church at Norwich was formed into a distinct
body.  They met at first in a brew-house in St. Edmund’s, afterwards in
the refectory over the cloisters in the convent formerly belonging to the
Black Friars.


THE INDEPENDENTS.


We shall now briefly advert to the rise of the Nonconformist religious
denominations in this city, and quote a passage from a discourse by the
Rev. A. Reed, delivered at the Old Meeting House, Norwich, on February
27th, 1842, on the occasion of the second centenary.  He said,—

    “There is no doubt that in or about 1641 many refugees returned to
    their homes in Norwich, Yarmouth, and other places.  Those who
    returned to the two former localities had been united together in
    fellowship with the church at Rotterdam.  They earnestly desired
    that, as they had been companions in suffering, they might not cease
    to form one church.  The difficulty was where to fix the joint
    society.  Norwich offered liberty and opportunity.  But the proximity
    of Yarmouth to the sea was desirable for safety.  Early in 1642 they
    met, probably in Norwich, to discuss the point; and agreed to send to
    Rotterdam for leave to gather in fellowship here.  The assent reached
    them in the autumn, authorizing them to form a church at Norwich or
    other place.  On November 23rd, 1642, they met to form a church.
    Most of the members’ names, twelve in all, we find afterwards
    attached to the Norwich covenant.  They did not settle the question
    of place at this meeting.  The Yarmouth church book records a
    resolution to fix the church at Norwich for the present.  They met
    again for this purpose, and the brethren at Norwich, out of an
    earnest desire to finish the work of incorporating a church, yielded
    that the church meetings (i.e. ordinances and meetings for admission
    of members) should be for the present at Yarmouth.  The church was to
    settle with all convenient speed where most liberty and opportunity
    appeared, and wherever the increase of the church was greatest; but
    none of them were required to remove their habitations at present.
    Soon after this agreement, however, the Norwich brethren find these
    concessions too inconvenient; they beg that the church may be settled
    at Norwich, and that the Yarmouth people would remove to the city.
    At length they consent reluctantly to part company, and a separate
    church is formed at Norwich.  But the materials for the society
    already existed, and owing to these facts, the early date of 1642
    appears to me to belong as much to us as to our sister society at
    Yarmouth.”

The records of the congregational church at Beccles contain information
of much historic value to all the congregational churches in Norwich,
Norfolk, and Suffolk, and from those records the following particulars
are derived.  On June 10th, 1644, the Church at Norwich in the Old
Meeting House was regularly formed.  Mr. Oxenbridge, assistant pastor at
Yarmouth, and several of the Yarmouth brethren were present, when the
covenant was adopted and signed afresh.  On July 26th, 1647, Mr. Timothy
Armitage was unanimously chosen pastor.  The members were 32 in number.

After the death of Mr. Armitage, in 1655, Mr. Thomas Allen, M.A., gave up
the station he held of “Preacher to the City” in January, 1656, to become
pastor of the Old Meeting.  During his long ministry of 17 years, the
cause continued to flourish, the congregation being large.  He died
September 21, 1673.

On October 9th, 1675, Mr. John Cromwell was ordained pastor, and Mr.
Robert Asty an assistant pastor.  Mr. Asty was an ejected minister of
Suffolk, an author, and a useful, devout preacher.  Still the church
grew, and was the centre of much good to the city and county, for many
congregations were established in Norfolk and Suffolk, at Wymondham,
North Walsham, Guestwick, Tunstead, Stalham, Edgefield, and other places.

Then followed, about 1685, Mr. Martin Fynch, who was an ejected clergyman
of Totney, in Lincolnshire.  An elaborate inscription yet remains on his
tombstone, to record his worth and usefulness.  He was carried to his
grave on the shoulders of his deacons, amidst great lamentations of the
whole church and congregation.  About two or three years before his
death, a handsome and spacious brick edifice was erected, which is the
present Old Meeting House.  In 1688, the Revolution promoted the cause of
religious liberty.  Many distinguished residents in the city now joined
the nonconformists, and the resources of the society were increased by
endowments left for the benefit of the poor, and other purposes.

Mr. John Stackhouse succeeded Mr. Fynch in 1690, and continued pastor for
17 years.  Towards the close of his pastorate, the church began to suffer
from its altered circumstances.  It had become far too worldly for its
spiritual welfare.  The bonds of unity, so long preserved by Christian
charity, grew weak.  The members divided in reference to the choice of a
co-pastor, and the dispute ran so high, that the minister and most of the
congregation were actually driven out of their place of worship, and were
obliged to fit up a meeting house in the ruins of the Black Friars’
convent.  Mr. Stackhouse died without witnessing a reconciliation between
the mutually offended parties.

Mr. Thomas Scott left the pastorate of the church of Hitchin, in Herts,
and settled in Norwich in 1709.  The two parties were reconciled under
his ministry, and he returned to the Old Meeting House about 1717, under
very favorable auspices.  His son, Mr. Nichol Scott, became his
assistant, and a most unhappy difference on a point of doctrine once more
kindled the flame of discord.  The son was dismissed in 1737, and numbers
of his hearers left with him.  For a time he lectured in the French
Church, but finding little encouragement, he became a doctor of physic,
and practised in the city.  The father’s mind was so shattered by the
dispute, that he became almost unfit for ministerial work.  He died in
1746.

Mr. Scott was, in his latter years, assisted by Mr. Abraham Tozer, who
now succeeded to the charge at Norwich.  Dr. Doddridge assisted at his
ordination, and Mr. Samuel Wood was chosen co-pastor with Mr. Tozer.  On
the removal of the latter to Exeter, Mr. Wood, afterwards Dr. Wood, held
the pastoral office for twenty years.  The church enjoyed, under his
care, a season of prosperity and peace, and the meeting house was densely
crowded.  He died, November 2nd, 1767, much lamented.

Mr. Samuel Newton, who had been assistant preacher, was ordained pastor
February 16th, 1768, and continued in the office fifty-six years.  He
gave the second list of the whole number of members, which had increased
to 108.  He had five assistants in succession.  Mr. Hull was the last
assistant, and on the death of Mr. Newton, June 29th, 1809, succeeded him
in the pastoral office.  The number of members increased to 112 in 1811,
and to 156 in 1820.  Mr. Hull officiated fourteen years, and then
resigned in consequence of a disagreement with the deacons.  He became a
church clergyman and perpetual curate of St. Gregory’s in this city.

The Rev. Stephen Morell removed from Exeter and was chosen pastor in June
17th, 1824, and he died in October of the same year.  The church next
invited the services of the Rev. J. B. Innes, of Weymouth, in 1825, and
being chosen pastor, he continued in the office twelve years.  He died in
April, 1837.  He was greatly beloved by his personal friends, and his
character and talents were held in general esteem.

The vacant office was next filled by the Rev. J. H. Godwin, who was
ordained to it on December 6th, 1837.  After fulfilling the pastoral
duties for two years, he became resident tutor of Highbury College.  The
Rev. A. Reed was then invited to fill the office, and became pastor over
a church of 190 members.  He continued till 1855, and then removed to a
wider sphere of labour.  The Rev. John Hallett was invited in the
following year, and is now the esteemed minister of the church.  Mr.
Hallett, in a recent contribution to the pages of the _Evangelical
Magazine_ on the history of the Old Meeting House, says:—

    “The Rev. A. Reed, B.A., now of St. Leonard’s, was Mr. Godwin’s
    successor till 1855.  Under his superintendence, bicentenary
    services, commemorating the foundation of the church, were held,
    which, judging from published and oral reports, must have been of a
    stirring and deeply interesting character.  Spacious school-rooms
    were erected, and large day-schools established.  Many still live in
    our midst who gratefully attest the faithfulness and success of Mr.
    Reed’s pastorate.

    “In April, 1856, the writer was, he believes, divinely led to occupy
    the vacant post.  For obvious reasons, the history of the last twelve
    years must remain untold.  It may, however, be stated that the
    present pastor, like his predecessor, has had the privilege of
    celebrating a bicentenary.  For reasons before assigned, it will
    probably be conceded that nowhere was it more proper that a
    bicentenary commemoration of the ejectment of 1662 should be held
    than in this Old Meeting House, and that a more fitting way of
    commemorating it could not be devised than that of enfranchising the
    building in which some of them laboured, and the ‘yard’ in which they
    sleep.  This was accordingly done.  The premises, which were
    leasehold, and the lease of which was nearly expired, were purchased
    and repaired at a large outlay, and then put in trust for the
    denomination.  ‘Thus, for nearly two centuries, has the Lord
    preserved to Himself a worshipping people in this place.  Thousands
    have found this ancient sanctuary the very ‘House of God,’ and,
    literally, ‘the gate of Heaven,’ and are now enjoying the full glory
    they anticipated here.  And,’ adds my predecessor, with a
    thankfulness and faith in which I fully share, ‘still the waters flow
    strong and deep, and the banks are green with promise, and through
    future ages the brook shall not be dried up, but with purer, wider,
    stronger, and more fertilizing current, shall form one of those
    millennial streams wherewith the whole earth shall be watered as a
    fruitful garden of the Lord.’”



THE BAPTISTS.


Mr. Martin Hood Wilkin, in his life of Joseph Kinghorn, gives the
following account of the origin of the Baptist denomination.  A General
(Arminian) Baptist Church was formed in Norwich in 1686 by the learned
and zealous Thomas Grantham.  They purchased a part of the White Friars’
Priory in St. James’s, on the site of which they built the Meeting House
now known as the Priory Yard Chapel.  From this Church several members
separated at a very early period and formed the Particular (Calvinistic)
Baptist Church, over which Mr. Kinghorn afterwards presided.  Of its
history he has left a somewhat elaborate sketch in the notes of the last
sermon he preached in the Meeting House, in St. Mary’s, before it was
taken down in 1811.  He says,

    “Of the origin of this Church I find no record.  The first date in
    our old Church book is 1691.  In 1693, we find an account of
    admonition given to a brother who had, ‘for several years past,’
    withdrawn himself from the Communion of the Church. * * * I find a
    statement of the sentiments of the Church in that time, entitled,
    ‘The several articles of our faith, in which with one accord we
    agree.’  Of the state of the Church I can say but little.  A list of
    55 members follows, which appears to have been the number at that
    time.  Of their minister I can say still less, except that the second
    and third articles in the book are drawn up with that precision which
    marks the junction of talent and education, especially at a time when
    few had any claim to the advantages of a classical education.  One of
    these is signed ‘Edward Williams, pastor.’ * * * * At this time our
    ancestors met for the worship of God in the ‘Granary,’ in St.
    Michael’s Coslany.  Their baptisms were performed in the river.  At
    one period, a friend had premises convenient, and in the memory of
    some now alive, they were used for that purpose; but such is the
    effect of habit, that the prejudice in favour of a mode so primitive
    continued some time after better conveniences were obtained.  From
    this period nothing of importance is to be discovered till 1745.
    Then the premises which stood on this spot were purchased and the
    Meeting (house) was erected, which was nearly two-thirds the size of
    the present building.  When it was finished I do not find, but from a
    private record I am informed, that Mr. Lindoe, who for many years was
    an honourable and valued deacon, was the first person baptised in
    this house, and this was on March 15th, 1746.  From this period, for
    some time, the Church seems to have worn a flourishing appearance on
    the whole.  They had a minister, Mr. John Stearne, who was evidently
    a superior man.  He died in July, 1755.  Rev. George Simson, M.A.,
    from Cambridge, accepted a call from Mr. Stearne’s Church, went to
    Norwich, in 1758, continued there two or three years, and then
    removed to Warwick, where he had formerly been pastor, and where,
    weighed down by age and infirmities, he died suddenly in 1763.  After
    this period there was an evident decline for some years, though to
    what extent I am not able to say.  Afterwards there was an appearance
    of prosperity.  In 1766 I find a list of members again, amounting to
    59, the largest number hitherto met with, but alas! after that
    period, there was much to be lamented.  There was the evil conduct of
    some, and a spirit of division in others, which all tended to
    mischief. * * * * But we are now approaching a period within the
    remembrance of many of you, in which it will be useless to attempt to
    trace the history of events which you know.  Suffice it then, to say
    that causes already mentioned brought the Church and congregation
    down to a very low ebb, when Mr. David, whose name I have heard so
    many of you repeat with esteem and affection, first came here.  On
    his ordination, the list of members that appeared in the Church book,
    and which included all the members as they stood at that time, was
    only 31; and now events took a turn.  The short period of his life
    was distinguished by its utility.  The Meeting House became too small
    for the congregation, and in 1783, it was enlarged to its present
    size.”

Such is Mr. Kinghorn’s account (condensed) of the early Baptist Churches.
After a visit to the North, he returned to Norwich in July, 1789, and
then commenced the long career of his ministry at St. Mary’s Chapel,
though the invitation to the pastoral office was not received till some
months afterwards.  He rigidly adhered to what is called “strict
communion” in his Church, admitting only those who had been immersed to
the Lord’s supper; and on this point he maintained a long controversy
with Mr. Robert Hall, of Bristol, who advocated “free communion” with all
believers in a Work published in 1815.  The Rev. J. Kinghorn was much
esteemed by his numerous friends, including Mrs. Opie, J. J. Gurney,
Esq., Rev. J. Alexander, Bishop Bathurst, Mr. W. Wilkin, Mr. W. Taylor,
and others, of Norwich, and many more men of learning all over the
country.  He took rank among the Nonconformists with Mr. R. Hall of
Bristol, Mr. Foster, the author of _Essays on Decision of Character_, Mr.
Innes, and Mr. James A. Haldane, of Edinburgh.

The following TRIBUTARY LINES are by MRS. OPIE, on hearing it said that
J. Kinghorn “was fit to die.”

    “Hail! words of truth, that Christian comfort give!
    But then the ‘fit to die,’ how fit to live!
    To live a bright example to mankind,
    ‘Feet to the lame and eyesight to the blind!’
    To lift the lamp, the word of God, on high;
    To point to Calvary’s mount the sinner’s eye;
    To tread the path the first Apostles trod,
    And earn that precious name, ‘a man of God.’
    He lived whom Christian hearts deplore,
    And hence the grief—he lives for us no more.
    But faith exulting joins the general cry,
    He, fit to live, was greatly fit to die!”

Mr. Kinghorn was succeeded by the Rev. W. Brock, who was the esteemed
pastor for many years, and is now the minister of Bloomsbury Chapel,
London.  He was followed by the present minister, the Rev. G. Gould.

                                * * * * *

The Calvinistic Methodists in Norwich seem to have been originated by Mr.
James Wheatley, who came to the city about 1750, and preached at first in
the open-air, on Tombland and the Castle Hill.  Great excitement was
produced, and a temporary building was soon erected, and called the
Tabernacle.  The site has been changed, but the name is still retained.
The present Tabernacle was built in 1784.

The Wesleyan Methodists first appeared in Norwich in 1754, when the Revs.
John and Charles Wesley visited the city, and the Rev. J. Wesley preached
here for some time, and on leaving, appointed Mr. T. Oliver in his room.
One of his successors was the Rev. R. Robinson, afterwards at Cambridge,
who also preached for some time at the Tabernacle; and another was Dr.
Adam Clarke, the learned Commentator, who was appointed in 1783, but left
in 1785.  Their first chapel was built in 1769, in Cherry Lane.



CHAPTER XIV.
Social State of the City from the Fourteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries.


BEFORE we proceed to chronicle the leading local events of the 18th
century, it may not be altogether unprofitable to review briefly the
social state of the city during some 300 or 400 years preceding.  In
doing this we may now and then have to advert to matters to which we have
alluded already; but at the risk even of an occasional repetition, it
will be worth while—in order to help our readers to appreciate subsequent
improvements at their proper worth—to consider a little more minutely
than we have yet done, the physical circumstances under which the
citizens have lived in former centuries, and the various influences to
which they have been subject.

A “Chapter of Horrors” might be written, descriptive of the plagues,
pestilences, famines, floods, and fires, which devastated the city and
county for 300 years.  It would seem as if the darkness and gloom of the
physical world corresponded at times with the superstitions and vices of
the people.  The dark ages were ages of terrible calamities, and England
was then a terrible country to live in.  Plagues and pestilences now and
again desolated the whole land, and Norfolk and Norwich did not escape
the ravages of diseases emphatically named the “Black Death.”
Exaggerated accounts must have been given of the desolations caused by
these various scourges, or else both city and county must have more than
once lost the great part of their inhabitants.

Blomefield is responsible for very dark pictures indeed; but his
statements, right or wrong, have been endorsed by later compilers of
local history.  We are told, by one writer, for instance, that:—

    “In 1348, the plague, which had lately ravaged the greatest part of
    the known world, broke out in this city; wherein there died,
    according to the most credible accounts, within the space of twelve
    months, upwards of 57,000 persons, besides religious and beggars; and
    this will not appear very surprising, when we consider that in some
    places not one-fifth part of the people were left alive, and that
    Norwich was more populous at that time than it has ever been since.
    It then contained sixty churches, besides conventual ones, within the
    walls; and the large parishes of Heigham and Pockthorpe, and the
    large chapel of St. Mary Magdalene without them.”

Such is the astounding statement in a local history printed by John
Crouse, in 1768.  Where he got his “credible accounts” he does not say,
and he moreover gives the statement of the Domesday Book, that in 1086,
the city contained only 1565 burgesses; so that the population must have
increased in 250 years to a most fabulous extent, for 57,000 persons to
have died of the plague in 1348.  In 1377, a census was taken of some
large towns, and Norwich was then found to contain 5300 people.  But in
truth the number, 57,000, very probably applied to the whole diocese, for
the same local history states:—

    “This severe visitation was not confined to the city alone, but
    cruelly extended itself all over the diocese; so that in many
    monasteries and religious houses, there were scarce two out of twenty
    left alive.  From the register book it appears that in the course of
    the year there were 863 institutions.  The clergy dying so fast, that
    they were obliged to induct into livings numbers of youths who had
    but just received the tonsure.”

The register in question was, no doubt, one of the whole diocese.

In 1361 there happened a great dearth, attended by the plague; this was
called the second pestilence.  And on January 15th, in the same year,
there arose so furious a storm of wind from the south west, as to throw
down the tower of the cathedral, which falling on the choir demolished a
great part of it.  The storm raged violently for six or seven days, and
was succeeded by a prodigious fall of rain, which occasioned incredible
damage by inundations.  Where the inundations occurred is not stated in
the local history, but if in the city the damage must have been great
indeed.

In 1369, the plague broke out afresh and carried off great numbers of
people very suddenly.  Yet in 1371, the citizens were commanded to
furnish the king with a good barge, sufficiently equipped for war to
serve against his enemies, the French and Spaniards.  This does not
indicate that the city had been almost depopulated only a few years
before.  Indeed, during all this time the citizens had been doing their
best by legal contests to hinder Yarmouth being made a staple town,
though they did not succeed.

About 1390 a great mortality broke out in the city, occasioned by the
people eating unwholesome food; and this not so much from a scarcity of
corn as of money to purchase it.  The plague raged greatly in Norfolk and
in many other counties, and was nearly equal in severity to the first
great pestilence.  So states the local narrative which we have just
quoted; and yet, according to the census of 1377, as already stated, the
population was only 5300!  What reliance then can be placed on such
accounts?  The calamities recorded were, no doubt, sufficiently awful
without the aid of exaggeration.

In 1578, the plague again broke out, and continued to rage nearly two
years; destroying 2335 natives and 2482 strangers.  During the infection,
it was ordered that every person coming from an infected house, should
carry in his hand a small wand two feet in length; and that no such
person should appear at any court or public place, or be present at any
sermon; and that the inscription, “Lord have mercy on us,” should be
placed over the door of every infected house, and there remain until the
house had been clear of the infection for one month at least.

In 1583, the plague broke out once more, and 800 or 900 persons died of
it, chiefly “strangers;” and in 1588, the same disease again raged in the
city, but not very violently.  Notwithstanding all these awful
visitations, no proper sanitary measures appear to have been adopted.

In 1593, there happened so great a drought, that many cattle perished for
want of water; but it is stated that in the year following it scarcely
ceased raining, day or night, from June 21st to the end of July.

In 1602, the plague again raged with almost unprecedented fury, there
dying thereof 30,578 in London, and 3076 in Norwich.  This visitation,
moreover, was attended with so great a scarcity, that wheat sold for ten,
rye for six, and barley for five shillings a bushel—a very high price in
those days; and the poor in the city must then have been in a dreadful
state of destitution.  Again, in the summer of 1609, the city was visited
by its former scourge, though but few died of it.  The mayor received a
letter from the privy council to keep up the ancient strictness and
severity of lent, as if the poor had not fasted long enough!

In 1625, we find that something like sanitary measures were begun.  On
July 12th of that year, the mayor received a commission authorising the
body corporate to levy a tax on all the inhabitants, to be applied
towards scouring the ditches, and the removal of all nuisances in and
about the city, the better to prevent the spreading of the plague which
had lately broken out in Yarmouth, having been occasioned by the arrival
there of some infected persons.  These precautions not having the desired
effect, the Black Tower, then on Butter Hills, was fitted up for the
reception of the afflicted poor.  In September, about 40 died in a week,
and the plague raged till May, 1626, when it began to abate.  As many as
1431 persons died while the disease continued.

In 1646, the plague again made its appearance in Norwich, but its effects
were not very fatal.  In 1665, however, it broke out once more, and made
dreadful ravages; carrying off 2251 persons.  During its continuance, at
the instance of the County Magistrates, the Market was held in the Town
Close, and the City was not quite cleared of the disease till the end of
1667.  The Bishop then ordered September 19th to be observed as a day of
general thanksgiving to God for His great mercy in putting a stop to the
pestilence.  All quite right and proper, but had there been more
cleansing as well as praying, the city might not have suffered so
severely.  The Corporation had utterly and entirely ignored its chief
duty in regard to all sanitary rules and regulations.  There was scarcely
an apology for a system of drainage, and never a sufficient supply of
water.  The poor people were cooped up in narrow yards, courts, and
streets, and, on account of high prices, could seldom obtain wholesome
food.  They had a terrible revenge in these direful plagues, which
destroyed the rich in their fine houses, as well as the poor in their
hovels.

Some idea of the social state of the city during this period may be
formed from a few gleanings from the City Records, from which it will
appear, that from the 14th till the 18th century, though the authorities
neglected to improve the sanitary condition of the city, they took great
care to protect the people from frauds of brewers, traders, and
manufacturers, who were at least strongly suspected of being addicted to
dishonest practices.  Mr. R. Fitch, of this city, has published some
interesting notices of “Brewers’ Marks and Trade Regulations.”  These are
of great historical interest, and we therefore make no apology to our
readers for reproducing the following extracts:—

    “Scarcely a trade was exempt from these regulations, some of which
    were attended with espionage so peculiar and strict as to lead us to
    wonder why public opinion, although in those days admittedly weak,
    was not so far aroused as, by its own voice, to free the community
    from some of the petty, if not the heavier restrictions.

    “Brewers, we discover, had especial symbols of their own, which they
    registered when licensed to follow their occupations, and it was also
    found that these marks were borne by successive followers of the same
    trade, until the business of succeeding firms became extinguished by
    the death or retirement of the last of a long line of brewers, and
    then only did the particular symbol fall into disuse.

    “From the year 1606 to 1725, no less than fifty separate marks have
    been found in the City of Norwich, some of them being borne as
    symbolical of a particular brew-house, by eight or nine persons, who
    followed each other in one and the same occupation.  These marks were
    noted in a variety of documents, belonging to the Corporation, one
    preserved in their muniment room.  They appeared, for instance, in a
    ‘Brewer’s book,’ or the book of the ‘Clarke of the Market,’ and in
    books recording the proceeding of city courts and assemblies.  The
    following extracts taken from the ‘Brewers’ Book’ relate to the
    government of all brewers’ houses and tippling houses, fully bearing
    out the opinion previously expressed as regards the strictness of the
    laws by which such places were regulated.

    “‘The enquirie for Brewers to ye Booke of ye Clarke of ye Market, and
    is taken out of his booke:—

    “‘Items, to be enquired of Ale brewers; whether they brewe their ale
    of anie maner of fustie, dustie, or wealved maulte, mixed or mingled
    with any hoppes, roson, chalke, or any other noisome or unwholesome
    corn or liquor.

    “‘And yt they make noe rawe ale or long roping ale, keeping their Ale
    fixed, yt is to say, twelve pence highning and twelve pence lowning
    in a quarter of maulte.  For when ye mace buy a quart of maulte for
    two shillings, then ye may sell a gallon of ye best ale for an halfe
    penny; three shillings, three farthings; foure shillings, foure
    farthings; five shillings, five farthings; six shillings, six
    farthings; seven shillings, seven farthings; eight shillings, eight
    farthings; nine shillings, nine farthings; and so forth and no
    further.

    “‘And to sell a quarte of the best ale for a halfe penny, with
    measures true sized, and sealed according to the King’s standard, and
    doing the contrarie to be punished.

    “Thus it appears that brewing was a very ancient business in this
    city in the 16th century, and the best ale was sold for a half penny
    per quart before the iniquitous malt-tax was imposed.

    “The following are extracts from the statutes, &c.

    “‘Statute 23, Henry 8.  That no Brewer shall hence forth occupie ye
    misterie or craft of coupers, no make any barrells, &c., wherein they
    shall put their beer or ale.  Penalty 3d. 4d. for every vessell.

    “‘Every vessell to be made of seasonable wood, and marked with ye
    coupers’ mark, ye contents of every vessell for Beer, as above said
    or more.

    “‘Coupers not to inhance ye prices of vessells, but keepe this rate,
    on forfeit of 3d. 4d. for every vessell, defective or enhanced, viz.
    Barrell for beer, ixd.; Kynderkyn, vd.; Ferkyn, iijd.; Ale Barrell,
    xvjd.; Kynderkyn, ixd.; Ferkyn, vd.  Brewers not to put Beer or Ale
    to sale but in Barrells, &c., conteyning as above said.  And to sell
    at such prices as affixed by ye Justices of ye Peace of ye County, or
    Maior, Sheriff, or other head officers of City, Borough, and Town
    Corporate, under forfeiture as above, under Beere brewers out of
    Clarke of Markets book, half to ye king, and half to him who will
    sue.’”

    “No doubt other traders, as well as brewers and keepers of tippling
    houses, were regulated by corresponding laws.  Indeed this appears
    from the records and orders in the books of the corporate assembly.
    In the 8th year of Edward IV., the mayor issued an order in the name
    of the king, that brewers were not to sell yeast, but to give it away
    to whoever wanted it, as it had been freely given away time out of
    mind.  By the 4th and 5th of Philip and Mary, it was enacted that:—”

    “No bere bruer to brewe nor sell to any typpler, or other person, any
    bere called doble doble bere, but only two sorts of bere, viz., best
    bere and small bere, upon forfeit of ye beer and cask.”

    “According to the Brewers’ Assembly book, 30th July, 1657, the
    brewers agreed, by reason of 2/6 excise per barrel, that they would
    not sell any strong beer to any ale-house keeper, under 12/- per
    barrel of beer, and excise.  It was also agreed in August, 1657, that
    ale-house keepers might sell one wine quart of strong beer for a
    penny.  There were three sorts of beer of different prices, viz.,
    4/-, 6/-, and 10/- per barrel, beside excise.  The brewers of beer
    petitioned strongly against the tax of 2/6 per barrel, as a great
    hardship and injustice.  The names of 40 brewers are recorded in this
    city, from 1600 to 1725.”

    “Brewers’ marks are entered as early as 1606, and as late as 1725.
    The mark, No. 1, John Boyce, was first borne by Henry Woodes, in
    1606, and after him by five successive brewers, ending with this John
    Boyce, in 1725.  As yet, the regulations relating to trade marks
    generally are very imperfectly known, leaving a wide field of
    research to those who desire further information.  The same marks
    passed from one brewer to his successors, and they were held in all
    their integrity, till within a century and a half of our own time.
    It would be an important contribution to local history, if all the
    rules relating to trade could be collected and elucidated.”



CHAPTER XV.
Norwich in the Eighteenth Century.


THE Reformation had now become an established fact in the Churches of
England and Scotland; the glorious Revolution of 1688 had been
accomplished; the civil wars were over, and the country enjoyed a long
period of repose.  Local events had, it is true, become of less
importance, because less connected with general history; but the
narrative will not be the less interesting to local readers.  Walls and
gates still surrounded the old city, and confined it within narrow
limits.  All the principal streets within the walls were now built.  The
population had increased to 28,000, the working classes being chiefly
employed in textile manufactures, which were in great demand all over
Europe.  The operatives were well employed and well paid during the
greater part of this century.  It was, in short, a flourishing period in
the history of Norwich, as regards its manufactures and its trade.

Queen Anne was proclaimed here on March 12th, 1701, and was crowned on
April 3rd, 1702, with extraordinary exhibitions of joy.  In this year,
too, the art of printing, which had been for some time discontinued here,
was revived, and Francis Burgess soon afterwards opened a printing office
near the Red Well.  In 1701, the first newspaper, called the Norwich
Gazette, was published by Henry Cosgrove, he being assisted in the
undertaking by the celebrated Edward Cave, the original planner and
founder of the _Gentleman’s Magazine_, which was first published in 1731.
The Gazette was subsequently enlarged, and called the _Norfolk Chronicle
and Norwich Gazette_, published by Messrs. Stevenson and Matchett.  The
former gentleman was a learned antiquarian, and published “The
Antiquities of Ely.”

In 1705, the Weavers’ Hall was broken open, and the books were destroyed,
since which time the custom of sealing stuffs has been disused.  What was
the cause of the tumult does not appear.

In 1706, a great part of the city was laid under water by two violent
floods, both of which happened in the month of November.

In 1711, the first act was passed for erecting workhouses, &c., in this
city; by which it was provided—

    “That from and after the first day of May, 1712, there shall be a
    corporation to continue for ever, within the said city of Norwich and
    county of the same, and liberties thereof, consisting of mayor,
    recorder, and steward, justices of the peace, sheriffs, and aldermen
    of the said city for the time being, and of thirty-two other persons
    of the most honest, discreet, and charitable inhabitants of the said
    city and county, in the four great wards of the said city, and the
    towns, and out parishes in the county of the said city, in such
    manner as is hereinafter expressed, and the said thirty-two persons
    shall be elected on the third day of May next ensuing, or within
    three days after, at an assembly of the said city, for that purpose
    to be held, by the votes of the mayor, sheriffs, citizens, and
    commonalty, in common council assembled, or of the major part of them
    present.”

Then follow the provisions of the act by which all the parishes in the
city were incorporated for the relief of the poor.  The Court of
Guardians was constituted, and empowered to assess to the poor rates all
lands, houses, tenements, tithes, stock, and personal estates.  The
assessment of stock and personal estate, as may be easily imagined,
caused great dissatisfaction amongst the rate-payers possessed of
property, and was abolished in 1827, when a new act was obtained which
considerably altered the constitution of the court.  This act was further
amended by another passed in 1831, and that was superseded in 1863, by
the act at this time in force.

In 1712, the steeple of the new Hall, now St. Andrew’s Hall, fell down
and was never rebuilt.

In 1713, the Duke of Ormond was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Norfolk and
Norwich, in the room of Lord Townshend.

George I. was proclaimed here on the 3rd of August, 1714, two days after
Queen Anne died.

In 1714 a Bethel was built for the reception of poor lunatics by Mrs.
Mary Chapman—one of the first charitable foundations in this country for
those unhappy persons.  In 1717 she endowed the same by her will, in
which is the following pious clause:—

    “Whereas it has pleased Almighty God to visit and afflict some of my
    nearest relations with lunacy, but has blessed me with the use of my
    reason and understanding; as a monument of my thankfulnesss for this
    invaluable mercy, I settle Bethel, &c., for this purpose.”

She was the widow of the Rev. Mr. Chapman, minister of St. Lawrence.

In 1715, in consequence of the rebellion in the north, an artillery
company of 100 men was first raised in Norwich.  William Hall, Esq., was
their captain.

On January 8th of the same year, Sir Peter Seaman, an Alderman, died and
left provision for binding out two poor city boys yearly.  On December
17th of the same year, Thomas Hall, Esq., merchant, died.  He founded a
monthly sacramental lecture; bequeathed several legacies to charities,
and left £100 for a gold chain to be worn by the Mayor of Norwich, and
which is the same as is now worn by the deputy mayor.  It weighs 23 ozs.
6 dwts.  Mr. Hall was interred with great funeral pomp at St. George’s
Colegate.  His portrait was presented by John and Edward Taylor, Esqs.,
to the corporation, and was placed in the common council chamber, May,
1821.

An act was passed in 1722 for the better qualifying of the manufacturers
of stuffs and yarns to act as magistrates, and for regulating the
elections of such officers.

About this time another act was passed for clearing, deepening,
extending, maintaining, and improving the haven and piers of Great
Yarmouth, and for deepening the rivers flowing into the harbour; and also
for preserving ships wintering in the haven from accidents by fire.  For
these purposes certain duties were to be paid for 21 years after Lady
day, 1723, on all goods unladen in the haven of Yarmouth, or in the sea
called Yarmouth roads.  This act was very important to the navigation
between Yarmouth and Norwich.

In 1724 the Sheriff’s Office was rebuilt, and the statue of Justice
placed on the Guildhall.  Alderman Norman died the same year, and left an
estate in Norwich for charitable purposes.

About this time the society of “Free and Accepted Masons” appeared
publicly in this city.  Mr. Prideaux, son of the Rev. Dr. Prideaux, Dean
of Norwich, author of “The Connection between the Old and New
Testaments,” was the first Master here.  Their lodge was at the Maid’s
Head Inn.  B. Bond Cabbell, Esq., has within the last few years bought
the old Assembly Rooms in Theatre Street for the Order.

On September 28th, 1725, a petition was presented to the mayor and
corporation, signed by the principal traders in Norwich, requesting the
use of the New Hall in St. Andrew’s for an Exchange, which was
immediately granted.  On October 4th of the same year, the court,
attended by nearly 200 gentlemen and principal tradesmen, came to the New
Hall in St. Andrew’s, which was then opened and solemnly proclaimed to be
an exchange, on which occasion the Recorder (Stephen Gardiner, Esq.)
delivered the following address:—

    “Gentlemen,—This place is now opened with an intent to promote
    traffic and commerce.  Here, formerly, God was worshipped, though in
    a corrupt manner; and may the consideration of the sacred use this
    building has been put to so far influence all that shall resort
    hither, that nothing in the course of business may be here transacted
    but with great justice and honesty.  I wish success to this
    undertaking, and the prosperity of the city in every respect.”

The hall continued open as an exchange only one year, and it was open
every day in the week except Saturdays and Sundays, which proves that a
considerable mercantile trade must have been carried on in the city at
that time.  Soon afterwards was begun the impolitic system of local
taxation in trade, which has almost ruined Lynn and Yarmouth, and which
greatly retarded the prosperity of Norwich.  In 1725 the corporation
obtained an act, which came into operation on May 1st, 1726, for levying
tolls upon all goods or merchandise brought up the river higher than
Thorpe Hall.  The dues were to be applied towards rebuilding the walls
and bridges, &c., but this was done to a very small extent.

On February 24th, 1726, in consequence of the proceedings of the
Pretender, Charles Stuart, who endeavoured to secure the crown of
England, a loyal address of the corporation was presented to King George
I. by the city members.  That monarch died at the palace of the Bishop of
Osnaburgh, on his way to Hanover, on June 11th, 1727.

George II. and his Queen Caroline were crowned on October 11th, 1727, and
there was a grand illumination and bonfire here in honour of the event.

In 1729 an act was passed for the better regulating the city elections,
and for preserving the peace, good order, and government of the city; and
at an assembly on the Guild eve, the mayor and aldermen of Norwich first
sat in the council chamber, and the common council in their own room; for
by that act a majority of each body was required to a corporate order,
whilst, before it passed, the two bodies sat, debated, and voted
together.  In 1730, under this act, three nominees for each of the four
great wards were first elected, who returned the remaining number of
common councilmen, sixty in the whole.

In 1730, the _Norwich Mercury_ was first issued by William Chase.  It was
afterwards published for many years by the late Mr. Richard Mackenzie
Bacon and Mr. Kinnebrook.  Mr. R. M. Bacon was the editor, and one of the
most talented men who ever appeared in this city as a political writer
and critic.  He was the author of “The Elements of Vocal Science,” and
other works.

At the quarterly assembly held in 1730, on St. Matthias’ day, 161 freemen
were admitted and sworn, and afterwards it was reported by the committee,
appointed for that purpose, that they had treated with St. George’s
Company, who had agreed to resign their books, charters, and records,
into the hands of the corporation, which was done accordingly, and the
power of the company ceased.  In consequence of this, the form of a
procession was arranged for the Guild day instead of that formerly
exhibited, by the St. George’s Company.  It was further ordered that, for
the future, every mayor shall be excused making a Guild breakfast, or
holding any mayor’s feasts in May or August, as heretofore, and that, in
lieu thereof, the new mayor shall make a feast, on the day on which he is
sworn, at the New Hall, and there entertain the recorder, steward,
sheriffs, justices, aldermen, and their ladles, and the common
councilmen; and every mayor who makes such a feast shall be entitled to
the sum of £100, to be paid by the chamberlain immediately after the said
feast.

In 1732, Sherers’ Cross, commonly called Charing Cross, a neat ancient
stone pillar, was taken down.  The cross was so called from the sheermen
or cloth cutters, who principally dwelt in this part of the city.  The
corner house, in the reign of Edward II., belonged to Christopher
Shere-hill, or at Sherers’ hill.  In the same year the old Market Cross
was demolished, being sadly out of repair.

In 1733, July 11th, the Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Walpole, of Houghton in
Norfolk, was, in person, sworn a freeman of the corporation, and
presented by the mayor with a copy of his freedom in a gold box.

In 1734, Sir Robert Walpole presented the city with a gilt mace,
beautifully enchased, weighing 168 ounces.  On the cup part are the arms
of Sir Robert and of the city.  A new damask gown was also bought by the
corporation, to be worn by the Speaker on all public occasions.

On October 30th, 1739, being the king’s birthday, war was proclaimed here
against Spain.  The mayor and aldermen attended on horseback in their
scarlet gowns, with the two sheriffs, who appeared for the first time in
the gold chains given by Thomas Emerson, Esq., of London, a native of
this city, to be worn by the sheriffs of Norwich for the time being.  A
portrait of him was placed in St. Andrew’s Hall at the expense of the
corporation, and the honorary freedom of the city was afterwards
presented to him.

In 1740, the cathedral was cleaned and repaired.  It was again repaired
and beautified in 1763, in Bishop Younge’s time; and in 1777 and 1780,
two painted windows, representing the Transfiguration and the twelve
Apostles (finely executed by the Lady of the late Dean Lloyd), were
placed in the east end of the choir.  Subsequently, these windows were
removed to another part of the cathedral.

In 1741, April 4th, it was ordered by the corporation of Norwich, that no
stranger should exercise any trade in the city more than six months
without taking up his freedom.

In 1744, May 3rd, war was proclaimed here against France, by the mayor
and corporation, on horseback.

In September, 1745, the magistrates and principal inhabitants associated
in support of the government and in defence of the liberties of the land,
in consequence of the rebellion in Scotland.  An artillery company, of
about 100 men, was raised in Norwich, and Lord Hobart appointed
commander.

In 1746, October 9th, there was a general thanksgiving on the suppression
of the Rebellion in Scotland.  A magnificent arch was erected in Norwich
Market Place, which, with the whole city, was illuminated.

In 1747, an act was passed for holding the county summer assizes and
sessions in the city, till a new Shirehall could be built.

On February 7th, 1748, peace with France and Spain was proclaimed here,
the mayor and corporation attending on horseback, preceded by a party of
dragoons and the artillery company.

On October 22nd, 1751, a fire broke out, which destroyed the bridewell
and several adjoining houses.  That extraordinary man, “Peter, the Wild
Youth,” was confined there at the time.  When a child, he was lost in a
wood in Germany, and was found, at the age of 12, naked and wild.  This
bridewell house was built about the year 1370, by Bartholomew Appleyard,
whose son William was, in 1403, the first Mayor of Norwich.  There are
some fine arched vaults under the premises, and the wall next St.
Andrew’s church, built with flint, is well worthy the observation of the
curious.

An act was passed this year (1751) to open the Port of Yarmouth for the
importation of wool and woollen yarn from Ireland, which was very
beneficial to the city.

The number of houses and inhabitants, in the city precincts and hamlets,
in 1752, was as follows:—7139 houses, 36,169 souls, being an increase of
7288 inhabitants since 1693, when the population was only 28,881.

In 1755, a table was drawn up settling the habits to be worn by the mayor
and corporation at public meetings.

A slight shock of an earthquake was felt here on January 10th, 1756.  On
May 3rd of the same year, the freedom of the city was voted to the Right
Hon. Wm. Pitt, and Henry B. Legge (the former being late secretary of
state, and the latter, chancellor of the exchequer), for their conduct
during their honourable but short administration.  The freedom of the
city, and thanks of the corporation, were also voted to Matthew Goss,
Esq., for his present of the gold chain which has ever since been worn by
the mayors.  A public subscription was made for the poor, in consequence
of the high price of wheat, and scarcity of work, and 12,000 persons in
Norwich were supplied with household bread at half-price for some time.

On July 12th, 1756, the Earl of Orford put the act for the better
regulating the Militia in execution.  This act fixed the number of men to
be raised for Norfolk and Norwich at 960, of which the city furnished
151.

On June 21st, 1759, there was a most violent storm here, some of the
hailstones being two inches long, and weighing three-quarters of an
ounce.  On July 4th and 5th, the Norfolk Militia, commanded by Lord
Orford, marched from Norwich to Portsmouth, and passed in review before
His Majesty George II., at Kensington.

In digging under the rampart of the Castle Hill in 1760, two very curious
bones were discovered, supposed by some to be amulets, which the Druids
wore at their sacrifices.

In 1760, King George II. died at Kensington, on October 25th, and his
grandson, George III. was proclaimed king, in Norwich, on the 29th, by
the mayor and corporation, preceded by the four Norwich companies of
militia, with flags, banners, and music.  On September 22nd, 1761, the
coronation of their Majesties was celebrated with great splendour in
Norfolk, and in Norwich there was a general illumination, and a grand
display of fireworks from a triumphal arch erected in the Market Place.

On October 27th, 1762, there was a sudden flood in the city, which laid
near 300 houses and 8 parish churches under water.  It rose 12 feet
perpendicular in 24 hours, being 15 inches higher than St. Faith’s flood
in 1696.

In 1763, January 3rd, John Spurrell, Esq., died, leaving £1355 to the
corporation, the interest to be applied for the benefit of the poor in
the Great Hospital, and for other charitable purposes.  The Earl of
Buckinghamshire, alderman Thomas Harvey, and Mr. Robert Page, gave £100
each to Doughty’s Hospital.

In the same year _Sir Armine Wodehouse_, _Bart._, gave a valuable volume
to the corporation containing some old statutes, in which the
prescriptive right of the corporation to its present legal name is
supported.  It had been the property of the Wodehouse family for 200
years.  A vote of thanks was passed to Sir Armine Wodehouse for his
present.  He was a member of parliament for Norfolk from 1736 to 1768 (32
years), and died in 1777.  His death was occasioned by a herring-bone
sticking in his throat.

On January 7th, 1769, the church belonging to the Dutch congregation was
opened for the poor of the workhouses.  The poor continued to attend till
the New Workhouse was built in Heigham, after which they attended divine
service in the chapel there.

On November 19th, 1770, there was a great flood in Norwich, four inches
higher than that of 1762.  The sufferers were relieved, by a
subscription, with money, coals, and bread.  On December 19th, of the
same year, there was a violent storm of wind and rain, such as had not
been remembered since 1741.  Happisburgh, Postwick, and Strumpshaw
windmills were blown down, and much damage was done in the city and
county; many ships with their crews were lost on the Norfolk coast.  In
the same year the following turnpike roads were made and opened, from St.
Stephen’s Gates to Trowse, from St. Stephen’s Gates to Watton, from St.
Benedict’s Gates to Swaffham, from Bishop Bridge to Caister near
Yarmouth, and from Norwich to Dereham, Swaffham, and Mattishall.

On March 1st, 1771, the names of the streets and highways in the city
were ordered to be fixed up for the first time; but this order appears to
have been very imperfectly carried out.  In the same year the foundation
stone of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital was laid by Wm. Fellowes, Esq.,
who was a great promoter of that benevolent institution.  It was erected
by a public subscription in the city and county; and it was opened on
July 11th, 1772, for out-patients; and on November 7th, in that year, for
in-patients.  It has been of great benefit to the poor, who have always
been attended by the principal physicians and surgeons in the city.

In 1774, St. Andrew’s Hall underwent a complete alteration.  The old
gateway and wall next Bridge Street were taken down, part of the green
yard was taken in, and the old city library room was rebuilt over the
gateway, thus defacing all that part of the hall.  At the last
restoration the old city library room was pulled down, and a new porch
was erected, with many other improvements.

In 1779, the new year was ushered in with a most terrible storm of wind
and rain, accompanied with thunder and lightning.  The lead on St.
Andrew’s Church was rolled up, and great damage was done in several parts
of the city.  In October of this year, the navigation from Coltishall to
Aylsham was completed for boats of thirteen tons burthen, at a cost of
£6000.  About this time smuggling was carried to a great height, even in
broad day.

On January 20th, 1780, at a numerous meeting of citizens and county
gentlemen, a petition was agreed to and signed, praying the house of
commons to guard against all unnecessary expenditure, to abolish sinecure
places and pensions, and to resist the increasing influence of the crown.
A strong protest was afterwards signed against the proceedings of this
meeting.  Mr. Coke presented the petition.  Armed associations were
formed against the government at Yarmouth, Lynn, Holt, and other places.

On March 24th, 1783, manufactures of textile fabrics in the city being
very prosperous, the pageant of the Golden Fleece, or what is called
Bishop Blaize, was exhibited by the wool combers, in a style far
surpassing all former processions of the kind in Norwich.  The procession
began to move at 10 a.m. from St. Martin’s at Oak, and thence passed
through the principal streets of the city.  On December 3rd, of the same
year, the Black Friars’ Bridge was opened.

In January, 1784, the Amicable Society of Attorneys, in Norwich, was
instituted.  On May 1st, at an assembly of the corporation, the freedom
of the city was voted to be presented to Mr. S. Harvey, Mr. Windham, and
Mr. Pitt.  On December 13th, the Norwich Public Library was first opened
and located in the old library room, formerly over the entrance to St.
Andrew’s Hall.

On March 25th, 1785, mail coaches, between Norwich and London, were
established, performing a journey of 108 miles in fifteen hours, by which
alteration in the post, letters arrived from London a day sooner.  This
was considered a great improvement.  Subsequently, half a dozen stage
coaches ran between Norwich and London daily.  In July, after various
ascents by several persons, Major (afterwards General) Money, at 4.25
p.m., ascended with a balloon from Quantrell’s gardens, and at 6 p.m. the
car touched the surface of the sea.  During five hours the major remained
in this perilous situation, and at 11.30 p.m. was taken up by the Argus
revenue cutter, eighteen miles off Southwold, bearing west by north, and
he landed at Lowestoft on the following morning.  On October 18th, of the
same year, the “Friars’ Society for the Participation of Useful
Knowledge” was instituted.  This society first suggested the scheme of
the association for the relief of decayed tradesmen, their widows, and
orphans.  With them also originated the Soup Charity in this city, and it
was long supported and conducted by them, but of late years it has been a
separate charity.

On April 26th, 1786, the Norwich and Norfolk Benevolent Medical Society
was instituted.  In May, an exact account of the inhabitants of Norwich
was taken from house to house, and the population was ascertained to be
40,051 souls, exclusive of those living in the precincts of the
Cathedral, being an increase of nearly 4000 since 1752.  This entirely
contradicts the statement of Mr. Arthur Young, in his Tour of England,
published in 1770, to the effect that 72,000 persons were then employed
in manufactures in this city.

On November 5th, 1788, the centenary of the glorious Revolution of 1688
was celebrated in this city and county by illuminations, bonfires, public
dinners, &c., but more particularly at Holkham, where Mr. Coke, the late
Earl of Leicester, gave a grand fête, ball, and supper, and a display of
fireworks, &c.  The citizens appear to have been more sensible then than
they are now of the immense benefits they derived from that great change
in the British constitution and government.

Next year (1789) a revolution broke out in France and astounded all
Europe.  It caused a mighty commotion and a general war, which lasted
many years, and destroyed millions of men.  Norwich, like every other
city in England, was affected by it, and lost nearly all its foreign
trade during the terrible conflict.  On July 14th, the Revolution was
commemorated by republicans at the Maid’s Head Inn, in this city.  Among
the toasts of the day after a dinner were “The Revolutionary Societies in
England,” “The Rights of Man,” and “The Philosophers of France.”  The
Revolution, however, had not advanced very far in its atrocities when
most people regarded it in a very different light, and associations were
formed here against “Levellers” and “Revolutionists.”

On December 5th, 1792, the mayor, sheriffs, and seventeen aldermen of
Norwich, pledged themselves to support the constitution of Kings, Lords,
and Commons, as established in 1688.  Meetings of the inhabitants were
also held in this city, and in Yarmouth, Lynn, &c., and declarations of
loyalty and attachment to the constitution were unanimously agreed to and
signed; for men had begun to be alarmed by the “Reign of Terror” in
France.

In 1793 a petition for parliamentary reform, signed by 3741 inhabitants
of Norwich, was presented to the House of Commons by the Hon. H. Hobart,
but was not received, it having been printed previous to presentation.
This indicated a great advance in liberal opinions towards the end of the
last century, chiefly amongst the Nonconformists, who had greatly
increased in numbers, whilst the church was asleep.  The vast expenditure
in the long war against France caused a great increase in taxation.

On April 12th, 1794, a great county meeting was held at the Shirehall, to
consider the exertions which should be made at that crisis for the
internal defence and security of the kingdom.  The High Sheriff, T. R.
Dashwood, Esq., presided.  The Honble. C. Townshend moved resolutions,
supported by the Marquis Townshend, Lord Walsingham, Mr. Buxton, Mr.
Windham, and Mr. Joddrell, for forming volunteer corps of cavalry, and
for entering into subscriptions to maintain the same.  Mr. Coke condemned
the war _in toto_, and insisted that it might have been avoided, or at
the least brought to a conclusion, by a negociation for peace, and he
moved as an amendment:

    “That it is our duty to refuse any private subscriptions for public
    purposes and unconstitutional benevolences.”

So much altercation and confusion ensued, that when the High Sheriff put
the question, it was impossible to tell which party had the majority; and
a division being deemed impracticable, the chairman proposed that such
gentlemen as chose to subscribe would retire with him to the Grand Jury
Room, which was agreed to.  Nearly £6,000 was subscribed, and the amount
was afterwards increased to £11,000!

On October 21st, 1795, a memorial was transmitted from the court of
mayoralty of Norwich to the representatives of the city on the high
prices of every necessary of life, requesting them to support such
measures as might have a tendency to reduce them, and to facilitate the
restoration of peace.  Prices of corn and provisions had risen to an
alarming height; wheat to 100s., barley to 30s., and oats to 30s. per
quarter, and symptoms of rioting had in consequence appeared in Norwich
market.

At a county meeting held on July 20th, 1796, in the Angel Inn (now the
Royal Hotel) it was resolved to petition parliament for the removal of
the Lent assizes from Thetford to Norwich, and a petition was presented
accordingly.  The bill brought for this object into the House of Commons
was strongly opposed, and finally rejected; but afterwards the assizes
were removed to the city, and have been held there ever since.  This year
the sum of £24,000 was collected for the maintenance of the poor in
Norwich, while the population was under 40,000, or half the present
number.

In 1797, February 14th, the Norwich Light Horse Volunteers were
organized, of which John Harvey, Esq., was afterwards appointed captain
and major.  On February 22nd, the Norwich Loyal Military Association was
formed, of which John Patteson, Esq., was appointed captain, and
afterwards major; and R. J. Browne, C. Harvey, and A. Sieley, Esqs., were
appointed captains.  Military matters then occupied a great deal of the
attention of the citizens.

On March 4th, intelligence was received here of the defeat of the Spanish
fleet by Admiral Jervis, and served in some measure to dissipate the
general gloom which at this time pervaded the public mind.

On April 25th, a great county meeting was held in the open air on the
Castle Hill, and a petition was almost unanimously adopted, praying His
Majesty to dismiss his ministers, as the most effectual means of reviving
the national credit and restoring peace.  This was moved by Mr. Fellowes,
seconded by Mr. Rolfe, supported by Lord Albemarle, Mr. Coke, Mr. Mingay,
Mr. Plumptre, Mr. Trafford, and others.  On April 28th a counter county
meeting was held, and an address to the king was adopted, expressing
confidence in the ministry of the day.

On May 16th the citizens followed suit.  At a numerously attended common
hall a petition to His Majesty, praying him to dismiss his
administration, was carried unanimously, with the exception of one
spirited Tory, who had nearly fallen a victim to popular vengeance on the
spot.  A counter address of the citizens was afterwards signed and
presented to the King, who must have been a good deal bothered at the
time by such evidences of the violent agitation of his subjects.

On May 26th, attempts were made here to seduce the military from their
allegiance; and on the following day the republican orator, Thelwall,
arrived in this city, which caused a great commotion.  On the 29th, a
party of the Inniskilling Dragoons proceeded to his lecture room,
opposite Gurney’s bank, drove out the persons assembled, destroyed the
tribune and benches, and then attacked the Shakespear Tavern adjoining,
in which a disturbance had taken place.  After destroying the furniture
and partly demolishing the house, and also breaking the windows and
destroying the furniture of the Rose Tavern, in which they supposed the
lecturer had concealed himself, the dragoons, on the appearance of their
officers and the magistrates, retired to their barracks.  Thelwall, in
this affray, fortunately for him, escaped and fled to London.  Davey, the
landlord of the Shakespear Tavern, on being pursued by the soldiers,
threw himself from the garret into the street, and was much injured.  At
the subsequent assizes, Luke Rice, a tailor of this city, was indicted
capitally for aiding and abetting the soldiers in this outrage; but as
the offence charged in the indictment did not come within the meaning of
the statute, he was acquitted.  He had, however, a very narrow escape.
On June 1st of the same year, (1797) a mutiny broke out on board the
fleet at Yarmouth, and several sail of the line hoisted the red flag of
defiance.

In January, 1798, the sword of the Spanish Admiral Don Francisco
Winthuysen, presented by Admiral Nelson to the corporation of Norwich,
was placed in the Council Chamber of the Guildhall, with an appropriate
device and inscription.

On February 28th, at a general meeting of the inhabitants of this city,
more than £2,200 were immediately subscribed as voluntary contributions
towards the defence of the kingdom.  In a few weeks afterwards, the whole
subscription amounted to more than £8000, a proof of the loyalty as well
as liberality of the well-to-do citizens.  In May, the following Loyal
Volunteer Corps were formed for the purpose of preserving internal
tranquillity, and supporting the police of this city, viz., the Mancroft
Volunteers, Capt. John Browne; St. Stephen’s Volunteers, Capt. Hardy; St.
Peter per Mountergate, &c., Capt. Herring; St. Saviour’s and St.
Clement’s, Capt. Fiske; St. Andrew’s, Capt. T. A. Murray.

On June 19th, the Norwich Light Horse Volunteers and Loyal Military
Association attended J. Browne, Esq., to the cathedral, previous to his
being sworn into the office of mayor; afterwards the Association fired a
_feu de joie_ in the Market Place.

On October 11th, at a meeting of the wealthy inhabitants of the city, a
subscription was entered into for the relief of the orphans of those
brave seamen who fell on August 1st in the ever memorable battle of the
Nile; and on the 24th of the same month, at a special assembly of the
corporation, an address of congratulation was adopted to his Majesty on
the late victory; and it was agreed that a request should be made to Lord
Nelson to sit for his portrait, to be placed in St. Andrew’s Hall.  His
Lordship assented and the portrait was painted by Beechey and placed in
the hall, where it may still be seen.

November 29th was appointed as a day of a public thanksgiving for the
late naval victories, and was celebrated as such in Norwich with the
greatest festivity.  In the morning the mayor and corporation,
accompanied by the Light Horse Volunteers and the Parochial Associations,
attended divine service at the cathedral, where an excellent sermon was
preached by the Rev. T. F. Middleton, afterwards Bishop of Calcutta.  The
sword, taken by Lord Nelson was borne in the procession.  On their return
to the Market Place there was a feast, and in the evening an
illumination.

In 1799, October 28th, the Guards and several other regiments, to the
number of 25,000 cavalry and infantry, landed at Yarmouth from Holland.
Next night the Grenadier Brigade of Guards, commanded by Col. Wynward,
marched into Norwich by torchlight, and were soon afterwards followed by
upwards of 20,000 more troops.  Through the exertions of John Herring,
Esq., mayor, and the attention of the citizens in general, these brave
men received every accommodation that their situation demanded.  The
mayor soon afterwards received a letter from the Duke of Portland
expressive of the high appreciation by the government of the mayor’s
loyalty and activity on this occasion, and of the humanity of the
citizens who supplied the wants of the soldiers.  The mayor was
afterwards presented to his Majesty at St. James’, and offered the honour
of knighthood, which he declined.  The Duke of York, Prince William of
Gloucester, and several other officers employed in this unsuccessful
expedition, also passed through the city on their way to London.  The sum
of £18,000 was raised this year for the maintenance of the poor of the
city.

On January 23rd, 1800, John Herring, Esq., then mayor, summoned a general
meeting of the inhabitants at the Guildhall, to consider the propriety of
applying to parliament for an act for the better paving, lighting, and
watching of the city, for removing and preventing annoyances and
obstructions, and for regulating hackney coaches.  At this meeting a
committee was appointed to consider the plan proposed, and to report to a
future general meeting.  This committee held several meetings, and at
length made a report, which was laid before a general meeting of the
citizens on March 3rd.  The estimated cost of lighting, watching, paving,
&c., was only £2770.  The produce of the tolls was estimated at £1715,
and of a rate of 6d. in the pound at £3000; making the total receipts
£4715, and leaving a balance of £1945 for the commencement of the work,
which sum would have been increased by some annual payments.  The general
meeting adopted the report, and a petition was signed by most of the
inhabitants of the city in favour of a bill to carry out the
improvements.  Unfortunately, however, the petition could not, from some
unforeseen circumstances, be presented that session.  The project was,
for a time, postponed; but an act was obtained in 1806 to carry out the
object, and commissioners were appointed for the purpose.  This body
consisted of the dean and prebend, the recorder, 28 members of the
corporation, and 24 parochial commissioners, annually elected, in all
136.  This heterogeneous body continued for about forty years, and after
spending over £300,000, left Norwich the worst paved town in England, and
also left a debt of £17,000, which still remains as a legacy to the city!


Social State of the City in the Eighteenth Century.


Before the end of the 18th century, various improvements were made, among
which may be mentioned, the demolition of the old gates, the widening and
opening of several streets, and the erection of a new flour mill, worked
by steam power, near Black Friars Bridge, for better supplying the people
with flour.  Still, large numbers of the poor appear to have been for a
long time in a very destitute condition.  Famines were of frequent
occurrence, and riots often took place on account of the high prices of
every kind of food.  In 1720, on September 20th, a dangerous riot broke
out, and rose to such a height, as to oblige the sheriffs to call in the
aid of the Artillery Company, at whose approach the rioters instantly
dispersed.  Again, in 1740, riots occurred in several parts of the
country, and in most of the towns in Norfolk.  The magistrates of this
city called the military to their aid, and six or seven lives were lost
before the rioters could be quelled.  Again, in 1766, in consequence of
the great scarcity and advanced price of provisions of every sort, some
dangerous riots broke out in several places.  In this city the poor
people collected on September 27th, about noon, and in the course of that
day and the next, committed many outrages by attacking the houses of
bakers, pulling down part of the New Mills, destroying large quantities
of flour, and burning to the ground a large malthouse outside of
Conisford gate.  Every lenient measure was tried by the city magistrates
to pacify the poor starving people, but to no effect.  The magistrates
therefore were compelled to repel force by force.  On Sunday afternoon
they, with the principal inhabitants, attacked the rioters with such
vigour, while they were demolishing a house on Tombland, that they were
dispersed.  About thirty of the ringleaders were taken and tried, and
eight of them were sentenced to death, but only two were executed.  They
suffered the extreme penalty on January 10th, 1767.

Strange as it may seem, Norwich was, at this time, in a more flourishing
state as regards trade than it has ever since been known.  Wages were not
high, but employment was universal.  On April 25th, 1796, fine flour
having risen to 70s. a sack, a mob attacked several bakers’ shops in the
city.  The magistrates and inhabitants assembled and proceeded to the
places against which the attacks of the populace were directed, but the
mob did not disperse till after the riot act had been read and three
persons apprehended.  On May 17th, a dreadful affray took place near
Bishop Bridge, between the soldiers of the Northumberland and
Warwickshire regiments of Militia.  Several were terribly bruised and
others wounded with bayonets before their officers could part them.
Education was, at this time, at a very low ebb, and the clergy neglected
the poor.  Few schools were yet opened for their children, who grew up in
ignorance and vice.  Working-men spent their hard-earned money in
drunkenness, or indulged in the most brutal sports, such as
prize-fighting or cock-fighting.  They were also demoralised by bribery
and treating at contested elections.  In fact, ward elections were so
frequent that the city was kept in a perpetual state of agitation and
turmoil.  We can now form no notion of the misery, poverty, and vice,
which these local elections inflicted on the city.  It was often said
that a single ward election did more harm than all the sermons in all the
churches and chapels did good.  These local contests at length prevented
capital being employed in manufacturers, and made politics the first
object of all the influential citizens, who, if they were not, strove to
become, members of the old corporation, not from any consideration of
public duty, not to promote the welfare of the citizens, but to serve
their own political or personal interests.  There is abundant evidence
that the prosperity of the city, and private friendships, were alike
poisoned by the party spirit, engendered by frequent ward elections; at
the same time the moral character of the whole working population was
greatly deteriorated, and the working classes themselves greatly
depraved.


Nonconformity in the 18th Century.


During this 18th century the Nonconformists became very numerous and
powerful in the city and county.  Methodism imparted a healthful stimulus
to the revival of religion.  It aroused the church and all denominations.
Besides the very flourishing bodies of Wesleyans and Baptists, the
Independents made great progress.  Within two centuries, in place of one,
several chapels arose; and throughout all England, few towns exhibited a
greater increase of Nonconformists than Norwich.  We have already given
an account of their rise and progress in the 17th century, but we have
not yet noticed the Unitarians.  A history of the Octagon chapel in
Norwich, by Mr. John Taylor, formerly of this city, and continued by his
son, Mr. Edward Taylor, contains a full account of the rise and progress
of the Unitarians here.  They were at first called Presbyterians, but
that name was inappropriate, as they never had the Presbyterian polity
nor doctrine.  Mr. John Taylor says, the first Presbyterian chapel was
built in 1687, on a piece of ground, formerly part of the great garden or
orchard, “sometime belonging to the prior and convent of the late friars’
preachers,” of whose deserted walls the Dissenters took possession.  The
building was so constructed that it might be converted into dwelling
houses in case their preachers were compelled to abandon it.

Blomefield, in his History of the City, says:—

    “In 1687, the Presbyterians built a meeting house from the ground,
    over against the Black Boys; and at the same time the Independents
    repaired a house in St. Edmund’s formerly a brew house.”

After the passing of the Toleration Act, in 1689, this meeting house,
which, had not been long finished, was duly licensed.  Dr. Collinges, a
learned Presbyterian minister, was the first pastor appointed to preach
by the congregation.  He had a considerable hand in the “Annotations to
the Bible,” which were begun and carried on by Mr. Matthew Poole, and
which go under his name.

Dr. Collinges died in January, 1690, and was probably succeeded soon
after by Mr. Josiah Chorley, who was not a native of Norwich, but came
from Lancashire.  He officiated about thirty years, and was succeeded by
the Rev. Peter Finch, a highly esteemed preacher for many years.  After
he died his funeral sermon was preached by Mr. Taylor, who said:—

    “Surely the character of Mr. Finch, drawn out so even and clear
    without any remarkable spot or flaw, through the long course of
    sixty-three years in this city, must be deserving of remembrance and
    imitation, since it must be the result of a steady integrity and
    solid wisdom.”

The Rev. Mr. Finch was one of the first pupils who entered into the first
dissenting academy, erected after the Reformation, by the Rev. Mr.
Frankland; and he survived almost all the 300 gentlemen who, in the space
of thirty years, were educated in that academy.  He died October 6th,
1754, on his 93rd birthday, and was buried in St. Peter’s Church, in this
city.  His descendents were residents here till 1847.  His son was many
years clerk of the peace for the county of Norfolk.

Mr. John Brooke was invited to take his place towards the end of the year
1718.  This minister was born in or near Yarmouth, where some of his
descendants have generally resided.  He resigned in 1733, and removed to
York, where he died.  Dr. John Taylor was elected to the vacant office in
1733, and continued till 1757, when he resigned.  He was the author of
many works of a religious character.  In 1753 the old chapel was pulled
down, and a subscription was raised of nearly £4000 for a new one.  The
first stone of the new building was laid on February 25th, 1754, by Dr.
Taylor; and within three years the present elegant chapel was completed
at a cost of £5174.

Mr. Samuel Bourn, son of Mr. Bourn of Birmingham, was ordained co-pastor
with Dr. John Taylor, and he published volumes of sermons which
established his reputation in that kind of composition.  He resigned in
1775, and retired to a village near Norwich.  Several gentlemen, who
afterwards attained considerable eminence in science, were brought up
under Mr. Bourn’s ministry, viz., Sir James Edward Smith, so long
president of the Linnean Society; Mr. Robert Woodhouse, the eminent
mathematician and professor of astronomy at Cambridge; and Dr. Edward
Maltby, afterwards bishop of Durham.  Mr. Bourn removed to Norwich not
many months before his death, and died in the 83rd year of his age; he
was interred in the burying ground of the Octagon Chapel.  Mr. Bourn was
succeeded by the Rev. John Hoyle, who was minister for seventeen years.
He died in the 51st year of his age, on November 29th, 1775, and was
interred in the Octagon burying ground.

On December 15th, 1776, Mr. Alderson was chosen minister, and soon
afterwards Mr. George Cadogan Morgan became co-pastor.  He had been
educated under the inspection of his uncle, the celebrated Dr. Richard
Price, so that great expectations were formed of his abilities, and the
congregation were not disappointed.  He soon, however, resigned and went
to Yarmouth; and in 1755, Dr. William Enfield was invited to become
co-pastor with Mr. Alderson, and he accepted the office.  In 1786, Mr.
Alderson resigned; and in 1787 was succeeded by Mr. P. Houghton.

In 1784, Mr. P. M. Martineau projected the establishment of the Public
Library at Norwich, in which he was cordially seconded by Dr. Enfield,
who was one of the earliest presidents of an institution, which for the
extent and variety of its catalogue surpasses most provincial libraries.
In the early periods of the first French Revolution, a periodical work
was established by the liberal party in Norwich, entitled “The Cabinet;”
to which the principal contributors were Mr. John Pitchford, Mr. Wm.
Youngman, Mr. Norgate, Mr. C. Marsh (afterwards M.P. for Retford), Mrs.
Opie (then Miss Alderson), Mr. John Taylor, and Dr. Enfield.  After
publishing many learned works, Dr. Enfield died in the 57th year of his
age, on November 3rd, 1797.  After his death, three volumes of his
sermons were published by subscription; and among the subscribers were
persons of almost every sect in Norwich, from the cathedral prebendary to
the independent minister.  More than twenty beneficed clergymen’s names
appear in the list, and it is very well known that Dr. Enfield’s sermons
have been heard from many pulpits of the established church.  Professor
Taylor, late of Gresham college, thus wrote in a supplementary memoir:—

    “With his dissenting brethren Dr. Enfield was always on the best
    terms, especially with Mr. Newton and Mr. Kinghorn, the ministers of
    the Independent and Baptist congregations.  The Presbyterian
    congregation, comprising many individuals of station and influence in
    the city, took the lead in every movement of the dissenting body, who
    never appeared in a more united and honourable position than when Dr.
    Enfield was their acknowledged head.  The state of society during his
    residence in Norwich, was eminently suited to his habits and tastes.
    Parr, Peel, Walker, Howes, and Smyth were his contemporaries.  Parr
    was the head master of the grammar school, Potter was a prebendary of
    the Cathedral, and Porson was occasional resident at the house of his
    brother-in-law, Mr. Hawes of Coltishall, a village a few miles from
    Norwich.  Dr. Enfield was a welcome visitor at the bishop’s palace;
    for though Dr. Bagot had no political or religious sympathy with the
    minister of the Presbyterian congregation, he knew how to estimate
    his talents, his manners, and his admirable conversational powers.
    Among the residents in Norwich at this time, with whom Dr. Enfield
    associated, were Dr. Sayers, Mr. William Taylor, Mr. Hudson Gurney
    (afterwards M.P. for Newport and a vice-president of the Society of
    Antiquaries), Dr. Rigby, Dr. Lubbock, Sir James Edward Smith, the
    Rev. John Walker (an accomplished scholar and one of the minor canons
    of the Cathedral), Mrs. Opie (then Miss Alderson), Mr. Bruckner, the
    minister of the Dutch and French protestant congregations at Norwich,
    and others, who though unknown to the world as authors, were yet
    worthy associates in such a society.”

Dr. Enfield’s estimate of the character of society at Norwich, is thus
expressed in a letter from Liverpool to Professor Taylor’s father:—

    “You will easily imagine the pleasure I feel in enjoying the society
    of my old friends here, especially that of Mr. Roscoe and Dr. Currie;
    but with these and a few other exceptions, I find more congenial
    associates at Norwich.  For a man of literary tastes and pursuits, I
    can truly say that I know of no town which offers so eligible a
    residence.”

Mr. Roscoe and Dr. Currie, referred to above, were then in high
reputation in Liverpool.

The altered state of society in Norwich, about the end of the 18th
century is thus depicted in a paper in the Monthly Magazine for March,
1808, under the title of “Fanaticism—a Vision,” which was generally
attributed to the pen of Sir James Edward Smith:—

    “You know the flourishing and happy state of this ancient city in the
    early part of your life, and particularly how peaceably and even
    harmoniously its inhabitants lived together on the score of religion.
    Christians of various denominations had each their churches, their
    chapels, or their meeting houses, and in the common intercourse of
    life all conducted themselves as brethren.  The interests of humanity
    would even frequently bring them together on particular occasions to
    pay their devotions in the same temple.  The bishop (Bathurst)
    treated as his children all who, though they disowned his spiritual
    authority, obeyed his Divine Master; while the Presbyterian, the
    Independent, the Catholic, and the Quaker, partook of his hospitality
    and repaid his benevolence with gratitude and respect.  This state of
    society, worthy of real Christians, was broken up by those who wore
    that character only as a mask.  A set of men, interested in promoting
    dissensions, by which villany and rapacity might profit, and in
    decrying those genuine fruits of religion, that salutary faith and
    pure morals, which by comparison shamed their own characters, after
    long in vain attempting to exalt blind belief in general, and their
    particular dogmas, in preference to a useful and virtuous life, but
    too successfully obtained their end.  On all the great truths of
    revealed religion, honest men could never be long at variance.  On
    disputable points they had learned a salutary forbearance, which
    enabled them, while they thought for themselves, to let others do the
    same.  The only resources of those who wish to stir up religious
    animosity, is to bring forward something that no one can determine.
    The less mankind understand a subject, the more warmly do they debate
    and strive to enforce the belief of it.”



EMINENT CITIZENS OF THE 18TH CENTURY.

_Merchants and Manufacturers_.


Among the eminent citizens of this century may be first mentioned the
chief merchants and manufacturers, who were very intelligent, wealthy,
and enterprising.  They were also benevolent, and the founders of various
charitable institutions.  Many of them were Nonconformists, and active
supporters of their chapels, while they carried on a great foreign trade.
The correspondence which they had begun on the continent they extended in
every direction.  By sending their sons to be educated in Germany, Italy,
and Spain, they cultivated a more familiar connection with those
countries.  Their travellers also were acquainted with various languages,
and went all over Europe, exhibiting their pattern cards in every town on
the continent.  Norwich could then boast of rich, energetic,
enterprising, and intelligent men, who made the city what it was in their
day.  Lest their very names should be forgotten, we shall place them in
this record.  Amongst the manufacturers were

  Messrs. Robert and John Harvey,

  Messrs. Starling Day and Son,

  Messrs. Watson, Firth, and Co.,

  Messrs. John Barnard and Angier,

  Messrs. Thomas Paul and Flindt,

  Messrs. J. Tuthill and Sons,

  Messrs. William Barnard and Sons,

  Messrs. Edward Marsh and Son,

  Messrs. Bream and King,

  Messrs. Martin and Williment,

  Messrs. Peter Colombine and Son,

  Messrs. James Buttivant and William White,

  Messrs. W. and W. Taylor,

  Messrs. J. Scott and Sons,

  Messrs. E. Gurney and Ellington,

  Messrs. Patteson and Iselin,

  Messrs. Booth and Theobald,

  Messrs. George Maltby and Son,

  Messrs. William and Robert Herring,

  Messrs. Worth and Carter,

  Messrs. Bacon and Marshall,

  Messrs. Ives and Robberds,

  Messrs. J. and J. Ives, Son, and Baseley,

  Mr. Robert Partridge,

  Mr. Bartholomew Sewell,

  Mr. John Robinson,

  Mr. Robert Wright,

  Mr. John Wright,

  Mr. Robert Tillyard,

  Mr. Daniel Fromantiel,

  Mr. J. C. Hampp,

  Mr. John Herring,

  Mr. Joseph Cliver, Jun.,

  Mr. Oxley,

and others, all of whom have passed away.


_Mr. John Kirkpatrick_.


Mr. John Kirkpatrick, a linen merchant, who lived in St. Andrew’s, was a
learned antiquarian of this period, to whom the city is greatly indebted
for his researches and documents respecting the antiquities of Norwich,
but only fragments have been published.  The late Mr. Hudson Gurney
obtained possession of most of his manuscripts, and published his account
of the “Religious Orders in Norwich,” in 1845.  This work was compiled
from a manuscript quarto volume of 258 pages, in the handwriting of the
author.  Mr. Dawson Turner, the editor, says, in the preface:—

    “Mr. Kirkpatrick’s father was a native of the village of Closeburn,
    in Dumfriesshire, a fact recorded by his son in his will, and further
    proved by the arms on his tomb (in St. Helen’s church) which are
    those of the baronet’s family of Kirkpatrick, of Closeburn.  From
    Scotland he removed to Norwich, where he resided in the parish of St.
    Stephen.  His son John was apprenticed in that of St. Clement, and
    subsequently established himself in business as a linen merchant, in
    St. Andrew’s, in premises opposite Bridewell Alley.  He was there in
    partnership with Mr. John Custance, who was mayor in 1726, and was
    the founder of the family of that name at Weston.  In the year of his
    partner’s mayoralty, Mr. Kirkpatrick was appointed treasurer to the
    Great Hospital, in St. Helen’s, an office which his premature decease
    allowed him to occupy only for two years.  He married the youngest
    daughter of Mr. John Harvey, great-grandfather of the late
    Lieut.-Colonel Harvey, of Thorpe Lodge, where his portrait was
    preserved during the lifetime of that gentleman.  It has since been
    engraved in the very interesting series of portraits of the more
    eminent inhabitants of Norfolk, of whom no likenesses have yet
    appeared, a work now in course of publication, under the
    superintendence of Mr. Ewing.  With such, Kirkpatrick is deservedly
    associated.  He died childless.  Of his family, nothing more is known
    than that he had a brother of the name of Thomas, who is mentioned by
    Blomefield as being chamberlain of Norwich at the time he wrote.  The
    account books of the corporation contain several entries in reference
    to both the one and the other, but not of sufficient interest to
    warrant the quoting of them at length.  Of the latter, they shew that
    he was elected chamberlain with a salary of thirty pounds per annum,
    in the room of Matthew King, in 1732; that in the same year, the
    freedom of the city was conferred upon him; and that twelve years
    subsequently he was removed from his office, by reason of
    irregularity of his accounts.  To the antiquary, their testimony is
    invariably honourable; the most frequent notices being, votes of
    money for the service he had rendered in adjusting the different
    accounts of the city.”

Mr. Dawson Turner further states:—

    “Mr. Kirkpatrick was one of the most able, laborious, learned, and
    useful antiquaries whom the county has produced.  He was especially
    an indefatigable searcher into local antiquities, and had his life
    been spared to the term allotted by the holy Psalmist to man, it were
    impossible to say how much of what is now irretrievably lost to us
    might have been rescued from oblivion.  He had accumulated copious
    materials, but his early death prevented him from digesting and
    publishing them.  Better far had he contented himself with amassing
    less, and turning what he had got to account; a lesson hard to learn,
    but most important to be borne in mind and acted upon.  As it was, he
    was obliged to leave the fulfilment of his task to others; taking all
    possible care for the safety of his collections, and not doubting
    that those who came after him, seeing what was prepared for their
    hands, would cheerfully undertake the office, perhaps with a
    praiseworthy zeal for communicating information, perhaps with the not
    less natural desire of building their own fame upon the labours of
    their predecessors.  But in his expectations he was sadly mistaken,
    and has but furnished an additional proof how difficult it is for any
    one to enter completely into the objects and ideas of another, and
    consequently how imperative it is upon all, ourselves to finish the
    web we have begun, if we wish to see it come perfect and uniform from
    the loom.”

Blomefield, who was a contemporary, acknowledges his great obligations to
the learned Norwich antiquary, and recorded the death of his friend and
his being buried in St. Helen’s Church, Norwich.  The tomb, a black
marble monument, by the steps of the altar, bears the following arms and
inscription:—

    “_Argent_, a saltier and on a chief,
    _Azure_, three woolpacks of the field,
    _Crest_, a hand holding a dagger proper,
    _Motto_—I make sure.

    “Here resteth in hope of a joyful resurrection, the body of John
    Kirkpatrick of this city, Merchant, and Treasurer to this Hospital.
    He was a man of sound judgment, good understanding and extensive
    knowledge; industrious in his business, and indefatigable in that of
    the Corporation in which he was constantly employed.  He died, very
    much lamented by all that knew him, on the 20th day of August, in the
    year of our Lord, 1728, aged 42.”



_The Rev. F. Blomefield_.


The Rev. Francis Blomefield, rector of Fersfield, lived some time in this
city, compiling his history of Norwich, which he brought down to the year
1742.  He was born at Fersfield, July 23rd, 1705.  He was installed
rector of that parish in 1729, when he almost immediately commenced
collecting materials for a history of his native county, but his work is
more a topographical survey than a history.  He did not live to complete
it, having caught the small-pox when in London, of which he died, in the
46th year of his age, on January 15th, 1751.  He began printing his great
work in 1736.  In 1769 it was continued (but not completed) in five folio
volumes by the Rev. Charles Parker, M.A., rector of Oxburgh.

                                * * * * *

_William Anderson_, _F.R.S._, came to Norwich as an excise officer, and
his great talents introduced him to the most scientific characters of
this city.  He obtained the situation of clerk to the New Mills, in
Heigham, and was a considerable contributor to Mr. Baker’s works on the
Microscope.  Many of his papers on Natural History are published in the
transactions of the Royal Society.  He died in 1767, and was buried in
Heigham churchyard.

_Anna Letitia Barbauld_, sister of Dr. Aikin, of Yarmouth, resided at
Norwich.  She was the authoress of “Evenings at Home,” and other valuable
works for children, and died in 1825.

_Peter Barlow_, the celebrated mathematician, and author of many of the
articles in Rees’ Encyclopædia, and the Encyclopædia Metropolitana, was
the son of a warper of this city.  He was born October, 1766, in the
parish of St. Simon and Jude.

_Sir William Beechey_, the eminent painter, resided in this city in the
early part of his life, and executed several of the paintings in St.
Andrew’s Hall, particularly the celebrated portrait of Lord Nelson.  He
was knighted by George III., and appointed portrait painter to his
majesty.

_Hancock Blythe_, schoolmaster, mathematician, and teacher of languages,
resided in Timberhill, and was the author of several small works on
astronomy.  He died in 1795, aged 73 years.

_John Brand_, _B.A._, was a native of this city.  His father was a
saddler in London Lane.  Young Brand, having a turn for study, went for
some years to the continent, where he acquired the languages and customs
of the people so strongly, that on his return to England he received the
soubriquêt of Abbè Brand.  In 1744 he was reader at St. Peter’s Mancroft.
He was the author of several articles in the _British Critic_.  He was
rector of St. George’s, Southwark, and of Wickham Skeith, in Suffolk.  He
died in February, 1809.

_Henry Cooper_, barrister at law, was born in the parish of St. Peter’s
Mancroft.  He was sent to sea in the early part of his life, but was
afterwards called to the bar, and was made attorney general of the
Bermudas.  After a brilliant career, in which he rapidly became one of
the leaders of the Norfolk circuit, he died, after being twelve years at
the bar, in 1825.

_Mr. Reuben Deave_ was a large manufacturer in this city, who, in
December, 1769, became the fortunate possessor of a prize in a lottery
worth £20,000.  The number was 42,903.  It came into his possession in
the following singular manner.  His foreman, who was in a confidential
position, had bought two tickets in a lottery, and after some time
thought he had speculated too far, and told his employer that he feared
he had done a very foolish thing.  Mr. Deave, being informed of the
circumstance, thought so too, but offered to buy one of the tickets.  His
foreman took them out of his pocket and gave Mr. Deave his choice.  Mr.
Deave, however, said he would make no choice, and bought the one offered
to him.  Shortly afterwards the lottery was drawn, and this ticket proved
to be a fortunate number for £20,000, while the other was a blank.  Mr.
Deave, who had paid for the ticket, gave his foreman a cheque for £500,
but the poor man was so vexed at losing the prize that he hung himself on
the next day.  Mr. Deave was much grieved at this, and often said
afterwards that the prize never did him any good, for he gave a power of
attorney to a man to draw the money in London, and that man bolted with
it, and was never heard of afterwards.

_William Enfield_, _LL.D._ an eminent literary character, was for many
years the minister at the Octagon Chapel here.  He was much beloved by
his congregation, and died November 2nd, 1797, aged 57, and was buried in
the chapel, where there is a monument to his memory.

_Sir John Fenn_, the editor of the “Paston Letters,” was born here in
1739; on presenting the first two volumes of these letters to George III.
in 1787, he was knighted.  He died October 14th, 1796.

_John Fransham_, the Norwich Polytheist, a very eccentric character, was
born in St. George’s Colegate.  He was an excellent mathematician, and
was a great admirer of the ancient writers on this science.  He
frequently took rapid solitary walks, with a broad brimmed hat slouched
over his eyes, and a plaid on his shoulders, and was supposed to sleep
often on Mousehold Heath.  He died on February 1st, 1810.  His biography
was written by his pupil, Mr. Saint.

_Thomas Hall_, _Esq._, a merchant, lived in the early part of this
period.  He founded a monthly sacramental lecture, left several legacies
to the charities, and £100 for a gold chain to be worn by the Mayor of
Norwich, and which is now worn by the Deputy Mayor.  He died on December
17th, 1715, and was buried with great funeral pomp at St. George’s
Colegate.  A portrait of this pious and liberal benefactor was presented
by John and Edward Taylor, Esqs., to the corporation, and placed in the
council chamber, May, 1821.

_John Hobart_, Earl of Buckinghamshire, sat as member of parliament for
this city from 1747 to 1756, when he succeeded to the peerage.  He was a
liberal benefactor to the city.  He was born August 17th, 1723, and died
September 3rd, 1793.

_James Hooke_, a celebrated musician, author of more than 2400 songs, 140
complete works or operas, one oratorio, and many odes, anthems, &c., was
born in this city.  At the early age of four years he was capable of
playing many pieces, and at six he performed in public.  He died in 1813,
leaving two sons by his first wife.  One of them was Dr. James Hooke,
Dean of Worcester, who died in 1828.  The other was the celebrated author
of “Sayings and Doings.”

_David Kinnebrook_, an eminent mathematician, was born here.  He was
master of one of the charity schools for forty years, and never absented
himself a single day until his last illness.  He died March 23rd, 1810,
aged 72.

_John Lens_, _Esq._, _M.A._, ancient sergeant at law, is believed to have
been born in the parish of St. Andrew’s, and was educated here.  In 1781,
he was called to the bar.  He first practised in the Courts of King’s
Bench, but being made a sergeant, confined himself chiefly to the common
pleas.  He was afterwards made King’s and next King’s Ancient Sergeant.
On more than one occasion he declined the offer of the bench.  He died
August 6th, 1825, in his 69th year.

_Richard Lubbock_, _M.D._, was born here in 1759, and was educated at the
Free Grammar School.  He obtained his degree at Edinburgh in 1784.  On
his return to Norwich he practised with great success.  He died September
1st, 1808, and was buried at Earlham church.

The _Right Rev. Jacob Mountain_, _D.D._, was the first protestant bishop
in the Canadas.  He was born in the parish of St. Andrew.  He presided
over the church in the two Canadas for thirty-two years, and died June
16th, 1825, in the seventy-fifth year of his age.

_Samuel Parr_, _LL.D._, was master of the Free Grammar School from 1778
to 1792, when he resigned on being presented to the rectory of Buckden,
in Lincolnshire.

_Edward Rigby_, _M.D._, was born at Chawbent, in Lancashire, December
9th, 1749.  He was under the tuition of Dr. Priestley until he was
fourteen, when he was apprenticed to Mr. David Martineau of this city.
In 1805 he was elected mayor, and died Oct. 27th, 1822.  In August, 1818,
the corporation voted him and his lady a piece of plate of the value of
twenty-five guineas, as a memento of the memorable birth of their four
children at one time, and the event was recorded in the city books.  Two
of the children lived to be nearly twelve weeks old, and the other two
not quite seven weeks.

_William Saint_, one of the mathematical masters of the Royal Military
Academy, at Woolwich, was a native of St. Mary’s Coslany.  He wrote the
“Life of Fransham,” and was a contributor to the “Lady’s Diary.”  He died
July 9th, 1819.

_George Sandby_, _D.D._, chancellor of the diocese of Norwich, personally
presided in the consistorial court of the Lord Bishop of Norwich for
nearly thirty years, during the whole of which time no decree of his was
reversed by a superior court.  He died March 17th, 1807, aged ninety-one.

_William Say_, an eminent mezzotinto engraver, was born at Lakenham in
1768.

_Frank Sayers_, _M.D._, an eminent physician and literary character, who
for many years resided in this city, was born in London, March 3rd, 1763.
He was the author of “Dramatic Sketches of the Ancient Northern
Mythology,” “Poems,” “Disquisitious, Metaphysical and Literary,” “Nugæ
Poeticæ,” and “Miscellanies, Antiquarian and Historical.”  He died August
16th, 1817, and a mural monument is erected to his memory in the
Cathedral, with a Latin inscription by the Rev. F. Howes.  His works were
collected and edited by the late William Taylor of this city.

_Sir James Edward Smith_, _M.D._, _F.R.S._, president of the Linnæan
Society, London, and of the Norwich Museum, and member of several foreign
academies, was born in St. Peter’s Mancroft, December 2nd, 1759.  He
received his education here, and graduated as a physician at Leyden, in
1786.  He assisted materially in the establishment of the Linnæan
Society, in 1788, of which he was the first president, and he continued
to preside over the society until his death, March 15th, 1828.  He was
the author of several admirable botanical works.

_William Stevenson_, _F.S.A._, who was for many years proprietor of the
“Norfolk Chronicle,” and who edited a new edition of “Bentham’s History
of Ely Cathedral,” was born at East Retford, in 1750, and died at his
house in Surrey Street in this city, May 13th, 1821, aged seventy-one.
He was, in the early part of his life, an artist of no mean pretension;
and was esteemed an antiquarian and numismatist of considerable knowledge
and research.

_John Taylor_, _D.D._, was a native of Lancaster.  He came to Norwich in
1733, and was a minister to the Presbyterian dissenters in 1757.  He was
the author of several theological works, and died at Warrington, March
5th, 1761, aged sixty-six.

_William Taylor_, a celebrated German scholar, and a very eccentric
character, author of an “Historical Survey of German Poetry,” and a
translator of several German works, was born in this city, and resided
for many years in Upper King Street.  He died in 1836, aged sixty-nine.

_Edward Baron Thurlow_ was born at Bracon Ash, in this county.  He
received the rudiments of his education at the Free Grammar School here.
He rose successively to be appointed solicitor general, attorney general,
master of the rolls, and lord high chancellor of Great Britain, and was
created Lord Thurlow in 1778.  In 1793 he resigned the seals.  He died at
Brighton, September 12th, 1806.

_William Wilkins_, _sen._, architect, was born in the parish of St.
Benedict, about the year 1744 or 1747.  He received but a limited
education, but possessed an admirable taste for design, and his plans and
drawings were very beautiful.  He was the author of a clever essay in
Vol. xii. of the “Archæologia,” on the Venta Icenorum.

_William Wilkins_, _M.A._, son of the above, was born in St. Giles’
parish.  He was educated at the Free Grammar School here.  He was
employed in the erection of several public buildings in London, and
numerous private mansions.  His literary labours were confined to the
subject of architecture, and his “Magna Græcia” is considered to be an
excellent work.

_William Windham_.  This eminent statesman represented the city in
several parliaments.  He was born in London in 1750, and first sat for
Norwich in 1780.  In 1783 he was appointed secretary to the lord
lieutenant of Ireland, and made his first speech in parliament in 1785.
He died in 1806.

_Sir Benjamin Wrench_, an eminent physician, who practised here for sixty
years, lived in St. Andrew’s.  His house occupied the site of the present
Corn Exchange.  He was lord of the manor of Little Melton in Blomefield’s
time.


NORWICH IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.


We have now arrived at the present age of political progress, and
material prosperity; the age of inventions, railways, newspapers, and
telegraphs; the age of expansion and general intelligence.  George III.,
George IV., and William IV., have reigned in this century, and have been
succeeded by our beloved Queen Victoria.  Under her benign sway the old
semi-barbarous state of society has passed away like a dream, and we live
in a new social era, the result of the progress of education, of the
march of improvement, and of the spread of true religion.

As it has been often stated by local historians that Norwich formerly
contained a very large population, and as this statement is very
generally believed, we may here correct the mistake by giving the
returns, which show a very gradual, and very slow increase from the
earliest period to the present time.  The parochial returns show that in
1693 the population was only 28,881; in 1752 it had increased to 36,169;
and in 1786 to 40,051.  This was the greatest number up to the end of the
last century.  In 1801 it was 36,832, not including 6,000 recruits for
the army, navy, and militia; making the total number 42,832.  This
indicates a very slow increase of population.  The following are the
returns for the present century: 1801, 36,832; 1811, 37,256; 1821,
50,288; 1831, 61,116; 1841, 62,294; 1851, 68,713; 1861, 74,414, being an
increase of about 500 yearly.  Norwich in 1752 contained only 7131
houses, and in 1801 8763, of which 1747 were returned as empty.  In 1831
the number was 14,201, of which 13,132 were inhabited.  Now the number is
over 21,000, and the rateable value is £178,882.

We must now leave the stately march of history for a more broken and
interrupted step.  There is some difficulty in detailing the events of
this period, for every reader is more or less acquainted with it, and has
viewed it in relation to his own interests and prejudices.  The records
of facts are so voluminous, that every reader may think that there is
something omitted, or misrepresented, or exaggerated.  It is impossible,
however, to mention every local occurrence which some one may think
important, every accident, or fire, or crime, or every grand concert or
entertainment.  We have to deal with events more connected with general
history; and we shall first state the more remarkable occurrences of a
civil or municipal character, reserving political matters for a
subsequent chapter.  But in order to render our narrative of local
events, and especially local elections, more intelligible, it will be
necessary to give a brief account of the old corporation, whose
proceedings occupy so large a part of our records.


NORWICH CORPORATION.


This body claims a prescriptive origin.  Certain privileges were granted
to the city by the charters of different sovereigns, the first being that
of Henry I., which was annulled and again renewed by Stephen.  The
particular privileges conceded by it cannot now be ascertained.  The next
charter is that of the 5th Henry II., but this is only confirmatory of
former grants, and the original is still preserved in the Guildhall.  One
granted by Richard I. contains some estimable clauses.  The most
prominent are, that no citizen shall be forced to answer any plea or
action in any but the city courts, except for those concerning
possessions out of the city; that the citizens should have _acquittance_
of _murder_, which is equivalent to granting them a coroner; that they
should not be forced to _duel_, that is, should be exempt from the
general law which was then in force, of deciding causes by single combat;
that they should be free from toll throughout all England; and that they
should have other liberties, all highly important, and no doubt justly
appreciated by the citizens of that period.  King John’s charter is
similar to the preceding, and that of Henry II., with the addition that
all persons living in the city, and participating in the liberties of the
citizens, shall be talliated or taxed, and pay as the aforesaid citizens
of Norwich do, when tollages and aid shall be laid upon them.  It is
probable that the principal authority was invested in bailiffs, instead
of a provost, in 1223, as there is no evidence of the existence of such
officers before that time.

Two deeds of Henry III., and several of succeeding kings, all either
confirmed or enlarged the privileges granted to the city; but our
attention is most attracted by the concessions of Henry IV., which
established the constitution of a mayor, sheriffs, &c.  The original
charter is lost, but those of his son and more modern princes have
sufficiently preserved the spirit of it.  The charter of Henry V. made
the extensive territory within the corporation limits a county of itself,
excepting only the castle, which belonged to Norfolk.  This territory
was, by the boundary act, included for the purposes of representation.
Twenty-five charters, the latest by James II., are known to have been
granted, and probably others existed and have been lost.  When the
innovations, made in old establishments during the Commonwealth, were
gradually reformed, the citizens petitioned for a renewal of their
rights.  The charter of 15th Charles II. was obtained, and under it the
city was governed till the passing of the Municipal Reform Act.  Most of
the old charters were granted in consideration for sums of money given or
lent to kings to enable them to carry on wars.  Many of the charters were
more injurious than beneficial to the city, as they created monopolies of
one kind or other, or gave powers to the old corporation which were
frequently abused.  Those who wish to study those old documents more
minutely may find them in Blomefield’s history.

The old corporation was more ornamental than useful to the city for 400
years.  Under it the sanitary state of the city was so bad, the drainage
of the city so defective, and the supply of water so insufficient, that
plagues and pestilences, which carried off thousands of the citizens,
were of frequent occurrence.  Ward elections were so often contested,
that bribery, treating, and intimidation, were quite common, and the
corruption of the freemen and lower classes was universal.  Physically
and morally the city was for centuries in the worst possible condition.
The ward elections were carried on with a spirit which was surpassed in
no other place.  They were considered as trials of strength between
different parties; and if they happened at a period when a general
election was anticipated, an enormous sum of money was spent in treating
and bribery.  Indeed, it has been asserted on good authority that no less
a sum than £16,000 was wasted in the contest for a single ward in 1818!
The city was divided into four great wards, each of which was subdivided
into three small wards.  The mayor was elected by the freemen on May 1st,
and sworn into his office on the Guild day, which was always the Tuesday
before Midsummer day.  He was chosen from the aldermen, and afterwards he
was a magistrate for life.  One of the sheriffs was chosen by the court
of aldermen, the other by the freemen on the last Tuesday in August.  The
twenty-four aldermen were chosen for the twelve smaller wards, two for
each ward, whose office was to keep the peace in their several divisions.
When anyone of them died, the freemen of that great ward in which the
lesser ward was included, for which he was to serve, elected another in
his place within five days.  The common councilmen were elected by the
freemen dwelling in each of the four great wards separately; for
Conisford great ward on the Monday; Mancroft on the Tuesday; Wymer on the
Wednesday; and the Northern ward on the Thursday in Passion week, thence
called “cleansing” week.  They chose a speaker yearly, who was called
speaker of the commons.  The old freemen therefore formed the whole of
the local constituency for municipal purposes.

Memoirs are often the best sources of information respecting public
matters, as they let us behind the scenes and show us what the actors
really thought and did.  A good memoir of the late Professor Taylor,
which appeared in the _Norfolk News_, of March 28th and April 4th, 1863,
contained the following, “So far back as 1808 we find Mr. Taylor
recording that he was ‘elected a common councilman for the fourth time.’”
He also states that the contest for nominees in the Long ward was “the
severest ever remembered.”  Few people now-a-days could realize the
import of those few words.  Few understand how much was implied by the
once common phrase “a battle for the Long ward.”  The combatants would
have scorned such mealy-mouthed appellations, as “conservative” and
“liberal,” or indeed any name but that of the colors under which they
fought.  They were “blue-and-whites,” or “orange-and-purples;” the former
being what would now be called the “liberal,” and the latter the
“conservative,” party.  To be a blue-and-white or an orange-and-purple,
was to be an angel or a devil, as the case might be; the angels being of
course those of your own side, to whichever you belonged.  Great was the
potency of colors: though not supposed to be worn at municipal elections,
they were a rallying cry, and they were always at hand to be flouted,
like a red rag at a turkey, in the face of the enemy.  Even housemaids
and children concealed them about their persons, in readiness to show
them slyly from some window, both to encourage their friends and
exasperate their enemies, whenever a procession passed.  Great were the
preparations for the contest.  A sort of civic press-gang prowled the
streets by night for the purpose of “cooping chickens,” which, being done
into English, means carrying men off by force, and keeping them drunk and
in confinement, so that if they could not be got to vote “for” it would
be impossible for them to vote “against.”  If they could not be safely
secured in the city, they were “cribbed, cabined, and confined” in
wherries on the river, or the broads, or even taken to Yarmouth and
carried out to sea.  When the day of battle came, great was the shouting,
the drinking, the betting, the bribing, and the fighting, till the
longest purse contrived to win the day.  Of course, the dirty work was
done by dirty men.  But leading men on both sides were so used to see
this sort of thing, that they considered it only as a necessary part and
parcel of an election.  It was regarded rather as a limb which could not
be safely severed from the body, than as a shabby coat which disgraced
the wearer.  Besides, palliating rhetoric was not absent.  Better do a
little evil than surrender a cause essential to the welfare of the state!
“What we did,” we honest orange-and-purples, or we pure blue-and-whites,
“was done in mere self-defence.”


LEADING EVENTS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.


1801.  January 1st, 1801, being the first day of the nineteenth century,
and the day on which the Union of Great Britain and Ireland took place,
the 13th Regiment of Light Dragoons dismounted, and the Militia fired a
_feu de joie_ in the Market Place.

January 3rd.  The old Theatre (built in 1757) was re-opened after
extensive improvements.  The alterations were executed after the designs
of William Wilkins, Esq., the patentee.  This theatre was formerly a good
school for young actors, and many promising performers have first
appeared on these boards.  Of late, operatic performances appear to be
most in favour with the gentry.

February 24th.  Charles Harvey, Esq., the steward, was unanimously
elected Recorder of Norwich, vice Henry Partridge, Esq., resigned.

April 4th.  Mrs. Lloyd, widow of the Rev. Dean Lloyd, died at Cambridge,
aged 79.  This lady painted the Transfiguration, and other figures in the
eastern windows of the Cathedral.

In April, the ward elections were the causes of great contention.  In
consequence of objections being made to the elections of two nominees of
the Wymer ward, and three of the Northern ward, on the ground of their
being ineligible under the corporation act, having omitted to receive the
sacrament within a year previous to the election of the common council,
the mayor did not make the returns till several days after the usual
time.  At a court held April 4th, after the objections had been fully
heard by counsel, the recorder (Mr. Harvey) declared that the persons
objected to who had the majority of votes, having omitted to come into
court according to summons, were not duly elected, but as no regular
notice had been given previous to the election, the candidates in the
minority could not be returned.  A new election for the above wards
accordingly took place on May 25th and 26th.

June 16th.  Jeremiah Ives, Esq., of Catton, was elected mayor a second
time.  There was no guild feast this year at St. Andrew’s Hall.

June 25th.  An awful fire, which lasted two hours, broke out on the roof
of the Cathedral, and in less than an hour, 45 feet of the leaded roof,
towards the western end of the nave, were consumed.  Some plumbers had
been at work repairing the roof, and set fire to it either accidentally
or intentionally.  The damage was about £500.  The Lord Bishop (Dr.
Sutton) was present, and distributed refreshment to the soldiers and
people who assisted in arresting the progress of the conflagration.

                                * * * * *

1802.  Peace was proclaimed throughout the city on May the 4th, in due
form; and the mayor and corporation went in procession from the hall
through the principal streets.  There was a general illumination at
night.  At a quarterly assembly of the council, a congratulatory address
to his majesty on the restoration of peace, was voted unanimously.

On May 21st, the city address was presented to the king, at the levee at
St. James’ Palace, by Jeremiah Ives, Esq., Junr., the mayor, and Sir
Roger Kerrison.

On May 29th, a county meeting was held, when a similar address was
adopted.

October 4th to 7th.  A grand musical festival was held in Norwich, under
the direction of Messrs. Beckwith and Sharp of this city, and Mr. Ashley
of London.  Mrs. Billington, Mr. Bartleman, and Mr. Braham, were the
principal performers.

October 21st.  There was a severe contest for the election of an alderman
in the great northern ward, in the room of Francis Colombine, Esq.,
resigned.  The numbers were—for E. Rigby, Esq., 261; Jonathan Davey,
Esq., 259.

                                * * * * *

1803.  February 8th.  At a full meeting held at the Guildhall, a
committee was appointed to prepare a bill to be laid before a future
meeting, for better paving, lighting, watching, and cleansing the city.
A petition to the house of commons for leave to bring in a bill, was
afterwards presented, but it was strongly opposed as not being then
expedient.  An act was, however, ultimately carried.

March 7th.  At a special assembly of the corporation, an address of
congratulation was adopted, to be presented to his majesty, on the
providential discovery of the late traitorous conspiracy against his
royal person and government, entered into by Colonel Despard and six
other persons, who were executed on the top of the New Surrey prison, in
Horsemonger Lane.  The high sheriff and grand jury of Norfolk, at
Thetford, also voted an address of congratulation to the king, and a
similar address was adopted at a county meeting held at the Shirehall.

March 21st.  The portrait of Captain John Harvey, of the Norwich Light
Horse volunteers, painted by Mr. Opie, at the request of the troop, was
placed in St. Andrew’s Hall.

April 27th.  A public dispensary was established in Norwich, and has been
a great benefit to the poor people of the city.

August 16th.  France having again threatened to invade this kingdom, a
meeting of the inhabitants of the city was held at the Guildhall, for the
purpose of forming a regiment of volunteer infantry under the regulations
of the Acts for the defence of the realm, when resolutions to that effect
were adopted, and upwards of £6400 subscribed, and 1400 citizens enrolled
themselves under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Harvey.  A rifle corps was
also formed, of which R. M. Bacon, Esq., then editor of the Mercury, was
appointed Captain.  Both parties manifested the greatest enthusiasm, but
fortunately the services of the local warriors were not required.  On
September 29th, a new telegraph was erected on the top of Norwich Castle,
to communicate with Strumpshaw Mill, Filby Church, and Yarmouth, so as to
give notice of any danger.  In October, the Norfolk and Norwich volunteer
regiments agreed to perform permanent duty at Yarmouth in case of
invasion, and many of them were stationed in the port during the
succeeding two months.  The victory of the Norfolk hero, Lord Nelson, at
Trafalgar in 1805, discouraged Napoleon I., and he relinquished his
intention to invade this land of freedom.  In July 1806, the local
militia act was passed, and many of the volunteers transferred their
services to that body.  The volunteer corps of Norwich and Norfolk were
disbanded on March 24th, 1813.  The West Norfolk militia returned to
Norwich from Ireland, on May 11th, 1816, and were disembodied on June
17th in that year.  A long peace of 40 years ensued, but the old trade of
Norwich destroyed by the war, never revived.  In January, 1817, upwards
of £3000 were contributed to relieve the poor, many of whom were employed
in making a new road to Carrow, and in other public works, the trade of
the city being in a state of stagnation.

                                * * * * *

1804.  January 18th.  The city of Norwich Regiment of Volunteer Infantry,
600 strong, commanded by Lieut. Col. Harvey, received their colours.  The
banners, given by the mayor and corporation, were first consecrated in
the Market Place, by the Rev. E. S. Thurlow, prebendary of Norwich, with
a suitable address and prayer, and were afterwards presented by the
mayor, John Morse, Esq., to the colonel in due form.  The king’s and
regimental standards were then delivered to the ensigns.  The Artillery,
under Capt. Fyers, stationed on the Castle Hill, fired salutes; the
Regiment fired three vollies; and St. Peter’s bells rang merry peals.

June 1st.  The city of Norwich (or 7th) Regiment of Norfolk Volunteer
Infantry, commanded by Lieut. Colonel Harvey, entered on one month’s
permanent duty in Norwich.  The Regiment mustered 500 strong, exclusive
of officers.

June 4th.  The anniversary of His Majesty’s birthday was celebrated in
Norwich by the grandest military spectacle ever witnessed here.  Upwards
of 1700 men of the Royal Artillery, 24th Regiment of Foot, and the
Norwich Volunteer Corps, assembled on the Castle Hill and fired a _feu de
joie_ with fine effect.  During this year the citizens were often
entertained with military displays.  June 18th, Major General Money was
appointed to the staff of the eastern district; in which a force of
32,000 men was now fully completed for the reception of any invading
enemy.

June 18th.  The corporation granted the site of the Blackfriars, in St.
Andrew’s, to the court of guardians, for 200 years at their old rent for
the purpose of improving the same, and repairing the Old Workhouse for
the poor, the plan of erecting a New Workhouse having been abandoned.
Subsequently, large sums of money were wasted in repairing the old house,
sufficient to build a new one, and ultimately it was found to be
absolutely necessary to build a new house, which was done at a cost of
£30,000.

                                * * * * *

1805.  January 17th.  At a public meeting held at the Guildhall, it was
resolved to establish an hospital and school for the indigent blind, in
Norwich and Norfolk.  Towards the foundation of this admirable
institution, Thomas Tawell, Esq., contributed a house and three
and-a-half acres of land in Magdalen Street, valued at £1050.  Mr.
Tawell, who was unfortunately blind, introduced his humane proposal in an
able speech, appealing for subscriptions.  A large sum was at once
subscribed.  The hospital was opened on the 14th October following.

February 2nd.  Dr. Charles Manners Sutton, bishop of Norwich, was
nominated by the king, and chosen, February 12th, archbishop of
Canterbury.  On the 13th, His Grace arrived at the palace, Norwich, from
London.  On the 15th, the mayor and court of aldermen proceeded in state
from the Guildhall to the Bishop’s Palace, where the recorder, Mr.
Harvey, delivered an address of congratulation to the archbishop on his
translation, to which His Grace returned a dignified answer.  Next day,
the clergy of Norwich waited on His Grace, when the Rev. Dr. Pretyman,
prebendary, addressed the archbishop in an appropriate speech, to which
His Grace made an impressive reply.  On the 17th His Grace preached his
farewell sermon in the Cathedral.

February 24th.  The clergy of Norwich having intimated an intention of
applying to Parliament for an increase of their incomes, then very small,
by assessment, the council, at a quarterly assembly, resolved to oppose
the application; the citizens, in vestry meetings, being unanimous
against the measure, which was never carried out.

March 18th.  Dr. Henry Bathurst (one of the prebendaries of Durham) was
elected bishop of Norwich by the dean and chapter.  He soon made himself
universally beloved by the clergy and the citizens.  Professor Taylor
gave the following account of the late and also of the newly appointed
bishop:—

    “In 1805, Dr. Bathurst succeeded Dr. Sutton as bishop of Norwich.
    The latter, who had been translated to the See of Canterbury, was a
    man of polished manners, extravagant habits, and courtier-like
    address.  He was too polite to quarrel with anybody and too prudent
    to provoke controversy.  He neither felt nor affected to feel any
    horror of Unitarians.  He invited them to his table, and at the
    request of the mayor, he preached a charity sermon at St. George’s
    Colegate, knowing that my father had been asked and had consented to
    write the hymns.”

    “Dr. Bathurst removed from Durham to Norwich, and as he was a
    stranger in his new residence, never having taken any prominent part
    as a public man, little expectation was excited as to his future
    conduct.  He was known to owe his elevation to his relation, Lord
    Bathurst; and it was generally taken for granted that his views on
    public affairs were similar to those of the administration of which
    that noble lord was a member.  Curiosity led me to the Cathedral to
    hear the new bishop’s primary charge, and I soon found the spirit it
    breathed to resemble the benevolence that beamed from his
    countenance.”

    “What the bishop preached he also practised.  He never shrunk from
    appearing to be what he really was, nor while he received a dissenter
    in his study with politeness would he pass him unnoticed in the
    street.  He was to be seen walking arm-in-arm with persons, of all
    persuasions, whom he respected, in the streets of Norwich.  He was
    not afraid of shaking ‘brother Madge,’ as he called him, by the hand,
    nor of welcoming Unitarians to his table.  What he was as a member of
    the house of peers, on all occasions in which the great principles of
    religious liberty were concerned, is well known.  I have only here to
    speak of his conduct as a resident in Norwich.”

Sept 3rd.  The committee of the court of guardians appointed to examine
the poor rates of the city and hamlets, for the purpose of obtaining a
more equal assessment, made their report, in which they stated that an
increase of £16,000 stock and £1800 rent, calculating on the half rental
only, might be made, and recommended a general survey and new valuation
to be taken, in consequence of the great alteration which had taken place
in property since 1786, when the previous survey was taken.

December 17th.  There was a grand entertainment at the Assembly Rooms, in
honour of Lord Nelson’s glorious victory off Cape Trafalgar; more than
450 ladies and gentlemen of the city and county were present.  The rooms
were decorated with transparencies and brilliantly illuminated for a
grand ball and supper.  The victory so celebrated, and which had been won
on October 21st, was dearly purchased by the death of Viscount Nelson.
The last order given before the action began, was by the newly-invented
telegraph:—“England expects every man to do his duty.”

                                * * * * *

1806.  January 9th.  This day the great bells of the several churches in
the city were tolled from twelve till two o’clock, it being the day on
which the remains of the immortal Lord Nelson were interred under the
dome of St. Paul’s Cathedral.  The body, after lying in state in the hall
of Greenwich Hospital, was brought thence on January 8th by water to
Whitehall stairs, and carried on a bier to the Admiralty Office, and
deposited in the Captain’s room for the night.  Next day the corpse was
removed on a funeral car, drawn by six horses, to St. Paul’s.  The Duke
of York headed the procession, the grandest ever witnessed; 500 persons
of distinction attended at the funeral.

February 24th.  At a quarterly assembly of the corporation, a loyal
address was unanimously adopted, to be presented to His Majesty,
“expressive of their gratitude for the paternal affection which he has
shown to his subjects, by waiving every consideration, but the public
good, in the appointment of men of the first abilities in the country to
the high offices of state!”

                                * * * * *

1807.  March 4th.  A committee of the House of Commons declared Mr.
Windham and Mr. Coke not duly elected, and another election took place
for two members for the county.  Sir J. H. Astley, Bart., and Edward
Coke, Esq., (of Derby) were returned without opposition.  Mr. Windham
afterwards took his seat for New Romney, and Mr. Coke was returned for
Derby _vice_ his brother, who had previously accepted the Chiltern
Hundreds.

May 14th.  The anniversary of the birthday of that illustrious statesman,
the Right Hon. Wm. Windham, was celebrated at the Angel Inn (now Royal
Hotel) by a large party of his numerous friends.  William Smith, Esq.,
M.P., presided.

June 16th.  Robert Herring, Esq., was sworn into the office of mayor of
Norwich; and he afterwards gave a dinner to 150 gentlemen at Chapel-field
house.

October 6th.  The first meeting was held of the revived Norfolk Club at
the Angel Inn, Norwich.  Sir John Lombe, Bart., was in the chair.  The
Hon. Colonel Fitzroy, Mr. W. Smith, and Mr. Windham were also present.

                                * * * * *

1808.  January.  By the telegraph, orders from the Admiralty Office were
received at Yarmouth, in 17 minutes.  The chain of communication was by
Strumpshaw, Thorpe Hills, Honingham, Carlton, and Harling, and from
thence proceeded between Thetford and Bury, over Newmarket Heath to
London.

Captain Manby’s invention for rescuing persons stranded on a lee shore,
was approved by the Lords of the Admiralty.  Parliament rewarded Captain
Manby at different times with grants amounting to £6000, and adopted his
apparatus at many parts of the coast.

July 29th.  At a special assembly of the corporation of Norwich, an
address to his majesty was agreed to unanimously, on the subject of the
noble struggle of the patriots of Spain and Portugal against the Ruler of
France, and of the generous aid given to their endeavours by the
government.

                                * * * * *

1809.  January.  In consequence of Colonel Robert Harvey not being joined
by a sufficient number of the Volunteers under his command to become a
local Militia Battalion, he resigned the command of the Norwich Volunteer
Regiment, and was succeeded by Colonel De Hague.

May 9th.  The six Regiments of Norfolk Local Militia first assembled to
perform 28 days’ exercise.  They were stationed at Norwich, Yarmouth,
Swaffham, and Lynn.

October 15th.  The Norwich corn merchants demanded of the farmers a
month’s credit, instead of paying ready money for their corn as
heretofore, but it was resisted by the growers, and ultimately abandoned
by the merchants.

November 2nd.  After an interval of seven years, there was a grand
musical festival here, combining oratorios at St. Peter’s Church, and
concerts at the Theatre, under the direction of Mr. Beckwith, eldest son
of the late Dr. Beckwith.  Professor Hague, of Cambridge, led the band.

                                * * * * *

1810.  January 20th.  The disputes between the corn growers and buyers in
the city and county, having been amicably adjusted, a reconciliation
dinner took place at the Maid’s Head Inn.  Amongst the toasts was, “Fair
Play—ready money on both sides, or ready money on neither.”

February 4th.  Died at Gunton, in his 77th year, the Rt. Hon. Harbord
Lord Suffield.  He represented Norwich from 1756 to 1786.  He was much
respected by his constituents.

April 26th.  The first stone of the new bridge at Carrow was laid by the
mayor, T. Back, Esq., in due form.

August 6th.  The first stone of the Norwich Foundry Bridge was laid by
Alderman Jonathan Davey, the projector of the undertaking.

September 27th.  A contest took place for the office of alderman of the
great Northern ward, in the room of John Herring, Esq., who died on the
23rd, aged 61.  The poll closed as follows—for William Hankes, Esq., 258;
N. Bolingbroke, Esq., 229.  The former was declared duly elected.

December 8th.  The Rev. Edward Valpy, B.D., was elected by the aldermen,
master of the Free Grammar School, Norwich, in the room of the Rev. Dr.
S. Forster, resigned.  Under Mr. Valpy, the school attained great
celebrity, and here Rajah Brooke and other eminent men were educated.

                                * * * * *

1811.  January 15th.  Mr. Thomas Roope was convicted at the sessions of
having sent a challenge to Mr. Robert Alderson, Steward of the
Corporation, to provoke him to fight a duel; and was sentenced to pay a
fine of 40/- to the king, and to be imprisoned for one month.

June 29th.  Mr. Thomas Roope was sentenced in the Court of King’s Bench,
to be committed to the custody of the marshal for three months, and to
find sureties afterwards, for a libel on Thomas Back, Esq., late mayor of
Norwich.

August 6th.  A portrait of Thomas Back, Esq., was placed in St. Andrew’s
Hall.  It was painted by Mr. Clover, a native of the city.

September 11th.  A numerous meeting was held in St. Andrew’s Hall, with
the mayor, J. H. Cole, Esq., in the chair, when the Norfolk and Norwich
Auxiliary Bible Society was instituted.  The Bishop of Norwich (who was
present) was appointed president, and the three secretaries of the
British and Foreign Bible Society also attended.  Annual meetings have
been held ever since.

                                * * * * *

1812.  June 16th.  Starling Day, Esq., was sworn in Mayor of Norwich for
the second time; but in consequence of his advanced age and infirmities,
there was no dinner in St. Andrew’s Hall, on the guild-day.  Mr. Alderman
Davey (who was one of the unsuccessful candidates for the office of mayor
on May 1st and 2nd) gave a dinner under the trees adjoining his house at
Eaton, to about 500 freemen of the liberal interest.  Strange as it may
seem now, contests often took place for the office of mayor, during the
old corporation.

July 17th.  At a meeting of noblemen, gentry, and clergy, held at the
Shirehall, (Lord Viscount Primrose in the chair,) the Norfolk and Norwich
Society for the education of the poor in the principles of the Church of
England, was established.  Upwards of £3000 was subscribed for the
object.  The Lord Bishop of Norwich was elected patron, and Lord
Suffield, president.

                                * * * * *

1813.  May 1st.  A contested election for the office of Mayor of Norwich
came on, and was not finished till next morning, when Alderman Davey and
J. Harvey were returned as the two highest; but on May 3rd, an objection
was made to Alderman J. Harvey, as being ineligible, from his not being a
resident inhabitant of the city, as required by charter.  Counsel’s
opinion was obtained in favour of that objection, and another election
took place on June 7th, when another contest ensued, and after a spirited
poll the numbers were—for Alderman Leman, 797; Alderman Davey, 801.  The
Court of Aldermen elected the former gentleman.

July 4th.  Great rejoicings took place here on the arrival of the news of
the great victory obtained by the British army commanded by the Marquis
of Wellington, over the French army, under Joseph Buonaparte, at Vittoria
in Spain, on June 21st, when the enemy lost 151 pieces of cannon, 415
waggons, all his baggage, and many prisoners.  The Marquis of Wellington
was promoted to be a Field-Marshal.  A form of prayer and thanksgiving
for this victory was used in all the churches on August 1st.

                                * * * * *

1814.  May 1st.  An election took place for the office of Mayor of
Norwich, and the contest lasted two days.  Aldermen Back and Robberds
being the highest on the poll, a scrutiny was demanded on behalf of
Alderman Davey.  The scrutiny commenced on the 12th, and continued till
the 19th, when Alderman Davey declined proceeding further.  Aldermen
Robberds and Back were then returned to the Court of Aldermen, who
elected J. W. Robberds, Esq., to serve the office of Mayor.

June 3rd.  The Expedition coach being the first to arrive in Norwich with
the news of the definitive treaty of peace, (signed at Paris on the 30th
ult.,) was drawn by the people four times round the Market Place, and
through the principal streets.

June 8th.  The Newmarket mail arrived in Norwich with news of the Corn
Importation Bill having been thrown out of the House of Commons by a
majority of 10, and was dragged by the excited people for hours through
the streets.  At night a great bonfire was made.

June 27th.  Peace with France was proclaimed.  The mayor and corporation
went in a procession of carriages from the Guildhall through the
principal streets, preceded by trumpets, and accompanied by thousands of
people.

July 7th.  The thanksgiving day for the happy restoration of peace.  The
mayor and corporation attended divine service at the Cathedral.  About
700 children from the church schools went in procession to St. Andrew’s
Hall, where a plentiful dinner of roast beef and plum pudding was
provided for them by the treasurers of the charity schools.  The poor in
their several parishes participated in the general joy, and were regaled
with plentiful dinners, paid for by subscriptions.

                                * * * * *

1815.  March 4th.  The late Professor Taylor stood a contest, for the
third time, for nominee of St. Peter’s Mancroft ward.  Of course he was
beaten, this being an orange-and-purple ward, but he polled 107 votes.
However, he was soon afterwards elected a common councilman, without
difficulty, in the Northern ward, where the blue-and-whites had always a
large majority.  This was on March 16th, and on May 3rd he was elected a
member of the court of guardians.  He took a very active part in local
politics, and was the first man who ever reported and published the
proceedings of the common council.

June 23rd.  The glorious news was received in Norwich, with triumphant
rejoicings, of the ever memorable victory obtained by the Duke of
Wellington over the French army, commanded by Buonaparte in person, at
Waterloo, near Brussels, on the 18th.  Buonaparte fled to Paris, leaving
upwards of 200 pieces of cannon in the hands of the allied armies.

June 27th.  Rejoicings were renewed here on the news being received of
the second abdication of Buonaparte, the immediate consequence of the
grand victory of La Belle Alliance.

                                * * * * *

1816.  January 18th.  This day was appointed a thanksgiving day for the
restoration of peace, and it was solemnly observed.  The mayor and
corporation of Norwich attended divine service at the Cathedral.  Sermons
were preached at the different places of worship, and collections were
made for the poor.

January 25th.  At the 51st anniversary of the Castle corporation, Thomas
Back, Esq., alderman, presented two medals to be worn by the recorder and
steward of the society.  Each medal bore a good likeness of Mr. Pitt, on
a beautiful cameo; the motto round which was _Non Sibi sed Patriæ Vixit_.
On the reverse were the words, “Presented by Thomas Back, Junior, Esq.,
to the Castle Corporation, Norwich, in commemoration of the great victory
of Waterloo, obtained on the 18th June, 1815, by the Allied Armies under
the command of Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington;” and around this was
the motto, “In memory of the Right Hon. William Pitt; died the 23rd
January, 1806, aged 47.”

January 29th.  Died, aged 86, Robert Harvey, Esq., called the Father of
the City of Norwich, for his great benevolence and liberality and
promotion of trade.

February 20th.  A numerous meeting was held at the Guildhall, Norwich,
with the mayor, J. H. Yallop, Esq., in the chair, when resolutions
against the property tax, and a petition founded thereon, were passed
unanimously.  Similar petitions were sent from Lynn, Yarmouth, and other
towns.  County meetings were also held to petition against the tax.

March 29th.  At a public meeting held at the Guildhall, Norwich, with the
mayor in the chair, it was resolved to establish a bank for savings,
where servants and others might deposit a portion of their earnings.  It
was opened on April 29th, and has continued to be very prosperous.

April 3rd.  A meeting of merchants, manufacturers, and others, was held
at the Guildhall, Norwich, John Harvey, Esq., presiding, when resolutions
were passed to instruct the city members to watch and oppose the intended
measure for allowing the exportation of wool free of all restrictions.
This measure was for the time relinquished.

April 4th.  At a public meeting held under the presidency of the mayor, a
petition to parliament was adopted for the repeal of the Insolvent
Debtors’ act as being injurious to trade and commerce.  It was not
repealed for a long time.

May 11th.  The West Norfolk militia returned to Norwich from Ireland, and
were disembodied on the 17th of June.

May 16th.  A number of riotous persons, chiefly youths, broke into the
New Mills, in Norwich, threw some of the flour into the mill pool, and
committed several outrages on persons and dwellings before they
dispersed.  The pretext for the disturbance was the want of employment.
They assembled again on the next evening, but were dispersed by the
magistrates and military, and several of the rioters were taken into
custody.  Similar proceedings took place at Downham and other places in
Norfolk.

June 17th.  At a quarterly assembly of the corporation, an address of
congratulation to the Prince Regent was voted, to be presented to his
Royal Highness, on the occasion of the marriage of the Princess Charlotte
of Wales, and Prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg.  The address was presented
by the city members.  The marriage took place on May 2nd.

June 18th.  This day being the anniversary of the glorious victory of
Waterloo, the non-commissioned officers and privates of the First Royal
Dragoons, and other soldiers quartered in Norwich, were treated with a
handsome dinner in the cavalry riding school, several gentlemen having
entered into a subscription for that purpose, the corporation adding the
sum of £10.  Robert Hawkes, Esq., first suggested the entertainment.

July 10th.  An address of congratulation was voted by the court of
mayoralty of Norwich, to be presented to the Princess Charlotte and
Prince Leopold on their marriage.

October 14th.  A public meeting was held in St. Andrew’s Hall (Mr.
Sheriff Bolingbroke in the chair), when certain resolutions, and a
petition to parliament founded thereon, were agreed to.  The petition was
for the greatest possible retrenchment of the public expenditure, and for
a Reform of the House of Commons.  Thus early began the Reform movement,
and it continued to extend all over the country.  It became stronger and
stronger, till at last it overcame all opposition.

                                * * * * *

1817.  January 1st.  At a public meeting in the Guildhall, with the
mayor, William Hankes, Esq., presiding, a subscription was commenced to
relieve the labouring poor, which amounted to £3050.  The poor people
were employed on works of public improvement, and were supplied with
soup, &c.  Upwards of £1000 was also raised at Yarmouth for the same
laudable purpose, and 460 men were employed in forming roads to the Bath
House, Jetty, &c.  The committee in Norwich granted £270 to be expended
for labour on cutting a road through Butter Hills to Carrow Bridge, which
was effected in the course of the summer.

March 26th.  The severest contest took place ever known for nominees of
Wymer, or the Long ward, very few votes remaining unpolled.  Some of the
freemen came in post-chaises from Thetford to poll.  The numbers were,
Messrs. S. Mitchell, 306; J. Reynolds, 305; A. Thwaites, 292; Messrs. W.
Foster, 297; R. Purland, 288; C. Higgen, 283.  Mr. Foster was successful,
having five votes above Mr. Thwaites, one of the old nominees.

April 4th.  On Good Friday morning, Wright’s Norwich and Yarmouth steam
packet had just started from the Foundry Bridge, when the boiler of the
engine burst with a tremendous explosion, by which the vessel was blown
to atoms, and of 22 persons on board, five men three women, and one child
were instantly killed.  Six women with fractured arms and legs were
conveyed to the hospital, where one died.  The remaining seven escaped
without much injury.  A subscription amounting to £350 was raised for the
sufferers.  Soon afterwards, a packet was introduced on the river, worked
by four horses, as in a thrashing machine; the animals walking in a path
18 feet in diameter.  The vessel was propelled from six to seven miles an
hour, as wind and tide favoured.  This packet did not long run, and steam
packets were again introduced, which went from Norwich to Yarmouth daily.

September 26th.  A meeting was held in St. Andrew’s Hall, when an
auxiliary association to the London Society for Promoting Christianity
amongst the Jews was established.  The Lord Bishop of Norwich was
appointed president.  Annual meetings have been held ever since to
promote the objects of the society.

December 3rd.  At a special meeting of the corporation, two addresses of
condolence, one to the Prince Regent, and the other to Prince Leopold, of
Saxe Coburg, were voted, expressive of the grief of the citizens on the
death of the Princess Charlotte.

                                * * * * *

1818.  January 5th.  The court of guardians having determined to proceed
in the valuation of the property in the city and hamlets, Messrs. Rook,
Athow, and Stannard were appointed to make such valuation.  They were to
be paid £850 for their trouble.

A repository was established in Norwich for the sale of articles of
ingenuity, to increase the funds of the society for relieving the sick
poor in Norwich.  The first exhibition took place on Tombland fair day,
at Mr. Noverre’s room.

March 11th.  This year, the several wards in Norwich (except the Northern
ward) were strongly contested, particularly the Wymer ward.  After a
spirited poll for nominees of the common council, the numbers were for
Mr. Foster, 361; Mr. Higgen, 357; Mr. Purland, 355; Mr. Mitchell, 345;
Mr. Culley, 340; Mr. Beckwith, 322.  The liberal party at last obtained
the ascendancy, but had to pay for it.  The expenditure at this local
contest was estimated at some thousands.  From £15 to £40 were given for
votes, and the freemen were brought in carriages from the country.

May 16th.  This being Guild-day, Barnabas Leman, Esq., was sworn in mayor
of Norwich for the second time.  The corporation went in procession to
the Cathedral, preceded by the Blue and White Clubs, the freemen wearing
those colours in their hats, which was considered improper and ill-timed.
Mr. William Smith, before the procession started, after recommending his
friends to abstain from this display of party feeling on such a day,
pulled his colours from his hat and put them in his pocket.  It being
quite a matter of taste, his example was not followed.

                                * * * * *

1819.  This year some important meetings were held, and a good deal of
political excitement prevailed in the city.  Mr. E. Taylor was elected
sheriff after a contest with Mr. T. S. Day.  The former was evidently the
popular candidate, the numbers being for Taylor 807, for Day 530.  In
acknowledging the honour which had been conferred upon him he said,—

    “There are times, gentlemen, when the post of honour is the post of
    duty—times when it is the duty of every man to stand forward to
    maintain and uphold the laws of his country, and prevent them from
    being outraged.  Such, gentlemen, are the present.  Scenes have
    recently been exhibited in a distant part of this country which I
    blush to mention.  The laws have there been outraged and trodden
    under foot, not by the people, but by the magistrates, whose duty it
    was to protect them.  At Manchester we have seen a merciless
    soldiery, or rather, I should say, persons wearing red coats, and
    pretending to be soldiers, let loose to butcher men, women, and
    children in cold blood who were peaceably and legally met to
    discharge a duty which they owed to their country.  The right of
    petitioning is a right which, till lately, we have enjoyed
    uninterruptedly, none daring to make us afraid; and where is the man
    who will tell me that these people did not legally and
    constitutionally meet?  But, gentlemen, they have been treated in a
    manner so brutal and inhuman, that our history furnishes no
    parallel.”

He alluded to the “Peterloo Massacre” as it was then called, and which
excited universal indignation throughout the country.

January 25th.  The birthday of Mr. Fox was commemorated, by nearly 250
gentlemen, at the Assembly rooms.  The earl of Albemarle presided,
supported by Mr. Coke and Viscount Bury.  The high sheriff was at the
head of the right hand table, and Mr. Wm. Smith of the left.  After
dinner, speeches were delivered, setting forth the views of the Liberal
party.

April 15th.  A public meeting was held in St. Andrew’s Hall, when a
petition to the House of Commons against the duty on coals (6s. 6d. per
chaldron) was adopted by acclamation.  R. H. Gurney, Esq., M.P., assured
the meeting that he should support the prayer of the petition, and do
everything in his power towards alleviating the burdens of his
fellow-citizens.  The tax was ultimately abolished.

April 22nd.  The duke of Sussex arrived in Norwich and lodged at the
house of William Foster, Esq., in Queen Street, where his royal highness
was waited upon by the mayor and corporation.  Mr. Steward Alderson, in
an address of congratulation on his arrival, informed his royal highness
that the whole body corporate had voted to him the freedom of the city,
which the royal duke was pleased to accept, at the same time returning a
dignified answer.  On the next day a grand meeting of the Masonic
brethren, 320 in number, was held in Chapel-field house.  The large
Assembly room was decorated in the most splendid style.  At 10.30 a.m.,
the duke of Sussex (as grand master of England) installed Thomas Wm.
Coke, Esq., M.P., as provincial grand master, with the accustomed Masonic
ceremonies.  His royal highness delivered an impressive charge, on
investing Mr. Coke with the jewel, apron, and gloves.  After this
ceremony a procession was formed, every officer and member of the
assembled lodges wearing his full masonic costume and jewels, and the
banners were carried in the procession to the Cathedral.  In the evening,
there was a sumptuous banquet in St. Andrew’s Hall, at which the royal
duke presided, supported by Mr. Coke and I. Ives, Esq., the deputy
provincial grand master.  About 254 persons dined, and many ladies were
present to witness the festive scene.  Toasts were proposed in right
royal style, and duly responded to.  Next day His Royal Highness was
admitted to the honorary freedom of the city at the Guildhall, where he
took the customary oaths.  After visiting the exhibition of the Artists’
Society, the royal duke left Norwich about noon and proceeded to Holkham,
paying a visit to Sir George Jerningham, at Cossey Hall, on his way
thither.

May 28th.  The anniversary of the birthday of the Rt. Hon. Wm. Pitt was
commemorated at the Assembly rooms, Norwich, by a very numerous company
of noblemen, gentlemen, and citizens.

June 4th.  The anniversary of the birthday of the long afflicted
sovereign, George III., who had entered on the eighty-second year of his
age, was celebrated for the last time in Norwich, Yarmouth, Lynn, and
other towns, with the accustomed demonstration of loyalty and attachment.

July 15th.  Meetings were held in Norwich, and resolutions were passed,
and petitions to parliament adopted, against the proposed additional
duties on malt and on foreign wool.  Petitions were also presented to
parliament praying for an alteration in the corn laws, in consequence of
the depressed state of agriculture.

September 16th.  A public meeting was held in St. Andrew’s Hall, in order
to take into consideration the late disastrous transactions at
Manchester, on August 16th.  The mayor, R. Bolingbroke, Esq., presided,
when resolutions were adopted asserting the right of the subject to
petition the king, and the legality of the late meeting at Manchester,
censuring the conduct of the magistrates and yeomanry, and recommending a
subscription for the relief of the sufferers.  An address to the prince
regent was agreed to for the removal of ministers from his presence and
councils for ever.  The address was afterwards presented by the city
members.

October 18th.  A public meeting was held by adjournment at the Guildhall
to take into consideration the propriety of erecting a bridge over the
river, near the Duke’s Palace, to connect Pitt Street with the Market
Place.  A proposition to that effect was negatived, but a bill for
erecting the bridge was introduced into parliament and ultimately passed.
Nearly £9,000 were proposed to be raised, by shares of £25 each, to
complete the same.  The bridge was built in course of time, and toll had
to be paid for many years.  By the exertions and influence of the late T.
O. Springfield, Esq., the bridge was made a free thoroughfare, greatly to
the convenience of the citizens.

                                * * * * *

1820.  January 5th.  At a special meeting of the Diocesan Committee of
the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, held in Norwich, (the Lord
Bishop presiding) resolutions were adopted to counteract the evil effects
of infidel and blasphemous publications, by issuing tracts of the Parent
Society at very reduced prices, and a subscription was entered into for
that purpose.

January 24th.  The anniversary of the birthday of the Right Hon. C. J.
Fox was commemorated by a grand public dinner in St. Andrew’s Hall by 460
noblemen and gentlemen, amongst whom were the Duke of Sussex, the Duke of
Norfolk, the Earl of Albemarle (who presided), Viscount Bury, Lord
Molyneux, and many other leading gentlemen of the liberal party.  The
hall was handsomely decorated, and the names of FOX and ALBEMARLE
appeared in variegated lamps, and in a semi-circular transparency was
that of SUSSEX, in letters of gold upon a ground of purple silk.

January 30th.  A messenger from London brought to Lord and Lady
Castlereagh (who were at Gunton Hall) the melancholy tidings of the death
of King George III., which became known in Norwich on the following
morning, when nearly all the shops were closed, and the bells of the
churches were tolled for three hours.  The king died on January 29th, in
the 82nd year of his age, and the 60th of his troubled reign, during
which long wars desolated Europe, doubled our national debt, and
impoverished the country.  His Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales, (who
was appointed regent on February 6th, 1811,) immediately ascended the
throne.  King George IV. was soon afterwards seriously indisposed with
inflammation in the lungs, but happily recovered from the attack in the
course of a week.

February 1st.  King George IV. was proclaimed on the Castle Hill by the
High Sheriff, Sir William Windham Dalling, Bart., amid the cheers of
those assembled.  On the same day His Majesty was proclaimed in the city
in full form and with great rejoicings.

March 6th.  A spirited contest took place for the gown, vacant by the
death of Starling Day, Esq., alderman of Wymer ward.  At the close of the
poll the numbers were for Henry Francis, Esq., 413; John Lovick, Esq.,
372; majority for Mr. Francis 41, who was declared duly elected.  In this
month Messrs. Mitchell, Beckwith, and Culley were elected nominees for
the long ward without opposition.  The other three wards were contested.
After the elections for Wymer and the Northern wards, processions took
place at night to celebrate the triumph of the two contending parties.

August 2nd.  A common hall was held for the purpose of getting up an
address to be presented to Queen Caroline.  Mr. Alderman Leman presided,
and Mr. Sheriff Taylor introduced the subject, declaring that their duty
was not merely to vote an address to Her Majesty on her accession, but to
protest against the proceedings adopted by His Majesty’s ministers,
against her “whom we ought to honour as our Queen, and esteem as a
woman.”  He denied the imputation that this meeting was held for factious
and seditious purposes.  He reviewed the various charges which had been
brought against Her Majesty, and mentioned several instances of noble
conduct on her part.  He regarded the erasure of her name from the
liturgy as a gross insult, and spoke of the firmness, and sagacity, and
judgment which characterised her determination to return to England.  He
reminded his hearers of the enthusiasm which attended her entry into
London.  But no sooner was she arrived than a large green bag was laid on
the table.  Now he had an instinctive horror of a green bag, as he had
once the honour of occupying a small corner of one.  He then challenged
the ministers, through Mr. Coke, to prove any one of the charges brought
against him in the green bag; and he received an answer that it was all a
mistake, and that Norwich should not have been inserted.  The resolutions
were carried by acclamation, and he afterwards presented an address to
the Queen at Brandenburgh house.

There was but one opinion here as to the character of George IV., and
with respect to the Queen, all the world agreed that she was much to be
pitied.  Men’s passions were so strongly excited, that whichever side
they took, whether for her or against her, her conduct was viewed through
a false medium.  Nothing showed this more strongly than the behaviour of
the two parties upon her death.  The blue-and-whites, many of whom had
never put on black for a royal personage before, were to be seen dressed
in black and white, while on the other hand the orange-and-purples, not
content with appearing in their ordinary attire, flaunted about in the
gayest colours.

December 12th.  In consequence of the numerous robberies committed in the
city and county, public meetings were held, and resolutions passed to
grant high rewards to watchmen who might apprehend offenders.  More
burglaries had been committed in that year than in the preceding twenty
years.  Increased poverty had produced crime, and the “Old Charlies” were
of little use.

                                * * * * *

1821.  March 7th.  E. T. Booth, Esq., (sheriff) was elected an alderman
of Great Wymer ward in the room of the late William Foster, Esq., who had
died on March 3rd.  There was an opposition; at the close of the poll the
numbers were, for Mr. Booth 444, Mr. R. Shaw 433.

March 31st.  The freedom of the city having been voted at the quarterly
assembly of the corporation on the 24th ult., to be presented to Captain
William Edward Parry of the Royal Navy; that gallant officer attended in
full uniform, and was sworn in at a full court of mayoralty.  The
parchment containing the freedom of the city was presented to him in a
box formed of a piece of oak, part of the ship Hecla, with an appropriate
inscription.

April 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th.  Cleansing Week ward elections took place.
Conisford ward no opposition, Messrs. J. Kitton, J. Angel, and J. P.
Cocksedge (nominees); Mancroft ward no opposition, Messrs. P. Chamberlin,
J. Bennett, and J. Goodwin, (nominees); Wymer ward, Mr. A. A. H. Beckwith
432, Mr. J. Culley, 432, Mr. J. Reynolds 423 (nominees), Mr. J. Parkinson
254, Mr. Newin 249, Mr. R. Purland 236, Mr. S. Mitchell 45; Northern
ward, Mr. T. Barnard 418, Mr. T. O. Springfield 416, Mr. S. S. Beare 416,
(nominees), Mr. G. Morse 231, Mr. Troughton 230, Mr. T. Grimmer 231.

May 1st.  The election for mayor came on.  At the close of the poll the
numbers were for Alderman Rackham 986, Alderman Hawkes 950, Alderman
Marsh 630, Alderman Yallop 631.  The former two were returned to the
court of aldermen, who elected William Rackham, Esq., to serve the office
of chief magistrate.

June 18th.  This being Guild day, William Rackham, Esq., was sworn in
mayor, on which occasion he gave a sumptuous dinner to about 650 ladies
and gentlemen in St. Andrews Hall, the hall having previously undergone
various alterations and improvements.

July 27th.  The coronation of George IV. was celebrated here in a very
splendid manner, and gave occasion for a display of the exuberant loyalty
of the citizens.  This king, called “the finest gentleman in Europe,” had
governed the realm for nearly ten years, and visited the city in 1812.
His reign was peaceful and prosperous, and he was a great promoter of the
arts and sciences.  The most important event of his reign was the passing
of the act for Roman Catholic emancipation, by which Roman Catholics
became entitled to all the rights and privileges enjoyed by the rest of
the community, a measure strongly supported here by the liberal party.
During this reign the citizens of Norwich took a very active part in all
the great movements of the age—the Roman Catholic Emancipation movement,
the Anti-Slavery movement, and the Reform agitation.  Strong contests at
elections took place on all these questions.  Bribery, corruption,
treating, cooping, and intimidation, were resorted to by both parties on
every occasion, as will appear in a subsequent chapter, on our political
history.  Party spirit never ran higher in any town than in Norwich.

                                * * * * *

1822.  January 24th.  The anniversary of the birthday of the Rt. Hon. C.
J. Fox was commemorated by a public dinner of the liberal party at the
Assembly Rooms.

February 24th.  At a quarterly meeting of the corporation it was
unanimously resolved, that a piece of plate, of the value of 150 guineas,
be presented to Charles Harvey, Esq., the recorder of Norwich, as a
testimony of the high appreciation entertained by that assembly of his
upright and impartial conduct in the performance of the duties of his
office, and of his zeal on all occasions for the interests of the city.

March.  When the elections came on in Cleansing Week, there was no
opposition for the Conisford and Mancroft wards, and the
orange-and-purple party maintained their ascendancy.  Wymer ward, Mr. J.
Reynolds 401, Mr. A. A. H. Beckwith 401, Mr. J. Culley 401, (nominees);
P. Greenwood 56, W. Simmons 56, R. Widdows 54.  Northern ward, Mr. A.
Shaw 379, Mr. S. S. Beare 368, Mr. E. Taylor 200, (nominees); W. G.
Edwards 189, A. Beloe 193, T. Grimmer 190, St. Quintin 190.

May 1st.  The election of mayor came on.  At the close of the poll the
numbers were for Alderman Hawkes 957, Alderman J. S. Patteson 908,
Alderman Thurtell 364, Alderman Yallop 318; the former two were returned
to the court of aldermen, who elected Robert Hawkes, Esq., to serve the
office of chief magistrate.

June 18th.  This being Guild day, Robert Hawkes, Esq., was sworn in as
mayor, and he gave a grand dinner to the citizens in St. Andrew’s Hall.

September 27th.  The weavers, 2,361 in number, subscribed for, and
presented a piece of plate to John Harvey, Esq., as a testimony of the
high esteem in which they held him; and he deserved it, for he was a
great promoter of the manufactures of the city, and a friend of the
operatives.  They were then in a prosperous state, and well employed by
many large firms who executed orders for the East India Company to the
extent of 20,000 pieces of camlets yearly.  This trade continued till
1832.

                                * * * * *

1823.  January 23rd.  At a meeting held in the Old Library Room, St.
Andrew’s Hall, a society was formed for supplying the poor with blankets
at a reduced price; and upwards of 1100 were distributed during the
winter.

February 24th.  At a quarterly assembly of the corporation a lease was
granted to the magistrates of the city, for 500 years, of the piece of
land outside of St. Giles’ Gates, on which it had been decided to build
the new jail, at the annual rent of £50.

March 4th.  At a meeting held at the Guildhall, petitions to parliament
were adopted against the Insolvent Debtors Act.

March.  Cleansing Week for the ward elections passed off without any
opposition; the orange-and-purple party kept the Conisford, Mancroft, and
Wymer wards, and the blue-and-white the Northern ward.

April 14th.  At a special assembly of the corporation, a petition to His
Majesty was adopted, praying for two jail deliveries in the course of the
year.

April 25th.  At a meeting held at the Guildhall, to take into
consideration the state of the West India Colonies, with a view to
promote the abolition of slavery, resolutions in favour of the object
were carried.

May 1st.  The election of mayor took place, and at the close of the poll
the numbers were, Alderman J. S. Patteson 835, Alderman Francis 774,
Alderman Leman 101, Alderman Yallop 94.  The two former were returned to
the court of aldermen, who elected J. S. Patteson, Esq., to serve the
office of chief magistrate.

May 3rd.  At a quarterly assembly of the corporation, the freedom of the
city was voted to the Hon. John Wodehouse, lieutenant of the city and
county.

June 17th.  This being Guild day, J. S. Patteson, Esq., was sworn in
mayor; and he gave a splendid dinner to a large party in St. Andrew’s
Hall.

                                * * * * *

1824.  In September of this year the first Norfolk and Norwich Musical
Festival was held in St. Andrew’s Hall, and the concerts given were well
attended by the nobility and gentry of the county.  This Festival was
very much promoted by Mr. Edward Taylor, Mr. R. M. Bacon, then editor of
the _Mercury_, and other amateurs in the city, and proved eminently
successful, the hospital receiving the sum of £2,399 out of the profits.
In 1825, King George IV. presented the hospital with a copy of Arnold’s
edition of Handel’s Works.  It was determined that a triennial festival
should be held in aid of the funds of the institution, and that the
Norwich Choral Society should be maintained in an efficient state for
that purpose.



CHAPTER XVI.
Norwich Navigation.


ABOUT this time a very important movement took place in the city, with
the view to make “Norwich a port,” and many meetings were held to promote
that object.  Here, therefore, will be a proper place to review the
proceedings in reference to our navigation to Yarmouth and Lowestoft.
The history will show the grasping selfishness of the old corporation at
Yarmouth, which always tried to tax the trade of the city, and opposed
every improvement, even when it was for the benefit of both towns.

Norwich, no doubt, derived its mercantile and carrying trade from its
original situation as a sea-port.  In ancient times the _Gariensis
Ostium_, or mouth of the Yare, extended in breadth from Burgh Castle to
Caister, the two Roman camps being opposite each other.  The spot on
which Yarmouth now stands was then covered by water, and a broad arm of
the sea extended all over the present marshes to the city, which was then
a sea-port, before Yarmouth had any existence.  This appears from the
legal contests that took place in later times between the burgesses of
Yarmouth and the citizens of Norwich.

Norwich had long been a mercantile and trading town, and one of the royal
cities of England, and ships came up by an arm of the sea to an open
market, which was held every day in the week.  Public marts or fairs were
held twice a year, with all manner of merchandise for sale to citizens,
strangers, or foreigners.  The traders for centuries used this right of
buying and selling, loading and unloading all their goods and
merchandise, free of all tolls and dues.  Foreign merchants paid at
Norwich 4d. on every ship of bulk, 2d. for every boat, and all other
customs for their merchandise.

At the commencement of the 14th century Yarmouth began to be a rival port
to Norwich, and some legal contests took place between the two towns
respecting their rights and privileges.  In 1327, a suit was commenced,
and in 1331 it was renewed, between the citizens of Norwich and the
burgesses of Yarmouth, relating to certain tolls which the latter imposed
on goods, claiming the right to do so under the charter of Edward I.,
which made Yarmouth a port.  Indeed, they appear to have been so incensed
at the city becoming a staple that they proceeded so far as to stop all
vessels coming through from their port to Norwich.  A very remarkable
contest consequently arose, and terminated in favour of the city.  The
result of the suit was, that the bailiffs of Yarmouth were commanded to
make proclamation in their town, “That if any hindered or in any way
molested the merchant vessels of what kind soever from passing and
re-passing through the port of Yarmouth, to and from the city of Norwich,
they should forfeit all their goods and chattels, forfeitable, for so
doing.”  Yarmouth was, therefore, prevented for a time from levying
duties, but subsequently regained the power of doing so to a great
extent.

If Norwich in former ages was an important seaport, the question
naturally arises how it ceased to be so.  There is sufficient evidence
that after the year 500, the arm of the sea became narrower, though at
that period the water came up close to the Castle Hill.  After 1050, the
river was much reduced in breadth, and a new town arose round the
fortress.  Centuries elapsed and the river became still narrower, and
streets were extended on each side.  At length the stream became so
shallow that it was no longer navigable for sea-borne vessels, and the
ancient trade of the city began to decline.  The citizens, occupied by
political contests, did not keep up the navigation for sea-borne vessels,
as they might easily have done.  Attempts were made in this (19th)
century to retrieve the long neglect of former ages by some schemes of
improvement, but these attempts almost entirely failed.  Still the city
owed many trading advantages to its river, which is navigable for
wherries and packets to the sea.

The navigation between Norwich and Yarmouth has not been, for centuries,
suited for sea-borne vessels, owing, chiefly, to the shallowness of the
channel over Breydon.  The embouchure of the river into the sea has been
frequently blocked up by shifting sands, and vessels have been detained
fourteen days before they could get into the river.  Indeed, at the
present time there is great danger of the mouth of the harbour being
blocked up at Yarmouth altogether.

Prior to the year 1762, the quantity of coals brought from Yarmouth to
Norwich, annually, was 26,000 chaldrons.  Of these, nearly 5000 chaldrons
were carried out of Norwich into the surrounding district, so that 21,000
chaldrons were consumed in the city.  At that time, the king’s dues and
the Yarmouth dues amounted to 8s. 1d. per chaldron, which was felt by the
consumers to be a grievous tax.  A cheap and plentiful supply of coal has
always been of the utmost importance to the citizens, not only for
domestic purposes, but also as fuel for manufacturers, dyers, hot
pressers, lime burners, brewers, and maltsters.  Yet, at the period
referred to, this necessary commodity was heavily taxed, to the extent of
£1200 yearly, more than was paid on an equal consumption in London.  This
tax was rendered more grievous by the illegal measurement at Yarmouth.
The legal chaldron consisted of thirty-six bushels; but, at Yarmouth the
chaldron was estimated not by bushels, but by a measure called a mett,
sixteen of which were computed to contain a chaldron, but did not.  As
may be supposed, the injustice naturally caused considerable
dissatisfaction among the Norwich coal merchants and other citizens, and
frequent complaints were made of the grievance which was ultimately
abolished.  This was important, for formerly, from the north of England,
immense quantities of coal and heavy goods were brought by sea, _viâ_
Yarmouth to Norwich, for distribution over the eastern side of Norfolk
and Suffolk.  The importation of coal, by this route, has, however, been
greatly diminished; not only by the opening of railways in every
direction, but also by the working of the central coal fields of England.

By the act of the 12th George I., c. 15, commonly called the Tonnage Act,
the corporation obtained the power to levy tolls on all goods brought
into the city by any boat, keel wherry, lighter, buoy, or other vessel as
follows:—4d. for every chaldron of coals, for every last of wheat, rye,
barley, malt, or other grain, for every weight of salt, for every
hogshead of sugar, tobacco, molasses, or hogshead packed with other
goods, for every three puncheons of liquor, for every two pipes of wine,
spirits, &c., for every eight barrels of soap, raisins, oil, pitch, tar,
&c.  For five years prior to May, 1836, the average amount of revenue
derived from the tonnage dues was £970, showing that a very large
quantity of goods was brought by river to the city.  After June 24th,
1836, the tolls were let by auction for £1375; in 1838, for £1210; in
1840, for £1220; in 1847, for £1000; in 1850, for £1050 yearly.  This
shows that after the opening of railways the dues were reduced, but not
so much as might have been expected; the wherries continued to bring in a
large proportion of the heavy goods.

The project of opening a communication between Norwich and the sea, for
sea-borne vessels, originated with Alderman Crisp Brown, who in 1814,
submitted to the corporation a plan for making Norwich a port by way of
Yarmouth.  After this, surveys were made, and a report was published in
1818, by Mr. Cubitt, who recommended avoiding Breydon by a new cut on the
south side.  In the same year he made another survey, to ascertain the
practicability of opening a communication with the sea at Lowestoft, and
in 1821 this report was laid before the public.  As the Yarmouth
corporation had signified their determination to oppose either of these
plans, it was at length determined to carry out the communication to
Lowestoft, although the expense was double that of the Yarmouth plan.
This turned out to be a very unfortunate undertaking.  Subscriptions were
raised and fresh surveys were made; and in 1826, a company having been
formed, an application was made to Parliament for an Act; but being
opposed by the Yarmouth corporation and timid owners of the marsh lands,
who were fearful of an inundation, it was lost by a majority of five.
This act, however, was finally passed in 1827, after £8000 had been spent
by the corporation of Yarmouth in opposing it.  Of course, the object of
that body was to retain the monopoly of the Norwich trade, which was then
very great.

On May 23rd, 1827, the bill for making Norwich a port having been passed
through both houses of Parliament, the navigation committee, with the
mayor (their chairman), were met at Hartford Hill, on their return from
London, by thousands of their fellow-citizens who were assembled to
welcome them; and a grand procession having been formed, they marched
through the city, while guns were fired in all directions.  The
celebration concluded with a bonfire at night.

In effecting the great undertaking of a communication with Lowestoft, the
river Yare was deepened near Norwich and the navigation was continued by
that river as far as Reedham, whence it was carried across the marshes by
a new cut, two miles and a-half long, to the river Waveney, along which
it passed to Oulton Dyke, which was widened and deepened to Oulton Broad,
whence by a short cut the canal entered Lake Lothing, through which it
passed to the shore at Lowestoft, where, by cutting through the bank, the
tides were freely admitted into the lake.  Here a large harbour was
formed, covering 160 acres, nearly three miles in length, and averaging
from fifteen to seventeen feet in depth at high water.  In this work the
company spent their whole capital of £150,000.

On September 30th, 1833, the Norwich and Lowestoft navigation was opened,
when two vessels came from the latter place and arrived at the wharfs
without once touching ground.  This caused great rejoicing, and the
advantages of the undertaking were soon apparent.  But the company wanted
money, and were obliged to borrow it from the Exchequer Loan
Commissioners, into whose hands the port fell in 1842.  Norwich traders
might afterwards have recovered possession of the port for a small sum by
a combined effort, but they lost the opportunity.  The commissioners
disposed of the port and navigation to a new company at Lowestoft, and
that company, after expending large sums in repairs, sold the harbour and
navigation to Mr. Peto for almost a nominal price.  He, with other
gentlemen, organised another company, raised a capital of £200,000
(afterwards doubled), and obtained an act of parliament for the formation
of a new harbour, and a railway to Reedham in connection with the line to
Norwich.  The new harbour was made, and the railway was opened in 1847,
from which year the carrying trade of the port gradually increased.
Before 1850 the importation of coal and the harbour dues increased
five-fold, and the importations of corn increased 10,000 quarters yearly.
The number of vessels was doubled, and of course employment increased in
proportion.  The harbour and railway contributed a large traffic to the
Eastern Counties lines.  Norwich traders made great use of the port, and
through it brought quantities of coal and heavy goods to the city.  There
is every mechanical facility afforded for the loading and unloading of
vessels; and port dues are lower than at Yarmouth.  In 1851, the number
of vessels that entered the harbour was 1,636, or 131,767 tons, showing
an increase of 23,000 tons.  In the same year there was an increase of
6,997 tons in the coal imported.  Of course, as the shipping trade of the
port increased, the railway traffic increased also.  One of the chief
sources from which the additional revenue was derived was from the fish
traffic; for in 1851 the packages were 78,000 in number, and produced a
freight of £3,739.  The traffic also in coal and goods has greatly
improved.

Between 1840 and 1850 the corporation of Norwich, aided by the city
merchants, made a most determined effort to improve the navigation to
Yarmouth.  A large subscription was raised for this purpose, and Mr.
Cockburn Curtiss, the engineer, was engaged to make a survey of the river
Yare, and to prepare plans.  He did so, and his plans were approved by
the citizens generally; but the corporation of Yarmouth gave notice of a
strong opposition.  Application was made to parliament for a bill giving
the corporation here jurisdiction over the river down to the mouth of the
Haven.  The bill was opposed and lost, and the Norwich corporation were
defeated after an expenditure of some thousands of pounds.



CHAPTER XVII.
Leading Events (_continued_).


WE resume our chronological list of the leading events of the century:—

                                * * * * *

1825.  January 5th.  At a public meeting held at the Guildhall, a
Mechanics’ Institution was established, and it was continued for some
years in the rooms above the Bazaar, St. Andrew’s.

March.  Cleansing week passed off without opposition for the second time.

April 7th.  The clergy of the archdeaconry of Norwich agreed to petition
in favour of the claims of the Catholics to have the same political
rights and privileges as other people.

April 18th.  At a public meeting, held in St. Andrew’s Hall, a petition
for a revision of the Corn Laws was adopted unanimously.  The petition
afterwards received 14,385 signatures, and was forwarded on the 26th to
be presented to parliament.  As yet it was not proposed to _repeal_ the
Corn Laws, which were then a monstrous injustice.

May 1st.  The election for mayor took place, and the numbers were for
Alderman Day, 679; Alderman Booth, 597; Alderman Leman, 152; Alderman
Burt, 150.  Thomas Starling Day, Esq., was elected.

May 3rd.  The corporation adopted a petition against the Catholic claims,
the members going quite out of their way to perpetuate a great wrong.

May 31st.  The anniversary of the birthday of the Rt. Hon. William Pitt
was celebrated by the members of the castle corporation.

June 11th.  The first stone of the new theatre was laid, and it was
erected on the present site.  The building is only a piece of patch-work,
and has no pretensions to architectural design.  It is no credit to the
city in any respect.  It was opened on March 27th, in the following year.

June 21st.  The mayor (T. S. Day, Esq.,) was sworn into office; he
afterwards gave a dinner to upwards of 460 gentlemen in St. Andrew’s
Hall.

August 30th.  A contest took place for freemen’s sheriff; at the close of
the poll the numbers were for Mr. Brookes, 865; Alderman Springfield,
501.  The former was returned.

September 1st.  The corporation presented a piece of plate, of the value
of 100 guineas, to William Simpson, Esq., chamberlain, in testimony of
their high esteem for the ability and integrity displayed in the
discharge of his official duties; and of their unanimous approbation of
his long and faithful services.

November 2nd.  Sir Thomas P. Hankin, Lieut. Colonel of His Majesty
regiment of Royal North British Dragoons, was interred in the Cathedral
with military honours.

November 21st.  At a public meeting, held in St. Andrews Hall, a Society
was formed for promoting the Abolition of Colonial Slavery.  The late J.
J. Gurney and all his family were great advocates of negro emancipation,
but the diabolical injustice of slavery continued for many years to be
the disgrace of England.  At many meetings held in this city, the late J.
J. Gurney denounced the atrocities of the slave trade, and advocated its
abolition.  This object was at last accomplished after a violent
agitation throughout the country, at a cost of twenty millions sterling!

                                * * * * *

1826.  January.  This year, in consequence of the iniquitous corn laws,
bread was dear, work was scarce, and the poor were destitute.  Nearly
£5000 was subscribed for their relief.

March.  Cleansing Week ward elections passed off without opposition,
except in the Wymer ward, where it was merely nominal.

May 1st.  The election of mayor took place.  Messrs. Booth and Patteson
were returned to the court of aldermen without opposition, and Mr. E. T.
Booth was elected.

May 30th.  The anniversary of Mr. William Pitt’s birthday was again
celebrated by the members of the castle corporation.  The dinners of this
and other clubs served to keep alive party spirit.

June 20th.  This being Guild day, E. T. Booth, Esq., was sworn into the
office of chief magistrate; after which, the Rt. Hon. Robert Peel,
secretary of state for the Home department, and Jonathan Peel, Esq., the
new member of parliament for the city, were admitted to the freedom of
the city.

August 29th.  A contest took place for the office of freemen’s sheriff.
At the close of the poll the numbers were for Mr. James Bennett, 1164;
Mr. Alderman Springfield, 1079.  The former was returned.

November.  Parish meetings were held in many parts of the city, and votes
of thanks were passed to Crisp Brown, Esq., for his strenuous exertions
in preventing impositions in paying public money for the new jail, then
considered a job.

November 21st.  William Simpson, Esq., was elected town clerk and clerk
of the peace for this city, in the room of the late Elisha De Hague,
Esq., who died on the 11th inst., at the age of 72.

December 6th.  Robert Alderson, Esq., was unanimously elected recorder of
the city, on the resignation of Charles Savill Onley, Esq., and on the
12th, Isaac Preston, Esq., was elected steward of the corporation, vacant
by the resignation of Mr. Alderson.

                                * * * * *

1827.  January 7th.  On the intelligence being received here of the death
of his late Royal Highness, Duke of York and Albany, the bells of the
different churches were tolled for some time, and the shops were
partially closed on the following days.

January 20th.  This being the day appointed for the funeral of his late
Royal Highness the Duke of York, the melancholy occasion was observed by
a general suspension of business; the corporation attended divine service
at the Cathedral, and the bells of the parish churches were tolled.

January 26th.  At a meeting of the clergy, a petition was adopted in
favour of the Catholic claims.

April.  Cleansing Week ward elections came on with several severe
contests.  Conisford ward, J. Marshall, 213; T. Edwards, 212; J. Kitton,
205 (nominees); J. Angell, 204; A. B. Beevor, 203; J. P. Cocksedge, 202.
Mancroft ward, no opposition, J. Goodwin, T. Eaton, C. Hardy (nominees).
Wymer ward, W. Foster, 435; J. S. Parkinson, 434; G. Kitton, 429
(nominees).  Northern ward, S. S. Beare, 424; R. Shaw, 415; H. Martineau,
420 (nominees); G. Coleby, 237; T. Grimmer, 244.

May 1st.  The election of mayor took place; at the close of the poll the
numbers were, Alderman Finch, 918; Alderman Yallop, 867; Alderman
Patteson, 566; Alderman Browne, 565.  Peter Finch, Esq., was elected.  He
lived for many years in a large house built of flint in St. Mary’s.

June 19th.  This being Guild day, Peter Finch, Esq., was sworn into the
office of chief magistrate.

August 28th.  The election for freemen’s sheriff came on; at the close of
the poll the numbers were for Mr. Alderman Springfield, 1210; Mr. F.
White, 474.  The former was returned.

September 12th.  There was a severe contest for the office of alderman of
Conisford ward in the room of the late William Herring, Esq., who died on
the 8th, aged 74.  At the close of the poll the numbers were for J.
Angell, 218; J. Marshall, 196; and the former was returned.  A scrutiny
was demanded by Mr. Marshall’s friends, but was afterwards abandoned.

This month Mr. Myher Levi, a Jew, and his wife Hannah Levi, a Jewess,
having been converted, were baptised in the parish church of St.
Stephen’s, and received the name of Herbert.

                                * * * * *

1828.  January 10th.  The members of the castle corporation celebrated
their sixty-third anniversary.

March.  Cleansing Week elections.  Conisford ward, J. Marshall, 240; T.
Edwards, 240; A. B. Beevor, 239, (nominees); J. Skipper, 225; S. W.
Mealing, 226; R. Merry, 225.  No opposition in the other wards, but for
Mancroft ward, J. Bennett, A. Beloe, and C. Hardy (nominees); and for the
Northern ward, S. S. Beare, R. Shaw, and H. Martineau (nominees).

May 1st.  A contest for mayor, which lasted two days; at the close of the
poll the numbers were for Alderman Yallop, 1212; Alderman Thurtell, 1210;
Alderman Angell, 1097; Alderman Patteson, 1020.  The two former were
returned to the court of aldermen, who elected T. Thurtell, Esq.

May 5th.  At a public meeting held at the Guildhall, resolutions were
passed and a petition to parliament was adopted for the immediate
alleviation and ultimate extinction of slavery in the West India
colonies.  The petition afterwards received the signatures of 10,125
persons, and was 150 feet in length.

June 12th.  The anniversary of the birthday of the late Rt. Hon. William
Pitt was commemorated by a dinner of the Tories at the Assembly Rooms.
About 160 gentlemen were present.

In August, the new Exchange Street was opened, and on October 11th, a new
Corn Hall was opened to the public.

                                * * * * *

1829.  January and February.  Petitions were adopted against the claims
of the Roman Catholics by the Brunswick Constitutional Club, and other
inhabitants of this city; but counter declarations from the clergy of the
diocese of Norwich, and from a “Society of the friends of civil and
religious liberty,” were agreed to.  The agitation on this vexed question
had now reached its height in the country.

February 17th.  Even the common council now agreed to present an address
to the king for the removal of Roman Catholic disabilities.

March.  Cleansing Week ward elections came on.  Conisford ward, J.
Marshall, 258; T. Edwards, 259; J. Youngs, 253, (nominees); J. Skipper,
83; S. W. Mealing, 84; R. Merry, 82.  Mancroft ward, no opposition, J.
Bennett, A. Beloe, and C. Hardy (nominees).  Wymer ward, W. Foster, 466;
G. Kitton, 464; A. Barnard, 464 (nominees); J. Culley, 397; J. Brookes,
396; E. Newton, 394.  Northern ward, S. S. Beare, 342; R. Shaw, 343; H.
Martineau, 341 (nominees); T. Grimmer, 63; E. Hinde, 64; W. Fromow, 64.

May 1st.  T. O. Springfield, Esq., and John Angell, Esq., were returned
to the court of aldermen for the office of mayor without opposition, and
the former was chosen mayor.

June 16th.  This being Guild day, T. O. Springfield, Esq., was sworn into
the office of chief magistrate; after which he gave a grand dinner to
upwards of 800 ladies and gentlemen in St. Andrew’s Hall.

July 15th.  A public dinner was given to Thomas Thurtell, Esq., at the
Norfolk Hotel, attended by 80 gentlemen, in testimony of their approval
of his honourable, impartial, and upright conduct in the performance of
his duties as mayor during the previous year.

                                * * * * *

1830.  January.  Great disturbances took place in the city in consequence
of differences between the manufacturers and weavers concerning wages.
On the 12th, between 3000 and 4000 weavers collected in the avenues to
the workhouse, where they greatly interrupted the business of the court
of guardians, but they were dispersed by the magistrates and patroles.
Munificent donations of £200 from Hudson Gurney, Esq., and £400 from
London were distributed amongst the distressed weavers in bread and coal,
under the direction of a committee.  A general subscription was
afterwards raised in the city, amounting to £2300, for the relief of the
poor.

March.  Cleansing Week ward elections.  Conisford ward, T. Edwards, 251;
J. Youngs, 251; W. G. Edwards, 249 (nominees); J. Skipper, 233; S. W.
Mealing, 232; R. Merry, 228.  Mancroft ward, J. Bennett, 195; H. Newton,
196; B. Boardman, 196 (nominees); W. Burt, jun., 50; W. J. Robberds, 50;
P. Nicholls, 50.  Wymer ward, J. Culley, 521; J. Winter, 520; J.
Bexfield, 516 (nominees); W. Foster, 376; G. Kitton, 374; A. Barnard,
374.  Northern ward, T. Grimmer, 292; E. Browne, 290; W. Fromow, 289
(nominees); H. Martineau, 278; R. Shaw, 276; W. Newson, 276.

March 29th.  On the evening of the Conisford ward election, the gates
leading to the workhouse were pulled down and destroyed, and considerable
injury was done to the offices adjoining, by a great concourse of persons
riotously assembled, and who were returning from a procession formed by
the defeated party.

May 1st.  John Angell, Esq., was elected to serve the office of mayor.

May 3rd.  The common council adopted a petition to the lord chancellor
for two general jail deliveries in the year.  This was subsequently
granted.

December 23rd.  At a special meeting of the council, Isaac Preston, Esq.,
(afterwards Jermy) was elected recorder of the city in place of R.
Alderson, Esq., who had resigned.

                                * * * * *

1831.  January 12th.  At a meeting held in the Old Library Room, St.
Andrews Hall, a petition to parliament was adopted, praying for the
entire abolition of slavery in the British colonies.

February 1st.  At a special assembly of the corporation, Fitzroy Kelly,
Esq., was unanimously elected steward of that body, and he held that
office till the passing of the Municipal Reform Act.

March 22nd.  A petition was sent from the city against the
disfranchisement of the freemen by the proposed Reform Bill.  The
signatures were limited to freemen, denizens, and apprentices.

March.  Cleansing Week ward elections.  Conisford ward, J. Skipper, 270;
R. Merry, 265; B. Bunting, 237, (nominees); T. Edwards, 169; J. Youngs,
167; W. G. Edwards, 167.  Mancroft ward, no opposition, J. Bennett, H.
Newton, and B. Boardman (nominees).  Wymer ward, no opposition, J.
Culley, J. Winter, W. J. U. Browne (nominees).  Northern ward, S. S.
Beare, 344; R. Shaw, 337; W. Enfield, 347 (nominees); T. Grimmer, 222; E.
Browne, 220; W. Fromow, 220.

This year the Lent assizes were held in Norwich by adjournment from
Thetford.

May 1st.  J. H. Yallop, Esq., was elected mayor for the second time, and
he gave a grand dinner in St. Andrew’s Hall.

In this month a census of the population was taken, showing 27,910 males,
33,437 females; total 61,347.  Inhabited houses, 13,283; uninhabited
houses, 1,082; total 14,365.

June 20th.  Samuel Bignold, Esq., was elected an alderman without
opposition in the room of John Patteson, Esq., who had resigned.

August 22nd.  The new act of the court of guardians received the royal
assent, and came into operation.  This act has since been superseded by
another.

September 12th.  The election of guardians took place under the new act.

                                * * * * *

1832.  January 11th.  At a court of mayoralty it was resolved to present
a memorial to the Home Secretary and the Lord Chancellor, praying that
Norwich might be included in the ensuing circuit of the judges.  A
committee was appointed to prepare the memorial.  A special court was
convened on the 14th to receive the report, and a memorial was adopted
which was presented by the members for the city.  The petition was
granted, and the council passed a vote of thanks to the Lord Chancellor.

April.  Cleansing Week for ward elections.  Conisford ward, J. Skipper,
266; R. Merry, 264; B. Bunting, 266 (nominees); T. Edwards, 157; J.
Youngs, 159; R. Mills, 157.  Mancroft ward, no opposition, J. Bennett, B.
Boardman, and H. Newton (nominees).  Wymer ward, J. Culley, 489; J.
Winter, 484; W. J. U. Browne, 485 (nominees); W. Foster, 388; A. Barnard,
383; T. Edwards, 382.  Northern ward, S. S. Beare, 380; R. Shaw, 371; W.
Enfield, 381 (nominees); T. Grimmer, 101; E. Browne, 109; H. Steel, 107.

May 1st.  The election of mayor took place without opposition.  Mr.
Alderman Stevenson, and Mr. Alderman Bignold were nominated, and they
were duly returned; the aldermen chose S. W. Stevenson, Esq., then
proprietor and editor of the _Norfolk Chronicle_.  After being sworn in
on the Guild day he gave a grand dinner to about 900 ladies and gentlemen
in St. Andrew’s Hall.

August 28th.  The election for freemen’s sheriff was severely contested.
At the close of the poll the numbers were for William Foster, Esq., 1282;
Mr. Alderman Steward, 1275; and after a scrutiny the former was declared
duly elected.  This was a triumph for the blue-and-white party.

September 3rd.  An election took place for an alderman of Mancroft ward
in the place of J. S. Patteson, Esq., deceased.  Charles Turner, Esq.,
was elected; F. Morse, Esq., being the other candidate.

November 11th.  This day, at all the churches in the city, thanksgiving
services were performed for the cessation of the cholera, and for the
mild manner in which the inhabitants had been afflicted as compared with
other places.  The Norwich Lying-in Charity for delivering poor married
women at their own homes was established, and it has been of great
benefit to the poor.

                                * * * * *

1833.  January.  The town clerk of this city received a circular from the
secretary of state, requesting to be informed of the mode of electing
members of the corporation.  The town clerk forwarded his answer on the
21st.

March.  Cleansing Week for ward elections.  Conisford ward, no contest,
J. Skipper, R. Merry, and B. Bunting (nominees).  Mancroft ward, no
opposition, J. Bennett, B. Boardman, H. Newton (nominees).  Wymer ward,
J. Culley, 486; J. Winter, 484; W. J. U. Browne, 486 (nominees); G.
Kitton, 122; R. Miller, 122; C. W. Unthank, 121.  Northern ward, S. S.
Beare, 300; R. Shaw, 298; W. Enfield, 300 (nominees); T. Grimmer, 206; H.
Steel, 204; J. Sinclair, 203.

May 1st.  At the election for mayor, Aldermen Bignold and Turner were
returned to the court without opposition, and S. Bignold, Esq., was
chosen to serve the office.  On the Guild day he was sworn in, and on
this occasion he gave a magnificent banquet to about 1100 ladies and
gentlemen in St. Andrew’s Hall.  The same place was the scene of great
festivity on June 20th and 21st, when dinners were given to the electors
in the orange-and-purple interest, those in the Conisford and Northern
wards to the number of 750 on the first day, and those of the Wymer and
Mancroft wards 912 on the following day.  Great was the rejoicing, but it
was of short duration.  The days of the old corporation were numbered.



CHAPTER XVIII.
The Reform Era.


WILLIAM IV. ascended the throne in 1830, in a period of great political
excitement.  During his short reign of seven years, there was the
greatest political agitation ever known in this country about a Reform of
Parliament, a measure which the people had long and earnestly desired.
Many meetings were held in this city, and petitions were adopted in
favour of reform, long called for and long deferred.  In fact, the king,
during the early part of his reign, had other and more pressing causes of
anxiety.  His accession to the throne brought him an inheritance of the
jealousy, to which the country had been gradually roused, on the subject
of the extravagance and corruption of the old systems of government.  In
the effort to reduce a vast expenditure, the House of Commons was in no
mood to be so liberal to the new sovereign as he thought he had a right
to expect.  The ministry were withheld, by the very forcible opposition
of one of its members, from asking the house to grant the expenses of the
queen’s outfit, and the king himself had to submit to the mortification
of finding the pensions charged on the public by former monarchs sharply
criticised, and even his own household expenses commented on with
severity.

On September 8th, 1831, the grand ceremony of the coronation of the king
took place in Westminster Abbey.  The auspicious event was celebrated in
Norwich in a most loyal and joyous manner.  The festivities of the day
commenced with the merry chime of St. Peter’s bells, and the waving of
banners from all the public buildings.  The mayor and members of the
corporation went in procession from the Guildhall to the Cathedral.
After their return to the hall, the regiment of the First Royals marched
into the Market Place and fired three vollies.  The electors who had
supported Gurney and Grant received £1 each, and a dinner was given to
600 of the freemen, who voted for Wetherell and Sadler, at Laccohee’s
gardens.  The citizens, in fact, have never lost an opportunity of
displaying their loyalty, but they always expected something in return.
Several petitions were sent from Norwich in favour of the Reform Bill;
and the passing of the bill was celebrated here with great rejoicings,
festivities, and a public procession on July 5th, 1832.  This brief reign
was remarkable, moreover, for the abolition of the slave trade after a
violent agitation which convulsed the whole country, and ended in the
passing of an act of emancipation of the slaves in the West Indies, at a
cost of twenty millions; and it is also noted for the suppression of the
rebellion in Canada, and the restoration of tranquillity to that colony.

An Act of Parliament received the royal assent on June 23rd, 1832,
removing the assizes from Thetford to Norwich; and the corporation passed
a vote of thanks to John Stracey, Esq., for his exertions in obtaining
that measure, and also a vote of thanks to the lord chancellor for having
granted two jail deliveries in the year.  Since then the city assizes
have been held at the Guildhall, and the Norfolk assizes at the
Shirehall.  The city sessions are held every quarter at the Guildhall,
and the petty sessions daily at the same place.

The reformed House of Commons having presented an address to His Majesty,
praying for the appointment of a commission to inquire as to the existing
state of municipal corporations in England and Wales; the king, on July
18th, 1833, complied with the address, by issuing a commission; and
notice was subsequently given to the mayor of this city, S. Bignold, Esq.
(now Sir Samuel Bignold), of the intention of the commissioners appointed
to investigate the affairs of the Norwich corporation, in compliance with
a request from a meeting of 300 citizens, held on the 13th of May
preceding.  A special meeting of the corporation was at once convened to
consider the course to be pursued, and the assembly determined on a
reluctant submission to the inquiry, so far as regarded the production,
by the corporate officers, of all “charters, books, deeds, accounts,
papers, and muniments of title,” but at the same time protested against
the commission as illegal and unconstitutional, and against the right of
the commissioners to make any inquiry whatsoever.  As may be supposed,
the dominant party in the city did not like it, and the sheriffs
especially protested against it.  They declined to attend at the proposed
enquiry, or to recognize the authority of the commissioners by any act,
and addressed a letter to that effect to the commissioners, signing their
names, W. J. UTTEN BROWNE, and EDWARD STEWARD, sheriffs of Norwich.  Of
course the commissioners were not very pleased at this ostentatious
opposition to their authority, and in the course of their enquiry showed
an evident hostility to the predominant party.  Witnesses were allowed to
make statements reflecting on the characters of the living and the dead,
and every facility was afforded for the gratification of political,
perhaps of _private_, revenge.  This will appear in the following summary
of the evidence, taken from the Digest, published soon afterwards.


THE INQUIRY RESPECTING THE OLD CORPORATION.


This inquiry was conducted by George Long and John Buckle, Esqs., and
commenced on November 25th, 1833, at the Guildhall.  Nearly all the
officials of the corporation were examined, and many influential
gentlemen.  Some strange statements were made as to the effects of party
spirit, and the enemies of the old corporation alleged, amongst their
favourite charges, that the magistrates were biassed by party spirit, and
that the funds of the corporation had been devoted to electioneering
purposes.  Evidence, however, was given to the contrary.

J. J. GURNEY, ESQ., said, “I believe that there are many most laborious
and useful magistrates in the city, and no persons would be so fit as
many of those who have already been accustomed to the business.  I do not
find the slightest fault with the application of the magisterial power.
It is my most decided opinion that the magisterial authority has been
impartially exercised.”

W. SIMPSON, ESQ., said, “Whatever money may have been spent, it certainly
has not been the money of the corporation.”

ALDERMAN BOLINGBROKE said, “I have been an alderman near twenty years; I
do not know of any corrupt application of the corporate funds to
elections or any other purposes.  I do not think any misapplication of
the corporate funds could have taken place without my knowing it.”

As the inquiry proceeded, however, evidence was given of the influence of
party spirit in the distribution of patronage, appointments, and
employments, and also in admissions to freedom.  It was proved that the
police were very inefficient, and often refused to act in cases of riot,
and when the mob were pulling down polling booths.  As to the expenditure
of money at local elections,

The Mayor, S. BIGNOLD, Esq., said, “I am quite sure that if respectable
persons were to offer themselves at local elections, it would repress the
excesses which sometimes take place.  The local elections are attended
with considerable expense.  I am not aware that the aldermen interfere in
these elections.  I am not aware of anything which would prevent the
aldermen interfering in the promotion of sheriffs.  They consider the
oath as debarring in the one case and not in the other.  Committees are
formed on the occasion of elections in the different wards.  I cannot say
whether the aldermen are frequently members of those committees.  I have
not had any opportunity of witnessing unfair exertions.  I cannot say
whether any subscriptions are made on those occasions.  I have never
subscribed a shilling.  I cannot say whether notes are given by the
aldermen or others.  I never saw such a note as the one produced before.
I have heard of notes purporting to get certain persons into the
hospitals, being given by aldermen on the occasions of municipal
elections.  I have never seen any such notes.  My knowledge of them has
arisen in this way.  I have been asked myself and told that A and B have
given them, but never fulfilled their promise.”

“Question.  Do you think that the mode in which the local elections are
carried on tends to keep out respectable and intelligent persons from
filling the various offices?

Answer.  I am sorry to say that those respectable and intelligent persons
have contributed to the system.

Q.  Has that been the case generally?

A.  I should say, generally, with the leading persons in this city on
both sides, connected and unconnected with the corporation.

Q.  Have the members of the court of aldermen contributed to your
knowledge?

A.  Not to my knowledge.

Q.  Is it your belief that they have or have not?

A.  I think they would not in the election of an alderman, but they might
for sheriff or common councilmen.

Q.  On what ground is that distinction made?

A.  The aldermen consider that they are not to interfere in the election
of their brethren, in consequence of the oath they have taken.

Q.  The oath makes no distinction?

A.  There is an impression to the contrary.

Q.  If there had been an extraordinary excitement at elections, can you
say that in no case that excitement was enlarged by the aldermen?

A.  I should say in no case.

Q.  What do you consider the intention of the aldermen in subscribing to
the funds?

A.  I can only answer that question in general terms, that the excitement
has never been increased by any act of the aldermen.

Q.  Are you acquainted with the case of Hornigolds with reference to the
elections?

A.  In no other way than by your drawing my attention to it.  I know of
no other note to that effect.  No improper persons have been admitted
into the hospitals on account of their votes.

Q.  Have they in all cases been fit and proper persons?

A.  Certainly they have.

Q.  Do you think the same persons would have been introduced if they had
not been political supporters?

A.  Not identically the same persons.

Q.  Are there instances where persons have been put in by the aldermen,
who have not been political supporters?

A.  Yes.  I have put an individual in myself who was not a political
supporter in any way.

Q.  Are such instances rare or frequent?

A.  I am only able to answer from information I have derived from my
seniors; I should say they are frequent.

Q.  Are the great majority of persons admitted freemen?

A.  Yes.  I think they are.

Q.  Are the exceptions few?

A.  I do not know.

Q.  You said all the freemen introduced to the hospitals were fit and
proper persons: have they been introduced as the political friends of the
aldermen?

A.  Yes.  I should certainly introduce my political friends in
preference.

Q.  Do you consider the power of the aldermen to have been exercised
_bonâ fide_, or for influence at the elections?

A.  Certainly, _bonâ fide_.

Q.  Do you think this privilege is frequently exercised in favor of
political opponents?

A.  No.  There are twenty-four aldermen, and the patronage is about
15–24ths on the Tory side to 9–24ths on the Whig side.

Q.  Is it your opinion that more urgent cases have been passed by, and
others taken on account of political services?

A.  I think not; I think very pressing cases have had the preference over
political supporters.

Q.  Is it, in your opinion, a justification if a person is put into the
hospital under such a promise, or a more pressing case; and would the
alderman exercising the power, do it under an impression that he was not
guilty of any breach of duty, or of violating his moral feelings?

A.  I think where an alderman had made such a promise, he would be
perfectly justified in performing it, provided the person was a fit and
proper object.

Q.  The alderman, so promising, in the event of a more pressing case,
would he change his turn?

A.  It is done frequently for the express purpose in pressing cases; and
those changes are made with political opponents.”

ALDERMAN NEWTON examined, said, “I have no doubt there have been large
sums of money expended at local elections.  It has been a common thing to
make subscriptions for local elections.  Sometimes the subscriptions have
far exceeded the necessary expenses.  In some cases, but not generally,
the subscriptions have been under the management of a committee.  An
individual mostly takes the management.  He has the whole of the funds
under his care, and is not accountable to anyone.  The committee never
interfere.  It is left to one individual to manage the funds.  The mode
of distributing the money is known to members of the committees, who are
generally members of the corporation.  I do not know of aldermen being
members of the committees.  Aldermen have subscribed, but very rarely, at
contested elections.  A good deal of money has been expended on those
occasions.  The general supporters of the parties have been subscribers,
including the common council, but not the aldermen.  The scenes at
elections have been very disgraceful sometimes.  I recollect the election
of Alderman Marshall.  I have heard that the scene on that occasion was
very disgraceful.  I have heard that much money was spent, but I think
£1000 would be the outside.  I recollect the election of Alderman
Steward.  Money was spent on that occasion, but nothing like £1000.  I
remember the election of Mr. Steward for sheriff.  I have heard that
money was then spent.  I heard that the Whig party gave a large sum for
the last six votes that they polled, and I believe it to a certain
extent.  No doubt there was money spent by the Tory party to a large
extent.  I have heard that from £10 to £15 were given for a vote.  There
was a large subscription by members of the council, but not by the
aldermen.  I think Mr. Steward subscribed, but I do not know to what
amount.  On other occasions subscriptions have been made for the same
office.  Money was given to the freemen, but the far greater amount was
spent in giving them beer and tobacco on either side.  It has been
carried to a greater extent by the Gurneys than by any other persons.  I
have no doubt that the money was given for bribery.”

J. J. GURNEY, Esq.; stated that the assertion as to bribery by the
Gurneys was utterly false as to him; that he had never given a farthing
for the purpose of bribery; nor had the firm done so; nor had they any
loans; nor had their clerks been employed for such a purpose; had the
deepest impression of the sin, guilt, and misery, involved in our local
elections; and he would rather have his arm cut off than promote them
directly, or in any way whatsoever.  Not only had there been bribery, but
a system of demoralization to a fearful extent; but treating was the root
of the mischief here.  He believed the root of the evil was the election
of the magistrates and corporate officers by popular means.

The commissioners asked, What mode of election do you consider would be
preferable? and Mr. J. J. Gurney replied:—

    “I think that the magistrates, being the representatives of the king,
    ought to be appointed by the executive government; I mean those
    officers connected with the government of the town.  The parties here
    are evenly balanced, and it therefore becomes a close contest.
    Nothing gives us rest but the predominance of one party.  We are at
    rest now solely owing to the predominance of the Tory party.”

A good deal of evidence was given of the great extent to which the system
of cooping was carried on at elections.  Voters had been frequently taken
away by force a dozen miles, locked up in public houses and half-starved
in them, and otherwise ill-treated.  This system was carried on by both
parties.  The worst proceedings of this sort seem to have occurred at the
elections of Alderman Angell and Alderman Springfield, when there was a
vast amount of bribery, treating, and cooping.

Mr. WILLIAM WILDE, afterwards coroner, gave evidence as to the election
of Alderman Springfield, in November, 1821.  He was one of the committee
for conducting that election.  Mr. Ives, a retired clergyman of the
Church of England, was the other candidate.  The Northern ward was then
two to one in favour of Springfield.  About 440 to 240 would have been a
fair poll if no money had been given.  When the vacancy occurred, Mr.
Springfield was not in Norwich.  Mr. Wilde continued, “I sent for him
express, and when he returned we heard from good authority that great
sums had been offered by Ives’s party first.  We generally sent out
freemen to see how markets were going.  Springfield was returned, though
it was generally reported that Ives’s party meant to buy the ward.  But
Springfield said he would not be bought out.  We went then into a regular
system of buying, they buying all the men of ours they could, and we
buying all of theirs we could.  About £10 was a regular price.  We spent
£600 or £700 in buying votes.  On the morning of the election, Mr. Ives’s
party commenced by giving two sovereigns each at the polling place.  Mr.
Springfield paid his men the same.  In consequence more than 300 out of
430 who voted for Springfield took two sovereigns at the booths.  Persons
draw a distinction between money paid at the booths, and a bribe at any
other place.  Many who take money at the booths will not accept bribes in
any other shape.  Springfield’s election cost £1530.  The money at the
booths is openly given, and it is not considered a crime to take it.  I
think about 60 or 70 persons sold their votes at £10 apiece.  Small
shopkeepers are not a bit better than freemen.  I have stood openly in
the market to buy votes with money in my hand.  This system is generally
acted upon at all contested elections where the money can be found.
Nothing but poverty of purse makes purity of election in Norwich.  At
Alderman Angell’s election the same system was followed.  It is the same
at ward elections.  I have given £30 for a vote at an election for common
council only for a year, but there are few instances of such a high
price.  I once gave the father of a nominee £20 for his vote.  That sum
is frequently given.  I have known promissory notes given for votes.  I
do not recollect an instance of notes given by aldermen, but 1 have no
doubt of the fact.  The usual plan is for a person to say ‘My family wall
not vote unless you give a turn at the hospital,’ and application is then
made to an alderman.  I think the effects of what I have been stating are
most debasing and demoralising.  I have known poor men who have for years
withstood the temptations offered them at elections; and when once they
have fallen into the snare, I have observed their conduct to alter, and
they have been much changed.  I am perfectly satisfied of the evil
tendency of the course pursued hitherto, and in very few instances has
the money given been any benefit to the freemen, but quite the contrary.
The effect has been the same with both the giver and receiver of bribes.
I should be sorry to bring up any of my children in the course which I
have pursued.”

Commissioner Buckle then thanked Mr. Wilde for the very open and candid
manner in which he had given his evidence.

Mr. JOHN RISING STAFF said that on Alderman Angell’s election, for two
days and two nights previous the town was in a state of great disorder,
occasioned by large parties of men employed by each party going about the
streets molesting any persons whom they met of the opposite party,
attacking freemen personally, and by improper intrusions into their
dwelling houses or other places where they were supposed to be concealed.
In some instances where they were in search for a voter, and could not
find him at his own residence, they went into the residence of other
persons, not in the ward where the election was to take place, to search
for individuals.  Witness gave several instances of cooping.

ALDERMAN BOLINGBROKE also stated instances of cooping that came under his
notice as a magistrate.

MR. JOHN FRANCIS said, “I have been a manufacturer in Norwich many years,
and I consider the acts of the corporation to have engendered every
species of bribery and strife.  Its patronage is invariably exercised in
favour of political adherents.  During the last ten years our commercial
interests have materially suffered from it.  It creates disunion between
those gentlemen where friendship would otherwise exist.  The local
elections are pregnant with evil; they take men from their work, those
who are not free as well as those who are free; and in case of a contest
it is impossible to get any work done for six weeks after; and this in
the spring time of the year when work is brisk and calls for close
attendance.  The consequence is that the masters suffer materially.  I
never engaged in bribery at elections, except at the late election for
sheriff, when I bought a bunch of four in the market for £8; I also
offered another man £5, but he wanted £10, which I thought too much.  The
numbers, however, were running close, and I went to buy him at that
price, but I found that he had been settled for and voted.  Therefore I
saved £10.”

Mr. A. BARNARD said, “At the election of Mr. Foster as sheriff, I bought
about forty votes at from 30s. to £4 apiece.  I know personally of no
instances of bribery by an alderman.  I have known instances of an
alderman saying, ‘You may make use of my turn in the hospital to get a
vote.’  I have known this five or six times.  These promises were given
by three aldermen.  I decline to give their names.  I have no objection
to say they were Whigs.  I have acted frequently as paymaster at
elections.  Aldermen have often subscribed for ward elections.  Both
parties are pretty much alike.”

GEORGE PALMER was examined very closely, and he stated that he had always
voted in the Whig interest, and that he had received a note from Alderman
Springfield for four shillings weekly till his brother’s child could be
got into the hospital.  The note was written and signed by a Mr. Batson
in Mr. Springfield’s presence, and by his order.  It was given to witness
for his vote in favour of Mr. Foster at the election of sheriff in 1832.
Witness had never been offered the hospital by any alderman on the other
side.

A great deal more evidence was adduced as to notes of admission to the
hospital given by both parties.  The last part of the inquiry was the
most important, relating as it did to the effect of local elections on
the trade of the city.

J. J. GURNEY, ESQ., said, “I can assure the commissioners that they have
no notion of the sin, guilt, wickedness, and poverty, which our local
elections inflict upon this city.  I wish to add an expression of my
conviction, that if the election of magistrates and other officers was
altered, the whole city would be benefitted, and no persons more so than
the poor freemen.  I was lately informed by a principal manufacturer, who
has large dealings with the poor, that it was his firm conviction that
one single ward election does more harm than all the preaching in all the
churches and all the meeting houses in all the year does good; and I
believe it to be true.  I would observe that I make no distinction of
parties; both, to my knowledge, are equally guilty; and whenever the
managers find a purse, they fly to it as an eagle does to a carcase.”

MR. H. WILLETT was of opinion that the local elections were an injury to
the lower orders, notwithstanding the money they received.  There was
less work done on account of these elections.  Party had a very injurious
effect on the trade of the city.  He thought Norwich suffered from
carrying on trade in a different manner to that pursued in other towns.
The trade had not paid in previous years, and capital was not employed
because it did not pay.  The trade was carried on upon such a system that
there was no inducement to employ capital.  An open rate of wages would
cause capital to be more beneficially employed.  A great deal of capital
had been lost to the city.  At that time there was less capital employed
in this city than in any manufacturing town of its size in the kingdom.
He thought the city had been brought into this state by a fixed rate of
wages, and the trade had been gradually leaving the city for years.  The
fixed rate operated against the workmen, because it prevented their being
employed regularly.  In consequence of this small capitals were employed.
The men thought they would be injured by a fluctuating scale, but he
believed the contrary.  While the country generally was never more
flourishing, the city was never in a worse state.  Manufacturers feared
so much annoyance, that they would not risk altering the present system.
Many influential men were of his opinion as to the fixed rate of wages,
but dared not avow it, lest they should lose their political influence.
He dared not adopt the varied rate.  He did not choose to subject himself
to the consequences.  The weavers were the only operatives who had a
fixed rate.  He believed that a fixed rate was kept up by municipal
elections, because the leading men were afraid of losing their influence.
Most of the influential men were unconnected with manufactures.  He
believed politics to be the first consideration with all of them.  He
believed that the apprehension of violence deterred all the manufacturers
from attempting to alter the fixed rate of wages; but wages were reduced,
or else the whole trade would have left the city.  This caused such a
disturbance that he dared not go home.  The civil power was not
sufficiently strong at the time, and the Dragoons were called out to
enable him to go home.  His warehouse was attacked, and his windows were
broken.  The magistrates rendered all the assistance in their power, and
measures were adopted to prevent any further injury.  His premises were
guarded by special constables for two or three weeks.

MR. WRIGHT, one of the largest manufacturers of the city, said he was
attacked in consequence of his reducing wages.  Vitriol was thrown on his
face, by which he lost the sight of one of his eyes.  A majority of the
manufacturers considered a reduction of wages to be necessary, but some
of them became alarmed and did not acknowledge it.  The reduction
prevented a further decrease of a declining trade.  But for the reduction
there would have been a greater decline of the trade.  Formerly the trade
was very flourishing when there was a fixed rate of wages, but that was
when there was a great demand for Norwich crapes, then very much worn for
mourning.

MR. JOHN FRANCIS, a manufacturer, said he did not quite agree with Mr.
Willett.  He did not think a fixed scale of wages advisable; but they
were not in a condition to alter it.  He thought the alteration would
create more strife between masters and men.  He considered a fixed scale
to be a disadvantage to the men, but it was not too high.  He believed
that the local elections prevented capital being employed, and disunited
the people.  But for these local elections there would have been more
trade.  Both parties had united in promoting one establishment, but six
such mills would not supply all the yarns wanted for Norwich
manufactures.

MR. JOHN ATHOW regarded the local elections as the cause of the ruin of
the city, as far as such ruin had taken place; as ruinous both to
property and morals.  The mode in which the elections were then conducted
had contributed to the poverty and depravity of the city.  He believed
that the streets were in a more disgraceful state than in any other town,
from what he had seen, and from what he had heard from commercial men
visiting Norwich.

MR. R. M. BACON, then editor of the _Norwich Mercury_, believed that the
prosperity of the city and private intercourse were all poisoned by the
party spirit engendered by frequent municipal elections.

MR. J. W. ROBBERDS, a manufacturer, connected with the corporation from
1807 till 1827, said that during that period he had seen the working of
the municipal system, and witnessed the strife of parties.  He believed
that by the contests in the different wards the character of the whole
population of the city had been greatly deteriorated; that a great
depravity among the lower classes had been produced; and that the
character of the whole corporation had been affected.  He knew that
individuals had entered the corporation, not from any consideration of
public duty, but to serve their own private interests.


THE ELECTION OF STORMONT AND SCARLETT.


During the inquiry of the commissioners, evidence was taken as to the
general election of the previous year.

THOMAS RUST stated, “Mr. Grimmer, in order to induce me to vote for
Stormont and Scarlett, offered to pay me £50 down, and to procure me £50
of the city money after Christmas.  He promised distinctly to procure the
city money.  I have taken an active part at general elections.  I believe
there was great bribery at the last election for members of parliament.
I do not think there was any bribery previous to the last election.  I do
not know any instance of it.  I saw some bribery at the last general
election.  I was up two nights working for the party.  I never had money
offered to me at local elections, but I was offered £100 at the last
general election to go out and buy votes.  The proposition was made by
two leading partizans of Stormont and Scarlett.  One of the parties
produced a large quantity of promissory notes.  I told him that he was
playing a dangerous game.  The partizan said ‘Can’t I lend money to whom
I like?’  I replied, ‘I think not; it depends on the conditions.’  The
gentleman who made the proposition said, “This is the way we do
business.”  The proposers were not members of the corporation.  They went
away and called again.  One of them pulled out a large bag of sovereigns,
and said he would not only lend me £100, but give it to me to join the
party, and to do what I could in the Northern ward.  They declared more
than once that they were determined to buy it.  They were guardians of
the poor.  There was no distinction as to the voters to be bought;
freemen as well as others.”

HENRY BUSH said, “Alderman Turner authorized me to give £6 to a voter, to
vote for Lord Stormont and Sir James Scarlett, and said that was the most
money they were then giving.  I would not take the money as I said it was
not enough.”

MR. ALDERMAN TURNER declared on oath that the statement was false.

MR. JOHN HAYES said, “On the second day of the last general election, Mr.
George Liddell gave me three sovereigns for my vote, but never told me in
which interest I was to vote.  Mr. Wortley, one of the common council,
also gave me three sovereigns to vote in the interest of Stormont and
Scarlett.  I took the sovereigns but voted in the Whig interest, and
carried the money to the committee and gave it to Mr. Beare and Mr.
Springfield.  It was returned to me in four months afterwards.”

MR. WORTLEY denied the statement, but several persons were named who were
present when Mr. Wortley paid the money.

MR. COZENS was examined as to the evidence which had been given before
the House of Commons’ committee by Mr. W. J. U. Browne, then sheriff, who
when asked whether there was any committee for conducting the election of
Lord Stormont and Sir James Scarlett, replied, “Certainly not;” and the
manuscript was produced of a letter which appeared in the _Mercury_, in
answer to one sent out by Mr. Robberds, in which Mr. Browne spoke of “the
committee for conducting the election,” and signed himself as chairman.

MR. J. FRANCIS mentioned circumstances to prove that there was a
committee, and produced a note.

MR. WILLIAM COOPER, deposed, “There was no formal committee.  If anybody
had asked him for a committee man, he could not have stated one.  He
should say the whole party formed the committee.  He was active during
the election, but he was not aware that he belonged to any committee.”

COMMISSIONER BUCKLE:—“We have a letter in Mr. Browne’s own handwriting,
in which he states that the committee was not dissolved, and he signs
himself chairman.”

MR. COOPER observed, “Mr. Browne has given his own explanation of that.
I am not prepared to give any other interpretation to the circumstance.
I have given my opinion and my belief as to the existence of the
committee.”

COMMISSIONER LONG said, “I have no doubt, Mr. Cooper, you have spoken
perfectly correct.  At some elections there are committees, and at others
it is thought better to avoid them.”

                                * * * * *

After the prolonged inquiry, a special meeting of the corporate body was
held on January 9th, 1834, to determine what should be done in
consequence of the course pursued by the commissioners.  A great deal of
virtuous indignation was expressed, and it was resolved—

    “That it is the confirmed opinion of this assembly, that this
    corporation would have been perfectly justified in refusing their
    sanction to the attendance of their members and officers, and in
    declining to allow the production of their charters and muniments
    before the commissioners, considering themselves well advised in
    regarding the commission as an assumption of power contrary to law,
    and as an exercise of prerogative, totally at variance with those
    constitutional principles which, in defining the limits of regal
    authority, guarantee alike the public rights and the private of the
    subject.”

    “That on these grounds, and influenced solely by a strong sense of
    duty, the assembly of the 15th November last, recorded their protest
    against a commission so dangerous in precedent, so menacing to the
    privileges of chartered institutions, and so hostile to the cause of
    civil liberty.  Yet, at the same time, animated with reverential
    attachment to the king, unwilling to be deficient in proper respect
    towards functionaries acting in the sovereign’s name, and above all
    being unconscious of having, either in a corporate or magisterial
    capacity, done any act calculated to prejudice the interests of the
    city, or to bring discredit on themselves as a body, the assembly of
    the 15th November last, ordered that the town clerk and other
    officers should give the fullest documentary information for which
    the commissioners might think fit to call.”

    “That this corporation not only by such order, but also by
    subsequently permitting oral evidence to be given by their members
    and officers, now feel themselves the more imperatively called upon
    to express their mingled sentiments of regret and disapproval at the
    course of examination pursued, an examination governed by no rules of
    evidence recognised in any English courts of law, but carried on in a
    manner irregular, vague, and arbitrary, precluding the slightest hope
    of arrival at such a conclusion as can possibly conduce to the ends
    of truth and justice, still less such as can prove congenial to the
    good feelings of any well-regulated, candid, and impartial mind.”

    “That this assembly, considering that the great mass of information
    received by the commissioners, emanated from the most decided and
    unscrupulous partizans; that many of them were intimately connected
    with, and implicated in the transactions to which allusions were
    made; that those allusions involved charges against highly respected
    and honourable individuals, since deceased, whose representatives had
    no means of refuting the aspersions cast upon their memories; that
    many also of those who came forward as the most material witnesses to
    impugn the conduct and character of the corporate body, stand
    self-convicted as the active unblushing agents of gross corruption,
    and by their own admissions have proved themselves unworthy of
    credit—considering all these things, and looking moreover to the
    incontrovertible fact, that not one farthing of the corporate funds
    has been either appropriated to electioneering purposes or diverted
    from its originally destined and legitimate, object”—

    “Do PROTEST against any report being made by the municipal
    commissioners respecting the corporation of Norwich, based on
    statements so utterly unfit to justify parliament in legislating on
    so important a subject, and do most respectfully towards the crown,
    but with firmness and fidelity to the obligation of their oaths as
    corporators, deem it their duty to resist every attempt to exact from
    them a surrender of the charters of the city and, therewith, of the
    rights and privileges of the freemen of Norwich.”

    “That this assembly invite the various corporations throughout the
    kingdom to make common cause with them in endeavouring by every
    lawful and constitutional means of resistance to defeat any design
    that may be in contemplation for wresting from them their ancient
    charters, franchises, and liberties.”

A committee was appointed for this purpose, and to devise means for
protecting the charters, rights, and privileges of the corporation.  But
all this opposition proved to be of no avail, and the Municipal Reform
Act came into operation in 1835.

                                * * * * *

1835.  In January, 1835, the number of registered voters was 4018.  At
the election in this month, the bribery oath was administered to every
voter.  Sir James Scarlett, who had represented the city in parliament
from 1832 to 1834, on being made Chief Baron of the Court of Exchequer,
was raised to the peerage by the title of Baron Abinger of Abinger, in
the county of Surrey, and of the city of Norwich.  He took for his motto,
“_Stat viribis suis_,” and on application to the corporation, was
permitted to use the two angels, supporters to the city arms, as
supporters to his own.

On January 28th, the first _conversazione_ of the Norfolk and Norwich
Museum was held, and was well attended.  On the 27th and 28th, a dinner
was given to the electors who voted for the defeated candidates, Messrs.
Harbord and Martin, at the late election.  About 1000 dined on the first
day.

March 23rd.  A meeting of the hand-loom weavers was held in the Cellar
House, at St. Martin’s at Oak, to petition the legislature to establish
local boards of trade.

In April an alteration was made in the conveyance of letters to and from
London, being transmitted by the Ipswich instead of the Newmarket Mail,
by which means the citizens got their letters earlier.  On the third of
this month the mayor and corporation waited on Lord Abinger, at the
lodgings of the judges, with an address of congratulation on his first
visit to the city in his judicial capacity.

June 16th.  William Moore, Esq., was sworn into office as mayor of the
city.  This was the last Guild day under the old corporation.  It was
celebrated with all the customary civic splendour.  The Latin speech was
delivered at the porch of the Free School by Master Chambers, son of John
Chambers, Esq., of the Close, and he was presented with books to the
value of £5 5s., as was also Master Norgate, the orator of the preceding
year.  At the dinner in St. Andrew’s Hall about 800 ladies and gentlemen
sat down to a sumptuous repast.

July 14th.  A meeting of the freemen was held in St. Andrew’s Hall to
petition parliament to preserve to them and their children the privileges
they had so long enjoyed, but they soon lost their exclusive privilege of
voting for members of the corporation.  The Municipal Reform Bill passed
on September 8th, and received the royal assent on the following day.  On
Sunday, September 27th, the mayor and corporation attended divine service
in the Cathedral for the last time under the old charters.  The Hon. and
Very Rev. the Dean (Dr. Pellew) preached the funeral sermon of the old
corporation.

Michaelmas day this year passed over without the customary ceremony,
owing to the new Municipal Act coming into force.  From 1403 it had been
customary to swear the sheriffs into office on that day, and for many
years they had given inauguration dinners.  Mr. Winter, the last speaker
of the old corporation, was presented with a handsome piece of plate by
that body on October 21st; and at a special assembly held on December
17th, a vote of thanks was passed to the mayor, William Moore, Esq.  This
was the very last meeting of the old corporation under the ancient
charters of the city.

On December 26th, the day fixed by the Municipal Act, the first election
of councillors took place under the new law.

                                * * * * *

1836.  January 1st.  T. O. Springfield, Esq., was chosen the first mayor
of the new corporation.  He had been a very active partizan in the
Liberal interest.  He was a member of the council nearly all his long
life; his influence was very great in promoting the return of candidates
of his own party.  On the occasion of his going out of office, a dinner
was given to him in St. Andrew’s Hall.  About 600 sat down to a sumptuous
banquet.

March 1st.  The new police, eighteen in number, made their first
appearance under Chief Constable Yarington.

On September 20th, 21st, and 22nd, the Norfolk and Norwich Musical
Festival was held in St. Andrew’s Hall, when the concerts were well
attended, and realised a large sum for the charities.

December 1st.  S. Bignold, Esq., was the chief promoter of the Norwich
Yarn Company, which had a large capital, the whole of which was lost to
the shareholders.  On the occasion of laying the first stone of the yarn
factory, the pageant in honour of “Bishop Blaize” was revived, on
December 1st, 1836.  The whole affair was cleverly got up, and admirably
conducted.  The procession having completed a tour of the city, returned
to St. Edmund’s, whence they proceeded to the site of the new building,
where S. Bignold, Esq., laid the first stone.  This being done, the
procession set out to St. Andrew’s Hall, where 900 persons, men, women,
and children, sat down to an excellent dinner.



CHAPTER XIX.
Reign of Queen Victoria.


QUEEN VICTORIA was proclaimed here in the usual manner, on June 23rd,
1837, amid great rejoicing.  On Thursday, August 17th, Dr. Stanley was
enthroned in the Cathedral; he was the sixty-sixth bishop of the diocese,
and the thirty-third since the reformation.  After the installation about
a hundred of the gentry, clergy, and laity dined at the Norfolk Hotel.
This bishop was a great promoter of the education of the poor.  An
episcopal chapel was opened in Heigham on August 10th, and afterwards
consecrated by the bishop under the name of “Trinity Chapel.”  His
lordship also consecrated the new church at Catton.

                                * * * * *

1838.  January 3rd.  A meeting was held in St. Andrew’s Hall to petition
parliament to abolish the apprenticeship of negroes in the colonies.  On
the 5th the new district schools were opened in St. Augustine’s.

On July 11th, a very numerous meeting of the camlet weavers was held, for
the purpose of resisting the proposed reduction of wages.  About this
time some differences existed between the men and their employers
respecting wages.  Col. Harvey was requested to mediate between them, and
he did so, but without any good result.  The city was much disturbed in
consequence of these disagreements.

                                * * * * *

1839.  On May 18th, a meeting was held at the Norfolk Hotel to consider a
bill about to be presented to parliament for the improvement of the city,
and to give the citizens an opportunity of objecting to any of its
clauses.  On June 19th this bill passed, but very little was done under
it in the way of improvement.  A great part of the city remained
undrained, and the pavements continued in a bad state.

On August 16th, the Norfolk and Norwich Art Union opened their exhibition
of pictures at the Bazaar in St. Andrew’s.  About 400 pictures were
exhibited, some of them of great merit.

About this time much excitement prevailed in the city respecting the
designs of the Chartists, who, although they were not numerous, were
considered dangerous, as they were known to possess arms, many guns and
pikes having been taken from them by the police.  On Sunday, August 18th,
the Chartists attended divine service at the Cathedral, when the bishop
made a spirited appeal to them.  Many meetings of the Chartists were
held, and exciting harangues were delivered, advocating the five points
of the charter, including universal suffrage, and vote by ballot, which,
some of their opponents said, meant “Universal suffering, and vote by
bullet.”

                                * * * * *

1840.  On February 10th, Queen Victoria’s wedding day was kept as a
holiday, and addresses were adopted, to be presented to Her Majesty and
Prince Albert.  The poor of the various parishes were substantially
regaled, and the citizens were admitted free to the pit and gallery of
the theatre.  On many subsequent occasions, on the birth of a prince or
princess, the citizens have shown their loyalty by presenting addresses
of congratulation.

On February 25th, a meeting was held in St. Andrew’s Hall to consider the
necessity of a bill then before parliament, for “repealing and altering
the existing paving acts,” and to oppose the same, if necessary: when a
petition was adopted to be presented to the House of Commons, praying
that the bill might not pass.  The Marquis of Douro presented the
petition.

On June 15th, at a meeting in the Guildhall, addresses of congratulation
were agreed on, to be presented to the Queen and Prince Albert, on their
happy escape from an attempt at assassination.

The first annual meeting of the Norfolk and Norwich Protestant
Association was held on October 15th in St. Andrew’s Hall, when 2000
persons were present.  Addresses were delivered advocating the Protestant
cause.  Subsequently many similar meetings were held in this city.  The
speakers always raised the cry of “no popery,” explaining that they
meant, “No withholding of the bible from the people; no worshipping of
God in a dead language; no bowing down before images as helps to
devotion; no divine homage offered to a human being, though the mother of
our Lord; no prayers to saints; no priests pretending to offer the
sacrifice of Christ continually in the mass; no polluting confessional;
no persecuting inquisition; no Jesuits with their hidden works of
darkness; no licenses for doing evil that good may come; no absolution
for the worst of crimes; no power of a priesthood over courts of law; no
canon law to overrule the statutes of the realm; no cursing with bell,
book, and candle; no enforced celibacy; no nunneries where women are
buried alive; no convents for lazy, vicious monks; no masses for the
dead; no fictitious purgatory; no power of priests to forgive sins,” &c.,
&c

                                * * * * *

1841.  In June this year the census of the united kingdom was taken, and
the result, as regarded this city, showed but a small increase of the
population, the total number being 62,294, while in 1831 the number was
61,304.  The number of hand-loom weavers had been greatly diminished by
the competition of steam power.  Many of them left the city, and others
went into the boot and shoe trade, which had now become of some
importance.

This year many political meetings were held in the city, of Tories,
Whigs, Radicals, and Chartists.  The prospect of a general election kept
the city in a state of great excitement.  The leaders of the two former
parties tried to prevent a repetition of such scenes as had taken place,
by a compromise, which was a most hateful thing to the freemen, and
working men generally.  When the election came on in June, Mr. Dover, a
Chartist, nominated Mr. Eagle, a Chartist, of Suffolk, and afterwards, it
was said, received a bribe of £50 to withdraw the nomination.  In
consequence of this, a riotous mob assembled in the Market Place, and
Dover had to be protected by the police from their violence, for if they
had got hold of him, they seemed as though they would have torn him in
pieces.  On the following day the mob having learned that Dover was at a
public house in St. George’s Colegate, went there and dragged him thence,
threatening to throw him into the river.  He was much injured, and would
probably have lost his life but for the timely arrival of the police.

                                * * * * *

1843.  On August 9th, a dreadful storm of hail, rain, wind, and thunder,
passed over the city and county, and did immense damage to property,
especially to the growing crops.  Parochial subscriptions were raised to
the amount of £5,622, and private subscriptions £4,391, towards
compensating the sufferers for their losses.  An immense number of
windows were broken by the hail in the city, and many places were
flooded.

                                * * * * *

1844.  This year the railway was opened between Yarmouth and Norwich, and
in the next year the line was opened from Norwich to Brandon,
simultaneously with the Eastern Counties line from London to Ely.  This
caused an entire change in the mode of travelling, and in the carrying
trade of the district.  All the old stage coaches were of course
discontinued.


POOR LAW REFORM.


1846.  About the year 1846, the high rates in Norwich became the subject
of complaint and discussion.  A good deal of alarm was excited in the
city in consequence of a proposal of Sir Robert Peel, then prime
minister, to alter the law of settlement, so that all persons who had
resided five years in any place should have a permanent settlement there.
As many families belonging to the county parishes were then resident in
Norwich, it was feared that they would become chargeable to the city and
be a permanent burden on the rate-payers.  This apprehension proved to be
well founded, for after the passing of the Poor Removal Act, hundreds of
county families did become chargeable to the city, and have been so ever
since.

Mr. G. Gedge, of Catton, instituted inquiries on the subject; and being a
member of the court of guardians, often called attention to it.  He was,
in fact, the first in this city to advocate a general or national rate as
the most effectual remedy for the evils of the then existing system of
rating.  He spared neither time, trouble, nor expense in promoting his
views, which were generally approved by the more influential citizens.
He employed Mr. Hutchinson, an eminent statist in London, on the
recommendation of Mr. Wakley, to collect information respecting the gross
inequalities of the system of rating all over England, and this
information was published and circulated in a valuable work, from which
nearly all the statistics on the subject have been derived and quoted by
members of Parliament.

Mr. Gedge introduced the question of a national rate at many meetings of
the court of guardians in 1846.  He showed that the poor rates then
collected annually amounted to about five millions.  Nearly the same sum
was raised by the property and income tax; and it followed that if only
those were rated who paid the latter tax, the charge throughout England
and Wales for the support of the poor would not amount to more than
sevenpence in the pound.  But including all the parties not then
chargeable to the property and income tax, and who would be fairly liable
to the poor rates, the annual rate would not amount to more than half
that sum.  This would be a most important difference to the great mass of
the rate-payers, whose payments to the relief of the poor would be
greatly diminished, whilst they would have the pleasure of knowing that
the poor would be better cared for, and that those comforts which they
had a right to expect, as producers of wealth, would be placed more
immediately within their reach.

Mr. Gedge explained that, as all the parishes in the city were
incorporated in regard to the relief of the poor, a general rate being
raised from all those parishes for that purpose, his proposition was that
this general mode of rating should be extended over the whole country,
and that a general rate should be raised to be applied for the relief of
the poor wherever they were located.  He showed that if each parish in
this city supported its own poor, the rating would be very unequal, and
some of the richest parishes would pay least, while the poorest and more
populous would pay most.  To prevent this inequality, all the parishes
had been incorporated.  This had been found to be a great improvement,
and it should be further extended.  Many persons, fund-holders and
others, living in lodgings, were exempted from poor rates.  Many large
establishments in Cheapside and the middle of London paid no poor rates,
because the poor did not live in those localities.  Many persons living
in fashionable towns also escaped poor rates, for the same reason, while
the industrious and the middle classes had to bear the burden.  He
therefore maintained that there should be a national rate.

Most of the members of the court of guardians concurred with these views,
and ultimately a petition to Parliament was adopted in favour of a
national rate.  The petition was duly presented in the House of Commons.

On Wednesday, June 10th, 1846, an important meeting of the rate-payers of
the city was held in the sessions court, at the Guildhall, to petition
Parliament against the Poor Law Removal Act, which had been lately
introduced into the House of Commons.  The mayor, J. Betts, Esq.,
presided and opened the proceedings.  Mr. S. Bignold, Mr. T. Brightwell,
Mr. J. G. Johnson, Mr. E. Willett, Mr. A. A. H. Beckwith, Mr. Banks, Mr.
Newbegin, Mr. Hardy, & Mr. G. Gedge, addressed the meeting in support of
resolutions, and a petition was adopted against the proposed alteration
in the Law of Settlement and the Poor Law Removal Bill.  Mr. G. Gedge
moved a resolution,—

    “That this meeting is decidedly of opinion that the only effectual
    alteration of the law of settlement, by which free scope would be
    given to the labour of the people, would be to abolish the present
    law of settlement and rating, and to substitute a general national
    tax on real and personal property, and that a petition founded on
    this resolution be presented to the House of Commons.”

He showed the very injurious operation of the law then existing, and
expressed his belief that a national rate, if obtained, would prove a
great benefit to the city.  Mr. Sheriff Colman seconded the resolution,
which was carried unanimously.

After this meeting, two petitions were presented to Parliament, from this
city, in favour of a national rate; one from the court of guardians, and
one from the citizens at large.  These petitions, however, had no effect,
and the Poor Law Removal Bill was passed into a law.  The consequence
was, that about 1500 families belonging to county parishes, who had lived
five years in the city, obtained a settlement in it, and most of them
soon applied for relief.  This greatly increased the expenditure for the
relief of the poor.

At the monthly meeting of the court of guardians, held on December 1st,
1846, Mr. G. Gedge moved a resolution of which he had given notice at the
previous court, in respect to a national rate, and he urged the usual
arguments in favour of that measure.  He wished the support of the court
to a petition to be presented to Parliament during the following session,
for the total repeal of the mode of rating to the relief of the poor,
then in operation, and the substitution of a national rate.  He believed
that public opinion was now fixed on this question, and that a national
rate must come.  A petition was adopted, _nem con._

                                * * * * *

1847.  A meeting of the city operatives was held on Wednesday, March
23rd, in St. Andrew’s Hall, for the purpose of petitioning Parliament to
abolish the law of settlement then in operation, and to establish a
national poor rate.  The meeting was numerously attended by working men,
who manifested a great interest in the question.  Several of them
delivered speeches against the law of settlement and in favour of a
national rate, and a petition to Parliament was adopted.  Mr. Gedge spoke
at some length in favour of the measure, which he believed would be
carried.

A public meeting of the citizens was held on December the 2nd, 1847, to
consider the evils arising from the alteration of the law of settlement.
The mayor (G. L. Coleman, Esq.) presided, and many influential gentlemen
addressed the meeting in support of resolutions deprecating the
alteration in the law, and in favour of a more equitable system than that
in operation.  Sir S. M. Peto, M.P. for the city expressed his
concurrence, and the resolution was carried unanimously.  Subsequently,
several meetings were held in Norwich in favour of a national rate.
During the same year, also, an association was formed in London, having
the same object in view; and, eventually, the movement resulted in the
passing of an Act of Parliament, by which a union poor rate was
established in every county in England.  This has proved to be a vast
improvement of the old system, and a great advance in the direction of a
national rate, but still the poor rate is levied on real property only.
The most equitable system would be for every man to pay according to his
ability, whether he be a landowner, a shipowner, a houseowner, a
fund-holder, or an artisan.

Before the Removal Act passed, the Norwich guardians were quite aware of
the effect it would have on the city.  In order to prove that their
apprehensions were well founded, they caused a census to be taken in the
city and county of those paying a yearly rental of £6 and under, and an
inquiry to be instituted as to the settlement of the tenants of those
houses.  They found, after a full investigation, that more than a third
of the houses were occupied by persons not having a settlement in
Norwich, but in other districts.  The operation of the act was to throw
the expense of the maintenance of such persons on the city, at an
estimated cost of £5000 yearly.  This was represented to the government,
who paid no attention to it, and the Act passed nevertheless.



CHAPTER XX.
Leading Events (_continued_).


IN the autumn of 1848, the Royal Agricultural Society of England held a
meeting in this city.  The exhibition of stock and implements took place
in a large field near the Newmarket Road, and attracted thousands of
visitors.  The trials of implements took place on land near the city.
Lectures were delivered by the Rev. E. Sidney and others at the
Shirehall.  The members of the Society and their friends dined together
on two occasions, in St. Andrew’s Hall.  Addresses were delivered by
Professor Sedgwick and other eminent men on various subjects.  S.
Bignold, Esq., was mayor during this year.


MURDER OF THE NORWICH RECORDER.


Late on the night of November 28th, 1848, the city was startled by the
intelligence of the murder of Isaac Jermy, Esq., the Recorder of Norwich,
and his son.  His son’s wife (Mrs. Jermy Jermy), and her servant, Eliza
Chastney, were also fired at and wounded by the same murderous hand.  The
first news of these murders and attempted murders excited universal
horror.  They appeared to be so inhuman and atrocious, that public
feeling was wrought up to the highest pitch; and all the reports
published in the local and metropolitan journals were read with the
greatest avidity.  James Blomfield Rush, a farmer, well known in Norfolk,
and a tenant under Mr. Jermy, was at once suspected and apprehended.  He
was examined before the magistrates, committed, tried, found guilty, and
executed.  We give a short account of this terrible tragedy.

Mr. Jermy, with his wife and family, lived at a mansion called Stanfield
Hall, about two miles distant from Wymondham, and Rush lived at a
neighbouring farm house, known as Potash Farm.  The Preston family, of
which the recorder was a descendant, originally came from the village of
Preston, in the hundred of Babergh, Suffolk, and settled at Beeston St.
Lawrence, in the hundred of Tunstead, in Norfolk.  In 1837, the Rev. G.
Preston died, leaving his son, the recorder, heir to Stanfield and his
other entailed property.  The recorder, previous to his father’s death,
was called Mr. Preston; but soon after that event, he took the necessary
steps for complying with the stipulation in the will of Mr. Wm. Jermy,
from whom the property had descended, that the possessor of the estate
should assume his name and arms, and accordingly he took the name and
arms of Jermy by license from the crown.  He was a county magistrate and
one of the chairmen at quarter sessions, recorder for Norwich, and a
director of the Norwich Union Insurance Office.  Indeed, he had been all
his life closely connected with the city.

There had been some disputes relative to the Stanfield property.  It was
said that one of the male relatives of William Jermy had disposed of his
reversionary interest in these estates for the trifling consideration of
£20.  This occurred in the year 1754.  In June 1838, when the Rev. George
Pearson’s furniture and library at Stanfield Hall were advertised for
sale, a person named Thomas Jermy, a grandson of John Jermy, with a
cousin of his, named John Larner, put in a claim to the estate, and
served notices both upon Mr. Jermy and the auctioneer to stop the sale.
Larner then attempted to obtain possession of the hall, but was shortly
afterwards ejected by Rush, (who was then acting as bailiff for Mr.
Jermy,) with a party of labourers.  Larner then cut down some timber and
carted it away; and he and his party were apprehended for the offence,
but he himself was acquitted, though his accomplices were convicted in
penalties.  Shortly afterwards placards were posted in the neighbourhood,
stating their intention to obtain forcible possession.  This they
attempted to do, but they were apprehended and committed to the assizes.
They pleaded _guilty_, and were sentenced to various periods of
imprisonment.

Rush, being aware of all these circumstances, may have thought that he
could perpetrate the murder in disguise, and that suspicion would rest on
those who claimed the estate.  It was stated and believed that he was a
near relation to the recorder, who, when he came into possession of his
estates, employed Rush as his steward, but rescinded his leases, having
found that they were illegal.  This created the first ill feeling between
the parties.  The recorder granted new leases to Rush, but, as the latter
alleged, at higher rent.  Rush soon afterwards took the Potash Farm in
Hethel, under Mr. Calver; this farm adjoining the Stanfield estate, and
being very convenient for his occupation.  It being for sale, Mr. Jermy
wished to become the purchaser, and he authorised Rush, who fixed the
value at £3,500, to buy it for him.  Rush attended the sale, and having
bid £3,500 for Mr. Jermy, bade £3,750 for himself.  The recorder, though
much annoyed by this transaction at first, was induced to lend Rush the
money, on mortgage, to complete the purchase.  The equity of redemption,
or the ownership, therefore belonged to him.  A number of mortgage deeds
were executed, the last of which was dated September 28th, 1844, and it
recited several prior mortgages.

The effect of it was, that a sum of £5000 in all was charged upon the
estate, by way of mortgage, in favour of the recorder, and it contained a
provision that the money was to remain on the security of that estate
_until the_ 30_th_ _November_, 1848.  The interest on the £5000 was 4 per
cent. or £200 per annum, and Rush became tenant so as to enable the
recorder to distrain for rent.  Rush now held three farms, and in
October, 1847, he was in arrear of rent for the Stanfield farm, and the
recorder put in some distresses.  Rush being ejected went to live at
Potash farm house.  Mr. Jermy also brought an action against Rush for
breach of covenants.  This action was tried at the March assizes, 1848,
and it, as well as the previous distresses, seemed to have occasioned
rancourous feelings in Rush’s mind towards Mr. Jermy.  He published a
pamphlet which professed to be a report of the trial, calling Mr. Jermy a
villain, and stating that he had no right to Stanfield Hall.  This showed
that Rush cherished malignant feelings towards his victim.

Rush appears to have for some time premeditated the murder of Mr. Jermy
and his whole family; and he ultimately resolved to carry out a deep-laid
scheme, both of murder and robbery.  He got a young woman named Emily
Sandford into his service as governess, and seduced her.  He then
employed her to draw up some quasi legal documents, as she could write
like a lawyer’s clerk.  According to one of these documents, signed
“Isaac Jermy,” that gentleman gave up all claim on Rush, if the latter
gave up all papers and documents relating to the Stanfield estate.  The
signature was of course forged.  After the murder these documents were
found concealed under the floor of a bed-room in Rush’s house, ready to
be produced had he escaped suspicion.

Rush’s conduct before the murders had been observed.  He had taken every
precaution to throw off suspicion.  During the latter part of November,
he had been in the habit of going out at night, pretending to be on the
look-out for poachers.  He ordered a quantity of straw to be littered
down from his homestead to the fields towards Stanfield Hall.  A portion
of the path which had never before been littered with straw, was then
littered by his direction, and the straw ceased where the green sward
began, so that he could walk from his house towards the recorder’s
mansion, without any danger of his footsteps being traced.  Before
November 28th, he had caused everybody to leave his house except Emily
Sandford and a lad named Savory.  On that day he returned home about 5
p.m., and asked when the dinner would be ready.  Emily Sandford said it
would be ready soon, upon which he remarked, “There is just time for me
to go into the garden and fire off my gun;” and he went into the garden
and discharged his gun accordingly.  This was intended to account for his
gun having been recently used.  He had bought a double-barrelled gun in
London the last time he was there.  After tea he appeared to be extremely
agitated.  He went up-stairs to his bedroom and put on a disguise; one
part of which was for the whole person, being in fact a widow’s dress,
which was quite new.  Another part was a black crape bonnet with a double
frill hanging by it; and the frill rendered it difficult for any one to
discern the wearer’s features.  He enveloped himself with a large cloak,
armed himself with his double-barrelled gun, and went out to do his work
of murder between seven and eight o’clock.  Nobody saw him leave the
house.  The night was dark and windy and well suited for the deeds of an
assassin.

Soon after eight o’clock, the recorder’s dinner being over, he was
sitting alone in the dining-room, little dreaming of the doom that
awaited him and his son.  His son and his son’s wife, who had retired to
the drawing-room, were about to partake of tea and to amuse themselves
with a game of picquet, the cards being on the table.  Mr. Jermy was in
the habit of going outside the hall after dinner, and on this evening he
left the dining-room and walked to a porch in front of the mansion.
Rush, who knew the recorder’s habits and expected him to come out, was
standing near the porch in disguise holding his loaded gun in his hand.
As soon as Mr. Jermy reached the porch, Rush presented his gun, fired,
and shot him through the heart.  He fell backwards, groaned, and
instantly expired.  Rush immediately ran to the side door, entered, and
proceeded along the passages leading to the staircase hall.  He passed
close to the butler, who, affrighted at the appearance of an armed man in
disguise, retired to his pantry.  Rush passed on to the door opening into
the staircase hall.  Mr. Jermy, jun., who had heard the report of a gun,
opened the door at that very moment.  They met; Rush drew back, presented
the gun, and fired; and young Mr. Jermy fell dead in the hall.  The
assassin then passed on into the dining-room, no doubt with the intention
of exterminating the whole family.  Mrs. Jermy, still in the
drawing-room, on hearing the second report, immediately went into the
hall, and passed over the dead body of her husband.  Eliza Chastney, one
of the female servants, on hearing her mistress screaming for help, ran
up to her, and holding her by the waist cried out, “My dear mistress,
what is the matter?”  At this moment, Rush came out of the dining-room,
and seeing the two women opposite to him, levelled his weapon and fired
twice, wounding Mrs. Jermy in the arm and her servant in the leg.  The
murderer then made his escape by the side door, leaving death, misery,
and woe behind him.  He did not escape, however, before some of the
servants had made their observations of him.  Eliza Chastney had marked
the man, and she afterwards identified him at the trial.  Strange to say,
several persons were standing at the gate close to the bridge, heard the
reports of a gun, and heard the alarm bell ringing, but did not imagine
that anything serious had happened.  Some people are so stolid that an
earthquake would scarcely arouse them.  A man who had been employed in
the stables, hearing the reports, thought that the hall was attacked by a
band of ruffians, went to the back, swam over the moat which surrounds
the hall, and ran to the house of a neighbouring farmer (Mr. Colman), and
having obtained a horse rode to Wymondham, spreading the alarm as he
went.

In the meantime, the scene at Stanfield Hall was one of utter dismay.
The cook had fled to the coach house with little Miss Jermy, the daughter
of Mr. Jermy, jun.  The cowardly butler, who might have seized the
assassin in the passage, rushed to Mr. Gower’s, another farmer, for
assistance.  The maid servants conveyed their wounded mistress upstairs
to bed.  Eliza Chastney was lying wounded on the ground; Mr. Jermy, sen.,
was lying dead in the porch, everybody being then uncertain as to his
fate; and Mr. Jermy, jun., was lying dead in the hall.  Mr. Colman, Mr.
Gower, and Mr. Gower’s two sons, having received some vague information,
had hurried to the hall, and were the first who discovered what had
happened.  The servants were all panic-stricken.

What was the conduct of the assassin after the murders?  Emily Sandford,
whom he had seduced, though at first she told a false story, revealed it
all in the course of the inquest and the examinations before the
magistrates.  Between nine and ten o’clock on that same night, Rush’s
knock was heard at his own door.  Emily Sandford went to the door to open
it, but without a light, and she did not see him come in.  He went
upstairs to his own room, put off his disguise which was found there by
the police, and in a short time came down again without his boots and
coat.  He told Emily Sandford to make haste and put out her fire and go
to bed; and before he left her he said, “If any inquiry is made about me,
say I was not out more than ten minutes.”  She followed, after she had
put out the fire, and asked him where she should sleep.  He told her that
she was to sleep in her own room; that being the first night she had done
so for a long time.  She went to bed, and between two and three o’clock
in the morning Rush, who had heard voices outside, rapped at the door of
her room and desired her to let him in; and she did so.  He came
trembling to her bedside and said, “Now you be firm, and remember that I
was out only ten minutes.”  She was extremely agitated and inquired what
was the matter; but he would only tell her that she might hear of
something in the morning.  Taking hold of his hand she observed that he
trembled violently.  Next morning the police, who had watched the house
all night, apprehended him, and on the same day he was examined before
the magistrates.  Emily Sandford also underwent a lengthened examination,
and persisted in stating that Rush was out only a quarter of an hour on
the previous night; but at the inquest subsequently held by Mr. Press at
Wymondham, she confessed that her first statement was false, admitting
that Rush did not return home till after nine o’clock, and that he told
her to say he had been out only ten minutes.  She also gave evidence as
to all that passed between her and Rush that night, as already related.

On the morning after the murder the police searched Potash farm house,
and found two double-barrelled guns in the closet in Rush’s bed-room, but
these were not the weapons he used.  The gun he had used was afterwards
found under a manure heap.  In the house the police found a black dress,
a grey and black frontlet, female wig, and a long black veil, as for a
female head-dress.  These were hidden in a closet in Rush’s bed-room.
Concealed under the floor of a closet a number of documents were also
found, which turned out to be the forged deeds before alluded to.  These
formed an extraordinary link in the case, and after repeated examinations
the prisoner was committed to the assizes for trial.  The bodies of his
victims were consigned to their last resting place at Wymondham on
December 5th, in the presence of a vast concourse of spectators.

The trial of Rush excited universal interest all over England, Scotland,
and Ireland.  It commenced at the Shirehall, Norwich, on Thursday, March
29th, 1849, before Baron Rolfe.  It continued six days, and each day the
court was crowded to excess.  He was not defended by counsel.  Mr.
Sergeant Byles stated the case for the prosecution, and then called a
number of witnesses who clearly proved the facts.  Having in the
preceding part of this narrative stated all the particulars, it is
unnecessary to give the evidence.  The documents which were found in a
secret place under the floor of the bed-room closet in the prisoner’s
house were produced, and several of them were proved to be forgeries,
which, if carried into effect after the recorder’s death, would have
placed the prisoner in a very good position with respect to the farms
which he occupied, and would have rid him of all his liabilities.  A
powerful motive for the commission of the murders was therefore apparent.
The servants at the hall, who had seen the disguised armed man there, all
deposed that they believed the prisoner to be the man, as they had known
him before, and as they had recognised him by his height, form, walk, and
gait.  Eliza Chastney, who had been severely wounded by the assassin, was
brought into court on a couch, attended by medical men.  When asked if
she saw the assassin in court, she pointed to Rush and said, “That is the
man.”  She had seen him several times at the hall.  When he fired at her,
she saw the whole form of his head and shoulders, and she knew no one
else having a similar appearance.  Emily Sandford entered the box
apparently in a weak state.  She was examined at great length, and she
stated with much clearness all that had passed between her and Rush and
other parties in reference to the documents produced.  She also gave a
full account of the prisoner’s conduct on the night of the 28th, as
already narrated.

When the prisoner commenced his cross-examination of this witness there
was a profound silence in the court, all present being anxious to know
how he would treat the unfortunate female whom he had seduced, and who
had given evidence against him.  He appeared to be under the influence of
strong emotion, so much so as at times, as to stifle his utterance; and
he was frequently on the verge of bursting into tears, yet he mastered
his feelings, and put his questions mildly in an assumed endearing
manner, trying to rouse any affection that she might have left for him.
She gave her answers in a low tone, and sometimes weeping, which excited
the pity of the spectators.  Nearly all the questions put by the prisoner
were irrelevant to her evidence in chief, but not all the blandishments
and frequent adjurations of the questioner could elicit answers to suit
his purpose.  At length he put questions which roused her indignation,
and she reproached him for his perfidy in not marrying her as he
promised.  If he had done so, she could not have given evidence against
him.  Four days were occupied with the case for the prosecution.  On the
fifth day the prisoner commenced his defence, and he spoke on that and
the following day fourteen hours without making any impression whatever
in his favour.  He began by admitting a guilty knowledge that something
was about to take place in the hall on that night.  He said parties had
consulted him as to the expediency of taking forcible possession of the
hall, as had been done some years before.  He advised them not to do so,
but still he apprehended that something serious would happen.  He left
his house at eight or half-past eight o’clock on the night of the
murders, and he went to the boundary of his own land.  When he got to the
fence leading to the hall, he waited a few minutes and thought he would
go back as he felt ill, but at that moment he heard the report of a gun
or pistol in a direct line from the hall.  He then heard two more, and
was struck with amazement, as the parties to whom he alluded had always
said, if they took firearms it would only be to intimidate, not to use
them.  He then heard the bell rung violently, and he hastened back to his
house as quickly as he could, and he went through the garden into the
house.  Having given this account of himself on that night, he proceeded
to comment on the evidence with a view to show contradictions.

Mr. Sergeant Byles replied, showing that the prisoner had only
strengthened the case against him.

The learned judge summed up in a lucid manner, the jury soon returned a
verdict of guilty of wilful murder, the prisoner was sentenced to be
hung, and the dread sentence was executed on the bridge in front of
Norwich Castle on the morning of Saturday, April 21st, in the presence of
many thousands of spectators.  The unhappy man remained impenitent to the
last.



CHAPTER XXI.
Leading Events (_continued_).


ABOUT this time the two parties in the council became nearly equal in
numbers, and the Liberals found a difficulty in selecting a mayor and
sheriff every year from their own party.  They accordingly proposed that
each party should nominate a mayor and sheriff alternately.  In 1848 S.
Bignold, Esq., was nominated a second time, and elected unanimously to
serve the office of mayor.  From that time to the present the chief
magistrate and the sheriff have been selected from each party
alternately.  This has also led to the members of the various committees
being selected so as to represent all parties fairly, and the former
exclusive system has been discontinued.

                                * * * * *

1850.  In 1850, in consequence of a memorial to the General Board of
Health, established under the (1848) Public Health Act, Mr. Lee, a civil
engineer and government inspector, came to Norwich and commenced an
inquiry respecting the sanitary state of the city.  The inquiry lasted a
fortnight, and Mr. Lee heard evidence given by all the officials and
other parties.  He afterwards prepared a very elaborate report, showing
that the supply of water was insufficient, that the drainage was
defective, and that many causes of preventible disease existed.  He
advised the application of the Public Health Act, which was ultimately
done.  A company had been previously formed with a large capital, and had
constructed works for the supply of water from the river Wensum to all
parts of the city.  The abundant supply of pure water proved very
beneficial to the health of the inhabitants, and entirely relieved the
Local Board of Health from all trouble on that point, and they had only
to contract for the supply of water to water the roads and streets during
the summer months.

In January of this year Jenny Lind gave two concerts in St. Andrew’s
Hall, which was quite filled, at high prices, by fashionable audiences,
more than 2000 being present at each concert.  The proceeds, amounting to
£1253, were generously given by the celebrated songstress for the
foundation of the Jenny Lind Infirmary for Children in Pottergate Street.
It was established in 1853, and visited by the Queen of Song in 1856,
when she was so much pleased with the management that she added £50 to
her former gifts.

                                * * * * *

1851.  The Great Exhibition of 1851, which was opened in May, attracted
thousands of the citizens to London, where many of them spent weeks in
viewing the wonders at the Crystal Palace.  Norwich manufacturers sent
many specimens of their shawls and textile fabrics.  Amongst the
exhibitors were Messrs C. and F. Bolingbroke and Jones; Messrs. Middleton
and Answorth; Messrs. Towler, Rowling, and Allen; Messrs. Willett and
Nephew; Messrs. Clabburn, Sons, and Crisp; and Messrs. Grout and Co.; all
of whose productions were much admired and commended.  A very large
number of our operatives were conveyed by special train free to London to
see the Exhibition, where they had an opportunity of inspecting the best
productions of art of the whole world.  This wonderful exhibition was
supposed to be the harbinger of universal peace, but it was soon followed
by the Russian war, which greatly depressed the trade of the city and of
the whole country.  It cost about a hundred millions of money, destroyed
thousands of brave soldiers, and spread a general gloom over the minds of
men.  It ended in the fall of Sebastopol, and the triumph of the allied
armies.  Russian aggression was stopped for a time; but was the rotten
Turkish empire worth the waste of men and money?

The census, which was taken in this year, showed that the population of
Norwich had increased to 68,713 persons who were in a comparatively
prosperous condition, for trade was good and provisions were cheap.

                                * * * * *

1853.  On November 1st, S. Bignold, Esq., was elected mayor of Norwich
for the third time, and he filled the office with great approbation
throughout the year.  He lent the money required in the first instance
for the new building erected for the Free Library and the School of Art,
and which afforded additional accommodation for the Museum and Literary
Institution.

                                * * * * *

1854.  At a meeting of the corporation held on May 4th, the mayor, S.
Bignold, Esq., in the chair, he announced that Her Majesty had been
graciously pleased on the previous day to confer the honour of knighthood
upon him, on the occasion of his presenting the addresses, voted by the
council on the 20th of April last, pledging their loyalty to the Queen
when Her Majesty declared war against Russia.  It was thereupon resolved
unanimously, on the motion of A. A. H. Beckwith, Esq.

    “That this council beg to offer their hearty congratulations to Sir
    S. Bignold, the mayor of Norwich, on his accession to the dignity
    which Her Majesty has graciously bestowed upon him, and wish him many
    years to enjoy the honour so worthily conferred.”

                                * * * * *

1856.  The New Cemetery was opened by the Board of Health, and the east
side of it was consecrated by the bishop.  The other side was assigned to
the Nonconformists.  Since then about 20,000 bodies have been interred in
the spacious area of thirty-five acres next the Earlham Road.  The
grounds have been well laid out and planted with trees and shrubs.

                                * * * * *

1857.  The Yare Preservation and Anglers’ Society was founded, for the
improvement of the angling in the rivers Wensum and Yare.  This society
has done good service for the lovers of angling on the two rivers, which
formerly abounded with fish near Norwich.  But on account of the
pollution of the stream, anglers are obliged to go down as far as Coldham
Hall or Cantley to fish with any prospect of success.

The Russian war having been brought to a close, peace was celebrated here
with great rejoicings and illuminations.  Major General Windham, “the
hero of the Redan,” visited the city, and a grand banquet was given to
him in St. Andrew’s Hall, where he delivered an eloquent address on the
events of the war and its successful termination.

In August the annual congress of the British Archæological Association
met in Norwich.  Meetings were held in the Guildhall, St. Andrew’s Hall,
the Public Library, and other buildings.  Addresses were delivered by
Professor Willis, Mr. Britton, and many other gentlemen.  The members and
friends visited the Cathedral, where Professor Willis gave a description
of the edifice.  They also made excursions to Ely, Dereham, Binham,
Walsingham, and other places of interest.  On their return to Norwich
they dined together at the Swan Inn.

                                * * * * *

1858.  The Local Government Act came into operation, and gave the
corporation full power to carry out all necessary improvements.

                                * * * * *

1859.  On November 19th, the Norwich Battalion of Volunteers was formally
enrolled, 300 strong, in three companies, under the command of Colonel
Brett, a highly-esteemed officer.  The other officers were, Capt.
Middleton of the first company, Capt. H. S. Patteson of the second
company, and Captain Hay Gurney of the third company.  The force
gradually increased in number till the battalion became 530 strong, in
six companies.  Colonel Brett resigned on account of ill health, and
Colonel Black was appointed to the chief command; next to him Major
Patteson; Capt. Henry Morgan first company, Capt. John Steward second,
Capt. Peter Hansell third, Capt. Charles Foster fourth, Capt. J. B.
Morgan fifth, Capt. E. Field sixth; Lieut. H. Pulley, Quarter Master;
John Friar Clarke, Quarter Master Sergeant; T. W. Crosse, Surgeon; Rev.
F. Meyrick, Chaplain.  The corporation subsequently granted a piece of
land at the north-west corner of Chapel Field, and a company of
shareholders built the Drill Hall for the use of the members of the
corps, which has the reputation of being very efficient.

                                * * * * *

1861.  A meeting was held on January 10th to consider the best means of
relieving the distress which had for some time prevailed, owing to the
depression of trade; and within a month, more than £4,000 were raised for
the relief of the poor.  Since then the weavers have gradually found
employment in some other branches of industry, especially the boot and
shoe manufacture, which has greatly increased.  Hundreds of operatives
are also employed in iron manufactures, and in making machines for
agricultural and horticultural purposes.

This year a census of the population was taken, showing a great increase,
the total number being 74,891 persons, viz., males, 33,863; females,
41,028.  Inhabited houses, 17,112; uninhabited houses, 739; building,
103.

The parishes within the city, together with their respective population
in 1861 and their real property in 1860, were as follows:—

All Saints                      667     £2,280
St. Andrew                      978      7,828
St. Augustine                 1,890      4,281
St. Benedict                  1,381      1,869
St. Clement                   3,961      7,554
Earlham                         195      1,845
Eaton St. Andrew                930      8,759
St. Edmund                      753      1,706
St. Etheldred                   614      1,559
St. George Colegate           1,607      4,983
St. George Tombland             687      4,865
St. Giles                     1,586      6,391
St. Gregory                     934      4,936
Heigham                      13,894     36,799
St. Helen                       507        901
St. James                     3,408      5,384
St. John’s Maddermarket         537      4,959
St. John Sepulchre            2,219      4,452
St. John Timberhill           1,302      2,496
St. Julian                    1,361      3,142
Lakenham                      4,866     15,745
St. Lawrence                    877      2,421
St. Margaret                    664      1,608
St. Martin at Oak             2,546      3,789
St. Martin at Palace          1,085      3,267
St. Mary Coslany              1,498      3,081
St. Mary in the Marsh           451      4,289
St. Michael Coslany           1,365      3,052
St. Michael at Plea             379      3,504
St. Michael at Thorn          2,121      4,617
St. Paul                      2,907      4,391
St. Peter Hungate               399      1,105
St. Peter Mancroft            2,575     22,615
St. Peter Mountergate         2,868      7,567
St. Peter Southgate             457      3,337
St. Saviour                   1,532      3,805
St. Simon and St. Jude          283      1,221
St. Stephen                   4,191     15,321
St. Swithin                     699      2,174

There are also within the city jurisdiction the hamlet of Hellesdon,
population 393, belonging to Hellesdon parish; Thorpe hamlet, population
2,388, belonging to the parish of Thorpe St. Andrew; Trowse Millgate,
Carrow, and Bracondale, population 687, belonging to Trowse parish;
population 249, extra parochial.  The population in 1861 and the real
property in 1860 of all Hellesdon were 496, £3,376; of all Thorpe St.
Andrew 3,841, £9,003; of all Trowse, 1,404, £3,534.

                                * * * * *

1862.  In 1862 the Great Exhibition in London afforded some of our city
manufacturers another opportunity of exhibiting their productions, and
making known the skill of our artisans.  Messrs. Clabburn, Son, and Crisp
won the gold medal for their superfine fillover shawls, which are made by
a patented process, so as to display a perfect design on each side.
Messrs. C. and F. Bolingbroke and Jones gained a medal for their poplins
and poplinettes.  The shawls of Messrs. Towler, Rowling, and Allen
obtained honourable mention.  So much for what are usually regarded as
the staple products of Norwich.  But Norwich won for itself the
admiration of the world in some other matters.  Messrs. Barnard and
Bishop, for instance, were spoken of far and wide for their splendid park
gates in ornamental wrought iron, which were subsequently purchased and
presented to the Prince of Wales, and now adorn one of the entrances to
His Royal Highness’s park at Sandringham.  Of course also Messrs. Colman
took high prizes for their world-renowned mustard and starch—the medal
given them for mustard being the only medal granted in the United Kingdom
for this article of commerce.  As publishers, Messrs. Jarrold and Sons
received honourable mention for their educational works, and publications
of high moral excellence.

                                * * * * *

1863.  H. S. Patteson, Esq., was mayor in 1863, when on March 10th the
citizens again displayed their enthusiastic loyalty by processions,
illuminations, balls, &c., on the occasion of the marriage of the Prince
and Princess of Wales.  Their Royal Highnesses have made themselves very
popular in this county, by living part of the year at Sandringham, and
participating in all the festivities and amusements of the gentry and
inhabitants.  On the occasion of the marriage of their Royal Highnesses,
seven of the principal manufacturing firms presented, through the
corporation to the Princess Alexandra, specimens of the elegant fabrics
for which Norwich has so long been famous.


NORWICH UNION.


In this year the Court of Guardians of this city obtained a new act of
parliament for an improved management of the poor, and repealing all
former acts.  Under the new act the present Board of Guardians is
constituted with a reduced number of guardians, and the whole management
is more in accordance with the New Poor Law system.  Norwich is now a
union of parishes, divided into districts, each having medical
attendants.  By this new act all former acts, including the Norwich Small
Tenements Act of 1847, were repealed, and the city was brought under the
operation of the General Poor Law, and all other statute and laws from
time to time in force with respect to the poor in England.  The union is
now divided into sixteen districts, viz.:—

1.  St. Peter Mountergate, St. George of Tombland.

2.  St. Mary in the Marsh, St. Martin at Palace, St. Helen, St. Michael
at Plea.

3.  St. Peter Hungate, St. Simon and Jude, St. Andrew.

4.  St. John Maddermarket, St. Gregory, St. Lawrence.

5.  St. Margaret, St. Swithin, St. Benedict, St. Giles.

6.  South Heigham. 7.  North Heigham.

8.  St. Peter Mancroft.

9.  St. Stephen and the Town Close.

10.  Eaton, Earlham, and Hellesdon.

11.  St. John Sepulchre, St. Michael at Thorn, St. John Timberhill, and
All Saints.

12.  Trowse, Carrow, Bracondale, St. Peter Southgate, St. Julian, and St.
Etheldred.

13.  Lakenham.

14.  Thorpe, Pockthorpe, St. Paul, and St. James.

15.  St. Saviour, St. Clement, St. Edmund, St. George.

16.  St. Michael at Coslany, St. Mary at Coslany, St. Martin at Oak, St.
Augustine.

The board consists of forty-two guardians, elected for the sixteen
districts as follows:—

For each of the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, eleventh, and
twelfth districts, two guardians; for each of the sixth, seventh, ninth,
thirteenth, fourteenth, and sixteenth districts, three guardians; for the
eighth district five guardians.  For the purpose of this act with respect
to the limits of the palace of the bishop of Norwich, the same are deemed
to be locally situated within the parish of St. Mary in the Marsh.

The following are the qualifications for voting in the election of
guardians:—

A.  Occupiers of rateable property who respectively are rated in respect
thereof on a gross assessment of ten pounds and upwards.

B.  Owners of rateable property, who respectively are rated in respect
thereof on a net assessment of ten pounds or upwards.  Provided, that
where two or more persons are jointly rated, one only of them shall be
entitled to vote, and in every case the rating shall have been in the
last two rates, each made at least two months before the day of election,
and in respect of property in the district in which the person votes, and
the rates shall have been paid at least fourteen days before the day of
election.

At every election of guardians the rate-payers voting have votes in
accordance with the following scale:—

A.  If rated at £10 and under £25, one vote.

B.  If rated at £25 and under £50, two votes.

C.  If rated at £50 and under £75, three votes.

D.  If rated at £75 and under £100, four votes.

E.  If rated at £100 and under £150, five votes.

F.  If rated at £150 or upwards, six votes.

And no rate-payer at any election of guardians for any one and the same
district have more than six votes.

All the compounding provisions of the act were abolished by the Reform
Act of 1867.

The old court of guardians had the management of lunatic paupers, who
were maintained in an asylum in St. Augustine’s.  Great care appears to
have been taken of them, and many of them were cured, more in proportion
than in any other town.  Nevertheless, the lunacy commissioners who
visited the asylum reported that the place was unhealthy and unfit for
lunatics, and recommended, or rather demanded that a new asylum should be
built in a more healthy situation.  This the old court of guardians
considered to be quite unnecessary, and the whole matter was transferred
to the council under the Lunatic Asylums Act of 1853, that body having
the option of taking the matter in hand.  The council, already
over-loaded with municipal business, Board of Health business, drainage,
paving, lighting, watering the roads, &c., actually undertook the
management of the lunatic paupers, in 1863.  After many discussions a
majority of the members decided that a new asylum was unnecessary, and
refused to build one.  The Lunacy Commissioners, however, made a strong
report to the Secretary of State on the subject, who sent down an order
to the council to build an asylum.  Since then land has been purchased
for its site, which is likely to cost from £30,000 to £40,000!

                                * * * * *

1864.  In 1864 the operatives made a very laudable effort to improve
their depressed condition by establishing an “Industrial Weavers’
Co-operative Society,” and held many meetings to promote that object.
The Rev. C. Caldwell, and other gentlemen, advocated their cause.  The
society was supported by donations, and J. H. Gurney, Esq., advanced a
sum which had been left by his father for the benefit of the weavers, the
principal with interest amounting to £1100.

                                * * * * *

1865.  The Norfolk Chamber of Agriculture was instituted, and frequent
meetings of the members have been held at the Norfolk Hotel, Norwich.
The objects of the chamber are to watch over all measures affecting
agriculture both in and out of parliament, to co-operate with the General
Chamber thereon, and to take such action as may be for the benefit of
agriculturists.  At the meetings of the members interesting questions
have been discussed, and C. S. Read, Esq., M.P. for East Norfolk, has
generally presided, and given much valuable information.

The most important event in this diocese of late years was the holding of
a Church Congress in Norwich.  A preliminary meeting to consider the
proposal was held in the Clerical Rooms on Saturday, December 10th, 1864.
When this was announced there was no little apprehension in Low Church
circles, but the proposal was approved by most of the clergy, and they
requested the Lord Bishop to preside over the Congress, which was held in
October, 1865.  After some delay his lordship reluctantly consented, and
never before was there such a gathering of clergy in the city.  St.
Andrew’s Hall was filled every day for a week in October, 1865.  High
churchmen throughout the country made it a point of duty to attend the
congress; and the proceedings at the daily meetings were of a very
interesting character to churchmen generally.  Addresses were delivered
every day on very important subjects; and the bible history was ably
vindicated against the objections of geologists and freethinkers.  The
church as an establishment was well defended by her champions.  Three
local newspapers were published daily, containing full reports of the
proceedings.  Dr. Pusey read a discourse of great interest in defence of
the Old Testament narratives.

                                * * * * *


1866.
THE ROYAL VISIT TO NORWICH.


In November the Prince and Princess of Wales travelled from their seat at
Sandringham to Cossey on a visit to Lord and Lady Stafford, who
entertained their Royal Highnesses in a princely style.  Their Royal
Highnesses, during their sojourn at Cossey, visited this city, entering
by way of the Dereham Road and St. Giles’ Road, and passing under
triumphal arches amid the acclamations of thousands of the citizens, it
being a general holiday.  They stopped at the Guildhall and received an
address from the corporation.  Then they proceeded to St. Andrew’s Hall
and attended a morning concert of the musical festival.  Their Royal
Highnesses, on leaving the hall, rode along the principal streets,
through the Market Place, and up St. Stephen’s to the Chapel Field, where
they were joyously received by the Manchester Unity of Odd Fellows, and
where they planted two trees in memory of their visit.  Their Royal
Highnesses thence proceeded to the new Drill Hall, which the Prince of
Wales formally opened.  After this ceremony their Royal Highnesses
returned to Cossey Hall.  They were accompanied by the Queen of Denmark
(mother of the Princess of Wales), and by Prince Alfred (the Duke of
Edinburgh).  In the evening the city was brilliantly illuminated.

                                * * * * *

1867.  The Norwich Industrial Exhibition was held for six weeks, from
August 15th till October 20th, 1867, in St. Andrew’s Hall.  About 1000
exhibitors sent specimens of works of art and useful articles, which
quite filled the hall.  Hundreds of splendid paintings were lent for the
occasion, and the show attracted many thousands of visitors.  The
industrial part of the exhibition was most creditable to the working men
of Norwich, many of whom gained medals and money prizes for the best
specimens of useful and ornamental articles.  The mayor, F. E. Watson,
Esq., distributed the prizes on November 5th.

                                * * * * *

1868.  The great event of the year 1868 was the meeting of the British
Association for the Advancement of Science in the city.  It commenced on
August 19th and continued till the 26th.  The old city was filled with
distinguished visitors from all parts of Europe; and the hotels, inns,
and lodging houses were crowded with strangers.  Norwich gave a
hospitable welcome to the Society.  Dr. Hooker, who by association and
descent is a Norfolk man, delivered the inaugural address.  The various
scientific sections held daily meetings at different public places.  The
proceedings were reported in daily issues of the _Norfolk News_ and the
_Norfolk Chronicle_, and also in the regular issues of the _Norwich
Mercury_.

On November the 9th, J. J. Colman, Esq., retired from the office of
mayor, and E. K. Harvey, Esq., was elected as his successor; John
Robison, Esq., was at the same time chosen as sheriff, as successor to
Robert Fitch, Esq.  As this is the last act of the council which we shall
have to chronicle, we take the opportunity of adding a few words on the
present state of the corporation.  By the Municipal Reform Act all
previous charters remain in force, except so far as they are rendered
inconsistent with the provisions of that act, and the city is now divided
into eight wards, and incorporated under the style or title of the
“Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the city and borough of Norwich.”  The
corporate body consists of sixteen aldermen and forty-eight councillors.
The mayor is chosen annually on the 9th of November from the members of
the council, who also on the same day choose the sheriff from the same
body, or from persons qualified to vote for councillors, and who are
eligible to the office of councillor.  The members of the council are
chosen annually on November 1st by the inhabitant householders of three
years’ successive occupation, the freemen having been disfranchised for
municipal purposes.  The aldermen are elected by the council, and go out
of office every three years.  Committees of the council are appointed for
conducting the business of the corporate body.  The corporation is
possessed of various estates, tolls, and dues, the profits and proceeds
of which are placed to the Borough Fund, under the act, and are applied
towards the reduction of the rates levied on the citizens.  Several large
estates which were in the hands of the corporation for charitable
purposes are now vested in charity trustees.  The corporation still pay
fee farm rents to the crown, over £100 yearly.  There is in trust of the
corporation an estate of 112 acres, situated outside of St. Stephen’s
Gate, called the “Town Close,” on which the burgesses had the right of
commonage formerly, but in lieu of which right the freemen receive a few
shillings yearly.  The meetings of the corporation are held in the
Council Chamber in the Guildhall almost every fortnight for the despatch
of business, and meetings of the committees are held almost daily.  The
body corporate, as a Council and Board of Health, levies rates as we have
already said to the amount of £45,000 yearly.  The Board of Guardians
sits in the same room, and raises by poor rates about £30,000 yearly,
making the local taxation amount to £75,000 per annum.  The City Police
and Fire Brigade, under direction of Mr. R. Hitchman, the chief
constable, occupy the basement of the Guildhall.  The force, comprising
nearly a hundred men, is considered to be very efficient.

This year an extensive scheme was begun for an effective drainage of the
city.  We subjoin a brief history of the proceedings which led to this
movement, and take the opportunity at the same time of giving some
details as to the general operations of the Local Board of Health.


THE NEW DRAINAGE SCHEME.


So long ago as 1862, complaints were made of the impurity of the river in
consequence of all the sewage of the city and of all the water closets
being poured into the stream.  In 1863, many inhabitants of Thorpe became
urgent in their demands that some immediate steps should be taken to
divert the sewage from the river, but this was more easily asked than
done.  The Board of Health, however, requested their then surveyor (Mr.
Barry) to report on the subject; and subsequently Mr. Bazalgette visited
Norwich and surveyed the stream.

In the autumn of 1865 Mr. Bazalgette’s report was received.  It
recommended a plan of conveying the sewage through main drains to Crown
Point to irrigate the land there.  The board discussed the report and
appointed a sewerage committee, who entered into negotiations with R. J.
H. Harvey, Esq., M.P., for irrigating part of his estate at Crown Point.
Mr. Harvey was to pay the cost of preparing the land for irrigation, and
the annual cost of pumping; but after a preliminary notice had been given
of the intention of the board to apply for an act of parliament, the
board determined not to proceed at that time with the application for the
act.

The board subsequently entered into contract with Mr. Hope, of London, to
sell him the sewage for thirty years; and the necessary works were
ordered to be commenced on March 20th, 1866.  The board, however, being
pressed by a strong opposition to the scheme, in a few days afterwards
rescinded the contract.  In consequence of this, proceedings in chancery
were commenced, and an injunction was ultimately obtained.

On May 31st, 1866, the board resolved, “That it is absolutely needful at
once to take measures to divert the sewage from the river.”  Negotiations
were entered into for the hire of part of the Crown Point estate, the
agreement for which was confirmed by the board on July 10th, 1866.  By
this agreement the board took on lease 1290 acres of land at Crown Point,
at £3 5s. per acre, for thirty years—the whole sewage of the city to be
conveyed to Trowse and pumped over the land.  Many objections were made
to this measure, that the rent was too high, and that the experiment
would prove a failure.  Pursuant, however, to a resolution of the board,
passed on October 9th, in the same year, the committee took the necessary
steps to obtain an act of parliament, and did obtain it in June, 1867.

After the act was obtained, Mr. Morant, the city engineer, by direction
of the committee, proceeded with the preparation of the necessary
drawings and specifications for the drainage works, and by order of the
board the following contracts were entered into, namely:—

                                                                £
1.     For the steam engines (with Mr. John Clayton of            6435
       Preston)
2.     For iron pipes (the Staveley Coal and Iron                 3500
       Company)
3.     For laying such pipes (Mr. John Downing of                  549
       Norwich)
4.     For the erection of engine houses (Mr. Daniel              6988
       Balls of Norwich)
5.     For the construction of the main intercepting            28,830
       sewers (Mr. Thomas Wainwright of London)
6.     The ground for the pumping works was purchased for         2000
                                                               £48,302

Other sums are required for constructing drains, sewers, penstock
chamber, and other subsidiary works, and the entire scheme is proposed to
be carried out under the sanction of the act of Parliament, at the
estimated cost of £60,000.

A very powerful opposition was raised against the scheme.  A memorial,
very numerously signed, was presented to the board of health against it.
Public meetings were held at which the whole thing was condemned as
unnecessary, expensive, and likely to be a failure.  Eventually, after
much discussion, with a large minority against it, and in opposition to
the opinions of the citizens expressed in common hall, the board resolved
to carry out the scheme, and the works are now in progress.  The general
plan is to construct two main drains, one on each side of the river
Wensum, to intercept the sewage and to carry it to Trowse, where a
pumping station has been erected, and engines will be set to work to pump
all the sewage over the land hired at Crown Point estate.

The drainage expenditure, though so enormous, has been only a part of the
expenditure of the board, upon which the duty falls of repairing all the
streets and roads, lighting, watering, &c.  In the first half year of
1867, the estimated expenditure was as follows:—

                                  £      _s._   _d._
Repairs to streets and roads       2008      7      0
Lighting the same                  1776     11      9
Salaries                            442      1      5
Sundries                            475      5      6
Interest on loans                  1336     16      0
Interest on bonds                   372      0      0
                                  £6411      1      8

Twice that sum would be £12,822 3s. 4d. for the year, quite irrespective
of the drainage works.

The annual abstract of the accounts of the board issued in 1867, shows
the receipts and payments from September 1st, 1866, to September 1st,
1867.  The receipts amounted to £15,873 3s. 6d., the payments to £15,323
18s. 2d., which sum included £1204 16s. 7d. sewage expenses, (chiefly law
charges).  Of course the receipts were derived almost entirely from the
half-yearly rates.  The expenditure included £3314 9s. 8d. for interest,
the rest being for repairs to streets and roads, paving, lighting,
sewerage works, salaries, &c.

Mr. Morant, the present able engineer to the Board of Health, made his
first annual report in May, 1867, and showed the expenditure in his
department for the year preceding April 5th, 1867, to be as follows:—

                      £      _s._   _d._
Repairs to roads       2192      4     11
Paving                  870      0      0
Sewers                  576      2      2
Urinals                  86     13      0
                      £3725      0      1

The engineer’s next report was for the year ending April 5th, 1868, and
was divided into three heads.  Repairs to roads; repairs to paving; and
repairs to sewers.  First with respect to roads.  The cost of the
macadamised roads had been £2329 12s. 7d., being an increase of £137 7s.
8d.  Some new roads had been taken by the board, and were repaired and
cleansed, and all the roads were stated to be in good order.  Second,
with respect to paving.  The expenditure had been £1088 8s. 10d., being
an increase of £218 13s., but a part of the Market Place had been newly
paved with granite at a cost of £216.  Third, with respect to the sewers.
The cost of repairs, &c., had been £546 5s. 5d., being a decrease of £29
16s. 9d.

Since 1850 the annals of the city consist chiefly of proceedings of the
corporation as a council or Board of Health.  Meetings have been held
almost every fortnight for the transaction of public business, which has
been largely increased.  The proceedings of one single year, even if
summarised, would fill a volume.  The corporation has levied rates to the
amount of £45,000 yearly! and the expenditure has been of equal amount.
This has been caused by many public improvements, by widening old streets
and opening new ones, and by the extension of the area of the Cattle
Market.

Mr. Morant gives the following account of the drainage works:

    “The drainage of the city of Norwich flows into the river at numerous
    places, as is commonly the case; it is the object of the new works
    now in progress to intercept all the old sewers, to prevent the
    sewage flowing into the river, and to convey it to one point.  For
    this purpose several deep sewers are being constructed, varying in
    size from 18 inches in diameter to 6 feet high by 4 feet wide, of
    oval shape.

    “The point selected for the pumping station is between the railway at
    Trowse Station and the river Yare; and a large piece of garden ground
    has been purchased, and engine and boilerhouses, workshops, &c., have
    been erected.  Adjoining the engine-well are the grating tank and
    penstock chamber, and with these the principal main sewer
    communicates.  This sewer, which is 6 ft by 4 ft., is intended to be
    carried under the bottom of Bracondale, Carrow Hill, and along King
    Street to near Messrs. Morgan’s brewery, where it will receive the
    high-level sewer.  This sewer will be from 30 ft. to 80 ft. below the
    surface of the ground.  From this point it will be 5 ft. 3 in. by 3
    ft. 6 in., and will be continued along King Street to the top of Rose
    Lane; here one branch will turn off to the right under Rose Lane,
    beneath the bottom of the river near Foundry Bridge, under the towing
    path, to beyond Bishopgate Bridge, where it will unite with the
    present outfall sewer, and receive the whole of the drainage of the
    northern portion of the city.  From Rose Lane the main will continue
    to Tombland, where a branch will extend to Bishopgate Bridge, with
    subsidiary branches to Quay Side, &c.; it will then turn to the left
    under Prince’s Street, St. Andrews Broad Street, Charing Cross, and
    Lower Westwick Street, and will unite with the present sewer emptying
    itself at the New Mills.

    “From the end of the principal main near Messrs. Morgan’s in King
    Street the high-level sewer will commence with a flight of granite
    steps, about 30 feet in height, and continue 4 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft.,
    gradually reducing, and carried under King Street to Rose Lane,
    across the Bull Ring, where it will be about 44 feet below the
    surface, under Opie Street, Bedford Street, Pottergate Street, West
    Pottergate Street, Mill Hill, Rose Valley, Mount Pleasant, Town Close
    Road to Ipswich Road, and will provide for the sewage of a very large
    district hitherto entirely undrained.

    “Self-acting Storm Overflows are provided at several convenient
    points, and also numerous shafts for access to, and ventilation of,
    the sewers.  At the pumping station at Trowse the sewage, after
    passing through gratings to prevent sticks and other substances from
    choking the pump valves, will pass into the engine-well, from whence
    it will be pumped through cast-iron pipes 20 inches in diameter, laid
    under the Kirby Road to near the cross road leading to the Bungay
    Road, and then be led in a main conduit across the centre of the land
    hired by the Board, and by means of small feeders to every part of
    the farm.

    “The steam engines will be three in number, and of the kind known as
    condensing rotative beam engines, with steam cylinders of 35 in.
    diameter and 6 ft. stroke.  Each engine will be provided with a high
    lift pump connected with the pumping main, and also with a low lift
    pump; the object of the low lift pumps is to enable the rain water to
    be pumped into the overflow sewer in time of heavy storms, when the
    sewage is so greatly diluted as to be little more than soiled water;
    the first scouring of the sewers will be pumped by the high lift
    pumps on to the land.

    “Four boilers, each 27 ft. 6 in. long and 7 ft. diameter, with two
    flues, are provided to produce the steam necessary for working the
    engines, and the chimney shaft to remove the smoke is 140 feet in
    height.

    “The foundation of the engine had to be carried down 29 feet below
    the surface, and much difficulty was found in getting in the walls on
    account of the force of the springs, the bottom being 22 feet below
    the water level in the adjoining river, and from the same cause
    considerable difficulty is met with in driving the tunnels for the
    sewers.  In Trowse for example, the soil proved to be running sand
    and mud, which was very troublesome to overcome; the same soil exists
    under Rose Lane, Foundry Bridge, and Bishopgate Street, but nearly
    everywhere else the tunnels will be in the chalk.

    “Irrigation by sewage is no doubt quite in its infancy, but from the
    very satisfactory results arrived at at Barking, Croydon, Norwood,
    Edinburgh, Banbury, Rugby, and other places, there is good reason to
    hope that eventually the Board’s Sewage Farm at Crown Point will
    prove a success.”



CHAPTER XXII.
Norwich Musical Festivals.


SINCE the year 1824, musical festivals have been held in this city
triennially, for the benefit, originally, of the hospitals, and lately of
various other charities also, and for the promotion of musical science.
These celebrations have been so successful on the whole that the total
surplus receipts over the expenditure have amounted to more than £10,000.
Works of the greatest composers have been well performed by the most
eminent instrumentalists and vocalists of the day, and thereby a taste
for music has been diffused throughout the city and county.

The patrons of the festivals have included the Queen, the late Prince
Consort, the Prince and Princess of Wales, the Duchess of Kent, the
Duchess of Cambridge, the Duke of Cambridge, the Princess Mary of
Cambridge, the Duke of Wellington, the Marquis of Lothian, the Earl of
Roseberry, the Earl of Gosford, the Earl of Orford, Lord W. Powlett, Lord
Stanley, Lord Walsingham, Lord Wodehouse, and many others of the
nobility.  The committee of management have included the Lord Lieutenant
of the county, the Earl of Albemarle, Lord Ranelagh, Lord Sondes, Lord
Hastings, Lord Stafford, Lord Suffield, Lord Bayning, Hon. W. C. W. Coke,
Hon. H. Walpole, Hon. W. Jerningham, Sir J. P. Boileau, Bart., Sir W.
Foster, Bart., Sir S. Bignold, and others.

The first musical performance for charitable purposes is said to have
been on the anniversary of the Sons of the Clergy, in 1709; some fifteen
years after which period, the meeting of the three choirs of Gloucester,
Hereford, and Worcester, was instituted, those cathedral cities sending
their choristers to each place in alternate years.  These early music
meetings, however, were held in the evening, and seem to have been
limited to the performance of Anthems and the Te Deum.  The first
occasion of an Oratorio having been performed in the morning appears to
have been at Hereford in 1759, when the Messiah was given.

The Birmingham Triennial Festival was instituted about the year 1778, and
that of Norwich, as now held in St. Andrew’s Hall, in 1824, previously to
which the Norwich festival consisted of the yearly performance of an
Oratorio in the cathedral for the benefit of the Norfolk and Norwich
Hospital.  The performances of later years have been on a much grander
scale.  The festivals at Birmingham and Norwich now stand pre-eminent
among provincial musical meetings, both for the excellence of the
performances, and for the special interest given to the programmes by the
first production of new or little-known works.  Among other claims to
honourable distinction in this respect, it is the chief and will be the
lasting honour to Norwich that Dr. Spohr’s sacred Oratorios were first
performed here, his earliest production being conducted by himself in
person before a large audience.

The selection of works and music to be performed has always occupied a
great deal of the time and attention of the committees, who have made it
an object to bring out some new work at every festival.  Most of Handel’s
best Oratorios have also been performed, including, of course, the
“Messiah,” which is never omitted from the programme.  Haydn’s “Creation”
and “Seasons” have also been frequently given, while Dr. Spohr’s
“Calvary,” “Fall of Babylon,” and “The Last Judgment.”  Dr. Bexfield’s
“Israel Restored,” Pierson’s “Jerusalem,” and Molique’s “Abraham” were
first performed in this city.  The programmes have also included
Sterndale Bennett’s “May Queen,” which won all hearts; Benedict’s
brilliant “Undine,” and many other approved compositions.

The committees, acting on the principle of securing the highest talent,
have generally engaged the best vocal performers whose services were
available.  In proof of this we need only mention the names of the
following female vocalists:—Madame Viardot Garcia, Madame Caradori Allan,
Madame Clara Novello, Madame Sainton-Dolby, Madame Alboni, Madame
Malibran, Madlle. Tietjens, Madame Patti, Madame Lemmens-Sherrington,
Madame Rudersdorf, Miss Louisa Pyne, Madame Grisi; and among the male
vocal performers may be mentioned Signor Lablache, Herr Formes, Mr.
Weiss, Signor Rubini, Signor Belletti, Signor Morini, Mr. Santley, Mr.
Sims Reeves, Mr. Cummings, Signor Gassier, Signor Giuglini, Signor Mario,
Mr. Phillips, Mr. Lockey, &c. &c.

The Norwich Choral Society, comprising 300 members having good voices,
altos, tenors, and basses, has contributed greatly to the success of the
festivals by the excellence of the choral performances, especially in
grand Oratorios.  The Choral Society was established in 1824, and had its
origin in the establishment of the musical festivals, Professor Taylor
being its chief promoter.  In 1825 the Professor removed to London, and
the direction of the society was confided to the Rev. R. F. Elwin.  The
management of affairs was entrusted to a committee of twelve, who were
annually elected by ballot at a general meeting.  The practice was held
in the Old Library Room or in St. Andrew’s Hall.  The society has
undergone many changes, but has always maintained its high reputation for
choral performances.  A memoir of the late Professor Taylor, which
appeared in the _Norfolk News_, contained some information as to the part
he took in promoting the festivals.  We give the following extracts:—

    “We learn from the _Quarterly Musical Review_, which was edited by
    the late Mr. R. M. Bacon, that at the Festival of 1824, ‘Mr. Bacon,
    Mr. Taylor (late Professor Taylor), and Mr. Athow, were nominated as
    a committee for the entire conduct of the musical department.’  Vol.
    VI. p. 434.  The same authority says a little further on, ‘Mr. Taylor
    undertook the formation of a Choral Society, which he accomplished
    with a degree of knowledge, skill, and perseverance, that cannot be
    too highly praised.’  Again ‘The musical committee then decided on
    the following vocalists and instrumentalists, &c.’  From all which it
    seems that the triumvirate managed the musical department.

    “Mr. Fitch once wrote to Mr. E. Taylor requesting him to state what
    share he had in the management of the first festival.  The following
    was Mr. Taylor’s reply, dated March 25th, 1847.  ‘When the Norwich
    Festival was resolved on in 1823, I made the entire selection
    (morning and evening).  I engaged every performer; I selected the
    entire band, and I formed and trained the Choral Society.  I have
    done the same for every subsequent festival (until the last, 1845,)
    with the exception of having nothing to do with the Choral Society,
    or any of the country performers.  Every Oratorio brought out (and a
    new one was always brought out) was translated and prepared for
    performance by me.’  These were the following performed for the first
    time here.  ‘The Last Judgment,’ Spohr; ‘The Crucifixion,’ Spohr;
    ‘The Fall of Babylon,’ Spohr; ‘The Deluge,’ Schneider; ‘Redemption,’
    Mozart; ‘The Death of Christ,’ Graun; ‘The Christian’s Prayer,’
    Spohr.

    “It will be seen by the above how little Mr. E. Taylor left for
    anybody else to do.  Mr. Taylor’s two associates, like the wings on a
    stage sylph, were more for ornament than use.  His statement is
    confirmed by the _Musical Review_, which says, ‘The Hospital Board
    presented to Mr. Taylor a piece of plate, of fifty guineas value, for
    his services in raising and instructing the Choral Society, and for
    his general assistance.’”

The memoir before mentioned further states:—

    “At the Norwich Festival of 1830, Mr. Taylor introduced Spohr’s
    Oratorio of ‘The Last Judgment’ for the first time into this country,
    the words being translated and adapted to the music by Mr. Taylor
    himself.  This was followed at subsequent festivals by other
    oratorios of the same composer, which for originality, richness, and
    beauty, are unrivalled in their way.  After the performance of ‘The
    Last Judgment,’ Mr. Taylor became personally acquainted with Spohr,
    and one day, getting an invitation from Mendelssohn to visit him and
    his family at Dusseldorf on the Rhine, where Spohr then was, the
    invitation was accepted, and thus Mr. Taylor first became known to
    the illustrious composer, with whom he formed a friendship which
    lasted as long as they both lived.

    “At the Norwich Festival of 1836, the expenses exceeded the receipts
    by £231 5s. 10d.  We give an extract from a letter, written in the
    following year by Mr. Taylor to Mr. Henry Browne, which will be read
    with pain, because it shows that Mr. Taylor received far other
    treatment than he deserved at the hands of the committee of
    management.  Mr. Taylor said, ‘I hear of the discord engendered by
    the winding up of the Festival with much concern, and which seems to
    threaten the existence of future ones.  How it happened that the last
    terminated so unprofitably has always been a mystery to me.  I think
    it ought not.’”

And Mr. Taylor goes on to state the amount of work which he himself did
for nothing.

All the festivals had been hitherto successful.  The first, in 1824,
produced a surplus of £2399 to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.  The
second, in 1827, afforded that institution £1672; the third, in 1830,
yielded £535 to the hospital; the fourth, in 1833, was also successful;
but in 1836 the expenses of the Festival, as has been shown, exceeded the
receipts by £231, and a general board of the hospital resolved that no
part of the funds belonging to the institution should be used for any
purpose connected with the Festival.

At the Sixth Musical Festival, held on the 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th
September, 1839, Dr. Spohr conducted his own new Oratorio of “Calvary,”
before a very large audience, in St. Andrew’s Hall.  The performance was
very grand, and produced a thrilling effect on the audience.  The
selection of such a subject as the Crucifixion for an Oratorio drew forth
a good deal of criticism, but there could be no doubt of the musical
merits of the composition.

After the performance of “The Crucifixion,” Spohr and Mr. Taylor were
travelling outside the coach to London, when the former expressed a wish
to write another oratorio for Norwich, but said that he was at a loss for
a subject.  Mr. Taylor then suggested The Fall of Babylon.  This led to a
chat about the effects which might be introduced in the way of contrast,
&c., and ultimately Spohr promised to write the oratorio if Taylor on his
part would write the words.  The bargain was struck, and the result was a
work which will live to the end of time.

The Festival of 1842 was by far the most brilliant that had been held.
Of course Dr. Spohr’s “Fall of Babylon” was the chief attraction.  It was
performed in the presence of the largest and most fashionable audience
ever seen in St. Andrew’s Hall.  Numbers of the gentry could not obtain
admission.  People stood under the long galleries, and along the
passages, and in every corner of the building.  The performance was a
splendid success, and greatly added to the fame of the composer.
Professor Taylor translated the Libretto, and was the conductor of the
Oratorio.  On the following day he conducted the performance of Handel’s
Oratorio of “Samson,” to which he added selections from Handel’s works.
This caused a good deal of adverse criticism, but it was not without
precedent.  On Friday morning the Professor conducted a performance of
Handel’s “Messiah.”

The Festival of 1845 commenced on Tuesday evening, September 16th, and
continued on the 17th, 18th, and 19th.  The programme included
miscellaneous concerts on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday evenings; a
selection of sacred music, and Haydn’s Oratorio “The Seasons,” on
Wednesday morning; another selection of sacred music, and Spohr’s
Oratorio “Calvary,” on Thursday morning; and Handel’s sacred Oratorio
“Messiah,” with additional accompaniments by Mozart, on Friday morning.
All the concerts were well attended.  The principal vocalists were Madame
Grisi, Miss Dolby, Madame Caradori Allan, Miss Poole, Signor Mario,
Signor F. Lablache, Mr. Hobbs, Mr. Machin, Mr. Hawkins, Mr. Bradbury, and
Herr Staudigl.  Mr. Benedict was conductor; Mr. J. Hill, chorus master;
Mr. F. Cooke, leader of the band; Mr. Turle, organist.  The chorus
comprised the usual number of voices.  The band included the best
instrumentalists in England, and the festival was very successful.

The Festival of 1848 commenced on Tuesday, September 12th, with a
miscellaneous concert, followed by similar concerts on Wednesday and
Thursday evenings.  On Wednesday morning the programme comprised a sacred
Cantata, by L. Spohr, “The Christian’s Prayer,” and Haydn’s Oratorio
“Creation.”  On Thursday morning Mendelssohn’s Oratorio of “Elijah” was
performed.  On Friday morning “David Penitent,” a sacred Cantata by
Mozart, was given, followed by Handel’s “Israel in Egypt,” one of the
best of his numerous productions.  The principal vocalists were Madame
Castellan, Madame Alboni, Madame Viardot Garcia, Miss A. Williams, Miss
M. Williams; Signor Lablache, basso; Mr. Sims Reeves, tenor; Mr. H.
Phillips, basso; Mr. Whitworth, tenor; Mr. Lockey, tenor.  Mr. Benedict
was conductor; Mr. H. Blagrove, leader of the band; Mr. Harcourt,
organist.  Professor Taylor translated “The Christian’s Prayer” for this
occasion.  Mr. J. F. Hill was chorus master.

In September, 1852, the Festival again comprised grand miscellaneous
concerts on the Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday evenings, which concerts
were well attended.  On the first evening, Mrs. Fanny Kemble read the
“Midsummer’s Night’s Dream,” but the reading was a failure, as she could
only be heard a short distance from the orchestra.  On the Wednesday
morning a new Oratorio, “Israel Restored,” by Dr. Bexfield, was performed
for the first time at a festival.  On Thursday morning Mr. H. H.
Pierson’s Oratorio, “Jerusalem,” was performed for the first time, and
occupied nearly four hours.  On Friday morning the “Messiah” was
performed as usual.  The principal vocalists were Miss Louisa Pyne, Miss
Alleyne, Miss Dolby, Madame Viardot Garcia, Madame Fiorentini, Signor
Gardoni, Signor Belletti, Mr. Weiss, Mr. Lockey, Herr Formes, Mr. Sims
Reeves.  Mr. Benedict was conductor; Mr. H. Blagrove, leader of the band
in the morning performances, and Mons. Sainton in the evening
performances; Mr. J. F. Hill, chorus master.  At the close of the
performance on the Wednesday morning (September 22nd), a short selection
from Handel’s Oratorio of “Samson” was given as a tribute of respect to
the memory of the late Duke of Wellington.  Madame V. Garcia sung the
solo—

    “Ye sons of Israel, now lament,
    Your spear is broke, your bow unbent,
          Your glory’s fled.
          Among the dead,
    Our hero lies,
    For ever closed his eyes.”

The “Dead March” was played and the chorus sung—

    “Glorious hero, may thy grave
    Peace and honour ever have;
    After all thy pains and woes,
    Rest eternal, sweet repose.”

The Festival in September, 1854, again comprised miscellaneous concerts
in the evenings, and Oratorios in the mornings.  On Tuesday morning,
September 12th, the programme included Rossini’s “Stabat Mater,”
Meyerbeer’s “91st Psalm,” and a selection of sacred music.  On Wednesday
morning Beethoven’s Service in C, and Haydn’s “Creation” were brilliantly
performed.  On Thursday morning Mendelssohn’s “Elijah” attracted a very
large audience.  On Friday morning the “Messiah” was given, with the
additional accompaniments by Mozart.  The principal vocalists were Madame
Clara Novello, Madame Angelina Bosio, Madame Castellan, Madame Weiss,
Miss Dolby, Mr. Sims Reeves, Signor Gardoni, Herr Reichardt, Signor
Lablache, Signor Belletti, and Mr. Weiss.  Mr. Benedict was conductor;
Mons. Sainton and Mr. H. Blagrove, instrumental solo performers; Herr
Hausman, violoncello; Mr. J. F. Hill, chorus master.  On Tuesday evening
the concert included a descriptive and characteristic Cantata, called
“Tam o’ Shanter,” the words by Burns and the music by Macfarren.  It
consisted of a solo and chorus, which were sung with great applause.
Indeed, nothing so comic and lively had ever been heard before at any
festival.

Notwithstanding all the attractions of this festival it proved a failure
in a financial point of view, and it was feared that these triennial
musical meetings would no longer answer, but their promoters determined
not to give them up.  A committee was appointed; efforts were made to
secure by all proper means success in future; and several of the county
nobility joined as members of the committee.  That this determination was
made on good grounds, was fully proved by the success of the three
subsequent festivals of 1857, 1860, and 1863, the surplus from which was,
in round numbers, severally, £425, £916, and £1221.  From these sums no
less than £2000 were distributed amongst the charities.

The Festival of 1857 commenced on Tuesday evening, September 15th, with a
miscellaneous concert, and similar concerts were given on Wednesday and
Thursday evenings.  On Wednesday morning the programme comprised a sacred
Cantata by Louis Spohr, “God Thou art Great,” a Hymn of Praise
(Lobgesang) by Mendelssohn, and the “Requiem” of Mozart, his latest work.
On Thursday morning Beethoven’s Sacred Cantata, “The Mount of Olives,”
and Haydn’s Oratorio, “The Seasons” were performed.  The “Messiah” was
given on Friday morning, and concluded the festival.  The principal
vocalists were Madame Clara Novello, Madlle. Leonhardi, Madame Weiss,
Mrs. Lockey, Madlle. Piccolomini, Signor Gardoni, Signor Giuglini, Signor
Belletti, Mr. Lockey, Mr. Miranda, and Mr. Weiss.  Mr. Benedict was
conductor; Mons. Sainton, H. Blagrove, and Herr Hausman, were
instrumental solo performers; Mr. J. F. Hill was chorus master.

The Festival of 1860 was under very distinguished patronage and eminently
successful.  The programme included Haydn’s “Creation,” Handel’s
“Messiah,” Dr. Spohr’s “Last Judgment,” Herr Molique’s “Abraham,” and
Handel’s “Dettingen Te Deum,” all sacred music of the highest class,
assigned to the morning performances.  The evening concerts comprised
Glück’s “Armida,” Professor Sterndale Bennett’s Pastoral, “The May
Queen,” Benedict’s Cantata, “Undine,” besides selections from the most
popular operas, part songs, madrigals, symphonies, and overtures, all of
which were admirably rendered and highly applauded.

The choice of so large a work as Hadyn’s “Creation,” one of the finest of
his productions, on the first evening, was considered desirable, as it
gave full employment at once for the principal vocalists, the chorus, and
the band.  As many persons could not attend in the morning, an oratorio
in the evening gave them an opportunity of hearing a great work well
performed, and the lovers of sacred music readily seized the opportunity
presented to them of attending the performance, which was never more
perfect.  No band could have possibly played it more exquisitely, no
chorus could have sung it more honestly or earnestly, and the solos were
beyond all praise.

Wednesday morning was assigned to performances of a sacred and very
solemn character; Handel’s “Dettingen Te Deum,” and Spohr’s “Last
Judgment.”  Handel composed five Te Deums, but the finest is that written
in 1743, in celebration of the victory at Dettingen, then thought a great
event.  The victory was rather unexpected, and as George II. commanded in
person, the rejoicings in England were very general.  Horace Walpole
wrote, “We are all mad; drums, trumpets, bumpers, bonfires!  The mob are
wild, and cry ‘Long live King George and the Duke of Cumberland!’”  After
the “Te Deum,” there was a short interval preceding the performance of
Dr. Spohr’s great work “Die Letzten Dinge” (The Last Things), the
earliest of the composer’s three oratorios.  In 1825 it was brought over
from Germany by Professor Taylor, and it was first performed before an
English audience at the Norwich Festival on September 24th, 1830, under
the title of “The Last Judgment,” which does not convey a very correct
idea of the work.  It was received with the greatest possible favour,
like all other works of the same master, in this city.  The grand theme
is set forth in a series of paraphrases of scripture texts referring to
the final consummation of all things.

The novelties at this festival were Professor Sterndale Bennett’s
Pastoral “The May Queen,” and Benedict’s brilliant Cantata, “Undine,”
both of which were performed with great success.  The Pastoral was
produced with complete success at the Leeds Musical Festival, in
September, 1858.  Mr. Chorley composed the poem, and he deserves some
credit for the verses, as well as for the dramatic character of the
piece.  The overture is a beautiful composition, and the whole work
displays a marvellous combination of simplicity and ingenuity.  Herr
Molique’s new Oratorio, “Abraham,” was performed here for the first time,
and conducted by the composer, who at the close was greatly applauded.
The words are taken from the Old Testament, and the characters personated
are Abraham, Sarah, Hagar, Isaac, Angel, and Messenger, who in turn
depict the different scenes in the life of the patriarch.  He is
exhibited as a saint, as a warrior, and as a great sufferer.  Full scope
is given for the display of human passion in almost every phase, from
triumphant joy to a sorrow that borders on despair.  The incidents are
picturesque, striking, and varied, calling all the powers of the
orchestra into play.  The principal vocalists were Madame Clara Novello,
(her last appearance in Norwich,) Madame Weiss, Miss Palmer, Madame
Borghi Mamo, Madlle. Tietjens, Signor Giuglini, Signor Belletti, Mr. Sims
Reeves, Mr. Wilbye Cooper, Mr. Santley, Mr. Weiss.  Instrumental solo
performers, Miss Arabella Goddard, piano; Mr. Sainton, Mr. H. Blagrove,
Signor Piatti, violoncello; Mr. Benedict, conductor; Mr. J. F. Hill,
chorus master.

The Festival of 1863 commenced on Monday evening, September 14th, with a
performance of Handel’s grand Oratorio, “Judas Maccabæus,” which was
eminently successful.  The large audience seemed to be carried away by
the martial music.  On the Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday evenings,
miscellaneous concerts were given.  On Wednesday morning Mr. Silas
conducted a performance of his own sacred drama, “Joash,” with success.
This was followed by a “Scene at the Gates of Nain,” from the Oratorio
“Immanuel,” by Henry Leslie; also selections from the Stabat Maters of
Haydn, Pergolesi, and Rossini, and a selection of sacred music.  “Elijah”
was performed on Thursday morning, and the “Messiah” on Friday morning.
Another novelty at this festival was a Cantata, entitled “Richard Cœur De
Leon,” composed expressly for the occasion, and performed on Thursday
evening with immense applause.  This Cantata embodied the romantic story
of the warrior king in captivity, being discovered by the minstrel
Blondel, who at last caused the liberation of the monarch.  The principal
vocalists were Madlle. Tietjens, Madame Lemmens Sherrington, Madame
Weiss, Miss Wilkinson, Miss Palmer, Madlle. Trebelli, (her first
appearance in Norwich,) Mr. Sims Reeves, Mr. Montem Smith, Mr. Santley,
Mr. Weiss, Signor Bettini, (his first appearance here,) Signor Bossi,
(his first appearance here).  Mr. Benedict was conductor.  Instrumental
soloists, M. Paque, violoncello; Mr. H. Blagrove and Mr. Sainton,
violins.  Mr. J. F. Hill, chorus master.

The Festival of 1866 was deferred till November, very unwisely, in
anticipation of a visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales on the
occasion.  This caused a larger attendance on the day their Royal
Highnesses were expected, and a smaller on all the other days.  The
arrangements for the visit were also injudicious, to say the least.
Their Royal Highnesses should at once have proceeded to the Wednesday
morning’s performance, but they were detained at the Guildhall to hear an
address from the corporation, and then they were allowed to go to St.
Andrew’s Hall in the middle of a performance, which was greatly
interrupted.  Their Royal Highnesses, therefore, could not possibly have
appreciated Costa’s Oratorio from hearing only half of it.  The festivals
have been always patronized by royalty, and by the nobility, gentry, and
clergy, and have never failed to attract the county families; but this
year (1866) was the first in which members of the royal family were
actually present.

The general programme for 1866 when issued, presented some points of
peculiar attraction, including “Israel in Egypt,” by Handel, on Monday
evening; an Anthem by Dr. Spohr, and the Oratorio of “Naaman,” by Costa,
on Wednesday morning; “St. Cecilia,” a new Cantata by Benedict,
selections from the Passion Music of Handel, and first and second parts
of the “Creation,” by Haydn, on Thursday morning; and the “Messiah” on
Friday morning.  Most lovers of sacred music would have preferred Haydn’s
entire Oratorio to the sombre Passion Music.  The committee, acting on
the principle of securing the highest talent, made engagements with
Madlle. Tietjens, Madame Rudersdorff, Miss Edith Wynne, Madame De Meric
Lablache, Madlle. Anna Drasdil, three of them appearing for the first
time in this city; also with Mr. Sims Reeves, Mr. Cummings, Signor
Morini, Mr. Santley, Mr. Weiss, and Signor Gassier, all well-known
vocalists.  The instrumentalists were all first-class performers.  The
choral body was much improved and strengthened, and included 62 of the
best trebles ever selected, 24 contraltos, 35 altos, 59 tenors, and 67
basses.

Handel’s Oratorio, “Israel in Egypt,” was splendidly performed on the
Monday evening; the solos were in the hands of first-class vocalists, but
the absence of Mr. Sims Reeves was a disappointment.  Mr. George
Macfarren had improved the instrumentation by the addition of parts to
the original score.  He had no occasion to apologize for doing for
“Israel,” what many musicians have done for other productions.  It is not
presumptuous to have recourse to the resources of more modern
instrumentation, so long as the character of the work is not altered.

On Wednesday morning, as we have said, the Prince and Princess of Wales
were present.  The performances commenced with Dr. Spohr’s Anthem “O
blessed, for ever blessed, are they,” the first time of performance, and
it was admirably rendered.  Mr. Costa then conducted a splendid
performance of his own Oratorio of “Naaman,” founded on a part of Old
Testament history, relating to the restoration from death of the son of
the Shunamite by the prophet Elisha; a subject not very well adapted for
musical purposes.  All Oratorios are cast more or less in the Handelian
mould, but Mr. Costa has introduced more of the secular clement than
usual.

On Thursday morning the hall was well filled by a large audience desirous
of hearing a performance of Handel’s Passion Music, and Mr. Benedict’s
new work, “St. Cecilia.”  As to the former, we may state that there are
two works of Handel entitled “Passion Music,” one produced, it is
believed, in 1704, the other in 1716.  Dr. Chrysander caused the
publication of both these works by the Leipzig Handel Society in 1860 and
1863.  It is strange that these two productions should have slumbered so
long unheard and unknown till the selection was performed in Norwich.
Interesting as the Passion Music might be, the all-important event of
this morning’s concert was, the production of Mr. Benedict’s new Cantata.
“St. Cecilia” has long been a favourite subject with both poets and
composers.  Among the former, Fletcher, Dryden, Pope, Addison, Congreve,
and a host of versifiers, have contributed Odes in honour of the
patroness of music.  Many of these Odes are still in existence, with
their accompanying music, of various degrees of merit; the principal
being those by Purcell and Handel.  These are great names, but the
construction of the older works is entirely different from the Cantata
now performed for the first time with great applause.  After a short
interval the concert was continued with the “Creation,” which could not
have been better performed or with a stronger cast.

Friday morning has been always assigned to the performance of the
“Messiah,” and to hear it every seat in the hall was this time occupied,
and numbers could not obtain admission.  We have heard this sublime
Oratorio scores of times, in London and in many large towns, and here at
every festival since 1840, but we never heard it rendered with greater
effect than the last time (in 1866).

Norwich has in many ways obtained credit and advantage from the Musical
Festivals.  Their high character has placed the city in a very eminent
position in the musical world, and many of the citizens cherish a just
pride in endeavouring to qualify themselves for the maintenance of that
degree of excellence which the festivals enable them to exhibit in the
choral performances, which the best judges have pronounced second to none
in the kingdom.  On the whole the festivals have contributed largely to
the funds of important charities, and will no doubt continue to do so if
conducted with judgment and economy.  They have always attracted large
numbers of visitors to the old city, for the same facilities which make
it easy for _us_ to go elsewhere to hear good music, enable others to
come hither for the same purpose.  Many persons will always come from
distant places to hear a well-trained Norwich chorus.  And besides all
this, not the least of the benefits derived from these triennial
meetings, is that they encourage an interchange of good feeling and
hospitality between the city and county, and afford to those who enjoy
music such an amount of pleasure as must contribute, at least for a time,
to cheerfulness and happiness in their social intercourse with their
fellow creatures.



CHAPTER XXIII.
Eminent Citizens of the Nineteenth Century.


_Professor Taylor_.


PROFESSOR TAYLOR claims the first place in our notices of the eminent
citizens of this period, as a politician, a musician, and a public man.
After his death a memoir of him appeared in the _Norfolk News_ of March
28th, and April 4th, 1863, and from it we derive the following details:—

    “Mr. Edward Taylor was the great grandson of the celebrated Dr. John
    Taylor, a man not less beloved for the kindliness of his disposition,
    than he was venerated for his vast learning.  Dr. Taylor was born at
    Lancaster in the year 1694, and came to Norwich (according to Mr.
    Edward Taylor’s account) in 1733.  Here he remained till 1757, and
    here it was that he produced many of his works, amongst others his
    famous Hebrew Concordance, which was published in two large volumes,
    folio, and was the labour of fourteen years.  Many copies of the
    frontispiece (a fine portrait engraved by Houbraken) are still extant
    in this city.  Dr. Taylor must have been fond of music, and must also
    have made it a personal study.  This we infer, less from his having
    published ‘A Collection of Tunes in Various Airs’ for the use of his
    Norwich congregation, than from his having been able to Prefix
    thereto ‘Instructions in the Art of Psalmody.’  The airs themselves
    have no other accompaniment added than an unfigured bass, but the
    collection contains many of the finest melodies which are now in use.
    The instructions were intended to enable a student to sing at sight.

    “When Dr. Taylor quitted Norwich, his only surviving son, Richard,
    remained, and carried on the business of a manufacturer in St. George
    Colegate.  Mr. John Taylor, father of the subject of this memoir, was
    born the 30th July, 1750.  In 1773, he entered into the business of a
    yarn maker, in partnership with his brother, in the parish where
    their father had lived.  If not a musical composer, John had the
    reputation of being at least a tolerable poet, and he was peculiarly
    happy in writing words for music.

    “In April, 1777, Mr. John Taylor married Susannah, the youngest
    daughter of Mr. John Cook of Norwich.  Mr. Edward Taylor was born on
    the 22nd of January, 1784, in the parish of St. George Colegate.

    “In his boyish days, Edward Taylor was made to imbibe the usual
    quantity of Greek and Latin, and the cask ever after retained the
    flavour of the wine.  But music even then was his chief delight.
    When arrived at manhood he was tall and well formed; he had a fair,
    though by no means a pallid complexion, a penetrating eye, and a
    majestic voice, which sounded in conversation like the roll of a bass
    drum.  In whatever part of the world he had been met, it would have
    been said at a glance, ‘That’s an Englishman.’  He had that
    unmistakeable stamp of bluntness and sturdy independence which seems
    to be an Englishman’s birthright.  He was proud, not altogether
    without reason, of his ancestors, whose religious and political
    opinions he inherited.  Hence, he was a Dissenter of the Unitarian
    School, and what was then called a Radical Reformer.  Deeming himself
    to be in the right, he of course considered all those who differed
    from him to be in the wrong.  But being himself consistent, he knew
    how to respect consistency in others.  His hostility was confined to
    men’s doctrines and measures; it was never extended to their persons.
    In a word, he was generous, manly, and sincere, and he therefore
    enjoyed the friendship of good and true men, whatever might be their
    party or creed.  Mr. Taylor married, in 1808, Deborah, daughter of
    Mr. William Newson, of Stump Cross, in this city, a man of upright
    and honourable character, and a successful tradesman.”

The memoir contains a sketch of Mr. Taylor’s political doings, which we
shall give in another part of this work, and it then proceeds:—

    “On the 19th January, 1824, he had the honour of dining with the Duke
    of Sussex, at Kensington Palace.  The next year, 1825, terminated Mr.
    Taylor’s residence in his native city, though to the end of his life
    he continued to take a warm interest in whatever concerned its
    welfare.  On the 21st of May, having already made arrangements for
    giving up his business in Norwich, he went up to London to prepare
    for making it his future abode.  On the 5th of August, he served on
    the Norwich grand jury for the last time, and the next day took his
    final departure.  On the 15th, he joined his brother Philip and his
    cousin John Martineau in their business, as civil engineers, having
    hired a house for that purpose in York Place, City Road.

    “On the 3rd of January, 1826, the year after Mr. Taylor finally left
    the city for London, he came down to a dinner which was given at the
    Rampant Horse Hotel in his honour.  The original intention had been
    to place his portrait in St. Andrew’s Hall, and Sir James Smith had
    actually written some lines to be placed under it, beginning—

    ‘Avaunt, ye base, approach ye wise and good,
    Thus in this hall once Edward Taylor stood.’

    But that idea was abandoned, and a presentation of a service of plate
    was determined upon by his fellow-citizens.  The proposition
    originated with the strongest of his political antagonists in the
    Corporation.  The plate was given at this dinner at the Rampant
    Horse, the chairman being Henry Francis, Esq., against whom Mr.
    Taylor had entered the lists in the severest contest ever known in
    the Mancroft Ward.  This rendered the compliment greater.

    “Mr. Edward Taylor’s first music master was the Rev. Charles Smyth, a
    man who was equally remarkable for his eccentricity and musical
    learning.  Mr. Taylor always spoke with great respect of Mr. Smyth’s
    musical knowledge.  How long the lessons continued we have no means
    of ascertaining, but we afterwards find Taylor gaining instruction
    with the Cathedral boys under Dr. Beckwith at the music room in the
    Cathedral.  He also had lessons in the vestry room of the Octagon
    Chapel; and he acquired some skill upon the flute and oboe from Mr.
    Fish.  But we believe that his musical education was throughout
    gratuitously bestowed, out of respect to himself and his family.
    Doubtless he was greatly indebted for his extensive knowledge of the
    art, as well as of the German and Italian languages, to his own
    perseverance in solitary study.”

The author of the memoir, after giving a sketch of the “Hall Concert”,
notices Mr. Taylor’s labours on behalf of the Musical Festivals in this
city, as already related in our brief account of those celebrations.  Mr.
Taylor was one of their chief promoters, and he worked hard to make them
successful.  In reference to Mr. Taylor’s career in London, the author of
the memoir says,—

    “It has been before stated that on the 15th August, 1825, Mr. Taylor
    entered upon a new course of life, in London, in connection with his
    brother Philip and Mr. John Martineau, who were civil engineers.  Had
    the business proved lucrative, there is no reason to suppose that Mr.
    Taylor would have left it.  It is certain that when he went to live
    in London, nothing was further from his thoughts than that he would
    ever embrace music as a profession.

    “Mr. Taylor began anew the battle of life by taking private pupils.
    From the first moment of his entering the musical profession, his
    classical attainments, his skill as a translator, his superior mental
    powers, and his extensive musical research, were honestly and fully
    recognized.  On the 29th March, 1827, Mr. Taylor made his first
    appearance before a London audience as a public singer.  His debût
    was at Covent Garden, at the Oratorios under the management of Sir H.
    R. Bishop.  The song he chose was ‘The Battle of Hohenlinden,’
    composed by C. Smith, and the reception he received from a very
    crowded audience was exceedingly favourable.”

After quoting some very eulogistic notices of Mr. Taylor’s subsequent
performances, the writer of the memoir continues:—

    “In this year (1828) was published ‘Airs of the Rhine,’
    accompaniments by William Horsley, Mus. Bac., Oxon, the poetry
    translated by Edward Taylor.  Of Mr. Taylor’s brief sketch of German
    music prefixed to this collection, the _Quarterly Musical Review_
    (conducted by Mr. R. M. Bacon) says, ‘It is so agreeably written, and
    contains so many authentic and interesting particulars, that we must
    do him the justice to give it a place at length.  It will speak more
    for the publication than anything we can say to interest the reader.’

    “In 1837, Mr. Taylor was elected Gresham Professor of Music.  The
    place had been for 200 years a mere sinecure, generally held by
    persons totally ignorant of music, but he did much to render it
    useful to the art.  In 1838 he published his ‘Three Inaugural
    Lectures,’ which he dedicated to the Trustees of Gresham College.  He
    was not content with reading his lectures, however good.  He
    illustrated them by having some compositions of the master who might
    be under discussion, well sung in parts by a competent choir.
    Amateurs of distinction and professional men lent their aid, and this
    attracted large audiences to the theatre.

    “In 1843, Professor Taylor, who had been musical critic for the
    _Spectator_ for fourteen years, retired from that department, and he
    received a very complimentary letter from Mr. Rintoul the editor, who
    said, ‘I can bear my willing testimony to the high aims, the great
    ability, the persevering zeal, and undeviating punctuality with which
    you have upheld the cause of good music in my journal for the long
    period of fourteen years.  I believe that a selection from your
    writings in the _Spectator_ would comprise a body of the soundest and
    best musical criticism in the language; and when you retire, I know
    not that any second man in England is qualified to sustain the
    elevated standard that you have raised, &c.’  High praise indeed, but
    well deserved.

    “In the year 1845, Professor Taylor published, in the _British and
    Foreign Review_, an article headed ‘The English Cathedral Service;
    its Glory, its Decline, and its Designed Extinction.’  This was
    subsequently published by permission of the proprietor in the form of
    a thin octavo volume.  It was a masterly defence of the musical
    services of our Cathedrals, and of the choirs, against the spoliation
    of the deans and chapters, which had been silently and surely going
    on ever since the time of Queen Elizabeth.  It made a strong
    sensation at the time, and even now, whoever would strike a blow for
    the cause of Cathedral music, (which in Professor Taylor’s opinion is
    the salt which can alone save the musical taste of the people from
    corruption) will find the best weapons ready to his hand contained in
    this little volume.

    “Professor Taylor, who had been long a widower, died (March 12th,
    1863,) with the utmost tranquillity, at his house at Brentwood.  He
    had three children, all of whom survive him; a son, Mr. John Edward
    Taylor, who was with him in his last moments, and two daughters, one
    of whom is married and lives in Germany, her sister living with her.

    “We believe that Mr. Taylor left injunctions that his manuscripts
    should not be published, which is surely to be regretted.  If his
    rare and valuable musical library, the acquisition of which was the
    labour of a life, should be sold, we trust that it will not go
    piecemeal to the hoards of individual collectors, but be bought for
    the use of Gresham College and its future musical professors.”

The compiler of this history had some long interviews with Professor
Taylor when he last visited Norwich in 1857, and he then stated that he
had large collections of music, and a large number of lectures on the
music of every period.  He delivered a very splendid lecture on the music
of the Elizabethan age, in aid of the funds of the Free Library, before a
large audience, in the Lecture Hall, St. Andrew’s.


_The Rev. Mark Wilks_.


The Rev. Mark Wilks, who lived in the last, and in the early part of the
present century, was a very remarkable character as a politician and a
preacher.  From his biography, written by his daughter and published in
1821, we derive the following particulars.  He was the son of a
subordinate officer in the army, and was born at Gibraltar on February
5th, 1748.  When his father and family returned to England they lived at
Birmingham, where young Mark was brought up to a trade, and where he
became an itinerant Baptist preacher, without any chapel.  The Countess
of Huntingdon heard of his exertions, and invited him to her college at
Trevecca, to which he removed in 1775, and studied there for a year.  In
1776 the Countess appointed him to be minister of the Tabernacle in
Norwich, which became the scene of his most continued and concentrated
exertions.  The first sermon he preached here was on a Sunday evening to
a crowded congregation, and he made a great impression.  He preached in
the same pulpit that Whitfield once occupied, and the simplicity of the
new minister’s appearance, and the negligence of his exterior, surpassed
that of the apostle of Calvinism.  His long hair fell carelessly over his
shoulders; his meagre person and ruddy countenance gave him at mature age
the aspect of youth.  The whole of his demeanour was illuminated by the
fire of affectionate zeal, and by an earnestness of manner, evincing that
he was honest in the sacred cause of truth.  From this time he continued
his ministry till 1778, when in the spring of that year he married
Susannah Jackson of Norwich.  This was an event which he ever justly
estimated as the happiest of his life, but it severed his connexion with
the patroness of the Tabernacle.  Her rule was to dismiss the students of
her college on their marriage.  The Countess of Huntingdon regretted the
separation and recommended him to several destitute congregations, none
of which, however, were then suited to his views.

After travelling about for some time in Wiltshire, where he preached in
several chapels, he returned to Norwich, and on January 1st, 1780, his
new meeting place was opened, and he became a pastor under the
denomination of Calvinistic Methodist, without the customary form of
ordination.  During the interval which elapsed between his return to
Norwich and his establishment as a Baptist minister, his congregation
rapidly increased, and continued to increase from 1780 till 1788.  He
lived in retirement, and performed with satisfaction and marked
punctuality the duties of his ministry.  His congregation was formed into
a regular Baptist church in May, 1788, and it remained so all his life.
On this change many of his former supporters left him, so that his income
was reduced.  He therefore took a farm in the neighbourhood of Norwich,
and commenced farming on an extensive scale.  Employment or poverty was
his only alternative, and he followed the example of the apostle Paul by
supporting himself.

We now approach a period in his life in which he distinguished himself
not only as a pastor, but also as a citizen and patriot; for in the year
1790 commenced those great events in France which laid the foundation of
the long war between this country and that unfortunate empire, a war
disastrous to both.  On July 14th, 1791, Mr. Wilks preached two eloquent
discourses to commemorate the leading features of the first French
Revolution, before crowded congregations, composed of the most
influential persons in the city and its neighbourhood.  The propriety of
such discourses from the pulpit may be doubted, but they caused great
excitement, as the preacher defended the revolution, which was then
viewed with terror by many people.  We shall notice this, however, more
at length in the political part of our narrative, in which we shall have
to speak of the very active part which Mr. Wilks took in political
affairs both in the city and county.  That Mr. Wilks was a rather violent
partisan, and more of a Radical than a Whig, will appear by an extract
from his biography, respecting a county election.

    “When the Honourable William Wyndham first offered himself as a
    candidate for the county of Norfolk, he came in the character of a
    Whig, and a professed friend of civil and religious liberty.  Mr.
    Wilks then warmly supported him, and to his exertions Mr. Wyndham
    attributed his success.  But the revolution in France effected a
    strange change in the principles of Mr. Wyndham; and on his second
    appearance as candidate for Norfolk, he presented himself in the
    character of a ‘war minister,’ and the enthusiastic abettor of the
    most disgraceful and perilous measures ever pursued by weak and
    wicked men.  Instead, therefore, of receiving support, he met with
    the most determined opposition from those who had been before his
    active friends.  As Mr. Wilks on his former election had supported
    him by the most vigorous exertions, he now appeared foremost in the
    ranks of his opponents; and Mr. Wyndham regarded him with fear and
    jealousy.  The following anecdote will show with what gratitude he
    returned the former services of him whom he had called his friend.
    One morning, as a very intimate friend of Mr. Wilks was passing by
    the house of a poor man, he was unexpectedly invited in, and was
    informed by the man that his wife had just found an open letter, the
    contents of which were of the greatest importance to Mr. Wilks.  It
    indeed proved so.  It was a letter from Mr. Wyndham to one of his
    friends at Norwich, desiring him to be most vigilant in watching the
    movements and expressions of Mr. Wilks; and if at any time he uttered
    anything which might be made to appear treasonable, to make him
    acquainted with it, assuring him that he would take the most prompt
    and severe means for his conviction.  No sooner had Mr. Wilks read
    this letter than he hastened with it to the printer’s, and in a few
    hours the perfidy of Mr. Wyndham was publicly known in every part of
    the city, and the original letter returned to its proprietor, to his
    inexpressible dismay and confusion.  The family and friends of Mr.
    Wilks regarded this circumstance as an interposition of a watchful
    Providence.  But for this circumstance a few days might have seen him
    the inmate of a dungeon, and his life devoted, through the
    incautiousness of a sentence, to the treachery of an enemy.  This
    supposition may appear less improbable when it is known, that at that
    time some who had been less active and less violent than himself, had
    been snatched from their families during the stillness of the
    midnight hour, and had been conveyed to prison without any form or
    reason assigned to them.  This attempt upon the liberty, and perhaps
    the life, of Mr. Wilks had the beneficial effect of making him more
    vigilant over his words, and more cautious, although not less bold
    and decisive in all his proceedings.  Yet his wife and friends
    entertained so great an anxiety for his safety, that they strongly
    importuned him to seek an asylum under the calmer skies of America,
    but he resisted their importunities.

    “It must be mentioned, as an instance of the generosity of Mr. Wilks’
    disposition, as well as a proof that his political conduct originated
    in genuine principles of patriotism, that when Mr. Wyndham again
    returned as a candidate for Norfolk as conjoint supporter of the Whig
    interest in union with Mr. Coke, Mr. Wilks never suffered the
    recollection of his private wrongs to interfere with the principles
    that Mr. Wyndham had come forward to maintain, but supported him with
    the same firmness and ardour as he had ever done.

    “But it is necessary to return to those incidents of his life, the
    order of which has been neglected in pursuing the chain of his
    political character, and which he considered of far greater
    importance than any other.  In the year 1792, the Baptist Missionary
    Society was established by Carey, Fuller, Pearce, and Ryland.  Those
    incomparable men, in a small room at Kettering, planted the germ of
    that tree which has since spread its branches into the remotest
    corners of the earth.  The Indian Banyan is famed for its fertility;
    it is planted, it grows, and its branches descending, strike root,
    and reproduce another tree; its branches again descend, and produce
    another tree; trees succeed in endless multiplication, till a far and
    wide-spreading beauteous forest is formed from the vast trunk of what
    was once a single plant.  In India flourishes a moral Banyan; it has
    been planted by the hand of a Carey, a Fuller, a Pearce, a Ryland,
    and a Wilks; watered and cultivated by their labours and their
    prayers, its roots have taken a deeper and deeper root, and the day
    is approaching when the sultry clime of India shall be covered by its
    shadows, cheered by its verdant foliage, and refreshed by its
    heavenly fruits.

    “It is well known that Mr. Wilks’ devotion to the missionary cause
    was early and invincible.  Whether he was present at its
    establishment is rather doubtful; but from its commencement he
    regarded it as the dawn of happiness to the world, and put into
    action all his powers and his influence in promoting so benevolent an
    end.  But it was not in the mission alone that he evinced his
    benevolence and his disinterestedness.  Nine years had elapsed since
    he first commenced farming, and during that time and the succeeding
    year he preached regularly, and fulfilled all the duties incumbent on
    his station, without receiving for his services the smallest
    remuneration.  Whether in this instance he acted in all respects with
    prudence has frequently been doubted by himself as well as his
    friends.  His conduct originated in feelings of the purest
    benevolence, although perhaps it lost its excellence in losing its
    justice.”

In the year 1797 Mr. Wilks was obliged to quit his farm, the lease of
which had expired.  He immediately engaged another at Aldborough, a
village near Harleston in Suffolk, and went there to reside with his
family in March, 1797.  The distance of that place was seventeen miles
from Norwich; yet although he was necessarily obliged to omit the
week-day preaching, he never once neglected the regular performance of
his pastoral duties on Sunday.  In every kind of weather he constantly
travelled thirty-four miles every Sunday to preach to a congregation from
whom he received no remuneration.  This course of exertion, however,
could not be long continued.  With the engagements of his farm, which
were at this time very considerable, and the care attendant on a large
family of twelve children, he found it was necessary either to give up
his church or to leave his farm.  Though his farm was a very profitable
one, he did not hesitate which course to pursue; and he took another farm
at Cossey, near Norwich, where he continued for some time, and where he
often preached to the people in the village.

In March, 1802, he purchased a farm at the village of Sprowston, only two
miles from Norwich.  Here he enjoyed the society of his friends in the
city, and in every respect his own comfort and that of his family were
improved by this removal.  His congregation increased, and the chapel in
which he preached became too small for all who wished to attend his
ministry.  His friends were therefore desirous of erecting a more
commodious one, and purchased a piece of ground for its erection.  In
September, 1812, he laid the first stone, and Mr. Andrew Fuller preached
on the occasion.

In 1814, he went on a begging tour for his meeting house, and travelled
through the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, and Cambridgeshire, and
thence to London.  In six weeks he collected about £400, but his
exertions brought on a serious illness.  After his return his family
scarcely hoped for his recovery.  On May 4th, 1814, the new meeting
house, in St. Clement’s, Norwich, was opened by Mr. M. Wilks of London,
and Mr. A. Fuller.  The pastor was present, but in a very feeble state of
health.  He recovered slowly in a few weeks, and when his health was
sufficiently restored, he made another effort to diminish the debt on the
new chapel.  Though he frequently considered himself to be in a dying
state, yet at every interval of ease he pursued his work with unremitting
ardour.  It is unnecessary to relate all the details of the few latter
years of his life; the long journeys he took in the years 1815 and 1816,
were a proof of the generosity of his heart.  His last two years he spent
in retirement, yet in the performance of his ministerial duties; and ever
ready to advance the interests of his church, of his family, and of
mankind.

He was ill only four days previous to his death, which took place on
February 5th, 1819.  When it was publicly known in the city that he was
no more, hundreds of people went to his house to take a last look of him
whom living they had so much loved and respected.  And the bitter tears
of his surviving relatives, the deep affliction of his friends, and the
sorrow of mourning multitudes, bore a sad testimony to his worth as a
husband, a father, a friend, a minister, a neighbour, and a christian.

He died on his birthday, when he had attained the age of seventy-one.
His much valued friend, the Rev. W. Hull of Norwich, spoke at his
interment to a large assembly of sincere mourners, and to a great
concourse of spectators.  The Rev. Mark Wilks of London, his nephew,
preached a funeral sermon on Sunday, February 14th, before a large
congregation.  The deceased was buried under the pulpit where he had
preached the gospel for forty years.  Of his family of twelve children,
including his four sons, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, none of them and
none of their descendants now live in Norwich.


_The Rev. John Alexander_.


The Rev. John Alexander was the pastor of the Independent Congregation in
Prince’s Street for a period of fifty years.  He was much beloved by all
who knew him for his kindly disposition and genuine piety.  Bishop
Stanley often spoke of him in terms of the highest commendation as a
christian minister.  He took an active interest in all the philanthropic
and educational movements of the district, and was for some time the
Chairman of the Board of Management of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.
After his death, on July 31st, 1868, a short memoir of him appeared in
the _Norfolk News_; and this memoir contained nearly the whole history of
Prince’s Street Chapel in this city.  We give the following extracts:—

    “Mr. Alexander was born at Lancaster in 1792.  Of his father, the
    Rev. William Alexander, our deceased friend published an interesting
    _Memoir_; and, as showing his own appreciation of the excellencies of
    his parents, he placed on the title page these lines of Cowper’s:—

    ‘My boast is, not that I deduce my birth
    From loins enthroned, and rulers of the earth;
    But higher far my proud pretensions rise,
    The son of parents passed into the skies.’

    In the same volume we find him thus writing in reference to his early
    days:—‘The reader will, I trust, perceive that our domestic
    discipline, union, and affection, together with the sweet influences
    of religion, rendered us a happy family.  The recollections and the
    love of home, too, and our reverence for holy parents, became a
    shield of protection to us, and “a way of escape” in the day of
    evil.’  With an atmosphere like this surrounding his childhood, we
    wonder not that he became in early life the subject of deep religious
    convictions.  In 1807 he entered a large commercial establishment
    connected with a household in which ‘the most beautiful domestic
    order was combined with everything that was pure and lovely in
    religion.’  This privilege was greatly prized by him, and he ever
    cherished a grateful sense of the goodness of God in placing him
    there.  During this period he attended the ministry of the Rev. P. S.
    Charrier of Liverpool, and joined the church under his care.  For
    some time he had cherished a desire, and entertained a hope, in
    reference to the christian ministry, which was now soon to be
    realised.

    “The celebrated Dr. Edward Williams, one of the tutors at Rotherham
    College, happened just then to visit Liverpool, and unexpectedly
    spoke to him on the subject, offering him the advantages of the
    institution over which he presided.  This incident naturally made a
    deep impression on his mind, and led him very seriously and
    prayerfully to consider the matter.  Of course, he lost no time in
    communicating his thoughts to his father, who urged on him the
    greatest caution, saying, ‘God forbid you should take it up, except
    in compliance with the will of God.’  Nothing daunted, however, by
    the somewhat discouraging aspect of the ministry set before him in
    his father’s letters, he intimated to him, in reply to his inquiries,
    that he retained an unalterable ‘determination to give himself to the
    work, believing he had been called of God to it;’ and in 1814 he was
    admitted as a student into Hoxton College.  Here the amiable
    qualities which distinguished him all through life soon endeared him
    to every fellow-student, and one still surviving speaks of hours
    spent with him as ‘the happiest, holiest, and most profitable spent
    under the college roof.’

    “In his _Thirty Years’ History of the Church and Congregation in
    Prince’s Street Chapel_, he gives us an account of his first visit to
    and subsequent residence in this city.  From that source we learn
    that early in the year 1817 he received an invitation to preach for a
    few Sabbaths in the Tabernacle, and that on Friday, April 4th, 1817,
    (the day on which a fatal steam-packet catastrophe occurred by which
    many lives were lost), he entered Norwich.  On the following Sunday
    evening he preached from the text, ‘Therefore be ye also ready; for
    in such an hour as ye think not, the Son of Man cometh.’  The place
    was crowded; and, says he, ‘The Lord stood by me and strengthened
    me.’  At the expiration of three Sabbaths he returned to London,
    promising to visit Norwich again and preach during the whole of the
    Midsummer vacation.  He resumed his labours with very great
    encouragement at the Tabernacle on July 6th; and some legal
    difficulty occurring as to the power of appointing the minister, he
    consented, with the approbation of his tutors, to continue them till
    the disputed point was settled, which was not till the following
    December.  The legal decision was such as necessitated him to give
    notice the very day it arrived, that in the evening he should preach
    his last sermon in the Tabernacle.  On that occasion he chose as his
    text, words which the people believed to have been divinely suggested
    to his mind, ‘Weeping may endure for a night, but joy cometh in the
    morning.’  That text, it was often afterwards remarked, built the new
    chapel.  The prospect, however, of the toil connected with the
    establishment of a new church and congregation, and the building of a
    chapel, was such that he shrank from it, and took his place in the
    coach to return to London on his way to Kidderminster, where he had
    been requested to supply, with a view to settlement.

    “But so deep was the impression his services had produced, and so
    warm the interest and affection created, that the people would not
    part from him.  On the day of his departure, a deputation waited on
    him and pressed on him an invitation to become their minister with
    such affectionate earnestness, that, says he ‘I felt the appeal to be
    irresistible, and I promised to lay the whole matter before my tutor
    and friends, and to make it the subject of serious and prayerful
    re-consideration.’  The result was that he returned, and for some
    time preached in the Lancasterian School-room.  At length the site on
    which Prince’s Street Chapel now stands was purchased, and the
    foundation stone laid on the 16th of March, 1819.  It was opened on
    December 1st in the same year, and thenceforward, for the space of
    about five and forty years, it continued to be the scene of the
    living and life-quickening ministry of one whose ‘praise is in all
    the churches.’  Of the characteristics of Mr. Alexander’s preaching
    this is not the place to speak beyond saying it was truly evangelical
    and eminently successful.  But he was not the preacher only.  He was
    the faithful pastor, the unswerving friend, and the cheerful
    companion as well.  Hence in times of sorrow or of joy he was a
    welcome guest, either in the family meeting or at more social
    gatherings.  He carried summer and sunshine with him into every
    circle, and never left any without leaving a longing in every heart,
    young and old, for the next visit.  When he crossed the threshold,
    the young loved to caress and to be caressed by him, whilst to the
    others the cares of life seemed lessened, and the burden lightened,
    as he spoke to them a few words of loving sympathy or wise counsel,
    and left them with his soft tones of benediction treasured in their
    hearts and vibrating on their ears.

    “Time rolled on, ever finding him at his work, till thirty years had
    gone, when his friends gathered round him in St. Andrew’s Hall to
    testify their high appreciation of his excellencies, and their deep
    and strong affection for him as their pastor and their friend.  On
    that occasion it was the desire of the people to present a purse to
    him as a substantial token of their esteem, but there being at that
    time a debt of £400 remaining on the chapel, he, with that
    characteristic unselfishness which ever marked him, urgently
    requested that they would abandon the purse, but remove the debt.
    But it must not be supposed that Mr. Alexander’s energies were
    confined to the cause of Christ at Prince’s Street Chapel, or that
    the members of his church and congregation were allowed to claim him
    as exclusively belonging to them.  This was seen when ten years more
    of active service had passed, and troops of admirers, from far and
    near, flocked again to St. Andrew’s Hall to do him honour.  On that
    occasion the Mayor (J. G. Johnson, Esq.,) represented the city, and
    the Rev. S. Titlow the Church of England, in most eulogistic
    speeches.  The Baptist Churches of the county presented him with an
    address, whilst brethren of his own denomination, and others, lay and
    ministerial, seemed to vie with one another in magnifying ‘the grace
    of God’ in him.  The desire entertained ten years before was now
    carried into effect, and a purse, with an elegant skeleton timepiece,
    and a memorial engrossed on vellum and framed, were presented to him,
    and a gold watch and chain to Mrs. Alexander.  The timepiece bore the
    following inscription:—

    Presented to the Rev. John Alexander, together with a purse of 500
    sovereigns, on his commencing the fortieth year of his ministry in
    Norwich, by the members of his congregation and numerous other
    friends, as a memorial of Christian esteem and love.—Norwich, June
    3rd, 1856.

    From that time the infirmities of age, and the claims of a large
    congregation, led him to desire help, which was secured for him in
    the person of an assistant minister.  With that help he happily and
    zealously worked on in his Master’s service through another decade of
    years, when once more the old Gothic hall resounded with his praises
    and witnessed another outburst of affectionate congratulation.
    Having lived to see the jubilee of his ministry, he now resigned the
    pastoral office, and was presented with an annuity of £200 and a
    magnificent epergne, on which a suitable inscription was engraved.
    With trembling emotion the venerable man read his reply and
    acknowledgment, in which, after recording the goodness of God and the
    kindness of his friends through the long period of fifty years, he
    stated that during his pastorate more than a thousand members had
    been added to the church, two chapels had been added to the one in
    Prince’s Street, four Sunday Schools had been raised and supplied
    with a hundred teachers and with nearly a thousand children, and
    eight members of the church had become ministers of the Gospel.

    “Seldom is it the lot of the most favoured ministers thus to be
    blessed and made a blessing.  We shall not attempt to describe what
    Mr. Alexander was in the pulpit, on the platform, in the committee
    room, or from the press, nor how he discharged his duties as chairman
    of ‘The Congregational Union of England and Wales,’ and secretary of
    ‘The Association for the Spread of the Gospel in the County.’  Much
    less shall we venture a word on his private or domestic life.  We
    hope another and abler pen will pourtray his character more fully,
    and hence we content ourselves by adding words written by a friend,
    ‘His life is his eulogy.’  It was a holy life, a useful life, an
    honourable life, a happy life.

    “The last sermon Mr. Alexander preached was delivered in Prince’s
    Street Chapel on April 22nd, 1866, from 2 _Cor._ ii. 14–17.  The last
    time that he spoke in St. Andrew’s Hall was a few months before his
    death, on the occasion of the mayor’s invitation to the Sunday school
    teachers, and the last public religious service he attended was in
    the Old Meeting House on Sunday evening, July 19th, 1868, where his
    presence was ever as welcome as in his own chapel.

    “Of his history since his retirement into private life, little only
    can be said.  At first the ease and seeming uselessness imposed on
    him by the infirmities of age had a depressing influence on his mind,
    but latterly this gave place to his wonted calm confidence in God,
    and his usual joyousness of heart.  Occasionally, to the grief of his
    friends, the decline of his mental powers was painfully visible, but
    this was often relieved by his still sparkling and felicitous
    utterances, and his fervent devotional exercises.

    “Some lines written in our album so recently as last November will,
    perhaps, best indicate the state of his mind, and the theme on which
    it delighted to dwell:—

    Amidst the fragrance richly shed,
       And beauty blooming in the bowers,
    The willow bends its mournful head,
       And seems to weep among the flowers.

    And so in human life we find,
       How bright soever it appears,
    That grief is rooted in the mind,
       And smiles are mingled with its tears.

    But there’s a garden in the sky
       Where mourning willows cannot grow,
    Where tears are wiped from every eye,
       And streams of joy unmingled flow.

    “And now the time drew nigh that he must die.  For only a few days he
    was withdrawn from the outer world.  During that time it was very
    evident that constant intercourse was being carried on with heaven.
    On asking him, two days prior to his death, if the Saviour he had so
    long and faithfully preached to others was now near and precious to
    himself, he replied, ‘Oh, what should I do without Him!’  The day
    before his departure he was much in prayer.  His family were all
    remembered before God, as were also the servants of the household.
    And very touching were the words in which he sought a blessing on the
    ministers of the city, and on their work, with whom he had lived in
    closest and loving fellowship.  And so he passed away, spending his
    last hours, as he had spent his life, in blessing others.

    “On Tuesday, the 4th of August, he was carried to his grave amid the
    lamentations of a vast concourse of his fellow-citizens, and friends
    from the country, who had known him and esteemed him very highly in
    love for his works’ sake.  The funeral service at the grave was
    conducted by the Revs. G. Gould, J. Hallett, P. Colborne, and G. S.
    Barrett, B.A.; but gathered there were clergymen and ministers of
    every denomination, as well as laymen of all classes, from the mayor
    to the humblest artisan.

    “And so has passed away from our midst, full of days and honours,
    one, whom it was a privilege to have known, and an impossibility not
    to have loved.  His Christian catholicity, his large-hearted charity,
    his generous liberality, his untarnished reputation, and his fidelity
    to Christian truth, together with other virtues that adorned his long
    life, constrain us to thank God for having given him to Norwich, and,
    now that He has taken him to Himself, constrain us to say ‘Let me die
    the death of the righteous, and let my last end be like his!’”

The funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. John Stoughton, of London,
before a large congregation in St. Andrew’s Hall.


_The Gurney Family_.


The members of the Gurney family, from an early period, have been
distinguished by their station, wealth, and intelligence, both in Norfolk
and Norwich.  Memoirs of Joseph John Gurney, with selections from his
journal and correspondence, were edited by Joseph Bevan Braithwaite, and
published by Mr. Fletcher of this city.  From these memoirs we derive the
following interesting details respecting the family, and the Society of
Friends in Norwich.

    “The family of Gurney or Gournay is said to have sprung from a house
    of Norman barons, who followed William the Conqueror into England and
    obtained a large estate in this country, chiefly in the county of
    Norfolk.  From them descended a long line of country gentlemen, who
    maintained themselves at Harpley, and West Barsham, in this county,
    for many generations, and from a very early period had one of their
    residences in this city.  The last of these dying without male issue,
    about the commencement of the reign of Charles II., the old family
    estates at that period became dispersed amongst females.  The name of
    Gurney was, however, honourably continued through a descendant of one
    of the younger sons of an earlier generation, John Gurney, the
    ancestor of the present family.  He was born in the year 1655, and
    notwithstanding his family connections, commenced life in Norwich in
    somewhat straitened circumstances.  Devoting himself in his youth to
    the cause of religion, we find him in the year 1678, at the age of
    twenty-three, already connected with the oppressed, persecuted
    Quakers.

    “The family of John Gurney appear previously to have had some
    connexion with the Puritans.  Henry Gurney, indeed, of West Barsham,
    the representative of the family in the early part of the 17th
    century, had a distaste for Puritanism, if, at least, we are to judge
    from the insertion in his will (proved in 1623) of a special charge
    to his younger son, ‘That none hould any fantisticall or erroneous
    opinions, so adjudged by our bishop or civill lawes.’  But Edmund
    Gurney, rector of Harpley, one of these younger sons, who was a
    person of influence, became known as a zealous Puritan; he declined
    wearing the surplice, and was probably among those who took the
    covenant in 1643.  After him John Gurney successively named two of
    his children.  Others of his connexions were also inclined to
    Puritanism, and some of them, like himself, joined the Society of
    Friends.  In the case of the early Friends generally, their ultimate
    settlement in those gospel principles by which they became
    distinguished from others, was preceded by a state of much religious
    awakening and earnest seeking after God, in which they ‘searched the
    scriptures daily, whether those things were so.’

    “Through what course of experience John Gurney arrived at his
    conviction, the scanty materials of his history do not inform us.
    Let it suffice us to know that what he became convinced of, was
    precious to him as the truth, and that for it he was prepared to
    suffer.  On the 29th of the ninth month (O. S.), 1682, (so the
    records of the Friends in Norwich inform us,) ‘Friends being kept out
    of their meeting house, met together in the street to wait upon the
    Lord,’ and, being there, John Gurney and another Friend, were
    violently pulled out from among the rest, as if they had been
    malefactors, and carried before a justice of the peace, by whom, as
    they declined giving, on such an account, the required bail, they
    were committed until the next quarter sessions.  In the following
    year, 1683, he was again imprisoned, for refusing to take an oath,
    and continued in prison, under successive recommitments, nearly three
    years.  He died in the year 1721, having greatly prospered in his
    temporal concerns; and, what is far more important, having, according
    to the testimony of those who knew him, taken particular care in the
    religious education of all his children, and continued faithful to
    the end.

    “His two elder sons, John and Joseph, were both men of marked
    character.  John was gifted with much natural eloquence, and obtained
    considerable reputation by the spirit and ability with which he
    successfully defended the Norwich trade, before a committee of the
    House of Lords, against some apprehended encroachments.  He
    subsequently received from Sir Robert Walpole the offer of a seat in
    parliament, which, however, he declined as inconsistent with his
    religious principles in the then state of the law.  Religion had
    early taken possession of his heart, and about the 22nd year of his
    age, in obedience to the call of apprehended duty, he had yielded
    himself to the work of the public ministry of the gospel, in which
    service he laboured diligently for many years; neither the temptation
    of prosperity nor the kindness and esteem of great men of this world,
    being, in the simple and forcible language of the memorial respecting
    him, ‘permitted to separate him from that truth which the Lord had
    eminently convinced him of.’

    “Besides numerous other descendants, he was the grandfather of Martha
    Birkbeck, whose daughter Jane became the first wife of Joseph John
    Gurney.  Joseph Gurney, his younger brother, who, towards the close
    of his life, fixed his residence at Keswick, near Norwich, also
    became a valued minister of the gospel among Friends.  His christian
    profession was eminently adorned by a life of humility, benevolence,
    and moderation.  He died in the year 1750, after a suffering illness
    which he bore with exemplary resignation, giving a final evidence of
    the truth of what he then expressed that it had been ‘the business of
    his whole life to be prepared for such a time!’

    “His eldest son, John Gurney, was a man of great activity and energy,
    and notwithstanding his extensive engagements in business, devoted
    much of his time to the interests of his own religious society, to
    the principles of which he was warmly attached.  In the midst of a
    course of remarkable temporal prosperity, it is instructive to
    observe the fears which he expresses in one of his private memoranda,
    lest his increasing opulence should lead away his children from those
    religious habits and associations in which they had been educated.
    He left three sons, all of whom married and settled near Norwich.
    Richard Gurney the eldest, on his father’s decease, in 1770, became
    the occupant of the family residence at Keswick.  John Gurney, the
    father of J. J. Gurney, had previously to the birth of the latter
    settled at Earlham.  Joseph Gurney, the youngest, resided at Lakenham
    Grove.  The three families were naturally much associated, and
    exercised an important influence upon each other.  At a later period
    especially, the consistency with which Joseph Gurney, of The Grove,
    was enabled to maintain his position as a Friend, and as a christian
    minister, rendered his influence peculiarly valuable.”

John Gurney, of Earlham, is eulogised highly by the editor of these
memoirs as generous, ardent, and warm-hearted, abounding in kindness to
all, uniting very remarkable activity, both in public and private
business, with an acute intellect and extensive information.  His wife
was Catherine Bell, a daughter of Daniel Bell of Stamford Hill, near
London, her mother being a granddaughter of Robert Barclay, the
well-known author of the “Apology.”  She is described as a woman of very
superior mind as well as personal charms, and as a serious christian and
decided Friend.  She died in the autumn of 1792, leaving her sorrowing
husband the widowed parent of eleven children.  The following list of the
names may be found useful:—

Catherine died unmarried, 1850.

Rachel died unmarried, 1827.

Elizabeth, married in 1800 to Joseph Fry, of London, became the
celebrated Mrs. Fry, who died in 1845.

John died in 1814.

Richenda married in 1816 to Francis Cunningham, who died in 1855.

Hannah married in 1807 to Thomas Fowell Buxton.

Louisa, married in 1806 to Samuel Hoare, died in 1836.

Priscilla died unmarried, 1821.

Samuel, who died in 1856.

Joseph John, who died in 1847.

Daniel, still living.


_Joseph John Gurney_, _Esq._


Among the eminent citizens of this century, none will take a higher place
than the late J. J. Gurney, Esq., the well-known philanthropist.  He was
born at Earlham Hall on August 8th, 1788.  That hall was one of the
happiest homes in England.  It was also the birth-place of Mrs. Elizabeth
Fry, sister of J. J. Gurney, and almost as celebrated as her brother.
Here they were both trained with religious care, and passed their days of
childhood and youth in happiness and peace.  In after life they were
associated together in works of benevolence, and the brother often aided
his sister in many of her schemes for improving prison discipline.

In 1803, soon after he had completed his 15th year, Joseph John was sent
to Oxford with his cousin Gurney Barclay to pursue his studies under the
care of John Rogers, a private tutor.  Young J. J. Gurney continued at
Oxford two years, with the exception of the vacations, which he spent
mostly at home.  His tutor, though resident at Oxford, was not in that
character connected with the university or with any of the colleges.  The
student became an excellent classical and oriental scholar, and
ultimately the author of several valuable religious works, such as
“Essays on Christianity,” “Thoughts on Habit and Discipline.”  He was
scarcely seventeen when, in August, 1805, he was removed from the care of
John Rogers.  He had become attached to his tutor and to his studies, and
he quitted the place with regret, but there was brightness in the thought
of settling at home.  The bank in which his father was a partner had been
established in Norwich in the year 1770.  After that time the concern was
considerably extended with branch banks at Lynn, Fakenham, Yarmouth, and
other places.  His elder brother, John, had been placed in the
establishment at Lynn, and his brother Samuel had been sent up to London,
where he had become the head of a district concern; so that circumstances
had prepared the way for that which J. J. Gurney himself had desired—a
place in the bank at Norwich.  Here in the enjoyment of daily
communication with his father, and a home at Earlham with his sisters,
the ensuing three years of his life passed in peace and joy.  In the year
1806, he accompanied his father and a large family party in a tour to the
English lakes and through Scotland.  On their return, J. J. Gurney was
regular in his attendance at the bank, but he found time for study at
home, and he carefully read ancient historians in the original languages.
Gradually, however, his attention became unceasingly directed to biblical
literature, which continued for some years to absorb much of his leisure.
His habits of study were eminently methodical, exemplifying his favourite
maxim, which he was afterwards accustomed strongly to inculcate upon his
young friends, “Be a whole man to one thing at a time.”  His position and
tastes introduced him to the highly-cultivated society, for which Norwich
was at the time remarkable, at the house of his cousin Hudson Gurney,
where he was accustomed to meet many persons who were eminent for their
parts and learning.  He had early become a favourite with Dr. Bathurst,
then Bishop of Norwich, and their intercourse gradually ripened into a
warm friendship, which was maintained unbroken till that prelate’s
decease, in 1837, at the very advanced age of ninety-three.  Young J. J.
Gurney was but just twenty-one when, as one of his father’s executors and
representative at Earlham, and as a partner in the bank, very grave
responsibilities devolved upon him.  However, he continued to pursue his
studies with ardour, and he made his first essay as an author in an
article published in the _Classical Journal_ on September 9th, 1810,
under the title of “A Critical Notice of Sir William Drummond’s
Dissertations on the Herculanesia.”  After this effort his mind became
increasingly drawn towards the principles of the Society of Friends, and
many of his allusions to his feelings, in his autobiography, are
peculiarly interesting and instructive, indicating the spiritual phase of
his mind.  The example of his sister, Elizabeth Fry, as well as of his
sister Priscilla, who like her, had become a decided Friend and a
preacher of the gospel, strengthened his convictions; but the influence
of other members of the family who resided at Earlham, as well as of many
other estimable persons, tended in an opposite direction.  The editor of
the Memoirs, already referred to, says:—

    “Whilst Joseph John Gurney’s religious convictions were thus
    gradually drawing him into a narrower path in connection with the
    Society of Friends, his heart was becoming increasingly enlarged in
    Christian concern for the welfare of others.  He had already warmly
    interested himself in the formation of a Lancasterian School in
    Norwich, an institution which long continued to have his effective
    support.  The establishment of an auxiliary Bible Society in this
    city, was an object into which he now entered with youthful ardour.
    The general meeting for its formation was held on the 11th of the 9th
    month, 1811.”

The philanthropist was married to Jane Birkbeck on October 10th, 1817, in
his 29th year, and it appears to have been a very happy marriage.  The
event took place at Wells Meeting, and, after a short sojourn at
Hunstanton, the newly-married couple travelled to their home at Earlham,
where they received the visits of many friends, who were most hospitably
entertained.  After his marriage, J. J. Gurney continued at Earlham; and
the hall, where his father had resided, and in which he himself lived
from his birth, was his settled residence.

    “To this place (with its lovely lawn nested among large trees) he was
    strongly attached all his life.  And they who knew him there can
    still picture him in his study among his books, or in his
    drawing-room among his friends, his countenance beaming with love and
    intelligence, the life of the whole circle; or in his garden amongst
    his flowers, with his Greek Testament in his hand, still drawing from
    the books ‘of nature and of grace’ that lay open before him, new
    motives to raise the heart to the Author of all his blessings.

    “Placed by circumstances, though not the elder brother, in the
    position which his father had occupied in Norfolk as Master of
    Earlham, and a partner in the bank, it was his delight, as far as
    possible, to continue Earlham as the family house.  Even after his
    marriage, his sisters, Catherine, Rachel, and Priscilla, continued to
    live with him, occupying their own apartments, and it was the custom
    of the other members of the family frequently to meet there as under
    a common roof. * * * Up to the period of his brother John’s decease,
    and for some time afterwards, it was the habit of his brothers and
    himself, with their brothers-in-law, Thomas Fowell Buxton and Samuel
    Hoare, to improve these occasions by a mutual impartial examination
    of their conduct, in which each with brotherly openness stated what
    he conceived to be the brother’s faults.  Happy indeed was such an
    intercourse between such minds. * * * Besides this, to him,
    delightful band of brothers and sisters, his house was, as must have
    been already apparent to the reader, freely opened to a large circle.

    “Whilst every year strengthened his conviction of the soundness and
    importance of the christian principles which he professed, he
    rejoiced in that liberty wherewith Christ had made him free to
    embrace as brethren all those in whom he thought he could discern
    traces of his heavenly image.

    “Towards the close of the year (1817) in company with his wife, his
    brother Samuel Gurney, his brother and sister Buxton, and Francis and
    Richenda Cunningham, he took a short tour upon the continent of
    Europe, their principal objects being to establish a branch Bible
    Society in Paris, and to procure information as to the systems of
    prison discipline adopted in the jails of Antwerp and Ghent.  Having
    accomplished their objects, they returned home after an absence of
    about a month.”

Soon afterwards J. J. Gurney began to preach at meetings of the Friends
in Norwich and elsewhere.

    “Early in the year 1818, private business called him to London.  His
    sister, Elizabeth Fry, had previously entered upon her important
    labours for the benefit of the prisoners in Newgate, and for the
    improvement of prison discipline generally.  Joseph John Gurney
    warmly entered into his sister’s views, and accompanied her to the
    committee of the House of Commons on the occasion of giving her
    evidence, and afterwards to Lord Sidmouth, then Secretary of State
    for the Home Department.

    “His visit to London and the pamphlet on _Prison Discipline_, soon
    afterward published by his brother-in-law, Thomas Fowell Buxton,
    tended to deepen in his own mind a sense of the importance of that
    subject, and an opportunity soon occurred for endeavouring to
    influence the authorities at Norwich to some exertion respecting it.
    The mayor and corporation, attended by the sheriffs and other
    citizens, whilst perambulating the boundaries of the county of the
    city, were by his desire invited to partake of refreshment in passing
    by the hall at Earlham.  Besides those immediately connected with the
    magistracy many others assembled, the whole company consisting of
    about 800 persons.  On this occasion, Joseph John Gurney, in an
    address to the mayor and corporation, urged the erection of a new
    jail, and its establishment on better principles, with a view to the
    employment of the prisoners, and the improvement of their morals;
    enforcing his appeal by a reference to the extraordinary change that
    had then recently taken place in Newgate, through the exertions of a
    committee of ladies, and concluding by offering a donation of £100
    towards the object.  The effort was not without fruit, though the
    result was not immediately apparent.”

The editor of his Memoirs proceeds:—

    “In the 8th and 9th month of this year (1818), in company with his
    wife, his sister Elizabeth Fry, and one of her daughters, he took a
    journey into Scotland, visiting many of the prisons both there and in
    the north of England, besides attending many of the meetings of
    Friends.  On this occasion, in conformity with the christian order
    established in the Society of Friends, he was furnished with a minute
    or testimonial expressing the concurrence of his Friends of his own
    ‘Monthly Meeting’ in his prospects of religious service.”

We have now to view the philanthropist not only in the varied relations
of private life, but also in the very important character of a christian
minister.  He gradually became the most distinguished member of the
Society of Friends in all England, and he often delivered exceedingly
impressive discourses in Norwich and other large towns, preaching the
gospel with a peculiar grace of manner which fascinated every audience.
We have often heard him preach before large congregations of educated
people in the Meeting House at Liverpool, and always with great effect.
His journal is full of details of his labours in all parts of England,
Scotland, and Ireland.  He became a Home Missionary, working hard at his
own expense; but we must confine this brief sketch to his doings here in
Norwich.  The death of his beloved wife at Earlham on October 6th, 1822,
put his religious principle to the severest test, and in his letters he
expresses deep sorrow, but he was of too active a disposition to be long
subdued by grief.  During the few months succeeding his loss, he
continued mostly at home in the enjoyment of the society of his sisters,
Catherine and Rachel; his children becoming increasingly the objects of
his tender solicitude.  In the mean time, besides attending to the
necessary claims of business, and to the various public objects that had
long shared his interest, he devoted his leisure to study, finding
relief, as he intimates, “Not in the indulgence of sorrow, but in a
diligent attention to the calls of duty.”

After giving many extracts from his journal, Mr. Braithwaite continues in
reference to the anti-slavery agitation:—

    “Retiring for a few days to Cromer Hall, he found a large and
    interesting circle.  Amongst others, the late William Wilberforce and
    Zachary Macaulay were there, deliberating with his brother-in-law
    Thomas Fowell Buxton on the position and prospects of the
    Anti-Slavery question.  It was the occasion on which the latter
    appears to have arrived at his final decision, to accept the
    responsible post of advocate of the cause as successor to
    Wilberforce.  In this important undertaking, and throughout the
    succeeding struggle, Joseph John Gurney gave him his warm and
    efficient encouragement and support.”

Mr. J. J. Gurney, Mr. Clarkson, Mr. T. F. Buxton, Mr. Wilberforce, and
others, were earnest advocates for the total abolition of the slave trade
and of slavery; and they attended many public meetings at which they
denounced and exposed the horrid traffic.  Ultimately, as we all know,
their efforts were rewarded, by rousing public indignation to such a
pitch as to result in the passing of an act of parliament emancipating
the slaves in the West Indies, at a cost of twenty millions.

The panic in the monetary and commercial world, and the sudden run upon
the banks in London and the country, have rendered the winter of
1825–1826 memorable.  As a banker, J. J. Gurney did not escape his share
of anxiety, as appears from his journal, but his firm weathered the
storm.  Another circumstance was at this time deeply interesting to his
feelings, namely, his attachment to Mary Fowler, daughter of Rachel
Fowler, a cousin of his late wife.  After some correspondence he made
Mary Fowler an offer of marriage, which she accepted.  On July 18th,
1827, they were married at Elm Grove.  On this interesting occasion, he
remarks in his journal,—

    “Bright, hopeful, and happy was our wedding day.  We dined on the
    lawn, a large united company, and rejoiced together, I trust in the
    Lord.  Mary and I left the party at Elm Grove, in the afternoon, for
    North Devon.”

They arrived at Linton, and thence proceeded to Ilfracombe.  There they
spent the honeymoon, and then the happy husband brought his second wife
home to Earlham, where they were received with joy.  After this he was
visited by many eminent characters at Earlham, including Dr. Chalmers,
who stayed with him several days.

    “None can have attentively perused the foregoing pages” (says the
    editor of the memoirs) “without perceiving that one leading feature
    of Joseph John Gurneys character was an unweared active benevolence.
    Like his sister, Elizabeth Fry, he seemed continually to live under a
    deep sense of his responsibility towards others.  A cheerful and
    bountiful giver, it was not merely by large pecuniary assistance that
    he proved his interest in objects connected with the welfare of his
    fellow-men: to these objects he was exemplary in devoting no common
    share of his time and personal attention.  The steady devotion to the
    Anti-slavery and Bible Societies is already before the reader.  In
    addition to these great and often absorbing interests, his exertions
    for the distressed labouring population of Norwich were unremitting.
    Year after year, during the winter, or on any occasion when their
    distress was aggravated by want of employment, he was at his post,
    stirring up his fellow-citizens to the necessary measures for the
    alleviation of their wants.  The District Visiting Society, which was
    mainly instrumental in originating the Soup Society and the Coal
    Society, found in him a steady and effective supporter.  Often would
    he say that the painful consciousness of the poverty and suffering of
    many thousands around him, almost prevented his enjoyment of the
    abundant blessings with which he was himself so richly favoured.  On
    one occasion he expended a considerable sum in providing the capital
    for an attempt to supply the poor weavers and mechanics with
    employment during a scarcity of work.  But, though like many similar
    attempts, it failed to answer the expectation of the promoter, and
    was abandoned, it served at least to furnish another proof of the
    sincerity and earnestness with which he laboured for their welfare.

    “The depressions in trade occasioned by the panic of 1825 will be
    long remembered.  Norwich did not escape its influence.  As a banker,
    Joseph John Gurney was more than usually absorbed in his own
    immediate cares, but his heart at once turned towards his suffering
    fellow-citizens.  ‘The dreadful distress,’ he writes to a friend,
    ‘which prevails in the great mass of our once labouring, now, alas!
    idle population, has been such as to call forth my strenuous efforts
    on their behalf.  In this, success has been mercifully vouchsafed.
    We have raised £3300 in five days.’

    “One more illustration deserves notice.  In the winter of 1829–30,
    the manufactures of Norwich were again greatly depressed.  The
    weavers became unsettled, holding riotous meetings, and using
    threatening language against their employers.  The state of things
    was alarming.  J. J. Gurney felt it to be his duty to use his
    influence in checking the spirit of discontent that was rapidly
    spreading.  He attended one of the very large and tumultuous meetings
    of the operatives, and endeavoured to persuade them to desist from
    their disorderly proceedings, and quietly to resume their work.  With
    a view of still further winning them by kindness, he invited a
    deputation from those assembled to breakfast at Earlham on the
    following morning.  Between forty and fifty of them came, with Dover,
    a notorious Chartist leader, at their head.  After the usual family
    reading of the Scriptures, they sat down to a plentiful repast which
    had been provided for them in the large dining room, of which they
    partook heartily; and their host afterwards addressed them in a kind,
    conciliatory manner upon the subject of wages, and their duty to
    their employers.  The men conducted themselves in an orderly manner
    and appeared grateful for the attention shown them.  The scene was
    not soon to be forgotten.”

The editor gives some illustrations of the philanthropist’s benevolent
character, by narrating instances of his visits to prisoners in the Jail,
and to afflicted inmates of the Bethel and the Norfolk and Norwich
Hospital.  A volume might be filled by an account of his acts of private
benevolence, but we must pass on to more public matters.  He seldom took
an active part in contested elections, but at the election in 1833, after
the passing of the Reform Act, the Whig candidates, one of whom was his
near relative, were defeated, chiefly, as was generally believed, through
the influence of bribery.  On this subject J. J. Gurney wrote,—

    “As usual, I took little or no interest in the election, but when a
    petition was presented to Parliament against the returned members on
    the score of bribery, I imagined it to be my place to subscribe to
    the object, and wrote a letter in the Norwich newspapers stating the
    grounds of my so doing.  Those grounds were in no degree personal,
    but simply moral and Christian.  But the appearance of evil was not
    avoided.  The measure was construed into an act of political
    partizanship; and I entirely lost ground by it in my own true
    calling, that of promoting simple Christianity among all classes.”

He had thought of becoming a candidate for the representation of this
city, or some other place, in Parliament.  After some long conferences
with his friends he abandoned the idea and devoted himself to his higher
calling.  Mr. J. J. Gurney was a well-known Liberal in politics, but he
did not often speak at political meetings in this city.  His speeches
were always short and generally pertinent; and showed good sense
accompanied with the seriousness of conviction.  On whatever side of any
question he spoke he was listened to very attentively, and all parties
believed that he delivered the unbiassed opinion of an honest man.  His
conduct on every occasion gained him the esteem of all friends of civil
and religious liberty.

In 1835, he was once more plunged into deep affliction by the long
illness and death of his wife.  Her health had of late years been much
improved, and she had been unremitting in her attentions to his daughter
during her illness from typhus fever, without apparently suffering in
consequence.  The disease was, however, lurking in her constitution, and
after some time made its appearance.  The fever gradually gained ground,
and she sank under it on Nov. 9th of that year.  She died happily, amid
her mourning friends; and her husband knelt down at her bedside and
returned thanks for her deliverance from every trouble!

His journal contains many details of his visits to Manchester and
Liverpool, of his journeys in Derbyshire and North Wales, of his journeys
in Scotland and the north of England, of his voyage to America, of his
journey to Ohio, Indiana, and North Carolina, of his journey from
Richmond to Washington, of interviews with eminent statesmen, of labours
at New York, of a voyage to the West Indies and proceedings there, of a
tour on the continent, and of his return home.  But we cannot follow him
in all his wanderings in many lands, where he went about doing good,
promoting benevolent objects and preaching the gospel, his heart being
too large to be confined to his native country, much less to his native
city.  On his return from the continent in 1841, he attended a meeting of
the Bible Society, and delivered his last great speech, which occupied
two hours, on the state of religion in Europe.  A shorthand writer took
notes of that address, which was so full of information that it was
afterwards published in the Journal of the Bible Society.

Soon after his return home he married Eliza P. Kirkbridge.  The event
took place at Darlington, on October 10th, 1841, as noted in his journal.
After the marriage he delivered an address on the “Victory which is of
faith.”  The dinner party was cheerful, and concluded with a short
religious service.  He and his bride parted from their friends, made a
short tour, and returned to Earlham, which they “reached in health and
great peace, the place comfortable and homeish, and the reception from
his dearest children glowing.”

J. J. Gurney signed the total-abstinence pledge at the house of his
friend, Richard Dykes Alexander, at Ipswich, on April 8th, 1843.  He and
his wife attended a great “Teetotal Meeting” held at Norwich, on the
arrival of Father Mathew, on September 9th, that year.  The lord bishop,
Dr. Stanley, was present and requested J. J. Gurney to preside.  He did
so, and declared himself to be a pledged teetotaller.  He spoke fully and
carefully on the subject, and the lord bishop afterwards expressed his
admiration of the apostle of temperance as the instrument of effecting so
much moral good.

As a man of business, Mr. J. J. Gurney was ready, punctual, and
attentive.  He was very modest, but of a candid and social disposition.
Though in large or mixed companies he seldom appeared forward, yet in the
society of his friends he was exceedingly agreeable.  In private life no
man was more estimable as a husband, a father, a neighbour, and a friend.
In Norwich and in the surrounding district he was universally honoured
and beloved.  He was a great reader of the bible, and he was regular and
exact in family worship, but he was a stranger to bigotry, no stickler
for forms, and no friend to mysticism in matters of religion.

The autumn of 1846 was spent by the philanthropist quietly at home, with
the exception of engagements connected with the attendance of meetings of
Friends, and with what proved to be a farewell visit to his beloved
daughter at Darlington, and to his friends in several places on his way
home.  He attended a committee of the Norwich District Visiting Society
on December 28th in that year, and on his return to Earlham he complained
of great exhaustion, feverishness, &c.  A few simple remedies were
administered, but the uncomfortable symptoms remaining his medical man
was summoned on the following morning.  He pronounced it a slight bilious
attack, and seemed to have no anxiety about the recovery.  The
philanthropist, however, gradually sank, apparently from exhaustion, and
he died on January 4th, 1847, in the 59th year of his age.  The news of
his death spread a gloom over the city, and the universal lamentations of
the citizens proved that they regarded him as a father and a friend, as
indeed he had been to thousands of them.  The sensation in Norwich and
its neighbourhood cannot easily be described, and is probably without
precedent in the case of a mere private individual.  During the entire
interval of seven days between his decease and the funeral, the
half-closed shops and the darkened windows of the houses gave ample proof
of the feelings of the inhabitants.  It furnished the principal topic of
conversation in every family, in every private circle, in every group by
the wayside.  People of all ranks vied with each other in their eulogies
of their departed friend.  Everyone had his own story to tell of some
public benefit, or of some private kindness which had been shown to
others or to himself.

The funeral, as might have been expected from this unusual public
emotion, was an extraordinary scene.  All the shops were closed and all
business was suspended in the city.  A number of gentlemen, including the
mayor, the ex-mayor, and the sheriff, went out in carriages as far as
Earlham Hall.  The citizens generally formed the funeral procession, and
followed the hearse and plain carriages from the hall to the burial place
at the Gildencroft.  There was no pomp or parade, no mockery of woe.  A
simplicity in harmony with the character of the departed marked all the
arrangements.  As the procession moved on towards the city it was joined
by an increasing number of the inhabitants, who issued forth in a
continuous stream to pay their last tribute to the memory of departed
worth.  Silently and sadly many stood while the hearse passed slowly by,
and many a tearful countenance among the crowd bore testimony to their
love for the dead.  The procession gradually increased in numbers all the
way to the Gildencroft, and after the thousands of people had gathered
round the grave a profound silence ensued, which was at length broken by
a Friend repeating the verses, “O death, where is thy sting?  O grave,
where is thy victory?” &c.  Another pause then took place, followed by
another address, and then the body was lowered into its last resting
place.  The circle of mourning relatives, including J. H. Gurney and his
wife, the surrounding crowd of spectators—persons of all ranks, of all
ages, of all communions—magistrates and artizans, clergymen and
Nonconformists—representatives, in short, of the whole people of Norwich,
now took their last farewell of Joseph John Gurney, and slowly turned
towards the meeting house, where a meeting for worship was to be held.
The service was deeply impressive, and formed an appropriate conclusion
to the solemn occasion.  At the Cathedral, on the following Sunday, the
good Bishop Stanley preached a funeral sermon before a large
congregation.  His text was “Watchman, what of the night?” and after
enlarging on it, he alluded in a most pathetic and impressive manner to
the virtues of the deceased, and we never before saw so many people so
deeply moved.  The death of the beloved citizen was also publicly
adverted to in most of the places of worship in Norwich.

Mr. J. J. Gurney was the author of various works, the most popular being
one on the _Evidences of Christianity_.  It is a production more
calculated to confirm the faith of a believer than to convert a free
thinker who may not admit the possibility of anything supernatural.  He
also published a work on “The Vows and Practices of Friends;” “Essays on
Christianity;” “Essays on the Moral Character of Christ,” and “Love to
God;” “The Papal and Hierarchical System compared with the Religion of
the New Testament, &c.”  His last and best work is entitled, “Thoughts on
Habit and Discipline,” an excellent moral treatise.


_Bishop Bathurst_.


Henry Bathurst, LL.D., canon of Christchurch, rector of Cirencester, and
prebend of Durham, was installed bishop of Norwich in 1805.  He was a
prelate much esteemed and respected.  His christian deportment,
conciliatory manners, and general benevolence, endeared him to this city
and diocese.  He was eminently distinguished for his liberal sentiments,
and for his attachment to the great principles of civil and religious
liberty.  He was often seen walking arm in arm with Dissenters in our
streets.  He voted in the House of Peers for the Repeal of the Catholic
Disabilities Bill, and also in favour of the Reform Bill.  This
disinterested and noble advocacy of liberal principles is thought to have
stood in the way of his promotion to an archbishopric.  He died April
7th, 1837, in the 93rd year of his age, and much lamented.  A statue to
his memory was placed in the choir of the Cathedral.  This beautiful work
of art was the last work of Sir Francis Chantrey, and is executed in his
masterly style from a block of the purest Carrara marble.  It is placed
on a plain pedestal of white marble, and fixed in the recess at the foot
of the altar steps, on the north side of the choir, commonly called Queen
Elizabeth’s seat, because she sat there when she visited Norwich.  The
bishop is represented in a sitting posture, clothed in full
ecclesiastical costume, and the artist has admirably succeeded in giving
to his face that expression of benevolence for which he was so well
known.

The following is a translation of the Latin inscription on the pedestal:—

                               To the Memory of
                     The Right Reverend Father in Christ,
                     HENRY BATHURST, Doctor in Civil Law,
                                     Who,
                While for more than 30 years he presided over
                                This Diocese,
                    By his frankness and purity of heart,
     Gentleness of manners, and pleasantness of conversation, attached to
                        himself the good will of all:
                                 His friends,
            In testimony of their regret for one so much beloved,
                    Have caused this effigy to be erected.
                  He died 5 Ap. A.D. 1837, in the 93rd year
                                 Of his age.



_Bishop Stanley_.


Dr. Stanley was born January 1st, 1779, and became rector of Alderley, in
Cheshire.  After twice declining the office, he was installed bishop of
Norwich, August 17th, 1837.  He ruled the diocese for twelve years, and
was highly esteemed by all sects for his unceasing efforts to promote the
spiritual interests of every class of society, and his readiness on every
occasion to co-operate with Dissenters in every good work.  He often
attended their meetings to promote religious and benevolent objects.  In
one of his sermons he quoted the injunction “The servant of the Lord must
not strive, but be gentle unto all men; in meekness instructing those
that oppose themselves;” &c.  His subsequent conduct furnished ample
evidence of the sincerity with which he obeyed this injunction; and
although some of his clergy were somewhat estranged from him by his
frequent expressions of unbounded charity, yet all were obliged to esteem
him for his noble zeal and consistency of character.  He was
distinguished for his extensive liberality to the poor and his interest
in their education.  He was often seen going about from school to school,
and the kindliness of his heart was so well known to the children that
they sometimes pulled his coat behind to obtain his benignant smile,
which to them was like sunshine after rain.  On all occasions he was
earnest in his advocacy of civil and religious liberty, and active in his
exertions on behalf of all benevolent associations, both of the Church
and of Dissenters.  He was also a promoter of all literary institutions
in the city and elsewhere, and often attended their anniversaries at
which he delivered animated addresses.  He did not lay claim to the
character of a man of science; but astronomy, geology, botany, and
natural history were his favourite studies.  He was the author of two
interesting volumes on “The History of Birds,” which were published by
the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge.  He was elected
president of the Linnæan Society, and he accepted an appointment as one
of the commissioners chosen to inquire into the state of the British
Museum.

Bishop Stanley was so little of a bigot that he appeared once on the same
platform with Father Mathew, a Roman Catholic, at a temperance meeting in
St. Andrew’s Hall.  He then and there eulogised the apostle of
temperance, and advocated the cause with great eloquence.  On another
occasion he invited Jenny Lind, now Madame Goldscmidt, to the palace,
when she visited this city.  At the palace one evening, she sang before a
large company.  When it became known that the lord bishop of the diocese
had actually entertained an operatic singer, great was the indignation of
some of the clergy.  This however did not at all distress the good
bishop, who held on the even tenor of his way, doing good whenever he had
an opportunity.  By his frequent earnest discourses in many churches in
this diocese, he caused quite a revival of religion among the clergy and
church-going people.  He died, much lamented, on September 6th, 1849, in
the 70th year of his age, and he was buried in the middle of the nave of
the Cathedral, in the presence of thousands who had known and loved him.
A short time after his decease, a slab to his memory was laid over his
grave, bearing the following inscription:—

                          In the love of Christ
                       Here rests from his labours
                             EDWARD STANLEY,
                   Thirty-two years Rector of Alderley,
                     Twelve years Bishop of Norwich,
                        Buried amidst the mourning
                  Of the Diocese which he had animated,
                      The City which he had served,
                      The Poor whom he had visited,
                    The Schools which he had fostered,
                      The Family which he had loved,
                         Of all Christian people
               With whom, howsoever divided, he had joined
                In whatsoever things were true and honest,
                     And just, and pure, and lovely,
                           And of good report.
                         Born January 1st, 1779.
                       Installed August 17th, 1837.
                    Died September 6th, 1849, Aged 70.
                       Buried September 21st, 1849.


_Bishop Hinds_.


Samuel Hinds, D.D., succeeded Bishop Stanley.  He was the sixty-seventh
bishop of the diocese, and was installed on January 24th, 1850.  He was
the son of Abel and Elizabeth Thornhill Hinds, born Dec. 23rd, 1793, in
Barbadoes; and at the age of twelve he was sent to England, to the school
of Mr. Phillips, at Frenchay, near Bristol.  He entered at Baliol
College, Oxford, but for want of rooms removed to Queen’s, graduated in
honours 1815 (second in classics), and in the year following he obtained
the Latin essay.  He returned to Barbadoes as a missionary and remained
there five years, the three latter as vice-principal of Codrington
College.  After he returned to England he became vice-principal of Alban
Hall, Oxford; and he accompanied Archbishop Whately to Ireland, as his
private chaplain.  He was subsequently presented with the living of
Yardley, in Herts., by Dr. Coplestone, bishop of Llandaff.  Dr. Hinds
again returned to Ireland, having been preferred to the living of
Castlenock by Archbishop Whateley, and was chosen private chaplain to
Lord Clarendon, lord lieutenant of Ireland.  Hence he removed to the
deanery of Carlisle, but was scarcely settled there when he was appointed
to the bishopric of Norwich.  He had previously refused the bishoprics of
New Zealand and Cork.  He laboured in this diocese for seven years, often
preaching in the churches, attending religious meetings, and delivering
addresses of a high character.  He generally preached at the
anniversaries of the Church Associations in this city.  He resigned the
see of Norwich in April, 1857, and retired into private life.  His health
is said to have been impaired by his arduous labours in conducting the
Oxford commissions which the government had entrusted to him, and which,
added to his duties in the diocese and the office of chaplain to the
house of lords, proved too much for his constitution.  Dr. Hinds is
perhaps the most learned of modern bishops.  His literary talents are
considerable.  He is the author of the “Rise and Progress of
Christianity,” first published in the “Enclyclopædia Metropolitana,” and
considered a standard work, highly esteemed for its comprehensive views
of religious truth.  The “Three Temples of the One God;” “Catechists’
Manual;” and “Inspirations of the Scriptures,” are works from his pen,
which testify to his deep learning and great research.  He is the author
of many beautiful poems and hymns, some of which are familiar to the
congregation at Norwich Cathedral, from being repeated in the service as
arranged to music.  The confirmation hymn is simple and appropriate.


_Mr. William Dalrymple_.


In a brief history of the _Norfolk and Norwich Hospital_, published by
Dr. Copeman, we find the following memoir of the subject of this notice:—

    “Mr. Dalrymple was a native of Norwich, his father having removed
    thither from Scotland.  He was born in 1772, and at an early age was
    sent to the Grammar School at Aylsham, in Norfolk, from whence he was
    removed to the Free School at Norwich, where he became a favourite
    pupil of its then head master, the celebrated Dr. Parr.  Here he had
    for a schoolfellow Dr. Maltby, and with both, Dr. Parr kept up a
    friendly intercourse of visits to the latest period of his life.  It
    affords a strong proof of Mr. Dalrymple’s early talents and his
    industry in cultivating them, that, although in accordance with the
    then custom of requiring medical apprenticeship to extend to seven
    years, he was obliged to leave school at the age of fourteen, he had
    yet attained such a proficiency in classical reading, and so correct
    an appreciation of its beauties, that, amidst all the urgent and
    various occupations and anxieties of his succeeding life, he found
    the greatest relief to his toils in a recurrence to his favourite
    authors.  His taste was scholarlike as well as scientific; his
    conversation embued with classical allusion, and his felicity in
    quotation remarkable. {527}

    “Mr. Dalrymple was apprenticed in London, and studied at Guy’s and
    St. Thomas’ Hospitals under Cline and Sir Astley Cooper.  He returned
    to Norwich in 1793, and opened a surgery in his father’s house; and
    although for several years his progress in establishing a practice
    was slow, he at last attained the highest reputation as a surgeon in
    his native city, and for many years enjoyed the confidence,
    friendship, and patronage of a very large number of patients of every
    grade of society and in every district of the county.

    “In 1812 Mr. Dalrymple was elected assistant surgeon to the Norfolk
    and Norwich Hospital, and two years afterwards succeeded to the full
    surgeoncy, a post which he occupied with great credit to himself and
    benefit to his profession until 1839, a period of twenty-five years.
    He was then in the 67th year of his age, his powers were less
    vigorous, and finding himself no longer equal to his hospital
    practice, he resigned his position there, receiving a cordial
    acknowledgment from the governors, of ‘the able, humane, and
    successful exercise of his official duties,’ and being honoured by a
    request to accept the appointment of honorary consulting surgeon.  In
    1844 Mr. Dalrymple finally retired from professional life, and died
    in London on the 5th of December, 1848, aged 75 years.

    “From the year 1831 to 1835, I had ample opportunities, as house
    surgeon of the hospital, of observing, and profiting by, the mode in
    which the late Mr. Dalrymple performed his public professional duties
    in that institution; and remember with pleasure and satisfaction,
    that I was sometimes able to render assistance, and save trouble, to
    one so deserving of the gratitude and goodwill of those with whom he
    had to do.  At the period referred to, Mr. Dalrymple was beginning to
    feel the burden of heavy surgical responsibilities more weighty than
    his somewhat feeble frame would bear; his naturally acute sensibility
    was increased by a measure of debility resulting from overmuch
    professional occupation.  The sudden call to perform a serious and
    difficult operation was accompanied sometimes with a degree of shock
    to his nerves, which told upon him injuriously; and the desire he had
    to save the life of the sufferer submitted to his charge (always a
    predominant feeling in his mind,) would well-nigh overpower him with
    emotion.  I have often heard him say that he was not able to sleep
    the night before he had to perform the operation of lithotomy,
    although in such cases his success was great; but he possessed so
    much sympathy for his patient, and felt his own responsibility so
    strongly, that he failed to secure to his mind that rest which alone
    could have enabled him to meet the contingencies of his profession
    with composure.  This nervous sensibility was due in part to original
    constitution, and increased by professional toil.  Sometimes it
    arises from defective knowledge, or from want of success; but so far
    from either being the case with Mr. Dalrymple, his knowledge was
    ample, the result of many years’ industrious application of a mind
    capable of vast acquirements—sufficient to have given him confidence
    in the treatment of any case submitted to his care; his success was
    beyond that of many placed in similar circumstances; such, indeed, as
    might fairly have been expected from one who had so much sympathy for
    suffering humanity, and who devoted the whole energy of his mind to
    devise means to relieve it.  For a long period no one but himself,
    perhaps, was aware of the stress upon his feelings which his
    professional duties, so well performed, were wont to occasion; and
    when it did become apparent to others, it was delightful to witness
    how pleased, how grateful, how kind in expression he was for any
    attention, encouragement, or assistance offered him; and how highly
    he estimated the friendship of those who watched an opportunity to
    perform those little offices of kindness and consideration, which,
    although difficult to be defined, can always be appreciated by a
    sensitive mind and a feeling heart.

    “The experience of a long and active professional life endued Mr.
    Dalrymple with the valuable qualification of forming a right judgment
    in cases of a complex and difficult nature, which was fully
    appreciated and acknowledged.  The firmness and decision of his
    opinion upon a difficult case, when once formed, could not fail to
    impress the practitioner by whom he was consulted with confidence,
    and his patient with the assurance that dependence might be placed
    upon the result of his deliberations.

    “No one who had the privilege of Mr. Dalrymple’s acquaintance can
    think of him otherwise than as a kind friend, a highly intelligent
    and well-informed man, an amusing and instructive companion, and a
    profoundly gifted practitioner of the art and science it was the
    business and happiness of his life to pursue.”



_Mr. John Greene Crosse_.


We make the following extracts from a memoir of Mr. Crosse published in
Dr. Copeman’s _History of the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital_.

    “John Greene Crosse was the second son of Mr. William Crosse, of
    Finborough, in Suffolk, and was born on the 6th of September, 1790.
    In order to make known some particulars of his early life and
    education, I cannot do better than quote his own journal, which
    contains many remarks upon the subject evidently intended to have
    formed part of a history of his life.  In April, 1819, he penned the
    following observations.

    “‘I never went to boarding school, which contributed, with many other
    occurrences of my subsequent life, to fix me in the unsocial habits
    that hitherto never did and never will forsake me.  In my early
    years, no classical learning, not a line of Latin, was taught at the
    proximate market town to which I resorted as a daily pupil; and my
    first lessons of reading, arithmetic, and writing were received from
    a master of whom I entertained the greatest horror, for the ferocity
    of his conduct, the severe discipline by which he drove into us the
    simplest rudimental knowledge.  His stern brow, raucous voice, and
    long cane, are now livelily depicted to my mind: how much I owe to
    him, I am even now, with a long life in retrospect, unable to tell;
    but I was glad when circumstances arose that released me from his
    tutorage.’

    “‘Very small matters, and such as we have no control over, and call
    accidental because unable to trace the chain of causes giving rise to
    them, influence our mortal destinies.  I had attained my 12th (?)
    year, under such tremendous instruction as is related, when a Welsh
    gentleman making some mistake at college (not implicating his good
    character, an _informality_ I should call it) found it well to
    rusticate; and taking with him his premature wife, sought a living by
    opening a classical school in Stowmarket.  I became one of his early
    pupils; and but for this good, easy man’s settling in the town,
    should never have launched into such studies as Latin and Greek; of
    which, it is true, I did not learn much, nor very accurately.  But he
    was, nevertheless, a plodding, working man; an increasing family made
    him exert his abilities to the utmost; and I got out of him all the
    instruction I ever received as a school-boy in the learned languages.
    When about fifteen years of age, returning from my daily school, in a
    feat in jumping, I had the accident, I ought not perhaps to say the
    misfortune, to break my leg.  The respectable village surgeon
    attended me: he was one of the old school; of fine, soft, soothing
    manners, clean dressed, with powdered head; rode slowly a very
    well-looking horse; in short, he was a gentleman, and commanded the
    respect of every one when he entered the house; he was also a skilful
    and kind surgeon.  What wonder that the idea should be awakened in my
    mind to be of the medical profession! to be as great a man as he—the
    Village Doctor! to whom every one bowed, and who could relieve pain
    and cure injuries so quickly and skilfully.  I had conceived an
    object of ambition, and the idea never deserted me.  I was in a month
    upon my crutches, and soon recovered; a surgical case fixed my future
    destinies.’

    “‘I persevered a few years longer at Latin, Greek, French, and
    Euclid.  My father was successful and able now to place me out well;
    wished me to be a lawyer, and I was for a time under the instruction
    of a gentleman of that profession—attending bankruptcy meetings, and
    feasting at midnight at the expense of the already distracted
    creditors.  Those were good times for lawyers.  A learned chancellor,
    whom I met on one such occasion, I well remember complimenting me on
    my quickness in counting money; but all would not do, my mind was
    prepossessed—I quitted the law to follow my inclination; I made my
    own choice; it was a pledge to success.  The surgeon who cured my leg
    agreed to take me as his first and only pupil, and I was accordingly
    articled in due form for five years.’

    “On the 27th of September, 1811, Mr. Crosse went to London for the
    purpose of studying his profession in that Metropolis, and was the
    following day introduced to Mr., afterwards Sir Charles Bell, whose
    pupil he became, with whom he contracted a close intimacy, and of
    whose merits as a teacher and man of science he always spoke in the
    highest terms of respect and gratitude.  In the following January, he
    entered to Abernethy’s Lectures; and in April, 1812, became a student
    at St. George’s Hospital, where his industrious habits and
    intelligence attracted the particular attention and marked notice of
    the medical officers of that noble institution.  In the following
    month, he entered as a pupil at the Lock Hospital; and in the course
    of the year, officiated as House Surgeon during the temporary absence
    of the gentleman who occupied that situation.  In the following
    winter session, commencing October, 1812, he studied under Brodie,
    Bell, Brande, Clarke, Home, and others; and remarks in his journal,
    ‘very industrious all this winter, sitting up constantly till past
    two a.m.’  In March, 1813, he became a dresser to Sir Everard Home at
    St. George’s Hospital; attended Midwifery under Dr. Clarke; and on
    the 16th of April, passed the College of Surgeons in London.  After a
    short holiday, he returned to London on the 13th of May, and attended
    the Eye Infirmary at Charter-house Square.  In June, he resigned his
    dressership under Sir E. Home; became acquainted with the late Mr.
    Travers, Abernethy, Sir W. Blizard, and Dr. Macartney, whom he agreed
    to accompany to Dublin; and much of his spare time during this summer
    was devoted to the study of German, a language he ever after
    cultivated that he might enjoy the profundity and research of the
    professional literature of that country.

    “Mr. Crosse left England for Dublin on the 2nd of October, 1813,
    arriving there the following day.  In December he became Demonstrator
    of Anatomy under Dr. Macartney, and remained there until October,
    1814, when he returned to London, having received a very handsome
    testimonial from the numerous students of the school in which he
    taught, as to his ability and energy in the capacity of their
    instructor in anatomy.

    “On quitting Dublin, Mr. Crosse returned to Suffolk, and was
    afterwards introduced to the late Dr. Rigby of Norwich.  In December
    he went to Paris, where he remained until the end of February, 1815,
    during which period he took French Lessons, wrote his Diary in the
    French language, and availed himself of every possible opportunity of
    increasing his professional knowledge.

    “On the 29th of March, 1815, Mr. Crosse came to Norwich; and after
    remaining one year in lodgings, took a house in St. Giles’, in which
    he resided for many years.  He soon after published his “Sketches of
    the Medical Schools of Paris,” and showed, both by his writings and
    the industrious pursuit of his professional avocation, that he was
    destined to arrive at considerable eminence in the locality he had
    chosen for the arena of his future life.  On the 19th of July, 1823,
    he was the successful candidate for the appointment of Assistant
    Surgeon to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.  So great was his desire
    to become connected with the Hospital, and so strong the competition
    in which he was engaged to obtain this object, that his health gave
    way under the exertions he made to succeed; and he was obliged to
    absent himself for a time, on which occasion he took a trip to
    Holland, visiting Brighton on his return.  The result was favourable,
    and he returned to Norwich in good health.  On the death of Mr. Bond,
    in 1826, he was elected full Surgeon to the Hospital, and thus
    attained one of the greatest objects of his ambition.

    “The rapid rise and progress of Mr. Crosse’s reputation as a
    professional man, and the large extent of his private practice, are
    too well known to require further notice; but notwithstanding the
    unremitting exertions required to fulfil his private engagements, he
    never allowed them to interfere with his public duties; and the
    devotedness of his service to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital was
    remarkable.  It may be truly said that no private patient received
    more kindness, skill, and attention at his hands, than did those who
    were placed under his care in the wards of the Hospital.

    “As an operating surgeon, Mr. Crosse had but few superiors, and not
    many equals.  He was possessed of considerable manual tact and
    dexterity, which, coupled with a sound judgment as to the necessity
    for the performance of an operation, stamped him as a surgeon of
    first-rate attainments.  In his early professional life he studied
    anatomy with great assiduity, and his subsequent occupation as
    Demonstrator of Anatomy at Dublin so impressed the subject upon his
    memory, that the constitution and form of the human body were always
    in his mind’s eye; and thus he was rendered equal, at all times and
    upon all occasions, to the serious emergencies of surgery.  In short,
    he obtained and held for a long period the foremost rank in his
    profession in this district; and such was the quality of his mind,
    that he would probably have been pre-eminent in whatever locality it
    might have fallen to his lot to be placed.

    “In 1819, Mr. Crosse published _A History of the Variolous Epidemic
    of Norwich_, which has been, and is even now, quoted as an excellent
    standard work.  In 1822 he published _Memoirs of the Life of the late
    Dr. Rigby_, prefixed to the valuable Essay which the Doctor had
    published some years before _On Uterine Hæmorrhage_.

    “In 1835, the Jacksonian Prize was awarded him for his _Essay on the
    Formation_, _Constituents_, _and Extraction of the Urinary Calculus_;
    and in the same year he received, in consequence of this Essay, the
    Diploma of M.D. from the University of Heidelberg.

    “From 1822 to the close of his life, Mr. Crosse contributed many
    valuable Papers to different medical periodicals, which are of deep
    interest to professional men.

    “In 1836, Mr. Crosse was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society—a
    distinction which marked him for eminence throughout the whole
    civilized world.  In 1845, the College of St. Andrew conferred the
    Degree of M.D. upon him, and there is scarcely a medical or surgical
    society in Europe of which he was not a member, as well as being an
    honorary member of the most eminent societies in Asia and America.

    “During the last year of Mr. Crosse’s life (1850), it became
    painfully evident to his friends that he was gradually losing that
    vigour of mind and body which had so long characterized him; and at
    the urgent solicitation of his medical advisers, he was induced to
    leave home for a few weeks, when he took the opportunity of
    consulting Sir B. Brodie and Dr. Watson in London, and spent a short
    time with the late Dr. Mackness at Hastings, of whose kindness he
    afterwards spoke in the highest terms of gratitude.  On his return
    home, he endeavoured to resume his professional and even his literary
    avocations; but although in a degree benefited by his holiday, he
    gradually lost power, and it was clear that his race was almost run.”

He died in his 60th year, having been a resident in Norwich 35 years.


_Dr. Hooker_.


Norwich and Norfolk have produced an array of distinguished botanists,
such as Smith, Turner, Lindley, and the elder Hooker.  The president of
the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Dr. Joseph D.
Hooker, F.R.S., is the son of Sir William J. Hooker, formerly Director of
the Royal Gardens at Kew, and he succeeded his father in that very
important post on November 12th, 1865.  The present director of Kew
sprung from a race of botanists.  His paternal grandfather, a citizen of
Norwich, devoted his leisure to the cultivation of curious plants.  This
circumstance, doubtless, helped to create that taste for botany which, in
the career of his illustrious father, has borne such ripe fruits.  On the
maternal side, the grandfather of Dr. Hooker was Mr. Dawson Turner, of
Yarmouth.  The eldest daughter of this gentleman became the wife of Sir
William J. Hooker in 1814.  Mr. Turner’s is a well-known name in the
annals of British botany; he is the author of various botanical
publications, and it was at his suggestion that a narrative of a visit
made to Iceland in 1809 by his future son-in-law was given to the world,
a work which brought the name of Sir William J. Hooker prominently before
the scientific world.  So descended Dr. Joseph D. Hooker was born at
Halesworth, in Suffolk, on June 30th, 1817.  Although thus by birth a
native of Suffolk, he is by descent a Norwich man.  He has been a great
botanical traveller in many parts of the world, and he has added greatly
to our knowledge of the plants of Asia and India.  On August 19th, 1868,
as President of the British Association, when the meeting took place in
Norwich, he delivered the Inaugural Address in the Drill Hall before a
large audience.


_Mrs. Opie_.


Amelia Opie was the daughter of Dr. Alderson, a physician in Norwich, and
was born here in 1769.  The varied circumstances of her early life gave
the bent to her after career.  In her girlhood she beguiled the solitude
of her father’s summer house by composing songs and tragedies; on her
visits to London, the superior society into which the graces of her
person and the accomplishments of her mind introduced her, served to
stimulate her aspirations; and after her marriage, in 1798, to the
painter, Mr. John Opie, she was encouraged by her husband to become a
candidate for literary fame.  Accordingly, in 1801, she published a
novel, entitled _Father and Daughter_.  Although this tale showed no
artistic ability in dealing either with incidents or with characters, yet
it was the production of a lively fancy and a feeling heart, and speedily
brought its author into notice.  She was encouraged to publish a volume
of sweet and graceful poems in 1802, and to persist in the kind of novel
writing which she had commenced so successfully.  _Adelaide Mowbray_
followed in 1804, and _Simple Tales_ in 1806.  The death of her husband
in 1807, and her return to Norwich, did not slacken her industry.  She
published _Temper_ in 1812, _Tales of Real Life_ in 1813, _Valentine’s
Eve_ in 1816, _Tales of the Heart_ in 1818, and _Madeline_ in 1822.  At
length, in 1825, her assumption of the tenets and garb of the Society of
Friends checked her literary ardour, and changed her mode of life.
Nothing afterwards proceeded from her pen except a volume entitled
_Detraction Displayed_, and some contributions in prose and verse to
various periodicals.  A good deal of her life was spent in travelling and
in the exercise of Christian benevolence.  When in this city she was
often seen in the assize court, sitting near the judge.  She seemed to
take a great deal of interest in criminal cases.  She died here in 1853.
A life of Mrs. Opie, by Miss C. L. Brightwell, was published in 1854.


_Dr. William Crotch_.


The celebrated musician, William Crotch, was born in the parish of St.
George at Colegate in this city, July 5th, 1775.  His genius for music
may be supposed to have commenced with his existence, as his parents did
not remember any period in which he did not shew a great predilection for
an organ, to which instrument he seemed to have a special attachment.
Indeed he had a _penchant_ for every musical instrument at an early age.
As soon as he could walk alone, which was at the beginning of his second
year, he would frequently quit his mother’s breast to hear a tune on the
organ, and when he wanted any particular tune, he would put his finger
upon that key on which the tune began; and as it sometimes happened that
more than one tune began on the same key, he would strike two or three of
the first or leading notes of the tune he chose to have played.  Before
he was two years and a quarter old, he played “God save the King” with
both hands.  At two years and a half he had played to several ladies and
gentlemen, and was soon afterwards noticed in the public journals.  At
two and three quarters he could distinguish any note, and call it by its
proper name, though he did not see it struck.  His memory was so
retentive, that a gentleman only playing to him the Minuet in _Rodelinda_
two or three times in the evening, was astonished to hear him perform it
next morning, as soon as he went to the organ.  Before he was three years
old, he played at Beccles, Ipswich, and other places.  Afterwards he was
taken to Lynn, Bury, &c., and in October, 1778, to Cambridge.  In
November, he was nominated to a degree of Bachelor of Arts, with a small
annuity annexed to it.  In December he went to London, and after
performing before the foreign ambassadors, maids of honour, &c., in 1779,
he was introduced to the sovereign, to whom he gave the greatest
satisfaction, as he had done to the nobility and gentry in general, but
more particularly to the greatest musicians.  At the early age of 22 he
was appointed professor of music in the University of Oxford, and there,
in 1799, took his degree of doctor in that art.  In 1800 and the four
following years, he read lectures on music at Oxford.  Next he was
appointed lecturer on music at the Royal Institution; and subsequently,
in 1823, principal of the Royal Academy of Music.  He published a number
of vocal and instrumental compositions, of which the best is his oratorio
of “Palestine.”  In 1831 appeared an octavo volume, containing the
substance of his lectures on music, delivered at Oxford and in London.
He also published “Elements of Musical Composition and Thorough Bass.”
He arranged for the piano-forte a number of Handel’s oratorios and
operas, besides symphonies and quartetts of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven.
He performed all his public duties laboriously, zealously, and
honourably, and in private life he was much beloved.  He died on December
29th, 1847, in the house of his son, at Taunton.



CHAPTER XXIV.
Norwich Artists in the Nineteenth Century.


NORWICH artists must have flourished in the 17th and 18th centuries, as
proved by their portraits of city worthies in the Guildhall and St.
Andrew’s Hall, but we have few notices of early painters or engravers.
About the commencement of the present century, a gentleman named Thomas
Harvey lived at Catton, and was recognised as a very clever amateur
artist.  He painted in oil, admirably, and he induced several of the
leading artists of the day to visit Norfolk, such as Opie, Gainsborough,
Sir William Beechey, Collins, and many others, who produced beautiful
works of art.

About the year 1802, a few professional and amateur artists, drawn
together by a similarity of taste and inclination, for the advancement of
the arts of painting and design in their native city, began to associate
to form a regular academy.  Each member in his turn furnished matter of
discussion according with his particular view; and by eliciting the
opinions of his brother artists, mutually communicated and received
information.  The first exhibition of this society was in 1805, in
Wrench’s Court, and contained 223 pictures.  The following is a list of
the members and exhibitors of the Norwich Society of Artists from the
first catalogue of 1805:—Arthur Browne, J. Blake, E. Bell, (engraver)
Mrs. Coppin, H. M. M. Crotch, M. B. Crotch, J. Crome, R. Dixon, J.
Freeman, W. Freeman, Rev. Wm. Gordon of Saxlingham, C. Hodgson, W.
Harwin, R. Ladbrooke, W. C Leeds, J. Percy, J. Thirtle, F. Stone,
architect.  This Society of Artists, after their establishment, within
twenty years exhibited about 4000 pictures, the productions of 323
painters, very few of which were sold here, but which were readily
purchased in London and other places.  In fact, the local artists were
very little patronized in the city; and old Crome, one of the very best
landscape painters in England, was a very poor man all his life, though,
since his death, his pictures have been sold for thousands of pounds in
London.

                                * * * * *

JOHN CROME, sen., was born December 21st, 1769, in the parish of St.
Peter per Mountergate.  He was apprenticed to Mr. Francis Whisler, coach,
house, and sign painter, who, in 1783, lived in Bethel Street; but he
felt the true impulse of genius, and his industry surmounted all
obstacles.  By almost unaided exertions he cultivated drawing and
painting in oil with such ardour and success, that during the latter
years of his life he had attained an eminence highly creditable, and was
incessantly employed as a master in the one branch by families of
distinction, and by the principal schools of Norfolk and Norwich.  He
possessed the rare faculty of communicating the ardour he himself felt to
his pupils, both professional and amateur.  His mind was too acute to
exact from them a servile imitation of his own style; on the contrary he
contented himself with instilling the more useful principles of art, and
with giving freedom and spirit to their pencils.  He then invited them to
let loose the reins of fancy and taste, and to follow unfettered the
promptings of imagination.  The fruits of this wise discrimination were
seen in the reputation of his son, and his companions in excellence,
whose works for some time attracted much attention in the metropolis to
the growing talents and promise of the Norwich school of artists.  In the
other department he was seldom without commissions.  He principally
cultivated landscape painting, and he was exceedingly happy in seizing
small picturesque local scenes, which he elevated to a degree of interest
which they could hardly bear in their natural state.  He was in painting
the counterpart of Burns in poetry, both delighting in homely scenes.
His pictures were beginning to be known and appreciated in London, the
great mart of talent, and those he last exhibited in the British Gallery
gained him a lasting fame.  He was a man of heart, of impulse and
feeling, quick, lively, and enthusiastic, and in his conversation
animated to a high degree, especially when speaking on subjects connected
with his art, the fond, the incessant, the earliest and latest object of
his thoughts.  A wide field of enterprise and exertion had just opened
upon his view, the last stage of his ardent ambition had unfolded itself,
when he was suddenly seized with an acute disease, which terminated his
life in the short space of seven days, on April 22nd, 1821, aged fifty
years.  He was buried in a vault in St. George’s Colegate Church, where
the last sad offices of respect were paid to his memory by a numerous
attendance of artists and other friends.  Of late years a subscription
was raised here for a monument to his memory, and after some delay a
suitable memorial was placed in the church.  (_See page_ 89.)

The following list of Mr. Crome’s principal pictures, with their former
possessors, was extracted from the published catalogue of his works:—

“Lane Scene near Hingham,” 1812; “Lane Scene at Blofield,” 1813; and
“Grove Scene near Marlingford,” 1815—Samuel Paget, Esq., of Yarmouth.

“View at the back of the New Mills,” 1817—William Hawkes, Esq., Norwich.

“Wood and Water Scene near Bawburgh,” 1821—Miss Burrows, Burfield Hall.

“View in Postwick Grove,” 1816—Lord Stafford.

“Hautbois Common, Norfolk,” 1810—Mr. F. Stone, Norwich.

“Lane Scene near Whitlingham,” 1820—Mr. Charles Turner.

“Scene near Hardingham, Norfolk,” 1816—Mr. J. B. Crome.

“Lane Scene,” 1817—John Bracy, Esq.

“Carrow Abbey,” 1805—P. M. Martineau, Esq.

“Cottage and Wood Scene,” 1820—Michael Bland, Esq., London.

“Landscape—Evening”—Mr. Crome.

“Grove Scene,” 1820—Mr. F. Geldart, jun.

“View of the Italian Boulevards at Paris,” 1815; and “Fish Market at
Boulogne,” 1820—R. H. Gurney, Esq.

A “Wood Scene” was the last picture painted by Old Crome, in April, 1821.
He painted many others, and etched a number of plates of Norfolk scenery,
some of which have been printed.  His pictures have been lent for various
exhibitions and always much admired.

                                * * * * *

J. B. CROME, son of the father of the Norwich School of Landscape
Painting, was a landscape painter of moonlights, &c.  The editor of the
_Examiner_ for March, 1828, speaking of this artist’s pictures, says:—

    “Mr. Crome’s moonlight is good, and has the grey and brown hues of
    Vanderneer, whose moonlight scenes have been considered the best as
    to natural effects; but except the parts under the immediate light of
    the moon, no specific colour should be seen.  The browns and yellows
    here mingle well into the black shades of night, and have nothing of
    that flat grey blue which justly made coloured moonlights to be
    compared to a shilling on a slate.”

Mr. J. B. Crome’s pictures were “Rouen,” in the possession of Mrs.
Southwell, Wroxham; “Yarmouth Quay”—T. Cobbold, Esq., Catton; “Yarmouth
Beach, Moonlight”—R. J. Turner, Esq., Catton; “View near Amsterdam,
Moonlight”—J. Geldart, Esq., Norwich; “Norwich by Moonlight”—Hon. General
Walpole; “Moonlight”—C. Turner, Esq., Norwich.  Several others of this
artist’s pictures were exhibited at the Norwich Industrial Exhibition in
1867, and were much admired.

                                * * * * *

MISS CROME, daughter of Old Crome, was a painter of fruit and flowers
from nature, and painted successfully.

                                * * * * *

JOSEPH CLOVER was a native of this city, but he resided some time in
London.  His first efforts in art were directed to engraving, and by the
advice of a gentleman named Stocks, he took an impression of one of his
plates to the late Alderman Boydell, in Cheapside, whose remarks on this
performance discouraged him from following the profession of an engraver,
and he remained for some time undetermined as to his further pursuit in
art, until the following autumn, when being introduced by his uncle to
the late Mr. Opie, whilst painting a portrait of that relation, he was so
astonished at the facility with which the artist painted, and so
delighted with his conversation, that he resolved from that moment to be
a painter.  He took Mr. Opie’s advice and followed him to town, from
which period, namely, April, 1807, being nearly four years, he enjoyed
that artist’s friendship.  In the year 1806, Mr. Clover was accidentally
introduced to the late Richard Cumberland, the dramatic poet, who
perceiving that the artist’s health was much impaired by a too close
application to study, invited him to his house at Ramsgate, and by his
introduction he painted several portraits, and to the hospitable
residence of this gentleman he repeated his visits during the summer
months for fourteen years.  In Norwich, he painted three full-length
portraits for St. Andrew’s Hall, besides a number of others, and a
picture called “Divided Attention,” for his friend Mr. Turner, of
Norwich.  This first-rate picture excited much interest in London.  Some
of the early pictures of this artist were at Beau Port, the house of the
late Sir James Bland Burgess, and at Battle Abbey in Sussex.
Subsequently Mr. Clover had the honour of being patronised by the Marquis
of Stafford and other noblemen.

                                * * * * *

WILLIAM ROBERT DIXON was a native of this city.  His etchings of views in
Norfolk were in the possession of many persons in Norwich.  Mr. Charles
Turner had an interesting collection of his drawings.  As a scene painter
he was much admired.  He had many tempting offers from the London and
other managers of theatres; but being fondly and firmly attached to his
native city and a choice circle of friends, no allurements could induce
him to leave them.  He was very popular as a teacher of drawing.  He died
October 1st, 1815.

                                * * * * *

CHARLES HODGSON, a native of this city, was a painter of interior
architecture, particularly of the early English style, and of
considerable reputation for his excellent drawing and correct perspective
in water colours, which subjects he was afterwards induced to paint in
oil, in which he excelled.  He was a constant exhibitor in the London
exhibitions.  His pictures were in the possession of several gentlemen in
the city and county.

                                * * * * *

DAVID HODGSON, son of the above, a native also of this city, was a
painter of exterior architecture, landscape, &c.  Some of his pictures of
interiors of churches were in the possession of William Herring, Esq.,
Norwich; Pair of Landscapes, W. Roberts, Esq., of Birmingham; Large
Landscape, Rev. J. Hollingworth, Newcastle; Small Landscape, Wm. Gate,
Esq., Carlisle; Market Scenes, T. Bignold, Esq., Norwich; Landscape, Mr.
S. Coleman; Pair of Small Landscapes, Mr. Stone, Norwich; Tombland, Mr.
Stone; Landscape, Mr. G. Cooke, engraver; Pair of Street Scenes, Mr.
Yarington, Norwich; Market Scenes, sold at the Liverpool exhibition.

                                * * * * *

ROBERT LADBROOKE, landscape painter, for many years enjoyed considerable
celebrity as a drawing master, and in 1821 commenced the publication of
“A Series of Views of the Churches in Norfolk,” printed in lithography,
of which ninety numbers were completed.

                                * * * * *

JOSEPH STANNARD was a marine painter, in which walk of art he established
a high reputation.  His subjects were generally finely chosen, and
painted with all the truth and transparency of nature.  The grouping of
his vessels displayed an admirable taste, and they were embellished with
the most correctly-drawn figures, highly characteristic of the stations
they occupied.

                                * * * * *

MRS. STANNARD, wife of the above, was a painter of fruit, flowers, fish,
still life, &c.  Her maiden name was Coppin, and her mother was rewarded
by the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, for several copies of
painting.  The daughter’s productions were highly esteemed by the lovers
of art.

                                * * * * *

ALFRED STANNARD.  The talents of this artist, at an early period of his
life, gained him the approbation of the critics of the London
Journals—which noticed works of fine arts as exhibited in the National
Gallery.  The _Literary Gazette_ of March, 1828, contained this notice,—

    “No. 152, Trowse Hall, Norwich, painted on the spot by A. Stannard.
    We think that this work partakes more of the Flemish style of art
    than legitimately belongs to a picture painted on the spot; its
    elaborate finish must necessarily have required considerable time in
    the execution; and the character of our climate is much too variable,
    day after day, to paint from the same hue of atmosphere, and the same
    effect of Chiaroscuro.  Be that as it may, the excellence of the
    performance, however it may have been achieved, is an abundantly
    sufficient passport to regard of this artist’s picture.  No. 431,
    Sluice Gate, on the river Wensum, shews the close resemblance of
    character and execution between the works of some of our artists and
    the best pictures of the Flemish school.”

The critic might have added that most of the people of Norwich are of
Flemish or Danish extraction, and that the Norwich school of painting
seems to have been derived from the Flemish school.  The subjects
painted, and the style of treatment are very similar.

                                * * * * *

JAMES STARK was articled to the senior Crome for three years, from 1810
or 1811, at the expiration of which time he went to London and drew at
the Royal Academy, which place he was obliged to leave from ill health.
The first picture which he exhibited at the British Gallery, represented
“Boys Bathing,” purchased by the Bishop of Oxford.  His other pictures
were “Flounder Fishing,” in the possession of Sir J. Grey Egleton, Bart.;
“Penning the Flock,” the Marquis of Stafford; “Lambeth,” the Countess de
Grey; “Grove Scene,” Thomas Phillips, Esq.; “Grove Scene,” Francis
Chantrey, Sculptor; besides many others in the possession of George
Watson Taylor, Esq., M.P.; Mr. Davenport, M.P.; Charles Savill Onley,
Esq., M.P.; Onley Savill Onley, Esq.; &c., &c.  In 1827, this artist
circulated proposals for printing “Scenery of the Rivers Yare and
Waveney,” with engravings from his own paintings, and the work was
beautifully carried out.

                                * * * * *

J. S. COTMAN became one of the most celebrated artists in the Water
Colour Society, and attained a very high position in London, where he was
appointed Drawing Master at King’s College; he published Views in
Normandy, and also a work on the Sepulchral Brasses of this locality.
His pictures have always commanded high prices.  His two sons also became
eminent artists.

                                * * * * *

About the year 1830, there was something like a School of Art commenced
in Norwich, where artists and amateurs could study art in a proper
manner, from the best casts of the finest statues.  Before then, artists
had to study as they best could, and their education was very imperfect.
They are much indebted to John Barwell, Esq., for promoting their
interests in this respect, and rendering them great assistance by his
knowledge of art.  Amongst the members of the new society were the
Barwells, father and son, the Cotmans, the Freemans, T. Geldart, A.
Sandys, S. Miers, and many others who studied art either from the cast or
the life.

The Norfolk and Norwich Art Union opened their exhibition of pictures on
August 16th, 1839, at the Bazaar, in St. Andrew’s Broad Street.  About
400 pictures were exhibited, many of them being of a high order of merit.
At subsequent exhibitions, many pictures of local artists were exhibited,
including some of the Cromes, the Ladbrookes, the Stannards, the Cotmans,
Hodgson, Stark, Vincent, Downes, Sandys, Capt. Roberts, and others much
admired.  A Fine Art Association has also been recently established.  It
held its first exhibition in August, 1868.  A large number of the
pictures were disposed of on the principle of an Art Union.



PART III.


CHAPTER I.
The Commercial History of Norwich.


WHAT has been the trade of the city, from the earliest period up to the
present time, is an interesting subject of inquiry to the inhabitants.
The sources of information are very scanty, for local historians of
former days did not trouble themselves much about trade, but were content
with simply recording passing events and the proceedings of public
bodies.  From old charters and acts of parliament, and details of local
taxation, we may, however, learn something about the industry and trade
of by gone ages.  We may discover how people lived, how they were
employed, and what sort of clothes they wore; and we shall find a
remarkable sameness from age to age.  The trade of any country, or
county, or town, arises from productive industry in agriculture or
manufactures, or in mercantile business, or in carrying goods from one
place to another, or in all three combined.  All three have existed in
this city and county; and it is important to inquire into the past and
present state of our trade, and the causes which have promoted or
retarded its progress or decline.


TEXTILE FABRICS.


In tracing the rise and progress of manufactures in this city, it will be
necessary to refer to many sources of information respecting the garments
worn by the people of every period.  The Roman writers supply some
information relating to the Iceni and other aborigines of this island;
the Anglo-Saxon illuminations represent the costumes of a later period;
monumental effigies exhibit the clothing of the middle ages; and many
acts of parliament allude to the manufactures of modern times.  The arts
of spinning, weaving, dyeing, and dressing wool, linen, and silk, were
known to all ancient civilized nations.  The Gauls taught those arts to
the ancient Britons in this island.  Of the kinds of cloth made in Gaul,
according to Pliny, one was made of fine wool dyed in several colours.
This wool, being spun into yarn, was woven in stripes or checquers, of
which the Gauls made their summer garments.  Here we have the origin of
the Scotch plaid or tartan, which is called the garb of old Gaul to this
day.

The dress of the ancient British females may be ascertained from the
account by Dion Cassius of the appearance of Boadicea, Queen of the
Iceni, who inhabited this eastern district.  Her light hair fell upon her
shoulders.  She wore a torque of gold, a tunic of several colours all in
folds, and over it a robe of coarse stuff, fastened by a brooch.  The
commonalty and the less civilized tribes, inhabiting the interior of the
island, went about simply clad in skins.  The Druids wore white dresses,
and the Bards a robe of sky blue, emblematic of peace.  The Ovates,
professing to know medicine, wore green, the symbol of learning.  Julius
Agricola being appointed to the command in Britain, A.D. 78, soon
succeeded in establishing the Roman sway, and introducing the Roman
costume, manners, and language; and before the close of the first century
the British habit was regarded as a badge of barbarism.  Tacitus says,
“The sons of the British chiefs began to affect our dress.”  The southern
and eastern Britons disused the Broccoe, and wore the Roman tunic
reaching to the knee, with the cloak or mantle.  The female garb was
similar to that of the Roman women, who wore two tunics.

The Anglo Saxons, Jutes, and Danes, when located in different parts of
England, spun and wove most of the materials now used for dress.  The
woollen, linen, and silk yarns were all home-spun, and the textile
fabrics were home-made.  The civil costume consisted of a linen shirt, a
tunic of linen or woollen, worn according to the season, descending to
the knee, and having long loose sleeves.  It was made like the shirt, and
open at the neck, and put on in the same manner.  It was sometimes open
at the sides and confined by a belt or girdle at the waist.  Over this a
short cloak was worn fastened with brooches, sometimes at the breast,
sometimes on both shoulders.

Mr. Strutt remarks that the silence of the Anglo-Saxon writers on the
subject of Danish dress, while they are profuse in the description of the
dress of their countrymen, proves a similarity of costume.  According to
Danish ballads, black was the colour of the ancient Danish dress.  Saxon
chronicles allude to the Danes by the name of the “Black Army.”  Black
amongst them had no funeral associations.  This sombre hue may have been
their national colour, their standard being a raven.  After becoming
settled in Norwich and Norfolk, they doffed the black colour, and became
effeminately gay in their dress, and often changed their attire.

The Normans and Flemings who came over with the Conqueror into England,
and those who followed him in great numbers, were remarkable for their
love of finery, according to our early historians.  The dresses of the
common people of course continued to be much the same from age to age,
but the habits of the nobility were more influenced by fashion; and the
reign of William Rufus is stigmatised by many writers of the period for
shameful abuses.  The king himself set the example, and the clergy and
laity were alike infected with the love of costly clothing.  After the
Norman Conquest, a sort of cloth was introduced which, though not a new
discovery, had not been formerly known in England.  This was quite a
different article to what had been previously called cloth, the
preparation being by a combing instead of a carding process.  By the
former the wool was drawn out to a very long staple, by the latter to a
very short staple, the fibres of the fleece being extended the whole
length in one instance, and broken and intersected in the other.  For
1000 years after the christian era there were no textile manufactures as
we now understand the terms.  All the yarns were homespun, and all the
garments were home-made.

The female costume in Norwich and other towns, from 1087 to 1154,
presents us with but one striking novelty, and that by no means an
improvement.  The rage for lengthening every portion of the dress was not
confined to the male sex.  The sleeves of the ladies’ tunics, and their
veils or kerchiefs, appear to have been so long in the reigns of William
Rufus and Henry I. as to be tied up in knots, to avoid treading on them,
and the trains or skirts of the garments lay in immense rolls at the
feet.  Over the long robe or tunic a shorter garment was occasionally
seen in the illuminations of the period.

The twelfth century is a period in which Norwich began to be particularly
mentioned for its trade arising from manufactures.  It is also a period
when a very valuable source of information is opened by the monumental
effigies of the dead, sculptured in their habits as they lived.  The
effigies on brass are numerous in Norwich and Norfolk churches, and
indicate progress in useful arts.  Mr. Stothard is a great authority on
the monumental effigies of Great Britain, and he presents the coronation
robes of the kings, and the costumes of the nobles with splendid
decorations.

The Dutch and the Flemings soon came over the sea, located themselves in
the city and in different parts of the eastern counties, and introduced
various manufactures.  William of Malmesbury states that in the reign of
the Conqueror’s youngest son, Henry I., a great inundation in the low
countries drove many more of the Flemings to seek refuge in England; and
Blomefield, in his History of Norfolk, says that several of them settled
at Worstead in Norfolk, and thus early introduced the art of stuff
weaving there; which, as is natural to suppose, soon began to be
extensively adopted in Norwich.  Gervase, of Tilbury, writing of the
Flemings says,—

    “The art of weaving seemed to be a peculiar gift bestowed upon them
    by nature; yet the new comers were not always well received by the
    native population, and had to be protected by laws made in their
    favour.  Indeed, the natives of Norwich, in every period, have been
    hostile to foreigners, or to any sort of interference with their
    peculiar branch of industry.”

In the next reign, that of Henry II., “Guilds” of weavers were
multiplied, and had their charters of privilege in London, York,
Winchester, and Norwich; and a system of protection, originating with
manufacturers, prevailed all over the country.  During the next reign,
that of Stephen, more Flemish weavers came over; and these successive
emigrations were a real blessing to the land.  England had hitherto not
been a manufacturing country till the arrival of the Flemings, who
introduced the preparation and weaving of wool, so that, in process of
time, not only the home market was abundantly supplied with woollen
cloth, but a large surplus was made for exportation.  The Flemings were
kinsmen of the Danes, and all of them were of the Anglo-Saxon race, and
were distinguished for that probity in their dealings which afterwards
became the characteristic of British merchants.

During the reign of Richard Cœur de Lion, it is supposed that though the
trade of the kingdom did not increase, yet some of the artisan soldiers
who returned from the crusades brought back a knowledge of the eastern
method of weaving.  At that time the useful arts flourished in the east.
The improvements introduced here were, however, of little worth, owing to
the troubles of the reign of King John, and the equally disturbed reign
of his son Henry III.  Even the wise and resolute king, Edward I., did
not fully succeed in restoring English trade to its former prosperity.
Yet it is clear that this city had been all along prospering, for in the
reign of Edward II., repeated mention is made of its thrift.  That
monarch granted a patent to John Peacock for measuring every piece of
worsted made in the city or county; but this, being found to check the
trade, was soon recalled.  In the reign of Edward I. the people of
Norwich, and of England generally, began to adopt the whimsical fashions
of their neighbours on the continent.  Horned head-dresses of frightful
appearance were worn by the ladies, and tight-laced stays.  Gauze, which
is thought to have derived its name from Gaza, where it was first made,
and brunetta or burnetta, with several other fine and delicate stuffs,
are mentioned in this period.  Gauzes were afterwards produced in large
quantities in Norwich.  Tartan was a fine woollen cloth, which was also
much used for ladies’ robes, and was generally of a scarlet dye.

In the thirteenth century the materials for dress became more numerous,
and this period is more remarkable for the splendour of costume than for
change of form.  Matthew Paris, monk of St. Albany, a contemporary
historian, describes the pageantry of the day, and expresses disgust
rather than pleasure at the excessive foppery of the times.  He states
that the nobility who attended at the marriage of the daughter of Henry
III. to Alexander king of Scotland, were attired in vestments of silk,
commonly called comtises, on the day when the ceremony was performed, but
on the following day they were laid aside.

In the reign of Edward III. other foreign clothiers came to England, and
many of them settled in the eastern parts of Essex.  In 1353, this
monarch prohibited his subjects from wearing any cloth but such as was
made in this kingdom; and he also forbade the exportation of wool.  Both
in this reign and in that of Richard II., repeated mention occurs in the
oath book and court rolls of wool-combers, card makers, clothiers,
weavers, fullers, &c.  During the reign of Elizabeth a new impulse was
given to the trade by the emigration of Protestants and others from the
low countries, and from France, who introduced important branches of
industry.  Mr. James, in his History of the Worsted Manufacture in
England, says, that king Edward III. so far extended and improved that
trade, that from his reign may be dated a new era in its history.  This
monarch could not, with all his sagacity, and the earnest desire he ever
evinced for the welfare and prosperity of his subjects, remain long
unmindful of the great profit and advantage of working up the English
wool for domestic consumption or export, instead of exporting the
material in a raw state.  When, therefore, he espoused Phillippa, the
daughter of the Earl of Hainault, whose subjects were excellent cloth
makers, the close connection which the marriage occasioned between the
two countries, and probably in part some suggestions of the queen,
induced the king, in 1331, to invite hither a large number of his
countrymen, skilful in the art of weaving woollen and worsted.  These
Flemish weavers settled, by the directions of the king, and under his
special protection, in various parts of the country, where the wool grown
in the district was suitable for the particular kind of cloth made by
these artizans.  The worsted weavers were located in Norfolk and Suffolk,
having Norwich for their chief seat or mart.  Blomefield, in his history,
says,—

    “Under the reign of Edward III., Norwich became the most flourishing
    city of all England by means of its great trade in worsted, fustian,
    friezes, and other woollen manufactures, for now the English wool,
    being manufactured by English hands, incredible profit accrued to the
    people by its passing through and employing so many, every one having
    a fleece, sorters, combers, card spinners, &c.”

Alluding to the condition of this trade at the same period, old Fuller,
in his Church History, says,—

    “The intercourse being large betwixt the English and the Netherlands,
    (which having increased since King Edward married the daughter)
    unsuspected emissaries were employed by our king with those
    countries, who brought them into familiarity with such Dutchmen as
    were absolute masters of their trade, (but not masters themselves) as
    either journeymen or apprentices.  These bemoaned the slavishness of
    their poor servants, whom their masters used rather like heathen than
    christians; yea, rather, like horses than men; early up and late to
    bed, and all day hard work, and harder fare, (a few herrings and
    mouldy cheese,) and all to enrich the churls their masters, without
    any profit unto themselves.  But, oh, how happy should they be if
    they would but come over to England! bringing their mystery with
    them, which would provide their welcome in all places.  Here they
    should feed on fat beef and mutton till nothing but their fulness
    should stint their stomach; yea, they should feed on the labour of
    their own hands, enjoying a proportionable portion of their gains for
    themselves.  Persuaded with the promises, many Dutch servants leave
    their masters and come over to England.”

According to Blomefield, the trade continued to increase during the
succeeding reign, that of Richard II., when laws were passed for
regulating the sale of worsted.  Our ancestors were then a plain homely
sort of people, and like their forefathers, were content with coarse
woollen cloths for their plain clothes.  In this and succeeding reigns
important changes took place in the system of society, especially in the
formation of a middle class, which gradually increased in numbers and
influence, and became the great support of trade.  Norman despotism was
relaxed, and political liberty was advanced, and the darkness of the
middle ages was dispelled.

In A.D. 1403, Henry IV. separated the city of Norwich from the county of
Norfolk, and made it a county of itself, which it has been ever since.
This, of course, has been a great advantage to the city as regards its
self-government.  In this reign it was deemed necessary to appoint
officers, whose business it should be to inspect the goods; and in the
reigns of Henry V., Henry VI., Edward IV., and Richard III., complaints
were renewed in acts of parliament and other documents of the great
“crafte and deceite” used in the making of worsteds, says, serges,
fustians, motleys, &c., at Norwich.

During the short reign of Edward VI., the making of “felt and thrummed
hats, dornecks, and coverlets,” had sprung up in consequence of the
decline of the old stuff manufacture; and in the reign of Mary the
manufacture of “light stuffs” was introduced.  These were of the same
fabric as “the fustians of Naples,” and seem to have been so similar to
the bombazines of succeeding years, that they may be considered as the
commencement of the great staple of Norwich.  During the subsequent
reigns the city does not seem to have advanced in prosperity.  Henry VII.
succeeded in reviving the trade a little, but in the reign of his son,
Henry VIII., it again declined.  We find by an act passed in that reign
“that the making of worsteds, says, and stammins, which had greatly
increased in the city of Norwich and county of Norfolk, was now practised
more diligently than in times past at Yarmouth and Lynn.”  If so, the
trade soon died out in those towns, as we have no record of any
manufactures there.

Philip and Mary passed an act to encourage the making “of russels,
satins, satins-reverses, and fustians of Naples.”  From this time it
appears that the stuffs made in the city were exported into foreign
countries, most probably into Holland and Flanders, and at length partial
restrictions were laid on the export trades, but still a great amount of
business was done.  As yet no one had promulgated the modern doctrines of
free trade.

From Cotman’s valuable work, “The Sepulchral Brasses of Norfolk,” we may
gather some information respecting the costumes of people in the middle
ages.  With reference to the dresses of the ladies, we may be surprised
at the tardy progress of “fashion” in mediæval times, but a little
consideration will enable us to solve the difficulty.  In the fifteenth
century money was very scarce, and all the articles of female apparel
were about twelve times more costly than they are at present.  Husbands
and fathers were doubtless “intractable” in proportion.  Hence our fair
but thrifty ancestresses continued to wear the very same dresses on all
festive occasions for many years.  Now, however, the facilities of
foreign travel, the introduction of cheaper materials, the results of
modern ingenuity, and the spirit of the age in which we live, all tend to
rapid, frequent, and capricious changes of costume; but it was not so
then, and a lady was frequently attired as her grandmother had been
before her!  Our ancestors were slow coaches.  Centuries elapsed before
they achieved the _ruff_, before they discovered the _bonnet_, before
they perpetrated the _wig_!  They never dreamt of _crinoline_.  Thus, for
example, we observe the very same form of kirtle or gown—close fitting,
low waisted, but wide and pleated at the bottom, during a period of more
than 300 years, there being only a slight variation in the shape of its
sleeves.  The fall, the flounce, and cuffs of fur or some other material,
must have been also a very long-lived fashion, being observable on many
brasses from the dates of 1466 to 1537.  But the designers of brasses may
have adhered for a long time to merely conventional forms.  The Rev. R.
Hart, in his Letters to a local magazine, says:—

    “The wife of Sir Miles Stapleton, in 1365, wears a close-fitting
    tunic over the kirtle, (the sleeves of which, with a row of small
    buttons extending from the wrist to the elbow, are seen underneath;)
    the sleeves of the tunic itself are short, but there are oblong
    narrow pendants almost reaching from them to the ground.  It is
    buttoned at the breast, there are two pockets in the front, and the
    lower part is full and gathered into puckers or folds.  (Cotman pl.
    4).  During the reigns of Henry IV. and V. the ladies wore a sort of
    bag sleeve, tight at the wrist (like that of a modern bishop).  About
    1481, the sleeve became wide and open like that of a surplice.  About
    1528, the sleeves of the kirtle, or under dress, were, in some
    instances, cut or pinked, so as to exhibit a rich inner lining.  In
    1559, there was a tight sleeve ruffled at the wrist, and with an
    epaulet upon the shoulder, pinked; and at the same period we observe
    the earliest specimen of the ruff, and the rudiments of the habit
    shirt.  By far the most remarkable varieties are observed in head
    dresses, which frequently supply valuable indications as to the date.
    On the cup presented by King John to the borough of Lynn, and in the
    small figures upon Branch’s monument, some of the females wear a
    close-fitting cap like a child’s nightcap, and others a sort of hood
    with a long tail to it, which is sometimes stiff and sometimes loose
    like drapery.  The wives of Walsoken and Branch (1349 and 1364)
    exhibit the wimple, covering the throat, chin, and sides of the face,
    and the couverchef (kerchief) thrown over the head and falling upon
    the shoulders.  The next important variety was the forked or mitre
    head dress, which first came into fashion about 1438, and held its
    ground for about twenty-six years, though there is one specimen as
    late as 1492.  This was followed by the pedimental style of head
    dress, which began about 1415, and continued till late into the
    following century.  The butterfly head dress, which was a cylindrical
    cap with a light veil over it, stiffened and squared at the top,
    prevailed from 1466 to 1483.  In 1538 we observe a graceful form of
    head dress, like what is termed the Mary Queen of Scots’ cap.  The
    mantle, which was something like a cope, the jaquette, which may be
    compared to the “flanches of heraldry,” and excellent specimens of
    ancient embroidery, may all be studied in the brass of Adam de
    Walsoken.  About the year 1460 we observe the aumoniere (like a
    reticule) hanging from a lady’s girdle, and also the rosary,
    terminating, not with a cross, but with a tassel.”

In reference to the dresses of the male sex, the Rev. R. Hart gives the
following details as to municipal costumes.

    “On the Lynn cup, already referred to, we observe the jerkin, or
    short coat; also a sort of cape, or short cloak; a larger cloak, and
    three or four sorts of head coverings, viz., a low flat-topped cap;
    another something like a helmet; a hat sloping upwards from the rim,
    and flat at the top; a hood with a tail to it; and another exactly
    resembling what is now termed a ‘wide-awake.’  On the monuments of
    Walsoken and Branch we notice the jerkin, the mantle, cloaks, long
    and short, (in one instance festooned over the right shoulder like
    the plaid of a Highlander,) and another long cloak, curiously
    buttoned all down the front; also several kinds of head-covering,
    some exactly similar to those which have been recently described,
    others with a broad rim turned up, the top being round-pointed or
    flat; and in one instance we observe a hat and feather.  In their
    monumental effigies the laity are usually attired in a long gown,
    which has sometimes bag sleeves, but resembles an albe in all other
    respects.  It is usually girdled with a leathern strap with a rosary
    of much larger beads than we observe on female brasses, and without
    any decads.  Generally speaking, these rosaries have a tassel
    underneath, but on the brass of Sir William Calthorp, 1495, a signet
    ring is attached to the end of the rosary, while a beautiful shaped
    aumoniere also hangs from the girdle.  About the year 1532 we observe
    gowns with hanging sleeves, like those which are still worn by
    masters of arts at our universities; and in other instances, of about
    the same date, we observe a pudding sleeve reaching a little below
    the elbow of the under dress.  The brass of Edmund Green, in
    Hunstanton church, A.D. 1490, is chiefly remarkable from the
    resemblance that his upper garment bears to a pelisse or furred
    surtout.  The short cloak—trunk hose (something like the
    ‘nickerbockers’ of our own time), and also the ruff, are observable
    upon Norfolk brasses between 1610 and 1630.  During the first half of
    the fifteenth century, we observe a frightfully ugly mode of shaving
    of the hair all round, to some height above the ears.  It looks like
    a skull cap, and is an exact inversion of the tonsure.  Burgesses of
    Lynn appear to have worn, in the fourteenth century, long gowns, the
    lower part of which is open in the front about as high as the knees,
    and with wide sleeves reaching to the elbow.  There is a richly
    bordered and hooded cape over the upper part of this gown.  It is not
    unlike an amess.  Aldermen of Norwich wore a mantle open at the right
    shoulder, falling straight behind, but gathered into a slope at
    front, so as to cover a great part of the left arm, while the other
    was exposed.  It had a standing collar, and there were buttons upon
    the right shoulder.  A Judge of the Common Pleas, in 1507, wore his
    hair long and flowing, and was habited in a long wide-sleeved gown,
    open in the front; apparently it was lined, caped, and bordered with
    fur, and there is a purse hanging from the girdle.  On his feet he
    wore clogs of a very remarkable form.  A Judge of the King’s Bench,
    in 1545, wore a wide-sleeved long gown, a mantle open at the right
    shoulder, as in the municipal examples, his head being covered with a
    coif or closely-fitting skull-cap.”

In the earlier years of the reign of Elizabeth, the Flemings, who fled
from the persecutions of the Duke of Alva, settled at Norwich to the
number of 4000, and much increased the prosperity of the city by
introducing the manufacture of bombazines, which were long in great
demand all over the country.  Black bombazines were universally worn by
ladies when in mourning, up to a recent period.  These bombazines were
mixed fabrics of silk and worsted, and were dyed in all colours.  They
did not wear so long as the more modern paramattas.

Elizabeth gave every encouragement to manufactures; and when more
Flemings sought refuge in England, the city of Norwich gained an
accession of knowledge in the art of weaving with a warp of silk or
linen, and a weft of worsted, as well as in dyeing and other processes.
And now the articles manufactured began to be classed as “bays, arras,
says, tapestries, mockadoes, stamens, russels, lace, fringes, camlets,
perpetuanas, caffas and kerseys.”  Nothing contributed more to advance
the prosperity of the city than the arrival of the industrious Dutch
people, who brought with them arts before unknown in this land.

For centuries the action of government in reference to trade was simply
in the way of protection, creating monopolies under charters, and
sometimes for subsidies.  This was especially the case in Norwich, which
was made one of the royal cities of England, and had a market every day
in the week, as well as annual marts for all sorts of merchandise.  The
manufacturers first sought and obtained protection for their trade under
charters.  Hence arose a system which answered very well in the infancy
of society, but which became obsolete in the course of national
development, and the extension of commerce.

Under the miserable rule of Charles I., the persecuting Laud succeeded in
driving back the industrious Dutch weavers to Holland, and causing others
to emigrate to America in order that they might enjoy religious liberty.
Thus the best workers were driven out of England, and a stimulus was
given to the Dutch worsted manufacture.  The Commonwealth government
restored prosperity to trade, and established a corporation of fifty-four
persons in Norwich for the regulation of trade, which then flourished
exceedingly.

In the reign of Charles II., we find that “Weavers’ Hall” is mentioned;
and though the king taxed the manufacturers, the Norwich workers
flourished: for Sir John Child, in 1681, declared that, “Such a trade
there is, and hath been, for the woollen manufactures, as England never
knew in any age.”  Soon afterwards, Louis XIV. revoked the Edict of
Nantes, and tens of thousands of French Protestant weavers took refuge in
England, giving birth to the silk manufactures of Spitalfields, and
stimulating the trade of Norwich.  These refugees introduced the
manufacture of crapes, which soon came into very general use for
mourning.


_The Eighteenth Century_.


Most of the manufacturers of this century were very intelligent men, who
had gone through the whole routine of their trade, and could do the work
in every process with their own hands.  The worsted goods manufactured at
this time were calimancoes, plain, flowered, and brocaded; camlets and
camletees; satins and satinettes; brocaded satins, rosetts, brilliants,
batavias, Mecklenburghs, hairbines, damasks, duroys, poplins, prunells,
bombazines, serges, florentines, brilliantines, grandines, cameltines,
tabourtines, blondines, callimandres, and other fabrics, all in brilliant
colours.  The greatest demand for these goods was from 1743 to 1763, a
period of twenty years.

In or about 1776 Joseph and John Banfather made a few camlets, which were
woven grey, and after that, dyed of various colours, for a captain of an
East India vessel, who took them out at his own risk.  About 1782, broad
bombazines were introduced by Ives, Son, and Baseley.  About 1783, Irish
poplins or lustres were made by that firm.  About 1785, spotted camletees
were introduced by William Martin.  About 1788, single warp callimancoes
were made and continued for six years.

Mr. James assures us that Norwich attained its highest prosperity during
the middle of the eighteenth century, so great was the energy and
fertility of resource displayed by its merchants.  The worsted dyers of
the city were pre-eminent for skill, and their profits were great.  The
city merchants sent travellers throughout Europe, and their pattern books
were shown in every principal town as far as Moscow.  Norwich goods were
introduced into France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, and Poland, and there
was also a large trade with Russia.  The great fairs of Frankfort,
Leipsic, and of Salerno, were thronged with purchasers of Norwich
fabrics.  An _English Gazetter_ published before 1726, contains an
article on Norwich, in which the writer says:—

    “The worsted manufacture, for which this city has long been famous,
    and in which even children earn their bread, was first brought over
    by the Flemings in the reign of Edward III., and afterwards very much
    improved by the Dutch who fled from the Duke of Alva’s persecution,
    and being settled here by queen Elizabeth, taught the inhabitants to
    make says, baize, serges, shalloons, &c., in which they carry on a
    vast trade both at home and abroad, and weave camblets, druggets,
    crapes, and other stuffs, of which it is said this city vends to the
    value of £200,000 a year.

    “The weavers here employ spinsters all the country round, and also
    use many thousand packs of yarn spun in other counties, even as far
    as Yorkshire and Westmoreland.  By a late calculation from the number
    of looms at work in this city only, it appeared that there were no
    less than one hundred and twenty thousand people employed in these
    manufactures of wool, silk, &c., in and about the town, _including
    those employed in spinning the yarn_, used for such goods as are made
    in the city.”

The writer of course means to include all the females who spun the yarns
in Yorkshire and Westmoreland, as well as in Norfolk and Norwich.  Even
then, 120,000 people is an incredible number, for he states the value of
all the goods sold to be only £200,000 yearly, so that the people would
not earn £2 each per annum.

So flourishing was the woollen trade in this city during the second half
of the eighteenth century, that on February 2nd, 1759, the wool-combers
testified their joy by exhibiting the pageant of bishop Blaise, who lived
under Dioclesian, A.D. 282, and was a great patron of woollen
manufactures.  This prosperity was interrupted by a war; but on March
24th, 1783, the citizens were again entertained by the wool-combers’
jubilee, on the return of peace, which had a beneficial effect on trade.
The most prosperous period appears to have been from 1750 to 1780.

Mr. Arthur Young, in 1771, published his “Tour of England” in the form of
Letters, some of which relate to the eastern counties, and Letter XII. to
Norwich.  It contains a curious statement, derived from some
manufacturers, respecting their trade.  At that time, the population of
the city was about 40,000, mostly employed in manufactures, and the
merchants were rich and numerous.  Mr. Arthur Young says:—

    “The staple manufactures are crapes and camlets, besides which they
    make in great abundance damasks, satins, alopeens, &c., &c.  They
    work up the Leicestershire and Lincolnshire wool chiefly, which is
    brought here for combing and spinning, whilst the Norfolk wool goes
    to Yorkshire for carding and cloths.  And what is a remarkable
    circumstance, not discovered many years, is, that the Norfolk sheep
    yield a wool about their necks equal to the best from Spain; and is
    in price to the rest as twenty to seven.”

Mr. Arthur Young further states that men, women, and boys earned about
five shillings per week, but that they could earn more if industrious, so
that wages were not higher a century ago than at present.  In reference
to the exportation of goods, he observes:—

    “They now do not send anything to North America, but much to the West
    Indies.  Their foreign export is to Rotterdam, Ostend, Middleburgh,
    all Flanders, Leghorn, Trieste, Naples, Genoa, Cadiz, Lisbon,
    Barcelona, Hamburgh, all the Baltic except Sweden, and the East
    Indies.

    “The general amount of Norwich manufactures may be calculated thus—

A regular export to Rotterdam, by shipping every six          £480,000
weeks, of goods to the amount of yearly
Twenty-six tons of goods sent by broad-wheeled waggons         676,000
weekly to London at £500 a ton, on an average, 13,000
tons per annum, value
By occasional ships and waggons to various places              200,000
calculated at
                                                            £1,356,000

Therefore the trade had increased in fifty years from £200,000, according
to the “English Gazetteer,” up to £1,356,000!

Mr. Young further observes in reference to the estimates he had given:—

    “Upon a reconsideration of the table, it was thought that the
    £676,000 by waggons was rather too high.  Suppose, therefore, only
    10,000 tons, it is then £520,000, and the total £1,200,000!

    “Another method taken to calculate the amount was by adding up the
    total sum supposed to be returned annually by every house in Norwich,
    and this method made it £1,150,000.  This sum coming so near the
    other, is a strong confirmation of it.

    “A third method taken was to calculate the number of looms (in county
    and city); these were made 12,000; and it is a common idea in Norwich
    to suppose such, with all its attendants, works £100 per annum.  This
    also makes the total £1,200,000, which sum upon the whole appears to
    be very near the real truth.

    “Respecting the proportion between the original material and the
    labour employed upon it, they have a sure and very easy method of
    discovering it.  The average value of a piece of stuff is 5s.; so the
    material is a tenth of the total manufacture.  Deduct the £120,000
    from £1,200,000, leaves £1,080,000 for labour, in which is included
    the profit of the manufacturer.

    “The material point remaining is to discover how many people are
    employed to earn the public one million per annum, and for this
    calculation I have one _datum_ which is to the purpose.  They
    generally imagine in Norwich that one loom employs six persons on the
    whole; and as the number is 12,000 (in city and county), there are
    consequently 72,000 people employed in the manufacture.  And this is
    a fresh confirmation of the preceding accounts; for I was in general
    told that more hands worked out of Norwich, for many miles around,
    than in it; and £1,200,000 divided by 72,000, gives £16 each for the
    earnings of every person.”

This, Mr. Young confesses, appears to be a large sum for men, women, and
boys to earn.  The population of Norwich being then under 40,000, the
number of looms at the time Mr. A. Young wrote could not be 12,000, nor
the persons employed 72,000 in the city and county.  Six persons to a
loom never were required at one time.  The proportion was more likely
only half, or three persons to a loom.  Consequently, the number employed
would be only 36,000 in both city and county.  Divide £1,200,000 by
36,000, and it gives £33 for each adult yearly, including the profits of
the manufacturer.  Deduct £200,000 for their profits, and it leaves
£1,000,000 for labour; divide that by 36,000 persons, and it leaves only
£28 each, yearly, which is nearer the mark.

Mr. R. Beatniffe, a bookseller in Norwich, copied the statement of Mr. A.
Young, and published it in his “Tour of Norfolk.”  He said some gentlemen
of intelligence had doubted it, as well they might, but he believed it
was true.  However, in his last edition of the “Tour,” published in 1807,
he gave a very different account.  He said that the merchant was shut out
of the home market by fashion and out of the foreign market by war, so
that the annual value of the goods was estimated at £800,000, and the
cost of labour at £685,000, leaving only £115,000 for the raw material

Messrs. John Scott and Sons, were manufacturers of woollen and worsted
goods, in St. Saviour’s, from 1766 to 1800, and produced great quantities
of taborets, floretts, clouded camlets, for Italy; perukeens,
self-coloured camlets, for Germany; and other sorts for Spain.  Some of
these camlets were eighteen inches wide, and the pieces twenty-seven or
thirty yards in length; some super camlets were twenty-four inches wide,
and thirty yards in length, according to the pattern books yet in
existence.  These camlets were charged from 50s. to 100s. per piece, or
an average of 80s., as we have seen in old ledgers of the firm, still
preserved and in the possession of a manufacturer.

Originally, all the yarns used in Norwich were spun by hand in Norfolk
and Suffolk, thus employing a large number of women, young and old.
About 1720, almost the whole female population of Norfolk and Suffolk was
fully employed at the spinning wheel, and this branch of industry
continued till the end of the century, and though 50,000 tons of wool
were produced, it was found necessary to draw supplies from other
districts.  Before the end of the eighteenth century, mills were at work
spinning yarns, and in 1812, yarns from the mills in Lancashire were
brought here and spun in bombazines, which were dyed in various colours.

The establishment of mills in Yorkshire, where coal, provisions, and
labour were cheaper than in Norfolk, gave a heavy blow to the trade of
the city, which would have been more severely felt, but for the
fluctuations of fashion having created a great demand for bombazines, for
which Norwich was famous.  The Yorkshire workmen and the substitution of
machinery for female hands, reduced the manufacture of the old kinds of
goods to a low point, and the trade was chiefly maintained by the orders
of the East India Company for large quantities of camlets for the Chinese
market.

Messrs. Willett and Nephew have old pattern books full of specimens of
shawl borders of very elegant designs; in fashion at the beginning of
this century.  These patterns are an imitation of genuine Indian designs,
the pine-apple being prominent; but great improvements in the designs
were made by different manufacturers.  Norwich shawls had formerly a high
reputation, and were in great demand in London and all large towns; but
ultimately French shawls were preferred, owing to the superiority of the
designs.

At two general meetings of the manufacturers, held at the Guildhall on
December 14th and 21st, 1790, the prices for weaving were fixed and
printed in a list, comprising serges, prunelles, satins, satinettes,
camlets, camletines, florentines, brilliantines, grenadines, blondines,
tabourtines, callandres, &c.  At a general meeting of the manufacturers,
held on June 13th, 1793, at the Guildhall, it was resolved unanimously
that they would supply the journeyman weavers they employed with havels
and slaies, free of charge, and without deduction from the prices
established in the table of rates fixed in the year 1790.  The list
continued in force for some time, even into the next century.  The
camlets made, excepting those for China, were thirty yards in length, and
about twenty-eight inches wide, with warp and wift dyed in the hank.
Millions of pieces of camlets were made for exportation, in which nearly
all the manufacturers were engaged.  The orders of the East India Company
amounted to a very large sum yearly.  Operatives earned 40s. for each
piece of camlet for the East India Company, or about £1000 weekly on that
single article.  Those were the palmy days for the weavers; days that
will never more return.

Towards the close of the century, the prosperity of Norwich really
declined.  The towns of the West Riding of Yorkshire, as already stated,
became her successful rivals in worsted fabrics.  The increase of cottons
and their general wear in England left Norwich dependent on the foreign
trade, which was partly ruined by the American war, and entirely so by
the war after the first French Revolution, which spread desolation over
all Europe.


_The Nineteenth Century_.


At the commencement of the present century, bombazines, camlets, and
mixed fabrics were the chief manufactures of Norwich.  Soon afterwards
crapes were produced in large quantities.  Paramattas were next
introduced, and in the course of time superseded bombazines for mourning.
“Poplins” then came into fashion, and the manufacture has so much
improved that the demand for this kind of goods has increased every year.
Poplins were followed by a long succession of mixed fabrics, barèges,
balzarines, gauzes, mousseline de laines, cotton de laines, llamas,
thibets, merinoes, lunettas, organdies, stuffs, cloths, velvets, lustres,
silks, satins, &c.  The manufacture of shawls was also carried on
extensively, and for a long time Norwich shawls, for excellence of fabric
and elegance of design, were not surpassed by any made in England.  A
great trade was done in shawls in Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, and other
large towns.  The trade, however, gradually declined when French shawls
came into fashion.  French goods of other kinds also grew in favour, and
affected the city trade in many textile fabrics.

In 1829, on December 29th, a meeting of weavers was held on Mousehold
Heath to adopt means for keeping up the rate of payment, the operatives
asserting their right to combine to increase wages, as well as their
employers to combine to reduce them.  The weavers were not paid by time,
but at a certain rate for piece-work of different kinds.  The rate was
according to a certain printed scale, to which the operatives wished to
adhere, while it sometimes occurred that the manufacturers desired to
alter it.

During the early part of the present century Messrs. Ives and Robberds,
of St. Saviour’s, carried on a large trade in worsted goods, chiefly for
exportation to India and China, and to different parts of Europe.  The
goods made were all stout worsted fabrics, plain, checked, striped, or
figured, in vivid colours.  They were camlets, camletees, satins,
satinettes, ladines, tabaretts, calimancoes, swan skins, broad bays, red
kerseys, diamantines, spotted tobines, batavias, hairbines, toys,
Rochdale bays, checked paolis, lustrins, dentellos, damasks, dorsettines,
poplins, serges, mazarines, and grenadines.  The same firm received large
orders from the East India Company for camlets, in pieces 55 yards in
length, 30 inches in width, and weighing 20 lbs. each.  Orders were
executed by various houses as follows:—

_Year_   _Pieces_
1812        22,000
1813        22,000
1814        12,000
1815        10,400
1816        16,600
1817        15,200
1818        15,200
1819        15,640
1820        16,000
1821        11,000
1822        14,300
1824        10,000
1825        11,012
1826        13,000
1827       none
1828        12,000
1829        10,000
1830         9,300
1831       none
1832         5,000

In 1832 the East India Company suspended their orders, but Mr. Robberds
continued to export camlets from Norwich and Yorkshire to China in
exchange for tea, as follows:—

_Year_     _Norwich_     _Yorkshire_
1841        420 pieces     215 pieces
1842          2,760 ,,         200 ,,
1843          6,610 ,,       5,181 ,,
1844         13,170 ,,       7,928 ,,

He also continued to make camlets for wholesale merchants in London till
1848, when he failed in consequence of losses, but afterwards joined a
partner in Halifax, and continued to produce large quantities of camlets;
but Norwich lost all the trade.

Besides the camlets supplied to the East India Company, goods of the same
kind were made for private orders by all the manufacturers.  During the
years 1830, 1831, and 1832, according to ledgers yet remaining, one firm
made about 7,000 pieces for private orders, and from 1833 to 1837
inclusive, nearly 9,000 pieces.  In 1833 and 1834, mohair camlets were
made by the same house to the extent of 6,000 pieces, being 22,000 pieces
in four years.  Supposing a dozen other houses to have produced a like
quantity, the total would have been 66,000 pieces yearly.  Messrs. Booth
and Theobald, in Muspole Street, were large manufacturers of worsted
goods, and at one time employed about 1,000 hands, men, women, and
children, in the production of worsted goods, including camlets, for the
East India Company.  Mr. John Francis, of St. George’s, also made a
variety of worsted goods and other fabrics, employing a large number of
hands at one time.  Messrs. Worth and Carter, in St. George’s Middle
Street, and Joseph Oxley and Sons, in St. Augustine’s, produced large
quantities of broad bombazines, which were gradually superseded by
paramattas, to which the ladies gave the preference.  Both fabrics were
made of worsted and silk; the only difference was that they were
differently dressed, the paramattas being dressed flat by hot pressing,
which gave a greater flexibility to the cloth.  Messrs. Wright and Son,
formerly on Elm Hill, at one time employed about 1500 hand-loom weavers
in the manufacture of plain and fancy fabrics, mostly mixed.

Messrs. Grout and Co. began the manufacture of crapes in a small way in
Patteson’s Yard, in Magdalen Street.  John Grout was then the principal
partner, but after the mills were built in Lower Westwick Street, having
realized a fortune, he retired from business.  George Grout also retired
before 1840.  Messrs. Martin and Company became the proprietors of the
mills, and after Mr. Martin died, the firm comprised Messrs. Brown,
Robison, and Hall, who now carry on a large trade in crapes, areophanes,
and gauzes.  The machinery in use is of the most improved construction;
and in these very extensive works may be seen most of the processes
connected with the manufacture of silk goods.  The silk is imported
chiefly from China and some from India, but a portion is also obtained
from Italy.  The demand for crapes used in mourning has, however, a good
deal diminished.

The Albion Mills, in King Street, were erected in 1836 and 1837, for the
spinning of worsted yarns, in consequence of the great demand in Norwich
and the difficulty found by manufacturers in obtaining the yarns which
they required for their trade.  Mr. George Jay, owner of the mills,
erected new machinery.  And after the trade in worsted yarns declined, he
imported mohair from Asia Minor, and commenced the spinning of mohair
yarns.  He continued this business for some years, while mohair goods
were in demand.  He added a new wing to the factory and put in another
steam engine, both the engines being of seventy-horse power.

During the present century, large Mills have been built in this city for
the spinning of silk, woollen, and mohair yarns, and also for weaving
those yarns into all kinds of fabrics.  In the year 1833, a company was
organised for those manufactures.  A large capital of £40,000 was raised,
and ultimately two factories were built, one in St. Edmund’s and one in
St. James’.  The former became a factory for spinning yarns, and the
latter for weaving goods.  In St. James’ factory two coupled engines of
100-horse power were put up to drive the machinery.  There the city
manufacturers hired the large rooms and power, and put in the machinery,
for the production of fabrics.

The site of the factory comprises 1a. 2r. 18p., with a frontage of 460
feet to the river.  Above the basement are six long floors.  There have
been sixty-five frames in the mills for spinning yarns, and 500 looms for
weaving fabrics; but the number of looms has been reduced to 300, and
they are not always at work.  After the erection of the mills, weaving
sheds were built adjoining.  The floors are now occupied as follows;—No.
1. Messrs. Skelton and Co; No. 2. Messrs. Towler, Rowling, and Allen, who
also hire two of the weaving sheds; No. 3. Messrs. Willett, Nephew, and
Co.; No. 4. Messrs. Skelton and Co.: Nos. 5 and 6. Mr. Park, for spinning
woollen yarns.  Women and girls are chiefly employed in this factory.
About 1000 have been at work at a time, when trade has been good; but of
late, not half the number have been engaged.  The average earnings have
been about 7s. weekly.

In 1838, trade was in a very dull declining state, and some differences
arose between masters and men, in consequence of a proposed reduction in
the rate of payment.  This was resisted by the men, who appealed to
Colonel Harvey to mediate between them, which he consented to do.  A
meeting was held, and the delegates who had been sent on the part of the
weavers to the north to inquire into the state of the camlet trade,
reported that they had seen no camlets at all to compare with those in
Norwich.  The north had, however, got the trade.  The question remained
unsettled; but on August 27th, that year, several camlet weavers applied
to the magistrates for protection from the violence of those on strike.
Mr. Robberds was willing to give out work, but would not do so unless his
men were protected.  The application was granted, and a strong body of
police was sent to the premises of Mr. Robberds, where the weavers
received their work, and they were protected in conveying it to their
homes.  On the Tuesday following, the house of a man named Wells was
broken open and his work cut out of the loom.  The city was much
disturbed by these differences, which ultimately produced great injury to
its trade.

According to Mr. Mitchell’s report in 1839, there were in the city and
its vicinity 5,075 looms, of which 1,021 were unemployed; and of the
4,054 looms then at work, there were 3,398 in the houses of the weavers,
and 650 in shops and factories.  Indeed, by far the greater part of the
looms belonged to families having only one or two.  The operatives at
these looms comprised 2,211 men, and 1,648 women, with 195 children.  In
that year two silk mills employed 731 hands; three worsted mills, 385
hands; two woollen mills, 39 hands; and one cotton mill, 39 hands, making
eight mills, employing 1,285 persons.

An abstract of a census of the Norwich weavers, furnished by a report of
the commissioners on handloom weavers, published in 1840, will best show
the nature and the relative amount of the fabrics then made by hand.
Bombazines employed 1,205 workers, of whom 803 were men; challis,
Yorkshire stuffs, fringes, &c., 1,247, of whom 510 were men; gauzes, 500,
chiefly women; princettas, 242, nearly all men; silk shawls, 166, of whom
74 were men; bandana, 158, of whom 86 were men; silk, 38, including 16
men; jacquard, 30; worsted shawls, 26; woollen and couch lace, 22 each;
camletees, 20; horsehair cloth, 17; lustres, 3; sacking, 45.  Total of
weavers 4,054, including 2,211 men, 1,648 women, 108 boys, 77 girls, and
10 apprentices.  Their gross wages, when fully employed, have ranged from
8s. to 25s. weekly; those engaged on fillovers, challis, and fine
bombazines, earning from 15s. to 25s. weekly; but deducting “play time”
and expenses, the net wages did not amount to 8s. weekly.  Mr. Mitchell
reported that the industry and morals of the operatives had suffered much
from party spirit, riots, and strikes.  Of late years the workers at
their looms have been very industrious and quiet, while they have endured
great privations.  Since 1840 a large number of the operatives have gone
into the boot and shoe trade, which offered better prospect of at least a
decent livelihood.


PRESENT STATE OF THE TRADE.


Most of the old worsted fabrics formerly made in such large quantities
have become obsolete, and lighter mixed fabrics are now produced in great
variety, in silk, wool, mohair or cotton, or composed of three or four
kinds of yarns.  The goods are known under the names of cloths, kerseys,
linseys, winseys, coburgs, crapes, gauzes, nets, paramattas, camlets,
bareges, balzarines, grenadines, challis, llamas, poplins, poplinettes,
tamataves, optimes, crinolines, cloakings, and shawls in great variety.
Wool, mohair, and cotton yarns are chiefly used in most of the fabrics,
except crapes and gauzes.  The larger proportion of the woollen yarns are
made here from English wool.  Poplins are made of silk and worsted;
poplinettes, of silk and cotton; bareges, of silk and worsted; tamataves,
of worsted and cotton; grenadines, of twisted worsted and silk; coburgs,
of cotton and worsted; paramattas and bombazines, of worsted and silk;
llamas, of an inferior kind of wool with cotton warp; thibet cloths, of
worsted warp and weft; winseys and linseys, of worsted with cotton warp;
balzarines, with cotton warps and worsted shoot; malabars, of cotton warp
and woollen shoot, thirty-two inches wide.  All the fabrics, however, may
be included under the three classes of tammies, tamataves, and nets.  The
tammies are woven fabrics, in which the warp and the weft simply cross,
but in the nets there is a twist in the warp.  The tamataves are partly
the tammy woven and partly the net.  In former times the trade was
comparatively steady, because plain fabrics in single colours were more
in demand than any other; but of late years, this branch of business has
been very fluctuating, owing to the changes of fashion and the desire for
novelty, both in the fabric and in the pattern of every article.  New
patterns are now, therefore, constantly being produced.  All preparations
and processes are only for the coming season, and it is found necessary
to alter the pattern, the colouring, the finishing, and even the names of
the goods, to suit the markets.

Mr. G. Jay is the largest manufacturer of mohair yarns in this city; and
in the years 1867 and 1868 he could not execute all the orders he
received.  This arose from the great care bestowed on the preparation of
the material at the Albion Mills, in King Street, and from the softness
of the water which imparts a glossy, silky appearance to the yarns.
Mohair fabrics came suddenly into use, and for some years prior to 1860,
elegant tissues were produced here.  These, however, soon went out of
fashion.  All the yarns spun here are now sent to France and Germany,
where they are woven, with silk, into velvets, and then imported into
this country.  The velvet jackets which are now in fashion have caused a
great demand for these yarns, and sixty-five frames at the Albion Mills
are constantly at work.  We are only surprised that the yarns are not
used in the city in the manufacture of velvets, large quantities of which
are imported every year.

Norwich was the first place in all England where the manufacture of
fillover shawls was carried on to any great extent.  For a long time the
weaving of these shawls was a tedious, slow process.  A great improvement
in the mode of weaving was, however, discovered by a straw-hat maker of
Lyons, named Jacquard, in the year 1802, by which means the drawboys were
entirely dispensed with and the tackle simplified.  The new invention was
received as a boon in England, and at length was introduced into this
city, where it has been applied to the production of splendid fillover
shawls, by Clabburn, Sons, and Crisp.  We regret, however, that these
elegant articles of ladies attire have recently gone almost entirely out
of fashion.

The Late Mr. T. O. Springfield carried on the wholesale silk business to
a very large extent, having almost a monopoly of the market, and he
supplied with dressed silk almost all the manufacturers in this city.
This silk was very largely used by Grout and Co., in the manufacture of
crape, gauzes, aerophanes, &c., and by others in the working up of mixed
fabrics, especially bareges, grenadines, and various light tissues.  The
same wholesale business is now continued by Mr. O. Springfield, in
Norwich and London.  It is estimated that the annual value of dressed
silk used in this city is over £100,000.

Messrs. Middleton, Answorth, and Co., have a large factory in Calvert
Street, another in Bradford, and a wholesale warehouse in London.  They
formerly made all kinds of mixed fabrics in this city, and now they
produce large quantities of paramattas, grenadines, opera cloakings, and
fancy cloakings, hair cloth for crinolines, and curled hair for stuffing
sofas.  Crinolines have been made in great quantities by this firm, the
warp being cotton and the weft horsehair.  The demand for them has,
however, somewhat abated.  This firm has largely increased their trade in
hair-cloth, which is used for general stiffening purposes.  In the
southern states of America, the gentlemen wear large trousers, which
require to be expanded like ladies’ dresses; and, therefore, the larger
portion of these goods are sent to the southern states of America.  The
same firm has also introduced haircloth in many patterns and colours for
covering furniture, in sofas, chairs, &c.  There is an enormous
importation of horse-hair into England from Russia, and from the
continent of South America, where horses run wild in the great plains
called “Pampas.”  The horses are caught and divested of their tails,
which are brought into this country in a very rough state; the hair is
dressed and woven into a variety of fabrics which are in great demand.
The trade in horse-hair cloth is almost a new trade in the city and might
be greatly extended.  Some fabrics are made all horse-hair, and some
mixed with spun silk, in stripes, and colours, and very pleasing
patterns.

Mr. J. Burrell has built a small mill near the Dereham Road, where he
carries on the manufacture of horse-hair cloth by means of peculiar looms
and machinery.  He imports horse hair, and prepares it for stuffing seats
of chairs, sofas, &c.  He also weaves horse hair into cloth for various
purposes.  Mr. Gunton also carries on the same kind of manufacture in St.
Miles’; but the trade is yet on a small scale in this city.

Messrs. Clabburn, Sons, and Crisp, in Pitt Street, manufacture shawls in
every variety, and also paramattas, bareges, tamataves, balzarines,
poplins, fancy robes, ophines, grenadines, and mixed fabrics generally.
The fillover long shawls produced by this firm, on a Jacquard loom,
gained the gold medal at the first Paris Exhibition, and also at the
London Exhibition in 1862.  No description could convey an adequate idea
of these splendid fillover shawls, which are made by a patented process,
so as to display a self colour and a perfect design on each side.  They
were on view at the Paris Exhibition, in 1867, but not for a prize, Mr.
W. Clabburn being selected as one of the judges, so that his firm could
not compete.

Messrs. Willett and Nephew, of Pottergate Street, are manufacturers on a
large scale.  The factory itself is not very extensive, for most of the
weavers work for the firm at their own houses; and there, in humble
dwellings, produce the beautiful fancy fabrics, which are destined to
adorn the daintiest ladies in the land.  The extent of the operations of
this firm enables them to introduce a great variety of novelties in every
season, and thus to compete successfully with the manufacturers of
France.  They were the first to introduce the manufacture of paramattas,
which superseded the bombazines, at one time in such great demand.  They
produce superior poplins, (plain, figured, and watered) bareges,
balzarines, tamataves, coburgs, camlets, challis, crinoline, crêpe de
Lyons, grenadines, shawls, scarfs, robes, and also a great variety of
plain fabrics.  They exhibited a large assortment of goods at the London
Exhibition of 1851, and received a certificate of “honourable mention”
for their paramattas, being the only award made for that article.
Messrs. Willett and Co. also received a silver medal at the last
Exhibition in Paris.  In 1867, the same firm supplied some rich poplins,
which were selected for the queen and royal family, from the stock of Mr.
Caley, in London Street.  Mr. Caley has always on hand a large stock of
Norwich goods, including shawls and fancy fabrics of the newest designs.
Visitors to Norwich should not fail to call at his establishment, if they
wish to carry away any idea of the productions of the old city.

Messrs. C. and F. Bolingbroke and Jones, manufacturers of all kinds of
textile fabrics, carry on a large business in a building which was
formerly the city residence of the priors of Ixworth.  On an old door,
which formerly opened into the prior’s hall, is the following inscription
in black letter on the transoms which divide the panels:—

    Maria plena, mater mic
    Remembyr Wyllyá Lowth, Prior 18.

William Louth was the 18th Prior of Walsingham, from 1505 to 1515.  This
door has been noticed by Blomefield and others, but not correctly; Mr. H.
Harrod gave an engraving with description in his “Gleanings Among the
Castles and Convents of Norfolk,” (1857).  John Aldrich, a grocer,
resided here prior to 1549.  He was elected an alderman in 1544, sheriff
in 1551, mayor in 1558 and 1570, and member of parliament for Norwich in
1555, 1558, and 1572.  He was buried inside of St. Clement’s church, on
the north side of the chancel, June 12th, 1582.  His wife, Elizabeth
Aldrich, was buried there April 3rd, 1587.  Messrs. C. and F. Bolingbroke
and Jones have almost rebuilt the house.  They produce large quantities
of textile fabrics, including poplins (plain, figured, and watered)
paramattas, bareges, winseys, linseys, grenadines, and a variety of fancy
goods for dresses, which are in great demand.  At the first Great
Exhibition of 1851 a medal was awarded to this firm for poplins, and at
the Great Exhibition of 1862 for poplins and poplinettes.  In addition to
the old extensive premises, the firm, some time since, purchased the
steam-power mills in Calvert Street, and they also occupy a steam-power
shed at St. James’ factory.

Messrs. Towler, Rowling, and Allen, of Elm Hill, occupy large rooms in
the new buildings adjoining St. James’ factory, where they produce large
quantities of plain and fancy goods, which have been in great demand.
They make also large quantities of plain fabrics, for wholesale houses
only.  At the London Exhibition of 1862, honourable mention was made of
the shawls of this firm.

Mr. J. L Barber has a large establishment in St. Martin’s Lane, where he
carries on business, making reels and winding cotton on them.  He
supplies great quantities of cotton-thread to wholesale and retail
houses.

Messrs. Sultzer and Co. carry on the manufacture of crapes to a
considerable extent in premises built for the purpose in St. Augustine’s.

Messrs. F. Hindes and Sons, who have a warehouse in Botolph Street,
manufacture paramattas, bareges, tamataves, grenadines, poplins, shawls,
and cloakings.  They hire a floor also in the steam-power factory.

Messrs. French and Co. formed a Limited Liability Company, and built a
new factory in the Mill Yard Lane, where they manufacture crapes, which
are in great demand.

Messrs. Grout and Co., manufacturers of gauzes, crapes, aerophanes, &c.,
in addition to their mills in Norwich, have other mills at Yarmouth and
Ditchingham, and at Ponder’s End near London.  Theirs is, in fact, the
greatest concern in the world in the production of crapes and other silk
goods.  In their several mills they employ about 2000 hands.

Mr. George Allen erected a large factory in 1857 in St. Stephen’s Back
Street, for the manufacture of elastic cloths for table covers, gloves,
shawls, and other clothing purposes, and for the production also of silk
and lisle webs.  The elastic cloths, which are made upon warp frames, are
considered to be a great improvement on “Hooper’s Elastics,” made in the
west of England, and for wear they are believed to be unsurpassed.  The
manufacture gives employment to a considerable number of hands.

About 500 power looms are at work in the city, when trade is good,
weaving a great variety of mixed fabrics, and no doubt each loom does
double the work of the old hand-loom.  Supposing each loom to produce one
piece of goods weekly, there would be 500 pieces weekly, or 26,000 pieces
yearly.  The prices vary in value from £1 to £10 per piece, and may be
averaged at £5, so that the annual value would be about £130,000.  But at
least 500 hand-looms are also at work, and supposing that they produce
half the quantity of goods, the total annual value would be £195,000, or
in round numbers £200,000.  We are sorry to state, however, as already
intimated, that the manufacture of textile fabrics in Norwich has for
some time past been declining, and cannot compare with former years.  The
depression has arisen from various causes, among which may be mentioned
war, which has deprived the city of its best markets.  The introduction
of cotton and silk goods too has nearly superseded the old stuff fabrics
of the city.  Machinery in Norwich is also behind that in the north.  The
wool grown in Norfolk and Suffolk has, moreover, been sent to Yorkshire
to be spun, and has been repurchased as yarn for Norwich goods; and
lastly, Norwich weavers have not the energy of those in Bradford.
Fashion also has been one of the causes of the loss of trade, for the
fashions are continually changing, and Norwich firms have to compete with
all England, Scotland, and France; and it is not to be expected that a
few houses in this city will produce as many novelties as all the rest of
the world.  A School of Art has been established, but it has not yet
produced many practical designers.



CHAPTER II.


HAVING given an account of the textile manufactures in this city, we
proceed to furnish some particulars of the more important of other
classes of business, which go to make up the sum total of the trade and
commerce of the city.


THE BANKING BUSINESS.


Banking, as now understood, was not carried on till the eighteenth
century.  Before the American war of Independence very few country banks
were established.  Norwich manufactures were in their most prosperous
state in the middle of last century, and then it was that some banks were
established in this city.  On January 31st, 1756, a bank was opened in
the Upper Market by Charles Weston, who carried on business till the end
of the century.  In 1768, Mr. Thomas Allday’s bank was opened; afterwards
Sir R. Kerrison and Son were proprietors, and in 1808 the bank failed.
The debts amounted to £460,000, and the dividends paid amounted to 16s.
4d. in the pound.  This was the first bank failure in Norwich of any
importance, and it shook public confidence in banks.

Messrs. Gurney’s bank was established in Norwich in 1775 as a bank of
deposit and issue.  This was at a period the most flourishing in the
commercial annals of Norwich.  The annual value of textile fabrics
produced in the city was over a million sterling, a trade which was of
course a great source of business to the bank.  Henry Gurney, and his son
Bartlett Gurney, were the first proprietors.  On the death of the father,
the son associated himself with his three brothers, Richard, Joseph, and
John Gurney; so the firm continued till the deaths of the different
parties.  About 1825, Mr. H. Birkbeck, of Lynn, and Mr. Simon Martin were
taken in as partners.  The firm then comprised R. H. Gurney, J. J.
Gurney, D. Gurney, Simon Martin, and H. Birkbeck.  After J. J. Gurney and
S. Martin died, the firm comprised D. Gurney, J. H. Gurney, H. Birkbeck,
F. H. Gurney, and C. H. Gurney; and W. Birkbeck came in after the death
of his father.  The bank at Norwich has in its connection branches at
North Walsham, Aylsham, Holt, Dereham, Fakenham, and Attleborough.  At
Yarmouth the firm, until lately, comprised D. Gurney, J. H. Gurney, H.
Birkbeck, T. Brightwen, and J. H. Orde.  This branch has in its
connection other branches at Lowestoft, Beccles, Bungay, Halesworth,
Saxmundham, Eye, and Stowmarket.  At Lynn the firm, until lately,
comprised D. Gurney, J. H. Gurney, H. Gurney, H. Birkbeck, S. Gurney, and
F. G. Cresswell, and this bank extends to Downham and Swaffham.

The members of the several firms are now as follow:

                NORWICH AND NORFOLK BANK.
Henry Birkbeck.               Francis Hay Gurney.
William Birkbeck.             Henry Ford Barclay.
Samuel Gurney Buxton.         John Gurney.
                YARMOUTH AND SUFFOLK BANK.
Henry Birkbeck.               Henry F. Barclay.
S. G. Buxton.                 John Gurney.
Thomas Brightwen.             James Henry Orde.
               LYNN AND LINCOLNSHIRE BANK.
Daniel Gurney.                Henry Birkbeck.
Somerville Arthur Gurney.     H. F. Barclay.
S. G. Buxton.                 Francis Joseph Cresswell.

The Crown Bank, in King Street, Norwich, was opened on January 2nd, 1792,
as a bank of deposit, discount, and issue.  The original proprietors were
Messrs. Hudson and Hatfield, and the first bank was in the Haymarket.
About forty years since the proprietors were Charles Saville Onley, Sir
Robert John Harvey, Anthony Hudson, and Thomas Hudson.  They then
employed only seven clerks, and now thirty clerks are employed at the new
bank.  On January 13th, 1820, a circular was issued by A. and T. Hudson,
stating that it was with great regret that they announced the death of
their friend and partner, Mr. Robert Harvey.  Owing to his death, his
brother, Mr. Charles Harvey, and Sir Robert John Harvey, his nephew, were
added to the firm.  Before 1820, Mr. Onley withdrew.  Mr. T. Hudson and
Mr. A. Hudson died, and before the end of the Russian war, Sir Robert
John Harvey died.  The present proprietors are Sir Robert John Harvey
Harvey, Bart., Crown Point, and Roger Allday Kerrison, Esq., who lives at
Ipswich.  They have lately built a very handsome bank in the Corinthian
style of architecture, on the Castle Meadow, and it was opened in
January, 1866.  At first the Crown Bank had only three agents in the
eastern counties, but the number has gradually increased to thirty.  The
firm purchased the large business of Messrs. Taylor and Dyson at Diss.
This was an important addition, the Diss bank having extensive
connections in Norfolk and Suffolk.

In 1806, Messrs. Starling Day and Sons were bankers, in Pottergate
Street, afterwards in the Market Place, in the court adjoining the
Chronicle Office; and on December 16th, 1825, the bank stopped.  In 1806,
T. Bignold, Son, and Co. were bankers in Briggs’ Street, but did not long
continue in business.  The Norfolk and Norwich Joint Stock Bank was
established in 1820, in Surrey Street.  This bank consisted of a small
proprietary, and the business, after the loss of the whole share capital,
was disposed of to the East of England Joint Stock Company, in 1836.
That company carried on business in the Haymarket till 1864, when the
bank failed.  The sad event was the cause of much misery in the city and
county; and many persons who had been in comfortable circumstances were
entirely ruined and left destitute.  The proprietors lost all their
capital, and were called upon to liquidate heavy liabilities besides.
There has not been much over trading in the eastern counties, and the
failure of the East of England Bank should be a warning to other joint
stock banks, which ought to be the safest if well managed.  The business
of the East of England Bank and the premises were purchased by the
Provincial Banking Corporation, limited, and that company now carries on
business in the Haymarket.

About 1838, Mr. Balls opened a bank for deposits, in the Upper Market.
He carried on his business through the house of Sanderson in London.
Sanderson failed for £365,000, but afterwards paid 20s. in the pound, and
had £20,000 to spare.  Mr. Balls gave up his bank in Norwich, in 1847.

The Consolidated Bank arose from a union of the banks of Hankey and Co.,
and Hayward, Kennard, and Co., London, and the bank of Manchester.  They
were amalgamated in 1863, under the name of the Consolidated Bank, with a
branch in London Street, Norwich.  The Company gave up this branch, and
the handsome new premises in London Street were taken by the National
Provincial Bank, which has been established since 1833.

Country banks are all of them banks of deposit and discount; they act as
agents for the remittance of money to and from London, and for effecting
payments between different parts of the kingdom.  Nearly all of them are
also banks of issue, and their notes are, in most cases, made payable to
some bank in London, as well as at the place where they are issued.  A
moderate rate of interest, from 2 to 2½ per cent, is allowed by country
bankers on deposits which remain with them for any period beyond six
months.  Some make this allowance for shorter periods.  Where a depositor
has also a drawing account, the balance is struck every six months, and
the interest due on the average is placed to his credit.  On drawing
accounts, a commission, usually an eighth per cent, is charged on all
payments.  The country banker on his part pays his London agent for the
trouble which he occasions, either by keeping a certain sum of money in
his hands without interest, or by allowing a commission on the payments
made for his account, or by a fixed annual payment in lieu of the same.
The portion of funds in their hands arising from deposits and issues,
which is not required for discounting bills and making advances in the
country, is invested in government or mercantile securities in London,
which in the event of a contraction of deposits, can be made immediately
available.

The agriculture of the eastern counties, the most productive in England,
is the foundation of their industrial prosperity, and the chief source of
business to the banks in the market towns.  It is well known that since
the commencement of this century, by means of an improved system of
husbandry, the agricultural resources of the district have greatly
increased, as has also the annual value of the produce in cattle, sheep,
horses, pigs, and corn.  The various branches of industry and
manufactures carried on in Norwich and the county are also, of course, to
be reckoned amongst the sources of the banking business.


WHOLESALE CLOTHIERS.


Mr. Dyer, in White Lion Street; Messrs. Riches and Skoyles, Davey Place;
Mr. Womack, Dove Street and Lobster Lane; and Messrs. Steward and Son,
Tombland; occupy extensive premises, where garments are made for men and
boys by the use of machines, and are disposed of wholesale to retail
clothiers all over the district.  The introduction of sewing machines has
given a great impulse to this trade, and garments of all kinds and sizes
are produced here as good in quality and as low in price as they can be
obtained in any part of the kingdom.

A minute’s walk from the Market Place, in Bethel Street, are the steam
clothing works and warehouses of Messrs. F. W. Harmer and Co.  Between
200 and 300 persons are employed by this firm in the manufacture of boys’
and men’s clothing; their goods are sold wholesale only, and are made for
what is technically called the “home trade.”  In this establishment the
different processes of cutting, sewing, making button holes, &c., which a
few years since were performed by hand labour, are now principally done
by machinery worked by steam power, to the advantage both of the hands
employed and the consumers of the goods.


WHOLESALE BOOT AND SHOE TRADE.


This trade dates from the commencement of the present century; and for
some time it was confined to goods for the home market.  In 1800, Mr.
James Smith began the trade, which was afterwards enlarged by the late
Mr. Charles Winter, who carried on a great business, both for the home
market and for exportation to the colonies.  On the death of that
gentleman the concern passed into the hands of Messrs. Willis and
Southall, under whose able management the reputation of the old house is
fully sustained, and whose goods command a ready sale both at home and
abroad.  The quality of the goods is now much improved, and large
quantities are exported to the colonies.

Formerly, all boots and shoes were made by hand only, and consequently
there was a great difference in the quality of the work.  The operatives
used to take their work to their homes.  They received so many dozen
uppers from the warehouses and returned them finished, and were paid
according to quality and quantity.  The late Mr. C. Winter first made use
of sewing machines, for the uppers of boots and shoes, about 1856.
Afterwards American machines were introduced, to sew the soles to the
uppers.

About eighteen years since, the manufacturers began to make goods for
exportation to Canada, to the Cape of Good Hope, to India, and Australia.
This export trade was carried on to a large extent, from 1856 till 1866.
Mr. C. Winter sent large quantities of goods to Canada and India, and the
other manufacturers to Australia.  A number of emigrants, however, went
into the trade in Australia, and the local parliament imposed a duty of
25 per cent. on English-made goods, which stopped the trade, so that of
late, very few Australian orders have been received in this city.
Notwithstanding this drawback, the boot and shoe trade has become a very
extensive and important branch of industry in Norwich, and about 3000
hands are employed in the manufacture.  Hitherto it has been confined
chiefly to women and children’s goods, but men’s boots have been made to
some extent, and there is no reason why the trade should not be greatly
increased.  Machines, as we have said, have been introduced in the
various processes of manufacture, and steam power has been applied to the
machines in two large factories, where vast quantities of goods are
produced.  The result has been not to diminish but to extend the number
of hands, and to increase the rate of payment.

The hand machines now in use are chiefly those of Thomas, Singer, or
Howes.  About 400 machines are at work daily in the warehouses, and 200
in private houses.  In two factories, large American machines are used
for attaching the soles to the uppers at the rate of a pair per minute.
By means of these machines, a pair of boots may be cut out, and the
uppers, after fitting, sewn together and finished in an hour; and the
work, moreover, is better done by the use of machines than it usually is
by hand.  Three operatives are required for each machine, two fitters and
one machinist.

When trade is good, about 3000 men, women, and children, are employed in
the manufacture, either in the warehouses or in their own homes.  The
operatives may be divided into one-third men, one-third women, and
one-third children.  They will produce, with the aid of machines, about
1000 dozen pairs of boots and shoes daily.  The quantity will therefore
be 6000 dozen weekly, and taking the average price at 40s. per dozen, the
value would be £12,000 weekly.  Supposing the trade to continue brisk for
fifty weeks in the year, the annual value would be £600,000.

During the year, 1868, trade was very prosperous, and manufacturers
received more orders than they could execute.  The quantities before
stated may be doubled for that year; and at least 6000 men, women, and
children, were employed.  Their production, with the aid of machines, has
been about 2000 dozen pairs of boots and shoes daily, or 12,000 dozen
pairs weekly, so that the weekly value has been £24,000, or £1,200,000
yearly.  Norwich does not transact a hundredth part of this branch of
trade in England, and, therefore, it may be increased to an indefinite
extent.

The principal firms in the trade in 1868, were Messrs. Tillyard and
Howlett, on St. George’s Plain; Mr. Kemp, in Pitt Street; Messrs. Willis
and Southall, who occupy very extensive premises in the Upper Market; Mr.
Hotblack, St. Faith’s Lane; Mr. Lulham, Fishgate Street; Mr. Ford, St.
George Colegate; Mr. Homan, Theatre Street; Mr. Bostock, Swan Lane; Mr.
Steadman, Bethel Street; Messrs. Barker and Gostling, Wensum Street; Mr.
Haldenstein, Queen Street; Messrs. Gamble and Davis, Calvert Street; Mr.
Smith, Calvert Street; Mr. D. Soman, Calvert Street; Mr. Base, in
Prince’s Street; Mr. Copeman, St. Stephen’s; Mr. Horne, Charing Cross;
Mr. Worledge, Magdalen Street.


MUSTARD, STARCH, AND BLUE WORKS.


The Carrow Works have been greatly extended since the brief notice in the
first part of this history was written, and we are now enabled to give a
fuller description.  Messrs. J. and J. Colman employ about 1200 men and
boys in the production of mustard, starch, blue, paper, and flour.  By
the use of machinery of the most improved construction, and by selecting
seed of the finest quality, the firm produces mustard which cannot be
surpassed in purity and flavour.  This mustard obtained the only prize
medals awarded for the article at the Great Exhibition in London, 1862,
and Dublin, 1865, and the only silver medal at Paris, 1868.  The firm
also obtained medals for starch at the Great Exhibitions in London, 1851
and 1862; Dublin, 1865; York, 1866; and Paris, 1868.

Carrow Works are situated just outside of the King Street Gates of the
city, on the banks of the river Wensum, which is navigable for vessels of
about 120 tons.  Lines of railway are laid down in various directions
through the premises connecting all the principal warehouses with the
Great Eastern Railway at Trowse.  Thus Messrs. Colman have every facility
for receiving the raw material, and for disposing of the manufactured
goods by land or water conveyance.  The machinery used is very extensive,
and sixteen engines are now employed, amounting altogether to 1000-horse
power.

On entering the works we pass the timekeeper’s office, and observe on the
right hand a large range of brick buildings.  Here is the mustard mill,
and amid all the noise within we are shewn the process by which the
well-known condiment, mustard, is produced in such immense quantities,
and in the greatest perfection.  The mustard seed, which is grown
extensively in some parts of this country, is crushed between iron
rollers, and is then pounded in large mortars, a long row of which stand
on one side of the mill.  The pestles consist of long wooden rods with
heavy balls of iron.  They are set in rapid motion by means of steam
power, and the mustard seed is speedily reduced to the condition of flour
and bran.  These are readily separated, and the flour is brought to the
requisite quality by means of silk sieves, which vary in fineness
according to the quality of the mustard to be produced.  These sieves are
loosely arranged in frames, and set in motion by means of revolving
shafts.  Two kinds of seed, the brown and the white, are thus crushed,
pounded, and sifted.  The brown is far more pungent than the white; but
in order to produce a flavour relished by consumers, it is necessary to
mix these two kinds, and it is the judicious mixture which gives the fine
aromatic flavour of the mustard for which the firm is celebrated.

Adjoining the mustard mill is the packing floor, where a great number of
men and boys are employed in putting the mustard into tins of various
shapes and sizes, and adorning them with the handsome labels which are so
generally exhibited in grocers’ windows everywhere, for the demand for
this mustard is universal.

Leaving the mustard mill we enter the starch works, which seem to be
still more extensive.  The process of making starch is carefully
explained to us.  After the grain has been moistened with a solution of
caustic soda, it is passed into the mill, where it is mixed with water
and ground in its wet state between mill stones; from each pair of which
continually runs a stream of pure white liquid, resembling thin paste.
This liquid is placed in large iron tanks called “separators,” a
considerable quantity of water is added, and the whole is well stirred
for some time.  It is then allowed to settle, and the various particles
of husk, gluten, &c., sink slowly and form a thick deposit at the bottom.
The water with the starch in solution is then drawn off and pumped up
into immense shallow vats, several sets of which, placed over one
another, occupy the whole of the upper part of the building.  In the
course of two or three days the liquid in the shallow vats gradually
deposits the starch held in solution, when the water is drawn off, and
the starch is taken out and placed in long narrow boxes filled with holes
and lined with cloth.  It remains in these boxes for some time in order
that the moisture may gradually drain out and the starch consolidate.  As
soon as it is sufficiently hardened, the starch is taken out and divided
into blocks, each about six inches square, and put into stoves and
exposed to a temperature of about 140 degrees; after which it is cleaned,
papered, and again placed in stoves, where it remains till it is
gradually crystallized, when the process of manufacture is complete, and
the starch is ready for sale.

We now walk across to the other side of the premises and enter a long row
of workshops, where a great number of men and boys are employed in making
tin-packages for the mustard.  Passing by long ranges of coopers and
carpenters’ shops, we soon come to a large square block of buildings
called the “blue factory.”  Here the indigo is mixed with the finest
starch, water is added, and the whole is ground in a moist state by large
heavy mill stones, till it resembles a very thick, dark blue paste.  It
is transferred by means of a steam hoist to the upper part of the
building, where it is received and quickly manipulated by a number of
girls, who divide it into small cakes and stamp it with wooden stamps of
various devices, from which it is called “Stamp Title,” “Lion,” &c.; or
they work it into balls, on which they leave the impressions of their
finger and thumb, when it is called “Thumb Blue.”  We learn from the
workers that the great art of blue making consists in drying it
carefully, so that the lumps or cakes may harden without cracking.  We
walk through many rooms, almost in the dark, for the window shutters,
which are closed, are so constructed as to regulate the temperature, and
we have just room to pass between large tiers of racks filled with wooden
trays, on which the lumps and cakes of blue are placed in order that they
may dry gradually.

We next take a peep at the paper mill, and admire the beautiful machinery
which rapidly transforms any quantity of dirty rags into a thin milk-like
pulp, and then into solid quires and reams of paper, all cut and ready
for use.  As we pass we look into the engineers’ shop and wonder at the
variety of the machinery there, capable of operating on the hardest
steel, and of planing, cutting, punching, or drilling it with the
greatest apparent ease; and we learn that most of the machinery is made
and repaired on the premises.

We are at last taken to the luncheon kitchen, in which a good lunch or
dinner is provided, consisting of as much hot meat and potatoes as any
man can eat, for threepence.  Many of the men and boys gladly avail
themselves of this kitchen, and obtain a good meal without leaving the
works.

On leaving the yard we ascend the hill and observe a handsome
school-house, built in the Gothic style, and we learn that it was built
by Messrs. J. and J. Colman for the children of the working-people in
their service.  The school comprises several class-rooms, and is fitted
up with every convenience.


THE IRON TRADE.


Coal and iron form the basis of our industrial system in this island, but
neither of them are produced in the eastern counties, which are, for the
most part, purely agricultural.  Iron manufactures have, however, arisen
since the commencement of the present century, chiefly for agricultural
purposes.  Norwich cannot boast of concerns so extensive as Messrs.
Ransome and Sims, of Ipswich; or Messrs. Garrett, of Leiston, in Suffolk;
but several firms here employ large numbers of mechanics in the
construction of engines, machines, and implements of every sort.

Dr. William Fairbairn, in his “History of Iron,” mentions five distinct
epochs: the first dating from the employment of an artificial blast, to
accelerate combustion; the second marked by the use of coke in the
reduction, about the year 1750; the third dating from the introduction of
the steam engine, on account of the facilities which that invention has
given for raising the ores, pumping the mines, supplying the furnace with
a copious and regular blast, and moving the powerful forge, and rolling
machinery; while the fourth is indicated by the introduction of the
system of puddling and rolling; and the fifth and last—though not the
least important epoch in the history of iron, is marked by the
application of the hot blast, an invention which has increased the
production of iron four-fold, and has enabled the iron-master to smelt
otherwise useless and unreducible ores.  It has abolished the processes
of coking and roasting, and has afforded facilities for a large and rapid
production, far beyond the most sanguine anticipations of its inventors.
Some manufacturers, taking advantage of so powerful an agent, have used
improper materials, such as cinder heaps and impure ores, and by unduly
hastening the process, have produced an inferior kind of iron.

Nearly all the iron manufacturers in Norwich, Norfolk, and Suffolk, are
founders, and make their own castings for engines, girders, and machines
of every kind.  The principal firms in this district are Messrs. Ransome
and Sims, before named; Messrs. Garrett, of Leiston; Mr. Turner, Ipswich;
Messrs. Woods, Cocksedge, and Warner, Stowmarket; Mr. C. Burrell, of
Thetford; and Messrs. Barnard, Bishop, & Barnard, Mr. W. S. Boulton, Mr.
Smithdale, and Messrs. Holmes and Sons, of Norwich.  These great firms
send their productions all over the civilised world.

The important works of Messrs. Barnard, Bishop, and Barnard, of Norwich,
are situate in St. Michael’s Coslany, and cover an area of one acre, next
the river Wensum.  Entering from Coslany Street, the new counting house
is joined on the right by a suite of offices, and on the left by the
smith’s shop, which is backed by fire-proof workshops, seventy-five feet
in length, and five stories in height.  The large foundry is at the east
end of the works.  A tramway runs from Coslany Street into the interior,
permeating the premises.  About 400 men and boys are employed in the
production of wire-netting, fencing, garden chairs, stands, machines,
lawn mowers, gates, and every kind of horticultural implements.  A glance
at the operations of the firm will, doubtless, be interesting to our
readers.  One of the most important is the production daily of many miles
of wire-netting, made by curious machinery.  The strained wire fencing is
made on the best principle, the bases of both the straining pillars and
standards being entirely of iron; and after a test of more than thirty
years, it has been found very superior, both as regards durability and
appearance.  Messrs. Barnard, Bishop, and Barnard are also makers, on a
large scale, of bedsteads, mangles, cooking ranges, kitcheners, &c., &c.,
&c.

This firm, the founder of which was Mr. Charles Barnard, a man of modest
demeanour, but possessed of considerable inventive genius, will live in
history as the manufacturers of the celebrated “Norwich Gates,” exhibited
in 1862.  These were designed by Mr. Thomas Jekyll of this city, and by a
county subscription were, in November, 1864, placed at the entrance to
the park at Sandringham, the residence of the Prince of Wales.  During
the Exhibition of 1862, these marvellous productions attracted great
attention.  The _Times_, of April 7th, after alluding to works of a
similar character, said:—

    “In our judgment, however, the design of these latter is scarcely
    equal to that of the beautiful wrought-iron park gates, which are
    being erected, as a principal nave trophy, by Messrs. Barnard,
    Bishop, and Barnard.”

These were adjudged to be the best in the Exhibition.  The same firm also
produced very elegant gates, which were exhibited at the Paris
Exhibition, in 1867, and greatly admired for the beauty of the design and
perfect workmanship.  These gates were only thirteen feet wide, and seven
feet in height, but they occupied forty of the best workmen from morning
till night for three months, at a cost of £750 in wages.  These gates
were quite unique in design and workmanship.  There was not a touch of
the chisel.  The hammer did all the work in the most perfect manner.

In conclusion, we may state, that after a minute examination of the
productions at these works, we feel convinced that articles can now be
executed in metal, which surpass the doings of past ages; and that the
labour, combined with the intelligence of this 19th century, when
skilfully directed, is quite equal to that of the mediæval period.

Mr. W. S. Boulton, who occupies extensive premises in Rose Lane, is a
manufacturer of agricultural and horticultural implements; also of
strained wire fencing, iron hurdles, park gates, garden chairs, iron
bedsteads, kitchen ranges, hot-water appuratus, &c.  He produces every
kind of railing and palisading in great variety, and he put up the iron
palisading round Chapel Field, which is a great ornament as well as
protection to the ground.  He also supplies a great variety of useful
machines, such as mincing and sausage machines, and almost all articles
made of iron.

Messrs. Riches and Watts are engineers and machine makers, at Duke’s
Palace Iron Works.  They are builders of condensing engines, vertical
cylinder engines, and steam thrashing machines; and are also makers of
American grist mills, corn mills, mills for grinding linseed, &c.,
cultivators, pumping machinery, iron field rollers, and all kinds of
implements.

Messrs. Holmes and Sons, engineers, on the Castle Hill, are makers of a
great variety of machines and implements which have gained many prizes at
different Agricultural Exhibitions.  The firm have also been very
extensively engaged for thirty-five years in the manufacture of drills.
During this period, every practical improvement has been introduced,
adapting them to every description of soil, simplifying the different
parts, and decreasing the working expenses for the renewal of wearing
parts.  These drills stand unequalled for simplicity, durability, and
efficiency, and are of lighter draft than others, owing to the position
of the coulters and levers.  More than 4000 of these drills have been
sent out.  The premises of this firm are well situated close to the
cattle market, and have been considerably enlarged.  The new show rooms
in the Market are nearly opposite to the entrance to the Castle.
Entering the works from the high road, we may first inspect the foundry,
containing an enormous crane and three cupolas.  Adjoining the foundry
are the stoves for small castings, and above it the pattern-makers’ shop.
Returning to the yard, we may enter the erecting and fitting shop.  The
drill-fitting shop and the thrashing-machine shops are admirably adapted
for their intended purposes.  About a hundred hands are employed in the
works.

Mr. Thomas Smithdale has a very large establishment at St. Ann’s Staithe,
King Street, on the site of an ancient monastery, remains of which still
exist next the river.  In the large foundry, castings of iron are made,
up to ten tons; and the workshops contain the heaviest machinery in
Norwich.  Mr. Smithdale builds engines from three to a hundred horse
power; and he makes also hydraulic presses, cranes, crabs, mill works,
planing, shaping, and drilling machines, and boilers of all sizes.

Mr. Reeve, in Pitt Street, is a manufacturer of improved kitchen ranges
of various sizes, which have been in great demand.


MANUFACTURING PUBLISHERS.


Messrs. Jarrold and Sons have, for the last twenty years, been engaged in
the production of first-class educational books, in science, history, and
penmanship, which are used in schools in Great Britain and her Colonies.
They also produced the well-known Household Tracts and other works,
bearing on social, moral, and sanitary subjects.  All are printed and
bound in their recently-erected workshops in Little London Street.  They
have also a publishing house at No. 12, Paternoster Row, London.


WINE, SPIRITS, AND BEER.


Norwich merchants carry on a great wholesale business in wines and
spirits.  The principal firms are Messrs. Barwell and Sons, London Street
and St. Stephen’s; Messrs. Norgate and Son, St. Stephen’s; Messrs.
Geldart, in Wensum Street; the Wine Company, in St. Giles’ Street; Mr. P.
Back, Market Place; Mr. R. J. Morley, Post Office Street; and Mr. J.
Chamberlin, Post Office Street; all of whom keep large stocks of wines
and spirits.

The brewing business is greatly extending in Norwich.  Norwich brewers
produce pale ales, which claim to be equal to the Burton, and dispose of
100,000 barrels of London porter yearly.  Messrs. Seaman and Grimmer,
though not producers, do an enormous trade, and bring in, through
Yarmouth, about 14,000 barrels of London porter yearly, and send them all
over the city and county.

Messrs. Patteson and Co. produce 100,000 barrels of ale and beer yearly;
Messrs. Bullard, 60,000 barrels; Messrs. Morgan, 30,000; Messrs. Young
and Co., and other brewers, about 40,000.  The annual value of their
productions is at least £500,000.


WHOLESALE DRAPERY.


This trade is largely carried on by Messrs. Chamberlin & Sons, Mr. G. L.
Coleman, Mr. Rackham, Mr. Henry Snowdon, and a branch house of Messrs.
Copestake and Moore, of London.  Their trade is in cotton, linen,
woollen, and silk goods, plain and fancy fabrics, which are supplied to
shopkeepers all over the eastern counties.  They bring goods from all the
manufacturing districts, and supply them on terms quite as advantageous
as the London houses.  These goods are chiefly of Scotch, Yorkshire, or
Lancashire manufactures, and not produced in Norwich.

Messrs. Chamberlin and Sons, a few years since, rebuilt their premises in
the Market Place, which are an ornament to the city.  This is the largest
establishment for drapery in the eastern counties.  On entering the
premises from the Market Place, the retail department presents, in all
its arrangements, a thoroughly complete place of business.  The wholesale
and other departments above are very extensive.  In the basement of the
premises is the wholesale Manchester room, 180 feet in length, for linen
goods, blankets, and flannels.  There is a separate entrance, in Dove
Street, to the extensive woollen cloth department.  The carpet room is 44
feet long and 40 feet wide.


WHOLESALE GROCERY.


The wholesale grocery trade is carried on to a large extent by Messrs.
B