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Title: The Beaked Whales of the Family Ziphidae - An account of the Beaked Whales of the Family Ziphiidae - in the collection of the united states museum...
Author: True, Frederick
Language: English
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The Internet Archive/American Libraries and the Online


                        SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
                     UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM
                              Bulletin 73



     AN ACCOUNT OF THE BEAKED WHALES OF THE FAMILY ZIPHIIDÆ IN THE
            COLLECTION OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM,
        WITH REMARKS ON SOME SPECIMENS IN OTHER AMERICAN MUSEUMS


                                   BY
                           FREDERICK W. TRUE
      _Head Curator, Department of Biology, U. S. National Museum_


                [Illustration: Smithsonian Institution]

                               WASHINGTON
                       GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
                                  1910

             BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM
                       Issued September 28, 1910.



                             ADVERTISEMENT.


The scientific publications of the United States National Museum consist
of two series, the _Proceedings_ and the _Bulletins_.

The _Proceedings_, the first volume of which was issued in 1878, are
intended primarily as a medium for the publication of original, and
usually brief, papers based on the collections of the National Museum,
presenting newly-acquired facts in zoology, geology, and anthropology,
including descriptions of new forms of animals, and revisions of limited
groups. One or two volumes are issued annually and distributed to
libraries and scientific organizations. A limited number of copies of
each paper, in pamphlet form, is distributed to specialists and others
interested in the different subjects as soon as printed. The date of
publication is printed on each paper, and these dates are also recorded
in the tables of contents of the volume.

The _Bulletins_, the first of which was issued in 1875, consist of a
series of separate publications comprising chiefly monographs of large
zoological groups and other general systematic treatises (occasionally in
several volumes), faunal works, reports of expeditions, and catalogues of
type-specimens, special collections, etc. The majority of the volumes are
octavos, but a quarto size has been adopted in a few instances in which
large plates were regarded as indispensable.

Since 1902 a series of octavo volumes containing papers relating to the
botanical collections of the Museum, and known as the _Contributions from
the National Herbarium_, has been published as bulletins.

The present work forms No. 73 of the _Bulletin_ series.

                                                        Richard Rathbun,
                          _Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution,
                        In charge of the United States National Museum._

Washington, D. C., June 1, 1910.



                           TABLE OF CONTENTS.


  Page.
  Introduction                                                          1
  Descriptions of skulls and skeletons of Ziphioid whales               3
  Genus Mesoplodon                                                      3
  Mesoplodon bidens                                                     4
      densirostris                                                      9
      europæus                                                         11
      stejnegeri                                                       24
  Genus Ziphius                                                        30
  Ziphius cavirostris                                                  30
  Genus Berardius                                                      60
  Berardius bairdii                                                    60
  Genus Hyperoödon                                                     76
  Hyperoödon ampullatus                                                76
  List of species of existing Ziphioid whales                          76
  Index                                                                79
  Explanation of plates                                                83



          AN ACCOUNT OF THE BEAKED WHALES OF THE FAMILY ZIPHIIDÆ
         IN THE COLLECTION OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM,
        WITH REMARKS ON SOME SPECIMENS IN OTHER AMERICAN MUSEUMS.


                         By Frederick W. True,
     _Head Curator, Department of Biology, U. S. National Museum._



                             INTRODUCTION.


The beaked whales belonging to the family Ziphiidæ are, with the
exception of the bottle-nosed whales of the genus _Hyperoödon_, among the
rarest of cetaceans. Of the three genera _Mesoplodon_, _Ziphius_, and
_Berardius_, so far as I have been able to ascertain from published
records, specimens representing about one hundred individuals are known,
and somewhat more than one-half of these belong to the first-named genus.
_Berardius_ is the rarest genus, only about fourteen specimens having
been collected thus far. The U. S. National Museum contains specimens
representing some twenty-five individuals of the three genera, or about
one-fourth of the material at present available. Among these are six
specimens of the genus _Berardius_, or nearly half of all that have been
recorded thus far.

The most important addition to the knowledge of these whales made during
the last quarter century was the discovery of representatives of the
three genera _Mesoplodon_, _Ziphius_, and _Berardius_, at Bering Island,
in the North Pacific, by Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, whereby the known range
of the family was very greatly extended. Two of the forms were described
by Doctor Stejneger in 1883, and the third by myself from a skull which
he collected. About one-half of the material which the Museum possesses
consists of that collected by Doctor Stejneger in Bering Island and that
from the same locality presented by Mr. Nicholas Grebnitzki, Russian
governor of the Commander Islands.

About six years ago the National Museum received information and
specimens from correspondents showing that the range of the three genera
found at Bering Island extends to the eastern North Pacific, one genus
(_Ziphius_) having been observed at Kiska Harbor, Alaska, another
(_Mesoplodon_) at Yaquina Bay, Oregon, and the third (_Berardius_) at St.
George Island, Pribilof Group, Alaska, and near Cape Mendocino,
California.

On the east and west coasts of the United States the only occurrences of
beaked whales known to me are as follows:


                    EAST COAST OF THE UNITED STATES.

  _Mesoplodon bidens_:
    Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. 1867. Skull in the Museum of
          Comparative Zoölogy, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  _Mesoplodon europæus_:
    Atlantic City, New Jersey. March 28, 1889. Young male. Skeleton,
          cast, photographs, and viscera in the National Museum.
    North Long Branch, New Jersey. July 22, 1905. Adult female. Skull in
          the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  _Mesoplodon densirostris?_:
    Annisquam, Massachusetts. August, 1898. Young female. Skeleton in the
          Museum of the Boston Society of Natural History.
  _Ziphius cavirostris_:
    Charleston, South Carolina. 1865 (?). Young female. Skeleton in the
          National Museum. (Type of _Z. semijunctus_.)
    Barnegat City, New Jersey. October 3, 1883. Adult female. Skeleton
          and cast in the National Museum.
    St. Simon Island, Georgia. 1893. Male (?). Known from a photograph;
          only a few bones preserved.
    Newport, Rhode Island. October, 1901. Adult male. Skeleton and
          photograph in the National Museum.
  _Hyperoödon ampullatus_:
    New York Bay, New York. 1822. Female (?). Not known to have been
          preserved.
    North Dennis, Massachusetts. January, 1869. Male. Skeleton in the
          Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    Newport, Rhode Island. 1869. Female. Skull in Museum of the Academy
          of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.


                    WEST COAST OF THE UNITED STATES.

  _Mesoplodon stejnegeri_:
    Yaquina Bay, near Newport, Oregon. February 15 (?), 1904. Adult.
          Skull in the National Museum.
  _Ziphius cavirostris_:
    Kiska Harbor, Alaska. September, 1904. Known only from photographs.
  _Berardius bairdii_:
    St. George Island, Pribilof Group, Alaska. June, 1903. Adult female.
          Skeleton in the National Museum.
    St. George Island, Pribilof Group, Alaska. June, 1903. Young male.
          Skeleton in the National Museum.
    Centerville Beach, near Ferndale, California. October, 1904. Adult
          male. Skeleton in the National Museum.
    Alaska or California (?). Skull formerly in museum of the Alaska
          Commercial Company, San Francisco.
    Trinidad, California. January 30, 1905. Not preserved; perhaps not
          this genus.
    St. George Island, Pribilof Group, Alaska. August 21, 1909. Female.
          Probably not preserved. Reported by Maj. Ezra W. Clark.



        DESCRIPTIONS OF SKULLS AND SKELETONS OF ZIPHIOID WHALES.


                       Genus MESOPLODON Gervais.

Of this genus the National Museum has four specimens; namely, (1) a skull
(Cat. No. 21112, U.S.N.M.) obtained at Bering Island, North Pacific
Ocean, in 1883, by Dr. L. Stejneger, and made the type of the species _M.
stejnegeri_ True; (2) a skull and photographs (Cat. No. 143132, U.S.N.M.)
of the same species, from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, obtained in exchange from
Mr. J. G. Crawford in 1904; (3) a skeleton, cast, and photographs of a
young male (Cat. No. 23346, U.S.N.M.), hitherto supposed to represent _M.
bidens_, caught at Atlantic City, New Jersey, in 1889; and (4) a skeleton
of an adult (Cat. No. 49880, U.S.N.M.) from the Chatham Islands, New
Zealand, representing _M. grayi_.[1]

In addition to this material, I have had the privilege of examining two
skulls belonging to the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, and hitherto
supposed to represent _M. bidens_, and two skeletons belonging to the
American Museum of Natural History. Of these last, one is that of an
adult and was purchased by the American Museum under the name of _M.
layardi_, but was subsequently recognized to be a new species and was
described by Mr. Andrews, under the name of _Mesoplodon bowdoini_. The
other is that of a young individual, and has been labeled _M. grayi_.

As already noted by Dr. G. M. Allen,[2] only four specimens of
_Mesoplodon_ have been recorded hitherto from the Atlantic coast of the
United States. These are:

1. An adult, sex unknown, but probably female, 16 feet long, found at
Nantucket, Massachusetts, in 1867, and recorded by Prof. L. Agassiz.[3]
The skull of this individual is in the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy,
Cambridge, Massachusetts.

2. A young male, 12½ feet long, captured at Atlantic City, New Jersey,
March 28, 1889. The skeleton (Cat. No. 23346, U.S.N.M.) is in the
National Museum.

3. A young female, 12 feet 2 inches long, stranded at Annisquam,
Massachusetts, August, 1898, and recorded by the late Alpheus Hyatt.[4]
The skeleton is in the museum of the Boston Society of Natural History.

4. An adult female, said by fishermen who measured it to have been 22
feet long, entangled in pound nets at North Long Branch, New Jersey, July
22, 1905, and recorded by Dr. Glover M. Allen.[5] The cranium of this
individual is preserved in the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy. The rostrum
and mandible, which were originally obtained, were afterwards destroyed
by accident.

I have examined all this material. Writers who have had occasion to
mention these four specimens thus far have referred them tacitly to
_Mesoplodon bidens_ (Sowerby), but, after a careful study of them, I have
ascertained that while the Nantucket specimen belongs to that species,
the Atlantic City and Long Branch specimens represent _Mesoplodon
europæus_ (Gervais). This is a very interesting discovery, because the
latter species has been known hitherto only from a single skull, and its
validity has been frequently questioned. The Annisquam specimen, as will
be seen later, presents characters which appear to ally it to _M.
densirostris_.


                      MESOPLODON BIDENS (Sowerby).

    _Physeter bidens_ Sowerby, British Miscell., 1804, p. 1; Trans. Linn.
          Soc. London, vol. 7, 1804, p. 310.
    _Delphinus sowerbensis_ Blainville, Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat., 2d ed.,
          vol. 9, 1817, p. 177.
    _Delphinus sowerbyi_ Desmarest, Mammalogie, pt. 2, 1822, p. 521.


The only specimen from the Atlantic coast of the United States which can
with certainty be referred to this species is the one from Nantucket
mentioned on page 3. Prof. L. Agassiz’s original notice of it is so brief
that it is quoted in full below:

  Professor Agassiz also brought to the notice of the Society the
  discovery of a Cetacean, new to America. The skull was exhibited, and
  its peculiar features pointed out. It was obtained on the coast of
  Nantucket by Messrs. H. M. and S. C. Martin, of Roxbury. It belonged to
  the genus _Mesoplodon_, as characterized by Gervais, and ought to be
  separated from the fossil _Ziphius_, described by Cuvier. Professor
  Agassiz, however, questioned whether _Mesoplodon_ was not identical
  with _Delphinorhynchus_, previously described by De Blainville. The
  specimen found at Nantucket measured 16 feet in length.[6]


                                 SKULL.

The skull of this Nantucket specimen, which I have before me, is
thoroughly adult. That the specimen is a female is probable from the fact
that the teeth (one of which is preserved), though fully developed, are
only two-thirds as broad and three-fourths as long as those of Sowerby’s
specimen (the type of the species), which was an adult male.[7] The skull
is 765 mm. long, and about 30 mm. are lacking from the end of the beak,
so that the original length was about 795 mm. It appears to be,
therefore, rather the largest skull of the species of which there is any
record. The specimen itself, according to Dr. J. A. Allen, was 16 feet 3
inches long.[8] The largest European skull appears to be the one in the
Edinburgh Museum, described by Sir William Turner in 1872.[9] The length
of this is 749 mm. The specimen was a female, but though the skull is so
large, the mesirostral cartilage was not ossified, and the individual
was, therefore, probably not thoroughly adult. Two other European
specimens, of which the total length was almost identical with that of
the Nantucket specimen, were (1) the adult female obtained at Overstrand,
England, in 1892, and recorded by Southwell and Harmer[10] (length 16
feet 2 inches, straight); (2) the adult male obtained at Brodie House,
Scotland, in 1800, and recorded by Sowerby[11] (length 16 feet). The
length of the skull is not given for either of these specimens. The adult
male obtained at Rugsund, Norway, in 1901, and recorded by Grieg,[12] was
only 15 feet 1 inch long, but some of the measurements of the skull are
as large as, or even a little larger than, those of the Nantucket skull.
The total length of the skull was not given, as the end of the beak was
lacking.

Grieg’s figures of the Rugsund skull afford a very satisfactory basis for
comparisons between that specimen and the Nantucket skull (Pl. 1, fig.
1). Both skulls show the comparatively narrow frontal region, the
moderately developed tubercle anterior to the anteorbital notch, and the
low maxillary ridge, which are characteristic of the species. In both
skulls the anterior prolongation of the ethmoid is lanceolate and flat,
but in the Rugsund skull the apex is truncated. In the latter also the
posterior end of the mesirostral ossification is divided into three
longitudinal sections by two lateral and somewhat divergent grooves,
while in the Nantucket skull there is only a single median groove. These
differences may safely be regarded as individual. Toward the distal end
the surface of the ossification in the Nantucket is pitted and irregular
and descends much below the level of the premaxillæ. It ends distally at
the same point with the vomer. In this skull the proximal end of the
premaxillæ and adjoining plate of the maxillæ are somewhat less reflexed
than in the Rugsund skull. The shape of the superior margin of the
supraoccipital is alike in both.

There are no well-defined differences in the relative thickness of the
beak at the base or in the form and position of the visible portion of
the palatines, but in the Nantucket skull the mass of the combined
frontal and lachrymal anterior to the orbit is less rounded and more
triangular than in the Rugsund skull. The temporal fossæ also have a
postero-superior angular enlargement not seen in the latter.

In the Nantucket skull the rostral portion of the premaxillæ is high and
at the distal end vertical. The superior profile is somewhat convex, and
the superior free margin rounded proximally, but sharp distally. The
least distance between the free margins is 10 mm.

The pterygoids are cut off from the maxillæ anteriorly by a very narrow
band of the palatine, which connects with a broad band externally and a
lanceolate segment internally. The inferior pterygoid ridges diverge
anteriorly. The broad surface internal to them is concave. The external
border of the pterygoid sinus is nearly straight. An elongated, fusiform
section of the vomer is visible on the inferior surface of the beak at
the middle for a distance of 158 mm., and a small lozenge-shaped section,
ill defined, is visible between the pterygoids and palatines. (Pl. 4,
fig. 1.)

The expanded anterior end of the malar is rhomboidal in form, with an
external free margin 11 mm. long. Anteriorly it does not form part of the
margin of the anteorbital notch.

The lachrymal is irregularly oblong, with an external free margin 35 mm.
long and 12 mm. thick. The distance from the anteorbital notch to the
anterior end of the orbit is 60 mm. (Pl. 7, fig. 1.)

The lateral free margins of the basioccipital are extended posteriorly
beyond the exoccipitals, which is a character indicative of age.

The supraoccipital has a distinct median ridge, with a longitudinal
depression on each side, bounded externally by a prominent convexity.
(Pl. 10, fig. 1.)


                               MANDIBLE.

The mandible is slender, with a very elongate symphysis, which measures
237 mm. The inferior outline of the ramus is strongly concave at the
middle and slightly convex posteriorly, while the symphysial portion is
bent upward. The superior outline is concave both behind and before the
tooth, and also immediately anterior to the coronoid process. At about
the beginning of the posterior fourth the outline is convex, and the
mandible at this point is nearly as deep as at the coronoid process. The
superior surface of the symphysis slopes down on each side to the median
line, but each half of the surface is itself nearly plane. (Pl. 11, figs.
1, 2, and 5.)

The alveolar groove anterior to the tooth is very distinct throughout and
is without septa and open at the bottom. It ends distally in a rounded
aperture 6 mm. in diameter, below which are several small foramina. These
lead to a very large canal which occupies all the symphysial portion of
the mandible, the walls being comparatively thin. Behind the tooth the
alveolar groove becomes narrower gradually and disappears in a length of
about 140 mm.

The mental foramen is situated in line with the anterior base of the
tooth, and is confluent with a groove which extends forward for about 80
mm. A rather shallow groove runs along the inferior margin of the
symphysis.

The coronoid process is erect and rounded, and is joined by a horizontal
ridge anteriorly.


                                 TEETH.

The mandibular tooth, which is shown in Pl. 2, fig. 3, is preserved on
the right side only. Its dimensions are as follows: Length anteriorly in
a straight line, 75 mm.; length from the apex to the posterior end of the
root, straight, 60; greatest antero-posterior breadth, 28; transverse
thickness, 10; height of apex above internal superior margin of jaw when
tooth is in situ,[13] 22; antero-posterior length of base of exposed
portion, 30; distance from anterior end to posterior end of root, 37;
greatest height of the exposed dentine crown, above the cement, 14;
length of the base of the dentine crown, 12.

This tooth, as already stated, is only two-thirds as broad and
three-fourths as long as that of Sowerby’s Brodie House specimen (the
type of the species), which was an adult male, and leads to the belief
that the Nantucket specimen was a female. This is in a manner confirmed
by the Rugsund specimen, which was an adult male and had teeth as large
as Sowerby’s specimen. It has to be remarked, however, that in the
Overstrand, England, specimen (1892), which was an adult female, the
teeth did not project beyond the gums. Messrs. Southwell and Harmer say
regarding it:

  The jaws were apparently completely edentulous, and although it was
  possible to feel through the gums a slight prominence on either side in
  the position of the teeth of the male, we could not by this means
  definitely satisfy ourselves with respect to this point, nor were we
  able to ascertain the presence of any other rudimentary teeth in either
  jaw. The evidence which exists on this subject is favourable to the
  view that the female of this species is not provided with any teeth
  which are large enough to pierce the gums.[14]

It is probable that the teeth in the Nantucket specimen, though quite
large, did not project beyond the gums any considerable distance. The
external border of the alveolar groove behind the tooth is only 20 mm.
below the apex of the tooth, and it is not unlikely that the gums in a
specimen of this size had nearly that thickness, so that only the tip of
the tooth would project beyond them. Though the apex is acute, it has a
flat abraded surface anteriorly, which, however, is but 4 mm. long. It
seems probable, on the whole, that the teeth in the female may be quite
large without projecting more than a few millimeters beyond the gums.

In shape the tooth of the Nantucket specimen is almost identical with
that of Sowerby’s Brodie House adult male, as figured by Lankester. The
dentine at the apex is more nearly white than the cement which surrounds
it. The superior margin of the latter is not a plain ring, but sends
upward a papilliform projection on each side. The dentine itself has two
vertical grooves on each side. The root of the tooth ends very obliquely
and is rugose and irregular. The cavity is closed.

Grieg remarks as follows regarding the structure of the teeth of the
Rugsund specimen:

  Sections and microscopic preparations of the alveolar tooth of this
  whale show that its apex consists of dentine, within which is found an
  inner pulp cavity 4 mm. long and 1 mm. broad. The dentine, the
  structure of which agrees with that which Turner found in _Mesoplodon
  bidens_ and _Mesoplodon layardi_, is yellowish white, with the
  exception of the part nearest the pulp cavity, which is yellowish
  brown. It seems to correspond most closely to what Ray Lankester called
  osteodentine. Throughout the tooth the dentine is covered with a very
  thin layer of shining white enamel. The enamel is, however, lacking on
  the front of the tooth, having probably been worn away. A section
  through the middle of the tooth, at right angles with the V-shaped
  furrow, shows a yellowish cement layer from 3 to 5 mm. broad, which is,
  however, worn away on the front of the tooth. Within the cement layer
  is a white, amorphous, calcareous mass, forming a band from 1.5 to 3.5
  mm. broad, which appears to correspond to Ray Lankester’s “globular
  matter” and Turner’s “modified vasodentine.” The mass seems to agree
  most closely with Ray Lankester’s “globular matter,” as it has “no
  structure excepting an indistinct botryoidal character visible with a
  low magnifying power.” The core of the tooth consists of dentine, the
  inner layer of which is brownish, while the outer is rather whitish
  yellow. As above mentioned, the dentine is visible on the front of the
  tooth, since both the cement and the amorphous, calcareous mass are
  worn away. Moreover, it is clear that on the front of the tooth the
  dentine is not covered by enamel. The pulp cavity is reduced to a fine
  pore. A section across the root of the tooth shows an outer yellowish
  cement layer, from 2 to 5 mm. broad, while the interior of the tooth is
  filled with a white, amorphous, calcareous mass, which is interspersed
  with thin yellowish lamellæ of dentine. Here and there, also, thin
  lamellæ are seen to extend from the outer cement layer into the white,
  amorphous, calcareous mass. The dentine lamellæ appear to be identical
  with what Ray Lankester calls osteodentine. No pulp cavity is visible
  in the root of the tooth.[15]

The dimensions of the Nantucket skull are given in the following table in
comparison with those of seven European skulls of _M. bidens_. Dimensions
of the Annisquam, Massachusetts, skull are also added for purposes of
comparison, although it represents another species (see p. 9).

  _Dimensions of eight skulls of Mesoplodon bidens and one skull of M.
                           densirostris (?)._

  Column headings:
    _M. bidens._
      B: Nantucket, Massachusetts, 1867, M.C.Z., female? adult.[a]
      C: Scotland, 1872, Turner, female young.?
      D: Fæø, Norway, 1895, Grieg, female? young.
      E: Shetland, 1881, Turner, male adult.
      F: Rugsund, Norway, 1901, Grieg, male adult.
      G: Udsire, Norway, 1869, Malm, male (No. 1).
      H: Vanholmen, Sweden, 1881, Malm, male (No. 2).
      I: Landenæs, Norway, 1895, Grieg, male.
    _M. densirostris. (?)_
      J: Annisquam, Massachusetts, 1898, True, female young.


 Measurements.            B       C      D      E    F    G    H      I       J
                        mm.     mm.    mm.    mm.  mm.  mm.  mm.    mm.     mm.
 Total length       [b]765+     749    620  743±  ...  733  740    660  [c]622
 Length of rostrum  [b]483+     489    400    ...  ...  485  500    410  [c]377
 Tip of beak to    [bd]607+     572    ...    ...  ...  582  590    517 [cd]466
   end of
   pterygoid
 Height from            277     241    ...    254  267  272  258    235     248
   vertex to
   pterygoid
 Breadth between     [e]277     286 [f]254    267  292  293  253 [f]260   [278]
   orbits
 Breadth between        289     292    262    292  295  298  270    268     266
   zygomatic
   processes
 Breadth at             184     197    170    184  193  187  170    175   [166]
   maxillary
   notches
 Breadth of beak         42      51     38    ...  ...   36   46  [g]40      38
   at middle
 Depth of beak at        35     ...  [h]31    ...  ...  ...  ...  [h]33      51
   middle
 Greatest breadth       131     127    115    114  116  129  124    122     ...
   of premaxillæ
   proximally
 Greatest breadth       107     102 [h]104    102  108  108  100  [h]76      92
   of premaxillæ
   in front of
   anterior nares
 Greatest breadth        54     ...     53    ...   53   50   50     50      39
   of anterior
   nares
 Length of               90     ...    ...    ...  ...  ...       [h]66      82
   temporal fossæ
 Breadth between        222     ...    ...    ...  ...  ...  ...    ...     208
   temporal fossæ
 Breadth of              50     ...    ...    ...   49   56   54     80      46
   foramen magnum
 Length of           [c]651 [ij]470    543 [i]464  ...  639  640    560     ...
   mandible
 Length of              237     241    162    ...  ...  212  220    160     ...
   symphysis
 Greatest depth         106     114     92    102  116  110   97     95     ...
   of mandible

  [a] The size of the teeth makes it quite certain that it is an adult
          female.
  [b] End of beak broken off about 30 mm. from tip.
  [c] Right side. Add 31 mm. for breakage.
  [d] In median line.
  [e] At middle.
  [f] Between “suprafrontal processes of max.”
  [g] Grieg’s fig., p. 18, shows 44 mm.
  [h] From Grieg’s fig., p. 18.
  [i] “Length of ramus.” Length of mandible=699 mm.
  [j] In Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 26, 1872, p. 776.


                 MESOPLODON DENSIROSTRIS (Blainville)?

    _Delphinus densirostris_ Blainville, Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat., 2d ed.,
          vol. 9, 1817, p. 178.
    _Ziphius seychellensis_ Gray, Zoöl. _Erebus and Terror_, 1846, p. 28.


The skull of the specimen from Annisquam, Mass., (Pl. 1, fig. 2) is, I
regret to say, in rather poor condition. It is broken in the left orbital
region, and all the bones, especially those of the beak, are warped by
weathering. The proximal extremity of the left premaxilla is lacking and
also the tip of the beak.

The skull is obviously that of a young animal, as all the sutures are
open and the surface of the occipital condyles is pitted, owing to
imperfect ossification.

Although the dimensions of the skull, with a few exceptions, agree well
with those of young specimens of _M. bidens_, as shown by the foregoing
table (p. 8), certain differences stand out conspicuously. The most
salient of these is the depth of the beak as a whole and the depth and
shape of the rostral portion of the premaxillæ. The latter portion of the
premaxillæ instead of being low, with a straight inferior margin, is very
high, with the inferior margin strongly convex. At the middle of the beak
the premaxillæ are higher than the maxillæ on which they rest. It is true
that the shape of the beak varies greatly with age in _bidens_ and other
species of _Mesoplodon_, but I do not find any evidence that such a
change as is here indicated takes place in _bidens_. The form of the beak
and of the rostral portion of the premaxillæ is that of _M.
densirostris_.

The beak is almost as broad at the base as in _bidens_, but the lateral
free margin of the maxilla anterior to the anteorbital notch instead of
continuing along the side of the beak nearly to the tip, as in _bidens_,
ends at a point about 90 mm. in front of the line of the notch, beyond
which the sides of the beak are vertical.

The margin of the maxilla immediately anterior to the anteorbital notch
is a little damaged, but there was apparently no strong tubercle at this
point, and the surface of the maxilla, though convex, is not raised into
a distinct ridge. In a young skull, however, one would not expect to find
a high ridge. The palatines are visible from above, which is not the case
in _bidens_.

The maxillary foramen is situated a little in advance of the premaxillary
foramen and is directed forward, and, as Dr. Glover M. Allen has pointed
out, connects with a broad groove which runs forward along the
triangular, horizontal portion of the maxilla at the base of the beak.
The maxillæ are much broader behind the notch than in _bidens_, and the
anterior end of the malar forms the bottom of the notch. The premaxillæ
are noticeably constricted immediately in front of the premaxillary
foramina, and the expanded portion just behind these foramina is nearly
horizontal, with a low transverse ridge near the middle. The proximal end
of the premaxillæ is nearly vertical. The anterior nares are noticeably
small. The foramen magnum is large, with a trifoliate outline (Pl. 10,
fig. 2). The palate at the proximal end presents a median ridge with a
narrow groove on each side. The palatines extend as a broad band much
beyond the pterygoids anteriorly. The vomer is visible below for a space
of 142 mm. near the end of the beak. A very small piece is also visible
at the base of the beak, between the palatines and pterygoids. The
inferior surface of the pterygoids is convex on the side adjoining the
lateral free margin (Pl. 4, fig. 2).

This skull is peculiar in that there is no very distinct basirostral
groove and that the basirostral ridge, as already stated, extends forward
only about 90 mm. Below this ridge is a shallow broad groove which
narrows rapidly forward and can be traced to the extremity of the beak,
where it broadens out somewhat (Pl. 7, fig. 2).

While this skull agrees in size and in many of its proportions with
similar skulls of _M. bidens_, it differs from that species and agrees
with _M. densirostris_ in the breadth across the anteorbital region, in
the depth of the beak and its shape at the base, in the shape of the
premaxillæ both distally and proximally, in the direction of the
maxillary foramen, and the shape of the maxillary bone in front of the
same, in the occupation of the base of the maxillary notch by the
anterior end of the malar, in the absence of any distinct maxillary ridge
above the notch, in the forward extension of the palatines, and in the
shape of the foramen magnum.

Flower states that there is a deep basirostral groove in _M.
densirostris_,[16] but neither the figure in Gervais’ Zoologie et
Paleontologie Française,[17] nor that in Van Beneden and Gervais’
Ostéographie des Cétacés,[18] shows such a groove. The conformation of
the base of the rostrum appears to be about the same as in the Annisquam
skull.

In regard to differences between this skull and those of _M.
densirostris_ it should be stated that in the latter the premaxillary
foramina are situated farther apart, and that the maxillary foramina are
situated considerably in advance of those of the premaxillæ instead of
nearly in line with them.

The Annisquam skull approaches _M. europæus_ in several characters, but
these are such as _europæus_ shares with _densirostris_. The principal
ones are the breadth of the maxillæ in front of the orbits, the presence
of the malar in the base of the anteorbital notch, and the convexity of a
part of the inferior surface of the pterygoids.

Dr. Glover M. Allen has given an account of the exterior, skeleton, and
teeth of this specimen, from which the following particulars are
extracted:[19]

  Regarding the Annisquam specimen no color notes were taken, but from a
  few small photographs in the possession of the Boston Society of
  Natural History, it appears evident that the ventral portion was of a
  lighter tint, and in one of the views a few oval whitish spots are seen
  on the side a trifle behind the middle portion of the body. Another
  view shows the convexity of the posterior margin of the flukes at the
  median point, as well as the prominent dorsal fin. The lower jaw
  protruded slightly beyond the upper. Measurements of this specimen, as
  noted by Professor Hyatt, are as follows: Total length, 12 feet 2
  inches; from anus to bight of flukes, 3 feet 4 to 6 inches; across
  flukes, 3 feet 1 inch; from tip of rostrum to angle of mouth, 1 foot 1½
  inches. The gular furrows were noted as about 10 inches long and from ¼
  to ½ an inch deep.

  The teeth of the Annisquam specimen barely projected above the alveoli
  of the jaws and are sharply mucronate. The basal portion of each,
  however, is more like that of the male’s tooth [_M. europæus_] in the
  slightly convex posterior outline and the forward extension of the
  anterior angle. * * *

  The Annisquam skeleton has 45 vertebræ. Four of the seven cervicals are
  fused. The atlas, axis, and third cervical are firmly anchylosed
  throughout, save for the lateral foramina for the passage of the
  cervical nerves. The fourth cervical is fused to the third by the
  dorsal spine on the left side and by the tip of the upper lateral
  process of the same side. Its centrum, right half of the dorsal spine
  (the spine is divided medially), and the remaining lateral processes
  are free. * * * The epiphyses of the fourth and fifth cervical vertebræ
  and the anterior epiphysis of the sixth cervical are fused to their
  respective centra, but all the other epiphyses of the vertebral column
  and of the pectoral limbs are free.

  The Annisquam skeleton has nine dorsal vertebræ with their
  corresponding pairs of ribs. * * * The sternum of this specimen
  presents few points of interest. It consists of four pieces, the
  anterior-most of which is largest, slightly hollowed above, and
  correspondingly convex below. The three remaining pieces are nearly
  flat, with a deep median notch at the anterior and posterior border of
  each. The posterior piece evidently represents a fusion of the elements
  of two segments, as there are articular surfaces for two pairs of ribs.

From the foregoing, it appears that the Annisquam specimen probably had
one or two vertebræ less than _bidens_ or _europæus_, and that the
sternum was somewhat differently shaped. The tooth, which is figured by
Doctor Allen, is conical, compressed, 54 mm. long, 30 broad at the base,
and resembles teeth of immature _bidens_.

Although with such scant material it is not possible to determine
satisfactorily the identity of this third species of _Mesoplodon_ in the
North Atlantic, represented by the Annisquam specimen, I feel convinced
that that specimen does not belong to _M. bidens_ and that there is a
strong probability that it belongs to _M. densirostris_. It is true that
the latter species has been found hitherto only in the Indian Ocean and
about Australia, but we know so little about the distribution of the
ziphioid whales that, in my opinion, that circumstance by itself should
not be given very great weight.


                     MESOPLODON EUROPÆUS (Gervais).

    _Dioplodon europæus_ Gervais, Zool. et Pal. franç., 1st ed., vol. 2,
          1848-1852, p. 4; 2d ed., 1859, p. 289, pl. 40, figs. 3-6.
    _Dioplodon gervaisi_ Deslongchamps, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, vol.
          10, 1866, p. 177.
    _Neoziphius europæus_ Gray, Suppl. Cat. Seals and Whales Brit. Mus.,
          1871, p. 101.


This species was based on a single specimen found floating in the English
Channel about seventy years ago. An account of the circumstances under
which it was found was given by Eugène Deslongchamps in 1866, as follows:

  The head, which forms the subject of this last note, was given to my
  father some twenty-five or thirty years ago by Mr. Abel Vautier, a
  merchant and armorer of our town, who died at Paris two years since.

  The captain of one of Mr. Vautier’s ships, on his return from a voyage
  to the colonies, saw floating on the water, at the entrance to the
  English Channel, the body of a large animal entirely covered by birds
  (large and small gulls, etc.), which were devouring it. The ship
  approached the stray, and the captain, knowing that Mr. Abel Vautier
  was greatly interested in natural objects, had the head of the cetacean
  cut off, fastened it securely with a cord, and let it trail behind the
  ship. When he arrived at Caën he made a present of it to Mr. Vautier.
  The piece had at that time an appearance anything but agreeable. Mr.
  Vautier was especially fond of beautiful objects which please the eye,
  and hence he offered it to my father, saying, “You, who are an
  anatomist, can make better use of this than I can.” My father was
  unwilling to refuse the present, but neither he nor Mr. Vautier knew as
  yet of its extreme rarity. It is in fact, up to the present time, the
  only specimen which exists, and is a unique object in collections.[20]

No additional specimens have been recorded from European waters or
elsewhere, and much doubt has been thrown on the validity of the species,
many zoologists regarding it as an adult of the commoner species _M.
bidens_. Van Beneden remarked in 1888:

  The opinions of naturalists are divided as regards the identity of this
  ziphioid, which is unique up to the present time. In the eyes of some
  it represents an old male of the common _Mesoplodon_, in which the
  tooth, instead of developing near the middle of the jaw, has developed
  near the anterior extremity. This is the opinion of Doctor Fischer and
  others, who think that this unique specimen represents merely an
  individual modification and that consequently it should not figure in
  the list of species. We do not share this opinion. It is not impossible
  that this ziphioid may belong to the other hemisphere, and this would
  explain why only one single individual has been captured in Europe.[21]

In view of the circumstances surrounding the discovery of the original
specimen, it is of great interest to find that two of the specimens from
the east coast of the United States represent the same species. As one of
them is adult and the other young, the view that the type of _M.
europæus_ is merely an old individual of _M. bidens_ is satisfactorily
disposed of, as is also the opinion that it represents a singular
individual variation.

The two American specimens which represent _europæus_ are those from
North Long Branch, New Jersey (adult female; skull, lacking rostrum and
mandible, in the Museum of Comparative Zoology), and from Atlantic City,
New Jersey (young male; skeleton, cast and photographs in the U. S.
National Museum, Cat. No. 23346).


                          SPECIFIC CHARACTERS.

The species _europæus_ differs from _bidens_ in the following characters,
which may be regarded as diagnostic:

Size larger and pectoral limbs relatively shorter and narrower.

The expanded portion of the maxillæ and frontals broader in front of the
orbit. The protuberance which projects into the anteorbital notch much
larger and the ridge on the maxilla which extends backward from it much
higher. Distance from inner margin of maxillary foramen to tip of
protuberance much more than one-half the distance between the maxillary
foramina of the two sides. Rostrum deeper at the base. Inferior surface
of pterygoids more or less convex, with a ridge (in adults) running
diagonally across it.

The cranial characters above enumerated are found in the type-skull, as
will be seen by examining the excellent figures in Van Beneden and
Gervais’ Osteography, plate 24.

In Dr. Glover M. Allen’s account of the Long Branch specimen[22] it is
stated that the fishermen who measured it reported that it was 22 feet
long, while none of the European specimens (some of which were certainly
adults) was more than 16½ feet long. That the measurement reported by the
fishermen is at least approximately correct appears from the fact that
the skull is larger than that of any of the European specimens. The beak
is missing, so that the total length of the skull can not be given, but
the distance from the occipital condyles to the line of the maxillary
notches (straight) is 312 mm., while in the largest adult among the
European specimens this distance is only 260 mm., and in the thoroughly
adult Nantucket specimen 282 mm.


                                 SKULL.

The Atlantic City and Long Branch skulls also agree in numerous other
details of structure in addition to the foregoing, the more important of
which will now be mentioned. Unless otherwise stated, the type-skull, as
shown by Van Beneden and Gervais’ figures,[23] also presents the same
peculiarities in contrast with _M. bidens_.

_Dorsal aspect_ (Pl. 2, figs. 1 and 2).—The premaxillæ are more depressed
immediately in front of the blowhole than in _M. bidens_, which, with the
prominence of the maxillary ridges, makes this whole region appear
strongly concave. The blowhole is narrower absolutely and also relatively
to the breadth of the expanded proximal ends of the premaxillæ, so that
while in _bidens_ the breadth of the blowhole is much more than one-third
the breadth across the proximal ends of the premaxillæ, in _europæus_ it
is considerably less than a third. Both premaxillæ are much constricted
on the sides of the blowhole and the effect is heightened by the greater
expansion of the proximal ends of the former. These ends do not fit
closely against the adjoining edge of the maxillæ as in _bidens_, but
leave a transverse vacuity, or trough, which is especially noticeable in
the type-skull. The anterior end of the malar bone occupies the bottom of
the maxillary notch and a small portion of it is visible from above,
while in _bidens_ it does not extend up into the notch at all from the
inferior surface and is not visible from above. The posterior margin of
the maxillæ is more squared in _europæus_ than in _bidens_.

The margins of the beak, formed by the maxillæ, instead of being
straight, are somewhat emarginate a little posterior to the middle of the
length and somewhat convex anterior to it, which gives the contour of the
beak, seen from above, a different shape from that of _bidens_. In the
type-skull of _europæus_ the mesirostral ossification appears to be
higher at the proximal end than the premaxillæ, and distally extends to
the end of the beak. In _bidens_ it is lower than the premaxillæ and, in
the Nantucket skull at least, ends anteriorly at the same point as the
vomer, or, in other words, much behind the end of the beak. It would
appear from the statements of Sir William Turner, Van Beneden and
Gervais, Grieg, and others, that the mesirostral ossification never
reaches the end of the beak in _bidens_, but it does in _grayi_,
_haasti_, _densirostris_, and many fossil species, as well as in
_europæus_.

_Lateral aspect_ (Pl. 8, figs. 1, 2).—The temporal fossæ are a little
longer than the orbit in _europæus_, but a little shorter than the orbit
in _bidens_; in the former the superior margin is flat or a little
concave, rather than convex. The exoccipital extends in an angle farther
forward in _europæus_, and the suture between it and the zygomatic is, in
consequence, less nearly vertical than in _bidens_. The premaxillæ at the
sides of the blowhole are nearly horizontal, so that their superior
surface is little seen from this aspect, while in _bidens_ they slope
downward, so that the whole of the superior surface is visible. The high
maxillary ridge, situated behind the anteorbital notch, is very
noticeable from this point of view, as it shuts off a considerable
portion of the premaxillæ. The convex inferior outline of the beak and
its great depth at the base are also salient peculiarities.

_Ventral aspect_ (Pl. 5, figs. 1, 2).—The anterior ends of the palatine
bones are bifurcated, the inner part being the smaller. The two bones
make but a narrow angle with the median line, instead of a wide one, as
in _bidens_, and the surface of the maxillæ between them is strongly
convex instead of flat. This convexity is narrowed at both ends, or, in
other words, is fusiform in shape. No similar conformation is found in
_bidens_, in which the inferior basal area of the maxillæ is flat.

In the young Atlantic City skull of _europæus_, the vomer is visible as a
small, narrow, club-shaped piece, 68 mm. long. Anteriorly it joins the
premaxillæ, which form a prominent ridge in the median line. On each side
of this ridge is a wide and quite deep groove. As the beak is lacking in
the adult North Long Branch skull, its peculiarities can not be made
known. In the type-skull the form is the same as in the Atlantic City
skull, but the vomer does not appear at all on the palate. In _bidens_
the shape of the inferior surface of the premaxillæ at the distal end is
quite different. A very narrow groove runs parallel with and close to the
median line and the whole surface external to it is more or less convex.


                               MANDIBLE.

The mandible of the Atlantic City specimen of _M. europæus_ resembles
that of the type, as figured by Van Beneden and Gervais, in the shortness
of the symphysis and in the position of the tooth, which is in advance of
the posterior end of the symphysis. A number of differences, however,
require consideration. (Pl. 11, figs. 3 and 6.)

In the type, the symphysis, as shown by Van Beneden and Gervais’ figure,
plate 24, fig. 2_a_, is a little more than one-fifth the length of the
mandible. The same relative proportion is found in the Atlantic City
specimen, but, as the latter is a younger individual, one would expect
the symphysis to be shorter. The figure of Van Beneden and Gervais gives
the impression that in the type the end of the mandible is broken, and
that, hence, the symphysis is shorter than it was originally. It will be
observed that figures 2 and 2_a_ do not agree as regards the length
between the tooth and the end of the jaw, figure 2_a_ showing a greater
length. In figure 2, however, the jaw seems rather too long for the
cranium, and if the greater length of the symphysis shown in figure 2_a_
were introduced, it would certainly be so. The explanation of this
discrepancy is not readily found; but one may be allowed to think that
the symphysis is not so blunt in the type as is shown in figure 2.

In the Atlantic City specimen the superior lateral free margin of the
symphysis is straight, while in the type it is much elevated. This is no
doubt due to difference in age and possibly in sex. The type shows three
or four mental foramina, while the Atlantic City specimen has one large
posterior one and seven smaller ones anterior to it.

Another peculiarity of the latter specimen is that the coronoid process
is situated much in advance of the condyle, while the angle extends
considerably behind it. In the type both are nearly in line with the
condyle. I am unable to explain this difference.

In the Atlantic City specimen the axis of the tooth where it emerges from
the alveolus is 91 mm. from the end of the jaw. The portion of the tooth
above the alveolus is 11 mm. long at the base and 12 mm. high. It is
conical and sharp pointed, and is inclined forward and a little outward,
especially at the tip. At the alveolus the transverse breadth of the
tooth is 5 mm. The much larger tooth in the type indicates that that
specimen was a male.

The mandible of the Atlantic City specimen of _M. europæus_ differs from
that of _M. bidens_ in the relative shortness of the symphysis, the large
number of mental foramina, the more anterior position of the tooth, and
the direction of the crown, which is forward instead of backward.

 _Dimensions of the type and two other skulls of Mesoplodon europæus._

  Column headings:
    A: English Channel, type,[a] adult.
    B: North Long Branch, New Jersey, female, adult.
    C: Atlantic City, New Jersey, 23346 U.S.N.M., male, young.


                 Measurements.                     A       B       C
                                                  mm.     mm.     mm.
  Total length                                      762   ([b])     675
  Length of rostrum                                 459     ...     427
  Tip of beak to posterior end of pterygoids        561     ...     525
  Height from vertex to end of pterygoids       [c]292?     283     256
  Breadth between orbits                            327  [d]325  [d]287
  Breadth between zygomatic processes               360  [e]325     302
  Breadth at anteorbital notches                    210     205  [f]182
  Breadth of beak at middle                          66     ...      60
  Depth of beak at middle                            54     ...      40
  Greatest breadth of premaxillæ proximally         168     147     142
  The same, in front of anterior nares              111      99     104
  Breadth of anterior nares                          51      45      42
  Length of temporal fossæ                          102     115     101
  Breadth between temporal fossæ                    228     212     208
  Breadth of foramen magnum                          42      34      34
  Length of mandible                                654     ...     565
  Length of symphysis                               135     ...     116
  Greatest depth of mandible                        120     ...     101

  [a] Dimensions taken from Van Beneden and Gervais’ figures.
  [b] Beak lacking. Length from occipital condyles to base of beak
          (straight), 312 mm.
  [c] Pterygoids broken.
  [d] At middle.
  [e] Estimated. One zygoma is broken.
  [f] Least.


                               VERTEBRÆ.

The vertebral formula of three specimens of _M. bidens_ and of the
Atlantic City specimen of _M. europæus_ is as follows:

                          M. europæus.
  Atlantic City         C. 7;     Th. 9;     L. 11;  Ca. 20=47
                           M. bidens.
  Landenæs                 7;        10;        11;      19=47
  Fæø                     7;         9;        11;      19=46
  Udsire                   7;        10;         9;      20=46

Although the skeleton of _M. europæus_ appears from the foregoing formula
to include one less thoracic vertebra than those of _M. bidens_, as the
last pair of ribs present is as long as the preceding ones, an additional
pair probably existed originally. The formula for _europæus_ would then
be: C. 7, Th. 10, L. 10, Ca. 20 = 47. (Pl. 13, fig. 1.)

In the Atlantic City specimen all the epiphyses are free. The atlas and
axis are anchylosed together, the third cervical is united to the axis by
the centrum, and on the right side by the top of the neural arch; on the
left side the arch is imperfect and free. The fourth to the seventh
cervicals, inclusive, are all free. The arch is incomplete above in the
fourth, fifth, and sixth, but complete in the seventh. There is a short
neural spine on both sixth and seventh cervicals. The atlas has a broad,
obliquely-truncated inferior lateral process, but no superior process,
while the axis has both inferior and superior processes. The inferior
process is twice as long as the superior process, and both are directed
backward. They do not meet to form a ring. The third to the sixth
cervicals, inclusive, have inferior processes only, that on the third
being long and thin (but developed on the left side only). On the fourth
and fifth cervicals the processes are short and small; on the sixth, long
and broad, and directed downward. The centrum of the seventh cervical has
a broad facet on the side, where the first rib is attached, and an
inferior lateral process thicker than that of the sixth cervical, but
also directed downward.

It is doubtful whether the foregoing characters of the cervical vertebræ
are of any systematic importance, as there is a very large amount of
individual variation among these animals in the development of the
transverse processes and other details of structure. _M. bidens_,
however, appears to have superior transverse processes on most of the
cervicals which sometimes unite with the inferior processes to form
foramina. In the specimen of _M. europæus_ under consideration there are
no superior processes, except on the axis.

Metapophyses are first distinguishable on the diapophyses of the fourth
thoracic vertebra, and on the seventh assume the form of conical
tubercles. On the eighth and following vertebræ they are flat, and are
last distinguishable on the seventh caudal vertebra. Facets for the
articulation of the tubercles of the ribs occur on the diapophyses of the
first to the seventh thoracic vertebræ. On the latter vertebra the first
transverse process appears as a short projection on the side of the
centrum. On the eighth thoracic vertebra, the transverse process is broad
and flat, with the anterior margin bent upward, and is about 48 mm. long.
The base of the neural arch is strongly concave externally. The
transverse process of the ninth thoracic vertebra is similar to the
preceding one, but broader and not bent upward anteriorly. The base of
the neural arch is also concave in this vertebra. The ends of the
transverse processes of the eighth and ninth vertebræ are emarginate for
the articulation of the ribs. A median inferior ridge is first
distinguishable on the seventh thoracic vertebra.

As far as can be learned from the descriptions of Turner, Grieg, and
others, the thoracic vertebræ of _europæus_ do not present any marked
differences from those of _bidens_.

The transverse processes of the lumbar vertebræ are short, broad, and
flat, and somewhat curved forward. They are expanded and rounded at the
free ends. The centra increase in length posteriorly, the last lumbar
having the greatest length of any vertebra in the column. The neural
spines increase in length from the first lumbar to the fourth, those on
the remaining lumbars being subequal, but the spine on the ninth lumbar
is a little longer than the others. Median inferior ridges occur on all
the lumbars and are strongest at the middle of the series. The height of
the centrum of the ninth lumbar is 63 mm., width 73, and length 116. The
highest neural spine is 233.

As above mentioned, the first of the vertebræ counted among the lumbars
may be the last thoracic vertebra, but as there is no indication of an
articular facet at the end of the transverse process it is not so
considered in this place.

The lumbar vertebræ in _M. bidens_ appears to be more nearly equal in
length than in the present species, but are not different otherwise.

The spines of the caudal vertebræ decrease rapidly in height posteriorly,
and disappear after the tenth caudal. The transverse processes resemble
those of the lumbars, but are shorter. They are last distinguishable on
the eighth caudal. The transverse process of the seventh caudal is
perforated by a vertical foramen. Similar but much smaller foramina occur
on the sides of the centra of the eighth and ninth caudals. In these
vertebræ the inferior ridges are also pierced by foramina. In the fourth
caudal a ridge appears on the side of the neural arch on a level with the
top of the centrum, and similar ridges are found on the succeeding
vertebræ as far as the ninth caudal. The last ten vertebræ are without
processes or neural arches.

Sir William Turner states that the caudals of _M. bidens_ are without
vertical foramina, but the figure in Van Beneden and Gervais’ Osteography
(plate 22) shows them in the same position as in _M. europæus_. The
inferior ridges, however, appear to be imperforate in the former species.


                                 RIBS.

The first seven pairs of ribs have both tubercle and head. The first is
nearly as long as the second, and is very broad at the proximal end. In
the seventh pair the head is double, one facet of the rib articulating
with the facet on the posterior margin of the centrum of the sixth
thoracic vertebra and the other with the short transverse process on the
side of the centrum of the seventh thoracic vertebra. The eighth and
ninth pairs of ribs articulate only with the transverse processes of the
eighth and ninth thoracic vertebræ, respectively. The ninth pair of ribs,
as already stated, is nearly or quite as long as the eighth, from which
it seems probable that a tenth short pair was present originally. There
is, however, no trace of a facet for the articulation of such a rib on
the end of the transverse process of what appears to be the first lumbar
vertebra.

The only difference between the ribs of _M. europæus_ and those of _M.
bidens_ appears to be that the first pair is much longer proportionately
in the former species.


                                STERNUM.

The sternum presents no differences of importance from that of _M.
bidens_ figured by Grieg,[24] except that the fourth and fifth segments
are anchylosed together, both laterally and transversely, and that the
two sides are symmetrical. (Pl. 13, fig. 2.)


                             PECTORAL LIMB.

The scapula of _M. europæus_ presents an entirely different appearance
from that of _M. bidens_ as figured in Van Beneden and Gervais’
Osteography (plate 22). In _europæus_ the scapula is very high
anteriorly, the anterior border is convex forward and the anterior crest
convex backward, bounding an elongated elliptical area. The posterior
margin is straight. The acromion is short, with convex margins at the
base, beyond which it narrows suddenly and terminates in a straight,
cylindrical process, which is strongly inclined upward. The coracoid is
as long as the acromion, nearly straight and horizontal, but expanded at
the end. (Pl. 13, figs. 3, 4.)

The phalangeal formula of the Atlantic City specimen of _M. europæus_ and
those of three Norwegian specimens of _M. bidens_ are as follows (the
metacarpals being included):

            _Phalangeal formula of M. europæus and bidens._

                                      I.     II.    III.     IV.      V.
  _M. europæus_, Atlantic City:
     Left                              2       6       6      3+      3+
     Right                             2       7       6  4(+1?)       4
  _M. bidens_:
     Landenæs                          1    6(5)       5       4       3
     Fæø                              1       6       5       4       3
     Udsire                            1       6       6       5       4

In _M. europæus_ the metacarpal of the third digit is much constricted in
the middle. The shaft of the ulna is straight. Except in these
particulars and the relatively small size of the whole pectoral limb, the
latter appears not to differ materially from that of _M. bidens_. As
shown above, the first digit in _M. bidens_ consists of the metacarpal
bone only, while in _M. europæus_ a phalange is also present.

    _Dimensions of the skeleton of the Atlantic City specimen of M.
                     europæus, No. 23846, U.S.N.M._

                                                           mm.
  Length of the seven cervical vertebræ[a]                  94
  Length of first, second, and third cervical               45
  vertebræ[a]
  Atlas:
     Greatest breadth                                      156
     Greatest height                                       103
     Height of neural canal                                 36
     Greatest breadth across anterior articular             96
  facets
  Axis, greatest breadth                                   144
  Seventh cervical vertebra:
     Greatest breadth                                       80
     Greatest height without inferior process              117
     Greatest length of centrum                             14
     Greatest height of neural canal                        49
  First thoracic vertebra:
     Greatest height                                       151
     Greatest breadth                                      136
     Height of centrum                                      37
     Length of centrum                                      21
     Breadth of centrum (articular surface)                 48
     Height of neural spine                                 61
     Height of neural canal                                 53
  Seventh thoracic vertebra:
     Greatest height                                       246
     Greatest breadth                                      116
     Height of centrum                                      35
     Length of centrum                                      69
     Breadth of centrum                                     46
     Breadth between transverse processes                   66
  Eighth thoracic vertebra:
     Greatest height                                       246
     Greatest breadth (between transverse processes)       142
     Height of centrum                                      39
     Length of centrum                                      73
     Breadth of centrum                                     47
  First lumbar vertebra:
     Greatest height                                       263
     Greatest breadth (between transverse processes)       215
     Height of centrum (anterior)                           43
     Length of centrum                                      83
     Breadth of centrum                                     53
  First caudal vertebra:
     Greatest height                                       263
     Greatest breadth (between transverse processes)       207
     Height of centrum (anterior)                           65
     Length of centrum                                     113
     Breadth of centrum                                     67
  Seventh caudal vertebra:
     Greatest height                                       153
     Greatest breadth                                       87
     Height of centrum (without hypapophysis)               66
     Length of centrum                                      84
     Breadth of centrum                                     70
  Length of last 10 caudal vertebræ                        285
  Sternum:
     Total length                                          404
     Length of manubrium                                   165
     Greatest breadth of manubrium                         134
     Depth of anterior notch of manubrium                   37
  Scapula:
     Length                                                247
     Depth                                                 161
     Length of acromion                                  [b]44
     Length of coracoid                                     59
  Humerus, length                                          107
  Radius, length                                           110
  Ulna, length                                             100
  Pelvic bones, length                                      51

  [a] Placed in contact.
  [b] From the inside, without the cartilaginous tip.


                 HISTORY OF THE ATLANTIC CITY SPECIMEN.

Regarding the finding of the Atlantic City specimen and its exterior and
gross anatomy, nothing has been published except brief references by Sir
William Turner in 1889[25] and Dr. Glover M. Allen in 1906,[26] taken
from a newspaper report of a communication made by myself before the
Biological Society of Washington in 1889. On that account a somewhat
detailed statement regarding it will be made in this place.

This individual (Pl. 41, figs. 1, 2) was a male, 12½ feet long. It was
observed by the crew of life-saving station No. 28, near Atlantic City,
New Jersey, on the afternoon of March 28, 1889. It had come inside the
bar which skirts the coast at this point, and was apparently unable to
find its way out. It was captured with some difficulty, after being
wounded in the throat, and was dragged up on the beach near the station.
Later in the day it was carried to the skating rink of Messrs. Johnson &
McShea, at Atlantic City, where it was exhibited until Monday, April 1.
On the next morning it was sent by express to Washington.

I examined it for the first time in Atlantic City on March 29. It was
then lying on the floor of the skating rink in such a position that the
under surfaces were concealed, and, as the teeth were not visible, I
mistook it for a female. Upon its arrival in Washington, however, where
it could be examined under more favorable circumstances, it proved to be
a male. The following measurements were taken from the fresh specimen:

 _External dimensions of a specimen of M. europæus from Atlantic City,
                              New Jersey._

                                                          Ft.     in.
  Total length (in a straight line)                       12        6
  Tip of beak to base of dorsal fin (along the back)       7       6½
  Tip of beak to base of pectoral fin (along the back)     2       11
  Length of pectoral fin along center                              11
  Greatest breadth of pectoral fin                                 3¾
  Height of dorsal fin (in a straight line)                         6
  Length of base of dorsal fin                             1        2
  Breadth of flukes (tip to tip)                           2       11
  Depth of tail 14 inches in front of posterior margin             8¼
  of flukes
  Tip of beak to angle of mouth                                    9¾
  Tip of beak to eye                                       1       8¼
  Length of eye                                                     1
  Breadth of blowhole                                               4
  Tip of beak to right angle of blowhole                   1       6½


                        EXTERNAL FORM AND COLOR.

The general form was slender and elongate. The beak sloped gradually from
its extremity to the forehead, and there was no constriction separating
the beak from the remainder of the head. Behind the blowhole, the outline
of the back commenced at a higher level, but immediately curved slightly
downward, indicating the position of the neck. The line then rose
gradually until the anterior base of the dorsal fin was reached. Behind
the fin the outline sloped downward gradually to the flukes.

The dorsal fin was relatively small, falcate, and obtusely terminated.
The distance in front of its anterior base was three-fifths of the total
length. Its posterior margin was continuous with the ridge of the back,
which extended to the flukes and terminated abruptly a little anterior to
the middle point of the antero-posterior breadth of the flukes. In front
of the fin the back was rounded.

The pectoral fins were small and were placed low down on the sides. Their
anterior base was as far removed from the eye (in a straight line) as the
eye was from the extremity of the beak. Their shape was somewhat
different from that of the flippers of _M. bidens_ figured by Sir William
Turner.[27] Their anterior margin was nearly straight throughout; the
extremity was evenly and distinctly rounded off. The posterior margin was
slightly convex in the distal half and straight proximally.

The conformation of the region of the axilla was quite peculiar. The hard
integument of the posterior margin of the flipper was continued
proximally inward and forward to a point near the head of the humerus.
The triangular area between this stiff edge and the side of the body was
occupied by a thin, soft, wrinkled skin, in the middle of which the
olecranon could be felt. On the side of the body this soft integument
occupied an area nearly as large as the flipper, the underlying thick
layer of blubber ending abruptly, especially below. A depression was thus
formed in which the flippers could be placed so as to be almost in the
same general plane with surrounding surfaces of the body. They are
probably so placed when the animal is swimming.

The flukes had the general lunate form common to all species of the
order. The posterior margin is not divided in the center. Its middle
third was convex; its lateral thirds concave. In these and other respects
the shape of the flukes agreed closely with Sir William Turner’s
excellent figure of _M. bidens_.[28] The antero-posterior breadth of the
flukes was, however, somewhat greater in proportion to their transverse
breadth than is indicated in this figure. The caudal peduncle terminated
above at a point 6½ inches in front of the posterior margin of the
flukes. On this margin were situated three star-shaped white scars, which
appeared to mark the points of attachment of crustacean parasites.

The margins of the upper jaw were very obtuse posteriorly, the rostrum
being covered with a layer of blubber of gradually increasing thickness.
A depression bounded by gradually converging lines extended 4¼ inches
back of the angle of the mouth.

The inferior surface of the bony palate extended below the level of the
lips, and the sides of the former were visible upon looking into the
mouth laterally.

The blowhole was large and somewhat unsymmetrically placed, the right
angle being the more anterior. The concavity was forward.

The eye was situated a little below the line of the mouth and 20¼ inches
from the extremity of the snout.

The external opening of the ear was 2⅞ inches behind the posterior angle
of the eye, and a little below the line of the lower eyelid.

The two throat-furrows were of unequal length. The left furrow was 6¾
inches long, and its anterior end was distant 8⅝ inches from the
extremity of the jaw. The right furrow did not extend quite so far
forward, and was 7⅜ inches long.

The furrows converged posteriorly; they were separated by an interval of
⅝ inches anteriorly and 5⅛ inches posteriorly. Between the anterior ends
of the main furrows was a small one, about an inch long, but it is
doubtful whether this was a natural fissure. I did not observe it when
the whale was in Atlantic City.

The natural color of the specimen had largely disappeared before I
examined it, but Captain Gaskell and others who saw it while still fresh
agreed that it was very dark slate-gray on the back, lighter on the
sides, and whitish on the belly. I observed that a broad area between the
pectoral fins was slate-gray, and contrasted with the white of the throat
and belly. The whitish color ended somewhat abruptly and irregularly at
the anus, and the flukes, as well as the pectoral and dorsal fins, were
probably very dark slate-gray, or blackish, when fresh.

The epidermis was exceedingly smooth and glossy throughout.

The tongue was purplish-white. The roof of the mouth was black, except at
the posterior end, where there was an irregular area of pinkish-white.

The integument of the roof of the mouth was smooth and shining. Its
surface was convex at the extremity of the beak, but the central portion
was concave, while at the posterior end it was again raised into a
rounded pad. In these respects the shape of the integuments coincided
with that of the underlying maxillæ, upon which they were closely fitted.
The sides were rounded, and a shallow groove intervened between them and
the lips. This groove was continued around the roof of the mouth behind,
and formed a demarcation between this part and the œsophagus.

The tip of the tongue was 7½ inches from the extremity of the jaw. It was
oval in outline, the extremity is obtuse, and it was entirely bound down.
The margin was entire, and not crenulate, as in many dolphins.

Dorsal and ventral views of the stomach are shown in Pl. 40, figs. 1 and
2; a dorsal view of the lungs in Pl. 13, fig. 5; and of the perineum in
Pl. 40, fig. 3. A description of the gross anatomy is reserved for a
subsequent paper.

The external dimensions of the Atlantic City specimen of _M. europæus_
are given in the following table, together with those of nine European
specimens of _M. bidens_ taken from various authors, and assembled here
for purposes of comparison. The dimensions of the Annisquam specimen
which, as already explained (p. 9), represents a third species, are also
added.

     _External dimensions of Mesoplodon europæus, M. bidens, and M.
                             densirostris._

  Column headings:
    _M. europæus._
      C: Atlantic City, 1889, U.S.N.M. male, imm.
    _M. bidens._
      D: Brodie House, Scotland, 1800, (Sowerby), male, adult.[a]
      E: Overstrand, England, 1892, (Southwell), female, adult.
      F: Dalgety, Scotland, 1888, (Turner), male.
      G: Hillville, Kerry, Ireland, 1864, (Andrews), male (?).
      H: Hevringholm, Denmark, 1880, (Reinhardt), female, adult.
      I: Rugsund, Norway, 1901, (Grieg), male, adult.
      J: Saltö, Sweden, 1885, (Aurivillius), male, young.
      K: Landenæs, Norway, 1895, (Grieg), male.
      L: Ostend, Belgium, 1835, (Dumortier), female, young.
    _M. densirostris?_
      M: Annisquam, Mass., 1898, (Allen), female.


 Measurements.            C     D        E      F     G        H         I     J       K     L     M
                        mm.   mm.      mm.    mm.   mm.      mm.       mm.   mm.     mm.   mm.   mm.
 Total length         3,810 4,877 [b]4,828  4,597 4,572 [f]4,315     4,605 3,870   3,700 3,450 3,708
                                                               **Error unbreakable string:[b]12′6″ 16′                                                **Error unbreakable string:16′2″                                              **Error unbreakable string:15′1″                                               **Error unbreakable string:15′±                                               **Error unbreakable string:=13′9″                                                **Error unbreakable string:15′1ࡩ″                                             **Error unbreakable string:12′8″                                               **Error unbreakable string:12′2″                                             **Error unbreakable string:11′4″                                             **Error unbreakable string:12′2″
 Tip of upper jaw       470   ...      ... [c]572   559      602       475   530     500   440   ...
   to blowhole
 Tip of upper jaw       ...   ...      ...    ...   ...      ...       ...   ...     520   ...   ...
   to eye
 Tip of lower jaw    [d]889   ...      ...    ...   ...    1,098     1,000   970     930   910   ...
   to pectoral fin
 Back of dorsal     [1,156]   ... [e]1,803    ...   ...  [1,190]     1,590 1,280 [1,130] 1,150   ...
   to back of
   flukes
 Length of base         356   ...      349    324   ...      366       400   340     330   ...   ...
   of dorsal fin
 Length of eye           25   ...      ...    ...   ...       46        40    37     ...   ...   ...
 Length of mouth        248   457      432    ...   343      373       ...   ...     ...   ...   ...
   (upper jaw)
 Length of mouth        ...   ...      445    349   356      392       ...   320     320   ...   343
   (lower jaw)
 Length of throat    [f]173   ...      298    ...   254      248       ...   ...     300   ...   ...
   furrows
 Distance between       131   ...      241    229   178      157       ...   ...     217   ... 254±
   throat furrows
   posteriorly
 Height of dorsal       152   ...      191    203   ...      209       215   170     160   130   ...
   fin
 Breadth of flukes      889   ...    1,118    ...   ...      994     1,130 1,000     820   680   ...
 Flukes to anus         ...   ...      ...    ...   ...      ...     1,290 1,090   [950] 1,000   940
 Length of           [g]279   ...   [h]546    ...   ...   [i]392       515   440     380   ...   ...
   pectoral fin[k]
 Greatest breadth        95   ...      ...    ...   ...      131       170   120     115   ...   ...
   of pectoral fin

  [a] Type-specimen.
  [b] Straight.
  [c] To center of blowhole.
  [d] From tip of upper jaw (curvilinear).
  [e] Curvilinear.
  [f] Left. The right=192^mm.
  [g] Along center. Along anterior border = 292^mm±.
  [h] Along anterior border.
  [i] Straight; point of measurement not given.
  [j] Along side.
  [k] From anterior base, unless otherwise indicated.


Since the foregoing account of _europæus_ was written, a description of
the type-skull, with two excellent photographic figures, has been
published by L. Brasil,[29] of the Caën Museum. A comparison of the
figures with those of the Atlantic City and Long Branch skulls on Pls. 2
and 8 of the present article, confirms the identification of the latter
specimens with _M. europæus_. Besides a brief description of the
type-skull M. Brasil’s paper contains measurements and two text figures
of the right mandibular tooth, natural size.


                      MESOPLODON STEJNEGERI True.

    _Mesoplodon stejnegeri_ True, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 8, p. 584.
          Oct. 19, 1885.


This species was originally described from a single cranium of a young
individual, which was collected by Dr. L. Stejneger on Bering Island,
Commander Group, Bering Sea, in 1883. With but a single skull, the
characters of the species could not be very satisfactorily defined, and
some European cetologists have been inclined to doubt its validity.[30]
In 1904, however, another skull was obtained by the National Museum,
which made it certain that the species was entirely distinct from _M.
bidens_ or other known forms of the genus. Early in the year mentioned
Dr. D. S. Jordan, president of Stanford University, called my attention
to a small whale, which stranded on the coast of Oregon, 1½ miles south
of the United States life-saving station on South Beach, Yaquina Bay,
near Newport, in February, and proved later to represent the present
species. Doctor Jordan’s information was obtained from Mr. J. G.
Crawford, of Albany, Oregon, who wrote him in part as follows, under date
of March 7, 1904:

  Herewith I enclose a stereograph of a head of a member of the whale
  family, which I made at Yaquina Bay, Oregon. The animal was 17 feet
  long, with fluked tail, soft, smooth skin, blowhole on top of head, and
  two tusks in the mandible, but no [other] teeth in the mouth. The tusks
  are thin and apparently hollow. Length of head, 32 inches; width, 14
  inches; height, 11 inches; blowhole, 5 inches. Eyes low on head. Width
  of mandible [jaw] at end: Upper, 1½ inches; lower, 1¾ inches. Width
  between tusks, 3 inches. The blubber was about 2 inches thick on the
  head. It went ashore about the 15th of February, 1½ miles south of the
  life-saving station on South Beach, 2½ miles south of Newport, Oregon.
  The head had been severed before I arrived.

A clipping from the _Oregonian_ newspaper contains the following:

  Albany, Oregon, March 2 [1904]. A peculiar specimen of the whale
  variety has been reported on the Oregon coast, near Newport. J. G.
  Crawford, of Albany, has just returned from a trip to Newport, where he
  made a picture of the head of the strange animal. The body was washed
  upon the beach during the recent storm which swept the coast. It is
  about 15 feet long. * * * Residents of the vicinity say they have never
  seen anything like it on the Oregon coast. * * * On either side of the
  mouth are two villainous-looking tusks several inches in length. They
  are at the back of the mouth, and extend up to a level with the top of
  the upper jaw. They are very wide and flat, squared on top. The mouth
  has no other teeth. * * *

  The head is equipped with a blowhole, like that of a whale. The eyes
  are very low, almost underneath the lower jaws.

  The body is in a good state of preservation, the flesh having been torn
  but little by the birds.

On receipt of the foregoing information, letters were immediately
addressed to Mr. Crawford and also to the keeper of the life-saving
station at South Beach, Capt. Otto Wellander, asking that, if possible,
the entire skeleton be preserved. Captain Wellander replied that the
whale had not been dead long when washed ashore; that he had tried to
find the body, but that the high tides had either carried it away or
buried it under driftwood.

The skull when cleaned passed into the possession of Mr. J. G. Crawford,
who sent to the Museum some excellent photographs of it, and also of the
head before the flesh had been removed. Later he sent the skull itself to
the Museum for my examination, and finally very generously presented it
to the Museum in exchange.

The skull is that of an adult individual, in nearly perfect condition,
with the mandible and teeth. The parts missing are the left malar, the
left tympanic bone, the distal ends of the pterygoids and the proximal
ends of the premaxillæ. (Pl. 3, fig. 2.)


                                 SKULL.

The Oregon skull exhibits all the characters included in the original
diagnosis of the species,[31] but two of these, namely, the lack of a
groove in front of the premaxillary foramen, and the vertical position of
the premaxillæ distally, I do not at present consider of any importance,
as they are shared by _M. bidens_. The species, as represented by the
Oregon skull, however, presents other characters which clearly
differentiate it from any other species of the genius. As it is without a
basirostral groove, it allies itself in that respect to _M. bidens_,
_europæus_, and _hectori_. Unlike those species, it has the premaxillary
foramen behind the maxillary foramen, and in this respect resembles
_densirostris_ and _grayi_. Perhaps the most salient characters in which
_stejnegeri_ differs from _bidens_ and all other known species are the
erect position and flat surface of the supraoccipital and the very
prominent backward extension of the frontal plate of the maxilla. This
backward extension is so great that when the beak is horizontal a
vertical line through the posterior margin of the maxilla passes
considerably behind the temporal fossa. The only species which approaches
_stejnegeri_ in this respect is _hectori_, but in the latter the
supraoccipital instead of being flat above the condyles is very strongly
convex.

Another very marked character of _stejnegeri_ is that the extension of
the lateral free margin of the orbital plate of the frontal, anterior to
the orbit, is equal to the length of the orbit itself. In _bidens_ and
all other known species this extension is only from one-third to one-half
the length of the orbit. Numerous other distinguishing characters will be
mentioned in the course of the following description of _stejnegeri_,
which is drawn from the adult Oregon skull, but modified when necessary
by reference to the type skull from Bering Island. Comparisons are made
chiefly with _M. bidens_, which is on the whole the best known species.

In the Oregon skull of _stejnegeri_, the breadth between the post-orbital
processes does not exceed the length from the occipital condyles to the
maxillary notches. The skull is, therefore, narrower in proportion to its
length than in any other species of the genus except _hectori_, as
represented by the skull figured by Flower. This skull was, however, that
of a young individual. It is probable that in adults of this species the
skull is broader than in _stejnegeri_.

In the latter species, again, the length of the brain-case, between the
occipital condyles and the maxillary notches, is just equal to the
distance from the latter point to the distal end of the maxillæ, and the
rostrum, including the premaxillæ, is much shorter than in other species
of _Mesoplodon_, except _hectori_, as represented by the young skull
above mentioned.

The foramen magnum is very small, being less in width than the condyle on
either side of it. In this respect it differs widely from _bidens_ and
other species (as far as can be ascertained from the figures available),
except _europæus_, in which the relative size is about the same.

The supraoccipital rises vertically above each condyle to the very top of
the skull, being neither convex nor strongly bent forward as in other
species, and especially _bidens_. In the median line, however, while the
occipital bone is flat immediately above the foramen magnum, it is deeply
concave higher up and without a median ridge. The outline of the
occipital crest, viewed from behind, is semicircular. In all the
foregoing characters the occipital region differs widely from that of
_bidens_ and other species. The only close resemblance is found in the
old skull of _europæus_ from Long Branch, New Jersey, and even here the
sides of the occipital above are far less prominent, their outline is
much more convex, the occipital crest is angular, and the median
depression is less pronounced.

_Dorsal aspect_ (Pl. 3, figs. 1, 2).—The most noticeable feature of the
upper surface of the skull is the large backward extension of the frontal
plates of the maxillæ, the free margins of which converge strongly. The
outline of the anteorbital region is rounded. The anteorbital notch is a
shallow emargination. Anterior to this is a second still shallower
emargination, the “pseudo-notch.” The margin between the two is much
thickened, but does not form a distinct projection or tubercle, as in
_bidens_ and other species. The superior orifices of the nares are
unsymmetrical as regards position, the left being somewhat in advance of
the right. The maxillæ are concave around the maxillary foramen, and
external to this foramen is an elongated ridge about as in _europæus_.
The rostral portion of the maxillæ is broad at the base but tapers more
rapidly than in _bidens_. The margin is thick. At the middle of the beak
the outline of the maxillæ at a lower level is visible from above, which
is not the case in _bidens_ or _europæus_. The rostral portion of the
premaxillæ is oblique proximally and vertical distally. Unlike _bidens_,
these edges are sharp throughout. The mesethmoid ends opposite the
maxillary foramina. Anterior to it is seen the concave upper surface of
the vomer, which, however, becomes flat distally. At about the middle of
the beak the anterior end is clasped by the posterior forked end of a
“mesirostral” ossification, which has a convex surface. This ossification
begins proximally below the edges of the premaxillæ, but its surface
rises gradually anteriorly, and at the end of the beak it is much above
the premaxillæ. The end of the beak consists of the consolidated mass of
the premaxillæ and mesirostral ossification, the whole being convex above
and below, but flat on the sides. The ossification has a deep median
groove, which reaches to within 95 mm. of the tip of the beak.

It will be seen that the conformation of the upper surface of the beak is
quite different from that of _bidens_ or any other species.

The maxillary foramina are large and directed forward, and have a
distinct broad channel in front of them. In the Oregon skull the right
foramen is single, but the left divided into two. The premaxillary
foramina are a little behind the maxillary foramina. The distance between
the maxillary foramina is less than that from the median line to the
anteorbital notch. In _bidens_ it is much greater.

_Lateral aspect_ (Pl. 9, figs. 1, 2).—A most noteworthy feature of the
skull when viewed from the side is the great length between the orbit and
the maxillary notch, which far exceeds that found in _bidens_ and other
species, being equal to the length of the orbit itself. The latter is
about as long as the temporal fossa, which is somewhat flattened above,
as in _europæus_. The outline of the supraoccipital is straight and
nearly vertical. The zygomatic is more massive even than _europæus_ and
is especially thick below. The inferior outline of the beak is convex
proximally as in _europæus_ and _layardi_. There is no basirostral
groove, the edges of the maxillæ being very thick in front of the
maxillary notch. Over the orbit the maxillæ are thick and beveled, but
not raised as in _bowdoini_.

_Ventral aspect_ (Pl. 6, figs. 1, 2).—The beak is convex in the proximal
half, much as in _europæus_, but farther forward is concave, except in
the median line, where there is a narrow ridge formed proximally by the
vomer, which in the type skull appears as a narrow lozenge 60 mm. long.
In the adult Oregon skull it is anchylosed with the premaxillæ. The
maxillæ extend to within 107 mm. of the end of the beak. The under
surface of the beak is much more like that of _europæus_ than of
_bidens_.

A narrow strip of the palatines extends around the base of the pterygoids
in front, but the two strips do not meet in the median line. In the
type-skull they do not extend inside the pterygoids. The expanded
anterior end of the malar is very long and also forms the bottom of the
maxillary notch, which is the case in _europæus_ but not in _bidens_. The
inferior borders of the pterygoids are convex anteriorly, as in
_europæus_, and are continued laterally, so that the sinus is deep as in
that species. The lachrymal is very long, the free margin having a length
of 55 mm. The posterior margin of the zygomatic process is concave,
rather than convex as in _bidens_.

The tympanic bulla does not differ materially from that of _bidens_ in
size or shape, as far as can be judged from the figures given in Van
Beneden and Gervais’ Osteography (plate 26, figs. 4, 4_a_). The periotic
is similar in size to the same bone in _bidens_, but the posterior end is
more narrowly pointed and the anterior end is much lower, relatively. In
_europæus_, as far as can be determined from the material at hand, the
form and size of the earbone is similar to that of _stejnegeri_, but in
the latter the anterior margin of the tympanic bulla is more nearly
transverse and the posterior inferior groove is curved. (Pl. 35, fig. 2.)

In the Annisquam skull, supposed to represent _densirostris_, although
from a young individual, the earbone is very much larger, especially the
periotic, which is also quite differently shaped.


                               MANDIBLE.

The mandible of _stejnegeri_ is much broken in the region of the angle on
both sides, but otherwise complete. As compared with a mandible of an
adult _bidens_, the most conspicuous differences are the shortness of the
symphysis, the sharp upward bend of the inferior margin anteriorly, and
the large size of the alveolus. The symphysis in the adult Oregon
specimen of _stejnegeri_ is 140 mm. long, or scarcely more than in the
young specimen of _europæus_ from New Jersey, and exactly the same as in
the adult type-specimen of the latter species, as figured by Van Beneden
and Gervais. The alveolus lies entirely behind the symphysis, its
anterior end being 160 mm. from the anterior end of the jaw. It is 113
mm. long and 18 mm. wide. The mandible is 62 mm. high at its middle
point. The coronoid process is more anteriorly situated than in _bidens_
and the portion of the posterior margin of the ramus which remains
indicates that the angle was strongly directed backward. (Pl. 11, fig. 4;
pl. 12, fig. 1.)


                                 TEETH.

The teeth are remarkable for their size and form. They are somewhat more
than twice as broad as teeth of adult males of _bidens_, as shown by the
figures of Lankester[32] and Grieg,[33] and also a little longer. They
are, in fact, probably broader than, or at least as broad as, the teeth
of any other species of _Mesoplodon_, not excepting _layardi_. Sir
William Turner remarks regarding a specimen of _layardi_ examined by him
that “the breadth of the tooth, where it emerged from the alveolus, was
3½ inches.”[34] He does not state, however, whether the measurement was
taken along the top of the alveolus, at an angle with the transverse axis
of the tooth, or along the transverse axis itself. At all events, the
teeth figured by Owen and others are much less than 3½ inches broad. The
teeth of adult _europæus_ are only 2 inches broad, and of _bidens_, as
already stated, 1½ inches broad.

In _stejnegeri_ (Pl. 12, figs. 1-3) the portion of the tooth above the
alveolus is inclined slightly inward and backward, but the pointed tip
curves outward so as to be vertical. When extracted from the alveolus,
the whole tooth is found to be concave internally and convex externally.
The posterior margin is convex and the anterior sinuous, a slight
convexity occurring on the portion which projects above the alveolus. In
this place the outer coating of cement is broken through, showing the
underlying dentine or osteo-dentine, which is somewhat corroded or
absorbed. This is particularly noticeable on the left tooth.

The upper margin of the tooth is transverse, or nearly at right angles
with the anterior and posterior margins. The posterior angle is rounded
and the anterior raised into an acute point by the projection of the
dentine as a distinct, sharp cusp. The inferior end of the tooth is cut
off obliquely and the margin is broken by numerous prominent rugosities.
The surface of all that part of the tooth which is contained in the
alveolus and covered by the gum above it is rugose, while the part above
the gum is quite smooth and highly polished.

The right tooth has the following dimensions (in straight lines): Length
of anterior border, 150 mm.; length of posterior border, 107; length of
superior border, 54; length of inferior border, 86; average length of
exposed dentine tip, 10; greatest breadth of tooth, antero-posteriorly,
81; greatest breadth of tooth, transversely, 15; distance from center of
base of exposed portion, when in position in the alveolus, to tip of
dentine projection, 82; distance from center of base of portion above the
gum to tip of dentine projection, 70; distance from center of base of
portion above the gum to center of inferior margin, 76.

The dimensions of the skulls are as follows, those of the type-specimen
having been revised and corrected:

              _Dimensions of two skulls of M. stejnegeri._

  Column headings:
    A: 143132 U.S.N.M. Yaquina Bay, Oregon, adult.
    B: 21112 U.S.N.M. Bering Id. Type (1715), young.


                    Measurements.                        A        B
  Total length                                            715   [a]633
  Length of rostrum                                       413   [a]325
  Distance from occipital condyles to distal end of       612      567
    maxillæ
  Breadth between centers of orbits                       309      279
  Breadth between zygomatic processes                     310      278
  Breadth between temporal fossæ                          228      212
  Breadth between postorbital processes of frontals       323      ...
  Breadth of rostrum at base (between maxillary           172   [b]158
    notches)
  Breadth of rostrum at middle                             40       44
  Depth of rostrum at middle                               52      42+
  Greatest breadth of anterior nares                       56       54
  Greatest breadth of premaxillæ proximally               130      118
  Greatest breadth of premaxillæ in front of nares        108      109
  Length of temporal fossa                                 92       86
  Depth of temporal fossa                                  63       46
  Antero-posterior length of orbit                         96       82
  Breadth of foramen magnum                                38       39
  Length of tympanic bulla                                 48      ...
  Breadth of tympanic bulla                                32      ...
  Length of mandible                                      610      ...
  Length of symphysis                                     138      ...
  Distance from anterior end of mandible to alveolus      166      ...

  [a] Tip of rostrum lacking.
  [b] The skull is much worn around the left notch and the measurement is
          only approximate.


                             EXTERNAL FORM.

The photograph of the head (Pl. 40, fig. 4) shows that the end of the
beak was quite blunt, and the lower jaw quite a little longer than the
upper. The superior margin of the lower jaw, which is concave in front of
the tooth, is strongly convex and elevated at the side of it and behind
it. The inferior margin of the upper jaw is straight anteriorly, but
farther back appears to be pressed upward by the tooth. An examination of
the skull shows that the mandible can be lowered so that the teeth are
below the upper jaw, but when so lowered the space between the teeth and
the upper jaw on each side is barely a quarter of an inch (6 mm.). With
the integuments in place, it is doubtful whether the mouth could be
opened any wider than is shown in the photograph. The convexity of the
head, shape of the blowhole, position of the eye, etc., do not appear to
differ materially from the same characters in adults of _M. bidens_.



                         Genus ZIPHIUS Cuvier.


                      ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS Cuvier.

    _Ziphius cavirostris_ Cuvier, Oss. foss., 2d ed., vol. 5, 1823, p. 353.
    _Hyperoödon gervaisii_ Duvernoy, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 3, Zoöl., vol.
          5, 1851, p. 49.
    _Ziphius gervaisii_ Fischer, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. 3, 1867, p.
          55.
    _Hyperoödon semi-junctus_ Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865,
          p. 15.
    _Ziphius semijunctus_ True, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 8, 1886, p.
          586.
    _Ziphius grebnitzkii_ Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 6, 1883,
          p. 77.


It has not seemed to me necessary in the present connection to attempt to
cite all the multitudinous names which have been given to this species,
especially as those zoologists most competent to judge, including Van
Beneden, Flower, and Turner, after detailed consideration, have concluded
that but one species of _Ziphius_, or at most two species, exist at
present.[35]

Nearly all the skulls in European museums are assigned by the zoologists
mentioned to _Z. cavirostris_ proper, but some doubt has been entertained
regarding two or three European skulls, and one specimen from Argentina,
described by Burmeister. These last-mentioned specimens have been thought
to possibly represent a second species, _Z. gervaisii_. The principal
characters of the latter are the narrow, flat premaxillæ, the lack of a
prominent mesirostral ossification, and small teeth. From the large
series of skulls in the National Museum, I am able to dispose of the
doubt concerning _Z. gervaisii_. I find that wherever the characters
above mentioned occur the sex (when known) is female. There is every
reason, therefore, to believe that _Z. gervaisii_ is the female of _Z.
cavirostris_.[36] I will return to this point again later.

In 1865 Cope described a species from Charleston, South Carolina, under
the name of _Hyperoödon semijunctus_. In 1886 I referred it to the genus
_Ziphius_, but was in doubt as to its specific identity. I thought that
it might represent _Z. gervaisii_, which is interesting in the present
connection because the type-specimen was a female.

In 1883 Dr. L. Stejneger described a species which he had discovered on
Bering Island, Bering Sea, under the name of _Z. grebnitzkii_. Through
the instrumentality of Doctor Stejneger and Governor Grebnitzki, the
National Museum later received a large series of skulls from the same
locality. The question of whether this species is identical with _Z.
cavirostris_, or distinct, has caused me much study, and forms the
principal subject of this chapter.

The National Museum has at present the following material, which may be
considered as certainly representing _Z. cavirostris_:

1. A complete skeleton and cast of an adult female, 19 feet 4 inches
long, obtained at Barnegat City, New Jersey, October 3, 1883. Cat. No.
20971.

2. A complete skeleton and photographs of an adult male, 20 feet 1 inch
long, obtained at Newport, Rhode Island, in 1901, through Dr. E. A.
Mearns, Mr. L. di Z. Mearns, and Capt. Gus Soderman. Cat. No. 49599.

3. The collection contains also the skeleton of the young female
individual obtained at Charleston, South Carolina, prior to 1865, which
constitutes the type of _Hyperoödon semijunctus_ Cope. It was originally
in the Charleston College Museum, but later was received by the National
Museum in exchange. This individual was between 12 and 13 feet long. Cat.
No. 21975.

In addition, the national collections contain the following material,
known to, or supposed to, represent the species _Z. grebnitzkii_:

4. Cat. No. 20993. Skull of a male (?).[37] Collected by Dr. L. Stejneger
in Bering Island, 1882. Orig. No. 1521. Type of _Ziphius grebnitzkii_.

5. Cat. No. 21245. Skull. Orig. No. 1758.

6. Cat. No. 21246. Skull. Orig. No. 2531.

7. Cat. No. 21247. Skull. Orig. No. 1849.

8. Cat. No. 21248. Skull of a male (?).

9. Cat. No. 83991. Skull.

The five skulls preceding were also collected by Doctor Stejneger in
Bering Island in 1882 and 1883.

10. Cat. No. 22069. Skull of a female (?).[37]

11. Cat. No. 22874. Skull.

12. Cat. No. 22875. Bones of an immature individual.

These three specimens were collected and presented by N. Grebnitzki.

13. Cat. No. 142579. A series of photographs of an individual captured in
Kiska Harbor, Alaska, September, 1904. Presented by Dr. J. Hobart Egbert.

14. Cat. No. 84906. Photograph of the skeleton of an individual washed
ashore at St. Simon Island, Georgia, in 1893, and belonging to Mr. W.
Arnold.

In the genus _Ziphius_, as in other ziphioid genera, a study of the
characters of the skull appears to afford the best basis for
discrimination of species. We have first to consider whether the North
American species is the same as the European and New Zealand species, and
afterwards whether the North Pacific species is identical with or
distinct from these.

The published measurements of specimens from the coasts of Europe and New
Zealand, currently believed to represent the single species _Z.
cavirostris_, are rather meager, and, furthermore, prove, on examination,
to present so little uniformity that they are of limited use for
comparison with measurements of skulls from the Atlantic coast of the
United States. About all that can be said is that the latter skulls are
of about the same size as the former and that the proportions do not
present any striking differences. For detailed measurements of the
American skulls, see page 53.

On account of the uncertainty as regards the measurements, I have had
recourse to the published descriptions and figures, especially those of
Van Beneden, Sir William Turner, and Doctor Haast. So far as I can
perceive, there is nothing in these descriptions that is not applicable
to the skulls Nos. 49599 and 20971, from Newport, Rhode Island, and
Barnegat City, New Jersey, respectively, in the National Museum, and I
can find no reason for regarding the latter other than as representatives
of _Z. cavirostris_.


            HISTORY OF THE NEWPORT, RHODE ISLAND, SPECIMEN.

Of the Newport specimen, No. 49599, the Museum has the complete skeleton,
together with external measurements and a photograph. From data at hand
it appears that the animal was originally obtained in Narragansett Bay
about October 30, 1901, and afterwards towed to Fort Adams, near Newport.
A few days later it was sent adrift again and stranded in the harbor of
Dutch Island, near Canonicut Island, which is opposite Newport. While at
Fort Adams its existence was made known to the Museum by Dr. E. A.
Mearns, U. S. Army, and his son, Louis Mearns; and a preparator was sent
to obtain the skeleton. With the aid of Captain Soderman, of the
government tug _Monroe_, he found it at Dutch Island, and reported that
it was a male, 20 feet 1 inch in length, measured along the curves of the
back (18 feet 6 inches in a straight line). The epidermis was nearly all
lacking, but the back appeared to have been black. The length in a
straight line, as reported by Mr. Louis Mearns, was 19 feet. The complete
measurements taken by the preparator, Mr. J. W. Scollick, are as follows:

   _External dimensions of Ziphius cavirostris, male, Cat. No. 49599,
                   U.S.N.M., Newport, Rhode Island._

                                                              Ft.    in.
  Total length, along curve of back                            20      1
  Total length, in straight line                               18      6
  Tip of snout to posterior margin of dorsal fin               13     10
  Tip of snout to axilla                                        5      2
  Tip of snout to eye                                           2     5½
  Tip of snout to anterior margin of blowhole                   2      4
  Length of mouth                                               1      1
  Breadth of blowhole                                           0     5½
  Length of pectoral fin, from head of humerus to tip,          2      2
    straight
  Vertical height of dorsal fin                                 0     10
  Breadth of flukes, from tip to tip                            5      3
  Greatest girth (estimated)                                   10      0

The breadth of the pectoral fin, as shown by the skeleton, was 5¾ inches.

The photograph, which is reproduced in Pl. 41, fig. 4, gives a good idea
of the general form of the animal.


          HISTORY OF THE BARNEGAT CITY, NEW JERSEY, SPECIMEN.

Of the Barnegat City specimen, No. 20971, the Museum has the complete
skeleton, together with a cast of one-half of the entire animal, and
another of the head, and some measurements, all of which were obtained by
Mr. William Palmer and myself October 3, 1883. The Museum received notice
of the stranding of this specimen from Capt. J. H. Ridgway, of the United
States life-saving station at Barnegat City. It was an adult female, 19
feet 4 inches long in a straight line. The complete measurements, taken
in straight lines with a rod and cord, are as follows:

  _External dimensions of Ziphius cavirostris, female, Cat. No. 20971,
                 U.S.N.M., Barnegat City, New Jersey._
            (Measured in straight lines with rope and bar.)

                                                             Ft.     in.
  Total length                                                19       4
  Tip of snout to eyes                                         2       1
  Tip of snout to blowhole                                     2       0
  Tip of snout to anterior base of pectoral fin                3     10½
  Tip of snout to anterior base of dorsal fin                 12       0
  Tip of snout to anterior angle of vent                      12      3½
  Tip of snout to corner of mouth                                    11½
  Length of anterior margin of pectoral fin                    2      1½
  Length along center of pectoral fin                          1       7
  Greatest breadth across pectoral fin                                6¾
  Length of anterior margin of dorsal fin                      1       6
  Length of base of dorsal fin                                 1       0
  Vertical height of dorsal fin                                1       0
  Breadth of flukes from tip to tip                            5       5
  Antero-posterior length of flukes                            1       7
  Length of eye                                                        2
  Breadth of eye                                                       1
  Girth around eyes                                            3      1½
  Girth at anterior margin of dorsal fin                       7      0½
  Girth at root of pectoral fins                               6      0½
  Breadth of lower jaw at middle of length                            4½
  Breadth of upper jaw at middle of length                             5
  Breadth of blowhole                                                  5
  Distance from posterior angle of eye to ear                         4½

I neglected to make a full description of the color, but noted that it
was stone gray, lighter above and darker below; snout nearly white. The
cast, which was painted from a sketch made at Barnegat City and from
pieces of skin brought to Washington, bears out this note in general, but
with modifications. The color of the body as a whole is gray tinged with
dull yellowish. The gray is darker on the back than on the belly, but on
the latter is a large area of dark brown, reaching from near the pectoral
fins to and beyond the anus, and halfway up on the sides. On this dark
area are several large oval whitish blotches, some two inches in
diameter. Both upper and lower jaws nearly to the angle of the mouth are
cream white. On the sides and belly the gray color is speckled with black
spots of about the size of a grain of wheat. The pectoral fins are dark
gray above and below; the flukes were similarly colored.

A comparison of the dimensions of the two specimens above described with
those of European and New Zealand specimens is afforded by the following
table (the measurements being reduced to percentages of the total
length):

_External dimensions of Ziphius cavirostris. (Reduced to percentages of
                          the total length.)_

  Column Headings:
    A: Newport, Rhode Island 49599 U.S.N.M., male, 1901.
    B: Barnegat City, New Jersey, 20971 U.S.N.M., female, 1883.
    C: New Brighton, New Zealand, female.
    D: Punta, Corsica, 1842.
    E: Buenos Ayres, Argentina, male, 1865.


 Measurements.           A[a]      A[b]      B[b]         C         D          E
                      Ft. in.   Ft. in.   Ft. in.   Ft. in.   Ft. in. Ft.    in.
 Total length          20   1    18   6    19   4    19   6    19   0  12    11½
                    Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.  Per cent.
 Tip of snout to         69.0      74.8      67.2    [67.1]    [78.5]     [70.8]
   posterior margin
   of dorsal
 Tip of snout to         25.3      28.0   [c]20.0   [d]24.4       ...  [c][25.0]
   axilla
 Tip of snout to eye  [k]12.2      13.3      10.8      12.8       ...       10.9
 Tip of snout to         11.2      12.6      10.4       ...       ...       11.4
   anterior end
   blowhole
 Length of mouth          5.4       5.9   [e] 5.0       6.4       ...   [ f] 5.3
 Breadth of blowhole      2.3       2.5       2.2       2.6       ...        1.2
 Length of pectoral      10.8      11.7       ...   [g]12.8       ...        ...
   from head of
   humerus
 Length of pectoral    [h]7.5       8.1   [hi]8.1       ...   [g] 8.3        8.6
   from axilla
 Greatest breadth of   [j]2.4    [j]2.6       2.9       3.0       2.9        3.0
   pectoral fin
 Vertical height of       4.1       4.5       5.2       3.4       3.5        4.3
   dorsal fin
 Breadth of flukes,      26.1      28.4      28.0      31.2       ...       27.3
   tip to tip fin

  [a] Curvilinear.
  [b] Straight.
  [c] To anterior base.
  [d] Lower jaw to “beginning of pectoral.”
  [e] From tip of upper jaw.
  [f] From tip of lower jaw.
  [g] Points of measurements not specified.
  [h] From the bones; from outer anterior margin of proximal expansion of
          ulna.
  [i] Along center.
  [j] From the bones. The external measurement originally taken by
          Scollick is entirely too large.
  [k] The skull gives this measurement as 10.4 per cent. The original
          measurement by Scollick is entirely too large and can not be
          correct. The same is probably true regarding length to
          blowhole, but I can not prove it.


The close correspondence in proportions shown in this table favors the
idea of specific identity, and taken with the similarity in size, and
characters of the skull, warrants, I think, the assumption that the
specimens from the Atlantic coast of the United States belong to _Z.
cavirostris_.


                              COLORATION.

It should be remarked, however, that the Barnegat City specimen does not
agree in color with any of the European or New Zealand specimens. On the
other hand, the latter show a most extraordinary diversity in color, some
being black, with the head and back as far as the dorsal fin white;
others all black above, white below, and the head black and brown. The
color of the young specimen from Buenos Ayres, Argentina, is described by
Burmeister as follows:

  All the body of the animal is of a light gray color, a little
  yellowish, resembling the color of light ash, but much darker on the
  back and much lighter on the belly. The fins are much darker than the
  back—almost black—and the large fin of the tail has a very pure white
  area of irregular shape on the underside.

If the indications from the skull and proportions are trustworthy _Z.
cavirostris_ must be a species in which the color is very variable,
differing perhaps in the two sexes, or with differences in age. This is,
however, by no means certain at present, and whether the diversities of
color reported in different specimens are merely individual variations,
or are due to post-mortem changes, remains to be discovered. It will be
noticed that the color of the Argentine specimen is nearest to that of
the Barnegat City specimen.


                  TYPE OF ZIPHIUS SEMIJUNCTUS (COPE).

The type-specimen of _Ziphius semijunctus_ (Cope), as already mentioned,
is a young female.[38] The most noticeable characters which it presents
are that the premaxillæ are flat proximally, and that the teeth are
small, sharp-pointed and open at the roots. The form of the teeth is
undoubtedly due to immaturity, but as the shape of the premaxillæ is
similar to that found in the nominal species _gervaisii_, it might be
thought necessary to refer _semijunctus_ to the latter species. As will
be shown later, however, this form of the premaxillæ appears to be
characteristic of the adult female of _cavirostris_, and of immature
individuals of either sex, the young, as in many kinds of animals,
resembling the adult female rather than the male.

I have been able to find but one character in the skull of _semijunctus_
which might be regarded as specific. This is that the lachrymal bone is
thick distally, and cut off square at the end. In other specimens of
_Ziphius_ examined it is thin and flat, and rounded or pointed at the
end. As there is much individual variation in the form of the lachrymal,
this peculiarity alone is, in my opinion, an insufficient indication of
the validity of the species.


                        COMPARISON OF SKELETONS.

A comparison of the skeletons of the three individuals from the Atlantic
coast of the United States reveals a number of differences of more or
less importance. Were it not for the lack of reliable differences in the
skulls, it might be considered that these variations in other parts of
the skeletons indicated specific difference. I am disposed, however,
since the Barnegat and Newport specimens are of opposite sexes, to regard
them partly as sexual and partly as individual. In the case of the
Charleston specimen (_semijunctus_), the skeleton, besides being
immature, has been very much damaged by careless handling, and nearly all
the bones are somewhat abraded. It is, therefore, only available to a
limited extent for purposes of comparison. As no description of a
_Ziphius_ skeleton from the coast of the United States has, so far as I
am aware, been published hitherto, and as descriptions of skeletons of
Old World specimens are few and rather brief, I shall give below a
detailed comparative description of the American specimens. For the sake
of brevity, I shall refer to each specimen merely by the locality.


                      VERTEBRAL COLUMN AS A WHOLE.

The vertebral formula in the three North American specimens and in four
Old World specimens and Burmeister’s Argentine specimen is as follows:

              _Vertebral formula of Ziphius cavirostris._

  Locality and sex.                     C.   Th.    L.      Ca.  Total.
  Newport, Rhode Island, male            7     9    10       20      46
  Barnegat City, New Jersey, female      7     9    11  18(+1?)   46(?)
  Charleston, South Carolina, female     7    10    10  16(+3?)   46(?)
  Holma, Sweden (Malm)                   7    10    10   18(+1)      46
  Pisa Museum (Van Beneden)              7     9    11      16+     43+
  Warrington, New Zealand (Scott and     7    10     9       20      46
    Parker)
  Lyttleton Harbor, New Zealand          7     9    11       19      46
    (Haast)
  Buenos Ayres, Argentina                7    10    10       22      49
    (Burmeister), male

In the figures of the Argentine specimen the last ten caudals are
practically without characters, and it is perhaps allowable to question
whether the terminal two or three were not added to make an even taper to
the end of the column. If such be not the case, this specimen had more
vertebræ than any other.


                      CHARACTERS OF THE VERTEBRÆ.

_Newport_ (male).—The seventh cervical vertebra presents a conical
metapophysis, which on the first thoracic vertebra forms of a rather
thick, long, declining process ending in a facet for the tubercle of the
first rib. This metapophysis maintains nearly the same form as far as the
sixth thoracic vertebra, but on the third thoracic a mammiliform process
makes its appearance on the anterior margin near the tip, and becomes
more prominent on each succeeding vertebra. On the seventh thoracic it
becomes larger, thin, and upright, and widely separated from the
articular facet for the tubercle of the rib. On the centrum of this
vertebra lower down is a second much larger rugose articular facet. On
the eighth thoracic vertebra the upper articular process disappears
altogether and is replaced by a transverse process on a lower level, with
a facet at the free end for the rib. On the ninth thoracic the transverse
processes are larger and nearly straight. They are longer on the first
lumbar and incline a little forward. Those of the succeeding vertebræ are
similar, but decrease gradually in length, while somewhat increasing in
breadth. They are last traceable on the ninth caudal. On the eighth
caudal they are perforated by a foramen.

All the vertebræ from the first cervical backward have neural spines as
far as and including the eleventh caudal. The spine on the first thoracic
is rather short, narrow and pointed. These spines increase in height in
succeeding vertebræ as far as the sixth lumbar; at the same time the
breadth increases antero-posteriorly and the tip becomes expanded. The
spines are nearly equally high on all the succeeding lumbars, but begin
to decrease on the caudals and disappear altogether on the eleventh
caudal.

The anterior zygapophyses and metapophyses maintain a nearly constant
position close to the top of the centra throughout the column, from the
seventh thoracic backward, and are vertical, thin, and oblong, squared or
rounded. They begin to decrease in size noticeably on the first caudal,
and on the seventh caudal are mere swellings at the sides of the nearly
horizontal plate from which the neural spine springs. They are traceable
as far as the twelfth caudal.

A ridge appears on the side of the neural arch near its base on the fifth
caudal and is stronger and very marked on those following, to the ninth
caudal. A ridge unites the anterior and posterior facets for the chevrons
on the ninth and succeeding caudals.

_Barnegat City_ (female).—Unlike the Newport skeleton, there are no
neural spines on the fifth, sixth, and seventh cervicals. The spine on
the first thoracic vertebra is quite short and sharp, and on the second,
third, and fourth thoracics also is rather pointed, though of increased
length. There is no metapophysis on the seventh cervical.

On the seventh thoracic the facet for the tubercle of the rib, instead of
being very prominent, becomes inconspicuous. The metapophysis is flat and
squared, and there is no lower facet on the side of the centrum. On the
eighth thoracic the metapophysis is thin, squared, and vertical, and a
well-formed transverse process appears on the side of the centrum. The
transverse processes of the ninth thoracic are a little curved backward,
and on the first lumbar and succeeding vertebræ bent forward. These
processes are less tapering on all the lumbars than in the Newport
skeleton. They disappear on the eighth caudal. None is perforated.

The longest neural spine is on the sixth lumbar, and on all the lumbars
both the anterior and posterior edges are somewhat convex. Hence their
shape is rather different from those of the Newport skeleton, in which
the anterior margins are somewhat concave. The tips of the spines are
rather suddenly expanded. The spines of the caudals are rather more
expanded at the tip and more inclined backward than in the Newport
skeleton. They disappear on the eleventh caudal.

The horizontal plate joining the metapophyses is noticeable on the fifth
caudal. The ridge on the side of the neural arch is first noticeable on
the fourth caudal and is very strong on the fifth, sixth, and seventh.
The metapophyses are last traceable on the twelfth caudal.

_Charleston_ (female, jr.).—This skeleton resembles the Newport one as
regards the facets for the articulation of the tubercles of the ribs,
except that the seventh thoracic resembles the sixth and has no lower
facet on the side of the centrum. The transverse processes of the ninth
thoracic are rather strongly curved backward, while those on the last
thoracic and first lumbar are nearly straight. On succeeding vertebræ
they are inclined forward. They are last traceable on the eighth or ninth
caudal (vertebra 35 or 36). None is perforated by a foramen.

Though the vertebræ are defective, there appear to have been no neural
spines on the fourth to the seventh cervicals, inclusive. The spine on
the first thoracic is short, and on the first to the fourth is pointed.
The spine disappears on the tenth caudal (vertebra 37).

The metapophyses assume the vertical position on the eighth thoracic. The
last of these processes is barely traceable on the tenth caudal (vertebra
37). The ridge on the side of the neural arch is well marked on the fifth
to the ninth caudals, inclusive. On the seventh caudal (vertebra 34) the
anterior and posterior facets for the chevrons are united on the right
side, and on the eighth caudal and succeeding vertebræ on both sides.


                           CERVICAL VERTEBRÆ.

_Barnegat City_ (female).—The first four cervicals are united. The
foramen above the anterior articular facets of the atlas is complete, and
the edges of these facets are raised. The inferior lateral process is
flat, broad, and strongly bent backward.

Second cervical: Inferior lateral process nearly as long as that of the
first cervical; broad, flat, and bent backward parallel with the process
of the first cervical. Superior lateral process short, strong, and flat.
A large incomplete foramen between it and the inferior process.

Third cervical: A short, conical inferior process, curved forward.

Fourth cervical: Similar, but with smaller and shorter inferior process.
Neural arch and spine complete; the latter fused with the preceding
spines. Arch not reducing the size of the neural canal.

Fifth cervical: Arch and spine broken. Arch nearly as broad as the
anterior epiphysis of the centrum. Inferior lateral process short,
straight, and directed obliquely outward.

Sixth cervical: Spine broken. Arch complete, nearly as wide as the
anterior epiphysis. Inferior lateral process short, thick, knobbed, and
directed obliquely outward and a very little forward. The left longer.

Seventh cervical: Spine obsolete. Arch complete, as wide as the anterior
epiphysis. No superior lateral process or metapophysis. A thick articular
facet for the head of the first rib on the middle of the side of the
centrum. No inferior lateral process.

Fused spines of the first to fourth cervicals bent backward; the mass
broad antero-posteriorly and rounded at the tip.

_Newport_ (male).—First cervical with the foramen over the anterior
articular facets incomplete, and the borders of the facets less raised.
The facets also broader and more declined. Inferior lateral process
thicker, somewhat tapering, and nearly transverse.

Second cervical: Inferior lateral process much shorter than that of first
cervical, about parallel with it, but with the tip bent forward. Superior
lateral process short, thick, and bent backward; joined to the inferior
process on the right side, inclosing an oval foramen.

Third cervical: A short, straight, triangular superior process on the
right side; that on the left short and blunt. Inferior lateral process
long, thick, club-shaped, and curved backward.

Fourth cervical: Inferior lateral process similar to the last in shape,
but shorter, broad and flat, and only slightly curved backward. Neural
arch and spine separate from those of the third cervical; the arch rather
smaller than those preceding it, and reducing the size of the neural
canal.

Fused spines of the first to third cervicals nearly vertical, rather
high, and obtusely pointed.

Fifth cervical: Spine pointed and quite long. Arch complete. Inferior
lateral process short, squared, flattened, and directed outward
obliquely.

Sixth cervical: Spine about as long as on the fifth cervical. Arch much
narrower than the anterior epiphysis. Inferior lateral process prominent,
thick, somewhat compressed, and directed downward.

Seventh cervical: Spine as high as the arch, obtusely pointed. Arch
complete, as wide as the anterior epiphysis. A strong conical superior
lateral process, or metapophysis, on a broad base, directed forward. An
articular raised facet on the side of the centrum, directed obliquely
backward. No inferior lateral process.

_Charleston_ (female, jr.).—The first to fourth cervicals resemble those
of the Newport skeleton, but the fourth entirely separate. All the
lateral processes undeveloped, or broken off, except the right inferior
lateral process of the atlas, which is like that of the Newport specimen.
The anterior foramen of the atlas is incomplete, as in that specimen, and
the spines of the conjoined vertebræ are vertical and pointed. (Pl. 25,
fig. 1.)

Fifth cervical: Spine wanting. Arch complete. Inferior lateral process
undeveloped, or abraded.

Sixth cervical: Spine and processes broken. Arch wide.

Seventh cervical: Similar to that of the Newport skeleton, but the spine
obsolete or broken.


                           THORACIC VERTEBRÆ.

_Barnegat City_ (female).—First thoracic: Spine vertical, pointed, about
as high as arch and centrum together. A moderately long process with
articular facet for tubercle of rib on side of neural arch; facet
elliptical and directed a little downward and forward. A smaller facet
for head of second rib on posterior upper edge of centrum.

Seventh thoracic: Metapophyses long, extending horizontally, straight
superiorly. A small articular facet on the outer side near the base,
directed downward; strongest on right side. A very small facet on
posterior upper edge of centrum, scarcely noticeable on right side.
Neural spine rather narrow at tip; superior margin straight.

Eighth thoracic: Metapophyses squared and thin. A distinct transverse
process on side of centrum about half as broad as the centrum is long,
and as long as centrum is broad; flattened, squared, and a little curved
backward and upward. Articular facet for rib elliptical and directed
obliquely backward. A broad, shallow groove across base of transverse
process, the anterior edge of which is emarginate proximally. Neural
spine as in seventh thoracic.

Ninth thoracic: Metapophyses squared. Transverse process similar to that
of eighth thoracic, but equal to centrum in length, little narrowed at
base, and directed outward; anterior edge convex, posterior concave;
articular facet occupying the posterior half of the distal edge. A very
shallow groove proximally.

_Newport_ (male).—First thoracic: Neural spine a little curved backward
and rounded at tip; much higher than length of arch and centrum together.
Articular facets as in Barnegat skeleton.

Seventh thoracic: Metapophyses similar in shape to those of Barnegat
skeleton but with a very distinct facet on side of arch, terminating a
process about as long as the greatest diameter of the facet; surface of
facet rugose. Below this process, on side of centrum, a very large, oval,
sessile facet, reaching forward nearly to the anterior face of the
centrum and upward to its superior edge. A very low, small swelling on
the posterior superior edge of centrum, probably indicating the point of
attachment of a cartilage connecting the head of the eighth rib. Neural
spine expanded at free end, and superior margin rounded.

Eighth thoracic: Metapophyses similar to those of Barnegat skeleton. A
distinct transverse process nearly as broad as the length of the centrum,
oblong or squared, flat, directed somewhat backward, but not upward.
Articular facet for rib not occupying whole of free end and only slightly
directed backward; anterior margin as in Barnegat skeleton. Neural spine
similar to that of seventh thoracic.

Ninth thoracic: Similar to that of Barnegat skeleton, but transverse
process longer than centrum and directed a little downward, articular
facet occupying less than posterior half of free margin; proximal groove
inconspicuous; anterior and posterior margins nearly straight.

_Charleston_ (female, jr.).—The centra of the thoracic, as well as the
lumbar, vertebræ in this individual present inferior median keels, and
more or less concave sides, which is not the case in the Barnegat and
Newport skeletons. This can not be due to immaturity, as in a still
younger individual, supposed to represent _Ziphius grebnitzkii_, the
thoracic vertebræ are rounded below. The neural spines of the thoracic
vertebræ are much less inclined backward in _semijunctus_ than in the
Newport and Barnegat skeletons, but this is doubtless connected with age,
as the younger series of vertebræ already mentioned exhibits the
peculiarity in a more marked degree. A similar modification dependent
upon age appears to affect _Hyperöodon_, as will be seen by comparing Van
Beneden and Gervais’ figures in the Osteography, plate 18.

First thoracic: Similar to that of Newport skeleton, but spine not higher
than arch alone. (A little abraded at tip, but probably undeveloped.)

Seventh thoracic: Metapophyses short (abraded), incompletely developed. A
distinct facet on side of same on an elongated process, as in Newport
skeleton, but no second larger one on side of centrum. No facet on
superior margin of centrum either anteriorly or posteriorly.

Eighth thoracic: Transverse process similar to that of Barnegat skeleton,
but anterior edge nearly straight; process about one-half as broad as
length of centrum. (Indications of immaturity.)


                            LUMBAR VERTEBRÆ.

_Barnegat City_ (female).—First lumbar: Similar to last thoracic, but
transverse process expanded distally and slightly directed forward; a
little longer than centrum; anterior and posterior edges emarginate
proximally.

Eleventh lumbar (last): Centrum very long. Neural arch and spine very
high, more than twice length of centrum. Spine inclined backward much
beyond posterior face of centrum; anterior margin straight, posterior
convex, tip expanded. Transverse process a little more than one-half
length of centrum, somewhat expanded at distal end and curved forward so
that tip is about in line with anterior face of centrum. Metapophyses
close to centrum and to each other, semihexagonal in outline. A sharp
median inferior ridge, and shallow posterior oblique channels on under
side of centrum.

_Newport_ (male).—First lumbar: Similar to that of Barnegat skeleton, but
transverse processes considerably longer than the centrum and not
expanded at tip; anterior edge straight, posterior only slightly
emarginate proximally.

Tenth lumbar (last): Centrum like that in Barnegat skeleton. Neural arch
and spine only slightly higher than length of centrum. Transverse process
oblong, free margin nearly transverse; process inclined forward so that
tip is a little beyond anterior face of centrum. Metapophyses close to
centrum, rounded in outline. Neural spine much inclined backward;
anterior edge concave, posterior convex, tip expanded. A rounded inferior
median ridge and very distinct oblique posterior channels on under side
of centrum.

_Charleston_ (female, jr.).—First lumbar: Similar to that of Barnegat
skeleton, but transverse process directed outward and scarcely or not at
all forward; length of process equal to that of centrum; tip rounded (due
to immaturity).

Tenth lumbar (last): Centrum very long. Neural arch and spine a little
less in height than length of centrum. Transverse process oblong, curved
forward, more than one-half as long as centrum. Metapophyses similar to
those of Newport skeleton. Inferior median ridge very sharp; lateral
channels rather indistinct.


                            CAUDAL VERTEBRÆ.

_Barnegat City_ (female).—First caudal (vert. 28): Similar to last
lumbar, but neural spine broader antero-posteriorly. Transverse process ࡪ
length of centrum, inversely triangular, the tip much in advance of
anterior face of centrum, free end somewhat rounded. Metapophyses similar
to those of last lumbar. No median inferior ridge, but two short
processes bearing facets for chevrons posteriorly and a very slight
indication of similar process anteriorly, but without facets. Posterior
inferior oblique channels indistinct.

Seventh caudal (vert. 34): Centrum (exclusive of chevron processes)
nearly as deep as long. Neural arch and spine only a little higher than
length of centrum, very much inclined backward and expanded at distal
end; free border of spine straight. Metapophyses close to centrum, united
nearly to tips by a horizontal plate. A ridge extends backward from their
tips nearly across the arch. Another very prominent ridge traverses the
centrum at the base of the arch. At the posterior end, a deep groove,
convex forward, extends down the side of the centrum, making an
emargination in the transverse process and proceeding thence down the
lower side of centrum to its lower middle point, where it ends in a deep
semicircular emargination between the anterior and posterior chevron
facets. Transverse process a triangular stub, reaching nearly to the line
of the anterior face of centrum. Chevron processes very large, and the
median inferior surface of the centrum between them deeply grooved
longitudinally.

Tenth caudal (vert. 37): Centrum as deep as long. Neural spine a low
ridge, as long as the centrum, and extending beyond it posteriorly. No
transverse processes. A foramen in side of centrum much above the middle
and a similar one below. Close to the latter and below it another foramen
pierces the ridge uniting the chevron processes, and appears below on
side of longitudinal inferior median channel. Metapophyses small
mammilliform processes on top of centrum.

Eleventh caudal (vert. 38): No processes. A very small neural spine.
Posterior epiphysis strongly convex.

Twelfth caudal (vert. 39): A rounded mass without processes.

Thirteenth caudal (vert. 40): An oblong mass, with two grooves on each
side, two widely separate foramina above and two closely approximated
below, entering a common depression, with rounded projections on its
borders.

Fourteenth caudal (vert. 41): Similar to thirteenth caudal, but with a
single lateral groove.

Fifteenth caudal (vert. 42): Similar to fourteenth caudal, but sides
extending upward and downward in a ridge. Inferior foramina nearly as far
apart as superior and posterior epiphysis much smaller than anterior.

Sixteenth caudal (vert. 43): Similar to fifteenth caudal, but the
disproportion of epiphyses greater and lateral ridges higher. Superior
and inferior surfaces of centrum inclined.

Seventeenth caudal (vert. 44): Similar to preceding, but smaller.

Eighteenth caudal (vert. 45): Longer than high. Inferior ridge longer and
larger than superior. Groove very large. Anterior face of centrum deeply
concave, posterior flat. Posterior epiphysis very much smaller than
anterior. Foramina very small, practically obliterated on right side.

_Newport_ (male).—First caudal (vert. 27): Similar to last lumbar, but
transverse process shorter, about two-thirds as long as centrum, oblong
and but little constricted at base; distal margin nearly straight. The
process does not extend forward quite to the line of the anterior face of
centrum. No inferior median ridge, but strong posterior chevron
processes. Postero-inferior oblique grooves very distinct.

Seventh caudal (vert. 33): Similar to the same vertebra in Barnegat
skeleton, but neural spine more inclined backward and anterior border
deeply concave. Metapophyses oblong, directed upward, not reaching
anterior face of centrum as they do in Barnegat skeleton. Anterior face
of centrum receding superiorly and the ridge opposite it on side of
centrum shorter than in Barnegat skeleton. Ridge behind metapophyses
indistinct. Postero-inferior oblique grooves as in Barnegat skeleton, but
piercing transverse process, forming a foramen. Anterior and posterior
chevron processes very large and receding very much, as do also the
anterior and posterior faces of centrums.

Eleventh caudal (vert. 37): Similar to Barnegat skeleton, but spine
shorter than centrum and not extending beyond it anteriorly or
posteriorly. Metapophyses similar, but wider apart.

Twelfth caudal (vert. 38): Neural arch barely complete. No spine.

Thirteenth to nineteenth caudals (vert. 39-45): Similar to those of
Barnegat skeleton.

Twentieth caudal (vert. 46): Rudely triangular, with a peg-like posterior
projection, bearing the very small posterior epiphysis. No foramina.
Anterior epiphysis deeply concave in middle.

_Charleston_ (female, jr.).—First caudal (vert. 28): Similar to last
lumbar, but only a faint inferior median ridge. Inferior outline of
centrum antero-posteriorly very concave, which is not the case in the
Barnegat and Newport skeletons. Posterior chevron processes prominent.
Postero-inferior oblique grooves shallow.

Seventh caudal (vert. 34): Like the Newport skeleton. The transverse
process not pierced or emarginate. Postero-inferior oblique grooves
indistinct. Ridges on centrum very distinct. Right anterior and posterior
chevron processes united and pierced by a foramen.

Tenth caudal (vert. 37): Similar to the same vertebra in Newport
skeleton, but neural spine very short.


                               CHEVRONS.

The number of chevrons in the North American and some other specimens is
as follows:

  Newport, Rhode Island.                               11
  Barnegat City, New Jersey.                       8(+3?)
  Charleston, South Carolina.                          8+
  Buenos Ayres, Argentina (Burmeister).                11
  Holma, Sweden (Malm).                                 9
  Littleton Harbor, New Zealand (Haast).               10
  Warrington, New Zealand (Scott and Parker).           9
  Pisa Museum (Van Beneden).                            9

The chevrons are similar in form in the three North American specimens,
with some differences which will be pointed out below.

_Newport_ (male).—The first chevron consists of a pair of bones which are
not united. They are longer than deep, their depth indeed being less than
that of any one of the succeeding bones except the tenth and eleventh.
Each presents one strong superior articulating facet. Second chevron,
elongated antero-posteriorly, but not much deeper than the first. Third
chevron very deep and only equaled in that respect by the fourth;
narrowed and rounded off below. Fourth chevron largest and broadest
(antero-posteriorly) of the series; expanded below and the lower border
transverse. Fifth to eighth similar in form, but less deep successively,
and the lower border more rounded. Ninth similar to eighth, but smaller
and thinner. Tenth similar to first, longer (antero-posteriorly) than
deep. Eleventh similar to tenth in form, but smaller.

_Barnegat City_ (female).—First chevron bone lacking. Second like that of
Newport skeleton, but smaller. Third similar to second, but much larger
and more produced posteriorly; quite unlike the third in the Newport
skeleton in form, and much less deep. Fourth, largest and deepest of the
series; anterior and posterior borders rounded, and the inferior border
similar. Fifth to eighth similar in form, but successively less deep, and
all more expanded below; inferior border nearly straight. Ninth similar
to eighth, but depth not exceeding breadth; lower angles produced.

_Charleston_ (female, jr.).—The chevrons of this specimen resemble those
of the Newport skeleton, but on account of immaturity they are all more
or less rounded. The two sides of the first chevron are united. The
second is without the posterior angular projection seen in the other
specimens. The third is the deepest of the series. The eighth is not
deeper than long, and hence resembles the tenth chevron of the Newport
skeleton in proportion, but is, of course, much smaller. Two or three
chevrons are lacking from the posterior end of the series.


                                 RIBS.

_Barnegat City_ (female).—First rib shortest and broadest, but
considerably broader at proximal end than at distal end. Head and
tubercle close together. The succeeding ribs increase in length and
decrease in breadth to the fifth or sixth. The third, fourth, and fifth
are expanded and flattened at distal end. Seventh, eighth, and ninth
successively shorter. Distance between head and tubercle greater on
second rib than on first, and on third is greater than on second. On the
third to sixth, inclusive, the distance is about equal. The tubercle is
scarcely distinguishable on the seventh rib, while on the eighth and
ninth it is lacking, these ribs joining the transverse processes by a
terminal facet only.

_Newport_ (male).—Similar to those of the Barnegat skeleton, but first
rib maintains nearly the same breadth throughout. Neck thicker than in
Barnegat skeleton. Seventh rib terminates proximally in a single large
rugose facet, which connects with a similar facet on side of centrum of
seventh thoracic vertebra.

_Charleston_ (female, jr.).—Similar to those of the Barnegat skeleton,
but a distinct tubercle on the seventh rib. Eighth and ninth ribs end
proximally in a transverse facet only, which is largest on the eighth.
Tenth rib (represented by a fragment) only half as broad as the preceding
ones and more nearly round in section.


                                STERNUM.

_Barnegat City_ (female).—Five segments. Manubrium wider than long,
convex inferiorly. Deep anterior and posterior notches, about equal, the
former with an angular projection on each side. Facet for cartilaginous
sternal rib thick and prominent. Second segment wider than long, about
equally notched anteriorly and posteriorly, the two sides anchylosed
together by a bony bridge, about as wide as the notches are deep. Third
and fourth segments similar to second but smaller; similarly notched;
left portion a little longer than right. Fifth segment elongated, left
side very much so; the two sides joined by a narrow bridge; posterior
notch very deep.

_Newport_ (male).—Similar to sternum of Barnegat skeleton, but manubrium
scarcely wider than long; posterior notch much longer than anterior, with
parallel sides. Second and third segments similar to those of Barnegat
skeleton but sides of latter not completely anchylosed together. Fourth
segment in two pieces, with a wide interval between. Fifth segment
triangular with deep anterior, triangular notch, a narrow bridge, and
short posterior prolongation (the left longer than the right).

_Charleston_ (female, jr.).—Resembles the sternum of the Barnegat
skeleton rather than that of Newport skeleton, but anterior parts
cartilaginous. Opposite sides of second, third, and fifth segments
anchylosed together and those of fourth segment nearly so. (Pl. 25, fig.
2).


                                SCAPULA.

_Barnegat City_ (female).—Superior border irregular. Posterior angle
acute. Anterior and posterior borders nearly straight. Ridges distinct.
Acromion broad both at base and at tip, sharply bent upward, so as to be
parallel with anterior border of scapula. Coracoid nearly as long as
acromion, slender, a little curved upward, irregular and somewhat
expanded at the end.

_Newport_ (male).—Superior border irregularly rounded. Posterior angle
obtuse, anterior angle projecting. Ridges indistinct. Anterior and
posterior borders nearly straight, but irregular. Acromion broad at base,
tapering toward the tip, which is again somewhat expanded; bent upward,
but not sufficiently to be parallel with anterior margin of blade.
Coracoid rather thick, irregular, strongly expanded at tip.

_Charleston_ (female, jr.).—Rather too much abraded for comparisons, but
posterior margin more concave than in either of the other skeletons.


                               FORE LIMB.

_Barnegat City_ (female).—Fore limb much shorter than in the Newport
skeleton. Humerus: Head quite oblique, the lower edge overhanging the
shaft considerably on the ulnar side. Tuberosity level with upper surface
of head, elliptical in outline when viewed from above. Deltoid ridge
moderately prominent, irregular, rugose, and extending to about the
middle of the shaft. Distal end of humerus not expanded. Bicipital groove
inconspicuous.

Radius: Almost perfectly straight, but a little inclined toward ulna at
oblique proximal end; scarcely expanded at distal end, which is lower
externally than internally.

Ulna: Much slenderer than radius, rounded triangular in section, not
expanded at distal end, where the margin is lowest externally. Olecranon
well developed, thin, and pointed proximally.

Carpals: Five; two on ulna side, two median and one on radial side in
line with first metacarpal. The proximal middle bone (intermedium)
extends much farther proximally than those on each side of it.

Metacarpals: Metacarpal III longest, metacarpal II broadest. Metacarpal I
oblong, or rather conical, with a lateral enlargement, and situated in
line with the distal row of carpals.

Digits: First phalange of first digit short and conical.

_Newport_ (male).—Fore limb considerably longer and more massive than
that of the Barnegat skeleton but similar otherwise, except as follows:

Humerus: Head rather larger and less inclined. Deltoid ridge more
prominent.

Radius: Broader proximally and rounded at distal end, where it extends
outward beyond the carpal bones.

Ulna: Thicker, and olecranon less pointed.

Carpal bones: Middle carpal bone not extending farther proximally than
those on either side of it.

Metacarpals: Metacarpal I nearly square, third longest, second to fourth
more constricted.

Digits: First phalange of first digit long and cylindrical. Phalangeal
formula: I, 1; II, 6; III, 6; IV, 4; V, 2.

Measurements of the skeletons above described are as follows:

         _Dimensions of four skeletons of Ziphius cavirostris._

  Column headings:
    A: Barnegat City, New Jersey. 20971 U.S.N.M. female, adult.
    B: Newport, Rhode Island. 49599 U.S.N.M. male, adult.
    C: Charleston, South Carolina. 21975 U.S.N.M. female, young.
    D: Bering Island. (Vertebræ) young.


  Measurements.                                   A      B      C      D
                                                mm.    mm.    mm.    mm.
  Length of skull                               945    915    797    ...
  First to fourth cervicals (vert. 1-4):
     Length of combined centra                   81     79     66     55
     Greatest breadth of atlas                  283    259 210(?)    146
     Greatest height of atlas                   215    218    170    148
  First thoracic vertebra (vert. 8):
     Greatest breadth                           211    220 174(?)    122
     Greatest height[a]                         267    321    163    133
     Length of centrum                           42     46     32     19
     Height of centrum                           70     67     48     49
  Seventh thoracic vertebra (vert. 14):
     Greatest breadth                           142    158    147    128
     Greatest height                            440    417    260    182
     Length of centrum                          102    103     74     51
     Height of centrum (ant.)                    68     69     49     44
  Eighth thoracic vertebra (vert. 15):
     Greatest breadth                           253    288    177    100
     Greatest height                            447    427    265    186
     Length of centrum                          110    109     78     54
     Height of centrum                           65     69     51     47
  Ninth thoracic vertebra (vert. 16):
     Greatest breadth                           329    366 248(?)    122
     Greatest height                            418    431    277    192
     Length of centrum                          117    117     82     58
     Height of centrum                           69     75     53     49
  First lumbar vertebra (vert. 17):
     Greatest breadth                           385    393 [b]275    142
     Greatest height                            464    451 [b]293    200
     Length of centrum                          122    120  [b]89     62
     Height of centrum                           74     81  [b]55     50
  Tenth lumbar vertebra (vert. 26):
     Greatest breadth                           362    335 [c]230    158
     Greatest height                            524    488 [c]343    242
     Length of centrum                          172    162 [c]129     85
     Height of centrum                          107    109  [c]78     71
  First caudal vertebra (vert. 27):
     Greatest breadth                        336(?) [d]313    223    166
     Greatest height                            483 [d]458    307    235
     Length of centrum                          178 [d]160    127     91
     Height of centrum                          113 [d]109     81     75
  Seventh caudal vertebra (vert. 33):
     Greatest breadth                           164 [e]161    113    110
     Greatest height                         [f]255 [f]250    155 [f]135
     Length of centrum                          139    131    103     77
     Height of centrum (ant.)                [f]111 [f]119  [f]85  [f]78
  Twelfth caudal vertebra (vert. 38):
     Greatest breadth                            90  [g]88     61     62
     Greatest height                             83  [g]78     53     61
     Length of centrum                           55  [g]56     46     47
  Fifteenth caudal vertebra (vert. 41):
     Greatest breadth                            64  [h]62     49     45
     Greatest height                             54  [h]52     33     30
     Length of centrum                           42  [h]39     30     28
  Eighteenth caudal vertebra (vert. 45):
     Greatest breadth                            37  [i]38    ...    ...
     Greatest height                             20  [i]19    ...    ...
     Length of centrum                           24  [i]22    ...    ...
  Twentieth caudal vertebra (vert. 46):
     Greatest breadth                           ...  [j]25    ...    ...
     Greatest height                            ...  [j]13    ...    ...
     Length of centrum                          ...  [j]19    ...    ...
  Chevrons:
     Antero-posterior length of first           ...     74    ...    ...
       chevron
        Depth of same                           ...     66     44    ...
     Length of second chevron                    83    107     55     38
        Depth of same                            87     85     74     63
     Length of third chevron                    114     91     61     46
        Depth of same                           135    206    123     90
     Length of fourth chevron                   125    122     67     51
        Depth of same                           213    206    111     67
     Length of eighth chevron                    80     86     43     35
        Depth of same                           108    115     41     33
     Length of ninth chevron                     84     74    ...     27
        Depth of same                            83     88    ...     19
  Scapula:
     Greatest length                            385    415 [k]224    159
     Greatest height                            275    300    175    132
     Length of acromion                      [l]115    159    ...     48
     Length of coracoid from edge of glenoid    127    148     60     38
  Pectoral limb:
     Total length                               588    652    ...    ...
  Humerus:
     Length                                     168    177    130     95
     Breadth at distal end                       69     69     52     42
  Radius:
     Length                                  [m]178 [m]175 [m]135    ...
     Breadth at distal end                       55     65     41    ...
  Ulna:
     Length without olecranon                   165    171    118    ...
     Length including olecranon                 220    225    150    ...
     Breadth at distal end                       44     42     30    ...
  Metacarpals:
     Length of first                             31     28
     Length of second                            52     55
     Length of third                             52     58
     Length of fourth                            44     51
     Length of fifth                             37     39
  Phalanges:
     Length of first phalange of first digit     27     44
  Sternum:
     Total length                            [n]803    821 [o]550 [o]395
     Length of manubrium                        259    306 [o]203    105
     Breadth of manubrium                       286    333    193    128
     Length of fifth segment                 [o]170 [p]184 [o]128  [p]92
     Breadth of fifth segment                   133    168     86     82
  Ribs:
     Length of first rib (straight)             405    410    277    191
     Breadth of first rib at proximal end        88    110     65     46
     Breadth of first rib at distal end          63     80     40     30
     Length of fifth rib (straight)             785    770    545    415
     Length of ninth rib (straight)             620    620

  [a] The measurements of height of vertebræ are from center of inf.
          margin of centrum to center of tip of spine, unless otherwise
          specified.
  [b] Last thoracic.
  [c] Ninth lumbar.
  [d] Second caudal = vert. 28.
  [e] Eighth caudal = vert. 34.
  [f] Without chevron facet.
  [g] Thirteenth caudal = vert. 39.
  [h] Sixteenth caudal = vert. 42.
  [i] Nineteenth caudal = vert. 45.
  [j] Vert. 46.
  [k] Edges abraded.
  [l] A little broken.
  [m] In median line.
  [n] Without cartilages.
  [o] With cartilages.
  [p] Left side.


                          PHALANGEAL FORMULA.

The formulas for the ossified phalanges in two American[39] and three Old
World specimens are as follows:

     _Phalangeal formula of five specimens of Ziphius cavirostris._

  Locality.                                   I.   II.  III.   IV.    V.
  Newport, Rhode Island                        1     6     6     4     2
  Barnegat City, New Jersey                    1     6     6     4     3
  Villefranche, France (Haeckel)               1     5     6     4     2
  Pisa Museum, Italy (Van Beneden)             1  3(?)     5     4     1
  Warrington, New Zealand (Scott and Parker)   1     5     5     4     2


                  SUMMARY OF DIFFERENCES IN SKELETONS.

The chief differences between the Barnegat City and Newport skeletons are
in the size and form of the processes of the cervical vertebræ, the form
of the seventh and eighth thoracic vertebræ and of the ribs connected
with them, the direction of the acromion of the scapula, the shape of the
first phalange of the first digit, and of the posterior segments of the
sternum. As far as the processes of the cervicals are concerned, these
are known to be extremely variable in all cetaceans. The seventh and
eighth thoracic vertebræ are those on which the mode of attachment of the
ribs changes in ziphioid whales, and I have observed in the genus
_Mesoplodon,_ as here, that the processes and articular facets were very
variable, being sometimes quite unlike on the two sides of the same
vertebra. The direction of the acromion is probably subject to large
individual variations, though this can not be determined at present, and
the same is true of the form of the first phalange of the first digit.
The form of the sternum is quite variable in all cetaceans, and can not
be relied on for specific characters, without comparison of many
individuals.

On the whole, I am of the opinion, as already stated, that we are not
compelled by the differences noted to regard the Barnegat and Newport
skeletons as representing different species. The Charleston skeleton is
too young and imperfect to admit of serious consideration. The idea that
the differences between the adult skeletons are probably individual
receives support from the fact that the skeleton shown in the photograph
from St. Simon Island, Georgia, mentioned on page 31, No. 14, appears to
possess a combination of characters exhibited by the other two.


                       AGE VARIATIONS IN SKULLS.

The series of skulls of _Z. grebnitzkii_, which the Museum owes to the
activities of Dr. L. Stejneger and Mr. N. Grebnitzki, comprises specimens
of different ages, and, as will be shown presently, probably both sexes.
Taken together with the skulls from the east coast of the United States
they probably represent very fully the variations which the skull
undergoes in the present species. These changes may, perhaps, be best
made evident by the following brief descriptions of the various skulls:

_21975. Charleston, South Carolina._—Young female. (Type of _Z.
semijunctus_.) All sutures open, and elements of occipital bone
distinguishable. No mesethmoid ossification. Opposite maxillary notches,
premaxillæ closely approximated, nearly flat and horizontal, and about
level with adjacent parts of maxillæ. Left premaxilla grooved
longitudinally at this point. Orifice of anterior nares on a level with
lower end of rectangular projecting boss formed by superior portion of
nasals. Rostrum pointed, much broader distally than it is deep. A very
distinct rudimentary alveolar groove in distal end of each maxilla.
Proximal end of vomer resting against anterior face of nasals and
reaching up to overhanging boss. Anterior face of the latter nearly flat.
(Pl. 14, fig. 1; pl. 18, fig. 1; pl. 20, fig. 1; pl. 21, fig. 2.)

Rami of mandible not anchylosed together at symphysis. Teeth hollow, open
at the root, acute at apex, tipped with enamel; diameter 10 mm. (Pl. 22,
fig. 1; pl. 24, fig. 1.)

_20971. Barnegat City, New Jersey._—Adult female. Majority of sutures
open, but those on superior surface of rostrum between maxillæ and
premaxillæ partly anchylosed. Vomer nearly all anchylosed to rostral
portion of premaxillæ; it presents a slight median elevation, but there
is no mesirostral ossification. Right premaxilla in front of nares broad,
flat, and horizontal; left, nearly so, but with a quite broad
longitudinal groove. Opposite maxillary notches premaxillæ nearly on a
level with adjacent parts. Orifice of anterior nares level with lower end
of nasal boss. End of rostrum quite acute, and broader than deep.
Rudimentary alveolar groove distinct distally. Proximal end of vomer
anchylosed with anterior face of nasals and reaching up to nasal boss,
which has a sharp median ridge completing nasal septum superiorly.
Anterior face of nasal boss slightly concave on each side of median line.
(Pl. 14, fig. 2; pl. 18, fig. 2; pl. 20, fig. 2; pl. 21, fig. 3.)

Rami of mandible anchylosed together at symphysis and suture largely
obliterated. Teeth slender, cylindrical, rugose, rather blunt; roots
closed; diameter 13 mm. (Pl. 24, fig. 3.)

_22069. Bering Island._—Adult female? All the sutures about as in
preceding specimen. Mesirostral ossification distinct, rounded, extending
from base of rostrum nearly to apex, but disappearing before reaching
line of anterior ends of maxillæ. Its upper surface below that of
premaxillæ. Premaxillæ approximated, and right premaxilla with an angular
process near base of rostrum overlapping mesirostral ossification.
Premaxillæ at base of rostrum, anterior nares, proximal end of vomer, and
nasals as in preceding skull. Apex of rostrum moderately acute, broader
than deep. Rudimentary alveolar groove shallow. (Pl. 15, fig. 1.)

Rami of mandible anchylosed together and suture largely obliterated.
Teeth somewhat fusiform, blunt; roots closed; diameter, 14 mm. (Pl. 22,
fig. 3.)

_83991. Bering Island._—Similar in all respects to preceding, but
mesirostral ossification a little less well developed.

_22874. Bering Island._—Entirely similar to two preceding, but premaxillæ
a little curved out from mesirostral ossification and left premaxilla
opposite maxillary notch rather strongly inclined, nearly vertical.
Anterior face of nasal boss distinctly concave. (Skull defective.)

_21246. Bering Island._—Sutures as in three preceding skulls. Mesirostral
ossification distinct and rounded, but much below level of premaxillæ.
Rostral portion of premaxillæ narrow and widely divergent toward base of
rostrum, leaving mesirostral entirely exposed. Right premaxilla on a line
with maxillary notches strongly concave and sunk below level of maxillæ.
Left premaxilla vertical, with a broad groove. Right premaxilla remains
low and concave proximally, the posterior end being then abruptly turned
upward and reaching level of vertex. Orifice of anterior nares on a level
with lower end of nasal boss, and vomer resting against anterior face of
nasals, which latter have a median ridge continuing nasal septum, but
with a slight vacuity between the two. Rudimentary alveolar groove nearly
obliterated. Outer sides of premaxillæ at distal end strongly concave.
Rostrum rather acute, about as deep as wide opposite distal ends of
maxillæ. (Pl. 15, fig. 2.)

_20993. Bering Island._—Adult male? (Type of _Z. grebnitzkii_). Majority
of sutures open, but maxillæ and premaxillæ anchylosed together above and
on the sides. Premaxillæ approximated anteriorly, but diverging
posteriorly. Mesirostral ossification well developed, reaching level of
premaxillæ; anteriorly rather narrow but a little broader near middle of
rostrum, where it is beveled off abruptly. Behind this point premaxillæ
strongly concave, nearly vertical and widely separated, forming a large
and deep basin, in the bottom of which the vomer appears as a broad,
irregular bony surface. Bottom of basin much below level of surrounding
parts. Orifice of anterior nares much below level of nasal boss. Vomer
reaching lower end of nasals. Anterior face of latter strongly concave,
with only a moderate median ridge completing nasal septum above.
Mesirostral with a median groove at distal end. Premaxillæ high at distal
end, but sides nearly plane. Rostrum compressed near apex, deeper than
wide. (Pl. 16, fig. 1; pl. 19, fig. 1; pl. 20, fig. 3.)

Rami of mandible anchylosed together and suture partly obliterated. Teeth
conical, with rather short, acute tips; roots closed, short and conical;
diameter, 25 mm. (Pl. 23, fig. 1; pl. 24, fig. 2.)

_21245. Bering Island._—Nearly all sutures between maxillæ and premaxillæ
at end of rostrum, above and below, anchylosed together, but majority of
others traceable. Condition of superior surface of skull very similar to
that of preceding, but premaxillæ rather low at distal end. Mesirostral
at distal end rather lower than premaxillæ and concave superiorly; more
posteriorly assuming form of a narrow ridge, with a deep channel between
it and premaxillæ on each side. More posteriorly still it widens rapidly,
with a convex surface, and terminates abruptly with a truncated end, the
surface of which is concave. A deep basin around nares, as in preceding
skull. Orifice of anterior nares far below level of nasal boss. The
latter largely absorbed and deeply undercut and concave in front. Nasal
septum terminating before reaching lower end of nasals, and ridge on
latter low and traversing left nasal. Sides of premaxillæ at distal end
very concave. Rudimentary alveolar groove nearly obsolete. Rostrum blunt
at apex, and about as deep as wide at anterior ends of maxillæ. (Pl. 16,
fig. 2.)

_21248. Bering Island._—Similar to preceding, but mesirostral
ossification higher than premaxillæ at distal end and convex above; less
abruptly widened posteriorly and posterior termination flat. Narrow, deep
grooves between ossification and premaxillæ on each side, or, in other
words, premaxillæ more closely approximated to sides of mesirostral
distally. Basin around nares and conformation of the several bones
bordering it similar to preceding. Sides of premaxillæ concave at distal
end, the grooves thus formed in them intruding some what on the maxillæ,
especially posteriorly. Apex of rostrum very blunt, rounded off below and
projecting above; deeper than wide. Rudimentary alveolar groove nearly
obsolete. (Pl. 17, fig. 1; pl. 22, fig. 4.)

Rami of mandible anchylosed together and the symphysis and suture largely
obliterated. Teeth very broadly fusiform; tip short and rather blunt;
roots closed; diameter 30 mm.

_49599. Newport, Rhode Island._—Adult male. All sutures on superior
surface of skull more or less anchylosed together. Mesirostral
ossification and premaxillæ all on one level near apex of rostrum, but at
extreme tip mesirostral lower, forming a narrow ridge with a deep groove
on each side between it and premaxillæ. The same conformation repeated
more posteriorly, but grooves deeper and wider, while mesirostral
maintains the same level as premaxillæ. It widens suddenly here, forming
a broad flat-topped mass, which is a little overlapped by the premaxillæ.
The mass terminates suddenly somewhat behind middle of rostrum with a
deep concavity placed obliquely. Basin in front of the nares and
conformation of bones composing it as in two preceding skulls. Vomer at
proximal end touching lower end of nasals, and nasal septum continued
behind and above it as a low ridge, composed of the inner edges of the
two nasal bones and reaching up to the nasal boss. Outer sides of
premaxillæ near distal end deeply concave. Apex of rostrum rather blunt,
deeper than wide opposite distal ends of maxillæ; all the bones
anchylosed together, but some of the sutures indicated by grooves.
Rudimentary alveolar groove nearly obsolete. (Pl. 17, fig. 2; pl. 19,
fig. 2; pl. 21, figs. 1, 5.)

Rami of mandible anchylosed together at symphysis, the suture indicated
only by a groove. Teeth large, broadly conical and tapering at the tip.
Root very short, rugose, conical and closed; diameter 29 _mm._ (Pl. 22,
fig. 2; pl. 23, figs. 2, 3.)

The dimensions of the several skulls are as follows:

 _Dimensions of ten skulls of Ziphius cavirostris (including the types
         of Z. grebnitzkii Stejneger and Z. semijunctus Cope)._

  Column headings:
    A: 83991. Bering Island. _grebnitzkii._
    B: 21248. Bering Island. _grebnitzkii._
    C: 22874. Bering Island. _grebnitzkii._
    D: 21246. Bering Island. _grebnitzkii._
    E: 20993. Bering Island. Type _grebnitzkii_.
    F: 22069. Bering Island. _grebnitzkii._
    G: 21245. Bering Island. _grebnitzkii._
    H: 21975. Type _semijunctus_.
    I: 20971. Barnegat, N. J. Female, _cavirostris_.
    J: 49599. Newport, R. I. Male, _cavirostris_.


         Measurements.           A   B     C      D   E    F     G   H   I   J
                                mm. mm.      mm. mm. mm.    mm. mm. mm. mm. mm.
 Total length                   900 877   [a]807 850 963    882 855 797 945 915
 Length of rostrum              491 480   [a]397 470 550    480 476 463 550 514
 Height from vertex to          433 450      ... ... 515    471 481 349 440 465
   inferior border of
   pterygoids
 Distance from tip of rostrum   664 670      ... ... 735    682 673 614 735 726
   to posterior free margin of
   pterygoids (median)
 Distance from the same to      617 621   [a]538 600 690    623 589 590 708 676
   anterior end of nasals
 Breadth between centers of     495 513   [b]499 488 563 [b]486 492 393 476 530
   orbits
 Breadth between zygomatic      511 513      ... 505 573    531 530 415 503 548
   processes
 Breadth between temporal fossæ 270 309      325 300 349    317 311 242 302 313
 Breadth of rostrum at base     319 331      345 324 380    337 320 249 307 337
 Breadth of rostrum at middle   102 117  [b]94± 107 120    109 112  83 112 113
 Breadth of premaxillæ at same   54  67       58  62  78     70  75  44  62  80
   point
 Depth of rostrum at middle      66  81       80  79 118    117 113  50  77 107
 Breadth of premaxillæ in       176 177      184 205 221    230 219 128 176 234
   front of nares
 Greatest breadth of anterior    74  77       77  90  98    103 108  70  76 112
   nares[c]
 Greatest length of temporal    161 158      154 149 152    140 146 133 143 155
   fossa
 Greatest depth of temporal      81  73       77  79  87     74  89  67  80  76
   fossa
 Length of orbit (ant.-post.)   131 133      132 130 137    126 117 113 134 132
 Distance from anterior end of   78  92       82  70  83     89  85  61  82  99
   orbit to maxillary notch
 Length of tympanic bulla       ... ...      ... ...  53    ... ...  54 ...  55
 Breadth of tympanic bulla      ... ...      ... ...  24    ... ... 37? ...  25
 Length of mandible             ... 769      ... ... ...    ... ... 679 ... 842
 Length of symphysis            ... 170      ... ... ...    184 ... 149 ... 176
 Depth of mandible at coronoid  ... 153      ... ... ...    ... ... 133 ... 153

  [a] About 150 mm. lacking from end of beak.
  [b] A little abraded.
  [c] Taken on a level with the curve of the inner margin of the
          premaxillæ. Is only approximate.


                            SEX CHARACTERS.

It will be found from an examination of the foregoing descriptions that
in those specimens in which the sex is known to be female, or is marked
as such, the premaxillæ are comparatively narrow, the mesirostral
ossification only slightly developed, the prenarial basin undeveloped,
and the teeth quite slender, with a diameter of from 10 to 14 mm. As the
teeth in some of them have closed roots there can be no doubt that they
are adults. On the other hand, those skulls known or believed to be from
adult males have the mesirostral ossification enormously developed, a
deep prenarial basin, and fusiform teeth with closed roots and a diameter
of from 25 to 30 mm. It appears to be a fact, therefore, that in the
females the mesirostral ossification is never greatly developed at any
age, that the teeth are never thick and fusiform, and that the prenarial
region is never deeply concave. Immature individuals present, of course,
the appearance of the females, except that the teeth are open at the root
and that the mesirostral ossification is not developed at all.
Conversely, the females, broadly speaking, always present characters of
immaturity, but in adults the roots of the teeth are, of course, closed.

That these conclusions are correct is borne out by an examination of
descriptions and figures of specimens from other parts of the world, for
which purpose a few are available in the writings of New Zealand
zoologists and others. Hector, for example, in 1873,[40] published a
description and figures of a skull from the Chatham Islands which had a
large mesirostral ossification, deep prenarial concavity, and large,
thick teeth, having a diameter of 34 mm. This is the same combination of
characters found in the Newport specimen, which is known to be a male,
and the Bering Island skulls supposed to be those of males.[41]

In 1876,[42] Haast figured and described a female 26 feet long, and hence
presumably adult, from Lyttleton Harbor, New Zealand, which had a small
development only of the mesirostral ossification, a slight prenarial
depression, and rather slender teeth with closed roots and a diameter of
19 mm. This combination of characters is found in the Barnegat skull,
also known to be an adult female.

In the same paper Haast describes[43] and figures the skull of another
female from Akaroa Harbor, New Zealand. This individual was larger than
the last and was accompanied by a suckling calf. Hence, there can be no
doubt that it was mature. The skull shows a moderate development of the
mesirostral ossification, and slender cylindrical teeth with closed roots
and a diameter of 16 mm.

It is demonstrated from the foregoing discussion, I think, that the sexes
can be distinguished by the skulls, when adult, or by the teeth alone.

Reverting now to _Ziphius gervaisii_, which was mentioned on p. 30 as
perhaps constituting a separate species, it will be seen by examining the
figures given by Gervais[44] of the skull on which it was based that the
latter presents the combination of characters peculiar to the female of
_Z. cavirostris_. This skull, which was from Aresquiers (Hérault),
France, was 888 mm. long, and hence, presumably, adult. The mesirostral
ossification is but slightly developed, the prenarial concavity moderate,
the teeth small, slender, and cylindrical, with closed roots and a
diameter of 14 mm. There seems to be no sufficient reason for regarding
this skull as representing a species distinct from _cavirostris_.

The specimen from Buenos Ayres described and figured by Burmeister in
1868[45] was an immature male. In the skull the mesirostral ossification
was lacking, the premaxillæ were flat, and the teeth conical and
acuminate, with open roots, and a diameter of 12 mm. This individual was
12 feet 11½ inches (3.95 m.) long, and hence about as long as the
Charleston specimen, but the skull was apparently 680 mm. long, while
that of the Charleston specimen is 797 mm. long. In the latter the teeth
are 45 mm. long and 10 mm. in diameter, while the tooth figured by
Burmeister is 31 mm. long and 12 mm. in diameter. From these data it
appears improbable that the sex of immature individuals can be determined
from the skull or teeth.


                                 TEETH.

The teeth of the various North Atlantic and North Pacific specimens merit
a somewhat more detailed description than is given on pages 50 to 53. Six
pairs of teeth from six different individuals are available for
comparison. Their dimensions are as follows:

           _Dimensions of the teeth of Ziphius cavirostris._

  Cat.  Locality.                      Age.  Sex.       Teeth.
  No.
                                                       Length.  Greatest
                                                               diameter.
                                                           mm.       mm.
  21975 Charleston, South Carolina[a]  Young Female         45        10
  20971 Barnegat City, New Jersey      Adult Female         56        13
  22069 Bering Island                  Adult (Female?)      41        14
  20993    do[b]                       Adult (Male?)        48        25
  21248    do                          Adult (Male?)        58        30
  49599 Newport, Rhode Island          Adult Male           63        29

  [a] Type of _Z. semijunctus_.
  [b] Type of _Z. grebnitzkii_.


_21975. Charleston, South Carolina._—Young female. (Type of _Z.
semijunctus_.) The teeth are slender, conical, and acuminate, largest at
the base and tipped for about 2 mm. with white enamel. The remainder of
the teeth is coated with a thin layer of cement. The teeth in what
appears to be their natural position protrude horizontally from the
mandible for about 17 mm. They are slightly curved upward near the tip
and are oval, or elliptical, in section, the transverse diameter being a
little less than the vertical diameter. They are a little flattened
externally. The surface is smooth. They are open at the root, and hollow.
(Pl. 38, figs. 1, 2; pl. 22, fig. 1.)

Doctor Manigault, curator of the Charleston Museum, wrote to Professor
Cope regarding these teeth, as follows:

  Another peculiarity of the head consists in the lower maxillary bones
  being provided each at its point with a single small and very sharp
  tooth. These were not noticed during the dissection, owing to their
  being too much embedded in the integuments.[46]

_20971. Barnegat City, New Jersey._—Adult female. The teeth are slender,
cylindrical, and irregularly pointed at both ends. The tips show what
appears to be an inner core of dentine which has been worn down nearly to
the cement coating and somewhat fractured. The cement coating is several
millimeters thick, but does not increase the diameter of the teeth near
the middle, so that they remain irregularly cylindrical throughout. The
surface of the cement is rough and irregular. The root is short, conical,
and closed at the end. These teeth are nearly straight. As they have been
extracted from the jaw and the latter is broken it is not possible to
distinguish which is the upper and which the lower surface, but they are
irregularly oval in section, and a little compressed. (Pl. 38, figs.
3-5.)

In my original notes on this specimen, I recorded that there was a small
pair of teeth behind the larger ones described above. Mention of these
will be made again later. (See p. 57.)

_22069. Bering Island._—Adult female (?). The teeth are in position in
this specimen and are nearly horizontal in position, but a little
inclined upward and toward each other. They do not extend beyond the tip
of the jaw nor up to the level of the upper surface of the symphysis, but
protrude about 13 mm. beyond the alveoli on the side. They are rather
slender, somewhat fusiform, blunt at both ends and slightly curved
upward. The surface is irregular. They are nearly round in section. The
root is closed, and the apex shows what appears to be a core of dentine
surrounded by cement. There is a depression on the inner side near the
root. These teeth are remarkable as intermediate in form between those of
the preceding specimen and those of the specimens next to be mentioned.
(Pl. 38, figs. 6, 7; pl. 22, fig. 3.)

_20993. Bering Island._—Adult male (?). (Type of _Z. grebnitzkii_.) These
teeth are almond-shaped and very symmetrical. They are thickest near the
base and taper gradually to the tip, which is quite acute. They are
somewhat compressed and hence elliptical in section, the vertical
diameter being greater than the transverse diameter. One side (probably
the inner) is flattened. They are slightly curved upward toward the apex,
which is a little worn and fractured. The root is very short and conical.
It is nearly closed, but a very small canal extends upward for about 10
mm. The surface of the tooth is quite smooth, but dull in the lower half.
The line of demarcation between cement and dentine is not evident. (Pl.
38, figs. 8, 9; pl. 23, fig. 1.)

_21248. Bering Island._—Adult male (?). In this specimen the teeth are
still in the natural position in the jaw. They are held in place by
ligaments and protrude far beyond the alveoli, only about one-ninth of
their length being below the superior border. They incline forward at an
angle of about 45° with the longitudinal axis of the jaw and diverge
slightly at the tips.

The teeth themselves have the same general form as those of the preceding
specimen, but are larger. The inner surface is flattened and the outer
strongly convex. The tips are quite pointed, but show some indications of
wear. The roots can not be seen distinctly, but appear to be closed. (Pl.
22, fig. 4.)

_49599. Newport, Rhode Island._—Adult male. These teeth are longer than
those of the preceding specimen, and while they resemble the latter in
general form, taper much more gradually to the tip. The root, or portion
below the point of maximum girth, is much shorter than that above, and
rugose, with several deep furrows. A very small circular opening at the
base of the root marks the orifice of the nerve. The upper half of the
teeth is smooth, and the tips slightly worn and fractured. The small
elliptical worn area is situated on the convex side of the tooth, which
appears to be the outer side. As the alveoli of the jaw are, however,
filled with a network of bone, the teeth can not be inserted in them.
They were detached when received. (Pl. 38, figs. 10, 11; pl. 22, fig. 2;
pl. 23, figs. 2, 3.)

Besides the difference in the size and form of the teeth in the two
sexes, it is probable, as will be seen by consulting the foregoing data,
that in the female the apex of the teeth does not extend more than a very
small distance above the alveoli even in mature individuals, and probably
often not more than a few millimeters; while in adult males the teeth are
almost entirely protruded from the alveoli, which are filled with a
coarse bony network. These differences are carried out in all the
American specimens, and also characterized the New Zealand specimens, as
may be learned from the accounts of Haast and Hector.

A number of rudimentary teeth in addition to the large terminal pair have
been noted in the Aresquiers, Buenos Ayres, and perhaps other specimens,
and two such teeth were found in the mandible of the Barnegat specimen,
behind the large pair. One of these rudimentary teeth has been preserved.
It is cylindrical and moderately curved. The length is 16 mm. and the
diameter 2 mm. The whole tooth, with the exception of the extreme tip, is
thickly coated with cement. The root is closed and the crown acute and
apparently abraded by use. (Pl. 38, fig. 5.)

Returning now to the question of the validity of _grebnitzkii_ as a
species, I would say that after comparing the measurements of the Bering
Island skulls with those of the Atlantic coast specimens, and comparing
the skulls themselves, I have been unable to find any constant difference
of importance, except the size and form of the periotic bone. As the
earbones are lacking from many of the skulls, the series available for
comparison is small.

As compared with the Atlantic coast specimens, the anterior portion of
the periotic bone in _grebnitzkii_ is larger, broader, and more
rectangular in outline when viewed from below. I observe, however, that
the absolute size and outline of the periotic vary considerably in the
different specimens of _grebnitzkii_ without relation to age. The same
appears to be true of _cavirostris_, but comparing the two series of
skulls as a whole it appears to be true that the anterior mass of the
periotic is larger in _grebnitzkii_. I do not think, however, that the
latter species should be kept distinct on this account alone, at least
until the character has been confirmed, and perhaps strengthened by
others, through the examination of a larger series of specimens.


                SKELETON OF ZIPHIUS FROM BERING ISLAND.

The Museum collection contains an incomplete skeleton of a very young
individual, Cat. No. 22875, which was received from Bering Island with
the skulls of _Z. grebnitzkii_, but does not belong to any one of them.
Whether it really represents that species is, therefore, uncertain, but
such is probably the case. The length of the vertebral column, consisting
of 45 vertebræ, without interspaces, is 9 feet 2 inches.

The vertebral formula is as follows: C. 7; Th. 10; L. 10; Ca. 18 (+1?) =
45 (+1?). This is the same as in the type of _semijunctus_ so far as the
cervicals, thoracics, and lumbars are concerned, and the probable total
is the same. In their general characters these vertebræ agree with those
of the skeletons already described, but they present a number of
differences as well. On account of immaturity the processes are even less
developed than in _semijunctus_. All the epiphyses are free, and in the
third to the seventh thoracic vertebræ the neural arch and spine are
separate from the centrum. The centra are very short in proportion to
their width.

Although the specimen is so young, the anterior foramen of the atlas is,
nevertheless, inclosed by bone, and though the line of separation between
the atlas and axis is visible on the sides, the fourth cervical is
anchylosed to the third at the top of the centrum. Although the neural
spines, metapophyses, and transverse processes of the thoracics are much
shorter than those of the young _semijunctus_, the epiphyses are as large
or even larger than in that specimen. The neural arches are also
noticeably thicker than in _semijunctus_, and the centra are rounded
inferiorly rather than carinated. The neural spines are much more nearly
erect than in the adult Barnegat and Newport skeletons, but, as mentioned
on page 41, this is probably a character of immaturity, and is shared by
_semijunctus_.

The differences as regards the form of the centra and neural arches die
away among the lumbars, and these vertebræ and the caudals are, with a
due allowance for greater immaturity, very similar to those of
_semijunctus_.

The seventh thoracic is like the sixth in form, and is without a
transverse process. It thus resembles the same vertebra in _semijunctus_.
The eighth, however, has an ill-defined facet on the side of the
metapophysis and a second facet a little above the upper border of the
centrum. The eighth pair of ribs has only a single terminal articular
facet.

The ninth thoracic has a short, thick transverse process, about in line
with the upper surface of the centrum.

The transverse process of the seventh caudal is perforated on the right
side by a foramen. The transverse processes are last traceable on the
ninth caudal, the neural spines on the tenth caudal, and the neural arch
on the eleventh caudal. Eight chevron bones are preserved, but probably
two more were present originally.

Ten pairs of ribs are present. The first is much broader in the proximal
half than in the distal half, but the distal end is slightly expanded.
The first seven pairs possess both head and tubercle, but the eighth,
ninth, and tenth have only a single terminal articular facet.

The sternum, which consists of five segments, is similar in form to that
of _semijunctus_. The two sides of each segment are united. The posterior
emargination of the third segment, and those of both ends of the fourth
and fifth segments are small. The scapula and humerus are like those of
_semijunctus_ in form. The remaining parts of both pectoral limbs are
lacking.

Without more material, and especially some skeletons of adults, it is
difficult to decide what importance should be assigned to the differences
observable in the cervical and thoracic vertebræ of this young Bering
Island specimen. The measurements of the skeleton are included in the
table on pages 47 and 48.


                          EXTERNAL CHARACTERS.

The series of photographs (Cat. No. 142579) of an individual obtained in
Kiska Harbor, Alaska, is very interesting as affording comparison of what
is apparently a specimen of _grebnitzkii_ with the Atlantic form
represented in the photograph of the Newport, Rhode Island, specimen. As
no part of the Kiska specimen was preserved, it is not possible, of
course, to identify it positively with _grebnitzkii_ or even with the
genus _Ziphius_. No one who compares the photographs reproduced in Pl.
41, figs. 3 and 4, can, I think, fail to be convinced that both represent
animals of the same genus and that the Pacific species (whether
_grebnitzkii_ or not) bears the strongest possible resemblance to the
Atlantic one.

Doctor Egbert published the following note on the Kiska specimen in 1905:

  Early in September a monster dolphin grounded on the beach in Kiska
  Harbor and was killed. Specific identification has not yet been made.
  The general color was bluish-gray; length, 18½ feet; estimated weight,
  3,600 pounds; sex, male. Body was quite regular in shape and rather
  rotund, the greatest circumference being about midway between dorsal
  fin and tip of the rather short snout. This dolphin was hauled
  alongside the ship, stripped of its blubber, and the oil extracted.
  Some of the flesh was eaten. The oil obtained was of excellent quality.
  It was particularly desired for use on the wire of the deep-sea
  sounding machine used aboard the [U. S. Coast Survey steamer]
  _Patterson_.[47]

The size was about the same as that of the Newport specimen. Although
Doctor Egbert gives the color merely as “bluish gray,” the photographs
indicate that the belly was white, or whitish, and that there were oval
white spots on the sides. As a whole, therefore, the coloration was
similar to that of the New Zealand specimens of _cavirostris_ obtained at
Port Cooper and Lyttleton Harbor.

When compared with the photograph of the Newport specimen (Pl. 41, fig.
4) it will be seen that the Kiska photograph represents an animal
practically identical in general form, as well as in the general shape of
the head, the length and form of the snout, the size and general shape of
the pectoral fins. In the photograph of the Newport specimen the flukes
are not well seen, but in the Kiska photograph the posterior median
convexity peculiar to the ziphioids is clearly represented. The dorsal
fin of the Newport specimen appears to be turned somewhat to one side and
the tip crumpled, which makes it appear lower and somewhat longer and
less pointed than that of the Kiska specimen. This may, of course, be a
real difference, though such is probably not the case.

Considering the foregoing data relative to _grebnitzkii_ as a whole,
there is not in my opinion sufficient warrant at present for considering
this form as a species distinct from _cavirostris_, and it should be
added that no distinguishing characters were given in the original
description.



                       Genus BERARDIUS Duvernoy.


Of this genus the National Museum has three skulls and three skeletons
representing the species _bairdii_, and a skull representing the species
_arnuxii_. The latter, Cat. No. 21511, U.S.N.M., is without exact
locality, but is catalogued as having been obtained in New Zealand. As
the species _arnuxii_ has been well described and figured by Flower[48]
and others, no detailed account of this skull is given here. Measurements
of it, however, are included with those of _B. bairdii_ in the table on
p. 68.


                      BERARDIUS BAIRDII Stejneger.

    _Berardius bairdii_ Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 6, p. 75,
          June 22, 1883.
    _Berardius vegæ_ Malm, Bihang K. Svenska Vet. Akad. Handl., vol. 8,
          1883, No. 4, p. 109.[49]


This species was based by Dr. L. Stejneger on a skull obtained by Mr. N.
Grebnitzki in Stare Gavan, on the eastern shore of Bering Island,
Commander Group, Bering Sea, in the autumn of 1881. In 1879 a portion of
a skull of the same species was found on Bering Island by the _Vega_
expedition, and was made the basis of a new species, _B. vegæ_, by A. W.
Malm, the description of which was published a few months after that of
Doctor Stejneger. The National Museum subsequently received another skull
from Bering Island, through Mr. N. Grebnitzki, but, so far as I am aware,
nothing further was heard of the species until 1903 and 1904, when the
National Museum received three nearly complete skeletons, two of them
from St. George Island, Pribilof Group, Bering Sea, and one from the
coast of California. The material now in the National Museum is as
follows:[50]

(1) _Cat. No. 20992_.—Skull and mandible of an immature individual
collected by Dr. L. Stejneger in Bering Island. Original number 1520.
Catalogued November 24, 1883. Type.

(2) _Cat. No._ (lacking).—Skull and mandible of an immature individual.
Collected by Mr. N. Grebnitzki in Bering Island (?). Mounted.

(3) _Cat. No. 142118_.—Skull, mandible, and cervical vertebræ of a very
young individual. Collected by Dr. L. Stejneger, June 5, 1883, on North
Rookery, Bering Island. Original number 2191. This specimen is
accompanied by notes and measurements.

(4) _Cat. No. 49726_.—Skeleton and measurements of an adult female. Near
East Rookery, St. George Island, Pribilof Group. Collected by James
Judge, in June, 1903. Length, 40 feet 2 inches.

(5) _Cat. No. 49727_.—Skeleton and measurements of an immature male. Same
locality and date as the preceding. Length, 25 feet 5 inches.

The two skeletons (4) and (5) are somewhat incomplete. The Museum
received a photograph of the female from Maj. Ezra W. Clark.

(6) _Cat. No. 49725_.—Skeleton and two photographs of an adult male (?)
stranded on Centerville beach near Ferndale, Humboldt County, California,
October, 1904. Length, about 41 feet.

A brief note on the St. George Island and California skeletons was
published by the author in Science for 1904.[51] The dimensions given by
the collectors were so large as to raise doubts whether they were
correct, but the arrival of the skeletons proved that they were not
overstated, and that the specimens were by far the largest ziphioid
whales ever discovered, the bones about equaling those of a humpback
whale in size and massiveness.


              HISTORY OF THE ST. GEORGE ISLAND SPECIMENS.

The St. George Island specimens were first made known by Mr. James Judge,
special agent of the Treasury Department, resident at the Pribilof
Islands, in a letter dated June 16, 1903, as follows:

  I was much surprised the other day to find a pair of whales ashore near
  East Rookery [St. George Island]. They lay about 150 yards apart. The
  female was 40 feet 2 inches, the male 25 feet 5 inches in length. The
  species is not positively identified, but tallies closely with the
  Globe Encyclopedia description of Bottlehead or Bottlenose whale,
  _Hyperodoön bidentatus_. Natives call it “Tcha-dhan.” The male is
  without teeth; female has two teeth in front of lower jaw.[52] The skin
  is thin, smooth, white underneath, and black above. Dorsal fin small
  and well aft. Caudal large and powerful. Eyes very small. Ears not
  visible.

  Thinking that the skeleton might be of use, the bones of the female
  were cut out and placed high and dry on the grass. Four ribs were
  broken; otherwise the bones are intact. The male was towed to East
  Landing, and with the aid of a capstan deposited beyond reach of surf.
  Some blubber was saved. The foxes will clean up the bones during
  August, so that in all probability both skeletons will be available
  this fall. * * * I inclose some measurements, taken roughly, with a
  5-foot tape line.

                  _Whale measurements, June 11, 1903._

                                                     Female.      Male.
                                                    Ft.  in.   Ft.   in.
  Greatest length                                    40    2    25     5
  Greatest circumference (much bloated)              20    0    12     0
  Extremity of upper lip to nostril                   4    4     3     0
  Distance between eyes                               4    6     3     6
  Extremity of lower lip to angle of mouth            2    5     1     9
  Circumference of head at eyes                       8   10     7     0
  Lower half of snout 10 inches from end              2    3     1     9
  Upper half of snout 12 inches from end              2    1     1     7
  Length of [pectoral] fin along outer edge           5    0     3     5
  Circumference of tail [at] junction [with]          5    0     3     5
    caudal fin
  Distance between extreme points of caudal fin      10    2     6     3
  Anus to end of body                                11    8     7     7
  Anus to vagina                                      1    2   ...   ...
  Anus to penis                                     ...  ...     1     8
  Length of vagina                                    1    3   ...   ...
  Length of penis                                   ...  ...     1     9
  Penis at base                                     ...  ...     1     5
  Height of dorsal fin                                0   12     0    7½
  Dorsal fin along spine to end of body              11   11     7     5
  Length of nipple from raised base                   0    1   ...   ...

The skeletons remained on the island until August, 1904, when they were
carried by the revenue cutter _McCulloch_ to Dutch Harbor and afterwards
to San Francisco. Through a misunderstanding they were allowed to remain
on the beach at St. George Island until November, 1903, and suffered
considerable injury. On that date they were deposited in a storehouse by
Maj. Ezra W. Clark, assistant treasury agent in charge, who afterwards
presented the photograph of the female above mentioned. (Pl. 42, fig. 1.)
The latter shows the short, narrow, pointed pectoral fin, and long,
rather slender beak.

Another specimen of _Berardius_ was found stranded on St. George Island
on August 21, 1909. The following information regarding it was received
from Maj. Ezra W. Clark, under date of September 4, 1909:

  On August 21, 1909, after an unusually severe gale for the season,
  accompanied with heavy sea, a beaked whale was stranded under the
  cliffs of the northeast coast of St. George Island. Its position was
  such that it was reached with great difficulty. It was undergoing
  decomposition. I succeeded in getting the following information:

  Sex, female.
  Length from tip of beak to end of body, 22 feet.
  Length of beak, tip to base, 2 feet 5 inches.
  Length of head, not including beak, 2 feet.
  Length of tail, or width of flukes at base, 1 foot 10 inches.
  Girth around beak at its base, 2 feet.
  Girth around body at dorsal fin, about 12 feet.
  Girth around body at base of tail, 3 feet.
  Spread of tail, or flukes, 6 feet.
  Length of dorsal fin at base, 1 foot 10 inches.
  Fore fins, 1 foot 10 inches.


  I think that I shall not be able to get the skeleton of this whale,
  owing to the rough seas prevailing.


           HISTORY OF THE CENTERVILLE, CALIFORNIA, SPECIMEN.

The Californian specimen (Cat. No. 49725) was first made known in a
letter addressed to me by President Jordan, of Stanford University, under
date of October 27, 1904, inclosing one from Mr. J. H. Ring, of Ferndale,
California, dated October 23, 1904, which was as follows:

  Enclosed find three views of an animal stranded on the beach near this
  place [Ferndale, Humboldt County, California], and as its identity
  seems rather uncertain we hope you will kindly classify it and inform
  us of its true name and habitat, if possible, from the photographs and
  incomplete description. Its total length is about 41 feet. Greatest
  circumference 16 feet, tapering probably to 18 inches near the tail. It
  also tapers toward the head, terminating in a sharp beak, the upper jaw
  being about 16 and the lower 19 inches long.

  On each side in the lower jaw well to the front is a conical tooth, the
  crown of which is exposed one-half an inch. The head is full and
  rounded, resembling that of an elephant, with depressions corresponding
  to the ears, and small eyes a little ahead and below.

  On top of head is a heart-shaped opening, evidently for breathing
  purposes. There is also evidence of a dorsal fin, while each fork of
  tail is 3½ feet or so long. The underside of the animal is too bruised
  to show anything of importance. The flippers are also in bad shape, one
  being buried in the sand, while the other is entirely denuded of flesh,
  leaving a bony stump about 6 inches long and which moves readily in any
  direction. We think it is a “bottle-nose” whale, but as some claim that
  they are not to be found on this coast and do not exceed 30 feet in
  length, it may be something else.

Mr. Ring was immediately communicated with, and very generously presented
to the Museum the skull of the animal, which he had secured and cleaned
with much labor and some danger to himself. He also undertook to have the
skeleton cleaned and sent to Washington, and it was received in due
course in June, 1905. Mr. Ring wrote under date of May 15, 1905:

  You will notice that the point of the beak, as well as the points of
  the lower jawbones, are a little damaged, some hunters having shot the
  teeth out and then set a fire inside the jaws.

When received, the skeleton lacked the flippers and also two of the
teeth. Regarding the former, Mr. Ring wrote on November 18, 1905, as
follows:

  I wrote you that one flipper was entirely gone and the other worn down
  to a stump, as shown in the picture. I have interviewed the man who
  stripped the specimen, and he says the stump was badly crushed and
  broken and fears it was lost one night when the extremely high tide had
  turned the whale over, and only the anchors and lashings I had secured
  it with prevented its going out to sea.

This skeleton was mounted recently and placed on exhibition in the
Museum. The flippers were modeled from those of the St. George Island
specimens (which were also imperfect) and from the figures of _B.
arnuxii_ given by Flower. The end of the beak was also restored, and a
facsimile of the teeth substituted for the real ones. This remarkable
skeleton shows in a manner hitherto unapproached the great size which
this genus of ziphioid whales attains, and the peculiar conformation of
the body. While the vertebræ rival those of the large whalebone whales,
such as the Humpbacks, in their dimensions, the head is remarkable for
its small size as compared with the immense proportions of the same part
in the Right whales. (Pl. 42, fig. 4.)

Mr. Ring sent to the Museum three photographs of the Californian specimen
above mentioned, two of which are reproduced on Pl. 42, figs. 2 and 3.
Although rather indistinct, they show the general form of the body, the
peculiar bulbous head, with an indication of a neck, and the long beak.


             DESCRIPTION OF A YOUNG BERING ISLAND SPECIMEN.

Doctor Stejneger has very kindly placed in my hands his original notes on
the young individual examined by him in Bering Island June 5, 1883 (Cat.
No. 142,188) and they are given below in full:

  When the news reached me that a small “plavum” was found dead ashore at
  the North Rookery of Bering Island, I immediately ordered dogs, and
  arrived at the place in company with the “starost.” The carcass was
  found lying on the very beach where the fur seals during the summer
  occupy the ground. As the bulk of the seals had not yet arrived, only a
  few “sikatschi” were seen in the immediate neighborhood, but it was
  reported that they had retired from the place on account of the smell
  of the putrefied body, as it was thought. The natives, fearing that it
  would drive the seals from the rookery altogether if left on the beach
  any longer, were very anxious to get it away as fast as possible, and
  it was only with some hesitation that they would allow one to stand on
  the rookery long enough to take a few measurements. The animal was
  quite a young one, and I conjectured that it had died immediately after
  having been born, as I think there were some remains of the umbilical
  cord. Hardly any of the bones were fully ossified. Under these
  circumstances, it was out of the question to have the whole skeleton
  preserved, as the dismembering and the separation of the putrified
  flesh from the bones and cartilages would require more care and
  consequently more time than the natives were willing to allow. I was
  therefore glad to secure the head and some of the neck vertebræ. Even
  that tried their patience, as the head was going to separate into its
  single bones and the not yet united component pieces, and consequently
  needed special care and attention.

  The carcass was lying with the back upward, this visible part being
  uniform black, and still in such a state as to allow of measuring. The
  lower surface was in a very advanced state of decomposition. Part of
  the belly was torn away, together with the entrails, and the genitalia
  and anus were not to be found. As stated above, I think that I could
  recognize the umbilical cord attached to a tatter of the skin. Of
  course, measurements of the lower side and of the circumference of the
  body, except at the narrowest place of the tail, could not be taken.

                         _Table of dimensions._

                                                               Meters.
  Total length from tip of upper jaw to notch of caudal fin,      4.81
    along the middle of the back, without, however, following
    the angle between beak and forehead
  From tip of upper jaw to fore border of spiracles                .53
  From fore border of the spiracles to fore border of dorsal fin  2.63
  Length of dorsal fin                                             .29
  Height of dorsal fin                                             .11
  From hind border of dorsal fin to the beginning of the caudal    .93
    fin
  From the same point to notch of the caudal fin                  1.36
  Distance between the tips of the lobes of the caudal fin         .91
  Depth of the angle of the posterior margin of caudal fin         .20
  From tip of upper jaw to the angle of mouth                      .36
  From the same to anterior angle of eye                          .475
  Diameter of eye opening                                          .06
  From eye to eye over the spiracle                                .59
  Distance between ends of spiracle                                .08
  Length of beak from the forehead                                 .23
  Breadth of the beak at the forehead                              .18
  From tip of upper jaw to anterior insertion of the pectoral      .80
    fin
  Pectoral fin along the anterior border                           .51
  Breadth of pectoral fin[a] at the insertion                      .20
  Circumference of tail at its narrowest point, just before the    .62
    caudal fin

  [a] The pectoral fin rather straight, of equal breadth, and abruptly
          ending.


               ORIGINAL DESCRIPTION OF BERARDIUS BAIRDII.

The original description of _B. bairdii_ by Doctor Stejneger is as
follows:

  Besides an _Orca_, which is said to visit the rookeries, but of which I
  have not been able to procure any specimen, or even to see one, there
  are at least two species of the family _Ziphiidæ_, both undescribed, as
  I suppose. I am very much indebted to Mr. Grebnitzki for a skull of
  each of the species, for one of which I should like to propose the name
  _Berardius bairdii_, as a slight token of my esteem and gratitude.

  As I am now almost without any literary means, I find it impossible to
  decide with certainty in what genus this species will finally have to
  be placed. But I think that the supposition that this specimen (No.
  1520) is a young _Berardius_ may not be far out of the way. At first I
  suspected that it is a _Dioplodon_, but the size of the skull, in
  connection with the distinctness of the sutures, the evident maxillary
  crests, and the terminal position of the teeth very soon led me to the
  above conclusion.

  The specimen in question has very low and scarcely incurved maxillary
  crests; the shortest distance of which is two and two-thirds times
  greater than their greatest height, and although it still is in its
  “adolescent” stage, I should greatly doubt whether the crests in this
  species ever become developed to such a degree as, for instance, in
  _Hyperoödon diodon_ (Lacép.). The groove between the maxillary and the
  nuchal crest is very shallow. The maxillary notch is deep. The beak is
  long, making only a little less than half the length of the entire
  skull. Nares straight; right nasal larger than the left one, but not
  very much. The occipital condyles do not come in contact beneath the
  foramen magnum; the symphysis of the lower jaw is very short, amounting
  to only one-fifth of the whole length of the jaw.

  Want of time and books prevents me from making more extended remarks,
  and until I can present an exhaustive and comparative description, I
  shall have to content myself by giving a provisional table of
  dimensions. The following dimensions are in millimeters and English
  inches, and are in every case measured in a straight line:

                                                              mm.    in.
    Length of skull                                         1,405  55.32
    Greatest breadth                                          698  27.48
    Greatest height                                           530  20.87
    Length from process of supramaxillaries before orbit      610  24.02
      to posterior edge of condyles
    Length from same process to tip of beak                   890  35.04
    Depth of maxillary notch                                   50   1.97
    Length of premaxillaries                                1,222  48.11
    Premaxillaries reach beyond supramaxillaries              134   5.28
    Distance of upper edge of maxillary crests at their       228   8.98
      anterior end
    Distance of same at their middle                          358  14.10
    Greatest height of maxillary crests                        86   3.39
    Length of visible part of vomer                           325  12.80
    Distance from anterior tip of vomer to tip of beak        275  10.83
    Length of pterygoids                                      295  11.62
    Height of foramen magnum                                   70   2.76
    Width of foramen magnum                                    80   3.15
    Distance of condyles at upper edge of foramen magnum      100   3.94
    Closest approximation of condyles beneath the foramen       2   0.08
      magnum
    Entire length of lower jaw                              1,292  50.88
    Height of lower jaw at second tooth groove                100   3.94
    Length of symphysis                                       257  10.12
    Greatest diameter of foremost tooth groove                100   3.94
      (longitudinal)
    Shortest diameter of foremost tooth groove                 45   1.77
      (transverse)
    Greatest diameter of posterior tooth groove                40   1.58
      (longitudinal)
    Shortest diameter of posterior tooth groove                35   1.38
      (transverse)
    Distance between the tooth grooves                         65   2.56

  This specimen was found stranded in Stare Gavan, on the eastern shore
  of Bering Island in the fall of last year, and only the skull was
  preserved. From analogy I should judge that the entire length of the
  animal must have been about 18 feet (5½ meters). This species is well
  known by the natives for the cathartic quality of the blubber,
  resembling in this respect the Atlantic “Dögling,” or “Anarnak”
  (_Hyperoödon diodon_). The Russian name, by which the inhabitants here
  designate this whale, is _Pla-un_ (sp. Pläoon), while the Aleut name is
  _Kigan agalusoch_, the meaning of which is said to be “having teeth on
  the nose,” a very inappropriate designation, as the teeth are situated
  on the tip of the lower jaw, and not on the nose.[53]


                                 SIZE.

It will be observed that the largest of the foregoing specimens measured
40 feet 2 inches in length, while the Centerville skeleton was reported
to be about 41 feet long. The largest example of the New Zealand species,
_B. arnuxii_, of which there is a record was 32 feet long.


                              COLORATION.

The St. George Island specimens were reported to be black on the back and
white below, but it is not certain how long they had been dead when found
by Mr. Judge. The young individual examined by Doctor Stejneger was also
black on the back, but this was in a state of decomposition.

The color of the type-specimen of _Berardius arnuxii_ was described by
Arnoux as follows: “Its color was entirely black, except for a light gray
area near the genital organs; it was a male.”[54] Haast remarks of a
young individual observed by him near New Brighton, New Zealand, and not
in a fresh condition: “The color of the whole animal was of a deep,
velvety black, with the exception of the lower portion of the belly,
which had a grayish color.”[55]

The color of the immature male of _B. arnuxii_ captured in Wellington
Harbor, New Zealand, in 1877, and described by Hector, was as follows:
“The colour was black with a purple hue, except a narrow band along the
belly, which was grey. The muzzle, flippers, and tail lobes were
intensely black.”[56]

It is not likely that there is any marked difference in the color of
_arnuxii_ and _bairdii_, but the data available are insufficient for the
determination of the matter. It will be observed, however, that Mr. Judge
stated that the male _bairdii_ found on St. George Island was white
below, while in all the accounts of _arnuxii_ the color of the under
surface is given as blackish, with a restricted area of gray.

Besides its apparently greater size, _Berardius bairdii_ differs from _B.
arnuxii_ in various cranial and other osteological characters, as well as
in external proportions, and is to be regarded as a distinct species. The
external measurements of the St. George Island specimens reduced to
percentages of the total length and compared with similar measurements of
a specimen of _B. arnuxii_ described by Hector, are as follows:

       _External dimensions of Berardius bairdii and B. arnuxii._

  Column Headings:
    _bairdii._
      A: 49726 St. George Island, Alaska, (Judge), female adult.
      B: 49727 St. George Island, Alaska, (Judge), male imm.
    _arnuxii._
      C: Wellington, New Zealand, (Hector), male.


                  Measurements.                     A       B       C
                                                 ft. in. ft. in. ft. in.
  Total length                                    40   2  25   5  27   6
                                                   per     per     per
                                                  cent.   cent.   cent.
  Distance from tip of snout to blowhole            10.8    11.8    12.8
  Distance from tip of mandible to corner of         6.0     6.9  [a]6.1
    mouth
  Breadth of flukes from tip to tip                 25.3    24.6    19.1
  Length of pectoral fin along outer edge           12.4    13.4     9.4
  Distance from anus to “end of body”               29.0    29.8  [34.0]
  Height of dorsal fin                               2.5     2.4     3.0
  Distance from anterior base of dorsal fin to      29.7    29.2  [34.6]
    “end of body”

  [a] “Length of gape.”


The measurements of these specimens of _bairdii_ agree well together. The
specimen of _arnuxii_ appears to have had narrower flukes, shorter
pectoral fin, and a rather higher dorsal fin, situated farther forward
than in _bairdii_. Measurements of a larger number of specimens might
show that some or all of these differences of proportion are elusive, but
it will be observed that in the Wellington specimen of _arnuxii_,
recorded by Doctor Haast, the breadth of the flukes is only 21 per cent
of the total length. The pectoral fin is said to be only 19 inches long,
or only 5.2 per cent of the total length, but the manner of taking the
measurement is not mentioned.

As regards size, the largest specimen of _B. arnuxii_ of which I find
record is the type specimen. This was 32 feet long, and the skull 1,400
mm., or about 55 inches long. This appears to have been an adult male.
The Centerville specimen of _bairdii_, which was an adult male, was about
41 feet long, and the skull 1,532 mm., or about 60 inches long, while the
adult female from St. George Island was 40 feet 2 inches long and the
skull 56 inches. Although the total length of the specimens of _bairdii_
is so much greater, it will be observed that the length of the skull,
while a little greater, absolutely fails to measure up to the proportions
found in _arnuxii_. It might be suspected on this account that the
external measurements of _bairdii_ were exaggerated, but that such is not
the case will appear from an examination of the measurements of vertebræ
given on page 75. It is evident that the specimens of _bairdii_ are far
more massive in all parts of the skeleton than the specimen of _arnuxii_
there cited. The same relations will be found upon comparing measurements
of the specimen of _arnuxii_ figured by Van Beneden and Gervais.[57] The
truth appears to be that _bairdii_ is a much larger species, but that the
skull is considerably smaller relatively.


                                 SKULL.

The skull of _Berardius bairdii_ presents many characters by which it may
be distinguished from that of _arnuxii_, whether adult or young. As
compared with the latter, the rostrum is less massive at the base. The
pterygoid has a rounded extension posteriorly and superiorly, so that the
posterior portion of the upper border of the pterygoid sinus is convex,
rather than nearly straight, as in _arnuxii_. The exoccipital is larger
and broader distally below, and its external surface is plane or concave,
rather than convex, as in _arnuxii_. The distal end of the zygomatic
process is much more incurved. The nasal bones instead of presenting
lateral extensions have nearly straight sides. The vomer is deeply
emarginate at the base of the skull posteriorly where it rests against
the presphenoid. The palatines extend scarcely or not at all in front of
the pterygoids. The foregoing differences will readily be seen by
comparing the figures on Pls. 26-29 with those of the type of _B.
arnuxii_ given in Van Beneden and Gervais’s Osteography, plate 23.

The following are dimensions of skulls of both species:

  _Dimensions of five skulls of Berardius bairdii (including the type)
                  and of three skulls of B. arnuxii._

  Column headings:
    _B. arnuxii._
      A: New Brighton, New Zealand (Flower). No. 3.
      B: New Zealand (V. B. and Gerv.). (Type). ([a])
      C: 21511, U.S.N.M., New Zealand, young.
    _B. bairdii._
      D: 49726, St. George Island, female, adult.
      E: 49725, Centerville, California, male(?) adult.
      F: 20992, Bering Island, (Type).
      G: 49727, St. George Island, male, young.
      H: Mounted skull, Bering Island(?) (Grebnitzki?).


                              A      B        C     D     E     F        G     H
                            mm.    mm.      mm.   mm.   mm.   mm.      mm.   mm.
  Total length of         1,372  1,392 [b]1,174 1,524 1,423 1,378 1,062(?) 1,474
    skull
  Height from vertex        533 494(?)      493   563   544   ...      ...   575
    to inferior
    border of
    pterygoids
  Breadth across         [c]625    684      577   766   682   662      530 [716]
    middle of orbits
  Breadth across            686    748      606   808   722   ...      560 [760]
    postorbital
    processes
  Breadth across            671    748      584   750   675   ...      520 [740]
    zygomatic
    processes
  Length of rostrum         919    894      800   960   925   880     578+ 1,025
  Breadth of rostrum        399    414      378   475   420   428      310   429
    at base
  Breadth of rostrum        152    150      149   207   197   188      ...   223
    at middle[d]
  Length of premaxillæ      ...   ....      ...   ...   ...   ...      ...   ...
  Breadth of                 91     90      101   120   119   115      ...   125
    premaxillæ at
    middle[d]
  Greatest breadth of       208    210      189   235   217   238      187   239
    premaxillæ in
    front of nares
  Greatest breadth of       ...    246      193   215   195   181      165   197
    premaxillæ behind
    nares
  Distance from           1,097  1,080      935 1,185 1,130   ...     720+ 1,187
    anterior end of
    premaxillæ
    posterior end of
    pterygoids
    (median)
  Distance from             345    264      252   276   270   260     115+   307
    anterior end of
    premaxillæ to
    anterior end of
    vomer
  Length of portion         ...    420    253±   535   370   472    360±   450
    of vomer visible
    on palate
  Length of nasals          132 162(?)      134   135   118   135       98   142
    (greatest,
    median, straight)
  Breadth of nasals         102    180      125   119    97   105       90   105
    (greatest)
  Breadth of anterior        74    102       80   110    98    96       83   100
    nares
  Breadth of foramen         61    ...       72    85    82    84       83    71
    magnum
  Breadth across            191    213      186   261   228   240      195   235
    occipital condyles
  Breadth of each           ...    ...       75   123   104   108       83    98
    condyle
  Height of each            ...    ...      135   193   171   168      142   178
    condyle
  Length of mandible   [e]1,245  1,236      ... 1,334 1,289 1,282   [f]883 1,360
  Length of symphysis       310    294      ...   295   295   270   [f]145   310
  Height at coronoid        211    222      ...   271   230   223      175   245
  Distance from tip          34     45      ...    50    48    35    [f]22    60
    of jaw to center
    of first tooth
  Distance from tip         155    159      ...   200   182   165    [f]87   195
    of jaw to center
    of second tooth

  [a] From Van Beneden and Gervais figure.
  [b] A little broken at tip.
  [c] “Suprafrontal processes of maxillæ.”
  [d] Same point.
  [e] “Length of ramus.”
  [f] About 27 mm. lacking from tip of mandible.


The foregoing measurements indicate a considerable variation in
proportions among the different individuals, but there appears to be
nothing that can be fixed upon in this small series to distinguish the
two species by dimensions alone.


                               EARBONES.

The tympanic and periotic bones of _B. bairdii_ (Pls. 34-37) present a
number of characters by which they may be distinguished from those of _B.
arnuxii_. While of about the same size in both species, the two bones
when in the natural position, viewed from without, are nearly square
rather than triangular in outline in _B. bairdii_, the superior border of
the periotic being nearly parallel with the inferior border of the
tympanic, and the anterior lobe of the periotic being turned down nearly
at right angles with the rest of the bone. The periotic is shorter
anteriorly than the tympanic in _B. bairdii_, while the reverse is true
in _B. arnuxii_. In the former species the eustachian canal of the
tympanic is wider, the distance between the outer and inner lips being
greater. The involuted portion of the inner lip is shorter and
differently shaped. The groove between the postero-inferior lobes is
wider. The periotic beside having a much shorter anterior lobe than in
_B. arnuxii_ has also a smaller and smoother middle lobe, and the
internal auditory meatus is smaller and more oblique. The dimensions of
the bones in the Centerville beach skull, No. 49725, are as follows:
_Tympanic_: greatest length, 62 mm.; greatest breadth, 46; least breadth
of eustachian canal, 17; height at sigmoid process, 47. _Periotic:_
greatest length, 66; greatest breadth, 40; height at center of middle
lobe, 35; length from tip of anterior lobe to anterior margin of internal
meatus, 38.


                                 TEETH.

Although all the specimens of _Berardius bairdii_ are more or less
incomplete, two or three of the mandibular teeth have been preserved in
nearly every instance; namely, in the adult female from St. George
Island, the left anterior and right and left posterior; in the immature
male from the same island, both anterior teeth; in the Centerville beach
specimen, the left anterior and right (?) posterior teeth; in the skull
from Bering Island formerly regarded as the type, all four teeth; in the
very young skull from Bering Island, the left anterior and posterior
teeth.

Taken as a whole, these teeth are not larger than those found in the
specimens of _B. arnuxii_ thus far recorded, but in both species they
vary so much on account of age, or for other reasons, that a comparison
of dimensions is unsatisfactory. The dimensions are as follows:

       _Dimensions of teeth of Berardius arnuxii and B. bairdii._

  Column headings:
    A: Greatest height.
    B: Greatest breadth.


 Species and locality.    Sex and  Length.   Large    Small   Remarks.
                           age.             tooth.   tooth.
                                             A    B   A   B
      _B. arnuxii._                ft. in.  mm.  mm. mm. mm.
 Akaroa (Van Beneden.      Male.    32   0 [a]90  90  66  40 From
   Type).                                                    figure.[b]
 New Brighton (Haast     Male(?).   30   6 [a]73  63  47  31 From
   and Flower).                                              figure.
 Port Nicholson (Knox       (?)     27   0 [a]65  50 (?) (?) From
   and Hector).                                              figure.
 Locality unknown (Van      (?)    (?)        72  53  51  30 From
   Beneden and Gervais,                                      figure.
   pl. 21 _bis_).
      _B. bairdii._
 49725—Centerville,      Male(?),   41  ± [a]83  65  53  28
   California.            adult.
 49726—St. George         Female,   40   5 [c]79  72  62  45
   Island.                adult.
 49727—St. George        Male, im.  25   0 [a]86  61 ... ...
   Island.
 142118—Bering Island     Young.   ... ... [a]50  37  31  31

  [a] Tip more or less acute.
  [b] Van Beneden’s measurements are slightly different.
  [c] Tip much worn.


A description of the teeth of the different specimens of _B. bairdii_ is
subjoined.

_No. 142118._—Bering Island; young (new born?). Anterior tooth conical,
hollow, with thin walls. The lower half of the tooth is filled with a
mass of bony pulp, which is separable. The tooth is widest at the base,
and is without any constriction indicating the formation of a root. Outer
and inner surfaces slightly convex, the latter with several distinct
longitudinal furrows, which extend to the apex. The whole tooth has a
thin coating of cement, except the tip, for a length of about 10 mm.,
which is more nearly white, and consists, presumably, of dentine. The
tooth is very symmetrical, but rather more convex externally. The apex is
pointed, erect, and a little more convex externally than internally. (Pl.
39, figs. 1, 2.)

The posterior tooth is similar to the anterior one, but much shorter and
more blunt, and the longitudinal furrows are about equally distinct
externally and internally. The cement extends nearly to the apex, which
latter is very short and is directed backward.

_No. 49727._—St. George Island, Alaska; male, immature. Anterior teeth
conical, acute, somewhat unsymmetrical, rather more convex externally
than internally. The internal surface with a deep median longitudinal
groove, and others less distinct on each side near the base. Apex
slightly inclined forward and inward, convex externally, with a single
longitudinal groove; nearly flat internally, with, or without, a groove.
Base of tooth for about 17 mm. covered with longitudinal rugosities,
indicating that the root was about to close. It is open, however, the
walls of the tooth at the narrowest point being 8 mm. apart and the
cavity filled with dense bony pulp. The anterior and posterior outlines
of the teeth are irregular, being convex near the base, then slightly
concave, and again convex near the apex. When in the natural position,
these teeth protrude about 33 mm., or a little more than one-third their
height, above the alveolus. (Pl. 39, figs. 3, 4.)

Posterior teeth lacking.

_No. 49725._—Centerville beach, California; male (?), adult. Anterior
tooth conical, with anterior and posterior margins as in the last. Apex
considerably abraded and rounded off; not inclined inward or forward.
Internal and external surfaces nearly equally convex, but the former with
a broad median longitudinal groove. Root closed, the base of the tooth
for a breadth of about 30 mm. covered with rounded rugosities. The
inferior border slightly convex and the angles rounded off. When in the
natural position, somewhat more than one-half of the tooth protrudes
beyond the alveolus, and the tooth itself is inclined forward and
outward. (Pl. 39, fig. 5.)

Posterior tooth quite irregular in form, but the portion above the rugose
base or root conical. Inner surface flat and uneven. Outer surface convex
and rather rugose. The cement covers the whole tooth thickly to within
about 5 mm. of the apex, which latter is short, quite acute, and slightly
directed inward. It is convex externally and nearly flat internally. The
basal rugosity or root is conical, thicker than the rest of the tooth,
and unsymmetrical, being somewhat directed backward. It shows no opening
below. When in the natural position this tooth is strongly inclined
forward and outward, and only the tip for a length of 22 mm. protrudes
beyond the alveolus. (Pl. 39, fig. 6.)

_No. 49726._—St. George Island, Alaska; female, adult. Anterior tooth
conical, with the tip blunt, having been so much abraded that the dentine
does not extend beyond the coating of cement. The tip measures 26 by 19
mm. The external and internal surfaces of the tooth are about equally
convex and somewhat rugose without distinct furrows. The root is thicker
than the remainder of the tooth and very rugose. It is entirely closed
below, and the inferior outline is convex. Posterior tooth much
compressed, conical above the root, nearly flat internally and slightly
convex externally. Cement coating very thick and extending to within
about 5 mm. of the dentine apex, which latter is acute and very slightly
curved inward and backward. The root is very unsymmetrical, the posterior
portion being much longer than the anterior. The surface is very rugose,
and there is no opening whatever below. The inferior border is convex,
with an emargination near the center. (Pl. 39, figs. 7, 8.)

In the adult skull from Bering Island, which has been mounted and placed
on exhibition, the teeth are fixed in the alveoli so that their entire
length and the peculiarities of the basal portion can not be determined.
In general form, however, they resemble those of the preceding specimen
very closely. The anterior teeth are placed obliquely—that is, so that
the anterior margins of the two teeth are nearer together than the
posterior margins. The teeth are also somewhat inclined forward. The
posterior teeth are strongly inclined forward and a little outward.

The anterior teeth are rather concave along the middle internally and
convex externally. The portion above the alveoli is quite smooth.

The posterior teeth are moderately rugose above the alveoli. The whitish
tips of denture are conical, compressed, and rather acute. They extend 6
mm. above the denture, and are 11 mm. long at their base, and 6 mm.
thick.

The anterior teeth protrude about 45 mm. above the alveolus (internally);
their base at the alveolus is from 73 to 76 mm. long, and from 33 to 35
mm. thick. The posterior teeth extend about 18 mm. above the alveoli
(measured vertically from the alveolus), and the base of the visible
portion (measured along the alveolus) is from 30 to 34 mm. long and from
18 to 20 mm. thick. These teeth have an antero-external angular
enlargement of the cement, so that they are somewhat triangular in
horizontal section. (Pl. 30, fig. 3; pl. 31, fig. 5.)

The data available are insufficient to enable one to determine
satisfactorily whether the teeth differ materially in size in the two
sexes, but it appears probable that they do not.


                               SKELETON.

While the skeleton of _Berardius bairdii_ (Pl. 42, fig. 4) resembles that
of _B. arnuxii_ very closely in most particulars, it presents differences
which may properly be regarded as specific. The vertebral formula of _B.
arnuxii_ as given by Flower is as follows: C. 7, Th. 10, L. 12, Ca. 19 =
48.[58] The same formula is given for another specimen of _B. arnuxii_ by
Van Beneden and Gervais, except that the caudals are 17, two being
apparently lacking.[59]

Doctor Hector, however, gives a different formula for a third specimen of
this species, namely, C. 7, Th. 10, L. 13, Ca. 17 = 47. He remarks that
“extreme care was taken to secure the whole of the small tail bones.”[60]
The discrepancy here shown can not be accounted for at present, but, at
all events, none of the formulas of _B. arnuxii_ corresponds to that of
_B. bairdii_, as derived from the three skeletons in the National Museum,
namely, C. 7, Th. 11, L. 12, Ca. 16+ = 46+.

The number of thoracic vertebræ can be determined positively from the
youngish male from St. George Island (Cat. No. 49727), in which ten pairs
of ribs are present, together with one rib belonging to the eleventh
pair. This last is much shorter than the tenth pair, and there can be no
doubt that it really belongs to a terminal pair. In this skeleton the
transverse processes of the eleventh thoracic vertebra are thick at the
free end like those of the tenth thoracic vertebra.

In the adult male from Centerville beach, California, only ten pairs of
ribs are present, but as the tenth is quite as long as the ninth, there
is little doubt that an eleventh pair was present originally. The
eleventh thoracic vertebra, however, has transverse processes longer and
more flattened at the free end than those of the tenth thoracic. It is
possible, of course, that the real eleventh thoracic is lacking, and that
this individual had thirteen lumbar vertebræ, but of this there is no
positive evidence.

Only a few of the ribs accompany the skeleton of the adult female from
St. George Island, Alaska (Cat. No. 49726), but there are eleven thoracic
vertebræ, the transverse processes of the eleventh being short and thick,
like those of the tenth, with a distinct facet for the rib at the free
end. This facet, however, is directed obliquely backward and occupies
only the posterior half of the free margin.

There is no doubt in my mind that the number of thoracic vertebræ in _B.
bairdii_ is normally 11 and in _B. arnuxii_, 10. This would ordinarily be
of little importance, as in nearly all kinds of cetaceans a variation of
one, or even two, in the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebræ in
different individuals of the same species is commonly met with. In the
present family, however, the number of thoracic vertebræ shows little
variation, and as all known skeletons of _B. bairdii_ have eleven
thoracics and all known skeletons of _arnuxii_ appear to have ten
thoracics, it seems probable that this difference is specific. At all
events, it is correlated with a difference in the form of the vertebræ
themselves. As is well known, the transverse processes of the thoracics
in this family undergo a sudden change of form and position near the end
of the series, the elevated processes on the anterior thoracics being
replaced on the posterior vertebræ by others at a lower level on the
sides of the centra. This change takes place differently and on different
vertebræ in the two species under consideration.


                               VERTEBRÆ.

In _B. arnuxii_ the eighth thoracic has no facet at the posterior end of
the centrum for the articulation of the head of a ninth rib and no
distinct transverse process, the tubercle of the rib articulating with a
facet on the side of the metapophysis. In _B. bairdii_ the eighth
thoracic is similar, but there is a distinct facet at the posterior end
of the centrum. (Pl. 32, fig. 1.)

In _B. arnuxii_ the ninth thoracic has a very distinct transverse process
on the side of the centrum, while in _B. bairdii_ the ninth thoracic has
a short, slender process attached to the side of the metapophysis and no
facet at the posterior end of the centrum. (Pl. 32, fig. 1.)

In _B. arnuxii_ the tenth thoracic is the second one having a distinct
transverse process, and the latter is broad distally and has the
articular facet on the posterior portion of the free margin. In _B.
bairdii_ the tenth thoracic is the first having a distinct transverse
process on the side of the centrum. (Pl. 32, fig. 1.)

There are only ten thoracics in _B. arnuxii_, as already mentioned, but
in _B. bairdii_ there are eleven, and the eleventh is that which bears
the second transverse process on the side of the centrum.

The foregoing differences amount to this: That in _B. bairdii_ the
commencement of the lower series of transverse processes is pushed back
one vertebra, as compared with _B. arnuxii_, and that in the ninth
thoracic of the former species, which corresponds to the eighth of the
latter species, the metapophysis has a short process on the side for the
articulation of the tubercle of the rib, instead of merely a sessile
facet. Although in other genera of ziphioids these differences would
perhaps be looked upon as individual, since they are constant here they
may be considered specific, at least provisionally.


                                SCAPULA.

In _B. bairdii_ the anterior border of the scapula is narrower than in
_B. arnuxii_, the anterior ridge coming close to it and lying parallel
with it. The acromion is directed more upward, so that the angle between
it and the body of the scapula is more acute, and the process itself is
rather more expanded distally. The coronoid is inclined a little more
downward. The whole surface of the scapula is very uneven. (Pl. 33, fig.
2.)


                           HUMERUS AND ULNA.

The humerus is shorter than in _B. arnuxii_ and broader distally, and
much more recurved on the ulnar side. The ulna is much broader distally
and its whole shape is different. (Pl. 33, figs. 3 and 4.)


                               CHEVRONS.

As the skeleton of the typical form _arnuxii_ has been described in
considerable detail and accurately figured by Flower and by Van Beneden
and Gervais, it is not considered necessary to give a complete
description of that of _bairdii_ in this place. The entire skeleton and
many of the separate bones are figured in Pls. 42, 32, and 33. The
phalanges are lacking altogether, or are incompletely represented, in the
various skeletons of _bairdii_, and for that reason the phalangeal
formula can not be given. The chevrons number ten in the skeleton from
Centerville beach, California (Cat. No. 49725). Both Flower and Van
Beneden and Gervais give nine chevrons as the number for the skeleton of
_arnuxii_ in the Hunterian Museum, London, but the latter authors have
added a tenth in outline in the figure of the skeleton of that species
which is in the Paris Museum. Ten are mentioned by Hector as the correct
number for the skeleton of _arnuxii_ from Wellington Harbor examined by
him.[61]


                                STERNUM.

The sternum of _bairdii_ (Pl. 32, fig. 2) consists of five segments and
does not offer characters by which to distinguish it from that of
_arnuxii_. In the former species the first eight pairs of ribs possess
distinct heads and tubercles; the tubercle is rudimentary in the ninth
pair and absent in the tenth and eleventh.

The dimensions of the three skeletons of _bairdii_ and of that of
_arnuxii_ described by Flower are as follows:

_Dimensions of one skeleton of Berardius arnuxii and three skeletons of
                              B. bairdii._

  Column Headings:
    _B. arnuxii._
      B: New Brighton, New Zealand, 1868, (Flower). No. 3.
    _B. bairdii._
      C: 49726 St. George Island, Alaska, female adult.
      D: 49725 Centerville, California, male(?) adult.
      E: 49727 St. George Island, Alaska, male young.


                                               B       C       D       E
                                             mm.     mm.     mm.     mm.
  Length of centra of seven cervicals        254     375     310     250
    (inferior)
  Atlas:
     Breadth                                 292     362     341     280
     Height                                  ...     339     321     270
  Fourth cervical:
     Greatest height                         ...  [a]254  [a]249  [a]191
     Greatest breadth                        ...  [b]243  [b]197  [b]173
     Length of centrum                        36      47      34      30
  Seventh cervical:
     Greatest height                         ...     310     270     198
     Greatest breadth                        241     257     235     177
     Length of centrum                        46      58      49      42
  First thoracic:
     Greatest height                         ...     391     390     255
     Greatest breadth                        ...     310     290     240
     Length of centrum                        58      84      68      51
  Ninth thoracic:
     Greatest height                         ...     508     478     333
     Greatest breadth                        ...     318  [c]218     198
     Length of centrum                       152     190     176     128
  First lumbar:
     Greatest height                         ...     585     540     359
     Greatest breadth                        ...     626     575     340
     Length of centrum                       163     228     215     150
  Sixth lumbar:
     Greatest height                         ...     713     642     427
     Greatest breadth                        ...     590     572     362
     Length of centrum                       206     273     243     172
  First caudal:
     Greatest height                         ...     800  [d]658     427
  Greatest breadth                           ...     577  [d]511     360
     Length of centrum                       246     338  [d]280     200
  Ninth caudal:
     Greatest height                         ...     422     335     288
     Greatest breadth                        ...     243     194     191
  Length of centrum                          168     241     194     160
  Eleventh caudal, length of centrum         104     180     156     142
  Length of scapula                          503     710     670     395
  Height of scapula                          356     490     445     280
  Length of humerus                          274     ...     340     248
  Breadth of humerus at distal end           109     ...     170     115
  Length of radius                           295     ...  [a]380     220
  Breadth of radius at distal end             84     ...     140      88
  Length of ulna (incl. olecranon)           323     ...     ...     241
  Breadth of ulna at distal end               79     ...     ...      71
  Length of sternum                        1,143   1,455   1,530     ...
  Breadth of first segment of sternum        325     375     495     ...
  Length of first rib (straight)             457     543     505     323
  Length of fifth rib (straight)             991     ...     ...     ...
  Length of tenth rib (straight)             737     ...     ...     ...

  [a] Median.
  [b] Inferior.
  [c] Process aborted on one side.
  [d] Second.



                       Genus HYPEROÖDON Lacépède.


                    HYPEROÖDON AMPULLATUS (Forster).

    _Balæna ampullatus_ Forster, Kalm’s Linnean Travels, vol. 1, 1770, p.
          18, footnote.
    _Balæna rostrata_ Müller, Zool. Dan. Prodrom., 1776, p. 7.
    _Hyperoödon butskopf_ Lacépède, Hist. Nat. des Cétacés, 1803-4, pp.
          XLIV and 319.
    _Hyperoödon rostratum_ Wesmael, Nouv. Mém. Acad. Roy. Bruxelles, vol.
          12, 1840, pls. 1, 2.
    _Hyperoödon ampullatus_ Rhoads, Science, new ser., vol. 15, 1902, p.
          756.


The National Museum has one skeleton of this well-known species, somewhat
imperfect, which is labeled as having been obtained on the coast of
Norway, and was received about the year 1875. Its catalogue number is
14499. This skeleton is about 19 feet long and has the following
vertebral formula: C. 7; Th. 9; L. 9; Ca. 19 (+1?) = 44 (or 45). Eight
chevrons are attached to the caudal vertebræ, and at least two more were
present originally. The fifth thoracic vertebra has no facet on the
centrum for the head of the sixth rib, but the latter articulates with a
small facet on the side of the centrum of the sixth thoracic vertebra.
The seventh thoracic has a well-developed transverse process on the side
of the centrum. The ninth rib is shorter and more slender than the
others. None of the transverse processes of the caudal vertebræ are
perforated by foramina. These processes end on the eighth caudal, and the
neural spines on the tenth caudal. The free ends of the neural spines of
the thoracic and lumbar vertebræ are all more or less rounded. The
pectoral limbs are incomplete.

So far as I am aware, only three examples of _Hyperoödon_ have been taken
on the coasts of the United States, as mentioned in the list on page 2.
The skeleton of one of these (from North Dennis, Massachusetts) is in the
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and the skull of
the second (from Newport, Rhode Island), which was a female, is in the
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.[62] This skull is
represented in Pl. 32, fig. 3.



              LIST OF SPECIES OF EXISTING ZIPHIOID WHALES.


                       Genus MESOPLODON Gervais.
  MESOPLODON BIDENS (Sowerby).
    North Atlantic Ocean; northern France to Norway and Sweden; Nantucket
          Island, Massachusetts.
  MESOPLODON EUROPÆUS (Gervais).
    North Atlantic Ocean; English Channel; New Jersey.
  MESOPLODON GRAYI Haast.
    New Zealand and Chatham Islands; Bahia Nueva, Patagonia (Moreno).
  MESOPLODON DENSIROSTRIS (Blainville).
    Indian Ocean and South Seas; Lord Howe Island; Seychelles Islands;
          South Africa; Massachusetts(?).
  MESOPLODON HECTORI (Gray).
    New Zealand.
  MESOPLODON BOWDOINI Andrews.
    New Zealand.
  MESOPLODON LAYARDI (Gray).
    South Seas; New Zealand, Chatham Islands; Australia; Cape of Good Hope.
  MESOPLODON STEJNEGERI True.
    North Pacific Ocean; Bering Island and Oregon.


                         Genus ZIPHIUS Cuvier.
  ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS Cuvier.
    Cosmopolitan.


                       Genus BERARDIUS Duvernoy.
  BERARDIUS ARNUXII Duvernoy.
    New Zealand.
  BERARDIUS BAIRDII Stejneger.
    North Pacific Ocean; Bering Island and St. George Island, Bering Sea,
          to Kiska Harbor, Alaska, and Centerville, California.


                       Genus HYPEROÖDON Lacépède.
  HYPEROÖDON AMPULLATUS Forster.
    Arctic and North Atlantic oceans; Mediterranean Sea; southern France;
          New York Bay, Newport, Rhode Island, and Cape Cod,
          Massachusetts.
  HYPEROÖDON PLANIFRONS Flower.
    Indian and Pacific oceans; Lewis Island, Australia; Province of
          Buenos Ayres, Argentina, and territories of Chubut and Santa
          Cruz, Patagonia.



                               FOOTNOTES


[1]As this species is well known, the skeleton is not described in this
    paper.

[2]Amer. Nat., vol. 40, 1906, p. 366.

[3]Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, 1866-68, p. 318.

[4]Idem, vol. 29, 1899, p. 9.

[5]Amer. Nat., vol. 40, 1906, p. 357.

[6]Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11, 1866-68, p. 318.

[7]One of the teeth of Sowerby’s specimen is figured by Lankester in
    Trans. Roy. Micr. Soc., new ser., vol. 15, 1867, pl. 5, figs. 1, 2.

[8]Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoöl., vol. 1, 1869, p. 205.

[9]Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 26, 1872, p. 771.

[10]Zoologist, ser. 3, vol. 17, Feb., 1893, p. 42; Ann. and Mag. Nat.
    Hist., ser. 6, vol. 11, 1893, p. 275.

[11]Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 7, 1804, p. 310.

[12]Bergens Mus. Aarb., 1904, no. 3.

[13]The external margin is broken at this point.

[14]Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, vol. 11, 1893, p. 277.

[15]Bergens Mus. Aarb., 1904, No. 3, pp. 27, 28.

[16]Trans. Zoöl. Soc. London, vol. 10, 1878, p. 418.

[17]Second ed., plate 40, fig. 4.

[18]Plate 25, fig. 2.

[19]Amer. Nat., vol. 40, 1896, pp. 363-370, fig. 3 (tooth, nat. size);
    fig. 4 (sternum).

[20]Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, vol. 10, 1866, p. 177.

[21]Bull. Acad. Roy. Belgique, vol. 41, 1888, p. 117.

[22]Amer. Nat., vol. 40, 1906, p. 359.

[23]Ostéographie, plate 24.

[24]Bergens Mus. Aarb., 1904, No. 3, p. 32, fig. 12.

[25]Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 10, 1888-89, p. 13.

[26]Amer. Nat., vol. 40, 1906, p. 357.

[27]Journ. Anat. Phys., vol. 20, pl. 4, figs. 2 and 3, Oct. 1885.

[28]Idem, pl. 4, fig. 1.

[29]Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, ser. 6, vol. 1, pp. 216-225, pls. 1, 2
    (skull); two text-figs. (tooth).

[30]“The slight differences pointed out by Mr. True appear to be
    individual or local rather than specific.” (Van Beneden, Les
    Ziphioïdes des mers d’Europe, 1888, p. 100.) See also James A. Grieg,
    Bergens Museums Aarbog, 1897, No. 5, p. 19.

[31]Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 8, 1885, p. 585.

[32]Trans. Roy. Micr. Soc., vol. 15, 1867, pl. 5, figs. 1, 2.

[33]Bergens Mus. Aarb., 1904, No. 3, p. 26, fig. 10.

[34]Sci. Results of the Voy. of the _Challenger_, Zool., vol. 1, pt. 4,
    Bones of Cetacea, 1880, p. 13.

[35]See the following:

      Turner, W.—Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 26, 1872, p. 769.
      Flower, W. H.—Proc. Zoöl. Soc. London, 1876, p. 477.
      Fischer, P.—Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. 35, 1881, p. 113.
      Van Beneden, P. J.—Les Ziphioïdes des Mers d’Europe, 1888, p. 82.

[36]An immature male might, of course, present the characters of the
    female, but in the former case the teeth would be open at the roots
    and but slightly, if at all, coated with cement.

[37]As to reasons for assigning sexes thus, see p. 55.

[38]Cope’s original description of this species was as follows:

    “Hyperodon semijunctus, sp. nov. The question whether a Hyperodon
    visits this side of the Atlantic, has at length been solved by the
    description which I have received through Dr. Alexander Wilcocks of
    this city, of a species taken in Charleston Harbor. This is well
    drawn up by Gabriel Manigault, who set up the specimen, which adorns
    the Charleston Museum. The points wherein it evidently differs from
    its congeners, the _H. bidens_ and _latifrons_, are, first, the
    separation of the four posterior cervical vertebræ, the three
    anterior only being solidly anchylosed, instead of the seven, as in
    the known species, even in the young, according to Dr. J. E. Gray.
    Second, the possession of one or more pairs of ribs added to the
    flying series, and of two more vertebræ, including ten dorsal instead
    of nine. (Nine are given by Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, viii, 188; and
    Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 419, for the _bidens_.) Five
    ribs are connected with the sternum, of which the anterior
    articulates with the seventh cervical by its inferior head.

    “I extract the following from Gabr. Manigault’s description:

    “‘The superior maxillary bones are quite pointed in front and widen
    out toward the base of the snout. Their lateral edges become
    developed on each side into a prominent vertical ridge, which is
    slightly convex on the outer surface, and the reverse on the inner.
    These bones, after having widened out upon approaching the orbits,
    ascend vertically along with the occipital (the two together holding
    the frontal, which is quite perceptible, between them) and form at
    the back of the head a transverse ridge, which is quite high and very
    thick. From my not knowing by what name it was known, I did not
    satisfy myself concerning the presence of palatine tubercles. Another
    peculiarity of the head consists in the lower maxillary bones being
    provided each at its point with a single small and very sharp tooth.
    These were not noticed during the dissection, owing to their being
    too much imbedded in the integuments; they are now, however, quite
    visible. In the cavity of the skull is a septum of bone separating
    the cerebrum from the cerebellum (_i. e._, the tentorium). The first
    rib is very wide and short, and presents a marked contrast to the
    others. The sternum is quite flat and wide. The pectoral fins are
    small, and have been carefully preserved, with the various carpal and
    phalangeal bones kept together by their natural ligaments. As the
    skeleton stands, the fins consist only of the scapula, the humerus,
    the radius, and the ulna, with but few phalanges.

    “‘The length of this specimen is between twelve and thirteen feet.’”
    (_Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila._, 1865, p. 15.)

[39]The Buenos Ayres specimen is not included here, as I am uncertain as
    to its proper interpretation.

[40]Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 5, 1873, p. 164, pls. 4-5.

[41]Hector also figures a tooth from a specimen found at Manawatu beach
    in pl. 5, fig. 3, which is like those of the Chatham Island specimen
    in size and shape (diameter 34 mm.), and should belong to a male, but
    as he does not figure or describe the skull this can not be used in
    the present discussion.

[42]Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 9, 1876, p. 430, pl. 24, figs. A and
    C; pl. 26, fig. 4.

[43]Idem, p. 440, pl. 24, fig. B; pl. 26, fig. 3.

[44]Zool. et Paléontol. franç., 2d ed., 1859, p. 287, pl. 39, figs. 2-7.

[45]Anal. Mus. Pub. Buenos Aires, vol. 1, 1868, pp. 301-366, pls. 15-20.

[46]Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 15.

[47]Forest and Stream, vol. 65, 1905, p. 452.

[48]Trans. Zoöl. Soc. London, vol. 8, 1871, pp. 203-234, pls. 27-29.

[49]See Bull. Amer. Geogr. Soc, 1886, No. 4, p. 328.

[50]There is, or was formerly, in the museum of the Alaska Commercial
    Company in San Francisco a skull of _Berardius_ 3 feet 6 inches long.
    The locality in which it was obtained is unknown to me.

[51]Science, new ser., vol. 20, 1904, p. 888.

[52]At the time this was written it was not known that there were really
    four teeth in the lower jaw, but it is interesting to note that when
    the mandible was covered by the integuments none of the teeth was
    visible in the male, although the individual was 25 feet long, and
    that only two teeth were visible in the adult female.

[53]Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 6, pp. 75-77, June 22, 1883.

[54]Duvernoy, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 3, Zoöl., vol. 15, 1851, p. 52,
    footnote.

[55]Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. 6, October, 1870, p. 348.

[56]Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 10, 1878, p. 338.

[57]Ostéographie des Cétacés, pl. 23^bis.

[58]Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 8, 1872, p. 223.

[59]Ostéographie des Cétacés, p. 615, pl. 23^_bis_.

[60]Trans. New Zealand Inst., vol. 10, 1878, p. 339.

[61]Trans. N. Z. Inst., vol. 10, 1878, p. 339. Hector remarks that in the
    skeleton studied by Flower there were twelve caudals with facets for
    chevrons, but I do not find it so stated in the original account.

[62]Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Dec. 1869, pp. 191, 192.



                                 INDEX.


                                   A
  Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 76
  Agassiz, L., 3
      description of _Mesoplodon bidens_ by, 4
  Alaska, _Ziphius_ from, 1
  Allen, Dr. G. M., 3
  American Museum of Natural History, 2, 3
  _ampullatus_ (_Balæna_), 76
      (_Hyperoödon_), 76
  _arnuxii_ (_Berardius_), 68

                                    B
  _bairdii_ (_Berardius_), 60
  _Balæna ampullatus_, 76
      _rostrata_, 76
  _Berardius_, 60, 77
      from California, 1
      from Pribilof Islands, 1
      specimens of, in National Museum, 1
  _Berardius arnuxii_, chevron bones of, 74
      coloration of, 66
      distribution of, 77
      external dimensions of, 67
      size of, 66
      skeleton, dimensions of, 75
      skull, dimensions of, 68
      teeth, dimensions of, 70
      vertebræ of, 73, 74
      vertebral formula of, 72
  _Berardius bairdii_, 2, 60
      chevron bones of, 74
      coloration of, 66
      description of a young, from Bering Id., 64
      distribution of, 77
      earbones of, 69, 83
      external dimensions of, 64, 67
      from Bering Island, 1, 60
      from Centerville Beach, Cal., history of, 2, 63
      from St. George Island, Alaska, 2
          external dimensions of specimens, 62
          history of, 61, 62
      from Trinidad, Cal., 2
      humerus of, 74
      original description of, 65
      scapula of, 74
      size of, 66
      skeleton of, 72
      skeleton, dimensions of, 75
      skull of, 68
      skull, dimensions of, 68
      sternum of, 74
      teeth of, 70
      teeth, description of, 70
      teeth, dimensions of, 70
      ulna of, 74
      vertebral formula of, 72
  _Berardius vegæ_, 60
  Bering Island, _Mesoplodon stejnegeri_ from, 24
      Ziphiidæ from, 1
  _bidens_ (_Mesoplodon_), 4, 76
      (_Physeter_), 4
  Boston Society of Natural History, 3
  _bowdoini_ (_Mesoplodon_), 3, 77
  Brasil, L., account of type-skull of _Mesoplodon europæus_ by, 24
  _butskopf_ (_Hyperoödon_), 76

                                    C
  California, _Berardius_ from, 1
  _cavirostris_ (_Ziphius_), 30, 77
  Clark, Maj. Ezra W., 61
  Cope, E. D., 35
  Crawford, J. G., 3, 25
      account of _Mesoplodon stejnegeri_ by, 24

                                    D
  _Delphinorhynchus_, 4
  _Delphinus densirostris_, 9
      _sowerbensis_, 4
      _sowerbyi_, 4
  _densirostris_ (_Delphinus_), 9
      (_Mesoplodon_), 9, 76
  _Dioplodon europæus_, 11
      _gervaisi_, 11

                                    E
  East coast of United States, Ziphiidæ from, 2
  Egbert, Dr. J. H., 59
  _europæus_ (_Dioplodon_), 11
      (_Mesoplodon_), 11, 76

                                    G
  _gervaisi_ (_Dioplodon_), 11
  _gervaisii_ (_Hyperoödon_), 30
      (_Ziphius_), 30, 54
  _grayi_ (_Mesoplodon_), 3, 76
  Grebnitzki, Nicholas, 1, 31, 60
  _grebnitzkii_ (_Ziphius_), 30

                                    H
  _hectori_ (_Mesoplodon_), 77
  Hyatt, A., 3
  _Hyperoödon_, 76, 77
  _Hyperoödon ampullatus_, 2, 76
      distribution of, 77
      from Newport, R.I., 2
      from New York bay, 2
      from North Dennis, Mass., 2
      skeleton of, in National Museum, 76
      specimens of, from coasts of United States, 76
      vertebral formula of, 76
  _Hyperoödon butskopf_, 76
  _Hyperoödon gervaisii_, 30
  _Hyperoödon planifrons_, distribution of, 77
  _Hyperoödon rostratum_, 76
  _Hyperoödon semijunctus_, 30
      original description of, 35
      type-skeleton of, 31

                                    J
  Jordan, Dr. D. S., 24, 63
  Judge, James, 61

                                    K
  Kigan agalusoch, 66

                                    L
  _layardi_ (_Mesoplodon_), 3, 77

                                    M
  Manigault, G. E., 35
  Mearns, Dr. E. A., 32
      L. di Z., 32
  _Mesoplodon_, 3
  _Mesoplodon bidens_, 2, 3, 4, 11
      distribution of, 76
      external dimensions of, 23
      from Nantucket, Mass., 2, 3, 4
      mandible of, 6
      phalangeal formula of, 18
      skull of, 4
      skull, dimensions of, 8, 15
      teeth of, 6
      vertebral formula of, 15
  _Mesoplodon bowdoini_, 3
      distribution of, 77
  _Mesoplodon densirostris_, 2, 9, 28
      description of exterior of, 10
      distribution of, 76
      earbones of, 83
      external dimensions of, 23
      from Annisquam, Mass., 2, 3, 4
      skull, dimensions of, 8
  _Mesoplodon europæus_, 2, 11
      color of, 22
      distribution of, 76
      external characters of, 21
      external dimensions of, 20, 23
      first record of, 11
      from Atlantic City, N. J., 2, 3, 11
          history of, 20
      from North Long Branch, N. J., 2, 3, 11
      lungs of, 22
      mandible of, 14
      pectoral limb of, 18
      phalangeal formula of, 18
      ribs of, 17
      scapula of, 18
      skeleton, dimensions of, 18
      skull of, 13
      specific characters of, 12
      sternum of, 18
      stomach of, 22
      teeth of, 15
      tongue of, 22
      type-skull of, description of, by L. Brasil, 24
      Van Beneden’s opinion regarding, 12
      vertebræ of, 15, 16
      vertebral formula of, 15
  _Mesoplodon grayi_, 3
      distribution of, 76
  _Mesoplodon hectori_, distribution of, 77
  _Mesoplodon layardi_, 3
      distribution of, 77
      teeth of, 28
  _Mesoplodon stejnegeri_, 2, 24
      distribution of, 77
      earbones of, 83
      external characters of, 29
      from Bering Island, 1, 3
      from Oregon, 1, 2, 3
      mandible of, 28
      skull of, 25
      skull, dimensions of, 29
      teeth of, 28
      teeth, dimensions of, 29
  Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, 2, 3, 76

                                    O
  Oregon, _Mesoplodon stejnegeri_ from, 1, 3

                                    P
  _Physeter bidens_, 4
  _planifrons_ (_Hyperoödon_), 77
  Pla-un, 66
  Pribilof Islands, _Berardius_ from, 1

                                    R
  Ring, J. H., 63
  _rostrata_ (_Balæna_), 76
  _rostratum_ (_Hyperoödon_), 76

                                    S
  St. George Island, Alaska, _Berardius_ from, 1
  Scollick, J. W., 32
  _semijunctus_ (_Hyperoödon_), 30
      (_Ziphius_), 30
  _seychellensis_ (_Ziphius_), 9
  Soderman, Captain, 32
  _sowerbensis_ (_Delphinus_), 4
  _sowerbyi_ (_Delphinus_), 4
  Stejneger, Leonhard, 1, 3, 24, 31, 60, 64, 65
  _stejnegeri_ (_Mesoplodon_), 24, 77

                                    W
  Wellander, Capt. Otto, 25
  West coast of United States, Ziphiidæ from, 2

                                    Y
  Yaquina Bay, Oregon, _Mesoplodon stejnegeri_ from, 24

                                    Z
  Ziphiidæ from east coast of United States, 2
      from west coast of United States, 2
      list of existing species of, 76
      specimens of, available for study, 1
          in National Museum, 1
  _Ziphius_, 30, 77
      fossil, 4
      species of, 30
  _Ziphius cavirostris_, 2, 30
      Argentine specimen of, 36
      caudal vertebræ of, 42
      cervical vertebræ of, 38
      chevron bones of, 44
      color of, 33, 34
      comparison of skeletons of, 36
      dimensions of, 32
      distribution of, 77
      earbones of, 83
      external characters of, 59
      external dimension of, 32, 33, 34
      from Argentina, 55, 57
      from Barnegat City, N. J., 2, 31
      from Barnegat City, N. J., history of, 33
      from Bering Island, 1, 31
      from Charleston, S. C., 2, 31
      from Kiska harbor, Alaska, 1, 2, 31
      from Newport, R. I., 2, 31, 32
      from St. Simon Island, Ga., 2, 31
      lumbar vertebræ of, 41
      pectoral limb of, 46
      phalangeal formula of, 46, 49
      scapula of, 45
      sex characters of, 54
      skeleton, dimensions of, 47
      skeleton of, from Bering Island, 58
      skull, age variations in, 50
          dimensions of, 53
      sternum of, 45
      teeth, description of, 55
          dimensions of, 55
      thoracic vertebræ of, 40
      skeleton, variations in, 49
      vertebræ of, 37
      vertebral column of, 36
      vertebral formula of, 36
  _Ziphius gervaisii_, 30, 54
  _Ziphius grebnitzkii_, 30
      external characters of, 59
      from Bering Island, 31
      skull, dimensions of, 53
      skeleton of, from Bering Island, 58
  _Ziphius semijunctus_, 30, 35
      from Charleston, S. C., 2
      type-skull, dimensions of, 53
  _Ziphius seychellensis_, 9



                          EXPLANATION OF PLATES.


              [Illustration: Plate 1 SKULLS OF MESOPLODON]

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon bidens._ Skull. Nantucket, Mass. Mus. Comp. Zoölogy,
No. 1727. Female, adult. Dorsal aspect. About ¼ nat. size.

Extremity of beak defective.

2. _Mesoplodon densirostris_? Skull. Annisquam, Mass. Female, young.
Boston Society of Natural History. Dorsal aspect. ¼ nat. size.

Defective on the left side.


         [Illustration: Plate 2 SKULLS AND TOOTH OF MESOPLODON]

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon europæus._ Skull. Atlantic City, New Jersey. Male,
young. Cat. No. 23346, U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. ¼ nat. size.

2. _Mesoplodon europæus._ Skull. North Long Branch, New Jersey. Female,
adult. Mus. Comp. Zoölogy. Dorsal aspect. ¼ nat. size.

Distal portion of beak lacking and right frontal region defective.

3. _Mesoplodon bidens._ Tooth. Nantucket, Mass. Mus. Comp. Zoöl., No.
1727. Nat. size.


        [Illustration: Plate 3 SKULLS OF MESOPLODON STEJNEGERI]

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Type-skull. Bering Island. Immature.
Cat. No. 21112, U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. ¼ nat. size.

Edges abraded; distal end of beak defective.

2. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Skull. Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Adult. Cat. No.
143132, U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. ¼ nat. size.

Proximal end of premaxillæ defective and right nasal lacking.


              [Illustration: Plate 4 SKULLS OF MESOPLODON]

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon bidens._ Skull. Nantucket, Mass. Female, adult. Mus.
Comp. Zoöl. No. 1727. Ventral aspect. About ¼ nat. size. Tip of beak,
left pterygoid, and malars defective.

2. _Mesoplodon densirostris_? Skull. Annisquam, Mass. Female, young.
Boston Society of Natural History. Ventral aspect. ¼ nat. size.

Left frontal region defective.


         [Illustration: Plate 5 SKULLS OF MESOPLODON EUROPÆUS]

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon europæus._ Skull. Atlantic City, New Jersey. Male,
young. Cat. No. 23346, U.S.N.M. Ventral aspect. ¼ nat. size.

2. _Mesoplodon europæus._ Skull. North Long Branch, New Jersey. Female,
adult. Mus. Comp. Zoölogy. Ventral aspect. ¼ nat. size.

Distal portion of beak lacking, pterygoids, malars, and left frontal and
temporal regions defective.


        [Illustration: Plate 6 SKULLS OF MESOPLODON STEJNEGERI]

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Type-skull. Immature. Cat. No. 21112,
U.S.N.M. Ventral aspect. ¼ nat. size.

Edges abraded; tip of beak, pterygoids, zygomatic processes, etc.,
defective.

2. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Skull. Adult. Cat. No. 143132, U.S.N.M.
Ventral aspect. About ¼ nat. size.

Pterygoids and left malar defective.


              [Illustration: Plate 7 SKULLS OF MESOPLODON]

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon bidens._ Skull. Nantucket, Massachusetts. Female,
adult. Mus. Comp. Zoöl. No. 1727. Lateral aspect. ¼ nat. size.

Tip of beak, left pterygoid and malar defective.

2. _Mesoplodon densirostris_? Skull. Annisquam, Massachusetts. Female,
young. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. Lateral aspect. ¼ nat. size.

Distal portion of beak defective and warped.


         [Illustration: Plate 8 SKULLS OF MESOPLODON EUROPÆUS]

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon europæus._ Skull. Atlantic City, New Jersey. Male,
young. Cat. No. 23346, U.S.N.M. Lateral aspect. About ¼ nat. size.

2. _Mesoplodon europæus._ Skull. North Long Branch, New Jersey. Female,
adult. Mus. Comp. Zoöl. Lateral aspect. About ¼ nat. size.

Distal portion of beak lacking.


        [Illustration: Plate 9 SKULLS OF MESOPLODON STEJNEGERI]

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Type-skull. Bering Island. Immature.
Cat. No. 21112, U.S.N.M. Lateral aspect. About ¼ nat. size.

Premaxillæ, maxillæ, frontals, zygomatic process, etc., defective. On
account of these defects and the immaturity of the individual the forward
inclination of the supraoccipital is much greater than in the skull shown
in fig. 2.

2. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Skull. Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Adult. Cat. No.
143132, U.S.N.M. Lateral aspect. ¼ nat. size.

Proximal end of premaxillæ defective.


             [Illustration: Plate 10 SKULLS OF MESOPLODON]

                        Skulls of _Mesoplodon_.

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon bidens._ Nantucket, Massachusetts.

2. _Mesoplodon densirostris_? Annisquam, Massachusetts.

3. _Mesoplodon europæus._ Atlantic City, New Jersey.

4. _Mesoplodon europæus._ North Long Branch, New Jersey.

5. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Type-skull. Bering Island.

6. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Yaquina Bay, Oregon.

Posterior aspect. All figures ¼ nat. size.


            [Illustration: Plate 11 MANDIBLES OF MESOPLODON]

                       Mandibles of _Mesoplodon_.

Figs. 1, 2, and 5. _Mesoplodon bidens._ Nantucket, Massachusetts.

3 and 6. _Mesoplodon europæus._ Atlantic City, New Jersey.

4. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Yaquina Bay, Oregon.

All figures ⅕ nat. size.


  [Illustration: Plate 12 MANDIBLE AND TEETH OF MESOPLODON STEJNEGERI]

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Mandible and tooth.
¼ nat. size.

2. The same. Left mandibular tooth. Outer surface.

3. The same. Right mandibular tooth. Inner surface.

All figures a little more than ⅗ nat. size.


   [Illustration: Plate 13 SKELETON AND LUNGS OF MESOPLODON EUROPÆUS]

   _Mesoplodon europæus._ Atlantic City, New Jersey. Cat. No. 23346,
                                U.S.N.M.

Fig. 1. Vertebræ, from right to left as follows: 7th thoracic, 8th
thoracic, 1st lumbar, 1st caudal. Scale, 1/3.7 nat. size.

2. Sternum. Anterior aspect.

3. Left scapula. External surface. Scale 1/3.6 nat. size.

4. Right pectoral limb. External surface. Scale 1/3.7 nat. size.

5. Lungs. Dorsal aspect. About 1/8 nat. size.


         [Illustration: Plate 14 SKULLS OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS]

                         _Ziphius cavirostris._

Fig. 1. Skull. (Type of _Ziphius semijunctus_ (Cope).) Charleston, South
Carolina. Female, young. Cat. No. 21975, U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. ⅙ nat.
size.

Tip of beak slightly defective.

2. Skull. Barnegat City, New Jersey. Female, adult. Cat. No. 20971,
U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. ⅙ nat. size.


         [Illustration: Plate 15 SKULLS OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS]

                         _Ziphius cavirostris._

Fig. 1. Skull. Bering Island. (Topotype of _Ziphius grebnitzkii_.) Female
(?), adult, Cat. No. 22069, U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. ⅙ nat. size.

2. Skull. Bering Island. (Topotype of _Ziphius grebnitzkii_.) Dorsal
aspect. Cat. No. 21246. ⅙ nat. size.


         [Illustration: Plate 16 SKULLS OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS]

                         _Ziphius cavirostris._

Fig. 1. Skull. (Type of _Ziphius grebnitzkii_ Stejneger.) Bering Island.
Male (?). Cat. No. 20993, U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. ⅙ nat. size.

2. Skull. (Topotype of _Ziphius grebnitzkii_.) Bering Island. Adult. Cat.
No. 21245, U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. ⅙ nat. size.


         [Illustration: Plate 17 SKULLS OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS]

                         _Ziphius cavirostris._

Fig. 1. Skull. (Topotype of _Ziphius grebnitzkii_.) Bering Island. Male
(?), adult. Cat. No. 21248, U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. ⅙ nat. size.

2. Skull. Newport, Rhode Island. Male, adult. Cat. No. 49599, U.S.N.M.
Dorsal aspect. ⅙ nat. size.


         [Illustration: Plate 18 SKULLS OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS]

                         _Ziphius cavirostris._

Fig. 1. Skull. (Type of _Ziphius semijunctus_ (Cope).) Charleston, South
Carolina. Ventral aspect. ⅙ nat. size.

2. Skull. Barnegat City, New Jersey. Ventral aspect. ⅙ nat. size.


         [Illustration: Plate 19 SKULLS OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS]

                         _Ziphius cavirostris._

Fig. 1. Skull. (Type of _Ziphius grebnitzkii_.) Bering Island. Cat. No.
20993, U.S.N.M. Ventral aspect. ⅙ nat. size.

2. Skull. Newport, Rhode Island. Ventral aspect. ⅙ nat. size.


         [Illustration: Plate 20 SKULLS OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS]

                         _Ziphius cavirostris._

Fig. 1. Skull. (Type of _Ziphius semijunctus_ (Cope).) Charleston, South
Carolina. Cat. No. 21975, U.S.N.M. Lateral aspect. ⅙ nat. size.

2. Skull. Barnegat City, New Jersey. Lateral aspect. ⅙ nat. size.

3. Skull. (Type of _Ziphius grebnitzkii_ Stejneger.) Bering Island. Cat.
No. 20993, U.S.N.M. Lateral aspect. ⅙ nat. size.


         [Illustration: Plate 21 SKULLS OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS]

                         _Ziphius cavirostris._

Fig. 1. Skull. Newport, Rhode Island. Lateral aspect. 1/7 nat. size.

2. Skull. (Type of _Ziphius semijunctus_ (Cope).) Charleston, South
Carolina. Posterior aspect. 1/7 nat. size.

3. Skull. Barnegat City, New Jersey. Posterior aspect. 1/7 nat. size.

4. Skull. (Topotype of _Ziphius grebnitzkii_ Stejneger.) Posterior
aspect. 1/7 nat. size.

5. Skull. Newport, Rhode Island. Posterior aspect. 1/7 nat. size.


       [Illustration: Plate 22 MANDIBLES OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS]

                  Mandibles of _Ziphius cavirostris_.

Fig. 1. Charleston, South Carolina. (Type of _Z. semijunctus_ (Cope).)

2. Newport, Rhode Island.

3. Bering Island. Cat. No. 22069, U.S.N.M.

4. Bering Island. Cat. No. 21248, U.S.N.M.

All figures about ⅕ nat. size.


       [Illustration: Plate 23 MANDIBLES OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS]

                  Mandibles of _Ziphius cavirostris_.

Fig. 1. Bering Island. (Type of _Ziphius grebnitzkii_ Stejneger.) Cat.
No. 20993, U.S.N.M. About ⅕ nat. size.

2. Newport, Rhode Island. Symphysis. Dorsal aspect.

3. The same. Ventral aspect.


 [Illustration: Plate 24 MANDIBLES AND VERTEBRÆ OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS]

            Mandibles and vertebræ of _Ziphius cavirostris_.

Fig. 1. (Type of _Z. semijunctus_ (Cope).) Charleston, South Carolina.
Cat. No. 21975, U.S.N.M. ⅕ nat. size.

2. (Type of _Z. grebnitzkii_ Stejneger.) Bering Island. Cat. No. 20993,
U.S.N.M. About ⅕ nat. size.

3. Barnegat, New Jersey. About ⅕ nat. size.

4. Vertebræ. (Type of _Z. semijunctus_ (Cope).) From right to left, as
follows: 1-3 cervicals, 1st thoracic, 7th thoracic, 8th thoracic, 1st
lumbar, 1st caudal. About ¼ nat. size.


        [Illustration: Plate 25 SKELETON OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS]

        _Ziphius cavirostris_ (Type of _Z. semijunctus_ (Cope).)

Fig. 1. Atlas. Anterior surface. Defective on left side.

2. Sternum. Ventral aspect.

3. Right pectoral limb. Scapula somewhat defective.

About ࡩ nat. size.


          [Illustration: Plate 26 SKULLS OF BERARDIUS BAIRDII]

                          _Berardius bairdii._

Fig. 1. Type-skull. Bering Island. Immature. Cat. No. 20992, U.S.N.M.
Dorsal aspect. About 1/10 nat. size.

Frontals and zygomatic processes somewhat defective.

2. Skull. St. George Island, Pribilof Group, Alaska. Female, adult. Cat.
No. 49726, U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect. About 1/10 nat. size.

3. Skull. Centerville, California. Male (?), adult. Cat. No. 49725,
U.S.N.M. Dorsal aspect.

All figs. about 1/10 nat. size.


          [Illustration: Plate 27 SKULLS OF BERARDIUS BAIRDII]

                          _Berardius bairdii._

Fig. 1. Type-skull. Bering Island. Immature. Cat. No. 20992, U.S.N.M.
Ventral aspect.

2. St. George Island, Alaska. Female, adult. Cat. No. 49726, U.S.N.M.
Ventral aspect.

3. Centerville, California. Male (?), adult. Cat. No. 49725, U.S.N.M.
Ventral aspect.

All figs. about 1/10 nat. size.


          [Illustration: Plate 28 SKULLS OF BERARDIUS BAIRDII]

                          _Berardius bairdii._

Fig. 1. Skull. St. George Island, Alaska. Female, adult. Cat. No. 49726,
U.S.N.M. Lateral aspect.

2. Skull. Centerville, California. Male (?), adult. Cat. No. 49725,
U.S.N.M. Lateral aspect.

3. The same skull. Posterior aspect.

4. Type-skull. Bering Island. Cat. No. 20992, U.S.N.M. Posterior aspect.

All figs. about 1/10 nat. size.


          [Illustration: Plate 29 SKULLS OF BERARDIUS BAIRDII]

                          _Berardius bairdii._

Figs. 1-4. Bering Island. Young. Cat. No. 142118, U.S.N.M.

5. Skull. St. George Island, Alaska. Male, immature. Cat. No. 29727,
U.S.N.M. Posterior aspect. 1/10 nat. size.


        [Illustration: Plate 30 MANDIBLES OF BERARDIUS BAIRDII]

                   Mandibles of _Berardius bairdii_.

Fig. 1. Bering Island. Young. Cat. No. 142118, U.S.N.M.

2. St. George Island, Alaska. Male, immature. Cat. No. 49727, U.S.N.M.

3. Bering Island. Adult. (From mounted skull.)

Dorsal aspect, 1/10 nat. size.


        [Illustration: Plate 31 MANDIBLES OF BERARDIUS BAIRDII]

                   Mandibles of _Berardius bairdii_.

Fig. 1. Bering Island. Young. Cat. No. 142118, U.S.N.M.

2. St. George Island, Alaska. Male, immature. Cat. No. 49727, U.S.N.M.

3. Bering Island. (From type-skull.) Immature. Cat. No. 20992, U.S.N.M.

4. Centerville, California. Male (?), adult. Cat. No. 49725, U.S.N.M.

5. Bering Island. Adult. (From mounted skull.)

Lateral aspect. 1/10 nat. size.


  [Illustration: Plate 32 BERARDIUS BAIRDII AND HYPEROÖDON AMPULLATUS]

                          _Berardius bairdii._

Fig. 1. Vertebræ. St. George Island, Alaska. Female, adult. Cat. No.
49726, U.S.N.M. The vertebræ from left to right are as follows: 1-3
cervicals, 1st thoracic, 8th thoracic, 9th thoracic, 10th thoracic, 1st
lumbar, 1st caudal.

2. The same specimen. Sternum. Ventral aspect. About 1/7 nat. size.

3. _Hyperoödon ampullatus._ Newport, Rhode Island. Acad. Nat. Sci.
Philadelphia.


         [Illustration: Plate 33 SKELETON OF BERARDIUS BAIRDII]

Fig. 1. _Berardius bairdii._ Atlas. St. George Island, Alaska. Female,
adult. Cat. No. 49726, U.S.N.M. Anterior surface. 1/7 nat. size.

2. The same specimen. Right scapula. 1/7 nat. size.

3. The same specimen. Humerus. 1/7 nat. size.

4. _Berardius bairdii._ St. George Island, Alaska. Left pectoral limb.
Cat. No. 49727. Male, immature. ⅕ nat. size.


   [Illustration: Plate 34 TYMPANIC BONES OF MESOPLODON, ZIPHIUS, AND
                               BERARDIUS]

      Tympanic bones of _Mesoplodon_, _Ziphius_, and _Berardius_.

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon densirostris_ (?). Annisquam, Massachusetts.

2. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Yaquina Bay, Oregon.

3. _Ziphius cavirostris._ (Type of _Z. semijunctus_ (Cope).) Charleston,
South Carolina.

4. _Ziphius cavirostris._ (Type of _Z. grebnitzkii_ Stejneger.) Bering
Island.

5. _Ziphius cavirostris._ Barnegat City, New Jersey.

6. _Ziphius cavirostris._ Newport, Rhode Island.

7. _Berardius bairdii._ Centerville, California.

Ventral aspect. Nat. size.


   [Illustration: Plate 35 TYMPANIC BONES OF MESOPLODON, ZIPHIUS, AND
                               BERARDIUS]

      Tympanic bones of _Mesoplodon_, _Ziphius_, and _Berardius_.

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon densirostris_ (?). Annisquam, Massachusetts.

2. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Yaquina Bay, Oregon.

3. _Ziphius cavirostris._ (Type of _Z. semijunctus_ (Cope).) Charleston,
South Carolina.

4. _Ziphius cavirostris._ (Type of _Z. grebnitzkii_ Stejneger). Bering
Island.

5. _Ziphius cavirostris._ Barnegat City, New Jersey.

6. _Ziphius cavirostris._ Newport, Rhode Island.

7. _Berardius bairdii._ Centerville, California.

External surface. Nat. size.


   [Illustration: Plate 36 PERIOTIC BONES OF MESOPLODON, ZIPHIUS, AND
                               BERARDIUS]

   Right periotic bones of _Mesoplodon_, _Ziphius_, and _Berardius_.

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon densirostris._ (?) Annisquam, Massachusetts.

2. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Yaquina Bay, Oregon.

3. _Ziphius cavirostris._ (Type of _Z. semijunctus_ (Cope).) Charleston,
South Carolina.

4. _Ziphius cavirostris._ (Type of _Z. grebnitzkii_ Stejneger.) Bering
Island.

5. _Ziphius cavirostris._ Barnegat City, New Jersey.

6. _Ziphius cavirostris._ Newport, Rhode Island.

7. _Berardius bairdii._ Centerville, California.

Inner aspect. Nat. size.


   [Illustration: Plate 37 PERIOTIC BONES OF MESOPLODON, ZIPHIUS, AND
                               BERARDIUS]

   Right periotic bones of _Mesoplodon_, _Ziphius_, and _Berardius_.

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon densirostris._ (?) Annisquam, Massachusetts.

2. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Yaquina Bay, Oregon.

3. _Ziphius cavirostris._ (Type of _Z. semijunctus_ (Cope).) Charleston,
South Carolina.

4. _Ziphius cavirostris._ (Type of _Z. grebnitzkii_ Stejneger). Bering
Island.

5. _Ziphius cavirostris._ Barnegat City, New Jersey.

6. _Ziphius cavirostris._ Newport, Rhode Island.

7. _Berardius bairdii._ Centerville, California.

Outer aspect. Nat. size.


         [Illustration: Plate 38 TEETH OF ZIPHIUS CAVIROSTRIS]

                    Teeth of _Ziphius cavirostris_.

Fig. 1. Type of _Z. semijunctus_ (Cope). Charleston, South Carolina. Cat.
No. 21112, U.S.N.M. Left tooth. Inner surface.

2. The same. Right tooth. Outer surface.

3-4. Barnegat City, New Jersey. The two large teeth.

5. The same. One of the rudimentary teeth.

6. Topotype of _Z. grebnitzkii_. Cat. No. 22069, U.S.N.M. Bering Island.
Left tooth. Outer surface.

7. The same. Right tooth. Inner surface.

8. Type of _Z. grebnitzkii_ Stejneger. Cat. No. 20993, U.S.N.M. Bering
Island. Left tooth. Inner surface.

9. The same. Right tooth. Outer surface.

10. Newport, Rhode Island. Cat. No. 49599, U.S.N.M. Left tooth. Inner
surface.

11. The same. Right tooth. Outer surface.


          [Illustration: Plate 39 TEETH OF BERARDIUS BAIRDII]

                     Teeth of _Berardius bairdii_.

Fig. 1. Bering Island. Young. Cat. No. 142118, U.S.N.M. Left anterior
tooth. Inner surface.

2. The same. Left posterior tooth. Inner surface.

3. St. George Island, Alaska. Male, immature. Cat. No. 49727, U.S.N.M.
Right anterior tooth. Inner surface.

4. The same. Left anterior tooth. Outer surface.

5. Centerville, California. Male, adult. Cat. No. 49725, U.S.N.M. Left
anterior tooth. Inner surface.

6. The same. Right posterior tooth. Outer surface.

7. St. George Island, Alaska. Female, adult. Cat. No. 49726. Left
anterior tooth. Inner surface.

8. The same. Right posterior tooth. Outer surface.

9. The same. Left posterior tooth. Inner surface.

All figures natural size.


     [Illustration: Plate 40 MESOPLODON EUROPÆUS AND M. STEJNEGERI]

Fig. 1. Stomach of _Mesoplodon europæus_. Atlantic City, New Jersey. Cat.
No. 23346, U.S.N.M. Ventral aspect. About ¼ nat. size.

2. The same. Dorsal aspect. About ¼ nat. size.

3. The same. Perineum. _a_, penis. _b_, rudimentary mammary slits. _c_,
anus. About ¼ nat. size.

4. _Mesoplodon stejnegeri._ Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Cat. No. 143132,
U.S.N.M. Head, showing teeth in natural position.


            [Illustration: Plate 41 MESOPLODON AND ZIPHIUS]

Fig. 1. _Mesoplodon europæus._ Atlantic City, New Jersey. Male, young.
Cat. No. 23346, U.S.N.M. Length 12½ feet.

2. The same. Dorsal aspect.

3. _Ziphius cavirostris_ (?). Kiska Harbor, Alaska, 1904.

4. _Ziphius cavirostris._ Newport, Rhode Island. Male, adult. Length 20
feet 1 inch. Cat. No. 49599, U.S.N.M.


               [Illustration: Plate 42 BERARDIUS BAIRDII]

Fig. 1. _Berardius bairdii._ St. George Island, Alaska. Female, adult.
Length 40 feet 2 inches. Cat. No. 49726, U.S.N.M.

Ventral aspect.

2, 3. _Berardius bairdii._ Centerville, California. Male (?), adult. Cat.
No. 49725, U.S.N.M. Length about 41 feet. Head from in front and from
below.

4. The same. Skeleton. About ⅙ nat. size.

The pectoral fin is modeled from another specimen. It is on the wrong
side in this figure.



                          Transcriber’s Notes


--Retained publisher information from the printed copy (the electronic
  edition is in the public domain in the country of publication).

--Corrected some palpable typos.

--Reformatted column headings of tables for readable display on smaller
  windows (even so, some tables are up to 80 characters wide, and one
  takes 100 characters).

--Resized images from original 8½×11 plates (thus, scale indications in
  captions are relative).

--Created an original cover image for free, unrestricted use with this
  eBook.

--In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.





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