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Title: A Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges
Author: Lane, George M.
Language: English
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  A LATIN GRAMMAR

  FOR

  SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES

  BY

  GEORGE M. LANE, Ph.D., LL.D.

  PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF LATIN IN
  HARVARD UNIVERSITY

  _REVISED EDITION_

  NEW YORK CINCINNATI CHICAGO
  AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY



Copyright, 1898, 1903, by GARDINER M. LANE and LOUISA VAN RENSSELAER.

_All rights reserved._



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.


George Martin Lane died on the thirtieth of June, 1897. His _Latin
Grammar_, in the preparation of which he had been engaged, during the
intervals of teaching in Harvard University, for nearly thirty years,
was at that time approaching completion. The first two hundred and
ninety-one pages had been stereotyped; the pages immediately following,
on the _Relative Sentence_ and the _Conjunctive Particle Sentence_
through _quod_ and _quia_ (pages 292-302), together with the chapter on
the _Infinitive_ (pages 374-386), were ready for stereotyping; of the
remainder of the book, pages 303-373 and 387-436 were in the form of a
first draught; finally, he had received a few weeks before his death,
but had never examined, the manuscript of the chapter on _Versification_
(pages 442-485), written at his invitation by his former pupil, Dr.
Herman W. Hayley, now of Wesleyan University.

It was found that my dear and honoured master had left a written request
that his work should be completed by me, in consultation with his
colleagues, Professors Frederic De Forest Allen and Clement Lawrence
Smith. A month had scarcely passed when scholars everywhere had another
heavy loss to mourn in the sudden death of Professor Allen. Almost
immediately afterwards, Professor Smith left this country, to take
charge for a year of the American School of Classical Studies in Rome,
but not before we had agreed that circumstances required the early
publication of the book, notwithstanding his absence. I was thus
deprived of two eminent counsellors, whose knowledge and experience
would have been of inestimable assistance.

About one hundred and twenty pages (303-373 and 387-436), exclusive of
_Versification_, were yet to receive their final form. Professor Lane
had determined the order in which the topics contained in these pages
should be treated, and no change has been made in that order. Most of
the main principles of syntax, too, have been left exactly as they were
expressed in his draught. This draught was written some years ago, and,
although he had corrected and annotated it from time to time, there
is no doubt that in writing it out afresh he would have made many
alterations and improvements which are not indicated in his notes.
Consequently, he is not to be held responsible for errors and omissions
in the pages which had not received his final approval. Yet I conceived
it my duty to preserve, so far as possible, the very language of his
corrected draught; and this, in the statement of almost all the main
principles, I have been able to do. Some modifications and some radical
alterations were inevitable; in particular, the treatment of _quamvis_,
_quando_, _quin_, the _Supine_, and _Numerals_ seemed to call for much
amplification and rearrangement. I have also deemed it necessary to add
some seventy sections[1] under various heads, and Dr. Hayley has been
good enough to write sections 2458-2510, which precede his chapter on
_Versification_. But, in general, my principal function has been: first,
to provide additional Latin examples of the principles which Professor
Lane had formulated; secondly, to enter, under the various principles,
historical statements regarding the usage in the Latin writers, drawn
from the best authorities at my disposal.

    [Footnote 1: The sections which I have added are as follows: 1866,
    1873, 1878, 1879, 1880, 1887, 1890, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1907, 1909,
    1913, 1922, 1927, 1935, 1964, 1975, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982,
    1983, 1984, 1989, 1990, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2068, 2086,
    2088, 2097, 2111, 2122, 2152, 2155, 2255, 2264, 2267, 2271, 2273,
    2275, 2276, 2277, 2281, 2289, 2292, 2345, 2357, 2400, 2406, 2407,
    2408, 2409, 2410, 2411, 2412, 2413, 2414, 2740-2745.]

Professor Lane’s own method was far from that of a compiler. He took
nothing for granted without thorough investigation, however well
established it might seem, and he followed the dictum of no man, however
widely accepted as an authority. For example, his many pupils and
correspondents will remember how untiring he was in his efforts to
arrive at accuracy in even the minutest points of inflection. Thus, for
the _List of Verbs_ (§§ 922-1022), he made entirely new collections, and
admitted no form among the ‘principal parts’ unless actually found
represented in the authors. In the details of syntax, he was equally
indefatigable; the sections on the _Locative Proper_ (1331-1341), for
instance, contain the result of an immense amount of painful research.
He devoted much anxious thought to the definitions and the titles of the
various constructions: thus, the distinction between the _Present of
Vivid Narration_ (1590) and the _Annalistic Present_ (1591) seems
obvious now that it is stated; but to reach it many pages of examples
were collected and compared. He held that examples printed in the
grammar to illustrate syntactical principles should never be
manufactured; they should be accurately quoted from the authors, without
other alteration than the omission of words by which the construction
under illustration was not affected. He was careful, also, not to use an
example in which there was any serious doubt as to the text in that part
which covered the principle illustrated by the example. To ‘Hidden
Quantity’ he had given much attention, and many of the results of his
studies in this subject were published, in 1889, in the _School
Dictionary_ by his friend Dr. Lewis. Since that time he had found reason
to change his views with regard to some words, and these changes are
embodied in the present book, in which he marked every vowel which he
believed to be long in quantity.

The order in which the divisions and subdivisions of grammar are here
presented will not seem strange to those who are acquainted with the
recent grammars published by Germans. It is the scientific order of
presentation, whatever order a teacher may think fit to follow in his
actual practice. The table of contents has been made so full as to serve
as a systematic exposition of the scheme, and to make needless any
further words upon it here. In the _Appendix_ Professor Lane would have
inserted, out of deference to custom, a chapter on the _Arrangement of
Words_; but the draught of it which he left was too fragmentary for
publication. Since the proper preparation of the chapter would have
greatly delayed the publication of the book, it was thought best to omit
it altogether, at least for the present. This topic, in fact, like some
others in the _Appendix_, belongs rather to a treatise on Latin
Composition than to a Latin Grammar.

For the indexes, and for much valuable help in proof reading, I heartily
thank Dr. J. W. Walden, another of Professor Lane’s pupils.

In the course of his work, Professor Lane frequently consulted his
colleagues and other distinguished scholars both in this country and in
Europe. He gratefully welcomed their advice, and carefully considered
and often adopted their suggestions. Had he lived to write a preface, he
would doubtless have thanked by name those to whom he considered himself
as under particular obligation, whether from direct correspondence or
through the use of their published works; but it is obvious that the
information in my possession will not allow me to attempt this pleasant
duty. Of Professor Lane’s pupils, also, not a few, while in residence as
advanced students at the University, were from time to time engaged in
the collection of material which he used in the grammar. They, like his
other helpers, must now be content with the thought of the courteous
acknowledgment which they would have received from him.

  MORRIS H. MORGAN.

  HARVARD UNIVERSITY,
  CAMBRIDGE, _May, 1898_.



PREFATORY NOTE TO THE REVISED EDITION.


In this Revised Edition many changes and corrections in details have
been introduced throughout the book, but no alterations have been made
in the treatment of broad general principles, except in the chapter on
Sound (§§ 16-179). This has been very largely rewritten and extended
from nineteen to thirty-one pages by my friend, Professor Hanns Oertel,
of Yale University, who has also been kind enough to make the changes in
the chapters on Formation and Inflection rendered necessary by his
rewriting of the sections on Sound. In this rewriting Mr. Oertel has
proceeded upon the ideas that in a school grammar, even an advanced one,
phonology should play a subordinate part; that nothing should be
introduced that cannot be illustrated from such Latin and Greek as are
available to the student; and that those points should be emphasized
which assist in the analyzing of compounds and in the understanding of
word-formation and inflection. With these ideas, which necessarily
prevent the introduction of some important topics treated in works on
phonetics, I am in entire sympathy.

My thanks are due to not a few scholars and reviewers who have pointed
out passages in the first edition which in their opinion called for
changes. Some of their suggestions I have adopted; with others I have
found myself unable to agree.

  M. H. M.

  HARVARD UNIVERSITY,
  CAMBRIDGE, May, 1903.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

The References Are To Sections.


  Parts of Latin Grammar, 1.

PART FIRST: WORDS, 2-1022.

  Parts of Speech, 2-15.

(A.) SOUND, 16-179.

  Alphabet, 16-30.
  Sources of our Pronunciation, 31.
  Vowels, 32-46.
    Long and Short, 33-36.
    Pronunciation, 37-42.
    Classification, 43-46.
  Diphthongs, 47-50.
    Nature and Kinds, 47, 48.
    Pronunciation, 49, 50.
  Consonants, 51-81.
    Pronunciation, 51-72.
    Classification, 73-81.
  Syllabic and Unsyllabic Function, 82, 83.
  Accent, 84-98.
    Nature, 84.
    Marks of Accent, 85.
    The Classical Accent, 86-88.
    Earlier Recessive Accent, 89-91.
    Proclitics and Enclitics, 92-94.
  Change of Sound, 95-174.
    _Vowel Change_:
      Of Diphthongs, 95-101; 108.
      Of Simple Vowels, 102-107.
      Loss, 110-113.
      Hiatus, 114-116.
      Synizesis, 117.
      Contraction, 118.
      Elision, 119.
      Combination into Diphthongs, 120.
      Lengthening, 121-123.
      Shortening, 124-132.
      Transfer of Quantity, 133.
      Variation, 134.
      Quantitative Vowel Gradation, 135.
      Qualitative Vowel Changes, 136-143.
      Assimilation, 144.
      Qualitative Vowel Gradation, 145.
  _Consonant Change_:
    Disappearance or Change of Single Consonants, 146-161.
      Change in Consonant Groups, 162-179.
      Assimilation, 163-166.
      Consonantal Glides, 167.
      Disappearance, 168-171.
      Development of Anaptyctical Vowel, 172.
      Dissimilation, 173.
      Changes within Compounds, 174.
  Syllables, 175-179.
  Defined, 175, 176.
    Length of Syllables, 177, 178.
    Loss, 179.


(B.) FORMATION, 180-396.

  Definitions, 180-198.
    Roots, 183-189.
    Present Stems as Roots, 190-194.
    Stems, 195-197.
    Primitives and Denominatives, 198.
  Formation of the Noun, 199-364.
    Without a Formative Suffix, 199.
    Formative Suffixes, 200-203.
    _Formation of the Substantive_:
      Primitives, 204-245.
      Denominatives, 246-279.
    _Formation of the Adjective_:
      Primitives, 280-297.
      Denominatives, 298-341.
      Comparison, 342-364.
  Formation of Denominative Verbs, 365-375.
  Composition, 376-396.
    Of Nouns, 379-390.
    Of Verbs, 391-396.


(C.) INFLECTION, 397-1022.

  Definition, 397.

  (A.) INFLECTION OF THE NOUN, 398-712.

  General Principles, 398-431.
    Case Endings, 398.
    The Stem, 399-401.
    Gender, 402-413.
    Number, 414-418.
    Case, 419-431.
  The Substantive, 432-607.
    Stems in #-ā-# (_The First Declension_), 432-445.
    Stems in #-o-# (_The Second Declension_), 446-466.
    Consonant Stems (_The Third Declension_), 467-512.
    Stems in #-i-# (_The Third Declension_), 513-569.
    Gender of Consonant Stems and #-i-# Stems, 570-584.
    Stems in #-u-# (_The Fourth Declension_), 585-595.
    Stems in #-ē-# (_The Fifth Declension_), 596-607.
  The Adjective, 608-643.
    Stems in #-o-# and #-ā-#, 613-620.
    Consonant Stems, 621-626.
    Stems in #-i-#, 627-636.
    Numeral Adjectives, 637-643.
  The Pronoun, 644-695.
    Personal and Reflexive, 644-651.
    Personal and Reflexive Possessive, 652-655.
    Other Pronouns, 656-659.
    Demonstrative, 660-670.
    Determinative, 671-675.
    Pronoun of Identity, 676-678.
    Intensive, 679-680.
    Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite, 681-694.
    Correlative Pronouns, 695.
  The Adverb, Conjunction, and Preposition, 696-712.
    Nouns as Adverbs, 696-698.
    Accusative, 699-702.
    Ablative, 703-707.
    Locative, 708-709.
    Other Endings, 710.
    Correlative Adverbs, 711.
    Sentences as Adverbs, 712.

  (B.) INFLECTION OF THE VERB, 713-1022.

  General Principles, 713-742.
    The Stem, 714-720.
    The Person Ending, 721-731.
    Nouns of the Verb, 732.
    Principal Parts, 733-735.
    Designation of the Verb, 736-737.
    Theme, 738-740.
    Classes of Verbs, 741-742.
  Primitive Verbs, 743-791.
    Root Verbs, 743-744.
    Inflection of #sum#, 745-750.
    #possum#, 751-753.
    #dō#, 754-757.
    #bibō#, #serō#, #sistō#, 758.
    #inquam#, 759-761.
    #eō#, 762-767.
    #queō# and #nequeō#, 768.
    #edō#, 769-771.
    #volō#, #nōlō#, #mālō#, 772-779.
    #ferō#, 780-781.
    Verbs in #-ere# (_The Third Conjugation_), #regō#, 782-783.
    Verbs in #-iō#, #-ere#, 784-791.
    #capiō#, 784-785.
    #āiō#, 786-787.
    #fiō#, 788-790.
    Others in #-iō#, #-ere#, 791.
  Denominative Verbs, 792-797.
    Verbs in #-āre# (_The First Conjugation_), #laudō#, 792-793.
    Verbs in #-ēre# (_The Second Conjugation_), #moneō#, 794-795.
    Verbs in #-īre# (_The Fourth Conjugation_), #audiō#, 796-797.
  Deponent Verbs, 798-801.
  Periphrastic Forms, 802-804.
  Defective Verbs, 805-817.
  Redundant Verbs, 818-823.
  Formation of Stems, 824-919.
    Variable Vowel, 824-827.
    _The Present System_:
      Present Indicative Stem, 828-840.
      Present Subjunctive, 841-843.
      Imperative, 844-846.
      Imperfect Indicative, 847-848.
      Imperfect Subjunctive, 849-850.
      Future, 851-853.
    _The Perfect System_:
      Perfect Indicative Stem, 854-875.
      Perfect Subjunctive, 876-878.
      Perfect Imperative, 879.
      Pluperfect Indicative, 880.
      Pluperfect Subjunctive, 881.
      Future Perfect, 882-884.
      Short or Old forms of the Perfect System, 885-893.
    _Nouns of the Verb_:
      The Infinitive, 894-898.
      Gerundive and Gerund, 899.
      Supine, 900.
      Present Participle, 901-903.
      Future Participle, 904-905.
      Perfect Participle, 906-919.
  List of Verbs arranged according to the Principal Parts, 920-1022.


PART SECOND: SENTENCES, 1023-2299.

  Definitions, 1023-1061.
    The Simple Sentence, 1023-1025.
    The Subject, 1026-1034.
    The Predicate, 1035-1036.
    Enlargements of the Subject, 1038-1047.
    Enlargements of the Predicate, 1048-1054.
    Combination of Sentences, 1055.
    The Compound Sentence, 1056-1057.
    The Complex Sentence, 1058-1061.
  Agreement, 1062-1098.
    Of the Verb, 1062-1076.
    Of the Substantive, 1077-1081.
    Of the Adjective, 1082-1098.


THE SIMPLE SENTENCE, 1099-1635.

  (A.) USE OF THE NOUN, 1099-1468.

  Number and Gender, 1099-1110.
  Case, 1111-1437.
    NOMINATIVE, 1113-1123.
      Nominative of Title, 1114-1116.
      Of Exclamation, 1117.
      Vocative Nominative and Vocative Proper, 1118-1123.
    ACCUSATIVE, 1124-1174.
      Of the Object, 1132-1139.
      Emphasizing or Defining, 1140-1146.
      Of the Part Concerned, 1147.
      Of the Thing Put On, 1148.
      Of Exclamation, 1149-1150.
      Of Space and Time, 1151-1156.
      Of the Aim of Motion, 1157-1166.
      Two Accusatives Combined, 1167-1174.
    DATIVE, 1175-1225.
      _I. The Complementary Dative_:
        (1.) The Essential Complement:
          With Verbs, 1180-1199.
          With Adjectives, 1200-1204.
        (2.) The Optional Complement:
          Of the person or thing interested, 1205-1210.
          The Emotional Dative, 1211.
          The Dative of the Possessor, 1212-1216.
          Of Relation, 1217-1218.
      _II. The Predicative Dative_:
        Of Tendency or Result, 1219-1222.
        Of Purpose or Intention, 1223-1225.
    GENITIVE, 1226-1295.
      _I. With Substantives_:
        In General, 1227-1231.
        Of the Subject, Cause, Origin, or Owner, 1232-1238.
        Of Quality, 1239-1240.
        Partitive, 1241-1254.
        Of Definition, 1255-1259.
        Objective, 1260-1262.
      _II. With Adjectives_, 1263-1270.
      _III. With Verbs_:
        Of Valuing, 1271-1275.
        With rēfert and interest, 1276-1279.
        With Judicial Verbs, 1280-1282.
        With Impersonals of Mental Distress, 1283-1286.
        With Verbs of Memory, 1287-1291.
        Of Participation and Mastery, 1292.
        Of Fulness and Want, 1293-1294.
      _IV. The Genitive of Exclamation_, 1295.
    ABLATIVE, 1296-1400.
      _I. The Ablative Proper_:
        Of Separation and Want, and of Departure, 1302-1311.
        Of Source, Stuff, or Material, 1312-1315.
        Of Cause, Influence, or Motive, 1316-1319.
        Of Comparison, 1320-1330.
      _II. The Locative Ablative_:
        The Locative Proper, 1331-1341.
        The Ablative used as Locative:
          Of Place in, on, or at which, 1342-1349.
          Of Time at which or within which, 1350-1355.
      _III. The Instrumental Ablative_:
        (1.) The Ablative of Attendance:
          Of Accompaniment, 1356-1357.
          Of Manner, 1358-1361.
          Ablative Absolute, 1362-1374.
          Ablative of Quality, 1375.
          Of the Route Taken, 1376.
        (2.) The Instrumental Proper:
          Of Instrument or Means, 1377-1384.
          Of Specification, 1385.
          Of Fulness, 1386-1387.
          Of Measure, Exchange, and Price, 1388-1392.
          Of the Amount of Difference, 1393-1399.
          Two or more Ablatives Combined, 1400.
  Use of Cases with Prepositions, 1401-1437.
    In General, 1401-1409.
    With the Accusative, 1410-1416.
    With the Ablative, 1417-1421.
    With the Accusative or the Ablative, 1422-1425.
    Combination of Substantives by a Preposition, 1426-1428.
    Repetition or Omission of a Preposition, 1429-1430.
    Two Prepositions with one Substantive, 1431-1432.
    Position of Prepositions, 1433-1437.
  Use of Adverbs, 1438-1453.
  Use of Degrees of Comparison, 1454-1468.

  (B.) USE OF THE VERB, 1469-1635.

  Voice, 1469-1492.
    Active, 1469-1471.
    Passive, 1472-1485.
    Deponents, 1486-1492.
  Mood, 1493-1586.
    THE INDICATIVE, 1493-1533.
      In Declarations, 1493-1498.
      In Questions, 1499-1533.
      Yes or No Questions, 1502-1510.
      Positive and Negative Answers, 1511-1514.
      Alternative Questions, 1515-1525.
      Pronoun Questions, 1526-1530.
      Some Applications of Questions, 1531-1533.
    THE INFINITIVE OF INTIMATION, 1534-1539.
    THE SUBJUNCTIVE, 1540-1570.
      The Subjunctive in Declarations:
        _I. Of Desire_:
          Of Wish, 1540-1546.
          Of Exhortation, Direction, Statement of Propriety, 1547-1552.
          Of Willingness, Assumption, Concession, 1553.
        _II. Of Action Conceivable_, 1554-1562.
      The Subjunctive in Questions, 1563-1570.
    THE IMPERATIVE, 1571-1586.
      Of Command, 1571-1580.
      Of Prohibition, 1581-1586.
  Tense, 1587-1635.
    OF THE INDICATIVE, 1587-1633.
      Present, 1587-1593.
      Imperfect, 1594-1601.
      Perfect, 1602-1613.
      Pluperfect, 1614-1618.
      Future, 1619-1625.
      Future Perfect, 1626-1632.
      The Future Active Participle with sum, 1633.
    OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE, 1634-1635.


THE COMPOUND SENTENCE, OR COORDINATION, 1636-1713.

  Without a Connective, 1637-1642.
  With a Connective, 1643-1692.
    Conjunctions, 1643.
    Copulative, 1644-1666.
    Disjunctive, 1667-1675.
    Adversative, 1676-1686.
    Other Words as Connectives, 1687-1692.
  The Intermediate Coordinate Sentence, 1693-1713.
    The Subordinate Idea unindicated by the Mood, 1695-1704.
    The Subordinate Idea indicated by the Subjunctive, 1705-1713.


THE COMPLEX SENTENCE, OR SUBORDINATION, 1714-2299.

    Definitions and Classifications, 1714-1716.
    Primary and Secondary Tenses, 1717.
    Virtual Futures, 1718.
  Mood of the Subordinate Sentence, 1720-1731.
    The Indicative, 1721.
    The Subjunctive:
      In Indirect Discourse, and in cases of Attraction, 1722-1729.
      Of Repeated Action, 1730.
      As in the Simple Sentence, 1731.
  Tense of the Subordinate Sentence, 1732-1772.
    Of the Indicative, 1732-1739.
    Of the Subjunctive, 1740-1772.
    Sequence of Tenses, 1745-1772.
    Tense subordinate to an Indicative, 1746-1761.
    Tense subordinate to a Subjunctive, 1762-1765.
    Tense subordinate to a Noun of the Verb, 1766-1769.
    Subjunctive due to another Subjunctive or to an Infinitive,
        1770-1772.
  The Indirect Question, 1773-1791.
    In General, 1773-1774.
    Yes or No Questions, 1775-1777.
    Alternative Questions, 1778-1784.
    Pronoun Questions, 1785.
    Original Subjunctives, 1786.
    Indicative Questions apparently Indirect, 1787-1791.
  The Relative Sentence, 1792-1837.
    Agreement of the Relative, 1801-1811.
    Moods in the Relative Sentence, 1812-1830.
    Relative Sentences of Purpose, 1817.
    Of Characteristic or Result, 1818-1823.
    Of Cause or Concession, 1824-1830.
    Correlative Sentences, 1831.
    Relative Sentences Combined, 1832-1834.
    The Relative introducing a main Sentence, 1835-1837.
  The Conjunctive Particle Sentence, 1838-2122.
    Introduced by #quod#, 1838-1855.
    #quia#, 1856-1858.
    #quom# or #cum#, 1859-1881.
    quoniam#, 1882-1884.
    #quotiēns#, #quotiēnscumque#, 1885-1887.
    quam#, 1888-1898.
    #quamquam#, 1899-1902.
    #quamvīs#, 1903-1907.
    #tamquam#, 1908-1910.
    #antequam#, #priusquam#, 1911-1922.
    #postquam#, #ubī̆#, ut#, #cum prīmum#, #simul atque#, 1923-1934.
    #ut#, 1935-1970.
    #ubī̆#, 1971.
    quō#, 1972-1976.
    #quōminus#, 1977-1979.
    #quīn#, 1980-1990.
    #dum#, #dōnec#, quoad#, #quamdiū#, 1991-2009.
    #quandō#, 2010-2014.
    #sī#, 2015-2115.
    #etsī#, tametsī#, #etiamsī#, 2116.
    #quasi#, #tamquam sī#, #ut# or #velut sī#, 2117-2122.
  Connection of Separate Sentences or Periods, 2123-2159.
    Without a Connective, 2124-2127.
    With a Connective, 2128-2158.
    Affirmative Coordination, 2159.
  Nouns of the Verb, 2160-2299.
    THE INFINITIVE, 2160-2236.
      Definitions, 2160-2163.
      The Infinitive of Purpose, 2164-2165.
      With Adjectives, 2166.
      _The Infinitive as Object_:
        The Complementary Infinitive, 2168-2171.
        The Accusative with the Infinitive, 2172-2206.
      _The Infinitive as Subject_, 2207-2215.
        The Infinitive of Exclamation, 2216.
      _Tenses of the Infinitive_, 2218.
        Present, 2219-2222.
        Perfect, 2223-2231.
        Future, 2232-2236.
    THE GERUNDIVE AND GERUND, 2237-2268.
      Definitions, 2237-2242.
      Nominative, 2243-2249.
      Accusative, 2250-2253.
      Dative, 2254-2257.
      Genitive, 2258-2264.
      Ablative, 2265-2268.
    THE SUPINE, 2269-2277.
      Definitions, 2269.
      Supine in #-um#, 2270-2273.
      Supine in #-ū#, 2274-2277.
    THE PARTICIPLE, 2278-2299.
      Definition, 2278.
      Time of the Participle, 2279-2281.
      The Attributive Participle, 2282-2286.
      The Substantive Participle, 2287-2292.
      The Appositive Participle, 2293-2296.
      The Predicative Participle, 2297-2299.


APPENDIX, 2300-2745.

  Some Occasional Peculiarities of Verbs, 2300-2307.
    The Conative Use, 2301-2303.
    The Causative Use, 2304.
    The Potential Use, 2305.
    The Obligatory Use, 2306.
    The Permissive Use, 2307.
  Indirect Discourse, 2308-2334.
    Definitions, 2308-2311.
    Mood, 2312-2320.
    Tense, 2321-2324.
    Pronoun, 2325.
    Conditional Periods in Indirect Discourse, 2326-2334.
  Use of Pronouns, 2335-2403.
    Personal, 2335.
    Reflexive, 2336-2343.
    Equivalents for a Reciprocal Pronoun, 2344-2345.
    Possessive, 2346.
    Demonstrative, 2347-2364.
    Determinative, 2365-2370.
    Pronoun of Identity, 2371-2373.
    Intensive, 2374-2384.
    Interrogative, 2385-2386.
    Relative, 2387.
    Indefinite, 2388-2403.
  Numerals, 2404-2428.
    Classification, 2404.
    List of Numerals, 2405.
    Notation, 2406-2411.
    Some forms of Numerals, 2412-2418.
    Some uses of Numerals, 2419-2422 Other Numerals, 2423.
    Fractions, 2424-2428.
  Prosody, 2429-2739.
    RULES OF QUANTITY, 2429-2472.
      In Classical Latin, 2429-2457.
      Position, 2458.
      Hidden Quantity, 2459-2463.
      Peculiarities of Quantity in Old Latin, 2464-2469.
      Iambic Shortening, 2470-2472.
    FIGURES OF PROSODY, 2473-2510.
      Hiatus, 2473-2480.
      Elision, 2481-2492.
      Ecthlipsis, 2493-2496.
      Semi-Hiatus or Semi-Elision, 2497.
      Synaloepha, 2498.
      Synizesis, 2499.
      Synaeresis, 2500.
      Dialysis, 2501.
      Diaeresis, 2502.
      Hardening, 2503.
      Softening, 2504.
      Diastolé, 2505-2506.
      Systolé, 2507.
      Syncopé, 2508.
      Tmesis, 2509.
      Synapheia, 2510.
    VERSIFICATION, 2511-2739.
      Definitions, 2511-2548.
      Numeri Italici, 2549.
      The Saturnian, 2550-2554.
      Dactylic Rhythms, 2555-2580.
      Iambic Rhythms, 2581-2627.
      Trochaic Rhythms, 2628-2649.
      Logaoedic Rhythms, 2650-2074.
      Dactylo-Trochaic Rhythms, 2675-2681.
      Anapaestic Rhythms, 2682-2690.
      Cretic Rhythms, 2691-2697.
      Bacchiac Rhythms, 2698-2706.
      Choriambic Rhythms, 2707.
      Ionic Rhythms, 2708-2717.
      Lyric Metres of Horace, 2718-2737.
      Lyric Strophes of Catullus, 2738.
      Index of Horatian Odes and their metres, 2739.
  Abbreviations used in citing the Authors, 2740-2745.

  Index of Subjects.

  Index of Latin Words.



LATIN GRAMMAR


1. Latin Grammar has two parts. I. The first part treats of words: (A.)
their sound; (B.) their formation; (C.) their inflection. II. The second
part shows how words are joined together in sentences.



PART FIRST [decoration] WORDS


PARTS OF SPEECH.

2. The principal kinds of words or PARTS OF SPEECH are _Nouns_, _Verbs_,
and _Conjunctions_.

3. I. NOUNS are _Substantive_ or _Adjective_.

4. (A.) NOUNS SUBSTANTIVE, otherwise called Substantives, are divided,
as to meaning, into _Concrete_ and _Abstract_.

5. (1.) CONCRETE SUBSTANTIVES denote persons or things. Concrete
Substantives are subdivided into _Proper Names_, which denote individual
persons or things: as, #Cicerō#, _Cicero_; #Rōma#, _Rome_; and _Common
Names_, otherwise called _Appellatives_, which denote one or more of a
class: as, #homo#, _man_; #taurus#, _bull_.

6. Appellatives which denote a collection of single things are called
_Collectives_: as, #turba#, _crowd_; #exercitus#, _army_. Appellatives
which denote stuff, quantity, material, things not counted, but having
measure or weight, are called _Material Substantives_: as, #vīnum#,
_wine_; #ferrum#, _iron_; #faba#, _horsebeans_.

7. (2.) ABSTRACT SUBSTANTIVES denote qualities, states, conditions: as,
#rubor#, _redness_; #aequitās#, _fairness_; #sōlitūdō#, _loneliness_.

8. (B.) NOUNS ADJECTIVE, otherwise called Adjectives, attached to
substantives, describe persons or things: as, #ruber#, _red_; #aequus#,
_fair_; #sōlus#, _alone_.

9. PRONOUNS are words of universal application which serve as
substitutes for nouns.

Thus, #taurus#, _bull_, names, and #ruber#, _red_, describes, particular
things; but #ego#, _I_, is universally applicable to any speaker, and
#meus#, _mine_, to anything belonging to any speaker.

10. ADVERBS are mostly cases of nouns used to denote manner, place, time
or degree: as, #subitō#, _suddenly_; #forās#, _out of doors_; #diū#,
_long_; #valdē#, _mightily_, _very_.

11. PREPOSITIONS are adverbs which are used to modify as prefixes the
meaning of verbs, or to define more nicely the meaning of cases: as,
#vocō#, _I call_, #ēvocō#, _I call out_; #ex urbe#, _from town_.

12. II. VERBS are words which denote action, including existence or
condition: as, #regit#, _he guides_; #est#, _he is_; #latet#, _he is
hid_.

13. III. CONJUNCTIONS connect sentences, nouns, or verbs: as, #et#,
_and_; #sed#, _but_.

14. INTERJECTIONS are cries which express feeling, and are not usually a
part of the sentence: as, #ā#, _ah_; #heu#, _alas_.

15. There is no ARTICLE in Latin: thus, #mēnsa# may denote _table_, _a
table_, or _the table_.

  [Erratum:
  2 ... _Nouns_, _Verbs_, and _Conjunctions_.
    _Nouns_ _Verbs_,]



A. SOUND.


ALPHABET.

16. In Cicero’s time, the sounds of the Latin language were denoted by
twenty-one letters (_DN._ 2, 93).

  Character  Name  pronounced
    #A#      a     _ah_
    #B#      be    _bay_
    #C#      ce    _kay_
    #D#      de    _day_
    #E#      e     _eh_
    #F#      ef    _ef_
    #G#      ge    _gay_
    #H#      ha    _hah_
    #I#      i     _ee_
    #K#      ka    _kah_
    #L#      el    _el_
    #M#      em    _em_
    #N#      en    _en_
    #O#      o     _o_
    #P#      pe    _pay_
    #Q#      qu    _koo_
    #R#      er    _air_
    #S#      es    _ess_
    #T#      te    _tay_
    #V#      u     _oo_
    #X#      ix    _eex_

The names given above are those employed by Roman grammarians. The sound
indicated by _-ay_ is only approximate; the true sound is that of the
French _ê_ in _fête_; see 39. The names of the letters are indeclinable;
for their gender, see 412.

17. Two other letters were also in use to represent Greek sounds in
Greek words; these were always called by their Greek names, and were
placed at the end of the alphabet; they are #Y#, named _ü_ (42), and
#Z#, named #zēta# (71).

18. ORIGIN OF THE ALPHABET. The Latin alphabet, which originally
consisted of capitals only, was adapted from the alphabet of Chalcidian
colonies in Italy.

19. SPELLING. The signs for the Greek sounds denoted by φ and χ, and
perhaps also that for θ, these three sounds being unknown in Latin, were
used as numerals (2407). In words borrowed from the Greek the Romans at
first represented θ by #t#, φ by #p#, and χ by #c#: as, #tūs#,
_incense_, for θύος; #Poenī#, _Punians_, for Φοίνικες; #calx#, _chalk_,
for χάλιξ. Occasionally also the Latin mute was doubled: as, #struppus#,
_strap_, for στρόφος. Later, about the middle of the second century
B.C., #th#, #ph#, and #ch# begin to be used: as, #cothurnus#, _boot_,
for κόθορνος; #amphora#, _jar_, for ἀμφόρα; #Achaea# for Ἀχαιά. In some
instances these aspirates were next introduced even into words purely
Latin: as, #chommodus#, _affable_, for #commodus#, an affectation
ridiculed by Catullus (Cat. 84) and disapproved by Quintilian
(1, 5, 20). But #pulcher#, _pretty_, is the usual spelling for #pulcer#
(formed by the suffix #-cro-# from the stem of the verb #poliō#, _I
polish_). Even Cicero (_O._ 160) aspirated the #c# in this word as a
concession to popular usage, as he did the #t# in #Cethēgus#,
#Karthāgō#, and the #p# in #triumphus#, while he retained the
unaspirated explosive in the proper names #Orcīvius#, _name of a
‘gens,’_ #Matō#, #Otō#, #Caepiō#, and in #sepulcrum#, _tomb_; #corōna#,
_crown_; and #lacrima#, _tear_. In a similar manner Greek ρ was at first
transcribed by #r#: as, #rumpia#, _a kind of weapon_, for ῥομφαία; but
later by #rh#: as, #rhētor#, _rhetorician_, for ῥητωρ.

20. The letters #C# (first written #<#) and #K# were at an early period
used promiscuously, and #C# stood for both unvoiced #k# and voiced #g#:
as, VIRCO, #virgō#, _virgin_. Afterwards #K# dropped out of general use
except in the abbreviations #K.# or #Kal.# for #kalendae#, _first of the
month_, and #K.# for the proper name #Kaesō# (Quint. 1, 7, 10). About
300 B.C. the sign #<# or #C# was used for the unvoiced _k_ alone, while
a separate sign, which became #G#, was set apart for the voiced _g_. But
#C# continued to be used for _g_ in the abbreviations #C# for #Gāius#,
#Ↄ# for #Gāia#, and #Cn.# for #Gnaeus#. Occasionally #q# is written for
#c#, almost always before the vowels #o# and #u#: as, #qum# for #cum#,
_with_; #qolunt# for #colunt#, _they cultivate_; #peqūnia#, _money_. But
ordinarily #q# is found before unsyllabic (consonantal) #u# (#v#) only
(22).

21. Before the introduction of #Y# and #Z# (17), #u# was used for the
Greek υ: as, #Burrus#, later #Pyrrhus# (Cic. _O._ 160); and #s#, or, as
a medial, #ss#, for ζ: as, #sōna#, _belt_, later #zōna#; #massa#,
_lump_, for μᾶζα; #malacissō#, _I soften_, for μαλακίζω. By a blunder,
#y# was occasionally introduced in words of Latin origin: as, #lacryma#,
_tear_, for #lacrima#, which was wrongly supposed to be derived from
Greek δάκρυ.

22. The characters #I# and #V# represent not only the two vowels #i# and
#u#, but also their cognate semivowels (52) #i̭# and #ṷ# (83), called
commonly _consonant_ #i# and #u#, but with less ambiguity _unsyllabic_
#i# and #u# (82; 83). They are equivalent to the English _y_ and _w_
respectively.

23. In words like #maior#, simple #i# was commonly written for the sound
of #i̭i̭# (153, 2; 82; 83). But Cicero in such cases wrote #ii#: as,
#aiiō#, _I say_, #Maiia#, #Troiia# (Quint. 1, 4, 11). In the same way
Lucretius spelled #Graiiugenārum#, _of Greek-born men_, and EIIVS, _of
him_, CVIIVS, _whose_, occur in inscriptions. Sometimes the same sound
is represented by a taller letter, ‘_i longa_,’ especially in the
imperial age: as, MAIOR, _greater_. There are also cases in which the
two designations were confounded, a double #i# being written, and one or
the other letter made taller: as, EIIVS or EIIVS, _of him_.

24. The tall #i#, #I longa#, was used not only to represent unsyllabic
#i# (22), but, beginning with Sulla’s time, also for long vowel #i#
(29, 2, _b_): as, SIGNA, _signs_; QVINQVE, _five_. It also represents
sometimes double #i#: as, VIS for VIĪS, _in the roads_. At the beginning
of words it occurs without reference to quantity for both short and long
#i#, and, by mistake, #I# is elsewhere found for short #i#.

25. The emperor Claudius (A.D. 41-54) introduced a separate sign for
unsyllabic #u# (22), restricting the sign #v# to the vowel #u# (Quint.
1, 7, 26; Ta. 11, 14); but it did not become current.

26. In schoolbooks and most texts of the authors, the vowel #u# is
printed #U#, #u#, and the consonant #V#, #v#. A character, #J#, #j#, was
introduced in the 17th century, to indicate the consonant #i#. But this
character is no longer usual in editions of the authors or in
schoolbooks.

27. The distinction between #u# and #v# is not always made very
consistently: #q# has regularly, and #g# and #s# have sometimes, an
aftersound of _w_, best represented by #v#; but the usual practice is to
write #u#, as in the following disyllables: #quōrum#, _of whom_;
#anguis#, _snake_; #suāvis#, _sweet_. #qu# is always counted as a single
sound (177). See also 2504.

28. For the intermediate sound (103) between #i# and #u#, as in the
first syllable of #lubet#, #libet#, _it pleases_, and in the second
syllable of #optimus#, #optumus#, _best_ (Quint. 1, 4, 8; 7, 21), the
emperor Claudius invented a separate character. It failed of acceptance,
as did also the sign which he attempted to introduce for #ps#.

29. The same characters were ordinarily used to denote both long and
short vowels. But at different periods long vowels were sometimes
indicated in inscriptions thus:

(1.) Long #a#, #e#, or #u# was sometimes doubled: as, AARA, _altar_;
PAASTORES, _shepherds_; LEEGE, _by law_; IVVS, _right_. This doubling,
which was never frequent, seems to have been introduced into Latin from
the Oscan by the poet Accius. It occurs most frequently in inscriptions
about the year 150 B.C., but sporadically much later: as, CONVENTVVS,
_of the assembly_; ARBITRATVV, _by the decree_; and in other stems in
#-u-# (593).

(2.) Long #i# was often denoted (_a._) By the spelling #ei# (after the
pronunciation of this diphthong had been changed to #ī#, 98): as, DAREI,
_be given_; REDIEIT, _hath come back_; INTERIEISTI, _hast died_. Some
Roman grammarians prescribed this spelling for every long #i#; others
tried to regulate the use of #ei# for #ī# by special rules. At the end
of the republic, the spelling EI had given way to uniform I. (_b._)
Since the time of Sulla, by a taller letter (‘_i longa_’): as, FIXA,
_fastened_ (23, 24).

(3.) A mark called an _apex_ ([illustration]) was often put over a long
vowel: as, FE͆CIT, _made_; HORTE͆NSIVS; DVV͆MVIRATVS, _duumvirate_. The
apex was written ´ in the imperial age; the form -, which occurs in an
inscription, was adopted by the grammarians, and is still in use to mark
the long vowels. It may be mentioned that inscriptions which employ the
apex are by no means consistent in its use, and that late inscriptions
have it over short and long vowels, apparently for decorative purposes.
Quintilian 1, 7, 2 prescribes it only for cases which otherwise might be
ambiguous: as, MÁLVS (#mālus#), _mast_, to distinguish it from MALVS
(#malus#), _bad_.

30. In schoolbooks, a long vowel is indicated by a horizontal line over
it: as, #āra#, _altar_; #mēnsis#, _month_; #ōrdō#, _series_. A short
vowel is sometimes indicated by a curved mark: as, #pĕr#, _through_;
#dŭx#, _leader_; but this mark is unnecessary if long vowels are
systematically marked. Usually the quantity of the vowels in each word
is definitely fixed; but in a few cases the same vowel may be now short,
now long, as in English the _ee_ of _been_ is pronounced long by some
(_bean_), short by others (_bin_). Thus (2446) #mihi#, #ibi# were
sometimes pyrrhics (⏑, 2522), sometimes iambi (⏑ -, 2521). See for other
cases 134, 2443, 2452, 2453. Such vowels of variable quantity are termed
_common_ and marked ⏓ or ⏒: as #mihī̆#, _to me_ (2514).


PRONUNCIATION.

31. The pronunciation of Latin sounds may be approximately determined:
(_a_) from the description of the native grammarians and incidental
allusions in other Latin authors; (_b_) from variations in spelling;
(_c_) from the Greek transliteration of Latin words; (_d_) from the
Latin transliteration of foreign words; (_e_) from the development of
the sounds in languages derived from the Latin.


VOWELS.

32. Vowels are sounds which are produced by the vibrations of the vocal
chords (this may be easily felt by placing a finger on the throat at the
Adam’s apple) and without any audible friction or any obstruction
anywhere in the passage above the vocal chords. The difference in the
sound of the vowels is due to the different shape which the position of
the tongue and the lips gives in each case to the cavity of the mouth.
During the pronunciation of pure vowels no air escapes through the nose.

33. The simple vowels, #a#, #e#, #i#, #o#, #u# (#y#), are either _long_
or _short_. The sound of a long vowel is considered to be twice the
length of that of a short.

34. That a long vowel is equal to two shorts is a rule of metrical
theory (see 2515). In actual pronunciation, there were undoubtedly
various degrees of length, as in English: e.g., _sea_, _seize_ (long),
_cease_ (half-long).


QUANTITY OF VOWELS.

The quantity of vowels must in general be learned by observation; but
some convenient helps for the memory may be found in 2429; and the
quantity of many vowels may be ascertained by the general principles
given in 35 and 36. Except in the case of _Hidden Quantity_ (2459), the
quantity of vowels is in general ascertained from verse. But some
information may also be gleaned from such rhetorical prose as exhibits
well defined habits in the rhythmical endings selected for sentences
(#clausulae#, Cic. _O._ 191-226).


(A.) SHORT VOWELS.

35. A vowel is short:

(1.) Before another vowel or #h# (124): as, #eōs#, #ēvehō#; compare
#taceō# with #tacēre#. For exceptions in classical Latin, see 127; for
exceptions in early Latin see 126.

(2.) Before #nt# and #nd# (128) if not the result of contraction: as,
#calendae#, #centum#; compare #amant#, #amandus#, with #amāre#.

(3.) Before final #t# and #m#, and, in words of more than one syllable,
before final #r# and #l# (132): compare #amat#, #amem#, with #amās# and
#amēs#.


(B.) LONG VOWELS.

36. All vowels are long which are:

(1) Weakened from a diphthong (96-101; 108), or which are the result of
contraction (118): as, #concīdō# from #caedō#; #cōgō# from #co-agō#.

(2) Lengthened by compensation (121): as, #quīnī# for #*quincnī#.

(3) Before #nf#, #ns#, often before #nc# followed by a consonant, and,
in some cases, before #gn# (122).


PRONUNCIATION OF VOWELS.

37. The following English sounds come nearest to the Latin pronunciation
of the vowels:

38. LONG VOWELS. #ā# had the sound of _a_ in _father_; #ē# that of _a_
in _fate_ (but see 39); #ī# that of _i_ in _machine_; #ō# that of _o_ in
_tone_; #ū# that of _u_ in _rule_.

39. It must be noted, however, that all English long vowels, save _a_ as
in _father_, are more or less diphthongal, that is, they become
gradually closer (46); _a_ in _fate_ ends in a vanishing sound of _ee_
(not heard in the _ê_ of French _fête_), and _o_ in _no_ ends in the
sound of _oo_. Similarly the long _e_ sound in _he_ becomes closer and
ends in a sound similar to the _y_ in _year_. In Latin all long vowels
had one sustained sound.

40. SHORT VOWELS. #a# sounded approximately like the English _a_ in the
first syllable of _aha_; #e#, #i#, #o#, and #u# sounded like _e_ in
_step_, _i_ in _pit_, _o_ in _obey_, and _u_ in _pull_ respectively.

41. Latin short #a# did not differ, except in quantity, from long #ā#;
it never had the ‘flat’ sound of English _a_ in _pat_. In the case of
the other vowels, #i#, #e#, #o#, and #u#, the long vowels were closer
(46) than the short ones. This is the same difference which the English
shows in _keen_ (long and close) and _kin_ (short and open); _pool_
(long and close) and _pull_ (short and open). For this reason, open #i#
is sometimes represented by #e# in inscriptions: as, ANEMA for #anima#,
_soul_; and #vea# was the rustic pronunciation for #via#, _road_ (Varro,
_R. R._ 1, 2, 14).

42. #Y#, which was a sound borrowed from the Greek (17), sounded like
German _ü_. The sound, which is missing in English, is formed with the
tongue in position for _i_ (in _kin_) and the lips rounded as for _oo_
(in _moon_).


CLASSIFICATION OF VOWELS.

43. Vowels are divided according to the position of the tongue. Latin
#i# and #e# are called _front vowels_, because the front part of the
tongue is elevated. This elevation is greater for #i# than for #e#.
Latin #o# and #u# are called _back vowels_, because they require an
elevation of the rear part of the tongue. This elevation is greater for
#u# than for #o#. Latin #a# holds an intermediate position, no part of
the tongue being raised, while the front part is depressed.

44. In the formation of #i# and #e#, the tongue approaches the hard
palate; hence these two vowels are also called _palatal vowels_.
Similarly, #o# and #u# are called _velar_ or _guttural vowels_, because
in their formation the tongue approaches the soft palate (#vēlum
palātī#).

45. #o# and #u# require a rounding of the lips (#labia#); hence they are
called _labial vowels_. The same is true for #y#.

46. Comparing the vowels in English _keen_ and _kin_, it will be noted
that the passage between the tongue and the hard palate is narrower in
the former than in the latter case. The _ee_ in _keen_ is therefore said
to be a _narrow_ or _close_ vowel, while the _i_ in _kin_ is _wide_ or
_open_. See 41.


DIPHTHONGS.

47. Two unlike (43-46) vowels pronounced under one stress and as one
syllable form a _Diphthong_. All diphthongs are long.

In all diphthongs the transition from one vowel to the other is gradual.
A diphthong is, therefore, not formed simply by pronouncing two vowels
in succession, but the vocal organs pass through all the intermediate
positions and consequently the sound is constantly changing.

48. In their origin diphthongs are of two kinds: (_a._) primitive
diphthongs: as in #foedus#, _treaty_; #aurum#, _gold_; or (_b._)
secondary diphthongs, the result of vowels meeting in formation,
composition, or inflection: see 120.

49. The diphthongs which occur in classical Latin are #au#, #ae#, #oe#,
and the rare #ui# and #eu#.

#au# sounded like _ou_ in _house_. #ae# had the sound of short Latin #a#
rapidly combined with the sound of _e_ in English _men_. But it is the
common practice now to give to #ae# the sound of _ay_ or _ai_ in _ay_,
_aisle_, although the difference between Latin #ae# and the earlier #ai#
from which it descended is thus obliterated. #oe# had the sound of short
Latin #o# rapidly followed by the sound of _e_ in English _men_. But it
is now customary not to distinguish between Latin #oe# and #oi#, and to
give to both the sound of _oi_ in _boil_. #ui# is pronounced by
combining Latin short #u# and #i# (40, 41) with the stress on the #i#
like French _oui_; #eu# by combining Latin short #e# and #u# with stress
on the #u#.

50. Besides these, the following diphthongs occur in the older
inscriptions: #ai# pronounced as _ai_ in _aisle_; #ei# as _ei_ in
_eight_; #oi# as _oi_ in _boil_; and #ou# which sounded very much like
the final _o_ in _no_, _go_, which is really a diphthong (see 39).


CONSONANTS.

51. Consonants are formed by stopping the breath somewhere in the cavity
of the mouth or by squeezing it through a narrow channel or aperture.

52. SEMIVOWELS. There is no sharp line of demarcation between consonants
and vowels. Some vowels in unsyllabic function (82, 83) notably #i#
(_i̭_) and #u# (_ṷ_) (corresponding to English _y_ and _w_), though
usually classed as consonants, are so closely related to the vowels that
they are termed semivowels (2504). To these may be added also the
liquids #l# and #r#. Contact of the semivowels #i# and #u# with their
corresponding vowels #i# and #u# is avoided in classical times. See for
#-vu-# 107, _c_; for #-quu-# 157; and for #-i̭i-# 104, _c_
(on #obi̭iciō#); 458 (#Bōī# for #*Bōi̭ī#). See 153, 3.

  [Erratum:
  52 ... See for #-vu-# 107, _c_
    107 _c_]


PRONUNCIATION OF CONSONANTS.

53. Most of the consonants are pronounced as in English. The following
points must be noticed:

54. #b# before #a# surd, as #s# or #t#, has the sound of #p#. The
spelling #b# is here simply etymological: as, #abs#, pronounced _aps_
(the #b# retained in spelling because of #ab#); #urbs#, pronounced
_urps_ (the #b# retained because of the oblique cases #urbis#, #urbī#,
etc.); #obterō#, pronounced _opterō_ (Quint. 1, 7, 7), where the
spelling of the preposition #ob# was kept (164).

55. #c# has always the sound of English _k_.

56. #d# before the surd #s# is pronounced #t#; the spelling #d# is
preserved for etymological reasons only: as, #adsum#, pronounced
_atsum_.

57. #g# always has the sound of English _g_ in _go_, never that of _g_
in _gentle_. #gu#, when it makes one syllable with the following vowel,
is pronounced like English _gw_: as, #sanguine# like _sanguine_.

58. #h# has a weak sound as _h_ in British English (Southern), and by
some was not counted as a consonant. Consequently the same uncertainty
existed as to initial #h#. The omission of initial #h# is recognized in
classical Latin for #ānser# (originally #*hānser#). Elsewhere the
omission of initial #h# in spelling, as #ostia# for #hostia#, is rare
until the third century A.D.

Very rarely #h# is written between two vowels to denote that each should
be pronounced separately (like our diaeresis in _coëxtensive_): as,
#ahēneus#, _bronze_, with #aē# separate (116 _a_); but #aes#, _bronze_,
with diphthongal #ae#.

59. Unsyllabic (22) or consonant #i# has the sound of English _y_ in
_year_.

60. There were two varieties of #l#. One was like the English _l_,
guttural in character, because in its pronunciation not only the blade
(front part) of the tongue touched the gums, but in addition to this the
rear part of the tongue was elevated toward the soft palate. The other
#l# was purely dental, and formed without such back elevation. This
second variety appeared in the combination #ll#, or whenever #l# was
followed by the front vowels (43) #e# or #i#, or when it was final.
Elsewhere #l# was guttural.

61. From the earliest times final m in unaccented syllables had a faint
sound or was even inaudible (Quint. 9, 4, 39). Consequently it is often
omitted in writing in the older inscriptions both before an initial
vowel or consonant: as, POCOLO for #pōcolom#; OINO for #oinom# (#ūnum#),
and the grammarian Verrius Flaccus proposed to write only half an #M#
for final #m# before a vowel. In prosody, therefore, final #m# did not
prevent elision (2493). The same is seen in prose in cases like
#animadvertō#, _I pay heed to_, from #anim^{um} advertō#, _I turn my
mind toward_ (395); #vēnīre#, _to be sold_ for #vēn^{um} īre#, _to go to
sale_ (1165). But in monosyllables where #m# closes the accented
syllable, it did not vanish (2494, 2495), and this difference in the
treatment of final #m# is reflected in the Romance languages.

62. #n# stands for two sounds. It represents the dental nasal, as _n_ in
English _now_. But before the gutturals #k#, #c#, #g#, #q#, and the
compound #x (= cs)#, it represents the guttural nasal which is written
_ng_ in English _sing_, _wrong_. This second n is sometimes called #n
adulterīnum# or ‘spurious #n#,’ thus: #nc# (in #avunculus#) as in
_uncle_; #ng# (in #angulus#) as in _angle_; #ngu# (in #sanguine#) as in
_sanguine_; #nqu# (in #inquit#) as _inkw_ in _inkwiper_; #nx#
(in #pīnxit#) as in _lynx_.

63. Dental #n# before #s# had a reduced sound, and is therefore
sometimes omitted in writing: as, CESOR for #cēnsor#; COSOL for
#cōnsul#, in older inscriptions; and #fōrmōsus# by the side of
#fōrmōnsus#; #vīcēsimus# by the side of #vīcēnsimus#, Cicero omitted the
#n# in the adjective suffix #-ēnsis#: as, #forēsia#, _of the forum_;
#hortēsia#, _garden plants_.

64. #q#, in classical Latin, appears only in the combination #qu#,
sounded like English _qu_ or _kw_ (27). #r# was trilled.

65. #s#, in classical Latin was always unvoiced (surd, 75) like English
_s_ in _so_, _sin_, never voiced (sonant, 75) as English _s_ in _ease_.
#su#, when it makes one syllable with the following vowel, is like _sw_
in _sweet_ (27).

66. In old Latin, final #s# after a short vowel and before a consonant
seems to have been reduced in sound or to have disappeared altogether.
In the older inscriptions it is often omitted in the ending of the
nominative singular #-us#, and in the pre-Ciceronian poets final #s#
often does not make position (2468). But such omission was considered
vulgar in Cicero’s time (Cic. _O._ 161; Quint. 9, 4, 38).

67. In the archaic period Latin #s# stood also for the voiced sibilant
(English _s_ in _ease_, _z_ in _zeal_), as in ASA, _altar_ (154).

68. #t# is always sounded as in _time_, never as in _nation_. The
pronunciation of #ci# and #ti# with the #c# and #t# as sibilants (as in
English _cinder_, _nation_) is very late.

69. #v# is like the English _w_.

70. #x# is a compound consonant, standing for #cs#, and so sounded,
never as English _gs_ or _gz_.

71. _z_, being a Greek sound, should have retained its Greek
pronunciation. This differed in the different dialects; in the Attic of
the fourth century B.C. it was approximately that of English _z_ in
_zeal_, while its earlier value was _zd_. The Romans had great
difficulty in pronouncing this sound (Quint. 12, 10, 27 f.), but the
grammarian Velius Longus expressly states that it should not be
pronounced as a compound sound (_zd_).

72. About 100 B.C. the combinations #ch#, #ph#, and #th# were introduced
in Greek words to represent χ, φ, and θ; as #Philippus#, for the older
PILIPVS. Somewhat later these combinations were in general use in some
Latin words (19). #ch# is thought to have been pronounced like _kh_ in
_blockhead_, #ph# as in _uphill_, and #th# as in _hothouse_. But in
practice #ch# is usually sounded as in the German _machen_ or _ich_,
#ph# as in _graphic_, and #th# as in _pathos_.


CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANTS.

73. EXPLOSIVES. Consonants which are formed by stopping the breath in
the oral cavity and then suddenly removing the obstruction are called
_explosives_. They cannot be prolonged in sound. They are: #c#, #k#,
#q#, #g#; #t#, #d#; #p#, #b#. These are often called _mutes_.

74. CONTINUANTS. Consonants which may be prolonged in sound are called
_continuants_. They are: unsyllabic (83) #i# (59) and #u# (66); #l#
(60), #r#; #l#, #s#, #f#; #n# (62), #m#.

75. VOICED and UNVOICED. If during the emission of breath the vocal
chords vibrate (32), the consonant is said to be _voiced_ or _sonant_:
#g#; #d#; #b#; #n# (62), #m#; #l# (60), #r#; unsyllabic (83) #i# (59)
and #u# (69); otherwise it is said to be _unvoiced_ or _surd_: #c#, #k#,
#q#; #t#; #p#; #h#, #s#, #f#.

76. NASALS. In the majority of consonants, the breath escapes through
the cavity of the mouth, and the cavity of the nose is closed in the
rear by means of the raised soft palate. Those consonants in which the
breath escapes through the nose, while the oral cavity is closed, are
called _nasals_: as, #n#, #m#, #n adulterīnum# (see 62).

77. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO PLACE OF FORMATION. Consonants are
further divided according to the place where the breath is stopped or
squeezed. (1.) If the breath is stopped by the lips, as in #p#, #b#,
#m#, or squeezed through the lips, as in #v# (English _w_), we speak of
_labials_. (2.) If the breath is forced through an opening between the
upper teeth and the lower lip, as in #f#, we speak of a _labiodental_.
(3.) Sounds which are produced by the point of the tongue touching the
upper gums and teeth, as #t#, #d#, #n#, #r#, or by the formation of a
narrow median channel in the same place, like #s#, or of a lateral
channel, like #l# (60), are called _dentals_. (4.) _Palatals_ are formed
by an elevation of the front part of the tongue against the forward
section of the palate, like #i# consonant (English _y_). (5.) If the
back of the tongue touches or approaches the rear part of the palate as
in #k#, #q#, #c#, #g#, #n adulterīnum# (English _ng_ in _sing_), and #l#
(60), we speak of _gutturals_ (_velars_); see 44.

78. SPIRANTS. Sounds which are produced by friction of the breath are
called _spirants_: as, #s#, #f#, and #h#.

79. SIBILANTS. On account of its hissing sound, #s# is called a
sibilant. English _s_, _z_, _th_ are sibilants.

80. DOUBLING OF CONSONANTS. In English, double consonants as the _tt_,
_nn_, _pp_, _mm_ in _motto_, _Anna_, _tapping_, _grammar_, are sounded
exactly like the corresponding single consonants in _cot_, _pan_, _tap_,
_ram_. In Latin, on the other hand, double consonants (#geminātae#) were
pronounced as they are in modern Italian. In the case of explosives
(73), as in #mitto#, after the tongue had come in contact with the roof
of the mouth (= first #t#) a short pause ensued before the explosion
took place (= second #t#). In the case of continuants (74), as in
#summus#, #Apollo#, the #mm# or #ll# was sounded appreciably longer than
a single #m# or #l#, and at the beginning of the second half of the long
continuant there was a slight increase of force.

81. Consonants were not doubled in writing till after 200 B.C.: as,
FVISE for #fuisse#, _to have been_, and for more than a century
afterward the usage is variable: as, in the same inscription, ESSENT,
_they might be_, by the side of SVPERASES, _thou mayest have conquered_;
but it must not be inferred that they were pronounced as single
consonants.

  [Errata:
  77. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO PLACE OF FORMATION.
    final . invisible
  77 ... (5.) If the back of the tongue
    . invisible]


SYLLABIC AND UNSYLLABIC FUNCTION.

82. Whenever two or more sounds are combined in a syllable, one of them
excels in acoustic prominence: as, _a_ in English _pat_; _n_ in the
group _pnd_ in _opnd_ (_opened_); _l_ in the group _tld_ in _bottld_
(_bottled_); and _s_ in the group _pst_. This sound is said to have
_syllabic function_ or to be _syllabic_; in the examples given, _a_,
_n_, _l_, and _s_ are respectively syllabic. All the other members of
each group are termed _unsyllabic_.

83. Vowels are almost always used in syllabic function. When, in rare
cases, they are unsyllabic, this fact is usually indicated in phonetic
works by an inverted half-circle,  ̭, placed under the vowel; so in the
case of diphthongs to indicate the subordinate member: as #ai̭#, #oḙ#,
#ṷi# (49). Latin #omnia# and English _glorious_, when pronounced as
words of two syllables, would be written #omni̭a# (2503), _glori̭ous_.
When sounds other than vowels have, in rare cases, syllabic function,
this fact is noted in phonetic works by a point, . , or circle, ˳ ,
under the letter: as, Latin #*agṛs#, #*agr̥s# (111, _b_), English
_opṇd_, _opn̥d_.


ACCENT.

84. The relative force with which the different syllables of a word are
uttered varies. Such variation in emphasis is called _stress
accentuation_.

The degrees of stress are really infinite, but for practical purposes it
is sufficient to distinguish between (1.) the strongest stress (chief
accent); (2.) a weaker stress (secondary accent); and (3.) absence of
stress (atonic syllable). In the English _contradict_, the last syllable
has the chief accent, a secondary accent falls on the first, and the
second syllable is unstressed.

85. It is not customary to indicate the place of accents in Latin by
special signs. When, for special reasons, signs are used, ´ denotes the
chief accent, ` the secondary accent, while the unstressed syllables are
left unmarked.


THE CLASSICAL ACCENT.

86. In classical Latin the place of the chief accent may be determined
by the following rules.

(1.) Words of two syllables have the accent on the penult (175): as,

#hómo#; #ā́cer#.

(2.) Words of more than two syllables have the accent on the penult when
that syllable is long (177); otherwise on the antepenult: as,

#palū́ster#, #onústus# (177); #mulíebris#, #génetrīx# (178); #árborēs#,
#árbutus#, #gladíolus#.

87. A short penult retains the accent in the genitive and vocative with
a single #ī# from stems in #-io-# (456, 459): as, genitive, #cōnsílī#;
#impérī#; genitive or vocative, #Vergílī#; #Valérī#; #Mercúrī#. For
#calefácis#, &c., see 394.

88. In a few words which have lost a syllable the accent is retained on
the last syllable; such are (1.) compounds of the imperatives #dīc# and
#dūc# (113): as, #ēdū́c#; (2.) nominatives of proper names in #-ās# and
#-īs# for #-ātis# and #-ītis#: as, #Arpīnā́s#, for #Arpīnā́tis#;
#Laenā́s#; #Maecēnā́s#; #Quirī́s#; #Samnī́s#; also #nostrā́s#,
#vostrā́s#; (3.) words compounded with the abbreviated (113) enclitics
#-c# for #-ce# and #-n# for #-ne#: as, #illī́c#; #tantṓn#; #audīstī́n#
(for the shortening of the final syllable: as, #vidén#, _dost see?_, see
129); (4.) #audī́t#, contracted from #audīvit# (154, 893). The Latin
grammarians prescribe the circumflex (90) for all these long syllables.


EARLIER RECESSIVE ACCENT.

89. In the preliterary period of the Latin language, the accent tended
to go as far from the end of the word as possible (_recessive accent_).
Thus, while the classical accentuation is #inimī́cus#, the older period
accented #ínimīcus#. In literary Latin this early recessive accent has
survived, only in Plautus’s accentuation of words of the form ⏑ ⏑ ⏑ ⏓
(proceleusmatic or fourth paeon, see 2521), in which he stresses the
first syllable: as, #fácilius# (classical #facílius#); #vóluerat#
(classical #volúerat#). But in many instances the early recessive accent
may be traced in literary Latin by the phonetic changes which it
produced (102 ff.).

90. MUSICAL ELEMENT. The native Latin grammarians slight the stress
accentuation and pay much attention instead to the variations in pitch.
But they are so greatly dependent on their Greek models that they are
unsafe guides in this matter. It is, however, probable that a stressed
vowel was uttered on a higher key (acute) than an unstressed vowel
(grave), and that in certain syllables the long, accented vowel showed a
rise and fall (circumflex): as, #illîc# (88).

91. The force of the Latin stress accent must have varied at different
periods and in different localities, as it now varies in the Romance
countries. The early recessive accent seems to have been fairly
emphatic; but the stress in classical Latin was probably weak and the
difference between accented and unaccented syllables was much less
marked than it is in English.


PROCLITICS AND ENCLITICS.

92. #Proclitics# are unaccented words which are pronounced as a part of
the following word; they are: (1.) The relative and indefinite pronouns
and their derivatives; (2.) Prepositions.

(_a._) Thus, #quō diē#, pronounced #quōdíē#; #quī vīxit#, #quīvī́xit#;
#genus unde Latīnum#, #génus undeLatī́num#. Similarly #quamdíū#, _as
long as_; #iamdíū#, _this long time_. A distinction is thus made between
the interrogative #quālis# (1526), which is accented, and the relative
#quālis# (1831) which is proclitic (Quint. 1, 5, 26); cf. the English
_who_, which is accented when interrogative, and proclitic when
relative. (_b._) #circum lītora#, pronounced #circumlī́tora#; #ab ōrīs#,
pronounced #abōrīs# (Quint. 1, 5, 27); in inscriptions and manuscripts
prepositions are often united in writing with the following word.
Phrases like #extemplō#, _suddenly_, #invicem# (94), _in turn_, are
commonly written and accented as one word. But the preposition is
accented when it is followed by a monosyllabic unemphatic (and therefore
enclitic) personal pronoun: as, #ín mē#; #ábs tē# (but #abs tḗ#, if #tē#
is emphatic). All prepositions used as adverbs (1402) have an
independent accent.

93. ENCLITICS are words which have no accent of their own, but are
pronounced as a part of the word preceding. This increase of the number
of syllables produced certain accentual changes, all the details of
which are not clear. When the enclitic was monosyllabic the place of the
accent seems to have been determined as in 86; thus #vídēs#, but
#vidḗsne#; #Látiō#, but #Latiṓque#. Again, when by the addition of a
monosyllabic enclitic the accent falls on the fourth syllable from the
end, a secondary (84, 85) accent was probably placed on the penult: as,
#perī́cula#, but #perī́culàque#. The Roman grammarians agree, however,
in demanding that everywhere the syllable preceding the enclitics
#-que#, #-ne#, #-ve#, and #-ce# should be accented. In #deinde# and
#subinde# there is authority for placing the accent on the first
syllable.

Enclitics are: (1.) Unemphatic personal and indefinite pronouns: as, #in
mē#, pronounced, #ínmē#; #dā mihi#, #dā́mihi#; #sīc tibi#, #sī́ctibi#;
#sī quis#, #sī́quis#; #nē quid#, #nḗquid#. (2.) Verbs when used as
auxiliaries: as, #possum# for #pót(e) sum# (752); #quī́ libet# (2401);
#vidḗlicet#, #īlicet#, #scīlicet# (712); #quámvīs# (1903); the forms of
#esse# in compound tenses (719), so that #est# is frequently combined,
even in writing, with the preceding past participle (747). (3.) The
particles #-ne# (#-n#), #-ve#, and #-ce# (#-c#): as, #satísne# or
shortened #satín#; #Hyrcānīsve Arabī́sve#; #istī́ce# or shortened
#istîc# (90), #adhûc# (90). (4.) The copulative conjunction #-que#: as,
#Latiṓque#, #līmináque#. (5.) The preposition #cum# when it follows
(1435) its case. (6.) The particle #quidem#: as, #sī quidem#, #síquidem#
(131). (7.) Other enclitics are: #-met# (650): as, #egómet#; #-dem#: as,
#ibídem#; #-nam#: as, #ubínam#; #-dum# (1573): as, #agédum#; #-inde#:
as, #déinde#, #próinde# (which are disyllabic in verse), and #súbinde#;
#-tum#; as, #etiámtum#; #-per#: as, #parúmper#; the vocative when it was
closely joined to the preceding word, e.g. an imperative: as, #dī́c
puer# (106).

94. Two words expressing what is really one single idea are often bound
together by _one_ accent, one of them acting the part of either a
proclitic or enclitic.

Thus, with the earlier recessive accent (89), #Iū́piter# (133; 389;
originally a vocative which came to be used as nominative; for the
change of #pater# to #piter# see 104); #ínvicem#, _in turn_; #dḗnuō# for
#dḗ nóvō# (106); with the later, classical accent, #lēgislā́tor#,
#paterfamíliās#, #orbisterrā́rum#, #extémplō#, #imprī́mīs#. When
unemphatic #ille# and #iste# preceded their noun and had practically the
value of our definite article they formed a unit with the following noun
and thus the accent might fall on their last syllable: as, #illé pater#,
#isté canis#. This use is particularly common in vulgar and late Latin
(see 112).

  [Erratum:
  92a ... and proclitic when relative.
    final . missing]


CHANGE OF SOUND.


(A.) VOWEL CHANGE.


CHANGE OF DIPHTHONGS IN ACCENTED SYLLABLES.

95. Of the six original diphthongs #au#, #ou#, #eu#, and #ai#, #oi#,
#ei#, the only one which preserved its original sound in the classical
period is #au#. Of the rest only #ae# (for older #ai#) and, in a few
words, #oe# (for older #oi#) remained diphthongs; all the others had
become monophthongs.

96. CHANGE OF #ai#. #ai# is common in inscriptions: as, AIDILIS,
PRAITOR. Toward the end of the republic the two elements of the
diphthong had been partially assimilated to #ae# (49): as, #aedīlis#
(Quint. 1, 7, 18). This is its pronunciation in the classical period.
Between 130 and 100 B.C. #ai# is displaced by #ae# in public documents;
but the old-fashioned #ai# was often retained in private inscriptions.
Still later the two elements completely converged to #ē#. In provincial
Latin #ē# is found as early as 200 B.C.: as, CESVLA for CAESVLLA; in
Rome itself the pronunciation ‘Cēcilius’ for #Caecilius#, and ‘#prētor#’
for #praetor# was derided as boorish; but by 71 A.D. #ae# was verging
toward #ē# even in the court language: the coins of Vespasian have IVDEA
as well as IVDAEA. In the 3d and 4th century A.D. #ē# became the
prevalent sound.

97. CHANGE OF #au#. The diphthong #au#, which was preserved in educated
speech, was changed to #ō# in rustic and colloquial pronunciation (see
the anecdote related by Suetonius, _Vesp._ 22): as, #cōpō#, _innkeeper_,
for #caupō#; #plōstrum# for #plaustrum# (_barge_), _cart_: #Clōdius# for
#Claudius#. Some of these gained literary currency: as, #cōdex#, _book_,
#caudex#, _block_; #fōcāle#, _neckcloth_, #faucēs#, _throat_. The form
#sōdēs# (1572) for #si̭ audēs# = #sī audēs# (Cic. _O._ 154) is a
colloquialism.

98. CHANGE OF #ei#. #ei# as a genuine diphthong is common in old
inscriptions: as, SEI; SEIVE; ADEITVR; DEIXERVNT; FEIDA. In classical
Latin it has passed into #ī#: thus, #sī#, _if_; #sīve#, _either_;
#adītur#, _is approached_; #dīxērunt#, _they said_; fīda, _faithful_. An
intermediate stage between the old diphthong #ei# and the classical #ī#
was a very close (46) #ē#: as, PLOIRVME (465) for #plūrimī#; IOVRE (501,
507) for #iūrī#. For the orthographical use of #ei# as a spelling for
the long #ī#-sound, see 29.

99. CHANGE OF #oi#. The development of #oi# was parallel to that of
#ai#. It first passed into #oe#: as, COIRAVERVNT and COERAVERVNT, _they
cared_; OITILE, _useful_, and OETI, _to use_; LOIDOS and LOEDOS,
_play_,--all in old Latin. In classical Latin it has further been
changed in accented syllables to #ū#: as, #cūrāvērunt#, #ūtile#, #ūtī#,
#lūdus#. But #oe# was retained in classical Latin (1.) when a secondary
diphthong (48), the result of contraction (120), and (2.) in a few words
like #foedus#, _treaty_, perhaps as an archaizing, legal term; #foedus#,
_ugly_; #poena#, _penalty_, perhaps through the influence of Greek ποινή
(in the verb #pūnīre#, _to punish_, the regular #ū# appears);
#proelium#, _skirmish_; #foetor#, _stench_; and #moenia#, _walls_,
perhaps because there was a word #mūnia#, _services_. The connection of
#nōn#, _not_, with #noenum# (455; 1444; 699) is difficult because of the
unusual development of #oe# to #o#, for which the Praenestine form
CORAVERONT is the only parallel.

100. CHANGE of #ou#. #ou#, found in inscriptions down to about 90 B.C.,
passed, in classical Latin, into #ū#: as, POVBLICOM, NOVNTIATA, IOVDEX;
later #pūblicum#, _public_, #nūntiāta#, _notified_, #iūdex#, _judge_.

101. CHANGE OF #eu#. Primitive (48) #eu# appears in classical Latin only
in the interjections #eu#, #heu#, #ē̆heu#, #heus#. Every other original
#eu# had, even in old Latin, passed into #ou# and developed like the
latter: as, #*neumen# (Greek νεῦμα) became first #*noumen#, then (100)
#nūmen#. With the exceptions noted above, the diphthong #eu#, as it
appears in Latin, is always of secondary origin (48), the result of the
two vowels #e# and #u# meeting in composition: as, #neu#, _neither_,
from #nē-ve#; #neutiquam#, from #nē# and #utiquam# (124).


WEAKENING IN UNACCENTED SYLLABLES.

102. The vowel of an unstressed (atonic) syllable is often weakened,
changing its quantity or quality or both. This is especially the case in
syllables immediately preceded by the chief accent (_posttonic
syllables_). The following changes took place at an early period when
Latin still possessed the old, recessive accent (89).


WEAKENING OF SIMPLE VOWELS IN MEDIAL SYLLABLES.

103. (_a._) ATONIC MEDIAL #e# before a single consonant was weakened
(with the exceptions given under _b._) to #i#: as, #cólligō#, _collect_,
from #legō#; #óbsideō#, _besiege_, from #sedeō#; #cértāminis#, _of the
contest_, from #certāmen# (224); #flāminis#, from #flāmen# (470). And so
probably #hic# (664) arose from #*hec# or #*hoc# (105, _g_) when used as
proclitic (92). Before the labials #p#, #b#, #f#, and #m# this weakened
sound was intermediate between #i# and #u# (28), and both spellings
occur: as, #quadripēs# and #quadrupēs#, _four-footed_; #alimentum#,
_nourishment_; #monumentum#, _monument_. The choice of #i# or #u# was
probably governed by the quality of the stressed vowel in the preceding
syllable: viz., #u# after #o# and #u#, and #i# after #a#, #e#, and #i#.
But such distinction is only imperfectly maintained in classical Latin.

(_b._) But before two consonants, before #r#, before vowels, and after
#i#, atonic #e# does not change: as, #lévāmentum# (224), but
#lévāminis#, _of consolation_; #óbsessus# (but #óbsideō#), _possessed_;
#sócietās#, _society_, from the stem #socie-# (but #nóvitās# from the
stem #nove-#); #géneris#, _of the kind_; #ádeunt#, _they approach_.

104. (_c._) Atonic medial #a#, except in the cases mentioned below under
(_d._), (_e._), and (_f._), was first weakened to #e# and then underwent
the same changes as atonic medial #e# (103): as (before single
consonants), #cṓnficiō#, _accomplish_, from #faciō#; #ī́nsiliō#, _jump
in_, from #saliō# (1019); #rédditus#, _restored_, from #datus#;
#trícipitem#, _three-headed_, from #*trícapitem# (#caput#), Cic. _O._
159; #occiput#, _back of the head_, and #sinciput#, _jole_ (478). In
compounds of #iaciō# (940), #-iaciō# is weakened in early Latin to
#-ieciō# (as, #conieciō#, 940), but later to #-iciō# (as, #subiciō#).
This last form may be due to syncope (111, _a_) of the radical #a#. The
spelling #-iiciō# (as, #subiiciō#) is late and faulty (52). It does not
occur in republican inscriptions and owes its origin to a confusion of
the two forms #conieciō# and #coniciō#. (On the quantity of the vowel of
the prepositions in these compounds of #iaciō#, see 122 _e_); (before
#p#, #b#, #f#, #m#) #áccipiō#, _accept_, and #óccupō#, _occupy_, from
#capiō#; #cóntubernālis#, _room-mate_, from #taberna#; #ábripiō#, _to
snatch away_, from #rapiō#; (before two consonants) #pépercī#, _I have
spared_, from #parcō#; #áccentus#, _accent_, from #cantus#; (before #r#)
#péperī#, _I brought forth_, from #pariō#.

(_d._) But an #a# in the preceding syllable may protect the atonic #a#:
as, #ádagiō#, #ádagium#, _proverb_, but #prṓdigium#, _miracle_ (144).

(_e._) Atonic medial #a# before the guttural nasal (62) #n# followed by
#g# changed to #i# (138): as, #áttingō#, _touch_, from #tangō#.

(_f._) Atonic medial #a# before #l# followed by any consonant save #l#
changed to #u# (both #l# and #u# being guttural, 60, 44): as,
#éxsultāre#, _to leap up_, from #saltāre#; but #féfellī#, _I deceived_,
from #fallō#.

105. (_g._) ATONIC MEDIAL #o#, when followed by a single consonant,
first changed to #e# and then underwent all further changes of medial
atonic #e#: as, #hóminis#, from #*homon-is# (485); #ímāginis#, for
#*imāgonis#, 226 (nominative #imāgō#, 485); #cúpīdinis#, for
#*cupīdonis#, 225, (nominative #cupīdō#, 485); #vírginis#, for
#*virgonis# (nominative #virgō#, 470); #ī́licō#, from #*in-slocō#, _on
the spot_ (169, 4).

(_h._) Before two consonants or before guttural #l# (60) atonic medial
#o# changed to #u#: as, #éuntis#, from #*éontis# (Greek ἴοντος);
#sēdulō#, from #sē dolō# (1417). But a preceding #v# or #u# protects #o#
(107, _c_).

(_i._) Before #r#, atonic medial #o# was retained: as, #témporis#, _of
time_; except when #u# in the preceding syllable induced a change to
#u#: as, #fúlguris#, _of lightning_ (for the #-r# in the nominative
singular #fulgur# instead of #-s#, see 154).

106. (_k._) Medial #-av-#, #-ov-#, and #-iv-# in posttonic syllables
were weakened to #u#: as, #dḗnuō# from #dḗnovō# (94); #ábluō# from
#ablavō#. The form #puer#, _boy_, arose from the older POVER in enclitic
vocatives (93, 7) and was thence transferred to the nominative like
#piter# in #Iūpiter# (94).

  [Erratum:
  105g ... #ī́licō#, from #*in-slocō#, _on the spot_ (169, 4)
    (169, 6)]


WEAKENING OF SIMPLE VOWELS IN FINAL SYLLABLES.

107. (_a._) In final syllables unaccented original #e# before #s# and
#t# was weakened to #i#: as, #salūtis#, _of safety_, from older
#salūtes# (507).

(_b._) Final #i# became #e#: as, #ante# for #*anti# (Greek ἀντί and
#anti-cipāre#); nominative singular #mare#, from the stem #mari-# (526).

(_c._) In final syllables #o# before consonants changed to #u# except
when preceded by #u# or #v#: as, #fīlius#, _son_, for old Latin #fīlios#
(452); #ferunt#, _they carry_, for older #feront#; #femur#, _thigh_,
nomin. sg. from the stem #femor-# (489); #genus#, _kind_, for #*genos#,
Greek γένος; but #vīvont#, _they live_; #salvom#, _safe_. Not long
before the beginning of our era #o# here also changed to #u# and appears
to have coalesced with the preceding #v# (Quint. 1, 7, 26): as, in
inscriptions: INGENVS (nomin. sg.) for #ingenuos#; SERVM, _slave_
(acc. sg.), for #servom#; NOVM for #novom#, _something new_; so also
#boum#, _oxen_ (gen. pl.), for #bovom# (494). But inasmuch as the
majority of forms in the paradigms of these words retained their #v#, it
was restored in most cases, by analogy, to the forms which had lost it:
as, #servum# for #serum#, because of #servī#, #servō#, etc.; #vīvunt#
for #vīunt#, because of #vīvō#, #vīvis#, #vīvit#, etc.

(_d._) When the stems #fac-# (#facere#, _do_), #cap-# (#capere#, _take_)
appear as second members of compounds, their #a# changes in final
syllables to #e#: as, #artifex#, _artisan_; #auceps#, _bird-catcher_.
After the analogy of these words, compounds with #dīcere# and #īre# have
#e# in the nom. sg.: as, #iūdex#, #iūdicis#, _judge_ (from #iūs# and
#dīcere#); #comes#, _companion_ (from #com#, _with_, and #īre#); see
136, 2.

  [Errata:
  107 (_b._) Final #i# became #e#
    (_b_)
  107c ... INGENVS (nomin. sg.) for #ingenuos#
    . after sg. invisible]


WEAKENING OF DIPHTHONGS IN UNACCENTED SYLLABLES.

108. Diphthongs, whether medial or final, are treated alike in atonic
syllables.

(_a._) Atonic #ei#, #oi#, and #ai# (#ae#) became #ī#: as, #lupī#,
_wolves_ (nom. pl.), for #*lupoi# (Gr. λύκοι); #bellī#, _in war_ (loc.
sg., 460, 1338), for #*bellei# (Greek οἴκει) or #*belloi# (Greek οἴκοι);
#éxīstimō#, _I consider_, from #aestimō#; #cóncīdō#, _I strike down_,
from #caedō#; Cicero, _O._ 159, mentions #inīcum#, _unfair_, for
#*ínaecum#, and #concīsum# for #*cóncaesum#; so also, probably, #hīc#,
_this_, arose from #hoic# (662) when used as a proclitic (92).

(_b._) Atonic #ou# and #au# became #ū#: as, #ínclūdō#, _I include_, from
#claudō#; #áccūsāre#, _to accuse_, from #causa#.

109. There are not a few cases in which the atonic vowel does not
conform to the rules given above (102-108). These are usually compounds
which show the vowel of the simple verb. Some of these were formed at a
time when the early recessive accent was no longer in force and
consequently there was no cause for weakening; in others the vowel of
the simple verb was by analogy substituted for the weakened vowel of the
compound: as, #appetō#, _I strive after_, from #petō#, which ought to
have #i# like #colligō#, _collect_, from #legō#; #intermedius#,
_intermediate_, but #dīmidius#, _half_; #dēfraudāre#, _to cheat_, by the
side of #dēfrūdāre# from #fraudāre#; instead of the common #redarguō#,
_I refute_, Scipio Africanus minor Pauli filius (185-129 B.C.) said
#rederguō#, and #pertīsum# for #pertaesum#, but both Cicero (_O._ 159)
and Lucilius discountenance #pertīsum# as the sign of a pedantic prig.
In a few cases the reverse process took place, and the weakened vowel
which arose in the compound was transferred to the simple verb: as,
#clūdō#, _I close_ (958), for #claudō#, which owes its #ū# to compounds
like #occlūdō#. For a case where the vowel of the preceding syllable
acted as a stay to the expected change, see 104, _d_.


LOSS IN UNACCENTED SYLLABLES.

110. Only vowels which are short and atonic may be lost. The loss of a
medial vowel is called _Syncope_; of an initial vowel, _Aphaeresis_; of
a final vowel _Apocope_.

111. SYNCOPE. (_a._) Loss of a posttonic vowel, entailing the loss of a
syllable, occurs in #ardus# (Lucil.; for #ă# see 128) for the common
#āridus#, _dry_; #caldus# by the side of #calidus#, _warm_ (Quint. 1,
6, 19); #reppulī#, _I pushed back_, and #rettulī#, _I carried back_,
stand for #*répepulī# and #*rétetulī# (861); #pergō#, _I proceed_,
stands for #*perregō# from #regō# (cf. #cor-rigō#, #ē-rigō#, where the
#e# is weakened, 103, and #porrigō#, #porgō#, where it is either
weakened or lost), hence it forms its perfect #perrēxī# (953): #pōnō#,
_I place_, is for #*posnō# (170, 2) from #*po-sinō# (112), hence it
forms its past participle #positus# (972); for #iūrgō#, _I blame_.
Plautus has #iūrigō#; #*ūsūripō# (from #ūsus# and #rapere#) yields
#ūsurpō#, _I utilize_; #*gāvideō#, hence #gāvīsus# (801), gives
#gaudeo#, _I rejoice_, converting #āṷ# to #aṷ# before the following
#d# (128); in a similar way #auceps#, _bird-catcher_, is formed from
#*aviceps# (#avis#, _bird_, and #capere#, _catch_); #claudere#, _lock_,
from #*clāvidere# (#clāvis#, _key_); #aetās#, _age_, for #áevitās#
(262); #praecō#, _herald_, for #*práevicō# (105, _g_) #prae-vocō# (211);
also with change of #ou# to #ū# (100), #prūdēns#, _prudent_, for
#*proudēns# from #providēns#, _foreseeing_; #nūper#, _lately_, from
#*noviper#; #nūntius#, _messenger_, from #*noventius# (333); #iūcundus#,
_joyful_, from #iuvicundus# (Cic. _Fin._ 2, 14). But forms like
#pōclum#, _cup_, #saeclum#, _age_, do not belong here, as they are
original and not derived by syncope from #pōculum#, #saeculum#; cf. 172.

(_b._) Where, through the loss of a vowel, #l# or #r# would come to
stand between two consonants, or where they would be final and preceded
by a consonant, #l# and #r# become syllabic (83) and the syllable is
thus maintained. Syllabic #l# is represented by #ul#, syllabic #r# by
#er# (172, 3). The development of such intercalary vowels as #u# before
#l# and #e# before #r# is called _Anaptyxis_ (172). Thus, #*sacri-dōts#
(cf. #sacri-legium#) became first #*sacr̥dōts# by syncope, then
#sacerdōs#, _priest_, by anaptyxis; #*ācribus# (cf. #ācri-mōnia#,
_pungency_) first became #*ācr̥bus# then #ācerbus#, _pungent_;
#*agrilos# (267, cf. #agri-cola#, _farmer_) became first #*agr̥los#,
then #*agerlos#, and finally, by assimilation of the #r# to #l#
(166, 7), #agellus#, _small field_; from #*dis-ficilter# (adverb from
#dis-# and #facilis#) arose #*difficl̥ter# and #difficulter#, _with
difficulty_. The nominative sg. of the following words is to be
explained thus. #ager# (451) was originally #*agros# (cf. Greek ἄγρος),
which changed successively to #*agr̥s#, #*agers#, and #ager# (for the
loss of #-s# see 171, 1 and 3). Similarly #*ācris#, passing through the
stages of #*ācr̥s#, #*ācers#, became #ācer# (627), and #*famlos# by way
of #*faml̥s#, #*famuls#, became #famul# (455), to which later the common
ending of nouns of the #o-#declension was added, giving #famulus#.

112. APHAERESIS. Aphaeresis hardly occurs in literary Latin. In the
pronoun #iste# the initial #i# is sometimes dropped (667); this loss
implies an accented ultima (94). A trace of prehistoric aphaeresis is
found in the prefix #po-# for #*apo# (Greek ἀπό) in #pōnō#, _I place_,
for #po-s(i)nō# (111, _a_).

113. APOCOPE. Under the same conditions under which a medial vowel was
syncopated, the final vowel of a word which stood in close union with
the following word, as a preposition with its noun, was lost. In this
way #*peri# (Greek περί) became #per#; #*apo# (Greek ἀπό) became #ap#,
#ab# (164, 2); #*eti# (Greek ἔτι) became #et#. Similarly the final #-e#
of the enclitics #-ce#, #-ne#, _not_, and #-ne# interrogative was lost:
#*sī-ce# became #sīc#, _so_; #*quī-ne#, #quīn#, _why not_; #habēsne#,
#haben#, _hast thou_; the imperatives #dīc#, _say_, #dūc#, _lead_, and
#fac#, _do_, stand for earlier #dīce#, #dūce#, #face# (846); the
shortened form #em# for #eme# (imperative of #emere#, _take_) has been
turned into an interjection (1149). In the same way #nec# arose by the
side of #neque#; #ac# by the side of #atque# (158). Final #-e# has also
been dropped in the nominative sg. of a number of polysyllabic neuter
stems in #-āli# and #-āri# (546): as, #animal#, _animal_, for
#*animāle#, #exemplar#, _pattern_, for #*exemplāre#. See 536, 537. It
must, however, be remembered that in most of the cases given the loss of
a final vowel would also result from elision (119) before the initial
vowel of the following word.


COMBINATION OF ADJACENT VOWELS.

114. HIATUS. A succession of two vowel sounds not making a diphthong is
called _Hiatus_.

When in the formation of words by means of suffixes or prefixes or
through the loss of an intervening consonant, two vowels come into
contact within a word we speak of _internal hiatus_; the term _external
hiatus_ comprises those cases where, in connected discourse, the final
vowel of one word comes into contact with the initial vowel of the
following word. For the latter kind, see 2474.

115. The treatment of vowels in internal hiatus is four-fold: (1.) The
hiatus may remain; (2.) the two vowels may be fused into one
(_Contraction_); (3.) one of the two vowels may be dropped (_Elision_);
and (4.) the two vowels may be combined into a diphthong.

116. HIATUS is maintained (_a._) between two adjacent vowels the second
of which is long and accented (according to the classical accentuation):
as, #coḗgi#, _I forced_, and #coā́ctus#, _forced_ (937); but #cōgō#
(118, 3). For #coepi#, instead of #coḗpī#, _I began_, see 120.

(_b._) In many prepositional compounds when the members were still felt
to be independent: as, #praeesse# (the contracted form #praesse# is
found in inscriptions); #dēerunt#, _they will be wanting_, by the side
of #dērunt#; #coalēscō#, _grow together_ (the contracted form #cōlēscō#
appears in Varro); #cooptāre#, _coöpt_, #cooperiō#, _I cover up_ (by the
side of rare #cōptāre#, #cōperīre#); #coïtus#, _meeting_, by the side of
#coetus# (120).

(_c._) A comparatively large number of vowel combinations remain
unchanged: as #ea# and #eā# in #eam#, _her_, and #meā#, _by my_ (fem.
sing.); #ia# and #iā# in #māria#, _seas_, #viātōris#, _of the
traveller_; #ua# and #uā# in #bēlua#, _monster_, #suā#, _through her_
(fem. sg.); #iē# in #quiēs#, _quiet_; #uē# in #luēs#, _pestilence_; #eī#
in #meī#, _of me_; #uī# in #tuī#, _of thee_; #eō# in #meō#, _by my_
(masc. sing.).

117. SYNIZESIS. In these combinations the first vowel is sometimes made
unsyllabic (83). This is called _synizesis_ (2499) and is not rare in
poets, being often the only means of adapting a word to the requirements
of certain metres. Thus, #fortuītus# (- ⏑ - ⏓) must appear in a
hexameter as #fortvītus# (#fortṷītus#). See 2499, 2503.

118. CONTRACTION. (1.) Two like vowels may unite in one long vowel;
rapidity of utterance was favourable to such fusion. In compounds, the
desire to keep the members distinct often prevented it. So always
#nēmō#, _nobody_, for #*neemō# from #*ne-hemō#, _no man_ (for the loss
of #h#, see 58, 150; for #e# in #*hemō#, see 144); and by the side of
the open forms, #nīl# from #nihil#, _nothing_; #vēmēns# from #vehemēns#,
_rapid_ (connected with the verb #vehō#); rarely #dērunt#, _they will be
wanting_, and #dēsse#, _to be wanting_, for #dēerunt#, #dēesse#;
#dēlēram#, _I had destroyed_, from #*dēlēeram# for #dēlēveram# (for the
loss of #v#, see 153), see 890; #passūm#, _of paces_, for #passuum#
(591).

(2.) A diphthong absorbs the following vowel: as, #praetor#, older
#praitor#, _praetor_, from #*prai-itor#, _who goes before_; inscriptions
show #praerunt# for #praeerunt#, _they will be before_; for #praebēre#,
_to furnish_, the open form #praehibēre# occurs in Plautus (1004).

(3.) If two unlike vowels are contracted at all, they usually unite in
the long sound of the first vowel. Thus, #o# and #a# yield #ō#: as,
#cōgō#, _I force_, from #co-agō#; #cōgitō#, _I think_, from #co-agitō#.
Similarly Varro has #cōlēscat#, _it may combine_, for #co-alēscat#. #o#
and #e# yield #ō#: as, #prōmō#, _bring out_, #cōmō#, _put up_, for
#pro-emō#, #co-emō# (953). #ē# and #a# yield #ē#: as, #dēgō#, _I pass
away_, from #dē-agō# (937). #i# and #e# in the termination of the
vocative of #-io-# stems probably contracted to #-ī#; as #fīlī# from
#*fīlie#, 459. But in denominative (365) and other verbs of the first
conjugation #ā# and #ō# contract into #ō#: as, #amō#, _I love_, from
#*amā-ō# (cf. Greek τιμά·ω); and #ā# and #ē# into #ē#: as, #amēs#, _thou
mayest love_, for #*amā-ēs#.

119. ELISION. Only rarely the first of two successive vowels is dropped:
as, #nūllus#, _no_, for #*ne-ūllus#; likewise the final vowel of the
first member of nominal compounds: as, #multangulus#, _with many
corners_, for #*multi-angulus# (cf. #multi-cavus#, _with many holes_);
#flexanimus#, _heart-rending_, for #*flexi-animus# (cf. #flexi-pēs#,
_with bent feet_).

120. COMBINATION INTO DIPHTHONGS. The union of two successive vowels
into a diphthong is equally rare: #o# and #i# are combined to #oi#,
#oe#, in #coetus#, _meeting_, by the side of the open form #coïtus#
(116, _b_); the perfect #coepī# (812), _I began_, owes its diphthong
#oe# to forms in which the #e# was short and unaccented, such as the
rare present forms #coepiō# for #có-ĕpiō# (813); for #coḗpi# (813, 863)
would have remained unchanged (116, _a_). #neuter#, with the accent on
the #e#, was pronounced as three syllables, later #eu# became
diphthongal; #neutiquam# with synizesis (117) of #e#. #e# and #ī̆#
sometimes contract to #e͡i# in #rēi# (601, 602) and in #de͡inde#, #dēin#
in the classic poets.


LENGTHENING.

121. COMPENSATIVE LENGTHENING. When certain groups of consonants are
simplified by the dropping of a consonant, its time is absorbed by a
preceding short vowel, which thereby becomes long. This is called
_Compensation_. In many cases compensative lengthening is due to the
loss of a preliterary sonant #s# (170, 2): as,

#cānus#, _gray_, from #*casnus# (cf. #cas-cus#, _very old_). See for
other cases of this lengthening, 170, 5, #quīnī#, for #*quincnī#; 170,
6, #īgnōscō#, for #*in-gnōscō#.

122. INDUCED LENGTHENING. Before certain groups of consonants short
vowels have a tendency to become long: as,

(_a._) The prefixes #in-# and #con-# before #s# or #f# lengthened their
vowels in classical Latin (Cic. _O._ 159): as, #īnsānus#, _mad_;
#īnfēlīx#, _unhappy_; #cōnsuēvit#, _he grew used to_; #cōnfēcit#, _he
accomplished_. Elsewhere also the vowel before #ns# and #nf# appears to
have been lengthened: as, #fōns#, _fountain_; #pēnsus#, _weighty_ (Gell.
9, 6); #forēnsis#, _forensic_; #cēnsor#, _censor_; #mēnsa#, _table_;
#mēnsis#, _mouth_; #Valēns#; #Clēmēns#; the #o# of #īnsons#,
_guiltless_, however, is marked as short by the grammarian Probus.

(_b._) A similar lengthening of the vowel before #nc# followed by #t# or
#s# appears: as, #ūnctus#, _anointed_, from #unguō# (Gell. 9, 6);
#iūnctus#, _joined_, from #iungō# (954), #coniūnx#, _spouse_, genit.
#coniugis# (472); #quīnctus#, _fifth_, whence #quīntus# (170, 4) and
#quīnque#, _five_, derive their #ī#; #sānctus#, _hallowed_.

(_c._) Spellings like SIGNVM, _sign_ (well supported in inscriptions),
and DIGNE, _worthily_ (less well supported) show that #i# was at times
lengthened before #gn#. The grammarian Priscian demands this lengthening
for all vowels preceding the ending #-gnus#, #-gna#, #-gnum#.

(_d._) A lengthened vowel before #r# followed by a consonant is also
certain for some words like #ōrdō#, _order_; #fōrma#, _shape_.

(_e._) Some speakers appear to have lengthened the vowel of prepositions
like #con-#, #sub-#, #ob-#, in the compounds of #iaciō# (104, _c_); as
#ōbicit#. This practice, which is disapproved by Gellius (4, 17),
probably arose from the transfer by analogy of the quantity of the first
syllable in forms like #conieciant# (940) to that of the shortened form.
In the same way the occasional spelling CÓNIV́NX, _spouse_, for
#coniūnx#, may owe its long #ō# to the analogy of #cōiunx#, CÓIVGI
(170, 6).

(_f._) Many verb stems ending in #-g# have a long vowel in the past
participle before the suffix #-to-#: as, #tēctus#, _covered_, from
#tego# (916); #tāctus#, _touched_, from #tangō# (925); #pāctus#,
_fixed_, from #pangō# (925); #fīctus#, _moulded_, from #fingō# (954);
#pīctus#, _painted_, from #pingō#. The evidence for #ā# in #maximus# is
very scanty: one case of A with the apex (29, 3) in a faulty
inscription.

(_g._) Of the induced lengthenings enumerated above, only those given in
(_a._) (_b._) (_f._) seem to have been universal in classical Latin. The
rest appear to have been local peculiarities, which, while making
inroads upon the literary language, never gained full recognition.

123. (1.) ANALOGICAL LENGTHENING. In noun stems in #-o# the stem vowel
is lengthened in the genitive plural #-ōrum# (449, 462), by analogy to
the stems in #-ā# (435): as, #servōrum#, _of slaves_, like #mēnsārum#,
_of tables_. For other cases see 122, _e_.

(2.) METRICAL LENGTHENING. On the lengthening of a vowel (or a syllable)
under the influence of verse-ictus, see 2505.


SHORTENING.

124. A vowel originally long is regularly shortened in classical Latin
before another vowel, even though an #h# intervene: as,

#taceō#, _I am silent_, from the stem #tacē-# (365); #seorsum#, _apart_,
#deorsum#, _downward_, from #sē(v)orsum#, #dē(v)orsum# (153).

125. In simple words a diphthong occurs before a vowel only in one or
two proper names: as, #Gnaeus#, #Annaeus#, in which it remains long, and
in Greek words. But the diphthong #ae# of the prefix #prae# is sometimes
shortened before a vowel: as, #pra͝eacūtus#; #pra͝eeunt#; #pra͝ehibeō#;
hence #prehendō# for #*prae-hendō#. Sometimes it coalesces with a
following vowel: as, #pra͡e͡optāvīstī#.

126. An increased tendency to shorten a long vowel before another vowel
can be traced in the history of the language: thus, classical #fuī#,
_I was_, for Plautus’s #fūī# (750); #clueō#, _I am called_, for
Plautus’s #clūeō#; perfect #pluit#, _it rained_, for Varro’s #plūit#
(cf. #plūvit#, 823, 947); #pius#, _pious_, for Ennius’s #pīus#; see also
765.

127. But even in classical Latin there are cases where a vowel before
another vowel remains long: thus,

(1.) Regularly, the #ī# of #fīō#, _I am made_, except before #-er-#, as
in #fierem# (788, 789).

(2.) In #dīus#, _godly_, for #dīvus# (153), and the old ablatives #dīū#,
#dīō#, _open sky_ (used only in the expression #sub dīū#, #sub dīō#,
i.e. #sub dīvō#).

(3.) In the ending #ēī# of the genitive and dative sg. of stems in #-ē-#
(601) when an #i# precedes: as, #diēī#, _of a day_, #aciēī#, _of the
battle line_, but #reī#, _of the thing_, for older #rēī#.

(4.) It may be mentioned here that #rēī# is said to occur in verse 6
times (Plaut. G. 2, Lucr. G. 2, D. 2); #reī# 9 times (Plaut. G. 2, Ter.
G. 4, D. 1, Juv. G. 1, Sulp. Apoll. G. 1); #re͞i# 27 times (Plaut. G. 2,
D. 3, Enn. D. 1, Ter. G. 9, D. 8, Lucil. G. 1, D. 1, Lucr. G. 2).
#fidēī# G. 3 times (Plaut., Enn., Lucr.); #fideī# 11 times (Enn. D. 1,
Man. G. 2, D. 1, Sil. G. 4, D. 1, Juv. G. 2); #fidēi# 5 times (Ter.
G. 1, D. 3, Hor. 1). #ēī# 35 times (Plaut. 18, Ter. 8, Lucr. 9); #eī#
some 17 times (Plaut. 12, Ter. 2, German. 1, Ter. Maur. 2); #ēi# 23
times (Plaut. 11, Ter. 8, Lucil. 3, Cat. 1).

(5.) #Gāius# retains its #ā# before the vowel #i#: thus, #Gāius#
(trisyllabic).

(6.) In the pronominal genitives in #-ī̆us# (618), the quantity of #i#
varied. The older dramatists use #ī#; later, #ī# was shortened, but
variations in its quantity seem to have continued until long after the
end of the republic; Cicero, _DO._ 3, 183, measures #illius#; Quintilian
1, 5, 18 #ūnīus#; the grammarian Priscian prescribes #-īus# for all
except #alterius#, which should always have #i#, and #utrius#, in which
the #i# is common (30). In verse the #i# is often short, except in
#neutrīus#; #utriusque# has always short #i#.

(7.) The penult is long in the endings #-āī#, #-āīs#, #-ōī#, #-ōīs#, and
#-ēī#, #-ēīs#, from stems in #-āio-#, #-ōio-#, and #-ēio-# (458) or
#-iā-# (437): as, #Gāī#, #Bōī#, #Pōmpēī#, #plēbēī#: #Gāīs#, #Bōīs#,
#Pompēīs#, #plēbēīs#, #Bāīs#; #aulāī#, #pictāī#.

(8.) #Dī̆ana# has #ĭ# as often as #ī#. #ohē# has #ŏ̄#; #ē̆heu# has #ĕ#
in comedy, otherwise #ē#.

(9.) In many Greek words a long vowel comes before another vowel; as,
#āēr#, #Aenēās#, #Mēdēa#. But early importations from Greek followed
the general rule and shortened the vowel: as, #platĕa# (πλατεῖα),
#balinĕum#, #balnĕum# (βαλανεῖον).

128. A long vowel preceding unsyllabic #i̭# or #ṷ# followed by a
consonant is shortened: as, #gaudeō# for #*gāudeō# (cf. #gāvīsus#, 111);
#claudo# for #clāudō# (cf. #clāṷis#, 111).

Similarly a long vowel (unless long by contraction: as, #nūntius#, 111,
_a_, #cōntiō#) preceding a liquid or nasal followed by a consonant is
shortened: as, syncopated #ardus# from #āridus# (111), #habentem#, from
the stem #habē-#. For cases of induced lengthening of the vowel before
#n# followed by certain consonants, see 122.

129. IAMBIC SHORTENING. The law of iambic shortening (2470) produced a
number of important changes: thus,

(1.) In old dramatic verse iambic words (⏑ -) often shorten the long
vowel. The poets after Plautus and Terence preserve the long vowel.

(_a._) Nouns; G. #eri#, #boni#, #preti#. D. #cani#, #ero#, #malo#. L.
#domi#, #heri#. Ab. #levi#, #manu#, #domo#, #bona#, #fide#. Plural: N.
#fores#, #viri#. D., Ab. #bonis#. Ac. #foris#, #viros#, #bonas#. (_b._)
Verbs: #eo#, #volo#, #ago#; #ero#, #dabo#; #vides#; #loces#; #voles#;
#dedi#, #dedin#; #roga#, #veni#; later poets sometimes retain #cave#,
#vale#, and #vide#. The vowel may also be shortened when #-n# (1503) is
added and #s# is dropped before #-n# (170, 2): #rogan#, #abin#; #viden#
is also retained by later poets.

(2.) In a few pyrrhic words (⏑ ⏑) in #-i#, which were originally iambic
(⏑ -), the poets in all periods retained final #-ī# at pleasure: these
are,

#mihī̆#, #tibī̆#, #sibī̆#; #ibī̆#, #ubī̆#; also #alicubī̆#. The #i# of
#bi# is always short in #nēcubi# and #sīcubi#, and usually in #ubinam#,
#ubivīs#, and #ubicumque#; #ibidem# is used by the dramatists, #ibīdem#
in hexameter. #ubīque# has always #ī#.

130. The following instances show that this law operated in prose speech
also:

(1.) In iambic words of the #ā-# declension (432) the final #-ā# of the
nominative singular was shortened; hence #*equā# became #equa#, _mare_.
From these iambic words short final #-a# spread so that all stems in
#-ā-# shorten the final #ā# of the nom. sg. (434).

(2.) The final #-a# in the nominative plural of neuter nouns of the #o-#
declension (446), which appears in #trīgintā#, _thirty_, was likewise
shortened, first in iambic words like #iuga#, _yokes_, #bona#, _goods_,
then everywhere (461).

(3.) This law explains the short final vowel in #homo# (2442) by the
side of #sermō# (2437, _c_) and similar cases, like the adverbs #modo#,
#cito# (2442), #bene#, #male# (2440). In the same way arose the short
final #o# of the first person in conjugation (2443): as, #volo#, #dabo#,
#dīxero# by the side of #scrībō#; so also #viden# for #vidēn# (129, 1;
170, 2).

(4.) Of imperatives only #puta#, used adverbially (2438, _c_), #ave#,
#have# (805; Quint. i, 6, 21; but Martial scans #havē#) as a salutation
and #cave#, used as an auxiliary (1711), show the short final vowel in
classical Latin. Elsewhere the long vowel has been restored, as #amā#,
#monē# (845).

(5.) According to this rule #calēfaciō#, #malēdīcō# changed to
#calefaciō#, #maledīcō#.

131. A long final vowel is shortened when an enclitic is added to the
word: as #siquidem# from #sī#; #quoque# from #quō#.

132. A long vowel is regularly shortened, in the classical period,
before final #-t# and #-m# and, in words of more than one syllable, also
before final #r# and #l#.

Thus, #soror#, _sister_, for Plautus’s #sorōr#, from the stem #sorōr-#
(487); #ūtar#, _I may use_, for Plautus’s #ūtār# (cf. #ūtāris#);
#bacchanal# for Plautus’s #bacchanāl#; #animal#, #exemplar# from the
stems #animāl-# (530) and #exemplār-# (537); but the long vowel is
retained in the monosyllables #fūr#, _thief_, #sōl#, _sun_; #pōnēbat#,
_he placed_, for Plautus’s #pōnēbāt# (cf. #pōnēbās#); #iūbet#, _he
commanded_, for Plautus’s #iūbēt#; #eram#, _I was_, but #erās#;
#rēxerim#, _I may have ruled_, but #rēxerīs# (877); #-um# in the
genitive plural of #-o-# stems is for #-ūm# (462); #mēnsam#, _table_,
for #*mēnsām# from the stem #mensā-#; #rem#, from #rē-# (#rēs#), #spem#
from #spē-# (#spēs#).

  [Errata:
  125 ... #pra͡e͡optāvīstī#
    The vowels “aeo” are joined with a single ligature
  132 ... (cf. #ūtāris#)
    (cf #ūtāris#)]


TRANSFER OF QUANTITY.

133. (1.) In a few cases the length of the vowel has been transferred to
the following consonant, the length of which is then indicated by
doubling it (81): as, #littera# for #lītera#, LEITERAS; #Iuppiter# for
#Iūpiter#; #parricīda# for #pāri-cīda#, _murder of a member of the same
clan_ (#*pāro-#, _member of a clan_, Doric πᾶός, _a relative_); #cuppa#
for #cūpa#, _barrel_. The legal formula _sī pāret_, _if it appear_, was
vulgarly pronounced #sī parret# (Festus).

(2.) Since the doubled unsyllabic #i# (#i̭#) between vowels (23; 166, 9;
153, 2) is commonly written single, the _vowel_ preceding it is often
erroneously marked long: as, #āiō# wrongly for #aiō#, _i.e._ #ai̭i̭ō#,
_I say_; #māior# wrongly for #maior#, _i.e._ #mai̭i̭or#, _greater_;
#pēior# wrongly for #peior#, _i.e._ #pei̭i̭or#, _worse_; #ēius#, _of
him_, #cūius#, _of whom_, #hūius#, _of him_, all wrongly for #eius#,
#cuius#, #huius# _i.e._ #ei̭i̭us#, #cui̭i̭us#, #huii̭us# (153, 2). In
all these words the first _syllable_ was long but not the vowel.


VARIATIONS OF QUANTITY.

134. (1.) In some foreign proper names and in a very few Latin words the
quantity of a vowel varied. Vergil has #Sȳchaeus# and #Sychaeus# within
six verses; also #Āsia# and #Asia#, #Lavīnium# and #Lāvīnius#; so also
#glōmus# (Lucr.), #glomus# (Hor.); #cōturnīx# (Plaut., Lucr.),
#coturnīx# (Ov.).

(2.) Sometimes such variations in vowel quantity are only apparent:
thus, the occasional long final #-ē# of the active infinitive (#darē#,
#prōmerē#) has probably a different origin from the usual #-ĕ#. For
metrical lengthening, see 2505.

  [Erratum:
  134 ... #glomus# (Hor.)
    (Hor)]


QUANTITATIVE VOWEL GRADATION.

135. The same stem often shows a long vowel in some of its forms and a
short vowel in others. In most cases these variations of quantity were
not developed on Latin soil but inherited from a much earlier period.
Such old inherited differences in vowel quantity are called
_quantitative vowel gradation_.

(1.) Instances of this are #prō# for #*prōd# (149; cf. #prōdesse#) and
#pro-# (Greek πρό); #nē# and #ne-# in #nescius#; the couples #regō#, _I
rule_, and #rēxī#; #vehō#, _I draw_, #vēxī#; #veniō#, _I come_, #vēnī#,
where the long vowel is characteristic of the perfect stem (862);
#vocō#, _I call_, and #vōx#, _voice_; #regō#, _I rule_, and #rēx#,
_ruler_; #legō#, _I read_, and #lēx#, _bill_; #sedeō#, _I sit_, and
#sēdēs#, _seat_; #fidēs#, _confidence_, and #fīdō#, _I trust_; #dux#
(cf. #ducis#), _leader_, and #dūcō#, _I lead_, where verb and noun are
differentiated by the quantity of the root vowel; and many others.

(2.) Sometimes the reduction of the vowel in certain forms amounts to
complete loss, as in the adverbial ending #-is-# in #magis# (346, 363)
compared with the comparative suffix #-ios#, #-iōs# (Nom. #-ior#, Genit.
#-iōris#); in the oblique cases of the stem #carōn-# (nomin. sg. #carō#,
497), where the suffix becomes #-n-# (545), genitive #car-n-is#; in the
suffix #-ter#, which becomes #-tr-# in all cases but the nom. sg.
(#pater#, #patris#, etc., 470, 487); in the feminine #-tr-ī-c-# to the
suffix #-tor-#; but the nom. sing. #Caecīlis# (465) for #Caecīlios# is
probably due to syncope.


QUALITATIVE VOWEL CHANGES.

136. (1.) #i# before an #r# which goes back to an earlier voiced #s#
(154) was changed to #e#: as, #cineris#, _of ashes_, for #*cinisis#,
from the stem #cinis# (491); #Faleriī#, for #*Falisiī#, cf. #Falis-cus#;
(formed like #Etrūria#, for #*Etrūsia#, cf. #Etrūs-cī#).

(2.) In the nominative singular of compounds like #iūdex#, _judge_ (from
#iūs# and #dīcere#), #comes#, _companion_ (from #com#, _with_, and
#īre#, _go_), the #i# of the second member of the compounds is changed
to #e# (470) after the analogy of words like #artifex#, _artisan_, etc.
(107, _d_).

137. #e# before #-gn-# became #i#: as, #īlignus#, from the stem #īlec-#
(cf. #īlex#).

138. #e# before the guttural nasal (62) followed by a guttural mute was
changed to #i#: as, #septingentī#, from #septem#; #singulī#, from the
stem #sem-# in #semel# (for the assimilation of #m# see 164, 3);
#obtingō# (925), _I attain_, for #*óbtengō# (104, _c_) from #*ob-tangō#
(104, _e_).

139. A similar change took place in the group #-enl-# which became first
#-inl-# and then #-ill-#: as, #*signilum#, diminutive of #sīgnum# (for
#ī#, see 122, _c_), first changed by syncope (111) from #*signilum# to
#*sign̥lum#, then to #*sigenlum# (172, 3), then to #*siginlum#, and
finally to #sigillum#.

140. #o# before #nc# became #u#: as, #homunculus#, _manikin_ for
#*homonculus#, from the stem #homon-# (485); #nūncupāre#, _name_, for
#*nōn-cupāre# (#nōn-# for #nōm-# (164, 3) = syncopated #nōmen#); #hunc#,
_him_, for #*honc#, from #hom-ce# (662).

141. #o# before #l# followed by any consonant save #l# was changed to
#u#: as, #cultus#, _tilled_, for #*coltus#, from #colere#; #multa#,
_fine_, for old Latin #molta#. But #o# before #ll# is retained: as,
#collis#, _hill_.

142. #e# before guttural #l# (60) was changed to #o#: as, #solvō#, _I
undo_, from #*seluō# (#se-#, as in #se-cordia#, #luō# = Greek λύω);
#culmen#, _top_, for #*celmen#, from #*cellō# in #ex-cellō#; #volō#, _I
wish_, for #*velō#; but #e# is preserved before dental #l# (60): as in
#velle#, #velim# (773). Before #l# followed by any consonant save #l#
this #o# changes to #u# (141): as, #vult#.

143. In a number of words, notably in #voster#, _your_, #vorsus#,
_turned_, #vortex#, _eddy_, and #votāre#, _forbid_, the forms with #o#
were replaced, about the second century B.C. by forms with #e#: as,
#vester#, #versus#, #vertex#, #vetāre# (Quint. 1, 7, 25).

  [Erratum:
  136 (2.) In the nominative singular
    (2)]


ASSIMILATION.

144. In a few cases a vowel is influenced by the vowel of a neighbouring
syllable: as,

#nisi#, _unless_, for #*nesi#; #iīs#, for #eīs#, _to them_ (671, 674);
#diī#, #diīs#, _gods_, for #deī#, #deīs# (450); #nihil#, _nothing_, for
#*nehil#; #homō#, _man_, for #*hemō# (cf. #nēmō#, from #ne-hemō#, 118);
see also 104, _d_; 105, _i_.


QUALITATIVE VOWEL GRADATION.

145. The same stem often shows different vowels in different forms. In
most of these cases this difference was inherited from a very early
period and continued in the Latin. Such old inherited variation of the
quality of the stem-vowel is called _qualitative vowel gradation_. The
qualitative variations may be accompanied by quantitative changes (135).

Often the verb and the noun are thus distinguished by different vowels:
as, #tegō#, _I cover_, and #toga#, _a garment_, _toga_; #precor#, _I
beg_, and #procus#, _suitor_, cf. English _to sing_ and _a song_, _to
bind_, and _a bond_. The different tenses of some verbs show a like
gradation: as, #capiō#, _I take_, #cēpī#; #faciō#, _I make_, #fēcī#, cf.
English _I sing_, _I sang_; _I bring_, _I brought_. The same occurs in
derivation: as #doceō#, _I teach_, by the side of #decet#; #noceō#, _I
harm_, by the side of #nex# (#nec-s#). The two vowels which occur most
frequently in such gradation are #e# and #o#: as in stems in #-o-#,
#domine#, #dominus# (for #dominos#); as variable vowel (824); #genos#
(#genus#, 107, _c_) in the nom. sg. by the side of #*genes-# in the
oblique cases (gen. #generis# for #*genesis#, 154); #honōs# by the side
of #hones-# in #hones-tus#; #modus#, _measure_, for #*modos# (originally
a neuter #-s-# stem like #genus# (487, 491), but transferred later to
the #-o-# declension), by the side of #modes-# in #modes-tus#, _seemly_.
See 187.


(B.) CONSONANT CHANGE.

146. In a number of words which belong more or less clearly to the stem
of the pronoun #quo-# (681), #cu-# (157), the initial #c# has
disappeared before #u#: as,

#uter#, _which of the two_, #ubĭ#, _where_, #unde#, _whence_ (711). For
the conjunction #ut#, #utī#, _that_, connection with this pronominal
stem is much more doubtful. The #c-# appears in the compounds with #sī#
and #nē̆#: as, #sī-cubī# (cf. #sī-quidem#, #sī-quandō#), #sī-cunde#,
#nē-cubi#, #ne-cunde#, #ne-cuter#.

147. #d# varies in a few words with #l#: as old Latin #dacruma#, _tear_,
for later #lacrima#; #dingua#, _tongue_, for later #lingua#; #odor#,
_smell_, by the side of #oleō#, _I smell_.

148. Very rarely, before labials, final #d# of the preposition #ad#
varies with #r#: as, old Latin #arfuērunt#, _they were present_, for
later #adfuērunt# (2257); #arvorsum#, _against_, for #advorsum#. The
only instances of this in classical Latin are #arbiter#, _umpire_, and
#arcēssō# (970), _I summon_, which shows #r# before a guttural.

149. (1.) Final d after a long vowel disappeared in classical Latin:
thus, in the ablative singular of #-ā-# and #-o-# stems (426), and in
the ablative-accusative forms #mēd#, #tēd#, #sēd# (648). The
prepositions #prō# and #sē# (1417) originally ended in #-d# which is
still seen in #prōdesse#, _be of advantage_, #prōd-īre#, _go forth_;
#sēd-itiō#, _a going-apart_, _sedition_. According to the grammarians,
the negative #haud# preserved its #d# before vowels, but lost it before
consonants (1450).

(2.) Late inscriptions confuse final #-d# and #-t#: as FECID (729),
ALIVT for #aliud#. But in very old Latin #-d# in the third person
singular seems to be the remnant of a secondary ending (cf. the Greek
distinction of primary -ται and secondary -το).

150. In a number of words #f# varies dialectically with #h#. In some of
these #f# appears to have been original, in others #h#: as, old Latin
#fordeum#, _barley_, for classical #hordeum#; old Latin #haba#, _bean_,
for classical #faba#. The word #fīlum#, _thread_, appears as #*hīlum# in
#nihil#, _nothing_, for #*ne-hīlum#.

151. #h# being a weak sound (58) was often lost between two like vowels,
especially in rapid utterance: as, #nīl#, _nothing_, #prēndere#, _take_,
#vēmēns#, _rapid_, by the side of #nihil#, #prehendere#, #vehemēns#; and
always #nēmō#, _nobody_, for #*ne-hemō#, _no man_.

152. In some words #h# between two vowels is not original, but goes back
to a guttural aspirate _gh_. Before consonants this guttural appears:
as, #vehō#, _I draw_, #vectus# (953) from a stem #vegh-#, #trahō#, _I
drag_, #tractus# (953) from a stem #tragh-#.

153. (1.) #v# not infrequently disappeared between two like vowels: as,
#dītior#, _richer_, for #dīvitior#; #sīs# (Cic. _O._ 154), for #sī vīs#
(774); #lātrīna#, for #lavatrīna#; #fīnīsse#, for #fīnīvisse#;
#dēlēram#, for #dēlēveram#; and later also in perfect forms in which the
preceding and following vowel differed: as, #amāsse#, for #amāvisse#.
The abbreviated forms of the perfects in #-vī# (890) were common in
Cicero’s (_O._ 157) and Quintilian’s (1, 6, 17) time. #v# also
disappeared before #o# in #deorsum#, #seorsum#.

(2.) Old and original unsyllabic #i# (82; 83) disappeared everywhere
between vowels. Wherever unsyllabic #i# appears between vowels it
represents double #i̭i̭#, and is the result of the assimilation of #g#
to #i̭# (166, 9), or #d# to #i̭# (166, 9), or of the combination of two
#i̭#’s: as in #ei-i̭us#, #quoi̭-i̭us# (#eius#, #quoius# = #cuius#, 688).
See 23; 166, 9. In all these cases the first #i̭# joined to the
preceding vowel (83) formed with it a diphthong, and the syllable is
thus long (133, 2).

(3.) The combinations of unsyllabic (83) #ṷ# with the vowel #u# and of
unsyllabic #i̭# with the vowel #i# were avoided in classical Latin; see
52.

(4.) In composition, unsyllabic (82) #i̭# after a consonant became
syllabic in #quoniam#, _since_, for #quomi̭am# (164, 5), and #etiam#,
_also_, for #eti̭am# (both compounds with #iam#).

154. In early Latin #s# between two vowels was voiced (75), and in the
fourth century B.C. this voiced #s# changed into #r#. According to
Cicero (_Fam._ 9, 21, 2) L. Papīrius Crassus, consul in 336 B.C.,
changed his family name #Papīsius# to #Papīrius#. Old inscriptions show
frequently #s# for #r#: as, ASA, _altar_, AVSELII. This change of
intervocalic #s# to #r# plays an important part in declension,
conjugation, and derivation: as,

Nominative #iūs#, _right_, genitive #iūris#; #spērō#, _I hope_, derived
from #spēs#; #nefārius#, _wicked_, from #nefās#; #gerō#, _I carry_, from
a stem #ges-# which appears in #ges-sī#, #ges-tus# (953); #erō#, _I
shall be_, from the stem #es-# in #esse#; the subjunctive ending #-sem#
in #es-sem# appears as #-rem# after vowels: as, #stārem#; the infinitive
ending (894, 895) #-se# in #es-se# appears as #-re# after vowels: as,
#legere#, for #*legese#, _to read_, #stāre#, for #*stāse#, _to stand_.
Where all oblique cases show #-r-# and only the nominative singular
#-s#, the latter is sometimes changed to #-r# by analogy: as, #arbor#,
_tree_, #honor#, _honour_, for original #arbōs#, #honōs#, by analogy to
the oblique cases #arboris#, #arborī#, #honōris#, #honōrī#, etc. (487,
488). The final #-s# of the prefix #dis-# follows this rule: as,
#dir-imō#, _I take apart_, for #*dis-emō#; but an initial #s-# of the
second member of a compound remains unchanged: as, #dē-sinō#, _I stop_.

155. Wherever intervocalic #s# is found in classical Latin it is not
original, but the result (_a._) of earlier #-ns-#: as, #formōsus#,
_handsome_, for #formōnsus# (63); (_b._) of earlier #-ss-# (170, 7): as,
#ūsus# for #*ūssus#, _use_ (159); #causa#, _thing_, for #caussa# (Quint.
1, 7, 20); or (_c._) it occurs in borrowed words like #asinus#, _ass_.
(_d._) There are a few words in which an #r# in a neighbouring syllable
seems to have prevented the change: as #miser#, _miserable_ (173).

156. Before the #o# described in 142 #qu# changed to #c#: as, #incola#,
_inhabitant_, for #*inquola#, from #*inquela#; the stem #quel-# appears
in #in-quil-īnus#, _lodger_.

157. As #v# before #u# (107, _c_), so #qu# was not tolerated before #u#,
but changed to #c#.

Hence when, about the beginning of our era, the #o# of #quom#, _when_,
#sequontur#, _they followed_, changed to #u# (107, _c_), they became
#cum#, #secuntur#; thus #equos# but #ecus#, _horse_ (452); #reliquom#
but RELICVM, _the rest_; #loquor#, _I speak_, but #locūtus# (978). Much
later, in the second century of our era, the grammarians restored the
#qu# before #u# by analogy to those forms in the paradigm in which #qu#
came before other vowels: as, #sequuntur# for #secuntur# by analogy to
#sequor#, #sequeris#, #sequitur#, #sequimur#, #sequimini#, etc.;
#equus#, #equum#, for #ecus#, #ecum#, by analogy to #equī#, #equō#,
#eque#, #equōrum#, #equīs#, #equōs#.

158. #qu# before consonants or when final changed to #c#: as, #relictus#
from the stem #liqu-#, _leave_ (present, #linquō#, 938); #ac#, _and_,
for #*atc#, by apocope from #atque#; #nec#, _nor_, by apocope from
#neque#. See also #*torctus# (170, 3), #quīnctus# (170, 4).

159. When in the process of early word formation a #t# was followed by
another #t#, the combination #tt#, unless followed by #r#, changed to
#ss#: as, #obsessus#, _besieged_, _sat upon_, for #*obsettus#, from
#*obsed-tus# (cf. #sedeō#). After long vowels, nasals, and liquids this
double #ss# was simplified to #s# (170, 7): as, #ūsus# from #*ūt-tus#,
_used_ (cf. #ūtor#); #scānsus#, _climbed_, from #*scant-tus# for
#*scandtus# (cf. #scandō#).

In this way arose a suffix #-sus# (906, 912) for the past participle of
verbs ending in a dental, and this spread to other verbs (912): as
#mānsus#, _stayed_, from #maneō# (1000), #pulsus#, _pushed_, from
#pellō# (932). The regular participles of these two verbs still appear
in the derivative verbs #mantāre# and #pultāre#, which presuppose the
past participles #*mantus# and #*pultus# (371). If the double #tt# was
followed by #r# it changed to #st#: as, #assestrīx# from #*assettrīx#,
while #*assettor# changed to #assessor#.

160. But wherever the combination #tt# arose in historical times it
remained unchanged: as, #attineō#; #cette#, syncopated for #cé-d(i)te#,
i.e. the particle #ce# (93, 3) which is here proclitic, and the
imperative #date#, _give_.

161. Initial #dv# (_dṷ_) changed to #b#, unless the #v# (_ṷ_) was
converted into the corresponding vowel: as, #bis#, _twice_, for #*dṷis#
(cf. #duo#); #bidēns# for #*dṷidens#, by the side of old Latin #duidēns#
with vocalic #u#; #bonus#, _good_, for #dṷonus#, by the side of
trisyllabic #duonus#; #bellum#, _war_, for #*dṷellum#, by the side of
#duellum# with vocalic #u#; #bēs#, _two thirds_, for #*dṷēs# (2427).
Cicero (_O._ 153) notes that the change of #duellum# to #bellum#
affected even the proper name #Duellius# (name of the admiral who won
the naval victory over the Carthaginians in 260 B.C.) which was changed
to #Bellius#. Plautus always scans #dṷellum# disyllabic with synizesis
(2503).

  [Erratum:
  161 ... won the naval victory over the Carthaginians in 260 B.C.
    B C.]


CHANGES OF CONSONANT GROUPS.

162. Many groups of consonants undergo changes in order to facilitate
their pronunciation in rapid speech. These changes involve (_a._)
Assimilation of consonants; (_b._) the development of consonantal
glides; (_c._) the loss of one member of the group; and (_d._) the
development of a vowel between the consonants.


ASSIMILATION.

163. Of two successive consonants belonging to different syllables
(175), the first is, as a rule, assimilated to the second (_regressive
assimilation_), rarely the second to the first (_progressive
assimilation_). A consonant may be assimilated, either entirely or
partially, to another consonant.

Assimilation is very common in prepositions prefixed to a verb.

164. PARTIAL ASSIMILATION. (1.) A voiced mute before an unvoiced
consonant became unvoiced: as, #rēx#, _king_, for #*rēgs# (cf. #rēgis#);
#rēxī#, _I guided_, for #*rēgsī# (cf. #regō#); #rēctus#, _guided_, for
#*rēgtus#; #scrīpsī#, _I wrote_, for #*scrībsī# (cf. #scribō#);
#scrīptus#, _written_, for #*scribtus#; #trāxī#, _I dragged_, for
#*trāghsī#; #tractus#, _dragged_, for #*traghtus# (152). The spelling
did not always conform to this pronunciation: as, #urbs#, _city_,
pronounced #urps# (54) but spelled with #b# by analogy to the oblique
cases #urbis#, #urbem#, etc.; #obtineō#, _I get_, pronounced #optineō#.

(2.) An unvoiced mute before a voiced consonant became voiced. The
prepositions #ob#, #ab#, #sub#, for #*op#, #*ap#, #*sup#, owe their
final #b# to their frequent position before voiced mutes: as, #obdūcō#,
#abdīcō#, #sub dīvō#. The forms #*op# (still preserved in #op-eriō#, _I
close_, 1019) #*ap# (preserved in #ap-erio#, _I open_, 1019; cf. Greek
ἀπό) and #*sup# (preserved in the adjective #supīnus#, _supine_) were
then crowded out by #ob#, #ab#, and #sub#.

(3.) Nasals changed their place of articulation to that of the following
consonant. Thus, dental #n# before the labials #p# and #b# became labial
#m#: as, #imbibō#, _I drink in_, #impendeō#, _I hang over_. Labial #m#
before the gutturals #c# and #g# became guttural #n# (62): as,
#prīnceps#, _leader_, #singulī#, _severally_ (the original labials
appear in #prīmus#, #semel# (138)); #hunc# for #*homce# (662). Labial
#m# before the dentals #t#, #d#, #s# became dental #n#: as, #cōnsecrō#,
_I consecrate_, from #com# (#cum#) and #sacrō#; #tantus#, _so great_,
from #tam#; #quondam#, _once_, from #quom#; #tandem#, _at length_, from
#tam#. But sometimes the etymological spelling was retained: as,
#quamdiū#, _as long as_. But #m# does not change to #n# before #t# or
#s# in the inflection of verbs and nouns, where #mt#, #ms# develop into
#mpt#, #mps# (167): as, #sūmptus#, #sūmpsī#, from #sūmō#.

(4.) #p# and #b# before #n# changed to #m#: as, #somnus#, _sleep_, for
#*sop-nus# (cf. #sopor#); #omnis#, _all_, for #*op-nis# (cf. #opēs#);
#Samnium#, for #*Sabnium# (cf. #Sabīnī#).

(5.) #m# before unsyllabic #i# (#i̭#) became #n#: as, #quoniam# (with
vocalic #i#; 153, 4), _since_, for #*quoni̭am# from #quom iam# (1882);
#coniungō#, _I join together_, for #*comiungō#.

(6.) #c# between #n# and #l#, and before #m#, changed to #g#: as,
#angulus#, _corner_, with anaptyctical (172) vowel #u# for #*anglus#,
from #*anclus# (cf. #ancus#); #segmentum#, _section_, from the stem
#sec-# in #secāre#.

165. It appears that at a very early period the neighbourhood of a nasal
changed an unvoiced mute into a voiced one: as, #ē-mungō#, _I clean
out_, by the side of #mūcus#; #pangō#, _I fix_, by the side of #pāc-# in
#pāx#, _peace_ (gen. #pāc-is#).

166. ENTIRE ASSIMILATION. (1.) One mute is assimilated to another: thus
#p# or #b# to #c#: as, #suc-currō#, _I assist_; #t# or #d# to #c#: as,
#sic-cus#, _dry_ (cf. #sit-is#, _thirst_), #accipiō#, _I accept_; #d# to
#g#: as, #agglūtinō#, _I glue on_; #t# or #d# to #qu#: as, #quicquam#,
_anything_; #t# or #d# to #p#: as, #appellō#, _I call_; #quippe#, _why?_
(1690).

(2.) A mute is assimilated to a spirant: thus, #p# to #f# in #officīna#,
_workshop_, for #*opficīna#, syncopated form of #*opificīna#; #d# to
#f#: as, #afferō#, _I bring hither_; when #t# is thus assimilated to #s#
the result is #ss# after a short vowel, and #s# after a long vowel
(170, 7) or when final (171); as, in the #-s-# perfects, #concussī#, _I
shook_, for #*concutsī# (#concutiō#, 961); #messuī#, _I mowed_, for
#*metsuī# (#metō#, 835); #suāsī#, _I advised_, for #*suātsī# (#suādeō#,
1000); #clausī#, _I shut_, for #*clautsī# (#claudō#, 958); #haesī#, _I
stuck_, for #haes-sī# (868) from #haerēre#, stem #haes-# (154); in the
same way #possum#, _I can_, for #*potsum# (cf. #pot-est#, 752);
#prōsum#, _I am of advantage_, for #*prōtsum# (cf. #prōd-esse#);
#legēns#, _reading_, for #*legents# (from the stem #legent-#, cf.
genitive #legent-is#). An #s# is never assimilated to a following #t#:
as, #haustus#, _drained_ (1014), from the stem #haus-#, present #hauriō#
(154). Forms like the rare #hausūrus# (Verg.) are made after the analogy
of dental stems.

(3.) One spirant, #s#, is assimilated to another, #f#: as, #difficilis#,
_difficult_, #differō#, _I am unlike_, from #dis# and #facilis#, #ferō#.

(4.) A mute is assimilated to a nasal: thus #d# to #m# in #mamma#,
_woman’s breast_, from the stem #mad-# (cf. #madeō#, 1006); #rāmus#,
_branch_, #rāmentum#, _splinter_, from the stem #rād-# (cf. #rādō#, 958)
with simplification of the double #m# after the long vowel. #d# to #n#
in #mercēnārius#, _hireling_, from the stem #mercēd-#, _reward_, (for
#mercennarius#, see 133, 1); #p# to #m# in #summus#, _highest_, from the
stem #sup-# (cf. #super#). A progressive assimilation of #nd# to #nn#
belongs to the Oscan dialect, and occurs only very rarely in Latin: as,
#tennitur# (Ter.), #distennite# (Plaut.). See 924; 950.

(5.) One nasal, #n#, is assimilated to another, #m#: as #immōtus#,
_unmoved_. But an #m# before #n# is never assimilated: as, #amnis#,
_river_.

(6.) Mutes or nasals are assimilated to liquids; thus #n# to #l#: as,
#homullus#, _manikin_, for #*homon-lus# (cf. #homun-culus#); #ūllus#
(274); #d# to #l#: as, #sella#, _seat_, for #*sed-la# from the stem
#sed-# (cf. #sedeō#); #caelum#, _chisel_, from the stem #caed-#
(cf. #caedō#) with simplification of the double #l# after the diphthong
(170, 7); #n# to #r#: as, #irruō#, _I rush in_; and with progressive
assimilation #n# to a preceding #l#: as, #tollō#, _I lift_, for #*tolnō#
(833); #fallō#, _I cheat_ (932); #pellō#, _I push_ (932). But no
assimilation is to be assumed for #parricīda#, which does not stand for
#patricīda# (133, 1).

(7.) One liquid, #r#, is assimilated to another, #l#: as, #pelliciō#, _I
lead astray_ (956), for #*per-liciō#; #agellus#, _small field_, for
#*agerlos#; #pūllus#, _clean_, from #*pūrlos# (cf. #pūrus#, _clean_).

(8.) A spirant, #s#, is assimilated to a preceding liquid in #velle#,
_wish_, for #*velse#, #ferre#, _carry_, for #*ferse# (the infinitive
ending #-se# appears in #es-se#, 895); #facillimus#, _easiest_, for
#*facilsimus# (345); #sacerrimus#, _holiest_, for #*sacersimus# (344).
But where #ls# and #rs# are not original but the result of lightening
(170, 3; 10) they remain unchanged: as, #arsī#, _I burnt_, for #*artsī#
from the stem #ard-# (cf. #ardeō#, 1000); #alsī#, _I felt cold_, for
#*alcsī# from the stem #alg-# (cf. #algeō#, 1000).

(9.) #g# and #d# were assimilated to a following unsyllabic #i# (#i̭#)
the result being (153, 2) #ii# (#i̭i̭#); thus #peiior#, _worse_, for
#*ped-i̭or#, from the stem #ped-# (532), whence also the superlative
#pessimus# for #*petsimus# (166, 2); #maiior#, _greater_, for
#*mag-i̭or# (the stem #mag-# appears in #magis#); #aiiō#, _I say_, for
#*ag-i̭ō# (the stem #ag-# appears in #ad-ag-ium#, #prōd-ig-ium#, 219).
These forms were pronounced by Cicero with doubled #i̭# (23), and traces
of the spelling with double #ii# are still found (23), though in common
practice only one #i# is written (153, 2). On the confusion of syllabic
quantity with vowel quantity in these words, see 133, 2.

  [Errata:
  164 ... #scrīptus#, _written_, for #*scribtus#;
    writtén
  #trāxī#, _I dragged_, for #*trāghsī#;
    #*trāghsī#,
  166(4) ... #distennite# (Plaut.).
    last . invisible]
  (6.) Mutes or nasals
    (6).]


CONSONANTAL GLIDES.

167. Pronunciation of two successive consonants is sometimes facilitated
by the insertion of a consonant which serves as a glide. Such insertion
is not frequent.

In inflection a #p# was thus developed between #m# and #s#, between #m#
and #l#, and between #m# and #t# (elsewhere #mt# changed to #nt#, see
164, 3): as, #sūmpsī#, _I took_, #sūmptus#, _taken_, from #sūmere# for
#*sūmsī#, #*sūmtus#; and in the corresponding forms of #cōmō#, #dēmō#,
#prōmō# (953); #exemplum#, _pattern_, for #*exemlum# from the stem
#em-#, _take_ (cf. #eximere#, 103, #a#).


DISAPPEARANCE.

168. A word may be lightened by the disappearance of an initial,
a medial, or a final consonant.

Disappearance of an initial consonant is sometimes called _Aphaeresis_,
of a medial, _Syncope_, of a final, _Apocope_.

169. INITIAL DISAPPEARANCE. (1.) Initial #tl# changed to #l#: as,
#lātus#, _borne_, for #*tlātus# from #tollō# (187, 917).

(2.) Initial #gn# changed to #n#: as, #nātus#, _born_, for earlier
GNATVS from the stem #gen-#, #gnā# (187); #nōscō#, _I find out_, for
#gnōscō#, GNOSCIER (897); #nārus#, _knowing_, for the more frequent
#gnārus#, #nāvus#, _active_, for #gnāvus#. Cf. the compounds
#cō-gnātus#, #cō-gnōscō#, #ī-gnārus#, #ī-gnāvus# (170, 6) which preserve
the #g#. But #Gnaeus# retained its #G#.

(3.) Initial #d# when followed by consonant #i# (_i̭_), disappeared: as,
#Iovis#, #Iūpiter#, for #*Di̭ovis#, #*Di̭ūpiter#. Where the #i# was
vocalic, #d# was retained: as, #dīus#.

(4.) Initial #stl-# first changed to #sl# and then to #l#: as, Old Latin
#stlocus#, _place_, #stlīs#, _law-suit_ (Quint. 1, 4, 16), STLOC, SLIS,
classical #locus#, #līs#; also #lātus#, _wide_, for #*stlātus#. That a
form #*slocus# existed is proved by #īlicō# (698, 703) from #*in-slocō#,
_on the spot_ (170, 2).

170. MEDIAL DISAPPEARANCE. (1.) #c#, #g#, #p#, and #b# disappear before
#s# followed by an unvoiced consonant: as, #sescentī#, _six hundred_,
for #*sexcentī# from #sex#; #illūstris#, _resplendent_, for
#*illūcstris# from #lūceō#; #discō#, _I learn_, from #*dicscō# for
#*di-tc-scō# (834), a reduplicated present from the root #dec-#
(cf. #decet#) like #gignō# (from the root #gen-#), and #sīdō# (for
#*si-sd-ō#, 170, 2, from the root #sed-#, 829). Sometimes prepositions
follow this rule: as, #asportō#, _I carry off_, for #*absportō#,
#suscipiō#, _I undertake_, for #*subscipiō# (#subs# formed from #sub#
like #abs# from #ab#; #sub-cipiō# gives #succipiō#); occasionally also
#ecferō#, for #exferō#, _I carry out_. But more frequently prepositional
compounds remain unchanged: as, #obscūrus#, _dark_; #abscēdō#, _I
withdraw_. In some words the lost consonant has been restored by
analogy: as, #sextus#, _sixth_, for #*sestus# (cf. #Sēstius#) after
#sex#; #textor#, _weaver_, for #*testor# after #texō#.

(2.) #s# before voiced consonants was voiced (75) and is dropped. If a
consonant precedes the #s# this is dropped also. In either case the
preceding vowel is lengthened. Voiced #s# alone is dropped: as,
#prīmus#, _first_, for #*prīs-mus# (cf. #prīs-cus#); #cānus#, _gray_,
for #*casnus# (cf. #cas-cus#); adverb #pōne#, _behind_, for #*posne#
(cf. #pos#, 1410); #dīlābī#, _glide apart_, for #*dislābi#; #īdem#, _the
same_, for ISDEM (678); #iūdex#, _judge_, for #iūsdex#; #trēdecim#,
_thirteen_, for #*trēsdecim#. And with subsequent shortening of the
final syllable (130, 3) #abin#, _goest thou?_ for #abisn(e)#; #viden#,
_seest thou?_ for #vidēsn(e)#. Voiced #s# with the preceding consonant
is dropped: as, #trādūcō#, _I lead across_, #trānō#, _I swim across_,
for #trānsdūcō#, #trānsnō#; but in these prepositional compounds the
#-ns# was often retained: as, #trānsmittō#, _I send across_; #sēnī#,
_six each_, for #*secsnī#; #sēmēnstris#, _every six months_, for
#secsmēnstris#; #sēvirī#, _the Board of Six_, for #secsvirī#; #āla#,
_wing_, for #*acsla# (cf. #ax-illa#, Cic. _O._ 153); #māvolō# (779) for
#magsvolō# from #magisvolō#, 396; #tōles# (plural), _goiter_, for
#*tōnsles# (cf. #tōnsillae#, _tonsils_); #pīlum#, _pestle_, for
#*pīnslum# from #pīnsere#, _crush_; two consonants and voiced #s# are
dropped in #scāla#, _stair_, for #*scand-sla# (cf. #scandō#).

(3.) #c# falls away when it stands between a liquid and #t#, #s#, #m#,
or #n#: as, #ultus#, _avenged_, for #*ulctus# from #ulc-iscor# (980);
#mulsī# for #*mulcsī# from both #mulgeō#, _I milk_, and #mulceō#, _I
stroke_; similarly other stems in #-c# and #-g# (1000, 1014); #quernus#,
_oaken_, for #*quercnus# from #quercus#; #tortus#, _turned_, for
#*torctus# from #torqueō# (for the change of #qu# to #c#, see 158); for
#fortis#, _brave_, #forctis# is found in old Latin.

(4.) #c# drops out when it stands between #n# and #t#: as, #quīntus#,
_fifth_, for older #quīnctus# (2412), from #quīnque# (for the change of
#qu# to #c#, see 158; for the long #ī# in #quīnque#, see 122, _b_). But
verbs having stems in #-nc# or #-ng# retain the #c# in their past
participles: as, #vīnctus#, _bound_, from #vincīre# (1014); #iūnctus#,
_joined_, from #iungere# (954). In #pāstus# (965) #c# has dropped out
between #s# and #t#.

(5.) The group #-ncn-# was simplified to simple #-n-#, and the preceding
vowel was lengthened: as, #quīnī#, _five each_, for #*quīnc-nī# (317);
#cō-nīveō#, _wink and blink_, for #con-cnīveō#.

(6.) #n# before #gn# was dropped and the preceding vowel lengthened: as,
#ī-gnōscō#, _I forgive_, for #*in-gnōscō#, #cō-gnōscō#, _I know_, for
#*con-gnōscō#. In this manner (170, 5; 6) arises a form #cō-# by the
side of #con-# (122, _e_): as, #cō-nectō#, #cō-nubium#, #cō-ligātus#
(Gell. 2, 17, 8).

(7.) In the imperial age, #ss# after long vowels and diphthongs was
regularly changed to #s#: as, #clausī#, _I closed_; #ūsus#, _used_
(166, 2); but always #ēsse#, _to eat_ (769); #ll# changed to #l# after
diphthongs: as, #caelum#, _chisel_ (166, 6); also when preceded by #ī#
and followed by #i#: as, #vīlla#, _country-place_, but #vīlicus#
(adject.); #mille#, _thousand_, but #mīlia# (642). Elsewhere #ll# was
retained after long vowels: as, #pūllus# (166, 7), _clean_; #rāllum#,
_ploughshare_, from #rādō# with suffix #-lo-# (209). In Cicero’s time
(Quint. 1, 7, 20) the spelling was still #caussa# (155, _b_), _matter_;
#cāssus# (930), _fallen_; #divīssiō# (cf. 912), _division_. Vergil also,
according to Quintilian, retained the doubled consonants, and the best
manuscripts of both Vergil and Plautus frequently show #ll# and #ss# for
later #l# and #s#, as do inscriptions: as, PROMEISSERIT, _he might have
promised_ (49 B.C.); ACCVSSASSE, _to have accused_.

(8.) After a long vowel #d# was dropped before consonant #u# (#v#): as,
#svāvis#, _sweet_, for #*svādvis# from #svād-# (cf. #svādeō#).

(9.) #r# before #st# was dropped: as, #tostus#, _roasted_ (1004) for
#*torstus# from the stem #tors-# (cf. #torreo# with assimilated #-rs-#,
166, 8).

(10.) #-rts-# changed to #-rs#: as, #arsī#, _I burnt_, for #*artsī#
(1000). #-rcsc-# changed to #-sc-#: as, #poscō#, _I demand_, for
#*porcscō# (834).

(11.) In #ipse#, _self_, for #*is-pse#, an #s# has disappeared before
#-ps-#

(12.) #d# (#t#) disappears between #r# and #c#: as, #cor-culum# for
#cord(i)-culum# (275).

171. FINAL DISAPPEARANCE. (1.) A word never ends in a doubled consonant:
as, #es# for #*es-s#, _thou art_, which Plautus and Terence still scan
as a long syllable; and the following cases of assimilation: #ter# for
#*terr# from #*ters# (cf. #terr-uncius#, _a quarter of an_ #ās#, _a
farthing_, 1272, for #*ters-uncius#, 166, 8); #fār#, _spelt_, for
#*farr#, from #*fars# (489); #fel#, _gall_, for #*fell#, from #*fels#
(482); in #mīles#, _soldier_, for #*mīless# from #*mīlets# (cf. Gen.
#mīlitis#, 477) the final syllable is still long in Plautus. #hoc#,
_this_, for #*hocc# from #*hod-c(e)#(the neuter #*hod# from the stem
#ho-#, as #istud#, #illud# (107, _c_) from #isto-#, #illo-#) counts as a
long syllable even in classical poetry.

(2.) No Latin word can end in two explosives: thus, final #t# is dropped
in #lac#, _milk_ (478); final #d# in #cor#, _heart_ (476).

(3.) When final #s# was preceded by #r# or #l#, it was assimilated to
these liquids, and final #rr# and #ll# were then simplified to #r# and
#l#. See the examples under (1). Wherever final #-rs# and #-ls# appear
they are not original but the result of the disappearance of an
intervening consonant: as, #puls#, _pottage_, for #*pults# (533);
#pars#, _part_, for #*parts# (533); all with syncope (111) of the vowel
#i# in the nominative #sg#.

(4.) Original final #ns# was changed to #s# and the preceding vowel was
lengthened: as, #sanguīs#, _blood_ (2452), for #*sanguins# from the stem
#sanguin-# (486). Wherever final #-ns# appears it is not original but
the result of the disappearance of an intervening consonant: as,
#ferēns#, _carrying_, for #*ferents#, from the stem #ferent-#; #frōns#,
_foliage_, for #*fronds#, from the stem #frond-#.

(5.) A dental mute before final #s# is dropped: as, #hērēs#, _heir_, for
#*hērēds# (475); #virtūs#, _virtue_, for #*virtūts# (477); #nox#,
_night_, for #*nocts# (533); a labial or guttural mute is retained: as,
#fornāx# (#x# = #cs#), _furnace_, from the stem #fornāc-# (531); #lēx#,
_law_, from the stem #leg-# (472); #urbs#, _city_, from the stem #urb-#
(480); #ops# from the stem #op-#, _help_ (480).

  [Errata:
  170.2 ... #iūdex#, _judge_, for #iūsdex#;
    #iūsdex#,
  #abin#, _goest thou?_ for #abisn(e)#;
    #abisn(e)#,]


DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANAPTYCTICAL VOWEL.

172. Certain consonant groups, notably those containing a liquid, are
sometimes eased by the insertion of a vowel which develops between the
consonants. This is called _Anaptyxis_ (Greek ἀναπτύσσειν, _unfold_). It
is the opposite of syncope of vowels (110, 111).

(1.) The suffix #-clo-# (242), changed to #-culo-#, being thus no longer
distinguishable from the diminutive suffix #-culo-# (267): as,
#pōculum#, _cup_, for #pōclum# (Plaut.); #vehiculum#, _carriage_, for
#vehiclum# (Plaut.). But #-clo-# is more common in Plautus than
#-culo-#, especially after long vowels. The suffixes #-blo-# (245), and
#-bli-# (294) always show the anaptyctical vowel. Its colour depends on
the nature of the #l# (60): as, #stabulum#, _resting-place_; #stabilis#,
_steady_. The group #-ngl-# also changes to #-ngul-#: as, #angulus#
(164, 6).

(2.) In words borrowed from the Greek an unfamiliar sequence of
consonants was so lightened; as, #mina#, _mina_, for #*mna# (μνᾶ); and
in Old Latin #drachuma# (Plaut.) for later #drachma#, _drachma_
(δραχμή); #techina#, _trick_, from Greek τέχνη; #Tecumēssa# for
#Tecmēssa# (Τέκμησσα).

(3.) Before syllabic (83) #l# and #r# a vowel is developed (111, _b_):
as, #íncertus#, _uncertain_, for #*íncr̥tus#; #fácultās#, _capability_,
for #fácl̥tās#. Likewise before syllabic #n# (139).


DISSIMILATION.

173. (1.) To avoid the repetition of the same liquid in successive
syllables #l# is sometimes changed to #r#: as, #caeruleus#, _sky-blue_,
for #*caeluleus#, from #caelum#; #Parīlia#, by the side of #Palīlia#,
from #Palēs#; the suffix #-clo-# appears as #-cro-# after an #l#: as,
#lavācrum#, _bath_, #simulācrum#, _image_ (241); the suffix #-āli-#
under like conditions changes to #-āri-#; as, #molāre#, _of a mill_
(313), but #augurāle#, _of an augur_.

(2.) In a few cases repetition is avoided by dropping the sound once:
as, #praestīgiae#, _jugglery_, for #praestrīgiae#. This also applies to
the spirant #s# followed by a consonant, a combination which is not
tolerated in successive syllables: as in the reduplicated perfects
#stetī#, for #*stestī#; #spopondī#, for #*spospondī# (859), where the
second syllable, and in #quisquiliae#, _sweepings_, for #*squisquiliae#,
where the first syllable was lightened.


CHANGES WITHIN COMPOUNDS.

174. The final syllable of the first member of compounds (181) sometimes
undergoes certain changes by analogy to other compounds:

(1.) The final #-ā# of #ā-#stems, by analogy to the more frequent
#-o-#stems, usually changed to #-o#, which in atonic syllables became
#-i# (105): as, #āli-ger#, _winged_, for #*ālo-ger# from #ālā-#.

(2.) Stems in #-on-# substitute #-o-# for #-on-# by analogy to the
#-o-#stems: as, #homi-cída#, _murderer_, for #*homo-cīda# (105) from
#homon-# (Nom. #homō#).

(3.) Some stems in #-s# substitute #-o-# by analogy to the #-o-#stems:
as, #foedi-fragus#, _treaty-breaking_, for #*foedo-fragus# from the stem
#foedos-# (Nom. #foedus#, Gen. #foederis#; 154).

  [In section 174, anomalous forms such as #-o-#stems (without space)
  are in the original.]


SYLLABLES.

175. A word has as many syllables as it has separate vowels or
diphthongs. The last syllable is called the _Ultima_; the last syllable
but one is called the _Penult_; the last syllable but two is called the
_Antepenult_.

176. The quantity of single sounds (e.g. the quantity of a vowel) must
be carefully distinguished from the quantity of the group of sounds or
the syllable of which the single sound forms a part.


LENGTH OF SYLLABLES.

177. A syllable is long if its vowel is long, or if its vowel is
followed by two consonants or by #x# or #z#: as,

#dūcēbās#; #volvunt#. In #dūcēbās# both the vowels and the syllables are
long; in #volvunt# the vowels are short, but the syllables are long; in
cases like the last the syllables (not the vowels) are said to be _long
by position_. #h# does not count as a consonant (58) and #qu#
(or #qv#, 27) has the value of a single consonant only: thus, in #adhūc#
and #aqua# the first syllable is short.

178. In prose or old dramatic verse a syllable with a short vowel before
a mute or #f# followed by #l# or #r# is not long: as #tenebrae#. In
other verse, however, such syllables are sometimes regarded as long. In
compounds such syllables are long in any verse: as #obruit#.


LOSS OF SYLLABLES.

179. The first of two successive syllables which begin with the same
sound is sometimes lost. This is called _Haplology_.

Thus, #sēmodius# for #sēmimodius#, _half a bushel_; #calamitōsus# for
#*calamitātōsus#, from the stem #calamitāt-# (262) and suffix #-oso-#
(336); #voluntārius#, for #voluntātārius# (262, 309); #cōnsuētūdō#, for
#cōnsuētitūdō# (264). See also 255; 379.



B. FORMATION.


180. FORMATION is the process by which stems are formed from roots or
from other stems.

181. A word containing a single stem is called a _Simple_ word: as,
#magnus#, _great_, stem #magno-#; #animus#, _soul_, stem #animo-#. A
word containing two or more stems is called a _Compound_ word: as,
#magnanimus#, _great-souled_, stem #magnanimo-#.

182. Most inflected words consist of two parts: a stem, which is usually
a modified root (195), and an inflection ending: thus, in #ductōrī#,
_for a leader_, the root is #duc-#, _lead_, the stem is #ductōr-#,
_leader_, and #-ī# is the inflection ending, meaning _for_.


ROOTS.

183. A ROOT is a monosyllable which gives the fundamental meaning to a
word or group of words.

184. A root is not a real word; it is neither a noun, naming something,
nor a verb, denoting action. Thus #iug-#, _yoke_, does not mean _a yoke_
nor _I yoke_; it merely _suggests_ something about yoking. The root
becomes a real word only when an inflection ending is added, or, more
commonly, both a formative suffix and an inflection ending: as,
#iug-u-m#, _a yoke_.

185. Roots are common to Latin and its cognate languages, such as the
Sanskrit and the Greek. When a root is named in this book, the specific
Latin form of the root is meant. This often differs somewhat from the
form of the root which is assumed as applicable to all the cognate
languages.

186. Almost all roots are noun and verb roots; that is, roots with a
meaning which may be embodied either in a noun or in a verb, or in both.
Besides these there is a small class, less than a dozen in number, of
pronoun roots. There are many words which cannot be traced back to their
roots.

187. A root sometimes has two or more forms: as, #fīd-# (for #feid-#),
#foed-#, #fid-#, _trust_; #gen-#, #gn-#, _sire_; #tol#, #tl#, _bear_;
see 135, 145.

Thus, #fīd-# is found in #fīd-us#, _trusty_, #fīd-ūcia#, _confidence_,
#fīd-ūciō#, _I pledge_, #fīd-ūciārius#, _in trust_, #fīd-ere#, _put
trust in_, #fīd-ēns#, _courageous_, #fīd-entia#, _courage_; #foed-# in
#foed-us#, _pledge of faith_, #foed-erātus#, _bound by a pledge of
faith_; #fid-# in #fid-ēs#, _faith_, #fid-ēlis#, _faithful_,
#fid-ēliter#, _faithfully_, #fid-ēlitās#, _faithfulness_, #per-fid-us#,
_faithless_, #per-fid-ia#, _faithlessness_, #per-fid-iōsus#, _full of
faithlessness_, per-fid-iōsē, faithlessly. #gen-# in #gen-itor#, _sire_,
#gn-# in #gi-gn-ere#, _beget_, #gn-ā-# in #gnā-tus#, _son_.

188. A root ending in a vowel is called a _Vowel Root_: as, #da-#,
_give_; a root ending in a consonant is called a _Consonant Root_: as,
#rup-#, _break_. Roots are conveniently indicated by the sign √: as,
√#teg-#, to be read ‘root #teg-#.’

189. A root or a part of a root is sometimes doubled in forming a word;
this is called _Reduplication_: as, #mur-mur#, _murmur_; #tur-tur#,
_turtle-dove_; #po-pul-us#, _people_; #ul-ul-āre#, _yell_.


PRESENT STEMS AS ROOTS.

190. Many nouns are formed from the present stems of verbs, which take
the place of roots. Stems thus used are mostly those of verbs in #-āre#
and #-īre#.

Thus, from #ōrā-#, stem of #ōrāre#, _speak_, are formed #ōrā-tor#,
_speaker_, and #ōrā-tiō#, _speech_; from #audī-#, stem of #audīre#,
_hear_, are formed #audī-tor#, _hearer_, and #audī-tiō#, _hearing_.

191. Verbs in #-ēre#, and those in #-āre# and #-īre# in which the #ā# or
#ī# is confined to the present system (868, 874) usually have parallel
nouns formed directly from a root: as,

#doc-tor#, _teacher_, #doc-umentum#, _lesson_, #doc-ilis#, _teachable_
(√#doc-#, #docēre#); #sec-tor#, _cutter_ (√#sec-#, #secāre#);
#dom-itor#, _tamer_, #dom-inus#, _master_, #dom-itus#, _tamed_ (√#dom-#,
#domāre#); #sarc-ina#, _package_ (√#sarc-#, #sarcīre#).

192. But a noun is sometimes exceptionally formed from the present stem
of a verb in #-ēre#: as, #monē-ta#, _mint_ (#monēre#); #acē-tum#,
_vinegar_ (#acēre#); #virē-tum#, _a green_ (#virēre#); #suādē-la#,
_persuasion_ (#suādēre#); #habē-na#, _rein_ (#habēre#); #egē-nus#,
_needy_ (#egēre#); #verē-cundus#, _shamefast_ (#verērī#); #valē-tūdō#,
_health_ (#valēre#).

193. Verbs in #-ere#, and particularly such as have a present in #-nō#,
#-scō#, #-tō# or #-iō# (832), usually have their parallel nouns formed
directly from a root: as,

#vic-tor#, _conqueror_ (√#vic-#, #vincere#); #incrē-mentum#, _growth_
(√#crē-#, #crēscere#); #pul-sus#, _a push_ (√#pol-#, #pellere#).

194. Sometimes, however, nouns are formed from such verb stems, and not
from roots: as, #lecti-stern-ium#, _a couch-spreading_ (#sternere#,
√#ster-#, #strā-#); #vinc-ibilis#, _conquerable_ (#vincere#, √#vīc-#);
#pāsc-uum#, _pasture_ (#pāscere#, √#pā-#); #pect-en#, _comb_ (#pectere#,
√#pec-#); #fall-āx#, _deceitful_ (#fallere#, √#fal-#).


STEMS.

195. A STEM is that part of a word which contains its meaning, and is
either a root alone or more commonly a root with an addition called a
_Formative Suffix_.

Thus, in the word #ducis#, _leader’s_, the stem, which is identical with
the root #duc-#, means _leader_; a root thus serving as a stem is called
a _Root Stem_; in #ductōris#, _leader’s_, the stem is formed by the
formative suffix #-tōr-#, denoting the agent, attached to the √#duc-#.

196. New stems are formed by adding a suffix to a stem. Thus, from
#ōrātōr-#, _speaker_, is formed by the addition of the suffix #-io-#, a
new stem #ōrātōr-io-#, N. #ōrātōrius#, _speaker’s_.

197. The noun has usually only one form of the stem. The verb has
different stems to indicate mood and tense; these stems are all based on
two principal tense stems, the present and the perfect active.


PRIMITIVES AND DENOMINATIVES.

198. I. A stem or word formed directly from a root or a verb stem is
called a _Primitive_. II. A stem or word formed from a noun stem is
called a _Denominative_.

(_a._) Primitives: from √#rēg-#, #reg-#, _guide_: #rēx#, stem #rēg-#,
_king_; #rēgnum#, stem #rēg-no-#, _kingdom_; #rēctus#, stem #rēc-to-#,
_guided_; #regere#, stem #reg-e-#, _guide_. From #ōrā-#, stem of
#ōrāre#, _speak_: #ōrātor#, stem #ōrā-tōr-#, _speaker_; #ōrātiō#, stem
#ōrā-tiōn-#, _speech_.

(_b._) Denominatives: from noun stem #rēg-#, _king_: #rēgīna#, stem
#rēg-īnā#, _queen_; #rēgius#, stem #rēg-io-#, #rēgālis#, stem
#rēg-āli-#, _royal_. From #ōrātiōn-#, _speech_: #ōrātiūncula#, stem
#ōrātiūn-culā-#, _little speech_. From #rēg-no-#, _kingdom_: #rēgnāre#,
stem #rēgnā-#, _to rule_. From #iūs#, _law_: #iūrāre#, _swear_, stem
#iūrā# (154).

  [Errata:
  198a ... #ōrātor#, stem #ōrā-tōr-#
    #ōrā tōr-# with invisible hyphen
  198b ... #iūrāre#, _swear_, stem #iūrā#
    _stem_ #iūrā# in italics]


(A.) FORMATION OF THE NOUN.


WITHOUT A FORMATIVE SUFFIX.

199. Some roots are used as noun stems: as, #duc-#, N. #dux#, _leader_
(√#duc-#, _lead_); #rēg-#, N. #rēx#, _king_ (√#rēg-#, _guide_);
particularly at the end of a compound: as, #con-iug-#, N. #coniūnx#,
_yoke-fellow_, _spouse_ (#com-#, √#jug-#, _yoke_); #tubi-cin-#, N.
#tubicen#, _trumpeter_ (#tubā-#, √#can-#, _play_).


WITH A FORMATIVE SUFFIX.

200. SIMPLE formative suffixes are vowels: as, #-ā-#, #-o-#, #-i-#,
#-u-#; also #-io-#, #-uo-#, (#-vo-#); or such little syllables as
#-mo-#, #-min-#; #-ro-#, #-lo-#; #-ōn-#; #-no-#, #-ni-#, #-nu-#; #-to-#,
#-ti-#, #-tu-#; #-ter-#, #-tōr-#; #-unt-# (#-nt-#); #-es-# (#-er-#),
#-ōr-#; these syllables sometimes have slight modifications of form.
COMPOUND suffixes consist of one or more simple suffixes attached to a
simple suffix: as, #-tōr-io-#, #-ti-mo-#, &c., &c.

201. The following are examples of noun stems formed from roots or verb
stems by simple suffixes added:

  STEM.       NOMINATIVE.          FROM.

  fug-ā-      fuga, _flight_       +fug-+, _fly_
  fīd-o-      fīdus, _trusty_      +fīd-+, _trust_
  ac-u-       acus, _pin_          +ac-+, _point_
  od-io-      odium, _hate_        +od-+, _hate_
  pluv-iā-    pluvia, _rain_       +plov-+, _wet_
  ar-vo-      arvom, _tilth_       +ar-+, _till_
  al-vo-      alvos, _belly_       +al-+, _nurture_
  sal-vo-     salvos, _safe_       +sal-+, _safe_
  fā-mā-       fāma, _tale_         +fā-+, _tell_
  teg-min-    tegmen, _cover_      +teg-+, _cover_
  sel-lā-     sella, _seat_        +sed-+, _sit_
  err-ōn-     errō, _stroller_     +errā-+, _stroll_
  som-no-     somnus, _sleep_      +sop-+, _sleep_
  plē-no-     plēnus, _full_       +plē-+, _fill_
  rēg-no-     rēgnum, _realm_      +rēg-+, _guide_
  da-to-      datus, _given_       +da-+, _give_
  lec-to-     lectus, _bed_        +leg-+, _lie_
  gen-ti-     gēns, _race_         +gen-+, _beget_
  sta-tu-     status, _stand_      +sta-+, _stand_
  rēc-tōr-    rēctor, _ruler_      +rēg-+, _guide_
  e-unt-,     iēns, _going_        +i-+, _go_
  rege-nt-    regēns, _guiding_    +rege-+, _guide_
  gen-er-     genus, _race_        +gen-+, _beget_
  fur-ōr-     furor, _madness_     +fur-+, _rave_

202. Formative suffixes are often preceded by a vowel, which in many
instances is a stem vowel, real or presumed; in others, the vowel has
come to be regarded as a part of the suffix itself.

Thus, #-lo-#: #fīlio-lo-#, N. #fīlio-lu-s#, _little son_ (#fīlio-#);
#hortu-lu-s#, _little garden_ (#horto-#, 105, _h_); but #-ulo-#:
#rēg-ulu-s#, _petty king_ (#rēg-#); #ger-ulu-s#, _porter_ (√#ges-#,
_bear_), #-ci-#: #pugnā-ci-#, N. #pugnā-x#, _full of fight_
(#pugnā-re#); but #-āci-#: #fer-āx#, _productive_ (√#fer-#, _bear_),
#-to-#: #laudā-to-#, N. #laudā-tu-s#, _praised_ (#laudā-re#); but
#-āto-#: #dent-ātus#, _toothed_ (#denti-#). #-tu-#: #equitā-tu-#, N.
#equitā-tu-s#, _cavalry_ (#equitā-re#); but #-ātu-#: #sen-ātu-s#,
_senate_ (#sen-#). #-lā-#: #suādē-lā-#, N. #suādē-la#, _persuasion_
(#suādē-re#, 192); but #-ēlā-#: #loqu-ēla#, _talk_ (√#loqu-#, _speak_).
#-tāt-#: #cīvi-tāt-#, N. #cīvi-tā-s#, _citizenship_ (#cīvi-#); but
#-itāt-#: #auctōr-itā-s#, _authority_ (#auctōr-#). #-cio-#:
#aedīli-cio-#, N. #aedīli-ciu-s#, _of an aedile_ (#aedīli-#); but
#-icio-#: #patr-iciu-s#, _patrician_ (#patr-#). #-timo-#: #fīni-timo-#,
N. #fīni-timu-s#, _bordering_ (#fīni-#); but #-itimo-#: #lēg-itimu-s#,
_of the law_ (#lēg-#).

203. There are many formative suffixes of nouns. The commonest only can
be named, and these may be conveniently grouped as below, by their
meanings. Compound suffixes are arranged with reference to the last
element of the suffix: thus, under the adjective suffix #-io-# (304)
will be found #-c-io-#, #-īc-io-#, #-tōr-io-#, and #-ār-io-#. In many
instances it is difficult to distinguish between simple and compound
suffixes.

  [Errata:
  201 (table) ... fā-mā-
    final - missing or invisible
  e-unt-,
    _anomalous comma may be intentional (this and following word
    are both participles)_]


I. THE SUBSTANTIVE.


(A.) PRIMITIVES.


I. THE AGENT.

204. The suffixes #-tōr-#, #-o-#, #-ā-#, #-lo-#, and #-ōn-#, are used to
denote the _Agent_: as,

  STEM.          NOMINATIVE.           FROM.

  lēc-tōr-       lēctor, _reader_      √+lēg-+, _read_
  scrīb-ā-       scrība, _writer_      √+scrīb-+, _write_
  fig-ulo-       figulus, _potter_     √+fig-+, _mould_
  err-ōn-        errō, _stroller_      errā-re, _stroll_


(1.) #-tōr-# (N. #-tor#).

205. #-tōr-#, N. #-tor#, or #-sōr-#, N. #-sor# (159, 202), is the
commonest suffix of the agent; the feminine is #-trī-ci-#, N. #-trī-x#.
#-tōr-# is sometimes used in a present sense, of action repeated or
occurring at any time, and sometimes in a past sense.

206. (_a._) #-tōr-# (#-sōr-#), in the present sense, often denotes one
who makes a regular business of the action of the root or verb.

#ōrā-tōr-#, N. #ōrā-tor#, _spokesman_, _speaker_ (#ōrā-re#); #lēc-tor#,
_reader_ (√#leg-#, _read_). Workmen and tradesmen: #arā-tor#,
_ploughman_, #pās-tor#, _shepherd_, #pīc-tor#, _painter_, #sū-tor#,
_shoemaker_. Semi-professional: #captā-tor#, _legacy-hunter_,
#dēlā-tor#, _professional informer_. Government officials: #cēn-sor#,
_appraiser_, _censor_, #imperā-tor#, _commander_, #prae-tor#,
(_leader_), _praetor_, #dictā-tor#, #līc-tor#. Of the law: #āc-tor#,
_manager_, #accūsā-tor#, _accuser_, #spōn-sor#, _bondsman_, #tū-tor#,
_guardian_. From presumed verb stems (202): #sen-ātor#, _senator_
(#sen-#); #viā-tor#, _wayfarer_ (#viā-#); #fundi-tor#, _slinger_
(#fundā-#). #-tro-#, N. #-ter#, has the meaning of #-tōr-#: as,
#aus-tro-#, N. #aus-ter# (_scorcher_), _south-wester_ (√#aus-#, _burn_).

207. In the present sense #-tōr-# (#-sōr-#) is also used to indicate
permanent character, quality, capability, tendency, likelihood: as,
#bellā-tor#, _a man of war_, _warlike_; #dēlīberā-tor#, _a man of
caution_; #cessā-tor#, _a loiterer_; #dērī-sor#, _a mocker_, _ironical_;
#cōnsūmp-tor#, _apt to destroy_, _destructive_; #aedificā-tor#,
_building-mad_.

208. (_b._) #-tōr-# (#-sōr-#), in a perfect sense, is used particularly
in old Latin, or to denote an agent who has acquired a permanent name by
a single conspicuous action. In this sense it usually has a genitive of
the object, or a possessive pronoun: thus,

#castīgā-tor meus#, _my mentor_, or _the man who has upbraided me_;
#olīvae inven-tor#, _the deviser of the olive_ (Aristaeus); #reper-tor
vītis#, _the author of the vine_ (Bacchus); #patriae līberā-tōrēs#, _the
emancipators of the nation_.


(2.) #-o-# (N. #-u-s#), #-ā-# (N. #-a#); #-lo-# (N. #-lu-s#); #-ōn-#
(N. #-ō#).

209. #-o-# and #-ā-# stems may denote vocation or class; many are
compounds. #-o-#, N. #-u-s#: #coqu-o-#, N. #coqu-o-s# or #coc-u-s#,
_cook_ (√#coqu-#, _cook_); #causidic-u-s#, _pleader_ (#causā-#, √#dic-#,
_speak_). #-ā-#, N. #-a#: #scrīb-ā-#, N. #scrīb-a#, _clerk_ (√#scrīb-#,
_write_); #agricol-a#, _husbandman_ (#agro-#, √#col-#, _till_).

210. #-u-lo-#, N. #-u-lu-s# (202): #ger-ulo-#, N. #ger-ulu-s#, _bearer_
(√#ges-#, _bear_); #fig-ulu-s#, _potter_ (√#fig-#, _shape_, _mould_).

211. #-ōn-#, N. #-ō-#: #err-ōn-#, N. #err-ō#, _stroller_ (#errā-re#);
especially in compounds: #praed-ō#, _robber_ (#praedā-rī#); #praec-ō#
for #*praevocō#, _herald_ (#prae-vocā-re#); #combib-ō#, _fellow-drinker_
(#com-#, √#bib-#, _drink_).


II. THE ACTION.

212. The suffixes #-ā-#, #-io-#, #-iā-#; #-min-#; #-i-ōn-#, #-ti-ōn-#;
#-lā-#; #-mā-#, #-nā-#; #-tā-#, #-tu-#; #-er-#, #-or-#, #-ōr-#, are used
to denote the _Action_: as,

  STEM.         NOMINATIVE.              FROM.
  od-io-        odium, _hate_            √+od-+, _hate_
  āc-tiōn-      āctiō, _action_          √+āg-+, _do_
  ques-tu-      questus, _complaint_     √+ques-+, _complain_
  fur-ōr-       furor, _rage_            √+fur-+, _rave_

213. Words denoting action (1470) in a substantive form have a wide
range of meaning; they may denote, according to the connection, action
intransitive, transitive, or passive, complete or incomplete; if the
verb denotes condition or state, the word of action often comes very
near to denominatives of quality; furthermore the idea of action is
often lost, and passes over to result, concrete effect, means or
instrument, or place.


(1.) #-ā-# (N. #-a#); #-io-# (N. #-iu-m#); #-iā-# (N. #-ia#), #-iē-#
(N. #-iē-s#).

214. #-ā-#, N. #-a#, is rare in words of action: #fug-ā-#, N. #fug-a#,
_flight_ (√#fug-#, _fly_); most words are concrete: #mol-a#, _mill_
(√#mol-#, _grind_); #tog-a#, _covering_ (√#teg-#, _cover_).

215. #-ūr-ā-#, N. #-ūr-a#, is rare: #fig-ūrā-#, N. #fig-ūra#, _shape_
(√#fig-#, _shape_).

216. #-tūr-ā-#, N. #-tūr-a#, or #-sūr-ā-#, N. #-sūr-a# (159, 202), akin
to the agent in #-tōr-# (#-sōr-#): #armā-tūrā-#, N. #armā-tūra#,
_equipment_ (#armā-re#); #pīc-tūra#, _painting_, i.e., _act of painting_
or _picture_ (√#pig-#, _paint_). Words parallel with official personal
names (206) denote office: #cēn-sūra#, _taxing_, _censor’s office_
(cf. #cēnsōr-#); #prae-tūra#, _praetorship_ (cf. #praetōr-#).

217. #-io-#, N. #-iu-m#, sometimes denotes the effect or the object. The
line cannot always be drawn very sharply between these stems in #-io-#
(many of which may be formed through a presumed noun stem), and
denominatives in #-io-# (249).

218. (_a._) #-io-# is rarely suffixed to simple roots or verb stems:
#od-io-#, N. #od-iu-m#, _hate_, _hateful thing_, _hateful conduct_
(√#od-#, _hate_); some words become concrete: #lab-iu-m#, _lip_
(√#lab-#, _lick_).

219. (_b._) Most primitives in #-io-# are compounds: as, #adag-iu-m#,
_proverb_ (#ad#, √#ag-#, _speak_); #ingen-iu-m#, _disposition_
(in, √#gen-#, _beget_); #dīscid-iu-m#, _separation_, #exscid-iu-m#,
_destruction_ (#dī-#, #ex#, √#scid-#, _cleave_); #incend-iu-m#,
_conflagration_ (in, √#cand-#, _light_); #obsequ-iu-m#, _compliance_
(#ob-#, √#sequ-#, _follow_); #conloqu-iu-m#, _parley_ (#com-#, √#loqu-#,
_talk_); #obsid-iu-m#, _siege_ (#ob#, √#sed-#, _sit_).

220. #-t-io-#, N. #-t-iu-m#: #spa-tio-#, N. #spa-tiu-m#, _stretch_
(√#spa-#, _span_, _stretch_); #sōlsti-tiu-m#, _sun-stand_, _solstice_
(#sōl-#, √#sta-#, _stand_); #ini-tiu-m#, _a beginning_ (#in#, √#i-#,
_go_).

221. #-iā-#, N. #-ia#: #fur-iā-#, N. #fur-iae#, plural, _ravings_,
_madness_ (√#fur-#, _rave_); #pluvia#, _rain_ (√#pluv-#, _rain_). Most
stems in #-iā-# are compounds, used in the plural only, often with
concrete or passive meaning: _dēlic-iae_, _allurements_, _pet_ (#dē#,
√#lac-#, _allure_); #excub-iae#, _patrol_ (#ex#, √#cub-#, _lie_).

222. #-iē-#, N. #-iē-s#, a variation of #-iā-#, usually denotes result
(604): #ser-iē-#, N. #ser-iē-s#, _row_ (√#ser-#, _string_); #spec-iē-s#,
_sight_, _looks_ (√#spec-#, _spy_, _see_); #pernic-iē-s#, _destruction_
(#per#, √#nec-#, _murder_).

223. #-t-iē-#, N. #-t-iē-s#: #permi-tiē-#, N. #permi-tiē-s#, _wasting
away_ (#per#, √#mi-#, _less_).


(2.) #-min-# (103) (N. #-men#); #-din-#, #-gin-# (105, _g_) (N. #-dō#,
#-gō#).

224. #-min-#, N. #-men# (202), usually active, occasionally passive, is
very common; it sometimes denotes the means, instrument, or effect.

#certā-min-#, N. #certā-men#, _contest_ (#certā-re#); #crī-men#,
_charge_ (√#cer-#, #crī-#, _sift_); #spec-imen#, _what is inspected_,
_sample_ (√#spec-#, _spy_, _see_); #lū-men#, _light_ (√#lūc-#, _light_);
#flū-men#, _flood_, _stream_ (√#flugṷ-#, _flow_); #ag-men#, _what is
led_, _train_ (√#ag-#, _lead_). Words in #-min-# often mean nearly the
same as those in #-mento-# (239): as, #levā-men#, #levā-mentu-m#,
_lightening_; #teg-umen#, #teg-umentu-m#, _covering_.

225. #ē-din-#, #-ī-din-# (202): #-ē-din-#, N. #-ē-dō#: #grav-ēdin-#, N.
#grav-ēdō#, (_heaviness_), _catarrh_ (√#grav-#, _heavy_), #-ī-din-#, N.
#-ī-dō#: #cup-īdin-#, N. #cup-īdō#, _desire_ (√#cup-#, _desire_);
#lib-idō#, _whim_ (√#lib-#, _yearn_).

226. #-ā-gin-#, #-ī-gin-# (202): #-ā-gin-#, N. #-ā-gō#: #vorā-gin-#, N.
#vorā-gō#, _gulf_ (#vorā-re#); #imā-gō#, _representation_ (#*imā-#, cf.
#imitārī#). #-ī-gin-#, N. #-ī-gō#: #orī-gin-#, N. #orī-gō#, _source_
(#orī-rī#); #cāl-īgō#, _darkness_ (√#cāl-#, _hide_). A few denominatives
have #-ū-gin-#, N. #-ū-gō#: #aer-ūgin-#, N. #aer-ūgō#, _copper rust_
(#aer-#).


(3.) #-i-ōn-# (N. #-i-ō#); #-ti-ōn-# or #-si-ōn-# (N. #-ti-ō# or
#-si-ō#).

227. #-i-ōn-#, N. #-i-ō#: #opīn-iōn-#, N. #opīn-iō#, _notion_
(#opīnā-rī#); #condic-iō#, _agreement_ (#com-#, √#dic-#, _say_);
#contāg-iō#, _touch_ (#com-#, √#tag-#, _touch_). Some words are
concrete: #leg-iō#, _pick_, _legion_ (√#leg-#, _pick_). A few are
denominatives: #commūn-iō#, _mutual participation_ (#commūni-#).

228. #-ti-ōn-#, N. #-ti-ō#, or #-si-ōn-#, N. #-si-ō# (159, 202), is very
common, and may denote action either intransitive, transitive, or
passive, or the manner or possibility of action.

#cōgitā-tiōn-#, N. #cōgitā-tiō#, _a thinking_, _a thought_
(_cōgitā-re_); #exīstimā-tiō#, _judging_, _reputation_ (#exīstimā-re#);
#coven-tiō#, commonly #cōn-tiō#, _meeting_, _speech_ (#com-#, √#ven-#,
_come_); #dēpul-siō#, _warding off_ (#dē-#, √#pol-#, _push_);
#oppugnā-tiō#, _besieging_, _method of besieging_ (#oppugnā-re#);
#occultā-tiō#, _hiding_, _chance to hide_, _possibility of hiding_
(#occultā-re#). Some words denote the place where: #sta-tiō#, _a stand_
(√#sta-#, _stand_); some become collectives or concretes: #salūtā-tiō#,
_greeting_, _levee_, _guests at a levee_ (#salūtā-re#); #mūnī-tiō#,
_fortification_, i.e., _act of fortifying or works_ (#mūnī-re#).


(4.) #-ē-lā-# (N. #-ē-la#), #-tē-lā-# (N. #-tē-la#).

229. #-ē-lā-#, N. #-ē-la# (202): #suādē-lā-#, N. #suādē-la#,
_persuasion_ (#suādē-rē#): #loqu-ēla#, _talk_ (√#loqu-#, _talk_);
#quer-ēla# or #quer-ēlla#, _complaint_ (√#ques-#, _complain_). Some
words are concrete: #candē-la#, _candle_ (#candē-re#).

230. #-tē-lā-#, N. #-tē-la-#: #conrup-tēlā-#, N. #conrup-tēla#, _a
seduction_ (#com-#, √#rup-#, _spoil_, _ruin_); #tū-tēla#, _protection_
(√#tū-#, _watch_, _protect_).


(5.) #-mā-# (N. #-ma#), #-nā-# (N. #-na#); #-trī-nā-# (N. #-trī-na#).

231. #-mā-# and #-nā-# are rare, and denote result or something
concrete. #-mā-#, N. #-ma#: #fā-mā-#, N. #fā-ma#, _tale_ (√#fā-#,
_tell_); #-nā#, N. #-na#: #ur-na#, _pitcher_ (√#urc-# in #urc-eus#,
_pitcher_, 170, 3); with original suffix #-sna# (170, 2): #lū-na#,
_moon_ (√#lūc-#, _light_); #scāla#, _stairs_ (√#scand-#, _mount_).

232. #-inā-#, N. #-ina#: #ang-inā-#, N. #ang-ina#, _choking_ (√#ang-#,
_choke_); #pāg-ina#, _page_ (√#pāg-#, _fasten_); #sarc-ina#, _package_
(√#sarc-#, _patch_). #-īnā-#, N. #-īna# (202): #ru-īnā-#, N. #ru-īna#,
_downfall_ (√#ru-#, _tumble_); #-īnā-# is very common in denominatives:
#pisc-īna#, _fish-pond_ (#pisci-#).

233. #-trī-nā-#, N. #-trī-na#, akin to the agent in #-tōr-#:
#doc-trīnā-#, N. #doc-trīna#, _teaching_, either _the act of teaching_
or _what is taught_ (√#doc-#, _teach_); #sū-trīna#, _shoemaking_,
_shoemaker’s trade_, _shoemaker’s shop_ (√#sū-#, _sew_).


(6.) #-tā-# or #-sā-# (N. #-ta# or #-sa#); #-tu-# or #-su-# (N. #-tu-s#
or #-su-s#).

234. #-tā-#, N. #-ta#, or #-sā-#, N. #-sa# (159), is rare, and sometimes
denotes result, or something concrete: as, #no-tā-#, N. #no-ta#, _mark_
(√#gno-#, _know_); #por-ta# (_passage_), _gate_ (√#por-#, _fare_);
#fos-sa#, _ditch_ (√#fod-#, _dig_); #repul-sa#, _repulse_ (#re-#,
√#pol-#, _push_); #offēn-sa#, _offence_ (#ob#, √#fend-#, _strike_).

235. #-tu-#, N. #-tu-s#, or #-su-#, N. #-su-s# (159, 202), denotes the
action and its results: #ques-tu-#, N. #ques-tu-s#, _complaint_
(√#ques-#, _complain_); #gem-itus#, _groan_ (√#gem-#, _groan_). Stems in
#-ā-tu-#, N. #-ā-tu-s#, sometimes denote office or officials:
#cōnsul-ātu-#, N. #cōnsul-ātu-s#, _being consul_, _consulship_
(#cōnsul-#); #sen-ātu-s#, _senate_ (#sen-#). #-tu-# is seldom passive:
#vī-su-s#, active, _sight_, passive, _looks_ (√#vīd-#, _see_);
#apparā-tu-s#, _preparation_, either _a getting ready_, or _what is got
ready_ (#apparā-re#). The supine (2269) is the accusative or ablative of
substantives in #-tu-# (#-su-#). Most words in #-tu-# (#-su-#) are
defective in case, and are chiefly used in the ablative (430).

  [Erratum:
  234 ... as, #no-tā-#, N. #no-ta#, _mark_
    #no tā-# with invisible hyphen]


(7.) #-er-# for #-es-# (N. #-us#); #-ōr-# (N. #-or#).

236. Neuter stems in #-er-# (for #-es-#), or in #-or-# (for #-os-#), N.
#-us#, denote result, or have a concrete meaning: #gen-er-#, N.
#gen-us#, _birth_, _race_ (√#gen-#, _beget_); #op-er-#, N. #op-us#,
_work_ (√#op-#, _work_); #frīg-or-#, N. #frīg-us#, _cold_ (√#frīg-#,
_cold_). #-ēs# with lengthened #ē# is sometimes used in the nominative
of gender words: as, #nūb-ēs#, _cloud_ (√#nūb-#, _veil_); #sēd-ēs#,
_seat_ (√#sēd-#); #vāt-ēs#, _bard_. #-n-er-#, #-n-or-#, N. #-n-us#:
#vol-ner-#, N. #vol-nus#, _wound_ (√#vol-#, _tear_); #fac-inor-#, N.
#fac-inus#, _deed_ (√#fac-#, _do_, 202).

237. #-ōr-# (for an older form #-ōs-#, 154), N. #-ōs#, commonly #-or#,
masculine, denotes a state. Many substantives in #-ōr-# have a parallel
verb, usually in #-ēre# (368), and an adjective in #-ido-# (287).

#od-ōr-#, N. #od-ōs# or #od-or#, _smell_ (√#od-#, _smell_, cf.
#olē-re#); #pall-or#, _paleness_ (cf. #pallē-re#); #cal-or#, _warmth_
(cf. #calē-re#); #ūm-or#, _moisture_ (cf. #ūmē-re#); #am-or#, _love_
(cf. #amā-re#); #ang-or#, _choking_, _anguish_ (√#ang-#, _choke_).

  [Erratum:
  237 ... #od-ōr-#, N. #od-ōs# or #od-or#, _smell_
    #od-ōr-# N.]


III. THE INSTRUMENT OR MEANS.

238. The suffixes #-men-to-#, #-tro-#, #-cro-# or #-culo-#, #-lo-#,
#-bro-# or #-bulo-#, are used to denote the _Instrument_ or _Means_: as,

  STEM.        NOMINATIVE.                  FROM.

  ōrnā-mento-  ōrnāmentum, _embellishment_  ōrnā-re, _embellish_
  arā-tro-     arātrum, _plough_            arā-re, _plough_
  pō-culo-     pōculum, _drinking-cup_      √+pō-+, _drink_
  pā-bulo-     pābulum, _fodder_            √+pā-+, _feed_

239. #-men-to-#, N. #-men-tu-m# (202), is one of the commonest suffixes;
it sometimes denotes result of action, rarely action itself.

#pig-mento-#, N. #pig-mentu-m#, _paint_ (√#pīg-#, _paint_);
#experī-mentu-m#, _test_ (#experī-rī#); #ōrnā-mentu-m#, _ornament_
(#ōrnā-re#); #frag-mentu-m#, _fragment_ (√#frag-#, _break_);
#cae-mentu-m#, _quarried stone_ (√#caed-#, _cut_); #incrē-mentu-m#,
_growth_ (#in#, √#crē-#, _grow_); #al-imentu-m#, _nourishment_ (√#al-#,
_nurture_); #doc-umentu-m#, _lesson_ (√#doc-#, _teach_). See also
#-min-# (224). #-men-tā-#, N. #-men-ta#, F., is rare: #ful-menta#,
_prop_ (√#fulc-#, _prop_); #rā-menta#, _scraping_ (√#rād-#, _scrape_).

240. #-tro-#, N. #-tru-m# (202): #arā-tro-#, N. #arā-tru-m#, _plough_
(#arā-re#); #fer-etru-m#, _bier_ (√#fer-#, _bear_); #rōs-tru-m#, _beak_
(√#rōd-#, _peck_). Sometimes #-stro-#: #mōn-stru-m#, _warning_ (√#mon-#,
_mind_); #lu-stra#, plural, _fen_, _jungle_ (√#lu-#, _wash_);
#lū-stru-m#, _purification_ (√#lou-#, _wash_). #-trā-#, N. #-tra#, F.:
#mulc-trā-#, N. #mulc-tra# (also #mulc-tru-m#, Ne.), _milking-pail_
(√#mulg-#, _milk_). #-es-trā-#: #fen-estra#, _window_.

241. #-cro-#, N. #-cru-m#, used when an #l# precedes: #ful-cro-#, N.
#ful-cru-m#, _couch-leg_ (√#fulc-#, _prop_). #-cro-# sometimes denotes
the place where: #ambulā-cru-m#, _promenade_ (#ambulā-re#); sometimes
the effect: #simulā-cru-m#, _likeness_ (#simulā-re#).

242. #-culo-#, N. #-culu-m# (202): #pō-culo-#, N. #pō-culu-m#, _cup_
(√#pō-#, _drink_); #fer-culu-m#, _tray_ (√#fer-#, _bear_). #-culo-#
sometimes denotes the place where: #cub-iculu-m#, _sleeping-room_
(√#cub-#, _lie_); #cēnā-culu-m#, originally _dining-room_, usually
_garret_ (#cēnā-re#).

243. #-u-lo-#, N. #-u-lu-m-# (202): chiefly after #c# or #g#:
#vinc-ulo-#, N. #vinc-ulu-m#, _bond_ (√#vinc-#, _bind_); #cing-ulu-m#,
_girdle_ (√#cing-#, _gird_). #-u-lā-#, N. #-u-la#, F., #rēg-ula#, _rule_
(√#rēg-#, _guide_).

244. #-bro-#, N. #-bru-m# (202): #crī-bro-#, N. #crī-bru-m#, _sieve_
(√#cer-#, #crī-#, _sift_); #lā-bru-m#, _wash-basin_ (√#lav-#, _wash_).
#-brā-#, N. #-bra#, F.: #dolā-bra#, _chisel_, _mattock_ (#dolā-re#);
#late-bra#, _hiding-place_ (√#lat-#, _hide_).

245. #-bulo-#, N. #-bulu-m# (202): #pā-bulo-#, N. #pā-bulu-m#, _fodder_
(√#pā-#, _keep_); #vēnā-bulu-m#, _hunting-spear_ (#vēnā-rī#);
#pat-ibulu-m#, _pillory_ (√#pat-#, _stretch_). #-bulo-# sometimes
denotes the place where: #sta-bulu-m#, _standing-place_, _stall_
(√#sta-#, _stand_). #-bulā-#, N. #-bula#, F., rare: #sū-bula#, _awl_
(√#su-#, _sew_); #ta-bula#, _board_ (√#ta-#, _stretch_); #fā-bula#,
_talk_ (√#fā-#, _talk_).


(B.) DENOMINATIVES.


I. THE QUALITY.

246. The suffixes #-io-#, #-iā-#; #-tā-#, #-tāt-#, #-tūt-#, #-tū-din-#,
are used to denote the _Quality_: as,

  STEM.         NOMINATIVE.                 FROM.

  conlēg-io-    conlēgium, _colleagueship_  conlēgā-, N. conlēga,
                                              _colleague_
  audāc-iā-     audācia, _boldness_         audāci-, N. audāx, _bold_
  cīvi-tāt-     cīvitās, _citizenship_      cīvi-, N. cīvis, _citizen_
  magni-tūdin-  magnitūdō, _greatness_      magno-, N. magnus, _great_

247. These abstracts are feminine, and come chiefly from adjectives or
participles, except those in #-io-#, which are neuters, and come mostly
from substantives. Sometimes the same stem takes two or more of these
suffixes: as, #clāri-tāt-# or #clāri-tūdin-#, _brightness_ (#clāro-#);
#iuven-tūt-#, in poetry #iuven-tāt-# or #iuven-tā-#, _youth_ (#iuven-#).


(1.) #-io-# (N. #-iu-m#), #-iā-# (N. #-ia#), #-iē-# (N. #-iēs#).

248. #-iē-# sometimes occurs as collateral form to #-iā-# (604); #-io-#
or #-iā-# is sometimes attached to other suffixes: thus, #-t-io-#,
#-t-iā-# (#-t-iē-#); #-mōn-io-#, #-mōn-iā-#; #-cin-io-#.

249. #-io-#, N. #-iu-m#, chiefly used in compounds, denotes _belonging
to_, with a very wide range of meaning; many of these words are clearly
neuter adjectives in #-io-# (305). Suffixed to personal names #-io-#
often denotes the condition, action, or employment, which gives rise to
the name; this meaning sometimes passes over to that of result, relation
of persons, collection of persons, or place.

250. (_a._) From simple noun stems: #sen-io-#, N. #sen-iu-m#, _feeble
old age_ (#sen-#); #somn-iu-m#, _dream_ (#somno-#); #sāv-iu-m#,
_love-kiss_ (#suāvi-#); #silent-iu-m#, _silence_ (#silenti-#);
#crepund-ia#, plural, _rattle_ (#*crepundo-#); #mendāc-iu-m#, _lie_
(#mendāci-#); #sōlāc-iu-m#, _comfort_ (#*sōlāci-#, _comforting_).

251. (_b._) Direct compounds (377): #aequinoct-iu-m#, _equinox_
(#aequo-#, #nocti-#); #contubern-iu-m#, _companionship_ (#com-#,
#tabernā-#); #prīvilēg-iu-m#, _special enactment_ (#prīvo-#, #lēg-#).

252. (_c._) Indirect compounds (377), chiefly from personal names:
#cōnsil-iu-m#, _deliberating together_, _faculty of deliberation_,
_conclusion_, _advice_, _deliberative body_ (#cōnsul-#); #auspic-iu-m#,
_taking auspices_, _auspices taken_ (#auspic-#); #rēmig-iu-m#, _rowing_,
_oars_, _oarsmen_ (#rēmig-#); #conlēg-iu-m#, _colleagueship_,
_corporation_ (#conlēgā-#); #aedific-iu-m#, _building_ (#*aedific-#,
_builder_); #perfug-iu-m#, _asylum_ (#perfugā-#).

253. #-t-io-# N. #-t-iu-m#, rare: #servi-tio-#, N. #servi-tiu-m#,
_slavery_, _slaves_ (#servo-#); #calvi-tiu-m#, _baldness_ (#calvo-#).

254. #-mōn-io-#, N. #-mōn-iu-m# (202): #testi-mōnio-#, N.
#testi-mōniu-m#, _evidence_ (#testi-#); #mātr-imōniu-m#, _marriage_
(#mātr-#); #patr-imōniu-m#, _patrimony_ (#patr-#).

255. #-cin-io-#, N. #-cin-iu-m#, rare: #latrō-cinio-#, N.
#latrō-ciniu-m#, _robbery_ (#latrōn-#); #patrō-ciniu-m#, _protection_
(#patrōno-#).

256. #-iā-#, N. #-ia#, is very common indeed, forming abstracts from
nouns, mostly adjectives or present participles.

#audāc-iā-#, N. #audāc-ia#, _boldness_ (#audāci-#); #miser-ia#,
_wretchedness_ (#misero-#); #abundant-ia#, _plenty_ (#abundanti-#);
#scient-ia#, _knowledge_ (#scienti-#); #mīlit-ia#, _warfare_ (#mīlit-#);
#victōr-ia#, _victory_ (#victōr-#); #māter-ia#, _timber_ (#māter-#);
#custōd-ia#, _guard_ (#custōd-#).

257. #-iē-#, N. #-iē-s#: #pauper-iē-#, N. #pauper-iē-s#, _moderate
means_ (#pauper-#). Most stems in #-iē-# are primitive (222).

258. #-t-iā-#, N. #-t-ia#, is suffixed to a few adjective stems, chiefly
in #-o-#: #iūsti-tiā-#, N. #iūsti-tia#, _justice_ (#iūsto-#);
#mali-tia#, _wickedness_ (#malo-#); #pudīci-tia#, _shamefastness_
(#pudīco-#); #trīsti-tia#, _sadness_ (#trīsti-#).

259. #-t-iē-#, N. #-t-iē-s#, particularly as a collateral form of
#-t-iā-# in the N., Ac., and Ab. singular (604): #molli-tiē-#, N.
#molli-tiē-s#, _softness_ (#molli-#).

260. #-mōn-iā-#, N. #-mōn-ia# (202): #ācri-mōniā-#, N. #ācri-mōnia#,
_sharpness_ (#ācri-#); #parsi-mōnia#, _economy_ (#parso-#). Analogously
from roots, #quer-imōnia#, _complaint_ (√#ques-#, _complain_);
#al-imōnia#, _nurture_ (√#al-#, _nurture_).


(2.) #-tā-# (N. #-ta#), #-tāt-# (N. #-tā-s#), #-tūt-# (N. #-tū-s#),
#-tū-din-# (N. #-tū-dō#).

261. #-tā-#, N. #-ta#: chiefly poetic: #iuven-tā-#, N. #iuven-ta#,
_youth_ (#iuven-#); #senec-ta#, _age_ (#sen-ec-#).

262. #-tāt-#, N. #-tā-s# (202), is one of the very commonest suffixes.

#pie-tāt-#, N. #pie-tā-s#, _dutifulness_ (#pio-#, 105); #fēlīci-tā-s#,
_happiness_ (#fēlīci-#); #cīvi-tā-s#, _citizenship_, _the community_
(#cīvi-#); #facili-tā-s#, _easiness_, #facul-tā-s#, _ability_
(#facili-#); #cāri-tā-s#, _dearness_ (#cāro-#); #auctōr-itā-s#,
_authority_ (#auctōr-#); #līber-tā-s#, _freedom_ (#lībro-#, 111, _b_);
#maies-tā-s#, _grandeur_ (#maiōs-#); #volun-tā-s#, _wish_ (#*volunti-#,
179); #venus-tā-s#, _grace_ (#venusto-#, 179); #ae-tā-s#, _age_
(#aevo-#, 111, _a_); #tempes-tā-s#, _kind of time_, _weather_
(#tempes-#).

263. #-tūt-#, N. #-tū-s#, only in #iuven-tūt-#, N. #iuven-tū-s#, _youth_
(#iuven-#), #senec-tū-s#, _age_ (#senec-#), #servi-tū-s#, _slavery_
(#servo-#), and #vir-tū-s#, _manhood_ (#viro-#, 111).

264. #-tū-din-#, N. #-tū-dō#, suffixed to adjective stems:
#magni-tūdin-#, N. #magni-tūdō#, _greatness_ (#magno-#); #forti-túdō#,
_courage_ (#forti-#); and to a few participles: #cōnsuē-tūdō#, _custom_
(#cōnsuēto-#, 179); #sollici-tūdō#, _anxiety_ (#sollicito-#);
analogously #valē-tūdō#, _health_ (#*valēto-#, #valēre#).


II. THE PERSON CONCERNED.

265. The suffixes #-ārio-#, #-ōn-#, #-iōn-#, #-li-#, #-no-#, and some
others, are used to denote the _Person concerned_ or _occupied_ with a
thing: as,

  STEM.      NOMINATIVE.           FROM.

  sīc-ārio-  sīcārius, _assassin_  sīcā-, N. sīca, _dagger_
  āle-ōn-    āleō, _gambler_       āleā-, N. ālea, _die_
  lūd-iōn-   lūdiō, _player_       lūdo-, N. lūdus, _play_
  aedī-li-   aedīlis, _aedile_     aedi-, N. aedis, _house_
  tribū-no-  tribūnus, _tribune_   tribu-, N tribus, _tribe_


III. THE PLACE.

266. Neuters with the suffixes #-tōrio-#, #-ārio-#, #-īli-#, #-to-#, or
#-ēto-# are often used to denote the _Place_: as,

  STEM.        NOMINATIVE.                  FROM.

  audī-tōrio-  audī-tōrium, _lecture-room_  audītōr-, N. audītor,
                                              _hearer_
  aer-ārio-    aerārium, _treasury_         aer-, N. aes, _money_
  ov-īli-      ovīle, _sheepfold_           ovi-, N. ovis, _sheep_
  murt-ēto-    murtēta, _myrtlegroves_      murto-, N. murtus, _myrtle_


IV. DIMINUTIVES.

267. The suffixes #-lo-#, #-lā-#, or #-cu-lo-#, #-cu-lā-#, are used to
form substantives with a _Diminutive_ meaning. Diminutives may denote:

268. (1.) Actual smallness: as, #secūricula#, _a little hatchet_;
#ventulus#, _a bit of wind_; #spēcula#, _a ray of hope_.

269. (2.) Imputed smallness: implying, (_a._) admiration, affection, or
compassion; (_b._) contempt or irony. This diminutive, which usually
serves to add point to sentences themselves of a playful, patronizing,
or slurring character, is very hard to translate; _little_ and _small_
are often inadequate; _old_ or _poor_ will sometimes do; but usually
recourse must be had to free translations adapted to the particular
context: as,

#ōrātiuncula#, _a gem of a speech_, _an attempt at a speech_;
#mātercula#, _an anxious mother_, _poor mamma_, _dear mamma_;
#lectulus#, _one’s own little bed_; #ānellus aureolus#, _a gay gold
ring_; #Graeculī#, _our Greek cousins_, _the good people in Greece_;
#Graeculus#, _a regular Greek_, _your gentleman from Greece_;
#muliercula#, _a pretty girl_, _a lady gay_, _one of the gentler sex_,
_a mere woman_, _an unprotected female_, _a maiden all forlorn_;
#lacrimula#, _a wee tear_, _a crocodile tear_; #volpēcula#, _Master
Reynard_, _dan Russel_; #tōnstrīcula#, _a common barber girl_;
#popellus#, _rabble_; #nummulī#, _filthy lucre_; #mercēdula#, _an
apology for pay_; #ratiuncula#, _a first rate reason_; #caupōnula#, _a
low tavern_.

270. Some diminutives have entirely lost the diminutive meaning: as,
#puella#, _girl_, not necessarily _little girl_; others have changed
their original meaning: as, #avunculus#, _uncle_, originally
_grandpapa_; #anguīlla#, _eel_, originally _little snake_. Some words
are only found in the diminutive form: as, #stēlla#, _star_ (#*ster-#).
Diminutives usually have the gender of their primitives; exceptions are
rare: as, #rāna#, _frog_, #F.#, #rānunculus#, _tadpole_, #M.#

  [Erratum:
  270 ... #F.# ... #M.#
    anomalous boldface in original]


(1.) #-lo-# (N., M. #-lu-s#, Ne. #-lu-m#), #-lā-# (N. #-la#).

271. Stems in #-o-#, #-ā-#, or a mute (#-g-#, #-c-#, #-d-#, or #-t-#),
take #-lo-# or #-lā-#, which is usually preceded by #-u-# (202).

#hortu-lo-#, N. #hortu-lu-s#, _little garden_ (#horto-#); #oppidu-lu-m#,
_hamlet_ (#oppido-#); #serru-lā-#, N. #serru-la#, _little saw_
(#serrā-#); #rēg-ulu-s#, _chieftain_ (#rēg-#); #vōc-ula#, _a bit of a
voice_ (#vōc-#); #calc-ulu-s#, _pebble_ (#calci-#); #nepōt-ulu-s#, _a
grandson dear_ (#nepōt-#); #aetāt-ula#, _tender age_ (#aetāt-#).

272. Stems in #-eo-#, #-io-#, or #-vo-#, retain #-o-# before #-lo-#;
stems in #-eā-#, #-iā-#, or #-vā-#, also have #-o-# before #-lā-#.

#alveo-lo-#, N. #alveo-lu-s#, _little tray_ (#alveo-#); #gladio-lu-s#,
_little sword_ (#gladio-#); #servo-lu-s#, _little slave_ (#servo-#);
#nauseo-lā-#, N. #nauseo-la#, _a slight squeamishness_ (#nauseā-#);
#bēstio-la#, _little animal_ (#bēstiā-#); #fīlio-la#, _little daughter_
(#fīliā-#).

273. Stems in #-lo-#, #-ro-#, #-no-#, and #-lā-#, #-rā-#, #-nā-#,
commonly drop the stem vowel and assimilate #-r-# or #-n-# to #-l-#:
thus: #-el-lo-#, #-el-lā-# (111, _b_; 166, 6, 7).

#catel-lo-#, for #*catululo-#, N. #catel-lu-s#, _puppy_ (#catulo-#);
#agel-lu-s#, _little field_ (#agro-#); #asel-lu-s#, _donkey_ (#asino-#);
#fābel-lā-#, N. #fābel-la#, _short story_ (#fābulā-#); #umbel-la#,
_sunshade_ (#umbrā-#); #pāgel-la#, _short page_ (#pāginā-#). A few words
are not thus changed: #pueru-lo-#, N. #pueru-lu-s#, _poor boy_
(#puero-#), as well as #puel-lu-s#.

274. Another vowel than #e# (172, 3) appears in: #Hispāl-lu-s#
(#Hispāno-#), #Messāl-la# (#Messānā-#), proper names; #corōl-la#,
_chaplet_ (#corōnā-#); #ūl-lu-s#, _the least one_, _any at all_
(#ūno-#); #Sūl-la# (#Sūrā-#), proper name; #lapil-lu-s#, for
#*lapid-lu-s#, _pebble_ (#lapid-#). Also #homul-lu-s#, _son of the dust_
(#homon-#).

  [Erratum:
  273 ... #-el-lo-#, #-el-lā-# (111, _b_; 166, 6, 7).
    111; _b_;]


(2.) #-cu-lo-# (N., M. #-cu-lu-s#, Ne. #-cu-lu-m#), #-cu-lā-#
(N. #-cu-la#).

275. Stems in a continuous sound (#-l-#, #-n-#, #-r-#, or #-s-#), or in
#-i-#, #-u-#, or #-ē-#, usually take #-cu-lo-# or #-cu-lā-#.

#sermūn-culo-#, N. #sermūn-culu-s#, _small-talk_ (#sermōn-#);
#virgun-culā-#, N. #virgun-cula#, _little maid_ (#virgon-#);
#homun-culu-s#, _son of earth_ (#homon-#); #arbus-cula#, _tiny tree_
(#arbos-#); #cor-culu-m#, _heart of hearts_ (#cord-#, 170, 12);
#igni-culu-s#, _spark_ (#igni-#); #ani-cula#, _grandam_ (#anu-#);
#diē-cula#, _brief day_ (#diē-#); analogously, #volpē-cula# (_vixen_),
_little fox_ (#*volpē-#). Rarely with #ī#: #canī-cula#, _little dog_
(#can-#).

276. #-un-culo-#, N. #-un-culu-s#: #av-unculo-#, N. #av-unculu-s#,
_uncle_ (#avo-#); #rān-unculu-s#, _tadpole_ (#rānā-#). #-un-culā-#, N.
#-un-cula#: #dom-unculā-#, N. #dom-uncula#, _little house_ (#domo-#).

277. Diminutives are sometimes formed from other diminutives:
#cistel-lu-la#, _casket_ (#cistel-la#, #cistu-la#, #cistā-#).

278. A few other suffixes have a diminutive meaning: as, #-ciōn-#,
#-leo-#, #-astro-#, #-ttā-#: #homun-ciō#, _manikin_, _child of dust_
(#homon-#); #acu-leu-s#, _sting_ (#acu-#); #Antōni-aster#, _regular
little Antony_; #pīn-aster#, _bastard pine_; #Iūli-tta#, _Juliet_
(#Iūliā-#); #Pōlli-tta#, _little Polla_ (#Pōllā-#).


V. PATRONYMICS.

279. Patronymics, or proper names which denote descent from a father or
ancestor, have stems in #-dā-# (N. #-dē-s#), F. #-d-# (N. #-s#). These
are chiefly Greek names used in poetry.

#Prīami-dā-#, N. #Prīami-dē-s#, _scion of Priam’s house_; #Tantali-d-#,
N. #Tantali-s#, _daughter of Tantalus_. #Pēlī-dē-s# (#Pēleu-s#);
#Aenea-dē-s# (#Aenēā-#); #Thestia-dē-s# (#Thestio-#); #Lāertia-dē-s#
(#Lāertā-#); #Scīpia-dā-s# (#Scīpiōn-#). #F.# sometimes #-īnē# or
#-ōnē#: #Neptūnīnē# (#Neptūno-#); #Acrisiōnē# (#Acrisio-#).


II. THE ADJECTIVE.


(A.) PRIMITIVES.

280. Primitive adjectives may usually be divided into active and
passive; but the same suffix often has either an active or a passive
meaning. Under primitive adjectives belong the participles; but these
will be mentioned in connection with the verb.


I. WITH AN ACTIVE MEANING.

281. The suffixes #-o-#, #-uo-#, #-ci-#, #-lo-#, and #-do-#, are used to
form adjectives with an _Active_ meaning: as,

  STEM.        NOMINATIVE.             FROM.

  vag-o-       vagus, _wandering_      √+vag-+, _wander_
  contig-uo-   contiguus, _touching_   com-, √+tag-+, _touch_
  minā-ci-     mināx, _threatening_    minā-rī, _threaten_
  cali-do-     calidus, _warm_         √+cal-+, _warm_


(1.) #-o-# (N. #-u-s#); #-uo-# (N. #-uu-s#).

282. #-o-# (N. #-u-s#): such words express nature or capacity: #vag-o-#,
N. #vag-u-s#, _roaming_ (√#vag-#, _roam_); #vīv-u-s#, _living_ (√#vīv-#,
_live_); many are compounds: as, #male-dic-u-s#, _abusive_ (#male#,
√#dic-#, _say_); #pro-fug-u-s#, _flying on_ (#prō-#, √#fug-#, _fly_).
Passive: #fīd-u-s#, _trustworthy_ (√#fīd-#, _trust_).

283. #-uo-#, N. #-uu-s#: #adsid-uo-#, N. #adsid-uu-s#, _unremitting_
(#ad#, √#sed-#, _sit_); #contig-uu-s#, _touching_ (#com-#, √#tag-#,
_touch_); #perpet-uu-s#, _uninterrupted_ (#per#, √#pet-#, _go_). Some
words are passive: as, #sal-vu-s#, _safe_ (√#sal-#, _save_); #vac-uu-s#,
_empty_ (√#vac-#, _empty_); #relic-uo-s#, _left behind_ (#re-#,
√#liqu-#, _leave_), later #reliquos#, #relicus#, #reliquus# (157).


(2.) #-ci-# (N. #-x#); #-lo-# (N. #-lu-s#); #-do-# (N. #-du-s#).

284. #-ā-ci-#, N. #-ā-x# (202), denotes capacity, habit, or inclination,
often implying censure: #pugnā-ci-#, N. #pugnā-x#, _full of fight_
(#pugnā-re#); #minā-x#, _threatening_ (#minā-ri#); #fer-āx#,
_productive_ (√#fer-#, _bear_); #dic-āx#, _full of mother-wit_, _quick
at a joke_ (√#dic-#, _say_); #rap-āx#, _apt to snatch_ (√#rap-#,
_snatch_).

285. #-u-lo-#, N. #-u-lu-s# (202), denotes simple action: as,
#pat-ulo-#, N. #pat-ulu-s#, _spreading_ (√#pat-#, _spread_); or
inclination: as, #bib-ulu-s#, _apt to drink_ (√#bib-#, _drink_).

286. The suffixes #-undo-# (#-endo-#), #-bundo-#, and #-cundo-# form a
group and are possibly related to the suffix in #-do-#.

287. #-do-#, N. #-du-s# (202), denotes a state, and usually has a
parallel verb in #-ēre# (368): #cali-do-#, N. #cali-du-s# _warm_
(cf. #calē-re#); #calli-du-s#, _knowing_ (cf. #callē-re#); #niti-du-s#,
_shining_ (cf. #nitē-re#); rarely in #-ere#: #cup-idu-s#, _desirous_
(cf. #cupe-re#); #flui-du-s#, _liquid_ (cf. #flue-re#); #rapi-du-s#,
_hurried_ (cf. #rape-re#). #-i-do-# becomes #-i-di-# in #viri-di-s#,
_green_ (cf. #virē-re#). #-do-# sometimes occurs in denominatives:
#herbi-du-s#, _grassy_ (#herbā-#).

288. #-undo-# (#-endo-#), N. #-undu-s#, (#-endu-s#) is the suffix of the
gerundive, which was originally neither active nor passive (2238). In a
few words from reflexives, which have become adjectives, it has a
reflexive or active meaning: #lāb-undo-#, N. #lāb-undu-s#, _gliding_,
_slipping_ (#lābī#); #ori-undu-s#, _arising_ (#orīrī#); #sec-undu-s#,
_following_ (#sequī#); #volv-endu-s#, _rolling_ (_volvī_). See 899.

289. #-bundo-#, N. #-bundu-s# (202), has the meaning of an exaggerated
present participle: #freme-bundo-#, N. #freme-bundu-s#, _muttering away_
(√#frem-#, _roar_); #treme-bundu-s#, _all in a flutter_ (√#trem-#,
_quiver_); #fur-ibundu-s#, _hot with rage_ (√#fur-#, _rave_);
#cōntiōnā-bundu-s#, _speaking a speech_ (#cōntiōnā-rī#);
#minitā-bundu-s#, _breathing out threatenings_ (#minitā-rī#);
#vītā-bundu-s#, _forever dodging_ (#vītā-re#).

290. #-cundo-#, N. #-cundu-s#, denotes permanent quality: #fā-cundo-#,
N. #fā-cundu-s#, _eloquent_ (√#fā-#, _speak_); #īrā-cundu-s#, _choleric_
(#īrā-scī#); #iū-cundu-s#, _pleasant_, _interesting_ (√#iuv-#, _help_).


II. WITH A PASSIVE MEANING.

291. The suffixes #-li-#, #-ti-li-#, #-bili-#, #-tīvo-#, #-no-#, and
#-mino-#, are used to form adjectives with a _Passive_ meaning: as,

  STEM.      NOMINATIVE.            FROM.

  fac-ili-   facilis, _easy to do_  √+fac-+, _do_
  duc-tili-  ductilis, _ductile_    √+duc-+, _draw_
  amā-bili-  amābilis, _lovable_    amā-re, _love_
  mag-no-    magnus, _great_        √+mag-+, _increase_


(1.) #-li-#, (N. #-li-s#); #-ti-li-#, #-bili-# (N. #-ti-li-s#,
#-bili-s#).

292. #-i-li-#, N. #-i-li-s# (202), denotes passive capability:
#fac-ili-#, N. #fac-ili-s#, _easy to do_ (√#fac-#, _do_); #frag-ili-s#,
_breakable_, _frail_ (√#frag-#, _break_); #hab-ili-s#, _manageable_,
_handy_ (√#hab-#, _hold_); #nūb-ili-s#, _marriageable_ (√#nūb-#,
_veil_).

293. #-ti-li-#, N. #-ti-li-s#, or #-si-li-#, N. #-si-li-s# (159),
denotes capability or quality: as, #duc-tili#, N. #duc-tili-s#, _capable
of being drawn out_, _ductile_ (√#duc-#, _draw_); #fis-sili-s#,
_cleavable_ (√#fid-#, _split_); #rā-sili-s#, _scraped_ (√#rād-#,
_scrape_). Rarely active: as, #fer-tili-s#, _productive_ (√#fer-#,
_bear_).

294. #-bili-#, N. #-bili-s# (202), denotes passive capability like
#-i-li-#, but is far more common: #horr-ibili-s#, _exciting a shudder_
(cf. #horrē-re#); #amā-bili-s#, _lovable_ (#amā-re#); #flē-bili-s#,
_lamentable_ (√#flē-#, _weep_). Rarely active: as, #sta-bili-s#, _that
can stand_ (√#sta-#, _stand_); #penetrā-bili-s#, _piercing_
(#penetrā-re#). #-ti-bili-# (159), passive, rare: #flexibili-s#,
_flexible_ (√#flec-#, _bend_, 960).

295. #-tīvo-#, N. #-tīvu-s#, denotes the way a thing originated: as,
#cap-tīvu-s#, _captive_ (√#cap-#, _take_); #sta-tīvu-s#, _set_ (√#sta-#,
_set_).


(2.) #-no-# (N. #-nu-s#); #-mino-# (N. #-minu-s#).

296. #-no-#, N. #-nu-s#, an old passive participle suffix, denotes
result: #mag-nu-s# (_enlarged_), _great_ (√#mag-#, _great_); #plē-nus#,
_full_ (√#plē-#, _fill_). Neuter as substantive: #dō-nu-m#, _gift_
(√#dō-#, _give_). Sometimes active: #egē-nu-s#, _needy_ (#egē-re#, 192).

297. The suffix #-mino-# (for #-meno-#, 103, _a_) in its weakest form
(135, 2) is found in a few substantives: as, #alu-mnu-s#, _nursling_
(√#al-#, _nurse_). The endings #-minī# (730) and #-minō# (731) are
apparently case forms of the same suffix. #-minō# would seem to be an
ablative; #-minī# may be a nominative plural.


(B.) DENOMINATIVES.

298. Denominative adjectives may be divided into such as denote: I.
_Material_ or _Resemblance_. II. _Appurtenance_: implying sometimes
_possession_, often _fitness_, _conformity_, _character_, or _origin_.
III. _Supply._ IV. Diminutives. V. Comparatives and Superlatives; a few
of these are primitive.


I. MATERIAL OR RESEMBLANCE.

299. The suffixes #-eo-# and #-n-eo-# are used to form adjectives
denoting _Material_ or _Resemblance_: as,

  STEM.     NOMINATIVE.             FROM.

  aur-eo-   aureus, _golden_        auro-, N. aurum, _gold_
  ahē-neo-  ahēneus, _bronze_ (58)  aes-, N. aes, _bronze_

300. #-eo-#, N. #-eu-s#: #aur-eo-#, N. #aur-eu-s#, _golden_, _all gold_,
_as good as gold_ (#auro-#); #ferr-eu-s#, _iron_ (#ferro-#);
#pulver-eu-s#, _all dust_ (#pulver-#); #virgin-eu-s#, _girlish_
(#virgin-#).

301. #-n-eo-#, N. #-n-eu-s#: #ahē-neu-s#, _bronze_ (#ahē-#, 58; #aes-#);
#quer-neu-s#, _oaken_ (#quercu-#). #-no-# is usually poetical: as,
#ebur-nu-s#, _ivory_ (#ebur-#); #quer-nu-s#, _oaken_ (#quercu-#).
#-ā-neo-#, N. #-ā-neu-s#: #miscell-āneu-s#, _mixed_ (#miscello-#).


II. APPURTENANCE.

302. The suffixes #-o-#, #-io-#, #-vo-#; #-timo-#, #-li-#, #-no-#;
#-bri-#, #-cri-#, #-tri-#; #-co-#, #-ti-#, #-si-#, are used to form
adjectives denoting _Belonging to_: as,

  STEM.       NOMINATIVE.              FROM.

  rēg-io-     rēgius, _kingly_         rēg-, N. rēx, _king_
  mari-timo-  maritimus, _of the sea_  mari-, N. mare, _sea_
  rēg-āli-    rēgālis, _of a king_     rēg-, N. rēx, _king_
  can-īno-    canīnus, _of a dog_      can-, N. canis, _dog_
  mulie-bri-  muliebris, _womanly_     mulier-, N. mulier, _woman_
  cīvi-co-    cīvicus, _citizen’s_     cīvi-, N. cīvis, _citizen_


(1.) #-o-# (N. #-u-s#), #-io-# (N. #-iu-s#), #-vo-# (N. #-vu-s#).

303. #-o-#, N. #-u-s#: #decōr-o-#, N. #decōr-u-s#, _becoming_
(#decōr-#); #canōr-u-s#, _melodious_ (#canōr-#); #pervius#, _passable_
(#via-#).

304. #-io-# is one of the commonest suffixes, and is often added to
other suffixes; thus: #-c-io-#, #-īc-io-#; #-tōr-io-# (#-sōr-io-#);
#-ār-io-#.

305. #-io-#, N. #-iu-s#: #rēg-io-#, N. #rēg-iu-s#, _of_ or _like a king_
(#rēg-#); #patr-iu-s#, _of a father_ (#patr-#). Here belong many gentile
names: as, #Sēst-iu-s# (#Sexto-#). These are used with substantives as
adjectives: as, #lēx Cornēl-ia#, #lēx Iūl-ia#. Furthermore patrial
adjectives: as, #Corinth-iu-s#, _Corinthian_ (#Corintho-#). In some,
consonant #-io-# is used: #plēbē-iu-s#, _of the commons_ (#plēbē-#).
#-io-# is rare in primitives: #exim-iu-s#, _select_ (#ex#, √#em-#,
_take_).

306. #-c-io-#, N. #-c-iu-s# (202): #aedīli-cio#, N. #aedīli-ciu-s#, _of
an aedile_ (#aedīli-#); #patr-iciu-s#, _of the fathers_ (#patr-#);
#later-iciu-s#, _of brick_ (#later-#).

307. #-īc-io-#, N. #-īc-iu-s#: #nov-īcio-#, N. #nov-īciu-s#, _new_,
_new-comer_ (#novo-#); #nātāl-īciu-s#, _birthday’s_ (#nātāli-#);
#caement-īciu-s#, _rubble_ (#caemento-#). Usually suffixed to perfect
participles to denote the quality derived from the past act:
#conduct-īciu-s#, _hired_ (#conducto-#); #trālāt-īciu-s#, _transferred_
(#trālāto-#).

308. #-tōr-io-#, N. #-tōr-iu-s#, or #-sōr-io-#, N. #-sōr-iu-s#, from the
agent (205) in #-tōr-# (#-sōr-#), is the commonest ending with #-io-#:
#imperā-tōrio-#, N. #imperā-tōriu-s#, _of a commander_ (#imperātōr-#).
The neuter, as substantive, denotes the place where (266):
#audī-tōriu-m#, _lecture-room_ (#audītōr-#); #dēvor-sōriu-m#, _inn_
(#dēvorsōr-#).

309. #-ār-io-#, N. #-ār-iu-s#, very common, is chiefly added to
substantives: as, #agr-ārio-#, N. #agr-āriu-s#, _of land_ (#agro-#).
Often as substantive: #not-āriu-s# (265), _stenographer_ (#notā-#);
#aer-āriu-m# (266), _treastury_ (#aer-#); #sēmin-āriu-m#, _nursery_
(#sēmin-#); #bell-āria#, plural, _goodies_, _bonbons_ (#bello-#).

310. #-ī-vo-#, N. #-ī-vu-s# (202): #tempest-īvu-s#, _seasonable_
(#tempestāt-#, 126); #aest-īvu-s#, _summer’s_ (#aestāt-#). See 179.


(2.) #-timo-# (N. #-timu-s#); #-li-# (N. #-li-s#); #-no-# (N. #-nu-s#).

311. #-timo-#, N. #-timu-s# (202), for an older #-tumo-# (28):
#mari-timo-#, N. #mari-timu-s#, _of the sea_ (#mari-#); #fīni-timu-s#,
_of the border_ (#fīni-#); #lēg-itimu-s#, _lawful_ (#lēg-#).

312. #-li-# N. #-li-s#: #humi-li-#, N. #humi-li-s#, _lowly_ (#humo-#);
but almost always in denominatives #-li-# is preceded by a long vowel
(202), usually #-ā-# or #-ī-#, thus: #-ā-li-# (#-ā-ri-#), #-ī-li#;
#-ē-li-#, #-ū-li-#.

313. #-ā-li-#, N. #-ā-li-s#: #rēg-āli-#, N. #rēg-āli-s#, _kingly_
(#rēg-#); #decemvir-āli-s#, _of a decemvir_ (#decemviro-#); #fāt-āli-s#,
_fated_ (#fāto-#); #t-āli-s#, _such_ (stem #to-#, _that_); #qu-āli-s#,
_as_ (#quo-#), #-ā-ri-#, N. #-ā-ri-s#, is used for #-āli-# if an #l#
precedes (173): as, #mol-āri-#, N. #mol-āri-s#, _of a mill_ (#molā-#);
#mīlit-āri-s#, _of a soldier_ (#mīlit-#). Neuters in #-āli-# and #-āri-#
often become substantives (600): #fōc-āle#, _neckcloth_ (#fauci-#);
#anim-al#, _breathing thing_ (#animā-#); #calc-ar#, _spur_ (#calci-#).

314. #-ī-li-#, N. #-ī-li-s#: #cīv-īli-#, N. #cīv-īli-s#, _of a citizen_
(#cīvi-#); #puer-ili-s#, _boyish_ (#puero-#). The neuter, as
substantive, sometimes denotes the place where (266): #ov-īle#,
_sheepfold_ (#ovi-#).

315. #-ē-li#, N. #-ē-li-s#: #fidē-li-#, N. #fidē-li-s#, _faithful_
(#fidē-#); #crūd-ēli-s#, _cruel_ (#crūdo-#); #patru-ēli-s#, _cousin_
(#patruo-#). #-ū-li-#, N. #-ū-li-s#: #tribū-li-#, N. #tribū-li-s#,
_tribesman_ (#tribu-#).

316. The old participle suffix #-no-# (296) is sometimes added at once
to noun stems, sometimes to other suffixes: thus, #-ā-no-#, #-ī-no-#;
#-ti-no-#, #-tī-no-#; #-er-no-#, #-ur-no-#.

317. #-no-#, N. #-nu-s#, is added to stems formed with the comparative
suffix #-ero-# or #-tero-# (347), denoting place: #super-no-#, N.
#super-nu-s#, _above_; #inter-nu-s#, _internal_ (#inter#); #exter-nu-s#,
_outside_; so, also, #alter-nu-s#, _every other_ (#altero-#); and to a
very few substantives: as, #pater-nu-s#, _fatherly_ (#patr-#);
#frāter-nu-s#, _brotherly_ (#frātr-#); #vēr-nu-s#, _of spring_ (#vēr-#).
Also to cardinals, making distributives: as, #bī-nī#, _two by two_ (for
#*dṷīnī#, #duo-#, 161).

318. #-ā-no-#, N. #-ā-nu-s# (202): #arcā-no-#, N. #arc-ānu-s#, _secret_
(#arcā-#); #Rōma-nu-s#, _of Rome_ (#Rōmā-#); #mont-ānu-s#, _of a
mountain_ (#monti-#); #oppid-ānu-s#, _of a town_ (#oppido-#). #-i-āno-#:
#Cicerōn-iāno-#, N. #Cicerōn-iānu-s#, _Cicero’s_. Rarely #-ā-neo-#:
#mediterrā-neu-s#, _midland_ (#medio-#, #terrā-#).

319. #-ī-no-#, N. #-ī-nu-s# (202): #mar-īno-#, N. #mar-īnu-s#, _of the
sea_; #repent-īnu-s#, _sudden_ (#repenti-#); oftenest added to names of
living beings: as, #can-īnu-s#, _of a dog_ (#can-#); #dīv-īnu-s#, _of a
god_ (#dīvo-#); #-ē-no-#: #lani-ēnu-s#, #ali-ēnu-s#. Also to proper
names: as, #Plaut-īno-#, N. #Plaut-īnu-s#, _of Plautus_ (#Plauto-#);
#Alp-īnu-s#, _Alpine_ (#Alpi-#).

320. #-ti-no-#, N. #-ti-nu-s#, is used in some adjectives of time:
#crās-tinu-s#, _to-morrow’s_ (#crās-#); #diū-tinu-s#, _lasting_ (#diū#);
#prīs-tinu-s#, _of aforetime_ (#prī-#, #prae#).

321. #-tī-no-#, N. #-tī-nu-s#, is used in a few words of place and time:
#intes-tīno-#, N. #intes-tinu-s#, _inward_ (#intus#); #vesper-tīnu-s#,
_at eventide_ (#vespero-#).

322. From words like #frāter-nus# (from #*fratr(i)-nus#, 111, _b_),
#pater-nus#, #exter-nus#, #inter-nus#, arose a new suffix #-terno-#: as,
#hes-ternus#, from the stem #hes-# (cf. #her-ī#, 154), and #-erno-# in
#hodiernus#. From the adverb #*noctur# (νυκτωρ) was derived
#noctur-nus#, by analogy to which #diurnus# was formed. Elsewhere the
#-ur# of #-urnus# and the #-tur-# of #-turnus# belong to the stem: as,
#ebur-nus#; #tacitur-nus#, from the agent #*taci-tor# (205).


(3.) #-bri-#, #-cri-#, #-tri-# (N. #-ber# or #-bri-s#, &c.).

323. #-bri-#, N. #-ber# or #-bri-s#: #salū-bri-#, N. #salū-ber#,
_healthy_ (#salūt-#); #mulie-bri-s#, _womanly_ (#mulier-#).

324. #-cri-#, N. #-cer# or #-cri-s# (202): #volu-cri-#, N. #volu-cer#,
_winged_ (#*volo-#, _flying_); #medio-cri-s#, _middling_ (#medio-#).

325. #-tri-#, N. #-ter# or #-tri-s#: #eques-tri-#, N. #eques-ter#, _of
horsemen_ (#equit-#, 152); #sēmēs-tri-s#, _of six months_ (#sex#,
#mēns-#). #-es-tri-# is used in a few words: #camp-ester#, _of fields_
(#campo-#); #silv-estri-s#, _of woods_ (#silvā-#).


(4.) #-co-# (N. #-cu-s#); #-ti-#, #-si-# (N. #-s#, #-si-s#).

326. #-co-# is often suffixed to #-ti-#, sometimes to #-es-ti-#; thus:
#-ti-co-#, #-es-ti-co-#.

327. #-co-#, N. #-cu-s#: #cīvi-co-#, N. #cīvi-cu-s#, _of a citizen_
(#cīvi-#); #belli-cu-s#, _of war_ (#bello-#); #vīli-cu-s#, _bailiff_
(#vīllā-#). #-ā-co-#, #-ī-co-#, #-ū-co-# (202): #merā-cu-s#, #amī-cu-s#,
#antī-cu-s#, #aprī-cu-s#, #postī-cu-s#, #pudī-cu-s#, #cadū-cu-s#.
#-ti-co-#, N. #-ti-cu-s#: #rūs-tico-#, N. #rūs-ticu-s#, _of the country_
(#rūs-#). #-es-ti-co-#, N. #-es-ti-cu-s#: #dom-esticu-s#, _of a house_
(#domo-#, #domu-#).

328. #-ti-# or #-si-# denotes belonging to a place; usually #-ā-ti-#,
#-ī-ti-#, #-es-ti-#, #-en-ti-#; #-ēn-si-#, or #-i-ēn-si-#.

329. #-ti-#, N. #-s#: #Tībur-ti-#, N. #Tībur-s#, _Tiburtine_ (#Tībur-#).
#-ā-ti-#: #quoi-āti-#, N. #quoi-ā-s#, _what countryman?_ (#quoio-#);
#Anti-ā-s#, _of Antium_ (#Antio-#); #optim-ātēs#, _good men and true_
(#optimo-#). #-ī-ti-#: #Samn-īti-#, N. #Samn-ī-s#, _Samnian_
(#Samnio-#). #-en-ti-#: #Vēi-enti-#, N. #Vēi-ēn-s#, _of Vei_ (#Vēio-#).
#-es-ti-#, N. #-es-ti-s#: #agr-esti-#, N. #agr-esti-s#, _of the fields_
(#agro-#); #cael-esti-s#, _heavenly_ (#caelo-#).

330. #-ēn-si-#, N. #-ēn-si-s# (202), from appellatives of place or
proper names of place: #castr-ēnsi-#, N. #castr-ēnsi-s#, _of a camp_
(#castro-#); #circ-ēnsi-s#, _of the circus_ (#circo-#); #Hispāni-ēnsi-s#
_(temporarily) of Spain_. #-i-ēnsi-#: #Karthāgin-iēnsi-s#, _of Carthage_
(#Karthāgin-#).


III. SUPPLY.

331. The suffixes #-to-# or #-ōso-# are used to form adjectives denoting
_Supplied_ or _Furnished with_: as,

  STEM.      NOMINATIVE.               FROM.

  barbā-to-  barbātus, _bearded_       barbā-, N. barba, _beard_
  ann-ōso-   annōsus, _full of years_  anno-, N. annus, _year_


(1.) #-to-# (N. #-tu-s#); #-len-to-# (N. #-len-tu-s#).

332. #-to-#, the perfect participle suffix, is sometimes added at once
to a noun stem, sometimes to other suffixes, thus: #-āto-#, #-īto-#,
#-ēto-#, #-ūto-#, #-ento-#, #-lento-#.

333. #-to-#, N. #-tu-s#: #onus-to-#, N. #onus-tu-s#, _loaded_ (#onus-#);
#vetus-tu-s#, _full of years_ (#*vetus-#, _year_); #iūs-tu-s#, _just_
(#iūs-#); #hones-tu-s#, _honourable_ (#*hones-#); #fūnes-tu-s#, _deadly_
(#fūnes-#). #-ā-to-#: #barbā-tu-s#, _bearded_ (#barbā-#); #dent-ātu-s#,
_toothed_ (#denti-#); #-ī-to-#: #aurī-tu-s#, _long-eared_ (#auri-#);
#-ū-to-#: #cornū-tu-s#, _horned_ (#cornu-#). #-en-to-#, N. #-en-tu-s#:
#cru-ento-#, N. #cru-entu-s#, _all gore_ (#*cruenti-#, #*cruēre#). As
substantive, #arg-entu-m# (_white metal_), _silver_; #flu-enta#, plural,
_streams_ (#fluenti-#).

334. The neuter of stems in #-to-#, as a substantive, denotes the place
where something, generally a plant, is found (266): #arbus-tu-m#,
_vineyard_ (#arbos-#); commonly preceded by #-ē-#, forming #-ē-to-#
(202), usually plural: #dūm-ēta#, _thorn-thickets_ (#dūmo-#);
#murt-ēta#, _myrtle-groves_ (#murto-#).

335. #-len-to-#, N. #-len-tu-s# (202): #vīno-lento-#, N. #vīno-lentu-s#,
_drunken_ (#vīno-#); #sanguin-olentu-s#, _all blood_ (#sanguin-#);
#lūcu-lentu-s#, _bright_ (#lūci-#, 28); #pulver-ulentu-s#, _dusty_
(#pulver-#). A shorter form #-lenti-# is rare: #vi-olenti-#, N.
#vi-olēn-s#, _violent_ (#vi-#); #op-ulēn-s#, _rich_ (#op-#).


(2.) #-ōso-# (N. #-ōsu-s#).

336. #-ōso-# (sometimes #-ōnso-#, #-ōsso-#), N. #-ōsu-s#, _full of_, is
very common indeed, #-ōso-# is sometimes attached to other suffixes,
thus: #-c-ōso-#, #-ul-ōso-#, #-ūc-ul-ōso-#.

337. #-ōso-#, N. #-ōsu-s#: #ann-ōso-#, N. #ann-ōsu-s#, _full of years_;
#fōrm-ōnsu-s#, #fōrm-ōssu-s# or #fōrm-ōsu-s#, _shapely_ (#fōrmā-#);
#perīcul-ōsu-s#, _with danger fraught_ (#perīculo-#); #mōr-ōsu-s#,
_priggish_, _cross_ (#mōr-#); #calamit-ōsu-s#, _full of damage_
(#calamitāt-#, 179); #superstiti-ōsu-s#, _superstitious_
(#superstitiōn-#, 179); #frūctu-ōsu-s#, _fruitful_ (#frūctu-#, 116,
_c_); #mont-uōsu-s#, _full of mountains_ (#monti-#, 202); #cūri-ōsu-s#,
_full of care_ (#cūrā-#); #labōr-iōsu-s#, _toilsome_ (#labōr-#, 202).

338. #-c-ōso-#, N. #-c-ōsu-s#: #belli-cōso-#, N. #belli-cōsu-s#,
_warlike_ (#bello-#, #bellico-#). #-ul-ōso-#, N. #-ul-ōsu-s#:
#formīd-ulōso-#, N. #formid-ulōsu-s#, _terrible_ (#formīdin-#, 179).
#-ūc-ul-ōso-#, N. #-ūc-ul-ōsu-s#: #met-ū-culoso-#, N. #met-ū-culōsu-s#,
_skittish_ (#metu-#).

  [Erratum:
  338 ... #met-ū-culoso-#
    printed met-/-u- at line break]


IV. DIMINUTIVES.

339. Diminutives are formed from adjectives, as from substantives (267).

#-lo-#, N. #-lu-s#: #aureo-lo-#, N. #aureo-lu-s#, _all gold_, _of
precious gold_, _of red red gold_, _good as gold_ (#aureo-#);
#ebrio-lu-s#, _tipsy_ (#ebrio-#); #parvo-lu-s#, or #parvu-lu-s#,
_smallish_ (#parvo-#); #frīgidu-lu-s#, _chilly_ (#frigido-#);
#vet-ulus#, _little old_ (#vet-#); #tenellu-lu-s#, _soft and sweet_
(#tenello-#, #tenero-#); #pulchel-lus#, _sweet pretty_ (#pulchro-#);
#bel-lu-s#, _bonny_ (#bono-#); #novel-lu-s#, _newborn_ (#*novolo-#,
#novo-#). #-culo-#, N. #-culu-s#: #pauper-culo-#, N. #pauper-culu-s#,
_poorish_ (#pauper-#); #levi-culu-s#, _somewhat vain_ (#levi-#).

340. A peculiar class of diminutives is formed by adding #-culo-# to the
comparative stem #-ius-# (346): as, #nitidius-culo-#, N.
#nitidius-culu-s#, _a trifle sleeker_ (#nitidius-#); #longius-culu-s#,
_a bit longer_ (#longius-#).

341. Adverbs sometimes have a diminutive form: as, #bellē#,
_charmingly_; #paullulum#, _a little bit_; #meliusculē#, _a bit better_
(340).

  [Erratum:
  339 ... _of red red gold_
    text unchanged]


V. COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES.

342. Comparatives and superlatives are usually formed from the stem of
the positive: as, #dignior#, _worthier_, #dignissimus#, _worthiest_,
from #digno-#, stem of #dignus#. A few are formed directly from roots:
thus, #maior#, _greater_, and #maximus#, _greatest_, are formed from the
√#mag-#, and not from #magno-#, stem of #magnus#.


(1.) COMPARATIVE #-ior#, SUPERLATIVE #-issimus#.

343. The nominative of comparative adjectives ends usually in #-ior#,
and that of superlatives in #-issimus#: thus,

                   COMPARATIVE.         SUPERLATIVE.

                   Masc.  Fem.  Neut.   Masc.     Fem.     Neut.
                   -ior   -ior  -ius    -issimus  -issima  -issimum

  POSITIVE.        COMPARATIVE.         SUPERLATIVE.

  altus, _high_,   altior, _higher_,    altissimus, _highest_.
  trīstis, _sad_,  trīstior, _sadder_,  trīstissimus, _saddest_.


(2.) SUPERLATIVE #-rimus#.

344. Adjectives with the nominative in #-er# have the nominative of the
superlative like the nominative of the positive with #-rimus# added
(350): as,

  POSITIVE.        COMPARATIVE.          SUPERLATIVE.

  pauper, _poor_,  pauperior, _poorer_,  pauperrimus, _poorest_.
  ācer, _sharp_,   ācrior, _sharper_,    ācerrimus, _sharpest_.

#mātūrrimus# occurs once (Tac.), for #mātūrissimus#, positive #mātūrus#,
_ripe_.


(3.) SUPERLATIVE #-limus#.

345.

  humilis, difficilis, and facilis,
  similis, dissimilis, and gracilis,

have the nominative of the superlative in #-limus#, following #l# of the
stem (350): as,

  POSITIVE.          COMPARATIVE.          SUPERLATIVE.

  humilis, _lowly_,  humilior, _lowlier_,  humillimus, _lowliest_.


THE COMPARATIVE SUFFIX.

346. The comparative suffix is #-iōs-#, which becomes in the singular,
nominative masculine and feminine, #-ior# (154; 132), neuter nominative
and accusative, #-ius# (107, _c_); in all other cases #-iōr-# (154).

347. Other comparative suffixes are #-ro-# or #-ero-#, and #-tro-# or
#-tero-#, used in a few words, principally designating place: as,
#sup-erī#, _the upper ones_, #īnferī#, _the nether ones_; #ex-terī#,
_outsiders_, #posterī#, _after-generations_; #alter#, _the other_;
#uter#, _whether?_ _which of the two?_ (for #*quo-ter#, 146); #dexter#,
_right_.

348. Some words designating place have a doubled comparative suffix,
#-er-iōr-#, or #-ter-iōr-#: as, #sup-er-ior#, _upper_, #īnferior#,
_lower_. #ci-ter-ior#, _hither_, #dēterior# (_lower_), _worse_,
#exterior#, _outer_, #interior#, _inner_, #posterior#, _hinder_,
_after_, #ulterior#, _further_, #dexterior#, _more to the right_,
#-is-tro-# is used in two words which have become substantives:
#min-is-ter# (_inferior_), _servant_, and #magister# (_superior_),
_master_.


THE SUPERLATIVE SUFFIX.

349. The common superlative suffix is #-issimo-#, nominative #-issimus#,
with older #-issumo-#, nominative #-issumus# (28).

350. Stems which end in #-ro-#, #-ri-#, or #-li-# (344, 345) take the
suffix #-issimo-# (cf. #-simo-#, 351) with syncope of its initial #i#
(111) and assimilation of the final #l# or #r# (166, 8).

351. The suffix #-timo-# is further used in a few root superlatives:
#ci-timus#, #dextimus#, #extimus#, #intimus#, #optimus#, #postumus#, and
#ultimus#; and #-simo-# in #maximus#, #pessimus#, and #proximus#.

352. The suffix #-mo-# or #-imo-# is used in #sum-mo-#, N. #summus#,
_highest_ (#sub#); #min-imo-#, N. #minimus#, _least_; #prīmus#, _first_,
#septimus#, _seventh_, #decimus#, _tenth_. #-mo-# or #-imo-# is attached
to #-is-# (135, 2) in #plūrimus# for #*plō-is-imo-s# (_fullest_), _most_
(99); and to #-rē-# or #-trē-#, possibly an adverbial form (705), in
#suprēmus#, #extrēmus#, and #postrēmus#.


PECULIARITIES OF COMPARISON.

353. Some positives have a comparative or superlative, or both, from a
different form of the stem: such are,

  frūgī, _thrifty_,              frūgālior,        frūgālissimus.
  nēquam, _naughty_,             nēquior,          nēquissimus.
  iuvenis, _young_,              iūnior,           (nātū minimus).
  senex, _old_,                  senior,           (nātū maximus).
  magnus, _great_,               maior,            maximus (351).
  beneficus, _kindly_,           beneficentior,    beneficentissimus.
  honōrificus, _complimentary_,  honōrificentior,  honōrificentissimus.
  magnificus, _grand_,           magnificentior,   magnificentissimus.

354. #iuvenior#, _younger_, is late (Sen., Plin., Tac.). #benevolēns#,
_kindly_, #benevolentior#, #benevolentissimus#, and #maledīcēns#,
_abusive_, #maledīcentior# (once each, Plaut.), #maledīcentissimus#,
have usually as positive #benevolus# and #maledicus# respectively.

355. Some positives have a comparative or superlative, or both, from a
wholly different stem: such are,

  bonus, _good_,     melior,                 optimus (351).
  malus, _bad_,      peior,                  pessimus (351).
  multus, _much_,    plūs (sing. Ne. only),  plūrimus (352).
  parvus, _little_,  minor,                  minimus (352).

#parvus# has rarely #parvissimus#.

356. Four comparatives in #-erior# or #-terior#, denoting place (348),
have two forms of the superlative; the nominative masculine singular of
the positive is not in common use:

  exterior,   extimus (351), or extrēmus (352), _outermost_.
  īnferior,   īnfimus, or īmus, _lowest_.
  posterior,  postumus (351), _lastborn_, or postrēmus (352), _last_.
  superior,   summus (352), or suprēmus (352), _highest_.

357. Six, denoting place, have the positive only as an adverb or
preposition:

  cis, _this side_,  citerior (348),  citimus (351), _hitherest_.
  dē, _down_,        dēterior (348),  dēterrimus, _lowest_, _worst_.
  in, _in_,          interior (348),  intimus, _inmost_.
  prae, _before_,    prior,           prīmus (352), _first_.
  prope, _near_,     propior,         proximus (351), _nearest_.
  uls, _beyond_,     ulterior (348),  ultimus (351), _furthest_.

#ōcior#, _swifter_, #ōcissimus#, has no positive.

358. These have a superlative, but no comparative: #bellus#, _pretty_,
#falsus#, _false_, #inclutus#, _famed_, #invictus#, _unconquered_,
#invītus#, _unwilling_, #meritus#, _deserving_, #novus#, _new_; #vetus#,
#veterrimus#, _old_, #sacer#, #sacerrimus#, _sacred_, #vafer#,
#vaferrimus#, _sly_; #malevolus#, #malevolentissimus# (twice, Cic.),
_spiteful_; #maleficus#, #maleficentissimus# (once, Suet.), _wicked_,
#mūnificus#, #mūnificentissimus# (inscrr.; Cic. once), _generous_,
#mīrificus#, #mīrificissimus# (twice, Acc., Ter.), _strange_. Plautus
has #ipsissumus#, _his very self_.

359. Most primitives in #-ilis# and #-bilis# (292, 294), have a
comparative, but no superlative; but these have a superlative: #facilis#
and #difficilis# (345), _easy_ and _hard_, #ūtilis#, _useful_; also
#fertilis#, _productive_, #amābilis#, _lovable_, #mōbilis#, _movable_,
#nōbilis#, _well known_.

360. Many adjectives have no suffixes of comparison, and supply the
place of these by #magis#, _more_, and #maximē#, _most_: as, #mīrus#,
_strange_, #magis mīrus#, #maximē mīrus#. Many adjectives, from their
meaning, do not admit of comparison.

  [Erratum:
  358 ... (inscrr.; Cic. once), _generous_,
    _generous_.]


COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADVERBS.

361. Adverbs derived from adjectives have as their comparative the
accusative singular neuter of the comparative adjective; the superlative
is formed like that of the adjective, but ends in #-ē#: as,

  altē, _on high_,     altius,    altissimē.
  ācriter, _sharply_,  ācrius,    ācerrimē.
  facile, _easily_,    facilius,  facillimē.

362. An older superlative ending, #-ēd# for #-ē#, occurs in an
inscription of 186 B.C.: FACILVMED, i.e. #facillimē#. A few adverbs have
superlatives in #-ō# or #-um#: as, #meritissimō#, _most deservedly_;
#prīmō#, _at first_, #prīmum#, _first_; #postrēmō#, _at last_,
#postrēmum#, _for the last time_.

363. If the comparison of the adjective has peculiarities, they are
retained in the adverb likewise: as, #bene#, _well_, #melius#, #optimē#;
#male#, _ill_, #peius#, #pessimē#; #multum#, _much_, #plūs#, #plūrimum#;
#mātūrē#, _betimes_, #mātūrius#, #mātūrissimē# (Cic., Plin.), or
#mātūrrimē# (Cic., Caes., Sall., Tac.). #ōcius#, _swifter_, no positive,
#ōcissimē#. #minus#, _less_, is formed by the nominal suffix #-es-#
(236), from √#min-# (#minuō#); for #magis#, _more_, see 135, 2. In
poetry #magis# sometimes becomes #mage#, as if neuter of an adjective in
#-i-#.

364. A few adverbs not derived from adjectives are compared: as,
#diū#, _long_, #diūtius#, #diūtissimē#; #saepe#, _often_, #saepius#,
#saepissimē#; #nūper#, _lately_, no comparative, #nūperrimē#; #secus#,
_otherwise_, #sētius#, _the less_; #temperī#, _betimes_, #temperius#,
_earlier_, no superlative.

  [Erratum:
  363 ... #ōcius#, _swifter_, no positive; #ōcissimē#.
    positive.]


(B.) FORMATION OF DENOMINATIVE VERBS.

365. Denominative verb stems have present infinitives in #-āre#, #-ēre#,
or #-īre# (#-ārī#, #-ērī#, or #-īrī#), and are formed from noun stems of
all endings: as,

  VERB.                   FROM NOUN.

  fugā-re, _rout_         fugā-, N. fuga
  locā-re, _place_        loco-, N. locus
  nōminā-re, _name_       nōmin-, N. nōmen
  levā-re, _lighten_      levi-, N. levis
  sinuā-re, _bend_        sinu-, N. sinus
  albē-re, _be white_     albo-, N. albus
  miserē-rī, _pity_       misero-, N. miser
  flōrē-re, _blossom_     flōr-, N. flōs
  sordē-re, _be dirty_    sordi-, N. sordēs
  pūnī-re, _punish_       poenā-, N. poena
  condī-re, _season_      condo-, N. condus
  custōdī-re, _guard_     custōd-, N. custōs
  vestī-re, _dress_       vesti-, N. _vestis_
  gestī-re, _flutter_     gestu-, N. _gestus_

366. These present verb stems are formed by adding the suffix #-i̭o-#,
#-i̭e-# to the noun stem: as #*fugā-i̭ō#, _I flee_; the #i̭# between two
vowels was dropped (153, 2) and the final vowel of noun stem was often
contracted with the ending (118, 3). The noun stem ending is often
slightly modified.

367. In a half a dozen denominatives from stems in #-u-# the #u# of the
noun stem remains without modification, and is not contracted with the
variable vowel (116, _c_): these are, #acuere#, _sharpen_ (#acu-#),
#metuere#, _fear_, #statuere#, _set_, #tribuere#, _assign_; #arguere#,
_make clear_, #bātuere#, _beat_.

368. Verbs in #-āre# are by far the most numerous class of
denominatives; they are usually transitive; but deponents often express
condition, sometimes occupation: as, #dominārī#, _lord it_, _play the
lord_; #aquārī#, _get oneself water_. Most verbs in #-īre# also are
transitive; those in #-ēre# usually denote a state: as, #calēre#, _be
warm_; but some are causative: as, #monēre#, _remind_.

369. Many denominative verbs in #-āre# contain a noun suffix which is
not actually found in the noun itself; such suffixes are: #-co-#,
#-cin-#, #-lo-#, #-er-#, #-ro-#, #-to-#, &c.: as,

#-co-#: #albi-cāre#, _be white_ (#*albi-co-#); #velli-cāre#, _pluck_
(#*velli-co-#, _plucker_). #-cin-#: #latrō-cinārī#, _be a robber_
(#latrōn-#); #sermō-cinārī#, _discourse_ (#sermōn-#). #-lo-#:
#grātu-lārī#, _give one joy_ (#*grātu-lo-#); #vi-olāre#, _harm_
(#*vi-olo-#); #heiu-lāri#, _cry_ ‘#heia#’ (#*heiu-lo-#). #-er-#:
#mod-erārī#, _check_ (#*mod-es-#, 236). #-ro-#: #tole-rāre#, _endure_
(#*tole-ro-#); #flag-rāre#, _blaze_ (#*flag-ro-#). #-to-#:
#dēbili-tāre#, _lame_ (#*dēbili-to-#); #dubi-tāre#, _doubt_
(#*dubi-to-#).

370. Many denominatives in #-āre# are indirect compounds (377), often
from compound noun stems which are not actually found. So, particularly,
when the first part is a preposition, or the second is from the root
#fac-#, _make_, #ag-#, _drive_, _do_, or #cap-#, _take_: as,

#opi-tul-ārī#, _bear help_ (#opitulo-#); #suf-fōc-āre#, _suffocate_
(#*suf-fōc-o-#, #fauci-#); #aedi-fic-āre# (_housebuild_), _build_
(#*aedific-# or #*aedifico-#, _housebuilder_); #sīgni-fic-āre#, _give
token_ (#*sīgnifico-#); #fūm-ig-āre#, _make smoke_ (#*fūmigo-#,
_smoker_, #fūmo-#, √#ag-#); #nāv-ig-āre#, _sail_, and #rēm-ig-āre#,
_row_ (#nāvi-#, _ship_, and #rēmo-#, _oar_); #mīt-ig-āre#, _make mild_
(#mīti-#); #iūr-ig-āre#, commonly #iūr-g-āre#, _quarrel_ (#iūr-#);
#pūr-ig-āre#, commonly #pūr-g-āre#, _clean_ (#pūro-#); #gnār-ig-āre#,
_tell_ (#gnāro-#, #narrāre#, 169, 2; 133, 1); #anti-cip-āre#, _take
beforehand_ (#*anticipo-#, #ante#, √#cap-#); #oc-cup-āre#, _seize_
(#*occupo-#); #re-cup-er-āre#, _get back_ (#*recupero-#).

371. Many verbs in #-tāre# (#-sāre#), or #-tārī# (#-sārī#), express
frequent, intense, or sometimes attempted action. These are called
_Frequentatives_ or _Intensives_; they are formed from perfect
participle stems; but stems in #-ā-to-# become #-i-to-#: as,

#cant-āre#, _sing_ (#canto-#); #cess-āre#, _loiter_ (#cesso-#);
#amplex-ārī#, _embrace_ (#amplexo-#); #habit-āre#, _live_ (#habito-#);
#pollicit-āri#, _make overtures_ (#pollicito-#); #dormīt-āre#, _be
sleepy_ (#dormīto-#); #neg-itāre#, _keep denying_ (for #*negā-tāre#,
with suffix #-i-tāre#, 910).

372. Some frequentatives in #-tāre# are formed from the present stem of
a verb in #-ere#; the formative vowel before #-tāre# becomes #i#: as,

#agi-tāre#, _shake_ (#age-re#); #flui-tāre#, _float_ (#flue-re#);
#nōsci-tāre#, _recognize_ (#nōsce-re#); #quaeri-tāre#, _keep seeking_
(#quaere-re#); #scīsci-tārī#, _enquire_ (#scīsce-re#); #vēndi-tāre#,
_try to sell_ (#vēnde-re#).

373. A few frequentatives add #-tā-# to the perfect participle stem: as,

#ācti-tāre#, _act often_ (#ācto-#); #facti-tāre#, _do repeatedly_
(#facto-#); #lēcti-tāre#, _read again and again_ (#lēcto-#);
#ūncti-tāre#, _anoint often_ (#ūncto-#). From a frequentative another
frequentative is sometimes derived: as, #dict-āre#, _dictate_,
#dicti-tāre#, _keep asserting_ (#dicto-#).

374. Some verbs are found only as frequentatives: as, #gust-āre#,
_taste_ (#*gusto-#, √#gus-#, _taste_); #put-āre#, _think_ (#puto-#,
√#pu-#, _clean_); #aegrōt-āre#, _be ill_ (#aegrōto-#).

375. A few verbs in #-uriō#, #-urīre#, express desire; such are called
_Desideratives_: as, #ēss-urīre# or #ēs-urīre#, _want to eat_ (#edere#,
#ēsse#). A few in #-ssō#, #-ssere#, express earnest action; such are
called _Meditatives_: as, #lacē-ssō#, #lacē-ssere#, _provoke_.

  [Erratum:
  365 (table) ... albē-re, _be white_ albo-, N. albus
    N albus]


COMPOSITION.

376. In compounds, the fundamental word is usually the second, which has
its meaning qualified by the first.

377. A DIRECT COMPOUND is one formed directly from two parts: as,
#con-iug-#, N. #coniūnx#, _yoke-fellow_ (#com-#, _together_, √#iug-#,
_yoke_); #con-iungere#, _join together_ (#com-#, #iungere#); an INDIRECT
COMPOUND is one formed by the addition of a suffix to a direct compound:
as, #iūdic-io-#, N. #iūudicium#, _trial_ (#iūdic-#): #iūdicā-re#,
_judge_ (#iūdic-#).

378. A REAL COMPOUND is a word whose stem is formed from two stems, or
an inseparable prefix and a stem, fused into one stem; an APPARENT
COMPOUND is formed by the juxtaposition of an inflected word with
another inflected word, a preposition, or an adverb.


I. COMPOSITION OF NOUNS.


(A.) REAL COMPOUNDS.


FORM OF COMPOUNDS.

379. If the first part is a noun, its stem is taken: as, #Ahēno-barbus#,
_Redbeard_, _Barbarossa_; usually with weakening of a stem vowel
(103-105): as, #aurifex#, _jeweller_ (#auro-#). On other changes of the
final vowel in the first member of compounds, see 174. Sometimes with
disappearance of a syllable (179); as, #*venēni-ficus#, #venē-ficus#,
_poisoner_ (#venēno-#); or of a vowel (111): as, #man-ceps#,
_contractor_ (#manu-#); particularly before a vowel (119): as,
#magn-animus#, _great-souled_ (#magno-#). Consonant stems are often
extended by #i# before a consonant: as, #mōri-gerus#, _complaisant_
(#mōr-#).

380. Stems in #-s-#, including those in #-er-#, #-or-# and #-ōr-# (236),
are sometimes compounded as above (379): as, #nemori-vagus#,
_woodranger_; #honōri-ficus#, _complimentary_; but usually they drop the
suffix and take #i#: as, #opi-fex#, _work-man_ (#oper-#);
#foedi-fragus#, _truce-breaker_ (#foeder-#); #volni-ficus#, _wounding_
(#volner-#); #mūni-ficus#, _generous_ (#mūner-#); #terri-ficus#,
_awe-inspiring_ (#terrōr-#); #horri-fer#, _dreadful_, #horri-sonus#,
_awful-sounding_ (#horrōr-#).

381. The second part, which often has weakening of the vowel (102), is
sometimes a bare root used as a stem (199), oftener a root with a
formative suffix; or a noun stem, sometimes with its stem ending
modified: as, #iū-dic-#, N. #iūdex#, _juror_ (√#dic-#, _declare_);
#causi-dic-o-#, N. #causidicus#, _pleader_ (209); #in-gen-io-#, N.
#ingenium#, _disposition_ (√#gen-#, _beget_, 219); #con-tāg-iōn-#, N.
#contāgiō#, _touching together_ (√#tag-#, _touch_, 227); #im-berb-i-#,
N. #imberbis#, _beardless_ (#barbā-#).


MEANING OF COMPOUNDS.

382. DETERMINATIVES are compounds in which the second part keeps its
original meaning, though determined or modified by the first part. The
meaning of a determinative may often be best expressed by two words.

383. (1.) The first part of a determinative may be an adjective, an
adverb, a preposition, or an inseparable prefix; the second part is a
noun: as,

#lāti-fundium#, i.e. #lātī fundī#, _broad acres_; #prīvi-lēgium#, i.e.
#prīva lēx#, _special act_; #alti-sonāns#, i.e. #altē sonāns#,
_high-sounding_; #con-discipulus#, i.e. #cum alterō discipulus#,
_fellow-pupil_; #per-magnus#, i.e. #valdē magnus#, _very great_;
#in-dignus#, i.e. #nōn dignus#, _unworthy_.

384. (2.) The first part of a determinative may represent the oblique
case of a noun, generally a substantive; the second part is a noun or
verb stem. These compounds are called _Objectives_: as,

Accusative of direct object (1132), #armi-ger#, i.e. #quī arma gerit#,
_armour-bearer_; dative of indirect object (1208), #man-tēle#, i.e.
#manibus tēla#, _handkerchief_, _napkin_; genitive (1227),
#sōl-stitium#, i.e. #sōlis statiō#, _solstice_; ablative instrumental
(1300), #tubi-cen#, i.e. #quī tubā canit#, _trumpeter_; locative (1331),
#Troiu-gena#, i.e. #Troiae nātus#, _Troy-born_; ablative locative
(1350), #nocti-vagus#, _night-wandering_; #monti-vagus#,
_mountain-ranging_.

385. POSSESSIVES are adjective compounds in which the meaning of the
second part is changed. The second part of a possessive is always formed
from a substantive, qualified by the noun, adverb, or inseparable prefix
of the first part, and the whole expresses an attribute which something
_has_: as,

#longi-manus#, _longarms_, _long-armed_; #miseri-cors#,
_tender-hearted_; #bi-linguis#, _two-tongued_; #magn-animus#,
_greatheart_, _great-hearted_; #im-berbis#, _beardless_.


(B.) APPARENT COMPOUNDS.

386. Apparent Compounds are formed:

387. (1.) By two nouns combined, one with an unchanging case ending, the
other with full inflections: as, #aquae-ductus#, _aqueduct_;
#senātūs-cōnsultum#, _decree of the senate_; #pater-familiās#, _father
of a family_; #vērī-similis#, _like the truth_; in these words, #aquae#,
#senātūs#, #familiās#, and #vērī# are genitives, and remain genitives,
while the other part of the compound is declinable.

388. (2.) By a substantive with an adjective habitually agreeing with
it, both parts being declined: as, #rēs pūblica#, _the common-weal_;
#rēs gestae#, _exploits_; #iūs iūrandum#, _oath_; #pecūniae repetundae#,
_money claim_.

389. (3.) By nouns, chiefly substantives, in the same case placed
loosely side by side and making one idea. The two words may be used:
(_a._) Copulatively: as, #ūsus-frūctus#, _use and enjoyment_;
#pactum-conventum#, _bargain and covenant_; #duo-decim#, _two and ten_,
_twelve_; or (_b._) Appositively: one word explaining the other (1045):
as, #Iuppiter#, _Jove the Father_ (94; 133); #Mārspiter#, _Mars the
Father_, for #Mārs pater#.

390. (4.) From an original combination of an oblique case with a
preposition: as, #prōcōnsul#, _proconsul_, from #prō cōnsule#, _for a
consul_; #ēgregius#, _select_, from #ē grege#, _out of the herd_;
#dēlīrus#, _astray_, _mad_, from #dē līrā#, _out of the furrow_.


II. COMPOSITION OF VERBS.


(A.) REAL COMPOUNDS.

391. Real Compounds are direct compounds of a verb with a preposition;
the root vowel or diphthong of the verb is often weakened (102): as,

#per-agere#, _put through_, _accomplish_; #ab-igere#, _drive away_;
#ex-quīrere#, _seek out_. The prefix, which was originally a separate
adverb modifying the verb, is in poetry sometimes separated from the
verb by another word; the disyllabic prepositions in particular often
remain as juxtaposed adverbs (396).

392. Some prepositions are inseparable, that is, used only in
composition: #ambi-#, _round_, #an-#, _up_, #dis-#, _in two_, _apart_,
#por-#, _towards_, #red-#, #re-#, _back_, #sēd-#, #sē-#, _by oneself_,
_away_: as, #amb-īre#, _go round to_; #an-hēlāre#, _breathe up_;
#dis-pellere#, _drive apart_; #por-rigere#, _stretch forth_; #red-dere#,
_give back_; #sē-iungere#, _separate_.


(B.) APPARENT COMPOUNDS.

393. Apparent Compounds are formed by the juxtaposition of:

394. (1.) A verb with a verb: #faciō# and #fīō# are added to present
stems, mostly of intransitive verbs in #-ēre#; the #-e-# of the first
verb is sometimes long, and sometimes short (130, 5): as,
#calē̆-facere#, _make warm_ (#calēre#); #excandē̆-facere#, _make blaze_
(#candēre#); #madē̆-facere#, _make wet_ (#madēre#). In these apparent
compounds, the accent of #faciō# remains the same as in the simple verb:
as, #calē̆fácis#.

395. (2.) A substantive with a verb: as, #anim-advertere#, _pay heed
to_, #animum advertere#; #vēnum-dare#, or #vēndere#, _sell_, #vēnum
dare#; #vēn-īre#, _be sold_, #vēnum īre#; #lucrī-facere#, _make gain_,
#lucrī facere#; #manū-mittere#, _set free_.

396. (3.) An adverb with a verb: as, #circum-dare#, _put round_;
#satis-facere#, #satis-dare#, _give satisfaction_; #intro-īre#, _go
inside_; #mālle#, _prefer_, for #magis velle# (170, 2); #nōlō#, _be
unwilling_, for #ne volō#; #ne-scīre#, #hau-scīre#, _not know_.

  [Erratum:
  396. (3.)
    (2)]



C. INFLECTION.


397. INFLECTION is the change which nouns, pronouns, and verbs undergo,
to indicate their relation in a sentence.

The inflection of a noun or pronoun is often called _Declension_, and
that of a verb, _Conjugation_.



(A.) INFLECTION OF THE NOUN.


398. The noun or pronoun is inflected by attaching case endings to the
stem.

The endings, which are called case endings for brevity, indicate number
as well as case, and serve also to distinguish gender words from neuters
in the nominative and accusative singular of some stems, and of all
plurals. These endings are nearly the same for stems of all kinds.


THE STEM.

399. The stem contains the meaning of the noun. Noun stems are arranged
in the following order: (1.) stems in #-ā-#, in #-o-#, in a consonant,
or in #-i-#; these are substantive, including proper names, or
adjective; (2.) stems in #-u-# or #-ē-#; these are substantive only, and
include no proper names.

400. In some instances, a final stem vowel is retained before a case
ending which begins with a vowel: as, #urbi-um#, #ācri-a#, #cornu-a#,
#portu-ī#, #portu-um# (116, _c_); in others the stem vowel blends
inseparably with the vowel of the case ending: as, #mēnsīs#, #dominīs#
(108, _a_).

401. Some nouns have more than one form of the stem: as,

#sēdēs# (476); #femur#, #iecur# (489); #vās#, #mēnsis# (492); #vīrus#,
#volgus# (493); #iter#, #nix#, #senex#, &c. (500); #vīs# (518); #caedēs#
(523); #famēs#, #plēbēs# (524); #domus# (594); #angiportus#, &c. (595).
Many nouns have a consonant stem in the singular, and an #-i-# stem in
the plural: see 516; most substantives in #-iē-# or #-tiē-# have a
collateral form in #-iā-# or #-tiā-# (604). Some adjectives have two
different stems: as, #hilarus#, #hilara#, #hilarum#, and #hilaris#,
#hilare#; #exanimus# and #exanimis#.


GENDER.

402. There are two genders, _Masculine_ and _Feminine_. Masculine and
feminine nouns are called _Gender nouns_. Nouns without gender are
called _Neuter_.

403. Gender is, properly speaking, the distinction of sex. In Latin,
a great many things without life have gender in grammar, and are
masculine or feminine.

404. Some classes of substantives may be brought under general heads of
signification, as below, like the names of rivers and winds (405), which
are usually of the masculine gender, or of plants (407), which are
usually of the feminine. When the gender cannot be determined thus, it
must be learned from the special rules for the several stems and their
nominatives.


GENDER OF SOME CLASSES OF SUBSTANTIVES.


MASCULINES.

405. Names of male beings, rivers, winds, and mountains, are masculine:
as,

#Caesar#, #Gāius#, #Sūlla#, men’s names; #pater#, _father_; #erus#,
_master_; #scrība#, _scrivener_; #Tiberis#, _the Tiber_; #Aquilō#, _a
Norther_; #Lūcrētilis#, _Mt. Lucretilis_.

406. The river names: #Allia#, #Dūria#, #Sagra#, #Lēthē#, and #Styx# are
feminine. Also the mountain names #Alpēs#, plural, _the Alps_, and some
Greek names of mountains in #-a# or #-ē#: as, #Aetna#, _Mt. Etna_;
#Rhodopē#, a Thracian range. A few are neuter, as #Sōracte#.


FEMININES.

407. Names of female beings, plants, flowers, shrubs, and trees, are
feminine: as,

#Gāia#, #Glycerium#, women’s names; #mālus#, _apple-tree_; #quercus#,
_oak_; #īlex#, _holm-oak_; #abiēs#, _fir_.

408. Masculine are: #bōlētus#, _mushroom_, #carduus#, _thistle_, #dūmī#,
plural, _brambles_, #intibus#, _endive_, #iuncus#, _rush_, #oleaster#,
_bastard olive_, #rubus#, _bramble_, #rumex#, _sorrel_, #scirpus#,
_bulrush_, and rarely #fīcus#, _fig_. Also some of Greek origin: as,
#acanthus#, #amāracus#, #asparagus#, and #crocus#. Neuter are: #apium#,
_parsley_, #balsamum#, _balsam-tree_, #rōbur#, _heart of oak_, and some
names with stems in #-er-# (573).


MOBILE, COMMON, AND EPICENE NOUNS.

409. MOBILE NOUNS have different forms to distinguish sex: as, #Iūlius#,
a man, _Julius_, #Iūlia#, a woman, _Julia_; #cervus#, _stag_, #cerva#,
_hind_; #socer#, _father-in-law_, #socrus#, _mother-in-law_; #victor#,
_conqueror_, #victrīx#, _conqueress_. Adjectives ‘of three endings’
(611), belong to this class.

410. Some nouns have one ending, but are applicable to either sex. Such
are said, to be of _Common Gender_: as, #adulēscēns#, _young man_ or
_young woman_; #dux#, _leader_; #īnfāns#, _baby_, _child_; and many
other consonant stems or stems in #-i-#, denoting persons. Adjectives
‘of two endings’ or ‘of one ending’ (611), belong to this class.

411. EPICENES have one ending and one grammatical gender, though
applicable to animals of either sex. Thus, #aquila#, _eagle_, is
feminine, though it may denote a _he-eagle_ as well as a _she-eagle_;
#anatēs#, _ducks_, feminine, includes _drakes_.

  [Erratum:
  411 ... as well as a _she-eagle_;
    _she-eagle_:]


NEUTERS.

412. Infinitives, words and expressions quoted or explained, and letters
of the alphabet, are neuter: as,

#vīvere ipsum#, _mere living_; #istūc ‘taceō,’# _your ‘I won’t
mention;’_ #longum vale#, _a long goodbye_; #o Graecum#, _Greek O_. But
the letters have sometimes a feminine adjective, agreeing with #littera#
understood.


VARIABLE GENDER.

413. Some substantives have different genders in the two numbers; the
different gender is sometimes indicated by a difference of stem: as,
#epulum#, neuter, #epulae#, feminine, _feast_. See #balneum#, #frēnum#,
#jocus#, #locus#, #margarīta#, #ostrea#, #rāstrum#, in the dictionary.


NUMBER.

414. There are two numbers, the _Singular_ used of one, the _Plural_ of
more than one.

415. #ambō#, _both_, and #duo#, _two_, nominative and accusative
masculine and neuter, are the only remnants of an old _Dual_ number,
denoting two.

416. Some substantives, from their meaning, have no plural.

Such are: proper names: as, #Cicerō#, _Cicero_; #Rōma#, _Rome_; material
and abstract substantives: as, #oleum#, _oil_, #vīnum#, _wine_,
#iūstitia#, _justice_; and gerunds: as, #regendī#, _of guiding_. For the
occasional use of the plural, 1105-1110.

417. Some substantives, from their meaning, have no singular.

Such are: names of persons of a class: as, #maiōrēs#, _ancestors_;
#superī#, _the beings above_; #mānēs#, _ghosts_; of feasts, sacrifices,
days: as, #Sāturnālia#, _festival of Saturn_; #kalendae#, _first of the
month_; of things made of parts or consisting of a series of acts: as,
#arma#, _arms_; #artūs#, _joints_; #quadrīgae#, _four-in-hand_;
#exsequiae#, _funeral rites_; of some places: as, #Faleriī#; #Vēī#;
#Pompēī#; #Athēnae#, _Athens_; #Alpēs#, _the Alps_.

418. Some substantives have different meanings in the two numbers: as,

#aedis#, _temple_, #aedēs#, _house_; #auxilium#, _aid_, #auxilia#,
_auxiliaries_; #carcer#, _jail_, #carcerēs#, _race-barriers_; #Castrum#,
_Castle_, #castra#, _camp_; #comitium#, _meeting-place_, #comitia#,
_election_; #cōpia#, _abundance_, #cōpiae#, _troops_; #facultās#,
_ability_, #facultātēs#, _wealth_; #fīnis#, _end_, #fīnēs#,
_boundaries_; #grātia#, _favour_, #grātiae#, _thanks_; #impedīmentum#,
_hindrance_, #impedīmenta#, _baggage_; #littera#, _letter (of the
alphabet)_, #litterae#, _epistle_; #rōstrum#, _beak_, #rōstra#,
_speakers stand_. See also #aqua#, #bonum#, #fortūna#, #lūdus#, #opera#,
#pars#, in the dictionary.


CASE.

419. Nouns have five cases, the _Nominative_, _Genitive_, _Dative_,
_Accusative_, and _Ablative_.

The nominative represents a noun as subject, the accusative as object;
the genitive denotes the relation of _of_, the dative of _to_ or _for_,
and the ablative of _from_, _with_, _in_, or _by_. But the meanings of
the cases are best learnt from reading. All cases but the nominative and
vocative (420) are called _Oblique Cases_.

420. Town names and a few appellatives have also a case denoting the
place where, called the _Locative_. Masculine stems in #-o-# and some
Greek stems with other endings have still another form used in
addressing a person or thing, called the _Vocative_.

421. The stem of a noun is best seen in the genitive; in the genitive
plural it is preserved without change, except that #o# of #-o-# stems is
lengthened (123). In dictionaries the stem ending is indicated by the
genitive singular, thus: #-ae#, #-ī#, #-is#, #-ūs# (#-ĕī#), indicate
respectively stems in #-ā-#, #-o-#, a consonant or #-i-#, #-u-#, and
#-ē-#, as follows:

  GENITIVE SINGULAR.     GENITIVE PLURAL.   STEMS IN.

  -ae, mēnsae, _table_   -ārum, mēnsā-rum   -ā-, mēnsā-, N. mēnsa
  -ī, dominī, _master_   -ōrum, dominō-rum  -o-, domino-, N. dominus
  -is, rēgis, _king_     -cons. um, rēg-um  -consonant, rēg-, N. rēx
  -is, cīvis, _citizen_  -ium, cīvi-um      -i-, cīvi-, N. cīvis
  -ūs, portus, _port_    -uum, portu-um     -u-, portu-, N. portus
  (ĕ̄ī, rĕ̄ī), _thing_     (-ērum, rē-rum)    -ē, rē-, N. rēs

422. Gender nominatives usually add #-s# to the stem: as, #servo-s# or
#servu-s#, _slave_, #rēx# (164, 1), #cīvi-s#, #portu-s#, #rē-s#. But
stems in #-ā-# or in a continuous consonant (#-l-#, #-n-#, #-r-#, or
#-s-#) have no #-s#: as, #mēnsa#, #cōnsul#, _consul_, #flāmen#, _special
priest_, #pater#, _father_, #flōs#, _flower_.

423. Neuters have the nominative and accusative alike; in the singular
the stem is used: as #nōmen#, _name_; or a shortened stem: as,
#exemplar#, _pattern_; but stems in #-o-# take #-m#: as, #aevo-m# or
#aevu-m#, _age_. In the plural #-a# is always used: as, #rēgna#,
_kingdoms_, #nōmina#, #cornua#, _horns_. For #-s# in adjectives ‘of one
ending,’ see 612.

424. Gender accusatives singular add #-m# to the stem: as, #mēnsa-m#,
#servo-m# or #servu-m#, #nāvi-m#, _ship_, #portu-m#, #die-m#. The
consonant stems have the ending #-em#: as, #rēg-em#; most substantive
stems in #-i-# and all adjectives also drop #-i-# and take #-em#: as,
NĀV-EM, #trīst-em#, _sad_. In the plural, gender stems add #-s# before
which the vowel is long: as, #mēnsā-s#, #servō-s#, #rēgē-s#, #nāvī-s# or
#nāvē-s#, #portū-s#, #rē-s#.

425. The ablative singular usually ends in the long vowel of the stem:
as, #mēnsā#, #dominō#, #nāvī#, #portū#, #rē#. The ablative of consonant
stems usually has #-e# (rarely #-ī-#, see 502): as, #patre#, _father_;
and that of substantive #-i-# stems has #-e# more commonly than #-ī#:
as, #nāve#.

426. The ablative singular of #-ā-# and #-o-# stems ended anciently in
#-ād# and #-ōd# respectively: as, PRAIDAD, PREIVATOD; that of consonant
stems in #-īd#: as, AIRID, COVENTIONID. But #-d# is almost entirely
confined to inscriptions and disappeared early (149).

427. The genitive plural adds #-rum# to #-ā-#, #-o-#, and #-ē-# stems:
as, #mēnsā-rum#, #dominō-rum#, #rē-rum#; and #-um# to consonant stems,
#-i-# stems, and #-u-# stems: as, #rēg-um#, #cīvi-um#, #portu-um#.

428. The dative and ablative plural are always alike: stems in #-ā-# and
#-o-# take #-is#, which blends with the stem vowel (400): as, #mēnsīs#,
#dominīs#; other stems have #-bus#, before which consonant stems are
extended by #i#: as, #rēgi-bus#, #nāvi-bus#, #portu-bus# or #porti-bus#,
#rē-bus#.

429. Some pronouns and a few adjectives have some peculiar case endings;
see 618-694.

430. Many nouns are defective in case.

Thus, many monosyllables have no genitive plural: as, #aes#, _copper_,
#cor#, _heart_, #cōs#, _whetstone_, #dōs#, _dowry_, #ōs#, _face_, #pāx#,
_peace_, #pix#, _pitch_, #rōs#, _dew_, #sāl#, _salt_, #lūx#, _light_;
many words have no genitive, dative, or ablative plural: as, #hiemps#,
_winter_; especially neuters: as, #fār#, _spelt_, #fel#, _gall_, #mel#,
_honey_, #pūs#, _matter_, #rūs#, _country_, #tūs#, _frankincense_. Many
words in #-tu-# (#-su-#) have only the ablative (235). For #-ē-# stems,
see 600. Other words more or less defective are #exlēx#, #exspēs#, #fās#
and #nefās#, #īnfitiās#, #inquiēs#, #īnstar#, #luēs#, #nēmō#, #opis# and
#vicis# genitives, #pondō# and #sponte# ablatives, #secus#, #vīs#. Many
adjectives ‘of one ending’ want the nominative and accusative neuter
plural and genitive plural.

431. Some adjectives are altogether indeclinable: as, #frūgī#,
_thrifty_, an old dative; #nēquam#, _naughty_, an old accusative;
#quot#, _how many_; #tot#, _so many_; and most numerals (637). These
adjectives are attached to any case of a substantive without varying
their own forms.


THE SUBSTANTIVE


STEMS IN #-ā-#.

_The First Declension._

Genitive singular #-ae#, genitive plural #-ā-rum#.

432. Stems in #-ā-# include substantives and adjectives; both
substantives and adjectives are feminine.

433. Names of males are masculine (405): as, #scrība#, _writer_; also
#Hadria#, _the Adriatic_, and rarely #damma#, _deer_, and #talpa#,
_mole_.

434. The nominative of stems in #-ā-# ends in the shortened stem vowel
#-a#.

435. Stems in #-ā-# are declined as follows:

  +----------+-------------------------------------------+----------+
  | Example  | mēnsa, _table_, mēnsā-, F.                | Stem and |
  |          |                                           |   case   |
  |   Stem   |                                           |  endings |
  +----------+-------------------------------------------+----------+
  | Singular |                                           |          |
  | _Nom._   | mēnsa     _table_, _a_ (or _the_) _table_ | -a       |
  | _Gen._   | mēnsae    _a table’s_, _of a table_       | -ae      |
  | _Dat._   | mēnsae    _to_ or _for a table_           | -ae      |
  | _Acc._   | mēnsam    _a table_                       | -am      |
  | _Abl._   | mēnsā     _from_, _with_, or _by a table_ | -ā       |
  +----------+-------------------------------------------+----------+
  | Plural   |                                           |          |
  | _Nom._   | mēnsae    _tables_ (or _the_) _tables_    | -ae      |
  | _Gen._   | mēnsārum  _tables’_, _of tables_          | -ārum    |
  | _Dat._   | mēnsīs    _to_ or _for tables_            | -īs      |
  | _Acc._   | mēnsās    _tables_                        | -ās      |
  | _Abl._   | mēnsīs    _from_, _with_, or _by tables_  | -īs      |
  +----------+-------------------------------------------+----------+

  [Erratum:
  THE SUBSTANTIVE
    header supplied from Table of Contents]


SINGULAR CASES.

436. #-ā-# of the stem was shortened in the nominative and accusative
singular at an early period (130, 132). A few apparent examples of the
nominative in #-ā#, found in the oldest writers, seem due to metrical
causes: as, #aquilā́# (Enn.). But #-ā# occurs in Greek proper names
(445). A couple of old masculine nominatives in #-ās# are quoted (422):
#pāricīdās#, _murderer_, and #hosticapās#, _taker of enemies_. In the
accusative singular #-ām# occurs once: #inimīcitiā́m# (Enn.).

437. The genitive sometimes ends (1.) in #-āī# in poetry: as, #aulāī#,
_of the hall_; #pīctāī#, _embroidered_; (2.) in #-ās#: as, #molās#, _of
a mill_. This genitive is rare, but was always kept up in the word
#familiās# with #pater# or #māter#, sometimes with #fīlius# or #fīlia#:
#pater familiās#, _the goodman_, #māter familiās#, _the housewife_. But
#pater familiae#, or in the plural #patrēs familiārum#, is equally
common.

438. Town names and a few appellatives have a locative case in #-ae#:
as, #Rōmae#, _at Rome_, _in Rome_; #mīlitiae#, _in war_, _in the field_,
_in the army_.


PLURAL CASES.

439. Compounds ending with #-cola#, _inhabiting_, and #-gena#, _born_,
and patronymics, sometimes have the genitive plural in #-ū̆m# in poetry:
as, #caelicolū̆m#, _of occupants of heaven_; #Graiugenū̆m#, _of
Greek-born men_; #Aeneadū̆m#, _of Aeneas’s sons_; also names of peoples:
as, #Lapithū̆m#, _of the Lapithae_. With these last #-ū̆m# occurs even
in prose: as, #Crotōniātū̆m#, _of the Crotona people_. Others in #-ŭm#
are #drachmŭm#, #amphorū̆m#.

440. In the dative and ablative plural, #-eis# sometimes occurs (443):
as, #tueis ingrātieis#, _against your will_ (Plaut.). Nouns in #-ia#
have rarely a single #ī#: as, #pecūnīs#, _by moneys_ (Cic.); #taenīs#,
_with fillets_ (Verg.); #nōnīs Iūnīs#, _on the fifth of June_ (Cic.).
See 24.

441. In the dative and ablative plural, words in #-āia#, or plural
#-āiae#, have #-āīs#, and those in #-ēia# have #-ēīs# (127, 7): as KAL.
MAIS, _on the calends of May_ (inscr.); #Bāīs#, _at Bajae_ (Hor.);
#plēbēīs#, _plebeian_.

442. The dative and ablative plural sometimes end in #-ābus#,
particularly in #deābus#, _goddesses_, and #fīliābus#, _daughters_, to
distinguish them from #deīs#, _gods_, and #fīliīs#, _sons_. #ambae#,
_both_, and #duae#, _two_, regularly have #ambābus# and #duābus#.

443. Other case forms are found in inscriptions, as follows:

G. #-ai#, which may be monosyllabic or disyllabic in pronunciation:
PVLCHRAI; LAVERNAI; #-āēs#, after 80 B.C., chiefly in proper names,
mostly Greek: HERAES; rarely in appellatives: DOMINAES; #-ēs#: MINERVES;
#-ā#, VESTA; COIRA, i.e. #Cūrae#. D. #-ai#, in all periods (96): FILIAI;
#-ā#: FORTVNA; #-ē# (96): FORTVNE. Ac. #-a# (61): TAVRASIA; MAGNA
SAPIENTIA. Ab. #-ād# (426): PRAIDAD. Loc. #-ai#: ROMAI. Plural: N. #-ai#
(96): TABELAI DATAI; #-ā#, rare: MATRONA; #-ē#, rare and provincial
(96): MVSTE, i.e. #mystae#. D. and Ab. #-eis#, very often (98):
SCRIBEIS; D. #-ās#, once: DEVAS CORNISCAS, i.e. #dīvīs Cornīscīs#. Ab.
#-ēs# once (98): NVGES, i.e. #nūgīs#.

  [Erratum:
  443 ... TABELAI DATAI; #-ā#, rare
    DATAI:]


GREEK NOUNS.

444. Greek appellatives always take a Latin form in the dative singular
and in the plural, and usually throughout: thus, #poēta#, M., _poet_,
and #aula#, F., _court_, are declined like #mēnsa#. Masculines have
sometimes a nominative #-ēs# and accusative #-ēn#: as, #anagnōstēs#,
_reader_, #anagnōstēn#; rarely an ablative #-ē#: as, #sophistē#,
_sophist_. Greek feminines in #-ē# sometimes have Greek forms in late
writers: as, N. #grammaticē#, _philology_, G. #grammaticēs#, Ac.
#grammaticēn#, Ab. #grammaticē# (Quintil.).

445. Greek proper names sometimes have the following forms. Nominative
masculine #-ās#, #-ēs#: as, #Prūsiās#, #Atrīdēs#; feminine #-ā#: as,
#Gelā#, #Phaedrā#; #-ē#: as, #Circē#. Genitive feminine #-ēs#: as,
#Circēs#. Accusative masculine #-ān#, #-dēn#: as, #Aenēān#, #Pēlīdēn#;
feminine #-ēn#: as, #Circēn#. Ablative feminine #-ē#: as, #Tīsiphonē#.
Vocative #-ā# or #-a#: as, #Atrīdā#, #Atrīda#, #Thyesta#; #-tē#: as,
#Boōtē#; #-dē#: as, #Aeacidē#.


STEMS IN #-o-#.

_The Second Declension._

Genitive singular #-ī#, genitive plural #-ō-rum#.

446. Stems in #-o-# include substantives and adjectives, masculine or
neuter.

447. Most names of plants in #-us# are feminine (407); also the
following: #alvos# or #alvus#, _belly_, #colus#, _distaff_, #domus#,
_house_, #humus#, _ground_, #vannus#, _fan_.

448. The nominative of masculines ends, including the stem vowel, in
#-o-s#, or usually #-u-s#; some end in #-r#; neuters end in #-o-m#, or
usually #-u-m#.

449. (1.) Stems in #-o-# with the nominative in #-us# or #-um# are
declined as follows:

  +--------+----------------------------+------------+--------------+
  |Examples|     dominus, _master_,     |rēgnum,     |  Stem        |
  |        |     domino-, M.            |  _kingdom_,|  and case    |
  | Stems  |                            |rēgno-, Ne. |  endings     |
  +--------+----------------------------+------------+------+-------+
  |Singular|                            |            |  M.  |  Ne.  |
  | _Nom._ | dominus, _a_ (or _the_)    | rēgnum     | -us  | -um   |
  |        |   _master_                 |            |      |       |
  | _Gen._ | dominī, _a master’s_       | rēgnī      | -ī   | -ī    |
  | _Dat._ | dominō, _to_               |            |      |       |
  |        |   or _for a master_        | rēgnō      | -ō   | -ō    |
  | _Acc._ | dominum, _a master_        | rēgnum     | -um  | -um   |
  | _Abl._ | dominō, _from_, _with_,    | rēgnō      | -ō   | -ō    |
  |        |   or _by a master_         |            |      |       |
  | _Voc._ | domine, _master_           |            | -e   |       |
  +--------+----------------------------+------------+------+-------+
  | Plural |                            |            |      |       |
  | _Nom._ | dominī, (_the_) _masters_  | rēgna      | -ī   | -a    |
  | _Gen._ | dominōrum, _of masters_    | rēgnōrum   | -ōrum| -ōrum |
  | _Dat._ | dominīs, _to_ or           |            |      |       |
  |        |   _for masters_            | rēgnīs     | -īs  | -īs   |
  | _Acc._ | dominōs, _masters_         | rēgna      | -ōs  | -a    |
  | _Abl._ | dominīs, _from_, _with_,   | rēgnīs     | -īs  | -īs   |
  |        |   or _by masters_          |            |      |       |
  +--------+----------------------------+------------+------+-------+

450. #deus#, _god_, is declined as follows: N. #deus#, G. #deī#, D. and
Ab. #deō#, Ac. #deum#. Plural: N. #deī#, #di͡i#, commonly #dī#, G.
#deōrum# or #deŭm#, D. and Ab. #deīs#, #di͡is#, commonly #dīs#, Ac.
#deōs#.

451. (2.) Stems in #-o-# with the nominative in #-r# or in #-āius#,
#-ēius#, or #-ōius# are declined as follows:

  +--------+------------------------+-----------+----------------+
  |Examples| puer, _boy_,           |ager,      | Pompēius,      |
  |        |   puero-, M.           |   _field_,|   _Pompey_,    |
  | Stems  |                        |  agro-, M.|   Pompēio-, M. |
  +--------+------------------------+-----------+----------------+
  |Singular|                        |           |                |
  | _Nom._ | puer, _a_ (or _the_)   | ager      | Pompēius       |
  |        |   _boy_                |           |                |
  | _Gen._ | puerī, _a boy’s_,      | agrī      | Pompēī         |
  |        |   _of a boy_           |           |                |
  | _Dat._ | puerō, _to_ or         | agrō      | Pompēiō        |
  |        |    _for a boy_         |           |                |
  | _Acc._ | puerum, _a boy_        | agrum     | Pompēium       |
  | _Abl._ | puerō, _from_, _with_, | agrō      | Pompēiō        |
  |        |  or _by a boy_         |           |                |
  | _Voc._ |                        |           | Pompēī, Pompe͡i |
  +--------+------------------------+-----------+----------------+
  | Plural |                        |           |                |
  | _Nom._ | puerī, (_the_) _boys_  | agrī      | Pompēī         |
  | _Gen._ | puerōrum, _boys’_,     | agrōrum   | Pompēiōrum     |
  |        |   _of boys_            |           |                |
  | _Dat._ | puerīs, _to_ or        | agrīs     | Pompēīs        |
  |        |   _for boys_           |           |                |
  | _Acc._ | puerōs, _boys_         | agrōs     | Pompēiōs       |
  | _Abl._ | puerīs, _from_,        | agrīs     | Pompēīs        |
  |        |   _with_, or _by boys_ |           |                |
  +--------+------------------------+-----------+----------------+


SINGULAR CASES.

452. #-us# and #-um# were originally #-os# and #-om#. But #-us# was used
in the earliest times, #-um# somewhat later, and both became prevalent
between 218 and 55 B.C. (107, _c_). After #u# or #v#, however, the #-os#
and #-om# were retained till toward 50 A.D. (107, _c_); also after #qu#;
but #-cus# and #-cum# often displaced #-quos# and #-quom# (157): as,
#equos#, #equom#, or #ecus#, #ecum#, _horse_; #antīquos#, #antīquom#, or
#antīcus#, #antīcum#, _ancient_. In the vocative #-e# was always used,
and is retained by Plautus in #puere#, _thou boy_.

453. Words in #-rus# with a long penult, as, #sevērus#, _stern_, and the
following substantives with a short penult are declined like #domimus#
(449):

  erus, _master_
  iūniperus, _juniper_
  numerus, _number_
  umerus, _shoulder_
  uterus, _womb_

For adjective stems in #-ro-# with nominative #-rus#, see 615.

454. Masculine stems in #-ro-# preceded by a short vowel or a mute,
except those above (453), drop #-os# in the nominative, and have no
vocative: as, stem #puero-#, N. #puer#, _boy_ (111, _b_). Most
masculines in #-ro-# have a vowel before #r# only in the nominative
#-er# (111, _b_): as #agro-#, N. #ager#. But in compounds ending in
#-fer# and #-ger#, _carrying_, _having_, and the following, the vowel
before #-r# is a part of the stem, and is found in all the cases:

  adulter, Līber, _paramour_, _Liber_
  gener, socer, _son-in-law_, _father-in-law_
  puer, vir, _boy_, _man_
  līberī, vesper, _children_, _evening_

For #Mulciber#, #Hibēr#, and #Celtibē̆r#, see the dictionary; for
adjective stems in #-ro-# with nominative #-r#, see 616. Once #socerus#
(Pl.).

455. #nihilum#, _nothing_, usually drops #-um# in the nominative and
accusative, becoming #nihil# or #nīl#, and similarly #nōn#, _not_, may
be for #noenum#, _naught_ (99). #famul# is used for #famulus#, _slave_,
by Ennius and Lucretius, once each (111, _b_).

456. Substantives ending in #-ius# or #-ium# (but never adjectives),
have commonly a single #-ī# in the genitive singular: as,

#Vergilius#, G. #Vergílī# (87); #fīlius#, _son_, G. #fīlī#; #cōnūbium#,
_marriage_, G. #cōnūbī#.

457. Vergil has once a genitive #-iī#, #fluviī#, _river’s_. Propertius
has #-iī# two or three times; with Ovid, Seneca, and later writers,
#-iī# is common: as, #gladiī#, _of a sword_; even in proper names, which
were the last to take #-iī#: as, #Tarquiniī#; but family names almost
always retain a single #-ī#. Locatives have #-iī#: as, #Iconiī# (Cic.).

458. Proper names ending in #-āius#, #-ēius#, or #-ōius# have #-āī#,
#-ēī#, or #-ōī# in the genitive and vocative singular and nominative
plural, and #-āīs#, #-ēīs#, or #-ōīs# in the dative and ablative plural
(127, 7): as,

#Gāius#, G., V., and N. Pl. #Gāī#, D. and Ab. Pl. #Gāīs#; #Pompēī#,
#Pompēīs#; #Bōī#, #Bōīs#. In verse #-ēī# of the vocative is sometimes
made one syllable (120): as, #Pompe͡i#; #Volte͡i# (Hor.).

459. Latin proper names in #-ius# have the vocative in #-ī# only: as,

#Vergilius#, V. #Vergílī#; #Mercurius#, V. #Mercúrī# (87). So, also,
#fīlius#, #fīlī#, _son_; #genius#, #genī#, _good angel_; #volturius#,
#volturī#, _vulture_; #meus#, #mī#, _my_.

460. Town names and a few appellatives have a locative case in #-ī#: as,
#Ephesī#, _in Ephesus_; #humī#, _on the ground_; #bellī#, _in war_.

  [Erratum:
  455 ... #noenum#, _naught_ (99).
    final . invisible]


PLURAL CASES.

461. In the nominative plural masculine, #-ei# sometimes occurs (465):
as, #nātei geminei#, _twins born_ (Plaut.); #-eis# or #-īs# is rare
(465): as, #Sardeis#, _Sardians_; #oculīs#, _eyes_; not infrequently
#hīsce#, _these here_ (Plaut.); masculine stems in #-io-# have rarely a
single #-ī#: as, #fīlī#, _sons_. For #-āī#, #-ēī#, or #-ōī#, see 458.
The nominative and accusative plural of neuters ended anciently in #-ā#
(130, 2). But #-ā# was shortened at an early period.

462. In the common genitive plural #-ōrum#, the #-o-# of the stem is
lengthened (123). A genitive plural in #-ū̆m# (or, after #v#, in #-ŏ̄m#)
is common from #dīvos#, #dīvus#, and #deus#, _god_; from #dēnārius#,
_denar_, #modius#, _peck_, #nummus#, _money_, #sēstertius#, _sesterce_,
and #talentum#, _talent_, with numerals; and from cardinals and
distributives (641): as, #dīvŏ̄m#, #divū̆m#, #deū̆m#; #mīlle
sēstertiŭm#; #ducentū̆m#; #bīnŭm#. The #u# was originally long (132);
but it was shortened before 100 A.D.

463. Other masculine substantives have occasionally this genitive: as,
#līberū̆m#, _of children_; particularly in set phrases and in verse: as,
#centuria fabrū̆m#, _century of mechanics_; #Graiū̆m#, _of Greeks_. With
neuter substantives, as #oppidū̆m#, for #oppidōrum#, _of towns_, and
with adjectives it is rare.

464. In the dative and ablative plural, #-eis# is rare (98): as,
#Epidamnieis# (Plaut.). Stems in #-io-# have rarely a single #ī#: as,
#fīlīs#, _for sons_. For #-āīs#, #-ēīs#, or #-ōīs#, see 458. #ambō#,
_both_, and #duo#, _two_, have #ambōbus# and #duōbus# (640).

465. Other case forms are found in inscriptions as follows:

N. #-os#, #-om#, with #o# retained (107, _c_): FILIOS, TRIBVNOS;
POCOLOM; in proper names #-o# (66): CORNELIO; #-u#, rare: LECTV; #-is#,
or #-i#, for #-ius# (135, 2): CAECILIS; CLAVDI; neuter #-o# (61):
POCOLO. G. oldest form #-ī#: VRBANI; #-ei#, from 146 B.C. to Augustus:
POPVLEI; CONLEGEI; #-iī# from stems in #-io-# not before Tiberius:
COLLEGII. Ac. #-om# (107, _c_): VOLCANOM; #-o# (61): OPTVMO VIRO; #-u#:
GREMIV. Ab. #-od#, not after 186 B.C. (426): POPLICOD, PREIVATOD.
Plural: N. #-ei#, always common (98): VIREI; FILEI; -ēs, #-eis#, #-īs#
(461): ATILIES; COQVES; LEIBEREIS, i.e. #līnerī#; MAGISTREIS; MAGISTRIS;
#-ē#, rare: PLOIRVME, i.e. #plūrumī#. G. #-ōm# or #-ō# (61) ROMANOM;
ROMANO; #-ōro# (61): DVONORO. D. and Ab. #-eis#, the only form down to
about 130 B.C. (98): ANTIQVEIS; PROXSVMEIS; #-ēs#, twice: CAVATVRINES.

  [Erratum:
  465 ... COLLEGII. Ac. #-om# (107, _c_): VOLCANOM
    (107 _c_)]


GREEK NOUNS.

466. Greek stems in #-o-# are generally declined like Latin nouns, but
in the singular sometimes have #-os# in the nominative, #-on# in the
nominative or accusative neuter, rarely #-ū# in the genitive, or #-ō# in
the feminine ablative. Plural, nominative sometimes #-oe#, masculine or
feminine, and genitive, chiefly in book-titles, #-ōn#: as,

Nominative #Īlios#; #Īlion# or #Īlium#. Genitive #Menandrū#, _of
Menander_. Ablative feminine adjective #lectīcā octōphorō#, _in a sedan
with eight bearers_. Plural: nominative #Adelphoe#, _the Brothers_;
#canēphoroe#, _basket-bearers_, feminine. Genitive #Geōrgicōn liber#,
_book of Husbandry_. For #Androgeōs#, #Athŏ̄s# and #Panthūs#, see the
dictionary.


CONSONANT STEMS.

_The Third Declension._

Genitive singular #-is#, genitive plural #-um#.

467. Consonant stems are mostly substantive, and include both gender
words and neuters.

Comparatives and a few other words are adjective. For the gender of
substantives, see 570.

468. The nominative of consonant stems ends in #-s# (or #-x#); or in
#-n# (#-ō#), #-l#, #-r#, or #-s# of the stem, rarely in #-c# or #-t#.

469. Most consonant stems have one syllable less in the nominative than
in the genitive.

Such words are called _Imparisyllabic_ words or _Imparisyllables_: as,
nominative #rēx#, _king_, one syllable; genitive #rēgis#, _of a king_,
two syllables.

470. Many consonant stems have a double form: one form used in the
nominative singular (neuters have this form in the accusative also),
another form in the other cases: as,

#iūdex#, _juror_, stem of nominative #iūdec-# (136, 2), of other cases
#iūdic-#; #flāmen# (103, _a_), _special priest_, #flāmin-# (103, _a_);
#virgō#, _maid_, #virgin-# (105, _g_); #auceps# (107, _d_), _fowler_,
#aucup-# (104, _c_); #ebur# (107, _c_), _ivory_, #ebor-#; #genus#,
_race_, #gener-# (145; 107, _c_); #trīstius# (346), _sadder_,
#trīstiōr-# (346); #corpus# (107, _c_), _body_, #corpor-# (105, _i_);
#pater# (135, 2), _father_, #patr-#. In such instances the stem of the
oblique cases is taken for brevity to represent both forms of the stem.


I. MUTE STEMS.

471. (1.) Stems in a guttural mute, #-g-# or #-c-#, are declined as
follows:

  +--------+-------------------------+---------+-----------+---------+
  |Examples|                         |dux,     | iūdex,    |         |
  |        |  rēx, _king_,           |_leader_,|   _juror_,|  Case   |
  | Stems  |    rēg-, M.             | duc-, M.| iūdic-,   | endings |
  |        |                         |         |   M., F.  |         |
  +--------+-------------------------+---------+-----------+---------+
  |Singular|                         |         |           |         |
  | _Nom._ | rēx, _a_ (or _the_)     | dux     | iūdex     | -s (-x) |
  |        |   _king_                |         |           |         |
  | _Gen._ | rēgis, _a king’s_, _of  | ducis   | iūdicis   | -is     |
  |        |   a king_               |         |           |         |
  | _Dat._ | rēgī,  _to_ or _for     | ducī    | iūdicī    | -ī      |
  |        |   a king_               |         |           |         |
  | _Acc._ | rēgem, _a king_         | ducem   | iūdicem   | -em     |
  | _Abl._ | rēge,  _from_, _with_,  | duce    | iūdice    | -e      |
  |        |   or _by a king_        |         |           |         |
  +--------+-------------------------+---------+-----------+---------+
  | Plural |                         |         |           |         |
  | _Nom._ | rēgēs, (_the_) _kings_  | ducēs   | iūdicēs   | -ēs     |
  | _Gen._ | rēgum, _kings’_, _of    | ducum   | iūdicum   | -um     |
  |        |   kings_                |         |           |         |
  | _Dat._ | rēgibus, _to_ or _for   | ducibus | iūdicibus | -ibus   |
  |        |   kings_                |         |           |         |
  | _Acc._ | rēgēs, _kings_          | ducēs   | iūdicēs   | -ēs     |
  | _Abl._ | rēgibus, _from_,        | ducibus | iūdicibus | -ibus   |
  |        |   _with_, or _by kings_ |         |           |         |
  +--------+-------------------------+---------+-----------+---------+

In the nominative and accusative, neuters have no case ending in the
singular, and #-a# in the plural. In the other cases they have the same
case endings as gender stems.

472. (_a._) Examples of stems in #-g-#, with nominative #-x#, genitive
#-gis#, are:

  #-ex#, #-egis#
    #grex#, M., (F.), _herd_; #aquilex#, M., _spring-hunter_,
    _hydraulic engineer_.
  #-ēx#, #-ēgis#
    #rēx#, M., _king_; #interrēx#, _regent_; #lēx#, F., _law_;
    and N. and Ac. #exlēx#, #exlēgem#, _beyond the law_, adjective.
  #-ex#, #-igis#
    #rēmex#, M., _oarsman_.
  #-ī̆x#, #-ī̆gis#
    #strī̆x#, F., _screech-owl_.
  #-ūnx#, #-ūgis#
    #coniūnx# (122, _e_) or #coniux#, M., F., _spouse_.
  #-ūx#, #-ūgis#
    #frūx#, F., _fruit_.

473. (_b._) Examples of stems in #-c-#, with nominative #-x#, genitive
#-cis#, are:

  #-ax#, #-acis#
    #fax#, F., _torch_, no G. Pl. in good writers (430).
  #-āx#, #-ācis#
    #pāx#, F., _peace_, Pl. only N. and Ac. #pācēs#; #līmāx#, F.,
    _snail_.
  #-ex#, #-ecis#
    #faenisex#, M., _haycutter_; #nex#, F., _murder_; #precī#, D., F.,
    _prayer_, no N., usually plural.
  #-ēx#, #-ēcis#
    #vervēx#, M., _wether_; #allēx#, F., _fish-pickle_, also #allēc#,
    Ne.
  #-ex#, #-icis#
    Masculines mostly: #apex#, _point_; #cārex#, F., _rush_; #caudex#
    or #cōdex#, _block_, _book_; #cīmex#, _bug_; #cortex#, M., F.,
    _bark_; #culex#, _gnat_; #forfex#, M., F., _shears_; #frutex#,
    _shrub_; #īlex#, F., _holm-oak_; #illex#, M., F., _seducer_;
    #imbrex#, _tile_; #latex#, _fluid_; #mūrex#, _purple-shell_;
    #obice#, Ab., M., F., _bar_, no N.; #paelex#, F., _concubine_,
    #pollex#, _thumb_; #pūlex#, _flea_; #pūmex#, _pumice-slone_;
    #rāmex#, _blood-vessel_; #rumex#, _sorrel_; #silex#, M., F.,
    _flint_; #sōrex#, _shrew-mouse_; #vortex# or #vertex#, _whirl_;
    #vītex#, F., _a shrub_. Also some compounds: as, #iūdex#, _juror_;
    #artifex#, _artisan_; #auspex#, _bird-viewer_.
  #-ix#, #-icis#
    Feminines mostly: #appendix#, _addition_; #calix#, M., _cup_;
    #filix#, _fern_; #fulix#, _gull_; #fornix#, M., _arch_; #larix#,
    _larch_; #pix#, _pitch_, no G. Pl. (430); #salix#, _willow_;
    #vārix#, _swollen vein_; #vicis#, G., _change_, no N., D., or
    G. Pl. (430).
  #-īx#, #-īcis#
    Feminines: #cervīx#, _neck_; #cicātrīx#, _scar_; #cornīx#, _crow_;
    #cŏ̄turnīx# (62), _quail_; #lōdīx#, _blanket_; #rādīx#, _root_;
    #struīx#, _heap_. Also #coxendīx#, _hip_, later #coxendix#,
    #coxendicis#.
  #-ōx#, #-ōcis#
    #vōx#, F., _voice_.
  #-ux#, #-ucis#
    #crux#, F., _cross_; #dux#, M., F., _leader_; #nux#, F.,
    _nut-tree_, _nut_; #trādux#, M., _vinelayer_.

474. (2.) Stems in a dental mute, #-d-# or #-t-#, are declined as
follows:

  +----------+------------+-----------+------------+-------------+
  | Examples | custōs,    | aetās,    | virtūs,    | mīles,      |
  |          |   _keeper_,|   _age_,  |   _virtue_,|   _soldier_,|
  |  Stems   | custōd-, M.| aetāt-, F.| virtūt-, F.| mīlit-, M.  |
  +----------+------------+-----------+------------+-------------+
  | Singular |            |           |            |             |
  | _Nom._   | custōs     | aetās     | virtūs     | mīles       |
  | _Gen._   | custōdis   | aetātis   | virtūtis   | mīlitis     |
  | _Dat._   | custōdī    | aetātī    | virtūtī    | mīlitī      |
  | _Acc._   | custōdem   | aetātem   | virtūtem   | mīlitem     |
  | _Abl._   | custōde    | aetāte    | virtūte    | mīlite      |
  +----------+------------+-----------+------------+-------------+
  | Plural   |            |           |            |             |
  | _Nom._   | custōdēs   | aetātēs   | virtūtēs   | mīlitēs     |
  | _Gen._   | custōdum   | aetātum   | virtūtum   | mīlitum     |
  | _Dat._   | custōdibus | aetātibus | virtūtibus | mīlitibus   |
  | _Acc._   | custōdēs   | aetātēs   | virtūtēs   | mīlitēs     |
  | _Abl._   | custōdibus | aetātibus | virtūtibus | mīlitibus   |
  +----------+------------+-----------+------------+-------------+

475. (_a._) Examples of stems in #-d-#, with nominative #-s#, genitive
#-dis#, are:

  #-as#, #-adis#
    #vas#, M., F., _personal surety_, no G. Pl. (430).
  #-aes#, #-aedis#
    #praes#, M., _bondsman_.
  #-es#, #-idis#
    #obses#, M., F., _hostage_; #praeses#, M., F., _overseer_. #*dēses#,
    _slothful_, adjective.
  #-ēs#, #-edis#
    #pēs#, M., _foot_.
  #-ēs#, #-ēdis#
    #hērēs#, M., F., _heir_; #exhērēs#, _disinherited_, adjective;
    #mercēs#, F., _reward_.
  #-is#, #-idis#
    Feminines: #capis#, _cup_; #cassis#, _helmet_; #cuspis#,
    _spear-point_; #prōmulsis#, _appetizer_; #lapis#, M., _stone_.
  #-ōs#, #-ōdis#
    #custōs#, M., F., _guard_.
  #-aus#, #-audis#
    #laus#, F., _praise_.
  #-us#, #-udis#
    #pecus#, F., _beast_, _head of cattle_.
  #-ūs#, #-ūdis#
    Feminines: #incūs#, _anvil_; #palūs#, _swamp_, nominative once in
    Horace #palus#, as from an #-o-# stem; #subscūs#, _dovetail_.

476. #sēdēs#, F., _seat_, has an #-s-# stem, namely #-ēs# (236), in the
nominative, and #sēd-# in the other cases (401); G. Pl. #sēdum#, once
#sēdium# (Vell. Pat.). The only example of a neuter stem in #-d-#, with
nominative #-r#, genitive #-dis#, is #cor# (171, 2), _heart_, #cordis#,
no G. Pl. (430).

477. (_b._) Examples of stems in #-t-#, with nominative #-s#, genitive
#-tis#, are:

  #-as#, #-atis#
    #anas#, F., _duck_; G. Pl. also #anitum# (Cic.), and Ac. Pl.
    #anitēs# (Plaut.).
  #-ās#, #-ātis#
    #aetās#, F., _age_; also numerous other feminines in #-tās# (262).
  #-es#, #-etis#
    #interpres#, M., F., _go-between_; #seges#, F., _crop_; #teges#,
    F., _mat._
  #-es#, #-itis#
    Masculines mostly: #ames#, _net-pole_; #antistes#, M., F.,
    _overseer_; #caespes#, _sod_; #comes#, M., F., _companion_;
    #eques#, _horseman_; #fōmes#, _tinder_; #gurges#, _whirlpool_;
    #hospes#, M., F., _guest-friend_; #līmes#, _path_; #merges#, F.,
    _sheaf_; #mīles#, M., F., _soldier_; #palmes#, _vine-sprout_;
    #pedes#, _man afoot_, _infantry_; #poples#, _hough_; #stīpes#,
    _trunk_; #termes#, _bough_; #trāmes#, _by-path_; #dīves#, _rich_;
    #sōspes#, _safe_; #superstes#, _surviving_; #caelite#, Ab.,
    _occupant of heaven_, no N., adjectives.
  #-ēs#, #-etis#
    #abiēs#, F., _fir_; #ariēs#, M., _ram_; #pariēs#, M., _wall_.
  #-ēs#, #-ētis#
    Feminines: #quiēs# and #requiēs#, _rest_, no D., Ac. often
    #requiem#, Ab. usually #requiē# (603); #inquiēs#, _unrest_, N. only.
  #-os#, #-otis#
    #compos#, _master of_, adjective.
  #-ōs#, #-ōtis#
    #nepōs#, M., _grandson_, _profligate_; #sacerdōs#, M., _priest_;
    #cōs#, F., _whetstone_, no G. Pl. (130); #dōs#, F., _dowry_,
    no G. Pl. in good writers (430); #dōtum# once (Val. Max.), and
    #dōtium# in the jurists.
  #-ūs#, #-ūtis#
    Feminines: #iuventūs#, _youth_; #salūs#, _existence_; #senectūs#,
    _old age_; #servitūs#, _slavery_, all singular only; and #virtūs#,
    _virtue_, with a plural.

478. #vātēs#, _bard_, has an #-s-# stem, namely #-ēs# (236), in the
nominative, and #vāt-# in the other cases (401); G. Pl. #vātum#, but
thrice #vātium# (Cic.). The only example of a neuter stem in #-t-#, with
nominative #-t#, genitive #-tis#, is #caput#, _head_, #capitis#, and its
compounds #occiput#, _back of the head_ and #sinciput#, _jole_. #lac#,
Ne., _milk_, #lactis#, has in old and late Latin nominative and
accusative #lacte#, #lact# once in Varro (171, 2); acc. #lactem# occurs
in Petronius once and later.

479. (3.) Stems in a labial mute, #-b-# or #-p-#, are declined as
follows:

  mūniceps, _burgess_, stem mūnicip-, M., F.

Singular: N. #mūniceps#, G. #mūnicipis#, D. #mūnicipī#, Ac. #mūnicipem#,
Ab. #mūnicipe#. Plural: N. #mūnicipēs#, G. #mūnicipum#, D.
#mūnicipibus#, Ac. #mūnicipēs#, Ab. #mūnicipibus#.

480. Examples of stems in #-b-# or #-p-#, with nominative #-s#, genitive
#-bis# or #-pis#, are:

  #-ebs#, #-ibis#
    #caelebs#, _unmarried_, adjective, the only stem in #-b-#.
  #----#, #-apis#
    #dapis#, G., F., _feast_, N. and D. S., and G. Pl. not used (430).
  #-eps#, #-ipis#
    #adeps# or #adips#, M., F., _fat_, no G. Pl; #forceps#, M., F.,
    _pincers_; #mūniceps#, _burgher_. #particeps#, _sharing_, and
    #prīnceps#, _first_, adjectives.
  #-eps#, #-upis#
    #auceps#, _fowler_; #manceps#, _contractor_, #mancupis# or
    #mancipis#.
  #----#, #-ipis#
    #stipis#, G., F., _small change_, no N.
  #-ops#, #-opis#
    #Ops#, F., old #Opis# (Plaut.), _goddess of power_; #opis#, G., F.,
    _help_, no N., D. once only, Pl. #opēs#, _means_ (418).

  [Errata:
  472 ... #-ūx#, #-ūgis#
    #-ux#
  473b ... #cōdex#, _block_, _book_;
    _book_:
  477b ... #trāmes#, _by-path_;
    _by-path_.]


II. STEMS IN A CONTINUOUS CONSONANT.

481. (1.) Stems in #-l-# and #-n-# are declined as follows:

  +----------+-------------+-----------+-------------+-------------+
  | Examples |cōnsul,      |leō,       |imāgō,       |nōmen,       |
  |          |  _consul_,  |  _lion_,  |  _likeness_,|  _name_,    |
  |  Stems   |  cōnsul-, M.| leōn-, M. | imāgin-, F. | nōmin-, Ne. |
  +----------+-------------+-----------+-------------+-------------+
  | Singular |             |           |             |             |
  | _Nom._   | cōnsul      | leō       | imāgō       | nōmen       |
  | _Gen._   | cōnsulis    | leōnis    | imāginis    | nōminis     |
  | _Dat._   | cōnsulī     | leōnī     | imāginī     | nōminī      |
  | _Acc._   | cōnsulem    | leōnem    | imāginem    | nōmen       |
  | _Abl._   | cōnsule     | leōne     | imāgine     | nōmine      |
  +----------+-------------+-----------+-------------+-------------+
  | Plural   |             |           |             |             |
  | _Nom._   | cōnsulēs    | leōnēs    | imāginēs    | nōmina      |
  | _Gen._   | cōnsulum    | leōnum    | imāginum    | nōminum     |
  | _Dat._   | cōnsulibus  | leōnibus  | imāginibus  | nōminibus   |
  | _Acc._   | cōnsulēs    | leōnēs    | imāginēs    | nōmina      |
  | _Abl._   | cōnsulibus  | leōnibus  | imāginibus  | nōminibus   |
  +----------+-------------+-----------+-------------+-------------+

482. Examples of stems in #-l-#, with nominative #-l#, genitive #-lis#,
are:

  #-āl#, #-alis#
    #sāl#, M., _salt_, sometimes Ne. in the singular; no G. Pl. (430).
  #-el#, #-ellis#
    #fel# (171, 1), Ne., _gall_; #mel#, Ne., _honey_; plural only
    #fella#, #mella#.
  #-il#, #-ilis#
    #mūgil#, M., _mullet_; #pūgil#, M., _boxer_; #vigil#, M.,
    _watchman_.
  #-ōl#, #-ōlis#
    #sōl#, M., _sun_, no G. Pl. (430).
  #-ul#, #-ulis#
    #cōnsul#, _consul_; #praesul#, _head dancer_; #exsul#, _exile_.

483. (_a._) Examples of stems in #-n-#, with nominative #-en#, genitive
#-inis#, are:

#flāmen#, M., _priest_; #pecten#, M., _comb_; #tībīcen#, M., _piper_;
#tubicen#, M., _trumpeter_; #sanguen#, Ne., _blood_. Many neuters in
#-men# (224): as, #certāmen#, _contest_.

484. (_b._) Examples of stems in #-n-#, with nominative #-ō#, genitive
#-ōnis#, are:

Many masculine concretes: as, #pugiō#, _dagger_; words of the agent
(211): as, #praedō#, _robber_; and family names: as, #Cicerō#. Feminine
abstracts in #-iō# (227), and many in #-tiō# or #-siō# (228): as,
#opīniō#, _notion_; #cōgitātiō#, _thought_.

485. (_c._) Examples of stems in #-n-#, with nominative #-ō#, genitive
#-inis#, are:

Masculines: #Apollō#; #cardō#, _hinge_; #ōrdō#, _rank_; #turbō#,
_whirlwind_. #homo#, M., F., _human being_; #nēmō#, _nobody_; for G. and
Ab., #nūllī̆us# and #nūllō# are generally used; #margō#, M., F.,
_brink_. Feminines: #grandō#, _hail_; #harundō#, _reed_; #hirundō#,
_swallow_; #hirūdō#, _leech_; #testūdō#, _tortoise_; #virgō#, _maiden_.
Many in #-dō#, #-dinis# (225), #-gō#, #-ginis# (226), and #-tūdō#,
#-tūdinis# (264): as, #cupīdō#, also M., _desire_; #imāgō#, _likeness_;
#sōlitūdō#, _loneliness_.

486. #sanguī̆s#, M., _blood_, stem #sanguin-#, takes #-s# in the
nominative (171, 4). #canis#, M., F., _dog_, stem #can-#, and #īuvenis#,
M., F., _young person_, stem #iuven-#, have the nominative formed like
that of #-i-# stems. For #senex#, _old man_, see 500.

487. (2.) Stems in #-r-# and #-s-# are declined as follows:

  +--------+------------+------------+-------------+-------------+
  |Examples| pater,     | dolor,     | flōs,       | genus,      |
  |        |  _father_, |   _pain_,  |   _flower_, |   _race_,   |
  | Stems  |  patr-, M. | dolōr-, M. | flōr-, M.   | gener-, Ne. |
  +--------+------------+------------+-------------+-------------+
  |Singular|            |            |             |             |
  | _Nom._ | pater      | dolor      | flōs        | genus       |
  | _Gen._ | patris     | dolōris    | flōris      | generis     |
  | _Dat._ | patrī      | dolōrī     | flōrī       | generī      |
  | _Acc._ | patrem     | dolōrem    | flōrem      | genus       |
  | _Abl._ | patre      | dolōre     | flōre       | genere      |
  +--------+------------+------------+-------------+-------------+
  | Plural |            |            |             |             |
  | _Nom._ | patrēs     | dolōrēs    | flōrēs      | genera      |
  | _Gen._ | patrum     | dolōrum    | flōrum      | generum     |
  | _Dat._ | patribus   | dolōribus  | flōribus    | generibus   |
  | _Acc._ | patrēs     | dolōrēs    | flōrēs      | genera      |
  | _Abl._ | patribus   | dolōribus  | flōribus    | generibus   |
  +--------+------------+------------+-------------+-------------+

488. Many stems in #-r-# ended originally in #-s-#, which became #-r-#
between two vowels, and in some words in the nominative also (154): as,
#flōs#, M., _flower_, G. #*flōsis#, #flōris#; #honōs#, M., _honour_, G.
#honōris#, N. #honor#.

489. (_a._) Examples of stems in #-r-#, with nominative #-r#, genitive
#-ris#, are:

  #-ar#, #-aris#
    #baccar#, Ne., _a plant_; #iūbar#, Ne., rarely M., _bright sky_,
    no Pl.
  #-ār#, #-aris#
    #lār#, M., _household god_; G. Pl. #larum#; two or three times
    #larium#.
  #-ār#, #-arris#
    #fār# (171, 1), Ne., _spelt_; Pl. only N. and Ac. #farra#.
  #-er#, #-eris#
    Masculines: #acipēnser#, _sturgeon_; #agger#, _mound_; #ānser#,
    rarely F., _goose_; #asser#, _pole_; #carcer#, _jail_; #later#,
    _brick_; #mulier#, F., _woman_; #passer#, _sparrow_; #vōmer#,
    _ploughshare_. Neuters: #cadāver#, _corpse_; #tūber#, _swelling_;
    #ūber#, _breast_; #verberis#, G., _lash_, no N., generally Pl.;
    #acer#, _maple_, and some other plant names: see 573. #pauper#,
    _poor_, adjective.
  #-ter#, #-tris#
    #accipiter#, M., _hawk_; #frāter#, M., _brother_; #māter#, F.,
    _mother_; #pater#, M., _father_.
  #-ēr#, #-ēris#
    #vēr#, Ne.; no Pl.
  #-or#, #-oris#
    #aequor#, Ne., _sea_; #marmor#, Ne., _marble_; #arbor#, F., _tree_.
  #-or#, #-ōris#
    #olor#, M., _swan_; #soror#, F., _sister_; #uxor#, F., _wife_.
    Many masculines in #-or# for #-ōs# (237): as, #odor#, _smell_; and
    in #-tor#, #-tōris# (205): as, #amātor#, _lover_. Also gender
    comparatives of adjectives: as, #trīstior# (346), M., F., _sadder_.
  #-ur#, #-oris#
    Neuters: #ebur#, _ivory_; Pl. only #ebora#; #rōbur#, _heart of oak_;
    Pl. #rōbora# common, #rōborum# and #rōboribus# twice each. Also
    #femur#,_thigh_, #femoris# or #feminis#, and #iecur#, _liver_,
    #iecoris#, #iecineris#, or #iocineris#.
  #-ur#, #-uris#
    #augur#, M., F., _augur_; #furfur#, M., _bran_; #turtur#, M., F.,
    _turtle-dove_; #voltur# or #vultur#, M., _vulture_. Neuters:
    #fulgur#, _lightning_; #guttur#, rarely M., _throat_; #murmur#,
    _murmur_; #sulpur#, _sulphur_. #cicur#, _tame_, adjective.
  #-ūr#, #-ūris#
    #fūr#, M., _thief_.

490. #volucris#, F., _bird_, stem #volucr-#, has its nominative formed
like that of #-i-# stems.

491. (_b._) Examples of stems in #-s-#, or #-r-# for #-s-#, with
nominative #-s#, genitive #-ris#, are:

  #-aes#, #-aeris#
    #aes#, Ne., _copper_, _bronze_; in the Pl. only #aera# and #aerum#
    are usual.
  #-ēs#, #-eris#
    #Cerēs#. #pūbēs#, _mangrown_; #impūbēs#, _immature_, adjectives;
    for the last more commonly #impūbis#, like #brevis# (630).
  #-is#, #-eris#
    #cinis#, M., _ashes_; #cucumis#, M., _cucumber_, also with #-i-#
    stem; #pulvis#, M., _dust_; #vōmis#, M., _ploughshare_.
  #-ōs#, #-oris#
    #arbōs#, F., _tree_.
  #-ōs#, #-ōris#
    Masculines: #flōs#, _flower_; #mōs#, _custom_; #rōs#, _dew_, no
    G. Pl. (430); #lepōs#, _grace_; #honōs# or #honor#, _honour_, and
    some old Latin words for later #-or#: as, #odōs# or #odor#, _smell_
    (489). #ōs#, Ne., _mouth_, _face_, no G. Pl. (430).
  #-us#, #-eris#
    Neuters: #acus#, _husk_; #foedus#, _treaty_; #fūnus#, _funeral_;
    #genus#, _race_; #glŏ̄mus# (134), _clew_; #holus#, _green stuff_;
    #latus#, _side_; #mūnus#, _gift_; #onus#, _burden_; #opus#, _work_;
    #pondus#, _weight_; #raudus# or #rūdus#, _piece of copper_;
    #scelus#, _crime_; #sīdus#, _constellation_; #ulcus#, _sore_;
    #vellus#, _fleece_; #vīscus#, _bowel_, usually plural; #volnus#
    or #vulnus#, _wound_. Also #Venus#, F., and #vetus#, _old_,
    adjective.
  #-us#, #-oris#
    Neuters: #corpus#, _body_; #decus#, _grace_; #dēdecus#, _disgrace_;
    #facinus#, _deed_; #faenus#, _interest_; #frīgus#, _cold_; #lītus#,
    _shore_; #nemus#, _grove_; #pectus#, _breast_; #pecus#, _flock_;
    #penus#, _store_; #pignus#, _pledge_; #stercus#, _dung_; #tempus#,
    _time_; #tergus#, _back_. Also #lepus#, M., _hare_.
  #-us#, #-ōris#
    Neuter comparatives of adjectives: as, #trīstius# (346), _sadder_.
  #-ūs#, #-ūris#
    Neuters: #crūs#, _leg_; #iūs#, _right_, Pl. #iūra#, G. Pl. twice
    only (Plaut.; Cato), no D. or Ab. Pl.; #iūs#, _broth_, #pūs#,
    _pus_, #rūs#, _country_, #tūs#, _frankincense_, Pl. only N. and Ac.
    #iūra#, &c. #tellūs#, F., _earth_.

492. #vās#, Ne., _vessel_, _utensil_, retains the #s# between two
vowels: G. #vāsis#, D. #vāsī#, Ab. #vāse#, plural N. and Ac. #vāsa#; the
G. #vāsōrum#, and D. and Ab. #vāsis#, are formed from an #-o-# stem,
#vāso-# (401). #mēnsis#, M., _month_, #mēnsis#, has its nominative
formed like that of #-i-# stems; G. Pl. #mēnsum#, sometimes #mēnsuum# or
#mēnsium#. #os# (171, 1) Ne., _bone_, #ossis#, has no G. Pl. in good
writers (430): #ossium# late.

493. The two neuters #vīrus#, _gall_, _poison_, and #volgus# or
#vulgus#, _the crowd_, have #-o-# stems, except in the nominative and
accusative (401), and no plural: thus, N. and Ac. #volgus#, G. #volgī#,
D. and Ab. #volgō#. A masculine accusative #volgum# is sometimes found.
The Greek neuter #pelagus#, _the deep_, has also G. #pelagī#, D. and Ab.
#pelagō#, Pl. N. and Ac. #pelagē# (508).

  [Erratum:
  489a ... Also #femur#, _thigh_
    #femur# _thigh_]


III. STEMS IN #-u-# OR #-v-#.

494. Four substantives with stems in #-ū-# or #-v-#, #grūs#, F.,
_crane_, #gruis#; #sūs#, M., F., _sow_, _swine_, #suis#; #bōs#, M., F.,
_ox_, _cow_, #bovis#; and #nix#, F., _snow_, #nivis#, follow the
consonant declension; also the genitive #Iovis#, and the other oblique
cases of #Iuppiter# (500). But #sūs# has in the plural dative and
ablative #suibus#, #sūbus#, or #subus#; #bōs# has in the plural genitive
#boum# or #bovum#, rarely #bovom# (107, _c_), and in the dative and
ablative #bōbus#, or oftener #būbus#; #nix# has no genitive plural in
good writers (430): #nivium# late, once #nivum#.


SINGULAR CASES.

495. (1.) The nominative singular of gender stems in a mute is formed by
adding #-s# to the stem (422): as,

#rēg-#, _king_, N. #rēx# (164, 1); #duc-#, _leader_, N. #dux# (135, 1);
#custōd-#, _guard_, N. #custōs# (171, 5); #aetāt-#, _age_, N. #aetās#
(171, 5); #caelib-#, _unmarried_, N. #caelebs# (54); #mūnicip-#,
_burgher_, N. #mūniceps#. #hiem-#, _winter_, the only stem in #-m-#, N.
#hiemps# (167) or #hiems#, also takes #-s#.

496. (2.) Stems in a continuous consonant, #-l-#, #-n-#, #-r-#, or
#-s-#, and neuters have no nominative suffix (422, 423): as,

#cōnsul-#, _consul_, N. _cōnsul_; #flāmin-#, _special priest_, N.
#flāmen#; #agger-#, _mound_, N. #agger#; #iūr-# for #iūs-#, _right_, N.
#iūs#.

For #cor#, _heart_, see 476; #lacte#, #lac#, _milk_, 478; #sanguī̆s#,
_blood_, 486; #-s# in neuter adjectives, 612.

497. (_a._) Stems in #-ōn-# drop #-n-# in the nominative; stems in
#-in-# for #-on-# drop #-n-#, and end in #-ō#: as,

#leōn-#, _lion_, N. #leō#; #imāgin-# for #imāgon-#, _likeness_, N.
#imāgō#.

498. (_b._) Stems of one syllable in #-r-# for #-s-# usually retain #-s#
in the nominative: as, #flōr-# for #flōs-#, M., _flower_, N. #flōs#;
#iūr-# for #iūs-#, Ne., _right_, N. #iūs#. Some of more than one
syllable also retain #-s#: see 491; but in others #-s# is changed to
#-r#, and in masculines a preceding #ō# is shortened: as, #odōs#,
_smell_, #odor#. #lepōs#, _grace_, retains #-ōs#.

499. (_c._) Four stems in #-er-# for #-is-# have the nominative singular
in #-is#: #cinis#, _ashes_, #cineris#; #cucumis#, _cucumber_,
#cucumeris# or #cucumis#; #pulvī̆s#, _dust_, #pulveris#; and #vōmis#,
oftener #vōmer#, _ploughshare_, #vōmeris#.

500. The following have the nominative singular formed from a different
stem from that of the other cases (401):

#iter#, _journey_, #itineris#, stems #iter-#, #itiner-#; #Iuppiter#
(389) #Iovis#; #supellēx#, _furniture_, #supellēctilis# (545); #senex#,
_old man_, _man of forty or more_, #senis#, stems #senec-#, #sen-#. For
#sēdēs#, _seat_, see 476; #vātēs#, _bard_, 478. #canis#, _dog_, N. also
#canēs# (Plaut. Enn., Lucil.), #iuvenis#, _young_ or _middle-aged
person_ (486), #volucris#, _bird_ (490), and #mēnsis#, _month_ (492),
have their nominatives formed like those of #-i-# stems.

501. An old dative in #-ē# is sometimes retained in set phrases (507):
as, #aerē#, _money_; #iūrē#, _right_. See 98.

502. Substantives have rarely an ablative in #-ī# or #-ei# like #-i-#
stems: as, #capitī# (Catull.), _head_, for #capite#; #dōtei# (Plaut.),
_dowry_, for #dōte#. Substantives used as adjectives have sometimes
#-ī#: as #artificī manū#, _with artist hand_; but often #-e#: as, #ālite
lāpsū#, _with winged glide_. For #-ē# in old Latin there is no certain
evidence.

503. Adjectives in the comparative degree have sometimes an ablative in
#-ī#: as, #meliōrī#, better, for #meliōre#. Adjectives ‘of one ending’
with consonant stems (624) have always #-e#, except #vetus#, _old_,
which has sometimes #veterī#.

504. Town names and a few appellatives have a locative case in #-ī#: as,
#Karthāginī#, _at Carthage_; #rūrī#, _a-field_, _in the country_.

  [Erratum:
  502 ... as, #ālite lāpsū#, _with winged glide_
    as.]


PLURAL CASES.

505. The nominative and accusative plural masculine and feminine have
rarely #-īs#, like stems in #-i-#: as #sacerdōtīs#, _priests_;
#meliōrīs#, _better_. For #-ā# in neuters in old Latin, see 130, 2.

506. The genitive plural of stems in #-tāt-# (262) is sometimes #-ium#,
like that of #-ī-# stems: as, #cīvitātium#, _communities_;
#voluptātium#, _pleasures_ (Cic.); but chiefly in or after the Augustan
age. #mēnsis#, _month_, has #mēnsum#, but often #mēnsuum#, sometimes
#mēnsium#. #āles#, _bird_, has sometimes #ālituum# in hexameter verse.
For the dative and ablative #-būs#, see 2505.

507. Other case forms are found in inscriptions, as follows:

N. MVNICIPES; #-ō# for #-ōs# (66): MAIO, i.e. #maiōs# or #maior#. G.
#-es#, as early as 218 B.C.: SALVTES; #-us#, from 186 to 100 B.C.:
NOMINVS; #-u# (66): CAESARV. D. #-ei#: VIRTVTEI, soon after 290 B.C.;
HEREDEI, 45 B.C.; #-ē#, disappeared sooner than #-ei# except in set
phrases (501), but is equally old: IVNONE; IOVRE. Ac. #-e# (61): APICE.
Ab. #-īd# (426): CONVENTIONID, i.e. #cōntiōne#; #-ei#: VIRTVTEI; #-ī#:
HEREDI. Plural: N. #-īs#: IOVDICIS. G. #-om#: POVMILIONOM; #-ium#:
MVNICIPIVM. D. #-ebus#: TEMPESTATEBVS. Ac. #-īs#: MVNICIPIS.


GREEK NOUNS.

508. Greek appellatives of the consonant declension occasionally retain
Greek case endings: as, #lampas#, _torch_, G. #lampados#, Ac. #lampada#.
Plural: N. #lampades#, Ac. #lampadas#. #āēr#, _air_, has usually the
accusative #āera#, and #aethēr#, _upper air_, always has #aethera#. In
the plural nominative and accusative, #cētus#, _swimming monster_,
#melos#, _strain of music_, and #pelagus# (493), _the deep_, have #-ē#:
as, #cētē#. Genitive #-ōn#, rare: as, #epigrammatōn#, _epigrams_. Dative
and ablative #-matīs# from words in #-ma#, #-matis#: as, #poēmatīs#,
_poems_ (401).

509. Greek proper names of the consonant declension are usually declined
like Latin ones in old Latin and prose. From Vergil and Propertius on,
Greek case endings grow more and more frequent, especially in poetry;
they are best learned for every name from the dictionary; the commonest
forms are:

Genitive #-os#: as, #Pān#, #Pānos#; #-ūs#, with nominative #-ō#: as,
#Mantō#, #Mantūs#. Dative #-i#, rare: as, #Mīnōidi#. Accusative #-a#,
common with names of persons in poetry, not in prose, more common with
those of places, and even in prose: as, #Acheronta#; always #Pāna#;
#-ō#, with feminines in #-ō#, #-ūs#: as, #Dīdō#. Vocative: #Pallās#,
#Pallā#; in old Latin the nominative is commonly used instead of the
vocative. Plural: Nominative #-es#: as, #Arcades#. Dative #-sin#, rare:
as, #Lēmniasin#. Accusative #-as#, very common: as, #Lelegas#; in prose,
#Macedonas#; also in words not Greek: as, #Allobrogas# (Caes.).

510. Names in #-eus#, like #Orpheus#, are usually declined like #-o-#
stems (449). They have less frequently Greek forms: as, G. #Orpheos#, D.
#Orphei# or #Orphī#, Ac. #Orphea#. Accusative rarely #-ēa#: as,
#Ī̆lonēa#.

511. Some names in #-ēs# have the genitive in #-is# or #-ī# and the
accusative in #-em# or #-ēn# (401): as, #Sōcratēs#, G. #Sōcratis# or
#Sōcratī#, Ac. usually #Sōcratem#, also #Sōcratēn#. #Achillēs# and
#Ulixēs# have in the genitive #-eī#, #-e͡i#, or #-ī#. Names in #-clēs#
have rarely the accusative #-clea#: as, #Periclea#.

512. Some names in #-is# have forms either from a stem in #-id-#, or
from one in #-i-#: as, #Paris#, G. #Paridis#, D. #Paridī#, Ac.
#Paridem#, #Parim# or #Parin#, V. #Pari#.


STEMS IN -i- AND MIXED STEMS.

_The Third Declension._

Genitive singular #-is#, genitive plural #-i-um#.

513. Stems in #-i-# include both substantives and adjectives, gender
words and neuters.

For the gender of substantives, see 570.

514. The nominative of gender stems in #-i-# ends usually in #-s#
(or #-x#), sometimes in #-l# or #-r#; that of neuter substantives has no
suffix, and ends usually in #-e#, sometimes in #-l# or #-r#.

515. Most stems in #-i-# have as many syllables in the nominative as in
the genitive.

Such words are called _Parisyllabic_ words, or _Parisyllables_: as,
nominative #cīvis#, _citizen_, two syllables; genitive #cīvis#, _of a
citizen_, also two syllables.

516. Stems in #-i-# are declined in the main like consonant stems, but
have #-im# in the accusative of some substantives, and #-ī# in the
ablative of adjectives, of some gender substantives, and of neuters; in
the plural they have #-ium# in the genitive, #-īs# often in the
accusative of gender words, and #-ia# in the nominative and accusative
neuter.


I. PARISYLLABLES.

517. (1.) Parisyllabic gender stems in #-i-# with the nominative in
#-is# are declined as follows:

  +--------+-----------+------------+----------+----------+----------+
  |Examples|tussis,    |turris,     |amnis,    |hostis,   | Stem     |
  |        |  _cough_, |  _tower_,  |  _river_,|  _enemy_,| and case |
  | Stems  | tussi-,   | turri-,    | amni-,   | hosti-,  | endings  |
  |        |   F.      |   F.       |   M.     |  M., F.  |          |
  +--------+-----------+------------+----------+----------+----------+
  |Singular|           |            |          |          |          |
  | _Nom._ | tussis    | turris     | amnis    | hostis   | -is      |
  | _Gen._ | tussis    | turris     | amnis    | hostis   | -is      |
  | _Dat._ | tussī     | turrī      | amnī     | hostī    | -ī       |
  | _Acc._ | tussim    | turrim, -em| amnem    | hostem   | -im, -em |
  | _Abl._ | tussī     | turrī, -e  | amne, -ī | hoste    | -ī, -e   |
  +--------+-----------+------------+----------+----------+----------+
  | Plural |           |            |          |          |          |
  | _Nom._ | tussēs    | turrēs     | amnēs    | hostēs   | -ēs      |
  | _Gen._ |           | turrium    | amnium   | hostium  | -ium     |
  | _Dat._ |           | turribus   | amnibus  | hostibus | -ibus    |
  | _Acc._ | tussīs,   | turrīs,    | amnīs,   | hostīs,  | -īs,     |
  |        |  -ēs      |  -ēs       |  -ēs     |  -ēs     |    -ēs   |
  | _Abl._ |           | turribus   | amnibus  | hostibus | -ibus    |
  +--------+-----------+------------+----------+----------+----------+

518. (_a._) Like the singular of #tussis# are declined parisyllabic
names of rivers and places, like #Tiberis#, #Hispalis#. Also #cucumis#,
M., _cucumber_ (but see 491), and the defectives #sitis#, F., _thirst_,
Ac. #sitim#, Ab. #sitī#, no plural; and #vīs#, F., _power_, Ac. #vim#,
Ab. #vī#. Plural (401): N. #vīrēs#, G. #vīrium#, D. and Ab. #vīribus#,
Ac. #vīrīs# or #vīrēs#. (The D. #vī# is only found twice; a N. and Ac.
Pl. #vīs# is very rare.)

519. (_b._) The following feminines are declined like #turris#, with
#-im# or #-em# in the accusative, and #-ī# or #-e# in the ablative:

  clāvis, _key_
  febris, _fever_
  nāvis, _vessel_
  puppis, _stern_
  sēmentis, _planting_
  strigilis, _skin-scraper_

So also in the oblique cases, #Liger#, _the Liger_. #Arar#, _the Arar_,
has in the accusative #-im#, in the ablative #-e# or #-ī#.

520. #secūris#, _axe_, #messis#, _crop_, and #restis#, _rope_, also have
#-im# or #-em# in the accusative, but only #secūrī#, #messe#, and
#reste# in the ablative. #canālis#, _conduit_, has only #-em# in the
accusative, and only #-ī# in the ablative.

521. (_c._) The following are declined like #amnis#, with #-em# in the
accusative, and #-ī# or #-e# in the ablative:

  avis, _bird_
  bīlis, _bile_
  cīvis, _citizen_
  classis, _fleet_
  fūstis, _club_
  ignis, _fire_

522. (_d._) Most parisyllabic stems in #-i-#, with the nominative in
#-is#, are declined like #hostis#: as,

#ēnsis#, M., _glaive_; #piscis#, M., _fish_; #aedis#, F., _temple_, Pl.
_house_ (418); #vītis#, F., _vine_; and a great many others. Also gender
forms of adjectives in #-i-# ‘of two endings’ (630), except the ablative
singular, which ends in #-ī#.

523. (2.) Parisyllables in #-i-# with the nominative in #-ēs# have their
other cases like those of #hostis#: such are:

#caedēs#, _bloodshed_; #cautēs#, _rock_; #clādēs#, _disaster_;
#indolēs#, _native disposition_, no Pl.; #lābēs#, _fall_; #mōlēs#,
_pile_; #nūbēs#, _cloud_; #prōlēs#, _offspring_, no Pl.; #pūbēs#, _young
population_, no Pl.; #rūpēs#, _crag_; #saepēs#, _hedge_; #strāgēs#,
_slaughter_; #subolēs#, _offspring_; #tābēs#, _wasting_, no Pl.,
feminines; and some others. Masculine: #verrēs#, _boar_; #volpēs# or
#vulpēs#, _fox_.

524. #famēs#, _hunger_, has G. twice #famī# (Cato, Lucil.), Ab. always
#famē# (603), no Pl.; #plēbēs#, _commons_, N. also #plēbs# or #plēps#,
has G. #plēbe͡i# (603), #plēbī# or #plēbis#, no Pl.

525. (3.) A few stems in #-bri-#, #-cri-#, or #-tri-#, are declined as
follows:

  imber, _shower_, stem imbri-, M.

Singular: N. #imber#, G. #imbris#, D. #imbrī#, Ac. #imbrem#, Ab.
#imbrī#, oftener #imbre#. Plural: N. #imbrēs#, G. #imbrium#, D.
#imbribus#, Ac. #imbrīs# or #imbrēs#, Ab. #imbribus#. So also #lunter#
or #linter#, F. (M.), _tub_, _boat_, #ūter#, M., _leather bag_, and
#venter#, M., _belly_, but with only #-e# in the Ab.; and the masculine
of adjectives in #-bri-#, #-cri-#, #-tri-#, N. #-er# (628); these last
have in the Ab. always #-ī#.

526. (4.) Parisyllabic neuters in #-i-# with the nominative in #-e# are
declined as follows:

  +--------+----------------------+-------------------+-------------+
  |Examples| sedīle, _seat_,      | mare, _sea_,      | Stem and    |
  | Stems  |  sedīli-, Ne.        |  mari-, Ne.       | case endings|
  +--------+----------+-----------+----------+--------+-----+-------+
  |        | Singular | Plural    | Singular | Plural | S.  | Pl.   |
  |        +----------+-----------+----------+--------+-----+-------+
  | _Nom._ | sedīle   | sedīlia   | mare     | maria  | -e  | -ia   |
  | _Gen._ | sedīlis  | sedīlium  | maris    |        | -is | -ium  |
  | _Dat._ | sedīlī   | sedīlibus | marī     |        | -ī  | -ibus |
  | _Acc._ | sedīle   | sedīlia   | mare     | maria  | -e  | -ia   |
  | _Abl._ | sedīlī   | sedīlibus | marī     |        | -ī  | -ibus |
  +--------+----------+-----------+----------+--------+-----+-------+

527. #mare# has rarely the ablative #mare# in verse: in the plural only
the nominative and accusative are usual; but a genitive #marum# is once
quoted (Naev.), and the ablative #maribus# is once used by Caesar.

528. Examples of parisyllabic neuters in #-i-#, with the nominative in
#-e#, genitive #-is#, are:

#ancīle#, _sacred shield_; #aplustre#, _ancient_; #conclāve#, _suite of
rooms_; #īnsīgne#, _ensign_; #praesaepe#, _stall_; #rēte#, _net_, Ab.
#rēte#. Also the neuter of adjectives in #-i-# ‘of two endings’ (630),
and some words in #-īle#, #-āle#, #-āre#, originally adjectives (313,
314): as, #būbīle#, _ox-stall_; #fōcāle#, _neckcloth_; #cocleāre#,
_spoon_.

  [Erratum:
  522. (_d._)
    (_d_)]


II. IMPARISYLLABLES.

529. Sometimes a plural stem in #-i-# is combined, in the singular, with
a stem in a mute, in #-l#, or #-r#, or rarely in #-s#. These mixed stems
thus become imparisyllables. Gender stems of this class are like
consonant stems in the singular, except the ablative of adjectives,
which has usually #-ī#.

530. Imparisyllabic stems in #-i-# are declined as follows:

  +----------+-------------+-------------+------------+---------------+
  | Examples | arx,        | pars,       | urbs,      | animal,       |
  |          |  _citadel_, |  _part_,    |  _city_,   |  _animal_     |
  |  Stems   | arci-, F.   | parti-, F.  | urbi-, F.  | animāli-, Ne. |
  +----------+-------------+-------------+------------+---------------+
  | Singular |             |             |            |               |
  | _Nom._   | arx         | pars        | urbs       | animal        |
  | _Gen._   | arcis       | partis      | urbis      | animālis      |
  | _Dat._   | arcī        | partī       | urbī       | animālī       |
  | _Acc._   | arcem       | partem      | urbem      | animal        |
  | _Abl._   | arce        | parte       | urbe       | animālī       |
  +----------+-------------+-------------+------------+---------------+
  | Plural   |             |             |            |               |
  | _Nom._   | arcēs       | partēs      | urbēs      | animālia      |
  | _Gen._   | arcium      | partium     | urbium     | animālium     |
  | _Dat._   | arcibus     | partibus    | urbibus    | animālibus    |
  | _Acc._   | arcīs, -ēs  | partīs, -ēs | urbīs, -ēs | animālia      |
  | _Abl._   | arcibus     | partibus    | urbibus    | animālibus    |
  +----------+-------------+-------------+------------+---------------+

531. Examples of stems in #-ci-#, with nominative #-x#, genitive #-cis#,
are:

  #-āx#, #-ācis#
    #fornāx#, F., _furnace_. Many adjectives (284): as, #audāx#,
    _daring_.
  #-aex#, #-aecis#
    #faex#, F., _dregs_, no G. Pl. (430).
  #-ex#, #-icis#
    #supplex#, _suppliant_, Ab. #-ī#, sometimes #-e#, G. Pl.
    #supplicum#. Adjectives: #duplex#, _twofold_; #multiplex#,
    _manifold_; #quadruplex#, _fourfold_; #septemplex#, _sevenfold_;
    #simplex#, _simple_; #triplex#, _threefold_. The foregoing have
    Ab. #-ī#: as, #duplicī#; #duplice# once (Hor.), #septemplice#
    twice (Ov.; Stat.); G. Pl. #-ium#, Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. #-ia#.
  #-īx#, #-īcis#
    #fēlīx#, _happy_; #pernīx#, _nimble_, adjectives. Also many
    feminines of the agent in #-trīx# (205): as, #victrīx#,
    _victorious_; these sometimes have a Ne. Pl. N. and Ac.: as,
    #victrīcia#; in the G. Pl. they have #-ium#, or, as substantives,
    #-um#: as, #nūtrīcum#, _nurses_.
  #-lx#, #-lcis#
    #calx#, F. (M.), _heel_; #calx#, M., F., _limestone_, no G. Pl.
    (430); #falx#, F., _sickle_.
  #-nx#, #-ncis#
    #lanx#, F., _platter_, no G. Pl. (430); #deūnx#, M., _eleven
    twelfths_; #quīncunx#, M., _five twelfths_.
  #-ox#, #-ocis#
    #praecox#, _over-ripe_, older stem #praecoqui-#: as,
    G. #praecoquis#; rarely with #-o-# stem (401): as, #praecoquam#.
  #-ōx#, #-ōcis#
    #celōx#, F., _clipper_. #atrōx#, _savage_; #ferōx#, _wild_;
    #vēlōx#, _swift_, adjectives.
  #-rx#, #-rcis#
    #arx#, F., _citadel_, G. Pl. rare and late; #merx#, F., _ware_,
    N. in old Latin sometimes #mercēs# or #mers#.
  #-ux#, #-ucis#
    Adjectives: #trux#, _savage_, Ab. #-ī# or #-e#, G. Pl. #-ium#;
    #redux#, _returning_, Ab. #-ī# or #-e# (558); no G. Pl. and no
    Ne. N. or Ac. (430).
  #-aux#, #----#
    #fauce#, F., Ab., _throat_, N. #faux# once only and late,
    generally Pl.
  #-ūx#, #-ūcis#
    #lūx#, F. (581), _light_, Ab. sometimes #-ī#, no G. Pl. (430).

532. (_a._) Examples of stems in #-di-#, with nominative #-s#, genitive
#-dis#, are:

  #-ēs#, #-edis#
    Compounds of #pēs#, _foot_: #compede#, F., Ab., _fetter_, no N.,
    G. Pl. #compedium#; adjectives: as, #ālipēs#, _wing-footed_,
    #bipēs#, _two-legged_, #quadrupēs#, _four-footed_, &c., Ab. #-ī#,
    Pl. G. #-um# only (563), Ne. N. and Ac. #-ia#, rare and late.
  #-ns#, #-ndis#
    Feminines: #frōns#, _foliage_; #glāns#, _acorn_; #iūglāns#,
    _walnut_.
  #-rs#, #-rdis#
    #concors#, _like-minded_, adjective, and other compounds of #cor#,
    Ab. #-ī# (559) Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. #-ia#, G. Pl. not usual:
    #discordium#, _at variance_, and #vēcordium#, _frantic_, once each.
  #-aus#, #-audis#
    #fraus#, F., _deceit_, G. Pl. #fraudium#, later #fraudum#.

533. (_b._) Examples of stems in #-ti-#, with nominative #-s# (#-x#),
genitive #-tis#, are:

  #-ās#, #-ātis#
    #Arpīnās#, _of Arpinum_, and adjectives from other town names;
    #optimātēs#, _good men and true_, G. Pl. #-ium#, less often #-um#;
    #penātēs#, _gods of the household store_.
  #-es#, #-etis#
    Adjectives: #hebes#, _dull_; #teres#, _cylindrical_, Ab. #-ī#
    (559), no G. Pl., Ne. Pl. #hebetia#, #teretia#, late and rare;
    #perpes#, _lasting through_, Ab. #perpetī#, late only; #praepes#,
    _swift-winged_, Ab. #-ī# or #-e#, G. Pl. #-um#, no Ne. Pl.
    N. or Ac.
  #-ēs#, #-ētis#
    #locuplēs#, _rich_, adjective, Ab. usually #-e# of a person, #-ī#
    often of a thing, G. Pl. #locuplētium#, sometimes #locuplētum#,
    Ne. Pl. #locuplētia# once.
  #-īs#, #-ītis#
    #līs#, _contention_; #dīs#, _rich_, adjective, Ab. always #-ī#
    (559), Pl. G. #-ium#, once #-um# (Sen.), Ne. N. and Ac. #-ia#.
    #Quirīs#, #Samnīs#.
  #-ls#, #-ltis#
    #puls#, _pottage_, no G. Pl. (430).
  #-ns#, #-ntis#
    Masculines: #dēns#, _tooth_: #fōns#, _fountain_; #pōns#, _bridge_;
    #mōns#, _mountain_, N. once #montis# (Enn.); factors of twelve:
    #sextāns#, _one sixth_; #quadrāns#, #triēns#, #dōdrāns#, #dēxtāns#.
    Feminines: #frōns#, _forehead_; #gēns#, _clan_; #mēns#, _mind_.
    Present participles: as, #regēns#, _guiding_. Many adjectives: as,
    #ingēns#, _gigantic_, Ab. #-ī# (559); #Vēiēns#, _of Vei_; compounds
    of #mēns#: as, #āmēns#, _out of one’s head_; of #dēns#: as,
    #tridēns#, Ab. #-ī#, as substantive usually #-e#.
  #-eps#, #-ipitis#
    Adjective compounds of #caput#, _head_: #anceps# (543),
    _two-headed_, once older #ancipēs# (Plaut.); #biceps#, _two-headed_;
    #triceps#, _three-headed_; #praeceps#, _head-first_, old
    #praecipēs# (Plaut.; Enn.), Ab. #-ī# (559), no G. Pl., Ne. Pl.
    N. and Ac. #-ia#.
  #-rs#, #-rtis#
    Feminines: #ars#, _art_; #cohors#, _cohort_; #fors#, _chance_;
    #mors#, _death_; #pars#, _part_; #sors#, _lot_, N. twice #sortis#
    (Plaut.; Ter.). Adjectives: #cōnsors#, _sharing_, #exsors#, _not
    sharing_, no G. Pl.; #expers#, _without part_; #iners#,
    _unskilled_, #sollers#, _all-skilled_, Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. #-ia#.
  #-x#, #-ctis#
    #nox#, F., _night_; Ab. also #noctū# (401); an old adverb form is
    #nox#, _nights_.

534. (_a._) Stems in #-bi-#, with nominative #-bs# (149), genitive
#-bis#, are:

#trabs#, F., _beam_, older N. #trabēs# (Enn.); #plēbs#, F., _commons_,
N. sometimes #plēps#, for the older #plēbēs# (603), no Pl.; #urbs#, F.,
_city_.

535. (_b._) Stems in #-pi-#, with nominative #-ps#, genitive #-pis#,
are:

#inops#, _poor_, adjective, Ab. #-ī# (559), G. Pl. #-um#, no Ne. Pl. N.
or Ac. (430); #stirps#, F. (M.), _trunk_.

536. Examples of stems in #-li-#, with nominative #-l#, genitive #-lis#,
are:

  #-al#, #-ālis#
    Neuters, originally adjective (546): #animal#, _animal_;
    #bacchānal#, _shrine_ or _feast of Bacchus_; #cervīcal#, _bolster_;
    #puteal#, _well-curb_; #toral#, _valance_; #tribūnal#, _tribunal_;
    #vectīgal#, _indirect tax_. Only N. or Ac.: #cubital#,
    _elbow-cushion_; #minūtal#, _minced-fish_; #capital#, #capitālia#,
    _death_, _capital crime_.
  #-il#, #-ilis#
    #vigil#, _wide-awake_, adjective, Ab. #-ī#, as substantive #-e#
    (561), G. Pl. #vigilum# (563), no Ne. Pl. N. or Ac. (430).

537. (_a._) Examples of stems in #-ri-#, with nominative #-r#, genitive
#-ris#, are:

  #-ar#, #-āris#
    Neuters, originally adjective (546): #calcar#, _spur_; #columbar#,
    _dove-cote_; #exemplar#, _pattern_; #lacūnar#, _panel-ceiling_;
    #pulvīnar#, _couch_; #subligar#, _tights_; #torcular#, _wine-press_.
  #-ār#, #-aris#
    Adjectives: #pār#, _equal_; #dispār#, #impār#, _unequal_, for Ab.,
    see 561; G. Pl. #-ium#, Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. #-ia#; #compār#,
    _co-mate_, as substantive has G. Pl. #-um#.
  #-er#, #-eris#
    Adjectives: #dēgener#, _degenerate_, Ab. #-ī# (559), no Ne. Pl.
    N. or Ac. (430); #ūber#, _fruitful_, Ab. #-ī#, late #-e#, Ne. Pl.
    #ūbera# once only (Acc.).
  #-or#, #-oris#
    Adjectives: #memor#, _remembering_; #immemor#, _forgetful_, Ab.
    #-ī# (559), G. Pl. #memorum# (636) once only (Verg.), no Ne. Pl.
    N. or Ac. (430).
  #-or#, #-ōris#
    Adjective compounds of #color#: as, #concolor#, _of like shade_,
    #discolor#, _of different shade_, both with Ab. #-ī# only;
    #versicolor#, _pied_, Ab. #-ī#, rarely #-e#, Ne. Pl. N. and Ac.
    #-ia#; the G. Pl. of these words is not usual, but #versicōlorum#
    once.

538. (_b._) Stems in #-ri-#, with nominative #-s# of the stem, genitive
#-ris#, are #glīs#, F., _dormouse_, #glīris#; #mās#, M., _male_,
#maris#; #mūs#, F., _mouse_, #mūris#.

539. The only imparisyllabic stem in #-si-# is #ās# (171, 1), M., _unit,
an as_, G. #assis#, with its compounds #bēs#, _two thirds_, G. #bessis#,
and #sēmis#, _half an as_, _half_, G. #sēmissis#.

  [Erratum:
  537 ... #dēgener#, _degenerate_, Ab. #-ī# (559)
    Ab.,]


SINGULAR CASES.

540. (1.) The nominative singular of gender stems in #-i-# is usually
formed by adding #-s# to the stem (422). But many gender substantives
have the nominative in #-ēs# (236, 401): as,

#amni-#, _river_, N. #amnis#; #aedi-#, _temple_, N. #aedis#; #brevi-#,
_short_, N. #brevis#. With N. #-ēs#: #nūbi-#, _cloud_, N. #nūbēs#; for
other examples, see 523.

541. Some substantives form the nominative in both these ways: as,
#vallēs# and #vallis#, _valley_, equally common; #aedis#, _temple_,
later #aedēs#; for #caedēs#, _slaughter_, #clādēs#, _disaster_, and
#mōlēs#, _pile_, #caedis#, &c., occur exceptionally.

542. A few stems in #-bri-#, #-cri-#, or #-tri-#, drop #-i-# in the
nominative. The endings #brs#, #crs#, #trs#, then change to #-ber#,
#-cer#, #-ter# (111, _b_): as, #imbrī-#, _shower_, N. #imber# (525).

543. Of gender imparisyllables, some have lost #-i-# of the stem before
#-s# in the nominative; others have originally a consonant stem in the
nominative (529-535).

Thus, #monti-#, _mountain_, and #sorti-#, _lot_, have N. #mōns# and
#sors# for an older #montis# and #sortis#; but #dēns#, _tooth_, and
#regēns#, _ruling_, have as original stems #dent-# and #regent-#.
Adjectives in #-cipiti-# have N. #-ceps# (533).

544. A few adjective stems in #-li-# or #-ri-# drop #-i-# in the
nominative without taking #-s# (536, 537): as, #vigili-#, _wide-awake_,
N. #vigil#; #pari-#, _equal_, N. #pār#; so also #Arar# and #Liger#.
Three substantives in #-ri-# for #-si-# likewise drop #-i-#, and end in
the original #-s# (538): #glīri-# for #glīsi-#, _dormouse_, N. #glīs#;
#mās#, _male_; #mūs#, _mouse_.

545. For #carō#, F., _flesh_, #carnis# (Ab. #-ī#, usually #-e#, no
G. Pl.) see 135, 2. #supellēx#, F., _furniture_, #supellēctilis#
(Ab. #-ī# or #-e#, no Pl.), has the nominative formed from a different
stem from that of the other cases (401).

546. (2) Neuter stems in #-i-# have no nominative suffix, and end in
#-e# for #-i-# of the stem (107, _b_): as,

#mari-#, _sea_, N. #mare#; #brevi-#, _short_, N. #breve#. In some words,
originally neuter adjectives in #-āle# and #-āre#, the #-e# is dropped
and the #ā# shortened: as, #animāle#, _living thing_, #animal# (536);
#exemplāre# (Lucr.), _pattern_, #exemplar# (537). Some neuter adjectives
end in #-l# or #-r# (536, 537); and some ‘of one ending’ end in #-s#
(612).

547. The accusative singular of gender substantives usually has #-em#,
like consonant stems (424); but a few substantives with the nominative
in #-is# have #-im# only, and some have either #-im# or #-em#.

548. (_a._) Accusatives in #-im#

  Are sitim, tussim, vim,      _thirst_, _cough_, _strength_
  And būrim, cucumim.          _ploughtail_, _cucumber_

549. The accusative in #-im# is found in many adverbs (700): as,
#partim#, _in part_; in some adverbial expressions: as, #adamussim#,
#examussim#, _to a #T#_, #adfatim#, _to satiety_, #ad ravim#, _to
hoarseness_; in some names of rivers and cities: as, #Tiberim#,
#Hispalim#; and in some Greek words (565).

550. (_b._) Six have the accusative commonly in #-im#, sometimes in
#-em#:

  febrim, -em, _fever_
  pelvim, -em, _basin_
  puppim, -em, _stern_
  restim, -em, _rope_
  secūrim, -em, _axe_
  turrim, -em, _tower_

551. Six have the accusative commonly in #-em#, sometimes in #-im#:

  bipennem, -im, _two-edged axe_
  clāvem, -im, _key_
  messem, -im, _crop_
  nāvem, -im, _ship_
  sēmentem, -im, _planting_
  strigilem, -im, _skin-scraper_

552. In the ablative, gender substantives have usually #-e#, and neuters
and adjectives have #-ī#: as,

#hoste#, _enemy_; #marī#, _sea_; #ācrī#, _sharp_, #brevī#, _short_,
#audācī#, _daring_.

553. (1.) Of gender substantives with the nominative in #-is#, a few
have only #-ī# in the ablative, and many have either #-ī# or #-e#.

554. (_a._) These ablatives have only #-ī#:

  secūrī, sitī, tussī, vī,    _axe_, _thirst_, _cough_, _strength_
  canālī, cucumī,             _conduit_, _cucumber_

Some names of rivers and cities have only #-ī#: as, #Tiberī#, #Hispalī#.
The locative also ends in #-ī#: as, #Neāpolī#, _at Neapolis_.

555. (_b._) These ablatives of gender substantives with the nominative
in #-is# have #-ī# or #-e#:

  amne, -ī, _river_
  ave, -ī, _bird_
  bīle, -ī, _bile_
  cīvī, -e, _citizen_
  classe, -ī, _fleet_
  clāvī, -e, _key_
  febrī, -e, _fever_
  fūstī, -e, _club_
  ignī, -e, _fire_
  nāvī, -e, _ship_
  orbī, -e, _circle_
  puppī, -e, _stern_
  sēmentī, -e, _planting_
  strigilī, -e, _skin-scraper_
  turrī, -e, _tower_

556. A few other words in #-is# have occasionally an ablative in #-ī#:
as, #anguis#, _snake_, #collis#, _hill_, #fīnis#, _end_, #postis#,
_post_, #unguis#, _nail_, &c. #sors#, _lot_, #imber#, _shower_, and
#lūx#, _light_, have also #-e# or #-ī#; #supellēx#, _furniture_, has
#supellēctilī# or #-e#; #Arar# has #-e# or #-ī#; #Liger#, #-ī# or #-e#.

557. Neuter names of towns with the nominative in #-e# have #-e# in the
ablative: as, #Praeneste#. #rēte#, _net_, has only #rēte#; #mare#,
_sea_, has rarely #mare# (527).

558. (2.) Adjectives ‘of two endings’ with stems in #-i-# (630) often
have #-e# in the ablative when they are used as substantives, and
sometimes in verse, when a short vowel is needed: as,

#adfīnī#, #-e#, _connection by marriage_; #aedīle#, #-ī#, _aedile_;
#familiārī#, #-e#, _friend_. But some, even as substantives, have #-ī#:
as, #aequālī#, _of the same age_, #cōnsulārī#, _ex-consul_, #gentīlī#,
_tribesman_. Adjectives of place in #-ēnsis# (330) usually have #-ī#,
but sometimes #-e#: as, #Tarquiniēnse#. Proper names have usually #-e#:
as, #Iuvenāle#.

559. Adjectives ‘of one ending’ with stems in #-i-# (632), have commonly
#-ī# in the ablative. The following ablatives have only #-ī#:

#āmentī#, _frenzied_, #ancipitī#, _two-headed_, #praecipitī#,
_head-first_, #concolōrī#, _of like hue_, #concordī#, _harmonious_,
#discordī#, _at variance_, #sōcordī#, _imperceptive_, #dēgenerī#,
_degenerate_, #dītī#, _rich_, #teretī#, _rounded_, #ingentī#, _huge_,
#inopī#, _without means_, #memorī#, _remembering_, #immemorī#,
_forgetful_.

560. Present participles, when used as adjectives, have #-ī# in the
ablative, otherwise #-e#: as,

#ā sapientī virō#, _by a wise man_; #adulēscente#, _youth_, substantive;
#Rōmulō rēgnante#, _in the reign of Romulus_, ablative absolute (1362).

561. Other adjectives ‘of one ending’ occasionally have #-e# in the
ablative when used as substantives or as epithets of persons, or in
verse when a short syllable is needed: as,

#cōnsortī#, _sharing_, #parī#, _equal_, #vigilī#, _wide-awake_,
#fēlīcī#, _happy_, as adjectives; but #cōnsorte#, &c., as substantives;
in prose, #imparī#, #disparī#, _unequal_; in verse, #impare#, #dispare#.
Proper names have #-e#: as, #Fēlīce#.


PLURAL CASES.

562. In the plural, gender nominatives have #-ēs#, rarely #-īs# or
#-eīs#, and gender accusatives have #-īs# or #-ēs# indifferently,
sometimes #-eis#; after about 50 A.D., #-ēs# was the prevalent ending
for both cases. Neuters add #-a# to the stem, making #-ia#; for #-iā́#
in old Latin, cf. 2505.

563. In the genitive plural, present participles, some substantive stems
in #-nt(i)-#, and some adjectives ‘of two endings’ (631) have
occasionally #-um#: as,

#amantum#, _lovers_; #rudentum#, _rigging_; #agrestum#, _country folk_;
#caelestum#, _heaven’s tenantry_. #apis#, _bee_, has commonly #-um#;
#caedēs#, _slaughter_, and #fraus#, _deceit_, have rarely #-um#. For
#-um# in some adjectives ‘of one ending,’ see 636; for #-bū́s# in the
dative and ablative in old Latin, see 2505.

564. Other case forms are found in inscriptions, as follows:

N. without #-is#: VECTIGAL, i.e. #vectīgālis#, adjective; #-e# for #-is#
(66, 41): MILITARE, i.e. #mīlitāris#, adjective; #-ēs# (540): AIDILES,
i.e. #aedīlis#; CIVES, i.e. #cīvis#. G. #-us#, from 186 to 100 B.C.:
PARTVS, i.e. #partis#. D. #-ei#: VRBEI. Ac. #-i# (61): PARTI, i.e.
#partem#; #-e#: AIDE, i.e. #aedem#. Ab. #-ei#: FONTEI; #-e#: SERVILE,
i.e. #servīlī#. Plural: N. #-ēs#: FINES; #-eis#: FINEIS; #-īs#: FINIS.


GREEK NOUNS.

565. Greek stems in #-i-# are usually declined like Latin ones, with the
accusative in #-im#, and ablative in #-ī#. But the accusative sometimes
has #-n#: as, #poēsin#, _poetry_, #Charybdin#; similarly #Capyn#; and a
vocative occurs: as, #Charybdi#. The plural genitive #Metamorphōseōn#,
and as ablative #Metamorphōsesin#, occur as titles of books.


CHARACTERISTICS OF STEMS IN #-i-#.

566. Parisyllables with nominatives in #-is#, #-ēs#, or #-e#, and a few
in #-er#; and imparisyllables with nominatives in #-al#, and in #-ar#
for #-āre#, have stems in #-i-#.

But #canis#, #iuvenis# (486), #volucris# (490), #mēnsis# (492), #sēdēs#
(476), and #vātēs# (478), have consonant stems.

567. Under #-i-# stems may also conveniently be grouped the following
classes, which have usually a consonant form in the singular, and an
#-i-# form in the plural:

568. (_a._) Imparisyllabic adjectives with the genitive in #-is#, except
comparatives and the dozen with consonant stems (624), and
imparisyllables with a nominative in #-s# or #-x# preceded by any
consonant except #p#. But #cōniūnx# (472) and #caelebs# (480) have
consonant stems.

569. (_b._) The following monosyllables: #ās#, _unit_, _an as_, #faex#,
_dregs_, #fraus#, _deceit_, #glīs#, _dormouse_, #līs#, _strife_, #lūx#,
_light_, #mās#, _male_, #mūs#, _mouse_, #nox#, _night_, #stirps#,
_trunk_, #vīs#, _strength_. Also #fauce#, _throat_, and #compede#,
_fetter_, both Ab., no N., and #fornāx#, _furnace_.


GENDER OF CONSONANT STEMS AND #-i-# STEMS.

570. The gender of many of these substantives is determined by their
meaning (404-412); that of participles used as substantives follows the
gender of the substantive understood; Greek substantives follow the
Greek gender. The gender of other words may be conveniently arranged for
the memory according to the nominative endings as follows.


MASCULINE.

571. Imparisyllables in #-es# or #-ēs# and substantives in #-er#, #-ō#,
#-or#, and #-ōs# are masculine: as,

#caespes#, _sod_; #pēs#, _foot_; #agger#, _mound_; #sermō#, _speech_;
#pallor#, _paleness_; #flōs#, _flower_.

572. These imparisyllables in #-es# or #-ēs# are feminine: #merges#,
_sheaf_, #seges#, _crop_, #teges#, _mat_; #requiēs# and #quiēs#, _rest_;
#compedēs#, plural, _fetters_; #mercēs#, _reward_. #aes#, _copper_,
_bronze_, is neuter.

573. These substantives in #-er# are neuter: #cadāver#, _corpse_,
#iter#, _way_, #tūber#, _swelling_, _truffle_, #ūber#, _udder_,
#verberis#, _lash_, genitive, no nominative; also names of plants in
#-er#: as, #acer#, _maple_, #cicer#, _chickpea_, #papāver#, _poppy_,
#piper#, _pepper_, #siler#, _osier_, #siser#, _skirret_, #sūber#,
_corktree_. #linter#, _tub_, _boat_, is feminine, once masculine. #vēr#,
_spring_, is neuter.

574. Substantives in #-ō#, with genitive #-inis# (485), are feminine;
as, #imāgō#, #imāginis#, _likeness_; also #carō#, #carnis#, _flesh_, and
words of action in #-iō# and #-tiō# (227, 228). But #cardō#, _hinge_,
#ōrdō#, _rank_, and #turbō#, _whirlwind_, are masculine. #margō#,
_brink_, and #cupīdō#, _desire_, are sometimes masculine.

575. These substantives in #-or# are neuter: #ador#, _spelt_, #aequor#,
_sea_, #marmor#, _marble_, #cor#, _heart_. #arbor#, _tree_, is feminine.

576. These substantives in #-ōs# are feminine: #cōs#, _whetstone_,
#arbōs#, _tree_, #dōs#, _dowry_. #ōs#, #ōris#, _mouth_, _face_, is
neuter, also #os#, #ossis#, _bone_.

  [Erratum:
  575 ... #cor#, _heart_.
    . missing]


FEMININE.

577. Parisyllables in #-ēs#, and substantives in #-ās#, #-aus#, #-is#,
#-s# preceded by a consonant, and #-x#, are feminine: as,

#nūbēs#, _cloud_; #aetās#, _age_; #laus#, _praise_; #nāvis#, _ship_;
#urbs#, _city_; #pāx#, _peace_.

578. #ās#, #assis#, _penny_, is masculine. #vās#, _vessel_, _utensil_,
and the defectives #fās#, _right_, and #nefās#, _wrong_, are neuter.

579. Substantives in #-nis# are masculine; also twenty-nine others in
#-is#, as follows:

  axis, callis, caulis, anguis,
    _axle_, _path_, _cabbage_, _snake_
  fascis, fūstis, lapis, sanguī̆s,
    _bundle_, _club_, _stone_, _blood_
  piscis, postis, pulvī̆s, ēnsis,
    _fish_, _post_, _dust_, _glaive_
  torquis, torris, unguis, mēnsis,
    _twisted collar_, _firebrand_, _nail_, _month_
  vectis, vermis, vōmis, collis,
    _lever_, _worm_, _ploughshare_, _hill_
  glīs, canālis, also follis,
    _dormouse_, _conduit_, _ball_
  cassēs, sentēs, veprēs, orbis,
    _nets_, _brambles_, _thorns_, plurals, _circle_
  cucumis, and sometimes corbis.
    _cucumber_, _basket_

#būrim#, _ploughtail_, accusative only, is also masculine. A few of the
above are sometimes feminine: as, #amnis#, #anguis#, #callis#,
#canālis#, #cinis#, #fīnis#, #fūnis#, #torquis#, #veprēs#, &c.

580. Four in #-s# preceded by a consonant are masculine: #dēns#,
_tooth_, #fōns#, _fountain_, #pōns#, _bridge_, #mōns#, _mountain_; also
factors of twelve: #sextāns#, _one sixth_, #quadrāns#, #triēns#,
#dōdrāns#, #dēxtāns#; #rudēns#, _rope_, once. #adeps#, _fat_, and
#forceps#, _pincers_, are masculine or feminine. #stirps#, _stock_, is
sometimes masculine.

581. #calix#, _cup_, #fornix#, _arch_, and #trādux#, _vinelayer_, are
masculine; also substantives in #-ūnx# and #-ex#; except #nex#,
_murder_, and #precī#, _prayer_, dative, no nominative, which are
feminine; also rarely #grex#, _herd_. #cortex#, _bark_, #forfex#,
_scissors_, #silex#, _flint_, and #obice#, _barrier_, ablative, no
nominative, are either masculine or feminine. #calx#, _heel_, and
#calx#, _lime_, are sometimes masculine, also #lūx#, _light_, in the
ablative in old Latin.

  [Erratum:
  577 ... substantives in #-ās#, #-aus#
    #-ās# #-aus#]


NEUTER.

582. Substantives in #-c#, #-e#, #-l#, #-n#, #-t#, in #-ar#, #-ur#,
#-us#, and #-ūs#, are neuter: as,

#lac#, _milk_; #mare#, _sea_; #animal#, _animal_; #carmen#, _song_;
#caput#, _head_; #calcar#, _spur_; #fulgur#, _lightning_; #corpus#,
_body_; #iūs#, _right_.

583. #sōl#, _sun_, #pecten#, _comb_, #liēn#, _spleen_, #rēnēs#,
_kidneys_, plural, and #furfur#, _bran_, are masculine. So usually
#sāl#, _salt_, but sometimes neuter in the singular. #fār#, _spelt_, is
neuter.

584. #pecus#, _beast_, is feminine; also #tellūs#, _earth_, and the
substantives in #-ūs# which have #-ūdis# (475) or #-ūtis# (477) in the
genitive: as, #palūs#, _marsh_; #iuventūs#, _youth_.


STEMS IN #-u-#.

_The Fourth Declension._

Genitive singular #-ūs#, genitive plural #-u-um#.

585. Stems in #-u-# are substantive only, and mostly masculine.

586. There are only three neuters in common use, #cornū#, _horn_,
#genū#, _knee_, and #verū#, _a spit_. But some cases of other neuters
are used: as, ablative #pecū#, _flock_; plural nominative and accusative
#artua#, _limbs_ (Plaut.); OSSVA, _bones_ (inscr.).

587. The nominative of stems in #-u-# ends, including the stem vowel, in
#-u-s# in gender words, and in lengthened #-ū# of the stem in neuters.

588. Most substantives in #-u-# are masculines in #-tu-# or #-su-#,
often defective in case (235). The following words are feminine: #acus#,
_pin_, _needle_, #domus#, _house_, #manus#, _hand_, #porticus#,
_colonnade_; #tribus#, _tribe_; and the plurals #īdūs#, _ides_, and
#quīnquātrūs#, _feast of Minerva_; rarely #penus#, _store_, and
#specus#, _cave_.

589. Stems in #-u-# are declined as follows:

  +--------+-------------------------+-------------+---------------+
  |Examples| flūctus, _wave_,        | cornū,      | Stem and      |
  |        |                         |  _horn_,    | case          |
  | Stems  | flūctu-, M.             | cornu-, Ne. | endings       |
  +--------+-------------------------+-------------+-------+-------+
  |Singular|                         |             |  M.   |  Ne.  |
  | _Nom._ | flūctus, _a_ (or        | cornū       | -us   | -ū    |
  |        |  _the_) _wave_          |             |       |       |
  | _Gen._ | flūctūs, _a wave’s_,    | cornūs      | -ūs   | -ūs   |
  |        |  _of a wave_            |             |       |       |
  | _Dat._ | flūctuī, -ū, _to_       | cornū       | -uī,  | -ū    |
  |        |  or _for a wave_        |             | -ū    |       |
  | _Acc._ | flūctum, _a wave_       | cornū       | -um   | -ū    |
  | _Abl._ | flūctū, _from_, _with_, | cornū       | -ū    | -ū    |
  |        |   or _by a wave_        |             |       |       |
  +--------+-------------------------+-------------+-------+-------+
  | Plural |                         |             |       |       |
  | _Nom._ | flūctūs, (_the_)        | cornua      | -ūs   | -ua   |
  |        |   _waves_               |             |       |       |
  | _Gen._ | flūctuum, _waves’_,     | cornuum     | -uum  | -uum  |
  |        |   _of waves_            |             |       |       |
  | _Dat._ | flūctibus, _to_ or      | cornibus    | -ibus | -ibus |
  |        |   _for waves_           |             |       |       |
  | _Acc._ | flūctūs, _waves_        | cornua      | -ūs   | -ua   |
  | _Abl._ | flūctibus, _from_,      | cornibus    | -ibus | -ibus |
  |        |   _with_, or _by waves_ |             |       |       |
  +--------+-------------------------+-------------+-------+-------+


SINGULAR CASES.

590. In the genitive, the uncontracted form #-uis# sometimes occurs: as,
#anuis#, _old woman_ (Ter.). A genitive in #-tī# is rather common: as,
#adventī#, _arrival_; #ōrnātī#, _embellishment_ (Ter.); #senātī#,
_senate_. In the dative, #-ū# is regularly found for #-uī# in neuters
and often in gender words.


PLURAL CASES.

591. In the genitive plural, a shorter form in #-um# is occasionally
found: as, #passum#, _steps_ (Plaut., Mart.); #currum#, _chariots_
(Verg.); EXERCITVM. The quantity of the #u# and the origin of this
ending are uncertain.

592. In the dative and ablative plural, the following retain #-u-bus#:
#acus#, _pin_, _needle_, #arcus#, _bow_, #partus#, _birth_, #tribus#,
_tribe_. The following have #-u-bus# or #-i-bus# (28): #artūs#, plural,
_joints_, #lacus#, _lake_, #portus#, _haven_, #specus#, _cave_, #genū#,
_knee_, #verū#, _a spit_. All other words have #-i-bus# only.

593. Other case forms are found in inscriptions, as follows:

G. #-uos#: SENATVOS; #-ū# (66) SENATV; #-uus#, in the imperial age
(29, 1): EXERCITVVS. D. #-uei# (29, 2): SENATVEI. Ac. #-u# (61): MANV.
Ab. #-uu# (29, 1): ARBITRATVV; #-uō#, once, by some thought to be for
#-ūd# (426); MAGISTRATVO. Plural: N. #-uus# (29, 1): MAGISTRATVVS.

594. #domus#, _house_, F., has stems of two forms, #domu-# and #domo-#
(401); it is declined as follows: N. #domus#, G. #domūs#, rarely #domī#,
D. #domuī# or #domō#, Ac. #domum#, Ab. #domō# or #domū#, Locative
#domī#, rarely #domuī#. Plural: N. #domūs#, G. #domuum#, later
#domōrum#, D. and Ab. #domibus#, Ac. #domōs#, less commonly #domūs#.

595. Some other substantives have an #-u-# stem in some of their cases,
and an #-o-# stem in others: see #angiportus#, #arcus#, #caestus#,
#colus#, #cornū#, #cornus#, #cupressus#, #fīcus#, #fretus#, #gelus#,
#laurus#, #murtus#, #penus#, #pīnus#, #quercus#, #rīctus#, #tonitrus#,
in the dictionary.


STEMS IN #-ē-#.

_The Fifth Declension._

Genitive singular #-ē̆ī#, genitive plural #-ē-rum#.

596. Stems in #-ē-# are substantive only, and feminine.

597. #diēs#, _day_, is always masculine in the plural, and commonly in
the singular; but the feminine is common when #diēs# denotes length of
time or a set day. #merīdiēs#, _midday_, is masculine and singular only.

598. The nominative of stems in #-ē-# ends, including the stem vowel, in
#-ē-s#.

599. Stems in #-ē-# are of two classes:

600. (1.) Stems of the first class have one or two syllables; there are
four of them: #rēs#, _thing_, #spēs#, _hope_, #diēs#, _day_, and
#fidēs#, _faith_.

Of this class, #rēs# and #diēs# have a plural throughout; #spēs# has
only the nominative and accusative plural, and #fidēs# has no plural.

601. Stems in #-ē-# of the first class are declined as follows:

  +--------+------------------------+--------------+---------------+
  |Examples| rēs, _thing_,          | diēs, _day_, | Stem and      |
  | Stems  | rē-, F.                | diē-, M.     | case endings  |
  +--------+------------------------+--------------+---------------+
  |Singular|                        |              |               |
  | _Nom._ | rēs, _a_ (or _the_)    | diēs         | -es           |
  |        |  _thing_               |              |               |
  | _Gen._ | rĕ̄i, re͡i, _a thing’s_, | diēī,        | -ē̆ī, -ēī, -e͡i |
  |        |  _of a thing_          | die͡i         |               |
  | _Dat._ | rĕ̄i, re͡i, _to_         | diēī,        | -ē̆ī, -ēī, -e͡i |
  |        |   or _for a thing_     | die͡i         |               |
  | _Acc._ | rem, _a thing_         | diem         | -em           |
  | _Abl._ | rē, _from_, _with_,    | diē          | -ē            |
  |        |  or _by a thing_       |              |               |
  +--------+------------------------+--------------+---------------+
  | Plural |                        |              |               |
  | _Nom._ | rēs, (_the_) _things_  | diēs         | -ēs           |
  | _Gen._ | rērum, _things’_,      | diērum       | -ērum         |
  |        |  _of things_           |              |               |
  | _Dat._ | rēbus, _to_ or         | diēbus       | -ēbus         |
  |        |  _for things_          |              |               |
  | _Acc._ | rēs, _things_          | diēs         | -ēs           |
  | _Abl._ | rēbus, _from_, _with_, | diēbus       | -ēbus         |
  |        |  or _by things_        |              |               |
  +--------+------------------------+--------------+---------------+

602. #fidēs# is declined like #rēs#; it has once a genitive #fidēs#
(Plaut.). For #rēī#, #reī#, or #re͡i#, and #fidēī#, #fideī#, or
#fide͡i#, see 127, 4. #diēs# has rarely a genitive #diēs# (Enn.) or
#diī# (Verg.). #spēs# has only the genitive and dative #spe͡i# in verse.
A genitive or dative in #-ē# is sometimes found: as, #rē#, #diē#,
#fidē#.

603. A few cases of other words sometimes follow this class (401): as,
#plēbēs# (524), _commons_, G. #plēbe͡i# or #plēbī#; #famēs# (524),
_hunger_, Ab. always #famē#; #requiēs# (477), _rest_, G. #requiē#
(Sall.), Ac. #requiem#, Ab. #requiē#; #tābēs# (523), _waste_, Ab.
#tābē#, #*contāgēs#, _contact_, Ab. #contāgē# (Lucr.), &c.

604. (2.) Stems of the second class are formed by the suffix #-iē-# or
#-tiē-#, and have three or more syllables.

This class, which is parallel to stems in #-iā-#, has usually no
genitive, dative, or plural. Many stems, especially those in #-tiē-#,
have also a collateral form in #-iā-#, and the genitive and dative, when
used at all, are commonly from a stem in #-iā-#.

605. Stems in #-ē-# of the second class are declined as follows:

  lūxuriēs, _extravagance_, stem lūxuriē-, F.
  _Nom._ lūxuriēs, _Acc._ lūxuriem, _Abl._ lūxuriē.

606. A few examples of the genitive of these stems are found: as,
#perniciī#, #perniciēs#, or #perniciē#, _ruin_ (Cic.); #rabiēs#, _fury_
(Lucr.); #aciē#, _edge of battle_ (Sall., Caes., auct. B. Afr.),
#faciē#, _make_ (Plaut., Lucil.), #speciē#, _looks_ (Caes.); #aciēī#
(auct. B. Afr.). And a very few of the dative: as, #aciēī# twice
(Caes.); #perniciēī#, #perniciī# (Nep.); #perniciē# (Liv.).

607. #ēluviēs#, _offscouring_, _wash_, has the nominative of the plural,
and #glaciēs#, _ice_, has the accusative of the plural. Five words only
have the nominative and accusative plural:

  seriēs, aciēs, _row_, _edge_,
  speciēs, faciēs, _look_, _make_,
  effigiēs, _likeness_.

  [Erratum:
  601 (table) ... rēs, (_the_) _things_
    rēs (_the_)]


THE ADJECTIVE.

608. Adjectives are declined like substantives, and it has been shown
already how their cases are formed. But they differ from substantives in
having different forms in some of their cases to denote different
genders; it is convenient therefore to put their complete declension
together.

609. Adjective stems end in #-o-# and #-ā-#, in a consonant, or in
#-i-#.

610. An accusative plural of a stem in #-u-#, #anguimanūs#, _with a
serpent for a hand_, is once used (Lucr.). There are no adjective stems
in #-ē-#.

611. Adjectives are often conveniently said to be ‘_of three endings_,’
‘_of two endings_,’ or ‘_of one ending_.’

By the ‘ending’ is meant the ending of the nominative singular: thus,
#bonus#, #bona#, #bonum#, _good_, and #ācer#, #ācris#, #ācre#, _sharp_,
are ‘of three endings’ (409); #brevis#, #breve#, _short_, is ‘of two
endings’ (410); and #audāx#, _bold_, is ‘of one ending’ (410).

612. Adjectives ‘of one ending’ which form a gender nominative in #-s#,
retain the #-s# irrationally in the nominative and accusative neuter
singular: as, N. M. and F. #audāx#, N. and Ac. Ne. also #audāx#.


STEMS IN #-o-# AND #-ā-#.

613. Most adjectives with stems in #-o-# and #-ā-# are declined as
follows:

  +--------+-------------------------------------------------+
  | Example|  M. bonus, F. bona, Ne. bonum, _good_           |
  | Stems  |               bono-, bonā-.                     |
  +--------+---------------------+---------------------------+
  |        |      Singular.      |         Plural.           |
  |        +---------------------+---------------------------+
  |        | MASC.  FEM.   NEUT. | MASC.    FEM.     NEUT.   |
  |        +---------------------+---------------------------+
  | _Nom._ | bonus  bona   bonum | boni     bonae    bona    |
  | _Gen._ | bonī   bonae  bonī  | bonōrum  bonārum  bonōrum |
  | _Dat._ | bonō   bonae  bonō  | bonīs    bonīs    bonīs   |
  | _Acc._ | bonum  bonam  bonum | bonōs    bonās    bona    |
  | _Abl._ | bonō   bonā   bonō  | bonīs    bonīs    bonīs   |
  | _Voc._ | bone                |                           |
  +--------+---------------------+---------------------------+

614. Stems in #-io-# and #-iā-# have no consonant #i# in cases ending in
#-i# or #-īs# (153, 3): as #plēbēius#, _plebeian_, G. S. M. and Ne., and
N. Pl. M. #plēbēī#, D. and Ab. Pl. #plēbēīs#.

615. Stems in #-ro-# preceded by a long vowel retain #-us# in the
nominative singular masculine and are declined like #bonus# (453): as,
#sevērus#, _stern_; also

  ferus, merus, _wild_, _unmixed_
  mōrigerus, _complaisant_
  praeposterus, _reversed_
  properus, _hasty_
  prōsperus, _lucky_
  triquetrus, _three-cornered_

616. (1.) Some stems in #-ro-# preceded by a short vowel end in #-r# in
the nominative singular masculine and have no vocative (454); they are
declined as follows:

  +--------+---------------------------------------------------------+
  | Example| M. līber, F. lībera, Ne. līberum, _free_,               |
  |  Stems |                  lībero-, līberā-.                      |
  +--------+-------------------------+-------------------------------+
  |        |        Singular.        |          Plural.              |
  |        +-------------------------+-------------------------------+
  |        | MASC.   FEM.    NEUT.   | MASC.     FEM.      NEUT.     |
  | _Nom._ | līber   lībera  līberum | līberī    līberae   lībera    |
  | _Gen._ | līberī  līberae līberī  | līberōrum līberārum līberōrum |
  | _Dat._ | līberō  līberae līberō  | līberīs   līberīs   līberīs   |
  | _Acc._ | līberum līberam līberum | līberōs   līberās   lībera    |
  | _Abl._ | līberō  līberā  līberō  | līberīs   līberīs   līberīs   |
  +--------+-------------------------+-------------------------------+

Such are: compounds, chiefly poetical, ending in #-fer# and #-ger#,
_bearing_, _carrying_, _having_: as, #caelifer#, _heaven-upholding_;
#corniger#, _horned_; also the following:

  (alter, 618), asper, _other_, _rough_
  lacer, līber, _torn_, _free_
  gibber, miser, _hump-backed_, _forlorn_
  satur, sēmifer, _full_, _half-beast_
  tener, Trēver, _tender_, _Treveran_

#dexter#, _right_, has #dextera#, #dexterum#, or #dextra#, #dextrum#, G.
#dexterī#, or #dextrī#, &c. #sinister#, _left_, has usually #sinistra#,
&c., rarely #sinisteram# (Plaut., Ter.). #asper# has a plural accusative
#asprōs# (Stat.), and ablative #asprīs# (Verg.).

617. (2.) Other stems in #-ro-# have a vowel before #r# only in the
nominative singular masculine #-er# (454); they are declined as follows:

  +--------+-------------------------------------------------------+
  | Example|       M. aeger, F. aegra, Ne. aegrum, _ill_,          |
  |  Stems |                 aegro-, aegrā-.                       |
  +--------+------------------------+------------------------------+
  |        |       Singular.        |          Plural.             |
  |        +------------------------+------------------------------+
  |        | MASC.   FEM.    NEUT.  | MASC.     FEM.      NEUT.    |
  | _Nom._ | aeger   aegra   aegrum | aegrī     aegrae    aegra    |
  | _Gen._ | aegrī   aegrae  aegrī  | aegrōrum  aegrārum  aegrōrum |
  | _Dat._ | aegrō   aegrae  aegrō  | aegrīs    aegrīs    aegrīs   |
  | _Acc._ | aegrum  aegram  aegrum | aegrōs    aegrās    aegra    |
  | _Abl._ | aegrō   aegrā   aegrō  | aegrīs    aegrīs    aegrīs   |
  +--------+------------------------+------------------------------+

618. Nine adjectives or adjective pronouns have the pronoun form #-ī̆us#
in the genitive singular and #-ī# in the dative singular, for masculine,
feminine, and neuter alike; they are the following:

  alius, _another_
  sōlus, _alone_
  tōtus, _whole_
  ūnus, _one_
  ūllus, _any at all_
  nūllus, _no_
  alter, _the other_
  uter, _which of the two_
  neuter, _neither_

619. Of the above words, those with the nominative in #-us# are declined
like #ūnus# (638). But #alius# has N. and Ac. Ne. #aliud# (659); for the
G., #alterī̆us# is mostly used, except in the combination #alīus modī#,
_of another sort_; the N. M. is rarely #alis#, Ne. #alid#, D. rarely
#alī#. #alter# is declined like #līber# (616), except in the genitive
singular #alterī̆us# (127, 6) and dative #alterī#. For #uter# and its
derivatives, see 693.

620. The ordinary genitive and dative of #-o-# and #-ā-# stems, from
some of the above words, is sometimes found: G. and D. #aliae#, #sōlae#,
#alterae#, D. #aliō#, #alterae#, &c.


CONSONANT STEMS.


OF TWO ENDINGS.

621. The only consonant stems of two endings are comparatives (346);
they are declined as follows:

  +--------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
  | Example|         M. and F. trīstior, Ne. trīstius, _sadder_,       |
  |  Stems |                  trīstiōr-, trīstius-.                    |
  +--------+----------------------------+------------------------------+
  |        |         Singular.          |           Plural.            |
  |        +----------------------------+------------------------------+
  |        | MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.      | MASC. AND FEM.  NEUT.        |
  | _Nom._ | trīstior        trīstius   | trīstiōrēs      trīstiōra    |
  | _Gen._ | trīstiōris      trīstiōris | trīstiōrum      trīstiōrum   |
  | _Dat._ | trīstiōrī       trīstiōrī  | trīstiōribus    trīstiōribus |
  | _Acc._ | trīstiōrem      trīstius   | trīstiōres      trīstiōra    |
  | _Abl._ | trīstiōre       trīstiōre  | trīstiōribus    trīstiōribus |
  +--------+----------------------------+------------------------------+

622. The ablative rarely has #-ī# for #-e#: as, #meliōrī# (503); the
accusative plural masculine and feminine rarely have #-īs#: as,
#meliōrīs# (505).

623. #plūs#, _more_, has in the singular only Ne. N. and Ac. #plūs#, G.
#plūris#, and Ab. #plūre#. Plural: N. M. and F. #plūrēs#, Ne. #plūra#,
G. #plūrium#, D. and Ab. #plūribus#, Ac. M. and F. #plūrēs# or #plūrīs#,
Ne. #plūra#. #complūrēs#, _a good many_, plural only, has N. M. and F.
#complūrēs#, Ne. N. and Ac. #complūria# or #complūra#, G. #complūrium#,
D. and Ab. #complūribus#, Ac. M. and F. #complūrēs# or #complūrīs#.


OF ONE ENDING.

624. A dozen adjectives ‘of one ending,’ mostly words applying to
persons, with consonant stems throughout, have no nominative or
accusative neuter plural; they are:

  caelebs, compos, _unmarried_, _master of_
  *dēses, dīves, _lazy_, _rich_
  particeps, prīnceps, _sharing_, _first_
  pūbēs, impūbēs, _mangrown_, _immature_
  sōspes, superstes, _safe_, _surviving_
  pauper, cicur, _poor_, _tame_

625. When these adjectives have a neuter, it is the same as the gender
forms, except in the accusative singular; they are declined as follows:

  M. F. and Ne. #dīves#, _rich_, stem #dīvit-#.

Singular: N. #dīves#, G. #dīvitis#, D. #dīvitī#, Ac. M. and F.
#dīvitem#, Ne. #dīves#, Ab. #dīvite#. Plural: N. and Ac. M. and F.
#dīvitēs#, G. #dīvitum#, D. and Ab. #dīvitibus#.

626. The plural #caelitēs#, _heavenly_, _occupants of heaven_, is also
declined like the plural of #dīves#; the singular Ab. #caelite# occurs a
couple of times. #vetus#, _old_, G. _veteris_, is also declined like
#dīves#, but has a Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. #vetera#; the Ab. S. is regularly
#vetere#, but #veterī# is sometimes used.


STEMS IN #-i-#.

OF THREE ENDINGS.

627. A dozen adjectives with stems in #-bri-#, #-cri-#, or #-tri-#, have
a distinctive form in #-er# for the masculine nominative singular; they
are:

  celeber, _thronged_
  salūber, _healthy_
  ācer, _keen_
  alacer, _lively_
  volucer, _winged_
  campester, _of a plain_
  equester, _cavalry-_
  palūster, _of a swamp_
  pedester, _foot-_
  puter, _rotten_
  silvester, _woody_
  terrester, _land-_

So also #celer#, swift. The names of months, #September#, #Octōber#,
#November#, #December#, are also adjectives with stems in #-bri-#, but
are not used in the neuter. Other adjectives with stems in #-bri-#,
#-cri-#, or #-tri-#, have no distinctive form for the masculine
nominative singular: as, #muliebris#, #mediocris#, #inlūstris#.

628. These adjectives are declined as follows:

  +--------+---------------------+---------------------------------+
  | Example|        M. ācer, F. ācris, Ne. ācre, _sharp_           |
  |  Stem  |                   ācri-.                              |
  +--------+---------------------+---------------------------------+
  |        |      Singular.      |            Plural.              |
  |        +---------------------+---------------------------------+
  |        | MASC.  FEM.   NEUT. | MASC.       FEM.        NEUT.   |
  | _Nom._ | ācer   ācris  ācre  | ācres       ācres       ācria   |
  | _Gen._ | ācris  ācris  ācris | ācrium      ācrium      ācrium  |
  | _Dat._ | ācrī   ācrī   ācrī  | ācribus     ācribus     ācribus |
  | _Acc._ | ācrem  ācrem  ācrem | ācrīs, -ēs  acrīs, -ēs  ācria   |
  | _Abl._ | ācrī   ācrī   ācrī  | ācribus     ācribus     ācribus |
  +--------+---------------------+---------------------------------+

629. In all cases but the masculine nominative singular these adjectives
are just like those in #-i-# ‘of two endings’ (630). But the ablative
always has #-ī#, never #-e#, and the genitive plural always has #-ium#,
never #-um#. In #celer# the second #e# belongs to the stem: M. #celer#,
F. #celeris#, Ne. #celere#; the genitive plural, which is #celerum#, is
found only as a substantive. Most of these adjectives have now and then
a masculine in #-is#, like adjectives ‘of two endings’ (630), and in old
Latin the nominative #-er# is rarely feminine.


OF TWO ENDINGS.

630. Adjectives ‘of two endings’ with stems in #-i-# are declined as
follows:

  +--------+-------------------------------------------+
  | Example|    M. and F. brevis, Ne. breve, _short_   |
  |  Stem  |                brevi-.                    |
  +--------+------------------+------------------------+
  |        |    Singular.     |         Plural.        |
  |        +------------------+------------------------+
  |        | MASC.     NEUT.  |  MASC.        NEUT.    |
  |        | AND FEM.         |  AND FEM.              |
  |        +------------------+------------------------+
  | _Nom._ | brevis    breve  |  brevēs       brevia   |
  | _Gen._ | brevis    brevis |  brevium      brevium  |
  | _Dat._ | brevī     brevī  |  brevibus     brevibus |
  | _Acc._ | brevem    breve  |  brevīs, -ēs  brevia   |
  | _Abl._ | brevī     brevī  |  brevibus     brevibus |
  +--------+------------------+------------------------+

631. The ablative is sometimes #-e# when these adjectives are used
substantively or in verse (558). The genitive plural is rarely #-um# for
#-ium# (563).


OF ONE ENDING.

632. Most adjectives ‘of one ending’ have a consonant form of the stem
in the singular, except usually in the ablative (633), and an #-i-# stem
in the plural; they are declined as follows:

  +--------+-------------------------+-----------------------------+
  | Example| M. F. and Ne. audāx,    | M. F. Ne. regēns, _ruling_, |
  |        |   _bold_,               |                             |
  |  Stems | audāc(i)-               |   regent(i)-                |
  +--------+-------------------------+-----------------------------+
  |Singular| MASC. & FEM.  NEUT.     | MASC. & FEM.   NEUT.        |
  | _Nom._ | audāx         audāx     | regēns         regēns       |
  | _Gen._ | audācis       audācis   | regentis       regentis     |
  | _Dat._ | audācī        audācī    | regentī        regentī      |
  | _Acc._ | audācem       audāx     | regentem       regēns       |
  | _Abl._ | audācī        audācī    | regente, -ī    regente, -ī  |
  +--------+-------------------------+-----------------------------+
  | Plural | MASC. & FEM.  NEUT.     | MASC. & FEM.   NEUT.        |
  | _Nom._ | audācēs       audācia   | regentēs       regentia     |
  | _Gen._ | audācium      audācium  | regentium      regentium    |
  | _Dat._ | audācibus     audācibus | regentibus     regentibus   |
  | _Acc._ | audācīs, -ēs  audācia   | regentīs, -ēs  regentia     |
  | _Abl._ | audācibus     audācibus | regentibus     regentibus   |
  +--------+-------------------------+-----------------------------+

633. Present participles have #-ī# in the ablative, when they are used
as adjectives, otherwise #-e# (560). For #-ī# or #-e# in other words,
see 559, 561. For #-ium# or #-um# in the genitive plural, 563.

634. Most adjectives ‘of one ending’ in #-i-# are declined as above
(632); some of them have peculiarities in some of their cases, as
follows:

635. (1.) #trux# (531), _savage_, has Ab. #-ī# or #-e#, G. Pl. #-ium#,
no Ne. Pl. N. or Ac. #redux# (531), _returning_, has Ab. #-ī# or #-e#,
no G. Pl. or Ne. Pl. N. or Ac. #hebes#, _dull_, #teres#, _cylindrical_
(533), and compounds of #caput#, _head_, as #anceps#, (533),
_two-headed_, have Ab. #-ī#, no G. Pl.; a Ne. Pl. N. or Ac. #-ia# is
rare. For #locuplēs#, _rich_, see 533.

636. (2.) The following have #-ī# in the ablative, but #-um# of
consonant stems in the genitive plural, and no nominative or accusative
neuter plural: #inops# (535), _without means_, #vigil# (536),
_wide-awake_, #memor# (537), _remembering_, #dēgener#, _degenerate_,
ūber (537), _prolific_, has Ab. #-ī#, twice #-e#, Ne. Pl. once #-a#
(Acc.). Compounds of #pēs#, as, #bipēs# (532), _two-legged_, have a late
and rare Ne. Pl. N. and Ac. #-ia#.


THE NUMERAL ADJECTIVE.

637. Of the cardinals, #ūnus#, #duo#, #trēs#, and the hundreds except
#centum# are declined. The other cardinals are not declined.

638. #ūnus#, _one_, is declined as follows:

  +--------+---------------------+------------------------+
  |        |      Singular.      |      Plural.           |
  +--------+---------------------+------------------------+
  |        | MASC.  FEM.   NEUT. | MASC.   FEM.   NEUT.   |
  | _Nom._ | ūnus   ūna    ūnum  | ūnī     ūnae    ūna    |
  | _Gen._ | ūnīus  ūnīus  ūnīus | ūnōrum  ūnārum  ūnōrum |
  | _Dat._ | ūnī    ūnī    ūnī   | ūnīs    ūnīs    ūnīs   |
  | _Acc._ | ūnum   ūnam   ūnum  | ūnōs    ūnās    ūna    |
  | _Abl._ | ūnō    ūnā    ūnō   | ūnīs    ūnīs    ūnīs   |
  | _Voc._ | ūne                 |                        |
  +--------+---------------------+------------------------+

In verse, the genitive singular is often #ūnius#.

639. #duo#, _two_, and #trēs#, _three_, are declined as follows:

  +--------+-----------------------------+----------------------+
  |        | MASC         FEM.    NEUT.  | MASC. & FEM.  NEUT.  |
  | _Nom._ | duo          duae    duo    | trēs          tria   |
  | _Gen._ | duōrum       duārum  duōrum | trium         trium  |
  | _Dat._ | duōbus       duābus  duōbus | tribus        tribus |
  | _Acc._ | duo or duōs  duās    duo    | trēs or trīs  tria   |
  | _Abl._ | duōbus       duābus  duōbus | tribus        tribus |
  +--------+-----------------------------+----------------------+

640. In dramatic verse, #du͡o#, &c., is common. In the genitive plural,
#duo# sometimes has #duū̆m# (462). #ambō#, _both_, is declined like
#duo#, but has #-ō# in the nominative and accusative, and only #ambōrum#
and #ambārum# in the genitive plural. For the forms #duo#, #ambō#, see
415; #duōbus#, #duābus#, 464, 442.

641. Hundreds are declined like the plural of #bonus# (613): as,
#ducentī#, #ducentae#, #ducenta#, _two hundred_, G. #ducentōrum# or
#ducentū̆m# (462), &c.

642. The adjective #mīlle#, _thousand_, is not declined. The substantive
has in the singular only N. Ac. Ab. #mīlle#, or Ab. #mīllī#; plural: N.
and Ac. #mīllia# (#mīlia#), G. #mīllium# (#mīlium#), D. and Ab.
#mīllibus# (#mīlibus#).

643. Ordinals, as #prīmus#, _first_, and distributives, as #bīnī#, _two
each_, are declined like #bonus# (613). But distributives seldom have a
singular, and often have the genitive plural #-ū̆m# (462): as, #bīnū̆m#.


THE PRONOUN.

(A.) THE PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUN.

644. The pronoun of the first person, #ego#, _I_, of the second person,
#tū#, _thou_, and the reflexive pronoun, #suī#, #sē#, _himself_,
_herself_, _itself_, _themselves_, are declined as follows:

  +--------+--------------------------+-----------------------+-------+
  |        |      ego, _I_            |      tu, _thou_       | sui,  |
  |        |                          |                       |_self_ |
  +--------+----------+---------------+-------+---------------+-------+
  |        | Sing.    |  Plur.        | Sing. |Plur.          | Sing. |
  |        |          |               |       |               |& Plur.|
  +--------+----------+---------------+-------+---------------+-------+
  | _Nom._ | ego      | nōs           | tū    | vōs           |       |
  | _Gen._ | meī      | nostrŭ̄m, -trī | tuī   | vestrū̆m, -trī | suī   |
  | _Dat._ | mihĭ̄, mi | nōbīs         | tibĭ̄  | vōbīs         | sibī̆  |
  | _Acc._ | mē       | nōs           | tē    | vōs           | sē    |
  | _Abl._ | mē       | nōbīs         | tē    | vōbīs         | sē    |
  +--------+----------+---------------+-------+---------------+-------+

645. The nominatives #ego# and #tū#, and the accusatives #mē#, #tē# and
#sē#, have no case ending. The last vowel of #ego# is rarely long in
Plautus, long or short in Lucilius. The nominative ego has a different
stem from that of its other cases, and the plurals of #ego# and #tū#
have a different stem from that of the singular.

646. #meī#, #tuī#, and #suī#, which are often monosyllables in old
verse, were originally the genitive of the neuter possessives, used
substantively. An old genitive #mīs# is quoted, and #tīs# occurs rarely
in Plautus.

647. The relation of the ending #-bīs# in #vōbīs# to #-bī̆# in #tibī̆#
may be due to analogy with #illīs, illī#. #nōbīs# is formed after
#vōbīs#.

648. In old Latin, the ablative is #mēd, tēd, sēd# (426), which forms
are also used irrationally for the accusative. But by Terence’s time the
#-d# was no longer used (143).

649. Older forms for #vestrū̆m# and #vestrī# are #vostrūm# and #vostrī#.
The genitive plural was originally a genitive of the possessive: that in
#-ī# being the neuter singular, that in #-ū̆m# the masculine or feminine
plural. In old Latin, #nostrōrum#, #nostrārum#, #vostrōrum#, #vostrārum#
also occur.

650. Emphasis is given (1.) by reduplication (189): Ac. and Ab. #mēmē#,
#tētē#, rare; #sēsē#, very common. (2.) by #-te# added to the N. of
#tū#: #tūte#. (3.) by #-met# added to any case but the genitive plural:
as, #egomet#; but #tū# has only #tūtemet# or #tūtimet#.

651. In inscriptions, the datives MIHEI, TIBEI, and SIBEI occur, so
written in verse sometimes even when the last syllable is short; and
MIHE, TIBE. Plural: D. and Ab. VOBEIS. Ac. ENOS in an old hymn; SEESE
(29, 1).


THE PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE POSSESSIVE.

652. The possessives of #ego#, #tū#, and #suī#, are #meus#, _mine_,
#tuus#, _thine_, and #suus#, _his, her, its, their_ (_own_), declined
like #bonus# (613), except that #meus# has #mī# in the vocative singular
masculine (459); those of #nōs# and #vōs# are #noster#, _our_, and
#voster#, later #vester#, _your_, declined like #aeger# (617).

653. Old forms are #tuos#, #tuom#, and #suos#, #suom# (452). In old
verse #me͡us#, #me͡i#, &c., #tu͡os#, #tu͡i#, &c., #su͡os#, #su͡i#, &c.,
often occur. #sōs# for #suōs#, #sās# for #suās#, and #sīs# for #suīs#,
are old and rare.

654. Other case forms are found in inscriptions, as follows:

MEEIS, MIEIS, monosyllable; TOVAM; SVEI, SOVOM, SOVO, SVVO, SOVEIS,
SVEIS, SVIEIS.

655. Emphasis is given (1.) by #-met# added to #suō#, #suā#, #suōs#, and
to #mea# and #sua#, neuter plural: as, #suōmet#; (2.) by #-pte#, which
is oftenest found with the ablative: as, #suōpte#.


(B.) OTHER PRONOUNS.

656. Some pronouns have a peculiar genitive singular in #-ī̆us# and
dative singular in #-ī#, for masculine, feminine, and neuter alike.

These are: #iste#, #ille#, #ipse#, #uter#, and their derivatives. Some
other words of a pronoun character also have this form of the genitive
and dative: see 618.

657. In verse, the #-ī-# of the genitive is often shortened, and always
in #utriusque#; but #neutrīus# is not found with short i. In dramatic
verse, the genitive singular of #iste#, #ille#, or #ipse#, is often two
syllables.

658. #hīc#, is, #quī# or #quis#, and their derivatives have the genitive
singular in #-ius#, thus: #huius#, #eius#, and #quoius# or #cuius#; in
dramatic verse, these genitives are often one syllable. Their datives
are #huic# for #hoice#, #ē̆ī# or #e͡i#, and #quoi# or #cui#.

659. Six words have a peculiar neuter nominative and accusative singular
in #-d#: #id#, #illud#, #istud#, #quid#, #quod#, #aliud#, and
derivatives. In manuscripts, #-t# is sometimes found for #-d#: as, #it#,
#illut#, #istut#, &c.; sometimes also in inscriptions of the empire. In
#hoc# for #*hod-ce# and in #istuc# and #illuc# for #*istud-ce#,
#*illud-ce#, the #d# has vanished (166, 1; 171, 1).


THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN.

660. The demonstrative pronouns are #hīc#, _this_, _this near me_;
#iste#, #istic#, _that_, _that near you_; and #ille#, #illic#, _yonder_,
_that_.

661. The demonstrative pronoun #hīc#, _this_, _this near me_, is
declined as follows:

  +--------+---------------------+---------------------+
  |        |      Singular.      |       Plural.       |
  +--------+---------------------+---------------------+
  |        | MASC.  FEM.   NEUT. | MASC.  FEM.   NEUT. |
  | _Nom._ | hīc    haec   hoc   | hī     hae    haec  |
  | _Gen._ | huius  huius  huius | hōrum  hārum  hōrum |
  | _Dat._ | huic   huic   huic  | hīs    hīs    hīs   |
  | _Acc._ | hunc   hanc   hoc   | hōs    hās    haec  |
  | _Abl._ | hōc    hāc    hōc   | hīs    hīs    hīs   |
  +--------+---------------------+---------------------+

662. The stem of #hīc# is #ho-#, #hā-#; to most of its cases a
demonstrative #-c# for #-ce# is attached. The masculine and feminine
nominative singular and nominative and accusative neuter plural take an
#-i-#: #hīc# for #*ho-i-ce# (108, _a_); #haec# for #ha-i-ce# (96).
#hunc#, #hanc#, are for #*hom-ce#, #*ham-ce#. For the quantity of the
first syllable of #huius#, see 153, 2; of #hoc#, 171, 1.

663. Old forms with the full ending #-ce# are rare except after #-s#:
Plural Ne. Acc. #haece# (Enn.); G. F. #hārumce# (Cato); also G.
#hōrunc#, #hārunc# (Pl., T.); #hōsce#, D. and Ab. #hīsce# (Pl., T.).
After 100 B.C., the full form #-ce# is not found, except occasionally
after #-s#: #huiusce#, #hōsce#, #hāsce#, #hīsce#. Before #-ne#
interrogative it is retained in the weakened form #-ci-#: as, #hīcine#.
But #hīcne#, #hocne#, #huicne#, &c., are found, though rarely.

664. The nominative #hic# or #hicine# found in the dramatists and rarely
later is probably for #*ho-c#, #*he-c# (103, _a_). A nominative plural
feminine #haec# is found in writers of all ages. Other and rare forms
are: Pl. N. M. #hīsce# (461), D. or Ab. #hībus#.

665. Other case forms of #hīc# are found in inscriptions, as follows:

N. M. HEC, HIC. G. HOIVS, HVIIVS (23), HVIVS, HOIVSCE, HOIVSQVE,
HVIVSQVE. D. HOICE, HOIC, HOI, HVIC, HVI. Ac. M. HONC, HOC; F. HANCE;
Ne. HOCE, HVC. Ab. M. and Ne. HOCE; F. HACE, oftener than HAC in
republican inscriptions; HAACE (29, 1). Loc. HEICE, HEIC. Plural: N. M.
HEISCE, HEIS, or HEI, HISCE or HIS; HI, not before Augustus; Ne. N. and
Ac. HAICE, HAECE. G. HORVNC. D. and Ab. HEISCE, HIBVS. Ac. F. HASCE.

666. The demonstrative pronouns #iste#, _that_, _that near you_, and
#ille#, _yonder_, are declined alike, as follows:

  +--------+------------------------+---------------------------+
  |        |       Singular.        |         Plural.           |
  +--------+------------------------+---------------------------+
  |        | MASC.   FEM.    NEUT.  | MASC.    FEM.     NEUT.   |
  | _Nom._ | ille    illa    illud  | illī     illae    illa    |
  | _Gen._ | illī̆us  illī̆us  illī̆us | illōrum  illārum  illōrum |
  | _Dat._ | illī    illī    illī   | illīs    illīs    illīs   |
  | _Acc._ | illum   illam   illud  | illōs    illās    illa    |
  | _Abl._ | illō    illā    illō   | illīs    illīs    illīs   |
  +--------+------------------------+---------------------------+

667. The first syllable of #iste# and #ille# is often short in the
dramatists. Old forms of #iste# are: N. #istus#, G. #istī#, in
#istīmodī#, D. F. #istae#. The initial #i# of #iste# and of #istic#
(669), is sometimes not written: as, #sta rēs# (Cic.), #stūc perīculum#
(Ter.). Old forms of #ille# are: N. #olus# (81); #ollus# or #olle#, &c.:
as, D. S. or N. Pl. #ollī#, D. Pl. #ollīs#. G. #illī#, in #illīmodī#,
D. F. #illae#. The dramatists have #eccistam#, #eccilla#, #eccillud#,
#eccillum#, #eccillam#, for #ecce istam#, &c., and #ellum#, #ellam#,
for #em illum#, &c.

668. Other case forms of ille are found in inscriptions, as follows:

D. F. ILLAE. Plural: N. M. ILLEI. G. OLORVM (81). D. and Ab. OLLEIS,
ILLEIS.

669. #istic# and #illic#, compounded of #iste#, #ille#, and #-ce# or
#-c#, are declined alike, as follows:

  +--------+------------------------+---------------------------+
  |        |       Singular.        |         Plural.           |
  +--------+------------------------+---------------------------+
  |        | MASC.   FEM.    NEUT.  | MASC.    FEM.     NEUT.   |
  | _Nom._ | illic   illaec  illuc  | illīc    illaec   illaec  |
  | _Acc._ | illunc  illanc  illuc  | illōsce  illāsce  illaec  |
  | _Abl._ | illōc   illāc   illōc  | illīsce  illīsce  illīsce |
  +--------+------------------------+---------------------------+

670. Rare forms are: N. and Ac. Ne. #istoc#, #illoc#, G. #illīusce#, D.
#illīc#, Ab. F. #istāce#, #illāce#. Plural: N. M. #illīsce# (461),
#illīc#, Ac. #illōsce#, #illāsce#. Before #-ne# interrogative, #-ce#
becomes #-ci-#: N. #illicine#, #istucine#, Ac. #illancine#, Ab.
#istōcine#, #istācinē#. Pl. Ac. #istōscine#.


THE DETERMINATIVE PRONOUN.

671. The determinative pronoun #is#, _that_, _the aforesaid_, _the one_,
is declined as follows:

  +--------+-------------------+---------------------------------+
  |        |     Singular.     |          Plural.                |
  +--------+-------------------+---------------------------------+
  |        | MASC. FEM.  NEUT. | MASC.      FEM.       NEUT.     |
  | _Nom._ | is    ea    id    | eī, iī,    eae        ea        |
  |        |                   |   or ī                          |
  | _Gen._ | eius  eius  eius  | eōrum      eārum      eōrum     |
  | _Dat._ | ē̆ī    ē̆ī    ē̆ī    | eīs, iīs,  eīs, iīs,  eīs, iīs, |
  |        |                   |   or īs      or īs      or īs   |
  | _Acc._ | eum   eam   id    | eōs        eās        ea        |
  | _Abl._ | eō    eā    eō    | eīs, iīs,  eīs, iīs,  eīs, iīs, |
  |        |                   |   or īs      or īs      or īs   |
  +--------+-------------------+---------------------------------+

672. #is# and #id# (659) are formed from a stem #-i-#, and the other
parts from a stem #eo-#, #eā-#. The genitive is sometimes written in
Cicero and Plautus #eiius#; for the quantity of the first syllable of
#eius#, see 153, 2; for #ĕ̄i#, see 127, 3, and 127, 4.

673. In old verse, the genitive singular rarely has the first syllable
short. Old and rare forms are: D. F. #eae#, Ac. M. #im# or #em#. Pl. D,
and Ab. #ī̆bus#, F. #eābus# (442). In dramatic verse, #e͡um#, #e͡am#,
#e͡i#, #e͡o#, #e͡a#, and #e͡i#, #e͡orum#, #e͡arum#, #e͡os#, #e͡as#,
#e͡is#, are often found; also #eccum#, #eccam#, #eccōs#, #eccās#,
#ecca#, for #ecce eum#, &c.

674. Other case forms of #is# are found in inscriptions, as follows:

N. EIS, 124 B.C. G. EIVS, EIIVS, EIIVS or EIIVS (23). D. EIEI, 123 B.C.;
EEI, IEI; EI, 123 B.C., and common in all periods. Plural: N. EEIS, EIS,
IEIS, till about 50 B.C.; EEI, EI, IEI. D. and Ab. EEIS, EIEIS, IEIS,
IS; after the republic, IIS, IIS.

675. A rare and old pronoun equivalent to #is# is #sum#, #sam#,
accusative singular, #sōs#, accusative plural, and #sīs#, dative plural.


THE PRONOUN OF IDENTITY.

676. The pronoun of identity, #īdem#, _the same_, is declined as
follows:

  +--------+-------------------------+-------------------------------+
  |        |        Singular.        |            Plural.            |
  +--------+-------------------------+-------------------------------+
  |        | MASC.  FEM.     NEUT.   |  MASC.    FEM.      NEUT.     |
  |        |                         |                               |
  | _Nom._ | īdem    eadem   idem    | eīdem   } eaedem    eadem     |
  |        |                         | or īdem }                     |
  |        |                         |                               |
  | _Gen._ | eiusdem eiusdem eiusdem | eōrundem  eārundem  eōrundem  |
  |        |                         |                               |
  | _Dat._ | eīdem   eīdem   eīdem   | eīsdem  } eīsdem  } eīsdem  } |
  |        |                         | or īsdem} or īsdem} or īsdem} |
  |        |                         |                               |
  | _Acc._ | eundem  eandem  idem    | eōsdem    eāsdem    eadem     |
  |        |                         |                               |
  | _Abl._ | eōdem   eādem   eōdem   | eīsdem  } eīsdem  } eīsdem  } |
  |        |                         | or īsdem} or īsdem} or īsdem} |
  +--------+-------------------------+-------------------------------+

677. In manuscripts and editions, the plural nominative masculine is
often written #iīdem#, and the dative and ablative #iīsdem#. The
singular nominative masculine is rarely #eisdem# or #isdem# (Plaut.,
Enn.), #eidem# (Cic., Varr.), neuter #īdem# (Plaut.). In verse,
#eundem#, #e͡andem#, #e͡idem#, #e͡odem#, #e͡adem#, and #e͡idem#,
#e͡aedem#, #e͡orundem#, #e͡osdem#, #e͡asdem#, are often found.

678. Other case forms of #īdem# are found in inscriptions, as follows:

N. M. EISDEM, 123 B.C., ISDEM, 59 B.C., both common till Caesar’s time;
EIDEM; Ne. EIDEM, 71 B.C. D. IDEM. Plural: N. M. EISDEM, ISDEM, EIDEM,
till Caesar’s time; IIDEM, once only. D. and Ab. ISDEM, very rarely
IISDEM.


THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN.

679. The intensive pronoun #ipse#, _himself_, stems #ipso-#, #ipsā-#, is
declined like #ille# (666), but has the nominative and accusative neuter
singular #ipsum#.

680. In dramatic verse, #ipse# has rarely the first syllable short, and
often has the older form #ipsus#. Plautus has these forms: N. F.
#eapse#, Ac. #eumpse#, #eampse#, Ab. #eōpse#, #eāpse#, equivalent to
#ipsa#, &c. So #reāpse# for #rē ipsā#.


THE RELATIVE, INTERROGATIVE, AND INDEFINITE PRONOUN.


(1.) #quī# AND #quis#.

681. The stem #qui-#, or #quo-#, #quā-#, is used in three ways: as a
relative, _who_, _which_; as an interrogative, _who? which? what?_ as an
indefinite, _any_.

682. (_a._) The relative #quī#, _who_, _which_, is declined as follows:

  +--------+---------------------+------------------------+
  |        |      Singular.      |        Plural.         |
  +--------+---------------------+------------------------+
  |        | MASC.  FEM.   NEUT. | MASC.   FEM.    NEUT.  |
  | _Nom._ | quī    quae   quod  | quī     quae    quae   |
  | _Gen._ | cuius  cuius  cuius | quōrum  quārum  quōrum |
  | _Dat._ | cui    cui    cui   | quibus  quibus  quibus |
  | _Acc._ | quem   quam   quod  | quōs    quās    quae   |
  | _Abl._ | quō    quā    quō   | quibus  quibus  quibus |
  +--------+---------------------+------------------------+

683. (_b._) The interrogative adjective #quī#, #quae#, #quod#, _which?
what?_ is declined like the relative #quī# (682).

684. The interrogative substantive has in the nominative singular
#quis#, #quid#, _who? what?_ the rest is like #quī# (682).

In old Latin, #quis# is both masculine and feminine, but a separate
feminine form #quae# is used three or four times.

685. #quis# interrogative is sometimes used adjectively with
appellatives: as, #quis senātor?# _what senator?_ And #quī# is sometimes
used substantively: as, #quī prīmus Ameriam nūntiat?# _who is the first
to bring the tidings to Ameria?_

686. (_c._) The indefinite #quis# or #quī#, _one_, _any_, has the
following forms:

#quis# and #quid# masculine and neuter substantives, #quī# and #quod#
adjectives; feminine singular nominative and neuter plural nominative
and accusative commonly #qua#, also #quae#. The rest is like #quī#
(682).

687. #quis#, #quem#, #quid#, and #quibus# come from the stem #qui-#; the
other parts come from #quo-#, #quā-#. #quae# stands for an older #quai#
(690). For #quid# and #quod#, see 659.

688. Old forms of the genitive singular are #quoius#, and of the dative
#quoiei#, #quoiī#, or #quoi#, also in derivatives of #quī# or #quis#. A
genitive plural #quōiūm# is old and rare. The dative and ablative plural
is sometimes #quīs# from #quo-#, #quā-#. A nominative plural
interrogative and indefinite #quēs# is rare (Pacuv.).

689. The ablative or locative is sometimes #quī#, from the stem #qui-#:
as an interrogative, _how?_ as a relative, _wherewith_, _whereby_,
masculine, feminine, or neuter, in old Latin sometimes with a plural
antecedent; especially referring to an indefinite person, and with #cum#
attached, #quīcum#; and as an indefinite, _somehow_.

690. Other case forms of #quī# or #quis# and their derivatives are found
in inscriptions, as follows:

N. QVEI, prevalent in republican inscriptions; also QVI; once QVE. G.
QVOIVS, regularly in republican inscriptions; CVIIVS, CVIIVS, CVIIVS
(23), once QVIVS (20). D. QVOIEI, QVOI; once F. QVAI. Ab. QVEI. Plural:
N. M. QVEI, but after 120 B.C., occasionally QVI; QVES, indefinite; F.
and Ne. QVAI. G. QVOIVM.

DERIVATIVES OF #quī# AND #quis#.

691. The derivatives of #quī# and #quis# have commonly #quis# and #quid#
as substantives, and #quī# and #quod# as adjectives. Forms requiring
special mention are named below:

692. #quisquis#, _whoever_, _whatever_, _everybody who_, _everything
which_, an indefinite relative, has only these forms in common use:
N. M. #quisquis#, sometimes F. in old Latin, Ne. N. and Ac. #quicquid#
or #quidquid#, Ab. M. and Ne. as adjective #quōquō#.

Rare forms are: N. M. #quīquī#, Ac. #quemquem#, once Ab. F. #quāquā#, as
adverb #quīquī#, once D. #quibusquibus#. A short form of the genitive
occurs in #quoiquoimodī# or #cuicuimodī#, _of whatsoever sort_.

#aliquis# or #aliquī#, #aliqua#, once #aliquae# (Lucr.), #aliquid# or
#aliquod#, _some one_, _some_; Ab. M. sometimes, Ne. often #aliquī#
(689). Pl. Ne. N. and Ac. only #aliqua#; D. and Ab. sometimes #aliquīs#
(668).

#ecquis# or #ecquī#, #ecqua# or #ecquae#, #ecquid# or #ecquod#, _any?_
Besides the nominative only these forms are found: D. eccui, Ac.
#ecquem#, #ecquam#, #ecquid#, Ab. M. and Ne. #ecquō#. Pl. N. #ecquī#,
Ac. M. #ecquōs#, F. #ecquās#.

#quīcumque#, #quaecumque#, #quodcumque#, _whoever_, _whichever_,
_everybody who_, _everything which_. The #cumque# is sometimes separated
from #quī# by an intervening word. An older form is #quīquomque#, &c.

#quīdam#, #quaedam#, #quiddam# or #quoddam#, _a_, _a certain_, _some
one_, _so and so_; Ac. #quendam#, #quandam#. Pl. G. #quōrundam#,
#quārundam#.

#quīlibet#, #quaelibet#, #quidlibet# or #quodlibet#, _any you please_.

#quisnam#, rarely #quīnam#, #quaenam#, #quidnam# or #quodnam#, _who
ever? who in the world?_ Sometimes #nam quis#, &c.

#quispiam#, #quaepiam#, #quippiam#, #quidpiam# or #quodpiam#, _any_,
_any one_; Ab. also #quīpiam# (689), sometimes as adverb, _in any way_.

#quisquam#, #quicquam# or #quidquam#, _anybody at all_, _anything at
all_, generally a substantive, less frequently an adjective, _any at
all_. There is no distinctive feminine form, and #quisquam# and
#quemquam# are rarely, and in old Latin, used as a feminine adjective.
Ab. also #quīquam# (689), sometimes as adverb, _in any way at all_. No
plural.

#quisque#, #quaeque#, #quicque#, #quidque# or #quodque#, _each_.
Sometimes #ūnus# is prefixed: #ūnusquisque#; both parts are declined.
#quisque# and #quemque# are sometimes feminine. Ab. S. #quīque# (689)
rare, Ab. Pl. #quīsque# (688) once (Lucr.).

#quīvīs#, #quaevīs#, #quidvīs# or #quodvīs#, _which you will_; Ab. also
#quīvīs# (689).

(2.) #uter#.

693. #uter#, #utra#, #utrum#, _whether? which of the two?_ has the
genitive singular #utrīus#, and the dative singular #utrī#.

The rest is like #aeger# (617). #uter# is sometimes relative,
_whichsoever_, or indefinite, _either of the two_.

DERIVATIVES OF #uter#.

694. The derivatives of #uter# are declined like #uter#; they are:

#neuter#, _neither of the two_, genitive #neutrīus#, always with #ī#
(657). When used as a grammatical term, _neuter_, the genitive is always
#neutrī#: as, #generis neutrī#, _of neither gender_.

#utercumque#, #utracumque#, #utrumcumque#, _whichever of the two_,
_either of the two_.

#uterlibet#, _whichever you please_.

#uterque#, _whichsoever_, _both_. G. always #utriusque# (657).

#utervīs#, _whichever you wish_.

#alteruter#, F. #altera utra#, Ne. #alterutrum# or #alterum utrum#, _one
or the other_, G. #alterīus utrīus#, once late #alterutrīus#, D.
#alterutrī#, Ac. M. #alterutrum# or #alterum utrum#, F. #alterutram#
once (Plin.) or #alteram utram#, Ab. #alterutrō# or #alterō utrō#, F.
#alterā utrā#. No Pl., except D. #alterutrīs# once (Plin.).


CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS.

695. Pronouns often correspond with each other in meaning and form; some
of the commonest correlatives are the following:

  Int. Interrogative
  Indef. Indefinite
  Dem., Det. Demonstrative, Determinative, &c.
  Rel. Relative.

  +----------+---------------+-------------+------------+-----------+
  | Kind.    | Int.          | Indef.      | Dem., Det. | Rel.      |
  +----------+---------------+-------------+------------+-----------+
  | Simple   | quis, quī,    | quis, quī,  | hīc, iste, | quī       |
  | Simple   |   _who?_      | aliquis     | ille, is,  |           |
  |          |               |             | quisque    |           |
  +----------+---------------+-------------+------------+-----------+
  | Alter-   | uter, _which  | uter,       | uterque    | uter, quī |
  |   native |  of the two?_ | alteruter   |            |           |
  +----------+---------------+-------------+------------+-----------+
  | Number   | quot, _how    | aliquot     | tot        | quot      |
  |          |  many?_ (431) |             |            |           |
  +----------+---------------+-------------+------------+-----------+
  | Quantity | quantus, _how | aliquantus, | tantus     | quantus   |
  |          |  large?_ (613)| quantusvīs  |            |           |
  +----------+---------------+-------------+------------+-----------+
  | Quality  |quālis,        | quālislibet | tālis      | quālis    |
  |          |  _of what     |             |            |           |
  |          |  sort?_ (630) |             |            |           |
  +----------+---------------+-------------+------------+-----------+



  THE ADVERB, THE CONJUNCTION, AND THE PREPOSITION.


I. NOUNS AS ADVERBS.

696. Adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions are chiefly noun or pronoun
cases which have become fixed in a specific form and with a specific
meaning. Many of these words were still felt to be live cases, even in
the developed period of the language; with others the consciousness of
their noun character was lost.

697. Three cases are used adverbially: the accusative, the ablative, and
the locative.

698. The rather indeterminate meaning of the accusative and the ablative
is sometimes more exactly defined by a preposition. The preposition may
either accompany its usual case: as, #adamussim, admodum, īlicō#; or it
may be loosely prefixed, with more of the nature of an adverb than of a
preposition, to a case with which it is not ordinarily used: as,
#examussim, intereā#. Sometimes it stands after the noun: as,
#parumper#, _a little while_. Besides the three cases named above, other
forms occur, some of which are undoubtedly old case endings, though they
can no longer be recognized as such: see 710.

  [Erratum:
  698.
    . invisible]


(1.) ACCUSATIVE.

(_a._) ACCUSATIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES.

699. #domum#, _homeward, home_; #rūs#, _afield_; #forās#, _out of doors_
#(*forā-); vicem#, _instead_; #partim#, _in part_; old #noenum# or
#noenu#, common #nōn#, for #ne-oenum#, i.e. #ūnum#, _not one, naught,
not_; #admodum#, _to a degree, very_; #adamussim, examussim#, _to a
#T#_; #adfatim#, _to satiety_; #invicem#, _in turn, each other_.

700. Many adverbs in #-tim# and #-sim# denote manner (549): as,
#cautim#, _warily_, #statim#, _at once_, #sēnsim#, _perceptibly,
gradually_; #ōstiātim#, _door by door_, #virītim#, _man by man_,
#fūrtim#, _stealthily_.


(_b._) ACCUSATIVE OF ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS.

701. Neuters: all comparative adverbs in #-ius# (361): as, #doctius#,
_more learnedly_; so #minus#, _less_, #magis#, _more_ (363). #prīmum#,
_first_, #secundum#, secondly, &c.; #tum#, _then_ (#to-#, _that_):
#commodum#, _just in time_; #minimum#, _at least_, #potissimum#, _in
preference_, #postrēmum#, _at last_, #summum#, _at most_; #versum#,
_toward_, #rursum, russum, rūsum#, _back_; #facile#, _easily_, #impūne#,
_scotfree_, #recēns#, _lately_, #semel#, _once_ (#simili-#), #simul#,
_together_ (#simili-#). Plural: #cētera#, _for the rest_; #quia#,
_because_ (#qui-#); in old Latin #frūstra#, _in vain_ (#fraud-#).

702. Feminines: #bifāriam#, _twofold_; #cōram#, _face to face_ (#com-#
or #co-, *ōrā-#); #tam#, _so_ (#tā-#, _that_); #quam#, _as, how_.
Plural: #aliās#, _on other occasions_.


(2.) ABLATIVE.

(_a._) ABLATIVE OF SUBSTANTIVES.

703. #domō#, _from home_, #rūre#, _from the country_; #hodiē#, _to-day_
(#ho-#, #diē-#), #volgō#, _publicly_, #vespere#, _by twilight_, #noctū#,
_by nights_, _nights_, #lūce#, _by light_, #tempore#, _in times_,
_betimes_; #sponte#, _voluntarily_, #forte#, _by chance_; #quotannīs#,
_yearly_; #grātiīs# or #grātīs#, _for nothing_, #ingrātiīs# or
#ingrātīs#, _against one’s will_; #īlicō#, _on the spot_ (169, 4;
170, 2), #forīs#, _out of doors_ (#*forā-#).

(_b._) ABLATIVE OF ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS.

704. Many adverbs in #-ō# are formed from adjectives of time: as,
#perpetuō#, _to the end_, #crēbrō#, _frequently_, #rārō#, _seldom_,
#repentīnō#, _suddenly_, #sērō#, _late_, #prīmō#, _at first_. Many
denote manner: as, #arcānō#, _privily_, #sēriō#, _in earnest_. Some are
formed from participles: as, #auspicātō#, _with auspices taken_;
#compositō#, _by agreement_. A plural is rare: #alternīs#,
_alternately_.

705. Instead of #-ō#, neuter ablatives commonly have #-ē#: as, #longē#,
_far_, #doctē#, _wisely_. So also superlatives: #facillimē#, _most
easily_, anciently FACILVMED (362). Consonant stems have #-e#: as,
#repente#, _suddenly_.

706. From pronouns some end in #-ī# (689): as, #quī#,_ how?_ indefinite,
#quī#, _somehow_; #atquī#, _but somehow_; #quī-quam#, _in any way at
all_.

707. Feminines: many in #-ā#: #ūnā#, _together_; #circā#, _around_;
#contrā#, _against_ (#com-#, 347); #extrā#, _outside_ (#ex#, 347); in
classical Latin, #frūstrā#, _in vain_ (#fraud-#). So, especially,
adverbs denoting the ‘route by which:’ #hāc#, _this way_; #rēctā#,
_straightway_.


(3.) LOCATIVE.

708. In #-ī#, from names of towns and a few other words: #Karthāginī#,
_at Carthage_; #Rōmae#, for #Rōmāī#, _at Rome_; #domī#, _at home_;
#illī#, commonly #illī-c#, _there_ (#illo-#), #istī#, commonly #istī-c#,
_where you are_, #hī-c#, _here_ (#ho-#); old #sei#, common #sī#, _at
that_, _in that case_, _so_, _if_; #sīc#, _so_ (#sī#, #-ce#).

709. In #-bī̆#, from some pronouns: #ibī̆#, _there_ (#i-#); #ubī̆# (for
#*quobī̆#, 146), _where_; #alicubī̆#, _somewhere_; #sī-cubi#, _if
anywhere_, #nē-cubi#, _lest anywhere_.

  [Erratum:
  708 ... #domī#, _at home_;
    ; missing]


OTHER ENDINGS.

710. Besides the above, other endings are also found in words of this
class: as,

#-s# in #abs#, _from_, #ex#, _out of_; similarly #us-que#, _in every
case_, _ever_, #us-quam#, _anywhere at all_. #-tus# has the meaning of
an ablative: as, #intus#, _from within_, _within_; #antīquitus#, _from
old times_, _anciently_; #funditus#, _from the bottom_, _entirely_. #-ō#
denotes the ‘place to which’ in adverbs from pronoun stems: as, #eō#,
_thither_; #quō#, _whither_; #illō#, or #illūc#, for #illoi-ce#,
_thither_, after #hūc#; #hōc#, commonly #hūc#, perhaps for #hoi-ce# (99)
_hither_. #-im# denotes the ‘place from which:’ as, #istim#, commonly
#istinc#, _from where you are_; #illim#, commonly #illinc#, _from
yonder_; #hinc#, _hence_; #exim#, _thereupon_; also #-de#: as, #unde#,
_whence_ (#quo-#, 146), #sī-cunde#, _if from any place_, #nē-cunde#,
_lest from anywhere_. #-ter#: as comparative (347): #praeter#,
_further_, _beyond_, #inter#, _between_; denoting manner: #ācriter#,
_sharply_; #amanter#, _affectionately_; rarely from #-o-# stems: as,
#firmiter#, _steadfastly_.

CORRELATIVE ADVERBS.

711. Adverbs derived from pronoun stems often correspond with each other
in meaning and form; some of the commonest correlatives are the
following:

  Int. Interrogative
  Indef. Indefinite
  Dem., Det. Demonstrative, Determinative, &c.
  Rel. Relative.

  +--------+---------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  |        | Int.          | Indef.      | Dem., Det.  | Rel.        |
  +--------+---------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  |        | ubī̆, _where?_ | alicubī̆     | hīc, istīc  | ubī̆         |
  |        |               | usquam      |   illīc     |             |
  |        |               | uspiam      | ibī̆,        |             |
  |        |               | ubivīs      |   ibī̆dem    |             |
  |        +---------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  | Place  | quō,          | aliquō      | hūc, istūc, | quō         |
  |        |   _whither?_  | quōlibet    |  illūc      |             |
  |        |               | quōvīs      | eō, eōdem   |             |
  |        | quorsum,      | aliquō-     | horsum,     | quorsum     |
  |        |  _whither-    |   vorsum    |  istorsum   |             |
  |        |  ward?_       |             |             |             |
  |        +---------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  |        | unde,         | alicunde    | hinc,       | unde        |
  |        |   _whence?_   | undelibet   |   istinc,   |             |
  |        |               |             |   illinc    |             |
  |        |               |             | inde,       |             |
  |        |               |             |   indidem   |             |
  +--------+---------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  |        | quandō,       | aliquandō   | nunc, tum,  | quom or cum |
  |        |    _when?_    | umquam      | tunc        |             |
  | Time   |               |             |             |             |
  |        | quotiēns,     | aliquotiēns | totiēns     | quotiēns    |
  |        |  _how often?_ |             |             |             |
  +--------+---------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  | Way    | quā, _by      | aliquā      | hāc, istāc, | quā         |
  |        |   what way?_  | quāvīs      |  illāc      |             |
  |        |               |             | eā, eādem   |             |
  +--------+---------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  | Manner | utī or ut,    | aliquā      | ita, sīc    | utī or ut   |
  |        |   _how_?      |             |             |    (146)    |
  +--------+---------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
  | Degree | quam, _how?_  | aliquam     | tam         | quam        |
  +--------+---------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+


II. SENTENCES AS ADVERBS.

712. Some adverbs are condensed sentences: as,

#īlicet#, _you may go, straightway_ (#īre licet#); #scīlicet#, _you may
know, obviously, of course_ (#scīre licet#); #vidē̆licet#, _you can see,
plainly_ (#vidēre licet#); #nūdiustertius#, _now is the third day, day
before yesterday_ (#num dius#, i.e. #diēs#, #tertius#); #forsitan#,
_maybe_ (#fors sit an#); #mīrum quantum#, _strange how much,
astonishingly_; #nesciō quō pactō#, #nesciō quōmodo#, _somehow or other,
unfortunately_.


(B.) INFLECTION OF THE VERB.

713. The verb is inflected by attaching person endings to the several
stems.


THE STEM.

714. The stem contains the meaning of the verb, and also denotes the
mode (mood) and the time (tense) of the action as viewed by the speaker.

715. There are three MOODS, _Indicative_, _Subjunctive_, and
_Imperative_.

716. There are six TENSES in the indicative, three of the present
system, _Present_, _Imperfect_, and _Future_; and three of the perfect
system, _Perfect_, _Pluperfect_, and _Future Perfect_. The subjunctive
lacks the futures; the imperative has only the present.

717. The meanings of the moods and tenses are best learnt from reading.
No satisfactory translation can be given in the paradigms, especially of
the subjunctive, which requires a variety of translations for its
various uses.

718. The verb has two principal stems: I. The Present stem, which is the
base of the present system; II. The Perfect stem, which is the base of
the perfect active system.

719. The perfect system has no passive; its place is supplied by the
perfect participle with a form of #sum#, _am_, or less frequently of
#fuī#, _am become_.

720. Many verbs have only the present system: as, #maereō#, _mourn_;
some have only the perfect system: as, #meminī#, _remember_. Some verbs
have a present and perfect system made up of two separate roots or
stems: as, present indicative #ferō#, _carry_, perfect indicative
#tulī#, and perfect participle #lātus#; present #possum#, _can_, perfect
#potuī#.


THE PERSON ENDING.

721. The person ending limits the meaning of the stem by pointing out
the person of the subject. There are three PERSONS, the _First_, used of
the speaker, the _Second_, of what is spoken to, and the _Third_, of
what is spoken of. The person ending furthermore indicates number and
voice.

722. There are two NUMBERS: the _Singular_, used of one, and the
_Plural_, used of more than one.

723. There are two VOICES: the _Active_, indicating that the subject
acts, and the _Passive_, indicating that the subject acts on himself, or
more commonly is acted on by another.

724. Only transitive verbs have all persons of the passive. Intransitive
verbs have in the passive only the third person singular, used
impersonally; the participle in this construction is neuter.

725. Some verbs have only the passive person endings, but with a
reflexive or an active meaning; such are called _Deponents_: see 798.

726. The person endings are as follows:

  ACTIVE VOICE.

  +------------------+---------------+--------------------------+
  | _Mood._          |  IND. & SUB.  |        IMPERATIVE.       |
  +------------------+-------+-------+-------------+------------+
  | _Number._        | SING. | PLUR. | SING.       | PLUR.      |
  +------------------+-------+-------+-------------+------------+
  | _First person._  | -m    | -mus  | _not used_  | _not used_ |
  +------------------+-------+-------+-------------+------------+
  | _Second person._ | -s    | -tis  | _none_, -tō | -te, -tōte |
  +------------------+-------+-------+-------------+------------+
  | _Third person._  | -t    | -nt   | -tō         | -ntō       |
  +------------------+-------+-------+-------------+------------+

  PASSIVE VOICE.

  +------------------+---------------------+------------------------+
  | _Mood._          |     IND. & SUB.     |      IMPERATIVE.       |
  +------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+------------+
  | _Number._        | SING.     | PLUR.   | SING.     | PLUR.      |
  +------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+------------+
  | _First person._  | -r        | -mur    | _not used_| _not used_ |
  +------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+------------+
  | _Second person._ | -ris, -re | [-minī] | -re, -tor | [-minī]    |
  +------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+------------+
  | _Third person._  | -tur      | -ntur   | -tor      | -ntor      |
  +------------------+-----------+---------+-----------+------------+

727. In the perfect indicative active, the second person singular ends
in #-tī#, and the third person plural in #-runt# for an older #-ront#,
or in #-re#. #-re# is most used in poetry and history, and by Cato and
Sallust; #-runt# by Cicero, and almost always by Caesar.

728. In the indicative #-m# is not used in the present (except in #sum#,
_am_, and #inquam#, _quoth I_), in the perfect or future perfect, or in
the future in #-bō#. #-s# is not used in #es# for #ess#, _thou art_, and
in #ēs#, _eatest_ (171, 1).

729. In inscriptions, #-d# sometimes stands for #-t# (149, 2) in the
third person singular, and sometimes #-t# is not used: as, FECID,
_made_, for _fēcit_; DEDE, _gave_, for #dedēt# or #dedit#. And other
forms of the third person plural of the indicative active are sometimes
used: as, Pisaurian DEDROT, DEDRO (with syncope, 111) for #dederunt#,
_gave_; EMERV, _bought_, for #ēmērunt#; once DEDERI, probably for
#dedēre# (856).

730. In the passive second person singular, Terence has always, Plautus
commonly #-re#; later it is unusual in the present indicative, except in
deponents; but in other tenses #-re# is preferred, especially in the
future #-bere#, by Cicero, #-ris# by Livy and Tacitus. The second person
plural passive is wanting; its place is supplied by a single participial
form in #-minī#, which is used without reference to gender, for gender
words and neuters alike (297).

731. Deponents have rarely #-mino#, in the imperative singular: as,
second person, #prōgredimino#, _step forward thou_ (Plaut.); in laws, as
third person: FRVIMINO, _let him enjoy_; or #-tō# and #-ntō# for #-tor#
and #-ntor#: as, #ūtitō#, _let him use_; #ūtuntō#, _let them use_. In a
real passive, #-ntō# is rare: as, CENSENTO, _let them be rated_.


NOUNS OF THE VERB.

732. The verb is accompanied by some nouns, which are conveniently,
though not quite accurately, reckoned parts of the verb; they are:

Three Infinitives, _Present Active_ and _Passive_, and _Perfect Active_,
sometimes called the _Infinitive Mood_. For the future active and
passive and the perfect passive, compound forms are used.

The _Gerund_ and the _Gerundive_.

Two _Supines_.

Three Participles, _Present_ and _Future Active_, and _Perfect Passive_.


PRINCIPAL PARTS.

733. The several verb stems can readily be found, when once the
principal parts are known; these are given in the dictionary.

734. The PRINCIPAL PARTS of a verb are the _Present Indicative Active_,
_Present Infinitive Active_, _Perfect Indicative Active_, and _Perfect
Participle_: as,

  PRES. INDIC.       PRES. INFIN.     PERF. INDIC.    PERF. PART.
  regō, _rule_       regere           rēxī            rēctus
  laudō, _praise_    laudāre          laudāvī         laudātus
  moneō, _advise_    monēre           monuī           monitus
  audiō, _hear_      audīre           audīvī          auditus

735. The Principal Parts of deponents are the _Present Indicative_,
_Present Infinitive_, and _Perfect Participle_: as,

  PRES. INDIC.            PRES. INFIN.    PERF. PART.
  queror, _complain_      querī           questus
  mīror, _wonder_         mīrārī          mīrātus
  vereor, _fear_          verērī          veritus
  partior, _share_        partīrī         partītus


DESIGNATION OF THE VERB.

736. A verb is usually named by the present indicative active first
person singular: as, #regō#; #laudō#, #moneō#, #audiō#; or by the
present infinitive active: as, #regere#; #laudāre#, #monēre#, #audīre#.
Deponents are named by the corresponding passive forms: as, #queror#;
#mīror#, #vereor#, #partior#; or #querī#; #mīrārī#, #verērī#, #partīrī#.

737. For convenience, verbs with #-ere# in the present infinitive active
are called _Verbs in_ #-ere#; those with #-āre#, #-ēre#, or #-īre#,
_Verbs in_ #-āre#, #-ēre#, or #-īre#, respectively. In like manner
deponents are designated as _Verbs in_ #-ī#; or _Verbs in_ #-ārī#,
#-ērī#, or #-īrī#, respectively.


THEME OF THE VERB.

738. The several stems of the verb come from a form called the _Theme_.
In primitives, the theme is a root; in denominatives, the theme is a
noun stem.

Thus, #reg-# in #reg-ō# is a root; while #vesti-# in #vesti-ō#, _dress_,
is a noun stem. The noun stem is sometimes modified in form. Oftentimes
the noun stem is only presumed: as, #audi-# in #audi-ō#.

739. Some verbs have a denominative theme in the present system, and a
primitive theme in the perfect system, others have the reverse.

740. Most verbs with an infinitive of more than two syllables in #-āre#,
#-ēre#, or #-īre#, or, if deponent, in #-ārī#, #-ērī#, or #-īrī#, are
denominative; most other verbs are primitive.

Thus, #laudāre#, #monēre#, #audīre#; #mīrārī#, #verērī#, #partīrī#, are
denominative; while #esse#, #dare#, (#dē#)#lēre#, #regere#, #querī#, are
primitive. A few verbs, however, which have the appearance of
denominatives, are thought to be primitive in their origin.


ARRANGEMENT OF THE VERB.

741. Verbs are divided into two classes, according to the form of the
present system: I. Root verbs, and verbs in #-ere#, mostly primitive;
II. Verbs in #-āre#, #-ēre#, or #-īre#, mostly denominative.

742. Verbs are sometimes arranged without regard to difference of kind,
in the alphabetical order of the vowel before -s of the second person
singular of the present indicative active, #ā#, #ē#, #i#, #ī#: thus,
#laudās#, #monēs#, #regis#, #audīs#, sometimes called the _first_,
_second_, _third_, and _fourth conjugation_ respectively.


I. PRIMITIVE VERBS.

743. A few of the oldest and commonest verbs of everyday life have a
bare root as stem in the present indicative or in parts of it; and some
of them have other peculiarities; such are called _Root Verbs_, or by
some, _irregular_ (744-781). Most primitives are verbs in #-ere#, like
#regō# (782).


(A.) ROOT VERBS.


_Irregular Verbs._


(_a._) WITH A PREVALENT BARE ROOT.

744. Primitives with the bare root as present indicative stem in almost
all their forms are #sum#, _am_, #dō#, _give_, _put_, and compounds; and
with the root doubled, #bibō#, _drink_, #serō#, _sow_, and #sistō#,
_set_.


(1.) #sum#, _am_ (#es-#, #s-#).

745. #sum#, _am_, is used only in the present system (720). The perfect
system is supplied by forms of #fuī# (#fu-#).

  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                        PRINCIPAL PARTS.                          |
  |   PRES. INDIC.    PRES. INFIN.    PERF. INDIC.    PERF. PART.    |
  |      sum              esse            (fuī)            ----      |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                       INDICATIVE MOOD.                           |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PRESENT TENSE.                          |
  |      Singular.                  |        Plural.                 |
  | sum, _I am_                     | sumus, _we are_                |
  | es, _thou art_                  | estis, _you are_               |
  | est, _he is_                    | sunt, _they are_               |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         IMPERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | eram, _I was_                   | erāmus, _we were_              |
  | erās, _thou wert_               | erātis, _you were_             |
  | erat, _he was_                  | erant, _they were_             |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           FUTURE TENSE.                          |
  | erō, _I shall be_               | erimus, _we shall be_          |
  | eris, _thou wilt be_            | eritis, _you will be_          |
  | erit, _he will be_              | erunt, _they will be_          |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PERFECT TENSE.                          |
  | fuī, _I have been_,             | fuimus, _we have been_,        |
  |   or _was_                      |   or _were_                    |
  | fuistī, _thou hast been_,       | fuistis, _you have been_,      |
  |   or _wert_                     |   or _were_                    |
  | fuit, _he has been_,            | fuērunt or -re,                |
  |   or _was_                      |   _they have been_, or _were_  |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         PLUPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | fueram, _I had been_            | fuerāmus, _we had been_        |
  | fuerās, _thou hadst been_       | fuerātis, _you had been_       |
  | fuerat, _he had been_           | fuerant, _they had been_       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                       FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.                      |
  | fuerō, _I shall have been_      | fuerimus, _we shall have been_ |
  | fueris, _thou wilt have been_   | fueritis, _you will have been_ |
  | fuerit, _he will have been_     | fuerint, _they will have been_ |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                           SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                      |
  |                                                                  |
  |                            PRESENT TENSE.                        |
  |      Singular.                   |       Plural.                 |
  | sim, _may I be_                  | sīmus, _let us be_            |
  | sīs, _mayst thou be_             | sītis, _be you_, _may you be_ |
  | sit, _let him be_, _may he be_   | sint, _let them be_,          |
  |                                  |      _may they be_            |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | essem, _I should be_             | essēmus, _we should be_       |
  | essēs, _thou wouldst be_         | essētis, _you would be_       |
  | esset, _he would be_             | essent, _they would be_       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                             PERFECT TENSE.                       |
  | fuerim, _I may have been_        | fuerīmus, _we may have been_  |
  | fuerīs, _thou mayst have been_   | fuerītis, _you may have been_ |
  | fuerit, _he may have been_       | fuerīnt, _they may have been_ |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PLUPERFECT TENSE.                      |
  | fuissem,                         | fuissēmus,                    |
  |   _I should have been_           |   _we should have been_       |
  | fuissēs,                         | fuissētis,                    |
  |   _thou wouldst have been_       |  _you would have been_        |
  | fuisset,                         | fuissent,                     |
  |   _he would have been_           |   _they would have been_      |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERATIVE MOOD.                        |
  | es or estō, _be thou_,           | este or estōte, _be you_,     |
  |   _thou shalt be_                |   _you shall be_              |
  | estō, _he shall be_              | suntō, _they shall be_        |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                         NOUNS OF THE VERB.                       |
  |                                                                  |
  |          INFINITIVE.             |          PARTICIPLE.          |
  | _Pres._ esse, _to be_            | _Pres._ See 749               |
  | _Perf._ fuisse, _to have been_   | _Perf._ ----                  |
  | _Fut._  futūrus esse,            | _Fut._ futūrus, _going to be_ |
  |   _to be going to be_            |                               |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+

746. For the first person #sum#, Varro mentions #esum# as an archaic
form. This #e# was probably prefixed by analogy with the other forms;
for the #-m#, and for #es#, see 728. For #sim#, &c., and #siem#, &c.,
see 841. In the imperfect #eram#, &c., and the future #erō#, &c., #s#
has become #r# (154).

747. The indicative and imperative #es# is for older #ess# (171, 1), and
is regularly used long by Plautus and Terence. The #e# of #es# and #est#
is not pronounced after a vowel or #-m#, and is often omitted in
writing: as #experrēcta es#, pronounced #experrēctas#; #epistula est#,
pronounced #epistulast#; #cōnsilium est#, pronounced #cōnsiliumst#. In
the dramatists, #-s# preceded by a vowel, which is usually short, unites
with a following #es# or #est#: thus, #tū servos es# becomes #tū
servos#; #similis est#, #similist#; #virtūs est#, #virtūst#; #rēs est#,
#rēst#.

748. Old forms are: SONT (inscr. about 120 B.C.); with suffix #-scō#
(834), #escit# (for #*esscit#), _gets to be_, _will be_, #escunt#;
present subjunctive, #siem#, #siēs#, #siet#, and #sient# (841), common
in inscriptions down to 100 B.C., and in old verse; also in compounds;
imperative #estōd# rare.

749. The present participle is used only as an adjective. It has two
forms: #sontem# (accusative, no nominative), which has entirely lost its
original meaning of _being_, _actual_, _the real man_, and has only the
secondary meaning of _guilty_, and #īnsōns#, _innocent_; and #-sēns# in
#absēns#, _away_, #praesēns#, _at hand_, #dī cōnsentēs#, _gods
collective_; also once INSENTIBVS. #sum# has no gerund or gerundive.

750. A subjunctive present #fuam#, #fuās#, #fuat#, and #fuant# occurs in
old Latin; and an imperfect #forem#, #forēs#, #foret#, and #forent#, in
all periods. The present infinitive #fore#, _to get to be_, _become_,
has a future meaning. Old forms in the perfect system are FVVEIT
(29, 1), FVET; #fūit#, #fūimus#, #fūerim#, #fūerit#, #fūerint#,
#fūisset# (Plaut., Enn.). #fuī# has no perfect participle or supine.

751. #possum#, _can_.

  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |        Principal parts: possum, posse; (potuī, see 875.)         |
  +---------+--------------------------------------------------------+
  |         |                  INDICATIVE MOOD.                      |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |     Singular.           |      Plural.                 |
  | _Pres._ | possum, potes,          | possumus, potestis,          |
  |         |   potest                |   possunt                    |
  | _Imp._  | poteram, poterās,       | poterāmus, poterātis,        |
  |         |   poterat               |   poterant                   |
  | _Fut._  | poterō, poteris,        | poterimus, poteritis,        |
  |         |   poterit               |   poterunt                   |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                  SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                     |
  |         |                                                        |
  | _Pres._ | possim, possīs, possit  | possīmus, possītis, possint  |
  | _Imp._  | possem, possēs, posset  | possēmus, possētis, possent  |
  |         |                                                        |
  +---------+-------------------------+------------------------------+
  |         |    INFINITIVE.          |    PARTICIPLE.               |
  | _Pres._ | posse                   | ----                         |
  +---------+-------------------------+------------------------------+

752. #possum# is formed from #pote#, _able_, and #sum#, juxtaposed (166,
2; 396). The separate forms #potis sum#, &c., or #pote sum#, &c., are
also used, and sometimes even #potis# or #pote# alone takes the place of
a verb; in either case #potis# and #pote# are indeclinable, and are
applied to gender words and neuters both.

753. #t# is retained before a vowel, except in #possem#, &c., for
#potessem#, &c., and in #posse#; #t# before #s# changes to #s# (166, 2).
Old forms are: #possiem#, &c., (748), #potessem#, #potisset#, #potesse#.
Rare forms are POTESTO (inscr. 58 B.C.), and passives, as #potestur#,
&c., with a passive infinitive (1484). #possum# has no participles; the
perfect system, #potuī#, &c., is like #fuī#, &c. (745).


(2.) #dō#, _give_, _put_ (#dā-#, #da-#).

754. There are two verbs #dō#, one meaning _give_, and one meaning
_put_. The #dō# meaning _put_ is oftenest used in compounds; the simple
verb has been crowded out by #pōnō#. The present system of #dō# is as
follows:

  +-----------------------------------------------------------+
  |           Principal parts: dō, dare, dedī, datus.         |
  +---------+-------------------------------------------------+
  |         |                 ACTIVE VOICE.                   |
  |         |                                                 |
  |         |               INDICATIVE MOOD.                  |
  |         |                                                 |
  |         |     Singular.        |      Plural.             |
  | _Pres._ | dō, dās, dat         | damus, datis, dant       |
  | _Imp._  | dabam, dabās, dabat  | dabāmus, dabātis, dabant |
  | _Fut._  | dabō, dabis, dabit   | dabimus, dabitis, dabunt |
  |         |                                                 |
  |         |              SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                  |
  |         |                                                 |
  | _Pres._ | dem, dēs, det        | dēmus, dētis, dent       |
  | _Imp._  | darem, darēs, daret  | darēmus, darētis, darent |
  |         |                                                 |
  |         |              IMPERATIVE MOOD.                   |
  |         | dā or datō, datō     | date or datōte, dantō    |
  +---------+-------------------------------------------------+
  |         |    INFINITIVE.       |    PARTICIPLE.           |
  | _Pres._ | dare                 | dāns                     |
  |         |                      |                          |
  |         |    GERUND.           |                          |
  | _Gen._  | dandī, &c.           |                          |
  +---------+-------------------------------------------------+
  |         |               PASSIVE VOICE.                    |
  |         |                                                 |
  |         |             INDICATIVE MOOD.                    |
  |         |                                                 |
  |         |    Singular.         |    Plural.               |
  | _Pres._ | ----,                | damur,                   |
  |         | daris or -re,        | daminī,                  |
  |         | datur                | dantur                   |
  | _Imp._  | dabar,               | dabāmur,                 |
  |         | dabāre or -ris,      | dabāminī,                |
  |         | dabātur              | dabantur                 |
  | _Fut._  | dabor,               | dabimur,                 |
  |         | dabere or -ris,      | dabiminī,                |
  |         | dabitur              | dabuntur                 |
  |         |                                                 |
  |         |            SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                    |
  |         |                                                 |
  | _Pres._ | ----,                | ----,                    |
  |         | dēre or -ris,        | dēminī,                  |
  |         | dētur                | dentur                   |
  | _Imp._  | darer,               | darēmur,                 |
  |         | darēre or -ris,      | darēminī,                |
  |         | darētur              | darentur                 |
  |         |                                                 |
  |         |              IMPERATIVE MOOD.                   |
  |         | dare or dator, dator | daminī, dantor           |
  |         |                                                 |
  +---------+-------------------------------------------------+
  |         |    INFINITIVE.       |    GERUNDIVE.            |
  | _Pres._ | darī                 | dandus                   |
  +---------+-------------------------------------------------+

755. In the present system #a# is short throughout in the first
syllable, except in #dās# and #dā#. For #dedī#, #datus#, and supines
#datum#, #datū#, see 859 and 900.

756. Old forms: #danunt# of uncertain origin (833) for #dant#. From
another form of the root come #duis#, #duit#; #interduō#, #concrēduō#,
perfect #concrēduī#; subjunctive #duim#, #duīs# (#duās#), #duit# and
#duint# (841), and compounds, used especially in law language, and in
praying and cursing; #crēduam#, #crēduās# or #crēduīs#, #crēduat# or
#crēduit#.

757. Real compounds of #dō# have a present system like #regō# (782); in
the perfect and the perfect participle, #e# and #a# become #i#: as,
#abdō#, _put away_, #abdere#, #abdidī#, #abditus#; #crēdō#, _put trust
in_. #perdō#, _fordo_, _destroy_, and #vēndō#, _put for sale_, have
gerundives #perdendus#, #vēndundus#, and perfect participles #perditus#,
#vēnditus#; the rest of the passive is supplied by forms of pereō and
#vēneō#. #reddō#, _give back_, has future #reddibō# 3 times (Plaut.). In
the apparent compounds with #circum#, #pessum#, #satis#, and #vēnum#,
#dō# remains without change, as in 754.

  [Erratum:
  756.
    . missing]


(3.) #bibō#, #serō#, and #sistō#.

758. #bibō#, _drink_, #serō#, _sow_ (for #*si-sō#, 154), and #sistō#,
_set_, form their present stem by reduplication of the root (189). The
vowel before the person endings is the root vowel, which becomes
variable, like a formative vowel (824). These verbs have the present
system like #regō# (782).


(_b._) WITH THE BARE ROOT IN PARTS.


#inquam#, #eō#, and #queō#.

759. #inquam#, #eō#, and #queō# have the bare root as present stem, in
almost all their parts; in a few parts only the root is extended by a
formative vowel (829).


(1.) #inquam#, _say I_, _quoth I_.

760. #inquam#, _say I_, is chiefly used in quoting a person’s direct
words; and, from its meaning, is naturally very defective. The only
parts in common use are the following:

  +---------------------------------------------------------+
  |         |                 INDICATIVE MOOD.              |
  |         |       Singular.        |      Plural.         |
  | _Pres._ | inquam, inquis, inquit | ----, ----, inquiunt |
  | _Fut._  | ----, inquiēs, inquiet | ----, ----, ----     |
  +---------------------------------------------------------+

761. Rare forms are: subjunctive #inquiat# (Cornif.), indicative
imperfect #inquiēbat# (Cic.), used twice each; indicative present
#inquimus# (Hor.), perfect #inquiī# (Catull.), #inquīstī# (Cic.), once
each; imperative #inque#, 4 times (Plaut. 2, Ter. 2), #inquitō#, 3 times
(Plaut.). For #inquam#, see 728.


762. (2.) #eō#, _go_ (#ī-# for #ei-#, #i-#)

  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
  |              Principal parts: eō, īre, iī, itum.                |
  +---------+-------------------------------------------------------+
  |         |                INDICATIVE MOOD.                       |
  |         |                                                       |
  |         |    Singular.            |    Plural.                  |
  | _Pres._ | eō, īs, it              | īmus, ītis, eunt            |
  | _Imp._  | ībam, ībās, ībat        | ībāmus, ībātis, ībant       |
  | _Fut._  | ībō, ībis, ībit         | ībimus, ībitis, ībunt       |
  | _Perf._ | iī, īstī, iīt or īt     | iimus, īstis, iērunt or -re |
  |         |                         |                             |
  | _Plup._ | ieram, ierās, ierat     | ierāmus, ierātis, ierant    |
  | _F. P._ | ierō, ieris, ierit      | ierimus, ieritis, ierint    |
  |         |                                                       |
  |         |                  SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                    |
  |         |                                                       |
  | _Pres._ | eam, eās, eat           | eāmus, eātis, eant          |
  | _Imp._  | īrem, īrēs, īret        | īrēmus, īrētis, īrent       |
  | _Perf._ | ierim, ierīs, ierit     | ierīmus, ierītis, ierint    |
  | _Plup._ | īssem, īssēs, īsset     | īssēmus, īssētis, īssent    |
  |         |                                                       |
  |         |                   IMPERATIVE MOOD.                    |
  |         | ī or ītō, ītō           | īte or ītōte, euntō         |
  +---------+-------------------------------------------------------+
  |         |    INFINITIVE.          |    PARTICIPLE.              |
  | _Pres._ | īre                     | iēns, _Gen._ euntis         |
  | _Perf._ | īsse                    | itum                        |
  | _Fut._  | itūrus esse             | itūrus                      |
  |         |                                                       |
  |         |    GERUND.              |    SUPINE.                  |
  | _Gen._  | eundī                   |                             |
  | _Dat._  | eundō                   |                             |
  | _Acc._  | eundum                  | ----                        |
  | _Abl._  | eundō                   | ----                        |
  +---------+-------------------------------------------------------+

763. The passive is only used impersonally, and has a neuter gerundive
#eundum# and participle #itum#; but transitive compounds, as #adeō#, _go
up to_, have a complete passive: as, #adeor#, #adīris#, &c. #ambiō#, _go
round_, _canvass_, follows denominatives in #-īre# (796), but has once
or twice the imperfect #ambībat#, #ambībant#, #ambībātur# (Liv., Tac.,
Plin. _Ep._), and once the future #ambībunt# (Plin.); future perfect
#ambīssit#, #ambīssint#, once each (prol. Plaut.).

764. The #ī# is weakened from #ei# (98): as, #eis#, #eit#, #eite#,
#abeis#, #abei# (Plaut.); EITVR, ABEI, ADEITVR (inscr. 130 B.C.),
VENEIRE (49 B.C.), PRAETEREIS. Before #o#, #u#, or #a#, the root becomes
#e#. For #u# in #euntis#, see 902.

765. Old forms are: #īerō# (Plaut.), #īī#, #īerant# (Ter.), once each
(126); in an inscription of 186 B.C., ADIESET, ADIESENT, ADIESE, and of
146 B.C., REDIEIT (29, 2; 132); INTERIEISTI. A future in #-iet#, as
#trānsiet# (Sen.), is late and rare.

766. A double #i# is found in #iissēs# and #iisset# once each (_Ciris_,
Nepos), also sometimes in compounds of these forms: as #rediissēs#,
#interiisset#. Compounds sometimes have it also in the perfect
infinitive and in the second person singular of the perfect indicative:
as, #abiisse#, #abiistī#; also in #rediistis# once (Stat.). In the first
person of the perfect indicative a single long #ī# is found rarely in
late writers in the singular: as, #adī# (Val. Fl.).

767. A few examples are found of a perfect system with #v#, as #īvī#,
&c. This form is confined almost exclusively to poetry and late prose.

(_a_) Examples of simple forms with #v# are: #īvisse# (Plaut.), #īvit#
(Cato), #īvī# (Varro), #īverat# (Catull.). (_b_) Compound forms: #exīvī#
(Plaut.), #obīvit# (Verg.), #subīvit# (Stat.); #trānsīvisse# (Claud. ap.
Tac.), #inīvimus#, #trānsīvī#, #trānsīvimus# (Curt.), #trānsīvit#,
#trānsīverant# (Sen.), #exīvit# (Gell.). Apparent compounds (396):
#īntrō īvit# (C. Gracch., Piso, Gell.).


(3.) #queō#, _can_.

768. #queō#, _can_, and #nequeō#, _can’t_, have the perfect #quīvī#, the
rest like #eō# (762); but they have no imperative, gerundive, or future
participle, and the present participle is rare. #queō# is commonly used
with a negative, and some parts only so. Passive forms are rare, and
only used with a passive infinitive (1484).


#edō#; #volō# (#nōlō#, #mālō#) and #ferō#.


(1.) #edō#, _eat_ (#ed-#, #ēd-#).

769. #edō#, _eat_, has a present system with a formative vowel like
#regō# throughout (782); but in some parts of the present, and of the
imperfect subjunctive, parallel root forms are usually found, with #d#
of the root changed to #s#, and the vowel lengthened (135), as may be
seen in the following:

  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |           Principal parts: edō, ēsse, ēdī, ēsus.                 |
  +---------+--------------------------------------------------------+
  |         |                 INDICATIVE MOOD.                       |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |    Singular.            |    Plural.                   |
  | _Pres._ | edō, ēs or edis,        | edimus, ēstis or editis,     |
  |         |   ēst or edit           |   edunt                      |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                 SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                      |
  |         |                                                        |
  | _Pres._ | edim, edīs, edit        | edīmus, edītis, edint        |
  |         |   or                    |   or                         |
  |         | edam, edās, edat        | edāmus, edātis, edant        |
  | _Imp._  | ēssem, ēssēs, ēsset     | ēssēmus, ----, ēssent        |
  |         |   or                    |   or                         |
  |         | ederem, ederēs, ederet  | ederēmus, ederētis, ederent  |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                 IMPERATIVE MOOD.                       |
  |         | ēs or ede,              | ēste or edite                |
  |         |   ēstō or editō         |                              |
  +---------+--------------------------------------------------------+
  |         |    INFINITIVE.          |    PARTICIPLE.               |
  | _Pres._ | ēsse                    | edēns                        |
  +---------+--------------------------------------------------------+

770. For #ēs#, see 728; for #edim#, &c., 841. In the passive, the
indicative present #ēstur# is used, and imperfect subjunctive #ēssētur#.
The perfect participle #ēsus# is for an older #ēssus# (170, 7). Supines
#ēssum#, #ēssū# (Plaut.).

771. #comedō#, _eat up_, has also the following root forms: #comēs#,
#comēst#, #comēstis#; #comēstō#; #comēsse#; #comēssēs#, #comēsset#,
#comēssēmus#. The present subjunctive has also #comedim#, #comedīs#,
#comedint#. The participle perfect is #comēssus#, #comēsus#, or
#comēstus#, future #comēssūrus#. #exedō#, _eat out_, has #exēst# and
#exēsse#; subjunctive #exedint#. #adedō#, _eat at_, has #adēst#.

772. #volō# (#nōlō#, #mālō#) and #ferō# have the bare root in some parts
only of the present system; in other parts the root extended by a
formative vowel, like #regō# (782). #volō# (#nōlō#, #mālō#) lack some
forms, as will be seen below.

773. (2.) #volō#, _will_, _wish_, _want_, _am willing_ (#vol-#, #vel-#).

  +----------------------------------------------+
  | Principal parts: volō, velle, voluī, ----.   |
  +---------+------------------------------------+
  |         |         INDICATIVE MOOD.           |
  |         |                                    |
  |         |    Singular.   |    Plural.        |
  | _Pres._ | volō,          | volumus,          |
  |         | vīs,           | voltis or vultis, |
  |         | volt or vult   | volunt            |
  | _Imp._  | volēbam,       | volēbāmus,        |
  |         | volēbās,       | volēbātis,        |
  |         | volēbat        | volēbant          |
  | _Fut._  | volam,         | volēmus,          |
  |         | volēs,         | volētis,          |
  |         | volet          | volent            |
  | _Perf._ | voluī,         | voluimus,         |
  |         | voluistī,      | voluistis,        |
  |         | voluit         | voluērunt or -re  |
  | _Plup._ | volueram,      | voluerāmus,       |
  |         | voluerās,      | voluerātis,       |
  |         | voluerat       | voluerant         |
  | _F. P._ | voluerō,       | voluerimus,       |
  |         | volueris,      | volueritis,       |
  |         | voluerit       | voluerint         |
  |         |                                    |
  |         |          SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.         |
  |         |                                    |
  | _Pres._ | velim,         | velīmus,          |
  |         | velīs,         | velītis,          |
  |         | velit          | velint            |
  | _Imp._  | vellem,        | vellēmus,         |
  |         | vellēs,        | vellētis,         |
  |         | vellet         | vellent           |
  | _Perf._ | voluerim,      | voluerīmus,       |
  |         | voluerīs,      | voluerītis,       |
  |         | voluerit       | voluerint         |
  | _Plup._ | voluissem,     | voluissēmus,      |
  |         | voluissēs,     | voluissētis,      |
  |         | voluisset      | voluissent        |
  |         |                                    |
  +---------+------------------------------------+
  |         |   INFINITIVE.  |    PARTICIPLE.    |
  | _Pres._ | velle          | volēns            |
  | _Perf._ | voluisse       |                   |
  +---------+------------------------------------+

774. #volo# for #volō# is rare (2443). #volt# and #voltis# became #vult#
and #vultis# about the time of Augustus (141). For #volumus#, see 142;
#velim#, &c., 841; #vellem#, &c., #velle#, 166, 8. #sīs#, _an thou
wilt_, is common for #sī vīs# (Plaut., Ter., Cic., Liv.). #sultis#,
_an ‘t please you_, is used by Plautus for #sī voltis#.

775. #nōlō#, _won’t_, is formed from #ne-#, _not_, and #volō#,
juxtaposed, and #mālō#, _like better_, abbreviated from #māvolō# for
#*magsvolo# (779, 170, 2).

776. #nōlō#, _won’t_, _don’t want_, _object_, _am not willing_.

  +----------------------------------------------------+
  |     Principal parts: nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, ----.     |
  +---------+------------------------------------------+
  |         |            INDICATIVE MOOD.              |
  |         |                                          |
  |         |    Singular.     |    Plural.            |
  | _Pres._ | nōlō,            | nōlumus,              |
  |         | nōn vīs,         | nōn voltis or vultis, |
  |         | nōn volt or vult | nōlunt                |
  | _Imp._  | nōlēbam,         | nōlēbāmus,            |
  |         | nōlēbās,         | nōlēbātis,            |
  |         | nōlēbat          | nōlēbant              |
  | _Fut._  | ----,            | nōlēmus,              |
  |         | nōlēs,           | nōlētis,              |
  |         | nōlet            | nōlent                |
  |         |                                          |
  |         |              SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.           |
  |         |                                          |
  | _Pres._ | nōlim,           | nōlīmus,              |
  |         | nōlīs,           | nōlītis,              |
  |         | nōlit            | nōlint                |
  | _Imp._  | nōllem,          | nōllēmus,             |
  |         | nōllēs,          | nōllētis,             |
  |         | nōllet           | nōllent               |
  |         |                                          |
  |         |            IMPERATIVE MOOD.              |
  |         | nōlī or nōlītō,  | nōlīte or nōlītōte,   |
  |         | nōlītō           | nōluntō               |
  |         |                                          |
  +---------+------------------------------------------+
  |         |    INFINITIVE.   |    PARTICIPLE.        |
  | _Pres._ | nōlle            | ----                  |
  +---------+------------------------------------------+

777. #nevīs# and #nevolt#, from #ne-#, _not_, are found in Plautus.
#nōlō# has usually no participles, but oblique cases of #nōlēns# are
used a few times by post-Augustan writers (Cels., Luc., Quintil., Ta.,
Juv., Mart., Plin.). The perfect system, #nōluī#, &c., is like that of
#volō# (772).

778. #mālō#, _like better_, _choose rather_.

  +----------------------------------------------------+
  |     Principal parts: mālō, mālle, māluī, ----.     |
  +---------+------------------------------------------+
  |         |         INDICATIVE MOOD.                 |
  |         |                                          |
  |         |    Singular.     |    Plural.            |
  | _Pres._ | mālō,            | mālumus,              |
  |         | māvīs,           | māvoltis or māvultis, |
  |         | māvolt or māvult | mālunt                |
  | _Imp._  | mālēbam,         | mālēbāmus,            |
  |         | mālēbās,         | mālēbātis,            |
  |         | mālēbat          | mālēbant              |
  | _Fut._  | ----,            | mālēmus,              |
  |         | mālēs,           | mālētis,              |
  |         | mālet            | mālent                |
  |         |                                          |
  |         |         SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                |
  |         |                                          |
  | _Pres._ | mālim,           | mālīmus,              |
  |         | mālīs,           | mālītis,              |
  |         | mālit            | mālint                |
  | _Imp._  | māllem,          | māllēmus,             |
  |         | māllēs,          | māllētis,             |
  |         | māllet           | māllent               |
  |         |                                          |
  +---------+------------------------------------------+
  |         |    INFINITIVE.   |    PARTICIPLE.        |
  | _Pres._ | mālle            | ----                  |
  +---------+------------------------------------------+

779. Old forms are #māvolō#, #māvolunt#; #māvolet#; #māvelim#,
#māvelīs#, #māvelit#; #māvellem#. The perfect system, #māluī#, &c., is
like that of #volō# (772).

  [Errata:
  773 (table) ... velīmus,
    , missing
  774 ... #sī vīs# (Plaut., Ter., Cic., Liv.)
    Plaut. Ter.,
  775 ... #māvolō# for #*magsvolo#
    printed as shown: error for magsvolō?]


(3.) #ferō#, _carry_ (#fer-#).

780. #ferō#, _carry_, is used only in the present system (720). The
other parts are supplied by forms of #tollō#, _lift_ (#tol-#, #tlā-#).
The present system of #ferō# is as follows:

  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |        Principal parts: ferō, ferre; (tulī, lātus).              |
  +---------+--------------------------------------------------------+
  |         |                  ACTIVE VOICE.                         |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                 INDICATIVE MOOD.                       |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |    Singular.            |    Plural.                   |
  | _Pres._ | ferō, fers, fert        | ferimus, fertis, ferunt      |
  | _Imp._  | ferēbam,                | ferēbāmus,                   |
  |         | ferēbās,                | ferēbātis,                   |
  |         | ferēbat                 | ferēbant                     |
  | _Fut._  | feram, ferēs, feret     | ferēmus, ferētis, ferent     |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                       |
  |         |                                                        |
  | _Pres._ | feram, ferās, ferat     | ferāmus, ferātis, ferant     |
  | _Imp._  | ferrem, ferrēs, ferret  | ferrēmus, ferrētis, ferrent  |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                IMPERATIVE MOOD.                        |
  |         | fer or fertō, fertō     | ferte or fertōte, feruntō    |
  +---------+--------------------------------------------------------+
  |         |    INFINITIVE.          |    PARTICIPLE.               |
  | _Pres._ | ferre                   |  ferēns                      |
  |         |                         |                              |
  |         |        GERUND.          |                              |
  | _Gen._  | ferendī, &c.            |                              |
  +---------+--------------------------------------------------------+
  |         |                  PASSIVE VOICE.                        |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                 INDICATIVE MOOD.                       |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |    Singular.            |    Plural.                   |
  | _Pres._ | feror,                  | ferimur,                     |
  |         | ferris or -re,          | feriminī,                    |
  |         | fertur                  | feruntur                     |
  | _Imp._  | ferēbar,                | ferēbāmur,                   |
  |         | ferēbāre or -ris,       | ferēbāminī,                  |
  |         | ferēbātur               | ferēbantur                   |
  | _Fut._  | ferar,                  | ferēmur,                     |
  |         | ferēre or -ris,         | ferēminī,                    |
  |         | ferētur                 | ferentur                     |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                       |
  |         |                                                        |
  | _Pres._ | ferar,                  | ferāmur,                     |
  |         | ferāre or -ris,         | ferāminī,                    |
  |         | ferātur                 | ferantur                     |
  | _Imp._  | ferrer,                 | ferrēmur,                    |
  |         | ferrēre or -ris,        | ferrēminī,                   |
  |         | ferrētur                | ferrentur                    |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                 IMPERATIVE MOOD.                       |
  |         | ferre or fertor,        | feriminī,                    |
  |         | fertor                  | feruntor                     |
  +---------+--------------------------------------------------------+
  |         |    INFINITIVE.          |    GERUNDIVE.                |
  | _Pres._ | ferrī                   | ferendus                     |
  +---------+--------------------------------------------------------+

781. For #tulī#, see 860; the full form #tetulī#, &c., is found in old
Latin, and TOLI, &c., in inscriptions; the compound with #re-# is
#rettulī# for #*retetulī# (861). For the participle #lātus#, see 169, 1.


(B.) VERBS IN #-ere#.

_The Third Conjugation._

782. #regō#, _rule_.

  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                       PRINCIPAL PARTS.                           |
  |  PRES. INDIC.    PRES. INFIN.    PERF. INDIC.    PERF. PART.     |
  |     regō           regere           rēxī          rēctus         |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                           ACTIVE VOICE.                          |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          INDICATIVE MOOD.                        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PRESENT TENSE.                          |
  |    Singular.                    |    Plural.                     |
  | regō, _I rule_,                 | regimus, _we rule_,            |
  |   or _am ruling_                |   or _are ruling_              |
  | regis, _thou rulest_,           | regitis, _you rule_,           |
  |   or _art ruling_               |   or _are ruling_              |
  | regit, _he rules_,              | regunt, _they rule_,           |
  |   or _is ruling_                |   or _are ruling_              |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         IMPERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | regēbam, _I was ruling_,        | regēbāmus, _we were ruling_,   |
  |   or _I ruled_                  |   or _we ruled_                |
  | regēbās, _thou wert ruling_,    | regēbātis, _you were ruling_,  |
  |   or _thou ruledst_             |   or _you ruled_               |
  | regēbat, _he was ruling_,       | regēbant, _they were ruling_,  |
  |   or _he ruled_                 |   or _they ruled_              |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           FUTURE TENSE.                          |
  | regam, _I shall rule_           | regēmus, _we shall rule_       |
  | regēs, _thou wilt rule_         | regētis, _you will rule_       |
  | reget, _he will rule_           | regent, _they will rule_       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PERFECT TENSE.                          |
  | rēxī, _I have ruled_,           | rēximus, _we have ruled_,      |
  |   or _I ruled_                  |   or _we ruled_                |
  | rēxistī, _thou hast ruled_,     | rēxistis, _you have ruled_,    |
  |   or _thou ruledst_             |   or _you ruled_               |
  | rēxit, _he has ruled_,          | rēxērunt or -re,               |
  |   or _he ruled_                 |   _they have ruled_,           |
  |                                 |   or _they ruled_              |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         PLUPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | rēxeram, _I had ruled_          | rēxerāmus, _we had ruled_      |
  | rēxerās, _thou hadst ruled_     | rēxerātis, _you had ruled_     |
  | rēxerat, _he had ruled_         | rēxerant, _they had ruled_     |
  |                                                                  |
  |                       FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.                      |
  | rēxerō,                         | rēxerimus,                     |
  |  _I shall have ruled_           |  _we shall have ruled_         |
  | rēxeris,                        | rēxeritis,                     |
  |  _thou wilt have ruled_         |  _you will have ruled_         |
  | rēxerit,                        | rēxerint,                      |
  |  _he will have ruled_           |  _they will have ruled_        |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                      SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                           |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PRESENT TENSE.                          |
  |    Singular.                    |    Plural.                     |
  | regam, _may I rule_             | regāmus, _let us rule_         |
  | regās, _mayst thou rule_        | regātis, _may you rule_        |
  | regat, _let him rule_           | regant, _let them rule_        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | regerem, _I should rule_        | regerēmus, _we should rule_    |
  | regerēs, _thou wouldst rule_    | regerētis, _you would rule_    |
  | regeret, _he would rule_        | regerent, _they would rule_    |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | rēxerim,                        | rēxerīmus,                     |
  |  _I may have ruled_             |  _we may have ruled_           |
  | rēxerīs,                        | rēxerītis,                     |
  |  _thou mayst have ruled_        |  _you may have ruled_          |
  | rēxerit,                        | rēxerint,                      |
  |  _he may have ruled_            |  _they may have ruled_         |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PLUPERFECT TENSE.                       |
  | rēxissem,                       | rēxissēmus,                    |
  |   _I should have ruled_         |   _we should have ruled_       |
  | rēxissēs,                       | rēxissētis,                    |
  |   _thou wouldst have ruled_     |   _you would have ruled_       |
  | rēxisset,                       | rēxissent,                     |
  |   _he would have ruled_         |   _they would have ruled_      |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERATIVE MOOD.                        |
  | rege or regitō,                 | regite or regitōte,            |
  |   _rule_, _thou shalt rule_     |   _rule_, _you shall rule_     |
  | regitō, _he shall rule_         | reguntō, _they shall rule_     |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                          NOUNS OF THE VERB.                      |
  |                                                                  |
  |    INFINITIVE.                  |    PARTICIPLE.                 |
  | _Pres._ regere, _to rule_       | _Pres._ regēns, _ruling_       |
  | _Perf._ rēxisse,                |                                |
  |  _to have ruled_                |                                |
  | _Fut._  rēctūrus esse,          | _Fut._  rēctūrus,              |
  |   _to be going to rule_         |   _going to rule_              |
  |                                                                  |
  |    GERUND.                      |    SUPINE.                     |
  | _Gen._  regendī, _of ruling_    |                                |
  | _Dat._  regendō, _for ruling_   |                                |
  | _Acc._  regendum, _ruling_      | _Acc._  *rēctum, _to rule_,    |
  |                                 |           not used             |
  | _Abl._  regendō, _by ruling_    | _Abl._  *rēctū, _in ruling_,   |
  |                                 |           not used             |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+


VERBS IN #-ere#.

_The Third Conjugation._

783. #regor#, _am ruled_.

  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                           PASSIVE VOICE.                         |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          INDICATIVE MOOD.                        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PRESENT TENSE.                         |
  |    Singular.                    |    Plural.                     |
  | regor, _I am ruled_             | regimur, _we are ruled_        |
  | regeris or -re,                 |                                |
  |   _thou art ruled_              | regiminī, _you are ruled_      |
  | regitur, _he is ruled_          | reguntur, _they are ruled_     |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           IMPERFECT TENSE.                       |
  | regēbar,                        | regēbāmur,                     |
  |   _I was ruled_                 |   _we were ruled_              |
  | regēbāre or -ris,               | regēbāminī,                    |
  |   _thou wert ruled_             |   _you were ruled_             |
  | regēbātur,                      | regēbantur,                    |
  |   _he was ruled_                |   _they were ruled_            |
  |                                                                  |
  |                            FUTURE TENSE.                         |
  | regar,                          | regēmur,                       |
  |   _I shall be ruled_            |   _we shall be ruled_          |
  | regēre or -ris,                 | regēminī,                      |
  |   _thou wilt be ruled_          |   _you will be ruled_          |
  | regētur,                        | regentur,                      |
  |   _he will be ruled_            |   _they will be ruled_         |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | rēctus sum,  _I have been_,     | rēctī sumus, _we have been_,   |
  |   or _was ruled_                |   or _were ruled_              |
  | rēctus es, _thou hast been_,    | rēctī estis, _you have been_,  |
  |   or _wert ruled_               |   or _were ruled_              |
  | rēctus est, _he has been_,      | rēctī sunt, _they have been_,  |
  |   or _was ruled_                |   or _were ruled_              |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         PLUPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | rēctus eram,                    | rēctī erāmus,                  |
  |   _I had been ruled_            |   _we had been ruled_          |
  | rēctus erās,                    | rēctī erātis,                  |
  |   _thou hadst been ruled_       |   _you had been ruled_         |
  | rēctus erat,                    | rēctī erant,                   |
  |   _he had been ruled_           |   _they had been ruled_        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                       FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.                      |
  | rēctus erō,                     | rēctī erimus,                  |
  |   _I shall have been ruled_     |   _we shall have been ruled_   |
  | rēctus eris,                    | rēctī eritis,                  |
  |   _thou wilt have been ruled_   |   _you will have been ruled_   |
  | rēctus erit,                    | rēctī erunt,                   |
  |   _he will have been ruled_     |   _they will have been ruled_  |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                          SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PRESENT TENSE.                         |
  |    Singular.                    |    Plural.                     |
  | regar,                          | regāmur,                       |
  |   _may I be ruled_              |   _may we be ruled_            |
  | regāre or -ris,                 | regāminī,                      |
  |   _mayst thou be ruled_         |   _may you be ruled_           |
  | regātur,                        | regantur,                      |
  |   _let him be ruled_            |   _let them be ruled_          |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         IMPERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | regerer,                        | regerēmur,                     |
  |   _I should be ruled_           |   _we should be ruled_         |
  | regerēre or -ris,               | regerēminī,                    |
  |   _thou wouldst be ruled_       |   _you would be ruled_         |
  | regerētur,                      | regerentur,                    |
  |   _he would be ruled_           |   _they would be ruled_        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | rēctus sim,                     | rēctī sīmus,                   |
  |   _I may have been ruled_       |   _we may have been ruled_     |
  | rēctus sīs,                     | rēctī sītis,                   |
  |   _thou mayst have been ruled_  |   _you may have been ruled_    |
  | rēctus sit,                     | rēctī sint,                    |
  |   _he may have been ruled_      |   _they may have been ruled_   |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         PLUPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | rēctus essem,                   | rēctī essēmus,                 |
  |   _I should have been ruled_    |   _we should have been ruled_  |
  | rēctus essēs, _thou wouldst     | rēctī essētis,                 |
  |    have been ruled_             |   _you would have been ruled_  |
  | rēctus esset,                   | rēctī essent,                  |
  |   _he would have been ruled_    |   _they would have been ruled_ |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           IMPERATIVE MOOD.                       |
  | regere or regitor, _be ruled_,  | regiminī,                      |
  |   _thou shalt be ruled_         |   _be ruled_                   |
  | regitor,                        | reguntor,                      |
  |   _he shall be ruled_           |   _they shall be ruled_        |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                        NOUNS OF THE VERB.                        |
  |                                                                  |
  |    INFINITIVE.                  |    GERUNDIVE.                  |
  | _Pres._ regī,                   | regendus, _to be ruled_        |
  |   _to be ruled_                 |                                |
  | _Perf._ rēctus esse,            |    PERFECT PARTICIPLE.         |
  |   _to have been ruled_          | rēctus, _ruled_                |
  | _Fut._  *rēctum īrī,            |                                |
  |   _to be going to be ruled_,    |                                |
  |           not used (2273)       |                                |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+


VERBS IN #-iō#, #-ere#.

784. Verbs in #-iō#, #-ere#, as #capiō#, #capere#, _take_ (#cap-#), drop
an #i# in some forms of the present and imperfect. The present system is
as follows:

  +---------+-------------------------------------------+
  |         |                 ACTIVE VOICE.             |
  |         |                                           |
  |         |              INDICATIVE MOOD.             |
  |         |    Singular.        |    Plural.          |
  | _Pres._ | capiō,              | capimus,            |
  |         | capis,              | capitis,            |
  |         | capit               | capiunt             |
  | _Imp._  | capiēbam,           | capiēbāmus,         |
  |         | capiēbās,           | capiēbātis,         |
  |         | capiēbat            | capiēbant           |
  | _Fut._  | capiam,             | capiēmus,           |
  |         | capiēs,             | capiētis,           |
  |         | capiet              | capient             |
  |         |                                           |
  |         |             SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.             |
  | _Pres._ | capiam,             | capiāmus,           |
  |         | capiās,             | capiātis,           |
  |         | capiat              | capiant             |
  | _Imp._  | caperem,            | caperēmus,          |
  |         | caperēs,            | caperētis,          |
  |         | caperet             | caperent            |
  |         |                                           |
  |         |             IMPERATIVE MOOD.              |
  |         | cape or capitō,     | capite or capitōte, |
  |         | capitō              | capiuntō            |
  +---------+-------------------------------------------+
  |         |    INFINITIVE.      |    PARTICIPLE.      |
  | _Pres._ | capere              | capiēns             |
  |         |                     |                     |
  |         |        GERUND.      |                     |
  | _Gen._  | capiendī, &c.       |                     |
  +---------+-------------------------------------------+
  |         |              PASSIVE VOICE.               |
  |         |                                           |
  |         |             INDICATIVE MOOD.              |
  |         |    Singular.       |    Plural.           |
  | _Pres._ | capior,            | capimur,             |
  |         | caperis or -re,    | capiminī,            |
  |         | capitur            | capiuntur            |
  | _Imp._  | capiēbar,          | capiēbāmur,          |
  |         | capiēbāre or -ris, | capiēbāminī,         |
  |         | capiēbātur         | capiēbantur          |
  | _Fut._  | capiar,            | capiēmur,            |
  |         | capiēre or -ris,   | capiēminī,           |
  |         | capiētur           | capientur            |
  |         |                                           |
  |         |            SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.              |
  | _Pres._ | capiar,            | capiāmur,            |
  |         | capiāre or -ris,   | capiāminī,           |
  |         | capiātur           | capiantur            |
  | _Imp._  | caperer,           | caperēmur,           |
  |         | caperēre or -ris,  | caperēminī,          |
  |         | caperētur          | caperentur           |
  |         |                                           |
  |         |             IMPERATIVE MOOD.              |
  |         | capere or capitor, | capiminī,            |
  |         | capitor            | capiuntor            |
  +---------+-------------------------------------------+
  |         |      INFINITIVE.   |     GERUNDIVE.       |
  | _Pres._ | capi               | capiendus            |
  +---------+-------------------------------------------+

785. There are a dozen verbs in #-īō#, #-ere#, like #capiō#, and three
deponents in #-ior#, #-ī#, all formed from consonant roots with a short
vowel: see 836. #aiō#, _say_, and #fīō#, _grow_, _become_, have certain
peculiarities arising from the blending of the root with the suffix.

  [Errata:
  784 (table) ... capi
    printed as shown: error for capī?
  785 ... verbs in #-īō#,
    printed as shown: error for -iō?]


(1.) #aiō#, _say_, _say ay_, _avouch_ (#ag-#).

786. #aiō#, _say_, is defective, and has only these parts in common use:

  +---------------+-----------+-----------+
  |               | Singular. | Plural.   |
  | _Ind. Pres._  | aiō,      | ----,     |
  |               | ais,      | ----,     |
  |               | ait       | aiunt     |
  | _Ind. Imp._   | aiēbam,   | aiēbāmus, |
  |               | aiēbās,   | aiēbātis, |
  |               | aiēbat    | aiēbant   |
  | _Subj. Pres._ | ----,     | ----,     |
  |               | aiās,     | ----,     |
  |               | aiāt      | ----      |
  +---------------+-----------+-----------+

787. For #aiō#, sometimes written #aiiō# (23), see 153, 2. Old forms
are: present #ais#, #aīs#, #a͡is#, or with #-n# interrogative #āin#,
#a͡in#; #aīt#, #ait#, or #a͡it#; imperfect #a͡ibam#, #a͡ibās#, #a͡ibat#,
and #a͡ibant#; imperative once only, #aī# (Naev.). A participle
#aientibus#, _affirmative_, occurs once (Cic.).

  [Errata:
  786 (table) ... aiāt
    printed as shown: error for aiat?
  787 ... interrogative #āin#, #a͡in#
    printed as shown: āin error for aīn?]


(2.) #fīō#, _become_, _am made_.

788. #fīō#, _become_, and #factus sum# supplement each other: in the
present system, the passive of #faciō#, _make_, except the gerundive,
#faciendus#, is not used, #fīō#, &c., taking its place; in the perfect
system, only #factus sum#, &c., is used.

  +----------------+-----------+--------------------+
  |                | Singular. | Plural.            |
  | _Ind. Pres._   | fīō,      | ----,              |
  |                | fīs,      | ----,              |
  |                | fit       | fīunt              |
  | _Ind. Imp._    | fīēbam,   | fīēbāmus,          |
  |                | fīēbās,   | fīēbātis,          |
  |                | fīēbat    | fīēbant            |
  | _Ind. Fut._    | fīam,     | fīēmus,            |
  |                | fīēs,     | fīētis,            |
  |                | fīet      | fīent              |
  | _Subj. Pres._  | fīam,     | fīāmus,            |
  |                | fīās,     | fīātis,            |
  |                | fīat      | fīant              |
  | _Subj. Imp._   | fierem,   | fierēmus,          |
  |                | fierēs,   | fierētis,          |
  |                | fieret    | fierent            |
  | _Imper._       | fī        | fīte               |
  +----------------+-----------+--------------------+
  | _Infin. Pres._ | fierī     | _Part. Pres._ ---- |
  +----------------+-----------+--------------------+

789. In #fīō#, &c., #ī# represents an older #ei#, seen in FEIENT (inscr.
45 B.C.). The infinitive #fierī# for #fierei# owes its passive ending to
analogy; the active form #fiere# occurs twice (Enn., Laev.). The vowel
before #-er-# in #fierem#, &c., and #fierī#, is sometimes long in the
dramatists, where a cretic (- ⏑ -) is required, but otherwise always
short.

790. #-fīō# is used in apparent compounds (394): as, #patē̆fit#. In real
compounds commonly #-ficior#: as, #cōnficior#; but sometimes #-fīō#: as,
#cōnfit#, #cōnfīunt#, #cōnfīat#, #cōnfieret#, #cōnfierent#, #cōnfī̆erī#;
#dēfit#, #dēfīet#, #dēfīat#, #dēfierī#; #effit#, #effīant#, #ecfīerī#;
#īnfit#; #interfīat#, #interfīerī#; #superfit#, #superfīat#.

791. Some verbs in #-iō#, #-ere# (or #-ior#, #-ī#), have occasionally
the form of verbs in #-īre# (or #-īrī#), in some parts of the present
system, oftenest before an #r#, and particularly in the passive
infinitive: as,

#fodīrī#, 3 times (Cato, Col. 2), #circumfodīrī# (Col.), #ecfodīrī#
(Plaut.); #adgredīrī# (#adgredīrier#), 4 times (Plaut.), #prōgredīrī#
(Plaut.); #morīrī# 6 times (Plaut. 4, Pomp., Ov.), #ēmorīrī# twice
(Plaut., Ter.); #orīrī#, always; #parīre#, twice (Plaut., Enn.); usually
#potīrī# (#potīrier#). Also #cupīret# (Lucr.); #adgredīre#,
#adgredībor#, #adgredīmur# (Plaut.); #morīmur# (Enn.); #orīris# (Varr.,
Sen.), #adorītur# (Lucil., Lucr.), #orīrētur# (Cic., Nep., Sall., Liv.),
#adorīrētur# (Liv., Suet.); #parībis# (Pomp.), PARIRET (inscr.);
#potīris# (Manil.), #potītur# (Lucil., Ov.), &c., &c.

  [Errata:
  791 ... #orīrī#, always
    #orīrī#.
  #adorītur# (Lucil., Lucr.),
    final , printed .]


II. DENOMINATIVE VERBS.


(1.) VERBS IN #-āre#.

_The First Conjugation._

792. #laudō#, _praise_.

  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                           PRINCIPAL PARTS.                       |
  |   PRES. INDIC.    PRES. INFIN.    PERF. INDIC.    PERF. PART.    |
  |     laudō          laudāre         laudāvī        laudātus       |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                           ACTIVE VOICE.                          |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         INDICATIVE MOOD.                         |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PRESENT TENSE.                          |
  |    Singular.                    |    Plural.                     |
  | laudō, _I praise_,              | laudāmus, _we praise_,         |
  |   or _am praising_              |   or _are praising_            |
  | laudās, _thou praisest_,        | laudātis, _you praise_,        |
  |   or _art praising_             |   or _are praising_            |
  | laudat, _he praises_,           | laudant, _they praise_,        |
  |   or _is praising_              |   or _are praising_            |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         IMPERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | laudābam, _I was praising_,     | laudābāmus,                    |
  |   or _I praised_                |   _we were praising_,          |
  |                                 |   or _we praised_              |
  | laudābās, _thou wert praising_, | laudābātis, _you were          |
  |   or _thou praisedst_           |    praising_, or _you praised_ |
  | laudābat, _he was praising_,    | laudābant, _they were          |
  |   or _he praised_               |   praising_, or _they praised_ |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           FUTURE TENSE.                          |
  | laudābō, _I shall praise_       | laudābimus, _we shall praise_  |
  | laudābis, _thou wilt praise_    | laudābitis, _you will praise_  |
  | laudābit, _he will praise_      | laudābunt, _they will praise_  |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PERFECT TENSE.                          |
  | laudāvī, _I have praised_,      | laudāvimus, _we have praised_, |
  |   or _I praised_                |   or _we praised_              |
  | laudāvistī, _thou hast          | laudāvistis, _you have         |
  |   praised_, or _thou praisedst_ |   praised_, or _you praised_   |
  | laudāvit, _he has praised_,     | laudāvērunt or -re,            |
  |   or _he praised_               |   _they have praised_,         |
  |                                 |   or _they praised_            |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         PLUPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | laudāveram, _I had praised_     | laudāverāmus, _we had praised_ |
  | laudāverās,                     | laudāverātis,                  |
  |   _thou hadst praised_          |   _you had praised_            |
  | laudāverat, _he had praised_    | laudāverant,                   |
  |                                 |   _they had praised_           |
  |                                                                  |
  |                       FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.                      |
  | laudāverō,                      | laudāverimus,                  |
  |   _I shall have praised_        |   _we shall have praised_      |
  | laudāveris,                     | laudāveritis,                  |
  |   _thou wilt have praised_      |   _you will have praised_      |
  | laudāverit,                     | laudāverint,                   |
  |   _he will have praised_        |   _they will have praised_     |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                         SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PRESENT TENSE.                          |
  |    Singular.                    |    Plural.                     |
  | laudem, _may I praise_          | laudēmus, _let us praise_      |
  | laudēs, _mayst thou praise_     | laudētis, _may you praise_     |
  | laudet, _let him praise_        | laudent, _let them praise_     |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         IMPERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | laudārem, _I should praise_     | laudārēmus, _we should praise_ |
  | laudārēs,                       | laudārētis,                    |
  |   _thou wouldst praise_         |   _you would praise_           |
  | laudāret, _he would praise_     | laudārent, _they would praise_ |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PERFECT TENSE.                          |
  | laudāverim,                     | laudāverīmus,                  |
  |   _I may have praised_          |   _we may have praised_        |
  | laudāverīs,                     | laudāverītis,                  |
  |   _thou mayst have praised_     |   _you may have praised_       |
  | laudāverit,                     | laudāverint,                   |
  |   _he may have praised_         |   _they may have praised_      |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         PLUPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | laudāvissem,                    | laudāvissēmus,                 |
  |   _I should have praised_       |   _we should have praised_     |
  | laudāvissēs,                    | laudāvissētis,                 |
  |   _thou wouldst have praised_   |   _you would have praised_     |
  | laudāvisset,                    | laudāvissent,                  |
  |   _he would have praised_       |   _they would have praised_    |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERATIVE MOOD.                        |
  | laudā or laudātō, _praise_,     | laudāte or laudātōte, _praise_,|
  |   _thou shalt praise_           |   _you shall praise_           |
  | laudātō, _he shall praise_      | laudantō, _they shall praise_  |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                        NOUNS OF THE VERB.                        |
  |                                                                  |
  |    INFINITIVE.                  |    PARTICIPLE.                 |
  | _Pres._ laudāre,                | _Pres._ laudāns,               |
  |   _to praise_                   |   _praising_                   |
  | _Perf._ laudāvisse,             |                                |
  |   _to have praised_             |                                |
  | _Fut._ laudātūrus esse,         | _Fut._ laudātūrus,             |
  |   _to be going to praise_       |   _going to praise_            |
  |                                                                  |
  |    GERUND.                      |    SUPINE.                     |
  | _Gen._ laudandī,                |                                |
  |   _of praising_                 |                                |
  | _Dat._ laudandō,                |                                |
  |   _for praising_                |                                |
  | _Acc._ laudandum, _praising_    | _Acc._ laudātum, _to praise_   |
  | _Abl._ laudandō, _by praising_  | _Abl._ *laudātū, _in praising_,|
  |                                 |   not used                     |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+

  [Erratum:
  792 (table) ... _Abl._ laudandō
    . missing or invisible]


VERBS IN #-āre#.

_The First Conjugation._

793. #laudor#, _am praised_.

  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                           PASSIVE VOICE.                         |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          INDICATIVE MOOD.                        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PRESENT TENSE.                         |
  |   Singular.                     |    Plural.                     |
  | laudor,                         | laudāmur,                      |
  |   _I am praised_                |   _we are praised_             |
  | laudāris or -re,                | laudāminī,                     |
  |   _thou art praised_            |   _you are praised_            |
  | laudātur,                       | laudantur,                     |
  |   _he is praised_               |   _they are praised_           |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         IMPERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | laudābar,                       | laudābāmur,                    |
  |   _I was praised_               |   _we were praised_            |
  | laudābāre or -ris,              | laudābāminī,                   |
  |   _thou wert praised_           |   _you were praised_           |
  | laudābātur,                     | laudābantur,                   |
  |   _he was praised_              |   _they were praised_          |
  |                                                                  |
  |                            FUTURE TENSE.                         |
  | laudābor,                       | laudābimur,                    |
  |   _I shall be praised_          |   _we shall be praised_        |
  | laudābere or -ris,              | laudābiminī,                   |
  |   _thou wilt be praised_        |   _you will be praised_        |
  | laudābitur,                     | laudābuntur,                   |
  |   _he will be praised_          |   _they will be praised_       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | laudātus sum, _I have been_,    | laudātī sumus, _we have been_, |
  |   or _was praised_              |   or _were praised_            |
  | laudātus es, _thou hast been_,  | laudātī estis,                 |
  |   or _wert praised_             |   _you have been_,             |
  |                                 |   or _were praised_            |
  | laudātus est, _he has been_,    | laudātī sunt,                  |
  |   or _was praised_              |   _they have been_,            |
  |                                 |   or _were praised_            |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         PLUPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | laudātus eram,                  | laudātī erāmus,                |
  |   _I had been praised_          |   _we had been praised_        |
  | laudātus erās,                  | laudātī erātis,                |
  |   _thou hadst been praised_     |   _you had been praised_       |
  | laudātus erat,                  | laudātī erant,                 |
  |   _he had been praised_         |   _they had been praised_      |
  |                                                                  |
  |                       FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.                      |
  | laudātus erō,                   | laudātī erimus,                |
  |   _I shall have been praised_   |   _we shall have been praised_ |
  | laudātus eris,                  | laudātī eritis,                |
  |   _thou wilt have been praised_ |   _you will have been praised_ |
  | laudātus erit,                  | laudātī erunt, _they will      |
  |   _he will have been praised_   |   have been praised_           |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                          SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PRESENT TENSE.                         |
  |    Singular.                    |    Plural.                     |
  | lauder,                         | laudēmur,                      |
  |   _may I be praised_            |   _may we be praised_          |
  | laudēre or -ris,                | laudēminī,                     |
  |   _mayst thou be praised_       |   _may you be praised_         |
  | laudētur,                       | laudentur,                     |
  |   _let him be praised_          |   _let them be praised_        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           IMPERFECT TENSE.                       |
  | laudārer,                       | laudārēmur,                    |
  |   _I should be praised_         |   _we should be praised_       |
  | laudārēre or -ris,              | laudārēminī,                   |
  |   _thou wouldst be praised_     |   _you would be praised_       |
  | laudārētur,                     | laudārentur,                   |
  |   _he would be praised_         |   _they would be praised_      |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | laudātus sim,                   | laudātī sīmus,                 |
  |   _I may have been praised_     |   _we may have been praised_   |
  | laudātus sīs, _thou mayst       | laudātī sītis,                 |
  |   have been praised_            |   _you may have been praised_  |
  | laudātus sit,                   | laudātī sint,                  |
  |   _he may have been praised_    |   _they may have been praised_ |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PLUPERFECT TENSE.                       |
  | laudātus essem,                 | laudātī essēmus, _we should    |
  |   _I should have been praised_  |   have been praised_           |
  | laudātus essēs, _thou           | laudātī essētis, _you would    |
  |   wouldst have been praised_    |   have been praised_           |
  | laudātus esset, _he would       | laudātī essent, _they would    |
  |   have been praised_            |   have been praised_           |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERATIVE MOOD.                        |
  | laudāre or laudātor,            | laudāminī,                     |
  |   _be praised_,                 |   _be praised_                 |
  |   _thou shalt be praised_       |                                |
  | laudātor,                       | laudantor,                     |
  |   _he shall be praised_         |   _they shall be praised_      |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                         NOUNS OF THE VERB.                       |
  |                                                                  |
  |    INFINITIVE.                  |    GERUNDIVE.                  |
  | _Pres._ laudārī,                | laudandus, _to be praised_     |
  |   _to be praised_               |                                |
  | _Perf._ laudātus esse,          |    PERFECT PARTICIPLE.         |
  |   _to have been praised_        | laudātus, _praised_            |
  | _Fut._ *laudātum īrī,           |                                |
  |   _to be going to be            |                                |
  |   praised_, not used (2273)     |                                |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+


(2.) VERBS IN #-ēre#.

_The Second Conjugation._

794. #moneō#, _advise_.

  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                       PRINCIPAL PARTS.                           |
  |  PRES. INDIC.    PRES. INFIN.    PERF. INDIC.    PERF. PART.     |
  |     moneō           monēre          monuī          monitus       |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                           ACTIVE VOICE.                          |
  |                                                                  |
  |                         INDICATIVE MOOD.                         |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PRESENT TENSE.                          |
  |    Singular.                   |    Plural.                      |
  | moneō, _I advise_,             | monēmus, _we advise_,           |
  |   or _am advising_             |   or _are advising_             |
  | monēs, _thou advisest_,        | monētis, _you advise_,          |
  |   or _art advising_            |   or _are advising_             |
  | monet, _he advises_,           | monent, _they advise_,          |
  |   or _is advising_             |   or _are advising_             |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | monēbam, _I was advising_,     | monēbāmus, _we were advising_,  |
  |   or _I advised_               |   or _we advised_               |
  | monēbās, _thou wert advising_, | monēbātis, _you were advising_, |
  |   or _thou advisedst_          |   or _you advised_              |
  | monēbat, _he was advising_,    | monēbant, _they were advising_, |
  |   or _he advised_              |   or _they advised_             |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           FUTURE TENSE.                          |
  | monēbō, _I shall advise_       | monēbimus, _we shall advise_    |
  | monēbis, _thou wilt advise_    | monēbitis, _you will advise_    |
  | monēbit, _he will advise_      | monēbunt, _they will advise_    |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PERFECT TENSE.                          |
  | monuī, _I have advised_,       | monuimus, _we have advised_,    |
  |   or _I advised_               |   or _we advised_               |
  | monuistī, _thou hast advised_, | monuistis, _you have advised_,  |
  |   or _thou advisedst_          |   or _you advised_              |
  | monuit, _he has advised_,      | monuērunt or -re,               |
  |   or _he advised_              |   _they have advised_,          |
  |                                |   or _they advised_             |
  |                                                                  |
  |                        PLUPERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | monueram, _I had advised_      | monuerāmus, _we had advised_    |
  | monuerās, _thou hadst advised_ | monuerātis, _you had advised_   |
  | monuerat, _he had advised_     | monuerant, _they had advised_   |
  |                                                                  |
  |                      FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.                       |
  | monuerō,                       | monuerimus,                     |
  |   _I shall have advised_       |   _we shall have advised_       |
  | monueris,                      | monueritis,                     |
  |   _thou wilt have advised_     |   _you will have advised_       |
  | monuerit,                      | monuerint,                      |
  |   _he will have advised_       |   _they will have advised_      |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                         SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PRESENT TENSE.                          |
  |    Singular.                   |    Plural.                      |
  | moneam, _may I advise_         | moneāmus, _let us advise_       |
  | moneās, _mayst thou advise_    | moneātis, _may you advise_      |
  | moneat, _let him advise_       | moneant, _let them advise_      |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | monērem, _I should advise_     | monērēmus, _we should advise_   |
  | monērēs, _thou wouldst advise_ | monērētis, _you would advise_   |
  | monēret, _he would advise_     | monērent, _they would advise_   |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PERFECT TENSE.                          |
  | monuerim,                      | monuerīmus,                     |
  |   _I may have advised_         |   _we may have advised_         |
  | monuerīs,                      | monuerītis,                     |
  |   _thou mayst have advised_    |   _you may have advised_        |
  | monuerit,                      | monuerint,                      |
  |   _he may have advised_        |   _they may have advised_       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PLUPERFECT TENSE.                      |
  | monuissem,                     | monuissēmus,                    |
  |   _I should have advised_      |   _we should have advised_      |
  | monuissēs,                     | monuissētis,                    |
  |   _thou wouldst have advised_  |   _you would have advised_      |
  | monuisset,                     | monuissent,                     |
  |   _he would have advised_      |   _they would have advised_     |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           IMPERATIVE MOOD.                       |
  | monē or monētō, _advise_,      | monēte or monētōte, _advise_,   |
  |   _thou shalt advise_          |   _you shall advise_            |
  | monētō, _he shall advise_      | monentō, _they shall advise_    |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                       NOUNS OF THE VERB.                         |
  |                                                                  |
  |    INFINITIVE.                 |    PARTICIPLE.                  |
  | _Pres._ monēre,                | _Pres._ monēns,                 |
  |   _to advise_                  |   _advising_                    |
  | _Perf._ monuisse,              |                                 |
  |   _to have advised_            |                                 |
  | _Fut._  monitūrus esse,        | _Fut._  monitūrus,              |
  |   _to be going to advise_      |   _going to advise_             |
  |                                                                  |
  |    GERUND.                     |    SUPINE.                      |
  | _Gen._  monendī,               |                                 |
  |   _of advising_                |                                 |
  | _Dat._  monendō,               |                                 |
  |   _for advising_               |                                 |
  | _Acc._  monendum, _advising_   | _Acc._  *monitum, _to advise_,  |
  |                                |           not used              |
  | _Abl._  monendō, _by advising_ | _Abl._  monitū, _in advising_   |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+

  [Erratum:
  794 (table) ... _Acc._ monendum, _advising_
    . missing or invisible]


VERBS IN #-ēre#.

_The Second Conjugation._

795. #moneor#, _am advised_.

  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                            PASSIVE VOICE.                        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           INDICATIVE MOOD.                       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                            PRESENT TENSE.                        |
  |    Singular.                    |    Plural.                     |
  | moneor,                         | monēmur,                       |
  |   _I am advised_                |   _we are advised_             |
  | monēris or -re,                 | monēminī,                      |
  |   _thou art advised_            |   _you are advised_            |
  | monētur,                        | monentur,                      |
  |   _he is advised_               |   _they are advised_           |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | monēbar,                        | monēbāmur,                     |
  |   _I was advised_               |   _we were advised_            |
  | monēbāre or -ris,               | monēbāminī,                    |
  |   _thou wert advised_           |   _you were advised_           |
  | monēbātur,                      | monēbantur,                    |
  |   _he was advised_              |   _they were advised_          |
  |                                                                  |
  |                            FUTURE TENSE.                         |
  | monēbor,                        | monēbimur,                     |
  |   _I shall be advised_          |   _we shall be advised_        |
  | monēbere or -ris,               | monēbiminī,                    |
  |   _thou wilt be advised_        |   _you will be advised_        |
  | monēbitur,                      | monēbuntur,                    |
  |   _he will be advised_          |   _they will be advised_       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | monitus sum, _I have been_,     | monitī sumus, _we have been_,  |
  |   or _was advised_              |   or _were advised_            |
  | monitus es, _thou hast been_,   | monitī estis, _you have been_, |
  |   or _wert advised_             |   or _were advised_            |
  | monitus est, _he has been_,     | monitī sunt, _they have been_, |
  |   or _was advised_              |   or _were advised_            |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PLUPERFECT TENSE.                       |
  | monitus eram,                   | monitī erāmus,                 |
  |   _I had been advised_          |   _we had been advised_        |
  | monitus erās,                   | monitī erātis,                 |
  |   _thou hadst been advised_     |   _you had been advised_       |
  | monitus erat,                   | monitī erant,                  |
  |   _he had been advised_         |   _they had been advised_      |
  |                                                                  |
  |                        FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.                     |
  | monitus erō,                    | monitī erimus,                 |
  |   _I shall have been advised_   |   _we shall have been advised_ |
  | monitus eris,                   | monitī eritis,                 |
  |   _thou wilt have been advised_ |   _you will have been advised_ |
  | monitus erit,                   | monitī erunt, _they will       |
  |   _he will have been advised_   |   have been advised_           |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                          SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PRESENT TENSE.                         |
  |    Singular.                    |    Plural.                     |
  | monear,                         | moneāmur,                      |
  |   _may I be advised_            |   _may we be advised_          |
  | moneāre or -ris,                | moneāminī,                     |
  |   _mayst thou be advised_       |   _may you be advised_         |
  | moneātur,                       | moneantur,                     |
  |   _let him be advised_          |   _let them be advised_        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           IMPERFECT TENSE.                       |
  | monērer,                        | monērēmur,                     |
  |   _I should be advised_         |   _we should be advised_       |
  | monērēre or -ris,               | monērēminī,                    |
  |   _thou wouldst be advised_     |   _you would be advised_       |
  | monērētur,                      | monērentur,                    |
  |   _he would be advised_         |   _they would be advised_      |
  |                                                                  |
  |                            PERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | monitus sim,                    | monitī sīmus,                  |
  |   _I may have been advised_     |   _we may have been advised_   |
  | monitus sīs, _thou mayst        | monitī sītis,                  |
  |   have been advised_            |   _you may have been advised_  |
  | monitus sit,                    | monitī sint,                   |
  |   _he may have been advised_    |   _they may have been advised_ |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PLUPERFECT TENSE.                       |
  | monitus essem,                  | monitī essēmus, _we should     |
  |   _I should have been advised_  |   have been advised_           |
  | monitus essēs, _thou wouldst    | monitī essētis, _you would     |
  |   have been advised_            |   have been advised_           |
  | monitus esset,                  | monitī essent,  _they would    |
  |   _he would have been advised_  |   have been advised_           |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERATIVE MOOD.                        |
  | monēre or monētor,              | monēminī,                      |
  |   _be advised_,                 |   _be advised_                 |
  |   _thou shalt be advised_       |                                |
  | monētor,                        | monentor,                      |
  |   _he shall be advised_         |   _they shall be advised_      |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                         NOUNS OF THE VERB.                       |
  |                                                                  |
  |    INFINITIVE.                  |    GERUNDIVE.                  |
  | _Pres._ monērī,                 | monendus, _to be advised_      |
  |   _to be advised_               |                                |
  | _Perf._ monitus esse,           |    PERFECT PARTICIPLE.         |
  |   _to have been advised_        | monitus, _advised_             |
  | _Fut._  *monitum īrī,           |                                |
  |   _to be going to be            |                                |
  |   advised_, not used (2273)     |                                |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+


(3.) VERBS IN #-īre#.

_The Fourth Conjugation._

796. #audiō#, _hear_.

  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                         PRINCIPAL PARTS.                         |
  |  PRES. INDIC.    PRES. INFIN.    PERF. INDIC.    PERF. PART.     |
  |     audiō           audīre          audīvī         audītus       |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                            ACTIVE VOICE.                         |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          INDICATIVE MOOD.                        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PRESENT TENSE.                         |
  |    Singular.                    |    Plural.                     |
  | audiō, _I hear_,                | audīmus, _we hear_,            |
  |   or _am hearing_               |   or _are hearing_             |
  | audīs, _thou hearest_,          | audītis, _you hear_,           |
  |   or _art hearing_              |   or _are hearing_             |
  | audit, _he hears_,              | audiunt, _they hear_,          |
  |   or _is hearing_               |   or _are hearing_             |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | audiēbam, _I was hearing_,      | audiēbāmus, _we were hearing_, |
  |   or _I heard_                  |   or _we heard_                |
  | audiēbās, _thou wert hearing_,  | audiēbātis, _you were hearing_,|
  |   or _thou heardst_             |   or _you heard_               |
  | audiēbat, _he was hearing_,     | audiēbant, _they were hearing_,|
  |   or _he heard_                 |   or _they heard_              |
  |                                                                  |
  |                            FUTURE TENSE.                         |
  | audiam, _I shall hear_          | audiēmus, _we shall hear_      |
  | audiēs, _thou wilt hear_        | audiētis, _you will hear_      |
  | audiet, _he will hear_          | audient, _they will hear_      |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | audīvī, _I have heard_,         | audīvimus, _we have heard_,    |
  |   or _I heard_                  |   or _we heard_                |
  | audīvistī, _thou hast heard_,   | audīvistis, _you have heard_,  |
  |   or _thou heardst_             |   or _you heard_               |
  | audīvit, _he has heard_,        | audīvērunt or -re,             |
  |   or _he heard_                 |   _they have heard_,           |
  |                                 |   or _they heard_              |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PLUPERFECT TENSE.                       |
  | audīveram, _I had heard_        | audīverāmus, _we had heard_    |
  | audīverās, _thou hadst heard_   | audīverātis, _you had heard_   |
  | audīverat, _he had heard_       | audīverant, _they had heard_   |
  |                                                                  |
  |                        FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.                     |
  | audīverō,                       | audīverimus,                   |
  |   _I shall have heard_          |   _we shall have heard_        |
  | audīveris,                      | audīveritis,                   |
  |   _thou wilt have heard_        |   _you will have heard_        |
  | audīverit,                      | audīverint,                    |
  |   _he will have heard_          |   _they will have heard_       |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                          SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PRESENT TENSE.                         |
  |    Singular.                    |    Plural.                     |
  | audiam, _may I hear_            | audiāmus, _let us hear_        |
  | audiās, _mayst thou hear_       | audiātis, _may you hear_       |
  | audiat, _let him hear_          | audiant, _let them hear_       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | audīrem, _I should hear_        | audīrēmus, _we should hear_    |
  | audīrēs, _thou wouldst hear_    | audīrētis, _you would hear_    |
  | audīret, _he would hear_        | audīrent, _they would hear_    |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | audīverim,                      | audīverīmus,                   |
  |   _I may have heard_            |   _we may have heard_          |
  | audīverīs,                      | audīverītis,                   |
  |   _thou mayst have heard_       |   _you may have heard_         |
  | audīverit,                      | audīverint,                    |
  |   _he may have heard_           |   _they may have heard_        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PLUPERFECT TENSE.                       |
  | audīvissem,                     | audīvissēmus,                  |
  |   _I should have heard_         |   _we should have heard_       |
  | audīvissēs,                     | audīvissētis,                  |
  |   _thou wouldst have heard_     |   _you would have heard_       |
  | audīvisset,                     | audīvissent,                   |
  |   _he would have heard_         |   _they would have heard_      |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERATIVE MOOD.                        |
  | audī or audītō,                 | audīte or audītōte,            |
  |   _hear_, _thou shalt hear_     |   _hear_, _you shall hear_     |
  | audītō, _he shall hear_         | audiuntō, _they shall hear_    |
  |                                                                  |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                         NOUNS OF THE VERB.                       |
  |                                                                  |
  |    INFINITIVE.                  |    PARTICIPLE.                 |
  | _Pres._ audīre,                 | _Pres._ audiēns,               |
  |   _to hear_                     |   _hearing_                    |
  | _Perf._ audīvisse,              |                                |
  |   _to have heard_               |                                |
  | _Fut._  audītūrus esse,         | _Fut._  audītūrus,             |
  |   _to be going to hear_         |   _going to hear_              |
  |                                                                  |
  |    GERUND.                      |    SUPINE.                     |
  | _Gen._  audiendī, _of hearing_  |                                |
  | _Dat._  audiendō, _for hearing_ |                                |
  | _Acc._  audiendum, _hearing_    | _Acc._  audītum, _to hear_     |
  | _Abl._  audiendō, _by hearing_  | _Abl._  audītū, _in hearing_   |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+


VERBS IN #-īre#.

_The Fourth Conjugation._

797. #audior#, _am heard_.

  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                            PASSIVE VOICE.                        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           INDICATIVE MOOD.                       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PRESENT TENSE.                         |
  |    Singular.                    |    Plural.                     |
  | audior,                         | audīmur,                       |
  |   _I am heard_                  |   _we are heard_               |
  | audīris or -re,                 | audīminī,                      |
  |   _thou art heard_              |   _you are heard_              |
  | audītur,                        | audiuntur,                     |
  |   _he is heard_                 |   _they are heard_             |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | audiēbar,                       | audiēbāmur,                    |
  |   _I was heard_                 |   _we were heard_              |
  | audiēbāre or -ris,              | audiēbāminī,                   |
  |   _thou wert heard_             |   _you were heard_             |
  | audiēbātur,                     | audiēbantur,                   |
  |   _he was heard_                |   _they were heard_            |
  |                                                                  |
  |                            FUTURE TENSE.                         |
  | audiar,                         | audiēmur,                      |
  |   _I shall be heard_            |   _we shall be heard_          |
  | audiēre or -ris,                | audiēminī,                     |
  |   _thou wilt be heard_          |   _you will be heard_          |
  | audiētur,                       | audientur,                     |
  |   _he will be heard_            |   _they will be heard_         |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | audītus sum, _I have been_,     | audītī sumus, _we have been_,  |
  |   or _was heard_                |   or _were heard_              |
  | audītus es, _thou hast been_,   | audītī estis, _you have        |
  |   or _wert heard_               |   been_, or _were heard_       |
  | audītus est, _he has been_,     | audītī sunt, _they have        |
  |   or _was heard_                |   been_, or _were heard_       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PLUPERFECT TENSE.                       |
  | audītus eram,                   | audītī erāmus,                 |
  |   _I had been heard_            |   _we had been heard_          |
  | audītus erās,                   | audītī erātis,                 |
  |   _thou hadst been heard_       |   _you had been heard_         |
  | audītus erat,                   | audītī erant,                  |
  |   _he had been heard_           |   _they had been heard_        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                        FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.                     |
  | audītus erō,                    | audītī erimus,                 |
  |   _I shall have been heard_     |   _we shall have been heard_   |
  | audītus eris,                   | audītī eritis,                 |
  |   _thou wilt have been heard_   |   _you will have been heard_   |
  | audītus erit,                   | audītī erunt,                  |
  |   _he will have been heard_     |   _they will have been heard_  |
  |                                                                  |
  +----------------------------------------------------------------- +
  |                          SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                       |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PRESENT TENSE.                         |
  |    Singular.                    |    Plural.                     |
  | audiar, _may I be heard_        | audiāmur, _may we be heard_    |
  | audiāre or -ris,                | audiāminī, _may you be heard_  |
  |   _mayst thou be heard_         |                                |
  | audiātur, _let him be heard_    | audiantur, _let them be heard_ |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERFECT TENSE.                        |
  | audīrer,                        | audīrēmur,                     |
  |   _I should be heard_           |   _we should be heard_         |
  | audīrēre or -ris,               | audīrēminī,                    |
  |   _thou wouldst be heard_       |   _you would be heard_         |
  | audīrētur,                      | audīrentur,                    |
  |   _he would be heard_           |   _they would be heard_        |
  |                                                                  |
  |                           PERFECT TENSE.                         |
  | audītus sim,                    | audītī sīmus,                  |
  |   _I may have been heard_       |   _we may have been heard_     |
  | audītus sīs,                    | audītī sītis,                  |
  |   _thou mayst have been heard_  |   _you may have been heard_    |
  | audītus sit,                    | audītī sint,                   |
  |   _he may have been heard_      |   _they may have been heard_   |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          PLUPERFECT TENSE.                       |
  | audītus essem,                  | audītī essēmus,                |
  |   _I should have been heard_    |   _we should have been heard_  |
  | audītus essēs, _thou wouldst    | audītī essētis,                |
  |   have been heard_              |   _you would have been heard_  |
  | audītus esset,                  | audītī essent, _they would     |
  |   _he would have been heard_    |   have been heard_             |
  |                                                                  |
  |                          IMPERATIVE MOOD.                        |
  | audīre or audītor,  _be heard_, | audīminī, _be heard_           |
  |   _thou shalt be heard_         |                                |
  | audītor,                        | audiuntor,                     |
  |   _he shall be heard_           |   _they shall be heard_        |
  |                                                                  |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                        NOUNS OF THE VERB.                        |
  |                                                                  |
  |    INFINITIVE.                  |    GERUNDIVE.                  |
  | _Pres._ audīrī,                 | audiendus, _to be heard_       |
  |   _to be heard_                 |                                |
  | _Perf._ audītus esse,           |    PERFECT PARTICIPLE.         |
  |   _to have been heard_          | audītus, _heard_               |
  | _Fut._  audītum īrī,            |                                |
  |   _to be going to be heard_     |                                |
  |   (2273)                        |                                |
  +------------------------------------------------------------------+


THE DEPONENT VERB.

798. Deponents, that is, verbs with passive person endings and a
reflexive or an active meaning (725), have these active noun forms:
participles, the future infinitive, the gerund, and the supines. The
perfect participle is usually active, but sometimes passive; the
gerundive always passive. The following is a synopsis of deponents:

  +------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                          PRINCIPAL PARTS.                        |
  |                                                                  |
  |           queror, _complain_, querī, questus                     |
  |             mīror, _wonder_, mīrārī, mīrātus                     |
  |               vereor, _fear_,  verērī,  veritus                  |
  |                 partior, _share_, partīrī, partītus              |
  +---------+--------------------------------------------------------+
  |         | I. -ī         II. (1.) -ārī (2.) -ērī     (3.) -īrī    |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                    INDICATIVE MOOD.                    |
  | _Pres._ | queror      | mīror       | vereor      | partior      |
  | _Imp._  | querēbar    | mīrābar     | verēbar     | partiēbar    |
  | _Fut._  | querar      | mīrābor     | verēbor     | partiar      |
  | _Perf._ | questus sum | mīrātus sum | veritus sum | partītus sum |
  | _Plup._ | questus     | mīrātus     | veritus     | partītus     |
  |         |   eram      |   eram      |   eram      |   eram       |
  | _F. P._ | questus erō | mīrātus erō | veritus erō | partītus erō |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                    SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                   |
  | _Pres._ | querar      | mīrer       | verear      | partiar      |
  | _Imp._  | quererer    | mīrārer     | verērer     | partīrer     |
  | _Perf._ | questus sim | mīrātus sim | veritus sim | partītus sim |
  | _Plup._ | questus     | mīrātus     | veritus     | partītus     |
  |         |   essem     |   essem     |   essem     |   essem      |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                    IMPERATIVE MOOD.                    |
  |         | querere     | mīrāre      | verēre      | partīre      |
  +---------+--------------------------------------------------------+
  |         |                     PARTICIPLES.                       |
  | _Pres._ | querēns     | mīrāns      | verēns      | partiēns     |
  | _Perf._ | questus     | mīrātus     | veritus     | partītus     |
  | _Fut._  | questūrus   | mīrātūrus   | veritūrus   | partītūrus   |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                      INFINITIVE.                       |
  | _Pres._ | querī       | mīrārī      | verērī      | partīrī      |
  | _Perf._ | questus     | mīrātus     | veritus     | partītus     |
  |         |   esse      |   esse      |   esse      |   esse       |
  | _Fut._  | questūrus   | mīrātūrus   | veritūrus   | partītūrus   |
  |         |   esse      |   esse      |   esse      |   esse       |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                 GERUND AND GERUNDIVE.                  |
  | _Gen._  | querendī,   | mīrandī,    | verendī,    | partiendī,   |
  |         |   &c.       |   &c.       |   &c.       |   &c.        |
  |         | querendus   | mīrandus    | verendus    | partiendus   |
  |         |                                                        |
  |         |                        SUPINE.                         |
  | _Acc._  | questum     | *mīrātum    | *veritum    | *partītum    |
  | _Abl._  | *questū     | mīrātū      | *veritū     | *partītū     |
  +---------+--------------------------------------------------------+

799. Three deponents in #-ior#, #-ī#, #gradior#, _walk_, #morior#,
_die_, and #patior#, _suffer_, and their compounds, have a present
system like the passive of #capiō# (784). But #adgredior# and
#prōgredior# and #morior# and #ēmorior# have sometimes the forms of
verbs in #-īrī#; for these, and for #orior#, _arise_, #orīrī#, #ortus#,
and #potior#, _become master of_, #potīrī#, #potītus#, see 791. By far
the largest number of deponents are verbs in #-ārī#, like #mīror#,
#mīrārī# (368).

800. Some verbs waver between active and passive person endings: as,
#adsentiō#, _agree_, #adsentīre#, and #adsentior#, #adsentīrī#;
#populō#, _ravage_, #populāre#, and #populor#, #populārī#: see 1481.

801. A few verbs are deponent in the present system only: as,
#dēvortor#, _turn in_, perfect #dēvortī#; #revortor#, _turn back_,
perfect #revortī#, but with active perfect participle #revorsus#. Four
are deponent in the perfect system only: #fīdō#, _trust_, #fīdere#,
#fīsus#, and the compounds, #cōnfīdō#, #diffīdō#; and #audeō#, _dare_,
#audēre#, #ausus#, #gaudeō#, _feel glad_, #gaudēre#, #gāvīsus#, and
#soleō#, _am used_, #solēre#, #solitus#. Most impersonals in #-ēre# have
both an active and a deponent form in the perfect system: see 815, 816.


PERIPHRASTIC FORMS.

802. (1.) The future active participle with a form of #sum# is used to
denote an intended or future action: as,


#rēctūrus sum#, _I am going to rule_, _intend to rule_.

  +---------+----------------------------------------+
  |         |            INDICATIVE MOOD.            |
  |         |    Singular.      |    Plural.         |
  | _Pres._ | rēctūrus sum,     | rēctūrī sumus,     |
  |         |          es,      |         estis,     |
  |         |          est      |         sunt       |
  | _Imp._  | rēctūrus eram,    | rēctūrī erāmus,    |
  |         |          erās,    |         erātis,    |
  |         |          erat     |         erant      |
  | _Fut._  | rēctūrus erō,     | rēctūrī erimus,    |
  |         |          eris,    |         eritis,    |
  |         |          erit     |         erunt      |
  | _Perf._ | rēctūrus fuī,     | rēctūrī fuimus,    |
  |         |          fuistī,  |         fuistis,   |
  |         |          fuit     |         fuērunt    |
  | _Plup._ | rēctūrus fueram,  | rēctūrī fuerāmus,  |
  |         |          fuerās,  |         fuerātis,  |
  |         |          fuerat   |         fuerant    |
  |         |                                        |
  |         |            SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.           |
  | _Pres._ | rēctūrus sim,     | rēctūrī sīmus,     |
  |         |          sīs,     |         sītis,     |
  |         |          sit      |         sint       |
  | _Imp._  | rēctūrus essem,   | rēctūrī essēmus,   |
  |         |          essēs,   |         essētis,   |
  |         |          esset    |         essent     |
  | _Perf._ | rēctūrus fuerim,  | rēctūrī fuerīmus,  |
  |         |          fuerīs,  |         fuerītis,  |
  |         |          fuerit   |         fuerint    |
  | _Plup._ | rēctūrus fuissem, | rēctūrī fuissēmus, |
  |         |          fuissēs, |         fuissētis, |
  |         |          fuisset  |         fuissent   |
  +---------+----------------------------------------+
  |         |    INFINITIVE.    |                    |
  | _Pres._ | rēctūrus esse     |                    |
  | _Perf._ | rēctūrus fuisse   |                    |
  +---------+----------------------------------------+

803. A future perfect is hardly ever used: as, #fuerit victūrus# (Sen.).
In the imperfect subjunctive, #forem#, #forēs#, #foret#, and #forent#
are sometimes used (Nep., Sall., Liv., Vell.).

804. (2.) The gerundive with a form of #sum# is used to denote action
which requires to be done: as,

#regendus sum#, _I am to be ruled_, _must be ruled_.

  +---------+----------------------------------------+
  |         |            INDICATIVE MOOD.            |
  |         |    Singular.      |    Plural.         |
  | _Pres._ | regendus sum,     | regendī sumus,     |
  |         |          es,      |         estis,     |
  |         |          est      |         sunt       |
  | _Imp._  | regendus eram,    | regendī erāmus,    |
  |         |          erās,    |         erātis,    |
  |         |          erat     |         erant      |
  | _Fut._  | regendus erō,     | regendī erimus,    |
  |         |          eris,    |         eritis,    |
  |         |          erit     |         erunt      |
  | _Perf._ | regendus fuī,     | regendī fuimus,    |
  |         |          fuistī,  |         fuistis,   |
  |         |          fuit     |         fuērunt    |
  | _Plup._ | regendus fueram,  | regendī fuerāmus,  |
  |         |          fuerās,  |         fuerātis,  |
  |         |          fuerat   |         fuerant    |
  |         |                                        |
  |         |            SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.           |
  | _Pres._ | regendus sim,     | regendī sīmus,     |
  |         |          sīs,     |         sītis,     |
  |         |          sit      |         sint       |
  | _Imp._  | regendus essem,   | regendī essēmus,   |
  |         |          essēs,   |         essētis,   |
  |         |          esset    |         essent     |
  | _Perf._ | regendus fuerim,  | regendī fuerīmus,  |
  |         |          fuerīs,  |         fuerītis,  |
  |         |          fuerit   |         fuerint    |
  | _Plup._ | regendus fuissem, | regendī fuissēmus, |
  |         |          fuissēs, |         fuissētis, |
  |         |          fuisset  |         fuissent   |
  +---------+----------------------------------------+
  |         |    INFINITIVE.    |                    |
  | _Pres._ | regendus esse     |                    |
  | _Perf._ | regendus fuisse   |                    |
  +---------+----------------------------------------+

  [Erratum:
  804 (table) ... SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
    . missing or invisible]


DEFECTIVE VERBS.

805. (1.) Some verbs have only a few forms: as,

#inquam#, _quoth I_ (760); #aiō#, _avouch_ (786). See also #apage#,
_avaunt_, _get thee behind me_, #cedo#, _give_, _tell_, #fārī#, _to lift
up one’s voice_, #havē̆# or #avē̆# and #salvē#, _all hail_, #ovat#,
_triumphs_, and #quaesō#, _prithee_, in the dictionary.

806. (2.) Many verbs have only the present system; such are:

807. (_a._) #sum#, _am_ (745); #ferō#, _carry_ (780); #fīō#, _grow_,
_become_ (788).

808. (_b._) Some verbs in #-ere#: #angō#, _throttle_, #bītō#, _go_,
#clangō#, _sound_, #claudō# or #claudeō#, _hobble_, #fatīscō#, _gape_,
#glīscō#, _wax_, #glūbō#, _peel_, #hīscō#, _gape_, #temnō#, _scorn_,
#vādō#, _go_, #vergō#, _slope_. Also many inceptives (834): as,
#dītēscō#, _get rich_, #dulcēscō#, _get sweet_, &c., &c.

809. (_c._) Some verbs in #-ēre#: #albeō#, _am white_, #aveō#, _long_,
#calveō#, _am bald_, #cāneō#, _am gray_, #clueō#, _am called_, _hight_,
#flāveō#, _am yellow_, #hebeō#, _am blunt_, #immineō#, _threaten_,
#lacteō#, _suck_, #līveō#, _look dark_, #maereō#, _mourn_, #polleō#, _am
strong_, #renīdeō#, _am radiant_, #squāleō#, _am scaly_, #ūmeō#, _am
wet_.

810. (_d._) Some verbs in #-īre#: #balbūtiō#, _sputter_, #feriō#,
_strike_, #ganniō#, _yelp_, #ineptiō#, _am a fool_, #superbiō#, _am
stuck up_, #tussiō#, _cough_. Also most desideratives (375).

811. Many verbs are not attended by a perfect participle, and lack in
consequence the perfect passive system, or, if deponent, the perfect
active system.

812. (3.) Some verbs have only the perfect system: so particularly
#coepī#, _have begun_, _began_ (120); and with a present meaning, #ōdī#,
_have come to hate_, _hate_; and #meminī#, _have called to mind_,
_remember_. The following is a synopsis of these three verbs:

  +---------+----------------------------------------------------+
  |         |                   INDICATIVE MOOD.                 |
  |         | Active.    Passive.       | Active.    Active.     |
  | _Perf._ | coepī      coeptus sum    | ōdī      | meminī      |
  | _Plup._ | coeperam   coeptus eram   | ōderam   | memineram   |
  | _F. P._ | coeperō    coeptus erō    | ōderō    | meminerō    |
  |         |                                                    |
  |         |                   SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.                |
  | _Perf._ | coeperim   coeptus sim    | ōderim   | meminerim   |
  | _Plup._ | coepissem  coeptus essem  | ōdissem  | meminissem  |
  |         |                                                    |
  |         |                   IMPERATIVE MOOD.                 |
  | _Perf._ | ----       ----           | ----     | mementō,    |
  |         |                           |          | mementōte   |
  +---------+----------------------------------------------------+
  |         |                     INFINITIVE.                    |
  | _Perf._ | coepisse   coeptus esse   | ōdisse   | meminisse   |
  |         |                                                    |
  |         |                     PARTICIPLES.                   |
  | _Perf._ |            coeptus        | ----     | ----        |
  | _Fut._  | coeptūrus                 | ōsūrus   | ----        |
  +---------+----------------------------------------------------+

813. A few forms of the present system of #coepī# occur in old writers:
as, #coepiō# (Plaut.), #coepiam# (Caec., Cato), #coepiat# (Plaut.),
#coeperet# (Ter.), and #coepere# (Plaut.); perfect once #coēpit#
(Lucr.). #ōsus sum# or #fuī# (Plaut., C. Gracch., Gell.), #exōsus sum#
(Verg., Sen., Curt., Gell.), and #perōsus sum# (Suet., Col., Quint.),
are sometimes used as deponents. #meminī# is the only verb which has a
perfect imperative active. #ōdī# and #meminī# have no passive.

814. #coeptūrus# is rather rare and late (Liv. 2, Plin., Suet.), once as
future infinitive (Quint.); and #ōsūrus# is very rare (Cic., Gell.).
#exōsus# and #perōsus#, as active participles, _hating bitterly_, are
not uncommon in writers of the empire; the simple #ōsus# is not used as
a participle.

815. (4.) Impersonal verbs have usually only the third person singular,
and the infinitive present and perfect: as,

(_a._) #pluit#, _it rains_, #tonat#, _it thunders_, and other verbs
denoting the operations of nature. (_b._) Also a few verbs in #-ēre#
denoting feeling: as, #miseret# (or #miserētur#, #miserēscit#), _it
distresses_, #miseritum est#; #paenitet#, _it repents_, #paenituit#;
#piget#, _it grieves_, #piguit# or #pigitum est#; #pudet#, _it shames_,
#puduit# or #puditum est#; #taedet#, _it is a bore_, #taesum est#.

816. Some other verbs, less correctly called impersonal, with an
infinitive or a sentence as subject, are likewise defective: as,

#lubet# or #libet#, _it suits_, #lubitum# or #libitum est#, #lubuit# or
#libuit#; #licet#, _it is allowed_, #licuit# or #licitum est#;
#oportet#, _it is proper_, #oportuit#; #rē fert# or #rēfert#, _it
concerns_, #rē ferre# or #rēferre#, #rē tulit# or #rētulit#. For the
impersonal use of the third person singular passive, as #pugnātur#,
_there is fighting_, #pugnandum est#, _there must be fighting_, see 724.

817. Of the impersonals in #-ēre#, some have other forms besides the
third person singular and the infinitives: as,

#paenitēns#, _repenting_, #paenitendus#, _to be regretted_, late;
#pigendus#, _irksome_; #pudēns#, _modest_, #pudendus#, _shameful_,
#puditūrum#, _going to shame_; #lubēns# or #libēns#, _with willing
mind_, _gladly_, very common indeed; imperative LICETO, _be it allowed_
(inscrr. 133-111 B.C.), #licēns#, _unrestrained_, #licitus#,
_allowable_; gerunds #pudendum#, #pudendō#, #pigendum#.

  [Erratum (in table):
  812 (table) ... ōdī
    ōdi]


REDUNDANT VERBS.

818. (1.) Some verbs have more than one form of the present stem: thus,

819. (_a._) Verbs in #-ere# have rarely forms of verbs in #-ēre# in the
present system: as, #abnueō#, _nod no_, #abnuēbunt# (Enn.), for #abnuō#,
#abnuent#; #congruēre#, _to agree_ (Ter.), for #congruere#. For verbs in
#-iō#, #-ere# (or #-ior#, #-ī#), with forms of verbs in #-īre#
(or #-īrī#), see 791. Once #pīnsībant# (Enn.).

820. (_b._) Some verbs in #-āre# have occasionally a present stem like
verbs in #-ere#: as, #lavis#, _washest_, #lavit#, &c., for #lavās#,
#lavat#, &c.; #sonit#, _sounds_, #sonunt#, for #sonat#, #sonant#. Others
have occasionally a present stem like verbs in #-ēre#: as, _dēnseō_,
_thicken_, _dēnsērī_, for _dēnsō_, #dēnsārī#.

821. (_c._) Some verbs in #-ēre# have occasionally a present stem like
verbs in #-ere#: as, #fervit#, _boils_, #fervont#, for #fervet#,
#fervent#. See also #fulgeō#, #oleō#, #scateō#, #strīdeō#, #tergeō#,
#tueor# in the dictionary. #cieō#, _set a going_, sometimes has a
present stem in #-īre#, particularly in compounds: as, #cīmus#, #ciunt#,
for #ciēmus#, #cient#.

822. (_d._) Some verbs in #-īre# have occasionally a present stem like
verbs in #-ere#: as, #ēvenunt#, _turn out_, for #ēveniunt#; #ēvenat#,
#ēvenant#, for #ēveniat#, #ēveniant#, and #advenat#, #pervenat#, for
#adveniat#, #perveniat# (Plaut.).

823. (2.) Some verbs have more than one form of the perfect stem: as,

#eō#, _go_, old #īī# (765), common #iī#, rarely #īvī# (767); #pluit#,
_it rains_, #pluit#, sometimes #plūvit#. See also #pangō#, #parcō#,
#clepō#, #vollō# or #vellō#, #intellegō#, #pōnō#, #nectō#, and
#adnectō#, #saliō# and #īnsiliō#, #applicō#, #explicō# and #implicō#,
#dīmicō# and #necō# in the dictionary. Some compound verbs have a form
of the perfect which is different from that of the simple verb: as,
#canō#, _make music_, #cecinī#, #concinuī#, #occinuī#; #pungō#, _punch_,
#pupugī#, #compunxī#, #expunxī#; #legō#, _pick up_, #lēgī#, #dīlēxī#,
#intellēxī#, #neglēxī#; #emō#, _take_, _buy_, #ēmī# (#adēmī#, #exēmī#),
#cōmpsī#, #dēmpsī#, #prōmpsī#, #sūmpsī#.


FORMATION OF STEMS.


VARIABLE VOWEL.

824. The final vowel of a tense stem is said to be _variable_ when it is
#-o-# in some of the forms, and #-u-#, #-e-#, or #-i-# in others.

825. The sign for the variable vowel is #{-o|e-}#: thus, #reg{o|e-}#,
which may be read ‘#rego-# or #rege-#,’ represents #rego-# or #regu-#,
#rege-# or #regi-#, as seen in #rego-r# or #regu-nt#, #rege-re# or
#regi-t#.

826. The variable vowel occurs in the present of verbs in #-ere#, except
in the subjunctive, in the future in #-bō# or #-bor#, and in the future
perfect, as may be seen in the paradigms. It is usually short; but in
the active, #o# is long: as, #regō#, #laudābō#, #laudāverō#; and poets
rarely lengthen #i# in the second and third person singular of the
present. For the future perfect, see 882.

827. In old Latin, the stem vowel of the third person plural of the
present was #o#: as, COSENTIONT; #o# was long retained after #v#, #u#,
or #qu# (107, _c_): as, #vīvont#, #ruont#, #sequontur#; or, if #o# was
not retained, #qu# became #c#: as, #secuntur#.


I. THE PRESENT SYSTEM.


PRESENT INDICATIVE STEM.


I. PRIMITIVES.


(A.) ROOT VERBS.

828. A root without addition is used as the present stem, in the present
tense or parts of the present tense, in root verbs (744-781): as,

#es-t#, _is_; #da-t#, _gives_; #inqui-t#, _quoth he_; #i-t#, _goes_;
#nequi-t#, _can’t_; #ēs-t#, _eats_; #vol-t#, _will_; #fer-t#, _carries_.
With reduplicated root (189): #bibi-t#, _drinks_; #seri-t#, _sows_;
#sisti-t#, _sets_.


(B.) VERBS IN #-ere#.

829. (1.) The present stem of many verbs in #-ere# is formed by adding a
variable vowel #{-o|e-}#, which appears in the first person singular
active as #-ō#, to a root ending in a consonant or in two consonants:
as,

  PRESENT STEM.  VERB.          FROM THEME.
  reg{o|e-}      regō, _guide_  +reg-+
  vert{o|e-}     vertō, _turn_  +vert-+

Other examples are: #tegō#, _cover_, #petō#, _make for_; #mergō#, _dip_,
#serpō#, _creep_; #pendō#, _weigh_; #dīcō#, _say_, #fīdō#, _trust_,
#scrībō#, _write_, with long #ī# for #ei# (98); #dūcō#, _lead_, with
long #ū# for #eu#, #ou# (100); #lūdō#, _play_, with long #ū# for #oi#,
#oe# (99); #laedō#, _hit_, #claudō#, _shut_; #rādō#, _scrape_, #cēdō#,
_move along_, #fīgō#, _fix_, #rōdō#, _gnaw_, #glūbō#, _peel_. #*furō#,
_rave_; #agō#, _drive_, #alō#, _nurture_. #gignō#, _beget_, (#gen-#,
#gn-#), has reduplication, and #sīdō#, _settle_, _light_ (#sed-#,
#sd-#), is also the result of an ancient reduplication (189).

830. In some present stems an original consonant has been modified:
as, #gerō#, _carry_ (#ges-#), #ūrō#, _burn_ (154); #trahō#, _draw_
(#tragh-#), #vehō#, _cart_ (152); or has disappeared: as, #fluō#, _flow_
(#flūgu-#).

831. Some roots in a mute have a nasal before the mute in the present
stem: as, #frangō#, _break_ (#frag-#). Other examples are: #iungō#,
_join_, #linquō#, _leave_, #pangō#, _fix_, #pingō#, _paint_; #findō#,
_cleave_, #fundō#, _pour_; #-cumbō#, _lie_, #lambō#, _lick_, #rumpō#,
_break_ (164, 3). The nasal sometimes runs over into the perfect or
perfect participle, or both.

832. (2.) The present stem of many verbs in #-ere# is formed by adding a
suffix ending in a variable vowel #{-o|e-}#, which appears in the first
person singular active as #-ō#, to a root: thus, #-nō#, #-scō#, #-tō#,
#-iō#: as,

  PRESENT STEM.  VERB.            FROM THEME.
  lin{o|e-}      linō, _besmear_  +li-+
  crēsc{o|e-}    crēscō, _grow_   +crē-+
  pect{o|e-}     pectō, _comb_    +pec-+
  capi{o|e-}     capiō, _take_    +cap-+

833. (_a._) #-nō# is added to roots in a vowel, or in a continuous
sound, #-m-#, #-r-#, or #-l-#.

So regularly #linō#, _besmear_, #sinō#, _let_; #temnō#, _scorn_,
#cernō#, _sift_, #spernō#, _spurn_, only. The third persons plural
#danunt# (Naev., Plaut.) for #dant#, #prōdīnunt#, #redīnunt# (Enn.) for
#prōdeunt#, #redeunt# hardly belong here; their formation is obscure. In
a few verbs, #-n# is assimilated (166, 6): as, #tollō#, _lift_.
Sometimes the doubled #l# runs into the perfect (855): as, #vellī#,
#fefellī#. #minuō#, _lessen_, and #sternuō#, _sneeze_, have a longer
suffix #-nu{o|e-}#.

834. (_b._) #-scō#, usually meaning ‘_begin to_,’ forms presents called
_Inceptives_ or _Inchoatives_.

#-scō# is attached: first, to roots: as, #nāscor#, _am born_, #nōscō#,
_learn_, #pāscō#, _feed_, #scīscō#, _resolve_; consonant roots have #ī#,
less commonly #ē#, before the suffix: as, #tremīscō# or #tremēscō#,
_fall a-trembling_, #nancīscor#, _get_ (831); but #discō#, _learn_
(170, 1), and #poscō#, _demand_ (170, 10), are shortened; see 168.
Secondly, to a form of the present stem of denominative verbs,
especially of those in #-ēre#: as, #clārēscō#, _brighten_; the stem is
often assumed only, as in #inveterāscō#, _grow old_, #mātūrēscō#, _get
ripe_. Many inceptives are used only in composition: as, #extimēscō#,
_get scared_, #obdormīscō#, _drop asleep_.

835. (_c._) #-tō# occurs in the following presents from guttural roots:
#flectō#, _turn_, #nectō#, _string_, #pectō#, _comb_, #plector#, _am
struck_, #amplector#, _hug_, #complector#, _clasp_. From a lingual root
#vid-#, comes #vīsō#, _go to see_, _call on_ (153). From vowel roots:
#bētō# or #bītō#, _go_, and #metō#, _mow_.

836. (_d._) #-iō# is usually added to consonant roots with a short
vowel; the following have presents formed by this suffix:

#capiō#, _take_, #cupiō#, _want_, #faciō#, _make_, #fodiō#, _dig_,
#fugiō#, _run away_, #iaciō#, _throw_, #pariō#, _bring forth_, #quatiō#,
_shake_, #rapiō#, _seize_, #sapiō#, _have sense_, and their compounds;
the compounds of #*laciō#, _lure_, and #speciō# or #spiciō#, _spy_, and
the deponents #gradior#, _step_, #morior#, _die_, and #patior#,
_suffer_, and their compounds. For occasional forms like those of verbs
in #-īre# (or #-īrī#), see 791. For #aiō#, see 786; for #fīō#, 788.

837. A few present stems are formed by adding a variable vowel
#{-o|e-}#, for an older #-i{o|e-}#, to a vowel root: as,

#ruō#, _tumble down_, #rui-s#, #rui-t#, #rui-mus#, #rui-tis#, #ruu-nt#
(114). Vowel roots in #-ā-#, #-ē-#, or #-ī-# have a present stem like
that of denominatives: as, #stō#, _stand_, #stā-s#, #sta-t#, #stā-mus#,
#stā-tis#, #sta-nt#; #fleō#, _weep_, #flē-s#, #fle-t#, #flē-mus#,
#flē-tis#, #fle-nt#; #neō#, _spin_, has once #neu-nt# for #ne-nt#
(Tib.); #sciō#, _know_, #scī-s#, #sci-t#, #scī-mus#, #scī-tis#,
#sciu-nt#.

838. Most present stems formed by adding the suffix #-iō# to a root
ending in #-l-#, #-r-#, or #-n-#, and all formed by adding #-iō# to a
long syllable, have the form of denominatives in #-īre# in the present
system: as, #saliō#, _leap_, #salīre#, #aperiō#, _open_, #aperīre#,
#veniō#, _come_, #venīre#; #farciō#, _cram_, #farcīre#.

  [Errata:
  830 ... (#tragh-#) ... (#flūgu-#).
    In these two roots, the pairs “gh” and “gu” are printed together,
    while the other letters of the root are spaced as usual.
  834 ... less commonly #ē#, before the suffix
    #ē#. before
  835 ... #pectō#, _comb_
    #pectō# _comb_]


II. DENOMINATIVES.

839. The present stem of denominatives is formed by attaching a variable
vowel #{-o|e-}#, for an older #-i{o|e-}#, to a theme consisting of a
noun stem: as,

  UNCONTRACTED PRESENT STEM.  VERB.              FROM THEME.
  cēna{o|e-}                  cēnō, _dine_       cēnā-
  flōre{o|e-}                 flōreō, _blossom_  flōre-
  vesti{o|e-}                 vestiō, _dress_    vesti-
  acu{o|e-}                   acuō, _point_      acu-

The noun stem ending is often slightly modified in forming the theme:
thus, #laud-# becomes #laudā-# in #laudō# for #*laudā-ō#, and #flōr-#
becomes #flōre-# in #flōre-ō#.

840. In many of the forms, the final vowel of the theme is contracted
with the variable vowel: as,

#plantō#, #plantās# (118, 3) for #*plantāi̭ō#, #*plantāi̭es# (153, 2);
#monēs# for #*monēi̭es# (118, 1), #audīs# for #*audīi̭es# (118, 3). The
long #ā#, #ē#, or #ī#, is regularly shortened in some of the forms: as,
#scit#, #arat#, #habet#, for Plautine #scīt#, #arāt#, #habēt#. In a few
forms no contraction occurs: as, #moneō#, #audiō#, #audiu-nt#,
#audie-ntis#, &c., #audie-ndus#, &c. (114). Denominatives from stems in
#-u-#, as #acuō#, are not contracted, and so have the forms of verbs in
#-ere# (367).


PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE.

841. The suffix of the present subjunctive of #sum#, _am_, is #-ī-#,
which becomes #-i-# before #-m#, #-t#, and #-nt#: #si-m#, #sī-s#,
#si-t#, #sī-mus#, #sī-tis#, #si-nt# (35, 2, 3). So also in the singular
and in the third person plural, #dui-m#, &c. (756), and #edi-m#, &c.
(769), and in all the persons, #veli-m#, &c. (#nōli-m#, &c., #māli-m#,
&c.). An old suffix is #-iē-# (#-ie-#), in #sie-m#, #siē-s#, #sie-t#,
and #sie-nt#.

842. (1.) The present subjunctive stem of verbs in #-ere#, #-ēre#, and
#-īre#, ends in #-ā-#, which becomes #-a-# in some of the persons; this
suffix replaces the variable vowel of the indicative: as,

#rega-m#, #regā-s#, #rega-t#, #regā-mus#, #regā-tis#, #rega-nt#;
#capia-m#, #capiā-s#, &c.; #monea-m#, #moneā-s#, &c.; #audia-m#,
#audiā-s#, &c. #ea-m#, #quea-m#, #fera-m#, and the old #fua-m# (750),
also have the formative subjunctive vowel.

843. (2.) The present subjunctive stem of verbs in #-āre# ends in #-ē-#,
which becomes #-e-# in some of the persons: as,

#laude-m#, #laudē-s#, #laude-t#, #laudē-mus#, #laudē-tis#, #laude-nt#.
#dō#, _give_, also has #de-m#, #dē-s#, &c.

  [Erratum:
  842 ... #monea-m#, #moneā-s#, &c.;
    . missing]


IMPERATIVE.

844. Root verbs have a root as imperative stem (745-780): as, #es#, &c.,
#fer#, &c. But the imperative of #nōlō# has a stem in #-ī-#, like verbs
in #-īre#: thus, #nōlī#, #nōlī-tō#, #nōlī-te#, #nōlī-tōte#.

845. The imperative stem of verbs in #-ere#, and of verbs in #-āre#,
#-ēre#, and #-īre#, is the same as that of the indicative: as,

#rege#, #regi-tō#, #regu-ntō#, #rege-re#; #cape#, #capi-tō#,
#capiu-ntō#; #fī#; #laudā#, &c.; #monē#, &c.; #audī#, &c.

846. The second person singular imperative active of #dīcō#, #dūcō#, and
#faciō#, is usually #dīc#, #dūc#, and #fac#, respectively, though the
full forms, #dīce#, &c., are also used, and are commoner in old Latin.
Compounds of #dūcō# may have the short form: as, #ēdūc#. #ingerō# has
once #inger# (Catull.). #sciō# has regularly the singular #scī-tō#,
plural #scī-tōte#, rarely #scī-te#.


IMPERFECT INDICATIVE.

847. The imperfect indicative stem ends in #-bā-#, which becomes #-ba-#
in some of the persons: as,

#daba-m#, #dabā-s#, #daba-t#, #dabā-mus#, #dabā-tis#, #daba-nt#;
#ība-m#; #quība-m#. In verbs in #-ere# and #-ēre#, the suffix is
preceded by a form ending in #-ē-#: as, #regēba-m#; #monēba-m#; so also
#volēba-m# (#nōlēba-m#, #mālēba-m#), and #ferēba-m#; in verbs in #-iō#,
#-ere#, and in #-iō#, #-īre#, by a form ending in #-iē-#: as,
#capiēba-m#; #audiēba-m#; in verbs in #-āre#, by one ending in #-ā-#:
as, #laudāba-m#. In verse, verbs in #-īre# sometimes have #-ī-# before
the suffix (Plaut., Ter., Catull., Lucr., Verg., &c.): as, #audība-t#.
#āiō#, _say_, has sometimes #a͡iba-m#, &c. (787).

848. The suffix of the imperfect indicative of #sum#, _am_, is #-ā-#,
which becomes #-a-# before #-m#, #-t#, and #-nt# (35, 2, 3) the #s#
becomes #r# between the vowels (154): #era-m#, #erā-s#, #era-t#,
#erā-mus#, #erā-tis#, #era-nt#.

  [Erratum:
  848 ... #-m#, #-t#, and #-nt# (35, 2, 3) the #s# becomes #r#
    printed as shown: missing punctuation or conjunction?]


IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE.

849. The imperfect subjunctive stem ends in #-rē-#, which becomes #-re-#
in some of the persons: as,

#dare-m#, #darē-s#, #dare-t#, #darē-mus#, #darē-tis#, #dare-nt#;
#īre-m#, #fore-m#, #ferre-m#. In verbs in #-ere#, the #-rē-# is preceded
by a form ending in #-e-#: as, #regere-m#, #capere-m#; in verbs in
#-āre#, #-ēre#, and #-īre#, by one ending in #-ā-#, #-ē-#, or #-ī-#,
respectively: as, #laudāre-m#, #monēre-m#, #audīre-m#.

850. The suffix of the imperfect subjunctive of #sum#, _am_, is #-sē-#,
which becomes #-se-# in some of the persons; #esse-m#, #essē-s#,
#esse-t#, #essē-mus#, #essē-tis#, #esse-nt#; so also #ēssē-s#, &c.
(769). #volō#, _wish_, #nōlō#, _won’t_, and #mālō#, _prefer_, have
#velle-m#, #nōlle-m#, and #mālle-m# respectively (166, 8).

  [Erratum:
  850 ... respectively (166, 8).
    (166, 8.)]


FUTURE.

851. The future stem of #sum#, _am_, is #er{o|e-}#: #erō#, #eri-s#,
#eri-t#, #eri-mus#, #eri-tis#, #eru-nt#. #dō# has #dabō#, #eō# has
#ībō#, and #queō# has #quībō#.

852. (1.) The future stem of verbs in #-ere# and #-īre# ends in #-a-# in
the first person singular, otherwise in #-ē-#, which becomes #-e-# in
some of the persons: as,

#rega-m#, #regē-s#, #rege-t#, #regē-mus#, #regē-tis#, #rege-nt#;
#capia-m#, #capiē-s#, &c.; #audia-m#, #audiē-s#, &c. The first person
singular is not a future form, but the subjunctive present, used with a
future meaning (842); forms in #-em# occur in manuscripts of Plautus:
as, #faciem#, #sinem#. Verbs in #-īre# sometimes have #-b{o|e-}#,
chiefly in the dramatists: as, #scībō#, #opperībo-r# (Plaut., Ter.),
#lēnību-nt# (Prop.); rarely verbs in #-ere# (819): as, #exsūgēbō#
(Plaut.). For #reddibō#, instead of the usual #reddam#, see 757.

853. (2.) The future stem of verbs in #-āre# and #-ēre# ends in
_-b{o|e-}_, which is preceded by a form ending in long #-ā-# or #-ē-#
respectively: as,

#laudābō#, #laudābi-s#, #laudābi-t#, #laudābi-mus#, #laudābi-tis#,
#laudābu-nt#. #monēbō#, #monēbi-s#, &c.


II. THE PERFECT SYSTEM.


PERFECT INDICATIVE STEM.

854. There are two kinds of perfect stems: (A.) Some verbs have as
perfect stem a root, generally with some modification, but without a
suffix (858-866). (B.) Some perfects are formed with a suffix, #-s-#, or
#-v-# or #-u-# (867-875).

855. Some perfects of primitives are formed not from a root, but from
the present stem without the formative vowel, treated as a root: as,
#prehendī#, _seized_, from #prehend-# (866); #poposcī#, _asked_,
#fefellī#, _deceived_ (858); #iūnxī#, _joined_ (867).

856. The first person of the perfect ends in #-ī#, sometimes written
#ei# (29, 2). #-t#, #-stī#, sometimes written #-stei# (29, 2), #-stis#,
and #-mus# are preceded by short #i#; #-re# is always, and #-runt# is
usually, preceded by long #ē#: as,

#rēxī#, #rēxi-stī#, #rēxi-t#, #rēxi-mus#, #rēxi-stis#, #rēxē-runt#
(#rēxe-runt#), or #rēxē-re#.

857. Sometimes #-t# is preceded by long #ī#: as, #iīt#, #petiīt#,
REDIEIT (29, 2). #-runt# is sometimes preceded by short #e# (Plaut.,
Ter., Lucr., Hor., Ov., Verg., Phaedr.). This is the original form;
#-ē-# is by analogy to #-ēre#.


(A.) PERFECT STEM WITHOUT A SUFFIX.

858. (1.) Some verbs in #-ere# form their perfect stem by prefixing to
the root its initial consonant with the following vowel, which, if #a#,
is usually represented by #e#; this is called the _Reduplicated
Perfect_, and the first syllable is called the _Reduplication_: as,

  PERFECT STEM.  VERB.           FROM THEME.
  pu-pug-        pungō, _punch_  +pug-+
  pe-pig-        pangō, _fix_    +pag-+

Other examples are: #cadō#, _fall_, #cecidī# (#cad-#, 104, _c_);
#pariō#, _bring forth_, #peperī# (#par-#, 104, _c_); #pellō#, _push_,
#pepulī# (#pol-#, 105, _h_); #poscō#, _demand_, #poposcī# (855);
#fallō#, _deceive_, #fefellī# (855, 104, _c_); see also 923-932.
#caedō#, _cut_, has #cecīdī# (108, _a_); and a few old forms are quoted
from verbs having an #o# or an #u# in the root with #e# in the
reduplication: as, #memordī#, #pepugī#.

859. Four verbs with vowel roots also have a reduplicated perfect stem:
#dō#, _give_, _put_, #dare#, #dedī#; #bibō#, _drink_, #bibere#, #bibī#;
#stō#, _stand_, #stāre#, #stetī#, and #sistō#, _set_, #sistere#,
#-stitī#, rarely #stitī#. Also four verbs in #-ēre#: #mordeō#, _bite_,
#momordī#, #pendeō#, _hang_, #pependī#, #spondeō#, _promise_,
#spopondī#, #tondeō#, _clip_, #-totondī#. In the root syllable of
#spopondī#, _promised_, #stetī#, _stood_, #stitī#, _set_, and the old
#scicidī#, _clove_, an #s# is dropped (173, 2).

860. In compounds the reduplication is commonly dropped: as,

#cecidī#, _fell_, compound #concidī#, _tumbled down_. Compounds of
#cucurrī#, _ran_, sometimes retain the reduplication: as, #prōcucurrī#.
Compounds of #bibī#, _drank_, #didicī#, _learned_, #poposcī#, _asked_,
#stitī#, _set_, #stetī#, _stood_, and #dedī#, _gave_, _put_, retain it,
the last two weakening #e# to #i#: as, #restitī#, _staid back_.
#abscondidī#, _hid away_, usually becomes #abscondī#; in apparent
compounds, #e# is usually retained: as, #circum stetī#, _stood round_,
#vēnum dedī#, _put for sale_. The reduplication is also lost in the
simple verbs #tulī#, _carried_, old #tetulī#, and in #scindō#, _split_,
#scidī#, which last is rare as a simple verb.

861. Some compounds with #re-# drop only the vowel of the reduplication
(111, _a_): as, #reccidī#, _fell back_; #rettulī#, _brought back_ (see
also 781); #repperī#, _found_; #rettudī#, _beat back_. Some perfects
occur only in composition: as, PERCELLŌ, _knock down_, #perculī#;
#cōntundō#, _smash to pieces_, #contudī#; #diffindō#, _split apart_,
#diffidī#; but #fidī# also occurs a couple of times as a simple verb.

862. (2.) Some verbs in #-ere# have a perfect stem consisting of a
consonant root with a long vowel (135, 1): as,

  PERFECT STEM.  VERB.                    FROM THEME.
  ēd-            edō, _eat_               +ed-+
  lēg-           legō, _pick up_, _read_  +leg-+

Other examples are: #fodiō#, _dig_, #fōdī#; #fundō#, _pour_, #fūdī#;
#linquō#, _leave_, #līquī#; see 936-946. Three verbs in #-ēre# also have
this form, #sedeō#, _sit_, #sēdī#, #strīdeō#, _grate_, #strīdī#,
#videō#, _see_, #vīdī#; and one in #-īre#, #veniō#, _come_, #vēnī#.

863. The following verbs in #-ere# with #a# in the present stem, have
long #ē# in the perfect stem (145):

#agō#, _do_, #ēgī#, #frangō#, _break_, #frēgī#, #pangō#, _fix_, rarely
#pēgī#, but always #compēgī#, #impēgī#, #oppēgī#; #capiō#, _take_,
#cēpī#, #faciō#, _make_, #fēcī#, #iaciō#, _throw_, #iēcī#. So also the
old #co-ēpī#, _began_, common #coepī#.

864. Two verbs in #-āre# and some in #-ēre# have a perfect stem
consisting of a root which ends in #-v-# and has a long vowel: #iuvō#,
_help_, #iuvāre#, #iūvī#, #lavō#, _wash_, #lavāre# or #lavere#, #lāvī#;
#caveō#, _look out_, #cavēre#, #cāvī#; see 996.

865. Verbs in #-uō#, #-uere#, both primitives and denominatives, have
usually a perfect stem in short #u# of the theme (124): as, #luō#,
_pay_, #luī#; #acuō#, _sharpen_, #acuī#: see 947, 948. Forms with long
#ū# are old and rare (126): as, #fūī#, #adnūī#, #cōnstitūī#, #īnstitūī#.
#fluō#, _flow_, and #struō#, _pile_, have #flūxī# and #strūxi# (830).

866. (3.) Some verbs in #-ere# from roots ending in two consonants have
a perfect stem consisting of the root: as,

  PERFECT STEM.  VERB.          FROM THEME.
  mand-          mandō, _chew_  +mand-+
  pand-          pandō, _open_  +pand-+

Other examples are: #vortō# or #vertō#, _turn_, #vortī# or #vertī#;
#scandō#, _climb_, #-scendī#; #prehendō#, _seize_, #prehendī# (855);
#vollō# or #vellō#, _pluck_, #vollī# or #vellī#; see 949-951. Similarly
#ferveō#, _boil_, #fervere# or #fervēre#, has #fervī# or #ferbuī# (823),
and #prandeō#, _lunch_, #prandēre#, has #prandī#.


(B.) PERFECT STEM IN #-s-#, OR IN #-v-# OR #-u-#.


PERFECT STEM IN #-s-#.

867. Many verbs in #-ere# form their perfect stem by adding the suffix
#-s-# to a root, which generally ends in a mute: as,

  PERFECT STEM.  VERB.           FROM THEME.
  carp-s-        carpō, _pluck_  +carp-+
  scalp-s-       scalpō, _dig_   +scalp-+
  ges-s-         gerō, _bear_    +ges-+
  dīx-           dīcō, _say_     +dīc-+

Other examples are: #dūcō#, _lead_, #dūxī# (100); #fingō#, _mould_,
#fīnxī# (855); #lūdō#, _play_, #lūsī# (166, 2); #scrībō#, _write_,
#scrīpsī# (164, 1); #struō#, _pile_, #strūxī# (164, 1); #vīvō#, _live_,
#vīxī# (98). Some verbs with a short vowel in the present, have a long
vowel in the perfect: as, #regō#, _guide_, #rēxī# (135); #intellegō#,
_understand_, #intellēxī# (823); #tegō#, _cover_, #tēxī#; #iungō#,
_join_, #iūnxī# (855). And some verbs with a long vowel in the present,
have a short vowel in the perfect: as, #ūrō#, _burn_, #ussī# (830). See
952-961.

868. Some verbs in #-ēre# also have a perfect in #-s-#: as #algeō#, _am
cold_, #alsī# (170, 3); #haereō#, _stick_, #haesī# (166, 2): see 999,
1000. Also some in #-īre#: as, #sarciō#, _patch_, #sarsī# (170, 3): see
1014, 1015.

  [Errata:
  867 ... scalp-s-
    final - missing
  #scrībō#, _write_
    #scrībō# _write_]


PERFECT STEM IN #-v-# OR #-u-#.

869. (1.) Some verbs in #-ere#, with vowel roots, and almost all verbs
in #-āre# or #-īre#, form their perfect stem by adding the suffix #-v-#
to a theme ending in a long vowel: as,

  PERFECT STEM.  VERB.            FROM THEME.
  crē-v-         crēscō, _grow_   +crē-+
  laudā-v-       laudō, _praise_  laudā-
  audī-v-        audiō, _hear_    audī-

For other verbs in #-ere# with a perfect stem in #-v-#, and particularly
#terō#, #cernō#, #spernō#, and #sternō#, see 962-970.

870. A few verbs in #-ere# have a perfect stem in #-v-# attached to a
presumed theme in long #ī#: as, #cupiō#, _want_, #cupīvī#; #petō#, _aim
at_, #petīvī#; #quaerō#, _inquire_, #quaesīvī#; #arcēssō#, _fetch_,
#arcēssīvī#; see 966-970.

871. A few verbs in #-ēre# also have a perfect stem in #-v-#: as,
#fleō#, _weep_, #flēre#, #flēvī#; see 1001-1003. And three verbs in
#-ēscere# have a perfect stem in #-v-# attached to a presumed theme in
long #ē#: #-olēscō#, _grow_, #-olēvī#; #quiēscō#, _get quiet_, #quiēvī#;
#suēscō#, _get used_, #suēvī#.

872. One verb in #-āscere# has a perfect stem in #-v-# attached to a
presumed theme in long #ā#: #advesperāscit#, _it gets dusk_,
#advesperāvit#.

873. (2.) Many verbs in #-ere# form their perfect stem by adding the
suffix #-u-# to a consonant root: as,

  PERFECT STEM.  VERB.           FROM THEME.
  al-u-          alō, _nurture_  +al-+
  gen-u-         gignō, _beget_  +gen-+

Other examples are: #colō#, _cultivate_, #coluī#; #cōnsulō#, _consult_,
#cōnsuluī#; #-cumbō#, _lie_, #-cubuī#; #fremō#, _roar_, #fremuī#;
#ēliciō#, _draw out_, #ēlicuī#; #molō#, _grind_, #moluī#; #rapiō#,
_snatch_, #rapuī#; #serō#, _string_, #-seruī#; #stertō#, _snore_,
#-stertuī#; #strepō#, _make a racket_, #strepuī#; #texō#, _weave_,
#texuī#; #volō#, _will_, #voluī#; #compescō#, _check_, #compescuī#
(855); see 971-976.

874. Some verbs in #-āre# also have a perfect stem in #-u-#: as,
#crepō#, _rattle_, #crepāre#, #crepuī# (993); and many in #-ēre#: as,
#moneō#, _warn_, #monēre#, #monuī#: see 1004-1006; also four in #-īre#:
as, #saliō#, _leap_, #salīre#, #saluī# (1019).

875. The perfect #potuī# to the present #possum# (751) is from a lost
present #*poteō#, #*potēre# (922). #pōnere# (for #*po-sinere#, 112;
170, 2) forms an old perfect #posīvī# (964), later #posuī#, as if #pos-#
were the stem.


PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE.

876. The perfect subjunctive stem ends in #-erī-#, for which #-eri-# is
sometimes used (35, 2, 3): as,

#rēxeri-m#, #rēxerī-s#, #rēxeri-t#, #rēxerī-mus#, #rēxerī-tis#,
#rēxeri-nt#.

877. In the perfect subjunctive, long #ī# is found before the person
endings #-s#, #-mus#, and #-tis#, some 25 times, as follows: #-īs#, 18
times (Plaut. 3, Pac., Enn., Ter., Hor., Tib., Sen., inscr., once each,
Ov. 8), #-īmus#, 4 times (Plaut. 3, Ter. 1), #-ītis#, 3 times (Plaut. 2,
Enn. 1).

878. In the perfect subjunctive, short #i# is found, as in the future
perfect, some 9 times, thus: #-is#, 8 times (Plaut. in anapests 3, Verg.
2, Hor. 3), #-imus# once (Verg.). But before #-tis#, short #i# is not
found.


PERFECT IMPERATIVE.

879. One verb only, #meminī#, _remember_, has a perfect imperative; in
this imperative, the person endings are not preceded by a vowel, thus:
#memen-tō#, #memen-tōte#.


PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE.

880. The pluperfect indicative stem ends in #-erā-#, which becomes
#-era-# in some of the persons: as,

#rēxera-m#, #rēxerā-s#, #rēxera-t#, #rēxerā-mus#, #rēxerā-tis#,
#rēxera-nt#.


PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE.

881. The pluperfect subjunctive stem ends in #-issē-#, which becomes
#-isse-# in some of the persons: as,

#rēxisse-m#, #rēxissē-s#, #rēxisse-t#, #rēxissē-mus#, #rēxissē-tis#,
#rēxisse-nt#.


FUTURE PERFECT.

882. The future perfect stem ends in #-erō-# and #-eri-#: as,

#rēxerō#, #rēxeri-s#, #rēxeri-t#, #rēxeri-mus#, #rēxeri-tis#,
#rēxeri-nt#.

883. In the future perfect, short #i# is found before the person endings
#-s#, #-mus#, and #-tis#, some 40 times, as follows: #-is#, 29 times
(Plaut. 2, Cic. 1, Catull. 1, Verg. 7, Hor. 12, Ov. 4, Germ. 1, Juv. 1);
#-imus#, 3 times (Plaut., Ter., Lucr.); #-itis#, 8 times (Enn. 1, Plaut.
5, Ov. 2).

884. In the future perfect, long #ī# is found, as in the perfect
subjunctive, some 33 times, thus: #-īs#, 28 times (Plaut. 3, Hor. 5, Ov.
15, Prop., Stat., Mart., Priap., inscr., once each), #-īmus#, once
(Catull.), #-ītis#, 4 times (Ov. 3, Priap. 1).


SHORT OR OLD FORMS.

885. (1.) Some shorter forms in the perfect system are principally found
in old Latin.

886. (_a._) Shorter forms in the perfect indicative, the pluperfect
subjunctive, and the infinitive, most of them from perfects in #-s-#
(867), occur chiefly in verse: thus,

Perfect indicative, second person singular, common: as, #dīxtī# (Plaut.,
Ter., Cic.); plural, rare: as, #accestis# (Verg.). Pluperfect
subjunctive singular, not very common: as, #exstīnxem# (Verg.),
#intellēxēs# (Plaut.), #vīxet# (Verg.); plural, once only, #ērēpsēmus#
(Hor.). Infinitive, #dīxe# (Plaut.), #cōnsūmpse# (Lucr.).

887. (_b._) A perfect subjunctive stem in #-sī-# or in #-ssī-#, and a
future perfect indicative stem in #-s{o|e-}# or in #-ss{o|e-}#, occur
chiefly in old laws and prayers, and in dramatic verse: as,

Perfect subjunctive: #faxim#, #faxīs#, FAXSEIS (inscr. 145 B.C.),
#faxit#, #faxīmus#, #faxītis#, #faxint#; #ausim#, #ausīs#, #ausit#;
#locāssim#, #amāssīs#, #servāssit#, #amāssint#, #prohibēssīs#,
#prohibēssit#, #cohibēssit#, #licēssit#.

Future perfect indicative: #faxō#, #faxis#, #faxit#, #faxitis#, #capsō#,
#recepsō#, #iussō#, #occīsit#, #capsimus#; #levāssō#, #invītāssitis#,
#mulcāssitis#, #exoculāssitis#, #prohibēssis#, #prohibēssint#.
Denominatives in #-āre# have also, in old Latin, a future perfect
infinitive: as, #impetrāssere#.

888. Passive inflections, as future perfect #faxitur#, #turbāssitur#,
deponent MERCASSITVR (inscr. 111 B.C.), are very rare; and, indeed, with
the exception of #faxō# and #ausim#, even the active forms had become
antiquated by 150 B.C. Denominatives in #-īre# never have the above
formations. But #ambiō#, _canvass_, is thought to have a future perfect
#ambīssit# twice (Plaut. prol.).

889. (2.) Shortened forms from perfect stems formed by the suffix #-v-#
(869) are very common in all periods.

890. (_a._) In tenses formed from perfect stems in #-āv-#, #-ēv-#, and
#-ōv-#, #v# is often dropped before #-is-#, #-ēr-#, or #-er-#, and the
vowels thus brought together are contracted (153, 1): as,

#laudāvistī#, #laudāstī#; #laudāvistis#, #laudāstis#; #laudāvērunt#,
#laudārunt# (but the form in #-re#, as #laudāvēre#, is never
contracted); #laudāverim#, #laudārim#, &c.; #laudāveram#, #laudāram#,
&c.; #laudāvissem#, #laudāssem#, &c.; #laudāverō#, #laudārō#, &c.;
#laudāvisse#, #laudāsse#.

#-plēvistī#, #-plēstī#; #-plēvistis#, #-plēstis#; #-plēvērunt#,
#-plērunt#; #plēverim#, #-plērim#, &c.; #-plēveram#, #-plēram#, &c.;
#-plēvissem#, #-plēssem#, &c.; #-plēverō#, #-plērō#, &c.; #-plēvisse#,
#-plēsse#.

#nōvistī#, #nōstī#; #nōvistis#, #nōstis#; #nōvērunt#, #nōrunt#;
#nōverim#, #nōrim#, &c.; #nōveram#, #nōram#, &c.; #nōvissem#, #nōssem#,
&c.; #nōverō# always retains the #v#, but #cōgnōrō#, &c.; #nōvisse#,
#nōsse#.

891. The verbs in which #v# belongs to the root (864), are not thus
shortened, except #moveō#, mostly in compounds. From #iuvō#, #iuerint#
(Catull.), #adiuerō# (Enn.), once each, and twice #adiuerit# (Plaut.,
Ter.) are unnecessary emendations.

892. Contractions in the perfect before #-t# and #-mus# are rare: as,
#inrītāt#, #disturbāt#; #suēmus# or #su͡emus# (Lucr.), #nōmus# (Enn.),
#cōnsu͡emus# (Prop.).

893. (_b._) In tenses formed from perfect stems in #-īv-#, #v# is often
dropped before #-is-#, #-ēr-#, or #-er-#; but contraction is common only
in the forms which have #-is-#: as,

#audīvistī#, #audīstī#; #audīvistis#, #audīstis#; #audīvērunt#,
#audiērunt#; #audīverim#, #audierim#, &c.; #audīveram#, #audieram#, &c.;
#audīvissem#, #audīssem#, &c.; #audīverō#, #audierō#, &c.; #audīvisse#,
#audīsse#. Sometimes #audiī#, #audiit#, #audīt#. Intermediate between
the long and the short forms are #audīerās# and #audīerit#, once each
(Ter.). In the perfect subjunctive, #sinō# has #sīverīs# (Plaut., Cato),
#sīrīs# (Plaut., Cato, Liv.), #sīreis# (Pac.), or #seirīs# (Plaut.),
#sīrit# (Plaut., Liv.), #sīrītis# (Plaut.), #sīverint# (Plaut., Curt.),
#sierint# (Cic., Curt.), or #sīrint# (Plaut.). #dēsinō# is thought to
have #dēsīmus# in the perfect indicative a couple of times (Sen., Plin.
_Ep._).


NOUNS OF THE VERB.


INFINITIVE.

894. The active infinitive has the ending #-re# in the present, and
#-isse# in the perfect: as,

#dare#; #regere#, #capere#; #laudāre#, #monēre#, #audīre#. #rēxisse#;
#laudāvisse# or #laudāsse#, #monuisse#, #audīvisse# or #audīsse#.

895. For #-rē# in old Latin, see 134, 2. The infinitive of #fīō#,
_become_, ends in #-rī#, #fī̆erī#, with a passive ending (789); twice
#fīere# (Enn. Laev.). An older form for #-re# is #-se#, found in #esse#,
_to be_, #ēsse#, _to eat_, and their compounds. For #velle#, _to wish_
(#mālle#, #nōlle#), see 166, 8. In the perfect, #eō#, _go_, sometimes
has #-iisse# in compounds (766), and in poetry, #petō#, _go to_, has
rarely #petiisse#.

896. The present infinitive passive of verbs in #-ere# has the ending
#-ī#; that of other verbs has #-rī#: as,

#regī#, #capī#; #laudārī#, #monērī#, #audīrī#. #ferō#, _carry_, has
#ferrī#. The length of the #ī# is sometimes indicated by the spelling
#ei# (29, 2): as, DAREI.

897. A longer form in #-ier# for #-ī#, and #-rier# for #-rī#, is common
in old laws and dramatic verse, and occurs sometimes in other poetry:
as, FIGIER, _to be posted_, GNOSCIER, _to be read_ (inscr. 186 B.C.);
#dīcier#, _to be said_, #cūrārier#, _to be looked after_ (Plaut.);
#dominārier#, _to be lord paramount_ (Verg.).

898. The place of the perfect passive, future active, and future passive
infinitive is supplied by a circumlocution, as seen in the paradigms.
For the future perfect #-āssere#, see 887.


GERUNDIVE AND GERUND.

899. The gerundive stem is formed by adding #-ndo-#, nominative #-ndus#,
#-nda#, #-ndum#, to the present stem: as,

#dandus#, stem #dando-#; #regendus#, #capiendus#; #laudandus#,
#monendus#, #audiendus#. Verbs in #-ere# and #-īre# often have #-undus#,
when not preceded by #u# or #v#, especially in formal style: as,
#capiundus#; #eō#, _go_, always has #eundum#, and #orior#, _rise_,
#oriundus#. For the adjective use, see 288. The gerund is like the
oblique cases of the neuter singular. For #-bundus#, see 289; #-cundus#,
290.


SUPINE.

900. The supine stem is formed by the suffix #-tu-#, which is often
changed to #-su-# (912).

This suffix is attached to a root or to a form of the present stem after
the manner of the perfect participle (906): as, #nūntiātum#, _to
report_, #nūntiātū#, _in reporting_, stem #nūntiātu-#. Many of the
commonest verbs have no supine: as, #sum#, #eō#, #ferō#; #regō#, #emō#,
#tegō#; #amō#, #dēleō#, #doceō#, &c., &c.


PRESENT PARTICIPLE.

901. The present participle stem is formed by adding #-nt-# or #-nti-#,
nominative #-ns#, to the present stem: as,

#dāns#, _giving_, stems #dant-#, #danti-#; #regēns#, #capiēns#;
#laudāns#, #monēns#, #audiēns#.

902. The adjective #sontem# (accusative, no nominative), which was
originally the participle of #sum#, has #o# before the suffix, and
#absēns# and #praesēns# have #e#; the participle of #eō# has #ē# in the
nominative singular, otherwise #u#, #iēns#, #euntis#, &c. #n# rarely
drops before #-s# (63): as, LIBES (inscr.), #exsultās# (Enn.), #animās#
(Lucr.).

903. Some adjectives which were originally present participles have no
verb: as, #clēmēns#, _merciful_, #ēlegāns#, _choice_, #ēvidēns#,
_clear_, #frequēns#, _thick_, #petulāns#, _wanton_, #recēns#, _fresh_,
#repēns#, _sudden_, &c., &c. For #potēns#, _powerful_, see 922.


FUTURE PARTICIPLE.

904. The future participle suffix is #-tūro-#, nominative #-tūrus#,
#-tūra#, #-tūrum#, which is often changed to #-sūro-#, nominative
#-sūrus#, #-sūra#, #-sūrum# (912).

This suffix is added to a theme after the manner of the perfect
participle (906): as, #rēctūrus#, _going to guide_; #laudātūrus#, _going
to praise_.

905. Some future participles have a different formation from that of the
perfect participle: as, #mortuus#, _dead_, #moritūrus#; see also in the
dictionary #arguō#, #fruor#, #orior#, #ruō#, #secō#. And some verbs have
two forms of the future participle: as, #āgnōscō#, #īgnōscō#, #hauriō#,
#iuvō#, #pariō#. Some verbs which have no perfect participle have a
future participle: as, #acquiēscō#, #appāreō#, #ardeō#, #caleō#,
#careō#, #doleō#, #ēsuriō#, #fugiō#, #haereō#, #incidō#, #iaceō#,
#-nuō#, #parcō#, #rauciō#, #recidō#, #sonō#, #stō#, #valeō#.


PERFECT PARTICIPLE.

906. The perfect participle suffix is #-to-#, nominative #-tus#, #-ta#,
#-tum#, which is often changed to #-so-#, nominative #-sus#, #-sa#,
#-sum# (912).

907. The perfect participle was originally active as well as passive,
and some participles have retained the active meaning: as,

#adultus#, _grown up_; #ēmersus#, _rising out from_; #exōsus#,
#perōsus#, _hating bitterly_; #placitus#, _engaging_; #iūrātus#,
_sworn_, #coniūrātus#, _conspiring_; #prānsus#, _having lunched_,
#cēnātus#, _having dined_, #pōtus#, _drunk_, &c. The perfect participles
of deponents are usually active, but sometimes passive: as, #meditātus#,
_having studied_, or _studied_. Many verbs are not accompanied by a
perfect participle (811), particularly verbs in #-ēre#, with a parallel
adjective in #-idus# (287). Intransitive verbs have usually only the
neuter. A perfect active participle #meminēns# is said to have been used
twice (Plaut., Laev.).

908. The perfect participle is formed in one of two separate ways:

909. (1.) From a theme consisting of a root; in this way the participles
of most verbs in #-ere# and #-ēre# are formed: as,

#gestus#, _carried_, #aptus#, _fit_, #solūtus#, _loosed_ (142),
#iūnctus#, _joined_ (831), #sparsus#, _sprinkled_ (170, 3); #doctus#,
_taught_.

910. In some consonant root participles of verbs in #-ere#, #-āre#, or
#-ēre#, which have the suffix #-u-# in the perfect stem (873), the
#-to-# is preceded by a short #i#: as, #genitus#, _born_ (971-976);
#domitus#, _tamed_ (993); #monitus#, _warned_ (1003, 1004, 1009). In old
Latin, #e# occurs: as, MERETA (41); #e# is retained in #vegetus#,
_sprightly_. One participle has #-tuo-#: #mortuus#, _dead_.

911. Some verbs in #-āre# have participles from consonant roots: as,
#frictus#, _rubbed_, #fricō#, #fricāre#; see 993. Also some in #-īre#:
as, #fartus#, _stuffed_ (170, 3), #farciō#, #farcīre#; #fultus#,
_propped_, #fulciō#, #fulcīre#; see 1011-1015, and 1017, 1019, 1020.

912. Roots in #-d-# and #-t-# change #-to-# to #-so-#, before which the
dentals change to #s# (159). After long vowels, nasals, and liquids the
double #ss# is simplified to #s#: as, #fossus#, _dug_, but #dīvīsus#,
_divided_; #vorsus# or #versus#, _turned_. The suffix #-so-# is also
found with some roots in #-l-#, #-m-#, or #-r-# and a few others: as,
#pulsus# (159).

913. (2.) From a theme in long #ā# or in long #ī#; in this way
participles are regularly formed from denominatives in #-āre# or #-īre#
respectively: as,

#laudātus#, _praised_; #audītus#, _heard_.

914. A few perfect participles of verbs in #-ere# are formed from a
presumed theme in long #ī#, or long #ē#, or from one in long #ū#: as,
#petītus#, _aimed at_; #exolētus#, _grown out_; see 967-970; #tribūtus#,
_assigned_; see 947, 948.

915. (1.) Many perfect participles formed from consonant roots have a
short root vowel (135, 1): as,

#adspectus#, _beheld_; #captus#, _taken_; #coctus#, _cooked_;
#commentus#, _devising_; #cultus#, _tilled_; #dictus#, _said_, verb
#dīcō#; #ductus#, _led_, #dūcō#; #factus#, _made_; #fossus#, _dug_;
#gestus#, _carried_; #inlectus#, _allured_; #questus#, _complaining_;
#raptus#, _seized_; #tersus#, _neat_; #textus#, _woven_; #vorsus#,
_turned_.

916. (2.) Some perfect participles formed from consonant roots have a
long root vowel, sometimes even when the vowel of the parallel present
stem is short (135, 1; 122, _f_): as,

#fīxus#, _fastened_, verb #fīgō#; #-flīctus#, _dashed_, #-flīgō#;
#pāstus#, _fed_, #pāscō#; #pollūctus#, _offered up_, #pollūceō#;
#scrīptus#, _written_, _scrībō_; #-cāsus#, _fallen_, #cadō#. Also
#āctus#, _driven_, #agō#; #vīsus#, _seen_, #videō#; #frūctus#,
_enjoying_, #fruor#; #lēctus#, _culled_, #legō#; #pīctus#, _painted_,
#pingō#; #rēctus#, _ruled_, #regō#; #ēsus#, _eaten_, #edō#; #strūctus#,
_piled_, #struō#; #tēctus#, _covered_, #tegō#; #ūnctus#, _anointed_,
#unguō#; #frāctus#, _broken_, #frangō#; #pāctus#, _fixed_, #pangō#.
Furthermore, #iūnctus#, _joined_, #iungō#; #sānctus#, _hallowed_,
#sanciō# (831); also, #fūnctus#, _having performed_, #fungor#.

917. (1.) Most perfect participles formed from vowel roots have a long
root vowel: as,

#lātus#, _borne_ (169, 1); #nātus#, _born_; #-plētus#, _filled_;
#trītus#, _worn_; #nōtus#, _known_; #sūtus#, _sewed_. So also an
isolated #rūtus#, in the law phrase #rūta caesa#, or #rūta et caesa#,
_diggings and cuttings_, i.e. _minerals and timber_.

918. (2.) Ten perfect participles formed from vowel roots have a short
root vowel; they are:

  citus, datus, _hurried_, _given_
  itum, ratus, _gone_, _thinking_
  -rutus, satus, _fallen_, _planted_
  situs, status, _lying_, _set_
  litus, quitus, _besmeared_, _been able_

919. As #citus#, so always #percitus# and #incitus# (once #incītus#,
doubtful); usually #concitus#, rarely #concītus#; #excitus# and
#excītus# equally common; always #accītus#. #ambītus# always has long
#ī# (763). #āgnitus#, _recognized_, #cōgnitus#, _known_, and the
adjectives #inclutus# or #inclitus#, _of high renown_, and #putus#,
_clean_, have a short root vowel. For #dēfrūtum#, #dēfrutum#, see
134, 1.


LIST OF VERBS

ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE PRINCIPAL PARTS.

920. I. The principal parts of root verbs and of verbs in #-ere# are
formed in a variety of ways and are best learned separately for every
verb (922-986).

921. II. The principal parts of verbs in #-āre#, #-ēre#, and #-īre#, are
usually formed as follows:

  laudō, _praise_    laudāre    laudāvī    laudātus
  moneō, _advise_    monēre     monuī      monitus
  audiō, _hear_      audīre     audīvī     audītus

For other formations, see 989-1022.


I. PRIMITIVE VERBS.


(A.) ROOT VERBS.

922. Root verbs have their principal parts as follows:

  sum, _am_                    esse    ----    ----
  ----, _become_, _get_, _am_  fore    fuī     ----

For #fuam#, &c., #forem#, &c., #fore#, see 750. #fuī#, &c., serves as
the perfect system of #sum#.

  pos-sum, _can_    pos-se    ----     ----
  ----, _can_       ----      potuī    ----

#potuī#, &c., serves as the perfect system of #possum#. Of the present
system of #potuī#, only #potēns#, _powerful_, is used, and only as an
adjective.

  dō, _give_, _put_    dare    dedī    datus

For compounds, see 757.

  bibō, _drink_    bibere    bibī    pōtus

So the compounds, with the reduplication preserved in the perfect system
(860).

  serō, _sow_    serere    sēvī    satus

Compounds have #i# for #a# in the perfect participle: as, #cōn-situs#.

  sistō, _set_         sistere   -stitī,             status
                                   rarely stitī
  inquam, _quoth I_    ----      inquiī once         ----
  eō, _go_             īre       iī,                 itum, -itus
                                    very rarely īvī
  queō, _can_          quīre     quīvī               quitus
  ne-queō, _can’t_     ne-quīre  ne-quīvī            ne-quitus
  edō, _eat_           ēsse      ēdī                 ēsus
  volō, _will_,        velle     voluī               ----
    _wish_, _want_
  nōlō, _won’t_        nōlle     nōluī               ----
  mālō, _like better_  mālle     māluī               ----
  ferō, _carry_        ferre     (tulī)              (lātus)

For #tulī#, old #tetulī#, and #lātus#, see 780; for the perfect of
#re-ferō#, 861.


(B.) VERBS IN #-ere#.


(A.) PERFECT STEM WITHOUT A SUFFIX.

923. (1 _a_.) The following verbs in #-ere# have a reduplicated perfect
stem (858), and the perfect participle, when used, in #-tus#:

924. (_a._) With the present stem in #{-o|e-}# (829).

  canō, _make music_    canere    cecinī    (cantātus)

For #con-cinō#, #oc-cinō#, and #prae-cinō#, see 971 and 823.

  tendō, _stretch_    tendere    tetendī    tentus

For #tennitur# (Ter.), #dis-tennite# (Plaut.), see 166, 4; late
participle #tēnsus#. Compounds have #-tendī# (860) and #-tentus#. But
sometimes #ex-tēnsus#, and in late writers, #dē-tēnsus#, #dis-tēnsus#,
#os-tēnsus#, and #re-tēnsus#.

925. (_b._) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by
#{-o|e-}# (831).

  pangō, _fix_    pangere    pepigī, _agreed_    pāctus

In meaning, the perfect #pepigī# corresponds to #pacīscor#; #pānxit#,
_made_, _set in verse_ (Enn.), #pānxerit#, _set_ (Col.), #pēgit# (Pac.),
#pēgerit# (Cic.), _fixed_, once each. For #com-pingō# and #im-pingō#,
see 938.

  pungō, _punch_    pungere    pupugī    pūnctus

For #com-pungō# and #ex-pungō#, see 954 and 823.

  tangō, _touch_    tangere    tetigī    tāctus

In old Latin: #tagō# (Turp.), #tagit#, #tagam# (Pac.). Compounds have
#i# for #a# in the present system: as, #con-tingō#, #con-tingere#,
#con-tigī# (860), #con-tāctus#; in old Latin: #at-tigās# (Plaut., Ter.,
Acc., Pac.), #at-tigat# (Pac.), #at-tigātis# (Plaut., Pac.).

926. (_c._) With the present stem in #-l{o|e-}# (833).

  tollō, _take off_    tollere    (sus-tulī)    (sub-lātus)

As the perfect and perfect participle of #tollō# are appropriated by
#ferō#, #tollō# takes those of #sus-tollō#. The original perfect is
#tetulī# (860).

927. (_d._) With the present stem in #-sc{o|e-}# (834).

  discō, _learn_     discere    didicī     ----
  poscō, _demand_    poscere    poposcī    ----

For #poposcī#, see 855. For #-didicī# and #-poposcī#, see 860.

928. (_e._) With the present stem in #-i{o|e-}# (836).

  pariō, _bring forth_    parere    peperī    partus

For forms in #-īre#, see 791. #com-periō#, 1012; #re-periō#, 1011.

929. (1 _b_.) The following verbs in #-ere# have a reduplicated perfect
stem (858), and the perfect participle, when used, is #-sus# (912).

930. (_a._) With the present stem in #{-o|e-}# (829).

  cadō, _fall_    cadere    cecidī    -cāsus

Compounds have #i# for #a# in the present system: as, #oc-cidō#,
#oc-cidere#, #oc-cidī# (860), #oc-cāsus#. Rarely #e# in the present and
perfect systems (Enn., Lucr., Varr.): as, #ac-cedere#, #ac-cedisset#
(109). For the perfect of #re-cidō#, see 861.

  caedō, _fell_, _cut_    caedere    cecīdī    caesus

Compounds have #ī# for #ae#: as, #ac-cīdō#, #ac-cīdere#, ac-cīdī (860),
#ac-cīsus#.

  parcō, _spare_    parcere    pepercī    ----

#pepercī#, &c. (regularly in Cic., Caes., Hor., Ov., Mart.; Nep. once;
also Plaut. twice, Ter. once). Old #parsī#, &c. (Plaut. 8, Cato, Ter.,
Nov., Nep., once each); once #parcuit# (Naev.). Compounds: #com-perce#
(Plaut.), #con-parsit# (Ter.), #in-perce#, #im-percitō#, #re-percis#
(Plaut.), #re-parcent# (Lucr.).

  pendō, _weigh_, _pay_    pendere    pependī    pēnsus

931. (_b._) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by
#{-o|e-}# (831).

  tundō, _pound_    tundere    tutudī not used   tūnsus

For the perfect of #re-tundō#, see 861; other compounds have the perfect
#-tudī# (861), but once #con-tūdit# (Enn.). Perfect participle, #tūsus#
(Plin., Mart.); compounds: #con-tūnsus# (Plin.), #con-tūsus# (Cato,
Varr., Caes., Lucr., Sal., Verg., &c.); #ob-tūnsus# (Plaut., Verg.,
Liv., Sen.), #op-tūsus#, #ob-tūsus# (Lucr., Sen., Quintil., Tac.);
#per-tūssus# (Plaut.), #per-tūsus# (Cato, Lucr., Liv., Sen., &c.);
#re-tūnsus# (Plaut., Verg.), #re-tūsus# (Cic., Lucr., Hor.); #sub-tūsus#
(Tib.).

932. (_c._) With the present stem in #-r{o|e-}#, or #-l{o|e-}# (833).

  currō, _run_    currere    cucurrī    cursum

For perfect of compounds, see 860.

  fallō, _cheat_    fallere    fefellī    falsus

Compound #re-fellō#, #re-fellere#, #re-fellī# (860), #----#.

  pellō, _push_    pellere    pepulī    pulsus

For the perfect of #re-pellō#, see 861. Other compounds have #-pulī#
(860).

933. (1 _c_.) The following verbs in #-ere# are without the
reduplication (861):

934. (_a._) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by
#{-o|e-}# (831).

  findō, _split apart_    findere     -fidī, rarely fidī      fissus
  scindō, _rend_          scindere    -scidī, rarely scidī    scissus

935. (_b._) With the present stem in #-l{o|e-}# (833).

  per-cellō, _knock down_   per-cellere    per-culī    per-culsus

936. (2 _a_.) The following verbs in #-ere# have a perfect stem
consisting of a consonant root with a long vowel (862), and the perfect
participle, when used, in #-tus#:

937. (_a._) With the present stem in #{-o|e-}# (829).

  agō, _drive_    agere    ēgī    āctus

Real compounds have #i# for #a# in the present system: as, #ab-igō#,
#ab-igere#, #ab-ēgī#, #ab-āctus#; but #per-agō# retains #a#. #cōgō# and
#dēgō# are contracted: #cōgō#, #cōgere#, #co-ēgī#, #co-āctus#; #dēgō#,
#dēgere#, #----#, #----#.

  emō, _take_, _buy_    emere    ēmī    emptus

#co-emō# retains #e# in the present system, and usually #inter-emō# and
#per-emō#; other compounds have #-imō#. For #cōmō#, #dēmō#, #prōmō#, and
#sūmō#, see 952.

  ----, _strike_    ----    īcī    ictus

Forms of the present system are #īcit# (Plaut., Lucr.), #īcitur#
(Plin.), #īcimur# (Lucr.).

  legō, _pick up_, _read_    legere    lēgī    lēctus

Compounds with #ad#, #inter#, #nec-#, #per#, #prae#, and #re-#, have
#-legō# in the present system, others #-ligō#. For #dī-ligō#,
#intel-legō#, #neg-legō#, see 952.

938. (_b._) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by
#{-o|e-}# (831).

  com-pingō, _fix together_    com-pingere    com-pēgī    com-pāctus

A compound of #pangō# (925, 823).

  frangō, _smash_    frangere    frēgī    frāctus

Compounds have #i# for #a# in the present system: as, #cōn-fringō#,
#cōn-fringere#, #cōn-frēgī#, #cōn-frāctus#.

  im-pingō, _drive in_    im-pingere    im-pēgī    im-pāctus

A compound of #pangō# (925, 823). So also #op-pēgī#.

  linquō, _leave_    linquere    līquī    -lictus
  rumpō, _burst_     rumpere     rūpī     ruptus

So the compounds. But Plautus has #con-rumptus# and #dir-rumptus#.

  vincō, _conquer_    vincere    vīcī    victus

939. (_c._) With the present stem in #-sc{o|e-}# (834).

  pavēscō, _get afraid_    pavēscere    ex-pāvī    ----

940. (_d._) With the present stem in #-i{o|e-}# (836).

  capiō, _take_    capere    cēpī    captus

Compounds have #i# for #a# in the present system and #e# in the perfect
participle: as, #in-cipiō#, #in-cipere#, #in-cēpī#, #in-ceptus#. In the
present system, #e# is rare: as, #re-cepit# (Lucr.); #u# is frequent in
old Latin.

  coepiō, _begin_ rare    coepere once    coepī    coeptus

See 812-814.

  faciō, _make_    facere    fēcī    factus

For #fac#, see 846; for passive, 788. Compounds have #i# for #a# in the
present system and #e# in the perfect participle: as, #ef-ficiō#,
#ef-ficere#, #ef-fēcī#, #ef-fectus#.

  fugiō, _run away_    fugere    fūgī    ----
  iaciō, _throw_       iacere    iēcī    iactus

Compounds have #-iciō# (104, _c_), #-icere#, #-iēcī#, #-iectus#: as,
#ē-iciō#, #ē-icere#, #ē-iēcī#, #ē-iectus#. In old Latin the present
system has rarely #-ieciō#; #-iecere#. #dis-siciō# is sometimes used
(Lucr., Verg.) for #dis-iciō#.

941. (2 _b_.) The following verbs in #-ere# have a perfect stem
consisting of a consonant root with a long vowel (862), and the perfect
participle, when used, in #-sus# (912).

942. (_a._) With the present stem in #{-o|e-}# (829).

  cūdō, _hammer_    cūdere    -cūdī    -cūsus

943. (_b._) With reduplication and #{-o|e-}# in the present stem (829).

  sīdō, _settle_    sīdere    sīdī, -sīdī, -sēdī    -sessus

944. (_c._) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by
#{-o|e-}# (831).

  fundō, _pour_    fundere    fūdī    fūsus

945. (_d._) With the present stem in #-s{o|e-}# for #-t{o|e-}# (835).

  vīsō, _go to see_    vīsere    vīsī    ----

946. (_e._) With the present stem in #-i{o|e-}# (836).

  fodiō, _dig_    fodere    fōdī    fossus

For forms in #-īre#, see 791.

947. (2 _c_.) The following verbs in #-ere# (367) with the present stem
in #{-o|e-}# (837, 840), have the perfect stem in #-u-# or in #-v-# of
the theme (865), and the perfect participle, when used, in #-tus#:

  acuō, _sharpen_            acuere      acuī           acūtus
                                                          adjective
  arguō, _make clear_        arguere     arguī          argūtus
                                                          rare
  con-gruō, _agree_          con-gruere  con-gruī       ----
  ex-uō, _doff_              ex-uere     ex-uī          ex-ūtus
  im-buō, _give a smack of_  im-buere    im-buī         im-būtus
  ind-uō, _don_              ind-uere    ind-uī         ind-ūtus
  in-gruō, _impend_          in-gruere   in-gruī        ----
  luō, _pay_, _atone for_    luere       luī            -lūtus, _washed_
  metuō, _fear_              metuere     metuī          metūtus
                                                          once
  -nuō, _nod_                -nuere      -nuī           ----
  pluit, _it rains_          pluere      pluit, plūvit  ----
  ruō, _tumble down_         ruere       ruī            -rutus
  so-lvō, _loose_            so-lvere    so-lvī         so-lūtus
  spuō, _spit_               spuere      -spuī          ----
  statuō, _set_              statuere    statuī         statūtus

Compounds have #i# for #a# throughout: as, #cōn-stituō#, #cōn-stituere#,
&c.

  volvō, _roll_       volvere     volvī     volūtus
  suō, _sew_          suere       -suī      sūtus
  tribuō, _assign_    tribuere    tribuī    tribūtus

948. Two verbs in #-ere# with the present stem in #-nu{o|e-}# (833),
have the perfect stem in #-nu-# (865), and the perfect participle, when
used, in #-tus#:

  minuō, _lessen_      minuere      minuī      minūtus
  sternuō, _sneeze_    sternuere    sternuī    ----

949. (3.) The following verbs in #-ere# have a perfect stem consisting
of a root ending in two consonants (866), and the perfect participle in
#-sus# (912):

950. (_a._) With the present stem in #{-o|e-}# (829); most have a nasal
(831).

  -cendō, _light_    -cendere    -cendī    -cēnsus
  -fendō, _hit_      -fendere    -fendī    -fēnsus
  mandō, _chew_      mandere     mandī
                                   once    mānsus
  pandō, _open_      pandere     pandī     passus, pānsus

For #dis-pennite# (Plaut.), see 166, 4. #dis-pandō#, #dis-pendō#, has
perfect participle #dis-pessus# (Plaut., Lucr.), #dis-pānsus# (Lucr.,
Plin., Suet.).

  pre-hendō, _seize_    pre-hendere    pre-hendī    pre-hēnsus

Rarely #prae-hendō#; but very often #prēndō#, #prēndere#, #prēndī#,
#prēnsus#.

  scandō, _climb_    scandere    -scendī    -scēnsus

Compounds have #e# for #a# throughout: as, #dē-scendō#, #dē-scendere#,
&c.

  vorrō, verrō, _sweep_  vorrere,   -vorrī, -verrī   vorsus, versus
                           verrere
  vortō, vertō, _turn_   vortere,   vortī, vertī     vorsus, versus
                           vertere

951. (_b._) With the present stem in #-l{o|e-}# (833).

  vollō, vellō, _tear_  vollere, vellere  vollī, vellī  volsus, vulsus

Late perfect #vulsī# (Sen., Luc.); #-vulsī# (Laber., Col., Sen., Luc.).

  [Errata:
  925 ... For #com-pingō# and #im-pingō#
    #com-pingo#
  930. (_a._) With the present stem in #{-o|e-}#
    #{o-|e-}#
  (829).
    (829.)
  (Enn., Lucr., Varr.)
    Enn. Lucr.,
  937 ... Compounds with #ad#, #inter#, #nec-#, #per#, #prae#
    #per#. #prae#
  938 ... com-pingō, _fix together_
    com-pingo]


(B.) PERFECT STEM IN #-s-#, OR IN #-v-# OR #-u-#.


PERFECT STEM IN #-s-#.

952. (1 _a_.) The following verbs in #-ere# have the perfect stem in
#-s-# (867), and the perfect participle, when used, in #-tus#:

953. (_a._) With the present stem in #{-o|e-}# (829).

  carpō, _nibble_, _pluck_    carpere    carpsī    carptus

Compounds have #e# for #a#: as, #dē-cerpō#, #dē-cerpere#, #dē-cerpsī#,
#dē-cerptus#.

  com-būrō, _burn up_    com-būrere    com-bussī    com-būstus
  cōmō, _put up_         cōmere        cōmpsī       cōmptus

Compound of #com-# and #emō# (937, 823). See also #dēmō#, #prōmō#,
#sūmō#.

  coquō, _cook_        coquere    coxī      coctus
  dēmō, _take away_    dēmere     dēmpsī    dēmptus
  dīcō, _say_          dīcere     dīxī      dictus

For #dīc#, see 846.

  dī-ligō, _esteem_    dī-ligere    dī-lēxī    dī-lēctus

Compound of #dis-# and #legō# (937, 823). See also #intel-legō# and
#neg-legō#.

  dūcō _lead_    dūcere    dūxī    ductus

For #dūc#, #ē-dūc#, see 846.

  -flīgō, _smash_    -flīgere    -flīxī    -flīctus

Of the simple verb, #flīgit# occurs (L. Andr.), #flīgēbant# (Lucr.), and
#flīgī# (L. Andr., Acc.).

  gerō, _carry_               gerere          gessī         gestus
  intel-legō, _understand_    intel-legere    intel-lēxī    intel-lēctus
  neg-legō, _disregard_       neg-legere      neg-lēxī      neg-lēctus

In the perfect system very rarely #intel-lēgī# and #neg-lēgī# (862,
823).

  nūbō, _veil_,            nūbere     nūpsī      nūpta
    _marry (a man)_
  prōmō, _take out_        prōmere    prōmpsī    prōmptus
  regō, _guide_, _rule_    regere     rēxī       rēctus

In the present system, #con-rigō# and #ē-rigō#; commonly #por-rigō#,
sometimes #porgō#; rarely #sur-rigō#, commonly #surgō#; always #pergō#.

  rēpō, _creep_        rēpere      rēpsi      ----
  scalpō, _dig_        scalpere    scalpsī    scalptus
  scrībō, _write_      scrībere    scrīpsī    scrīptus
  sculpō, _carve_      sculpere    sculpsī    sculptus
  struō, _build up_    struere     strūxī     strūctus
  sūgō, _suck_         sūgere      sūxī       suctus
  sūmō, _take up_      sūmere      sūmpsī     sūmptus
  tegō, _cover_        tegere      tēxī       tēctus
  trahō, _drag_        trahere     trāxī      tractus
  ūrō, _burn_          ūrere       ussī       ustus
  vehō, _cart_         vehere      vēxī       vectus
  vīvō, _live_         vīvere      vīxī       ----

954. (_b._) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by
#{-o|e-}# (831).

  cingō, _gird_              cingere        cīnxī        cīnctus
  com-pungō, _prick over_    com-pungere    com-pūnxī    com-pūnctus

A compound of #pungō# (925, 823).

  ē-mungō, _clean out_     ē-mungere     ē-mūnxī     ē-mūnctus
  ex-pungō, _prick out_    ex-pungere    ex-pūnxī    ex-pūnctus

A compound of #pungō# (925, 823).

  fingō, _mould_                 fingere      fīnxī      fīctus
  iungō, _join_                  iungere      iūnxī      iūnctus
  pingō, _paint_                 pingere      pīnxī      pīctus
  plangō, _beat_                 plangere     plānxī     plānctus
  stinguō, _poke_, _poke out_    stinguere    -stīnxī    -stīnctus
  stringō, _peel_, _graze_       stringere    strīnxī    strīctus
  tingō, _wet_                   tingere      tīnxī      tīnctus
  unguō, _anoint_                unguere      ūnxī       ūnctus

Sometimes #ungō#, #ungere#, &c., in the present system.

955. (_c._) With the present stem in #-n{o|e-}# (833).

  temnō, _scorn_    temnere    (con-tempsī)    (con-temptus)

956. (_d._) With the present stem in #-i{o|e-}# (836).

  ad-liciō, _lure_            ad-licere     ad-lexī     ----
  in-liciō, _inveigle_        in-licere     in-lexī     in-lectus
  pel-liciō, _lead astray_    pel-licere    pel-lexī    pel-lectus
  -spiciō, _spy_              -spicere      -spēxī      -spectus

Forms of the simple verb are old and rare: as, #specitur#, #spicit#,
#spece# (Plaut.), #specimus# (Varr.), #spiciunt# (Cato), #spēxit#
(Naev., Enn.).

957. (1 _b_.) The following verbs in #-ere# have the perfect stem in
#-s-# (867), and the perfect participle, when used, in #-sus# (912):

958. (_a._) With the present stem in #{-o|e-}# (829).

  cēdō, _move along_    cēdere      cessī     cessus
  claudō, _shut_        claudere    clausī    clausus

Sometimes #clūdō#, #clūdere#, #clūsī#, #clūsus#. Compounds have #ū# for
#au# throughout.

  dī-vidō, _separate_    dī-videre    dī-vīsī    dī-vīsus
  fīgō, _pin_            fīgere       fīxī       fīxus,
                                                   twice fīctus
  fluō, _flow_           fluere       flūxī      fluxus
                                                   adjective
  laedō, _hurt_          laedere      laesī      laesus

Compounds have #ī# for #ae# throughout: as, #in-līdō#, #in-līdere#, &c.

  lūdō, _play_            lūdere      lūsī      lūsus
  mittō, _send_           mittere     mīsī      missus
  mergō, _dip_, _duck_    mergere     mersī     mersus
  plaudō, _clap_          plaudere    plausī    plausus

Also #ap-plaudō#, #ap-plaudere#, &c. Other compounds have usually #ō#
for #au# throughout: as, #ex-plōdō#, &c.; but #ex-plaudō# (Lucr.).

  premō, _squeeze_    premere    pressī    pressus

Compounds have #i# for #e# in the present system: as, #com-primō#, &c.

  rādō, _scrape_       rādere      rāsī      rāsus
  rōdō, _gnaw_         rōdere      rōsī      rōsus
  spargō, _scatter_    spargere    sparsī    sparsus

Compounds usually have #e# for #a# throughout: as, #cōn-spergō#, &c.

  trūdō, _shove_    trūdere    trūsī    trūsus
  vādō, _go_        vādere     -vāsī    -vāsus

959. (_b._) With the present stem in #-sc{o|e-}# (834).

  algēscō, _get cold_      algēscere    alsī              ----
  ardēscō, _flame out_     ardēscere    arsī (ex-arsī)    ----
  lūcēscō, _grow light_    lūcēscere    -lūxī             ----

Sometimes in the present system #lūcīscō#, #lūcīscere#, &c.

  frīgēscō, _grow cold_    frīgēscere    -frīxī       ----
  vīvēscō, _get alive_     vīvēscere     (re-vīxī)    ----

In composition, also #re-vīvīscō#, #re-vīvīscere#.

960. (_c._) With the present stem in #-t{o|e-}# (835).

  flectō, _turn_            flectere    flexī          flexus
  nectō, _bind together_    nectere     nexī, nexuī    nexus

Perfect system rare: #nexit# (Lucil., Acc.); #nexuit#, #ad-nexuerant#
(Sall.).

  pectō, _comb_    pectere    pexī    pexus
                                once

961. (_d._) With the present stem in #-i{o|e-}# (836).

  quatiō, _shake_    quatere    -cussī    quassus

Compounds drop the #a# (111, _a_): as, #in-cutiō#, #in-cutere#,
#in-cussī#, #in-cussus#.

  [Errata:
  954 ... nasalized root followed by #{-o|e-}# (831).
    final . missing
  956 ... #spiciunt# (Cato), #spēxit# (Naev., Enn.).
    text unchanged: error for spexit?]


PERFECT STEM IN #-v-#.

962. (2 _a_.) The following verbs in #-ere# have the perfect stem in
#-v-#, preceded by a long vowel of the root (869), and the perfect
participle, when used, in #-tus#:

963. (_a._) With the present stem in #{-o|e-}# (829).

  terō, _rub_    terere    trīvī    trītus

Perfect infinitive once in pentameter verse (823) #at-teruisse# (Tib.).

964. (_b._) With the present stem in #-n{o|e-}# (833).

  cernō, _sift_,         cernere    crēvī,           certus, -crētus
    _separate_, _see_                 _decided_
  linō, _besmear_        linere     lēvī,           litus
                                      rarely līvī

In the present system some forms in #-īre# are used by late writers.

  sinō, _leave_, _let_    sinere    sīvī    situs

Perfect system forms of #sinō# and #dē-sinō# in #-v-# are: #sīvī#
(Plaut., Ter., Cic.); #dē-sīvit# (Sen.), #sīvistis# (Cic.), once each;
#sīverīs# (Plaut., Cato), #dē-sīverit# (Cato, Gell.), #sīverint#
(Plaut., Curt.), #sīvisset# (Cic., Liv.). Much oftener without #-v-#:
as, #dē-siī# (Sen.), #sīstī# (Plaut., Cic.); #dē-sīstī# often, #siit#
once (Ter.), #dē-siit# (Varr., Sen., &c.), #dē-sīt# (Mart., &c.),
#dē-siimus# (Lent.), #dē-sīmus# (893), #sīstis#; #dē-siērunt# (Cic.,
Liv.); #dē-sierat#, #dē-sierit# (Cic.); #dē-sīssem#, &c., #sīsset#,
#sīssent#, #dē-sīsse#. For #sīrīs#, &c., see 893; for #pōnō#, 972.

  spernō, _spurn_    spernere    sprēvī    sprētus
  sternō, _strew_    sternere    strāvī    strātus

965. (_c._) With the present stem in #-sc{o|e-}# (834).

  crēscō, _grow_          crēscer    crēv    crētus
  nōscō, _get to know_    nōscere    nōvī    nōtus
                                               adjective

Compounds: #ī-gnōscō#, #ī-gnōvī#, #ī-gnōtum#; #ā-gnōscō#, #ā-gnōvī#,
#ā-gnitus#; #cō-gnōscō#, #cō-gnōvī#, #cō-gnitus#; #dī-nōscō#, #dī-nōvī#,
rarely #dī-gnōscō#, #dī-gnōvī#, #----#; #inter-nōscō#, #inter-nōvī#,
#----#. Old passive infinitive GNOSCIER (inscr. 186 B.C.).

  pāscō, _feed_      pāscere     pāvī     pāstus
  scīscō, _enact_    scīscere    scīvī    scītus

966. (2_b_.) The following verbs in #-ere# have the perfect stem in
#-v-#, preceded by the long vowel of a presumed denominative stem (870),
and the perfect participle, when used, in #-tus#:

967. (_a._) With the present stem in #{-o|e-}# (829).

  petō, _aim at_    petere    petīvī    petītus

In the perfect, sometimes #petiī# (Cic., Ov., Liv., Val. Fl., Plin.
_Ep._), PETIEI (inscr.), #petī# late (Sen., Stat.); #petiit# (Cic.,
Hor., Tac., Suet.), #petīt# (Verg., Ov., Phaedr., Sen., Luc., Suet.),
#petiisse# (Verg., Hor., Ov., Val. Fl., Stat.).

  quaerō, _inquire_    quaerere    quaesīvī    quaesītus

Compounds sometimes retain #ae# in old Latin, but usually have #ī# for
#ae# throughout: as, #con-quīrō#, #con-quīrere#, &c.

968. (_b._) With the present stem in #-sc{o|e-}# (834).

  ab-olēscō, _vanish away_   ab-olēscere     ab-olēvī     ----
  ad-olēscō, _grow up_       ad-olēscere     ad-olēvī     ad-ultus
  con-cupīscō, _hanker for_  con-cupīscere   con-cupīvī   con-cupītus
  -dormīscō, _fall asleep_   -dormīscere     -dormīvī     ----
  ex-olēscō, _grow out_      ex-olēscere     ex-olēvī     ex-olētus
  in-veterāscō, _get set_    in-veterāscere  in-veterāvī  ----
  obs-olēscō,                obs-olēscere    obs-olēvī    obs-olētus
    _get worn out_                                          adj.
  quiēscō, _get still_       quiēscere       quiēvī       quiētus
                                                            adjective
  re-sipīscō, _come to_      re-sipīscere    re-sipīvī    ----
  suēscō, _get used_         suēscere        suēvī        suētus
  vesperāscit, _gets dusk_   vesperāscere    vesperāvit   ----

969. (_c._) With the present stem in #-i{o|e-}# (836).

  cupiō, _want_    cupere    cupīvī    cupītus

Once with a form in #-īre# (791), #cupīret# (Lucr.).

  sapiō, _have a smack_    sapere    sapīvī    ----

Compounds have #i# for #a#: as, #re-sipiō#, &c.

970. (_d._) With the present stem in #-ss{o|e-}# (375).

  ar-cēssō, _send for_    ar-cēssere    ar-cēssīvī    ar-cēssītus

Sometimes #ac-cersō#, &c.; infinitive rarely #ar-cēssīrī# or
#ac-cersīrī#.

  capēssō, _undertake_         capēssere    capēssīvī    ----
  facēssō, _do_, _make off_    facēssere    facēssīvī    facēssītus

Perfect system rare: #facēssierīs# or #facēsserīs# (Cic.), #facēssīsset#
(Tac.).

  in-cēssō, _attack_    in-cēssere    in-cēssīvī    ----
  lacēssō, _provoke_    lacēssere     lacēssīvī     lacēssītus

  [Erratum:
  967 ... (Verg., Ov., Phaedr., Sen., Luc., Suet.)
    Verg, Ov.,]


PERFECT STEM IN #-u-#.

971. (3.) The following verbs in #-ere# have the perfect stem in #-u-#
(873), and the perfect participle, when used, in #-tus#; in some
participles #-tus# is preceded by a short #i#, thus, #-itus# (910):

972. (_a._) With the present stem in #{-o|e-}# (829).

  alō, _bring up_          alere       aluī       altus,
                                                     rarely alitus
  colō, _till_,            colere      coluī      cultus
    _stay round_, _court_
  con-cinō, _chime with_   con-cinere  con-cinuī  ----

A compound of #canō# (924, 823). See also #oc-cinō# and #prae-cinō#.

  cōn-sulō, _consult_          cōn-sulere    cōn-suluī    cōn-sultus
  depsō, _knead_               depsere       depsuī       depstus
  fremō, _growl_               fremere       fremuī       ----
  gemō, _groan_                gemere        gemuī        ----
  molō, _grind_                molere        moluī        molitus
  oc-cinō, _sing ominously_    oc-cinere     oc-cinuī     ----

Once with reduplication, #oc-cecinerit# (Liv.).

  oc-culō, _hide_        oc-culere          oc-culuī          oc-cultus
  pīsō, pīnsō, _bray_    pīsere, pīnsere    pīnsuī, pīsīvī    pistus

Once (818, 847) #pīnsībant# (Enn.). Perfect once #pīnsuī# (Pomp.), once
(823, 893) #pīsiērunt# (Varr.). Perfect participle often #pīnsītus#
(Col.), once #pīnsus# (Vitr.).

  pōnō, _place_    pōnere    po-suī    po-situs

A compound of #po-# and #sinō# (964). Perfect in old Latin #po-sīvī#
(893); #po-suī# is first used by Ennius (875). Perfect participle in
verse sometimes, #po-stus#, #-po-stus#; inf. #inposīsse# (Plaut.).

  prae-cinō, _play before_    prae-cinere    prae-cinuī      ----
  serō, _string_              serere         -seruī          sertus
  stertō, _snore_             stertere       (dē-stertuī)    ----
  strepō, _make a racket_     strepere       strepuī         ----
  texō, _weave_               texere         texuī           textus
  tremō, _quake_              tremere        tremuī          ----
  vomō, _throw up_            vomere         vomuī           ----

973. (_b._) With reduplication and #{-o|e-}# in the present stem (829).

  gignō, _beget_    gignere    genuī    genitus

Present sometimes also without reduplication, #genit#, &c. (Varr.,
Lucr.).

974. (_c._) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by
#{-o|e-}# (831).

  ac-cumbō, _lie by_    ac-cumbere    ac-cubuī    ac-cubitus

So also #in-cumbō#; #dis-cumbō# has #dis-cubuī#, #dis-cubitum#.
Compounds with #dē#, #ob#, #prō#, #re-#, and #sub#, have #-cubuī#,
#----#.

975. (_d._) With the present stem in #-i{o|e-}# (836).

  ē-liciō, _coax out_    ē-licere    ē-licuī    ē-licitus
  rapiō, _seize_         rapere      rapuī      raptus

Compounds have #i# for #a# in the present and perfect systems, and #e#
in the perfect participle: as, #ē-ripiō#, #ē-ripere#, #ē-ripuī#,
#ē-reptus#. Old Latin has #u# in #dē-rupier# and in #sub-rupiō#,
#sub-rupere#, #sub-rupuī#, #sub-ruptus#; shortened forms are: #surpuit#,
#surpuerit# (Plaut.), #surpit# (Plaut. prol.), #surpere# (Lucr.),
#surpite#, #surpuerat# (Hor.). For #sub-repsit# (Plaut.), see 887.

976. (_e._) With the present stem in #-sc{o|e-}# (835); for
#com-pēscuī#, see 855.

  acēscō, _get sour_        acēscere         -acuī         ----
  alēscō, _grow up_         alēscere         (co-aluī)     (co-alitus)
  ārēscō, _dry up_          ārēscere         -āruī         ----
  calēscō, _get warm_       calēscere        -caluī        ----
  candēscō, _get white_     candēscere       -canduī       ----
  cānēscō, _get grey_       cānēscere        cānuī         ----
  clārēscō, _get bright_    clārēscere       clāruī        ----
  com-pescō, _check_        com-pescere      com-pescuī    ----
  con-ticēscō,              con-ticēscere    con-ticuī     ----
    _get all still_

Also in the present system, #con-ticīscō#, #con-ticīscere#, &c.

  crēbrēscō, _get common_    crēbrēscere      -crēbruī          ----
  crūdēscō, _wax bad_        crūdēscere       (re-crūduī)       ----
  -dolēscō, _get pained_     -dolēscere       -doluī            ----
  dūrēscō, _get hard_        dūrēscere        dūruī             ----
  ē-vīlēscō, _get cheap_     ē-vīlēscere      ē-vīluī           ----
  fervēscō, _boil up_        fervēscere       -ferbuī, -fervī   ----
  flōrēscō, _blossom out_    flōrēscere       -flōruī            ----
  horrēscō, _bristle up_     horrēscere       -horruī            ----
  languēscō, _get weak_      languēscere      languī             ----
  latēscō, _hide away_       latēscere        -lituī             ----
  liquēscō, _melt_           liquēscere       (dē-licuī)         ----
  madēscō, _get moist_       madēscere        maduī              ----
  marcēscō, _pine away_      marcēscere       (ē-marcuī)         ----
  mātūrēscō, _ripen_         mātūrēscere      mātūruī            ----
  nigrēscō, _get black_      nigrēscere       nigruī             ----
  nōtēscō, _get known_       nōtēscere        nōtuī              ----
  ob-mūtēscō, _get still_    ob-mūtēscere     ob-mūtuī           ----
  ob-surdēscō, _get deaf_    ob-surdēscere    ob-surduī          ----
  oc-callēscō, _get hard_    oc-callēscere    oc-calluī          ----
  pallēscō, _grow pale_      pallēscere       palluī             ----
  pūtēscō, _get soaked_      pūtēscere        pūtuī              ----
  rigēscō, _stiffen up_      rigēscere        riguī              ----
  rubēscō, _redden_          rubēscere        rubuī              ----
  sānēscō, _get well_        sānēscere        -sānuī             ----
  senēscō, _grow old_        senēscere        -senuī             ----
  stupēscō, _get dazed_      stupēscere       (ob-stupuī)        ----

Also #op-stipēscō# or #ob-stipēscō#, #op-stipuī# or #ob-stipuī#.

  tābēscō, _waste away_      tābēscere     tābuī           ----
  tepēscō, _get lukewarm_    tepēscere     tepuī           ----
  -timēscō, _get scared_     -timēscere    -timuī          ----
  torpēscō, _get numb_       torpēscere    torpuī          ----
  tremēscō, _quake_          tremēscere    (con-tremuī)    ----

Also in the present system, #con-tremīscō#, #con-tremīscere#, &c.

  tumēscō, _swell up_      tumēscere    -tumuī       ----
  valēscō, _get strong_    valēscere    -valuī       ----
  vānēscō, _wane_          vānēscere    (ē-vānuī)    ----

  [Errata:
  972. (_a._)
    . invisible
  Once (818, 847) #pīnsībant#
    pīnsībart
  976 ... for #com-pēscuī#, see 855.
    final . missing]


DEPONENTS IN #-ī#.

977. (1.) The following deponents in #-ī# have the perfect participle in
#-tus#, except #morior#, which has #-tuus#:

978. (_a._) With the present stem in #{-o|e-}# (829).

  fruor, _enjoy_        fruī     frūctus
  loquor, _speak_       loquī    locūtus
  queror, _complain_    querī    questus
  sequor, _follow_      sequī    secūtus

979. (_b._) With the present stem in a nasalized root followed by
#{-o|e-}# (831).

  fungor, _get quit_    fungī    fūnctus

980. (_c._) With the present stem in #-sc{o|e-}# (834).

  apīscor, _lay hold of_    apīscī    aptus

Compounds have #i# and #e# for #a#: as, #ad-ipīscor#, #ad-ipīscī#,
#ad-eptus#.

  com-minīscor, _devise_             com-minīscī    com-mentus
  ex-pergīscor, _stretch myself_,    ex-pergīscī    ex-per-rēctus
    _wake_

Perfect participle rarely #ex-pergitus# (Lucil., Lucr.).

  nancīscor, _get_         nancīscī      nactus, nānctus
  nāscor, _am born_        nāscī         nātus
  ob-līvīscor, _forget_    ob-līvīscī    ob-lītus
  pacīscor, _bargain_      pacīscī       pactus

Compounds: #dē-pecīscor#, #dē-pecīscī#, #dē-pectus#; #com-pectus#.

  pro-ficīscor, _start on_    pro-ficīscī    pro-fectus
  ulcīscor, _avenge_          ulcīscī        ultus

981. (_d._) With the present stem in #-i{o|e-}# (836).

  morior, _die_       morī      mortuus
  orior, _rise_       orīrī     ortus
  potior, _master_    potīrī    potītus

For forms in #-īrī# of these three verbs, see 791. For #potīrī#, twice
#potī# (Enn., Pac.).

982. (2.) The following deponents in #-ī# have the perfect participle in
#-sus# (912):

983. (_a._) With the present stem in #{-o|e-}# (829).

  lābor, _tumble down_    lābī    lapsus
  nītor, _rest on_        nītī    nīsus, nīxus
  ūtor, _use_             ūtī     ūsus

984. (_b._) With the present stem in #-sc{o|e-}# (834).

  dē-fetīscor, _get tired out_    dē-fetīscī    dē-fessus

985. (_c._) With the present stem in #-t{o|e-}# (835).

  am-plector, _hug round_    am-plectī     am-plexus
  com-plector, _hug up_      com-plectī    com-plexus

986. (_d._) With the present stem in #-i{o|e-}# (836).

  gradior, _step_     gradī    gressus
  patior, _suffer_    patī     passus

Compounds of these two verbs have #e# for #a#: as, #ad-gredior#,
#per-petior#, #per-pessus#; for forms of #-gredior# in #-īrī#, see 791.

  [Erratum:
  978. (_a_.)
    (_a_).]


II. DENOMINATIVE VERBS.

987. Most verbs in #-āre#, #-ēre#, and #-īre# (or in #-ārī#, #-ērī#, and
#-īrī#), are denominatives.

988. Some primitives from vowel roots have the form of denominatives in
the present system, or throughout; and some verbs with a denominative
present system have the perfect and perfect participle formed directly
from a root.


(1.) VERBS IN #-āre#.


(A.) PERFECT STEM WITHOUT A SUFFIX.

989. (1.) The following verb in #-āre# has a reduplicated perfect stem
(859):

  stō, _stand_    stāre    stetī    ----

For #-stitī#, see 860. The compound #prae-stō# has rarely the perfect
participle #prae-stātus# (Brut., Plin.), and #prae-stitus# (Liv.).

990. (2.) The following verbs in #-āre# have a perfect stem consisting
of a root which ends in #-v-# and has a long vowel (864), and the
perfect participle in #-tus#:

  iuvō, _help_    iuvāre    iūvī    iūtus
                                      once

In the perfect system, #iuverint#, #adiuverō#, and #adiuverit# occur
once each in Catull., Enn., Plaut., and Ter.; see 891. Perfect
participle usual only in the compound #ad-iūtus#.

  lavō, _bathe_    lavāre    lāvī    lautus

Forms in #-ere# are very common in the present tense (820): #lavis#
(Plaut., Hor.), #lavit# (Plaut., Lucr., Catull., Verg., Hor.), #lavimus#
(Hor.), #lavitur# (Val. Fl.), #lavitō# (Cato), #lavere# often, #lavī#
(Pomp.). Perfect participle often #lōtus# in writers of the empire;
supine, #lautum#, #lavātum#.

  [Erratum:
  990 ... once each in Catull., Enn., Plaut., and Ter.;
    and Ter;]


(B.) PERFECT STEM IN #-v-# OR #-u-#.


PERFECT STEM IN #-v-#.

991. (1_a_.) Two verbs in #-āre# have the perfect stem in #-v-# (869),
and the perfect participle, when used, in #-tus#, both preceded by a
long #-ā-# of the root:

  flō, _blow_    flāre    flāvī    flātus
  nō, _swim_     nāre     nāvī     ----

992. (1_b_.) Most verbs in #-āre# have the perfect stem in #-v-# (869),
and the perfect participle in #-tus#, both preceded by a form of the
present stem in long #-ā-#: as,

  laudō, _praise_    laudāre     laudāvī     laudātus
  līberō, _free_     līberāre    līberāvī    līberātus
  nōminō, _name_     nōmināre    nōmināvī    nōminātus
  spērō, _hope_      spērāre     spērāvī     spērātus


PERFECT STEM IN #-u-#.

993. (2.) The following verbs in #-āre# have the perfect stem in #-u#
(874), and the perfect participle, when used, in #-tus#; in some
participles, #-tus# is preceded by a short #i#, thus, #-itus# (910):

  crepō, _rattle_    crepāre    crepuī    (in-crepitus)

Forms of the perfect system in #-v-# (823) are: #in-crepāvit# (Plaut.),
#dis-crepāvit# (Varr.), #in-crepārit# (Suet.).

  cubō, _lie_    cubāre    cubuī    ----

Forms of the perfect system in #-v-# (823) are: #ex-cubāverant# (Caes.),
#cubāris# (Prop.), #in-cubāvēre# (Plin.), #cubāsse# (Quintil.). Compound
perfect participle #in-cubitus# (Plin.).

  domō, _tame_        domāre      domuī      domitus
  ē-necō, _murder_    ē-necāre    ē-necuī    ē-nectus

The simple verb has #necāvī#, #necātus#; twice #necuit# (Enn., Phaedr.).
#ē-necō# sometimes has #i# for #e# in the present and perfect system;
once (823) #ē-nicāvit#, and once (887) #ē-nicāssō# (Plaut.); perfect
participle also #ē-necātus# (Plin.).

  fricō, _rub down_    fricāre    fricuī    frictus

Perfect participle also #fricātus# (Vitr.), #cōn-fricātus# (Varr.,
Plin.), #dē-fricātus# (Catull., Col., Plin.), #īn-fricātus# (Col.,
Plin.), #per-fricātus# (Vitr., Plin.).

  micō, _quiver_    micāre    micuī    ----

So the compounds; except #dī-micō#, #dī-micāvī#, #dī-micātum#; twice in
pentameter verse (823) #dī-micuisse# (Ov.).

  -plicō, _fold_    -plicāre    -plicuī    -plicitus

A few forms of the present system of the simple verb occur. In the
perfect and perfect participle usually #-plicāvī#, #-plicātus#; but
sometimes #ap-plicuī# (Cic. once, Tib., Ov., Liv., Sen., &c.);
#com-plicuī# (Sen.), #ex-plicuī# (Verg., Hor., Liv., Sen., &c.),
#im-plicuī# (Verg., Tib., Ov., Sen., &c.); #ap-plicitus# (Col.,
Quintil., Plin. _Ep._), #ex-plicitus# (Caes., Sen., Plin. _Ep._),
#im-plicitus# (Plaut., Cic., Liv.); once #re-plictus# (Stat.).

  secō, _cut_    secāre    secuī    sectus

The compound with #ex# sometimes has #i# for #e#; once (823)
#exicāveris# (Cato).

  sonō, _sound_    sonāre    sonuī    ----

Also (820) #sonit#, #sonunt# (Enn., Acc.), #sonere# (Acc., Lucr.);
#re-sonunt# (Enn.). Perfect (823) #re-sonārint# (Hor.), #re-sonāvit#
(Man.), #sonātūrus# (Hor.).

  tonō, _thunder_    tonāre    tonuī    (at-tonitus)

Once (820) #tonimus# (Varr.). Perfect participle once #in-tonātus#
(Hor.).

  vetō, _forbid_    vetāre    vetuī    vetitus

In old Latin, #votō#, &c. (143). Perfect once (823) #vetāvit# (Pers.).

  [Erratum:
  993 ... #re-sonāvit# (Man.), #sonātūrus# (Hor.).
    final . missing]


DEPONENTS IN #-ārī#.

994. There are many deponents in #-ārī#, with the perfect participle in
#-ātus#: as,

  hortor, _exhort_    hortārī    hortātus

For the primitive #fārī#, _speak_, and compounds, see the dictionary.


(2.) VERBS IN #-ēre#.


(A.) PERFECT STEM WITHOUT A SUFFIX.

995. (1.) The following verbs in #-ēre# have a reduplicated perfect stem
(859), and the perfect participle, when used, in #-sus# (912):

  mordeō, _bite_    mordēre    momordī    morsus

The compound #prae-mordeō# has once (823) #prae-morsisset# (Plaut.).

  pendeō, _am hung_    pendēre    pependī    ----

The compound #prō-pendeō# has the perfect participle #prō-pēnsus#.

  spondeō, _covenant_    spondēre    spopondī    spōnsus

For #dē-spondī# and #re-spondī#, see 860; rarely #dē-spopondī# (Plaut.).

  tondeō, _shear_    tondēre    -totondī, -tondī    tōnsus

For #dē-tondunt# (Varr.), see 821. Perfect only in the compounds
#at-tondī# and #dē-tondī# (860); once #dē-totonderat# (Varr.), and
perhaps #dē-totondit# (Enn.).

996. (2_a_.) The following verbs in #-ēre# have a perfect stem
consisting of a root which ends in #-v-# and has a long vowel (864), and
the perfect participle, when used, in #-tus#:

  caveō, _look out_           cavēre    cāvī    cautus
  faveō, _am friendly_        favēre    fāvī    ----
  foveō, _warm_, _cherish_    fovēre    fōvī    fōtus
  moveō, _move_               movēre    mōvī    mōtus

For short forms in the perfect system, particularly in compounds, see
891.

  voveō, _vow_    vovēre    vōvī    vōtus

997. (2_b_.) Three verbs in #-ēre# have a perfect stem consisting of a
consonant root with a long vowel (864), and the perfect participle in
#-sus# (912):

  sedeō, _sit_    sedēre    sēdī    -sessus

Real compounds have #i# for #e# in the present system: as, #ob-sideō#,
&c. Compounds with #dis-#, #prae#, and #re-# have no perfect participle.

  strīdeō, _grate_    strīdēre    strīdī    ----

Often with a present system in #-ere# (821).

  videō, _see_    vidēre    vīdī    vīsus

998. (3.) The following verbs in #-ēre# have a perfect stem ending in
two consonants (866), and the perfect participle, when used, in #-sus#
(912):

  ferveō, _boil_    fervēre    fervī, ferbuī    ----

Sometimes with forms in #-ere# (821) in verse. The perfect system is
rare.

  prandeō, _lunch_    prandēre    prandī    prānsus


(B.) PERFECT STEM IN #-s-#, OR IN #-v-# OR #-u-#.


PERFECT STEM IN #-s-#.

999. (1_a_.) The following verbs in #-ēre# have the perfect stem in
#-s-# (868), and the perfect participle, when used, in #-tus#:

  augeō, _increase_       augēre        auxī        auctus
  in-dulgeō, _am kind_    in-dulgēre    in-dulsī    ----
  lūceō, _beam_           lūcēre        lūxī        ----
  lūgeō, _mourn_          lūgēre        lūxī        ----
  torqueō, _twist_        torquēre      torsī       tortus

1000. (1_b_.) The following verbs in #-ēre# have the perfect stem in
#-s-# (868), and the perfect participle, when used, in #-sus# (912):

  algeō, _feel cold_             algēre       alsī                ----
  ardeō, _blaze_                 ardēre       arsī                ----
  cō-nīveō,  _wink and blink_    cō-nīvēre    cō-nīxī, cō-nīvī    ----

The perfects #cō-nīxī# (Turp.), #cō-nīvī# (Crass.), occur once each.

  fulgeō, _flash_    fulgēre    fulsī    ----

Forms of the present in #-ere# (821) occur in verse: #fulgit# (Pomp.,
Lucil., Lucr.), #fulgere# (Pac., Acc., Lucil., Lucr., Verg.);
#ef-fulgere# (Verg., Claud.).

  haereō, _stick_    haerēre    haesī    ----
  iubeō, _order_     iubēre     iussī    iussus

In old Latin, IOVBEO, after IOVSI (IVSI); later #iussī#, #iussus#, after
#iubeō#.

  maneō, _stay_       manēre     mānsī    mānsum
  mulceō, _stroke_    mulcēre    mulsī    mulsus
                                            adjective

Perfect participle #per-mulsus# rare (Cornif., Varr.).

  mulgeō, _milk_      mulgēre    mulsī    mulsus once
  rīdeō, _laugh_      rīdēre     rīsī     -rīsus
  suādeō, _advise_    suādēre    suāsī    suāsus
  tergeō, _wipe_      tergēre    tersī    tersus

For forms in #-ere# in the present, as #tergit#, &c. (Varr., Prop.,
Stat., Col.), see 821.

  turgeō, _am swelling_    turgēre    tursī once    ----

Of the perfect system, #turserat# (Enn.).

  urgeō, _push_    urgēre    ursī    ----

  [Erratum:
  999 ... lūgeō, _mourn_
    lūgeo]


PERFECT STEM IN #-v-# OR #-u-#.


PERFECT STEM IN #-v-#.

1001. (1_a_.) The following verbs in #-ēre# have the perfect stem in
#-v-# (869), and the perfect participle in #-tus#, both preceded by a
long #-ē-# of the root:

  dē-leō, _wipe out_    dē-lēre    dē-lēvī    dē-lētus
  fleō, _weep_          flēre      flēvī      flētus
  neō, _spin_           nēre       nēvī       ----

For #neunt# (Tib.), see 837.

  -pleō, _fill_    -plēre    -plēvī    -plētus

1002. (1_b_.) The following verb in #-ēre# has the perfect stem in #-v-#
(869), preceded by long #-ī-#, and the perfect participle in #-tus#,
preceded by short #-i-# of the root:

  cieō, _set a going_    ciēre    cīvī    citus

Somewhat defective; also with a form in #-īre# (821). For the perfect
participle of compounds, see 919.

1003. (1_c_.) The following verb in #-ēre# has the perfect stem in #-v-#
(869), and the perfect participle in #-itus# (910):

  ab-oleō, _destroy_    ab-olēre    ab-olēvī    ab-olitus


PERFECT STEM IN #-u-#.

1004. (2_a_.) Most verbs in #-ēre# have the perfect stem in #-u-# (874),
and the perfect participle, when used, in #-tus#, which is usually
preceded by a short #i# (910): as,

  doceō, _teach_    docēre    docuī    doctus
  habeō, _have_     habēre    habuī    habitus

So also #post-habeō#; other compounds have #i# for #a#: as, #pro-hibeō#,
#pro-hibēre#, #pro-hibuī#, #pro-hibitus#; twice contracted, #prōbet#,
#prōbeat# (Lucr.). Compounds with #dē# and #prae# are regularly
contracted, #dēbeō#, #praebeō#, &c.: but in Plautus once #de-hibuistī#,
and regularly #prae-hibeō#, &c., throughout.

  mereō, _earn_    merēre    meruī    meritus

Often deponent (800): #mereor#, #merērī#, #meritus#.

  misceō, _mix_    miscēre    miscuī    mixtus, mistus

The present stem is an extension of the suffix #-sc{o|e-}# (834); #-sc-#
of the present runs over into the perfect.

  moneō, _advise_          monēre     monuī     monitus
  placeō, _am pleasing_    placēre    placuī    placitus

So the compounds #com-placeō# and #per-placeō#; #dis-pliceō# has #i# for
#a# throughout.

  taceō, _hold my tongue_    tacēre    tacuī    tacitus
                                                  adjective

The compound #re-ticeō# has #i# for #a# and no perfect participle.

  teneō, _hold_    tenēre    tenuī    -tentus

Compounds have #i# for #e# in the present and perfect: as, #dē-tineō#,
#dē-tinuī#, #dē-tentus#.

  terreō, _scare_    terrēre    terruī    territus
  torreō, _roast_    torrēre    torruī    tostus

1005. (2_b_.) The following verb in #-ēre# has the perfect stem in #-u-#
(874), and the perfect participle in #-sus# (912):

  cēnseō, _count_, _rate_    cēnsēre    cēnsuī    cēnsus

1006. (3.) The following verbs in #-ēre# have the perfect stem in #-u-#
(874), and no perfect participle (907):

  arceō, _check_    arcēre    arcuī    ----

The compounds #co-erceō# and #ex-erceō# have #e# for #a#, and perfect
participles #co-ercitus# and #ex-ercitus#.

  caleō, _am warm_        calēre     caluī     ----
  candeō, _glow white_    candēre    canduī    ----
  careō, _have not_       carēre     caruī     ----
  doleō, _ache_           dolēre     doluī     ----
  egeō, _need_            egēre      eguī      ----

The compound #ind-igeō#, #ind-igēre#, #ind-iguī#, #----#, has #i# for
#e#.

  ē-mineō, _stick out_    ē-minēre    ē-minuī    ----
  flōreō, _bloom_         flōrēre     flōruī     ----
  horreō, _bristle up_    horrēre     horruī     ----
  iaceō, _lie_            iacēre      iacuī      ----
  lateō, _lie hid_        latēre      latuī      ----
  liceō, _am rated_       licēre      licuī      ----
  liqueō, _am melted_     liquēre     licuī      ----
  madeō, _am soaked_      madēre      maduī      ----
  niteō, _shine_          nitēre      nituī      ----
  noceō, _am hurtful_     nocēre      nocuī      ----
  oleō, _smell_           olēre       oluī       ----

For forms in #-ere# in the present system, see 821.

  palleō, _look pale_                pallēre    palluī    ----
  pāreō, _wait on_, _am obedient_    pārēre     pāruī     ----
  pateō, _am open_                   patēre     patuī     ----
  rigeō, _am stiff_                  rigēre     riguī     ----
  sileō, _am silent_                 silēre     siluī     ----
  sorbeō, _suck up_                  sorbēre    sorbuī    ----

The perfect system of the simple verb is rare: #sorbuit#, #sorbuerint#
(Plin.); also (823) #sorpsit# (Val. Max.); #ab-sorbeō# and #ex-sorbeō#
have #-sorbuī#; but #ab-sorpsī# (Plin., Luc., Macr.), #ex-sorpsī#
(Sen.).

  studeō, _am eager_      studēre    studuī    ----
  stupeō, _am dazed_      stupēre    stupuī    ----
  timeō, _fear_           timēre     timuī     ----
  valeō, _am strong_      valēre     valuī     ----
  vigeō, _feel strong_    vigēre     viguī     ----

1007. For #audeō#, #gaudeō#, and #soleō#, see 801; for #lubet# or
#libet#, #licet#, #miseret#, #oportet#, #paenitet#, #piget#, #pudet#,
#taedet#, see 815 and 816.

  [Errata:
  1004 ... but in Plautus once #de-hibuistī#
    printed as shown: expected form #dē-hibuistī#
  1006 ... but #ab-sorpsī# (Plin., Luc., Macr.)
    macron invisible]


DEPONENTS IN #-ērī#.

1008. (1_a_.) The following deponent in #-ērī# has the perfect
participle in #-tus#:

  reor, _reckon_, _think_    rērī    ratus

1009. (1_b_.) The following deponents in #-ērī# have the perfect
participle in #-tus#, which is preceded by a short #i# (910):

  liceor, _bid_                     licērī      licitus
  misereor, _pity_    miserērī    miseritus

Perfect participle also #misertus# (Val. Max., Sen., Curt.). Active
forms are: #miserēte#, #miserērent# (Enn.), #misereās# (Ter.), #miseret#
(Lucr.), #miserent# (Val. Fl.). Passive forms are sometimes used
impersonally (724): as, #miserētur#, &c.

  tueor, _look to_, _protect_    tuērī    tuitus late

Forms in #-ī# also occur in verse (821). As perfect participle,
generally #tūtātus#.

  vereor, _am awed at_    verērī    veritus

1010. (2.) One deponent in #-ērī# has the perfect participle in #-sus#
(912):

  fateor, _confess_    fatērī    fassus

Compounds have #i# and #e# for #a#: as, #cōn-fiteor#, #cōn-fessus#.


(3.) VERBS IN #-īre#.


(A.) PERFECT STEM WITHOUT A SUFFIX.

1011. (1_a_.) The following verb in #-īre# has a reduplicated perfect
stem (861), and the perfect participle in #-tus#:

  re-periō, _find_    re-perīre    re-pperī    re-pertus

1012. (1_b_.) The following verb in #-īre# has no reduplication in the
perfect stem, and the perfect participle in #-tus#:

  com-periō, _find out_    com-perīre    com-perī    com-pertus

As deponent: #com-periar# (Ter.), #com-perior# (Sall., Tac.).

1013. (2.) The following verb in #-īre# has a perfect stem consisting of
a consonant root with a long vowel (862), and the perfect participle in
#-tus#:

  veniō, _come_    venīre    vēnī    ventum, -ventus

For #ē-venunt#, #ē-venat#, #ē-venant#, #ad-venat#, #per-venat#, see 822.


(B.) PERFECT STEM IN #-s-#, OR IN #-v-# OR #-u-#.


PERFECT STEM IN #-s-#.

1014. (1.) The following verbs in #-īre# have the perfect stem in #-s-#
(868), and the perfect participle in #-tus#:

  farciō, _stuff_    farcīre    farsī    fartus

Compounds have usually #e# for #a# throughout.

  fulciō, _prop_     fulcīre    fulsī    fultus
  hauriō, _drain_    haurīre    hausī    haustus

A perfect subjunctive #haurierint# is quoted from Varro (823).

  saepiō, _hedge in_    saepīre    saepsī    saeptus
  sanciō, _hallow_      sancīre    sānxī     sānctus
                                               adjective

Perfect participle rarely #sancītus# (Lucr., Liv.). A pluperfect
#sancierat# is quoted from Pomponius Secundus (823).

  sarciō, _patch_    sarcīre    sarsī    sartus
  vinciō, _bind_     vincīre    vīnxī    vīnctus

1015. (2.) The following verb in #-īre# has the perfect stem in #-s-#
(868), and the perfect participle in #-sus# (912):

  sentiō, _feel_    sentīre    sēnsī    sēnsus

The compound with #ad# is generally deponent (800).


PERFECT STEM IN #-v-#.

1016. (1_a_.) The following verb in #-īre# has the perfect stem in #-v-#
(869), and the perfect participle in #-tus#, both preceded by a long #ī#
of the root:

  sciō, _know_    scīre    scīvī    scītus

1017. (1_b_.) The following verb in #-īre# has the perfect stem in #-v-#
(869), and the perfect participle in #-tus#:

  sepeliō, _bury_    sepelīre    sepelīvī    sepultus

1018. (1_c_.) Most verbs in #-īre# have the perfect stem in #-v-# (869),
and the perfect participle in #-tus#, both preceded by a form of the
present stem in long #-ī-#: as,

  audiō, _hear_    audīre    audīvī    audītus


PERFECT STEM IN #-u-#.

1019. (2.) The following verbs in #-īre# have the perfect stem in #-u-#
(874), and the perfect participle, when used, in #-tus#:

  am-iciō, _don_    am-icīre    am-icuī    am-ictus

Perfect rare: once #am-icuī# (Brut.), once #am-ixī# (Varr.).

  ap-eriō, _open_          ap-erīre    ap-eruī    ap-ertus
  op-eriō, _cover over_    op-erīre    op-eruī    op-ertus
  saliō, _leap_            salīre      saluī      ----

Compounds have #i# for #a# throughout: as, #īn-siliō#. A perfect system
in #-v-# (823, 893), as #ex-silīvī#, occurs in late writers (Col., Sen.,
Plin., &c.).


DEPONENTS IN #-īrī#.

1020. (1_a_.) The following deponents in #-īrī# have the perfect
participle in #-tus#:

  ex-perior, _try_         ex-perīrī    ex-pertus
  op-perior, _wait for_    op-perīrī    op-pertus

Perfect participle once #op-perītus# (Plaut.).

1021. (1_b_.) The following deponents in #-īrī# have the perfect
participle in #-ītus#:

  blandior, _am agreeable_    blandīrī    blandītus
  largior, _shower_           largīrī     largītus
  mentior, _tell lies_        mentīrī     mentītus
  mōlior, _work hard_         mōlīrī      mōlītus
  partior, _share_            partīrī     partītus
  sortior, _draw lots_        sortīrī     sortītus

1022. (2.) The following deponents in #-īrī# have the perfect participle
in #-sus# (912):

  mētior, _measure_    mētīrī    mēnsus
  ōrdior, _begin_      ōrdīrī    ōrsus



PART SECOND [decoration] SENTENCES


THE SIMPLE SENTENCE AND ITS PARTS.

1023. A SENTENCE is a thought expressed by means of a verb. The SUBJECT
is that which is spoken of. The PREDICATE is that which is said of the
subject.

1024. A SIMPLE SENTENCE is one which has only one subject and one
predicate.

Thus, #Rhodanus fluit#, _the Rhone flows_, is a simple sentence: the
subject is #Rhodanus# and the predicate is #fluit#.

1025. The sentence may be _declarative_, stating a fact, _exclamatory_,
crying out about something, _interrogative_, asking a question, or
_imperative_, giving a command.


THE SUBJECT.

1026. The subject is a substantive, or any word or words having the
value of a substantive.

1027. The subject of a verb is in the nominative case.

1028. The subject may be expressed, or may be merely indicated by the
person ending.

1029. (1.) With the first or the second person, the subject is expressed
by a personal pronoun (#ego# #tū#, #nōs# #vōs#) only when somewhat
emphatic, or in an indignant question. Otherwise the verb of the first
or second person is not attended by a personal pronoun: as, #eram#, _I
was_, #erās#, _thou wert_.

1030. The subject is regularly omitted when it is general and
indefinite, in the first person plural; as, #intellegimus#, _we
understand_; and second person singular, as: #putārēs#, _you_, or
_anybody would have thought_.

1031. The subject of the first or second person is sometimes a
substantive, contrary to the English idiom: as, #Hannibal petō pācem#,
_I Hannibal am suing for peace_. #pars spectātōrum scīs#, _a part of you
spectators knows_. #exoriāre aliquis nostrīs ex ossibus ultor#, _from
out our bones mayst some avenger spring_. #trecentī coniūrāvimus#,
_three hundred of us have sworn an oath together_.

1032. (2.) With the third person the subject is regularly expressed,
unless the general ‘he she it,’ or ‘they’ implied in the person ending
is definite enough.

1033. The third person plural often refers to people in general,
particularly of verbs meaning _say_, _name_ or _call_, _think_, and,
with #volgō# added, of other verbs also: as, #ferunt#, _they say_,
_people say_, or _the world says_. The singular verb #inquit#, is rarely
used in the sense of _says somebody_, _it will be said_, or _quotha_.

1034. Some verbs have no subject at all in the third person singular;
these are called _Impersonal_. Such are: a few verbs expressing
‘operations of nature,’ five verbs of ‘mental distress,’ and any verb
used to denote merely the occurrence of action, without reference to any
doer: as,

(_a._) #lūcet#, _it is light_, #lūcēscit#, _it is getting light_;
#pluit#, _it rains_, #fulget#, _it lightens_, #tonat#, _it thunders_.
(_b._) #miseret#, _it moves to pity_, #paenitet#, _it repents_, #piget#,
_it grieves_, #pudet#, _it puts to shame_, #taedet#, _it bores_. (_c._)
#bene erat#, _it went well_; #pugnātur#, _there is fighting_, #pugnātum
est#, _there was fighting_. See also 816.


THE PREDICATE.

1035. The predicate is either a verb alone, or a verb of indeterminate
meaning with a predicate nominative added to complete the sense.

Verbs of indeterminate meaning are such as mean _am_ (something),
_become_, _remain_, _seem_, _am thought_, _am called_ or _named_, _am
chosen_.

1036. The verb is sometimes omitted, when it is easily understood. So
particularly such everyday verbs as mean _am_, _do_, _say_, _come_, and
_go_, in proverbs and maxims, in short questions, and in emphatic or
lively assertion or description: as,

#quot hominēs, tot sententiae#, sc. #sunt#, _as many men, so many
minds_. #omnia praeclāra rāra#, sc. #sunt#, _all that’s very fair is
rare_. #mortuus Cūmīs#, sc. #est#, _he died at Cumae_. #bene mihī̆#, sc.
#sit#, _be it well with me_, i.e. _a health to me_. #haec hāctenus#, sc.
#dīcam#, _thus much only_, or _no more of this_.


ENLARGEMENT OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

1037. The parts of the simple sentence may be enlarged by additions. The
commonest enlargements of the subject and of the predicate are the
following.

1038. I. The subject may be enlarged by the addition of attributes,
appositives, or objects.

1039. (1.) An ATTRIBUTE is an essential addition to a substantive,
uniting with it as one idea. The attribute may be:

1040. (_a._) Genitive of a substantive of different meaning, denoting
the agent, possessor, or the like: as, #metus hostium#, _fear of the
enemy_, i.e. which they feel. #hostium castra#, _camp of the enemy_.

1041. (_b._) Genitive or ablative of a substantive with an adjective in
agreement: as, #puer sēdecim annōrum#, _a boy of sixteen years_; #bovēs
mīrā speciē#, _kine of wondrous beauty_.

1042. (_c._) A noun in the same case, either an adjective or participle,
or else a substantive used adjectively: as, #pugna Cannēnsis#, _the
battle of Cannae_; #cīvitātēs victae#, _the conquered communities_;
#victor Rōmulus rēx#, _victorious king Romulus_.

1043. (_d._) A substantive in the accusative or ablative with a
preposition: as, #pugna ad Cannās#, _the battle near Cannae_. #vir sine
metū#, _a man without fear_ (1427).

1044. An attribute is rarely attached immediately to a proper name: as,
#fortem Gyān#, _Gyas the brave_. #Q. Lūcānius, eiusdem ōrdinis#,
_Lucanius, of the same rank_. It is much oftener attached to a general
word in apposition with the proper name: as, #vir clārissimus, M.
Crassus#, _the illustrious Crassus_.

1045. (2.) An APPOSITIVE is a separate substantive added as an
explanation to another substantive, and in the same case, but not like
the attribute uniting with it as one idea: as,

#avītum malum, rēgnī cupīdō#, _the ancestral curse, ambition for a
crown_. #Hamilcar, Mārs alter#, _Hamilcar, a second Mars_. #Cornēlia,
māter Gracchōrum#, _Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi_. #Teutomatus,
Ollivicōnis fīlius, rēx Nitiobrogum#, _Teutomatus, the son of Ollivico,
the king of the Nitiobroges_.

1046. (3.) The OBJECT of a substantive is another substantive of
different meaning in the genitive, denoting that on which action is
exerted: as,

#metus hostium#, _fear of the enemy_, i.e. which is felt towards them.
#vēnditiō bonōrum#, _sale of the goods_.

1047. A substantive in any case may be modified like the subject.

1048. II. The predicate may be enlarged by the addition of accusatives,
datives, predicate nouns, or adverbial adjuncts.

1049. (1.) The ACCUSATIVE denotes the object of the verb; also extent,
duration, and aim of motion. See 1124.

1050. (2.) The DATIVE denotes that for or to which something is or is
done. See 1175.

1051. (3.) A predicate noun, either substantive or adjective, denoting
‘office, time, age, order, condition,’ or the like, is often added to
other verbs besides those of indeterminate meaning (1035): as,

#Iūnius aedem dictātor dēdicāvit#, _Junius dedicated a temple in his
capacity as dictator_, not _Junius the dictator_. #litterās Graecās
senex didicī#, _I learned Greek when I was an old man_. #prīnceps in
proelium ībat, ultimus excēdēbat#, _he was always the first to go into
battle, the last to come out_. For the predicative dative of the
substantive, see 1219.

1052. In like manner a noun may be added as a predicate in agreement
with a substantive in any oblique case: as,

#sē incolumēs recipiunt#, _they come back safe_. #ante mē cōnsulem#,
_before my consulship_. #Dolābellā hoste dēcrētō#, _Dolabella having
been voted an enemy_. #nātūrā duce#, _with nature as a guide_.

1053. (4.) An ADVERBIAL ADJUNCT is either an oblique case of a noun,
often with a preposition, or an adverb denoting ‘place, time, extent,
degree, manner, cause,’ or ‘circumstances’ generally: as,

#silentiō proficīscitur#, _he marches in silence_. #in eō flūmine pōns
erat#, _over that river there was a bridge_.

1054. A predicate substantive may be modified like the subject. An
adjective either of the subject or of the predicate, may be modified by
an oblique case or by an adverb.

  [Erratum:
  1040a ... #hostium castra#, _camp of the enemy_.
    . missing]


COMBINATION OF SENTENCES.

1055. Simple sentences may be combined in two different ways. The added
sentence may be I. Coordinate; or II. Subordinate.

Thus, in _he died and we lived_, the two sentences are coordinate, that
is, of equal rank. But in _he died that we might live_, the sentence
beginning with _that_ is subordinate. In either combination the separate
sentences are often called _Clauses_ or _Members_, in contradistinction
to the more comprehensive sentence of which they are parts.


I. THE COMPOUND SENTENCE.

1056. A COMPOUND SENTENCE is one which consists of two or more
coordinate simple sentences: as,

#tū mē amās, ego tē amō#, Pl. _Most._ 305, _thou art in love with me,
I’m in love with thee_. #nox erat et caelō fulgēbat lūna serēnō inter
minōra sīdera#, H. _Epod._ 15, 1, _’twas night, and in a cloudless sky,
bright rode the moon amid the lesser lights_. #ā tē petō, mē dēfendās#,
_Fam._ 15, 8, _I ask it of you, protect me_.

1057. A compound sentence is usually abridged when the members have
parts in common: as,

#valēbant precēs et lacrimae#, _Mil._ 34, _prayers and tears had
weight_, compound subject, for #valēbant precēs et valēbant lacrimae#.
#rogat ōratque tē#, _RA._ 144, _he begs and entreats you_, compound
predicate, for #rogat tē ōratque tē#. #arma virumque canō#, V. 1, 1,
_arms and the man I sing_, compound object, for #arma canō virumque
canō#. #diū atque ācriter pugnātum est#, 1, 26, 1, _there was long and
sharp fighting_, for #diū pugnātum est atque ācriter pugnātum est#.

  [Errata:
  1057 ... _he begs and entreats you_,
    . for ,
  #arma virumque canō#, V. 1, 1
    V 1, 1]


II. THE COMPLEX SENTENCE.

1058. A COMPLEX SENTENCE is one which consists of a main and a
subordinate sentence: as,

#centuriōnēs praemittit# (main sentence), #quī locum idōneum castrīs
dēligant# (subordinate sentence), 2, 17, 1, _he sends some officers
ahead to select a suitable spot for the camp_, #nunc scio# (main
sentence), #quid sit Amor# (subordinate sentence), V. _E._ 8, 43, _now,
now I know what Eros is_. #ā tē petō# (main sentence), _ut mē dēfendās_
(subordinate sentence), _Fam._ 15, 7, _I ask it of you that you protect
me_.

1059. Several sentences are often subordinate to one and the same main
sentence, and subordinate sentences may in their turn be main sentences
to other subordinate sentences.

Thus, in the following sentence _b_ is subordinate to _A_, and _c_ to
_Ab_: (_c._) #quālis esset nātūra montis#, (_b._) #quī cōgnōscerent#,
(_A._) #mīsit#, 1, 21, 1, _he sent some people to see what the character
of the hill was_.

1060. Subordinate sentences may be coordinated with each other, as well
as main sentences.

Thus, in the following sentence, _b_ and _b_ are both subordinate to
_A_, but coordinate with each other: (_A._) #hīs rēbus fiēbat#, (_b._)
#ut et minus lātē vagārentur# (_b._) #et minus facile fīnitimīs bellum
īnferre possent#, 1, 2, 4, _so it came to pass that, in the first place,
they did not roam round much, and secondly, they could not so easily
make aggressive war on their neighbours_.

1061. A subordinate sentence introductory in thought to the main
sentence, though not necessarily first in the order of the words, is
called a _Protasis_; the main sentence which completes the thought is
called an _Apodosis_: as,

#quom vidēbis# (protasis), #tum sciēs# (apodosis), Pl. #B.# 145, _when
thou see’st, then thou’lt know_. #ut sēmentem fēceris# (protasis), #ita
metēs# (apodosis), _DO._ 2, 261, _as a man soweth, so shall he reap_.
#sī sunt dī# (protasis), #beneficī in hominēs sunt# (apodosis), _Div._
2, 104, _if there are gods, they are kind to men_.


AGREEMENT.


(A.) OF THE VERB.

1062. A verb agrees with its subject in number and person: as,

#praedia mea tū possidēs, ego aliēnā misericordiā vīvō#, _RA._ 145,
_you, sir, hold my estates, it is by the compassion of other people that
I am supported_. #Rhodanus fluit#, 1, 6, 2, _the Rhone flows_. #nōs,
nōs, dīcō apertē, cōnsulēs dēsumus#, _C._ 1, 3, _it is ourselves, yes,
ourselves, I will speak without reserve, the consuls, who fail in our
duty_. #vōs vōbīs cōnsulite#, 7, 50, 4, _do you look out for
yourselves_. #diffūgēre nivēs#, H. 4, 7, 1, _scattered and gone are
snows_.

1063. With a compound subject, two constructions are admissible, as
follows.

1064. (1.) With two or more singular subjects, the verb is often in the
plural: as,

(_a._) Without connectives: persons: #iīsdem ferē temporibus fuērunt C.
Cotta, P. Sulpicius, Q. Varius, Cn. Pompōnius#, _Br._ 182, _in about the
same times lived Cotta, Sulpicius, Varius, and Pomponius_. Things:
#fidēs Rōmāna, iūstitia imperātōris in forō et cūriā celebrantur#, L. 5,
27, 11, _the chivalrous principle of Rome and the square dealing of her
captain are trumpeted in market place and council hall_. (_b._) With
#atque#, #et#, or #-que#: persons: #ex hīs Cotta et Sulpicius facile
prīmās tulērunt#, _Br._ 182, _of these Cotta and Sulpicius indisputably
bore the palm_. Things: #nox et amor vīnumque nihil moderābile suādent#,
O. _Am._ 1, 6, 59, _darkness and love and wine to nothing governable
tempt_. #cum senātus populusque Rōmānus pācem comprobāverint#, L. 37,
45, 14, _when the senate and the people of Rome sanction peace_. (_c._)
With #et . . . et#: persons: #et Q. Maximus et L. Paullus iīs temporibus
fuērunt#, _Fam._ 4, 6, 1, _both Maximus and Paullus lived in such
times_. Things: #utrōsque et laudis cupiditās et timor īgnōminiae
excitābant#, 7, 80, 5, _both of these eagerness for glory in the first
place and secondly fear of disgrace spurred on_.

1065. The plural is sometimes demanded by the meaning of the verb: as,
#iūs et iniūria nātūrā dīiūdicantur#, _Leg._ 1, 44, _right and wrong are
naturally distinguished from each other_.

1066. (2.) Often, however, with two or more singular subjects, the verb
is put in the singular: as,

(_a._) Without connectives: persons: #tum Gorgiās, Thrasymachus,
Prodicus, Hippiās in magnō honōre fuit#, _Br._ 30, _at that time
Gorgias, Thrasymachus, Prodicus, and Hippias were in high renown_.
Things: #persuāsit nox, amor, vīnum, adulēscentia#, T. _Ad._ 470, _the
witchery was night, flirtation, wine, and youth_. (_b._) With #atque#,
#et#, or #-que#: persons: #cūr Lȳsiās et Hyperīdēs amātur?# _Br._ 68,
_why is a Lysias and a Hyperides idolized?_ Things: #Gallōs ā Belgīs
Matrona et Sēquana dīvidit#, 1, 2, 1, _the Matrona and Sequana cut off
the Gauls from the Belgians_. #senātus populusque Rōmānus voluit#, L.
21, 40, 3, _senate and people of Rome ordained_. (_c._) With #et . . .
et#: persons: #illam ratiōnem et Pompēius et Flaccus secūtus est#,
_Flacc._ 32, _that rule both Pompey and Flaccus followed_. Things:
#tālis senātōrum et dignitās et multitūdō fuit#, _Ph._ 13, 13, _both the
position and number of the senators was such_.

1067. With two or more singular subjects denoting things, and making a
compound idea, a singular verb is very common, agreeing either with the
subjects taken as a unit, or with the nearest: as,

(_a._) #cum tempus necessitāsque postulat, dēcertandum manū est#, _Off._
1, 81, _when the emergency requires, we must fight it out by hand_.
#tanta laetitia ac grātulātiō fuit#, L. 10, 26, 4, _so great was the
demonstration of joy_. (_b._) #Cingetorīgī prīncipātus atque imperium
est trāditum#, 6, 8, 9, _the headship and command was assigned to
Cingetorix_.

1068. (3.) With mixed subjects, singular and plural, the verb may
likewise be either plural or singular: as,

(_a._) #vīta mors, dīvitiae paupertās omnīs hominēs permovent#, _Off._
2, 37, _life and death, riches and poverty, tell much on everybody_.
(_b._) #quantō in perīculō et castra et legiōnēs et imperātor
versārētur#, 2, 26, 5, _in what imminent peril camp and legions and
commander were involved_. #hōc mihī̆ et Peripatēticī et Acadēmīa
concēdit#, _Ac._ 2, 113, _this point both Peripatetics and Academy grant
me_.

1069. The plural is sometimes used with a singular subject limited by an
ablative with #cum#, _with_: as, #Syrus cum illō vostrō cōnsusurrant#,
T. _Hau._ 473, _Syrus and yon man of yours are whispering together_.
#Bocchus cum peditibus postrēmam Rōmānōrum aciem invādunt#, S. _I._ 101,
5, _Bocchus with the infantry falls on the rereward line of the Romans_.
Cicero commonly uses a singular verb in this combination, Caesar has the
plural once only.

1070. (4.) When the subjects are connected by #nec . . . nec#, #aut#, or
#aut . . . aut#, the verb is likewise either plural or singular: as,

(_a._) #neque multitūdō hostium neque tēlōrum vīs arcēre impetum eius
virī potuērunt#, L. 26, 5, 17, _neither the numbers of the enemy nor the
shower of missiles could arrest the onslaught of that intrepid soul_.
#sī quid Sōcratēs aut Aristippus fēcerint#, _Off._ 1, 148, _if a
Socrates or an Aristippus had done anything_. (_b._) #neque pēs neque
mēns satis suom officium facit#, T. _Eu._ 729, _nor foot nor mind its
duty doth aright_. #sī Sōcratēs aut Antisthenēs dīceret#, _TD._ 5, 26,
_if a Socrates or an Antisthenes should say it_.

1071. Collectives have usually a singular verb. But the plural is
sometimes used, especially when the subject is separated from its verb,
or is to be supplied from a preceding clause: as,

#cum tanta multitūdō lapidēs conicerent#, 2, 6, 3, _when such a throng
were throwing stones_. #is cīvitātī persuāsit, ut dē fīnibus suīs
exīrent#, 1, 2, 1, _this person succeeded in inducing the community to
leave their territory_.

1072. The verb sometimes agrees with an appositive explaining the
subject, or with a substantive in the predicate: as,

(_a._) #flammae lātē fūsae, certiōris clādis indicium, prōgredī longius
prohibuit#, L. 10, 43, 11, _wide-spread flames, sign of a surer
disaster, prevented a further advance_. When #urbs#, #oppidum#,
#cīvitās#, or the like, is added to plural names of places, the
predicate usually agrees with the appellative: as, #Coriolī oppidum
captum#, L. 2, 33, 9, _Corioli town was taken_. (_b._) #amantium īrae
amōris integrātiōst#, T. _Andr._ 555, _lovers’ tiffs are love’s
renewal_. #summa omnium fuērunt ad mīlia CCCLXVIII#, 1, 29, 3, _the
grand total was about three hundred and sixty-eight thousand_. The verb
regularly agrees with the predicate substantive when the subject is an
infinitive: as, #contentum suīs rēbus esse maximae sunt dīvitiae#,
_Par._ 51, _for a man to be content with his own estate is the greatest
possible riches_.

1073. The verb sometimes agrees with a substantive introduced by such
words as #quam#, #quantum#, #nisi#, or #praeterquam#: as, #quis illum
cōnsulem nisi latrōnēs putant?# _Ph._ 4, 9, _who but brigands think that
man a consul?_ So also a predicate adjective or participle: as, #mihī̆
nōn tam cōpia quam modus quaerendus est#, _IP._ 3, _I must aim not so
much at comprehensiveness as at moderation_.

1074. A speaker in referring to himself sometimes uses the first person
plural, as a more modest form of expression: as, #Molōnī dedimus
operam#, _Br._ 307, _we attended Molo’s instruction_, i.e. I. Similarly
#nōs# in all its cases for #ego#, &c., and #noster#, &c., for #meus#,
&c.

1075. The singular imperative #age# is sometimes used in addressing more
than one, particularly in old Latin: as, #age licēminī#, Pl. _St._ 221,
_come, people, give a bid_. #age igitur intrō abīte#, Pl. _MG._ 928,
_come then go in_. Similarly, #cave dīrumpātis#, Pl. _Poen._ 117, _mind
you don’t break it off_. Similarly #ain#.

1076. If the subjects are of different persons, the first person is
preferred to the second or the third, and the second to the third: as,

#sī tū et Tullia, lūx nostra, valētis, ego et suāvissimus Cicerō
valēmus#, _Fam._ 14, 5, 1, _if you and Tullia, our sunbeam, are well,
darling Cicero and I are well_. But sometimes in contrasts the verb
agrees with the nearest person: as, #quid indicat aut ipse Cornēlius aut
vōs?# _Sull._ 54, _what information does Cornelius himself give, or you
people?_

  [Errata:
  1066a ... _senate and people of Rome ordained_.
    line-end hyphen in or-/dained invisible
  1071 ... But the plural is sometimes used,
    used.
  1072a ... plural names of places,
    places.
  1074 ... form of expression: as, #Molōnī dedimus operam#
    as.]


(B.) OF THE NOUN.


(1.) THE SUBSTANTIVE.

1077. A substantive which explains another substantive referring to the
same thing is put in the same case.

This applies to the substantive used as attribute, appositive, or
predicate. The two substantives often differ in gender or number, or
both. (_a._) Attribute: #tīrōne exercitū#, _Fam._ 7, 3, 2, _with a raw
army_. #ā mīmā uxōre#, _Ph._ 2, 20, _from an actress-wife_. #mendīcōs
hominēs#, Pl. _St._ 135, _beggar-men_. #oculī hominis histriōnis#, _DO._
2, 193, _the eyes of an actor man_. #nēminī hominī#, Pl. _As._ 466, _to
no human being_. #servom hominem#, T. _Ph._ 292, _a servant man_.
#hominēs sīcāriōs#, _RA._ 8, _professional bravoes_. (_b._) Appositive:
#quid dīcam dē thēsaurō rērum omnium, memoriā?# _DO._ 1, 18, _what shall
I say of that universal storehouse, the memory?_ #duo fulmina nostrī
imperī, Cn. et P. Scīpiōnēs#, _Balb._ 34, _the two thunderbolts of our
realm, the Scipios, Gnaeus and Publius_. (_c._) Predicate: #īra furor
brevis est#, H. _E._ 1, 2, 62, _wrath is a madness brief_. #Dolābellā
hoste dēcrētō#, _Ph._ 11, 16, _Dolabella having been voted a public
enemy_. Some apparent exceptions will be noticed from time to time
hereafter.

1078. Mobile substantives take also the gender and number of the
masculines or feminines they explain: as,

#stilus optimus dīcendī magister#, _DO._ 1, 150, _pen is the best
professor of rhetoric_. #vīta rūstica parsimōniae magistra est#, _RA._
75, _country life is a teacher of thrift_. #fluviōrum rēx Ēridanus#, V.
_G._ 1, 482, _Eridanus, of rivers king_. #et genus et fōrmam rēgīna
pecūnia dōnat#, H. _E._ 1, 6, 37, _both birth and shape the almighty
dollar gives_. #ut omittam illās omnium doctrīnārum inventrīcēs
Athēnās#, _DO._ 1, 13, _to say nothing of the great originator of all
intellectual pursuits, Athens_.

1079. A substantive explaining two or more substantives, is put in the
plural: as,

#foedus inter Rōmam Lāvīniumque urbēs renovātum est#, L. 1, 14, 3, _the
treaty between the cities of Rome and Lavinium was renewed_. #Cn. et P.
Scīpiōnēs#, _Balb._ 34, _the Scipios, Gnaeus and Publius_.

1080. A plural subject, expressed or implied, is sometimes defined by a
singular word, which is generally a collective or distributive: as,

#ut ambō exercitūs suās quisque abīrent domōs#, L. 2, 7, 1, _so that
both armies went back to their respective homes_. #uterque eōrum ex
castrīs exercitum ēdūcunt#, Caes. _C._ 3, 30, 3, _they bring their army
out of camp, each of them_. #heus forās exīte hūc aliquis#, Pl. _E._
398, _hallo, you boys, come out of doors here, somebody_. #alius alium
percontāmur#, Pl. _St._ 370, _we ask of one another_. #cum accidisset ut
alter alterum vidērēmus#, _Fin._ 3, 8, _when it came to pass that we
each saw the other_. The verb sometimes agrees with the defining
singular: as, #quandō duo cōnsulēs, alter morbō, alter ferrō periisset#,
L. 41, 18, 16, _since the two consuls had died, one a natural death, the
other by the sword_.

1081. A substantive in the accusative or nominative is sometimes in
apposition to a thought or clause: as,

#manūs intentantēs, causam discordiae#, Ta. 1, 27, _shaking their fists,
a provocation to quarrel_. #pars ingentī subiēre feretrō, trīste
ministerium#, V. 6, 222, _a part put shoulder to the mighty bier,
a service sad_. #nec Homērum audiō, quī Ganymēdēn ab dīs raptum ait
propter fōrmam; nōn iūsta causa cūr Lāomedontī tanta fieret iniūria#,
_TD._ 1, 65, _nor will I lend an ear to Homer, who asserts that Ganymede
was carried off by the gods for his beauty; no just reason for doing
Laomedon such injustice_.

  [Errata:
  1077 ... (_a._) ... _DO._ 1, 18
    _DO_ 1
  ... (_b._)
  _Balb._ 34
    _Balb_ 34]


(2.) THE ADJECTIVE.

1082. An adjective, adjective pronoun, or participle, agrees with its
substantive in number, gender, and case: as,

#vir bonus#, H. _Ep._ 1, 16, 40, _a good man_, #bona uxor#, Pl. _MG._
684, _a good wife_, #oleum bonum#, Cato, _RR._ 3, _good oil_. #Gallia
est omnis dīvīsa in partēs trēs#, 1, 1, 1, _Gaul, including everything
under the name, is divided into three parts_. #et variae volucrēs nemora
āvia pervolitantēs āera per tenerum liquidīs loca vōcibus opplent#,
Lucr. 2, 145, _and motley birds, in pathless woods that flit through
lither sky, fill space with carols clear_.

1083. An adjective or participle, either attributive or predicate,
sometimes takes the number and gender of the persons or things implied
in the substantive: as,

(_a._) #concursus populī mīrantium quid rē̆ī esset#, L. 1, 41, 1,
_a gathering of the public, wondering what was the matter_. (_b._) #pars
subeuntium obrutī, pars cōnfīxī#, Ta. _H._ 2, 22, _a part of those who
came up were crushed, a part were run through_. #Samnītium caesī tria
mīlia ducentī#, L. 10, 34, 3, _of the Samnites were slain three thousand
two hundred_.

1084. (1.) An attributive adjective referring to several substantives is
commonly expressed with one only, generally with the first or the last:
as,

#rēs erat multae operae et labōris#, 5, 11, 5, _it was a job that
required much work and trouble_. #semper amāvī ingenium, studia, mōrēs
tuōs#, _O._ 33, _I have always admired your ability, your scholarly
tastes, and your character_. In lively style, the adjective is often
used with every substantive.

1085. Two or more attributive adjectives in the singular connected by a
conjunction may belong to a plural substantive: as,

#circā portās Collīnam Ēsquilīnamque#, L. 26, 10, 2, _about the gates,
the Colline and the Esquiline_. But the substantive may also be in the
singular: as, #inter Ēsquilīnam Collīnamque portam#, L. 26, 10, 1,
_between the Esquiline and the Colline gate_.

1086. The combined idea of a substantive with an attributive adjective
may be qualified by one or more adjectives: as,

#nāvīs longās trīgintā veterēs#, L. 27, 22, 12, _thirty old men-of-war_.
#prīvāta nāvis onerāria māxima#, _V._ 5, 136, _a very large private
freighting vessel_. #āter aliēnus canis#, T. _Ph._ 706, _a strange black
dog_.

1087. (2.) A predicate adjective or participle referring to two or more
substantives is usually in the plural; its gender is determined as
follows:

1088. (_a._) If the substantives denote persons of the same gender, that
gender is used; if they denote persons of different gender, the
masculine is used: as,

#venēnō absūmptī Hannibal et Philopoemēn#, L. 39, 52, 8, _it was by
poison that Hannibal and Philopoemen were taken off_. #quam prīdem pater
mihī̆ et māter mortuī essent#, T. _Eu._ 517, _how long my father and my
mother had been dead_.

1089. (_b._) If the substantives denote things, and are of different
genders, the neuter plural is used; also commonly when they are
feminines denoting things: as,

#mūrus et porta dē caelō tācta erant#, L. 32, 29, 1, _the wall and
town-gate had been struck by lightning_. #īra et avāritia imperiō
potentiōra erant#, L. 37, 32, 13, _hot blood and greed proved stronger
than authority_.

1090. (_c._) If the substantives denote both persons and things, either
the gender of the substantives denoting persons is used, or the neuter.
The gender of the substantives denoting things is very rarely used: as,

#et rēx rēgiaque classis ūnā profectī#, L. 21, 50, 11, _the king too and
the king’s fleet set sail in his company_. #inimīca inter sē līberam
cīvitātem et rēgem#, L. 44, 24, 2, _that a free state and a monarch were
irreconcilable things_. #Dolopas et Athamāniam ēreptās sibī̆ querēns#,
L. 38, 10, 3, _complaining that the Dolopians and Athamania were wrested
from him_.

1091. When the verb is attached to the nearest only of two or more
subjects, a predicate participle or adjective naturally takes the gender
of that substantive: as, #ibī̆ Orgetorīgis fīlia atque ūnus ē fīliīs
captus est#, 1, 26, 5, _there the daughter of Orgetorix and one of the
sons too was made prisoner_. #ut brāchia atque umerī līberī esse
possent#, 7, 56, 4, _so that their arms and shoulders might be
unhampered_.

1092. The ablative singular #absente# is used once each by Terence and
Afranius with a plural substantive: #absente nōbīs#, T. _Eu._ 649,
_while we were out_.

1093. A neuter adjective or pronoun is sometimes used as a substantive
in the predicate (1101): as,

#trīste lupus stabulīs#, V. _E._ 3, 80, _a baleful thing the wolf for
folds_. #quod ego fuī ad Trāsumennum, id tū hodiē#, L. 30, 30, 12, _what
I was myself at Trasumene, that you are today_.

1094. A demonstrative, determinative, or relative pronoun used
substantively takes the number and gender of the substantive it
represents; the case depends on the construction of the clause in which
it stands: as,

#erant peditēs, quōs dēlēgerant; cum hīs in proeliīs versābantur; ad eōs
sē recipiēbant; hī concurrēbant#, 1, 48, 5, _there were foot-soldiers
whom they had picked out; with these men they kept company in action;
upon them they would fall back; these people would always rally_.
#Hippiās glōriātus est ānulum quem habēret, pallium quō amictus, soccōs
quibus indūtus esset, sē suā manū cōnfēcisse#, _DO._ 3, 127, _Hippias
bragged he had made with his own hand the ring which he wore, the cloak
in which he was wrapped; and the slippers which he had on_.

1095. Sometimes, however, the number and gender of these pronouns are
determined by the sense, and not by the form of the substantive
represented: as,

#equitātum omnem praemittit, quī videant#, 1, 15, 1, _he sends all the
horse ahead, for them to see_. #hīc sunt quīnque minae. hoc tībī̆ erus
mē iussit ferre#, Pl. _Ps._ 1149, _here are five minae; this my master
bade me bring for thee_. #Domitius Massiliam pervenit atque ab iīs
receptus urbī praeficitur#, Caes. _C._ 1, 36, 1, _Domitius arrived at
Massilia, and was received by the people and put in charge of the town_.
#ad hirundinīnum nīdum vīsast sīmia adscēnsiōnem ut faceret admōlīrier;
neque eās ēripere quībat inde#, Pl. _R._ 598, _up to a swallow-nest
methought an ape did strive to climb; nor could she snatch the nestlings
thence_; the #eās# refers to #hirundinēs#, implied in #hirundinīnum#.

1096. A pronoun representing two or more substantives sometimes takes
the number and gender of the nearest. But usually it is plural, and its
gender is determined like that of an adjective (1087).

1097. A demonstrative, determinative, or relative pronoun used
substantively is generally attracted to the number and gender of a
predicate substantive in its own clause: as,

#haec est nōbilis ad Trāsumennum pūgna#, L. 22, 7, 1, _such is the
far-famed fight at Trasumene_, 217 B.C. #ista quidem vīs est#, Suet.
_Iul._ 82, _now that I call an outrage_, Caesar’s dying words, 44 B.C.
But with a negative, sometimes the neuter: as, #nec sopor illud erat#,
V. 3, 173, _nor was that sleep_.

1098. A demonstrative, determinative, or relative pronoun in agreement
with a substantive is often equivalent to a genitive limiting the
substantive: as,

#hōc metū vagārī prohibēbat#, 5, 19, 2, _by fear of this he stopped the
prowling round_. #is pavor perculit Rōmānōs#, L. 21, 46, 7, _the panic
occasioned by this demoralized the Romans_. #quā spē adductī#, 4, 6, 4,
_impelled by the hope of this_.

  [Erratum:
  1097 ... #haec est nōbilis ad Trāsumennum pūgna#
    text unchanged: word generally spelled “pugna” (see endnote on
    first edition)]



THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.



(A.) USE OF THE NOUN.


NUMBER AND GENDER.

1099. The singular of a word denoting a person is sometimes used in a
collective sense.

This singular is generally a military designation: as, #mīles#, #eques#,
#pedes#, #hostis#, #Rōmānus#, #Poenus#. But other substantives and
adjectives are occasionally thus used.

1100. A substantive or adjective denoting a person is often used in the
singular as representative of a class, particularly when two persons are
contrasted: as,

#sī tabulam dē naufrāgiō stultus adripuerit, extorquēbitne eam sapiēns?#
_Off._ 3, 89, _if a fool has seized a plank from a wreck, will the sage
twitch it away?_

1101. The neuter singular of certain adjectives is used as an abstract
substantive.

These adjectives have commonly stems in #-o-#, and are often used in the
partitive genitive (1250). The nominative is rare, also the accusative
and ablative, except in prepositional constructions. Such are: #bonum#,
#malum#; #rēctum#, #prāvum#; #decōrum#, #indecōrum#; #honestum#;
#vērum#, #falsum#; #iūstum#, #iniūstum#; #aequum#; #ambiguum#;
#rīdiculum#. #ūtile#, #ināne#, #commūne#, #īnsīgne#, #simile#, &c.

1102. Certain adjectives, which originally agreed with an appellative
denoting a thing, have dropped the appellative and become substantives.

Such are: #Āfricus#, sc. #ventus#; #Āfrica#, sc. #terra#; #calda#, sc.
#aqua#; #cānī# sc. #capillī#; #circēnsēs#, sc. #lūdī#; #decuma#, sc.
#pars#; #fera#, sc. #bēstia#; #hīberna#, sc. #castra#; #merum#, sc.
#vīnum#; #nātālis#, sc. #diēs#; #patria#, sc. #terra#; #praetexta#, sc.
#toga#; #summa#, sc. #rēs#; #trirēmis#, sc. #nāvis#, and many others.

1103. Certain adjectives denoting relationship, friendship, hostility,
connection, or age, may be used in both numbers as substantives.

Such are: (_a._) #adfīnis#, #cōgnātus#, #cōnsanguineus#, #gentīlis#,
#necessārius#, #propīnquus#; (_b._) #adversārius#, #amīcus#, #inimīcus#,
#familiāris#, #hostis#, #intimus#, #invidus#, #socius#, #sodālis#;
(_c._) #contubernālis#, #manipulāris#, #vīcīnus#; (_d._) #adulēscēns#,
#aequālis#, #iuvenis#, #senex#.

1104. The masculine plural of many adjectives is used substantively to
denote a class.

Such are: #bonī#, _the good_, _the well-disposed_, _conservatives_,
_patriots_, _our party_; #improbī#, _the wicked_, _the dangerous
classes_, _revolutionists_, _anarchists_, _the opposite party_; #doctī#,
#indoctī#; #piī#, #impiī#, and the like.

1105. Proper names of men are used in the plural to denote different
persons of the same name, or as appellatives to express character,
oftenest good character: as,

#duo Metellī, Celer et Nepōs#, _Br._ 247, _the two Metelluses, Celer and
Nepos_. #quid Crassōs, quid Pompēiōs ēvertit?# J. 10, 108, _what
overthrew a Crassus, Pompey what?_ i.e. men like Crassus and Pompey.

1106. The neuter plural of adjectives of all degrees of comparison is
very often used as a substantive.

Such adjectives are usually in the nominative or accusative, and may
have a pronoun, a numeral, or an adjective, agreeing with them. In
English the singular is often preferred. Such are: #bona#, #mala#;
#vēra#, #falsa#; #haec#, _this_; #omnia#, _everything_; #haec omnia#,
_all this_, &c., &c.

1107. Names of countries are sometimes used in the plural when the
country consists of several parts which are called by the same name as
the whole country: as, #Galliae#, _the Gauls_; #Germāniae#, _the
Germanies_.

1108. Material substantives are often used in the plural to denote
different sorts of the substance designated, its constituent parts, or
objects made of it: as,

#aera#, _lumps of bronze_, _bronzes_, _coppers_. #aquae#, _water in
different places_, _medicinal springs_. #cērae#, _pieces of wax_,
_tablets_, _wax masks_, _waxworks_. #marmora#, _kinds of marble_,
_blocks of marble_, _works of marble_. #nivēs#, _snowflakes_,
_snowdrifts_, _snowstorms_, _repeated snows_. #spūmae#, _masses of
foam_. #sulpura#, _lumps of sulphur_. #vīna#, _wines_, _different kinds
of wine_.

1109. Abstract substantives are often used in the plural to denote
different kinds or instances of the abstract idea, or an abstract idea
pertaining to several persons or things: as,

#sunt domesticae fortitūdinēs nōn īnferiōrēs mīlitāribus#, _Off._ 1, 78,
_there are cases of heroism in civil life fully equal to those in war_.
#tē cōnscientiae stimulant maleficiōrum tuōrum#, _Par._ 18, _you are
tormented by pricks of conscience for your sins_. #propter siccitātēs
palūdum#, 4, 38, 2, _because the swamps were dry everywhere_.

1110. The plural is sometimes used in generalizations, and in poetry to
magnify a single thing, to give mystery to the statement, or often
merely for metrical convenience: as, #advēnisse familiārēs dīcitō#, Pl.
_Am._ 353, _say that the people of the house are come_, the plural
#familiārēs# denoting one person. #Priamī dum rēgna manēbant#, V. 2, 22,
_while Priam’s realms still stood_. #externōs optāte ducēs#, V. 8, 503,
_choose captains from a foreign strand_, i.e. Aeneas.


CASE.

1111. There are two groups of cases, the principal and the secondary.

1112. The principal cases are the nominative and the accusative. The
principal cases, which have more complete inflections than the
secondary, express the two chief relations of the noun in the sentence,
those of the subject and of the object. The secondary cases are used to
express subordinate or supplementary relations.


THE NOMINATIVE.

1113. The nominative is principally used as the subject or predicate
noun of a verb or of an infinitive. Besides this use, the nominative
occurs in titles, exclamations, and addresses (1114-1123).


THE NOMINATIVE OF TITLE.

1114. The nominative is used in inscriptions, notices, titles, or
headings: as,

L · CORNELIVS · CN · F · CN · N · SCIPIO, CIL. I, 34, on a tomb, _Lucius
Cornelius Scipio, son_ (#fīlius#) _of Gnaeus, grandson_ (#nepōs#) _of
Gnaeus_. LABYRINTHVS HIC HABITAT MINOTAVRVS, CIL. IV, 2331, on a plan of
the Labyrinth scratched by a Pompei schoolboy, _The Maze. Here lives
Minotaur_. PRIVATVM PRECARIO ADEITVR, CIL. I, 1215, _Private Grounds. No
Admittance without leave_. #Themistoclēs, Neoclī fīlius, Athēniēnsis#,
N. 2, 1, _Themistocles, son of Neocles, of Athens_.

1115. The title proper of a book is often put in the genitive, dependent
on #līber# or #librī#: as, #Cornēlī Tacitī Historiārum Liber Prīmus#,
_Tacitus’s Histories, Book First_. Or prepositional expressions are
used: as, #M. Tullī Cicerōnis dē Fātō Liber#, _Cicero, Fate, in One
Book_. #Cornēlī Tacitī ab Excessū dīvī Augustī Liber Prīmus#, _Tacitus’s
Roman History from the Demise of the sainted Augustus, Book First_.

1116. Sometimes the nominative of a title or exclamation is retained in
a sentence for some other case: as, #Gabīniō cōgnōmen ‘Cauchius’
ūsurpāre concessit#, Suet. _Cl._ 24, _he allowed Gabinius to take the
surname ‘Cauchius;’_ (compare #Catō quasi cōgnōmen habēbat Sapientis#,
_L._ 6, _Cato had the virtual surname of the Wise_). #‘Marsya’ nōmen
habet#, O. 6, 400, _it has the name of ‘Marsyas;’_ (compare #nōmen
Dānuvium habet#, S. _Fr._ 3, 55, _it has the name Danube_), #resonent
mihi ‘Cynthia’ silvae#, Prop. 1, 18, 31, _let woods reecho ‘Cynthia’ for
me_; (compare #tū, Tītyre, fōrmōsam resonāre docēs Amaryllida silvas#,
V. _E._ 1, 4, _thou, Tityrus, dost teach the woods to echo Amaryllis
Fair_).


THE NOMINATIVE OF EXCLAMATION.

1117. The nominative is sometimes used in exclamations: as,

#fortūnae fīlius, omnēs#, H. _S._ 2, 6, 49, _‘the child of Fortune,’
all_ exclaim. This nominative is often accompanied by an interjection,
such as #ecce#, #ēn#, #heu#, #ō#, #prō#, #vāh#: as, #ēn Priamus#, V. 1,
461, _lo, Priam here_. #ō fēstus diēs#, T. _Eu._ 560, _oh day of cheer_.
For #eccilla#, see 667.


THE VOCATIVE NOMINATIVE AND VOCATIVE PROPER.

1118. The vocative nominative is used when a person or thing is
addressed: as,

#quō usque tandem abūtēre, Catilīna, patientiā nostrā?# _C._ 1, 1, _in
heaven’s name, how long, Catiline, wilt trifle with our patience?_
#valēte, dēsīderia mea, valēte#, _Fam._ 14, 2, 4, _good bye, my absent
loves, good bye_. Instead of a proper name, an emphatic #tū# is often
used: as, #advorte animum sīs tū#, Pl. _Cap._ 110, _just pay attention,
sirrah, please_.

1119. Masculine stems in #-o-# commonly use the special form for the
second person singular called the vocative: as,

#urbem, urbem, mī Rūfe, cole#, _Fam._ 2, 12, 2, _stick to town, dear
Rufus, yes, to town_. But the vocative nominative is sometimes used even
of #-o-# stems: as, #audī tū, populus Albānus#, L. 1, 24, 7, _hear thou,
the people of Alba_.

1120. Poets use the vocative nominative or vocative proper very freely,
sometimes for liveliness, but often simply in place of other cases not
allowed by the metre: as,

#ōra manūsque tuā lavimus, Fērōnia, lymphā#, H. _S._ 1, 5, 24, _our
faces and our hands, Feronia, in thy stream we wash_. #occiderat Tatius,
populīsque aequāta duōbus, Rōmule, iūra dabās#, O. 14, 805, _now dead
was Tatius, and to peoples twain thou gavest, Romulus, impartial laws_.
#longum tibi, Daedale, crīmen#, O. 8, 240, _a lasting stigma, Daedalus,
to thee_. In these three examples, #Fērōniae#, #Rōmulus#, and #Daedalō#
would be impossible. In poetry, the vocative is particularly common in
questions.

1121. Nominative forms and vocative forms are often combined: as,
#dulcis amīce#, H. _E._ 1, 7, 12, _sweet friend_. #mī vir#, Pl. _Am._
716, _my husband_. #Iāne pater#, J. 6, 394, _thou father Janus_.

1122. In verse the vocative is occasionally used even in the predicate:
as, #quō moritūre ruis?# V. 10, 811, _whither, on death intent, fliest
thou?_ #quibus, Hector, ab ōrīs exspectāte venīs?# V. 2, 282, _out of
what limboes, Hector, dost thou gladly welcomed come?_

1123. The vocative nominative or vocative proper is sometimes
accompanied by #ō#, but only in impassioned addresses: as, #ō fortūnāte
adulēscēns#, _Arch._ 24, _oh thou thrice blest youth_; also by #prō# in
addresses to gods, by #eho# and #heus# in calls on men. Rarely by #au#,
#ehem#, #hem#, #ē̆heu#, #eia# or #heia#, #iō#.

  [Erratum:
  1120 ... #ōra manūsque tuā lavimus, Fērōnia, lymphā#,
    final , missing]


THE ACCUSATIVE.

1124. The accusative is used primarily with verbs, or with expressions
equivalent to verbs. The relations expressed by the accusative are all
of one general kind; but they vary somewhat, according to the nature of
the verb.

1125. I. With most verbs, the accusative either (_a._) denotes that
which is affected or apprehended, or is produced by the action of the
verb (1132); or, less frequently (_b._) it repeats the meaning of the
verb in the form of a substantive (1140).

Such accusatives, called accusatives of the _Object_, are never attended
by a preposition, and become nominative in the passive construction.

1126. II. With some verbs, the accusative denotes (_a._) extent or
duration (1151); with others it denotes (_b._) aim of motion (1157).

Both these accusatives sometimes have their places taken by a
prepositional expression, or by an adverb; in the passive construction,
they are not convertible into a nominative, but remain accusative.

1127. Two or even three accusatives are sometimes used with one and the
same verb: see 1167-1174.

1128. The accusative is sometimes disengaged from the verb, with which
it originally stood, and used with a noun or a preposition.

1129. (1.) With substantives, the accusative is rare; it is used (_a._)
in a few attributive expressions, chiefly old set forms, and rarely to
denote (_b._) aim of motion.

Thus (_a._) the predicative #id aetātis#, in #id aetātis iam sumus#, _we
are now of that age_, becomes attributive in #hominēs id aetātis#,
_people of that age_. And (_b._) as #domum#, _home_, is used with the
verb #redeō#, _go back_, so also rarely with the substantive #reditiō#,
_a return_.

1130. With adjectives, the accusative is commonly that of extent: so
with #altus#, _high_, #lātus#, _wide_, and #longus#, _long_, sometimes
with #crassus#, _thick_.

Thus, in #eōs surculōs facitō sint longī pedēs bīnōs#, _see that the
scions be two feet long_, the accusative #pedēs#, which belongs with the
predicate #sint longī#, may be used with the attributive adjective
#longus# alone, thus: #surculī longī pedēs bīnōs#, _scions two feet
long_.

1131. (2.) The accusative is used with many prepositions: see 1410.

  [Erratum:
  1130 ... and #longus#, _long_
    #longus#.]


I. THE ACCUSATIVE OF THE OBJECT.

1132. The object of a verb is put in the accusative: as,

(_a._) #oppida sua omnia incendunt#, 1, 5, 3, _they set all their towns
afire_. #cōnspexit adrāsum quendam#, H. _E._ 1, 7, 49, _he spied a man
all shaven and shorn_. (_b._) #duās fossās perdūxit#, 7, 72, 3, _he made
two trenches_. This accusative, is, as may be seen above, either (_a._)
receptive, i.e. existing independently of the action of the verb, and
only affected or apprehended by it; or (_b._) of product, i.e. produced
by the action of the verb.

1133. Verbs thus used with an object are said to be _used transitively_.
Such verbs may also be used intransitively, that is without an object,
when stress is put on the action merely: thus,

(_a._) Transitively: #tū mē amās, ego tē amō#, Pl. _Most._ 305, _thou
lovest me, and I love thee_. #nova dīruunt, alia aedificant#, S. _C._
20, 12, _they pull down new structures, and build up others_. (_b._)
Intransitively: #amō#, Pl. _B._ 511, _I’m in love_. #dīruit, aedificat#,
H. _E._ 1, 1, 100, _it pulleth down, it buildeth up_.

1134. Some verbs, in addition to the accusative, often take an
infinitive also: thus, #eum vident sedēre#, _V._ 5, 107, _they see him
sit, they see that he is sitting_. Here the accusative #eum#, originally
the object, _they see him_, becomes at the same time the subject of the
new statement appended, #sedēre#, _sit_, thus giving rise to the
construction known as the _accusative with the infinitive_.

1135. Instead of the proper accusative of the object, another accusative
is sometimes substituted, denoting the ultimate result: as,

#rūpēre viam#, L. 2, 50, 10, _they broke a path_, i.e. _they broke_
through the obstacles, and so made _a path_. #foedusque ferī#, E. 33,
_and strike a covenant_, i.e. _strike_ a victim, and so make _a
covenant_.

1136. In Plautus, #quid tibī̆# with a substantive of action in #-tiō#
and #est#, has an accusative like a verb used transitively: as, #quid
tibī̆ hanc cūrātiōst rem?# Pl. _Am._ 519, _what business hast thou with
this?_

1137. Many verbs ordinarily used intransitively, particularly verbs of
motion, have a transitive use when compounded with a preposition.

Such prepositions are, #ad#, #circum#, #ex#, #in#, #ob#, #per#, #prae#,
#praeter#, #trāns#, and some others: as, #plūrēs paucōs
circumsistēbant#, 4, 26, 2, _a good many took their stand round a few_.
#Caesar omnem agrum Pīcēnum percurrit#, Caes. _C._ 1, 15, 1, _Caesar
runs over the whole Picene territory_. #praeterīre nēmō pristrīnum
potest#, Pl. _Cap._ 808, _no man can pass the mill_. #flūmen
trānsiērunt#, 4, 4, 7, _they crossed the river_.

1138. A few verbs with a transitive use, have, when compounded with
#circum# and #trāns#, besides the accusative of the object, a second
accusative of the thing to which the preposition refers: as, #istum
circumdūce hāsce aedīs#, Pl. _Most._ 843, _take that man round this
house_. #Caesar funditōrēs pontem trādūcit#, 2, 10, 1, _Caesar takes the
slingers over the bridge_. #trānsfer līmen aureolōs pedēs#, Cat. 61,
166, _over the threshold put thy little golden foot_. In the passive,
the accusative connected with the preposition is sometimes retained: as,
#Apollōniam praetervehuntur#, Caes. _C._ 3, 26, 1, _they sail by
Apollonia_.

1139. Verbs of weeping and wailing, and some other verbs of feeling,
which commonly have an intransitive use, sometimes have a transitive use
with an accusative: as,

(_a._) #lūget senātus, maeret equester ōrdō#, _Mil._ 20, _the senate is
in mourning, the equestrian order betrays its sadness_. (_b._) #mātrōnae
eum lūxērunt#, L. 2, 7, 4, _the married women wore mourning for him_.
#maereō cāsum eius modī#, _Fam._ 14, 2, 2, _I cannot help showing my
grief over a misfortune of such a kind_. #quid mortem congemis ac flēs#,
Lucr. 3, 934, _why dost thou death bewail and weep?_ Such verbs are
#fleō#, _weep_, #gemō#, _wail_, #lāmentor#, #queror#, _bewail_, #doleō#,
_am distressed_, #lūgeō#, _mourn_, #maereō#, _betray sadness_.
Similarly, #horreō#, _shudder_, #reformīdō#, _am in dread_, #fastīdiō#,
_feel disdain_, #rīdeō#, _laugh_, &c., &c. The object is oftener a thing
than a person, and passive constructions are rare, and mostly confined
to poetry.

  [Errata:
  1135 ... _they broke a path_, i.e. _they broke_ through the obstacles,
  and so made _a path_. #foedusque ferī#, E. 33, _and strike
  a covenant_, i.e.
    _punctuation as printed:_
    they broke a path_, i.e _they broke_ through the obstacles.
    and so made _a path_. #foedusque ferī#, E. 33, _and strike
    a covenant_, i.e]


THE EMPHASIZING OR DEFINING ACCUSATIVE.

1140. The meaning of a verb, even of one ordinarily intransitive, may be
emphasized or more exactly defined by an accusative of kindred
derivation added.

(_a._) Seldom without an adjective: as, #dum vītam vīvās#, Pl. _Per._
494, _as long as life thou liv’st_, i.e. as long as you ever live and
breathe. #quōrum maiōrum nēmō servitūtem servīvit#, _T._ 29, _of whose
ancestors not one has served servitude_, i.e. been a regular slave.
#vidē nē facinus faciās#, _Fin._ 2, 95, _mind you don’t do a deed_, i.e.
a misdeed. (_b._) Commonly with an adjective: as, #scelestam servitūtem
serviunt#, Pl. _Cu._ 40, _a wicked servitude they serve_. #facinus
memorābile fēcistis#, L. 24, 22, 16, _you have done a deed well worth
mentioning_. #mīrum atque īnscītum somniāvī somnium#, Pl. _R._ 597,
_a strange and silly dream dreamed I_.

1141. The verb sometimes has an accusative of kindred meaning, but of
different derivation: as,

#ut vīvās aetātem miser#, Pl. _Am._ 1023, _that thou mayst live thy days
in woe_. #nōn pugnāvit ingēns Īdomeneus Sthenelusve sōlus dīcenda Mūsīs
proelia#, H. 4, 9, 19, _not towering Idomeneus nor Sthenelus alone has
battles fought for Muses to rehearse_.

1142. The neuter singular accusative of a descriptive adjective is used,
particularly by the poets, to denote manner: as,

#magnum clāmat#, Pl. _MG._ 823, _he’s bellowing big_. #suāve locus vōcī
resonat conclūsus#, H. _S._ 1, 4, 76, _sweet to the voice the pent-up
place rings back_. #suāve rubēns hyacinthus#, V. _E._ 3, 63,
_sweet-blushing hyacinth_. #cūr tam cernis acūtum?# H. _S._ 1, 3, 26,
_why dost thou see so sharp?_ The plural is not so common: as, #asper,
acerba tuēns#, Lucr. 5, 33, V. 9, 794, _rough, staring savageness_.

1143. Some verbs of smell and of taste have an accusative defining what
the smell or the taste is: as, #pāstillōs Rūfillus olet, Gargōnius
hīrcum#, H. _S._ 1, 2, 27, _of lozenges Rufillus smells, Gargonius of
the goat_. #doctrīnam redolet puerīlem#, _DO._ 2, 109, _it smacks of A B
C studies_. #nōn omnēs possunt olere unguenta exōtica#, Pl. _Most._ 42,
_not every man can of imported ointments reek_. #meliōra unguenta sunt
quae terram quam quae crocum sapiunt#, Cic. in Plin. _NH._ 17, 5, 3, 38,
_essences that smell of earth are better than those that smell of
saffron_.

1144. Any verb or verbal expression may be defined in a general way by
the neuter accusative of a pronoun or of an enumerative word: as,

#id gaudeō#, T. _Andr._ 362, _I’m glad of that_. #id maestast#, Pl. _R._
397, _she’s mournful over this_. #id prōdeō#, T. _Eu._ 1005, _I’m coming
out for this_. #cētera adsentior Crassō#, _DO._ 1, 35, _on all the other
points I agree with Crassus_. So also #quod#, _for which_, _on account
of which_, #aliquid#, #quicquam#, #nihil#, &c., &c., and particularly
#quid#, _why_, _in what respect_, _wherein_, _what_, or _what ... for_:
as, #quid vēnistī#, Pl. _Am._ 377, _why art thou come?_ #quid tibī̆
obstō#, _RA._ 145, _wherein do I stand in your way?_

1145. The accusative of an appellative is rarely used adverbially: as,
#magnam partem ex iambīs nostra cōnstat ōrātiō#, _O._ 189, _our own
speech is made up a great deal of iambs_. #maximam partem lacte vīvunt#,
4, 1, 8, _they live on milk the most part_, i.e. _chiefly_.
Prepositional expressions are commoner: as, #magnā ex parte#, 1, 16, 6,
_principally_. For #vicem#, _instead of_, _for_, or _like_, see the
dictionary.

1146. The accusative is sometimes disengaged from a verb, and qualifies
a substantive as an attribute, chiefly in a few set expressions (1129):
as, #ōrātiōnēs aut aliquid id genus#, _Att._ 13, 12, 3, _speeches or
something that kind_. #aucupium omne genus#, Cat. 114, 3, _fowling of
every kind_. #nūgās hoc genus#, H. _S._ 2, 6, 43, _small talk--this
kind_. #hoc genus in rēbus#, Lucr. 6, 917, _in matters of this kind_.
#cum id aetātis fīliō#, _Clu._ 141, _with a son of that age_. Similarly
#diēs quīndecim supplicātiō#, 2, 35, 4, _a fortnight thanksgiving_.

  [Erratum:
  1144 ... So also #quod#, _for which_,
    _for which_.]


THE ACCUSATIVE OF THE PART CONCERNED.

1147. Poets use the accusative to express the part concerned, especially
a part of the human body: as,

#tremit artūs#, Lucr. 3, 489, V. _G._ 3, 84, _he shivers in his limbs_.
#tremis ossa pavōre#, H. _S._ 2, 7, 57, _thou tremblest in thy bones
with fear_. #viridī membra sub arbutō strātus#, H. 1, 1, 21,
_stretching--his limbs--beneath an arbute green_. #ōs umerōsque deō
similis#, V. 1, 589, _in face and shoulders like a god_.


THE ACCUSATIVE OF THE THING PUT ON.

1148. The accusative is used with reflexive verbs in poetry to denote
the thing put on: as,

#comantem Androgeī galeam induitur#, V. 2, 391, _Androgeus’ high-haired
helm he dons_. #exuviās indūtus Achillī#, V. 2, 275, _clad in Achilles’
spoils_. Rarely to denote the thing taken off: as, #priōrēs exuitur
vultūs#, St. _Th._ 10, 640, _she doffs her former looks_.


THE ACCUSATIVE OF EXCLAMATION.

1149. The accusative is used in exclamations, sometimes merely to call
attention to something, but generally with a predicate to express a
judgment with emphasis.

(_a._) In calling attention, #ecce# or #em# is used in old Latin: as,
#ecce mē#, Pl. _MG._ 663, _behold, your humble servant_. #em Dāvom
tibī̆#, T. _Andr._ 842, _there, Davos sir_. For #ellum#, #eccillum#,
&c., see 667 and 673. Also, from Cicero on, #ēn#: as, #ēn quattuor
ārās#, V. _E._ 5, 65, _see, altars four_. (_b._) In emphatic judgments
sometimes the accusative alone: as, #fortūnātum Nīcobūlum#, Pl. _B._
455, _lucky man that Nicobulus_. #testīs ēgregiōs#, _Cael._ 63, _mighty
fine witnesses_; sometimes with an interjection: as, #ō imperātōrem
probum#, Pl. _B._ 759, _oh what a good commander_; rarely so with
#ēcastor#, #edepol#, #eugē#, _bravo_, #heu#, #īlicet#, _all’s up_,
#ē̆heu#. Interrogatively: #hancine impudentiam?# V. 5, 62, _possible,
shamelessness like this?_

1150. The accusative is used in excited orders, appeals, and questions,
without any verb expressed, or even distinctly felt: as, #Tiberium in
Tiberim#, Suet. _Tib._ 75, _Tiberius to the Tiber_. #dī vostram fidem#,
T. _Andr._ 716, _ye gods your help_. #prō fidem, Thēbānī cīvēs#, Pl.
_Am._ 376, _oh help_, or _murder, ye citizens of Thebes_. So with
#unde#, #quō#, and #quandō#, often followed by #mihī̆# or #tibī̆#: as,
#quō mihi fortūnam, sī nōn concēditur ūtī?# H. _E._ 1, 5, 12, _why
wealth for me, if wealth I may not use?_


II. THE ACCUSATIVE OF SPACE AND TIME, AND OF AIM OF MOTION.


THE ACCUSATIVE OF SPACE AND TIME.

1151. Extent of space or duration of time is denoted by the accusative:
as,

(_a._) #mīlia passuum XX prōcēdit#, 5, 47, 1, _he pushes on twenty
miles_. #trīduī viam prōgressī#, 4, 4, 4, _having advanced three days
journey_. #aggerem lātum pedēs CCCXXX, altum pedēs LXXX exstrūxērunt#,
7, 24, 1, _they built up a mound three hundred and thirty feet wide, and
eighty feet high_ (1130). (_b._) #mātrōnae annum lūxērunt#, L. 2, 7, 4,
_the married women wore mourning a year_. #ūndēvīgintī annōs nātus
erat#, _Br._ 229, _he was nineteen years old_. #secūtae sunt continuōs
complūrēs diēs tempestātēs#, 4, 34, 4, _there followed a good many days
a succession of storms_. #triennium vagātī#, 4, 4, 2, _having led a
nomad life three years_. #ūnum diem supplicātiō habita est#, L. 10, 47,
7, _a thanksgiving was held one day_. #diēs quīndecim supplicātiō#, 2,
35, 4, _a fortnight thanksgiving_ (1129). Sometimes #per# is added: as,
#lūdī per decem diēs factī sunt#, _C._ 3, 20, _games were celebrated ten
days long_.

1152. The idea of traversing is sometimes not expressed: as, #mīlia
passuum tria ab eōrum castrīs castra pōnit#, 1, 22, 5, _he pitches camp
three miles away from their camp_. #quadringentōs inde passūs cōnstituit
sīgna#, L. 34, 20, 4, _four hundred paces from there he set up the
standards_. See 1399.

1153. With #absum# and #distō#, the ablative of amount of difference is
sometimes used (1393): as, #certior factus est Ariovistī cōpiās ā
nostrīs mīlibus passuum quattuor et XX abesse#, 1, 41, 5, _he was
informed that Ariovistus’s troops were four and twenty miles away from
ours_. If the place is not mentioned from which distance is reckoned,
#ab# or #ā# is sometimes used before the expression of distance: as,
#positīs castrīs ā mīlibus passuum XV#, 6, 7, 3, _pitching camp fifteen
miles away_.

1154. The accusative is used with #abhinc#, _ago_: as, #quaestor fuistī
abhinc annōs quattuordecim#, _V._ 1, 34, _you were a quaestor fourteen
years ago_. Rarely the ablative (1393): as, #quō tempore? abhinc annīs
XV#, _RC._ 37, _when? fifteen years ago_; and once or twice with
#abhinc#, meaning _before_ (1393): as, #comitiīs abhinc diēbus trīgintā
factīs#, _V._ 2, 130, _the election having been held thirty days
before_.

1155. The accusative singular is used with ordinals, to show the number
of days, months, or years since a particular event, including the day,
month, or year of the event itself: as, #quod annum iam tertium et
vīcēsimum rēgnat#, _IP._ 7, _the circumstance that he has now been on
the throne two and twenty years_.

1156. The accusative in some pronominal expressions and adverbs passes
over from ‘time through which’ to a loose ‘time at which’: as, #id
temporis#, _RA._ 97, _at that time_. #hoc noctis#, Pl. _Am._ 163^b, _at
this time of night_. #tum#, _then_, #num#, #nunc#, _now_, #nunc ipsum#,
Pl. _B._ 940, _Att._ 10, 4, 10, _this very minute_, #commodum#, _just in
time_. For the locative ablative exceptionally used to denote duration,
see 1355.

  [Errata:
  1151a ... 4, 34, 4
    4, 34. 4
  1154 ... _RC._ 37
    _RC,_]


THE ACCUSATIVE OF THE AIM OF MOTION.

1157. (1.) Proper names of towns and of little islands or peninsulas are
put in the accusative to denote the aim with expressions of motion: as,

#Labiēnus Lutetiam proficīscitur#, 7, 57, 1, _Labienus starts for
Lutetia_. #Leucadem vēnimus#, _Fam._ 16, 9, 1, _we came to Leucas_.
#nocturnus introitus Zmyrnam#, _Ph._ 11, 5, _the entrance into Smyrna by
night_ (1129). Plautus uses #Accherūns# a few times like a town name:
as, #vīvom mē accersunt Accheruntem mortuī#, _Most._ 509, _the dead are
taking me to Acheron alive_.

1158. With singular names of towns and little islands, Plautus has the
accusative alone twenty times, and twenty times with #in#; Terence has,
including #Lēmnum#, _Ph._ 567, and #Cyprum#, _Ad._ 224, 230, the
accusative alone six times, and twice with #in#, #in Lēmnum#, _Ph._ 66,
and #in Cyprum#, _Ad._ 278. Plural town names never have #in#.

1159. An appellative #urbem# or #oppidum# accompanying the accusative of
a town name is usually preceded by #in# or #ad#: as, #ad urbem Fī̆dēnās
tendunt#, L. 4, 33, 10, _they make for the city of Fidenae_. #Iugurtha
Thalam pervēnit, in oppidum magnum#, S. _I._ 75, 1, _Jugurtha arrived at
Thala, a large town_.

1160. When merely ‘motion towards’ or ‘nearness’ is meant, #ad# is used:
as, #trēs viae sunt ad Mutinam#, _Ph._ 12, 22, _there are three roads to
Mutina_. #mīles ad Capuam profectus sum#, _CM._ 10, _I went to the war
as a private, to the region round about Capua_.

1161. Proper names of countries are also sometimes put in the accusative
in poetry, to denote aim of motion: as, #abiīt Ālidem#, Pl. _Cap._ 573,
_he went away to Elis_. So in prose also, #Aegyptus# in Cicero, Caesar,
Nepos, Livy, and Tacitus: as, #Germānicus Aegyptum proficīscitur#, Ta.
2, 59, _Germanicus sets out for Egypt_. Rarely and in poetry names of
peoples: as, #sitientīs ībimus Āfrōs#, V. _E._ 1, 64, _to thirst-parched
Afrians we shall go_. In general the accusative of country names is
preceded by #in# or #ad#, as are also appellatives regularly in prose;
but in poetry, even appellatives without a preposition are common.

1162. (2.) The accusatives #domum#, #rūs#, and #forās#, are used like
proper names of towns: as,

(_a._) #eō domum#, Pl. _Mer._ 659, _I’m going home_. #equitēs domum
contendērunt#, 2, 24, 4, _the cavalry hurried home_. #domum reditiōnis
spē sublātā#, 1, 5, 3, _the hope of a return home being out of the
question_ (1129). (_b._) #rūs ībō#, T. _Eu._ 216, _I shall go out of
town_. (_c._) #effūgī forās#, T. _Eu._ 945, _I ran out of doors_.

1163. The singular #domum# is always retained by Caesar, even when two
or more separate persons or parties are spoken of. Plautus, Sallust, and
Nepos, have the plural #domōs# once each, and Cicero and Livy use it
occasionally.

1164. The accusative #domum# or #domōs# sometimes has an attribute,
usually a possessive pronoun: as, #domum suam quemque revertī#, 2, 10,
4, _for every man to go back to his home_. #alius alium domōs suās
invītant#, S. _I._ 66, 3, _they invite each other to their homes_.
#aurum domum rēgiam comportant#, S. _I._ 76, 6, _they bring all the gold
to the house royal_. #cum domum rēgis dēvertissēs#, _D._ 17, _when you
went to stay at the king’s palace_. The preposition #in# is sometimes
used when the attribute is a genitive or a possessive pronoun, and
commonly when it is any adjective but a possessive pronoun.

1165. (3.) In old Latin, #exsequiās# and #īnfitiās# are also used with
#eō#, and sometimes #malam crucem# and #malam rem#, though these last
more commonly have #in#: as,

#exsequiās Chremētī īre#, T. _Ph._ 1026, _to go to Chremes’s funeral_.
#ut eās malam crucem#, Pl. _Men._ 328, _that thou mayst get thee to the
accursed cross_. Later writers, as Nepos, Livy, and Quintilian, use
#īnfitiās eō# again, and, from Sallust on, #vēnum eō# and #vēnum dō#
sometimes occur for #vēneō# and #vēndō#.

1166. With the accusative in #-tum# (or #-sum#), called the supine, the
idea of ‘aim’ passes over into that of ‘purpose:’ as #mīlitātum abiīt#,
T. _Hau._ 117, _he’s gone away a soldiering_ (2270).

  [Erratum:
  1157 ... _the entrance into Smyrna by night_ (1129).
    final . missing]


TWO ACCUSATIVES COMBINED.


OBJECT AND PREDICATE.

1167. Many verbs may take two accusatives, an object and a predicate.

Such are verbs signifying _make_, _keep_, _choose_, _name_ or _call_,
_have_, _think_, _recognize_ or _find_, _show oneself_, &c., &c.: as,
#longiōrem mēnsem faciunt#, _V._ 2, 129, _they make the month longer_.
#eum certiōrem faciunt#, 5, 37, 7, _they let him know_. #Ancum Mārcium
rēgem populus creāvit#, L. 1, 32, 1, _the people made Ancus Marcius
king_. #mē cēpēre arbitrum#, T. _Hau._ 500, _they’ve chosen me as
referee_. #Duellium ‘Bellium’ nōmināvērunt#, _O._ 153, _Duellius they
named ‘Bellius.’_ #vīcīnam Capreīs insulam ‘Aprāgopolim’ appellābat#,
Suet. _Aug._ 98, _the island next to Capreae he called ‘the Castle of
Indolence.’_ #conlēgās adiūtōrēs habēbat#, _Sest._ 87, _he had his
colleagues as assistants_. #tē sapientem exīstimant#, _L._ 6, _they
consider you a sage_. #quem virum P. Crassum vīdimus#, _CM._ 61, _what a
man we saw in Crassus_. #sevērum mē praebeō#, _C._ 4, 12, _I show myself
stern_. In the passive both the object and the predicate become
nominatives: as, #Caesar certior factus est#, 3, 19, 5, _Caesar was
informed_.

1168. In the sense of _consider as equivalent to_, #dūcō# and #habeō#,
less frequently #putō#, have the ablative with #prō#. Other
constructions with these and the above verbs may be found in the
dictionary.


PERSON AND THING.

1169. (1.) Some verbs of teaching and hiding, demanding and questioning,
may take two accusatives, one of a person and one of a thing.

The commonest of these verbs are #doceō# and its compounds, and #cēlō#;
#flāgitō#, #ōrō#, #poscō#, and #rogō#, #interrogō#. The thing is usually
the neuter of a pronoun or enumerative word (1144): as, (_a._) #peior
magister tē istaec docuit, nōn ego#, Pl. _B._ 163, _a worse instructor
taught thee that, not I_. #quid tē litterās doceam?# _Pis._ 73, _why
should I teach you your A B C’s?_ (_b._) #nōn tē cēlāvī sermōnem T.
Ampiī#, _Fam._ 2, 16, 3, _I have not kept you in the dark about the talk
with Ampius_. (_c._) #interim cōtīdiē Caesar Aeduōs frūmentum
flāgitāre#, 1, 16, 1, _meantime Caesar every day a dunning the Aeduans
for the grain_. #Mīlēsiōs nāvem poposcit#, _V._ 1, 86, _he called on the
Miletus people for a vessel_. #quid me istud rogās?# _Fin._ 5, 83, _why
do you ask me that?_ #Racilius mē sententiam rogāvit#, _QFr._ 2, 1, 3,
_Racilius asked me my opinion_.

1170. With #doceō#, meaning _inform_, #cēlō#, #rogō#, and #interrogō#,
the ablative of the thing with #dē# is also used. And with #flāgitō# and
#poscō#, sometimes the ablative of the person with #ab#, with #cēlō# the
ablative of the person with #dē#.

1171. In the passive the person becomes the subject, and the accusative
of a neuter pronoun or adjective is retained: as,

#nōsne hoc cēlātōs tam diū#, T. _Hec._ 645, _for us not to be told of
this so long_; rarely with reversed construction: #quōr haec cēlāta mē
sunt?# Pl. _Ps._ 490, _why was this hid from me?_ Accusatives of
appellatives are rare: as, #omnīs mīlitiae artīs ēdoctus fuerat#, L. 25,
37, 3, _he had been thoroughly taught all the arts of war_.
#interrogātus sententiam#, L. 36, 7, 1, _being asked his opinion_. Other
constructions of #doctus#, and of the passive of #cēlō#, #flāgitō#,
#poscō#, #rogō# and #interrogō#, may be found in the dictionary.

1172. (2.) Verbs of wishing, reminding, inducing, and accusing, and some
others, also sometimes take an accusative of the person and one of the
thing.

Such are #volō#, #moneō# and its compounds, #hortor# and #cōgō#;
#accūsō#, #arguō#, #īnsimulō#, #obiūrgō#. The thing is usually the
neuter of a pronoun or enumerative word (1144): as, #quid mē voltis?#
Pl. _Mer._ 868, _what do you want of me?_ #illud tē esse admonitum
velim#, _Cael._ 8, _on this point I want you to be reminded_ (1171). In
old Latin, accusatives of appellatives also are thus used, and sometimes
also with #dōnō# and #condōnō#.

1173. (3.) The defining accusative is sometimes combined with an
accusative of the person: as, #tam tē bāsia multa bāsiāre#, Cat. 7, 9,
_thee to kiss so many kisses_ (1140). But usually with an accusative of
the person, the ablative takes the place of the defining accusative: as,
#ōdissem tē odiō Vatīniānō#, Cat. 14, 3, _I should hate thee with a
Vatinian hate_.

  [Erratum:
  1169 ... #cōtīdiē Caesar Aeduōs frūmentum flāgitāre#, 1, 16, 1,
    1, 16, 1.]


OBJECT AND EXTENT, DURATION, OR AIM.

1174. The accusative of extent or duration, or of aim of motion is often
combined with that of the object: as,

(_a._) #mīlia passuum decem novem mūrum perdūcit#, 1, 8, 1, _he makes a
wall nineteen miles_ (1151). #mātrōnae annum eum lūxērunt#, L. 2, 7, 4.
_the married women wore mourning for him a year_ (1151). (_b._) #Ancus
multitūdinem omnem Rōmam trādūxit#, L. 1, 33, 1, _Ancus moved the whole
population over to Rome_ (1157). #eōs domum remittit#, 4, 21, 6, _he
sends them home again_ (1162). For other combinations, see 1138, 1198,
and 2270.


THE DATIVE.

1175. The dative denotes that for or to which a thing is or is done, and
either accompanies single words, such as verbs, adjectives, sometimes
adverbs, rarely substantives, or serves to modify the entire sentence.
It has two principal uses.

1176. I. The dative is used as a complement. Complements may be roughly
distinguished as essential or optional. But these two complements are
not always separated by a sharp line, and the same dative may sometimes
be referred indifferently to either head.

1177. (1.) The ESSENTIAL COMPLEMENT is a dative of the person or thing
added to an idea which is felt as incomplete without the dative (1180).

Thus, #pāret#, _he is obedient_, is a statement which is felt as
incomplete without a dative added to denote what it is he is obedient
to, in the sentence #pāret senātuī#, _he is obedient to the senate_. But
when stress is put on the action merely, without reference to its
bearing, such a verb may be used without a dative: as, #pāret#, _he is
obedient_, _he yields obedience_.

1178. (2.) The OPTIONAL COMPLEMENT, that is, the dative of interest,
advantage, or disadvantage, adds something to an idea that is already
complete in itself (1205).

Thus, #carmina cantō#, _I chant verses_, is a statement entirely
complete in itself; it may be modified or not, at option, by a dative,
thus: #carmina virginibus puerīsque cantō#, _verses for maids and boys I
chant_.

1179. II. The dative of certain substantives is used predicatively
(1219).


I. THE COMPLEMENTARY DATIVE.


(1.) THE ESSENTIAL COMPLEMENT.


THE DATIVE WITH VERBS.

1180. Many verbs require a dative to complete their meaning.


WITH VERBS OF INTRANSITIVE USE.

1181. (1.) Many verbs of intransitive use, particularly such as denote a
state, disposition, feeling, or quality, take the dative: as,

#quodne vōbīs placeat, displiceat mihī?# Pl. _MG._ 614, _shall that
which pleases you, displeasing be to me?_ #sī Asiciō causa plūs prōfuit
quam invidia nocuit#, _Cael._ 23, _if his case has been more helpful to
Asicius than the hostility has been damaging_. #imperat aut servit
collēcta pecūnia cuique#, H. _E._ 1, 10, 47, _for every man his garnered
hoard or master is or slave_. #nōnne huic lēgī resistētis?# _Agr._ 2,
85, _will you not stand out against this law?_ #gymnasiīs indulgent
Graeculī#, Traj. in Plin. _Ep._ 40 [49], 2, _our Greek cousins are
partial to gymnasiums_. #īgnōscās velim huic festīnātiōnī meae#, in a
letter, _Fam._ 5, 12, 1, _please excuse haste_. #huic legiōnī Caesar
cōnfīdēbat maximē#, 1, 40, 15, _Caesar trusted this legion most of all_.
#an C. Trebōniō ego persuāsī? cui nē suādēre quidem ausus essem#, _Ph._
2, 27, _or was it I that brought conviction to Trebonius? a man to whom
I should not have presumed even to offer advice_. In the passive, such
verbs are used impersonally, the dative remaining (1034); personal
constructions are rare and poetical.

1182. This dative is used with such verbs or verbal expressions as mean
_am pleasing_ or _displeasing_, _helpful_ or _injurious_, _command_,
_yield_, or _am obedient_, _am friendly_, _partial_, or _opposed_;
_spare_, _pardon_, _threaten_, _trust_, _advise_, _persuade_, _happen_,
_meet_. But the English translation is not a safe guide: many of the
verbs used with a dative are represented transitively in English; and
some verbs of the meanings above are used transitively in Latin: as,
#dēlectō#, #iuvō#, #laedō#, &c., &c.

1183. The dative is rarely used with a form of #sum# and a predicate
noun corresponding in meaning with the verbs above (1181): as, #quid
mihi scelestō tibī̆ erat auscultātiō?# Pl. _R._ 502, i.e. #quid tibī̆
auscultābam?# _why did I, ill-starred wretch, lend ear to thee?_ #quī
studiōsus re͡i nūllī aliaest#, Pl. _MG._ 802, i.e. #quī studet#, _who
lends his soul to nothing else_. Or immediately with a noun: as,
#servitūs opulentō hominī#, Pl. _Am._ 166, _slavery to a millionaire_.
#optemperātiō lēgibus#, _Leg._ 1, 42, _obedience to the laws_. #aemula
labra rosīs#, Mart. 4, 42, 10, _lips rivalling the rose_.

1184. Some verbs have a variable use without any difference of meaning:
thus, #cūrō#, #decet#, and #vītō#, have sometimes the dative in old
Latin, but usually the accusative. In Cicero, #adūlor# has the
accusative; from Nepos on, the dative as well. #medeor#, #medicor#, and
#praestōlor# take either the accusative or the dative.

1185. Some verbs have an accusative with one meaning, a dative of the
complement, essential or optional, with another: see #aemulor#, #caveō#,
#comitor#, #cōnsulō#, #conveniō#, #cupiō#, #dēspērō#, #maneō#, #metuō#,
#moderor#, #prōspiciō#, #temperō#, #timeō#, and the different uses of
#invideō#, in the dictionary.

1186. In poetry, verbs of union, of contention, and of difference, often
take a dative: as, (_a._) #haeret laterī lētālis harundō#, V. 4, 73,
_sticks to her side the deadly shaft_. So with #coëō#, #concurrō#,
#haereō#, and similarly with #iungō#, #misceō#. (_b._) #quid enim
contendat hirundō cycnīs?# Lucr. 3, 6, _for how can swallow cope with
swans?_ So with #bellō#, #certō#, #contendō#, #pugnō#. (_c._) #īnfīdō
scurrae distābit amīcus#, H. _E._ 1, 18, 4, _a friend will differ from a
faithless hanger-on_. So with #differō#, #discrepō#, #dissentiō#,
#distō#.

1187. A verb often takes the dative, when combined with #adversum#,
#obviam#, or #praestō#, also with #bene#, #male#, or #satis#, and the
like: as,

#fit ob viam Clōdiō#, _Mil._ 29, _he runs across Clodius_. #cui bene
dīxit umquam bonō?# _Sest._ 110, _for what patriot had he ever a good
word?_ #nōs, virī fortēs, satis facere rē̆ī pūblicae vidēmur#, _C._ 1,
2, _we doughty champions flatter ourselves we are doing our whole duty
by the state_. Similarly with verbs of transitive use.

1188. (2.) Many verbs of intransitive use compounded with a preposition
take a dative connected in sense with the preposition: as,

#manus extrēma nōn accessit operibus eius#, _Br._ 126, _the last touch
was not put upon his works_. #omnibus adfuit hīs pugnīs Dolābella#,
_Ph._ 2, 75, _Dolabella was on hand in all these battles_. #pontō nox
incubat ātra#, V. 1, 89, _over the deep, night broodeth black_.
#cōgnitiōnibus dē Chrīstiānīs interfuī numquam#, Plin. _Ep. ad Trai._ 96
[97], 1, _I have never been to any of the trials of the Christians_.

1189. The prepositions are chiefly #ad#, #ante#, #com-#, #in#, #inter#,
#ob#, #prae#, #sub#, or #super#. In many compounds of these
prepositions, however, the dative is due to the general meaning of the
verb, as in #cōnfīdit mihī̆#, _he puts all trust in me_ (1181), as
contrasted with #cōnsentit mihī̆#, _he feels with me_, nearly equivalent
to #sentit mēcum# (1188).

1190. Instead of the dative, such verbs often have a prepositional
construction, particularly when place, literal or figurative, is
distinctly to be expressed: as,

#accēdere in fūnus#, _Leg._ 2, 66, _to go to a funeral_. #in morbum
incidit#, _Clu._ 175, _he fell ill_.

1191. Some verbs of intransitive use take, when compounded, either the
dative or the accusative. See #adiaceō#, #antecēdō#, #anteeō#,
#praecurrō#, #praestō#, #incēdō#, #inlūdō#, #īnsultō#, #invādō#, in the
dictionary. And some compounds acquire a transitive use altogether, as
#obeō#, #oppugnō#: see 1137.

  [Errata:
  1188 ... _Ph._ 2, 75, _Dolabella was on hand in all these battles_.
    _Ph_ 2, 75,
  #pontō nox incubat ātra#, V. 1, 89
    #pontō nox incubat ātra#.]


WITH VERBS OF TRANSITIVE USE.

1192. (1.) Many verbs of transitive use take the dative: as,

#ē̆ī fīliam suam in mātrimōnium dat#, 1, 3, 5, _he gives this person his
own daughter in marriage_. #decima legiō ē̆ī grātiās ēgit#, 1, 41, 1,
_the tenth legion gave him thanks_. #huic fert subsidium Puliō#, 5, 44,
13, _to him Pulio brings aid_. #multīs idem minātur Antōnius#, _Ph._ 11,
2, _to many Antony threatens the same_. #reliquī sēsē fugae mandārunt#,
1, 12, 3, _the rest betook themselves to flight_. #commendō vōbīs meum
parvum fīlium#, _C._ 4, 23, _unto your keeping do I commit the little
son of mine_. #multī sē aliēnissimīs crēdidērunt#, 6, 31, 4, _many
people put themselves in the hands of utter strangers_. #equitēs imperat
cīvitātibus#, 6, 4, 6, _he issues orders to the communities for horse_.

1193. This dative is used with such verbs as #dō#, #trādō#, #tribuō#,
#dīvidō#, #ferō#, #praebeō#, #praestō#, #polliceor#, #prōmittō#,
#dēbeō#, #negō#, #mōnstrō#, #dīcō#, #nārrō#, #mandō#, #praecipiō#, &c.,
&c. In the passive construction, the accusative becomes nominative, the
dative remaining.

1194. (2.) Many verbs of transitive use compounded with a preposition
take a dative connected in sense with the preposition: as,

#nihil novī vōbīs adferam#, _RP._ 1, 21, _I shall not lay any novelty
before you_. #lēgēs omnium salūtem singulōrum salūtī antepōnunt#, _Fin._
3, 64, _the law always puts the general safety before the safety of the
individual_. #timōrem bonīs iniēcistis#, _Agr._ 1, 23, _you have struck
terror into the hearts of patriots_. #nōluērunt ferīs corpus obicere#,
_RA._ 71, _they would not cast his person before ravenous beasts_.
#nēminem huic praeferō#, N. 8, 1, 1, _there is nobody I put before him_.
#hībernīs Labiēnum praeposuit#, 1, 54, 2, _he put Labienus over the
winter-quarters_. #anitum ōva gallīnīs saepe suppōnimus#, _DN._ 2, 124,
_we often put ducks’ eggs under hens_.

1195. The prepositions are #circum#, #dē#, #ex#, #post#, or those named
in 1189. In many compounds of transitive use, however, the dative is due
to the general meaning of the verb, as with those spoken of in 1189.

1196. With these verbs, a prepositional construction is often used, as
with the verbs of intransitive use (1190): as,

#iam diū nihil novī ad nōs adferēbātur#, _Fam._ 2, 14, _no news has got
to us this long time_. For compounds of #circum# and #trāns# with two
accusatives, see 1138.

1197. Verbs of transitive use compounded with #com-# have oftener the
ablative with #cum#: as, #cōnferte hanc pācem cum illō bellō#, _V._ 4,
115, _just compare this peace with that war_. See also in the
dictionary, #coniungō# and #compōnō#; also the indirect compounds
#comparō#, _compare_, from #compār#, and #commūnicō#.

1198. With a few compounds of #ad# or #in#, a second accusative is
exceptionally used: as, #arbitrum illum adēgit#, _Off._ 3, 66, _he had
the other man up before a daysman_. So with #inmittō#, Pl. _Cap._ 548,
#īnsinuō#, Lucr. 1, 116, &c., &c. Regularly with #animum advertō#: as,
#animum advertī columellam#, _TD._ 5, 65, _I noticed a modest shaft_.
#quā rē animum adversā#, Caes. _C._ 1, 80, 4, _this fact being paid heed
to_: compare 1138.

1199. A few compound verbs admit either the dative of the person or
thing and accusative of the thing, or the accusative of the person or
thing and ablative of the thing; such are #adspergō# and #īnspergō#,
#circumdō#, #circumfundō#, #exuō# and #induō#, #impertiō#, #interclūdō#;
also the uncompounded #dōnō#: as, #praedam mīlitibus dōnat#, 7, 11, 9,
_he presents the booty to the soldiers_. #scrībam tuum ānulō dōnāstī#,
_V._ 3, 185, _you presented your clerk with a ring_. For the different
constructions of #interdīcō#, see the dictionary.


THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES.

1200. The dative with many adjectives and some adverbs denotes that to
which the quality is directed.

Such have the meaning of _useful_, _necessary_, _fit_, _easy_,
_agreeable_, _known_, _near_, _belonging_, _friendly_, _faithful_,
_like_, and most of their opposites; the adjective is often predicative:
as, #vēr ūtile silvīs# (1036), V. _G._ 2, 323, _the spring is good for
woods_. #est senātōrī necessārium nōsse rem pūblicam#, _Leg._ 3, 41,
_for a senator it is indispensable to be conversant with government_.
#ōrātiōnis genus pompae quam pugnae aptius#, _O._ 42, _a style better
suited to the parade than to the field_. #convenienter nātūrae vīvere#,
_Off._ 3, 13, _to live in touch with nature_.

1201. Some adjectives of this class have the dative of a person, the
accusative with #ad# of a thing: so #accommodātus#, #aptus#, #idōneus#,
#necessārius#, and #ūtilis#; and some denoting feeling have also the
accusative with a preposition: #aequus#, #inīquus#, #fidēlis# with #in#,
#benevolus# with #ergā#, and #impius# with #adversus#. #propior# and
#proximus# sometimes accompany an accusative, like #prope#, #propius#,
and #proximē#.

1202. The adjectives #commūnis#, #proprius# or #aliēnus#, #sacer#,
#tōtus#, often accompany the construction of the genitive of the owner:
see 1238. For #aliēnus# with the ablative, see 1306. Sometimes #aliēnus#
has the ablative with #ab#.

1203. Some adjectives denoting relationship, connection, friendship or
hostility, become substantives, and as such, admit the genitive also
(1103): such are (_a._) #adfīnis#, #cōgnātus#; (_b._) #aequālis#,
#familiāris#, #fīnitimus#, #pār# and #dispār#, #propīnquus#, #vīcīnus#;
(_c._) #adversārius#, #amīcus#, #inimīcus#, #necessārius#.

1204. In Plautus and Terence, #similis#, _the like_, _the counterpart_,
and its compounds, regularly take the genitive. The dative, as well as
the genitive, is also used from Ennius on, particularly of a limited or
approximate likeness: see the dictionary.


(2.) THE OPTIONAL COMPLEMENT.

1205. The dative of a person or thing interested, benefited, harmed, may
be added at option to almost any verb: as,

#cōnservāte parentī fīlium, parentem fīliō#, _Cael._ 80, _save the son
for the father, the father for the son_. #mea domus tibī̆ patet, mihī̆
clausa est#, _RA._ 145, _the very house I own is open for you, is shut
upon me_. #cui flāvam religās comam, simplex munditiīs?# H. 1, 5, 4,
_for whom bind’st thou in wreaths thy golden hair, plain in thy
neatness?_ #nōn audēret facere haec viduae mulierī, quae in mē fēcit#,
T. _Hau._ 953, _he durst not to an unprotected female do what he hath
done towards me_.

1206. The place of a verb with the dative of interest is sometimes
filled by an interjection, #ecce#, #ei#, #em#, or #vae#: as, #ei mihi
quālis erat#, E. 1, 7, V. 2, 274, _ah me, how ghastly he did look_. #vae
vīctīs#, Pl. _Ps._ 1317, said by Brennus, 390 B.C., L. 5, 48, 9, _woe
worth the worsted_. #vae capitī atque aetātī tuae#, Pl. _R._ 375,
_a murrain on thy head and life_.

1207. The dative is often added to the entire sentence, where either a
genitive or a possessive pronoun limiting a substantive might be used.

In such cases the dative expresses interest, advantage, or disadvantage,
while the genitive would simply indicate the owner or the object: as,
#trānsfīgitur scūtum Puliōni#, 5, 44, 7, _unfortunately for Pulio, his
shield gets pierced through and through_. #mīlitantī in Hispāniā pater
ē̆ī moritur#, L. 29, 29, 6, _while serving in Spain he had the
misfortune to lose his father_. #huic ego mē bellō ducem profiteor#,
_C._ 2, 11, _I here proclaim myself captain for this war_. #sēsē Caesarī
ad pedēs prōiēcērunt#, 1, 31, 2, _they cast themselves at Caesar’s
feet_. #nostrīs mīlitibus spem minuit#, 5, 33, 5, _it dashed the hopes
of our soldiers_. #extergē tibi manūs#, Pl. _Most._ 267, _wipe off thy
hands_. #vellunt tibi barbam lascīvī puerī#, H. _S._ 1, 3, 133, _the
wanton gamins pull thy beard, poor soul_.

1208. This dative is sometimes detached from the verb, and used
immediately with a substantive, instead of the genitive: as,
#Philocōmasiō custōs#, Pl. _MG._ 271, _the keeper for Philocomasium_.
#rēctor iuvenī#, Ta. 1, 24, _a mentor for the young man_. So
particularly with a gerundive in official expressions: as, #cūrātor
mūrīs reficiendīs#, _OG._ 19, _commissioner for rebuilding the walls_.

1209. Verbs of warding off sometimes take a dative, especially in
poetry, also those of robbing and ridding: as, (_a._) #hunc quoque
arcēbis gravidō pecorī#, V. _G._ 3, 154, _him also wilt thou for the
pregnant herd keep far_. #sōlstitium pecorī dēfendite#. V. _E._ 7, 47,
_the summer’s heat keep distant for the flock_. (_b._) #torquem dētrāxit
hostī#, _Fin._ 1, 35, _he pulled a torque away from his enemy_. #ēripiēs
mihī̆ hunc errōrem#, _Att._ 10, 4, 6, _you will rid me of this mistake_.

1210. With verbs of motion the dative of the person interested denotes
in poetry the end of motion also: as, #multōs Danaūm dēmittimus Orcō#,
V. 2, 398, _we send down many a Danaan for the nether king_. So also the
dative of personified words of place: as, #it clāmor caelō#, V. 5, 451,
_up goes a shout for heaven_, i.e. _heaven hears a shout_. #sēdibus hunc
refer ante suīs#, V. 6, 152, _first bear him duly to his place of rest_,
i.e. let his expectant grave receive him.


THE EMOTIONAL DATIVE.

1211. The dative of the personal pronoun is often used with expressions
of emotion, interest, surprise, or derision: as,

#quid mihi Celsus agit?# H. _E._ 1, 3, 15, _how fares me Celsus?_
#Tongilium mihī̆ ēdūxit#, _C._ 2, 4, _he took out Tongilius, bless my
soul_. #at tibī̆ repente, cum minimē exspectārem, vēnit ad mē Canīnius
māne#, _Fam._ 9, 2, 1, _but bless you, sir, when I least dreamt of it,
who should drop in on me all at once but Caninius, bright and early_.


THE DATIVE OF THE POSSESSOR.

1212. The dative is used with forms of #sum# to denote the possessor:
as,

#est hominī cum deō similitūdō#, _Leg._ 1, 25, _man has a resemblance to
god_. #an nescīs longās rēgibus esse manūs?# O. _E._ 16, 166, _dost
possibly not know kings have long arms?_ #suos quoique mōs#, T. _Ph._
454, _to every man his own pet way_. So also with the compounds #absum#,
#dēsum#, #supersum#: as, #hoc ūnum Caesarī dēfuit#, 4, 26, 5, _this was
all Caesar lacked_.

1213. (1.) With #mihī̆ est nōmen#, the name is put either in the dative
or in the nominative: as,

#mihī̆ nomen est Iūliō#, or #mihī̆ nōmen est Iūlius#, Gell. 15, 29, 1,
_my name is Julius_. In old Latin and in Sallust, the dative: as, #nōmen
Mercuriōst mihī#, Pl. _Am. prol._ 19, _my name is Mercury_; later the
nominative: as, #canibus pigrīs nōmen erit Pardus, Tigris, Leo#, J. 8,
34, _the craven cur shall sport the name of ‘Lion, Tiger, Pard.’_ Cicero
uses the nominative or rarely the dative, Livy oftener the dative than
the nominative. Tacitus puts adjectives in the dative, substantives in
the nominative, rarely in the genitive. Caesar does not use the
construction.

1214. (2.) With the actives #nōmen dō#, #indō#, #pōnō#, #tribuō#, &c.,
the name may be in the dative or in the accusative; with the passive of
these expressions, the name may be in the dative or in the nominative:
as,

#quī tibi nōmen īnsānō posuēre#, H. _S._ 2, 3, 47, _who’ve put on thee
the nickname Crank_. #quī fīliīs Philippum atque Alexandrum nōmina
inposuerat#, L. 35, 47, 5, _who had given his sons the names Philip and
Alexander_. A genitive dependent on #nōmen# is used once by Tacitus and
in very late Latin.

1215. With a gerundive, the dative of the possessor denotes the person
who has the action to do: see 2243. For the ablative with #ab#, or for
#habeō#, see 2243, 2245.

1216. This dative is sometimes used with the perfect participle, and the
tenses formed with it: as, #mihī̆ est ēlabōrātum#, _Caecil._ 40, _I have
it all worked out_. #carmina nūlla mihī sunt scrīpta#, O. _Tr._ 5, 12,
35, _no poetry have I ready made_. Rarely with passives of the present
system: as, #nūlla placēre diū nec vīvere carmina possunt, quae
scrībuntur aquae pōtōribus#, H. _E._ 1, 19, 2, _no verse can take or be
longlived that by teetotallers is writ_.


THE DATIVE OF RELATION.

1217. The dative may denote the person viewing or judging: as,

#eris mihi magnus Apollō#, V. _E._ 3, 104, _thou shalt to me the great
Apollo be_. #Quīntia fōrmōsa est multīs, mihi candida, longa, rēcta
est#, Cat. 86, 1, _in many eyes is Quintia fair, to me she’s bonny,
tall, and straight_. From Caesar on, participles are often used to
denote the person viewing or judging: as, #est urbe ēgressīs tumulus#,
V. 2, 713, _there is, as you get out of town, a mound_. #in ūniversum
aestimantī#, Ta. _G._ 6, _looking at it generally_.

1218. In imitation of a Greek idiom, #volēns#, #cupiēns#, or #invītus#,
is used by Sallust and Tacitus in agreement with a dative dependent on a
form of #sum#, the combination being equivalent to a subject with a form
of #volō#, #cupiō#, or #invītus sum#, respectively: as, #cēterīs
remanēre volentibus fuit#, Ta. _H._ 3, 43, i.e. #cēterī remanēre
voluērunt#, _the rest were minded to bide where they were_. Once in
Livy.


II. THE PREDICATIVE DATIVE.


THE DATIVE OF TENDENCY OR RESULT.

1219. (1.) Certain datives are used with a form of #sum# to denote what
a thing tends to, proves, or is. This dative is generally accompanied by
a dative of the person interested: as,

#auxiliō īs fuit#, Pl. _Am. prol._ 92, _he was a help to them_. #odiō
sum Rōmānīs#, L. 35, 19, 6, _I am an abomination in the eyes of Rome_.
#potestne bonum cuiquam malō esse?# _Par._ 7, _can good prove bad for
any human being?_ #L. Cassius identidem quaerere solēbat, cui bonō
fuisset#, _RA._ 84, _Cassius used to ask for ever and ever, who the
person benefited was_, or _who the gainer was_. #nēminī meus adventus
labōrī aut sūmptuī fuit#, _V._ 1, 16, _my visit did not prove a bother
or an expense to a soul_. #rēs et fortūnae tuae mihī̆ maximae cūrae
sunt#, _Fam._ 6, 5, 1, _your money-matters are an all-absorbing interest
to me_.

1220. There are many of these datives, mostly abstracts and all
singular, some of the commonest are #cūrae#, #ūsuī#, #praesidiō#,
#cordī#, #odiō#, #auxiliō#, #impedīmentō#, #salūtī#, #voluptātī#. The
adjectives #magnus#, #maior#, #maximus#, or #tantus# and #quantus#, are
sometimes used in agreement with them; and the dative #frūgī# sometimes
has #bonae#.

1221. Instead of the dative of tendency, a predicative nominative or
accusative is rarely used: thus, #possessiōnem līberam Dardaniae sōlāciō
fore#, L. 40, 57, 9, _that the unrestricted occupancy of Dardania would
prove comforting_, but, #domestica quiēs sōlācium fuit#, L. 6, 30, 9,
_the peace that prevailed at home was a solid comfort_. Prepositional
expressions with #prō# and #in# also occur.

1222. (2.) The dative is also used with a few verbs of considering or
accounting to denote what a thing is accounted.

So with such verbs as #dō#, #dūcō#, #habeō#, #tribuō#, and #vertō#: as,
#vitiō mihī̆ dant, quod mortem hominis necessāriī graviter ferō#, Matius
in _Fam._ 11, 28, 2, _the world scores it against me that I take the
murder of a near and dear friend to heart_. #postquam paupertās probrō
habērī coepit#, S. _C._ 12, 1, _after lack of wealth began to count as a
stigma_.


THE DATIVE OF PURPOSE OR INTENTION.

1223. A few datives are used to denote what a thing is intended to be.
This dative is generally accompanied by a dative of the person
interested.

So (_a._) #dōnō# and #mūnerī#: as, #ēmit eam dōnō mihī̆#, T. _Eu._ 135,
_he bought her as a gift for me_. #centum bovēs mīlitibus dōnō dedit#,
L. 7, 37, 3, _he gave the soldiers a hundred oxen as a present_. Also
(_b._) #auxiliō#, #praesidiō#, and #subsidiō#, used of military
operations, chiefly with verbs of motion: as, #iī, quī praesidiō contrā
castra erant relictī, subsidiō suīs iērunt#, 7, 62, 8, _the men that had
been left as a protection against the camp, went as a reinforcement to
their own side_.

1224. For the datives #dōnō# and #mūnerī#, a predicative nominative or
accusative is sometimes used: as, #corōnam Iovī dōnum in capitōlium
mittunt#, L. 2, 22, 6, _they send a crown to the capitol as a present
for Jupiter_. Prepositional expressions are also used for #auxiliō#,
&c.: as, #ad praesidium#, L. 3, 5, 3, #in praesidium#, L. 31, 16, 7,
_for protection_, #auxiliī causā#, L. 2, 24, 4, _to help_.

1225. The dative #receptuī# is also used in military language to denote
purpose: as, #Caesar receptuī canī iussit#, 7, 47, 1, _Caesar ordered
the retreat sounded_. #Quīnctius receptuī canere iussit#, L. 34, 39, 13.
This dative is sometimes attached immediately to a substantive: as,
#receptuī sīgnum#, _Ph._ 13, 15, _the trumpet for retreat_.

  [Erratum:
  1224 ... as, #ad praesidium#
    as.]


THE GENITIVE.

1226. The genitive is principally used with nouns, less frequently with
verbs. Sometimes even when it seems to be dependent on a verb, it really
depends on a substantive understood, or on a noun virtually contained or
implied in the verb. Some verbs require an accusative also, in addition
to the genitive.


I. THE GENITIVE WITH SUBSTANTIVES.

1227. A substantive is often limited by another substantive in the
genitive.

The things denoted by the two words are usually distinct: as, #metus
hostium#, _the fear of the enemy_, i.e. either (_a._) which they feel
(1231), or (_b._) which is felt towards them (1260); #magnī ponderis
saxa#, _stones of great weight_ (1239). Sometimes, however, they are
more or less the same: as, #mīlitum pars#, _part of the soldiers_
(1242); #magna multitūdō perditōrum hominum#, _a perfect swarm of
desperadoes_ (1255).

1228. Two or even three genitives expressing different relations,
sometimes limit one substantive: as, #superiōrum diērum Sabīnī
cunctātiō#, 3, 18, 6, _Sabinus’s dilatoriness in days preceding_. #eōrum
diērum cōnsuētūdine itineris nostrī exercitūs perspectā#, 2, 17, 2,
_studying up the order of march followed by our army in those days_.

1229. The limited substantive is often omitted, when it is obvious from
the context: as, #ventum erat ad Vestae#, sc. #aedem#, H. _S._ 1, 9, 35,
_to Vesta’s were we come_, i.e. to her temple. #aberam bīduī#, sc.
#iter#, _Att._ 5, 17, 1, _I was two days distant_. Usually so, when it
is expressed with another genitive, which generally precedes: as, #quis
est, quī possit cōnferre vītam Trebōnī cum Dolābellae?# _Ph._ 11, 9,
_who is there that can compare the life of Trebonius with Dolabella’s?_

1230. Instead of the genitive depending on a substantive, an equivalent
adjective or a prepositional expression is often used. Such
substitutions will be mentioned below in their appropriate places.

1231. The relations expressed by the limiting genitive vary very much
according to the context. These relations may be put in classes, as
below (1232-1260). But it must be remembered that as the genitive
connects substantives in a loose way, the same construction may
sometimes be referred to more than one head.


THE GENITIVE OF THE SUBJECT, CAUSE, ORIGIN, OR OWNER.

1232. (1.) The genitive is used to denote that which does the action, or
which causes, originates, or possesses the object designated by the
substantive it limits: as,

#metus hostium#, Gell. 9, 12, 13, _the fear of the enemy_, i.e. which
they feel. #adventus Caesaris#, 6, 41, 4, _the arrival of Caesar_.
#bellum Venetōrum#, 3, 16, 1, _the war with the Venetans_. #illud
Solōnis#, _CM._ 50, _Solon’s memorable words_. #Canachī sīgna#, _Br._
70, _statues by Canachus_. #Cupīdinis sīgnum#, _V._ 4, 135, _the statue
representing Cupid_. #huius sīgnīs#, _V._ 3, 9, _with statues belonging
to this man_. #pācem Ariovistī#, 1, 37, 2, _a peaceful policy on
Ariovistus’s part_. #Cannārum pugna#, L. 23, 43, 4, _the battle of
Cannae_ (1427). #abacī vāsa omnia#, _V._ 4, 35, _all the vessels on the
sideboard_. #prīdiē eius diēī#, 1, 47, 2, _the day before that day_
(1413). #labrōrum tenus#, Lucr. 1, 940, _the length of the lips_ (1420).

1233. Instead of the genitive, an adjective is often used to express
such relations; less frequently a prepositional construction: as,

(_a._) #odium paternum#, N. 23, 1, 3, _the hatred felt by his father_.
#servīlī tumultū#, 1, 40, 5, _in the slave insurrection_. #bellō
Cassiānō#, 1, 13, 2, _in the war with Cassius_. #illud Cassiānum, cui
bonō fuerit#, _Ph._ 2, 35, _Cassius’s test question, ‘who the gainer
was.’_ #erīlis patria#, Pl. _B._ 170, _my master’s birthplace_. #intrā
domesticōs parietēs#, _C._ 2, 1, _within the walls of our houses_. So
usually with names of countries and of towns: as, #anus Corinthia#, T.
_Hau._ 600, _an old woman of Corinth_. #pugna Cannēnsis#, L. 22, 50, 1,
_the battle of Cannae_. Often in a generalizing sense: as, #paternus
māternusque sanguī̆s#, _RA._ 66, _the blood of a father and of a
mother_. (_b._) #ad Cannās pugnam#, L. 22, 58, 1, _the battle of
Cannae_.

1234. The possessive pronoun is regularly used instead of the possessive
genitive of a personal or reflexive pronoun (1230): as,

#mea domus#, _RA._ 145, _my own house_. #in tuā quādam epistolā#, _Att._
9, 10, 3, _in a letter of yours_. But sometimes, for emphasis, the
genitive of the personal or reflexive is used: as, #magnō suī cum
perīculō#, 4, 28, 2, _with great personal risk_; commonly so with
#omnium# or #utriusque#: as, #voluntātī vestrūm omnium pāruī#, _DO._ 3,
208, _I yielded to your joint wish_; see however 1235.

1235. A word in apposition with the possessive pronoun is put in the
genitive: as, #meā ūnīus operā#, _Pis._ 6, _by my sole instrumentality_.
#ad vestram omnium caedem#, _C._ 4, 4, _for the murder of you all_
(1230). So particularly #ipse#, #omnis#, #sōlus#, and #ūnus#.

1236. The genitive is often used predicatively with verbs meaning _am_,
_belong_, _become_, _make_, _seem_, _am accounted_, &c., &c.: as,

#litterāriī ista sunt lūdī#, Quint. 1, 4, 27, _such questions belong to
the infant school_. #hīc versus Plautī nōn est, hīc est#, _Fam._ 9, 16,
4, _this line is not Plautus’s, this one is_. #omnia, quae mulieris
fuērunt, virī fīunt#, _Top._ 23, _everything which was the woman’s
becomes the man’s_. #neque sē iūdicāre Galliam potius esse Ariovistī
quam populī Rōmānī#, 1, 45, 1, _and that he did not think Gaul was any
more Ariovistus’s than it was the Romans’_. #hostiumst potīta#, Pl. _E._
562, _into the foemen’s hands she fell_.

1237. The possessive genitive of a person or of an abstract is
particularly common when the subject of the verb is an infinitive or
sentence: as,

(_a._) #scyphīs pugnāre Thrācum est#, H. 1, 27, 1, _to fight with bowls
is Vandal work_. #erat āmentis, cum aciem vidērēs, pācem cōgitāre#,
_Lig._ 28, _it was a madman’s act, dreaming of peace when you saw the
troops in battalia_. #temporī cēdere semper sapientis est habitum#,
_Fam._ 4, 9, 2, _shaping your course to circumstance has always passed
as the sign of a wise man_. #mentīrī nōn est meum#, T. _Hau._ 549,
_telling lies is not my style_ (1234). (_b._) #nōn est pudōris meī, mē
prōpugnātōrem P. Scīpiōnis profitērī#, _V._ 4, 80, _it is not in keeping
with my delicacy to set up as the champion of Scipio_. #hārum rērum esse
dēfēnsōrem magnī animī est#, _Sest._ 99, _to be the defender of these
interests takes heroism_. #hoc sentīre prūdentiae est, facere
fortitūdinis#, _Sest._ 86, _to think thus shows wisdom, to act thus,
courage_. #negāvit mōris esse Graecōrum, ut in convīviō virōrum
accumberent mulierēs#, _V._ 1, 66, _he said it was not manners among the
Greeks to have women at table at a men’s dinner-party_.

1238. With the possessive genitive, the limited substantive is sometimes
defined by #commūnis#, #proprius# or #aliēnus#, #sacer#, or #tōtus#
added: as, #hoc proprium virtūtis exīstimant#, 6, 23, 2, _this they
consider a special characteristic of bravery_. #omnia quae nostra erant
propria#, _RA._ 150, _everything which was our peculiar property_
(1234). #illa īnsula eōrum deōrum sacra putātur#, _V._ 1, 48, _that
island is considered the hallowed property of those gods_. #iam mē
Pompēī tōtum esse scīs#, _Fam._ 2, 13, 2, _you are aware that I am
become Pompey’s, out and out_.


THE GENITIVE OF QUALITY.

1239. (2.) The genitive with an adjective in agreement is used to denote
quality, either attributively or predicatively: as,

(_a._) Attributively: #magnī ponderis saxa#, 2, 29, 3, _stones of great
weight_. #summae speī adulēscentēs#, 7, 63, 9, _young men of high
promise_. #diērum vīgintī supplicātiō#, 4, 38, 5, _a twenty day
thanksgiving_. #bēlua multōrum es capitum#, H. _E._ 1, 1, 76,
_a many-headed beast art thou_. #eius modī cōnsilium#, 5, 29, 5, _such a
plan_. #dēmittō auriculās ut inīquae mentis asellus#, H. _S._ 1, 9, 20,
_I drop my ears like Neddy in the sulks_ (269). #vāllō pedum IX#, 5, 42,
1, _with a nine foot palisade_. (_b._) Predicatively: #magnae habitus
auctōritātis#, 7, 77, 3, _passing for a man of great influence_.
#flūminis erat altitūdō circiter pedum trium#, 2, 18, 3, _the depth of
the river was about three feet_. The genitive of quality resembles the
ablative of quality (1375); the two are sometimes combined: as, #hominem
maximī corporis terribilīque faciē#, N. 15, 4, 1, _a man of gigantic
frame and with an awe-inspiring presence_. But the genitive is common in
designations of size and number.

1240. A substantive expressing quality with #aequus#, #pār#, #similis#,
or #dissimilis# in agreement, is put not in the genitive, but in the
ablative, by Cicero, Caesar, Nepos, and Livy.


THE PARTITIVE GENITIVE.

1241. (3.) The partitive genitive denotes a whole of which the limited
substantive denotes a part. There are two kinds of partitive genitive,
the numerical and the quantitative: as,

(_a._) #mīlitum pars#, 6, 40, 8, _part of the soldiers_, numerical
partitive (1242). (_b._) #multum aestātis#, 5, 22, 4, _much of the
summer_, quantitative partitive (1247).

1242. (_a._) The numerical partitive is a plural or a collective,
limiting a word expressing part of the number: as,

#mīlitum pars#, 6, 40, 8, _part of the soldiers_. #pars equitātūs#, 4,
16, 2, _part of the cavalry_. #alter cōnsulum#, L. 6, 35, 5, _one of the
two consuls_. #uter est īnsānior hōrum?# H. _S._ 2, 3, 102, _which of
these two is crazier?_ #eōrum neuter#, _Pis._ 62, _neither of the two_.
#multae istārum arborum#, _CM._ 59, _many of the trees you see there_.
#quis omnium mortālium?# _V._ 5, 179, _who among all the sons of men?_
#nēmō nostrūm#, _RA._ 55, _not one of us_. #nihil hōrum#, _RA._ 138,
_none of these things_. #Stertinius, sapientum octāvus#, H. _S._ 2, 3,
296, _Stertinius, of sages eighth_. #ō maior iuvenum#, H. _AP._ 366,
_O elder of the youths_. #hōrum omnium fortissimī sunt Belgae#, 1, 1, 3,
_of all these the stoutest fighters are the Belgians_. Also with
superlative adverbs: as, #deōrum maximē Mercurium colunt#, Ta. _G._ 9,
_of the gods, they revere Mercury most_. #minumē gentium#, Pl. _Poen._
690, T. _Eu._ 625, _no, never in the world_.

1243. #uterque#, _each_, _both_, often takes the genitive plural of a
pronoun: as, #quōrum uterque#, #uterque eōrum#, #hōrum#, #nostrūm#, &c.;
sometimes of a substantive and pronoun combined: as, #utriusque hārum
rērum#, _TD._ 1, 65, _of each of these things_. #quārum cīvitātum
utraque#, _V._ 5, 56, _each of these communities_. With a substantive
alone, it is oftener attributive: as, #uterque dux#, _Marc._ 24, _each
commander_; and sometimes with neuter pronouns: as, #quod utrumque#,
Brut. in _Fam._ 11, 1, 1, N. 25, 2, 4. The plural #utrīque# is used both
ways: as, #ab utrīsque vestrūm#, _Fam._ 11, 21, 5, and #ab utrīsque
nōbīs#, Brut. in _Fam._ 11, 20, 3.

1244. The plurals #tot#, #totidem#, and #quot#, are not used
partitively, and #omnēs# and #cūnctī# only so by poets and late prose
writers. #plērīque# is used either way, in agreement, or with the
genitive.

1245. The numerical partitive is exceptionally used in poetry with the
positive of a descriptive adjective: as, #sāncte deōrum#, V. 4, 576,
_thou holy of the gods_. And in late prose, particularly with words
denoting a class of persons: as, #cum dēlēctīs peditum#, L. 26, 5, 3,
_with the pick of the infantry_. #levīs cohortium#, Ta. 3, 39, _the
light-armed of the cohorts_.

1246. Instead of the numerical partitive, a prepositional expression
with #ante#, #inter#, or #in#, or with #ex# or #dē#, is sometimes used:
as, #ante aliōs acceptissimus#, L. 1, 15, 8, _most welcome before
others_. So particularly #quīdam# and #ūnus#, #duo#, #trēs#, with #ex#
or #dē#: as, #quīdam ex hīs#, 2, 17, 2, _one of these_. #ūnus dē
multīs#, _Fin._ 2, 66, _one of the common herd_. But #ūnus# sometimes
has the genitive: as, #ūnus multōrum#, H. _S._ 1, 9, 71. And usually so
in a series, when #ūnus# is followed by #alter#, #alius#, #tertius#, &c.

1247. (_b._) The quantitative partitive is usually a singular, limiting
a neuter singular word denoting amount. The limited word is either a
nominative, or an accusative without a preposition. This genitive often
borders very closely on the genitive of definition (1255): as,

#multum aestātis#, 5, 22, 4, _much of the summer_. #amplius obsidum#, 6,
9, 7, _something more extensive in the way of hostages_. #minus
dubitātiōnis#, 1, 14, 1, _less of hesitation_. #quam minimum spatiī#, 3,
19, 1, _as little time as possible_. #id aetātis#, _DO._ 1, 207, _at
that time of life_. #id temporis#, _Fin._ 5, 1, _at that time of day_.
#quid causae est?# _Ac._ 1, 10, _what earthly reason is there?_ #hoc
litterulārum#, _Att._ 12, 1, 1, _this apology for a letter_, or _this
hasty line_. #hoc sibī̆ sōlācī prōpōnēbant#, 7, 15, 2, _they laid this
flattering unction to their souls_.

1248. Such neuters are: #multum#, #plērumque#, #plūrimum#, #amplius#,
#plūs#, #paulum#, #minus#, #minimum#, #tantum#, #quantum#, #tantundem#,
#nimium#; in poetry and late prose, also many other adjectives singular
and plural. Furthermore, #id#, #hoc#, #illud#, #quod#, #quid#, &c., and
#nihil#; also #abunde#, #adfatim#, #largiter#, #nimis#, #partim#,
#parum#, and #satis#.

1249. A few adjectives of place and time indicating a particular part of
an object, are commonly used in immediate agreement with their
substantives: as,

#summus mōns#, 1, 22, 1, _the highest part of the mountain_, or _the
mountain-top_. #extrēmā hieme, mediā aestāte#, _IP._ 35, _at the end of
the winter, in midsummer_. Such are: #prīmus#, #intimus#, #medius#,
#extrēmus#, #postrēmus#, #ūltimus#, #summus#, #īnfimus#, #īmus#,
#reliquus#. But the neuter is sometimes used partitively: as, #aestātis
extrēmum erat#, S. _I._ 90, 1, _it was the end of summer_. #summa
pectoris#, _Fam._ 1, 9, 15, _the upper parts of the breast_.

1250. The limiting genitive is often the neuter singular of an adjective
used substantively: as,

#aliquid bonī#, T. _Andr._ 398, _something good_. #aliquid malī#, T.
_Eu._ 999, _something bad_. #numquid tandem novī?# _Br._ 10, _nothing
new, pray?_ This use is ordinarily confined to stems in #-o-#; rarely
otherwise: as, #plūs inānis#, Lucr. 1, 365, _more of the void_: and
usually only when joined with an #-o-# stem: as, #nihil solidī, nihil
ēminentis#, _DN._ 1, 75, _no solidity, no projection_.

1251. The partitive construction sometimes extends to the predicate: as,
#id erit sīgnī mē invītum facere#, _RA._ 83, _this will be something of
an indication that I act with reluctance_; #sīgnī# is here in the
predicate, and yet made dependent on #id#. #quid ergō est tuī cōnsulī?#
Brut. in _Fam._ 11, 1, 3, _what then is your advice?_ #quid suī cōnsilī
sit ostendit#, 1, 21, 2, _he explains what his plan is_. #quid est enim
huic reliquī?# _Sull._ 89, _for what is there left for my client?_ #hī
mīlitēs nihil reliquī victīs fēcēre#, S. _C._ 11, 7, _these soldiers
left nothing over to the conquered_. #nihil ad celeritātem sibī̆ reliquī
fēcērunt#, 2, 26, 5, _as for speed, they left no effort unspared_.

1252. The accusative with a preposition also sometimes has the genitive,
as, #in id redāctus sum locī#, T. _Ph._ 979, _I am reduced to such a
strait_. #ad id locī#, S. _C._ 45, 3, _to that spot_. #ad id locōrum#,
S. _I._ 63, 6, _up to that time_. #in multum diēī#, L. 9, 44, 11, _till
late in the day_. In Cicero, also the ablatives #eō#, #eōdem#, and
#quō#, with #locī#: as, #eō locī#, _Sest._ 68, _in that position_. And
in later writers, other ablatives, with or without a preposition, also
have a genitive.

1253. Some appellatives of place are put in the genitive with adverbs of
place: as, #ubinam gentium?# Pl. _Mer._ 434, _C._ 1, 9, _where in the
world?_ #nusquam gentium#, T. _Ad._ 540, _nowhere in the world_.
Similarly, #locī# with adverbs of time or order, as with #intereā# in
Plautus and Terence, #postideā# in Plautus, #posteā# in Sallust, and
#inde# in Lucretius; also #locōrum# with #adhūc# and #postid# in
Plautus.

1254. In Sallust, Livy, and Tacitus, genitives of abstracts are used
with the adverbs #eō#, #quō#, and #hūc#: as, #eō miseriārum#, S. _I._
14, 3, _to that pitch of distress_. Ones with #ut#: #ut quisque
audentiae habuisset, adcurrerent#, Ta. 15, 53, _they should run up, with
a speed commensurate in every case to their daring_.

  [Errata:
  1241 ... (_b._)
    . invisible
  1242a ... #Stertinius, sapientum octāvus#
    octāvos
  1250 ... Lucr. 1, 365
    1. 365]


THE GENITIVE OF DEFINITION.

1255. (4.) The genitive is used to define that of which a thing
consists: as,

#magna multitūdō perditōrum hominum#, 3, 17, 4, _a perfect swarm of
desperadoes_. #innumerābile pondus aurī#, _Sest._ 93, _a weight of gold
too great to count_. #mīlle numerō nāvium clāssem#, _V._ 1, 48, _an
armada a thousand sail strong_.

1256. The genitive of an explicit word containing the leading idea is
sometimes used to define a more general word; as,

#praedae pecudum hominumque#, L. 24, 20, 5, _booty consisting of cattle
and human beings_. #pignora coniugum ac līberōrum#, L. 2, 1, 5, _pledges
in the shape of wives and children_. #cōnfīsus mūnītiōne fossae#, Caes.
_C._ 1, 42, 3, _relying on the defensive works in the shape of a moat_.
Rarely in poetry and late prose, the proper name of a place, with
#urbs#, #prōmunturium#, &c.: as, #urbem Patavī#, V., 1, 247, _the city
of Patavium_ (1045). Particularly with the words #vōx#, #nōmen#,
#genus#, and especially #causa#: as, #haec vōx voluptātis#, _Fin._ 2, 6,
_this word ‘pleasure.’_ #nōmen amīcitiae#, _Fin._ 2, 78, _the name
‘friendship.’_ Compare #nōmen frāternum#, 1, 36, 5, _the name of
brothers_ (1233). #haec īgnōminiae causa#, _Clu._ 120, _this reason,
namely the censor’s stigma_. #parvulae causae vel falsae suspīciōnis vel
terrōris repentīnī#, Caes. _C._ 3, 72, 4, _insignificant causes, as for
instance ungrounded suspicion or a panic_. #propter eam causam sceleris
istīus#, _V._ 4, 113, _for this reason, namely the crime of the
defendant_.

1257. The genitive of definition is very common with #causā#, less
common with #grātiā#, to define what the motive or cause is: as,

#amīcitiae causā#, 1, 39, 2, _from motives of friendship_. Compare
#vestrā magis hoc causā volēbam, quam meā#, _DO._ 1, 164, _I wished this
more for your sake than for my own_ (1234). #honestātis amplitūdinisque
grātiā#, _RA._ 15, _in compliment to their respectability and high
social standing_. So also sometimes with #nōmine#, and in old or
official Latin, with #ergō#.

1258. Conversely, the genitive of a generic word denoting a person is
sometimes added to a leading word defining the kind of a person: as,
#frūstum puerī#, Pl. _Per._ 849, _thou bit of a boy_. #mōnstrum
hominis#, T. _Eu._ 696, _thou fiend in human shape_. #quaedam pestēs
hominum#, _Fam._ 5, 8, 2, _some regular plagues in the shape of men_.

1259. #quidquid est#, #quantum est#, #quod est#, or #quodcumque est#,
with a genitive, is equivalent to an emphatic #omnis#: as, #quidquid
patrum est#, L. 3, 17, 5, _whatever there is in the shape of senators_,
i.e. _every single senator_. #quod est pecūniae, trādit#, Caes. _C._ 2,
20, 8, _what there is in the-way of money, he hands over_. Similarly
#tantum# for #tot#: as, #tantum hominum#, Pl. _Poen._ 619, _such a mass
of men_.


THE OBJECTIVE GENITIVE.

1260. (5.) The objective genitive denotes the object of the action
expressed in the limited substantive: as,

#metus hostium#, Gell. 9, 12, 13, _the fear of the enemy_, i.e. which is
felt towards them. #vēnditiō bonōrum#, _RA._ 110, _sale of the goods_.
#lūctū fīlī#, _DO._ 2, 193, _from grief for his son_. This construction
is freely used, even when the parallel verb has a dative, an ablative,
or a prepositional expression: as, #fīdūciā locī#, 7, 19, 2, _from
confidence in the position_. #līberātiōnem culpae#, _Lig._ 1, _acquittal
from guilt_. #mīlitiae vacātiōnem#, 6, 14, 1, _exemption from military
service_. #opīniōne trium legiōnum dēiectus#, 5, 48, 1, _disappointed in
his hope of three legions_. #deōrum opīniō#, _TD._ 1, 30, _a conception
of the gods_. #miserrima est contentiō honōrum#, _Off._ 1, 87,
_a scramble for office is a pitiful thing_.

1261. Instead of the objective genitive, a prepositional expression is
sometimes used with greater precision: as,

#metus ā vī atque īrā deōrum#, _DN._ 1, 45, _fear of the might and wrath
of the gods_. So especially the accusative, usually denoting a person,
with #in#, #ergā#, or #adversus#, combined with substantives denoting
feeling: as, #odium in hominum ūniversum genus#, _TD._ 4, 25, _hatred to
all mankind_. #vestra ergā mē voluntās#, _C._ 4, 1, _your good-will
towards me_.

1262. A possessive pronoun or adjective is sometimes used for the
objective genitive: as,

(_a._) #odiō tuō#, T. _Ph._ 1016, _from hate to thee_. #tuā fīdūciā#,
_V._ 5, 176, _from his reliance on you_. #aspectūque suō#, Lucr. 1, 91,
_and at the sight of her_. (_b._) #metus hostīlis#, S. _I._ 41, 2, _fear
felt of the enemy_. #servīlis percontātiō#, _DO._ 2, 327,
_crossquestioning of the servant-girls_. #firmus adversus mīlitārem
largītiōnem#, Ta. _H._ 2, 82, _dead-set against any largess to the
military_.


II. THE GENITIVE WITH ADJECTIVES.

1263. (1.) The genitive is used with many adjectives to denote the
object.

Such are chiefly adjectives meaning (_a._) _desirous_, (_b._) _knowing_,
or _remembering_, (_c._) _participating_, _controlling_, or _guilty_,
(_d._) _full_, and most of their opposites: as, (_a._) #aurī cupidus#,
Pl. _Poen._ 179, _eager for gold_. #sapientiae studiōsōs, id est enim
philosophōs#, _TD._ 5, 9, _devotees of wisdom, for that is what
‘philosophers’ means_. So also #aemulus#, #avidus#, #fastīdiōsus#,
#invidus#. (_b._) #gnārus rē̆ī pūblicae#, _Br._ 228, _familiar with
government_. #rē̆ī mīlitāris perītissimus#, 1, 21, 4, _a master of the
art military_. #hominēs adulēscentulōs, inperītōs rērum#, T. _Andr._
910, _mere hobbledehoys, not up in the world’s ways_. #imperītus mōrum#,
_RA._ 143, _behind the times_. #immemor beneficiōrum, memor patriae#,
_Ph._ 2, 27, _forgetful of kindnesses, never forgetting his country_. So
also #cōnscius#, #cōnsultus#, #īnscius#, #īnsolēns#, #īnsolitus#,
#īnsuētus#, #iēiūnus#, #prōvidus#, #prūdēns#, #rudis#. (_c._) #praedae
participēs#, Caes. _C._ 3, 82, 1, _sharing in the booty_. #manifestus
tantī sceleris#, S. _I._ 35, 8, _caught in committing this atrocious
crime_. #expers glōriae#, _IP._ 57, _without a share in the glory_. So
also #adfīnis#, #compos#, #cōnsors#, #exhērēs#, #potēns#, #reus#. (_d._)
#negōtī plēnus#, Pl. _Ps._ 380, _full of business_. #fōns plēnissimus
piscium#, _V._ 4, 118, _a fountain swarming with fish_. #refertō
praedōnum marī#, _IP._ 31, _when the sea was crammed with corsairs_. So
also #fertilis#, #inops#, #līberālis#, #nūdus#, #prōfūsus#.

1264. In poetry and late prose, a great many other adjectives of these
meanings, besides those mentioned above, are also used with the
genitive. Such are principally: (_a._) #avārus#, #cūriōsus#,
#incūriōsus#, #sēcūrus#. (_b._) #nescius#, #praesāgus#, #praescius#,
#scītus#. (_c._) #exsors#, #immūnis#, #impos#, #impotēns#, #innocēns#,
#innoxius#, #īnsōns#, #noxius#, #suspectus#. (_d._) #abundāns#, #dīves#,
#egēnus#, #inānis#, #indigus#, #largus#, #parcus#, #pauper#, #prōdigus#,
#sterilis#, #vacuus#.

1265. With #cōnscius# and the genitive of a thing, the dative of a
person is sometimes added: as, #tot flāgitiōrum exercituī meō cōnscius#,
Ta. 1, 43, _a participant with my army in so many outrages_. Sometimes
#cōnscius# has the dative of a thing: as, #mēns cōnscia factīs#, Lucr.
3, 1018, _the mind of guilt aware_.

1266. (2.) The genitive of the object is often used with present
participles which express permanent condition.

These participles are chiefly from verbs which have a transitive use.
Not common in old Latin: as, #amantem uxōris#, Pl. _As._ 857, _devoted
to his wife_, #fugitāns lītium#, T. _Ph._ 623, _inclined to dodge a suit
at law_. Very common in Cicero: as, #semper appetentēs glōriae praeter
cēterās gentīs fuistis#, _IP._ 7, _you have always been more hungry for
glory than any other nation_. Especially in set expressions: as, #homo
amantissimus patriae#, _Sull._ 34, #vir amantissimus rē̆ī pūblicae#,
_C._ 4, 13, _ever a devoted patriot_. #negōtī gerentēs#, _Sest._ 97,
_business men_. #aliēnī appetēns#, _DO._ 2, 135, S. _C._ 5, 4, _always
hankering after other people’s things_. In Caesar seldom: as, #fugiēns
labōris#, _C._ 1, 69, 3, _apt to shirk exertion_.

1267. The genitive is hardly ever found with adjectives in #-āx# (284):
as, #huius re͡i mendācem#, Pl. _As._ 855, _untruthful in this point_.
But in poetry, from Vergil and Horace on, and in late prose, a few
genitives occur with adjectives whose parallel verbs have a transitive
use, such as #capāx#, #edāx#, #tenāx#, &c.: as, #tempus edāx rērum#, O.
15, 234, _thou all-devourer--time_.

1268. Some of the adjectives which usually take the genitive have
occasionally other constructions.

Thus, with #adfīnis# the dative also occurs (1200), rarely with
#aemulus# (1183); the ablative with adjectives of fulness, as #dīves#,
#plēnus#, and #refertus# (1387); #iūre# with #cōnsultus# and #perītus#
(1385). For #vacuus#, &c., see 1306. Prepositional constructions also
occur with these adjectives, such as the accusative with #ad# or #in#,
or the ablative with #ab#, #dē#, or #in#: see the dictionary.

1269. For the genitive, with words denoting relationship, connection,
friendship, or hostility, see 1203; with #similis#, 1204. With #dignus#
and #indignus#, _worthy_ and _unworthy_, the ablative is regularly used
(1392); rarely the genitive: as, #nōn ego sum dignus salūtis?# Pl.
_Tri._ 1153, _don’t I deserve a greeting too?_ #indignus avōrum#, V. 12,
649, _unworthy of my sires_.

1270. (3.) In poetry and late prose, the genitive is used very freely
with many adjectives of various meanings, often merely to indicate what
they apply to: as,

#nēmō mīlitāris rē̆ī callidior habēbātur#, Ta. _H._ 2, 32, _at
soldiering nobody was thought to have a greater knack_. #vetus operis ac
labōris#, Ta. 1, 20, _an old hand at the toil and moil of army life_.
#aevī mātūrus Acestēs#, V. 5, 73, _Acestes, ripe in years_. #sērī
studiōrum#, H. _S._ 1, 10, 21, _what laggards at your books_. #integer
vītae scelerisque pūrus#, H. 1, 22, 1, _the man unspotted in his life
and clean of sin_. #fessī rērum#, V. 1, 178, _in travail spent_. #satin
tū sānu’s mentis aut animī tuī?# Pl. _Tri._ 454, _art thou quite right
in thy five wits?_ (1339).


III. THE GENITIVE WITH VERBS.


VERBS OF VALUING.

1271. A few neuter adjectives of quantity are put in the genitive with
verbs of valuing to denote the amount of estimation; such genitives are:

  #magnī#, #plūris#, #plūrimī#;
  #parvī#, #minōris#, #minimī#;
  #tantī#, #quantī#.

The verbs with which these genitives are used are #aestimō#, #dūcō#,
#faciō#, #habeō#, #pendō#, #putō#, and #sum#; rarely #exīstimō#: as,
#magnī opera eius aestimāta est#, N. 24, 1, 2, _his services were rated
high_. #nōn magnī pendō#, Pl. _As._ 460, _I don’t care much_. #sua parvī
pendere#, S. _C._ 12, 2, _a setting small store by what they had of
their own_. #Verrēsne tibī̆ tantī fuit?# _V._ 1, 77, _was Verres so
important in your eyes?_ #est mihī̆ tantī#. _C._ 2, 15, _it is well
worth my while_. #quantī is ā cīvibus suīs fieret īgnōrābās?# _V._ 4,
19, _did not you know how the man was prized by his own townsmen?_
Rarely #maximī#: as, #maximī aestimāre#, _Clu._ 159, _to think all the
world of_.

1272. In expressions of worthlessness, other genitives are also used
thus; such are #nihilī#, or, usually with a negative, #āssis#, #floccī#,
#naucī#, #pilī#, #teruncī#: as, #nōn āssis facis?# Cat. 43, 13, _car’st
not a doit?_ So also #huius#: as, #huius nōn faciam#, T. _Ad._ 163,
_I shall not care a snap_.

1273. With #aestimō#, the ablatives #magnō# and #permagnō# are sometimes
used: as, #quid? tū ista permagnō aestimās?# _V._ 4, 13, _tell me, do
you rate that sort of thing very high yourself?_ Compare 1390.

1274. The genitives #tantī# and #quantī#, #plūris# and #minōris# are
also used with verbs of buying and selling, hiring and letting, and
costing. But other words are put in the ablative with these verbs: see
1391. For #magnī#, &c., with #rēfert# and #interest#, see 1279.

1275. A similar genitive occurs in one or two set forms, such as #aequī
bonīque dīcō#, or #faciō#, #aequī faciō#, and #bonī cōnsulō#: as,
#istūc, Chremēs, aequī bonīque faciō#, T. _Hau._ 787, _I count that,
Chremes, fair and good_. #aequī istūc faciō#, Pl. _MG._ 784, _that’s all
the same to me_.


THE VERBS #rēfert# AND #interest#.

1276. #rēfert# and #interest#, _it concerns_, are much alike in meaning
and in construction. But the use of #rēfert# is characteristic of old
Latin and poetry; in prose from Cicero on it is almost supplanted by
#interest#, especially where persons are concerned.

1277. (1.) With #rēfert# and #interest#, a first or second person
concerned is denoted by the possessive pronoun forms #meā#, #tuā#,
#nostrā#, #vestrā#; and, from Cicero on, the third person reflexive by
#suā#: as,

(_a._) #quid id rēfert meā?# Pl. _Cur._ 395, _what’s that to me?_ #tuā
istūc rēfert maxumē#, Pl. _Tri._ 319, _that is of most concern to thee_.
#nōn suā rēferre#, _Quinct._ 19, _that it did not concern him_. #nōn
nostrā magis quam vestrā rēfert vōs nōn rebellāre#, L. 34, 17, 7, _it is
not more for our interest than for your own that you should not make war
again_. Without the verb: as, #quid istūc nostrā#, or #quid id nostrā?#
T. _Ph._ 800, 940, _what’s that to us?_ (_b._) #tuā et meā maximē
interest tē valēre#, _Fam._ 16, 4, 4, _your health is a matter of the
highest importance to you and to me_. #vestrā hōc maximē interest#,
_Sull._ 79, _this is of vital moment to you_.

1278. (2.) With #interest#, from Cicero on, a third person or thing
concerned is denoted by the genitive. Also with #rēfert#, a few times
from Sallust on: as,

(_a._) #quid eius intererat?# _RA._ 96, _what concern was it of his?_
#interesse rē̆ī pūblicae sē cum Pompēiō colloquī#, Caes. _C._ 1, 24, 5,
_that it was of importance to the common weal that he should have a
parley with Pompey_. (_b._) #faciundum aliquid, quod illōrum magis quam
suā rētulisse vidērētur#, S. _I._ 111, 1, _that he must do something
which should seem more for the other side’s good than his own_. For the
accusative with #ad# with these verbs, or for the dative with #rēfert#,
see the dictionary.

1279. The matter of concern is expressed by a sentence or infinitive, or
by a neuter pronoun; rarely by an appellative: as, #nōn quō meā
interesset locī nātūra#, _Att._ 3, 19, 1, _not that the character of the
place concerned me_. The degree of concern is expressed by an adverb, as
#magnopere#, by a neuter accusative, as #multum#, or by a genitive of
estimation, #magnī#, #permagnī#, #plūris#, #parvī#, #tantī#, #quantī#
(1271).

  [Erratum:
  1277a ... T. _Ph._ 800, 940
    _Ph_ 800]


JUDICIAL VERBS.

1280. Verbs of accusing, convicting, condemning, and acquitting, take a
genitive of the charge: as,

#C. Verrem īnsimulat avāritiae#, _V._ 1, 128, _he charges Verres with
avarice_. #accūsātus est prōditiōnis#, N. 1, 7, 5, _he was charged with
treason_. #capitis arcēssere#, _D._ 30, _accuse on a capital charge_.
#prōditiōnis damnātus est#, N. 2, 8, 2, _he was convicted of treason_.
#Pollis pecūniae pūblicae est condemnātus#, _Flacc._ 43, _Pollis was
condemned for embezzlement of government money_. #maiestātis absolūtī
sunt permultī#, _Clu._ 116, _a good many were acquitted of high
treason_. With this genitive, an ablative, #crīmine#, #iūdiciō#,
#nōmine#, or #lēge#, is sometimes expressed (1377): as, #nē quem umquam
innocentem iūdiciō capitis arcēssās#, _Off._ 2, 51, _that you are never
to accuse any innocent man on a charge affecting his status as a
citizen_.

1281. The charge is sometimes denoted by a prepositional construction:
as, #sescentī sunt, quī inter sīcāriōs et dē venēficiīs accūsābant#,
_RA._ 90, _there are hundreds and hundreds that brought charges of
murder, by steel and by poison_. So also #dē āleā#, _of gambling_, in
Cicero regularly #dē pecūniīs repetundīs#, _of extortion_, and
necessarily #dē vī#, _of an act of violence_, as #vīs# has no genitive.
For the neuter accusative, see 1172.

1282. The penalty also is sometimes denoted by the genitive: as, #cupiō
octuplī damnārī Aprōnium#, _V._ 3, 28, _I want to have Apronius
condemned to a payment of eightfold_. #damnātusque longī Sīsyphus
Aeolidēs labōris#, H. 2, 14, 19, _and Sisyphus the Aeolid, amerced with
penance long_. Sometimes by the ablative: as, #capite#, _V._ 5, 109. So
usually from Livy on, when the penalty is a definite sum of money or
fractional part of a thing.


IMPERSONAL VERBS OF MENTAL DISTRESS.

1283. A genitive of the thing, commonly with an accusative of the
person, is used with five impersonals of mental distress:

  #miseret#, #paenitet#, #piget#, #pudet#, #taedet#: as,

#tu͡i mē miseret, me͡i piget#, E. in _Div._ 1, 66, _I pity thee,
I loathe myself_. #frātris mē pudet pigetque#, T. _Ad._ 391, _my brother
stirs my shame and my disgust_. #mī pater, mē tu͡i pudet#, T. _Ad._ 681,
_dear father, in thy presence I’m abashed_. #galeātum sēro duellī
paenitet#, J. 1, 169, _too late, with casque on head, a combatant
repenteth him of war_. So also #miserētur#, and in old Latin
inceptively, #miserēscit#, #commiserēscit#.

1284. These verbs sometimes have a sentence or a neuter pronoun as
subject: as, #nōn tē haec pudent?# T. _Ad._ 754, _does not this make
thee blush for shame?_ Rarely an appellative: as, #mē quidem haec
condiciō nōn paenitet#, Pl. _St._ 51, _for my part, with my wedded state
I’m well content_. Or a person: as, #pudeō#, Pl. _Cas._ 877, _I feel
ashamed_. For participles and gerundives, see 817.

1285. The genitive is used with the personals #misereor# or #misereō#,
and in poetry with #miserēscō#: as,

#aliquandō miserēminī sociōrum#, _V._ 1, 72, _do take pity on your
allies, it is high time_. #nēminis miserēre certumst, quia me͡i miseret
nēminem#, Pl. _Cap._ 764, _I’m bound to care for nobody, as no one cares
for me_. #Arcadiī miserēscite rēgis#, V. 8, 573, _take pity on the king
of Arcady_.

1286. Personal verbs of desiring, loathing, admiring, and dreading,
sometimes take the genitive: as, #pol, quamquam domī cupiō, opperiar#,
Pl. _Tri._ 841, _although I yearn for home, I vow I’ll wait_ (1263).
#fastīdit meī#, Pl. _Aul._ 245, _he views me with disdain_ (1263).
#iūstitiaene prius mīrer, bellīne labōrum?# V. 11, 126, _thy justice
first shall I admire? thy toils in war?_ #nē tuī quidem testimōnī
veritus#, _Att._ 8, 4, 1, _not having any awe about your recommendation
either_.


VERBS OF MEMORY.

1287. The genitive is used with verbs of remembering and forgetting when
they denote an inherent state of memory or of forgetfulness: as,

#faciam ut meī meminerīs dum vītam vīvās#, Pl. _Per._ 494, _I’ll make
you remember me as long as you live_. #num potuī magis oblīvīscī
temporum meōrum, meminisse āctiōnum?# _Fam._ 1, 9, 8, _could I have been
more forgetful of my present interests, more mindful of my past career?_
#reminīscerētur incommodī populī Rōmānī#, 1, 13, 4, _he had better bear
in mind the rebuff dealt out to Rome_. #oblītusque meōrum oblīvīscendus
et illīs#, H. _E._ 1, 11, 10, _of friends forgetful and by friends
forgot_. See 1263.

1288. The accusative is used with these verbs when they denote the mere
intellectual exercise of memory or a failure to remember: as,

#equid meministī tu͡om parentum nōmina?# Pl. _Poen._ 1062, _do you
remember your parents’ names?_ #Cinnam meminī vīdī Sūllam#, _Ph._ 5, 17,
_I can remember Cinna, I have seen Sulla_. #utinam mēmet possim
oblīscier!# Accius ap. Non. 500, 5, _oh that myself I could forget!_
#subitō tōtam causam oblītus est#, _Br._ 217, _suddenly he forgot the
whole case_.

1289. #recordor# has once the genitive (_Pis._ 12), but from its meaning
_bring to heart_ it is naturally found oftener with the accusative. With
it and with #meminī#, the ablative with #dē# also occurs. The rare
#reminīscor# has the genitive once each in Caesar and Nepos; twice
later; oftener the accusative. Neuter pronouns are in the accusative
with all these verbs.

1290. The impersonal #venit in mentem# also takes the genitive: as,
#venit mihī̆ Platōnis in mentem#, _Fin._ 5, 2, _Plato comes into my
head_; very exceptionally the ablative with #dē#. But the verb in this
combination is often used personally, with the thing occurring to the
mind as the subject, and regularly in Cicero, when it is #rēs# or
#genus#, or a neuter pronoun.

1291. Verbs of reminding take the accusative of a person and sometimes
with it the genitive of a thing: as,

#admonēbat alium egestātis, alium cupiditātis suae#, S. _C._ 21, 4, _he
reminded one man of his beggary, another of his greed_. So also
#commoneō#, #commonē̆faciō#, and, in Tacitus only, #moneō#. Oftener
however the thing is in the ablative with #dē#, or, if it is a neuter
pronoun or adjective, in the accusative (1172). Rarely a substantive
equivalent to a neuter pronoun: as, #eam rem nōs locus admonuit#, S.
_I._ 79, 1, _the place has reminded me of that_.

  [Errata:
  1288 ... #Cinnam meminī vīdī Sūllam#
    vidī
  1289 ... the ablative with #dē# also occurs.
    de]


VERBS OF PARTICIPATION AND MASTERY.

1292. Verbs of participation and mastery sometimes take the genitive in
old Latin and in poetry: as, #servom su͡i participat cōnsilī#, Pl.
_Cist._ 163, _she makes a slave a sharer in her plot_ (1263). #quā
Daunus agrestium rēgnāvit populōrum#, H. 3, 30, 11, _where Daunus was
the lord of rural folk_ (1260). So, even in prose, #potior#, which
usually has the ablative (1379): as, #totīus Galliae sēsē potīrī posse
spērant#, 1, 3, 8, _they hope they can get the mastery over the whole of
Gaul_. Especially with persons, or with the genitive plural #rērum#:
#rērum potior#, _get to be_, or often, _am, master of the situation_, or
_I am monarch of all I survey_. Similarly in Tacitus #apīscor#,
#adipīscor#: as, #arma, quīs Servius Galba rērum adeptus est#, Ta. 3,
55, _the war by which Galba became master of the throne_. In Plautus
#crēdō# sometimes has the genitive of a thing and dative of a person.


VERBS OF FULNESS AND WANT.

1293. The genitive is sometimes used with verbs of filling, abounding,
and lacking, as it is with the corresponding adjectives (1263): as,

#convīvium vīcīnōrum cōtīdiē compleō#, _CM._ 46, _I fill out a
dinner-party every day with neighbours_. #haec rēs vītae mē, soror,
saturant#, Pl. _St._ 18, _these things, my sister, sicken me of life_.
#terra ferārum nunc etiam scatit#, Lucr. 5, 39, _still teems the earth
with ravin beasts_. So with #egeō# sometimes: as, #egeō cōnsilī#, _Att._
7, 22, 2, _I am in need of some advice_. And usually with #indigeō#: as,
#hoc bellum indiget celeritātis#, _Ph._ 6, 7, _this war requires rapid
action_. But, from Livy on, the ablative is commoner with #indigeō#: see
1305.

1294. With verbs of separating and abstaining, the ablative is regularly
used (1302). But the genitive is sometimes found in poetry: as, #mē
omnium labōrum levās#, Pl. _R._ 247, _thou riddest me of all my woes_.
#abstinētō īrārum calidaeque rixae#, H. 3, 27, 69, _from bursts of rage
keep thou and hot affray_.


IV. THE GENITIVE OF EXCLAMATION.

1295. In poetry, the genitive with an adjective in agreement occurs two
or three times in exclamation: as, #foederis heu tacitī#, Prop. 5, 7,
21, _alas, that secret covenant_. Usually the nominative (1117), or the
accusative (1149).


THE ABLATIVE.

1296. The ablative is used principally with verbs and their participles,
or with adjectives, and consists of three cases that were originally
distinct.

1297. I. The ABLATIVE proper denotes that from which something parts or
proceeds (1302).

The ablative proper is often accompanied by the prepositions #ab#, #dē#,
#ex#, #prae#, #prō#, #sine#, or #tenus#.

1298. With the ablative proper two other cases, originally distinct,
a locative case and an instrumental case, were confounded, and merged
under the common name of the ablative.

1299. II. The LOCATIVE case denotes the place in, at, or on which action
occurs. A few forms of the locative proper are still preserved (1331).
But the place where is ordinarily denoted by the locative ablative
(1342).

The locative ablative is often accompanied by the prepositions #in# or
#sub#.

1300. III. The INSTRUMENTAL case denotes that by which or with which a
main person or thing is attended (1356).

The instrumental ablative is often accompanied by the prepositions #cum#
or #cōram#.

1301. The ablative or locative is sometimes attached immediately to a
substantive.

Thus, (_a._) sometimes to a substantive which denotes or implies action:
as, #interitus ferrō#, _destruction with the sword_, like #intereō
ferrō#; see 1307, 1331, 1342, 1376, 1377. (_b._) In constructions in
which the ablative is due to an older combination with a verb: as, #vir
singulārī virtūte#, _a man of unexampled bravery_. See 1309 and 1375.


I. THE ABLATIVE PROPER.


THE ABLATIVE OF SEPARATION AND WANT, AND OF DEPARTURE.

1302. Verbs of separation take an ablative of the thing from which
separation takes place: as,

(_a._) #caruit forō posteā Pompēius, caruit senātū, caruit pūblicō#,
_Mil._ 18, _after that Pompey had to keep away from the market place,
from the senate, from highways and byways_. #adhūc Q. Ligārius omnī
culpā vacat#, _Lig._ 4, _thus far Ligarius proves devoid of any guilt_.
#egeō cōnsiliō#, _Att._ 15, 1, A, 5, _I need advice_ (1305). (_b._)
#Ītaliā prohibētur: nōn tū eum patriā prīvāre, quā caret, sed vītā vīs#,
_Lig._ 11, _he is kept out of Italy; you want to deprive him not of his
country, from which he is debarred, but of life_. #līberēmus cūrā
populum Rōmānum#, L. 39, 51, 9, Hannibal’s words when he took poison,
183 B.C., _let me relieve Rome of anxiety_.

1303. This ablative is used (_a._) with such verbs as mean _abstain_,
#abstineō#, #dēsistō#, #supersedeō#; _am devoid of_, #careō#, #vacō#;
_need_, #egeō#; and in addition to the accusative of the object, (_b._)
with verbs used transitively, such as mean _keep off_, #arceō#,
#exclūdō# and #interclūdō#, #prohibeō#; _drive away_, _remove_, #pellō#,
#moveō#, and their compounds; _free_, #expediō#, #līberō#, #levō#,
#solvō# and #exsolvō#; _deprive_, #orbō#, #prīvō#, #spoliō#, #nūdō#,
#fraudō#.

1304. A preposition, #ab# or #ex#, is often used with these verbs, and
regularly when the ablative denotes a person. But #careō# and #egeō#,
and #exsolvō# and #levō#, never have a preposition.

1305. With #egeō#, the genitive is sometimes used, and often with
#indigeō#: see 1293. Also in poetry, with verbs of abstaining and
separating: see 1294.

1306. The ablative of separation is sometimes used with such adjectives
as #aliēnus#, #expers#, #līber#, #nūdus#, #vacuus#, &c.: as, #negant id
esse aliēnum maiestāte deōrum#, _Div._ 2, 105, _they maintain that this
is not at variance with the greatness of the gods_. #vacuī cūrīs#,
_Fin._ 2, 46, _devoid of cares_. #arce et urbe orba sum#, E. _Tr._ 114,
_of tower and town bereft am I_. But sometimes the genitive: see 1263
and 1264; sometimes also prepositional constructions: for these, and
particularly for the different constructions of #aliēnus#, see the
dictionary.


TOWN AND ISLAND NAMES.

1307. (1.) Proper names of towns and of little islands are put in the
ablative with verbs of motion, to denote the place from which motion
proceeds: as,

#Dāmarātus fūgit Tarquiniōs Corinthō#, _TD._ 5, 109, _Damaratus ran away
from Corinth to Tarquinii_. #sīgnum Carthāgine captum#, _V._ 4, 82, _the
statue carried off from Carthage_. #Megaribus#, Pl. _Per._ 137, _from
Megara_. #Lēmnō#, Pl. _Tru._ 90, _from Lemnos_. #Rōmā accēperam
litterās#, _Att._ 5, 8, 2, _I had got a letter from Rome_. Rarely with a
substantive of motion (1301): as, #dē illīus Alexandrēā discessū#,
_Att._ 11, 18, 1, _about his departure from Alexandrea_. Also in dating
letters: as, #V kal. Sextīl., Rēgiō#, _Fam._ 7, 19, _Regium, 28 July_;
less often the locative: as, #Īdibus Iūniīs, Thessalonīcae#, _QFr._ 1,
3, 10, _Thessalonica, 13 June_. Like a town name: #Ācherunte#, poet. in
_TD._ 1, 37, _from Acheron_. With an attribute: #ipsā Samō#, _V._ 1, 51,
_from Samos itself_. #Teānō Sidicīnō#, _Att._ 8, 11, B, 2, _from
Sidicinian Teanum_.

1308. Singular town or island names sometimes have #ex# in old Latin:
thus, #Carystō#, Pl. _Ps._ 730, _from Carystus_, or, #ex Carystō#, _Ps._
737, indifferently. #ex Andrō#, T. _Andr._ 70, _from Andros_. In
classical Latin, town names rarely have #ab#: as, #ab Athēnīs
proficīscī#, Serv. in _Fam._ 4, 12, 2, _to start from Athens_; chiefly
of neighbourhood: as, #ab Gergoviā#, 7, 43, 5: 7, 59, 1, _from camp at
Gergovia_; or direction: as, #ā Salōnīs ad Ōricum#, Caes. _C._ 3, 8, 4,
_from Salonae to Oricum_; regularly with #longē#: as, #longē ā
Syrācūsīs#, _V._ 4, 107, _far from Syracuse_.

1309. The ablative of a town or country name is rarely attached
immediately to a substantive, to denote origin: as, #Periphanēs Rhodō
mercātor dīves#, Pl. _As._ 499, _Periphanes from Rhodes a chapman rich_.
#videō ibī̆ hospitem Zacynthō#, Pl. _Mer._ 940, _I see the friend there
from Zacynthus_. Rarely in Cicero: as, #Teānō Āpulō laudātōrēs#, _Clu._
197, _eulogists from Apulian Teanum_; in Caesar twice. In Livy with #ab#
only: as, #Turnus ab Arīciā#, L. 1, 50, 3, _Turnus from Aricia_. But the
Roman tribe one belongs to, is regularly in the ablative: as, #Q. Verrem
Rōmiliā, _sc._ tribū#, _V. a. pr._ 1, 23, _Verres of the tribe Romilia_.

1310. With a verb, country names regularly have a preposition, and
always in Cicero, Sallust, and Livy: as, #ē Ciliciā dēcēdēns#, _Br._ 1,
_going away from Cilicia_. The ablative alone is rare: as, #Aegyptō
adveniō domum#, Pl. _Most._ 440, _from Egypt I come home_. Chiefly in
Tacitus: as, #Aegyptō remeāns#, 2, 69, _coming back from Egypt_. In
Caesar, by attraction: #cōgēbantur Corcȳrā atque Acarnāniā pābulum
supportāre#, _C._ 3, 58, 4, _they were forced to fetch fodder from
Corcyra and even Acarnania_.

1311. (2.) The ablatives #domō# and #rūre#, and in poetry #humō#, are
used like proper names of towns: as,

(_a._) #domō excesserant#, 4, 14, 5, _they had gone away from home_.
Also metaphorically: as, #domō doctus#, Pl. _Mer._ 355, _by
home-experience taught_. (_b._) #rūre rediīt uxor mea#, Pl. _Mer._ 705,
_my wife’s come back from out of town_. (_c._) #humō#, in Vergil first:
as, #vix oculōs attollit humō#, O. 2, 448, _scarce from the ground her
eyes she lifts_.

  [Erratum:
  1309 ... #Turnus ab Arīciā#, L. 1, 50, 3,
    50, 3.]


THE ABLATIVE OF SOURCE, STUFF, OR MATERIAL.

1312. The verb #nāscor# and participles of origin take an ablative to
denote parentage or rank in life.

Such participles are: #nātus#, #prōgnātus#, and #ortus#; in poetry and
late prose, also #crētus#, #ēditus#, #generātus#, #genitus#, #satus#,
and #oriundus#: as, (_a._) #Rōmulus deō prōgnātus#, L. 1, 40, 3,
_Romulus, sprung from a god_. #dīs genite#, V. 9, 642, _thou sired of
gods_. Of a parent, #ex# is sometimes used: as #ex mē hic nātus nōn
est#, T. _Ad._ 40, _he’s not my son_; and of remoter ancestors, #ab#.
(_b._) #locō nātus honestō#, 5, 45, 2, _respectably descended_. #summō
locō nātus#, 5, 25, 1, _of high birth_, #familiā antīquissimā nātum#, 7,
32, 4, _a member of an old family_. Rarely with #dē#: as, #quō dē genere
gnātust Philocratēs?# Pl. _Cap._ 277, _what is the parentage of
Philocrates?_

1313. The ablative with an attribute, attached to a substantive,
sometimes denotes stuff or material: as, #aere cavō clipeum#, V. 3, 286,
_a targe of hallow bronze_. #perennī fronde corōnam#, Lucr. 1, 118,
_a crown of amaranthine leaf_. #solidōque adamante columnae#, V. 6, 552,
_and pillars of the solid adamant_. This construction borders closely on
the ablative of quality (1375). Rarely without an attribute: as, #pīctās
abiete puppīs#, V. 5, 663, _painted sterns of fir_.

1314. A substantive denoting stuff or material is generally put in the
ablative with #dē# or #ex#; thus,

(_a._) Directly with a substantive: #pōcula ex aurō#, _V._ 4, 62, _cups
of gold_. (_b._) Oftener with an auxiliary verb or participle: #sīgnum
erat hoc Cupīdinis ē marmore#, _V._ 4, 5, _this statue of Cupid was made
of marble_. #scūtīs ex cortice factīs#, 2, 33, 2, _with long shields
made out of bark_. #ex ūnā gemmā pergrandī trūlla excavāta#, _V._ 4, 62,
_a ladle scooped out of a single enormous semi-precious stone_.

1315. The ablative with forms of #faciō# and #sum# denotes that with
which or to which something is done: as, #quid hōc homine faciās?#
_Sest._ 29, _what can you do with such a fellow?_ #quid mē fīet?# T.
_Andr._ 709, _what will become of me?_ But often the dative (1205): as,
#quid tibī̆ faciam?# _Att._ 7, 3, 2, _what shall I do to you?_ Or the
ablative with #dē#: as, #dē frātre quid fīet?# T. _Ad._ 996, _as to my
brother, what will come to pass?_


THE ABLATIVE OF CAUSE, INFLUENCE, OR MOTIVE.

1316. The ablative is used to denote cause, influence, or motive: as,

#madeō metū#, Pl. _Most._ 395, _I’m drenched with dread_. #tū
imprūdentiā lāberis#, _Mur._ 78, _you, sir, slip from inadvertence_.
#maerōre et lacrimīs cōnsenēscēbat#, _Clu._ 13, _she just pined away in
sorrow and tears_. #īrā incendor#, Pl. _Ps._ 201, _I’m getting hot with
wrath_. #premor lūctū#, _Att._ 3, 22, 3, _I am bowed down with grief_.
#quod ego nōn superbiā faciēbam#, _DO._ 1, 99, _I did not act thus from
superciliousness, not I_. #nōn movētur pecūniā#, _V._ 4, 18, _he is not
moved by money_. #boat caelum fremitū virūm#, Pl. _Am._ 232, _the welkin
rings with roar of men_. #dēlictō dolēre, corrēctiōne gaudēre#, _L._ 90,
_be pained by the sin, take pleasure in the reproof_. #aetāte nōn quīs
optuērier#, Pl. _Most._ 840, _owing to age thou canst not see_. #Iovis
iussū veniō#, Pl. _Am. prol._ 19, _at Jove’s behest I come_. #Sēiānus
nimiā fortūnā sōcors#, Ta. 4, 39, _Sejanus giddy with over-prosperity_.
#ferōx praedā glōriāque exercitus#, Ta. _H._ 1, 51, _the army flushed
with booty and glory_. #exercitūs nostrī interitus ferrō#, _Pis._ 40,
_the annihilation of our army by the sword_ (1301).

1317. Instead of the ablative, other constructions often occur,
especially with verbs used transitively; such are:

(_a._) Prepositional phrases with #dē# or #ex#, in Varro and Livy with
#ab#; also with #ob#, #per#, or #propter#: as, #multī in oppidum propter
timōrem sēsē recipiunt#, Caes. _C._ 2, 35, 6, _a good many retreated to
the town from fear_. Sometimes with #prae#: as, #prae amōre exclūstī
hunc forās#, T. _Eu._ 98, _it was for love you turned him out of doors_:
in classical Latin, usually of hindrance: as, #sōlem prae iaculōrum
multitūdine nōn vidēbitis#, _TD._ 1, 101, _you won’t see the sun for the
cloud of javelins_. (_b._) Circumlocutions with #causā#, less frequently
with #grātiā# (1257). (_c._) Ablatives absolute, or participles,
particularly auxiliary participles with an ablative to express cause,
oftener motive, such as #captus#, #ductus#, #excitātus# or #incitātus#,
#impulsus#, #incēnsus#, #īnflammātus#, #mōtus#, #perterritus#: as,
#nōnnūllī pudōre adductī remanēbant#, 1, 39, 3, _some stuck by from
shame_.

1318. The person by whom the action of a passive verb is done, is
denoted by the ablative with #ab# or #ā#. Also occasionally with verbs
equivalent to a passive, such as #cadō#, #intereō#, #pereō#, #vēneō#,
&c., &c. Things or animals are sometimes represented as persons by the
use of #ab#: as, #animus bene īnfōrmātus ā nātūrā#, _Off._ 1, 13,
_a soul meetly fashioned by dame nature_. See 1476-1478.

1319. In poetry, an ablative denoting a person, with an adjective in
agreement, is sometimes equivalent to an expression with an abstract
substantive: as, #et adsiduō ruptae lēctōre columnae#, J. 1, 13, _and
pillars by persistent reader riven_, i.e. #adsiduitāte lēctōris#, or
#adsiduā lēctiōne#. #cūrātus inaequālī tōnsōre capillōs#, H. _E._ 1, 1,
94, _my locks by unsymmetric barber trimmed_.


THE ABLATIVE OF COMPARISON.

1320. (1.) The ablative may be used with a comparative adjective, when
the first of two things compared is in the nominative, or is a
subject-accusative.

Such an ablative is translated by _than_: as, (_a._) #lūce sunt clāriōra
nōbīs tua cōnsilia#, _C._ 1, 6, _your schemes are plainer to us than
day_. #ō mātre pulchrā fīlia pulchrior#, H. 1, 16, 1, _O daughter fairer
than a mother fair_. Particularly in sentences of negative import: as,
#quis Karthāginiēnsium plūris fuit Hannibale?# _Sest._ 142, _of all the
sons of Carthage, who was rated higher than Hannibal?_ #nec mihī̆ est tē
iūcundius quicquam nec cārius#, _Fam._ 2, 10, 1, _and there is nothing
in the world nearer and dearer to me than you_. (_b._) #illud cōgnōscēs
profectō, mihī̆ tē neque cāriōrem neque iūcundiōrem esse quemquam#,
_Fam._ 2, 3, 2, _one thing I am sure you will see, that there is nobody
nearer and dearer to me than you_.

1321. (2.) The ablative of comparison is similarly used when the first
member of comparison is an accusative of the object: as,

#exēgī monumentum aere perennius#, H. 3, 30, 1, _I have builded up a
monument more durable than bronze_. Particularly so in sentences of
negative import: as, #hōc mihī̆ grātius facere nihil potes#, _Fam._ 13,
44, _you can do nothing for me more welcome than this_. Also with
predicate adjectives dependent on a verb of thinking (1167): as,
#Hērodotum cūr vērāciōrem dūcam Enniō?# _Div._ 2, 116, _why should I
count Herodotus any more truthful than Ennius?_ Regularly when the
second member of comparison is a relative: as, #quā pecude nihil genuit
nātūra fēcundius#, _DN._ 2, 160, _nature has created nothing more
prolific than this animal_, i.e. the sow.

1322. (3.) In poetry, the ablative of comparison may be used with the
first member of comparison in any case: as, #Lūcīlī rītū, nostrūm
meliōris utrōque#, H. _S._ 2, 1, 29, _after Lucilius’s way, a better man
than thou or I_.

1323. (4.) In sentences of negative import, the ablative is sometimes
used with #alter# and #alius#, as with a comparative: as, #neque mēst
alter quisquam#, Pl. _As._ 492, _and there’s no other man than I_. #nec
quicquam aliud lībertāte commūnī quaesīsse#, Brut. and Cass. in _Fam._
11, 2, 2, _and to have aimed at nothing else than freedom for all_. But
in prose, #quam# is commonly used.

1324. (1.) The second member of comparison is often introduced by
#quam#, _than_, or in poetry by #atque# or #ac#. This member, whatever
the case of the first member, is sometimes made the subject of a form of
#sum# in a new sentence: as,

#meliōrem quam ego sum suppōnō tibī̆#, Pl. _Cur._ 256, _I give you as a
substitute a better than I am myself_. #verba M. Varrōnis, hominis quam
fuit Claudius doctiōris#, Gell. 10, 1, 4, _the words of Varro, a better
scholar than Claudius ever was_. #ut tibī̆ maiōrī quam Āfricanus fuit,
mē adiūnctum esse patiāre#, _Fam._ 5, 7, 3, _so that you will allow me
to be associated with you, a bigger man than Africanus ever was_.

1325. (2.) When the first member is in the nominative or accusative,
#quam# is commonly a mere coordinating word, with both members in the
same case: as,

(_a._) #plūris est oculātus testis ūnus quam aurītī decem#, Pl. _Tru._
490, _a single witness with an eye rates higher than a dozen with the
ear_. (_b._) #tū velim exīstimēs nēminem cuiquam neque cāriōrem neque
iūcundiōrem umquam fuisse quam tē mihī̆#, _Fam._ 1, 9, 24, _I hope you
will be convinced that nobody was ever nearer and dearer to anybody than
you to me_.

1326. An introductory ablative of a demonstrative or relative pronoun
sometimes precedes the construction with #quam#: as, #quid hōc est
clārius, quam omnīs Segestae mātrōnās et virginēs convēnisse?# _V._ 4,
77, _what fact is there better known than this, to wit, that all the
women in Segesta, married and single, came streaming together?_

1327. The ablative is sometimes used with comparative adverbs also.

So particularly in sentences of negative import: as, #nihil lacrimā
citius ārēscit#, Corn. 2, 50, _nothing dries up quicker than a tear_.
Less frequently in positive sentences in prose: as, #fortūna, quae plūs
cōnsilīs hūmānīs pollet, contrāxit certāmen#, L. 44, 40, 3, _fortune,
who is mightier than the devices of man, precipitated the engagement_.
Very commonly, however, #quam# is used with comparative adverbs.

1328. Designations of number or extent are often qualified by #amplius#,
#longius#, or #plūs#, _over_, or by #minus#, _under_.

The word thus qualified is put in the case which the context would
require without any such qualification: as, #plūs septingentī captī#, L.
41, 12, 8, _over seven hundred were taken prisoners_. #tēcum plūs annum
vīxit#, _Q._ 41, _he lived with you over a year_ (1151). #cum equīs plūs
quīngentīs#, L. 40, 32, 6, _with over five hundred horses_. Less
frequently with #quam#. When these words are felt as real substantives
in the nominative or accusative, the ablative of comparison may be used
(1320): as, #plūs trīduō#, _RA._ 74, _more than three days_.

1329. In expressions of age with #nātus#, the adjectives #maior# and
#minor# are used as well as #amplius# and #minus#, and with the same
construction (1328): as, #annōs nātus maior quadrāgintā#, _RA._ 39,
_over forty years old_. For other constructions, see the dictionary.
Similarly #conlēctus aquae digitum nōn altior ūnum#, Lucr. 4, 414,
_a pool no deeper than a finger’s breadth_ (1130). But commonly with
comparative adjectives of extent, #quam# is used, or the ablative
(1320): as, #palūs nōn lātior pedibus quīnquāgintā#, 7, 19, 1, _a marsh
not wider than fifty feet_.

1330. With a comparative adjective or adverb, the ablatives #opīniōne#,
#exspectātiōne#, and #spē#, and some others, chiefly in poetry, take the
place of a sentence with #quam#: as,

#opīniōne melius#, Pl. _Cas._ 338, _better than you thought_. #minōra
opīniōne#, Caes. _C._ 2, 31, 5, _more insignificant than is thought_.
#lātius opīniōne dissēminātum est hoc malum#, _C._ 4, 6, _this infection
is more sweeping than anybody dreams_. #spē omnium sērius#, L. 2, 3, 1,
_later than was generally expected_.


II. THE LOCATIVE ABLATIVE.


(A.) THE LOCATIVE PROPER.

1331. (1.) Singular proper names of towns and of little islands are put
in the locative to denote the place in or at which action occurs: as,

#quid Rōmae faciam? mentīrī nescio#, J. 3, 41, _what can I do in Rome?
I don’t know how to lie_. #Corinthī et Karthāginī#, _Agr._ 2, 90, _at
Corinth and at Carthage_. #Lacedaemonī#, N. _praef._ 4, _in Lacedaemon_.
#Tīburī#, _Att._ 16, 3, 1, _at Tibur_. #Rhodī#, _Fam._ 4, 7, 4, _at
Rhodes_. #mānsiōnēs diutinae Lēmnī#, T. _Ph._ 1012, _protracted stays at
Lemnos_ (1301). Sometimes in dates: as, #data Thessalonīcae#, _Att._ 3,
20, 3, _given at Thessalonica_ (1307). The locative rarely means _near_:
as, #Antiī#, L. 22, 1, 10, _round about Antium_. In Plautus only two
singular town names with consonant stems occur, and these regularly in
the locative, #Carthāginī# and #Sicyōnī#, three times each; once in a
doubtful example, #Sicyōne#, _Cist._ 128. Terence has no examples of
these stems. From Cicero on, the locative ablative is commoner with them
(1343).

1332. With an adjective attribute also, the locative is used: as, #Teānī
Āpulī#, _Clu._ 27, _at the Apulian Teanum_. #Suessae Auruncae#, L. 32,
9, 3, _at the Auruncan Suessa_. The appellative #forum#, _market place_,
used, with an attribute, as a proper name, is sometimes put in the
accusative with #ad#: as, #Claternae, ad Forum Cornēlium#, _Fam._ 12, 5,
2, _at Claterna and at Forum Cornelium_; sometimes in the locative
ablative: #Forō Iūlī#, Plin. _Ep._ 5, 19, 7.

1333. When the locative is further explained by an appellative
following, the appellative is put in the locative ablative, either
alone, or with #in#: as, #Antiochīae, celebrī quondam urbe#, _Arch._ 4,
_at Antioch, once a bustling town_. #Neāpolī, in celeberrimō oppidō#,
_RabP._ 26, _at Neapolis, a town swarming with people_. An appellative
in the ablative with #in# may be further defined by a proper name in the
locative: as, #duābus in īnsulīs, Melitae et Samī#, _V._ 5, 184, _in two
islands--at Melita and Samos_. #in oppidō, Antiochīae#, _Att._ 5, 18, 1,
_within town walls--at Antioch_. #in sēcessū, Apollōniae#, Suet. _Aug._
94, _out of town--at Apollonia_. Or in the ablative: as, #in oppidō
Citiō#, N. 5, 3, 4, _in the town of Citium_. #in urbe Rōmā#, L. 39, 14,
7, _in the city of Rome_.

1334. In Plautus, singular town names with stems in #-ā-# or #-o-# are
put in the locative ten or twelve times, in the ablative with #in# some
fifteen times. Three such have only #in#, never the locative: #in
Anactoriō#, _Poen._ 896, #in Seleuciā#, _Tri._ 901, #in Spartā#, _Poen._
663; furthermore, #in Epidamnō#, _Men._ 267, 380 twice, #in Ephesō#,
_B._ 309, _MG._ 441, 778, and #in Epidaurō#, _Cur._ 341, 429, _E._ 540,
541, 554, but also #Epidamnī#, _Men. prol._ 51, #Ephesī#, _B._ 336,
1047, _MG._ 648, and #Epidaurī#, _E._ 636. Terence, who has only #-o-#
stems, uses the locative six times, the ablative with #in# four times:
only with #in#: #in Andrō#, _Andr._ 931, #in Imbrō#, _Hec._ 171.
Furthermore #in Lēmnō#, _Ph._ 873, 1004 but also #Lēmnī#, _Ph._ 680,
942, 1013. Also #Mīlētī#, _Ad._ 654, #Rhodī#, _Eu._ 107, #Sūniī#, _Eu._
519.

1335. A town name is sometimes put in the ablative with #in# by
assimilation with a parallel #in#: as, #in Illyricō, in ipsā
Alexandrēā#, _Att._ 11, 16, 1, _in Illyricum, and at Alexandrea itself_.
#Antiochum in Syriā, Ptolemaeum in Alexandrīā esse#, L. 42, 26, 7. _that
Antiochus was in Syria, Ptolemy at Alexandria_. #in mōnte Albānō
Lāvīniōque#, L. 5, 52, 8, _on the Alban mount and at Lavinium_. Also
without assimilation: as, #nāvis et in Caiētā est parāta nōbīs et
Brundusiī#, _Att._ 8, 3, 6, _we have a vessel all chartered, one in
Cajeta and one at Brundusium_. #in Hispalī#, Caes. _C._ 2, 18, 1, _in
Hispalis_.

1336. With country names, the locative is very exceptional: as,
#Chersonēsī#, N. 1, 2, 4, _at the Peninsula_. #Aegyptī#, Val. M. 4, 1,
15, _in Egypt_. Similarly #Accheruntī#, Pl. _Cap._ 689, 998, _Mer._ 606,
_Tru._ 749, _in Acheron_; #Accherunte# however once: #Accheruntest#, Pl.
_Poen._ 431. In Sallust, #Rōmae Numidiaeque#, _I._ 33, 4, with
assimilation of #Numidiae# to #Rōmae#.

1337. (2.) The locatives #domī#, #rūrī#, #humī#, and rarely #orbī#, are
used like proper names of towns: as,

(_a._) #cēnābō domī#, Pl. _St._ 482, _I shall dine at home_.
Metaphorically, #domī est#, #nāscitur#, or #habeō#, _I can get at home_,
_I need not go abroad for_, or _I have in plenty_: as, #id quidem domī
est#, _Att._ 10, 14, 2, _as for that, I have it myself_. With a
possessive pronoun or #aliēnus# in agreement, either the locative is
used, or the ablative with #in#; for #domuī#, as, _Off._ 3, 99, see 594;
with other adjectives the ablative with #in#. (_b._) #rūrī#, T. _Ph._
363, _up in the country_; for #rūre#, see 1344 and 1345. (_c._) #humī#,
_on the ground_, or _to the ground_, in Terence first: as, #hunc ante
nostram iānuam appōne :: obsecrō, humīne?# T. _Andr._ 724, _set down
this baby at our door :: good gracious; on the ground?_ #iacēre humī#,
_C._ 1, 26, _sleeping on bare ground_. (_d._) #orbī# with #terrae# or
#terrārum#: as, #amplissimum orbī terrārum monumentum#, _V._ 4, 82, _the
grandest monument in the wide wide world_.

1338. The locatives #bellī#, older #du͡ellī#, and #mīlitiae# are
sometimes used in contrast with #domī#: as, #domī du͡ellīque#, Pl. _Cap.
prol._ 68, #domī bellīque#, L. 2, 50, 11, #domī mīlitiaeque#, _TD._ 5,
55, #mīlitiae et domī#, T. _Ad._ 495, _at home and in the field_. Rarely
without #domī#: as, #bellī#, _RP._ 2, 56, #mīlitiae#, S. _I._ 84, 2.

1339. (3.) Other appellatives rarely have the locative: as, #proxumae
vīcīniae#, Pl. _B._ 205, _MG._ 273, _in the next neighbourhood_.
#terrae#, L. 5, 51, 9, _in the earth_. With verbs of suspense, doubt,
and distress, and with many adjectives, #animī#, _in soul_, is not
infrequent; and #animī# being mistaken for a genitive, #mentis# is also
used: as, #dēsipiēbam mentis#, Pl. _E._ 138, _I was beside myself_.
Oftener #animō# (1344).

1340. Many original locatives have become set as adverbs: as, #peregrī#,
_abroad_. Particularly of pronouns: as, #illī#, Pl. _Am._ 249, _off
there_, oftener #illīc#; #istī# or #istīc#, #hīc#; sometimes further
defined by an added expression: as, #hīc vīcīniae#, T. _Ph._ 95, _here
in the neighbourhood_. #hīc proxumae vīcīniae#, _MG._ 273, _here in the
house next door_. #hīc in Veneris fānō me͡a͡e vīcīniae#, Pl. _R._ 613,
_here, in the shrine of Venus, in my neighbourhood_. #hīc Rōmae#,
_Arch._ 5, _here in Rome_.

1341. The locative proper sometimes denotes time when: as, #lūcī#, _by
light_, #temperī#, _betimes_, #herī# or #here#, _yesterday_, #vesperī#,
_at evening_, #herī vesperī#, _DO._ 2, 13, _last evening_. In Plautus,
#diē septimī#, _Men._ 1156, _Per._ 260, _on the seventh day_, #māne sānē
septimī#, _Men._ 1157, _bright and early on the seventh_, #diē
crāstinī#, _Most._ 881, _tomorrow_. Often with an adjective juxtaposed:
as, #postrīdiē#, _the day after_, #postrīdiē māne#, _Fam._ 11, 6, 1,
_early next day_, #cōtīdiē#, _each day_, _daily_, #prīdiē#, _the day
before_.

  [Errata:
  1331 ... #mānsiōnēs diutinae Lēmnī#
    text unchanged: expected form diūtinae
  1340 ... #hīc in Veneris fānō me͡a͡e vīcīniae#
    The vowels “eae” are joined with a single ligature]


(B.) THE ABLATIVE USED AS LOCATIVE.


PLACE IN, ON, OR AT WHICH.

1342. (1.) Plural proper names of towns and of little islands are put in
the locative ablative to denote the place in or at which action occurs:
as,

#mortuus Cūmīs#, L. 2, 21, 5, _he died at Cumae_. #Athēnīs tenue caelum,
crassum Thēbīs#, _Fat._ 7, _in Athens the air is thin, at Thebes it is
thick_. #locus ostenditur Capreīs#, Suet. _Tib._ 62, _the place is
pointed out at Capreae_. Rarely with substantives of action (1301): as,
#mānsiō Formiīs#, _Att._ 9, 5, 1, _the stay at Formiae_. With an
attribute: #Athēnīs tuīs#, _Att._ 16, 6, 2, _in your darling Athens_.
#Curibus Sabīnīs#, L. 1, 18, 1, _at the Sabine Cures_.

1343. (2.) Singular proper names of towns with consonant stems are
oftener put in the locative ablative than in the locative proper: as,

#adulēscentium gregēs Lacedaemone vīdimus#, _TD._ 5, 77, _we have seen
the companies of young men in Lacedaemon_. #Karthāgine#, _Att._ 16, 4,
2, _at Carthage_. #Tībure#, H. _E._ 1, 8, 12, _at Tibur_. #Nārbōne#,
_Ph._ 2, 76, _at Narbo_. See 1331. So also #Acherunte#, Lucr. 3, 984,
_in Acheron_. #Calydōne et Naupāctō#, Caes. _C._ 3, 35, 1, _at Calydon
and Naupactus_, with #Naupāctō# attracted by #Calydōne#. With an
attribute: #Carthāgine Novā#, L. 28, 17, 11, _at New Carthage_.
#Acherunte profundō#, Lucr. 3, 978, _in vasty Acheron_.

1344. (3.) A few general appellatives are used in the locative ablative
without an attribute, especially in set expressions, to denote the place
where: as,

#terrā marīque#, _IP._ 48, _by land and sea_; less commonly #marī atque
terrā#, S. _C._ 53, 2, _by sea and land_. #dextrā Pīraeus, sinistrā
Corinthus#, Cael. in _Fam._ 4, 5, 4, _Piraeus on the right, Corinth on
the left_. Rarely, #rūre#, Pl. _Cas._ 110, H. _E._ 1, 7, 1, _in the
country_, for #rūrī# (1337). So #animō#, #animīs#, with verbs of
feeling: as, #angor animō#, _Br._ 7, _I am distressed in soul_, or _I am
heart-broken_. Metaphorically: #locō#, (_a._) _in the right place_, also
#suō locō#, or #in locō#. (_b._) #locō#, _instead_; #numerō#, _in the
category_, both with a genitive. #prīncipiō#, #initiō#, _in the
beginning_.

1345. Certain appellatives, with an attribute, often denote the place
where by the locative ablative; so especially #locō#, #locīs#, #rūre#,
#librō#, #librīs#, #parte#, #partibus#: as, #remōtō, salūbrī, amoenō
locō#, _Fam._ 7, 20, 2, _in a sequestered, healthy, and picturesque
nook_. #idōneō locō#, 3, 17, 5, _in an advantageous spot_. #inīquō
locō#, 5, 51, 1, _on unsuitable ground_. #campestribus ac dēmissīs
locīs#, 7, 72, 3, _in level and sunken places_. #rūre meō#, H. _E._ 1,
15, 17, _at my own country box_. #rūre paternō#, H. _E._ 1, 18, 60, J.
6, 55, _on the ancestral farm_. #aliō librō#, _Off._ 2, 31, _in another
book_.

1346. Substantives are often used in the locative ablative with #tōtus#
in agreement, less often with #cūnctus#, #omnis#, or #medius#, to denote
the place where: as, #tōtā Galliā#, 5, 55, 3, _all over Gaul_. #tōtīs
trepidātur castrīs#, 6, 37, 6, _there is a panic all over the camp_.
#omnibus oppidīs#, _V._ 2, 136, _in all the towns_. #omnibus oppidīs
maritimīs#, Caes. _C._ 3, 5, 1, _in all the seaports_. #mediā urbe#, L.
1, 33, 8, _in the heart of Rome_. But sometimes #in# is used, or the
accusative with #per#.

1347. (4.) With country names and most appellatives, the place where is
generally expressed by the ablative with #in#. But even without an
attribute, the ablative alone is sometimes used, especially in poetry:
as,

#Ītaliā#, V. 1, 263, _in Italy_, #lītore#, V. 1, 184, _upon the beach_,
#corde#, V. 1, 209, _in heart_, #pectore#, V. 1, 657, _in breast_,
#thalamō#, H. 1, 15, 16, _in bower_, #umerō#, V. 1, 501, _on shoulder_,
#Ēsquiliīs#, _DN._ 3, 63, _on the Esquiline_. Once in Plautus #Ālide#,
_Cap._ 330, _in Elis_, but eight times #in Ālide#.

1348. The locative ablative is sometimes used with such verbs as #teneō#
and #recipiō#: as, (_a._) #Ariovistus exercitum castrīs continuit#, 1,
48, 4, _Ariovistus kept his infantry in camp_. #oppidō sēsē
continēbant#, 2, 30, 2, _they kept inside the town_. (_b._) #oppidīs
recipere#, 2, 3, 3, _to receive inside their towns_. #rēx ecquis est,
qui senātōrem tēctō ac domō nōn invītet?# _V._ 4, 25, _is there a
monarch in the wide world that would not welcome a senator to house and
home?_

1349. The locative ablative is used with #fīdō# and #cōnfīdō#,
#glōrior#, #laetor#, #nītor#, #stō#, and with #frētus#: as, #barbarī
cōnfīsī locī nātūrā in aciē permānsērunt#, 8, 15, 1, _the natives,
trusting in the nature of their position, kept their stand in battle
array_. #superiōribus vīctōriis frētī#, 3, 21, 1, _relying on their
former victories_. For other constructions with these words, see the
dictionary.


TIME AT WHICH OR TIME WITHIN WHICH.

1350. (1.) The locative ablative is used to denote the point of time at
which action occurs.

So particularly of substantives denoting periods or points of time,
thus: #hieme#, 5, 1, 1, _in the winter_. #Kalendīs#, H. _Epod._ 2, 70,
_upon the first_, i.e. of the month. Generally with an attribute: as,
#prīmō vēre#, 6, 3, 4, _in the first month of spring_. #Mārtiīs
Kalendīs#, H. 3, 8, 1, _upon the first of March_. With a parallel
locative (1341): #vesperī eōdem diē#, _Att._ 8, 5, 1, _the evening of
the same day_.

1351. Words not in themselves denoting periods or points of time, are in
the same way put in the ablative: as,

#patrum nostrōrum memoriā#, 1, 12, 5, _in the memory of our fathers_.
#nōn modo illīs Pūnicīs bellīs, sed etiam hāc praedōnum multitūdine#,
_V._ 4, 103, _not only in the Punic wars of yore, but also in the
present swarm of pirates_. #proxumīs comitiīs#, 7, 67, 7, _at the last
election_. #spectāculīs#, _Att._ 2, 19, 3, _at the shows_. Especially
substantives of action in #-tus# or #-sus# (235): as, #sōlis occāsū#, 1,
50, 3, _at sunset_. #adventū in Galliam Caesaris#, 5, 54, 2, _at
Caesar’s arrival in Gaul_. #eōrum adventū#, 7, 65, 5, _after these
people came_. #discessū cēterōrum#, _C._ 1, 7, _when the rest went
away_.

1352. (2.) The locative ablative is used to denote the space of time
within which action occurs: as,

#paucīs diēbus opus efficitur#, 6, 9, 4, _the job is finished up in a
few days_. #tribus hōris Aduātucam venīre potestis#, 6, 35, 8, _in three
hours you can get to Aduatuca_. #quae hīc mōnstra fīunt, annō vix possum
ēloquī#, Pl. _Most._ 505, _what ghost-transactions take place here I
scarce could tell you in a year_. #cum ad oppidum Senonum Vellaunodūnum
vēnisset, id bīduō circumvāllāvit#, 7, 11, 1, _arriving at
Vellaunodunum, a town of the Senons, in two days time he invested it_.
#quicquid est, bīduō sciēmus#, _Att._ 9, 14, 2, _whatever it may be, we
shall know in a couple of days_.

1353. The ablative of the time at or within which action occurs is
sometimes accompanied by #in#: as, #in bellō#, 6, 1, 3, _in the war_.
#in tempore#, T. _Hau._ 364, _in the nick of time_. #in adulēscentiā#,
Pl. _B._ 410, _in my young days_. #in tālī tempore#, Lucr. 1, 93, L. 22,
35, 7, _in such a stress, at such an hour_. #in hōc trīduō#, Pl. _Ps._
316, _within the next three days_. Especially of repeated action, in the
sense of _a_ or _every_, with numerals: as, #ter in annō#, Pl. _B._
1127, _RA._ 132, _three times a year_. #in hōrā saepe ducentōs versūs
dictābat#, H. _S._ 1, 4, 9, _two hundred verses in an hour he’d often
dictate off_. But occasionally without #in#: as, #mē deciēns diē ūnō
extrūdit aedibus#, Pl. _Aul._ 70, _ten times a day he thrusts me from
the house_. #septiēns diē#, L. 28, 6, 10, _seven times a day_.

1354. An ablative of the time within which action occurs is sometimes
followed by a relative pronoun sentence, with the relative pronoun
likewise in the ablative: as, #quadrīduō, quō haec gesta sunt, rēs ad
Chrȳsogonum dēfertur#, _RA._ 20, _within the four days space in which
this occurred, the incident is reported to Chrysogonus_, i.e. four days
after this occurred. #diēbus decem, quibus māteria coepta erat
conportārī, omnī opere effectō#, 4, 18, 1, _the job being all done ten
days after the carting of the stuff had begun_.

1355. The ablative is exceptionally used to denote duration of time: as,

#tōtā nocte continenter iērunt#, 1, 26, 5, _they went on and on all
night without interruption_. Regularly, however, the accusative (1151);
but the ablative is common in inscriptions.


III. THE INSTRUMENTAL ABLATIVE.


(A.) THE ABLATIVE OF ATTENDANCE.


THE ABLATIVE OF ACCOMPANIMENT.

1356. A few indefinite designations of military forces denote
accompaniment by the ablative alone, or oftener with #cum#: as,

(_a._) #ad castra Caesaris omnibus cōpiīs contendērunt#, 2, 7, 3, _they
marched upon Caesar’s camp with all their forces_. #omnibus cōpiīs ad
Ilerdam proficīscitur#, Caes. _C._ 1, 41, 2, _he marches before Ilerda,
horse, foot, and dragoons_. (_b._) #is cīvitātī persuāsit, ut cum
omnibus cōpiīs exīrent#, 1, 2, 1, _well, this man induced the community
to emigrate in a body, bag and baggage_.

1357. The participles #iūnctus# and #coniūnctus# take the ablative of
the thing joined with: as, #dēfēnsiōne iūncta laudātiō#, _Br._ 162,
_a eulogy combined with a defence_. But sometimes the ablative with
#cum# is used, or the dative (1186).


THE ABLATIVE OF MANNER.

1358. (1.) Certain substantives without an attribute are put in the
ablative alone to denote manner; but usually substantives without an
attribute have #cum#.

(_a._) Such adverbial ablatives are #iūre# and #iniūriā#, #ratiōne et
viā#, #silentiō#, #vitiō#, #ōrdine#, #sponte#, #cōnsuētūdine#, &c.: as,
#Arātus iūre laudātur#, _Off._ 2, 81, _Aratus is justly admired_.
#iniūriā suspectum#, _C._ 1, 17, _wrongfully suspected_. #in omnibus,
quae ratiōne docentur et viā#, _O._ 116, _in everything that is taught
with philosophic method_. #silentiō ēgressus#, 7, 58, 2, _going out in
silence_. #cēnsōrēs vitiō creātī#, L. 6, 27, 5, _censors irregularly
appointed_. #ōrdine cūncta exposuit#, L. 3, 50, 4, _he told the whole
story from beginning to end_, i.e. with all the particulars. (_b._) With
#cum#: #face rem hanc cum cūrā gerās#, Pl. _Per._ 198, _see that this
job with care thou dost_. #cum virtūte vīvere#, _Fin._ 3, 29, _to live
virtuously_.

1359. (2.) The ablative of a substantive with an attribute is often used
to denote manner, sometimes with #cum#: as,

(_a._) #ī pede faustō#, H. _E._ 2, 2, 37, _go with a blessing on thy
foot_. #dat sonitū magnō strāgem#, Lucr. 1, 288, _it deals destruction
with a mighty roar_. #ferārum rītū sternuntur#, L. 5, 44, 6, _they throw
themselves down beast-fashion_. #apis Matīnae mōre modōque operōsa
carmina fingō#, H. 4, 2, 27, _in way and wise of Matin bee laborious
lays I mould_. #‘indoctus’ dīcimus brevī prīmā litterā, ‘īnsānus’
prōductā, ‘inhūmānus’ brevī, ‘īnfēlīx’ longā#. _O._ 159, _we pronounce_
#indoctus# _with the first letter short_, #īnsānus# _with it long_,
#inhūmānus# _with it short_, #īnfēlīx# _with it long_ (167). #ternō
cōnsurgunt ōrdine rēmī#, V. 5, 120, _with triple bank each time in
concert rise the oars_. (_b._) #Allobroges magnā cum cūrā suōs fīnēs
tuentur#, 7, 65, 3, _the Allobrogans guard their own territory with
great care_.

1360. With a substantive meaning _way_ or _manner_, as #modō#, #rītū#,
&c., _feeling_ or _intention_, as #hāc mente#, #aequō animō#,
_condition_, as #eā condiciōne#, or a part of the body, as in #nūdō
capite#, _bareheaded_, #cum# is not used.

1361. Other expressions denoting manner, particularly prepositional
expressions with #per#, may be found in the dictionary: as, #per dolum#,
4, 13, 1, _by deceit_, #per iocum#, _Agr._ 2, 96, _in fun_, #per
litterās#, _Att._ 5, 21, 13, _by letter_, _in writing_, #per vim#, _RA._
32, _violently_, #per praestigiās#, _V._ 4, 53, _by some hocus pocus or
other_, &c., &c. Sometimes the ablative with #ex#.


THE ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE.

1362. (1.) The ablative of a substantive, with a predicate participle in
agreement, is used to denote an attendant circumstance of an action.

In this construction, which is called the _Ablative Absolute_, (_a._)
the present participle is sometimes used: as, #nūllō hoste prohibente
incolumem legiōnem in Nantuātīs perdūxit#, 3, 6, 5, _with no enemy
hindering, he conducted the legion in safety to the Nantuates_. Much
oftener, however, (_b._) the perfect participle: as, #hōc respōnsō datō
discessit#, 1, 14, 7, _this answer given he went away_. (_c._) The
future participle is also used in the ablative absolute from Livy on:
as, #hospite ventūrō, cessābit nēmo tuōrum#, J. 14, 59, _a visitor to
come, your slaves will bustle each and all_.

1363. A predicate ablative with a participle meaning _made_, _kept_,
_chosen_, or the like, occurs in Cicero, Caesar, Nepos, and Livy, but is
rare (1167): as, #Dolābellā hoste dēcrētō#, _Ph._ 11, 16, _Dolabella
having been voted an enemy of the state_.

1364. The perfect participles of deponents used actively in the ablative
absolute, are chiefly those of intransitive use, such as #nātus#,
#mortuus#, #ortus#, #profectus#. From Sallust on, other perfect deponent
participles also are used actively with an accusative. Cicero and Caesar
use a few deponent participles, such as #ēmeritus#, #pactus#,
#partītus#, #dēpopulātus#, as passives, and later authors use many other
participles so.

1365. (2.) The ablative of a substantive, with a predicate noun in
agreement, is often used to denote an attendant circumstance of an
action: as,

#brevitātem secūtus sum tē magistrō#, _Fam._ 11, 25, 1, _I aimed at
brevity with you as a teacher_. #nātus dīs inimīcīs#, Pl. _Most._ 563,
_born under wrath of gods_. #M. Messālā et M. Pīsōne cōnsulibus#, 1, 2,
1, _in the consulship of Messala and Piso_. #istō praetōre vēnit
Syrācūsās#, _V._ 4, 61, _in the defendant’s praetorship he came to
Syracuse_.

1366. The nominative #quisque#, #plerīque#, or #ipse#, sometimes
accompanies the ablative absolute: as, #causā ipse prō sē dictā,
damnātur#, L. 4, 44, 10, _he is condemned after pleading his case in
person_.

1367. The ablative absolute may denote in a loose way various relations
which might be more distinctly expressed by subordinate sentences.

So particularly: (_a._) Time: as, #tertiā initā vigiliā exercitum
ēdūcit#, Caes. _C._ 3, 54, 2, _at the beginning of the third watch he
leads the army out_. (_b._) Cause or means: as, #C. Flāminium Caelius
religiōne neglēctā cecidisse apud Trāsumēnum scrībit#, _DN._ 2, 8,
_Caelius writes that Flaminius fell at Trasumene in consequence of his
neglect of religious observances_. (_c._) Concession: as, #id paucīs
dēfendentibus expugnāre nōn potuit#, 2, 12, 2, _though the defenders
were few, he could not take it by storm_. (_d._) Hypothesis: as, #quae
potest esse vītae iūcunditās sublātīs amīcitiīs?# _Pl._ 80, _what
pleasure can there be in life, if you take friendships away?_ (_e._)
Description: as, #domum vēnit capite obvolūtō#, _Ph._ 2, 77, _he came
home with his head all muffled up_.

1368. It may be seen from the examples above that a change of
construction is often desirable in translating the ablative absolute.
Particularly so in many set idiomatic expressions: as, #nūllā
interpositā morā#, Caes. _C._ 3, 75, 1, _without a moment’s delay_,
_instantly_. #equō admissō#, 1, 22, 2, #equō citātō#, Caes. _C._ 3, 96,
3, _full gallop_. #clāmōre sublātō#, 7, 12, 5, _with a round of cheers_.
#bene rē gestā salvos redeō#, Pl. _Tri._ 1182, _crowned with success I
come back safe and sound_.

1369. The substantive of the ablative absolute usually denotes a
different person or thing from any in the main sentence. But exceptions
to this usage sometimes occur: as,

#quibus audītīs, eōs domum remittit#, 4, 21, 6, _after listening to
these men, he sends them home again_. #sī ego mē sciente paterer#, Pl.
_MG._ 559, _if I should wittingly myself allow_, more emphatic than
#sciēns#. #sē iūdice nēmo nocēns absolvitur#, J. 13, 2, _himself the
judge, no criminal gets free_.

1370. Two ablatives absolute often occur together, of which the first
indicates the time, circumstances, or cause of the second: as, #exaudītō
clāmōre perturbātīs ōrdinibus#, 2, 11, 5, _the ranks being demoralized
from hearing the shouts_. #cōnsūmptīs omnibus tēlīs gladiīs dēstrictīs#,
Caes. _C._ 1, 46, 1, _drawing their swords after expending all their
missiles_.

1371. The substantive is sometimes omitted in the ablative absolute,
particularly when it is a general word for a person or a thing which is
explained by a relative: as, #praemissīs, quī repūrgārent iter#, L. 44,
4, 11, _sending sappers and miners ahead to clear a way_. #relātīs
ōrdine, quae vīdissent#, L. 42, 25, 2, _telling circumstantially all
they had seen_.

1372. The ablative neuter of some perfect participles is used
impersonally (1034). This use is rare in old Latin, in classical Latin
commonest in Cicero, and afterwards in Livy: as, #auspicātō#, _DN._ 2,
11, _with auspices taken_. #sortītō#, _V._ 2, 126, _lots being drawn_,
or _by lot_. Such ablatives readily become adverbs (704). Substantives
are also sometimes used alone: as, #austrō#, _Div._ 2, 58, _when the
wind is south_. #tranquillitāte#, Plin. _Ep._ 8, 20, 6, _when it is
calm_. #serēnō#, L. 37, 3, 3, _the day being clear_.

1373. The ablative neuter of some perfect participles is occasionally
used in agreement with a sentence or an infinitive: as, #cōgnitō vīvere
Ptolomaeum#, L. 33, 41, 5, _it being known that Ptolomy was alive_. This
construction is not used in old Latin, and is rare in classical Latin,
but common in Livy and Tacitus. So adjectives also: as, #incertō quid
vītārent#, L. 28, 36, 12, _it not being obvious what they were to steer
clear of_.

1374. The ablative absolute is sometimes attended, especially in Livy
and Tacitus, by an explanatory word, such as #etsī#, #tamen#, #nisi#,
#quasi#, #quamquam#, or #quamvīs#: as, #etsī aliquō acceptō dētrīmentō,
tamen summā exercitūs salvā#, Caes. _C._ 1, 67, 5, _though with some
loss, yet with the safety of the army as a whole_.


THE ABLATIVE OF QUALITY.

1375. The ablative with an adjective in agreement or with a limiting
genitive is used to denote quality, either predicatively or
attributively: as,

(_a._) Predicatively: #capillō sunt prōmissō#, 5, 14, 3, _they have long
hair_, or _let their hair grow long_. #singulārī fuit industriā#, N. 24,
3, 1, _he had unparalleled activity_. #animō bonō’s#, Pl. _Aul._ 732,
_be of good cheer_. #ad flūmen Genusum, quod rīpīs erat impedītīs#,
Caes. _C._ 3, 75, 4, _to the river Genusus, which had impracticable
banks_. (_b._) Attributively: #difficilī trānsitū flūmen rīpīsque
praeruptīs#, 6, 7, 5, _a river hard to cross and with steep banks_.
#interfectus est C. Gracchus, clārissimō patre, avō, maiōribus#, _C._ 1,
4, _Gracchus was done to death, a man with an illustrious father,
grandfather, and ancestors in general_ (1044). #bōs cervī figūrā#, 6,
26, 1, _an ox with the shape of a stag_. Compare the genitive of quality
(1239).


THE ABLATIVE OF THE ROUTE TAKEN.

1376. The instrumental ablative is used with verbs of motion to denote
the route taken: as,

#Aurēliā viā profectus est#, _C._ 2, 6, _he has gone off by the Aurelia
Road_. #omnibus viīs sēmitīsque essedāriōs ex silvīs ēmittēbat#, 5, 19,
2, _he kept sending his chariot men out by all possible highways and
byways_. #hīs pontibus pābulātum mittēbat#, Caes. _C._ 1, 40, 1, _by
these bridges he sent foraging_. #frūmentum Tiberī vēnit#, L. 2, 34, 5,
_some grain came by the Tiber_. #lupus Ēsquilīna portā ingressus per
portam Capēnam prope intāctus ēvāserat#, L. 33, 26, 9, _a wolf that came
in town by the Esquiline gate had got out through the Capene gate,
almost unscathed_. This construction gives rise to some adverbs: see
707. The ablative of the route is sometimes used with a substantive of
action (1301): as, #nāvigātiō īnferō#, _Att._ 9, 5, 1, _the cruise by
the lower sea_. #eōdem flūmine invectiō#, _Fin._ 5, 70, _entrance by the
same river_.


(B.) THE INSTRUMENTAL PROPER.


THE ABLATIVE OF INSTRUMENT OR MEANS.

1377. The ablative is used to denote the instrument or means: as,

#pugnābant armīs#, H. _S._ 1, 3, 103, _they fought with arms_. #clārē
oculīs videō, sum pernīx pedibus, manibus mōbilis#, Pl. _MG._ 630,
_I can see distinctly with my eyes, I’m nimble with my legs, and active
with my arms_. #iuvābō aut rē tē aut operā aut cōnsiliō bonō#, Pl. _Ps._
19, _I’ll help thee either with my purse or hand or good advice_. #lacte
et carne vīvunt, pellibusque sunt vestītī#, 5, 14, 2, _they live on milk
and meat, and they are clad in skins_. #contentus paucīs lēctōribus#, H.
_S._ 1, 10, 74, _content with readers few_. #centēnāque arbore flūctum
verberat#, V. 10, 207, _and with an hundred beams at every stroke the
wave he smites_. Rarely with substantives denoting action (1301): as,
#gestōrēs linguīs, audītōrēs auribus#, Pl. _Ps._ 429, _reporters with
their tongues and listeners with their ears_. #tenerīs labellīs mollēs
morsiunculae#, Pl. _Ps._ 67^a, _caressing bites with velvet lips_.

1378. When the instrument is a person, the accusative with #per# is
used: as, #haec quoque per explōrātōrēs ad hostēs dēferuntur#, 6, 7, 9,
_this too is reported to the enemy through the medium of scouts_. Or a
circumlocution, such as #virtūte#, #beneficiō#, #benignitāte#, or
especially #operā#, with a genitive or possessive; as, #deūm virtūte
multa bona bene parta habēmus#, Pl. _Tri._ 346, _thanks to the gods,
we’ve many a pretty penny prettily put by_. #meā operā Tarentum
recēpistī#, _CM._ 11, _It was through me you got Tarentum back_. Rarely
the ablative of a person, the person being then regarded as a thing: as,
#iacent suīs testibus#, _Mil._ 47, _they are cast by their own
witnesses_.

1379. The instrumental ablative is used with the five deponents #fruor#,
#fungor#, #potior#, #ūtor#, #vēscor#, and several of their compounds,
and with #ūsus est# and #opus est#: as,

#pāce numquam fruēmur#, _Ph._ 7, 19, _we never shall enjoy ourselves
with peace_, i.e. _we never shall enjoy peace_. #fungar vice cōtis#, H.
_AP._ 304, _I’ll play the whetstone’s part_. #castrīs nostrī potītī
sunt#, 1, 26, 4, _our people made themselves masters of the camp_.
#vestrā operā ūtar#, L. 3, 46, 8, _I will avail myself of your
services_. #carne vēscor#, _TD._ 5, 90, _I live on meat_. #opust
chlamyde#, Pl. _Ps._ 734, _there is a job with a cloak_, i.e. _we need a
cloak_.

1380. Instead of the instrumental ablative, some of the above verbs take
the accusative occasionally in old and post-Augustan Latin: thus, in
Plautus, Terence, Cato, always #abūtor#, also #fungor#, except once in
Terence; #fruor# in Cato and Terence, and #perfungor# in Lucretius, once
each; #potior# twice in Plautus and three times in Terence, often also
the genitive (1292). The gerundive of these verbs is commonly used
personally in the passive, as if the verbs were regularly used
transitively (2244).

1381. #ūtor# often has a second predicative ablative: as, #administrīs
druidibus ūtuntur#, 6, 16, 2, _they use the druids as assistants_.
#facilī mē ūtētur patre#, T. _Hau._ 217, _an easy-going father he will
find in me_.

1382. #ūsus est# and #opus est# sometimes take a neuter participle,
especially in old Latin: as, #vīsō opust cautōst opus#, Pl. _Cap._ 225,
_there’s need of sight, there’s need of care_. Sometimes the ablative
with a predicate participle: as, #celeriter mī eō homine conventōst
opus#, Pl. _Cur._ 302, _I needs must see that man at once_.

1383. With #opus est#, the thing wanted is often made the subject
nominative or subject accusative, with #opus# in the predicate: as, #dux
nōbīs et auctor opus est#, _Fam._ 2, 6, 4, _we need a leader and
adviser_. Usually so when the thing needed is a neuter adjective or
neuter pronoun: as, #multa sibī̆ opus esse#, _V._ 1, 126, _that he
needed much_. A genitive dependent on #opus# is found once or twice in
late Latin (1227).

1384. #ūsus est# is employed chiefly in comedy, but also once or twice
in Cicero, Lucretius, Vergil, and Livy. Once with the accusative: #ūsust
hominem astūtum#, Pl. _Ps._ 385, _there’s need of a sharp man_.


THE ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION.

1385. The instrumental ablative is used to denote that in respect of
which an assertion or a term is to be taken: as,

#temporibus errāstī#, _Ph._ 2, 23, _you have slipped up in your
chronology_. #excellēbat āctiōne#, _Br._ 215, _his forte lay in
delivery_. #Helvētiī reliquōs Gallōs virtūte praecēdunt#, 1, 1, 4, _the
Helvetians outdo the rest of the Kelts in bravery_. #hī omnēs linguā,
īnstitūtīs, lēgibus inter sē differunt#, 1, 1, 2, _these people all
differ from each other in language, usages, and laws_. #sunt quīdam
hominēs nōn rē sed nōmine#, _Off._ 1, 105, _some people are human beings
not in reality but in name_. #ūna Suēba nātiōne, altera Nōrica#, 1, 53,
4, _one woman a Suebe by birth, the other Noric_. #vīcistis cochleam
tarditūdine#, Pl. _Poen._ 532, _you’ve beaten snail in slowness_.
#dēmēns iūdiciō volgī#, H. _S._ 1, 6, 97, _mad in the judgement of the
world_. #sapiunt me͡ā sententiā#, T. _Ph._ 335, _in my opinion they are
wise_. #meā quidem sententiā#, _CM._ 56, _in my humble opinion_. #quis
iūre perītior commemorārī potest?# _Clu._ 107, _who can be named that is
better versed in the law?_


THE ABLATIVE OF FULNESS.

1386. The instrumental ablative is used with verbs of abounding,
filling, and furnishing: as,

#vīlla abundat porcō, haedō, āgnō#, _CM._ 56, _the country place is
running over with swine, kid, and lamb_. #tōtum montem hominibus
complērī iussit#, 1, 24, 3, _he gave orders for the whole mountain to be
covered over with men_. #Māgōnem poenā adfēcērunt#, N. 23, 8, 2, _they
visited Mago with punishment_. #legiōnēs nimis pulcrīs armīs praeditās#,
Pl. _Am._ 218, _brigades in goodliest arms arrayed_. #cōnsulārī imperiō
praeditus#, _Pis._ 55, _vested with the authority of consul_. For the
genitive with #compleō# and #impleō#, see 1293.

1387. The ablative is sometimes used with adjectives of fulness, instead
of the regular genitive (1263). Thus, in later Latin, rarely with
#plēnus#: as, #maxima quaeque domus servīs est plēna superbīs#, J. 5,
66, _a grand establishment is always full of stuck-up slaves_. #et ille
quidem plēnus annīs abiīt, plēnus honōribus#, Plin. _Ep._ 2, 1, 7,
_well, as for him, he has passed away, full of years and full of
honours_. So in Cicero and Caesar, once each. Also with #dīves# in
poetry, and, from Livy on, in prose. With #refertus#, the ablative of
things is common, while persons are usually in the genitive (1263). With
#onustus#, the ablative is generally used, rarely the genitive.


THE ABLATIVE OF MEASURE, EXCHANGE, AND PRICE.

1388. The instrumental ablative is used with verbs of measuring and of
exchanging, and in expressions of value and price: as,

(_a._) #quod magnōs hominēs virtūte mētīmur#, N. 18, 1, 1, _because we
gauge great men by their merit_. (_b._) #nēmō nisi vīctor pāce bellum
mūtāvit#, S. _C._ 58, 15, _nobody except a conqueror has ever exchanged
war for peace_. (_c._) #haec sīgna sēstertiūm sex mīllibus quīngentīs
esse vēndita#, _V._ 4, 12, _that these statues were sold for sixty-five
hundred sesterces_. #aestimāvit dēnāriīs III#, _V._ 3, 214, _he valued
it at three denars_. #trīgintā mīllibus dīxistis eum habitāre#, _Cael._
17, _you have said he pays thirty thousand rent_. #quod nōn opus est,
āsse cārum est#, Cato in Sen. _Ep._ 94, 28, _what you don’t need, at a
penny is dear_. #hem, istūc verbum, mea voluptās, vīlest vīgintī minīs#,
Pl. _Most._ 297, _bless me, that compliment, my charmer, were at twenty
minas cheap_.

1389. With #mūtō# and #commūtō#, the ablative usually denotes the thing
received. But sometimes in Plautus, and especially in Horace, Livy, and
late prose, it denotes the thing parted with: as, #cūr valle permūtem
Sabīnā dīvitiās operōsiōrēs?# H. 3, 1, 47, _why change my Sabine dale
for wealth that brings more care?_ Similarly with #cum# in the prose of
Cicero’s age: as, #mortem cum vītā commūtāre#, Sulp. in _Fam._ 4, 5, 3,
_to exchange life for death_.

1390. The ablative of price or value is thus used chiefly with verbs or
verbal expressions of bargaining, buying or selling, hiring or letting,
costing, being cheap or dear. Also with #aestimō#, of a definite price,
and sometimes #magnō#, #permagnō# (1273).

1391. The ablatives thus used, are (_a._) those of general substantives
of value and price, such as #pretium#, (_b._) numerical designations of
money, or (_c._) neuter adjectives of quantity, #magnō#, #permagnō#,
#quam plūrimō#, #parvō#, #minimō#, #nihilō#, #nōnnihilō#: as, #magnō
decumās vēndidī#, _V._ 3, 40, _I sold the tithes at a high figure_. For
#tantī# and #quantī#, #plūris# and #minōris#, see 1274.

1392. The ablative is also used with #dignus# and #indignus#: as,

#dignī maiōrum locō#, _Agr._ 2, 1, _well worthy of the high standing of
their ancestors_. #nūlla vōx est audīta populī Rōmānī maiestāte
indigna#, 7, 17, 3, _not a word was heard out of keeping with the
grandeur of Rome_. See also #dignor# in the dictionary. Similarly in
Plautus with #condignē#, #decōrus#, #decet#, #aequē#, #aequos#. For the
genitive with #dignus#, see 1269; for the accusative with #dignus# and a
form of #sum#, 1144.

  [Erratum:
  1389 ... #cūr valle permūtem Sabīnā dīvitiās operōsiōrēs?#
    operōsiōres]


THE ABLATIVE OF THE AMOUNT OF DIFFERENCE.

1393. The instrumental ablative is used to denote the amount of
difference.

This ablative is used with any words whatever of comparative or of
superlative meaning: as, #ūnō diē longiōrem mēnsem faciunt aut bīduō#,
_V._ 2, 129, _they make the month longer by a day, or even by two days_.
#ubī̆ adbibit plūs paulō#, T. _Hau._ 220, _when he has drunk a drop too
much_. #nummō dīvitior#, Pl. _Ps._ 1323, _a penny richer_. #bīduō post#,
1, 47, 1, _two days after_. #multīs ante diēbus#, 7, 9, 4, _many days
before_. #paucīs ante diēbus#, _C._ 3, 3, _a few days ago_. #nimiō
praestat#, Pl. _B._ 396, _‘t is ever so much better_. #multō mālim#,
_Br._ 184, _I would much rather_. #multō maxima pars#, _C._ 4, 17, _the
largest part by far_.

1394. In expressions of time, the accusative is sometimes used with
#post#, less frequently with #ante#, as prepositions, instead of the
ablative of difference: as, #post paucōs diēs#, L. 21, 51, 2, #post diēs
paucōs#, L. 37, 13, 6, #paucōs post diēs#, L. 33, 39, 2, _after a few
days_. #paucōs ante diēs#, L. 39, 28, 4, #diēs ante paucōs#, L. 31, 24,
5, _a few days before_. With this prepositional construction, ordinals
are common: as, #post diem tertium#, 4, 9, 1, _after the third day_,
according to the Roman way of reckoning, i.e. the next day but one.

1395. (1.) When the time before or after which anything occurs is
denoted by a substantive, the substantive is put in the accusative with
#ante# or #post#: as,

#paulō ante tertiam vigiliam#, 7, 24, 2, _a little before the third
watch_. #bīduō ante vīctōriam#, _Fam._ 10, 14, 1, _the day but one
before the victory_. #paucīs diēbus post mortem Āfricānī#, _L._ 3,
_a few days after the death of Africanus_.

1396. Sometimes in late writers, as Tacitus, Pliny the younger, and
Suetonius, a genitive is loosely used: as, #sextum post clādis annum#,
Ta. 1, 62, i.e. #sextō post clādem annō#, _six years after the
humiliating defeat_. #post decimum mortis annum#, Plin. _Ep._ 6, 10, 3,
_ten years after his death_. Similarly #intrā sextum adoptiōnis diem#,
Suet. _Galb._ 17, _not longer than six days after the adoption-day_.

1397. (2.) When the time before or after which anything occurs is
denoted by a sentence, the sentence may be introduced:

(_a._) By #quam#: as, #post diem tertium gesta rēs est quam dīxerat#,
_Mil._ 44, _it took place two days after he said it_. With #quam#,
#post# is sometimes omitted. Or (_b._) less frequently by #cum#: as,
#quem trīduō, cum hās dabam litterās, exspectābam#, Planc. in _Fam._ 10,
23, 3, _I am looking for him three days after this writing_ (1601). For
a relative pronoun sentence, see 1354.

1398. Verbs of surpassing sometimes have an accusative of extent (1151):
as, #mīrāmur hunc hominem tantum excellere cēterīs?# _IP._ 39, _are we
surprised that this man so far outshines everybody else?_ With
comparatives, the accusative is rare: as, #aliquantum inīquior#, T.
_Hau._ 201, _somewhat too hard_. Similarly #permultum ante#, _Fam._ 3,
11, 1, _long long before_.

1399. In numerical designations of distance, the words #intervāllum# and
#spatium# are regularly put in the ablative: as, #rēx VI mīlium passuum
intervāllō ā Saburrā cōnsēderat#, Caes. _C._ 2, 38, 3, _the king had
pitched six miles away from Saburra_. So sometimes #mīlle#: as, #mīlibus
passuum VI a Caesaris castrīs sub monte cōnsēdit#, 1, 48, 1. See 1152.

  [Errata:
  1393 ... #multīs ante diēbus#, 7, 9, 4
    diēbus.
  1395 ... #bīduō ante vīctōriam#
    vĭctōriam]


TWO OR MORE ABLATIVES COMBINED.

1400. Two or more ablatives denoting different relations are often
combined in the same sentence: as,

#Menippus, meō iūdiciō (1385) tōtā Asiā (1346) illīs temporibus (1350)
disertissimus#, _Br._ 315, _Menippus, in my opinion the most gifted
speaker of that day in all Asia_. #hāc habitā ōrātiōne (1362) mīlitibus
studiō (1316) pugnae ardentibus (1370) tubā (1377) sīgnum dedit#, Caes.
_C._ 3, 90, 4, _seeing that his soldiers were hot for battle after this
speech, he gave the signal by trumpet_.


USE OF CASES WITH PREPOSITIONS.

1401. Two cases, the accusative and the ablative, are used with
prepositions.

1402. Prepositions were originally adverbs which served to define more
exactly the meaning of a verb.

Thus, #endo#, _in_, _on_, the older form of #in#, is an adverb, in an
injunction occurring in a law of the Twelve Tables, 451 B.C., #manum
endo iacitō#, _let him lay hand on_. Similarly, #trāns#, _over_, in
#trānsque datō#, _and he must hand over_, i.e. #trāditōque#.

1403. In the course of time such adverbs became verbal prefixes; the
verbs compounded with them may take the case, accusative or ablative,
required by the meaning of the compound. Thus, #amīcōs adeō#, _I go to
my friends_ (1137); #urbe exeō#, _I go out of town_ (1302).

1404. For distinctness or emphasis, the prefix of the verb may be
repeated before the case: as, #ad amīcōs adeō#; #ex urbe exeō#. And when
it is thus separately expressed before the case, it may be dropped from
the verb: as, #ad amīcōs eō#; #ex urbe eō#.

1405. The preposition thus detached from the verb becomes an attendant
on a substantive, and serves to show the relation of the substantive in
a sentence more distinctly than the case alone could.

1406. A great many adverbs which are never used in composition with a
verb likewise become prepositions: as, #apud#, #circiter#, #īnfrā#,
#iūxtā#, #pōne#, #propter#, &c., &c. The inflected forms of
substantives, #prīdiē#, #postrīdiē# (1413), #tenus# (1420), and #fīnī#
(1419), are also sometimes used as prepositions. And #vicem# (1145),
#causā#, #grātiā#, #nōmine#, #ergō# (1257), resemble prepositions
closely in meaning.

1407. A trace of the original adverbial use of prepositions is sometimes
retained, chiefly in poetry, when the prefix is separated from its word
by what is called _Tmesis_: as, #īre inque gredī#, i.e. #ingredīque#,
Lucr. 4, 887, _to walk and to step off_. #per mihī̆ mīrum vīsum est#,
_DO._ 1, 214, _passing strange it seemed to me_.

1408. Even such words as are used almost exclusively as prepositions
sometimes retain their original adverbial meaning also: as, #adque
adque#, E. in Gell. 10, 29, 2, _and up and up_, _and on and on_, or _and
nearer still and still more near_. #occīsīs ad hominum mīlibus
quattuor#, 2, 33, 5, _about four thousand men being killed_. #susque
dēque#, _Att._ 14, 6, 1, _up and down_, _topsy turvy_, _no matter how_.

1409. On the other hand, some verbal prefixes are never used as separate
prepositions with a substantive. These are called _Inseparable
Prepositions_; they are: #amb-#, _round_, #an-#, _up_, #dis-#, _in two_,
#por-#, _towards_, #rē̆d-#, _back_. Usually also #sēd-#, _apart_ (1417).


PREPOSITIONS USED WITH THE ACCUSATIVE.

1410. The accusative is accompanied by the following prepositions:

#ad#, _to_, #adversus# or #adversum#, _towards_, _against_, #ante#, in
composition also #antid-#, _before_, #apud#, _near_, _at_, #circā#,
#circum#, #circiter#, _round_, _about_, #cis#, #citrā#, _this side of_,
#contrā#, _opposite to_, #ergā#, _towards_, #extrā#, _outside_, #īnfrā#,
_below_, #inter#, _between_, #intrā#, _within_, #iūxtā#, _near_, #ob#,
_against_, #penes#, _in the possession of_, #per#, _through_, #pōne#,
#post#, in Plautus #postid#, #poste#, #pos#, _behind_, #praeter#,
_past_, #prope# (#propius#, #proximē#), #propter#, _near_, #secundum#,
_after_, #subter#, _under_, #suprā#, _above_, #trāns#, _across_, #uls#,
#ultrā#, _beyond_. For the various shades of meaning and applications of
these prepositions, see the dictionary.

1411. Prepositions which accompany the accusative may be easily
remembered in this order:

  ante, apud, ad, adversum,
  circum, cis, ob, trāns, secundum,
  penes, pōne, prope, per,
  post, and all in -ā and -ter.

1412. Of the above named words some are not used as prepositions till a
relatively late period.

Thus, #īnfrā# is first used as a preposition by Terence and once only;
#circā# somewhat before and #citrā# about Cicero’s time; #ultrā# first
by Cato; #iūxtā# by Varro. In Cicero #iūxtā# is still used only as an
adverb, in Caesar and Nepos as a preposition.

1413. The substantive forms #prīdiē#, _the day before_, and #postrīdiē#,
_the day after_, are sometimes used with an accusative like
prepositions, mostly in Cicero, to denote dates: as, #prīdiē nōnās
Māiās#, _Att._ 2, 11, 2, _the day before the nones of May_, i.e.
_6 May_. #postrīdiē lūdōs Apollinārīs#, _Att._ 16, 4, 1, _the day after
the games of Apollo_, i.e. _6 July_. For the genitive with these words,
see 1232.

1414. The adverb #vorsus# or #versus#, _wards_, occurs as a post
positive (1434) preposition rarely: once in Sallust, #Aegyptum vorsus#,
J. 19, 3, _Egyptwards_, in Cicero a few times, twice in Pliny the elder.
#usque#, _even to_, occurs with names of towns in Terence (once),
Cicero, and later; with appellatives in Cato (once) and late writers.

1415. #clam#, _secretly_, is ordinarily an adverb. But in old Latin it
is used often as a preposition, _unknown to_, with an accusative of a
person. Terence has once the diminutive form #clanculum#, _Ad._ 52. With
the ablative only in the MSS. of Caesar, once, #clam vōbīs#, _C._ 2, 32,
8, _without your knowledge_, and in _Bell. Afr._ 11, 4.

1416. #subter#, _under_, is used in poetry, once by Catullus and once by
Vergil, with the locative ablative: as, #Rhoetēō subter lītore#, Cat.
65, 7, _beneath Rhoeteum’s strand_.


PREPOSITIONS USED WITH THE ABLATIVE.

1417. The ablative is accompanied by the following prepositions:

#abs#, #ab#, or #ā#, _from_, #cōram#, _face to face_, #dē#, _down from_,
_from_, _of_, #ex# or #ē#, _out of_, #prae#, _at the fore_, _in front
of_, #prō#, _before_, #quom# or #cum#, _with_, #sine#, _without_. In
official or legal language, also #sēd# or #sē#, _without_. For the
different classes of ablatives with these prepositions, see 1297-1300;
for the various shades of meanings and applications, see the dictionary.

1418. Prepositions which accompany the ablative may be easily remembered
in this order:

  abs (ab, ā), cum, cōram, dē,
  prae, prō, sine, ex (or ē).

1419. The ablative #fīnī#, _as far as_, is used in old Latin as a
preposition with the ablative: as, #osse fīnī#, Pl. _Men._ 859, _down to
the bone_. #operītō terrā rādīcibus fīnī#, Cato, _RR._ 28, 2, _cover
with loam the length of the roots_. Also, as a real substantive, with a
genitive (1255): as, #ānsārum īnfimārum fīnī#, Cato, _RR._ 113, 2, _up
to the bottom of the handles_. Rarely #fīne#, and before the genitive:
as, #fīne genūs#, O. 10, 537, _as far as the knee_.

1420. #tenus#, _the length_, was originally a substantive accusative
(1151). From Cicero on, it is used as a preposition with the ablative,
and standing after its case: as, #Taurō tenus#, _D._ 36, _not further
than Taurus_. #pectoribus tenus#, L. 21, 54, 9, _quite up to the
breast_. #hāctenus#, _thus far_, _only thus far_. Also, as a real
substantive, with a genitive, usually a plural, mostly in verse (1232):
as, #labrōrum tenus#, Lucr. 1, 940, _the length of the lips_, _up to the
lips_. #Cūmārum tenus#, Cael. in _Fam._ 8, 1, 2, _as far as Cumae_.

1421. The adverbs #palam#, _in presence of_, #procul#, _apart from_,
either _near_ or _far_, #simul#, _with_, are rarely used in poetry and
late prose as prepositions with the ablative. #coram# occurs but once as
a preposition (inscriptional) before Cicero’s time. #absque# with the
ablative occurs once each in Cicero and Quintilian; in Plautus and
Terence only in a coordinate protasis (1701; 2110).


PREPOSITIONS USED WITH THE ACCUSATIVE OR THE ABLATIVE.

1422. Two cases, the accusative and the ablative, are accompanied by the
prepositions in, older #endo#, #indu#, _into_, _in_, #sub#, _under_, and
#super#, _over_, _on_.

1423. (1.) #in# and #sub# accompany the accusative of the end of motion,
the locative ablative of rest: as,

(_a._) #in cūriam vēnimus#, _V._ 4, 138, _we went to the senate-house_.
#in vincla coniectus est#, _V._ 5, 17, _he was put in irons_. #hīc pāgus
eius exercitum sub iugum mīserat#, 1, 12, 5, _this canton had sent his
army under the yoke_. (_b._) #erimus in castrīs#, _Ph._ 12, 28, _we
shall be in camp_. #viridī membra sub arbutō strātus#, H. 1, 1, 21,
_stretched out--his limbs--all under an arbute green_.

1424. Verbs of rest sometimes have #in# with the accusative, because of
an implied idea of motion. And, conversely, verbs of motion sometimes
have #in# with the ablative, because of an implied idea of rest: as,

(_a._) #mihi in mentem fuit#, Pl. _Am._ 180, _it popped into my head_,
i.e. came in and is in (compare #venit hoc mī in mentem#, Pl. _Aul._
226. #in eius potestātem venīre nōlēbant#, _V._ 1, 150. #in eōrum
potestātem portum futūrum intellegēbant#, _V._ 5, 98, _they knew full
well the haven would get under the control of these people_). (_b._)
#Caesar exercitum in hībernīs conlocāvit#, 3, 29, 3, _Caesar put the
army away in winter quarters_, i.e. put them into and left them in. #eam
in lectō conlocārunt#, T. _Eu._ 593, _they laid the lady on her couch_.
So commonly with #locō#, #conlocō#, #statuō#, #cōnstituō#, #pōnō#, and
its compounds. For #expōnō# and #impōnō#, see the dictionary.

1425. (2.) #super# accompanies the ablative when it has colloquially the
sense of #dē#, _about_, _in reference to_: as, #hāc super rē scrībam ad
tē Rēgiō#, _Att._ 16, 6, 1, _I’ll write you about this from Regium_. In
other senses, the accusative, but sometimes in poetry the ablative,
chiefly in the sense of _on_: as, #ligna super focō largē repōnēns#, H.
1, 9, 5, _piling on hearth the faggots high_. #nocte super mediā#, V. 9,
61, _at dead of night_. #paulum silvae super hīs#, H. _S._ 2, 6, 3,
_a bit of wood to crown the whole_.

  [Errata:
  1424a ... compare #venit hoc mī in mentem#
    text unchanged: expected form vēnit
  So commonly with #locō#, #conlocō#
    #locō#. #conlocō#]


COMBINATION OF SUBSTANTIVES BY A PREPOSITION.

1426. (1.) Two substantives are sometimes connected by a preposition, to
indicate certain attributive relations (1043); such are particularly:

(_a._) Place: as, #illam pugnam nāvālem ad Tenedum#, _Mur._ 33, _the
sea-fight off Tenedus_. #excessum ē vītā#, _Fin._ 3, 60, _the departure
from life_. (_b._) Source, origin, material: as, #ex Aethiopiā
ancillulam#, T. _Eu._ 165, _a lady’s maid from Aethiopia_. #pōcula ex
aurō#, _V._ 4, 62, _bowls of gold_ (1314). (_c._) Direction of action,
connection, separation: as, #amor in patriam#, _Fl._ 103, _love of
country_. #vestra ergā mē voluntās#, _C._ 4, 1, _your good will towards
me_. #proelium cum Tūscīs ad Iāniculum#, L. 2, 52, 7, _the battle with
the Tuscans at Janiculum_. #vir sine metū#, _TD._ 5, 48, _a man devoid
of fear_ (1043).

1427. (2.) Very commonly, however, other constructions are used, even to
indicate the relations above: as,

#bellum Venetōrum#, 3, 16, 1, _war with the Venetans_ (1231). #bellō
Cassiānō#, 1, 13, 2, _in the war with Cassius_ (1233). #in aureīs
pōculīs#, _V._ 4, 54, _in golden bowls_ (1233). #scūtīs ex cortice
factīs#, 2, 33, 2, _with long shields made out of bark_ (1314). #post
vīctōriam eius bellī, quod cum Persīs fuit#, _Off._ 3, 49, _after the
victory in the war with the Persians_.

1428. Prepositional expressions are sometimes used predicatively: as,
#sunt omnēs sine maculā#, _Pl._ 6, 14, _they are all without spot or
blemish_. And sometimes they are equivalent to adjectives: as, #contrā
nātūram#, _TD._ 4, 11, _unnatural_, #suprā hominem#, _DN._ 2, 34,
_superhuman_. Or to substantives: as, #sine pondere#, O. 1, 20, _things
without weight_. Or to adverbs: as, #sine labōre#, Pl. _R._ 461,
_easily_.

  [Erratum:
  1426a ... L. 2, 52, 7
    L 2,]


REPETITION OR OMISSION OF A PREPOSITION WITH SEVERAL SUBSTANTIVES.

1429. (1.) A preposition is often repeated with emphasis before two or
more substantives: as,

#in labōre atque in dolōre#, Pl. _Ps._ 685, _in toil and in trouble_.
Particularly so with #et . . . et#, #aut . . . aut#, #nōn sōlum . . .
sed etiam#, #nōn minus ... quam#, &c., &c.: as, #et ex urbe et ex
agrīs#, _C._ 2, 21, _from Rome and from the country too_.

1430. (2.) A preposition is often used with the first only of two or
more substantives: as, #in labōre ac dolōre#, _TD._ 5, 41, _in toil and
trouble_. #incidit in eandem invidiam quam pater suus#, N. 5, 3, 1, _he
fell under the selfsame ban as his father_. Particularly when the second
is in apposition: as, #cum duōbus ducibus, Pyrrhō et Hannibale#, _L._
28, _with two commanders, Pyrrhus and Hannibal_.

  [Erratum:
  1429 ... #nōn minus ... quam#, &c., &c.
    final . missing]


TWO PREPOSITIONS WITH ONE SUBSTANTIVE.

1431. (1.) When two prepositions belong to one and the same substantive,
the substantive is expressed with the first. With the second, the
substantive is repeated, or its place is taken by a pronoun: as,

#contrā lēgem prōque lēge#, L. 34, 8, 1, _against the law and for the
law_. #partim contrā Avītum, partim prō hōc#, _Clu._ 88, _partly against
Avitus, partly for him_. If, however, the two prepositions accompany the
same case, the substantive need not be repeated: as, #intrā extrāque
mūnītiōnēs#, Caes. _C._ 3, 72, 2, _inside and outside the works_.

1432. (2.) The second preposition is often used adverbially, without any
substantive: as, #et in corpore et extrā#, _Fin._ 2, 68, _both in the
body and outside_.


POSITION OF PREPOSITIONS.

1433. In general a preposition precedes its case: see 178.

1434. Disyllabic prepositions sometimes follow their substantives. Thus,
in Cicero, #contrā#, #ultrā#, and #sine#, sometimes stand after a
relative; so likewise #inter# in Cicero, Caesar, and Sallust;
occasionally also #penes# and #propter#. For #versus#, see 1414; for
#fīnī#, 1419; for #tenus#, 1420.

1435. Of monosyllables, #ad# and #dē# often follow a relative. Also
#cum# often in Cicero and Sallust, and regularly in Caesar. With a
personal or a reflexive pronoun, #cum# regularly follows, as #mēcum#,
#nōbīscum#, #sēcum#.

1436. In poetry and late prose, prepositions are freely put after their
cases.

1437. In oaths and adjurations, #per# is often separated from its proper
accusative by the accusative of the object: as, #per tē de͡ōs ōrō#, T.
_Andr._ 538, _I beg thee by the gods_, _in the gods’ name_.


USE OF ADVERBS.

1438. Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, or adverbs.

(_a._) With verbs, all sorts of adverbs are used: as, of Place: #quis
istīc habet?# Pl. _B._ 114, _who lives in there?_ Time: #tum dentēs mihi
cadēbant prīmulum#, Pl. _Men._ 1116, _my teeth were just beginning then
to go_. Number: #bis cōnsul fuerat P. Āfricānus#, _Mur._ 58, _Africanus
had twice been consul_. Degree, Amount: #Ubiī magnopere ōrābant#, 4, 16,
5, _the Ubians earnestly entreated_. #Dumnorīx plūrimum poterat#, 1, 9,
3, _Dumnorix was all-powerful_. Manner: #bene quiēvit, libenter cibum
sūmpsit#, Plin. _Ep._ 3, 16, 4, _he has slept beautifully, he has
relished his food_. (_b._) With adjectives and adverbs, oftenest adverbs
of degree or amount only, or their equivalents, such as #bene#,
#ēgregiē#, &c.: as, #valdē dīligēns#, _Ac._ 2, 98, _very particular_.
#ēgregiē fortis#, _DO._ 2, 268, _exceptionally brave_. Adverbs of
manner, however, are also used, especially in poetry: as, #turpiter
hīrtum#, H. _E._ 1, 3, 22, _disreputably rough_, i.e. disreputable and
rough.

1439. An adverb is sometimes used with the meaning of an adjective: as,

#reliquīs deincēps diēbus#, 3, 29, 1, _the remaining successive days_.
#dē suīs prīvātim rēbus#, 5, 3, 5, _in relation to their personal
interests_. #undique silvae#, Plin. _Ep._ 1, 6, 2, _the surrounding
woods_. Particularly when the substantive expresses character, like an
adjective: as, #vērē Metellus#, _Sest._ 130, _a trueblooded Metellus_.
#rūsticānus vir, sed plānē vir#, _TD._ 2, 53, _a country man, but every
inch a man_.

1440. Perfect participles used as substantives are commonly qualified by
an adverb, and not by an adjective. Particularly so #dictum#, #factum#,
#inventum#, #respōnsum#, with #bene# and #male#, and their synonymes:
as, #rēctē ac turpiter factum#, 7, 80, 5, _heroism and cowardice_. #bene
facta male locāta male facta arbitror#, E. in _Off._ 2, 62, _good deeds
ill put, bad deeds I count_. In superlative qualifications, however, the
adjective is preferred.

1441. Other substantives also may be qualified by an adverb, when a verb
construction or a participle is implied: as, #C. Flāminius cōnsul
iterum#, _Div._ 1, 77, _Flaminius in his second consulship_. #ō totiēns
servos#, H. _S._ 2, 7, 70, _time and again a slave_. #ictū comminus#,
_Caecin._ 43, _by a hand-to-hand blow_. #pūblicē testem#, _V._ 2, 156,
_a government witness_. #populum lātē rēgem#, V. 1, 21, _a nation
regnant wide_. #lātē tyrannus#, H. 3, 17, 9, _lord paramount far and
near_.

1442. An adverb sometimes takes the place of a substantive: as, #cum
amīcī partim dēseruerint mē, partim etiam prōdiderint#, _QFr._ 1, 3, 5,
_since my friends have some of them abandoned me, and others again have
actually betrayed me_, i.e. #aliī . . . aliī#. #postquam satis tūta
circā vidēbantur#, L. 1, 58, 2, _finding every thing round about looked
pretty safe_, i.e. #quae circā erant#. #palam laudārēs, sēcrēta male
audiēbant#, Ta. _H._ 1, 10, _his outward walk you would have admired;
his private life was in bad odour_, i.e. #quae palam fīēbant#.


NEGATIVE ADVERBS.

1443. (1.) The negative oftenest used in declaration or interrogation is
#nōn#, _not_: as,

#nōn metuō mihi#, Pl. _B._ 225, _I fear not for myself_. #nōn semper
imbrēs nūbibus hīspidōs mānant in agrōs#, H. 2, 9, 1, _not always from
the clouds do showers on stubbly fields come dripping dropping down_.
#nōn dīcēs hodiē?# H. _S._ 2, 7, 21, _will you not say without delay?_

1444. #nōn# is a modification of #noenum# or #noenu#, compounded of
#ne#, _no_, and the accusative #oinom# or #oenum#, the older form of
#ūnum#, _one thing_. #noenum# occurs in Plautus twice, in Ennius,
Lucilius, Afranius, and Varro, once each, and #noenu# occurs twice in
Lucretius (99).

1445. Negation is often expressed by other compounds of #ne#. In such
cases the Latin idiom frequently differs from the English, and a
transfer of the negative is required in translation.

Such compounds are: (_a._) Verbs, such as #negō#, #nequeō#, #nesciō#,
#nōlō#: as, #negat vērum esse#, _Mur._ 74, _he maintains it is not
true_. (_b._) Nouns, such as #nēmō#, #neuter#, #nūllus#, #nihil#: as,
#nēminī meus adventus labōrī fuit#, _V._ 1, 16, _my visit did not
trouble anybody_. (_c._) Adverbs, such as #numquam#, #nusquam#. (_d._)
Similarly, the conjunction #neque# is used for _and not_, _but not_,
unless a single word is to be emphasized or contrasted: as, #nec
frūstrā#, 8, 5, 3, _and not in vain_.

1446. A form #nec# is used rarely in old Latin in the sense of #nōn#:
as, #tū dīs nec rēctē dīcis#, Pl. _B._ 119, _thou dost abuse the gods_,
i.e. #nōn rēctē# or #male dīcis#. After Plautus’s time, #nec# for #nōn#
occurs in a few set combinations, such as #nec opīnāns#, _not
expecting_, and, from Livy on, #necdum#, _not yet_, i.e. #nōndum#.

1447. The form #nē# usually introduces an imperative or a subjunctive,
as will be explained further on. But #nē# is also used in the
combination #nē . . . quidem#, _not even_, _not . . . either_, with the
emphatic word between #nē# and #quidem#: as, #nē tum quidem#, 1, 50, 2,
_not even then_. #nē Vorēnus quidem sēsē vāllō continet#, 5, 44, 6,
_Vorenus did not keep inside the palisade either_.

1448. The adjective #nūllus# is sometimes used, chiefly in colloquial
language, for #nōn# or #nē# (1051): as, #Philotīmus nūllus vēnit#,
_Att._ 11, 24, 4, _no Philotimus has shown himself_. #nūllus crēduās#,
Pl. _Tri._ 606, _you needn’t believe it at all_.

1449. (2.) The negative #haut# or #haud#, _not_, is used principally
with adjectives and adverbs, less frequently with verbs: as,

(_a._) #haud mediocris vir#, _RP._ 2, 55, _no ordinary man_. #rem haud
sānē difficilem#, _CM._ 4, _a thing not particularly hard_. #haud
procul#, _CM._ 15, _not far_. In all periods of the language often
combined with #quisquam#, #ūllus#, #umquam#, #usquam#. (_b._) In old
Latin #haud# is freely used with all sorts of verbs, especially with
#possum#. In Cicero, it occurs here and there with a few verbs, such as
#adsentior#, #errō#, #īgnōrō#, #nītor#, #amō#, but is principally
confined to #sciō#, in the combination #haud sciō an#, _I don’t know
but_ (1782). Caesar uses #haud# once only, and then in this combination.

1450. A shorter form, #hau#, occurs often in old Latin, and a few times
in the classical period: as, #heic est sepulcrum hau pulcrum pulcrai
fēminae#, CIL. I, 1007, 2, on the burial site of a woman, _here is the
site not sightly of a sightly dame_. In Plautus it is juxtaposed with
#sciō#, making #hausciō#, i.e. #nesciō#.

1451. (3.) Negation may also be intimated by such words as #vix#,
_hardly_, #parum#, _not . . . enough_, _not quite_, #minus#, _less_,
_not_, #minimē#, _least of all_, #male#, &c.

1452. Two negatives in the same sentence are usually equivalent to an
affirmative.

Thus, with #nōn# first, an indefinite affirmative: as, #nōn nēmō#,
_somebody_, _a certain gentleman_, _one or another_. #nōn nūllus#,
_some_. #nōn nihil#, _something_, _somewhat_. #nōn numquam#,
_sometimes_. With #nōn# second, a universal affirmative: as, #nēmō nōn#,
_everybody_, _every human being_. #nūllus nōn#, _every_. #nihil nōn#,
_every thing_. #numquam nōn#, _always_. #nōn possum nōn cōnfitērī#,
_Fam._ 9, 14, 1, _I must confess_. #nēmō īgnōrat#, _V._ 2, 111,
_everybody knows_.

1453. Sometimes, however, in old Latin, a second negation is used merely
to emphasize the negative idea: as, #lapideō sunt corde multī, quōs nōn
miseret nēminis#, E. in Fest. p. 162, _there’s many a man with heart of
stone, that feels for nobody_. For doubled negatives in compound
sentences, see 1660.

  [Erratum:
  1445 ... (_d._)
    (_d_)]


USE OF DEGREES OF COMPARISON.


THE POSITIVE.

1454. The positive sometimes expresses an idea of disproportion: as,

#prō multitūdine hominum angustōs sē fīnīs habēre arbitrābantur#, 1, 2,
5, _in view of their large numbers they thought they had a cramped place
to live in_. Generally, however, disproportion is expressed as in 1460
or 1461.


THE COMPARATIVE.

1455. When two things only are compared, the comparative is used: as,

#uter igitur melior?# _Div._ 2, 133, _which of the two then is the
better?_ #uter est īnsānior hōrum?# H. _S._ 2, 3, 102, _which of these
two is crazier?_ #uter erātis, tūn an ille, maior?# Pl. _Men._ 1119,
_you were--which of the two the bigger, thou or he?_

1456. The superlative is sometimes loosely used when only two things are
meant: as, #Numitōrī, quī stirpis maximus erat, rēgnum lēgat#, L. 1, 3,
10, _to Numitor, who was the eldest of the family, he bequeaths the
crown_, of two brothers, Numitor and Amulius. #id me͡ā minumē rēfert,
quī sum nātū maxumus#, T. _Ad._ 881, _that is of small concern to me,
who am the eldest son_, says Demea, who has only one brother.

1457. From Cicero on, an adjective or adverb is sometimes compared with
another adjective or adverb. In such comparisons #quam# is always used.

In this case: (_a._) Both members may have the positive form, the first
with #magis#: as, #Celer disertus magis est quam sapiēns#, _Att._ 10, 1,
4, _Celer is more eloquent than wise_. #magis audācter quam parātē#,
_Br._ 241, _with more assurance than preparation_. Or (_b._) Both
members may have the comparative suffix: as, #lubentius quam vērius#,
_Mil._ 78, _with greater satisfaction than truth_. #pestilentia minācior
quam perniciōsior#, L. 4, 52, 3, _a plague more alarming than
destructive_.

1458. But sometimes the second member is put in the positive, even when
the first has the comparative suffix: as, #ācrius quam cōnsīderātē#, Ta.
_H._ 1, 83, _with more spirit than deliberation_. And sometimes both
members: as, #clārīs maiōribus quam vetustīs#, Ta. 4, 61, _of a house
famous rather than ancient_.

1459. The comparative may be modified by ablatives of difference, such
as #multō#, _far_, #aliquantō#, _considerably_, #paullō# or #paulō#, _a
little_, #nimiō#, _too much_, _ever so much_ (1393). Also by #etiam#,
_even_, _still_, and in Catullus, Sallust, Vergil, and later Latin by
#longē#, _far_, #adhūc#, _still_.

1460. The comparative of an adjective or adverb often denotes that which
is more than usual or more than is right: as,

#solēre aiunt rēgēs Persārum plūrēs uxōrēs habēre#, _V._ 3, 76, _they
say the Persian kings generally have several wives_. #senectūs est
nātūrā loquācior#, _CM._ 55, _age is naturally rather garrulous_.
#stomachābātur senex, sī quid asperius dīxeram#, _DN._ 1, 93, _the old
gentleman always got provoked if I said anything a bit rough_.

1461. The comparative of disproportion is often defined by some added
expression: as,

#prīvātīs maiōra focīs#, J. 4, 66, _something too great for private
hearths_ (1321). #flāgrantior aequō nōn dēbet dolor esse virī#, J. 13,
11, _the indignation of a man must not be over hot_ (1330). In Livy and
Tacitus by #quam prō# with the ablative: see the dictionary. Sometimes a
new sentence is added: as, #sum avidior, quam satis est, glōriae#,
_Fam._ 9, 14, 2, _I am over greedy of glory_. For #quam ut# or #quam
quī#, see 1896.

1462. The comparative with a sentence of negative import is often
preferred to the superlative with a positive sentence: as,

#elephantō bēluārum nūlla prūdentior#, _DN._ 1, 97, _of the larger
beasts not one is more sagacious than the elephant_, or _the elephant is
the most sagacious of beasts_. #sequāmur Polybium, quō nēmō fuit
dīligentior#, _RP._ 2, 27, _let us follow Polybius, the most scrupulous
of men_. For #nēmō# or #quis#, the more emphatic #nihil# or #quid# is
often used: as, #Phaedrō nihil ēlegantius, nihil hūmānius#, _DN._ 1, 93,
_Phaedrus was the most refined and sympathetic of men_.

1463. In colloquial language, a comparative suffix is sometimes
emphasized by the addition of #magis#: as, #mollior magis#, Pl. _Aul._
422, _more tenderer_. And sometimes by a mixture of construction, the
comparative is modified by #aequē#, like the positive: as, #homo mē
miserior nūllus est aequē#, Pl. _Mer._ 335, _there’s not a man so
woebegone as I_, for #miserior# alone, or #aequē miser#.

1464. The comparative with the ablative is particularly common, when a
thing is illustrated by some striking typical object, usually an object
of nature. In such illustrations, the positive with _as_ is commonly
used in English: as, #lūce clārius#, _V._ 2, 186, _plain as day_. #ō
fōns Bandusiae, splendidior vitrō#, H. 3, 13, 1, _ye waters of Bandusia,
as glittering as glass_. #melle dulcior ōrātiō#, E. in _CM._ 31, _words
sweet as honey_. #ventīs ōcior#, V. 5, 319, _quick as the winds_. #vacca
candidior nivibus#, O. _Am._ 3, 5, 10, _a cow as white as driven snow_.
#caelum pice nigrius#, O. _H._ 17, 7, _a sky as black as pitch_. #dūrior
ferrō et saxō#, O. 14, 712, _as hard as steel and stone_.


THE SUPERLATIVE.

1465. When more than two things are compared, the superlative is used to
represent a quality as belonging in the highest degree to an individual
or to a number of a class: as,

#proximī sunt Germānīs#, 1, 1, 3, _they live the nearest to the
Germans_. #hōrum omnium fortissimī#, 1, 1, 3, _the bravest of these
all_.

1466. The superlative may be strengthened by the addition of such words
as #ūnus#, _preeminently_, usually with a genitive, #maximē#, #quam#,
with or without a form of #possum#, _as possible_, &c., &c. (1892). In
old Latin by #multō#; from Cicero on, by #longē#, _far_, and #vel#,
_perhaps_, _even_: as,

#cōnfirmāverim rem ūnam esse omnium difficillimam#, _Br._ 25, _I am not
afraid to avouch it is the one hardest thing in the world_. #longē
nōbilissimus#, 1, 2, 1, _the man of highest birth by far_. #quam maximīs
potest itineribus in Galliam contendit#, 1, 7, 1, _he pushes into Gaul
by the quickest marches he can_. #quam mātūrrimē#, 1, 33, 4, _as early
as possible_.

1467. The superlative is also used to denote a very high degree of the
quality.

This superlative, called the _Absolute Superlative_, or the _Superlative
of Eminence_, may be translated by the positive with some such word as
_most_, _very_: as, #homo turpissimus#, _V._ 4, 16, _an utterly
unprincipled man_. Often best by the positive alone: as, #vir
fortissimus, Pīsō Aquītānus#, 4, 12, 4, _the heroic Piso of Aquitain_
(1044).

1468. In exaggerated style, the superlative of eminence may be capped by
a comparative: as, #stultior stultissumō#, Pl. _Am._ 907, _a greater
than the greatest fool_. #ego miserior sum quam tū, quae es miserrima#,
_Fam._ 14, 3, 1, _I am myself more unhappy than you, who are a most
unhappy woman_.



(B.) USE OF THE VERB.


VOICE.


THE ACTIVE VOICE.

1469. In the active voice, the subject is represented as performing the
action of the verb.

1470. By action is meant the operation of any verb, whether active or
passive, and whether used intransitively or transitively.

1471. The active of one verb sometimes serves as the passive of another:
thus, #pereō#, _go to destruction_, _die_, serves as the passive of
#perdō#, _destroy_, and #vēneō#, _go to sale_, _am sold_, as the passive
of #vēndō#, _put for sale_, _sell_. Similarly #fīō#, _become_, _get to
be_, _am made_, is used in the present system as the passive of #faciō#,
_make_ (788).


THE PASSIVE VOICE.

1472. In the passive voice, the subject is represented as acted upon.

1473. The object accusative of the active voice becomes the subject of
the passive voice (1125); and the predicate accusative of the active
voice becomes a predicate nominative with the passive voice (1167).

Thus (_a._) in the active construction: #illum laudābunt bonī, hunc
etiam ipsī culpābunt malī#, Pl. _B._ 397, _the one the good will praise,
the other e’en the bad themselves will blame_. In the passive: #laudātur
ab hīs, culpātur ab illīs#, H. _S._ 1, 2, 11, _he’s praised by some, by
others blamed_. Active: #cīvēs Rōmānōs interficiunt#, 7, 3, 1, _they
slay some citizens of Rome_. Passive: #Indutiomarus interficitur#, 5,
58, 6, _Indutiomarus is slain_. (_b._) Active: #mīlitēs certiōrēs
facit#, 3, 5, 3, _he informs the soldiers_. Passive: #certior factus
est#, 2, 34, _he was informed_.

1474. Verbs which have two accusatives, one of the person and one of the
thing in the active voice, generally have the person as subject in the
passive, less frequently the thing: see 1171.

1475. An emphasizing or defining accusative, or an accusative of extent
or duration, is occasionally made the subject of a passive: as,

#haec illīc est pugnāta pugna#, Pl. _Am._ 253, _this fight was fought
off there_ (1140). #tōta mihī dormītur hiems#, Mart. 13, 59, 1, _all
winter long by me is slept_, i.e. #tōtam dormiō hiemem# (1151).

1476. The person by whom the action is done is put in the ablative with
#ab# or #ā# (1318); the thing by which it is done is put in the
instrumental ablative (1377); as,

(_a._) #nōn numquam latrō ā viātōre occīditur#, _Mil._ 55, _once in a
while the robber gets killed by the wayfarer_. #respondit, ā cīve sē
spoliārī mālle quam ab hoste vēnīre#, Quintil. 12, 1, 43, _he said in
reply that he would rather be plundered by a Roman than sold by an
enemy_ (1471). (_b._) #ūnīus virī prūdentiā Graecia līberāta est#, N. 2,
5, 3, _Greece was saved from slavery by the sagacity of a single man_,
i.e. Themistocles. Very often, however, the person or thing is not
expressed, particularly with impersonals.

1477. When the person is represented as a mere instrument, the ablative
is used without #ab# (1378); and when collectives, animals, or things
without life are personified, the ablative takes #ab# (1318): as,

(_a._) #neque vērō minus Platō dēlectātus est Diōne#, N. 10, 2, 3, _and
Plato on his part was just as much bewitched with Dion_. (_b._) #eius
ōrātiō ā multitūdine et ā forō dēvorābātur#, _Br._ 283, _his oratory was
swallowed whole by the untutored many and by the bar_.

1478. Sometimes the person by whom the action is done is indicated by
the dative of the possessor: see 1216. And regularly with the gerund and
gerundive construction (2243).

1479. Only verbs of transitive use have ordinarily a complete passive.
Verbs of intransitive use have only the impersonal forms of the passive
(1034): as,

#diū atque ācriter pugnātum est#, 1, 26, 1, _there was long and sharp
fighting_. #tōtīs trepidātur castrīs#, 6, 37, 6, _all through the camp
there was tumult and affright_. #mihī̆ quidem persuādērī numquam potuit,
animōs ēmorī#, _CM._ 80, _for my part, I never could be convinced that
the soul becomes extinct at death_ (1181). Similarly verbs which have a
transitive use may also be used impersonally: as, #di͡ēs noctīsque
ēstur, bibitur#, Pl. _Most._ 235, _there is eating and drinking all day
and all night_ (1133).

1480. The complementary dative of a verb in the active voice is in
poetry very rarely made the subject of a passive verb: as, #invideor#,
H. _AP._ 56, _I am envied_. #imperor#, H. _E._ 1, 5, 21, _I charge
myself_.

1481. The passive had originally a reflexive meaning, which is still to
be seen in the passive of many verbs: as,

#exercēbātur plūrimum currendō et lūctandō#, N. 15, 2, 4, _he took a
great deal of exercise in running and wrestling_. #dēnsōs fertur in
hostīs#, V. 2, 511, _he tries to charge upon the serried foes_. #quod
semper movētur, aeternum est#, _TD._ 1, 53, _anything that is always
moving, is eternal_.

1482. The present participle of reflexives is sometimes used in a
reflexive sense: as, #exercēns#, _exercising oneself_, _exercising_,
#ferēns#, _tearing along_, #vehēns#, _riding_, and #invehēns#, _mounted
on_, #pāscēns#, _browsing_, #versāns#, _playing_, _being_, #volvēns#,
_rolling_. Also the gerund: as, #iūs vehendī#, _the privilege of
riding_.

1483. Passive forms of #coepī# and #dēsinō# are commonly used in the
perfect system, when a dependent infinitive is passive: as,

#litterīs ōrātiō est coepta mandārī#, _Br._ 26, _oratory began to be put
in black and white_. #veterēs ōrātiōnēs legī sunt dēsitae#, _Br._ 123,
_the old speeches ceased to be read_. But the active forms are sometimes
used by Cornificius, Sallust, and Livy, and regularly by Tacitus. The
active forms are used with #fierī# also, which is not passive (789); but
even with #fierī#, Livy uses the passive forms.

1484. Similar attractions with a passive infinitive occur in #potestur#,
&c., #quītur# and #quitus sum#, #nequītur#, &c., rarely, and mostly in
old Latin: as, #fōrma in tenebrīs nōscī nōn quitast#, T. _Hec._ 572,
_her shape could hardly be distinguished in the dark_.

1485. Some perfect participles have an active meaning: as, #adultus#,
_grown up_. See 907, and also in the dictionary #cautus#, #cōnsultus#,
#concrētus#, #dēflāgrātus#, #incōnsīderātus#, #occāsus#, #nūpta#.

  [Erratum:
  1482 ... as, #exercēns#
    as.]


DEPONENTS.

1486. Many verbs have only passive inflections, but with the meaning of
active inflections. Such verbs are called _Deponents_.

1487. In many deponents, a reflexive, passive, or reciprocal action is
still clearly to be seen: as,

#nāscor#, _am born_; #moror#, _delay myself_, _get delayed_; #ūtor#,
_avail myself_; #amplectimur#, _hug each other_; #fābulāmur#, _talk
together_; #partīmur#, _share with one another_.

1488. Some verbs have both active and deponent inflections: as,
#adsentiō#, _agree_, more commonly #adsentior#. #mereō#, _earn_, and
#mereor#, _deserve_. See also in the dictionary #altercor#, #auguror#,
#comitor#, #cōnflīctor#, #fabricor#, #faeneror#, #mūneror#, #ōscitor#,
#palpor#, #populor#, #revertor#. The following have active inflections
in the present system and deponent inflections in the perfect system:
#audeō#, #cōnfīdō# and #diffīdō#, #gaudeō#, #soleō#: see also 801.

1489. In old Latin especially, many verbs which afterwards became fixed
as deponents occur with active inflections also: as, #adūlō#, #arbitrō#,
#aucupō#, #auspicō#, #lūctō#, #lūdificō#, #morō#, #partiō#, #venerō#,
&c., &c.

1490. Verbs which are usually deponent are rarely found with a passive
meaning: as, #Sūllānās rēs dēfendere crīminor#, _LAgr._ 3, 13, _I am
charged with defending Sulla’s policy_.

1491. When it is desirable to express the passive of a deponent,
a synonyme is sometimes used: thus, the passive of #mīror#, _admire_,
may sometimes be represented by #laudor#, _am praised_. Or some
circumlocution: as, #habet venerātiōnem quidquid excellit#, _DN._ 1, 45,
_anything best in its kind is looked on with respect_, as passive of
#veneror#. #familia in suspīciōnem est vocāta#, _V._ 5, 10, _the
household was suspected_, as passive of #suspicor#.

1492. The perfect participle of deponents is sometimes used with a
passive meaning. Some of the commonest of these participles are:
#adeptus#, #commentus#, #complexus#, #cōnfessus#, #ēmentītus#,
#expertus#, #meditātus#, #opīnātus#, #pactus#, #partītus#, #testātus#,
&c., &c.


MOOD.


THE INDICATIVE MOOD.


DECLARATIONS.

1493. The indicative mood is used in simple, absolute declarations: as,

#arma virumque canō#, V. 1, 1, _arms and the man I sing_. #leve fit quod
bene fertur onus#, O. _A._ 4, 2, 10, _light gets the load that’s bravely
borne_.

1494. The negative used with the indicative is commonly #nōn#, _not_
(1443). For other negative expressions, see 1445-1451.

1495. Certain verbs and verbal expressions denoting ability, duty,
propriety, necessity, and the like, mostly with an infinitive, are
regularly put in the indicative, even when the action of the infinitive
is not performed.

This applies to declarations, questions, or exclamations: as, (_a._)
#possum dē ichneumonum ūtilitāte dīcere, sed nōlō esse longus#, _DN._ 1,
101, _I might expatiate on the usefulness of the ichneumon, but I do not
care to be long-winded_. #inter ferās satius est aetātem dēgere quam in
hāc tantā immānitāte versārī#, _RA._ 150, _it would be better to pass
your days in the midst of howling beasts than to live and move among
such brutish men_. (_b._) #stultī erat sperāre#, _Ph._ 2. 23, _it would
have been folly to hope_. #quid enim facere poterāmus?# _Pis._ 13, _for
what else could we have done?_ (_c._) #licuit uxōrem genere summō
dūcere#, Pl. _MG._ 680, _I might have married a wife of high degree_.
#nōn potuit pīctor rēctius dēscrībere eius fōrmam#, Pl. _As._ 402, _no
painter could have hit his likeness more exactly_. (_d._) #quantō melius
fuerat prōmissum patris nōn esse servātum#, _Off._ 3, 94, _how much
better it would have been, for the father’s word not to have been kept_.

1496. The principal verbs and verbal expressions thus used are: (_a._)
#possum#, #licet#, #dēbeō#, #oportet#, #convenit#, #decet#. (_b._)
#aequum#, #aequius#, #iūstum#, #fās#, #necesse est#; #cōnsentāneum#,
#satis#, #satius#, #optābile#, #optābilius est#; #ūtilius#, #melius#,
#optimum#, #pār#, #rēctum est#; #facile#, #difficile#, #grave#,
#īnfīnītum#, #longum#, #magnum est#; #est# with the predicative
genitive, or a possessive pronoun (1237). (_c._) Similarly, but without
an infinitive, forms of #sum# with a gerund, a gerundive, or a future
participle.

1497. The imperfect of most of the above verbs and verbal expressions
often relates to action not performed at the present time: as,

#hīs aliās poteram subnectere causās; sed eundum est#, J. 3, 315, _to
these I might add other grounds; but I must go_. The context must
determine whether the imperfect relates (_a._) to action not performed
either in the present as here, or in the past as in 1495, or (_b._) to
action performed in the past: as, #sollicitāre poterat, audēbat#, _C._
3, 16, _he had at once the assurance and the ability to play the
tempter’s part_.

1498. Forms of #possum# are sometimes put in the subjunctive (1554).
Thus, #possim#, &c., often (1556), also #possem#, &c., usually of
present time (1560), less frequently of past time (1559), #potuissem#,
&c., particularly in sentences of negative import (1561), rarely
#potuerim#, &c. (1558). Sometimes also #dēbērem#, &c., of present time
(1560), #dēbuissem#, &c., chiefly in apodosis.


QUESTIONS.

1499. The indicative is the mood ordinarily used in enquiries and in
exclamations: as,

(_a._) #huic ego ‘studēs?’ inquam. respondit ‘etiam.’ ‘ubī̆?’
‘Mediōlānī.’ ‘cūr nōn hīc?’ ‘quia nūllōs hīc praeceptōrēs habēmus,’#
Plin. _Ep._ 4, 13, 3, _said I to the boy, ‘do you go to school?’ ‘yes,
sir,’ said he; ‘where?’ ‘at Mediolanum;’ ‘why not here?’ ‘oh because we
haven’t any teachers here.’_ (_b._) #ut ego tuum amōrem et dolōrem
dēsīderō#, _Att._ 3, 11, 12, _how I always feel the absence of your
affectionate sympathy_.

1500. Questions and exclamations are used much more freely in Latin than
in English. Particularly common are two questions, of which the first is
short and general, leading up to the real question: as,

#sed quid ais? ubi nunc adulēscēns habet?# Pl. _Tri._ 156, _but tell me,
where is the youngster living now?_ #estne? vīcī? et tibī̆ saepe
litterās dō?# Cael. in _Fam._ 8, 3, 1, _is it true? have I beaten? and
do I write to you often?_ The real question is often preceded by #quid
est#, #quid dīcis#, or by #quid#, #quid vērō#, #quid tum#, #quid
posteā#, #quid igitur#, #quid ergō#, &c., &c.: as, #quid? canis nōnne
similis lupō?# _DN._ 1, 97, _why, is not the dog like the wolf?_

1501. There are two kinds of questions: (1.) Such questions as call for
the answer _yes_ or _no_ in English: as, _is he gone?_ These may
conveniently be called _Yes or No Questions_. (2.) Questions introduced
by an interrogative pronoun, or by a word derived from an interrogative
pronoun: as, _who is gone?_ _where is he?_ These are called _Pronoun
Questions_.


YES OR NO QUESTIONS.

1502. (1.) Yes or No questions are sometimes put without any
interrogative particle: as,

#Thraex est Gallīna Syrō pār?# H. _S._ 2, 5, 44, of two gladiators, _is
Thracian Bantam for the Syrian a match?_ Often intimating censure: as,
#rogās?# Pl. _Aul._ 634, _dost ask?_ or _what an absurd question_.
#prōmpsistī tū illī vīnum? :: nōn prōmpsī#, Pl. _MG._ 830, _thou hast
been broaching wine for him? :: not I_. Especially with #nōn#: as,
#patēre tua cōnsilia nōn sentīs?# _C._ 1, 1, _you don’t see that your
schemes are out?_ It is often doubtful whether such sentences are
questions, exclamations, or declarations.

1503. (2.) Yes or No questions are usually introduced by one of the
interrogative particles #-ne# or #-n#, #nōnne#, #num#, #an#, #anne#.

1504. A question with #-ne# or #-n# may enquire simply, without any
implication as to the character of the answer, or it may either expect
an affirmative answer like #nōnne#, or less frequently a negative answer
like #num#: as,

(_a._) #valen?# Pl. _Tri._ 50, _art well?_ #habētin aurum?# Pl. _B._
269, _have you got the gold?_ (_b._) #iussīn in splendōrem darī bullās
hās foribus?# Pl. _As._ 426, _didn’t I give orders to polish up the
bosses of the door?_ #facitne ut dixī?# Pl. _Am._ 526, _isn’t he acting
as I said?_ (_c._) #istō immēnsō spatiō quaerō, Balbe, cūr Pronoea
vestra cessāverit. labōremne fugiēbat?# _DN._ 1, 22, _I want to know,
Balbus, why your people’s Providence lay idle all that immeasurable
time; it was work she was shirking, was it?_ #quid, mundum praeter hunc
umquamne vīdistī? negābis#, _DN._ 1, 96, _tell me, did you ever see any
universe except this one? you will say no_.

1505. Sometimes the #-ne# of an interrogative sentence is transferred to
a following relative, chiefly in Plautus and Terence: as, #rogās? quīne
arrabōnem ā mē accēpistī ob mulierem?# Pl. _R._ 860, _how can you ask,
when you have got the hansel for the girl from me?_ Similarly, #ō sērī
studiōrum, quīne putētis difficile#, H. _S._ 1, 10, 21, _what laggards
at your books, to think it hard_, i.e. #nōnne estis sērī studiōrum, quī
putētis difficile?# Compare 1569.

1506. To a question with #nōnne#, a positive answer is usually expected,
seldom a negative: as,

(_a._) #nōnne meministī? :: meminī vērō#, _TD._ 2, 10, _don’t you
remember? :: oh yes_. Sometimes a second or third question also has
#nōnne#, but oftener #nōn#: as, #nōnne ad tē L. Lentulus, nōn Q. Sanga,
nōn L. Torquātus vēnit?# _Pis._ 77, _did not Lentulus and Sanga and
Torquatus come to see you?_ (_b._) #nōnne cōgitās?# _RA._ 80, _do you
bear in mind?_ #nōnne# is rare in Plautus, comparatively so in Terence,
but very common in classical Latin.

1507. To a question with #num# a negative answer is generally expected.
Less frequently either a positive or a negative answer indifferently:
as,

(_a._) #num negāre audēs?# _C._ 1, 8, _do you undertake to deny it?_
#num, tibi cum faucēs ūrit sitis, aurea quaeris pōcula?# H. _S._ 1, 2,
114, _when thirst thy throat consumes, dost call for cups of gold?_
Rarely #numne#: as, #quid, deum ipsum numne vīdistī?# _DN._ 1, 88, _tell
me, did you ever see god in person?_ (_b._) #sed quid ais? num
obdormīvistī dūdum?# Pl. _Am._ 620, _but harkee, wert asleep a while
ago?_ #numquīd vīs?# Pl. _Tri._ 192, _hast any further wish?_

1508. A question with #an#, less often #anne#, or if negative, with #an
nōn#, usually challenges or comments emphatically on something
previously expressed or implied: as,

#an habent quās gallīnae manūs?# Pl. _Ps._ 29, _what, what, do hens have
hands?_ #an# is also particularly common in argumentative language, in
anticipating, criticising, or refuting an opponent: as, #quid dīcis? an
bellō Siciliam virtūte tuā līberātam?# _V._ 1, 5, _what do you say?
possibly that it was by your prowess that Sicily was rid of the war?_
#at vērō Cn. Pompēī voluntātem ā mē aliēnābat ōrātiō mea. an ille
quemquam plūs dīlēxit?# _Ph._ 2, 38, _but it may be urged that my way of
speaking estranged Pompey from me. why, was there anybody the man loved
more?_ In old Latin, #an# is oftener used in a single than in an
alternative question, while in classical Latin it is rather the reverse.

1509. (3.) Yes or No questions are sometimes introduced by #ecquis#,
#ecquō#, #ecquandō#, or #ēn umquam#: as,

_heus, ecquis hīc est?_ Pl. _Am._ 420, _hollo, is e’er a person here?_
#ecquid animadvertis hōrum silentium?# _C._ 1, 20, _do you possibly
observe the silence of this audience?_ (1144). #ō pater, ēn umquam
aspiciam tē?# Pl. _Tri._ 588, _O father, shall I ever set mine eyes on
thee?_

1510. (4.) In Plautus, #satin# or #satin ut#, _really_, _actually_,
sometimes becomes a mere interrogative or exclamatory particle: as,
#satin abiīt ille?# Pl. _MG._ 481, _has that man really gone his way?_

  [Errata:
  1507a ... H. _S._ 1, 2, 114
    H _S._
  _DN._ 1, 88
    _DN_]


POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ANSWERS.

1511. There are no two current Latin words corresponding exactly with
_yes_ and _no_ in answers.

1512. (1.) A positive answer is expressed by some emphatic word of the
question, repeated with such change as the context may require: as,

#an nōn dīxī esse hoc futūrum? :: dīxtī#, T. _Andr._ 621, _didn’t I say
that this would be? :: you did_. #hūc abiīt Clītiphō :: sōlus? ::
sōlus#, T. _Hau._ 904, _here Clitipho repaired :: alone? :: alone_. The
repeated word may be emphasized by #sānē#, #vērō#: as, #dāsne manēre
animōs post mortem? :: dō vērō#, _TD._ 1, 25, _do you grant that the
soul lives on after death? :: oh yes_. Often, however, adverbs are used,
without the repetition, such as #certē#, #certō#, #etiam#, #factum#,
#ita#, #ita enimvērō#, #ita vērō#, #sānē#, #sānē quidem#, #scīlicet#,
_oh of course_, #vērō#, rarely #vērum#.

1513. (2.) A negative answer is expressed by a similar repetition, with
#nōn# or some other negative added: as,

#estne frāter intus? :: nōn est#, T. _Ad._ 569. _is brother in? :: he’s
not_. Or, without repetition, by such words as #nōn#, #nōn ita#, #nōn
quidem#, #nōn hercle vērō#, #minimē#, #minimē quidem#, #minimē vērō#,
#nihil minus#.

1514. #immō# introduces a sentence rectifying a mistake, implied doubt,
or understatement in a question: as, #nūllane habēs vitia? :: immō alia,
et fortasse minōra#, H. _S._ 1, 3, 20, _have you no faults? :: I beg
your pardon, other faults, and peradventure lesser ones_. #causa igitur
nōn bona est? immō optima#, _Att._ 9, 7, 4, _isn’t the cause a good one
then? good? yes, more than good, very good_.


ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS.

1515. The alternative question belongs properly under the head of the
compound sentence. But as the interrogative particles employed in the
single question are also used in the alternative question, the
alternative question is most conveniently considered here.

1516. In old English, the first of two alternative questions is often
introduced by the interrogative particle _whether_, and the second by
_or_: as, _whether is it easier to say, Thy sins be forgiven thee, or to
say Arise?_ In modern English, _whether_ is not used thus.

1517. The history of the Latin alternative question is just the reverse
of the English. In old Latin, the first question is very often put
without any interrogative particle. Later, in the classical period, the
use of #-ne#, or oftener of #utrum#, etymologically the same as
_whether_, is overwhelmingly predominant.

1518. In the simplest form of the alternative sentence, neither question
is introduced by an interrogative particle: as,

#quid agō? adeō, maneō?# T. _Ph._ 736, _what shall I do? go up and
speak, or wait?_ (1531).

1519. Of two alternative questions, the first either has no
interrogative particle at all, or is more commonly introduced by
#utrum#, #-ne#, or #-n#. The second is introduced by #an#, rarely by
#anne#, or if it is negative, by #an nōn#: as,

(_a._) #album an ātrum vīnum pōtās?# Pl. _Men._ 915, _do you take light
wine or dark?_ #Tacitus es an Plīnius?# Plin. _Ep._ 9, 23, 3, _are you
Tacitus or Pliny?_ #sortiētur an nōn?# _PC._ 37, _will he draw lots or
not?_ (_b._) #iam id porrō utrum libentēs an invītī dabant?# _V._ 3,
118, _then furthermore did they offer it voluntarily or did they consent
to give it under stress?_ #utrum cētera nōmina in cōdicem acceptī et
expēnsī dīgesta habēs an nōn?# _RC._ 9, _have you all other items
methodically posted in your ledger or not?_ (_c._) #servosne es an
līber?# Pl. _Am._ 343, _art bond or free?_ #esne tū an nōn es ab illō
mīlitī Macedoniō?# Pl. _Ps._ 616, _art thou or art thou not the
Macedonian captain’s man?_ #videōn Clīniam an nōn?# T. _Hau._ 405, _do I
see Clinia or not?_

1520. #necne# for #an nōn# is rare: as, #sēmina praetereā linquontur
necne animāī corpore in exanimō?# Lucr. 3, 713, _are seeds moreover left
or not of soul within the lifeless frame?_ Twice in Cicero: as, #sunt
haec tua verba necne?# _TD._ 3, 41, _are these your words or not?_ But
#necne# is common in indirect questions.

1521. Instead of a single second question with #an#, several questions
may be used if the thought requires it, each introduced by #an#.

1522. Sometimes an introductory #utrum# precedes two alternative
questions with #-ne# and #an#: as, #utrum tū māsne an fēmina ’s?# Pl.
_R._ 104, _which is it, art thou man or maid?_ This construction has its
origin in questions in which #utrum# is used as a live pronoun: as,
#utrum māvīs? statimne nōs vēla facere an paululum rēmigāre?# _TD._ 4,
9, _which would you rather do, have us make sail at once, or row just a
little bit?_ In Horace and late prose, #utrumne . . . an# is found a few
times.

1523. Sometimes a second alternative question is not put at all: as,
#utrum hōc bellum nōn est?# _Ph._ 8, 7, in old English, _whether is not
this war?_

1524. Two or more separate questions asked with #-ne . . . -ne#, or with
#num ... num#, must not be mistaken for alternative questions: as, #num
Homērum, num Hēsiodum coēgit obmūtēscere senectūs?# _CM._ 23, _did
length of days compel either Homer or Hesiod to hush his voice?_ (1692).

1525. An alternative question is answered by repeating one member or
some part of it, with such changes as the context may require.


PRONOUN QUESTIONS.

1526. Pronoun questions or exclamations are introduced by interrogative
pronouns, or words of pronoun origin.

Such words are: (_a._) #quis#, #quī#, #quoius#, #uter#, #quālis#,
#quantus#, #quotus#: as, #quid rīdēs?# H. _S._ 2, 5, 3, _why dost thou
laugh?_ (1144). #uter est īnsānior hōrum?# H. _S._ 2, 3, 102, _which of
these is the greater crank?_ #hōra quota est?# H. _S._ 2, 6, 44, _what’s
o’clock?_ (_b._) Or #unde#, #ubī̆#, #quō#, #quōr# or #cūr#, #quī#
ablative, _how_, #quīn#, _why not_, #quam#, _how_, #quandō#, #quotiēns#:
as, #unde venīs et quō tendis?# H. _S._ 1, 9, 62, _whence dost thou
come, and whither art thou bound?_ #deus fallī quī potuit?# _DN._ 3, 76,
_how could a god have been taken in?_ (1495). #quam bellum erat
cōnfitērī nescīre#, _DN._ 1, 84, _how pretty it would have been to own
up that you did not know_ (1495).

1527. Sometimes #quīn# loses its interrogative force, and introduces an
impatient imperative, particularly in Plautus and Terence, or an
indicative of sudden declaration of something obvious or startling: as,

(_a._) #quīn mē aspice#, Pl. _Most._ 172, _why look me over, won’t you?_
i.e. #mē aspice, quīn aspicis?# So twice in Cicero’s orations. (_b._)
#quīn discupiō dīcere#, Pl. _Tri._ 932, _why I am bursting with desire
to tell_.

1528. In Plautus, Terence, Horace, and Livy, #ut#, _how_, also is used
in questions: as, #ut valēs?# Pl. _R._ 1304, _how do you do?_ #ut sēsē
in Samniō rēs habent?# L. 10, 18, 11, _how is every thing in Samnium?_
Very commonly, and in Cicero only so, in exclamations also: as, #ut
fortūnātī sunt fabrī ferrāriī, quī apud carbōnēs adsident; semper
calent#, Pl. _R._ 531, _what lucky dogs the blacksmiths be, that sit by
redhot coals; they’re always warm_.

1529. In poetry, #quis#, #uter#, and #quantus# are found a few times
with #-ne# attached; as, #uterne ad cāsūs dubiōs fīdet sibi certius?# H.
_S._ 2, 2, 107, _which of the two in doubtful straits will better in
himself confide?_

1530. Two or more questions or exclamations are sometimes united with
one and the same verb: as,

#unde quō vēnī?# H. 3, 27, 37, _whence whither am I come?_ #quot diēs
quam frīgidīs rēbus absūmpsī#, Plin. _Ep._ 1, 9, 3, _how many days have
I frittered away in utter vapidities_. #quantae quotiēns occāsiōnēs quam
praeclārae fuērunt#, _Mil._ 38, _what great chances there were, time and
again, splendid ones too_.

  [Errata:
  1526 ... Such words are: (_a._) #quis#, #quī#, #quoius#
    #quis# #quī#,
  1527a ... #mē aspice, quīn aspicis?#
    quin]


SOME APPLICATIONS OF QUESTIONS.

1531. A question in the indicative present or future may be used to
intimate command or exhortation, deliberation, or appeal: as,

(_a._) #abin hinc?# T. _Eu._ 861, _will you get out of this?_ #abin an
nōn? :: abeō#, Pl. _Aul._ 660, _will you begone or not? :: I’ll go_.
#quīn abīs?# Pl. _MG._ 1087, _why won’t you begone?_ or _get you gone_,
_begone_. #nōn tacēs?# T. _Ph._ 987, _won’t you just hold your tongue?_
#ecquis currit pollinctōrem arcēssere?# Pl. _As._ 910, _won’t some one
run to fetch the undertaker man?_ #quīn cōnscendimus equōs?# L. 1, 57,
7, _why not mount?_ or _to horse, to horse_. (_b._) #quid est, Crasse,
īmusne sessum?# _DO._ 3, 17, _what say you, Crassus, shall we go and
take a seat?_ #quoi dōnō lepidum novum libellum?# Cat. 1, 1, _unto whom
shall I give the neat new booklet?_ #quid agō? adeō, maneō?# T. _Ph._
736, _what shall I do? go up and speak, or wait?_ (_c._) #eōn? vocō hūc
hominem? :: ī, vocā#, Pl. _Most._ 774, _shall I go, and shall I call him
here? :: go call him_. See also 1623. Such indicative questions occur
particularly in old Latin, in Catullus, in Cicero’s early works and
letters, and in Vergil.

1532. Some set forms occur repeatedly, especially in questions of
curiosity, surprise, incredulity, wrath, or captiousness: as,

#sed quid ais?# T. _Andr._ 575, _but apropos_, or _but by the way_
(1500). #quid istīc?# T. _Andr._ 572, _well, well, have it your way_:
compare #quid istīc verba facimus?# Pl. _E._ 141. #ain tū?# _Br._ 152,
_no, not seriously?_ #itane?# T. _Eu._ 1058, _not really?_ Frequently
#egone#: as, #quid nunc facere cōgitās? :: egone?# T. _Hau._ 608, _what
do you think of doing now? :: what, I?_ In Plautus, threats are
sometimes introduced by #scīn quō modō?# _do you know how?_ i.e. at your
peril.

1533. A question is sometimes united with a participle, or an ablative
absolute, or thrown into a subordinate sentence: as,

#quem frūctum petentēs scīre cupimus illa quō modō moveantur?# _Fin._ 3,
37, _with what practical end in view do we seek to know how yon bodies
in the sky keep in motion?_ #quā frequentiā prōsequente crēditis nōs
illinc profectōs?# L. 7, 30, 21, _by what multitudes do you think we
were seen off when we left that town?_ #‘hominēs’ inquit ‘ēmistī.’ quid
utī faceret?# _Sest._ 84, _‘you bought up men’ says he; with what
purpose?_

  [Erratum:
  1532 ... T. _Andr._ 575,
    575.]


THE INFINITIVE OF INTIMATION.

1534. The infinitive is principally used in subordination, and will be
spoken of under that head. One use, however, of the present infinitive
in main sentences, as a kind of substitute for a past indicative,
requires mention here.

1535. In animated narration, the present infinitive with a subject in
the nominative sometimes takes the place of the imperfect or perfect
indicative: as,

#interim cōtīdiē Caesar Aeduōs frūmentum flāgitāre#, 1, 16, 1, _there
was Caesar meantime every day dunning and dunning the Aeduans for the
grain_. #Diodōrus sordidātus circum hospitēs cursāre, rem omnibus
nārrāre#, _V._ 4, 41, _Diodorus kept running round in sackcloth and
ashes from friend to friend, telling his tale to everybody_. #intereā
Catilīna in prīmā aciē versārī, labōrantibus succurrere#, S. _C._ 60, 4,
_Catiline meantime bustling round in the forefront of battle, helping
them that were sore bestead_. #tum vērō ingentī sonō caelum strepere, et
micāre ignēs, metū omnēs torpēre#, L. 21, 58, 5, _at this crisis the
welkin ringing with a dreadful roar, fires flashing, everybody paralyzed
with fear_. This infinitive occurs in almost all writers, for instance,
Plautus, Terence, Cicero, Horace, and particularly Sallust, Livy, and
Tacitus. Less commonly in Caesar. Usually two or more infinitives are
combined, and infinitives are freely mixed with indicatives. The subject
is never in the second person.

1536. This infinitive is used to sketch or outline persistent, striking,
or portentous action, where description fails; and as it merely
_intimates_ the action, without distinct declaration, and without
notation of time, number, or person, it is called the _Infinitive of
Intimation_. It cannot be adequately represented in English.

1537. The infinitive of intimation is sometimes used without a subject,
when emphasis centres in the action alone; as,

#ubī̆ turrim procul cōnstituī vīdērunt, inrīdēre ex mūrō#, 2, 30, 3,
_when they saw the tower planted some way off, jeer after jeer from the
wall_. #tum spectāculum horribile in campīs patentibus: sequī fugere,
occīdī capī#, S. _I._ 101, 11, _then a heartrending spectacle in the
open fields: chasing and racing, killing and catching_.

1538. Terence and Petronius have it in questions: as, #rēx tē ergō in
oculīs :: scīlicet :: gestāre? :: vērō#, T. _Eu._ 401, _your king then
always bearing you :: of course, of course :: in eye? :: oh yes_. #quī
morī timōre nisi ego?# Petr. 62.

1539. It may be mentioned here, that the infinitive of intimation is
sometimes used from Sallust on in relative clauses and with #cum#,
_when_. Also by Tacitus in a temporal protasis with #ubī̆#, #ut#,
#dōnec#, or #postquam#, co-ordinated with a present or imperfect
indicative protasis: as,

(_a._) #cingēbātur interim mīlite domus, cum Libō vocāre percussōrem#,
Ta. 2, 31, _the house meantime was encompassed with soldiers, when Libo
called for somebody to kill him_ (1869). (_b._) #ubī̆ crūdēscere sēditiō
et ā convīciīs ad tēla trānsībant, inicī catēnās Flāviānō iubet#, Ta.
_H._ 3, 10, _when the riot was waxing hot, and they were proceeding from
invectives to open violence, he orders Flavian to be clapped in irons_
(1933).


THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.


DECLARATIONS.


I. THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF DESIRE.


(A.) WISH.

1540. The subjunctive may be used to express a wish.

Wishes are often introduced by #utinam#, in old and poetical Latin also
by #utī#, #ut#, and curses in old Latin by #quī#; these words were
originally interrogative, _how_. Sometimes the wish is limited by
#modo#, _only_. In negative wishes #nē# is used, either alone, or
preceded by #utinam# or #modo#; rarely #nōn#, or the old-fashioned
#nec#, _not_ (1446).

1541. (1.) The present and perfect represent a wish as practicable;
although a hopeless wish may, of course, if the speaker chooses, be
represented as practicable: as,

(_a._) #tē spectem, suprēma mihī cum vēnerit hōra#, Tib. 1, 1, 59, _on
thee I’d gaze, when my last hour shall come_. #utinam illum diem
videam#, _Att._ 3, 3, _I hope I may see the day_. (_b._) #utinam
cōnēre#, _Ph._ 2, 101, _I hope you may make the effort_. (_c._) #dī
vortant bene quod agās#, T. _Hec._ 196, _may gods speed well whate’er
you undertake_. #quī illum dī omnēs perduint#, T. _Ph._ 123, _him may
all gods fordo_. #ō utinam hībernae duplicentur tempora brūmae#, Prop.
1, 8, 9, _oh that the winter’s time may doubled be_. #utinam revīvīscat
frāter#, Gell. 10, 6, 2, _I hope my brother may rise from his grave_.
#nē istūc Iuppiter sīrit#, L. 28, 28, 11, _now Jupiter forefend_. The
perfect is found principally in old Latin.

1542. The present is very common in asseveration: as,

#peream, nisi sollicitus sum#, _Fam._ 15, 19, 4, _may I die, if I am not
worried_. #sollicitat, ita vīvam, me tua valētūdō#, _Fam._ 16, 20, _your
state of health worries me, as I hope to live_. #ita vīvam, ut maximōs
sūmptūs faciō#, _Att._ 5, 15, 2, _as I hope to be saved, I am making
great outlays_. See also 1622.

1543. The perfect subjunctive sometimes refers to past action now
completed: as, #utinam abierit malam crucem#, Pl. _Poen._ 799, _I hope
he’s got him to the bitter cross_ (1165). #utinam spem implēverim#,
Plin. _Ep._ 1, 10, 3, _I hope I may have fulfilled the expectations_.

1544. (2.) The imperfect represents a wish as hopeless in the present or
immediate future, the pluperfect represents it as unfulfilled in the
past: as,

(_a._) #tēcum lūdere sīcut ipsa possem#, Cat. 2, 9, _could I with thee
but play, e’en as thy mistress’ self_, to Lesbia’s sparrow. #utinam ego
tertius vōbīs amīcus adscrīberer#, _TD._ 5, 63, _would that I could be
enrolled with you myself, as the third friend_, says tyrant Dionysius to
Damon and Phintias. (_b._) #utinam mē mortuum prius vīdissēs#, _QFr._ 1,
3, 1, _I wish you had seen me dead first_. (_c._) #utinam nē in nemore
Pēliō secūribus caesa accēdisset abiēgna ad terram trabēs#, E. in
Cornif. 2, 34, _had but, in Pelion’s grove, by axes felled, ne’er fallen
to the earth the beam of fir_, i.e. for the Argo. #utinam ille omnīs
sēcum cōpiās ēdūxisset#, _C._ 2, 4, _I only wish the man had marched out
all his train-bands with him_.

1545. In old or poetical Latin, the imperfect sometimes denotes
unfulfilled past action, like the usual pluperfect; as, #utinam in
Siciliā perbīterēs#, Pl. _R._ 494, _would thou hadst died in Sicily_.
#utinam tē dī prius perderent#, Pl. _Cap._ 537, _I wish the gods had cut
thee off before_. See 2075.

1546. In poetry, a wish is sometimes thrown into the form of a
conditional protasis with #sī# or #ō sī#: as, #ō sī urnam argentī fōrs
quae mihi mōnstret#, H. _S._ 2, 6, 10, _oh if some chance a pot of money
may to me reveal_.


(B.) EXHORTATION, DIRECTION, STATEMENT OF PROPRIETY.

1547. The subjunctive may be used to express an exhortation,
a direction, or a statement of propriety.

The subjunctive of exhortation is sometimes preceded in old Latin by
#utī# or #ut#, originally interrogative. In negative exhortations or
directions, #nē#, #nēmō#, #nihil#, or #numquam#, &c., is used, rarely
#nōn#.

1548. (1.) The present expresses what is to be done or is not to be done
in the future: as,

(_a._) #hoc quod coepī prīmum ēnārrem#, T. _Hau._ 273, _first let me
tell the story I’ve begun_. #taceam nunc iam#, Pl. _B._ 1058, _let me
now hold my tongue_. #cōnsīdāmus hīc in umbrā#, _Leg._ 2, 7, _let us sit
down here in the shade_. #nē difficilia optēmus#, _V._ 4, 15, _let us
not hanker after impossibilities_. (_b._) HAICE · VTEI · IN ·
COVENTIONID · EXDEICATIS, CIL. I, 196, 23, _this you are to proclaim in
public assembly_. (_c._) #nōmina dēclīnāre et verba in prīmīs puerī
sciant#, Quintil. 1, 4, 22, _first and foremost boys are to know how to
inflect nouns and verbs_. #utī adserventur magnā dīligentiā#, Pl. _Cap._
115, _let them be watched with all due care_. #nē quis tamquam parva
fastīdiat grammaticēs elementa#, Quintil. 1, 4, 6, _let no man look down
on the rudiments of grammar fancying them insignificant_.

1549. (2.) The perfect subjunctive is rare: as, #idem dictum sit#,
Quintil. 1, 1, 8, _the same be said, once for all_. Mostly in
prohibitions: as, #morātus sit nēmō quō minus abeant#, L. 9, 11, 13,
_let no man hinder them from going away_.

1550. In positive commands, the second person singular often has a
definite subject in old or epistolary Latin, and particularly #sīs#, for
the imperative #es# or #estō#. Usually however an indefinite subject
(1030): as,

(_a._) #eās#, Pl. _R._ 519, _be off_. #hīc apud nōs hodiē cēnēs#, Pl.
_Most._ 1129, _dine here with us today_. #cautus sīs, mī Tirō#, _Fam._
16, 9, 4, _you must be careful, dear Tiro_. (_b._) #istō bonō ūtāre, dum
adsit#, _CM._ 33, _enjoy this blessing while you have it with you_.

1551. When a prohibition is expressed in the subjunctive, the second
person of the present is often used in old Latin, sometimes the perfect.
Later, however, the perfect is generally prevalent. In the classical
period, the present is almost confined to poetry. For the imperative in
prohibitions, see 1581-1586.

(_a._) #nē illum verberēs#, Pl. _B._ 747, _you mustn’t thrash the man_.
Once in Horace: #nē sīs patruos mihī#, _S._ 2, 3, 88, _don’t play stern
governor to me_. (_b._) #nē trānsierīs Ibērum#, L. 21, 44, 6, _do not
cross the Iberus_. #quod dubitās nē fēcerīs#, Plin. _Ep._ 1, 18, 5,
_what you have doubt about, never do_.

1552. (3.) The imperfect or (but not in old Latin) pluperfect
subjunctive is sometimes used to express past obligation or necessity:
as,

(_a._) Imperfect: #quae hīc erant cūrārēs#, T. _Hec._ 230, _thou
shouldst have looked to matters here_. #paterētur#, T. _Hau._ 202, _he
should have stood it_. #quod sī meīs incommodīs laetābantur, urbis tamen
perīculō commovērentur#, _Sest._ 54, _well, if they did gloat over my
mishaps, still they ought to have been touched by the danger to Rome_.
#crās īrēs potius#, Pl. _Per._ 710, _you’d better have gone tomorrow_,
i.e. have resolved to go tomorrow. #poenās penderēs#, Pl. _B._ 427,
_thou hadst to pay a penalty_. (_b._) Pluperfect: #restitissēs,
rēpugnāssēs, mortem pugnāns oppetīssēs#, Poet. in _Sest._ 45, _thou
shouldst have made a stand, fought back, and fighting met thy fate_.
#quid facere dēbuistī? frūmentum nē ēmissēs#, _V._ 3, 195, _what ought
you to have done? you should not have bought any wheat_. Usually,
however, past obligation or necessity is expressed by the gerundive
construction, or by some separate verb meaning _ought_ (1496).

  [Errata:
  1548a ... Quintil. 1, 4, 22,
    22.
  #utī adserventur magnā dīligentiā#,
    . for ,
  Quintil. 1, 4, 6
    . invisible]


(C.) WILLINGNESS, ASSUMPTION, CONCESSION.

1553. The subjunctive of desire may be used to denote willingness,
assumption, or concession: as,

#ōderint dum metuant#, Poet. in Suet. _Cal._ 30, _they are welcome to
hate, as long as they fear_. #nē sit sānē summum malum dolor, malum
certē est#, _TD._ 2, 14, _grant for aught I care that pain is not the
worst evil, an evil it certainly is_. #nīl fēcerit, estō#, J. 6, 222,
_he may be guiltless, be it so_.

  [Erratum:
  1553 ... #nē sit sānē summum malum dolor, malum certē est#,
    #certē est#.]


II. THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF ACTION CONCEIVABLE.

1554. The subjunctive is often used to represent action as conceivable,
without asserting that it actually takes place.

In some of its applications, this subjunctive is often more exactly
defined by an expression of doubt or of assurance: as, #fors fuat an# in
Plautus, #forsitan# from Terence on (rarely #forsan#, #fors#),
#fortasse#, _may be_, _perhaps_; #opīnor#, #haud sciō an#, _I fancy_;
#facile#, _easily_, #sine ūllā dubitātiōne#, _unhesitatingly_, &c., &c.
The negative used with this subjunctive is #nōn#.

1555. This subjunctive is particularly common in guarded or diffident
statements: thus, #velim#, _I could wish_, #nōlim#, _I should not be
willing_, #mālim#, _I would rather_, #dīxerim#, _I should say_, are
often preferred to a blunter #volō#, _I insist_, #nōlō#, _I won’t_,
#mālō#, _I prefer_, or #dīcō#, _I say_.

1556. The present denotes action in an indefinite future: as,

(_a._) #ego forsitan in grege adnumerer#, _RA._ 89, _as for me, I might
perhaps be counted in the common herd_. #mūtuom argentum rogem#, Pl.
_Tri._ 758, _money I might borrow_. #haud sciō an rēctē dīcāmus#,
_Sest._ 58, _I rather think we may say with propriety_. (_b._) The
second person singular generally has an imaginary subject (1030): as,
#dīcās hīc forsitan#, J. 1, 150, _here peradventure thou mayst say_,
i.e. anybody may say. #rogēs mē quid sit deus, auctōre ūtar Simōnidē#,
_DN._ 1, 60, _you may ask me what god is; I should follow the lead of
Simonides_. #migrantīs cernās#, V. 4, 401, _thou canst descry them on
the move_ (1635). Often with some generalizing word, such as #saepe#,
#numquam#, #plūrēs#: as, #saepe videās#, H. _S._ 1, 4, 86, _thou oft
canst see_. #Fortūnam citius reperiās quam retineās#, Publil. Syr. 168,
_dame Fortune thou mayst sooner find than bind_. (_c._) #nunc aliquis
dīcat mihi#, H. _S._ 1, 3, 19, _now somebody may say to me_ (more
commonly #dīcet aliquis#, #dīcēs#, 1620). #forsitan aliquis dīcat#, L.
5, 52, 5, _perhaps somebody may say_. #hoc vōbīs incrēdibile videātur#,
_V._ 3, 109, _this may seem incredible to you_.

1557. (1.) The perfect seldom occurs in old Latin. Later, it is rarely
used of past time. In this use it resembles the perfect of concession
(1553): as,

(_a._) #forsitan temere fēcerim#, _RA._ 31, _peradventure I may have
acted rashly_. #errāverim fortasse#, Plin. _Ep._ 1, 23, 2, _I may have
been mistaken perhaps_. (_b._) #concēdō; forsitan aliquis aliquandō eius
modī quippiam fēcerit#, _V._ 2, 78, _I grant it; perhaps somebody, at
some time or other, may have done something of the sort_. #haec ipsa
forsitan fuerint nōn necessāria#, _Br._ 52, _even this may perhaps have
been superfluous_.

1558. (2.) The perfect is oftenest used with a future meaning, and
particularly the first person singular active of verbs meaning _think_
or _say_: as,

(_a._) #nōn facile dīxerim#, _TD._ 5, 121, _I could not readily say_.
#hoc sine ūllā dubitātiōne cōnfirmāverim#, _Br._ 25, _this I can assert
without any hesitation_. #pāce tuā dīxerim#, _TD._ 5, 12, _by your leave
I would say_. The first person plural occurs first in Cornificius, and
is rare: as, #hunc deum rīte beātum dīxerīmus#, _DN._ 1, 52, _such a god
we should be right in pronouncing happy_. (_b._) #plānē perfectum
Dēmosthenem facile dīxerīs#, _Br._ 35, _you would readily pronounce
Demosthenes absolutely perfect_ (1030). #tū vērō eum nec nimis valdē
umquam nec nimis saepe laudāverīs#, _Leg._ 3, 1, _oh no, rest assured
you never can praise him too emphatically nor too often_. #conluviem
istam nōn nisi metū coērcuerīs#, Ta. 14, 44, _such a motley rabble you
can only keep under by terrorism_. (_c._) #forsitan quispiam dīxerit#,
_Off._ 3, 29, _perhaps somebody may say_.

1559. (1.) The imperfect properly denotes action which might have taken
place in the past: as,

(_a._) #nōn ego hoc ferrem calidus iuventā cōnsule Plancō#, H. 3, 14,
27, _this I should not have brooked in my hot youth, in Plancus’
consulate_. (_b._) The second person singular, particularly of verbs
meaning _see_, _make out_, _think_, _say_, generally has an imaginary
subject (1030): as, #vidērēs#, H. _S._ 2, 8, 77, _thou mightst have
seen_. #cernerēs#, L. 22, 7, 12, _you might have descried_. #nescīrēs#,
L. 3, 35, 3, _you could not have told_. #tē columen rē̆ī pūblicae
dīcerēs intuērī#, _Sest._ 19, _you would have sworn you were gazing on a
pillar of the state_. (_c._) #quī vidēret, urbem captam dīceret#, _V._
4, 52, _anybody who saw it, would have said it was a captured city_.
#dīcī hoc in tē nōn potest, posset in Tarquiniō, cum rēgnō esset
expulsus#, _TD._ 1, 88, _this cannot be said in your case; it might have
been said in Tarquin’s, when he was driven from the throne_. #numquam
faceret#, T. _Ph._ 121, _he never would have done it_.

1560. (2.) The imperfect often denotes action not performed at the
present time; so especially #vellem# (#nōllem#, #māllem#): as,

(_a._) #nimis vellem habēre perticam#, Pl. _As._ 589, _I wish so much I
had a stick_. #vellem adesse posset Panaetius; quaererem ex eō#, _TD._
1, 81, _I only wish Panaetius could be with us: I should ask him_
(Panaetius was dead). #cuperem voltum vidēre tuum#, _Att._ 4, 16, 7,
_I should like to see the expression of your face_. #māllem Cerberum
metuerēs#, _TD._ 1, 12, _I would rather you stood in dread of Cerberus_.
#possem idem facere#, _TD._ 1, 84, _I could do the same_. (_b._) #melius
sequerēre cupīdine captam#, O. 14, 28, _better for thee it were a loving
bride to woo_. (_c._) #in hāc fortūnā perūtilis eius opera esset#,
_Att._ 9, 17, 2, _in the present pinch his services would be extremely
valuable_.

1561. The pluperfect represents action which did not take place in the
past: as,

(_a._) #vellem quidem licēret: hoc dīxissem#, _RA._ 138, _I only wish it
were allowed; I should have said so and so_. (_b._) #dedissēs huic animō
pār corpus, fēcisset quod optābat#, Plin. _Ep._ 1, 12, 8, _you might
have given this spirit a body to match; he would have done what he
craved to do_. (_c._) #urbēs et rēgna celeriter tanta nēquitia dēvorāre
potuisset#, _Ph._ 2, 67, _such colossal prodigality might have been
capable of swallowing down cities and kingdoms speedily_. #vīcissent
inprobōs bonī; quid deinde?# _Sest._ 43, _the good might have
overpowered the bad; what next?_

1562. It may be mentioned here, that the subjunctive of action
conceivable often extends to subordinate sentences: see 1731.


QUESTIONS.

1563. I. The subjunctive is often used to ask what action or whether any
action is desired, commanded, proper, or necessary.

In many instances a negative answer or no answer at all is expected The
negative is #nē#, sometimes #nōn#.

(_a._) #quō mē vertam?# _Scaur._ 19, _which way shall I turn?_ #quid
faciam, praescrībe :: quiēscās :: nē faciam, inquis, omnīnō versūs?# H.
_S._ 2, 1, 5, _lay down the law, what I’m to do :: keep still :: wilt
have me write, sayst thou, no verse at all?_ #quid igitur faciam? nōn
eam?# T. _Eu._ 46, _what then am I to do? not go?_ #quid nī meminerim?#
_DO._ 2, 273, _why should not I remember?_ or _of course I remember_.
#huic cēdāmus? huius condiciōnēs audiāmus?# _Ph._ 13, 16, _shall we bow
the knee to him? shall we listen to his terms?_ (_b._) #quid tandem mē
facere decuit? quiēscerem et paterer?# L. 42, 41, 12, _what in the world
ought I to have done? keep inactive and stand it?_

1564. Such questions sometimes have the alternative form: as,
#Corinthiīs bellum indīcāmus, an nōn?# _Inv._ 1, 17, _are we to declare
war against Corinth, or not?_ #utrum indicāre mē e͡i thēnsaurum aequom
fuit, an ego alium dominum paterer fierī hīsce aedibus?# Pl. _Tri._ 175,
_should I have pointed out the hoard to him, or should I have allowed
another to become the owner of this house?_ here #paterer# is equivalent
to #aequom fuit patī# (1495).

1565. II. The subjunctive is often used to ask whether action is
conceivable: as,

(_a._) #quis putet celeritātem ingenī L. Brūtō dēfuisse?# _Br._ 53, _who
can suppose that Brutus lacked ready wit?_ i.e. #nēmō putet# (1556),
#putābit# (1620), or #putāre potest#. #sī enim Zēnōnī licuit, cūr nōn
liceat Catōnī?# _Fin._ 3, 15, _for if it was allowed Zeno, why should
not it be allowed Cato?_ (_b._) #hoc tantum bellum quis umquam
arbitrārētur ab ūnō imperātōre cōnficī posse?# _IP._ 31, _who would ever
have dreamed that this stupendous war could be brought to a close by a
single commander?_ The imperfect sometimes denotes action not performed
at the present time (1560): #quis enim cīvis rēgī nōn favēret?# _D._ 6,
_for what Roman would not feel for the king?_ (_c._) #ego tē vidēre
nōluerim?# _QFr._ 1, 3, 1, _I have objected to seeing you?_

1566. The subjunctive is often used in interrogative outbursts of
surprise, disapprobation, indignation, or captious rejoinder. In such
questions a pronoun, #ego#, #tū# (#ille#), is usually expressed. The
negative is #nōn#.

This subjunctive occurs in Plautus and Terence, in Cicero, oftenest the
letters, in Horace, Vergil, and Livy. Not in Caesar nor Sallust.

1567. (1.) The question may have no interrogative word, or may have
#-ne#, especially in comedy: as,

(_a._) #nōn tacēs? :: taceam?# T. _Ph._ 987, _you hold your tongue :: I
hold my tongue?_ #nē flē :: egone illum nōn fleam?# Pl. _Cap._ 139,
_weep not :: what, I not weep for him?_ #tū pulsēs omne quod obstat?# H.
_S._ 2, 6, 30, _what, you, sir, punch whatever’s in your way?_ #faveās
tū hostī? ille litterās ad tē mittat?# _Ph._ 7, 5, _you, sir, sympathize
with the enemy? he correspond with you?_ #sapiēnsne nōn timeat?# _Ac._
2, 135, _a sage not be afraid?_ (_b._) #ego mihī̆ umquam bonōrum
praesidium dēfutūrum putārem?# _Mil._ 94, _could I have dreamed that I
should ever lack the protection of the patriotic?_ (_c._) #‘apud
exercitum mihī̆ fuerīs’ inquit ‘tot annōs?’# _Mur._ 21, _‘to think of
your having been with the army, bless my soul?’ says he, ‘so many
years.’_ (_d._) #mihī̆ cuiusquam salūs tantī fuisset, ut meam
neglegerem?# _Sull._ 45, _could anybody’s safety have been so important
in my eyes as to make me disregard my own?_

1568. (2.) The question may have #utī# or #ut#: as,

#tē ut ūlla rēs frangat? tū ut umquam tē corrigās?# _C._ 1, 22, _any
thing break you down? you ever reform?_ #pater ut obesse fīlīo dēbeat?#
_Planc._ 31, _a father morally bound to work against his son?_

1569. (3.) The question with #utī# or #ut# is sometimes attended by a
remnant of another question with #-ne# or #-n#. In this combination,
#-ne# either precedes, joined to an emphatic word, or it is attached
directly to #utī# or #ut#: as,

(_a._) #egone ut tē interpellem?# _TD._ 2, 42, _what I? interrupt you?_
#illīne ut impūne concitent fīnitima bella?# L. 4, 2, 12, _what, they be
allowed to stir up border warfare with impunity?_ #virgō haec līberast
:: meane ancilla lībera ut sit, quam ego numquam ēmīsī manū?# Pl. _Cur._
615, _this girl is free :: my servant-girl? she to be free, when I have
never set her free?_ (_b._) #utne tegam spurcō Dāmae latus?# H. _S._ 2,
5, 18, _what, I’m to shield a nasty Dama’s side?_ #somnium. utine haec
īgnōrāret su͡om patrem?# T. _Ph._ 874, _oh bosh, not to have known the
father that begat her?_ See 1505 and 1532.

1570. It may be mentioned here, that the interrogative subjunctive is
often used in subordinate sentences: see 1731.

  [Erratum:
  1565a ... _Fin._ 3, 15
    _Fin_ 3,]


THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.


COMMAND.

1571. The second person of the imperative mood is used in commands,
either particular or general.

Commands are very often attended by a vocative or vocative nominative,
or by #tū#, _sir_, _sirrah_, or #vōs#, _gentlemen_, _you people_ (1118).
They are of various kinds, as follows: (_a._) Order, often to an
inferior: thus, to an official: #līctor, conligā manūs#, _Rab._ 13, L.
1, 26, 7, Gell. 12, 3, 2, _lictor, tie up his wrists_. To soldiers: as,
#dēsilīte mīlitēs#, 4, 25, 3, _overboard, my men_. #sīgnifer, statue
sīgnum#, L. 5, 55, 1, _standardbearer, plant your standard_. #īnfer
mīles sīgnum#, L. 6, 8, 1, _advance your standard, man_, or _charge_. To
sailors: as, #hūc dīrigite nāvēs#, L. 29, 27, 13, _head your galleys
this way_. To slaves: as, #convorrite aedēs scōpīs, agite strēnuē#, Pl.
_B._ 10, _sweep up the house with brooms, be brisk_. Also to an equal:
as, #aperīte aliquis#, Pl. _Mer._ 130, _open the door there somebody_
(1080). Or to a superior: as, #heus, exī, Phaedrome#, Pl. _Cur._ 276,
_ho Phaedromus, come out_. (_b._) Exhortation, entreaty, summons,
request, prayer, imprecation, wish, concession, &c.: as, #vōs vōbīs
cōnsulite#, 7, 50, 5, _every man of you for himself_. #ēs, bibe, animō
obsequere#, Pl. _MG._ 677, _eat, drink, and be merry_. #sperne
voluptātēs#, H. _E._ 1, 2, 55, _scorn thou delights_. #quīn tū ī intrō#,
Pl. _Most._ 815, _go in, go in, won’t you go in?_ (1527). #patent
portae, proficīscere, ēdūc tēcum etiam omnīs tuōs#, _C._ 1, 10, _the
gates are open, march forth; take out all your myrmidons with you too_.
#audī, Iuppiter#, L. 1, 32, 6, _bow down thine ear, Jupiter_. #ī in
crucem#, Pl. _As._ 940, _get you gone to the cross_. #vīve valēque#, H.
_S._ 2, 5, 109, _long live and thrive_, or _farewell_. #tibī̆ habē#, Pl.
_Men._ 690, _you keep it yourself_.

1572. The imperative is often softened by the addition of #amābō#,
#obsecrō#, #quaesō#, _prithee_, _I beg_, or #sīs#, #sultis#, #sōdēs#,
_please_ (97). It is sharpened by #age#, #agedum# or #agidum#, #age
sīs#, _mark me_, or #ī#, _go_, _come on_, or by #modo#, _only_. The
concessive imperative sometimes has #sānē#, _for all me_.

1573. In Plautus and Terence, the enclitic #dum#, _a while_, _a minute_,
_just_, is often attached to the imperative: as, #manedum#, Pl. _As._
585, _wait a minute_. In classical Latin, #dum# is retained with #age#
and #agite#: as, #agedum cōnferte cum illīus vītā P. Sūllae#, _Sull._
72, _come now, compare Sulla’s life with that man’s_ (1075).

1574. It may be mentioned here, that the imperative is often used in the
protasis of a conditional sentence: as,

#tolle hanc opīniōnem, lūctum sustuleris#, _TD._ 1, 30, _do away with
this notion, and you will do away with mourning for the dead_. Once only
in old Latin, but often in late Latin, with a copulative: as, #perge, ac
facile ecfēceris#, Pl. _B._ 695, _start on, and you will do it easily_.

1575. (1.) The third person, and the longer forms of the second person,
are used particularly in laws, legal documents, and treaties, and also
in impressive general rules and maxims: as,

(_a._) #rēgiō imperiō duō suntō#, _Leg._ 3, 8, _there shall be two men
vested with the power of kings_. #amīcitia rēgī Antiochō cum populō
Rōmānō hīs lēgibus estō#, L. 38, 38, 1, _there shall be amity between
king Antiochus and Rome on the following terms_. (_b._) #vīcīnīs bonus
estō#, Cato, _RR._ 4, _always be good to your neighbours_. #mōribus
vīvitō antīquīs#, Pl. _Tri._ 295, _live thou in old-time ways_. The
longer forms are often called the _Future Imperative_.

1576. (2.) The longer forms of the second person are also sometimes used
in the ordinary speech of everyday life: as, #cavētō#, _QFr._ 1, 3, 8,
_beware_. In old Latin, often #ēs#, _be thou_, but in classical Latin,
oftener #estō# (or #sīs#). Usually #habētō#, meaning _keep_, or
_consider_, regularly #scītō#, #scītōte#, _you must know_ (846). In
verse, the long forms may sometimes be due to the metre: as, #hīc hodiē
cēnātō#, Pl. _R._ 1417, _take dinner here today_. #pār prō parī
refertō#, T. _Eu._ 445, _pay tit for tat_. But also without such
necessity: as, #aufertō intrō#, Pl. _Tru._ 914, _take it within_.
#quiētus estō, inquam#, T. _Ph._ 713, _be not concerned, I say_.

1577. (3.) It may be mentioned here, that the longer forms are very
often used in the apodosis of a complex sentence, particularly with a
future or a future perfect protasis: as,

#sī iste ībit, ītō#, Pl. _Ps._ 863, _if he shall go, go thou_. #medicō
mercēdis quantum poscet, prōmittī iubētō#, _Fam._ 16, 14, 1, _you must
order your medical man to be promised all he shall charge in the way of
a fee_. #ubī̆ nihil erit quod scrībās, id ipsum scrībitō#, _Att._ 4, 8b,
4, _when you don’t have anything to write, then write just that_. #cum
ego P. Grānium testem prōdūxerō, refellitō, sī poteris#, _V._ 5, 154,
_when I put Granius on the witness stand, refute him if you can_.

1578. In such combinations, however, the shorter forms are sometimes
found: as, #ubi volēs, accerse#, T. _Andr._ 848, _fetch me when you
will_. And conversely the longer forms are also found with a present
protasis: as, #ūnum illud vidētō, sī mē amās#, _Fam._ 16, 1, 2, _attend
to this one thing, an thou lovest me_.

1579. A command is sometimes expressed by the subjunctive, accompanying
#fac#, #facitō#, #fac ut#, #facitō ut#, #cūrā ut#, #cūrātō ut#, #vidē#,
#vidē ut#, #volō#, or particularly #velim#: as,

#magnum fac animum habeās et spem bonam#, _QFr._ 1, 2, 16, _see that you
keep up an heroic soul and unabated hope_ (1712). #fac cōgitēs#, _Fam._
11, 3, 4, _see that you bear in mind_. #cūrā ut valeās#, _Fam._ 12, 29,
3, _take good care of yourself_. #velim exīstimēs#, _Fam._ 12, 29, 2,
_I should like to have you consider_. For commands in the subjunctive
alone, see 1547; in the future indicative, 1624; in the form of a
question, 1531.

1580. A periphrastic perfect passive form is rare: as, #iūre caesus
estō#, Twelve Tables in Macrob. _Sat._ 1, 4, 19, _he shall be regarded
as killed with justifying circumstances_. #probē factum estō#, L. 22,
10, 6, _let it be considered justified_. #at vōs admonitī nostrīs quoque
cāsibus este#, O. _Tr._ 4, 8, 51, _but be ye warned by our misfortunes
too_.

  [Errata:
  1571 ... Pl. _MG._ 677,
    677.
  1577 ... _Att._ 4, 8b, 4,
    4.]


PROHIBITION.

1581. (1.) In prohibitions with the second person, the imperative with
#nē# is used in old Latin, and with #nēve# as a connective, rarely
#neque#: as,

#nē flē#, Pl. _Cap._ 139, _weep not_. #nē saevī tantō opere#, T. _Andr._
868, _be not thus wroth_. Sometimes in classical poetry also, in
imitation of old style: as, #nē saevī, magna sacerdōs#, V. 6, 544, _rave
not, thou priestess grand_. Once in Livy: #nē timēte#, 3, 2, 9, _be not
afraid_.

1582. From Ovid on, #nōn# is used a few times for #nē#: as, #nōn cārīs
aurēs onerāte lapillīs#, O. _AA._ 3, 129, _load not with precious stones
your ears_.

1583. (2.) Prohibitions in the second person are usually expressed by
#nōlī# or #nōlīte# with the infinitive, particularly in classical prose:
as,

#obiūrgāre nōlī#, _Att._ 3, 11, 2, _don’t scold_. #nōlīte id velle quod
fierī nōn potest#, _Ph._ 7, 25, _don’t yearn after the unattainable_.

1584. In poetry, equivalents for #nōlī# are sometimes used with the
infinitive, such as #fuge#, #parce# or #comperce#, #conpesce#, #mitte#
or #omitte#, #absiste#: as, #quid sit futūrum crās, fuge quaerere#, H.
1, 9, 13, _what fate the morrow brings, forbear to ask_. Livy has once
#parce#, 34, 32, 20.

1585. (3.) A prohibition in the second person is often expressed by the
subjunctive accompanying #cavē̆#, #fac nē#, #vidē nē#, #vidētō nē#,
#cūrā nē#, #cūrātō nē#, or #nōlim#, and in old Latin #cavē̆ nē#: as,

#cavē festīnēs#, _Fam._ 16, 12, 6, _don’t be in a hurry_. #cavētō nē
suscēnseās#, Pl. _As._ 372, _see that thou beest not wroth_. #hoc nōlim
mē iocārī putēs#, _Fam._ 9, 15, 4, _I should hate to have you think I am
saying this in fun_. For prohibitions in the second person with #nē# and
the present or perfect subjunctive, see 1551. For the subjunctive
coordinated with #cavē̆#, see 1711.

1586. In law language, prohibitions are expressed by the third person of
the imperative with #nē#, and with #nēve# as a connective: as,

#hominem mortuom in urbe nē sepelītō nēve ūritō#, Twelve Tables in
_Leg._ 2, 58, _he shall not bury nor yet shall he burn a dead man in
town_. #mulierēs genās nē rāduntō nēve lessum fūneris ergō habentō#,
Twelve Tables in _Leg._ 2, 59, _women shall not tear their cheeks nor
shall they keen in lamentation for the dead_ (1257). Likewise with
#nēmō#: as, #nēminī pārentō#, Twelve Tables in _Leg._ 3, 8, _they shall
not be subject to anybody_. See also 1548.


TENSE.


THE TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE.


THE PRESENT TENSE.

1587. The present indicative represents action as going on at the time
of speaking or writing: as,

#scrībō#, _I write_, or _I am writing_. #nunc prīmum audiō#, T. _Andr._
936, _for the first time I hear_. #notat ad caedem ūnum quemque
nostrūm#, _C._ 1, 2, _he is marking us out for death, each and all_.
#domus aedificātur#, _Att._ 4, 2, 7, _the house is building_.

1588. The present is used to denote action customary or repeated at any
time, or a general truth: as,

#agrī cultūrae nōn student#, 6, 22, 1, _they do not apply themselves to
farming_. #virī in uxōrēs vītae necisque habent potestātem#, 6, 19, 3,
_the married men have power of life and death over their wives_.
#probitās laudātur et alget#, J. 1, 74, _uprightness gets extolled, and
left out in the cold_. #dum vītant stultī vitia, in contrāria currunt#,
H. _S._ 1, 2, 24, _while fools essay a vice to shun, into its opposite
they run_. #mors sōla fatētur quantula sint hominum corpuscula#, J. 10,
172, _death is the only thing that tells what pygmy things men’s bodies
be_. #stultōrum plēna sunt omnia#, _Fam._ 9, 22, 4, _the world is full
of fools_. #rīsū ineptō rēs ineptior nūllast#, Cat. 39, 16, _there’s
nothing sillier than a silly laugh_.

1589. The present, when accompanied by some expression of duration of
time, is often used to denote action which has been going on some time
and is still going on.

This present is translated by the English perfect: as, #Lilybaeī multōs
iam annōs habitat#, _V._ 4, 38, _he has lived at Lilybaeum this many a
year_. #iam dūdum auscultō#, H. _S._ 2, 7, 1, _I have been listening for
an age_. #satis diū hōc iam saxum vorsō#, T. _Eu._ 1085, _I’ve trundled
at this boulder long enough as ’t is_. #nimium diū tē castra
dēsīderant#, _C._ 1, 10, _the camp has felt your absence altogether too
long_. #iam diū īgnōrō quid agās#, _Fam._ 7, 9, 1, _I have not known
this long time how you are getting on_. This use extends to the
subjunctive and to nouns of the verb also. But if the action is
conceived as completed, the perfect is used: as, #sērō resistimus ē̆ī
quem per annōs decem aluimus#, _Att._ 7, 5, 5, _it is too late to oppose
a man whom we have been supporting ten long years_.

1590. The present is often used to represent past action as going on
now. This is called the _Present of Vivid Narration_: as,

#trānsfīgitur scūtum Puliōni et verūtum in balteō dēfīgitur. āvertit hīc
cāsus vāgīnam, inpedītumque hostēs circumsistunt#, 5, 44, 7, _Pulio has
his shield run through, and a javelin sticks fast in his sword belt.
This mischance puts his scabbard out of reach, and the enemy encompass
him in this hampered condition_. This present often stands side by side
with a past tense. It is common in subordinate sentences also.

1591. The present is sometimes used in brief historical or personal
memoranda, to note incidents day by day or year by year as they occur.
This is called the _Annalistic Present_: as,

#Proca deinde rēgnat. is Numitōrem prōcreat. Numitōrī rēgnum vetustum
Silviae gentis lēgat#, L. 1, 3, 9, _after this Proca is king; this man
begets Numitor; to Numitor he bequeaths the ancient throne of the
Silvian race_. #duplicātur cīvium numerus. Caelius additur urbī mōns#,
L. 1, 30, 1, _number of citizens doubled; Mt. Caelius added to city_.
#in Māmurrārum lassī deinde urbe manēmus#, H. _S._ 1, 5, 37, _in the
Mamurras’ city then forspent we sleep_. Particularly common with dates:
as, #A. Vergīnius inde et T. Vetusius cōnsulātum ineunt#, L. 2, 28, 1,
_then Verginius and Vetusius enter on the consulship_. #M. Sīlānō L.
Nōrbānō cōnsulibus Germānicus Aegyptum proficīscitur#, Ta. 2, 59, _in
the consulship of Silanus and Norbanus, Germanicus leaves for Egypt_.

1592. Verbs of hearing, seeing, and saying are often put in the present,
even when they refer to action really past: as,

#audiō Valerium Mārtiālem dēcessisse#, Plin. _Ep._ 3, 21, 1, _I hear
that Martial is dead_, i.e. the epigrammatist, 102 A.D. Particularly of
things mentioned in books, or in quoting what an author says: as,
#Hercyniam silvam, quam Eratosthenī nōtam esse videō#, 6, 24, 2, _the
Hercynian forest, which I see was known to Eratosthenes_. #Platō ‘ēscam
malōrum’ appellat voluptātem#, _CM._ 44, _Plato calls pleasure the ‘bait
of sin.’_

1593. The present is sometimes loosely used of future action: as,

#crās est mihī̆ iūdicium#, T. _Eu._ 338, _tomorrow I’ve a case in
court_. #ego sȳcophantam iam condūcō dē forō#, Pl. _Tri._ 815, _for me,
a sharper from the market place I’ll straight engage_. #quam mox
inruimus?# T. _Eu._ 788, _how soon do we pitch in?_ This present is also
used in subordinate sentences with #antequam# and #priusquam# (1912,
1915), with #dum#, _until_ (2006), and sometimes with #sī#.


THE IMPERFECT TENSE.

1594. The imperfect indicative represents action as going on in past
time: as,

#scrībēbam#, _I was writing_, or _I wrote_. #ei mihi quālis erat#, V. 2,
274, _woe’s me, how ghastly he appeared_. #multōsque per annōs errābant
āctī fātīs#, V. 1, 31, _and they for many a year were roaming round, by
fates pursued_.

1595. The imperfect often denotes past action lasting while something
else occurred: as,

#an tum erās cōnsul, cum mea domus ardēbat?# _Pis._ 26, _were you
perhaps consul at the time my house was burning down?_ #neque vērō tum
īgnōrābat sē ad exquīsīta supplicia proficīscī#, _Off._ 3, 100, _and all
the time he knew perfectly well that he was starting off to suffer
studied torments_.

1596. The imperfect is used to denote repeated or customary past action
or condition: as,

#commentābar dēclāmitāns cōtīdiē#, _Br._ 310, _I always practised
speaking my compositions every day_. #noctū ambulābat in pūblicō
Themistoclēs#, _TD._ 4, 44, _Themistocles used to promenade the streets
nights_.

1597. The imperfect, when accompanied by some expression of duration of
time, is used to denote action which had been going on for some time,
and was still going on.

This imperfect, which is translated by the English pluperfect, is
analogous to the present in 1589: as, #pater grandis nātū iam diū lectō
tenēbātur#, _V._ 5, 16, _his aged father had long been bedridden_.
#hōram amplius iam permultī hominēs mōliēbantur#, _V._ 4, 95, _something
over an hour a good many men had been prizing away_. But if the action
is conceived as completed at a past time, the pluperfect is used: as,
#diem iam quīntum cibō caruerat#, 6, 38, 1, _four whole days he had gone
without eating_.

1598. In a few examples, the imperfect is used to denote action suddenly
recognized, though going on before: as, #ehem, Parmenō, tūn hīc erās?#
T. _Hec._ 340, _why bless me, Parmeno, were you here all this time?_

1599. In descriptions of place or in general truths, where the present
might be expected, the imperfect is sometimes used, by assimilation to
past action in the context: as, #ipsum erat oppidum Alesia in colle
summō#, 7, 69, 1, _Alesia proper was situated on the top of a hill_.
Often also in subordinate sentences.

1600. For the imperfect indicative of certain verbs relating to action
not performed at the present time, see 1497; for the conative use, see
2302.

1601. In letters, the imperfect may denote action at the time of
writing, the writer transferring himself to the time of the reader: as,

#haec tibi dictābam post fānum putre Vacūnae#, H. _E._ 1, 10, 49,
_I dictate this for thee behind Vacuna’s crumbling shrine_. #nihil
habēbam quod scrīberem#, _Att._ 9, 10, 1, _I have nothing to write_.
Similarly in the delivery of messages: as, #scrībae ōrābant#, H. _S._ 2,
6, 36, _the clerks request_. The present, however, is very often used
where the imperfect would be applicable. Compare 1616.


THE PERFECT TENSE.

1602. The Latin perfect indicative represents two English tenses: thus,
the preterite, _I wrote_, and the perfect, _I have written_, are both
expressed by the perfect #scrīpsī#. In the first sense, this perfect is
called the _Historical Perfect_; in the second sense, it is called the
_Perfect Definite_.


THE HISTORICAL PERFECT.

1603. The historical perfect simply expresses action as having occurred
at an indefinite past time, without implying anything as to the duration
of the action: as,

#scrīpsī#, _I wrote_. #vēnī, vīdī, vīcī#, Caesar in Suet. _Iul._ 37,
_came, saw, overcame_. #apud Helvētiōs longē nōbilissimus fuit
Orgetorīx#, 1, 2, 1, _among the Helvetians, the man of highest birth by
all odds was Orgetorix_. #Diodōrus prope triennium domō caruit#, _V._ 4,
41, _for nearly three years Diodorus had to keep away from home_. #in
Graeciā mūsicī flōruērunt, discēbantque id omnēs#, _TD._ 1, 4, _in
Greece musicians stood high, and everybody studied the art_ (1596).

1604. It may be mentioned here, that in subordinate sentences the
historical perfect is sometimes loosely used from the writer’s point of
view, instead of the more exact pluperfect demanded by the context: as,
#aliquantum spatiī ex eō locō, ubī̆ pugnātum est, aufūgerat#, L. 1, 25,
8, _he had run off some distance from the spot where the fighting had
occurred_. See 1925.


THE PERFECT DEFINITE.

1605. The perfect definite expresses action which is already completed
at the present time, and the effects of which are regarded as
continuing: as,

#scrīpsī#, _I have written_. #dīxērunt#, _Clu._ 73, #dīxēre#, Quintil.
1, 5, 43, _they have finished speaking_. #spectātōrēs, fābula haec est
ācta#, Pl. _Most._ 1181, _ladies and gentlemen, this play is done_.

1606. In old Latin, #habeō# with the perfect participle is sometimes
equivalent to a periphrastic perfect: as, #illa omnia missa habeō#, Pl.
_Ps._ 602, _I’ve dropped all that_, i.e. #mīsī#. But in classical Latin,
the participle and a tense of #habeō# are more or less distinct in their
force: as, #Caesar aciem īnstrūctam habuit#, 1, 48, 3, _Caesar kept his
line drawn up_, not _had drawn up_. Compare 2297.

1607. With verbs of inceptive meaning the perfect definite is equivalent
to the English present: as,

#cōnsistō#, _take my stand_, #cōnstitī#, _stand_, #cōnsuēscō#, _get
used_, #cōnsuēvī#, _am used_, #nōscō#, _learn_, #nōvī#, _know_.
Similarly #meminī#, _remember_, and #ōdī#, _hate_. The pluperfect of
such verbs is represented by the English imperfect, and the future
perfect by the English future.

1608. The perfect often denotes a present resulting state: as, #vīcīne,
periī, interiī#, Pl. _Most._ 1031, _my neighbour, I am dead and gone_.
Particularly in the passive voice: as, #Gallia est omnis dīvīsa in
partēs trēs#, 1, 1, 1, _Gaul, including everything under the name, is
divided into three parts_. Compare 1615.

1609. In the perfect passive, forms of #fuī#, &c., are sometimes used to
represent a state no longer existing: as, #monumentō statua
superimposita fuit, quam dēiectam nūper vīdimus ipsī#, L. 38, 56, 3, _on
the monument there once stood a statue which I saw not long ago with my
own eyes, lying flat on the ground_. Similarly, in the pluperfect,
#fueram#, &c.: as, #arma quae fīxa in parietibus fuerant, ea sunt humī
inventa#, _Div._ 1, 74, _the arms which had once been fastened on the
walls were found on the floor_. Sometimes, however, forms of #fuī#, &c.,
#fueram#, &c., and #fuerō#, &c., are used by Plautus, Cicero, especially
in his letters, Nepos, Sallust, and particularly Livy, in passives and
deponents, quite in the sense of #sum#, &c.

1610. The perfect of some verbs may imply a negative idea emphatically
by understatement, as:

#fuit Īlium#, V. 2, 325, _Ilium has been_, i.e. Ilium is no more.
#vīximus, flōruimus#, _Fam._ 14, 4, 5, _we have lived our life, we have
had our day_. #fīlium ūnicum adulēscentulum habeō. āh, quid dīxī? habēre
mē? immō habuī#, T. _Hau._ 93, _I have one only son, a growing boy. Ah
me, what did I say, I have? Oh no, have had._

1611. The perfect may denote an action often done, or never done: as,

#iam saepe hominēs patriam cārōsque parentēs prōdiderunt#, Lucr. 3, 85,
_time and again have men their land betrayed and parents dear_. #nōn
aeris acervus et aurī dēdūxit corpore febrīs#, H. _E._ 1, 2, 47, _no
pile of brass and gold hath fevers from the body drawn_. #multī, cum
obesse vellent, prōfuērunt et, cum prōdesse, obfuērunt#, _DN._ 3, 70,
_many a man has done good, when he meant to do harm, and when he meant
to do good, has done harm_. Common from Cicero, Sallust, and Catullus
on, especially in poetry.

1612. The perfect is sometimes used as a lively future perfect to
express completed future action: as,

#quam mox coctumst prandium?# Pl. _R._ 342, _how soon is lunch all
cooked?_ #cui sī esse in urbe licēbit, vīcimus#, _Att._ 14, 20, 3, _if
he shall be allowed to stay in town, the day is ours_. #periī, sī mē
aspexerit#, Pl. _Am._ 320, _I’m gone, if he lays eyes on me_.

1613. It may be mentioned here, that the perfect is regularly used in a
subordinate sentence denoting time anterior to a present of repeated
action (1588). In such sentences the present is preferred in English:
as,

#reliquī, quī domī mānsērunt, sē atque illōs alunt#, 4, 1, 5,
_the others, that stay at home, always support themselves and the
above-mentioned also_. #sī quī aut prīvātus aut populus eōrum dēcrētō
nōn stetit, sacrificiīs interdīcunt#, 6, 13, 6, _if any man or any
community does not abide by their decree, they always debar them from
sacrifices_. So also with #quom# or #cum#, #quotiēns#, #simul atque#,
#ubī̆#. Compare 1618.

  [Erratum:
  1611 ... #nōn aeris acervus et aurī dēdūxit corpore febrīs#
     auri]


THE PLUPERFECT TENSE.

1614. The pluperfect indicative expresses past action, completed before
another past action expressed or understood: as,

#scrīpseram#, _I had written_. #Pyrrhī temporibus iam Apollō versūs
facere dēsierat#, _Div._ 2, 116, _in Pyrrhus’s day Apollo had quite
given up making poetry_. #mortuus erat Āgis rēx. fīlium relīquerat
Leōtychidem#, N. 17, 1, 4, _Agis the king had died; he had left a son
Leotychides_.

1615. The pluperfect often expresses a past resulting state: as,

#castra oportūnīs locīs erant posita#, 7, 69, 7, _the camp was pitched
on favourable ground_. #ita ūnō tempore et longās nāvēs aestus
complēverat, et onerāriās tempestās adflīctābat#, 4, 29, 2, _thus at one
and the same time the tide had filled the men-of-war, and the gale of
wind kept knocking the transports about_. This use is analogous to that
of the perfect in 1608.

1616. In letters, the pluperfect is sometimes used to denote action
occurring previous to the time of writing, the writer transferring
himself to the time of the reader: as,

#ūnam adhūc ā tē epistolam accēperam#, _Att._ 7, 12, 1, _I have only had
one letter from you thus far_. This use is analogous to that of the
imperfect in 1601, and very often, where this pluperfect would be
applicable, the perfect is used.

1617. The pluperfect is sometimes used where the perfect would be
expected. Particularly so when it anticipates a past tense to follow in
a new sentence: as, #quod factum prīmō populārīs coniūrātiōnis
concusserat. neque tamen Catilīnae furor minuēbātur#, S. _C._ 24, 1,
_this terrified the conspirators at first; and yet Catiline’s frenzy was
not getting abated_. Verbs of saying are also often put in the
pluperfect in subordinate sentences referring to a preceding statement:
as, #Epidamniēnsis ille, quem dūdum dīxeram, adoptat illum puerum
surruptīcium#, Pl. _Men. prol._ 57, _said man of Epidamnus that I named
erewhile adopts said kidnapped boy_.

1618. It may be mentioned here, that the pluperfect is used in a
subordinate sentence denoting time anterior to a past tense of repeated
action. In such sentences the preterite is preferred in English: as,

#hostēs ubī̆ aliquōs singulārēs cōnspexerant, incitātīs equīs
adoriēbantur#, 4, 26, 2, _every time the enemy caught sight of detached
parties, they would always charge full gallop_. Compare the analogous
perfect in 1613.

  [Erratum:
  1617 ... #quod factum prīmō populārīs coniūrātiōnis concusserat#
    popularīs]


THE FUTURE TENSE.

1619. The future indicative expresses future action, either momentary or
continuous: as,

#scrībam#, _I shall write_, _I shall be writing_, or _I will write_, _I
will be writing_. The future commonly expresses either prediction, or
will, determination, promise, threat: as, (_a._) #tuās litterās
exspectābō#, _Att._ 5, 7, _I shall be on the lookout for letters from
you_. (_b._) #vīvum tē nōn relinquam; moriēre virgīs#, _V._ 4, 85,
_I will not leave you alive; you shall die under the rod_. But separate
forms to mark the sharp distinction which exists between _shall_ and
_will_ in the English future and future perfect are utterly unknown in
Latin: thus, in #occīdar equidem, sed victus nōn perībō#, Cornif. 4, 65,
_I shall be murdered, to be sure, but I will not die a vanquished man_,
the difference between the prediction contained in _I shall_, and the
determination contained in _I will_, cannot be expressed in Latin by the
future indicative.

1620. The future is often used in diffident assertion, to express an
assumption, a belief, conviction, or concession, of the speaker himself,
without implying its universal acceptance: as,

#dīcēs#, _TD._ 2, 60, _you will say_. #dīcet aliquis#, _TD._ 3, 46,
_somebody will say_ (1556). #dabit hoc Zēnōnī Polemō#, _Fin._ 4, 51,
_Polemo will concede this point to Zeno_. #excūdent aliī spīrantia
mollius aera, crēdō equidem#, V. 6, 847, _with greater grace, I well
believe, shall others shape the bronze that breathes_. Particularly in
conclusions: as, #sequētur igitur vel ad supplicium beāta vīta
virtūtem#, _TD._ 5, 87, _happiness then will walk with goodness even to
the scaffold_. Or in general truths: as, #cantābit vacuus cōram latrōne
viātor#, J. 10, 22, _the pourë man whan he goth by the weye, bifore the
thevës he may synge and pleye_.

1621. The future sometimes predicts that a thing not yet known to be
true will prove to be true: as, #haec erit bonō genere nāta#, Pl. _Per._
645, _this maid, you’ll find, is come of honest stock_, i.e. #esse
reperiētur#. Compare the imperfect in 1598.

1622. In Plautus and Terence, the future is sometimes used in
protestations, wishes, or thanks: as, #ita mē dī amābunt#, T. _Hau._
749, _so help me heaven_. #dī tē amābunt#, Pl. _Men._ 278, _the gods
shall bless thee_. Usually, however, the subjunctive: see 1542 and 1541.

1623. The future is sometimes used in questions of deliberation or
appeal: as, #dēdēmus ergō Hannibalem?# L. 21, 10, 11, _are we then to
surrender Hannibal?_ #hancine ego ad rem nātam memorābō?# Pl. _R._ 188,
_am I to say that I was born for such a fate?_ Oftener the present
subjunctive (1563), or sometimes the present indicative (1531).

1624. The future is sometimes used, particularly in the second person,
to express an exhortation, a direction, a request, a command, or with
#nōn# a prohibition: as,

#crās ferrāmenta Teānum tollētis#, H. _E._ 1, 1, 86, _tomorrow to Teanum
you will take your tools_. #bonā veniā mē audiēs#, _DN._ 1, 59, _you
will listen to me with kind indulgence_. #tū intereā nōn cessābis#,
_Fam._ 5, 12, 10, _meantime you will not be inactive_. #haec igitur
tibī̆ erunt cūrae#, _Fam._ 3, 9, 4, _you will attend to this then_, i.e.
#haec cūrābis#.

1625. It may be mentioned here, that the future is used in sentences
subordinate to a future, an imperative, or a subjunctive implying a
future: as,

#profectō nihil accipiam iniūriae, sī tū aderis#, _Att._ 5, 18, 3, _I am
sure I shall suffer no harm, if you are with me_. #ut mēd esse volēs,
ita erō#, Pl. _Ps._ 239, _as you will have me be, so will I be_. #ut is
quī audiet, cōgitet plūra, quam videat#, _DO._ 2, 242, _so that the
hearer may imagine more than he sees_. But sometimes a present is used
(1593).


THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.

1626. The future perfect indicative expresses completed future action:
as,

#scrīpserō#, _I shall have written_, or _I will have written_. The
future perfect is very common in Latin, particularly in protasis with a
relative, with #cum#, #ubī̆#, &c., with #antequam# or #priusquam#, with
#ut (... ita)#, _as (... so)_, or with #sī#, to express action anterior
in time to a future; in English, this future perfect is usually
represented by a loose present or perfect: as, #quicquid fēceris,
adprobābō#, _Fam._ 3, 3, 2, _whatever you do, I shall think right_.
Examples will be given further on, in speaking of the complex sentence.

1627. It may be mentioned here that the future perfect in protasis and
apodosis both denotes two actions occurring at one and the same time;
these actions are usually identical: as,

#quī Antōnium oppresserit, is hoc bellum taeterrimum cōnfēcerit#, _Fam._
10, 19, 2, _the man that puts down Antony will put an end to this cruel
war_, i.e. putting down Antony will be ending the war. #respīrārō, sī tē
vīderō#, _Att._ 2, 24, 5, _I shall take breath again, if I set eyes on
you_.

1628. The future perfect sometimes denotes a future resulting state: as,

#molestus certē e͡i fuerō#, T. _Andr._ 641, _at all events I shall have
proved a bane to him_. #meum rē̆ī pūblicae atque imperātōrī officium
praestiterō#, 4, 25, 3, _I will have my duty all done to country and
commander too_.

1629. The future perfect is sometimes used to express rapidity of future
action, often with the implication of assurance, promise, or threat: as,

#abierō#, Pl. _Most._ 590, _I’ll instantly be gone_. #iam hūc revēnerō#,
Pl. _MG._ 863, _B._ 1066, _I’ll be back here again forthwith_. #prīmus
impetus castra cēperit#, L. 25, 38, 17, _the first rush will see the
camp carried_.

1630. The future perfect often denotes action postponed to a more
convenient season, or thrown upon another person.

Often thus with #post#, #aliās#, and particularly #mox#: as, #vōbīs post
nārrāverō#, Pl. _Ps._ 721, _I’ll tell you by and by_, i.e. I won’t tell
you now. #ad frātrem mox īerō#, Pl. _Cap._ 194, _I’ll to my brother’s by
and by_, i.e. not yet. #fuerit ista eius dēlīberātiō#, L. 1, 23, 8,
_that is a question for him to settle_, i.e. not me. Especially
#vīderō#: as, #quae fuerit causa, mox vīderō#, _Fin._ 1, 35, _what the
reason was, I won’t consider now_. #rēctē secusne aliās vīderimus#,
_Ac._ 2, 135, _whether right or not, we will consider some other time_,
i.e. never. #vōs vīderitis#, L. 1, 58, 10, _that is a question for you_,
i.e. not me.

1631. The future perfect sometimes denotes action which will have
occurred while something else takes place: as,

#nōn erō vōbīs morae: tībīcen vōs intereā hīc dēlectāverit#, Pl. _Ps._
573^a, _I will not keep you long; meantime the piper will have
entertained you here_. #tū invītā mulierēs, ego accīverō puerōs#, _Att._
5, 1, 3, _do you, sir, invite the ladies, and I will meantime have
fetched the children_.

1632. The future perfect is often not perceptibly different from the
future, especially in the first person singular in old Latin: as,

#ego mihī prōvīderō#, Pl. _Most._ 526, _I’ll look out for myself_. #erōs
in obsidiōne linquet, inimīcūm animōs auxerit#, Pl. _As._ 280, _he’ll
leave his owners in a state of siege, he’ll swell the courage of the
enemy_. Similarly Cicero, in the protases #sī potuerō#, #sī voluerō#,
#sī licuerit#, #sī placuerit#.

  [Erratum:
  1630 ... not yet. #fuerit ista eius dēlīberātiō#
    . invisible]


THE FUTURE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE WITH #sum#.

1633. The future active participle combined with the tenses of #sum#
expresses action impending, resolved on, or destined, at the time
indicated by the tense of the verb: as,

#cum hōc equite pugnātūrī estis#, L. 21, 40, 10, _with this kind of
cavalry are you going to fight_. #bellum scrīptūrus sum, quod populus
Rōmānus cum Iugurthā gessit#, Sall. _I._ 5, 1, _I purpose to write the
history of the war that the people of Rome carried on with Jugurtha_.
#fīet illud, quod futūrum est#, _Div._ 2, 21, _whatever is destined to
be, will be_. #Delphōs petiīt, ubī̆ columnās, quibus impositūrī statuās
rēgis Perseī fuerant, suīs statuīs dēstināvit#, L. 45, 27, 6, _he went
to Delphi, where he appropriated for his own statues the pillars on
which they had intended to put statues of king Perses_.


THE TENSES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE.

1634. In simple sentences, the tenses of the subjunctive correspond in
general to the same tenses of the indicative. But the present has a
future meaning; the imperfect sometimes expresses past, sometimes
present action; and the perfect sometimes expresses past action, and
sometimes future action.

1635. The present subjunctive is sometimes used in reference to past
action, like the indicative present of vivid narration (1590): as,
#migrantīs cernās#, V. 4, 401, _you can descry them swarming out_
(1556). #comprehendī iussit; quis nōn pertimēscat?# _V._ 5, 14, _he
ordered them to be arrested; who would not be thoroughly scared?_
(1565). See also 2075.



THE COMPOUND SENTENCE, OR COORDINATION.


1636. Two or more independent simple sentences may be coordinated to
form a compound sentence in one of two ways: either without a
connective, or with a connective.

What applies to the coordination of sentences, also applies to the
coordination of the parts of sentences in abridged sentences (1057).


(A.) WITHOUT A CONNECTIVE.

1637. When simple sentences or parts of sentences are coordinated
without any connective, this mode of arrangement is called _Asyndetic
Coordination_ or _Asyndeton_.

Asyndeton, whether in unabridged or in abridged sentences, is more usual
with three or more members than with two. It occurs particularly often
in Plautus, Terence, Ennius, and Cato, also in Cicero, especially in his
early works and letters.

1638. The sentences in which asyndeton occurs are commonly such as might
be connected by words meaning _and_ or _but_; less often by words
meaning _as_, _for_, &c. Asyndeton is especially common:

1639. (_a._) In animated narration of events happening at the same
moment, in description, and in climaxes. Also in mention of colleagues
in office, and in many set phrases and formulas: as,

#vēnī, vīdī, vīcī#, Caesar in Suet. _Iul._ 37, _came, saw, overcame_.
#nostrī celeriter ad arma concurrunt, vāllum cōnscendunt#, 5, 39, 3,
_our men rush speedily to arms, clamber up the palisade_. #huic s. c.
intercessit C. Caelius, C. Pānsa, tribūnī pl.#, _Fam._ 8, 8, 7, _this
decree of the senate was objected to by Caelius and Pansa, tribunes of
the commons_. #hī ferre agere plēbem#, L. 3, 37, 7, _there were these
people worrying and harrying the commons_ (1535).

1640. (_b._) In contrasts or antitheses: as,

#opīniōnis commenta dēlet diēs, nātūrae iūdicia cōnfirmat#, _DN._ 2, 5,
_the fictions of speculation are swept away by time, but the judgements
of nature are confirmed_. Particularly when either member is positive,
the other negative: #vincere scīs, Hannibal, victōriā ūtī nescīs#, L.
22, 51, 4, _you know how to conquer, Hannibal, but not how to use
victory_, says Maharbal after Cannae, 216 B.C.

1641. Asyndeton is very common with two or more imperatives: as,
#ēgredere ex urbe, Catilīna, līberā rem pūblicam metū, in exsilium
proficīscere#, _C._ 1, 20, _go forth from Rome, Catiline, relieve the
commonwealth from its fear, depart into exile_. Particularly when the
first is #age#, _come on_, _mark me_, or #ī#, _go_ (1572). But from
Horace on, #ī nunc#, _go to now_, is followed by #et# with a second
imperative in derisive orders. In old Latin, the imperatives may be
joined by #et# or even #atque#.

1642. Asyndeton is also common with parentheses. These often take the
place of a modern foot-note: as, #lēgātus capite vēlātō fīlō (lānae
vēlāmen est) ‘audī, Iuppiter,’ inquit#, L. 1, 32, 6, _the envoy with his
head covered with a ‘filum’ (that is to say a wrap of wool) says ‘bow
down thine ear, Jupiter.’_ Parentheses however are often introduced,
from Terence on by #nam#, and from Sallust and Cicero on, by #et#,
#neque#, #autem#, #enim#, &c.


(B.) WITH A CONNECTIVE.


(1.) CONJUNCTIONS AS CONNECTIVES.

1643. Simple sentences or parts of sentences may be connected by
copulative, disjunctive, or adversative conjunctions.


(_a._) COPULATIVE CONJUNCTIONS.

1644. Copulative conjunctions denote union, and connect both the
sentences and their meaning. They are #et#, #-que#, #atque# or #ac#,
_and_, and #neque# or #nec#, _neither_.

1645. (1.) #et#, _and_, is the commonest copulative, and connects either
likes or unlikes; with two members only, it is either used between them,
or is prefixed for emphasis to both: as,

#Dumnorīx apud Sēquanōs plūrimum poterat et Helvētiīs erat amīcus#, 1,
9, 3, _Dumnorix was very influential among the Sequani and a friend to
the Helvetians_. #Dēmocritus alba discernere et ātra nōn poterat#, _TD._
5, 114, _Democritus could not tell white and black apart_. #et
discipulus et magister perhibēbantur inprobī#, Pl. _B._ 425, _both pupil
and master were rated as knaves_.

1646. With three or more members, #et# is either used between the
members or, frequently, prefixed for emphasis to all. Often, however, it
is omitted throughout (1637), or a third member is appended by #-que#
(1651): as,

#persuādent Rauricīs et Tulingīs et Latovicīs utī ūnā cum hīs
proficīscantur#, 1, 5, 4, _they induce the Rauricans, Tulingans, and
Latovicans to join them in their march_. #is et in custōdiam cīvēs
Rōmānōs dedit et supplicātiōnem mihī̆ dēcrēvit et indicēs maximīs
praemiīs adfēcit#, _C._ 4, 10, _this person voted in the first place to
put Roman citizens in ward, then to decree a thanksgiving in my honour,
and lastly to reward the informers with liberal gifts_.

1647. Two members belonging closely together as a pair, and connected by
#et#, #atque#, or #-que#, are sometimes put asyndetically with another
member or members: as,

#Aeduī ferunt sē dēiectōs prīncipātū; queruntur fortūnae commūtātiōnem
et Caesaris indulgentiam in sē requīrunt#, 7, 63, 8, _the Aeduans set
forth that they were cast down from the chief place; they complain of
the change of fortune, and say they miss Caesar’s former kindness to
them_. #nūntiātum est equitēs Ariovistī propius tumulum accēdere et ad
nostrōs adequitāre; lapidēs in nostrōs conicere#, 1, 46, 1, _it was
reported that Ariovistus’s cavalry were moving nearer the hillock and
galloping up to the Romans; that they were throwing stones at our men_.

1648. #et# has sometimes the meaning of _also_ or of _and also_,
particularly when there is a change of speakers, or before a pronoun:
as, #et hoc sciō#, Plin. _Ep._ 1, 12, 11, _I know that too_. Sometimes
also after #vērum#, #nam#, and #simul#, especially when a pronoun
follows. Not in Caesar.

1649. (2.) #-que#, _and_, combines members which belong together and
make a whole, though they may be different or opposed to each other; the
second member is often a mere appendage: as,

#rogat ōratque tē#, _RA._ 144, _he begs and entreats you_, or _he
earnestly entreats you_. #lībertī servolīque nōbilium#, _RA._ 141, _the
freedmen and slaves of the great_, or _retainers, bond and free_. #omnēs
ea, quae bona videntur, sequuntur fugiuntque contrāria#, _TD._ 4, 12,
_everybody runs after what seems good and avoids the opposite_. #-que#
is usually put after the first word of the new member. It is
particularly common in old or legal style.

1650. The combination #-que . . . -que#, _both . . . and_, is very
common in poetry: as, #noctēsque diēsque#, E. in _CM._ 1, _both night
and day_. In prose, it is used by Sallust when the first word is a
pronoun: as, #mēque rēgnumque meum#, _I._ 10, 2, _both myself and my
throne_; and by Livy to connect two relative sentences: as, #omnēs
quīque Rōmae quīque in exercitū erant#, 22, 26, 5, _everybody, both
people in Rome and people in the army_.

1651. After two members without a connective, a third member is
sometimes appended by #-que#: as,

#satis habēbat hostem rapīnīs, pābulātiōnibus, populātiōnibusque
prohibēre#, 1, 15, 4, _he was satisfied with keeping the enemy from
plundering, foraging, and ravaging_.

1652. (3.) #atque#, or before any consonant except #h# often #ac#,
_and_, _and besides_, adds something belonging essentially to what goes
before, but more important as a supplement or extension; as,

#sē ex nāvī prōiēcit atque in hostēs aquilam ferre coepit#, 4, 25, 4,
_he sprang overboard and furthermore proceeded to bear the eagle upon
the enemy_. #magna dīs immortālibus habenda est atque huic Iovī Statōrī
grātia#, _C._ 1, 11, _we owe a great debt of gratitude to the gods
immortal in general, and to yon Jove the Stayer in particular_. #atque
. . . atque# occurs for #et . . . et# once in Vergil, and once in Silius
Italicus.

1653. #atque# is used in comparisons, after words of likeness and
unlikeness: as,

#parī spatiō trānsmissus, atque ex Galliā est in Britanniam#, 5, 13, 2,
_the journey across is just as long as it is from Gaul to Britain_.
#īdemque iussērunt simulācrum Iovis facere maius et contrā, atque anteā
fuerat, ad orientem convertere#, _C._ 3, 20, _and they furthermore gave
orders to make a statue of Jupiter, a bigger one, and to turn it round
to the east, the opposite of the way it originally faced_. Sometimes
#et# is thus used after #alius#, #aliter#, #aequē#, #pariter#, &c.: see
the dictionary.

1654. With adjectives and adverbs in the comparative degree, #atque#
sometimes takes the place of #quam# _than_, when the first member of
comparison is negative (1895): as, #amīcior mihi nūllus vīvit atque is
est#, Pl. _Mer._ 897, _I have no greater friend alive than that man is_.
So in Plautus, Terence, Lucretius, Catullus, Vergil, rarely in Cicero,
and in Horace even when the first member is positive.

1655. A sentence is often introduced by #et#, #-que#, or #atque#, where
_but_ would be used in English, particularly so when a positive sentence
follows a negative one: as,

#Sōcratēs nec patrōnum quaesīvit nec iūdicibus supplex fuit adhibuitque
līberam contumāciam#, _TD._ 1, 71, _Socrates did not try to find an
advocate nor bow the knee to his judges, but he was plain-spoken and
defiant_. #nostrōrum mīlitum impetum hostēs ferre nōn potuērunt ac terga
vertērunt#, 4, 35, 2, _the enemy could not stand the dash of our people,
but turned their backs_. #hominis nē Graecī quidem ac Mȳsī potius#,
_QFr._ 1, 1, 19, _a creature who is not even a Greek, but more of a
Mysian_.

1656. Two sentences, one of which would ordinarily be introduced by a
subordinating temporal conjunction, are sometimes, mostly in poetry,
coordinated by #et# or #-que#: as, #dīxit et in silvam pennīs ablāta
refūgit#, V. 3, 258, _she spake, and on her pinions sweeping, vanished
to the wood_, i.e. #simul atque dīxit, refūgit#.

1657. (4.) #neque# or #nec#, _neither_, _nor_, _and . . . not_, _but
. . . not_, is used as a negative copulative, sometimes as a negative
adversative: as,

#opīniōnibus volgī rapimur in errōrem nec vēra cernimus#, _Leg._ 2, 43,
_we are swept into error by the delusions of the world and cannot make
out the truth_. #nōn enim temere nec fortuī̆tō creātī sumus#, _TD._ 1,
118, _for we were not created at adventure nor by accident_. #subsidiō
suīs iērunt collemque cēpērunt, neque nostrōrum mīlitum impetum
sustinēre potuērunt#, 7, 62, 8, _they went to aid their people and
carried the hill, but they could not stand the fiery onset of our
soldiers_. #neque# or #nec# is often repeated: as, #nec meliōrēs nec
beātiōrēs esse possumus#, _RP._ 1, 32, _we can neither be better nor
wiser_.

1658. #nec# is rarely used in the sense of #nē . . . quidem#, _not
even_, _not . . . either_: as, #nec nunc#, H. _S._ 2, 3, 262, _not even
now_, a free quotation of #nē nunc quidem#, T. _Eu._ 46. #nec . . .
quidem#, _and not even_, is used once or twice for the common #ac nē
. . . quidem# or #et nē . . . quidem#.

1659. Instead of #neque# or #nec#, _and not_, the copulatives #et#,
#atque#, rarely #-que#, followed by a negative, #nōn#, #nēmō#, #nihil#,
&c., are sometimes used in Cicero and Livy, less often in old Latin, and
rarely in Caesar and Sallust: as, #quid tū fēcissēs, sī tē Tarentum et
nōn Samarobrīvam mīsissem?# _Fam._ 7, 12, 1, _what would you have done,
if I had sent you to Tarentum, and not to Samarobriva?_ Particularly
thus #et nōn#, or oftener #ac nōn#, in corrections. But ordinarily
#neque# or #nec# is preferred to #et nōn#, and #nec quisquam#, &c., to
#et nēmō#, &c. (1445).

1660. When #neque# is followed by another negative, the assertion is
positive (1452): as,

#nec hoc ille nōn vīdit#, _Fin._ 4, 60, _and the man did not fail to see
this_. This positive use begins with Varro. In old Latin two negatives,
and particularly #neque . . . haud#, are often used, as in old English,
to strengthen the negation (1453).

1661. After a general negative, a word may be emphasized by #nē ...
quidem# or #nōn modo#, or the parts of a compound sentence may be
distributed by #neque . . . neque#, without destroying the negation: as,

#nihil in locīs commūnibus, nē in fānīs quidem, nihil istum neque
prīvātī neque pūblicī tōtā in Siciliā relīquisse#, _V._ 4, 2, _that the
defendant has left nothing untouched in public places, no, not even in
the temples, nothing either in the way of private or of public property,
in all Sicily_. Similarly when a coordinate member is appended with
#neque#: as, #nequeō satis mīrārī neque conicere#, T. _Eu._ 547,
_I can’t quite puzzle out or guess_.


COMBINATION OF DIFFERENT COPULATIVES.

1662. Different copulatives are sometimes combined, as follows.

1663. (1.) The affirmative copulatives #et# and #-que# are sometimes
combined, particularly in abridged sentences: as,

#et Epamīnōndās praeclārē cecinisse dīcitur, Themistoclēsque est habitus
indoctior#, _TD._ 1, 4, _Epaminondas in the first place is said to have
played beautifully, and Themistocles was not considered exactly an
educated man_. This combination is used by Cicero rarely, by Horace in
the satires, and rarely by late writers.

1664. The sequence #-que . . . et# is rare in old Latin, and not used by
Caesar, Vergil, or Horace. #-que . . . atque# is first used by
Lucretius, then by Vergil, Ovid, Livy, and Tacitus.

1665. (2.) Affirmative and negative copulatives are sometimes combined.
Thus #neque# or #nec# combined with #et#, in the sequences #neque . . .
et# and #et . . . neque#, which is rare in old Latin, is common in
Cicero: as,

#nec mīror et gaudeō#, _Fam._ 10, 1, 4, _in the first place I am not
surprised, and in the second place I feel glad_; #neque . . . et nōn#,
however, is rare. #patēbat via et certa neque longa#, _Ph._ 11, 4,
_there lay a road open at once plain and not long_. #neque . . . -que#
begins with Cicero, but is rare (1655), #neque . . . ac# begins with
Tacitus.

1666. Of all the Latin writers, Tacitus aims most at variety by
combination of asyndeton and by the use of different copulatives: as,
#rēgem Rhamsēn Libyā Aethiopiā Mēdīsque et Persīs et Bactriānō ac Scythā
potītum#, 2, 60, _that king Rhamses got control of Libya and Aethiopia
and the Medes and Persians, and the Bactrian and Scythian_.


(_b._) DISJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTIONS.

1667. Disjunctive conjunctions connect the sentences, but disconnect the
meaning. They are #aut#, #vel#, #sīve# or #seu#, #-ve#, and #an#, _or_.
Of these conjunctions, #aut#, #vel#, and #sīve# are often placed before
two or more members of a sentence in the sense of _either . . . or_. And
in poetry, #-ve . . . -ve# sometimes occurs.

1668. (1.) #aut#, _or_, sometimes _or even_, _or at least_, is used
between two members which are to be represented as essentially different
in meaning, and of which one excludes the other: as,

#hīc vincendum aut moriendum, mīlitēs, est#, L. 21, 43, 5, _here you
must conquer, my men, or die_. #hōrae mōmentō cita mors venit aut
victōria laeta#, H. _S._ 1, 1, 7, _within an hour’s brief turn comes
speedy death or victory glad_. #aut vīvam aut moriar#, T. _Ph._ 483,
_I shall either live or die_. #sīderibus dubiīs aut illō tempore quō sē
frīgida circumagunt pigrī serrāca Boōtae#, J. 5, 22, _when stars blink
faint, or even at the time when round rolls slow Boötes’ frigid wain_.
#quā rē vī aut clam agendum est#, _Att._ 10, 12, 5 [10, 12b, 2], _so we
must use force, or at any rate secrecy_. Sometimes #aut# connects
kindred ideas: as, #equī ictī aut vulnerātī cōnsternābantur#, L. 21, 33,
6, _the horses kept getting frantic from being hit or wounded_.

1669. #aut#, in the sense of _otherwise_, _or else_, sometimes
introduces a statement of what necessarily follows, if something else is
not done: as,

#audendum est aliquid ūniversīs, aut omnia singulīs patienda#, L. 6, 18,
7, _you must make some bold dash collectively, or else you must suffer
every thing individually_. #vel# is also occasionally used in this
sense.

1670. (2.) #vel#, _or_, introduces an alternative as a matter of choice
or preference, and often relates merely to the selection of an
expression: as,

#eius modī coniūnctiōnem tēctōrum oppidum vel urbem appellāvērunt#,
_RP._ 1, 41, _such a collection of dwelling-houses they called, well,
a town or a city, whichever you please_. #vel imperātōre vel mīlite mē
ūtiminī#, S. _C._ 20, 16, _use me as your generalissimo or as a private,
whichever you will_. #Catilīnam ex urbe vel ēiēcimus vel ēmīsimus vel
ipsum ēgredientem verbīs prōsecūtī sumus#, _C._ 2, 1, _we have--what
shall I say?--driven Catiline out of town, or allowed him to go out, or,
when he was going out of his own accord, wished him a pleasant journey_.
#vel# is often followed by #etiam#, #potius#, or #dīcam#. From Tacitus
on, #vel# is sometimes used in the sense of #aut#: as, #vincendum vel
cadendum esse#, Ta. 14, 35, _they must do or die_ (1668).

1671. #vel# is sometimes used in the sense of _if you will_, _even_, or
_perhaps_, especially before superlatives, or in the sense of _for
instance_: as,

#huius domus est vel optima Messānae, nōtissima quidem certē#, _V._ 4,
3, _this gentleman’s house is perhaps the finest in all Messana, at any
rate the best known_. #amant tēd omnēs mulierēs, neque iniūriā: vel
illae, quae here palliō mē reprehendērunt#, Pl. _MG._ 58, _the girls all
idolize you, well they may; for instance those that buttonholed me
yesterday_.

1672. (3.) #sīve# or #seu#, _or_, used as a disjunctive conjunction,
denotes a distinction which is not essential, or the speaker’s
uncertainty as to some matter of detail; when used once only, it is
chiefly in corrections, often with #potius#, _rather_, added; as,

#is Ascanius urbem mātrī seu novercae relīquit#, L. 1, 3, 3, _said
Ascanius left the city to his mother, or his stepmother, if you prefer_.
#dīxit Pompēius, sīve voluit#, _QFr._ 2, 3, 2, _Pompey made a speech, or
rather attempted to make one_.

1673. #sīve# is often repeated in the sense of _either_, or _no matter
whether . . . or_: as,

#ita sīve cāsū sīve cōnsiliō deōrum, quae pars calamitātem populō Rōmānō
intulerat, ea prīnceps poenās persolvit#, 1, 12, 6, _thus, no matter
whether from chance or through special providence, the part which had
done damage to Rome was the first to pay penalty in full_.

1674. (4.) #-ve# rarely connects main sentences, usually only the less
important parts of the sentence, or, oftener still, subordinate
sentences: as,

#cūr timeam dubitemve locum dēfendere?# J. 1, 103, _why should I fear or
hesitate to stand my ground?_ #Appius ad mē bis terve litterās mīserat#,
_Att._ 6, 1, 2, _Appius had written me two or three times_. With #nē# it
forms #nēve# or #neu#, which is used as a continuation of #nē# or #ut#:
see 1581; 1586; 1947.

1675. (5.) The interrogative particle #an# sometimes becomes a
disjunctive conjunction, _or_, _or possibly_, _or perhaps_: as,
#Simōnidēs an quis alius#, _Fin._ 2, 104, _Simonides or possibly
somebody else_. Common in Cicero, though not so in his speeches, and in
Livy, commonest in Tacitus.

  [Erratum:
  1667 ... #aut#, #vel#, and #sīve# are often
    #sīve#. are]


(_c._) ADVERSATIVE CONJUNCTIONS.

1676. Adversative conjunctions connect the sentences, but contrast the
meaning. They are #autem#, _on the other hand_, #sed#, #vērum#,
#cēterum#, _but_, #vērō#, _but_, _indeed_, #at#, _but_, #tamen#, #nihilō
minus#, _nevertheless_.

Of these conjunctions, #autem# and #vērō# are put after one word, or
sometimes after two closely connected words; #tamen# is put either at
the beginning, or after an emphatic word.

1677. (1.) #autem#, _again_, _on the other hand_, _however_, simply
continues the discourse by a statement appended to the preceding,
without setting it aside: as,

#hōrum prīncipibus pecūniās, cīvitātī autem imperium tōtīus prōvinciae
pollicētur#, 7, 64, 8, _to the chieftains of this nation on the one hand
he promises moneys, and to the community on the other hand the hegemony
of the whole province_. The opposition in a sentence introduced by
#autem#, _again_, is often so weak that a copulative, _and_, might be
used: as, #ille quī Dī̆ogenem adulēscēns, post autem Panaetium
audierat#, _Fin._ 2, 24, _the man who in his early youth had sat at the
feet of Diogenes, and afterwards of Panaetius_. #autem# is oftenest used
in philosophical or didactic discourse, less frequently in history,
oratory, or poetry.

1678. #autem# is often used in questions: as, #metuō crēdere :: crēdere
autem?# Pl. _Ps._ 304, _I am afraid to trust :: trust, do you say?_

1679. (2.) #sed# or #set#, and #vērum#, _but_, are used either in
restriction, or, after a negative, in direct opposition: as,

#vēra dīcō, sed nēquīquam, quoniam nōn vīs crēdere#, Pl. _Am._ 835,
_I tell the truth, but all in vain, since you are bent not to believe_.
#nōn ego erus tibī, sed servos sum#, Pl. _Cap._ 241, _I am not your
master, but your slave_.

1680. #nōn modo#, or #nōn sōlum#, _not only_, _not alone_, is followed
by #sed etiam# or #vērum etiam#, _but also_, by #sed . . . quoque#, _but
... as well_, or sometimes by #sed# or #vērum# alone: as,

#quī nōn sōlum interfuit hīs rēbus, sed etiam praefuit#, _Fam._ 1, 8, 1,
_who has not had a hand only in these matters, but complete charge_.
#quī omnibus negōtiīs nōn interfuit sōlum, sed praefuit#, _Fam._ 1, 6,
1. #nōn tantum# is sometimes used by Livy, and once or twice by Cicero,
but not by Caesar or Sallust, for #nōn modo#. Livy and Tacitus sometimes
omit #sed# or #vērum#.

1681. #nōn modo# has sometimes the meaning of #nōn dīcam#: as, #nōn modo
ad certam mortem, sed in magnum vītae discrīmen#, _Sest._ 45, _I won’t
say to certain death, but to great risk of life_.

1682. #nōn modo# or #nōn sōlum#, when attended by another negative, may
also be followed by #sed nē . . . quidem#, _but not even_, or #sed vix#,
_but hardly_: as,

#nōn modo tibī̆ nōn īrāscor, sed nē reprehendō quidem factum tuum#,
_Sull._ 50, _so far from being angry with you I do not even criticise
your action_. When both members have the same predicate, usually placed
last, the negation in #nē . . . quidem# or #vix# usually applies to the
first member also: as, #tālis vir nōn modo facere, sed nē cōgitāre
quidem quicquam audēbit, quod nōn audeat praedicāre#, _Off._ 3, 77,
_a man of this kind will not only not venture to do, but not even to
conceive anything which he would not venture to trumpet to the world_,
or _will not venture to conceive, much less do_.

1683. (3.) #cēterum# is sometimes used in the sense of #sed#, in
Terence, Sallust, and Livy. Sometimes also in the sense of #sed rē
vērā#, in Sallust and Tacitus, to contrast reality with pretence.

1684. (4.) #vērō#, _but_, _indeed_, introduces an emphatic contrast or a
climax: as,

#sed sunt haec leviōra, illa vērō gravia atque magna#, _Pl._ 86,
_however, all this is less important, but the following is weighty and
great_. #scīmus mūsicēn nostrīs mōribus abesse ā prīncipis persōnā,
saltāre vērō etiam in vitiīs pōnī#, N. 15, 1, 2, _we know that,
according to our Roman code of ethics, music is not in keeping with the
character of an eminent man, and as to dancing, why that is classed
among vices_. In Plautus, #vērō# is only used as an adverb; its use as
an adversative conjunction begins with Terence. In the historians,
#vērō# is often equivalent to #autem#.

1685. (5.) #at#, _but_, denotes emphatic lively opposition, an
objection, or a contrast: as,

#brevis ā nātūrā nōbīs vīta data est; at memoria bene redditae vītae
sempiterna#, _Ph._ 14, 32, _a short life hath been given by nature unto
man; but the memory of a life laid down in a good cause endureth for
ever_. #at# is often used before a word indicating a person or a place,
to shift the scene, especially in history. In law language, #ast#
sometimes occurs, and #ast# is also sometimes used, generally for the
metre, in Vergil, Horace, and late poetry.

1686. (6.) #tamen#, #nihilō minus#, _nevertheless_.

#accūsātus capitis absolvitur, multātur tamen pecūniā#, N. 4, 2, 6, _he
is accused on a capital charge and acquitted, but is nevertheless fined
in a sum of money_. #minus dolendum fuit rē nōn perfectā, sed poeniendum
certē nihilō minus#, _Mil._ 19, _there was less occasion for sorrow
because the thing was not done, but certainly none the less for
punishment_.

  [Erratum:
  1677 ... 7, 64, 8
    7. 64, 8]


(2.) OTHER WORDS AS CONNECTIVES.

1687. Instead of a conjunction, other words are often used as
connectives: as, #pars . . . pars#, #aliī . . . aliī#; adverbs of order
or time: as, #prīmum#, _first_, or #prīmō#, _at first_ #... deinde . . .
tum#, &c.; and particularly adverbs in pairs: as, #modo . . . modo#,
#tum . . . tum#, less frequently #quā . . . quā#, #simul . . . simul#:
as,

#multitūdō pars prōcurrit in viās, pars in vestibulīs stat, pars ex
tēctīs prōspectant#, L. 24, 21, 8, _part of the throng runs out into the
streets, others stand in the fore-courts, others gaze from the
house-tops_. #prōferēbant aliī purpuram, tūs aliī, gemmās aliī#, _V._ 5,
146, _they produced some of them purple, others frankincense, others
precious stones_. #prīmō pecūniae, deinde imperī cupīdō crēvit#, S. _C._
10, 3, _at first a love of money waxed strong, then of power_. #tum hoc
mihī̆ probābilius, tum illud vidētur#, _Ac._ 2, 134, _one minute this
seems to me more likely, and another minute that_.

1688. Simple sentences may also be coordinated by words denoting
inference or cause, such as #ergō#, #igitur#, #itaque#, _therefore_;
#nam#, #namque#, #enim#, _for_, #etenim#, _for you see_: as,

#adfectus animī in bonō virō laudābilis, et vīta igitur laudābilis bonī
virī, et honesta ergō, quoniam laudābilis#, _TD._ 5, 47, _the
disposition in a good man is praiseworthy, and the life therefore of a
good man is praiseworthy, and virtuous accordingly, seeing it is
praiseworthy_. Of these words, #nam#, #namque#, and #itaque# are usually
put first in the sentence; #enim# and #igitur#, usually after one word,
rarely after two. But in Plautus regularly, and generally in Terence,
#enim# has the meaning of _indeed_, _verily_, _truly_, _depend upon it_,
and may stand at the beginning.

1689. In Plautus, the combination #ergō igitur# occurs, and in Terence
and Livy, #itaque ergō#: as, #itaque ergō cōnsulibus diēs dicta est#, L.
3, 31, 5, _accordingly then a day was set for the trial of the consuls_.

1690. The interrogative #quippe#, _why?_ losing its interrogative
meaning, is also used as a coordinating word, _why_, or _for_: as, #hōc
genus omne maestum ac sollicitum est cantōris morte Tigellī: quippe
benignus erat#, H. _S._ 1, 2, 2, _such worthies all are sad, are
woebegone over Tigellius the minstrel’s death; why he was generosity
itself_.

1691. Simple sentences may also be coordinated by pronominal words, such
as #hinc#, #inde#, _hence_, #eō#, #ideō#, #idcircō#, #proptereā#, _so_,
_on that account_, &c.: as,

#nocte perveniēbant; eō custōdiās hostium fallēbant#, L. 23, 19, 10,
_they got there in the night; in that way they eluded the enemy’s
pickets_. But #eō# and #ideō# are not used thus by Cicero, Caesar, or
Sallust, or #idcircō# and #proptereā# by Cicero or Caesar.

1692. In animated rhetorical discourse any word repeated with emphasis
may serve as a copulative; this is called _Anaphora_: as,

#mīles in forum, mīles in cūriam comitābātur#, Ta. 1, 7, _soldiers went
with him to the forum, soldiers to the senate chamber_. #ēreptī estis ex
interitū, ēreptī sine sanguine, sine exercitū, sine dīmicātiōne#, _C._
3, 23, _you are rescued from death, rescued without bloodshed, without
an army, without a struggle_.

  [Erratum:
  1687 ... #tum . . . tum#, less frequently
    , invisible]


THE INTERMEDIATE COORDINATE SENTENCE.

1693. A sentence coordinate in form with another sentence is often
equivalent in meaning to a subordinate sentence. Such sentences are
called _Intermediate Coordinate Sentences_.

The most varied relations of a subordinate sentence may be thus
expressed by a coordinate sentence, and the combination of the two
coordinate sentences is in sense equivalent to a complex sentence.

1694. Such coordinated sentences are a survival of a more primitive
state of the language. They occur oftenest in Plautus and Terence, in
Cicero’s philosophical works and letters, in Horace’s satires and
epistles, and in Juvenal. In general they have been superseded by
complex sentences, even in the oldest specimens of the language.


1695. I. The relation of the two members may not be indicated by the
mood, but left to be determined from the context.

Thus, in the combination #amat, sapit#, Pl. _Am._ 995, _he is in love,
he shows his sense_, the two members #amat# and #sapit# are alike in
form. But in sense, #sapit# is the main member and #amat# is the
subordinate member. Just what the relation of the #amat# is, whether it
is #sī amat#, _if he is in love_, #cum amat#, _when he is in love_,
#quod amat#, _because he is in love_, or #etsī amat#, _though he is in
love_, &c., &c., is left to the reader to make out. The following are
some of the commonest combinations of this class:

1696. (1.) The coordinated member may stand instead of the commoner
accusative and infinitive with a verb of perceiving, thinking, knowing,
or saying (2175). Such are #crēdō#, #fateor#, #opīnor#, #putō#, #certum
est#, &c.: as,

#lūdōs mē facitis, intellegō#, Pl. _Per._ 802, _you are making game of
me, I am aware_. #nārrō tibī̆: plānē relēgātus mihī̆ videor#, _Att._ 2,
11, 1, _I tell you what, I seem to myself regularly banished_. #spērō,
servābit fidem#, Pl. _E._ 124, _I hope he’ll keep his word_ (2235).

1697. (2.) The coordinated member may be a direct question or an
exclamation.

Thus (_a._) in enquiries calling for an answer: as, #sīgnī dīc quid
est#, Pl. _Am._ 421, _tell me, what is there in the shape of seal?_
(1251). Or (_b._) in ejaculation: as, #viden ut astat furcifer?# Pl.
_Most._ 1172, _seest how the knave is posing there?_ #vidēte quaesō,
quid potest pecūnia#, Pl. _St._ 410, _see pray how all-commanding money
is_. This construction occurs oftenest in comedy, and with an imperative
meaning _say_, _tell_, or _look_. The subordinate construction is the
rule: see 1773.

1698. (3.) The coordinated member rarely represents a relative sentence
(1816): as,

#urbs antīqua fuit, Tyriī tenuēre colōnī#, V. 1, 12, _there was an
ancient town, which Tyrian settlers held_. #est locus, Hesperiam Graī
cōgnōmine dīcunt#, V. 1, 530, _there is a place, the Greeks by name
Hesperia call_, imitated from #est locus Hesperiam quam mortālēs
perhibēbant#, E. in Macrob. _Sat._ 6, 1, _there is a place which sons of
men Hesperia called_.

1699. (4.) The coordinated member may represent a subordinate temporal
member: as,

#vēnit hiemps, teritur Sicuōnia bāca trapētis#, V. _G._ 2, 519, _has
winter come, in mills is Sicyon’s olive ground_ (1860). #vix prōram
attigerat, rumpit Sāturnia fūnem#, V. 12, 650, _scarce had he touched
the prow, Saturnia snaps the rope_, i.e. #cum rumpit# (1869). #lūcēbat
iam ferē, prōcēdit in medium#, _V._ 5, 94, _it was just about light,
when he presents himself before them_. #fuit ōrnandus in Mānīliā lēge
Pompēius; temperātā ōrātiōne ōrnandī cōpiam persecūtī sumus#, _O._ 102,
_when I had to glorify Pompey in the matter of the Manilius law, I went
through the ample material for glorification in moderate language_.

1700. (5.) The coordinated member may be equivalent to a member with
#ut#, expressing result (1965): as,

#iam faxō sciēs#, T. _Eu._ 663, _I’ll let you know at once_, i.e.
#sciās# (1712) or #ut sciās# (1965). #iam faxō hīc erunt#, Pl. _B._ 715,
_I’ll warrant they shall soon be here_. #adeō rēs rediīt, adulēscentulus
victus est#, T. _Hau._ 113, _things came to such a pass the youngster
was put down_. #cētera dē genere hōc, adeō sunt multa, loquācem
dēlassāre valent Fabium#, H. _S._ 1, 1, 11, _the other cases of the
kind, so plentiful are they, might tire the gabbling Fabius out_. #ita
haec ūmōre tigna pūtent, nōn videor mihi sarcīre posse aedīs meās#, Pl.
_Most._ 146, _so sopping rotten are these joists, I don’t think I can
patch my house_. #ita avidō ingeniō fuit, numquam indicāre id fīliō
voluit suō#, Pl. _Aul. prol._ 9, _so niggardly was he, he’d never point
it out to his own son_. #tanta incepta rēs est, haud somnīculōsē hoc
agundumst#, Pl. _Cap._ 227, _so big a job have we begun, not drowsily
must this be done_.

1701. (6.) The coordinated member may be equivalent to a conditional
protasis: as,

(_a._) #fīliam quis habet, pecūniā opus est#, _Par._ 44, _a man has a
daughter, he needs money_. #trīstis es, indignor#, O. _Tr._ 4, 3, 33,
_if you are sad, I feel provoked_. (_b._) #sī iste ībit, ītō; stābit,
astātō simul#, Pl. _Ps._ 863, _if he shall move, move thou; but shall he
stand, stand by his side_. #in caelum, iusseris, ībit#, J. 3, 78, _say
but the word, he’ll mount the sky_. (_c._) #subdūc cibum ūnum diem
āthlētae, Iovem Olympium inplōrābit#, _TD._ 2, 40, _cut off an athlete
from his food just a day, he will pray to Jupiter aloft in Olympus_
(1574). (_d._) #Zēnōnem rogēs, respondeat totidem verbīs#, _Fin._ 4, 69,
_you may ask Zeno, he would answer in just as many words_ (1556). (_e._)
#tū quoque magnam partem opere in tantō, sineret dolor, Īcare, habērēs#,
V. 6, 31, _thou too a goodly space in work so vast, had grief allowed,
O Icarus, hadst filled_ (1559). #at darēs hanc vim M. Crassō, in forō
saltāret#, _Off._ 3, 75, _but had you given this chance to Crassus, he
would have capered in the market place_ (1559). #nam absque tē esset,
hodiē numquam ad sōlem occāsum vīverem#, Pl. _Men._ 1022, _for were it
not for you, I ne’er should live this blessed day till set of sun_
(1560, 2110). (_f._) #ūnā fuissēmus, cōnsilium certē nōn dēfuisset#,
_Att._ 9, 6, 6, _had we been together, we certainly should not have
lacked a programme_ (1561).

1702. (7.) The coordinated member may be equivalent to a concession: as,

#id fortasse nōn perfēcimus, cōnātī quidem sumus#, _O._ 210; _though we
have perhaps not attained unto this, yet we have attempted it_. #ergō
illī intellegunt quid Epicūrus dīcat, ego nōn intellegō?# _Fin._ 2, 13,
_do those gentlemen then understand what Epicurus means, and I not?_

1703. (8.) The coordinated member may denote efficient cause or reason:
as,

#peregrīnus ego sum, Sauream nōn nōvī#, Pl. _As._ 464, _I am a stranger,
and I don’t know Saurea_. #mulier es, audācter iūrās#, Pl. _Am._ 836,
_because you are a woman, you are bold to swear_. #tacent, satis
laudant#, T. _Eu._ 476, _their silence is sufficient praise_.

1704. (9.) The coordinated member may represent the protasis of a
comparative sentence with #ut# (1937): as,

#ita mē dī ament, honestust#, T. _Eu._ 474, _so help me heaven, he is a
proper man_. #sollicitat, ita vīvam, mē tua, mī Tirō, valētūdō#, _Fam._
16, 20, _your health, dear Tiro, keeps me fidgety, as I hope to live_.


1705. II. The subordinate idea is often indicated by the subjunctive of
desire coordinated with another verb, usually with one which has a
different subject.

Thus, the combination #amēs: oportet#, _you should love; it is right_
(1547), in which the two verbs are used separately, blends into one
whole, #amēs oportet#, _Fin._ 2, 35, _it is right you should love_. The
verb with which the subjunctive is coordinated specifies more exactly
the general idea of desire contained in the subjunctive itself. The
tense of the coordinate subjunctive is regulated by that of the other
verb.

1706. The negative employed with coordinated subjunctives is the adverb
#nē#, _not_.

Thus, the combination #vidē: nē mē lūdās#, _see to it; don’t you fool
me_ (1547), in which the two verbs are used separately, blends into one
whole, #vidē nē mē lūdās#, Pl. _Cur._ 325, _see to it you don’t fool
me_. Similarly, #metuō: nē peccet#, _I am afraid; let her not slip up_
(1548), becomes #metuō nē peccet#, Pl. _Per._ 624, _I am afraid she may
slip up_. From its frequent use in sentences of subordinate meaning,
#nē# came at an early period to be regarded as a subordinating
conjunction also, _lest_, _that . . . not_, as well as an adverb, and
took the place of the less usual #ut nē#. Hence members with #nē# are
more conveniently treated under the head of subordination (1947).

1707. (1.) The subjunctive is often coordinated with verbs of wishing.
Such are #volō#, #nōlō#, rarely #mālō#, #optō#, #placet#, &c.: as,

#animum advortās volō#, Pl. _Cap._ 388, _I wish you would pay heed_
(1548). #quid vīs faciam?# T. _Hau._ 846, _what wilt thou I should do?_
(1563). #vin conmūtēmus? tuam ego dūcam et tū meam?# Pl. _Tri._ 59,
_would you like to swap? I take your wife, and you take mine?_ (1563).
#mālō tē sapiēns hostis metuat, quam stultī cīvēs laudent#, L. 22, 39,
20, _I would rather a wise enemy should fear you, than stupid
fellow-citizens admire you_ (1548). Coordination is the rule with
#velim#, #vellem#, &c., used in the sense of #utinam# (1540): as, #dē
Menedēmō vellem vērum fuisset, dē rēgīnā velim vērum sit#, _Att._ 15, 4,
4, _about Menedemus I could wish it had been true, about the queen I
hope it may be true_. #tellūs optem prius īma dehīscat#, V. 4, 24,
_I would the earth to deepest depths might sooner yawn_. #L. Domitius
dīxit placēre sībī̆ sententiās dē singulīs ferrent#, Caes. _C._ 3, 83,
3, _Domitius said his view was they should vote on the men separately_.

1708. (2.) The subjunctive is often coordinated with verbs of request,
entreaty, encouragement, exhortation, charge, direction, command. Such
are #precor#, #rogō#, #ōrō#, #petō#, #hortor#, #postulō#, #moneō#,
#cēnseō#; #mandō#, #imperō#, #praecipiō#, #dēcernō#; and chiefly in old
Latin, #iubeō#: as,

(_a._) #reddās incolumem precor#, H. 1, 3, 7, _deliver him up safe I
pray_. #rogat fīnem ōrandī faciat#, 1, 20, 5, _he requests him to make
an end of entreaty_. #ā tē id quod suēstī petō, mē absentem dēfendās#,
_Fam._ 15, 8, _I ask you to do as you always do, stand up for me when I
am away_. #nōn hortor sōlum sed etiam rogō atque ōrō, tē colligās
virumque praebeās#, _Fam._ 5, 18, 1, _I not only exhort you, but more
than that I beg and entreat you, pull yourself together and quit you
like a man_. #postulō etiam atque etiam cōnsīderēs quō prōgrediāre#, L.
3, 45, 10, _I charge you think again and again what you are coming to_.
#tē moneō videās, quid agās. magnō opere cēnseō, dēsistās#, _V._ 5, 174,
_I advise you to consider what you are doing. I earnestly recommend you
to stop_. #hunc admonet iter cautē faciat#, 5, 49, 3, _he warns him he
must pursue his march with care_. (_b._) #huic mandat Rēmōs adeat#, 3,
11, 2, _he directs him to go to the Remans_. #praecipit ūnum omnēs
peterent Indutiomarum#, 5, 58, 5, _he says they must all concentrate
their attack on Indutiomarus_. #huic imperat quās possit adeat
cīvitātēs#, 4, 21, 8, _he orders him to visit such communities as he
can_. #senātus dēcrēvit darent operam cōnsulēs nē quid rēs pūblica
dētrīmentī caperet#, S. _C._ 29, 2, _the senate decreed the consuls must
see to it that the commonwealth received no harm_. #iube maneat#, T.
_Hau._ 737, _tell her she must stay_. #mīlitēs certiōrēs facit,
paulisper intermitterent proelium#, 3, 5, 3, _he tells the soldiers they
must stop fighting a little while_. #abī, nūntiā patribus urbem Rōmānam
mūniant#, L. 22, 49, 10, _go tell the fathers they must fortify Rome
town_. #dīxī equidem in carcerem īrēs#, Pl. _St._ 624, _I’m sure I told
you you must go to jail_. #scrībit Labiēnō cum legiōne veniat#, 5, 46,
3, _he writes to Labienus he must come with a legion_. #lēgātiōnem
mittunt sī velit suōs recipere, obsidēs sibī̆ remittat#, 3, 8, 5, _they
send an embassy, if he wishes to get his own men back, he must send back
the hostages to them_.

1709. (3.) The subjunctive is often coordinated with expressions of
propriety or necessity. Such are #oportet#, #optumum est#, #opus est#,
#decet#, #necesse est#.

#mē ipsum amēs oportet, nōn mea#, _Fin._ 2, 85, _it is myself you should
love, not my possessions_. #quoniam habēs istum equom, aut ēmerīs
oportet, aut hērēditāte possideās, aut surripuerīs necesse est#, _Inv._
1, 84, _since you are in possession of that horse, you must either have
bought him or inherited him, or else you must necessarily have stolen
him_. #sed taceam optumumst#, Pl. _E._ 60, _but I’d best hold my
tongue_. #nihil opust rescīscat#, Pl. _Mer._ 1004, _she needn’t find it
out at all_. #condemnētur necesse est#, _RA._ 111, _be condemned he
needs must_.

1710. (4.) The subjunctive is sometimes coordinated with verbs of
permission or concession. Such are #permittō# in Sallust and Livy,
#concēdō#, also #sinō#, mostly in the imperative, chiefly in old Latin
and poetry, and the impersonal #licet# (used thus often in Cicero,
rarely before or after): as,

#supplēmentum scrīberent cōnsulēs, permissum#, L. 27, 22, 11, _leave was
given that the consuls might fill up the army_. #sine sciam#, L. 2, 40,
5, _let me know_. #sine modo adveniat senex#, Pl. _Most._ 11, _let but
the old man come_. #fremant omnēs licet, dīcam quod sentiō#, _DO._ 1,
195, _though everybody may growl, I will say what I think_. See 1904.

1711. (5.) The subjunctive is often coordinated with the imperative
#cavē̆#, #cavētō#, #cavēte#, _beware_, used in the sense of #nē# (1585):
as,

#cavē faciās#, _Att._ 13, 33, 4, _don’t do it_. #cave dīrumpātis#, Pl.
_Poen. prol._ 117, _don’t break it off_ (1075).

1712. (6.) The subjunctive is often coordinated with verbs of giving,
persuading, accomplishing, taking care. In this case the subjunctive has
the meaning of purpose or result. Such are the imperative #cedo#, and
#dō#, #persuādeō#, #impetrō#, #cūrō#, also #faciō#, particularly #fac#
and #facitō#: as,

#cedo bibam#, Pl. _Most._ 373, _give me to drink_. #date bibat
tībīcinī#, Pl. _St._ 757, _give the piper to drink_. #huic Sp. Albīnus
persuādet rēgnum Numidiae ā senātū petat#, S. _I._ 35, 2, _Albinus
induces him to ask of the senate the throne of Numidia_. #tandem
inpetrāvī abīret#, Pl. _Tri._ 591, _at last I’ve coaxed him to clear
out_. #fac sciam#, _Fam._ 7, 16, 3, _let me know_. #faxō sciās#, Pl.
_Men._ 644, _I’ll let you know_, much oftener #sciēs# or #scībis#
(1700). #fac bellus revertāre#, _Fam._ 16, 18, 1, _mind you come back a
beauty_ (1579).

1713. A subjunctive is now and then loosely coordinated with verbs in
general, to indicate the purpose of the action: as,

#ēvocāte hūc Sōsiam, Blepharōnem arcēssat#, Pl. _Am._ 949, _call Sosia
here, let him fetch Blepharo_. #clārē advorsum fābulābor, hic auscultet
quae loquar#, Pl. _Am._ 300, _I’ll speak distinctly face to face, that
he may hear what I shall say_. #operam hanc subrupuī tibī̆, ex mē
scīrēs#, Pl. _Am._ 523, _I did this secretly for you, that you might
learn from me_. #manibus date līlia plēnīs, purpureōs spargam flōrēs#,
V. 6, 883, _lilies in handfuls give, I fain would scatter purple
flowers_, that is, _that I may scatter_.



THE COMPLEX SENTENCE, OR SUBORDINATION.


1714. In a complex sentence, that is one consisting of a main and a
subordinate sentence, the subordinate member is introduced by some
subordinating word: such are,

I. Interrogative words, in indirect questions; II. Relative pronouns;
III. Relative conjunctive particles, or conjunctive particles not of
relative origin.

1715. Subordinate sentences may have the value of a substantive, usually
as subject or as object; of an attributive; or of an adverb or adverbial
adjunct: as,

(_a._) #eādem nocte accidit ut esset lūna plēna#, 4, 29, 1, _it came to
pass the same night that there was a full moon_. #videō quid agās#,
_Fam._ 16, 17, _I see what you are driving at_. (_b._) #fundus quī est
in agrō, quī Sabīnus vocātur, eum meum esse aiō#, _Mur._ 26, _the estate
which is in the territory which is called Sabine, that I maintain is
mine_, lawyers’ wordiness for #fundus Sabīnus#. (_c._) #cum
advesperāsceret, ad pontem Mulvium pervēnērunt#, _C._ 3, 5, _when it was
getting dark, they reached the Mulvius bridge_, i.e. #vesperī#, or
#prīmō vespere#.

1716. Subordinate sentences which express time or place, are called
_Temporal_ or _Local_ sentences; comparison or manner, _Comparative_ or
_Modal_ sentences; condition, cause, or concession, _Conditional_,
_Causal_, or _Concessive_ sentences; purpose, _Final_ sentences; result,
_Consecutive_ sentences.

1717. In a main sentence, the indicative present, future, and future
perfect, and the imperative, are called _Primary Tenses_; the indicative
imperfect, historical perfect, and pluperfect, and the infinitive of
intimation, are called _Secondary Tenses_. The perfect definite and the
present of vivid narration are sometimes regarded as primary tenses,
oftener as secondary tenses.

1718. Verbs which have an implication of futurity, such as those meaning
_can_, _ought_, _must_, &c., with an infinitive, also subjunctives of
wish (1540) or of exhortation (1547), may be called _Virtual Futures_.

1719. Sometimes the subjunctive serves as a main sentence: see 1762;
sometimes a noun of the verb: see 1766.


MOOD OF THE SUBORDINATE SENTENCE.

1720. The indicative and the subjunctive are both used in subordinate
sentences, as will be shown in the treatment of the several words of
subordination. Some general uses may be mentioned collectively here.


THE INDICATIVE MOOD.

1721. The indicative is ordinarily used in sentences introduced by a
relative pronoun, or by a causal conjunctive word other than #cum#.

#pontem, quī erat ad Genāvam, iubet rescindī#, 1, 7, 2, _he orders the
bridge which was near Geneva torn up_. #concēdō, quia necesse est#,
_RA._ 145, _I give up, because I have to_. In sentences of this class,
however, the subjunctive is often required, particularly in indirect
discourse (1722), or in cases of attraction (1728).


THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.


THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF INDIRECT DISCOURSE AND OF ATTRACTION.

1722. The subjunctive is used in relative, causal, temporal, and
conditional sentences in indirect discourse, and in cases of attraction.

1723. A direct quotation or question gives the words of the original
speaker without alteration. When the original words of a quotation or
question are changed to conform to the construction of the sentence in
which they are quoted, it is called _Indirect Discourse_.

1724. In the complete form of indirect discourse, the subjunctive is
subordinate to an infinitive or an accusative with the infinitive,
dependent on a verb of saying or thinking (2175): as,

#negat Epicūrus iūcundē posse vīvī, nisi cum virtūte vīvātur#, _TD._ 3,
49, _Epicurus avers there is no living happily, without living
virtuously_; directly, #iūcundē vīvī nōn potest, nisi cum virtūte
vīvitur#. #Sōcratēs dīcere solēbat, omnēs in eō quod scīrent, satis esse
ēloquentēs#, _DO._ 1, 63, _Socrates used to maintain that all men were
eloquent enough in a matter they knew_; directly, #omnēs in eō quod
sciunt satis sunt ēloquentēs#.

1725. The idea of saying or thinking is often not formally expressed in
the main sentence, and the indirect discourse is intimated by the
subordinate subjunctive only: as,

#noctū ambulābat in pūblicō Themistoclēs, quod somnum capere nōn
posset#, _TD._ 4, 44, _Themistocles used to walk the streets nights,
‘because he could not sleep,’_ given as Themistocles’s reason; the
writer’s would be #poterat#. #Paetus omnēs librōs, quōs frāter suus
relīquisset, mihī̆ dōnāvit#, _Att._ 2, 1, 12, _Paetus made me a present
of all the books ‘that his brother had left.’_ #dum reliquae nāvēs eō
convenīrent, in ancorīs expectāvit#, 4, 23, 4, _he waited at anchor till
the rest of the vessels should gather there_ (2005). #pervēnit priusquam
Pompēius sentīre posset#, Caes. _C._ 3, 67, 4, _he got there before
Pompey should be able to learn of his coming_ (1919). #Xerxēs praemium
prōposuit, quī invēnisset novam voluptātem#, _TD._ 5, 20, _Xerxes
offered a reward to anybody who should devise a new form of
entertainment_ (2110).

1726. A speaker or writer may quote his own thoughts in the indirect
form, like another person’s: as, #haec tibi dictābam post fānum putre
Vacūnae, exceptō quod nōn simul essēs, cētera laetus#, H. _E._ 1, 10,
49, _I write thee this behind Vacuna’s mouldering pile, in all else
well, except that thou’rt not here the while_ (1601).

1727. Instead of an intimation of indirect discourse by a mere
subjunctive, a verb of thinking or saying is sometimes introduced by
#quī#, or especially #quod#, sometimes by #cum#, and put illogically
itself in the subjunctive: as, #litterās, quās mē sibī̆ mīsisse dīceret,
recitāvit#, _Ph._ 2, 7, _he read off a letter, which he said I sent
him_, i.e. #quās mīsissem#. #impetrāre nōn potuī, quod religiōne sē
impedīrī dīcerent#, Sulpicius in _Fam._ 4, 12, 3, _I could not get
leave, because they said they were hampered by religious scruple_, i.e.
#quod impedīrentur#. #cum dīceret#, _DN._ 3, 83, _saying as he did_.
This construction is common in Cicero, somewhat so in Caesar, rare in
Sallust.

1728. The subjunctive is used in sentences expressing an essential part
of the thought, which are subordinate to another subjunctive, or to an
infinitive. This is called the _Subjunctive of Attraction_, or _of
Assimilation_: as,

#vereor nē, dum minuere velim labōrem, augeam#, _Leg._ 1, 12, _I am
afraid I may make the work harder, while I am aiming to make it less_.
#sī sōlōs eōs dīcerēs miserōs, quibus moriendum esset, nēminem eōrum,
quī vīverent exciperēs#, _TD._ 1, 9, _if you should pronounce only such
people unhappy as had to die, you would not except one of those who were
living_. #mōs est Syrācūsīs, ut sī quā dē rē ad senātum referātur, dīcat
sententiam quī velit#, _V._ 4, 142, _it is the custom at Syracuse, that
if any question is discussed in the senate, anybody who pleases may
express his opinion_. #sapiēns nōn dubitat, sī ita melius sit, migrāre
dē vītā#, _Fin._ 1, 62, _the sage does not hesitate, if this be the
better course, to withdraw from life_. #mōs est Athēnīs laudārī in
cōntiōne eōs, quī sint in proeliīs interfectī#, _O._ 151, _it is the
custom in Athens to eulogize in public assembly such as have fallen in
action_.

1729. The indicative is kept in subordinate statements added or vouched
for by the person reporting, and also in circumlocutions equivalent to a
substantive: as,

#nūntiātum est Ariovistum ad occupandum Vesontiōnem, quod est oppidum
maximum Sēquanōrum, contendere#, 1, 38, 1, _it was reported that
Ariovistus was pressing on to seize Vesontio, which is the most
considerable town of the Sequans_. #prūdentissima cīvitās Athēniēnsium,
dum ea rērum potīta est, fuisse trāditur#, _RA._ 70, _Athens is said to
have been passing wise, as long as she held the hegemony_. #vīs, quae
restant, mē loquī?# T. _Andr._ 195, _wilt have me tell the rest?_ i.e.
#relicua#. #fierī potest, ut id quod sentit polītē ēloquī nōn possit#,
_TD._ 1, 6, _it may be that he cannot express his thought in polished
style_, i.e. #sententiam suam#.


THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF REPEATED ACTION.

1730. The subjunctive is sometimes used in relative, temporal, or
conditional sentences, to express action repeated or occurring at no
particular time: as,

(_a._) #neque aliter sī faciat, ūllam inter suōs habet auctōritātem#, 6,
11, 4, _and if he does not do this, he never has any ascendancy at all
over his people_. With the present and perfect, however, this
subjunctive is confined principally to the indefinite second person
singular (1030): as, #bonus sēgnior fit, ubī̆ neglegās#, S. _I._ 31, 28,
_the good man always gets slacker, when you are neglectful_. #sīquoi
mūtuom quid dederīs, fit prō propriō perditum#, Pl. _Tri._ 1050, _if
you’ve lent anything to any man, ’tis not your own, but lost_. (_b._)
The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive begin with Catullus and Caesar,
and get to be common with Livy and Tacitus: as, #sī quis prehenderētur,
cōnsēnsū mīlitum ēripiēbātur#, Caes. _C._ 3, 110, 4, _every time a man
was taken up, he was rescued by the joint action of the rank and file_.
#quemcumque līctor prēndisset, tribūnus mittī iubēbat#, L. 3, 11, 2,
_every man the lictor arrested, a tribune would order released_.


THE SUBJUNCTIVE AS IN THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

1731. The subjunctive of wish, of action conceivable, or of
interrogation, is sometimes used in a subordinate sentence exactly as in
main sentences: as,

#haec diē nātālī meō scrīpsī, quō utinam susceptus nōn essem#, _Att._
11, 9, 3, _this I have written on my birthday, on which day I wish I had
never been lifted from the ground_ (1544). #ut videās#, Lucr. 3, 348,
_so that you can see_ (1556). #neque id faciō, ut forsitan quibusdam
videar, simulātiōne#, _Fam._ 1, 8, 2, _nor do I do it, as perhaps I may
seem to some to do, from hypocrisy_ (1556). #etiamst paucīs vōs quod
monitōs voluerim#, Pl. _Cap._ 53, _there’s one point more, on which I’d
have you briefly warned_ (1558). #erant eiusmodī sitūs oppidōrum, ut
neque pedibus aditum habērent neque nāvibus, quod minuente aestū nāvēs
in vadīs adflīctārentur#, 3, 12, 1, _the towns were so situated that
there was no access to them by land, nor by boat either, because at ebb
tide vessels would pound on the shoals_ (1559). #vix erat hoc imperātum,
cum illum spoliātum vidērēs#, _V._ 4, 86, _hardly was the order from his
lips, when you might have seen the man stript_ (1559). #quō mē vertam
nesciō#, _Clu._ 4, _I don’t know which way to turn_ (1563).

  [Erratum:
  1731 ... #neque id faciō, ut forsitan quibusdam videar, simulātiōne#,
    final , missing]


TENSE OF THE SUBORDINATE SENTENCE.


THE TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE.

1732. I. The tense of a subordinate indicative often indicates a close
relation of time with the tense of the leading verb, particularly in
cases of repeated contemporaneous or antecedent action. The subordinate
sentence in such combinations is said to have _Relative_ time.

1733. (1.) The subordinate indicative tense may express action
concurrent with the main action. Two concurrent sentences are usually
put in the same tense.

Concurrent action is said to be (_a._) _congruent_, when two actions
merely cover the same time: as, #dum legō, adsentior#, _TD._ 1, 24, _as
long as I am reading, I assent_. #dum necesse erat, ūnus omnia poterat#,
_RA._ 139, _so long as it had to be, one man controlled the world_. #dum
Latīnae loquentur litterae, quercus huic locō nōn deerit#, _Leg._ 1, 2,
_as long as Latin literature has the gift of speech, this spot will not
lack its oak_. #vīxit, dum vīxit, bene#, T. _Hec._ 461, _he lived well
all the time he lived_. #quoad potuit, fortissimē restitit#, 4, 12, 5,
_as long as he could, he made a manful stand_. Or (_b._) _coincident_,
when one action is virtually the same as the other: as, #cum tacent,
clāmant#, _C._ 1, 21, _while they are dumb, they cry out_, i.e. their
silence is as telling as a shout. #fēcistī mihī̆ pergrātum, quod
Serāpiōnis librum mīsistī#, _Att._ 2, 4, 1, _you have obliged me very
much by sending Serapio’s book_.

1734. (2.) The subordinate indicative tense may express action
contemporaneous, antecedent, or subsequent, in relation to the main
action.

1735. (_a._) Action contemporaneous with a main present is expressed by
a present, with a main future or virtual future, by a future, with a
main secondary tense by an imperfect: as,

#quod est, eō decet ūtī#, _CM._ 27, _what you have, that you should
avail yourself of_. #hōrologium mittam, sī erit sūdum#, _Fam._ 16, 18,
3, _I will send the clock, if it is pleasant_ (1625). #paulātim dabis,
sī sapiēs#, T. _Hau._ 870, _you’ll give in driblets, if you are wise_.
#cum relaxāre animōs volent, caveant intemperantiam#, _Off._ 1, 122,
_when they want to unbend, let them beware of excess_ (1625; 1718).
#omnia deerant, quae ad reficiendās nāvēs erant ūsuī#, 4, 29, 4, _they
were out of everything that was serviceable for repairing their
vessels_.

1736. (_b._) Action antecedent to a main present is expressed by a
perfect, to a main future or virtual future by a future perfect, to a
main secondary tense by a pluperfect: as,

#quōcumque aspexistī tuae tibī̆ occurrunt iniūriae#, _Par._ 18,
_wherever you turn your gaze, you are confronted by your own abominable
acts_. #cum posuī librum, adsēnsiō omnis ēlābitur#, _TD._ 1, 24, _when I
drop the book, all assent melts away_ (1860). #quicquid fēceris,
adprobābō#, _Fam._ 3, 3, 2, _no matter what you do, I shall think it
well_ (1626). #ut quisque istīus animum offenderat, in lautumiās statim
coniciēbātur#, _V._ 5, 143, _any man that wounded his sensibilities was
always flung into the quarries without any ado_.

1737. (_c._) Action subsequent to a main present is expressed by the
future participle with a present form of #sum#, to a main future or
virtual future by the future participle with a future form of #sum#, and
to a main secondary tense by the future participle with an imperfect
form of #sum#: as,

#decem diēs sunt ante lūdōs, quōs Cn. Pompēius factūrus est#, _V. a.
pr_. 31, _there are ten days before the shows which Pompey is to
manage_. #attentōs faciēmus, sī dēmōnstrābimus ea, quae dictūrī erimus,
magna esse#, _Inv._ 1, 23, _we shall make people attentive if we show
that what we are going to say is important_. #rēx, quia nōn interfutūrus
nāvālī certāminī erat, Magnēsiam concessit#, L. 36, 43, 9, _as the king
was not to have a hand in the action at sea, he moved off to Magnesia_.

1738. II. A subordinate indicative tense is said to be _Independent_
when it simply expresses time of its own, without any close relation to
the time of the main action.

Such independent tenses may denote general present action: as, #ībam
forte viā sacrā, sīcut meus est mōs#, H. _S._ 1, 9, 1, _in Sacred
Street, as is my wont, I happened to be promenading_ (relatively, #erat
mōs#, 1735). #nōn mē appellābis, sī sapis#, Pl. _Most._ 515, _you won’t
address me, if you have sense_ (relatively, #sī sapiēs#, 1735). Or past
action, either continuous, completed, or indefinite: as, #ut mōs fuit
Bī̆thȳniae rēgibus, lectīcā ferēbātur#, _V._ 5, 27, _he regularly rode
in a litter, as was the practice of the despots of Bithynia_; here
#fuit# denotes action simply as past, without further definition of time
(1603), whereas #erat#, relative to the time of #ferēbātur#, would imply
_which was then the practice_ (1595).

1739. With #dum#, _in the time while_, an independent present is used:
see 1995. With #postquam#, &c., _after_, an independent perfect is used
of a single action; see 1925.


THE TENSES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE.

1740. Subordinate subjunctive sentences were originally independent
coordinate sentences, in the tense required to express the thought. By
degrees the subordinate sentence blended closely with the main sentence,
and the combination of the two was regarded as one whole.

1741. I. The time of the subordinate subjunctive is usually _Relative_,
that is either contemporaneous, antecedent, or subsequent, in relation
to that of the main action.

1742. Action contemporaneous with the main action is expressed by a
present or imperfect subjunctive. Action antecedent is expressed by a
perfect or a pluperfect subjunctive. Action subsequent is expressed by
the future participle with a form of #sim# or of #essem#.

1743. Subordinate sentences with verbs of will or aim, with verbs of
fear, also final sentences and many consecutive sentences are expressed
in Latin as contemporaneous with the main action, not as subsequent to
it.

1744. II. The main and subordinate sentences may express wholly
different spheres of time by tenses not commonly used together, when the
thought requires it. In such cases the tense of the subordinate member
is called _Independent_, like the analogous tenses of the indicative
(1738).

1745. The use of subordinate subjunctive tenses relatively to the main
tense, or what is commonly called the _Sequence of Tenses_, is as
follows:


TENSE SUBORDINATE TO AN INDICATIVE.

1746. (1.) The present, or perfect subjunctive, or the future participle
with a form of #sim#, is used in sentences subordinate to a primary
tense (1717): as,

(_a._) #tē hortor, ut Rōmam pergās#, _QFr._ 1, 3, 4, _I urge you to
repair to Rome_. #cūrā, ut quam prīmum veniās#, _Fam._ 4, 10, 1, _mind
that you come as soon as you can_. #ego quid accēperim sciō#, _RA._ 58,
_I know what I have received_. #quam sum sollicitus quidnam futūrum
sit#, _Att._ 8, 6, 3, _how anxious I am to know what in the world is to
come_. (_b._) #in eum locum rēs dēducta est ut salvī esse nequeāmus#,
_Fam._ 16, 12, 1, _to such a pass has it come that we cannot be saved_.
#an oblītus es quid initiō dīxerim?# _DN._ 2, 2, _have you possibly
forgotten what I said at the start?_ #quoniam in eam ratiōnem vītae nōs
fortūna dēdūxit, ut sempiternus sermō dē nōbīs futūrus sit, caveāmus#,
_QFr._ 1, 1, 38, _since fortune has set us in such a walk of life that
we are to be eternally talked about, let us be on our guard_. (_c._)
#efficiam, ut intellegātis#, _Clu._ 7, _I will see that you understand_.
#dīcent quid statuerint#, _V._ 2, 175, _they will tell what they decided
on_. #quae fuerit causa, mox vīderō#, _Fin._ 1, 35, _what the reason was
I won’t consider till by and by_ (1630). #tē disertum putābō, sī
ostenderis quō modō sīs eōs inter sīcāriōs dēfēnsūrus#, _Ph._ 2, 8,
_I shall think you a most effective speaker, if you show how you are
going to defend them on the charge of murder_.

1747. (2.) The imperfect, or pluperfect subjunctive, or the future
participle with a form of #essem#, is used in sentences subordinate to a
secondary tense (1717): as,

(_a._) #hīs rēbus fīēbat, ut minus lātē vagārentur#, 1, 2, 4, _so it
came to pass that they did not roam round much_. #docēbat, ut tōtīus
Galliae prīncipātum Aeduī tenuissent#, 1, 43, 6, _he showed how the
Aeduans had had the mastery over all Gaul_. #Flaccus quid aliī posteā
factūrī essent scīre nōn poterat#, Fl. 33, _Flaccus could not tell what
other people would do in the future_. (_b._) #is cīvitātī persuāsit, ut
dē fīnibus suīs cum omnibus cōpiīs exīrent#, 1, 2, 1, _this man
prevailed on his community to emigrate from their place of abode, bag
and baggage_. #quās rēs in Hispāniā gessisset, disseruit#, L. 28, 38, 2,
_he discoursed on his military career in Spain_. #an Lacedaemoniī
quaesīvērunt num sē esset morī prohibitūrus?# TD. 5, 42, _did the
Spartans ask whether he was going to prevent them from dying?_ (_c._)
#Ariovistus tantōs sibī̆ spīritūs sūmpserat, ut ferendus nōn vidērētur#,
1, 33, 5, _Ariovistus had put on such high and mighty airs that he
seemed intolerable_. #hīc pāgus, cum domō exīsset patrum nostrōrum
memoriā, L. Cassium cōnsulem interfēcerat#, 1, 12, 5, _this canton,
sallying out from home in our fathers’ recollection, had put Cassius,
the consul, to death_. #illud quod mihī̆ extrēmum prōposueram, cum essem
de bellī genere dictūrus#, _IP._ 17, _the point I had reserved till the
end, when I was going to discourse on the character of the war_.

1748. With any kind of a secondary main sentence, a subordinate general
truth usually stands in the past, contrary to the English idiom: as,

#hīc cōgnōscī licuit, quantum esset hominibus praesidī in animī
firmitūdine#, Caes. _C._ 3, 28, 4, _here there was a chance to learn
what a bulwark man has in courage_. In the direct form #est# (1588).

1749. A subsequent relation is sometimes loosely suggested by a simple
subjunctive; necessarily so with verbs which lack the future participle,
or which are in the passive: as, #sum sollicitus quidnam dē prōvinciīs
dēcernātur#, _Fam._ 2, 11, 1, _I am anxious to see what in the world may
be decided on about the provinces_.

1750. In a single example, a future perfect of resulting state is
represented in subordination as follows: #nec dubitō quīn cōnfecta iam
rēs futūra sit#, _Fam._ 6, 12, 3, _and I have no doubt the job will soon
be completely finished up_, directly, #sine dubiō cōnfecta iam rēs
erit#.

1751. (1.) An imperfect subjunctive expressing a particular past result,
cause, reason, &c., is sometimes connected with a main general present
tense (1744): as,

#cuius praeceptī tanta vīs est, ut ea Delphicō deō tribuerētur#, _Leg._
1, 58, _the power of this rule is so mighty that it was ascribed to the
Delphic god_. #cuius rē̆ī tanta est vīs, ut Ithacam illam sapientissimus
vir immortālitātī antepōneret#, _DO._ 1, 196, _so irresistible is the
power of this sentiment that the shrewdest of men loved his little
Ithaca better than life eternal_; of Ulixes. #laudantur ōrātōrēs veterēs
quod crīmina dīluere dīlūcidē solērent#, _V._ 2, 191, _the orators of
old are admired ‘because they were always clear in explaining
accusations away.’_ The secondary sequence is also sometimes
exceptionally used with ordinary presents.

1752. (2.) The present of vivid narration is commonly regarded as a
secondary tense, especially when the subordinate sentence precedes, and
regularly with narrative #cum#. Sometimes however as a primary tense:
as,

(_a._) #servīs suīs Rubrius, ut iānuam clauderent, imperat#, _V._ 1, 66,
_Rubrius orders his slaves to shut the front door_. #Aeduī, cum sē
dēfendere nōn possent, lēgātōs ad Caesarem mittunt#, 1, 11, 2, _the
Aeduans, finding they could not defend themselves, send some envoys to
Caesar_. (_b._) #hortātur, ut arma capiant#, 7, 4, 4, _he urges them to
fly to arms_. Sometimes the two sequences stand side by side, or a
subjunctive of primary sequence has itself a second subordinate
subjunctive of secondary sequence. Either sequence is used with the
present of quotation also (1592).

1753. (3.) Subordinate sentences of past action conceivable, of action
non-occurrent, or dubitative questions of the past, retain their past
unchanged with a main primary tense: as,

(_a._) #vērī simile nōn est, ut ille monumentīs maiōrum pecūniam
antepōneret#, _V._ 4, 11, _it is not conceivable that the man would have
thought more of money than of his heirlooms_, i.e. #nōn antepōneret#
(1559). (_b._) #omnia sīc erunt inlūstria, ut ad ea probanda tōtam
Siciliam testem adhibēre possem#, _V._ 5, 139, _everything will be so
self-evident, that I could use all Sicily as a witness to prove it_
(1560). #taceō, nē haec quidem conligō, quae fortasse valērent apud
iūdicem#, _Lig._ 30, _I’ll hold my tongue, I won’t even gather together
the following arguments, which might perhaps be telling with a juryman_
(1560). (_c._) #quaerō ā tē cūr C. Cornēlium nōn dēfenderem#, _Vat._ 5,
_I put the question to you, why I was not to defend Cornelius_ (1563).

1754. A final subjunctive subordinate to a perfect definite sometimes
has the primary sequence, but more commonly the secondary: as,

(_a._) #etiamne ad subsellia cum ferrō vēnistis, ut hīc iugulētis Sex.
Rōscium?# _RA._ 32, _have you actually come to the court-room knife in
hand, to cut Roscius’s throat on the spot?_ (_b._) #nē īgnōrārētis esse
aliquās pācis vōbīs condiciōnēs, ad vōs vēnī#, L. 21, 13, 2, _I have
come to you to let you know that you have some chances of peace_.
#addūxī hominem in quō satis facere exterīs nātiōnibus possētis#, _V. a.
pr._ 2, _I have brought up a man in whose person you can give
satisfaction to foreign nations_.

1755. An independent present or perfect subjunctive may be put with a
main secondary tense (1744):

1756. (1.) In relative, causal, or concessive sentences: as,

#cum in cēterīs colōniīs duūm virī appellentur, hī sē praetōrēs
appellārī volēbant#, _Agr._ 2, 93, _though they are styled in all other
colonies The Two, these men wanted to be styled praetors_. #quī
adulēscēns nihil umquam nisi sevērissimē et gravissimē fēcerit, is eā
aetāte saltāvit?# _D._ 27, _did the man who in his growing years
invariably behaved with austere propriety, dance and caper round in his
old age?_ #hōc tōtō proeliō cum ab hōrā septimā ad vesperum pugnātum
sit, āversum hostem vidēre nēmō potuit#, 1, 26, 2, _during the whole of
this engagement, though the fighting went on from an hour past noon till
evening, nobody could catch a glimpse of an enemy’s back_.

1757. (2.) Often in consecutive sentences: as,

(_a._) #in prōvinciā Siciliā, quam iste per triennium ita vexāvit, ut ea
restituī in antīquum statum nūllō modō possit#, _V. a. pr._ 12, _in the
province of Sicily, which the defendant so effectually tormented three
years running that it cannot be restored at all to its original estate_.
#priōrēs ita rēgnārunt, ut omnēs conditōrēs partium certē urbis
numerentur#, L. 2, 1, 2, _such was the administration of the monarchs
preceding, that they are all accounted founders of parts at least of
Rome_. (_b._) The perfect subjunctive sometimes represents the time of
the perfect definite: as, #tantum in aerārium pecūniae invēxit, ut ūnīus
imperātōris praeda fīnem attulerit tribūtōrum#, _Off._ 2, 76, _he
conveyed such quantities of money into the treasury, that the plunder
turned in by a single commander has put an end to tribute for good and
all_. #eō usque sē praebēbat patientem atque impigrum, ut eum nēmō
umquam in equō sedentem vīderit#, _V._ 5, 27, _he showed himself so
indefatigably active that no human being has ever seen him astride a
horse_. Sometimes the time of the historical perfect: as, #temporis
tanta fuit exiguitās, ut ad galeās induendās tempus dēfuerit#, 2, 21, 5,
_so scant was the time that they had not time to put their helmets on_.
#hīc ita quiēvit, ut eō tempore omnī Neāpolī fuerit#, _Sull._ 17, _this
man held so quiet that he staid all that time at Neapolis_. In Cicero a
negative subordinate perfect is not uncommon; an affirmative one is very
rare. This construction is more common in Nepos, Livy, and Tacitus, and
is the prevalent one in Suetonius.

1758. The imperfect only is used in complementary sentences with past
verbs of happening, such as #accidit#, #contigit#, &c. (1966).

1759. When two consecutive subjunctives are coordinated, they usually
have the same tense. Sometimes however the first is perfect and the
second imperfect, or the reverse.

1760. (3.) An indirect question in the present or perfect sometimes
retains its original tense with a main secondary tense (1744): as,

#hīc quantum in bellō fortūna possit, cōgnōscī potuit#, 6, 35, 2, _here
there was a chance to see how potent dame Fortùne is in war_. Here
#possit# represents #potest# of a general truth (1588); but usually
general truths have the regular sequence (1748). #cūr abstinuerit
spectāculō ipse, variē trahēbant#, Ta. 1, 76, _why the emperor did not
go to the show, they accounted for in this way and that_, representing
#cūr abstinuit? quō cōnsiliō redierim initiō audīstis, post estis
expertī#, _Ph._ 10, 8, _what my idea was in coming back, you learned
first by hearsay, afterwards by personal observation_, representing #quō
cōnsiliō rediī?#

1761. The subordinate subjunctive has sometimes the sequence of the
nearest verb, instead of that of its proper verb: as, #cūrāvit, quod
semper in rē pūblicā tenendum est, nē plūrimum valeant plūrimī#, _RP._
2, 39, _he arranged it so, a point which is always to be held fast in
government, that the greatest number may not have the greatest power_.

  [Erratum:
  1750 ... directly, #sine dubiō cōnfecta iam rēs erit#.
    directly.]


TENSE SUBORDINATE TO A SUBJUNCTIVE.

1762. When the leading verb is a subjunctive, the present is regarded as
primary, and the imperfect and pluperfect as secondary: as,

(_a._) #exspectō eius modī litterās ex quibus nōn quid fīat, sed quid
futūrum sit sciam#, _Att._ 5, 12, 2, _I am expecting a letter of a kind
to let me know not what is going on, but what will be going on_. #quid
prōfēcerim faciās mē velim certiōrem#, _Fam._ 7, 10, 3, _how far I have
succeeded I wish you would let me know_. (_b._) #quālis esset nātūra
montis quī cōgnōscerent mīsit#, 1, 21, 1, _he sent some scouts to find
out what the character of the mountain was_. #quid mē prohibēret
Epicūrēum esse, sī probārem quae dīceret#, _Fin._ 1, 27, _what would
prevent me from being an Epicurean, if I accepted what he said?_ #quae
sī bis bīna quot essent didicisset Epicūrus, certē nōn dīceret#, _DN._
2, 49, _Epicurus would certainly not say this, if he had ever been
taught how much twice two is_ (1748).

1763. An imperfect subjunctive of action non-occurrent at the present
time has occasionally the present sequence: as, #mīrārēris, sī
interessēs, quā patientiā valētūdinem toleret#, Plin. _Ep._ 1, 22, 7,
_you would be amazed to find, if you were with him, with what dogged
endurance he bears up under his illness_. But the secondary sequence is
far more common.

1764. (1.) The perfect subjunctive in independent main sentences of
prohibition (1551) or of action conceivable (1558) is regarded as a
primary tense: as,

#nē dubitārīs quīn id mihī̆ futūrum sit antīquius#, _Att._ 7, 3, 2,
_don’t entertain any doubt that this course will be preferable in my
eyes_. #quid nōn sit citius quam quid sit dīxerim#, _DN._ 1, 60,
_I could sooner tell what is not, than what is_.

1765. (2.) In subordinate sentences, the perfect subjunctive has the
main sequence when it represents the indicative perfect definite, and
the secondary when it represents the indicative historical perfect or
the imperfect: as,

(_a._) #nēmō ferē vestrūm est, quīn, quem ad modum captae sint Syrācūsae
saepe audierit#, _V._ 4, 115, _there is hardly a man of your number but
has heard over and over again how Syracuse was taken_. (_b._) #quā rē
acciderit ut id suspicārēre quod scrībis nesciō#, _Fam._ 2, 16, 1, _how
it came to pass that you suspected what you write, I can’t imagine_.


TENSE SUBORDINATE TO A NOUN OF THE VERB.

1766. (1.) A subjunctive subordinate to one of the nouns of the verb,
except the perfect infinitive or the perfect participle, follows the
sequence of the verb: as,

#dēsinō quaerere cūr ēmerīs#, _V._ 4, 10, _I cease to ask why you
bought_. #nēminem tam āmentem fore putāvērunt, ut emeret argentum#, _V._
4, 9, _they did not dream anybody would be crazy enough to buy plate_.
#secūrī percussī, adeō torpentibus metū quī aderant, ut nē gemitus
quidem exaudīrētur#, L. 28, 29, 11, _they were beheaded, everybody there
being so completely paralyzed with fear that not even a groan could be
heard_. #Q. Fabius Pīctor Delphōs missus est scīscitātum, quibus
precibus deōs possent plācāre#, L. 22, 57, 5, _Fabius Pictor was sent to
Delphi to find out by what sort of prayers they could get the ear of the
gods_. #cupīdō incessit animōs iuvenum scīscitandī ad quem eōrum rēgnum
esset ventūrum#, L. 1, 56, 10, _the youths were possessed with a desire
to find out to which one of their number the throne was to fall_.

1767. (2.) With a perfect infinitive or perfect participle, the
subordinate subjunctive may be in the imperfect or pluperfect, even with
a primary leading verb: as,

#satis mihī̆ multa verba fēcisse videor, quā rē esset hoc bellum
necessārium#, _IP._ 27, _I fancy I have said enough to show why this war
is unavoidable_. #hunc istī aiunt, cum taurum immolāvisset, mortuum
concidisse#, _Br._ 43, _your gentlemen say that this man, after
sacrificing a bull, tumbled down dead_. #viātor bene vestītus causa
grassātōrī fuisse dīcētur cūr ab eō spoliārētur#, _Fat._ 34,
_a well-dressed traveller will be said to have been a temptation for a
footpad to rob him_. #versābor in rē saepe quaesītā, suffrāgia clam an
palam ferre melius esset#, _Leg._ 3, 33, _I shall be working on a
question that has often been put, whether it was better to vote secretly
or openly_.

1768. The sequence with a perfect infinitive is, however, often primary:
as, #hīc sī fīnem faciam dīcendī, satis iūdicī fēcisse videar cūr
secundum Rōscium iūdicārī dēbeat#, _RC._ 14, _if I should stop speaking
here, I should feel I had made it plain enough to the court why a
judgement should be rendered for Roscius_.

1769. The secondary sequence is used with #meminī#, _remember_, even
when it has the present infinitive (2220): as, #L. Metellum meminī ita
bonīs esse vīribus extrēmō tempore aetātis, ut adulēscentiam nōn
requīreret#, _CM._ 30, _I can remember Metellus’s being so good and
strong in the very last part of his life that he did not feel the want
of youth_.


1770. Sentences with a subjunctive due to another subjunctive or to an
infinitive are put as follows:

1771. (1.) Sentences of relative time express contemporaneous,
antecedent, and subsequent action like corresponding indicative
sentences, with the appropriate sequence: as,

#vereor, nē, dum minuere velim labōrem, augeam#, _Leg._ 1, 12, _I am
afraid that while I wish to make the work less, I may make it more_.
#crocodīlōs dīcunt, cum in terrā partum ēdiderint, obruere ōva#, _DN._
2, 129, _they say that the crocodile, after laying on land, buries her
eggs_. #dīcēbam quoad metuerēs, omnia tē prōmissūrum: simul ac timēre
desīssēs, similem tē futūrum tuī#, _Ph._ 2, 89, _I said that as long as
you were afraid, you would promise everything; the moment you ceased to
fear, you would be just like yourself_. #cōnstituērunt ea, quae ad
proficīscendum pertinērent, comparāre#, 1, 3, 1, _they resolved to get
such things ready as were necessary for the march_. #erat scrīptum: nisi
domum reverterētur, sē capitis eum damnātūrōs#, N. 4, 3, 4, _it stood
written that, if he did not come back home, they would condemn him to
death_ (direct form #nisi revertēris, damnābimus#). #lēgātī vēnērunt,
quī sē ea, quae imperāsset, factūrōs pollicērentur#, 4, 22, 1, _some
envoys came, to engage to do what he ordered_ (direct form #quae
imperāris, faciēmus#). #Venetī cōnfīdēbant Rōmānōs neque ūllam
facultātem habēre nāvium, neque eōrum locōrum ubī̆ bellum gestūrī essent
portūs nōvisse#, 3, 19, 6, _the Venetans felt assured that the Romans
had not any proper supply of ships, and were not acquainted with the
ports in the places where they were to fight_.

1772. (2.) Sentences with independent time retain the independent time
in the subjunctive in primary sequence (1744); in secondary sequence the
present becomes imperfect, and the perfect becomes pluperfect: as,

(_a._) #quamquam opīniō est, eum quī multīs annīs ante hōs fuerit,
Pīsistratum, multum valuisse dīcendō#, _Br._ 27, _though there is an
impression that the man who lived years and years before these people,
Pisistratus, was a very telling orator_ (direct form, #quī fuit#, 1738).
#dīcitur, posteā quam vēnerit, paucīs diēbus esse mortuus#, _Clu._ 175,
_he is said to have died a few days after he came_ (1739). (_b._)
#cōgnōvit Suēbōs, posteā quam pontem fierī comperissent, nūntiōs in
omnēs partēs dīmīsisse#, 4, 19, 2, _he ascertained that after the
Suebans had learned of the building of the bridge, they had sent out
messengers in every direction_.


THE INDIRECT QUESTION.

1773. The subjunctive is used in indirect questions or exclamations.

Thus, when the direct question, #quī scīs#, _how do you know?_ is
subordinated to a main sentence, such as #quaerō#, _I ask_, the #scīs#
becomes #sciās#: #quaerō quī sciās#, _RA._ 59, _I ask how you know_.
Questions or exclamations thus subordinated are called _Indirect_
(1723). In English, indirect questions are usually characterized simply
by the position of the words, the subject standing before the verb.

1774. The indirect question is one of the commonest of constructions. It
depends on verbs or expressions meaning not only _ask_, but also _tell_,
_inform_, _ascertain_, _see_, _hear_, _know_, _consider_, _deliberate_,
_doubt_, _wonder_, _fear_, &c., &c.


YES OR NO QUESTIONS.

1775. Indirect Yes or No questions are introduced by the same
interrogative particles that are used in direct questions (1503). But in
indirect questions, #num# and #-ne# are used without any essential
difference, in the sense of _whether_, _if_. #nōnne# is used thus only
by Cicero, and by him only with #quaerō#: as,

#quaeris num disertus sit?# _Planc._ 62, _do you ask whether he is a
good speaker?_ #quaesīvī cōgnōsceretne sīgnum#, _C._ 3, 10, _I asked if
he recognized the seal_. #quaerō nōnne tibī̆ faciendum idem sit#, _Fin._
3, 13, _I ask whether you ought not to do the same_. #vidēte num
dubitandum vōbīs sit#, _IP._ 19, _consider whether you ought to have any
hesitation_.

1776. The combinations #-ne . . . -ne#, and #an . . . an#, introducing
two separate questions, are rare; #-ne . . . -ne# is mostly confined to
poetry. In a few instances such questions can hardly be distinguished
from alternatives.

1777. A conditional protasis with #sī#, _if_, _to see if_, or #sī
forte#, _if perchance_, sometimes takes the place of an indirect
question in expressions or implications of trial, hope, or expectation:
as, #ībō, vīsam sī domīst#, T. _Hau._ 170, _I’ll go and see if he’s at
home_. Usually with the subjunctive: as, #exspectābam, sī quid
scrīberēs#, _Att._ 16, 2. 4, _I was waiting to see whether you would
write anything_. #circumfunduntur hostēs, sī quem aditum reperīre
possent#, 6, 37, 4, _the enemy came streaming round, to see if they
could find any way of getting in_.


ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS.

1778. Indirect alternative questions are introduced like direct
questions (1519). But when the second member is negative, it has oftener
#necne# than #an nōn#: as,

#hoc quaerāmus, vērum sit an falsum#, _Clu._ 124, _let us ask this
question, whether it is true or false_. #quaesīvī ā Catilīnā in conventū
fuisset, necne#, _C._ 2, 13, _I asked Catiline whether he had been at
the meeting or not_. #permultum interest utrum perturbātiōne animī, an
cōnsultō fīat iniūria#, _Off._ 1, 27, _it makes a vast difference
whether wrong be done in heat of passion, or with deliberate intent_.
#quaerō, eum Brūtīne similem mālīs an Antōniī#, _Ph._ 10, 5, _I ask
whether you would rather have him like Brutus or like Antony_.

1779. An introductory #utrum# preceding an alternative question with
#-ne# and #an# occurs a few times in Plautus and Cicero; #utrumne . . .
an# occurs once in Cicero, and twice in Horace and Tacitus each; compare
1522. After #utrum#, a second alternative is sometimes suppressed, as in
the direct question (1523).

1780. #-ne# in the second member only of an alternative question is
rare, and not used by Caesar or Sallust: as, #sine sciam captīva māterne
sim#, L. 2, 40, 5, _let me know whether I am a captive or a mother_.

1781. (1.) A few times in Plautus and Terence, the second member only of
an alternative question is expressed with #quī sciō an?# or #quī scīs
an?# equivalent to _perhaps_: as, #quī scīs an quae iubeam faciat?# T.
_Eu._ 790, _perhaps she’ll do as I direct_. Horace has once #quī scīs
an#, _AP._ 462, in the sense of _perhaps_, and once #quis scit an#, 4,
7, 17, in the sense of _perhaps not_.

1782. (2.) The second member only of an alternative question is often
expressed after #haud sciō an#, _I don’t know but_, _possibly_,
_perhaps_, with #nōn#; #nēmō#, #nūllus#, &c., if the sentence is
negative: as,

#haud sciō an fierī possit#, _V._ 3, 162, _I don’t know but it is
possible_. Similarly, though not often, with #nesciō an#, #haud sciam
an#, #dubitō an#, #dubitārim an#, #dubium an#, #incertum an#, &c.: as,
#ēloquentiā nesciō an habuisset parem nēminem#, _Br._ 126, _in oratory I
fancy he would have had no peer_. This use, in which #haud sciō an#
becomes adverbial, and the subjunctive approaches closely that of modest
assertion, is principally confined to Cicero. In later Latin, #haud sciō
an#, &c., sometimes has a negative sense, _I don’t know whether_, with
#ūllus#, &c.

1783. From Curtius on, #an# is used quite like #num# or #-ne#, in a
single indirect question, without implication of alternatives.

1784. Two alternatives are rarely used without any interrogative
particles at all: as, #velit nōlit scīre difficile est#, _QFr._ 3, 8, 4,
_will he nill he, it is hard to know_, i.e. whether he will or not.
Compare 1518.

  [Errata:
  1778 ... _Off._ 1, 27
    . invisible
  1782 ... #ēloquentiā nesciō an habuisset parem nēminem#,
    . for ,]


PRONOUN QUESTIONS.

1785. Indirect pronoun questions are introduced by the same pronominal
words that are used in direct pronoun questions (1526): as,

#cōgnōscit, quae gerantur#, 5, 48, 2, _he ascertains what is going on_.
#vidētis ut omnēs dēspiciat#, _RA._ 135, _you can see how he looks down
on everybody_. #quid agās et ut tē oblectēs scīre cupiō#, _QFr._ 2, 3,
7, _I am eager to know how you do and how you are amusing yourself_.


ORIGINAL SUBJUNCTIVES.

1786. Questions already in the subjunctive may also become indirect.

Thus, #quō mē vertam?# _V._ 5, 2, _which way shall I turn?_ (1563)
becomes indirect in #quō mē vertam nesciō#, _Clu._ 4, _I don’t know
which way I am to turn_. #quid faciam?# H. _S._ 2, 1, 24, _what shall I
do?_ (1563) becomes indirect in #quid faciam, praescrībe#, H. _S._ 2, 1,
5, _lay down the law, what I’m to do_. #neque satis cōnstābat quid
agerent#, 3, 14, 3, _and it was not at all clear what they had best do_.
#dubitāvī hōsce hominēs emerem an nōn emerem#, Pl. _Cap._ 455, _I had my
doubts, whether to buy these men or not to buy_ (1564).


INDICATIVE QUESTIONS APPARENTLY INDIRECT.

1787. In old Latin, the indicative occurs often in connections where the
subjunctive would be used in classical Latin: as,

#dīc, quis est#, Pl. _B._ 558, _say, who is it?_ whereas #dīc quis sit#
would mean _say who it is_. In such cases the question is not
subordinate, but coordinate, usually with an imperative (1697), or with
some such expression as #tē rogō#, #volō scīre#, #scī̆n#, or the like.
Such coordination occurs exceptionally in the classical period: as, #et
vidē, quam conversa rēs est#, _Att._ 8, 13, 2, _and observe, how
everything is changed_. #adspice, ut ingreditur#, V. 6, 856, _see, how
he marches off_.

1788. The indicative is used with #nesciō# followed by a pronominal
interrogative, when this combination is equivalent to an indefinite
pronoun or adverb: as,

#prōdit nesciō quis#, T. _Ad._ 635, _there’s some one coming out_. This
is a condensed form for #prōdit nesciō quis sit#, _there’s coming out I
don’t know who it is_, the real question, #sit#, being suppressed, and
#nesciō quis# acquiring the meaning of #aliquis#, _somebody_. Similarly
#nesciō# with #unde#, #ubī̆#, #quandō#, #quot#, &c., in writers of all
ages. Plautus uses #sciō quid#, #sciō ut#, &c., somewhat in this way
once or twice with the indicative: as, #scio quid agō#, _B._ 78, _I’m
doing I know what_.

1789. This combination often expresses admiration, contempt, or regret:
as, #contendō tum illud nesciō quid praeclārum solēre existere#, _Arch._
15, _I maintain that in such a combination the beau ideal of perfection
always bursts into being_. #paulum nesciō quid#, _RA._ 115 _an
unconsidered trifle_. #dīvīsa est sententia, postulante nesciō quō#,
_Mil._ 14. _the question was divided, on motion of what’s his name_.
#nesciō quō pactō#, _C._ 31, _unfortunately_.

1790. The indicative is used in like manner with many expressions,
originally exclamatory, which have become adverbs: such are #immāne
quantum#, _prodigiously_, #mīrum quantum#, _wonderfully_, #sānē quam#,
_immensely_, &c., &c. See 712 and the dictionary.

1791. Relative constructions often have the appearance of indirect
questions, and care must be taken not to confound the two. Thus, #ut# is
a relative in #hanc rem, ut factast, ēloquar#, Pl. _Am._ 1129, _I’ll
tell this thing as it occurred_, i.e. not _how it occurred_. #nōstī quae
sequontur#, _TD._ 4, 77, _you know the things that follow_, i.e. not
_what follows_.


THE RELATIVE SENTENCE.

1792. Relative sentences are introduced by relative words, the most
important of which is the pronoun #quī#, _who_, _which_, or _that_. The
relative pronoun may be in any case required by the context, and may
represent any of the three persons.

1793. The relative adverbs, #ubī̆#, #quō#, #unde#, often take the place
of a relative pronoun with a preposition, chiefly in designations of
place, and regularly with town and island names. Less frequently of
persons, though #unde# is not uncommonly thus used.

1794. In a wider sense, sentences introduced by any relative conjunctive
particle, such as #ubī̆#, _when_, are sometimes called relative
sentences. Such sentences, however, are more conveniently treated
separately, under the head of the several conjunctive particles.

1795. (1.) The relative pronoun, like the English relative _who_,
_which_, was developed from the interrogative. Originally, the relative
sentence precedes, and the main sentence follows, just as in question
and answer.

Thus, #quae mūtat, ea corrumpit#, _Fin._ 1, 21, _what he changes, that
he spoils_, is a modification of the older question and answer: #quae
mūtat? ea corrumpit#, _what does he change? that he spoils_. With
adjective relatives, the substantive is expressed in both members, in
old or formal Latin: as, #quae rēs apud nostrōs nōn erant, eārum rērum
nōmina nōn poterant esse ūsitāta#, Cornif. 4, 10, _what things did not
exist among our countrymen, of those things the names could not have
been in common use_.

1796. (2.) The relative sentence may also come last. As early as
Plautus, this had become the prevalent arrangement, and the substantive
of the main sentence is called the _Antecedent_: as,

#ultrā eum locum, quō in locō Germānī cōnsēderant, castrīs idōneum locum
dēlēgit#, 1, 49, 1, _beyond the place in which place the Germans had
established themselves, he selected a suitable spot for his camp_. The
three words #diēs#, #locus#, and #rēs#, are very commonly expressed thus
both in the antecedent and the relative sentence. This repetition is
rare in Livy, and disappears after his time.

1797. In old Latin, rarely in classical poetry, a sentence sometimes
begins with an emphasized antecedent put before the relative, and in the
case of the relative: as, #urbem quam statuō vostra est#, V. 1, 573,
_the city which I found is yours_; for #quam urbem statuō, ea vostra
est#. In the main sentence, #is#, #hīc#, #iste#, or #ille#, is often
used; less frequently, as in this example, an appellative.

1798. The main sentence often has the determinative or demonstrative, or
the substantive, or both omitted: as,

(_a._) #ubī̆ intellēxit diem īnstāre, quō diē frūmentum mīlitibus mētīrī
oportēret#, 1, 16, 5, _when he saw the day was drawing nigh, on which
day the grain was to be measured out to his men_. (_b._) #quōs āmīsimus
cīvīs, eōs Mārtis vīs perculit#, _Marc._ 17, _what fellow-citizens we
have lost, those the fury of the War-god smote down_. (_c._) #Sabīnus
quōs tribūnōs mīlitum circum sē habēbat, sē sequī iubet#, 5, 37, 1,
_Sabinus ordered what tribunes of the soldiers he had about him, to
follow him_.

1799. The antecedent is often omitted when it is indefinite, or is
obvious from the context: as,

#sunt quī mīrentur#, _V_. 1, 6, _there be who wonder_. #dēlēgistī quōs
Rōmae relinquerēs#, _C._ 1, 9, _you picked out people to leave in Rome_.
#quod periīt, periīt#, Pl. _Cist._ 703, _gone is gone_. #Caesar cōgnōvit
Cōnsidium, quod nōn vīdisset, prō vīsō sibī̆ renūntiāvisse#, 1, 22, 4,
_Caesar ascertained that Considius had reported to him as seen what he
had not seen_.

1800. An ablative or nominative abstract in the relative sentence
sometimes represents an ablative of manner or quality omitted from the
main sentence: as, #quā prūdentiā es, nihil tē fugiet#, _Fam._ 11, 13,
1, _with what sense you have, nothing will elude you_, i.e. #eā quā es
prūdentiā, nihil tē fugiet. spērō, quae tua prūdentia est, tē valēre#,
_Att._ 6, 9, 1, _I hope that, with your characteristic caution, you are
well_. #at Āiāx, quō animō trāditur, mīlliēs oppetere mortem quam illa
perpetī māluisset#, _Off._ 1, 113, _Ajax, on the contrary, with his
traditional vehemence, would have chosen rather to die a thousand deaths
than to submit to such indignities_. This ellipsis begins with Cicero,
and is found a few times only in later writers.

AGREEMENT OF THE RELATIVE.

1801. The agreement of the relative has already been spoken of in a
general way (1082-1098). For convenience, however, it may be set forth
here more explicitly.

1802. A relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender and
number, but its case depends on the construction of the sentence in
which it stands: as,

#Hippiās glōriātus est ānulum quem habēret, pallium quō amictus, soccōs
quibus indūtus esset, sē suā manū cōnfēcisse#, _DO._ 3, 127, _Hippias
prided himself that he had made with his own hand the ring that he wore,
the cloak in which he was wrapped, and the slippers that he had on_.
This holds of all relatives with inflected form, such as #quīcumque#,
#quālis#, #quantus#, &c., &c.

1803. When the relative refers to two or more antecedents of different
gender, its gender is determined like that of a predicate adjective
(1087): as,

#mātrēs et līberī, quōrum aetās misericordiam vestram requīrēbat#, _V._
5, 129, _mothers and babies, whose years would appeal to your sympathy_
(1088). #ōtium atque dīvitiae, quae prīma mortālēs putant#, S. _C._ 36,
4, _peace and prosperity, which the sons of men count chiefest of
blessings_ (1089). #fortūna, quam nēmō ab incōnstantiā et temeritāte
sēiunget, quae digna nōn sunt deō#, _DN._ 3, 61, _fortune, which nobody
will distinguish from caprice and hazard, qualities which are not
befitting god_ (1089). Sometimes the relative agrees with the nearest
substantive: as, #eās frūges atque frūctūs, quōs terra gignit#, _DN._ 2,
37, _the crops, and the fruits of the trees that earth produces_.

1804. The relative is sometimes regulated by the sense, and not by the
form of the antecedent: as,

#equitātum praemittit quī videant#, 1, 15, 1, _he sends the cavalry
ahead, for them to see_ (1095). #ūnus ex eō numerō, quī ad caedem parātī
erant#, S. _I_. 35, 6, _one of the number that were ready to do murder_
(1095). #duo prōdigia, quōs improbitās tribūnō cōnstrictōs addīxerat#,
_Sest._ 38, _a pair of monstrosities, whom their depravity had delivered
over in irons to the tribune_. #scrība pontificis, quōs nunc minōrēs
pontificēs appellant#, L. 22, 57, 3, _a clerk of the pontiff, which
clerks they call nowadays lesser pontiffs_, i.e. #quōs scrībās. Vēiēns
bellum exortum, quibus Sabīnī arma coniūnxerant#, L. 2, 53, 1, _a Vejan
war broke out, with whom the Sabines had allied themselves_, i.e.
#bellum cum Vēientibus.#

1805. A relative referring to a proper name and explanatory appellative
combined, may take the gender of either: as, #flūmine Rhēnō, quī agrum
Helvētium ā Germānīs dīvidit#, 1, 2, 3, _by the river Rhine, which is
the boundary between Helvetians and Germans_. #ad flūmen Scaldem quod
īnfluit in Mosam#, 6, 33, 3, _to the river Scheldt, that empties itself
into the Maas_.

1806. With verbs of indeterminate meaning (1035), the relative pronoun
sometimes agrees with the predicate substantive: as, #Thēbae ipsae, quod
Boeōtiae caput est#, L. 42, 44, 3, _Thebes itself, which is the capital
of Boeotia_. Often, however, with the antecedent: as, #flūmen quod
appellātur Tamesis#, 5, 11, 8, _the river which is called the Thames_.

1807. When the relative is subject, its verb